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Sample records for carnitine

  1. Carnitine Deficiency and Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anouk de Bruyn

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present two cases of carnitine deficiency in pregnancy. In our first case, systematic screening revealed L-carnitine deficiency in the first born of an asymptomatic mother. In the course of her second pregnancy, maternal carnitine levels showed a deficiency as well. In a second case, a mother known with carnitine deficiency under supplementation was followed throughout her pregnancy. Both pregnancies had an uneventful outcome. Because carnitine deficiency can have serious complications, supplementation with carnitine is advised. This supplementation should be continued throughout pregnancy according to plasma concentrations.

  2. DISORDERS OF CARNITINE TRANSPORT AND THE CARNITINE CYCLE

    OpenAIRE

    Longo, Nicola; di San Filippo, Cristina Amat; Pasquali, Marzia

    2006-01-01

    Carnitine plays an essential role in the transfer of long-chain fatty acids across the inner mitochondrial membrane. This transfer requires enzymes and transporters that accumulate carnitine within the cell (OCTN2 carnitine transporter), conjugate it with long chain fatty acids (carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1, CPT1), transfer the acylcarnitine across the inner plasma membrane (carnitine-acylcarnitine translocase, CACT), and conjugate the fatty acid back to Coenzyme A for subsequent beta ox...

  3. Primary Carnitine Deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jan; Hougaard, David M; Sandhu, Noreen

    2017-01-01

    Primary carnitine deficiency (PCD) causes low levels of carnitine in patients potentially leading to metabolic and cardiac symptoms. Newborn screening for PCD is now routine in many countries by measuring carnitine levels in infants. In this study we report Apgar scores, length and weight...... in newborns with PCD and newborns born to mothers with PCD compared to controls. Furthermore we report how effective different screening algorithms have been to detect newborns with PCD in the Faroe Islands. RESULTS: Newborns with PCD and newborns born to mothers with PCD did not differ with regard to Apgar...

  4. Genomics of the human carnitine acyltransferase genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Leij, FR; Huijkman, NCA; Boomsma, C; Kuipers, JRG; Bartelds, B

    2000-01-01

    Five genes in the human genome are known to encode different active forms of related carnitine acyltransferases: CPT1A for liver-type carnitine palmitoyltransferase I, CPT1B for muscle-type carnitine palmitoyltransferase I, CPT2 for carnitine palmitoyltransferase II, CROT for carnitine

  5. Role of carnitine in disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flanagan Judith L

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Carnitine is a conditionally essential nutrient that plays a vital role in energy production and fatty acid metabolism. Vegetarians possess a greater bioavailability than meat eaters. Distinct deficiencies arise either from genetic mutation of carnitine transporters or in association with other disorders such as liver or kidney disease. Carnitine deficiency occurs in aberrations of carnitine regulation in disorders such as diabetes, sepsis, cardiomyopathy, malnutrition, cirrhosis, endocrine disorders and with aging. Nutritional supplementation of L-carnitine, the biologically active form of carnitine, is ameliorative for uremic patients, and can improve nerve conduction, neuropathic pain and immune function in diabetes patients while it is life-saving for patients suffering primary carnitine deficiency. Clinical application of carnitine holds much promise in a range of neural disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, hepatic encephalopathy and other painful neuropathies. Topical application in dry eye offers osmoprotection and modulates immune and inflammatory responses. Carnitine has been recognized as a nutritional supplement in cardiovascular disease and there is increasing evidence that carnitine supplementation may be beneficial in treating obesity, improving glucose intolerance and total energy expenditure.

  6. Partial muscle carnitine palmitoyltransferase-A deficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, N.S.; Hoppel, C.L.

    1987-01-02

    After initiation of ibuprofen therapy, a 45-year-old woman developed muscle weakness and tenderness with rhabdomyolysis, culminating in respiratory failure. A muscle biopsy specimen showed a vacuolar myopathy, and markedly decreased muscle carnitine content and carnitine palmitoyltransferase activity. Following recovery, muscle carnitine content was normal but carnitine palmitoyltransferase activity was still abnormally low. The ratio of palmitoyl-coenzyme A plus carnitine to palmitoylcarnitine oxidation by muscle mitochondria isolated from the patient was markedly decreased. The authors conclude that transiently decreased muscle carnitine content interacted with partial deficiency of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-A to produce rhabdomyolysis and respiratory failure and that ibuprofen may have precipitated the clinical event.

  7. Partial muscle carnitine palmitoyltransferase-A deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, N.S.; Hoppel, C.L.

    1987-01-01

    After initiation of ibuprofen therapy, a 45-year-old woman developed muscle weakness and tenderness with rhabdomyolysis, culminating in respiratory failure. A muscle biopsy specimen showed a vacuolar myopathy, and markedly decreased muscle carnitine content and carnitine palmitoyltransferase activity. Following recovery, muscle carnitine content was normal but carnitine palmitoyltransferase activity was still abnormally low. The ratio of palmitoyl-coenzyme A plus carnitine to palmitoylcarnitine oxidation by muscle mitochondria isolated from the patient was markedly decreased. The authors conclude that transiently decreased muscle carnitine content interacted with partial deficiency of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-A to produce rhabdomyolysis and respiratory failure and that ibuprofen may have precipitated the clinical event

  8. Carnitine transport and fatty acid oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Nicola; Frigeni, Marta; Pasquali, Marzia

    2016-10-01

    Carnitine is essential for the transfer of long-chain fatty acids across the inner mitochondrial membrane for subsequent β-oxidation. It can be synthesized by the body or assumed with the diet from meat and dairy products. Defects in carnitine biosynthesis do not routinely result in low plasma carnitine levels. Carnitine is accumulated by the cells and retained by kidneys using OCTN2, a high affinity organic cation transporter specific for carnitine. Defects in the OCTN2 carnitine transporter results in autosomal recessive primary carnitine deficiency characterized by decreased intracellular carnitine accumulation, increased losses of carnitine in the urine, and low serum carnitine levels. Patients can present early in life with hypoketotic hypoglycemia and hepatic encephalopathy, or later in life with skeletal and cardiac myopathy or sudden death from cardiac arrhythmia, usually triggered by fasting or catabolic state. This disease responds to oral carnitine that, in pharmacological doses, enters cells using the amino acid transporter B(0,+). Primary carnitine deficiency can be suspected from the clinical presentation or identified by low levels of free carnitine (C0) in the newborn screening. Some adult patients have been diagnosed following the birth of an unaffected child with very low carnitine levels in the newborn screening. The diagnosis is confirmed by measuring low carnitine uptake in the patients' fibroblasts or by DNA sequencing of the SLC22A5 gene encoding the OCTN2 carnitine transporter. Some mutations are specific for certain ethnic backgrounds, but the majority are private and identified only in individual families. Although the genotype usually does not correlate with metabolic or cardiac involvement in primary carnitine deficiency, patients presenting as adults tend to have at least one missense mutation retaining residual activity. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Mitochondrial Channels edited by Pierre Sonveaux, Pierre Maechler

  9. Synthesis of carboxy-labelled 1-carnitine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodfellow, D.B.; Hoppel, C.L.; Turkaly, J.S. (Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (USA). School of Medicine)

    1982-03-01

    A method for the production of carboxy-labelled l-carnitine is described. The first step is the chemical synthesis of 4-N-trimethylammoniobutanoate (butyrobetaine) from the precursors 4-aminobutanoate and iodomethane. The second step involves the hydroxylation of butyrobetaine to form l-carnitine using butyrobetaine hydroxylase partially purified from bovine calf liver. The method also can be used to synthesize Me-labelled and uniformly-chain-labelled l-carnitine.

  10. Carnitine Level Changes with the Ketogenic Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the ketogenic diet (KD on carnitine levels were determined in 38 consecutive patients with epilepsy treated at Rush-Presbyterian-St Luke’s Medical Center, Chicago, IL Carnitine levels were determined at 0, 1, 6, 12, and 24 months of diet treatment.

  11. The Contents of L-Carnitine in Various Meats

    OpenAIRE

    田島, 眞; タジマ, マコト; Makoto, Tajima

    2009-01-01

    The contents of L-carnitine in various meats were examined. As a result, it was shown that the contents of L-carnitin differed greatly according to the species. The red meat contained more L-carnitine. The low content was observed in egg and milk. It was shown that as the animal grew up the contents of L-carnitin decreased.

  12. Secondary Carnitine Deficiency in Dialysis Patients: Shall We Supplement It?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald J.A. Wanders

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Carnitine, essential for fatty acid β-oxidation, is obtained from diet and through de novo biosynthesis. The organic cation/carnitine transporter 2 (OCTN2 facilitates carnitine cellular transport and kidney resorption. Carnitine depletion occurs in OCTN2-deficient patients, with serious clinical complications including cardiomyopathy, myopathy, and hypoketotic hypoglycaemia. Neonatal screening can detect OCTN2 deficiency. OCTN2-deficiency is also known as primary carnitine deficiency. Carnitine deficiency may result from fatty acid β-oxidation disorders, which are diagnosed via plasma acylcarnitine profiling, but also under other conditions including haemodialysis. Given the importance of the kidney in maintaining carnitine homeostasis, it is not unexpected that longterm haemodialysis treatment is associated with the development of secondary carnitine deficiency, characterised by low endogenous L-carnitine levels and accumulation of deleterious medium and long- chain acylcarnitines. These alterations in carnitine pool composition have been implicated in a number of dialysis-related disorders, including erythropoietin-resistant renal anaemia. The association between erythropoietin resistance and carnitine levels has been demonstrated, with the proportion of medium and long-chain acylcarnitines within the total plasma carnitine pool positively correlated with erythropoietin resistance. Recent research has demonstrated that carnitine supplementation results in a significant reduction in erythropoietin dose requirements in patients with erythropoietin-resistant anaemia. Few studies have been conducted assessing the treatment of carnitine deficiency and haemodialysisrelated cardiac complications, particularly in children. Thus, a study was recently conducted which showed that intravenous carnitine in children receiving haemodialysis significantly increased plasma carnitine.

  13. Secondary Carnitine Deficiency in Dialysis Patients: Shall We Supplement It?

    OpenAIRE

    Ronald J.A. Wanders; Tim Ulinski; Stephanie E. Reuter; Asha Moudgil

    2016-01-01

    Carnitine, essential for fatty acid β-oxidation, is obtained from diet and through de novo biosynthesis. The organic cation/carnitine transporter 2 (OCTN2) facilitates carnitine cellular transport and kidney resorption. Carnitine depletion occurs in OCTN2-deficient patients, with serious clinical complications including cardiomyopathy, myopathy, and hypoketotic hypoglycaemia. Neonatal screening can detect OCTN2 deficiency. OCTN2-deficiency is also known as primary carnitine deficiency. Carnit...

  14. Genetics Home Reference: carnitine palmitoyltransferase I deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... SL, Raff ML. Novel mutations in CPT 1A define molecular heterogeneity of hepatic carnitine palmitoyltransferase I deficiency. ... for Links Data Files & API Site Map Subscribe Customer Support USA.gov Copyright Privacy Accessibility FOIA Viewers & ...

  15. Gestational diabetes exhibits lack of carnitine deficiency despite relatively low carnitine levels and alterations in ketogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappa, Kalliopi I; Anagnou, Nicholas P; Salamalekis, Emmanuel; Bikouvarakis, Stylianos; Maropoulos, George; Anogianaki, Nektaria; Evangeliou, Athanasios; Koumantakis, Eugene

    2005-01-01

    Previous studies have underlined the importance of the carnitine shuttle system and its dysfunction both in normal pregnancy and in type 1 and 2 diabetes. The objective of this paper was to delineate more systematically the role of the carnitine shuttle system in normal pregnancy and in gestational diabetes. A total of 119 women matched for age comprised three groups: 40 normal adult non-pregnant women (NNP), 46 normal pregnant women with uncomplicated pregnancy (NP) and 33 women with gestational diabetes (GDM). The latter group was further subdivided into those being managed either by diet alone (25 women, GDM-D) or by insulin (8 women,GDM-I). The following biochemical parameters were assayed: fasting plasma total, free and acyl-carnitine, FFA and beta-OH-butyrate, together with several essential anthropometric parameters. Women with GDM, in contrast to the control groups, displayed the biochemical features characteristic of insulin resistance: higher body weight, higher BMI, higher skinfold and higher HbAlc levels. No differences on any parameters were found between the two GDM subgroups. Both NP and GDM groups had low levels of total carnitine compared to NNP control group, but surprisingly, the GDM group did not exhibit any further decrease of carnitine levels, as would have been expected by the combination of pregnancy and diabetes. Both groups, despite these low carnitine levels, had no clinical symptoms of carnitine deficiency. Furthermore, the GDM group displayed higher levels of FFA and beta-hydroxybutyrate, which were statistically significant compared to the other two control groups. The data corroborate the negative effect of normal gestation on the carnitine shuttle system, while they document for the first time that GDM does not further affect the efficiency of the carnitine system. The mild effect of GDMon carnitine status could be explained by the concurrent increased gluconeogenesis, a process which does not affect directly carnitine metabolism.

  16. Altered carnitine transport in pressure-overload hypertrophied rat hearts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Rourke, B.; Foster, K.; Reibel, D.K.

    1986-01-01

    The authors have previously observed reduced carnitine levels in hypertrophied hearts of rats subjected to aortic constriction. In an attempt to determine the mechanism for reduced myocardial carnitine content, carnitine transport was examined in isolated perfused hearts. Hearts were excised from sham-operated and aortic-constricted rats 3 weeks following surgery and perfused at 60 mm Hg aortic pressure with buffer containing various concentrations of L- 14 C-carnitine. Carnitine uptake by control and hypertrophied hearts was linear throughout 30 minutes of perfusion with 40 μM carnitine. Total carnitine uptake was significantly reduced by 25% in hypertrophied hearts at each time point examined. The reduction in uptake by hypertrophied hearts was also evident when hearts were perfused with 100 or 200 μM carnitine. When 0.05 mM mersalyl acid was included in the buffer to inhibit the carrier-mediated component of transport, no difference in carnitine uptake was observed indicating that the transport of carnitine by diffusion was unaltered in the hypertrophied myocardium. Carrier-mediated carnitine uptake (total uptake - uptake by diffusion) was significantly reduced by approximately 40% in hypertrophied hearts at all concentrations examined. Thus, the reduction in carnitine content in the pressure-overload hypertrophied rat heart appears to be due to a reduction in carrier-mediated carnitine uptake by the heart

  17. Mechanisms for altered carnitine content in hypertrophied rat hearts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reibel, D.K.; O'Rourke, B.; Foster, K.A.

    1987-01-01

    Carnitine levels are reduced in hypertrophied hearts of rats subjected to aortic constriction (banding) and evaluated in hypertrophied hearts of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). In an attempt to determine the mechanisms for these alterations, L-[ 14 C]carnitine transport was examined in isolated perfused hearts. Total carnitine uptake was significantly reduced by ∼20% in hypertrophied hearts of banded rats at all perfusate carnitine concentrations employed. The reduction in total uptake was due to a 40% reduction in carrier-mediated carnitine uptake with no difference in uptake by diffusion. In contrast, carnitine uptake was not altered in isolated hypertrophied hearts of SHR. However, serum carnitine levels were elevated in SHR, which could result in increased myocardial carnitine uptake in vivo. The data suggest that altered carnitine content in hypertrophied hearts of aortic-banded rats is due to an alteration in the carrier-mediated carnitine transport system in the myocardium. However, altered carnitine content in hypertrophied hearts of SHR is not due to a change in the carnitine transport system per se but may rather be due to a change in serum carnitine levels

  18. Carnitine Levels in Skeletal Muscle, Blood, and Urine in Patients with Primary Carnitine Deficiency During Intermission of L-Carnitine Supplementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, J; Thomsen, J A; Olesen, J H

    2015-01-01

    five days. Blood and urine were collected throughout the study. Skeletal muscle biopsies were obtained at 0, 48, and 96 h. Results: Mean skeletal muscle free carnitine before discontinuation of L-carnitine was low, 158 nmol/g (SD 47.4) or 5.4% of normal. Mean free carnitine in plasma (fC0) dropped from...... 38.7 (SD 20.4) to 6.3 (SD 1.7) μmol/L within 96 h (p filtered carnitine following oral supplementation was 23%. The level of mean free carnitine excreted in urine correlated (R (2) = 0.78, p 

  19. Effects of dietary supplementation of L-carnitine on performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -carnitine in the oxidation of long-chain fatty acids, its antioxidant properties and its importance in energy metabolism in Japanese quails. Keywords: L-carnitine; metabolizable energy; fat sources; carcass quality; shelflife of edible meat

  20. Carnitine supplement: Does it worth trial to improve semen quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Carnitine supplement proves to upgrade the quality of semen by increasing sperm count and motility. In this study we have determined the level of L – carnitine in the seminal plasma of men with normal and abnormal seminal analysis. L – carnitine levels among the normal group was significantly higher than the abnormal ...

  1. Modulation of cytokine production by carnitine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola M. Kouttab

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability of carnitine congeners to modulate cytokine production by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC was investigated. Modulation of cytokine production by PBMC of young (30 years of age or younger and old (70 years of age or older normal donors was first compared. The PBMC were collected over Ficoll–Hypaque and incubated in the presence of various concentrations of acetyl L-carnitine for 24 h. Subsequently the supernatants were collected and examined for cytokine production. The presence of cytokines in tissue culture supernatants was examined by ELISA. The cytokines measured included IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, TNFα, GM–CSF, and IFNγ. The results showed that at 50 μg/ml of acetyl L-carnitine the most significant response was obtained for TNFα. In this regard four of five young donors responded, but only one of five old donors responded. More recently these studies were expanded to examine the ability of L-carnitine to modulate cytokine production at higher doses, 200 and 400 μg/ml, in young donors. The results of these studies showed that in addition to TNFα, significant production of IL-1β and IL-6 was observed. These preliminary studies provide evidence that carnitine may modulate immune functions through the production of selected cytokines.

  2. Effect of (L-Carnitine) on acetyl-L-carnitine production by heart mitochondria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bieber, L.L.; Lilly, K.; Lysiak, W.

    1986-05-01

    The authors recently reported a large efflux of acetyl-L-carnitine from rat heart mitochondria during state 3 respiration with pyruvate as substrate both in the presence and absence of malate. In this series of experiments, the effect of the concentration of L-carnitine on the efflux of acetyl-L-carnitine and on the production of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ from 2-/sup 14/C-pyruvate was determined. Maximum acetylcarnitine production (approximately 25 n moles/min/mg protein) was obtained at 3-5 mM L-carnitine in the absence of added malate. /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ production decreased as the concentration of L-carnitine increased; it plateaued at 3-5 mM L-carnitine. These data indicate carnitine can stimulate flux of pyruvate through pyruvate dehydrogenase and can reduce flux of acetyl CoA through the Krebs cycle by acting as an acceptor of the acetyl moieties of acetyl CoA generated by pyruvate dehydrogenase.

  3. Primary Carnitine deficiency in the Faroe Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jan; Køber, Lars; Lund, Allan M

    2014-01-01

    prior and current health status and symptoms in these patients, especially focusing on cardiac characteristics. METHODS: Upon identification, patients were immediately admitted for physical examination, ECG, blood tests and initiation of L-carnitine supplementation. Medical records were reviewed...... and patients were interviewed. Echocardiography and blood tests were performed in 35 patients before and after L-carnitine supplementation. RESULTS: All patients were either asymptomatic or had minor symptoms when diagnosed. Echocardiography including LVEF, global longitudinal strain and dimensions were normal...... apart from left ventricular hypertrophy with normal systolic function in one young male. Symptoms, e.g. fatigue, were reported in 43 % with a reduction to 12 % (p L-carnitine supplementation. Eighty two % reported participation in sports of which 52 % were...

  4. The effect of carnitine on ketogenesis in perfused livers from juvenile visceral steatosis mice with systemic carnitine deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, T; Horiuchi, M; Yamanaka, H; Kizaki, Z; Inoue, F; Kodo, N; Kinugasa, A; Saheki, T; Sawada, T

    1997-07-01

    Juvenile visceral steatosis (JVS) mice have been reported to have systemic carnitine deficiency, and the carnitine concentration in the liver of JVS mice was markedly lower than that of controls (11.6 +/- 2.6 versus 393.5 +/- 56.4 nmol/g of wet liver). To evaluate the role of carnitine in mitochondrial beta-oxidation in liver, we examined the effects of carnitine on ketogenesis in perfused liver from control and JVS mice. In control mice, ketogenesis was increased by the infusion of 0.3 mM oleate, but not by L-carnitine. In contrast, although ketogenesis in JVS mice was not increased by the infusion of oleate, it was increased 2.5-fold by the addition of 1000 microM L-carnitine. Addition of 50, 100, and 200 microM L-carnitine increased ketogenesis in a dose-dependent manner. The infusion of 0.3 mM octanoate or butyrate increased ketogenesis in a carnitine-independent fashion in both control and JVS mice. These findings suggest that endogenous long chain fatty acids from accumulated triglycerides may be used as substrates in the presence of carnitine in JVS mice. The relationship between ketogenesis and free carnitine concentration was examined in livers from JVS mice. Ketogenesis increased as free carnitine levels increased until concentrations exceeded about 100 nmol/g of wet liver (340 microM). The free carnitine concentration required for half-maximal ketone body production in liver of JVS mice was 45 microM (13 nmol/g of wet liver), which corresponds to a K(m) value of carnitine palmitoyltransferase I. We conclude that carnitine is a rate-limiting factor for beta-oxidation in liver only when the carnitine level in liver is very low.

  5. The effect of homozygous deletion of the BBOX1 and Fibin genes on carnitine level and acyl carnitine profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidi-Nezhad, Ali; Talebi, Saeed; Saebnouri, Homeira; Akrami, Seyed Mohammad; Reymond, Alexandre

    2014-07-01

    Carnitine is a key molecule in energy metabolism that helps transport activated fatty acids into the mitochondria. Its homeostasis is achieved through oral intake, renal reabsorption and de novo biosynthesis. Unlike dietary intake and renal reabsorption, the importance of de novo biosynthesis pathway in carnitine homeostasis remains unclear, due to lack of animal models and description of a single patient defective in this pathway. We identified by array comparative genomic hybridization a 42 months-old girl homozygote for a 221 Kb interstitial deletions at 11p14.2, that overlaps the genes encoding Fibin and butyrobetaine-gamma 2-oxoglutarate dioxygenase 1 (BBOX1), an enzyme essential for the biosynthesis of carnitine de novo. She presented microcephaly, speech delay, growth retardation and minor facial anomalies. The levels of almost all evaluated metabolites were normal. Her serum level of free carnitine was at the lower limit of the reference range, while her acylcarnitine to free carnitine ratio was normal. We present an individual with a completely defective carnitine de novo biosynthesis. This condition results in mildly decreased free carnitine level, but not in clinical manifestations characteristic of carnitine deficiency disorders, suggesting that dietary carnitine intake and renal reabsorption are sufficient to carnitine homeostasis. Our results also demonstrate that haploinsufficiency of BBOX1 and/or Fibin is not associated with Primrose syndrome as previously suggested.

  6. L-Carnitine attenuates ifosfamide-induced carnitine deficiency and decreased intramitochondrial CoA-SH in rat kidney tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayed-Ahmed, Mohamed M

    2011-01-01

    The effects of L-carnitine on ifosfamide (IFO)-induced Fanconi syndrome have not been studied to date. This study aimed to investigate, on a mechanism basis, whether L-carnitine could prevent the development of IFO-induced Fanconi syndrome in rats. Adult male Wistar albino rats were assigned to 1 of 4 treatment groups: group 1 (control) rats were given daily intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of normal saline for 10 consecutive days; group 2 (L-carnitine) rats were given L-carnitine (200 mg/kg per day, i.p.) for 10 consecutive days. Rats of group 3 (IFO) received normal saline for 5 days, followed by IFO (50 mg/kg per day, i.p.) for 5 consecutive days. Rats of group 4 (IFO plus L-carnitine) received L-carnitine for 5 days before and 5 days concomitant with IFO. Administration of IFO for 5 consecutive days significantly increased serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), urinary carnitine excretion, intramitochondrial acetyl-CoA and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and significantly decreased total carnitine, intramitochondrial CoA-SH, ATP and ATP/ADP ratio, and reduced glutathione (GSH) in kidney tissues. Administration of L-carnitine to IFO-treated rats resulted in a complete reversal of the increase in serum creatinine, BUN, urinary carnitine excretion and intramitochondrial acetyl-CoA, and of the decrease in total carnitine, intramitochondrial CoA-SH, ATP and GSH, induced by IFO, to the control values. L-Carnitine prevents the development of IFO-induced Fanconi syndrome by increasing intracellular carnitine content and intramitochondrial CoA-SH, with the consequent improvement in mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and energy production, as well as its ability to decrease oxidative stress.

  7. Effects of oral L-carnitine and DL-carnitine supplementation on alloxan-diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Barbosa Bazotte

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of oral L-carnitine (LC or DL-carnitine (DLC supplementation during one or four weeks (200 or 400 mg.kg-1.day-1 in diabetic rats was investigated. After the supplementation period, the blood was collected for the evaluation of total (TC and free L-carnitine (FC, glucose, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and triacylglycerol. Tissues were collected for the determination of TC and FC concentrations. The carnitine supplementation did not change levels of glucose, total cholesterol, HDL-C and LDL-C in the blood. Diabetic rats showed hypertriacylglycerolemia and decreased blood and tissue levels of FC and TC. Normalization of the blood triacylglycerol and increased blood and tissue levels of FC and TC were observed with the LC or DLC supplementation. However, the hyperglycemia remained unchanged. Thus, the reduction of blood triacylglycerol obtained with carnitine supplementation in the diabetic rats did not depend on an amelioration in the glycemia and was mediated partly at least by an increment of serum and tissue concentrations of FC and TC.

  8. Dietary L-carnitine supplementation in obese cats alters carnitine metabolism and decreases ketosis during fasting and induced hepatic lipidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Géraldine; Paragon, Bernard M; Milliat, Fabien; Lutton, Claude

    2002-02-01

    This study was designed to determine whether dietary carnitine supplement could protect cats from ketosis and improve carnitine and lipid metabolism in experimental feline hepatic lipidosis (FHL). Lean spayed queens received a diet containing 40 (CL group, n = 7) or 1000 (CH group, n = 4) mg/kg of L-carnitine during obesity development. Plasma fatty acid, beta-hydroxybutyrate and carnitine, and liver and muscle carnitine concentrations were measured during experimental induction of FHL and after treatment. In control cats (CL group), fasting and FHL increased the plasma concentrations of fatty acids two- to threefold (P 10-fold (from a basal 0.22 +/- 0.03 to 1.70 +/- 0.73 after 3 wk fasting and 3.13 +/- 0.49 mmol/L during FHL). In carnitine-supplemented cats, these variables increased significantly (P < 0.0001) only during FHL (beta-hydroxybutyrate, 1.42 +/- 0.17 mmol/L). L-Carnitine supplementation significantly increased plasma, muscle and liver carnitine concentrations. Liver carnitine concentration increased dramatically from the obese state to FHL in nonsupplemented cats, but not in supplemented cats, which suggests de novo synthesis of carnitine from endogenous amino acids in control cats and reversible storage in supplemented cats. These results demonstrate the protective effect of a dietary L-carnitine supplement against fasting ketosis during obesity induction. Increasing the L-carnitine level of diets in cats with low energy requirements, such as after neutering, and a high risk of obesity could therefore be recommended.

  9. Oral carnitine therapy in children with cystinosis and renal Fanconi syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gahl, W.A.; Bernardini, I.; Dalakas, M.; Rizzo, W.B.; Harper, G.S.; Hoeg, J.M.; Hurko, O.; Bernar, J.

    1988-01-01

    11 children with either cystinosis or Lowe's syndrome had a reduced content of plasma and muscle carnitine due to renal Fanconi syndrome. After treatment with oral L-carnitine, 100 mg/kg per d divided every 6 h, plasma carnitine concentrations became normal in all subjects within 2 d. Initial plasma free fatty acid concentrations, inversely related to free carnitine concentrations, were reduced after 7-20 mo of carnitine therapy. Muscle lipid accumulation, which varied directly with duration of carnitine deficiency (r = 0.73), improved significantly in three of seven rebiopsied patients after carnitine therapy. One Lowe's syndrome patient achieved a normal muscle carnitine level after therapy. Muscle carnitine levels remained low in all cystinosis patients, even though cystinotic muscle cells in culture took up L-[ 3 H]carnitine normally. The half-life of plasma carnitine for cystinotic children given a single oral dose approximated 6.3 h; 14% of ingested L-carnitine was excreted within 24 h. Studies in a uremic patient with cystinosis showed that her plasma carnitine was in equilibrium with some larger compartment and may have been maintained by release of carnitine from the muscle during dialysis. Because oral L-carnitine corrects plasma carnitine deficiency, lowers plasma free fatty acid concentrations, and reverses muscle lipid accumulation in some patients, its use as therapy in renal Fanconi syndrome should be considered. However, its efficacy in restoring muscle carnitine to normal, and the optimal dosage regimen, have yet to be determined

  10. Antimyopathic effects of carnitine and nicotine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laviano, Alessandro; Meguid, Michael M; Guijarro, Ana; Muscaritoli, Maurizio; Cascino, Antonia; Preziosa, Isabella; Molfino, Alessio; Rossi Fanelli, Filippo

    2006-07-01

    The clinical course of most chronic diseases is associated with declined energy intake and nutrient-resistant progressive myopathy, characterized by accelerated proteolysis and impaired function. This anorexia/cachexia syndrome leads to deterioration of quality of life, and increased morbidity and mortality. The clinical efficacy of currently available therapeutic strategies is limited and more effective treatments are needed. Chronic systemic inflammation, triggered and sustained by cytokines, and increased oxidative stress contribute to the pathogenesis of the anorexia/cachexia syndrome. Carnitine and nicotine have recently been tested as immunomodulating and antioxidant agents. In particular, carnitine supplementation has been shown to reduce chronic inflammation and oxidative stress in hemodialysis patients and, in cancer patients, yielding to reduced fatigue and improved outcome. Nicotine is able to induce the anti-inflammatory activity of the vagus nerve. In animal models of sepsis and cancer, the nicotine-induced supplementation resulted in better protection of nutritional status and improved survival. In the continuous effort to develop more efficacious strategies against the anorexia/cachexia syndrome, carnitine and nicotine may represent a further therapeutic tool. More clinical studies are needed, however, before their use can be routinely suggested.

  11. Effect of L-carnitine supplementation on the body carnitine pool, skeletal muscle energy metabolism and physical performance in male vegetarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novakova, Katerina; Kummer, Oliver; Bouitbir, Jamal; Stoffel, Sonja D; Hoerler-Koerner, Ulrike; Bodmer, Michael; Roberts, Paul; Urwyler, Albert; Ehrsam, Rolf; Krähenbühl, Stephan

    2016-02-01

    More than 95% of the body carnitine is located in skeletal muscle, where it is essential for energy metabolism. Vegetarians ingest less carnitine and carnitine precursors and have lower plasma carnitine concentrations than omnivores. Principle aims of the current study were to assess the plasma and skeletal muscle carnitine content and physical performance of male vegetarians and matched omnivores under basal conditions and after L-carnitine supplementation. Sixteen vegetarians and eight omnivores participated in this interventional study with oral supplementation of 2 g L-carnitine for 12 weeks. Before carnitine supplementation, vegetarians had a 10% lower plasma carnitine concentration, but maintained skeletal muscle carnitine stores compared to omnivores. Skeletal muscle phosphocreatine, ATP, glycogen and lactate contents were also not different from omnivores. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and workload (P max) per bodyweight (bicycle spiroergometry) were not significantly different between vegetarians and omnivores. Sub-maximal exercise (75% VO2max for 1 h) revealed no significant differences between vegetarians and omnivores (respiratory exchange ratio, blood lactate and muscle metabolites). Supplementation with L-carnitine significantly increased the total plasma carnitine concentration (24% in omnivores, 31% in vegetarians) and the muscle carnitine content in vegetarians (13%). Despite this increase, P max and VO2max as well as muscle phosphocreatine, lactate and glycogen were not significantly affected by carnitine administration. Vegetarians have lower plasma carnitine concentrations, but maintained muscle carnitine stores compared to omnivores. Oral L-carnitine supplementation normalizes the plasma carnitine stores and slightly increases the skeletal muscle carnitine content in vegetarians, but without affecting muscle function and energy metabolism.

  12. Regulation of carnitine status in ruminants and efficacy of carnitine supplementation on performance and health aspects of ruminant livestock: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringseis, Robert; Keller, Janine; Eder, Klaus

    2018-02-01

    Carnitine has long been known to play a critical role for energy metabolism. Due to this, a large number of studies have been carried out to investigate the potential of supplemental carnitine in improving performance of livestock animals including ruminants, with however largely inconsistent results. An important issue that has to be considered when using carnitine as a feed additive is that the efficacy of supplemental carnitine is probably dependent on the animal's carnitine status, which is affected by endogenous carnitine synthesis, carnitine uptake from the gastrointestinal tract and carnitine excretion. The present review aims to summarise the current knowledge of the regulation of carnitine status and carnitine homeostasis in ruminants, and comprehensively evaluate the efficacy of carnitine supplementation on performance and/or health in ruminant livestock by comparing the outcomes of studies with carnitine supplementation in dairy cattle, growing and finishing cattle and sheep. While most of the studies show that supplemental carnitine, even in ruminally unprotected form, is bioavailable in ruminants, its effect on either milk or growth performance is largely disappointing. However, supplemental carnitine appears to be a useful strategy to offer protection against ammonia toxicity caused by consumption of high levels of non-protein N or forages with high levels of soluble N both, in cattle and sheep.

  13. Serum total and free carnitine levels in children with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asilsoy, Suna; Bekem, Ozlem; Karaman, Ozkan; Uzuner, Nevin; Kavukçu, Salih

    2009-02-01

    Serum carnitine is decreased in recurrent pulmonary infections. We aimed to evaluate serum carnitine levels in asthmatic children. Study group consisted of children with stable asthma and those with acute asthma attacks, while control group included healthy children. Attack severity was determined by the pulmonary score system. Total and free carnitine levels were studied in one blood sample from the control group and stable asthmatics and in two samples from children with acute asthma exacerbation during and after the attack. All the 40 patients in the study group had moderate asthma including 30 with acute attack (13 mild and 17 moderate) and 10 with stable asthma. Carnitine levels were significantly lower in acute attack asthmatics than in the stable asthmatics and controls, while there was no significant difference between the latter two groups. Carnitine levels were not different between asthmatics with mild and moderate attack, and were similar during and after an acute attack. Serum carnitine levels decrease in children with moderate asthma during exacerbation of asthma and shortly thereafter. Further studies are needed to evaluate the effect of carnitine treatment on serum carnitine level.

  14. Regulation of normal human polyrnorphonuclear leucocytes by carnitine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Fattorossi

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of carnitine, a drug that plays an essential role in mitochondria metabolism, on some of the most important human polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMN activation steps including modulation of adhesion molecule density, reactive oxygen species production, and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNFα production was investigated. The capability of carnitine in protecting PMN from deter ioration on storage was also studied. Data shows that carnitine exerts considerable effects on all PMN functions investigated. Although the ultimate effect was often donor dependent, TNFα production was exceptional in that carnitine was able to consistently reduce TNFα production in Staphylococcus aureus stimulated PMN in a clear dose-dependent fashion. It is concluded that carnitine may represent a useful active agent in situations characterized by PMN mobilization/activation.

  15. Effect of L-Carnitine Supplementation on Boar Semen Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Jacyno

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of addition of L-carnitine on boar semen quality was studied in 5 Pietrain boars at age 1.5 - 2.0 years. The boars received 500 mg of L-carnitine per day for 5 weeks. During this period, their ejaculates were collected once a week and evaluated for quality. The control ejaculates had been collected before the application of L-carnitine. It was found that the addition of L-carnitine to the boars' feed had a positive effect on the quality of boar semen. The total ejaculate volume and sperm-rich fraction volume increased by 11% and 10%, respectively; the total ejaculate sperm count increased by 11.5% (P P < 0.01. Sperm concentration and motility, as well as normal acrosome sperm percentage, did not increase considerably. The positive effect of L-carnitine on boar semen quality was observable as early as after one week of its application.

  16. Carnitine levels in 26,462 individuals from the nationwide screening program for primary carnitine deficiency in the Faroe Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jan; Nielsen, Olav W; Janzen, Nils

    2014-01-01

    was screened and 89 PCD patients were identified, yielding an overall prevalence of 1:297 of PCD in the Faroe Islands. Carnitine levels were positively correlated to age in both males and females (p gender difference in mean carnitine...... levels was significant during female fertile age (4.71 μmol/L fC0 in the age group 25-30 years, p  G (p.N32S) (n = 20). CONCLUSION: Carnitine levels differ by gender and age. A lower cut-off of 5 μmol...

  17. Therapeutic effects of Laser and L-carnitine against amiodarone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    COX-II) and lipoxygenase (LOX) as well as oxidative stress and inflammation ... induced fibrosis. Keywords: Amiodarone, Lung toxicity, Laser; L-carnitine. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research is indexed by Science Citation Index ...

  18. Effects of l-carnitine on oxidative stress parameters in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Emel Peri Canbolat

    2016-08-10

    carnitine on the oxidative stress parameters in oophorectomized rats. Methods: Twenty-four female albino Wistar rats were used. Rats were divided into four groups: laparotomy-only (LOSALINE) group, oophorectomy plus ...

  19. Effects of supplemental ractopamine and L-carnitine on growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-11-02

    Bremer, 1983), which transports long chain fatty acids to across the mitochon- ..... characteristics and skeletal muscle growth in lambs. J. Anim. Sci. 62: 370-380. Bremer J (1983). Carnitine metabolism and functions. Physiol. Rev.

  20. Effects of L-Carnitine and Taurine on associated biochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    carnitine and taurine in healthy and alloxan induced diabetes mellitus in rats. Results showed that diabetic rats had significant increase in the levels of plasma glucose, malondialdehyde (MDA), urea, creatinine and the activity of serum asparate ...

  1. Muscle contraction increases carnitine uptake via translocation of OCTN2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuichi, Yasuro [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa (Japan); Sugiura, Tomoko; Kato, Yukio [Faculty of Pharmacy, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa (Japan); Takakura, Hisashi [Faculty of Human Sciences, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa (Japan); Hanai, Yoshiteru [Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya (Japan); Hashimoto, Takeshi [Ritsumeikan University, Kusatsu (Japan); Masuda, Kazumi, E-mail: masuda@ed.kanazawa-u.ac.jp [Faculty of Human Sciences, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa (Japan)

    2012-02-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Muscle contraction augmented carnitine uptake into rat hindlimb muscles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An increase in carnitine uptake was due to an intrinsic clearance, not blood flow. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Histochemical analysis showed sarcolemmal OCTN2 was emphasized after contraction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer OCTN2 protein in sarcolemmal fraction was increased in contracting muscles. -- Abstract: Since carnitine plays an important role in fat oxidation, influx of carnitine could be crucial for muscle metabolism. OCTN2 (SLC22A5), a sodium-dependent solute carrier, is assumed to transport carnitine into skeletal muscle cells. Acute regulation of OCTN2 activity in rat hindlimb muscles was investigated in response to electrically induced contractile activity. The tissue uptake clearance (CL{sub uptake}) of L-[{sup 3}H]carnitine during muscle contraction was examined in vivo using integration plot analysis. The CL{sub uptake} of [{sup 14}C]iodoantipyrine (IAP) was also determined as an index of tissue blood flow. To test the hypothesis that increased carnitine uptake involves the translocation of OCTN2, contraction-induced alteration in the subcellular localization of OCTN2 was examined. The CL{sub uptake} of L-[{sup 3}H]carnitine in the contracting muscles increased 1.4-1.7-fold as compared to that in the contralateral resting muscles (p < 0.05). The CL{sub uptake} of [{sup 14}C]IAP was much higher than that of L-[{sup 3}H]carnitine, but no association between the increase in carnitine uptake and blood flow was obtained. Co-immunostaining of OCTN2 and dystrophin (a muscle plasma membrane marker) showed an increase in OCTN2 signal in the plasma membrane after muscle contraction. Western blotting showed that the level of sarcolemmal OCTN2 was greater in contracting muscles than in resting muscles (p < 0.05). The present study showed that muscle contraction facilitated carnitine uptake in skeletal muscles, possibly

  2. Production of L-carnitine by secondary metabolism of bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Bernal, Vicente; Sevilla, Ángel; Cánovas, Manuel; Iborra, José L

    2007-01-01

    Abstract The increasing commercial demand for L-carnitine has led to a multiplication of efforts to improve its production with bacteria. The use of different cell environments, such as growing, resting, permeabilized, dried, osmotically stressed, freely suspended and immobilized cells, to maintain enzymes sufficiently active for L-carnitine production is discussed in the text. The different cell states of enterobacteria, such as Escherichia coli and Proteus sp., which can be used to produce ...

  3. Effect of L-carnitine supplementation on drake semen quality

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sp3

    2014-01-30

    Jan 30, 2014 ... (150 mg L-carnitine/kg diet) recorded the best results in relation to all semen quality traits included in this study. Dietary ..... L-carnitine levels in the seminal plasma of fertile and infertile men: correlation with sperm quality. Int. J. Fert. Womens Med. 45, 236-240. Neuman, S.L., Lint, T.L. & Hester, P.Y., 2002.

  4. L-Carnitine protects plasma components against oxidative alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodziejczyk, Joanna; Saluk-Juszczak, Joanna; Wachowicz, Barbara

    2011-06-01

    L-Carnitine as a dietary supplement has been reported to have a beneficial effect on several cardiovascular risk parameters and exercise capacity, but the biological relevance of its activity is poorly understood. Dietary supplements (including L-carnitine) are often used to foster exercise performance; however, these may affect some pathways of human body metabolism. The aim of this study in vitro was to determine antioxidative properties of L-carnitine (0.1-100 μM) added to plasma and to assess if L-carnitine might protect plasma proteins and lipids against oxidative/nitrative damage (determined by levels of protein carbonyl groups, thiols, 3-nitrotyrosine formation and thiobarbituric-acid reactive substances generation) caused by 100 μM peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)), a strong physiologic oxidative/nitrative agent. The level of carbonyl group generation was measured by a colorimetric method. For the estimation of 3-nitrotyrosine formation, a competition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed. Plasma lipid peroxidation was measured spectrophotometrically as the production of thiobarbituric-acid reactive substances. High-performance liquid chromatography was used to analyze total free thiol groups of plasma proteins and low-molecular-weight thiols (glutathione, cysteine, and homocysteine) in plasma. The L-carnitine added to plasma inhibited in vitro ONOO(-)-induced oxidation and nitration of blood plasma proteins. Incubation of plasma with peroxynitrite resulted in the decrease of protein thiols. L-Carnitine had a protective effect on peroxynitrite-induced decreased -SH level in plasma proteins. The presence of L-carnitine also prevented the decrease of low-molecular-weight thiols (glutathione, cysteine, and homocysteine) in plasma caused by peroxynitrite and protected plasma lipids against peroxidation induced by peroxynitrite. These results demonstrated that L-carnitine possesses antioxidative activity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Topical and transdermal delivery of L-carnitine

    OpenAIRE

    Fox, Lizelle T.; Gerber, Minja; Du Preez, Jan L.; Grobler, Anne; Du Plessis, Jeanetta

    2011-01-01

    Background: The two types of skin aging (intrinsic and extrinsic) share important molecular features, while having distinct differences on the macromolecular level: both lead to increased production of reactive oxygen species, enhanced matrix metalloproteinase expression and decreased procollagen synthesis. L-Carnitine L-tartrate has been reported to have anti-aging effects. Aim and Methods: The delivery as well as the transport of L-carnitine to the target sites, i.e. stratum corneum an...

  6. l-Carnitine Supplementation in Recovery after Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Fielding

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Given its pivotal role in fatty acid oxidation and energy metabolism, l-carnitine has been investigated as ergogenic aid for enhancing exercise capacity in the healthy athletic population. Early research indicates its beneficial effects on acute physical performance, such as increased maximum oxygen consumption and higher power output. Later studies point to the positive impact of dietary supplementation with l-carnitine on the recovery process after exercise. It is demonstrated that l-carnitine alleviates muscle injury and reduces markers of cellular damage and free radical formation accompanied by attenuation of muscle soreness. The supplementation-based increase in serum and muscle l-carnitine contents is suggested to enhance blood flow and oxygen supply to the muscle tissue via improved endothelial function thereby reducing hypoxia-induced cellular and biochemical disruptions. Studies in older adults further showed that l-carnitine intake can lead to increased muscle mass accompanied by a decrease in body weight and reduced physical and mental fatigue. Based on current animal studies, a role of l-carnitine in the prevention of age-associated muscle protein degradation and regulation of mitochondrial homeostasis is suggested.

  7. Serum carnitine levels in bone marrow transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirvelä, O; Antila, H; Heinonen, O; Toivanen, A

    1990-12-01

    This study investigated plasma carnitine levels in patients undergoing allogenic bone marrow transplantation. The patients received fat-based TPN (50% fat, 50% CHO; calorie: nitrogen ratio 125:1) for an average of 33 +/- 7.5 days. TPN was started before transplantation and stopped when patients were able to eat. Caloric needs were estimated using the Harris-Benedict equation; 150% of the estimated BEE was given for the first two weeks after transplantation. The amount of TPN was gradually decreased as patients resumed their oral intake. All patients had low-normal serum carnitine levels before transplantation. There was no significant change in total or free serum carnitine levels during the course of TPN. However, in patients who had symptoms of graft vs. host reaction (GVH), the highest carnitine values during GVH (total 72.3 +/- 6.5 and free 61.2 +/- 12.4 mumol/l) were significantly higher (p < 0.001) than the baseline values (total 27.1 +/- 9.3 and free 24.9 +/- 9.6 mumol/l) or the highest non GVH values after transplantation (total 32.0 +/- 10.7 and free 29.0 +/- 10.7 mumol/l, respectively). The serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, and HDL cholesterol remained within normal range. In conclusion, bone marrow transplant patients receiving fat-based TPN have normal circulating levels of carnitine. GVH reaction caused an increase in the carnitine levels, which was probably due to increased tissue catabolism.

  8. Topical and transdermal delivery of L-carnitine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, L T; Gerber, Minja; du Preez, J L; Grobler, A; du Plessis, J

    2011-01-01

    The two types of skin aging (intrinsic and extrinsic) share important molecular features, while having distinct differences on the macromolecular level: both lead to increased production of reactive oxygen species, enhanced matrix metalloproteinase expression and decreased procollagen synthesis. L-Carnitine L-tartrate has been reported to have anti-aging effects. The delivery as well as the transport of L-carnitine to the target sites, i.e. stratum corneum and epidermis-dermis of female abdominal skin, with and without the use of Pheroid™ as delivery system, were investigated during this study by use of Franz diffusion cells and analysed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. The presence of endogenous L-carnitine in human skin was also investigated. The Pheroid™ delivery system enhanced the diffusion of L-carnitine through the skin, although the phosphate buffer solution (PBS) showed a higher concentration of the active agent in the skin layers. This could be because Pheroid, being more lipophilic than PBS, improved the diffusion of L-carnitine through the skin layers, consequently leading to a lesser amount of L-carnitine delivered to the target site, i.e. the epidermis-dermis. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. L-carnitine modulates blood platelet oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saluk-Juszczak, Joanna; Olas, Beata; Wachowicz, Barbara; Glowacki, Rafal; Bald, Edward

    2010-08-01

    The oxidative stress induced by acute exertion may interfere with blood platelet activation. The beneficial effect of L-carnitine (gamma-trimethylamino-beta-hydroxybutyric acid) on oxidative stress in blood platelets has not been fully investigated; however, different studies indicate that this compound modulates platelet functions. The aim of our study was to assess the effects of L-carnitine on platelet activation and oxidative/nitrative protein damage (determined by the levels of protein carbonyl groups, thiol groups, and 3-nitrotyrosine residues) in resting blood platelets or platelets treated with peroxynitrite (ONOO(-), a strong physiological oxidant) in vitro. We also investigated the effects of L-carnitine on the level of platelet glutathione and on the formation of superoxide anion radicals O2(-*), lipid peroxidation measured by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in blood platelets stimulated by thrombin (a strong physiological agonist), and platelet aggregation induced by adenosine diphosphate (a strong physiological stimulator). We have observed that carnitine decreases platelet activation (measured by platelet aggregation, the generation of O2(-*), and TBARS production). Moreover, our results in vitro demonstrate that carnitine may protect against oxidation of thiol groups induced by ONOO(-). Thus, carnitine may have some protectory effects against oxidative changes induced in blood platelets.

  10. Production of L-carnitine by secondary metabolism of bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iborra José L

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The increasing commercial demand for L-carnitine has led to a multiplication of efforts to improve its production with bacteria. The use of different cell environments, such as growing, resting, permeabilized, dried, osmotically stressed, freely suspended and immobilized cells, to maintain enzymes sufficiently active for L-carnitine production is discussed in the text. The different cell states of enterobacteria, such as Escherichia coli and Proteus sp., which can be used to produce L-carnitine from crotonobetaine or D-carnitine as substrate, are analyzed. Moreover, the combined application of both bioprocess and metabolic engineering has allowed a deeper understanding of the main factors controlling the production process, such as energy depletion and the alteration of the acetyl-CoA/CoA ratio which are coupled to the end of the biotransformation. Furthermore, the profiles of key central metabolic activities such as the TCA cycle, the glyoxylate shunt and the acetate metabolism are seen to be closely interrelated and affect the biotransformation efficiency. Although genetically modified strains have been obtained, new strain improvement strategies are still needed, especially in Escherichia coli as a model organism for molecular biology studies. This review aims to summarize and update the state of the art in L-carnitine production using E. coli and Proteus sp, emphasizing the importance of proper reactor design and operation strategies, together with metabolic engineering aspects and the need for feed-back between wet and in silico work to optimize this biotransformation.

  11. Production of L-carnitine by secondary metabolism of bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, Vicente; Sevilla, Angel; Cánovas, Manuel; Iborra, José L

    2007-10-02

    The increasing commercial demand for L-carnitine has led to a multiplication of efforts to improve its production with bacteria. The use of different cell environments, such as growing, resting, permeabilized, dried, osmotically stressed, freely suspended and immobilized cells, to maintain enzymes sufficiently active for L-carnitine production is discussed in the text. The different cell states of enterobacteria, such as Escherichia coli and Proteus sp., which can be used to produce L-carnitine from crotonobetaine or D-carnitine as substrate, are analyzed. Moreover, the combined application of both bioprocess and metabolic engineering has allowed a deeper understanding of the main factors controlling the production process, such as energy depletion and the alteration of the acetyl-CoA/CoA ratio which are coupled to the end of the biotransformation. Furthermore, the profiles of key central metabolic activities such as the TCA cycle, the glyoxylate shunt and the acetate metabolism are seen to be closely interrelated and affect the biotransformation efficiency. Although genetically modified strains have been obtained, new strain improvement strategies are still needed, especially in Escherichia coli as a model organism for molecular biology studies. This review aims to summarize and update the state of the art in L-carnitine production using E. coli and Proteus sp, emphasizing the importance of proper reactor design and operation strategies, together with metabolic engineering aspects and the need for feed-back between wet and in silico work to optimize this biotransformation.

  12. Screening of carnitine and biotin deficiencies on tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, Shin-Ichiro; Kubota, Mitsuru; Nambu, Ryusuke; Kagimoto, Seiichi

    2017-04-01

    It is important to assess pediatric patients for nutritional deficiency when they are receiving specific interventions, such as enteral feeding. We focused on measurement of C0 and 3-hydroxyisovalerylcarnitine (C5-OH) with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS), which is performed as part of the newborn mass screening. The purpose of this study was to investigate the usefulness of MS/MS for screening carnitine and biotin deficiencies. Forty-two children (24 boys, 18 girls) were enrolled between December 2013 and December 2015. Blood tests, including measurement of serum free carnitine via the enzyme cycling method, and acylcarnitine analysis on MS/MS of dried blood spot (DBS), were performed for the evaluation of nutrition status. Median patient age was 2 years (range, 2 months-14 years). Mean serum free carnitine was 41.8 ± 19.2 μmol/L. In six of the 42 patients, serum free carnitine was 1.00 nmol/L. Therapy-resistant eczema was improved by treatment with additional biotin and a non-hydrolyzed formula. C0 and C5-OH, measured on MS/MS of DBS, were useful for screening carnitine and biotin deficiencies. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society.

  13. Carnitine: transport and physiological functions in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nałecz, Katarzyna A; Miecz, Dorota; Berezowski, Vincent; Cecchelli, Roméo

    2004-01-01

    Carnitine (4-N-trimethylammonium-3-hydroxybutyric acid), a compound necessary for a transfer of fatty acids for their oxidation within the cell, accumulates in brain although beta-oxidation of fatty acids is very low in neurons. Carnitine accumulates to lower extent in the brain than in peripheral tissues and the mechanism of its transport through the blood-brain barrier is discussed, with the involvement of two transporters, OCTN2 and B(0,+) being presented. A limitation by the blood-brain barrier of carnitine supply for the brain and the mechanism of its transport to neural cells by a protein belonging to neurotransmitters' transporters superfamily is further discussed. Due to the beneficial effects of administration of acetylcarnitine in case of patients with dementia, the role of this acylcarnitine is presented in the context of neuronal cell metabolism and the role of acetylcarnitine in the synthesis of acetylcholine. The roles of long-chain acyl derivatives of carnitine, in particular palmitoylcarnitine, responsible for interaction with the membranes, lipids acylation and specific interactions with proteins have been summarized. Stimulation of protein palmitoylation and a possibility of changing the acylation status of G proteins is described, as well as interaction of palmitoylcarnitine with protein kinase C. Diminished interaction of the isoform delta of this kinase with GAP-43 (B-50, neuromodulin), whose expression increases upon accumulation of either carnitine or palmitoylcarnitine points to a possible regulation of differentiation by these compounds and their role in neuroregeneration.

  14. Orale L-Carnitin-Supplementierung bei Hochleistungskühen

    OpenAIRE

    Glatz, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Einleitung: L-Carnitin spielt eine zentrale Rolle im Energiestoffwechsel. Da dieser in der Frühlaktation bei Hochleistungskühen besonders beansprucht und z.T. überlastet wird, ergibt sich die Frage, ob durch L-Carnitinsupplementation ein stabilerer Stoffwechsel und damit bessere Leistungen erreicht werden können. Zielstellung: Es wurde geprüft, ob bei Hochleistungskühen mit einer mittleren Milchleistung von 12000 kg/Jahr die orale Supplementation von L Carnitin im peripartalem Zeitraum bei...

  15. Free fatty acid oxidation and carnitine levels in diphtheritic guinea pig myocardium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challoner, David R.; Prols, Hans G.

    1972-01-01

    Previous studies from this laboratory and by Wittels and Bressler have suggested that myocardial carnitine depletion and an accompanying decrease in fatty acid oxidation may contribute to the myocardial disease associated with diphtheria. In addition, administration of carnitine was found to prolong survival of diphtheritic guinea pigs and improve ventricular function in diphtheritic dogs. The present studies document the hypothesis that the defect in myocardial carnitine, directly assayed, could be repleted in diphtheritic guinea pigs to whom carnitine was administered intraperitoneally. The decreased fatty acid oxidation previously reported only for homogenates was confirmed in an isolated perfused diphtheritic guinea pig heart preparation. The addition of L-carnitine to this perfusate augmented fatty acid oxidation to normal levels. Taken together, these and previous studies would support a pathogenetic role for carnitine depletion in diphtheritic myocarditis and suggest the possibility of experimental therapy with L-carnitine. PMID:5054465

  16. Analytical approaches to determination of carnitine in biological materials, foods and dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dąbrowska, Monika; Starek, Małgorzata

    2014-01-01

    l-Carnitine is a vitamin-like amino acid derivative, which is an essential factor in fatty acid metabolism as acyltransferase cofactor and in energy production processes, such as interconversion in the mechanisms of regulation of cetogenesis and termogenesis, and it is also used in the therapy of primary and secondary deficiency, and in other diseases. The determination of carnitine and acyl-carnitines can provide important information about inherited or acquired metabolic disorders, and for monitoring the biochemical effect of carnitine therapy. The endogenous carnitine pool in humans is maintained by biosynthesis and absorption of carnitine from the diet. Carnitine has one asymmetric carbon giving two stereoisomers d and l, but only the l form has a biological positive effect, thus chiral recognition of l-carnitine enantiomers is extremely important in biological, chemical and pharmaceutical sciences. In order to get more insight into carnitine metabolism and synthesis, a sensitive analysis for the determination of the concentration of free carnitine, carnitine esters and the carnitine precursors is required. Carnitine has been investigated in many biochemical, pharmacokinetic, metabolic and toxicokinetic studies and thus many analytical methods have been developed and published for the determination of carnitine in foods, dietary supplements, pharmaceutical formulations, biological tissues and body fluid. The analytical procedures presented in this review have been validated in terms of basic parameters (linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantitation, sensitivity, accuracy, and precision). This article presented the impact of different analytical techniques, and provides an overview of applications that address a diverse array of pharmaceutical and biological questions and samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Potential Inhibitory Effects of l-Carnitine Supplementation on Tissue Advanced Glycation End Products in Patients with Hemodialysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagishi, Sho-ichi; Sakai, Kazuko; Kaida, Yusuke; Adachi, Takeki; Ando, Ryotaro; Okuda, Seiya

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background and Aims: Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) contribute to cardiovascular disease in patients with hemodialysis (HD). We have recently found that carnitine levels are inversely associated with skin AGE levels in HD patients. We examined whether l-carnitine supplementation reduced skin AGE levels in HD patients with carnitine deficiency. Methods: This was a single-center study. One hundred and two HD patients (total carnitine levels l-carnitine (900 mg/day) (n=51) or control (n=51). After 6 months, metabolic and inflammatory variables, including serum levels of carnitine, were measured. Skin AGE levels were determined by evaluating skin auto-fluorescence with an AGE-reader. Results: There were no significant differences of clinical variables at baseline between the control and l-carnitine therapy group. Thirty-two patients did not complete the assessment or treatment of the study. Oral l-carnitine supplementation for 6 months significantly increased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides, total, free, and acyl carnitine levels, while it decreased alanine transaminase, acyl/free carnitine ratio, β2-microglobulin, and skin AGE values. Change in total carnitine values from baseline (Δtotal carnitine) and Δfree carnitine were inversely associated with Δskin AGE levels in l-carnitine-treated patients (p=0.036 and p=0.016, respectively). In multiple regression analysis, Δfree carnitine was a sole independent determinant of Δskin AGEs (R2=0.178). Conclusions: The present study demonstrated that oral l-carnitine supplementation significantly decreased skin AGE levels in HD patients with carnitine deficiency. These observations suggest that supplementation of l-carnitine might be a novel therapeutic strategy for preventing the accumulation of tissue AGEs in carnitine-deficient patients with HD. PMID:23909402

  18. Free fatty acids profiling in response to carnitine synergize with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The objective of this study was to investigate the fatty acids profiling in diabetic rats induced by sterptozocine (STZ) and their response to administration of lutein and carnitine. Materials and methods: Ninety male albino rats were divided into 6 groups as follows: Normal control. The remaining rats were injected ...

  19. Effect of dietary L- Carnitine supplementation of diets containing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of dietary L- Carnitine supplementation of diets containing cashew nut reject meal by broiler chickens. ... Nigerian Journal of Animal Production ... Between 5-8 weeks of rearing, feed intake increased (P<0.05) as Lcarnitine levels increased in diets while lower (P<0.05) feed to gain value was recorded at high level of ...

  20. Peroxisomes contribute to the acylcarnitine production when the carnitine shuttle is deficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Violante, Sara; Ijlst, Lodewijk; Te Brinke, Heleen; Koster, Janet; Tavares de Almeida, Isabel; Wanders, Ronald J A; Ventura, Fátima V; Houten, Sander M

    2013-09-01

    Fatty acid β-oxidation may occur in both mitochondria and peroxisomes. While peroxisomes oxidize specific carboxylic acids such as very long-chain fatty acids, branched-chain fatty acids, bile acids, and fatty dicarboxylic acids, mitochondria oxidize long-, medium-, and short-chain fatty acids. Oxidation of long-chain substrates requires the carnitine shuttle for mitochondrial access but medium-chain fatty acid oxidation is generally considered carnitine-independent. Using control and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 2 (CPT2)- and carnitine/acylcarnitine translocase (CACT)-deficient human fibroblasts, we investigated the oxidation of lauric acid (C12:0). Measurement of the acylcarnitine profile in the extracellular medium revealed significantly elevated levels of extracellular C10- and C12-carnitine in CPT2- and CACT-deficient fibroblasts. The accumulation of C12-carnitine indicates that lauric acid also uses the carnitine shuttle to access mitochondria. Moreover, the accumulation of extracellular C10-carnitine in CPT2- and CACT-deficient cells suggests an extramitochondrial pathway for the oxidation of lauric acid. Indeed, in the absence of peroxisomes C10-carnitine is not produced, proving that this intermediate is a product of peroxisomal β-oxidation. In conclusion, when the carnitine shuttle is impaired lauric acid is partly oxidized in peroxisomes. This peroxisomal oxidation could be a compensatory mechanism to metabolize straight medium- and long-chain fatty acids, especially in cases of mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation deficiency or overload. © 2013.

  1. Requirements for Carnitine Shuttle-Mediated Translocation of Mitochondrial Acetyl Moieties to the Yeast Cytosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harmen M. van Rossum

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In many eukaryotes, the carnitine shuttle plays a key role in intracellular transport of acyl moieties. Fatty acid-grown Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells employ this shuttle to translocate acetyl units into their mitochondria. Mechanistically, the carnitine shuttle should be reversible, but previous studies indicate that carnitine shuttle-mediated export of mitochondrial acetyl units to the yeast cytosol does not occur in vivo. This apparent unidirectionality was investigated by constitutively expressing genes encoding carnitine shuttle-related proteins in an engineered S. cerevisiae strain, in which cytosolic acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA synthesis could be switched off by omitting lipoic acid from growth media. Laboratory evolution of this strain yielded mutants whose growth on glucose, in the absence of lipoic acid, was l-carnitine dependent, indicating that in vivo export of mitochondrial acetyl units to the cytosol occurred via the carnitine shuttle. The mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex was identified as the predominant source of acetyl-CoA in the evolved strains. Whole-genome sequencing revealed mutations in genes involved in mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis (MCT1, nuclear-mitochondrial communication (RTG2, and encoding a carnitine acetyltransferase (YAT2. Introduction of these mutations into the nonevolved parental strain enabled l-carnitine-dependent growth on glucose. This study indicates intramitochondrial acetyl-CoA concentration and constitutive expression of carnitine shuttle genes as key factors in enabling in vivo export of mitochondrial acetyl units via the carnitine shuttle.

  2. L-Carnitine in the treatment of fatigue in adult celiac disease patients: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciacci, C; Peluso, G; Iannoni, E; Siniscalchi, M; Iovino, P; Rispo, A; Tortora, R; Bucci, C; Zingone, F; Margarucci, S; Calvani, M

    2007-10-01

    Fatigue is common in celiac disease. L-Carnitine blood levels are low in untreated celiac disease. L-Carnitine therapy was shown to improve muscular fatigue in several diseases. To evaluate the effect of L-carnitine treatment in fatigue in adult celiac patients. Randomised double-blind versus placebo parallel study. Thirty celiac disease patients received 2 g daily, 180 days (L-carnitine group) and 30 were assigned to the placebo group (P group). The patients underwent clinical investigation and questionnaires (Scott-Huskisson Visual Analogue Scale for Asthenia, Verbal Scale for Asthenia, Zung Depression Scale, SF-36 Health Status Survey, EuroQoL). OCTN2 levels, the specific carnitine transporter, were detected in intestinal tissue. Fatigue measured by Scott-Huskisson Visual Analogue Scale for Asthenia was significantly reduced in the L-carnitine group compared with the placebo group (p=0.0021). OCTN2 was decreased in celiac patients when compared to normal subjects (-134.67% in jejunum), and increased after diet in both celiac disease treatments. The other scales used did not show any significant difference between the two celiac disease treatment groups. L-Carnitine therapy is safe and effective in ameliorating fatigue in celiac disease. Since L-carnitine is involved in muscle energy production its decreased absorption due to OCTN2 reduction might explain muscular symptoms in celiac disease patients. The diet-induced OCTN2 increase, improving carnitine absorption, might explain the L-carnitine treatment efficacy.

  3. L-carnitine prevents metabolic steatohepatitis in obese diabetic KK-Aymice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kon, Kazuyoshi; Ikejima, Kenichi; Morinaga, Maki; Kusama, Hiromi; Arai, Kumiko; Aoyama, Tomonori; Uchiyama, Akira; Yamashina, Shunhei; Watanabe, Sumio

    2017-03-01

    Pharmacological treatment for metabolic syndrome-related non-alcoholic steatohepatitis has not been established. We investigated the effect of L-carnitine, an essential substance for β-oxidation, on metabolic steatohepatitis in mice. Male KK-A y mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 8 weeks, with supplementation of L-carnitine (1.25 mg/mL) in drinking water for the latter 4 weeks. Serum total carnitine levels were decreased following HFD feeding, whereas the levels were reversed almost completely by L-carnitine supplementation. In mice given L-carnitine, exacerbation of hepatic steatosis and hepatocyte apoptosis was markedly prevented even though HFD feeding was continued. Body weight gain, as well as hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia, and hyperinsulinemia, following HFD feeding were also significantly prevented in mice given L-carnitine. High-fat diet feeding elevated hepatic expression levels of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A mRNA; however, production of β-hydroxybutyrate in the liver was not affected by HFD alone. In contrast, L-carnitine treatment significantly increased hepatic β-hydroxybutyrate contents in HFD-fed mice. L-carnitine also blunted HFD induction in sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c mRNA in the liver. Furthermore, L-carnitine inhibited HFD-induced serine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 in the liver. L-carnitine decreased hepatic free fatty acid content in 1 week, with morphological improvement of swollen mitochondria in hepatocytes, and increases in hepatic adenosine 5'-triphosphate content. L-carnitine ameliorates steatohepatitis in KK-A y mice fed an HFD, most likely through facilitating mitochondrial β-oxidation, normalizing insulin signals, and inhibiting de novo lipogenesis in the liver. It is therefore postulated that supplementation of L-carnitine is a promising approach for prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome-related non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. © 2016 The Japan Society of Hepatology.

  4. Carnitine supplementation for preterm infants with recurrent apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, M; Kabra, N S; Paes, B

    2004-10-18

    Apnea of prematurity is a common problem in preterm infants in the neonatal intensive care setting (NICU), often delaying their discharge home or transfer to a step down unit. Premature infants are at increased risk of carnitine deficiency. Carnitine supplementation has been used for both prevention and treatment of apnea. To determine whether treatment with carnitine will reduce the frequency of apnea, the duration of ventilation and the duration of hospital stay in preterm infants with recurrent apnea. Computerised searches were carried out by two reviewers independently. Searches were made of MEDLINE (1966 to May 2004), EMBASE (1980 to May 2004), CINAHL (1982-2004 June 2004,1st week), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, Issue 2, 2004), abstracts of annual meetings of the Society for Pediatric Research (1995-2004), and contacts were made with the subject experts. Only randomized or quasi-randomized treatment trials of preterm infants with a diagnosis of recurrent apnea of prematurity were considered. Trials were included if they involved treatment with carnitine compared to placebo or no treatment, and measured at least one of the following outcomes: failure of resolution of apneas, the duration of ventilation and the duration of hospital stay. Two reviewers evaluated the papers for inclusion criteria and quality. Corresponding authors were contacted for further information where needed. No eligible trials were identified. Despite the plausible rationale for the treatment of apnea of prematurity with carnitine, there are insufficient data to support its use for this indication. Further studies are needed to determine the role of this treatment in clinical practice.

  5. Effects of L-carnitine administration on left ventricular remodeling after acute anterior myocardial infarction: The L-carnitine Ecocardiografia Digitalizzata Infarto Miocardico (CEDIM) trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Iliceto (Sabino); D. Scrutinio (Domenico); P. Bruzzi (P.); G. D'Ambrosio (Gaetano); A. Boni (Alejandro); M. Di Biase (Matteo); G. Biasco (Giuseppina); P.G. Hugenholtz (Paul); P. Rizzon (Paolo)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractObjectives. This study was performed to evaluate the effects of l-carnitine administration on long-term left ventricular dilation in patients with acute anterior myocardial infarction. Background. Carnitine is a physiologic compound that performs an essential role in myocardial energy

  6. Is L-Carnitine Supplementation Beneficial in 3-Methylcrotonyl-CoA Carboxylase Deficiency?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jákup Andreas; Lund, Allan Meldgaard; Olesen, Jess Have

    2015-01-01

    and muscle tissue with and without L-carnitine supplementation to evaluate the current treatment strategy of not recommending L-carnitine supplementation to Faroese 3-MCCd patients. Methods: Blood and urine samples and muscle biopsies were collected from patients at inclusion and at 3 months. Eight patients...... received L-carnitine supplementation when recruited; five did not. Included patients who received supplementation were asked to stop L-carnitine, the others were asked to initiate L-carnitine supplementation during the study. Symptoms were determined by review of hospital medical records and questionnaires...... answered at baseline and after the intervention. Results: The prevalence of 3-MCCd in the Faroe Islands was 1:2,400, the highest reported worldwide. All patients were homozygous for the MCCC1 mutation c.1526delG. When not administered L-carnitine, the 3-MCCd patients (n = 13) had low plasma and muscle free...

  7. L-carnitine plasma levels in dogs and cats. A diagnostic parameter?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, J.

    1993-04-01

    The relation between levels of carnitine in plasma and lesions of organs should be demonstrated. 52 dogs and 58 cats examined in veterinary clinics for several reasons and routinely screened for blood chemistry also were analysed for free plasma carnitine by a radiocarbon method. Increased carnitine levels were observed in both species in case of heart, liver and kidney disorders. Additionally the influence of food intake on carnitine levels in dogs was studied. Postprandial changes were insignificant. Because of lack of information about carnitine levels in cats and changes with age plasma carnitine was determined in cats and kittens. The range of normal values was 8.2 to 24.2 μmol/l without any significance of age

  8. Serum carnitine concentration is decreased in patients with Lyme borreliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Kępka

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lyme borreliosis (LB is a serious infectious disease. Carnitine plays a crucial role in metabolism and inflammatory responses. Carnitine may be important in improving neuronal dysfunction and loss of neurons.Aim: To evaluate serum carnitine concentration in adult patients with various clinical types of LB.Material/Methods: Groups: 1 patients with erythema migrans (EM, n=16, 2 neuroborreliosis (NB, n=10, 3 post-Lyme disease (PLD, n=22 and healthy controls (HC, n=32. Total (TC and free (FC carnitine were determined with the spectrophotometric method.Results: TC levels (44.9±10.4, 28.0±8.4, 35.9±15.6 μmol/L in the EM, NB and PLD patients were lower than in HC (54.0±11.4 μmol/L, p < 0.001. FC levels (32.7±7.7, 23.6±6.8, 26.3±11.2 μmol/L in the EM, NB and PLD patients were lower than in HC (40.5±7.6 μmol/L, p < 0.001. AC levels (12.2±5.2, 4.4±2.6, 9.6±7.4 μmol/L in the EM, NB and PLD patients were lower in the NB and PLD patients than in HC (13.5±8.40 μmol/L, p <0.001. AC/FC ratio was 0.31±0.14, 0.18±0.09, 0.39±0.33 in the EM, NB and PLD patients.Conclusions: LB patients exhibit a significant decrease of their serum carnitine concentrations. The largest changes were in the NB and PLD patients. To prevent late complications of the disease a possibility of early supplementation with carnitine should be considered. Further studies are required to explain the pathophysiological significance of our findings.

  9. Serum carnitine concentration is decreased in patients with Lyme borreliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Kępka

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lyme borreliosis (LB is a serious infectious disease. Carnitine plays a crucial role in metabolism and inflammatory responses. Carnitine may be important in improving neuronal dysfunction and loss of neurons. Aim: To evaluate serum carnitine concentration in adult patients with various clinical types of LB. Material/Methods: Groups: 1 patients with erythema migrans (EM, n=16, 2 neuroborreliosis (NB, n=10, 3 post-Lyme disease (PLD, n=22 and healthy controls (HC, n=32. Total (TC and free (FC carnitine were determined with the spectrophotometric method. Results: TC levels (44.9±10.4, 28.0±8.4, 35.9±15.6 μmol/L in the EM, NB and PLD patients were lower than in HC (54.0±11.4 μmol/L, p < 0.001. FC levels (32.7±7.7, 23.6±6.8, 26.3±11.2 μmol/L in the EM, NB and PLD patients were lower than in HC (40.5±7.6 μmol/L, p < 0.001. AC levels (12.2±5.2, 4.4±2.6, 9.6±7.4 μmol/L in the EM, NB and PLD patients were lower in the NB and PLD patients than in HC (13.5±8.40 μmol/L, p <0.001. AC/FC ratio was 0.31±0.14, 0.18±0.09, 0.39±0.33 in the EM, NB and PLD patients. Conclusions: LB patients exhibit a significant decrease of their serum carnitine concentrations. The largest changes were in the NB and PLD patients. To prevent late complications of the disease a possibility of early supplementation with carnitine should be considered. Further studies are required to explain the pathophysiological significance of our findings.

  10. Metabolic engineering for high yielding L(-)-carnitine production in Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Arense, Paula; Bernal, Vicente; Charlier, Dani?l; Iborra, Jos? Luis; Foulqui?-Moreno, Maria Remedios; C?novas, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Background L(-)-carnitine production has been widely studied because of its beneficial properties on various diseases and dysfunctions. Enterobacteria possess a specific biotransformation pathway which can be used for the enantioselective production of L(-)-carnitine. Although bioprocesses catalyzed by enzymes or whole cells can overcome the lack of enantioselectivity of chemical methods, current processes for L(?)-carnitine production still have severe disadvantages, such as the low yields, ...

  11. Evaluation of serum l-carnitine level in children with acute bronchial asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Ramadan

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: According to our study, it could be concluded that l-carnitine decrease is linked to the occurrence of attack of bronchial asthma. Accordingly, it is recommended to make further studies to find out if there is a beneficial role of carnitine intake in the prophylaxis & treatment of attacks of bronchial asthma. The recommended studies should search for the most suitable dose & side effects of carnitine as a potential pharmaceutical agent.

  12. Anti-adipogenic and antiviral effects of l-carnitine on hepatitis C virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukuda, Yoko; Suda, Goki; Tsunematsu, Seiji; Ito, Jun; Sato, Fumiyuki; Terashita, Katsumi; Nakai, Masato; Sho, Takuya; Maehara, Osamu; Shimazaki, Tomoe; Kimura, Megumi; Morikawa, Kenichi; Natsuizaka, Mitsuteru; Ogawa, Koji; Ohnishi, Shunsuke; Chuma, Makoto; Sakamoto, Naoya

    2017-05-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been reported to hijack fatty acid metabolism in infected hepatocytes, taking advantage of lipid droplets for virus assembly. In this study, we analyzed the anti-HCV activity of l-carnitine, a substance involved in the transport of fatty acids into mitochondria. JFH-1 or HCV replicon-transfected Huh7.5.1 cells were treated with or without l-carnitine to examine its anti-HCV effects. The effects of l-carnitine on HCV entry, HCV-induced adipogenesis and lipid droplet formation, and HCV-induced oxidative stress were examined. Treatment of JFH-1-infected cells with l-carnitine inhibited HCV propagation in a concentration-dependent manner. In contrast, l-carnitine had no anti-HCV activity in the HCV replicon system, which is lacking viral assembly. In addition, l-carnitine did not affect HCV entry. However, l-carnitine treatment decreased intracellular lipid droplets, which are crucial for HCV assembly in JFH-1-infected cells. The expression level of CPT-1 was decreased in JFH-1-infected cells, and l-carnitine treatment restored this expression. HCV-infected cells exhibited increased production of reactive oxygen species and glutathione oxidation. l-carnitine decreased oxidative stress induced by JFH-1-infection, as shown by glutathione/glutathione disulfide assays and MitoSOX staining. l-carnitine exhibited anti-HCV activity, possibly by inhibiting HCV assembly and through its anti-adipogenic activity in HCV-infected cells. Moreover, l-carnitine has antioxidant properties in HCV-infected hepatocytes. Overall, these results indicated that l-carnitine may be an effective adjunctive agent in antiviral therapies to treat chronic hepatitis C. J. Med. Virol. 89:857-866, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. [The biological function of L-carnitine and its content in the particular food examples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rospond, Bartłomiej; Chłopicka, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article is to provide information about L-carnitine, its physiological role in the human body and its content in some foods. This chemical compound is mainly synthesized in the liver, kidney and brain and is composed of two aminoacids, lyzine and metionine. L-carnitine regulates the level of acylo-CoA and CoA in the mitochondium and cytozolum, and it provides acetyl moieties for the biosythesis of acetocholine. L-carnitine plays a vital function in the metabolism of lipids and it carries long-chain fatty acids into mitochondria for beta-oxidation. An increase of the amount of L-carnitine in the human body may lead to reduction and inhibition of production of fatty tissue. Despite the fact that human body can synthesise L-carnitine, about 80% of this chemical compound is delivered by food. It is crucial, especially for people who are on a slimming diet, to choose products rich in L-carnitine because this compound may potentially reduce the body weight. Animal by-products contain the highest amount of L-carnitine, and these are, e.g , kangaroo meat (637 mg), horse meat (423mg), beef (139 mg per 100 g of dry weight). The amount of L-carnitine in milk products may range from 1,4 to 42,8 mg per 100 g of dry matter. Vegetables and fruits are products which contain less than 5 mg of L-carnitine per 100 g of dry matter. Lipids are also very low in L-carnitine, e.g sunflower oil is free from this compound. It is worth mentioning that mushrooms are richer in L-carnitine than plants. The amount of L-carnitine (53 mg/100 g dry matter) in pleureotus ostreatus equals approximately 100 g of minced pork.

  14. L-carnitine exposure and mitochondrial function in human neuronal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geier, David A; Geier, Mark R

    2013-11-01

    L-Carnitine is a naturally occurring substance required in mammalian energy metabolism that functions by facilitating long-chain fatty acid entry into cellular mitochondria, thereby delivering substrate for oxidation and subsequent energy production. It has been purposed that L-carnitine may improve and preserve cognitive performance, and may lead to better cognitive aging through the life span, and several controlled human clinical trials with L-carnitine support the hypothesis that this substance has the ability to improve cognitive function. We further hypothesized that, since L-carnitine is an important co-factor of mammalian mitochondrial energy metabolism, acute administration of L-carnitine to human tissue culture cells should result in detectable increases in mitochondrial function. Cultures of SH-SY-5Y human neuroblastoma and 1321N1 human astrocytoma cells grown in 96-well cell culture plates were acutely administered L-carnitine hydrochloride, and then, mitochondrial function was assayed using the colorimetric 2,3-bis[2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl]-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxyanilide inner salt cell assay kit in a VERSAmax tunable microplate reader. Significant increases in mitochondrial function were observed when human neuroblastoma or human astrocytoma cells were exposed to 100 nM (20 μg L-carnitine hydrochloride/L) to 100 μM (20 mg L-carnitine hydrochloride/L) concentrations of L-carnitine hydrochloride in comparison to unexposed cells, whereas no significant positive effects were observed at lower or higher concentrations of L-carnitine hydrochloride. The results of the present study provide insights for how L-carnitine therapy may significantly improve human neuronal function, but we recommend that future studies further explore different derivatives of L-carnitine compounds in different in vitro cell-based systems using different markers of mitochondrial function.

  15. Gbu Glycine Betaine Porter and Carnitine Uptake in Osmotically Stressed Listeria monocytogenes Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendum, Mary Lou; Smith, Linda Tombras

    2002-01-01

    The food-borne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes grows actively under high-salt conditions by accumulating compatible solutes such as glycine betaine and carnitine from the medium. We report here that the dominant transport system for glycine betaine uptake, the Gbu porter, may act as a secondary uptake system for carnitine, with a Km of 4 mM for carnitine uptake and measurable uptake at carnitine concentrations as low as 10 μM. This porter has a Km for glycine betaine uptake of about 6 μM. The dedicated carnitine porter, OpuC, has a Km for carnitine uptake of 1 to 3 μM and a Vmax of approximately 15 nmol/min/mg of protein. Mutants lacking either opuC or gbu were used to study the effects of four carnitine analogs on growth and uptake of osmolytes. In strain DP-L1044, which had OpuC and the two glycine betaine porters Gbu and BetL, triethylglycine was most effective in inhibiting growth in the presence of glycine betaine, but trigonelline was best at inhibiting growth in the presence of carnitine. Carnitine uptake through OpuC was inhibited by γ-butyrobetaine. Dimethylglycine inhibited both glycine betaine and carnitine uptake through the Gbu porter. Carnitine uptake through the Gbu porter was inhibited by triethylglycine. Glycine betaine uptake through the BetL porter was strongly inhibited by trigonelline and triethylglycine. These results suggest that it is possible to reduce the growth of L. monocytogenes under osmotically stressful conditions by inhibiting glycine betaine and carnitine uptake but that to do so, multiple uptake systems must be affected. PMID:12406761

  16. Carnitine Deficiency and Oxidative Stress Provoke Cardiotoxicity in an Ifosfamide-Induced Fanconi Syndrome Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed M. Sayed-Ahmed

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In addition to hemorrhagic cystitis, Fanconi Syndrome is a serious clinical side effect during ifosfamide (IFO therapy. Fanconi syndrome is a generalized dysfunction of the proximal tubule which is characterized by excessive urinary excretion of glucose, phosphate, bicarbonate, amino acids and other solutes excreted by this segment of the nephron including L-carnitine. Carnitine is essential cofactor for β-oxidation of long-chain fatty acids in the myocardium. IFO therapy is associated with increased urinary carnitine excretion with subsequent secondary deficiency of the molecule. Cardiac abnormalities in IFO-treated cancer patients were reported as isolated clinical cases. This study examined whether carnitine deficiency and oxidative stress, secondary to Fanconi Syndrome, provoke IFO-induced cardiomyopathy as well as exploring if carnitine supplementation using Propionyl-L-carnitine (PLC could offer protection against this toxicity. In the current study, an animal model of carnitine deficiency was developed in rats by D-carnitine-mildronate treatment Adult male Wistar albino rats were assigned to one of six treatment groups: the first three groups were injected intraperitoneally with normal saline, D-carnitine (DC, 250 mg/kg/day combined with mildronate (MD, 200 mg/kg/day and PLC (250 mg/kg/day, respectively, for 10 successive days. The 4th, 5th and 6th groups were injected with the same doses of normal saline, DC-MD and PLC, respectively for 5 successive days before and 5 days concomitant with IFO (50 mg/kg/day. IFO significantly increased serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN, urinary carnitine excretion and clearance, creatine phosphokinase isoenzyme (CK-MB, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, intramitochondrial acetyl-CoA/CoA-SH and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS in cardiac tissues and significantly decreased adenosine triphosphate (ATP and total carnitine and reduced glutathione (GSH content in cardiac tissues. In carnitine

  17. Neonatal Screening for Primary Carnitine Deficiency: Lessons Learned from the Faroe Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Steuerwald

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Primary carnitine deficiency is caused by the defective OCTN2 carnitine transporter encoded by the SLC22A5 gene. A lack of carnitine impairs fatty acid oxidation resulting in hypoketotic hypoglycemia, hepatic encephalopathy, skeletal and cardiac myopathy, and arrhythmia. This condition can be detected by finding low levels of free carnitine (C0 in neonatal screening. Mothers with primary carnitine deficiency can also be identified by low carnitine levels in their infant by newborn screening. Primary carnitine deficiency is rare (1:40,000–1:140,000 newborns except in the Faroe Islands (1:300 due to a founder effect. A specific mutation (c.95A>G, p.N32S is prevalent, but not unique, with three additional mutations (c.131C>T/p.A44V, a splice mutation c.825-52G>A, and a risk-haplotype recently identified in the Faroese population. In the Faroe Islands, several adult patients suffered sudden death from primary carnitine deficiency leading to the implementation of a nationwide population screening (performed after 2 months of age in addition to universal neonatal screening. While most affected infants can be identified at birth, some patients with primary carnitine deficiency might be missed by the current neonatal screening and could be better identified with a repeated test performed after 2 months of age.

  18. Acute Exercise Stimulates Carnitine Biosynthesis and OCTN2 Expression in Mouse Kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom L. Broderick

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Carnitine is essential for the transport of long-chain FAs (FA into the mitochondria for energy production. During acute exercise, the increased demand for FAs results in a state of free carnitine deficiency in plasma. The role of kidney in carnitine homeostasis after exercise is not known. Methods: Swiss Webster mice were sacrificed immediately after a 1-hour moderate intensity treadmill run, and at 4-hours and 8-hours into recovery. Non-exercising mice served as controls. Plasma was analyzed for carnitine using acetyltransferase and [14C] acetyl-CoA. Kidney was removed for gene and protein expression of butyrobetaine hydroxylase (γ-BBH, organic cation transporter (OCTN2, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARα, a regulator of fatty acid oxidation activated by FAs. Results: Acute exercise caused a decrease in plasma free carnitine levels. Rapid return of free carnitine to control levels during recovery was associated with increased γ-BBH expression. Both mRNA and protein levels of OCTN2 were detected in kidney after exercise and during recovery, suggesting renal transport mechanisms were stimulated. These changes were accompanied with a reciprocal increase in PPARα protein expression. Conclusions: Our results show that the decrease in free carnitine after exercise rapidly activates carnitine biosynthesis and renal transport mechanism in kidney to establish carnitine homeostasis.

  19. The effect of L-carnitine on lipid metabolism in patients on chronic haemodialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yderstræde, Knud Bonnet; Pedersen, Fritz Bangsgaard; Dragsholt, C.

    1987-01-01

    was added to the dialysis fluid to a final concentration of 100 mumol/l. The trial was carried out for 6 months, and the serum of fasting patients was analysed at monthly intervals for carnitine, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and apolipoprotein A and B. The loss of carnitine...... to the dialysis fluid also was examined, as was the retained amount in those receiving carnitine. We could not confirm the findings of others that carnitine produces lowering of serum triglycerides and increases of serum HDL-cholesterol. The study was extended for another year with ten patients; however...

  20. L-carnitine Reduces Muscle Cramps in Patients With Cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Hiroyuki; Kurosaki, Masayuki; Tsuchiya, Kaoru; Nakakuki, Natsuko; Takada, Hitomi; Matsuda, Shuya; Gondo, Kouichi; Asano, Yu; Hattori, Nobuhiro; Tamaki, Nobuharu; Suzuki, Shoko; Yasui, Yutaka; Hosokawa, Takanori; Itakura, Jun; Takahashi, Yuka; Izumi, Namiki

    2015-08-01

    We performed a prospective study to evaluate the ability of L-carnitine, which is involved in the β-oxidation of fatty acids, to reduce muscle cramps in patients with cirrhosis. Consecutive patients with cirrhosis and muscle cramps were given L-carnitine 300 mg, 3 times/day (900 mg/day, n = 19) or 4 times/day (1200 mg/day, n = 23) for 8 weeks. The frequency of muscle cramps was assessed by questionnaires, and the degree of muscle cramping was assessed by using the visual analogue scale (VAS). Muscle cramping was reduced in 88.1% of all subjects at the end of the 8-week study period and disappeared for 28.6% of patients. Overall VAS scores decreased significantly from 69.9 ± 22.5 at baseline to 26.2 ± 29.1 after 8 weeks (P cramps after 8 weeks (43.5% in the 1200 mg/day group vs 10.5% in the 900 mg/day group, P = .037) and VAS scores at 8 weeks (9.9 ± 13.5 in the 1200 mg/day group vs 39.6 ± 31.9 in the 900 mg/day group, P = .003). No adverse events were reported. Therefore, L-carnitine appears to be safe and effective for reducing liver cramps in patients with cirrhosis. Copyright © 2015 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Role of L-carnitine in female infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Ashok; Sengupta, Pallav; Durairajanayagam, Damayanthi

    2018-01-26

    L-carnitine (LC), and its acetylated form, acetyl L-carnitine (ALC), have immense functional capabilities to regulate the oxidative and metabolic status of the female reproductive system. The vulnerability of this system to free radicals demand for advanced strategies to combat them. For this purpose, the 'quasi vitamins' LC and ALC can be used either individually, or in combination with each other or with other antioxidants. This review (a) summarizes the effects of carnitines on female fertility along with the findings from various in vivo and in vitro studies involving human, animal and assisted reproductive technology, and (b) proposes their mechanism of actions in improving female fertility through their integrated actions on reducing cellular stress, maintaining hormonal balance and enhancing energy production. They reportedly aid β-oxidation in oocytes, maintain its cell membrane stability by acetylation of phospholipids and amphiphilic actions, prevent free radical-induced DNA damage and also stabilize acetyl Co-A/Co-A ratio for adequate acetyl storage as energy supply to maintain the robustness of reproductive cells. While both LC and ALC have their applications in improving female fertility, ALC is preferred for its better antioxidant properties and LC for amelioration of energy supply to the cells. These beneficial effects show great promise in its application as a treatment option for women facing infertility disorders.

  2. Gut microbiota metabolism of L-carnitine and cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ussher, John R; Lopaschuk, Gary D; Arduini, Arduino

    2013-12-01

    In recent years, a number of studies have alluded to the importance of the intestinal microflora in controlling whole-body metabolic homeostasis and organ physiology. In particular, it has been suggested that the hepatic production of trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) from gut microbiota-derived trimethylamine (TMA) may enhance cardiovascular risk via promoting atherosclerotic lesion development. The source of TMA production via the gut microbiota appears to originate from 2 principle sources, either phosphatidylcholine/choline and/or L-carnitine. Therefore, it has been postulated that consumption of these dietary sources, which are often found in large quantities in red meats, may be critical factors promoting cardiovascular risk. In contrast, a number of studies demonstrate beneficial properties for l-carnitine consumption against metabolic diseases including skeletal muscle insulin resistance and ischemic heart disease. Furthermore, fish are a significant source of TMAO, but dietary fish consumption and fish oil supplementation may exhibit positive effects on cardiovascular health. In this mini-review we will discuss the discrepancies regarding L-carnitine supplementation and its possible negative effects on cardiovascular risk through potential increases in TMAO production, as well as its positive effects on metabolic health via increasing glucose metabolism in the muscle and heart. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparison the Protective Effects of L-Carnitine and Acetyl L-Carnitine on Blood Glucose and Lipid Peroxidation Level in Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Hajinezhad

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims: New medications with less side-effect are increasingly noticed now a day. L-Carnitine and Acetyl L-Carnitine reduce the secondary side-effects of Type I diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of oral administration of the materials on the blood glucose and the lipid per-oxidation of the liver and brain tissues in the diabetic rats. Materials & Methods: In the experimental study, 50 male Wistar rats were studied. The rats were randomly divided into five groups including control (the healthy rats, negative control (the diabetic rats, and three treatment diabetic groups. The diabetic groups received 110mg/Kg alloxan via injection to become diabetic. The treatment groups received L-Carnitine, Acetyl L-Carnetine, and L-Carnetine with Acetyl L-Carnetine (300mg/Kg as gavage for 30 days. The lipid per-oxidation, the serum glucose, the lipid profile, and the liver enzymes were measured at the end of the experiment. Data was analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey complementary test. Findings: The fasting blood concentration, triglyceride, cholesterol, creatinine, the serum liver enzymes, and the level of the liver tissue malondialdehyde significantly decreased in treatment diabetic group than diabetic group without any treatment, while HDL level increased as well (p<0.05. The brain tissue malondialdehyde and the serum HDL decreased and increased due to the administration of Acetyl L-Carnitine, respectively. Nevertheless, it affected no other parameter significantly. The positive effects of L-Carnitine were reduced by the administration of Acetyl L-Carnitin with L-Carnitine. Conclusion: The administration of L-Carnitine further reduces the secondary side-effects of diabetes than Acetyl L-Carnitine. In addition, simultaneous administration of the materials is not recommended.

  4. Free carnitine and acylcarnitines in obese patients with polycystic ovary syndrome and effects of pioglitazone treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigerust, Natalya Filipchuk; Bohov, Pavol; Bjørndal, Bodil

    2012-01-01

    To determine fasting and insulin-stimulated levels of carnitine precursors, total and free carnitine, and acylcarnitines, and evaluate the impact of pioglitazone treatment in obese patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).......To determine fasting and insulin-stimulated levels of carnitine precursors, total and free carnitine, and acylcarnitines, and evaluate the impact of pioglitazone treatment in obese patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)....

  5. L-carnitine protects against testicular dysfunction caused by gamma irradiation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mohamed Mohamed; Ibrahim, Zein Shaban; Alkafafy, Mohamed; El-Shazly, Samir Ahmed

    2014-07-01

    This study was conducted on mice to evaluate the radioprotective role of L-carnitine against γ-ray irradiation-induced testicular damage. Adult male mice were exposed to whole body irradiation at a total dose of 1 Gy. Radiation exposure was continued 24 h a day (0.1 Gy/day) throughout the 10 days exposure period either in the absence and/or presence of L-carnitine at an i.p. dose of 10 mg/kg body weight/day. Results revealed that γ-rays irradiation suppressed the expression of ABP and CYP450SCC mRNA, whereas treatment with L-carnitine prior and throughout γ-rays irradiation exposure inhibited this suppression. Treatment with γ-ray irradiation or L-carnitine down-regulated expression of aromatase mRNA. With combined treatment, L-carnitine significantly normalized aromatase expression. γ-Ray irradiation up-regulated expression of FasL and Cyclin D2 mRNA, while L-carnitine inhibited these up-regulations. Results also showed that γ-ray-irradiation up-regulated TNF-α, IL1-β and IFN-γ mRNA expressions compared to either controls or the L-carnitine treated group. Moreover, γ-irradiation greatly reduced serum testosterone levels, while L-carnitine, either alone or in combination with irradiation, significantly increased serum testosterone levels compared to controls. In addition, γ-irradiation induced high levels of sperm abnormalities (43%) which were decreased to 12% in the presence of L-carnitine. In parallel with these findings, histological examination showed that γ-irradiation induced severe tubular degenerative changes, which were reduced by L-carnitine pre-treatment. These results clarified the immunostimulatory effects of L-carnitine and its radioprotective role against testicular injury. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Influence of l-carnitine on metabolism and performance of sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eder, Klaus

    2009-09-01

    In recent years, l-carnitine has been used increasingly as a supplement in livestock animals. The present review gives an overview of the effects of dietary l-carnitine supplementation on the reproductive performance of sows. Results concerning the effect of l-carnitine supplementation during pregnancy on litter sizes are controversial. There are some studies reporting an increased number of piglets born alive per litter, while others could not find such an effect. In contrast, most studies performed show consistently that l-carnitine supplementation to a sow diet low in native carnitine during gestation increases piglet and litter weights at birth and enhances growth of litters during the suckling period. Biochemical mechanisms underlying the favourable effect of carnitine on intra-uterine growth have not been fully elucidated. There is, however, some evidence that carnitine influences the insulin-like growth factor-axis in sows and leads to greater placentae, which in turn improves intra-uterine nutrition, and stimulates oxidation of glucose in the fetuses. These effects may, at least in part, be responsible for higher birth weights of piglets. The stimulating effect of carnitine on growth of the litters might be due to an improved suckling behaviour of piglets born to l-carnitine-supplemented sows, causing the sows' milk production to rise. In conclusion, recent studies have clearly shown that dietary l-carnitine supplementation increases the reproductive performance of sows. These findings suggest that endogenous de novo synthesis of carnitine is insufficient to meet the metabolic requirement of sows during gestation.

  7. EVALUATING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF ELKAR (L-CARNITINE IN PREMATURE INFANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana V. Garina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Recently in Russia there is a tendency to increase the proportion of premature infants, prolonged postnatal adaptation which may be associated with carnitine deficiency Early diagnosis and correction of carnitine deficiency in premature infants is possible to reserve the prevention of pathological conditions of the prenatal period in these patients. Materials and Methods. 98 newborn infants have been examined with the help of clinical laboratory methods. Results. It has been stated that the overwhelming majority of newborn infants irrespective of their gestational age and body mass at the moment of birth had reference ranges of crude carnitine and higher degree of floating carnitine in their peripheral blood within the first days of their lives. These changes are particularly characteristic for small pre-mature infants. Statistically significant differences between the levels of crude carnitine and floating carnitine depended on the gender of newborn infants have been revealed. Directly correlated dependence of the level of crude carnitine on the body mass at the moment of birth of small premature infants has been stated. Discussion and Conclusions. It has been proved that implementing L-carnitine into the development care plan for premature infants facilitates quick body weight gain, significantly cuts down the period of tube feeding, lowers frequency of anemia development of premature infants and duration of neonatal jaundice. The ability of Elkar to correct functional diseases of cardio vascular system of premature infants has been shown.

  8. Curative role of lactulose, L-carnitine, alpha-lipoic acid and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Original Research Article. Curative role of lactulose, L-carnitine, alpha-lipoic acid and combination of L-carnitine and alpha-lipoic acid in a rat model of acute hepatic encephalopathy: Biochemical ..... from its ability to counteract ROS generation and exhibited beneficial role in the treatment of chronic liver diseases [24].

  9. CaiT of Escherichia coli, a new transporter catalyzing L-carnitine/gamma -butyrobetaine exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Heinrich; Buchholz, Marion; Clausen, Jurgen; Nietschke, Monika; Revermann, Anne; Schmid, Roland; Jung, Kirsten

    2002-10-18

    l-Carnitine is essential for beta-oxidation of fatty acids in mitochondria. Bacterial metabolic pathways are used for the production of this medically important compound. Here, we report the first detailed functional characterization of the caiT gene product, a putative transport protein whose function is required for l-carnitine conversion in Escherichia coli. The caiT gene was overexpressed in E. coli, and the gene product was purified by affinity chromatography and reconstituted into proteoliposomes. Functional analyses with intact cells and proteoliposomes demonstrated that CaiT is able to catalyze the exchange of l-carnitine for gamma-butyrobetaine, the excreted end product of l-carnitine conversion in E. coli, and related betaines. Electrochemical ion gradients did not significantly stimulate l-carnitine uptake. Analysis of l-carnitine counterflow yielded an apparent external K(m) of 105 microm and a turnover number of 5.5 s(-1). Contrary to related proteins, CaiT activity was not modulated by osmotic stress. l-Carnitine binding to CaiT increased the protein fluorescence and caused a red shift in the emission maximum, an observation explained by ligand-induced conformational alterations. The fluorescence effect was specific for betaine structures, for which the distance between trimethylammonium and carboxyl groups proved to be crucial for affinity. Taken together, the results suggest that CaiT functions as an exchanger (antiporter) for l-carnitine and gamma-butyrobetaine according to the substrate/product antiport principle.

  10. Aminocarnitine and acylaminocarnitines: Carnitine acyltransferase inhibitors affecting long-chain fatty acid and glucose metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, D.J.

    1989-01-01

    DL-Aminocarnitine (DL-3-amino-4-trimethylaminobutyrate) and the acylaminocarnitines acetyl-, decanoyl- and palmitoyl-DL-aminocarnitine have been synthesized and tested as inhibitors of carnitine palmitoyl-transferase and carnitine acetyltransferase in vitro and in vivo. Acetyl-DL-aaminocarnitine is the most potent reversible inhibitor of carnitine acetyltransferase reported to date, and is competitive with respect to acetyl-L-carnitine. Mice given acetyl-DL-aminocarnitine metabolize (U-{sup 14}C)acetyl-L-carnitine at about 60% of the rate of control mice. Palmitoyl-DL-aminocarnitine is the most potent reversible inhibitor of carnitine palmitoyltransferase reported to date. Decanoyl-DL-aminocarnitine and DL-aminocarnitine are also very potent inhibitors; all compounds inhibit the catabolism of ({sup 14}C)palmitate to {sup 14}CO{sub 2} in intact mice by at least 50%. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase controls the entry of long-chain fatty acids into the mitochondrial matrix for {beta}-oxidation. The inhibition of carnitine palmitoyltransferase by aminocarnitine or acylaminocarnitines in vivo prevents or reverses ketogenesis in fasted mice, and causes the reversible accumulation of triglycerides in liver, kidney and plasma. Administration of DL-aminocarnitine to streptozotocindiabetic mice lowers plasma glucose levels and improves the glucose tolerance test.

  11. Effects of vitamin C and L-carnitine on lipid profile and oxidative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The roles of vitamin C and L-carnitine on lipid profile and oxidative stress parameters in the brain of rats during fasting and re-feeding were investigated. Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats (170-180 g) were divided into four groups of control, fasting, fasting + vitamin C and fasting + L-carnitine. The test groups were further ...

  12. Carnitines slow down tumor development of colon cancer in the DMH-chemical carcinogenesis mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roscilli, Giuseppe; Marra, Emanuele; Mori, Federica; Di Napoli, Arianna; Mancini, Rita; Serlupi-Crescenzi, Ottaviano; Virmani, Ashraf; Aurisicchio, Luigi; Ciliberto, Gennaro

    2013-07-01

    Dietary agents are receiving much attention for the chemoprevention of cancer. While curcumin is known to influence several pathways and affect tumor growth in vivo, carnitin and its congeners play a variety of important metabolic functions: are involved in the oxydation of long-chain fatty acids, regulate acyl-CoA levels and influence protein activity and stability by modifying the extent of protein acetylation. In this study we evaluated the efficacy of carnitines in the prevention of cancer development using the 1,2,-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced colon carcinogenesis model. We also assessed whether their combination was able to give rise to increased protection from cancer development. Mice treated with DMH were dosed orally with curcumin and/or carnitine and acylcarnitines for 20 weeks. At the end of the treatment colon samples were collected, and scored for multiple ACF and adenomas. We observed that carnitine and acyl-carnitines had same, if not higher, efficacy than curcumin alone in inhibiting the formation of neoplastic lesions induced by DMH treatment. Interestingly, the combination of curcumin and acetyl-L-carnitine was able to fully inhibit the development of advanced adenoma lesions. Our data unveil the antitumor effects of carnitines and warrant additional studies to further support the adoption of carnitines as cancer chemopreventative agents. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Mammalian-microbial cometabolism of L-carnitine in the context of atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claus, Sandrine Paule

    2014-11-04

    γ-butyrobetaine has long been known as the precursor of endogenous L-carnitine synthesis. In this issue, Koeth et al. (2014) demonstrate that it is also a major metabolite of L-carnitine degradation by gut bacteria that precedes the enteric production of trimethylamine and trimethylamine-N-oxide. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. L-carnitine increases body lean in adult dogs and cats

    OpenAIRE

    Jewell, D.

    2010-01-01

    L-carnitine has been shown to be a repartitioning agent (i.e.,setting metabolism toward more protein and less fat accretion) in animals used for food production. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects on body composition repartitioning (i.e.,increasing lean body mass) of added dietary L-carnitine in adult dogs and cats.

  15. Evaluating effects of L-carnitine on human bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisawa, Koichi; Takami, Taro; Fukui, Yumi; Quintanilha, Luiz Fernando; Matsumoto, Toshihiko; Yamamoto, Naoki; Sakaida, Isao

    2017-05-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells showing potential for use in regenerative medicine. Culture techniques that are more stable and methods for the more efficient production of MSCs with therapeutic efficacy are needed. We evaluate the effects of growing bone marrow (Bm)-derived MSCs in the presence of L-carnitine, which is believed to promote lipid metabolism and to suppress apoptosis. The presence of L-carnitine decreased the degree of drug-induced apoptosis and suppressed adipogenic differentiation. Metabolomic analysis by means of the exhaustive investigation of metabolic products showed that, in addition to increased β-oxidation and the expression of all carnitine derivatives other than deoxycarnitine (an intermediate in carnitine synthesis), polysaturated and polyunsaturated acids were down-regulated. An integrated analysis incorporating both serial analysis of gene expression and metabolomics revealed increases in cell survival, suggesting the utility of carnitine. The addition of carnitine elevated the oxygen consumption rate by BmMSCs that had been cultured for only a few generations and those that had become senescent following repeated replication indicating that mitochondrial activation occurred. Our exhaustive analysis of the effects of various carnitine metabolites thus suggests that the addition of L-carnitine to BmMSCs during expansion enables efficient cell production.

  16. Serum total L-carnitine levels in non-obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenkci, Semin Melahat; Fenkci, Veysel; Oztekin, Ozer; Rota, Simin; Karagenc, Nedim

    2008-07-01

    Carnitine plays essential roles in energy production, oxidative stress and glucose metabolism. This study was planned to determine serum total L-carnitine levels in non-obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). There were 27 non-obese women with PCOS and 30 healthy, age- and body mass index (BMI) matched controls were evaluated in this controlled clinical study. Serum lipid sub-fractions, fasting glucose, insulin and other hormones (gonadotrophins, androgens) and total L-carnitine levels were measured. Homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR) was used to estimate insulin resistance. The women with PCOS had significantly higher serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, total testosterone, free androgen index (FAI), luteinizing hormone (LH), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, non-high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, fasting insulin levels and HOMA-IR measurement and LH/FSH ratios than healthy women. However, total L-carnitine and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels were significantly lower in women with PCOS. L-Carnitine level was negatively correlated with FAI, but positively correlated with SHBG. Multiple regression analysis revealed that SHBG was a strong predictor of serum total L-carnitine level. Decreased total L-carnitine levels may be associated with hyperandrogenism and/or insulin resistance in non-obese women with PCOS. Long-term studies are needed to evaluate carnitine metabolism in PCOS, especially with regard to the molecular basis.

  17. Requirements for carnitine shuttle-mediated translocation of mitochondrial acetyl moieties to the yeast cytosol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rossum, Harmen M.; Kozak, B.U.; Niemeijer, M.S.; Dykstra, James C.; Luttik, M.A.H.; Daran, J.G.; van Maris, A.J.A.; Pronk, J.T.

    2016-01-01

    In many eukaryotes, the carnitine shuttle plays a key role in intracellular transport of acyl moieties. Fatty acidgrown Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells employ this shuttle to translocate acetyl units into their mitochondria. Mechanistically, the carnitine shuttle should be reversible, but previous

  18. Effects Of L-Carnitine Supplement On Plasma Coagulation And Anticoagulation Factors In Hemodialysis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Hakeshzadeh

    2012-06-01

    Conclusion: L-Carnitine supplement reduces serum CRP, a marker of systemic inflammation, and plasma fibrinogen, an inflammation-related coagulation factor, in hemodialysis patients. Therefore, L-carnitine may play an effective role in preventing cardiovascular diseases in these patients.

  19. Reliable Diagnosis of Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase Type IA Deficiency by Analysis of Plasma Acylcarnitine Profiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heiner-Fokkema, M.R.; Vaz, F.M.; Maatman, R.; Kluijtmans, L.A.J.; Spronsen, F.J. van; Reijngoud, D.J.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Carnitine palmitoyltransferase IA (CPT-IA) deficiency is an inherited disorder of the carnitine cycle (MIM #255120). Patients affected by this deficiency might be missed easily because of lack of specific and sensitive biochemical markers. In this study, sensitivity and specificity of

  20. Reliable Diagnosis of Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase Type IA Deficiency by Analysis of Plasma Acylcarnitine Profiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heiner-Fokkema, M. Rebecca; Vaz, Frédéric M; Maatman, Ronald; Kluijtmans, Leo A J; Spronsen, van FrancJan; Reijngoud, Dirk-Jan; Morava, Eva; Baumgartner, Matthias; Patterson, Marc; Rahman, Shamima; Zschocke, Johannes; Peters, Verena

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Carnitine palmitoyltransferase IA (CPT-IA) deficiency is an inherited disorder of the carnitine cycle (MIM #255120). Patients affected by this deficiency might be missed easily because of lack of specific and sensitive biochemical markers. In this study, sensitivity and specificity of

  1. The structure and organization of the human carnitine/acylcarnitine translocase (CACT1) gene2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iacobazzi, V.; Naglieri, M. A.; Stanley, C. A.; Wanders, R. J.; Palmieri, F.

    1998-01-01

    The carnitine/acylcarnitine translocase (CACT) transports acylcarnitines into mitochondria in exchange for free carnitine and it is, therefore, essential for the fatty acid beta-oxidation pathway. We have determined the exon-intron structure of the human CACT gene, which is responsible for a genetic

  2. Carnitine biosynthesis. Purification of gamma-butyrobetaine hydroxylase from rat liver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaz, F. M.; van Gool, S.; Ofman, R.; IJlst, L.; Wanders, R. J.

    1999-01-01

    gamma-Butyrobetaine hydroxylase catalyse the last step in carnitine biosynthesis, the formation of L-carnitine from gamma-butyrobetaine, a reaction dependent on Fe2+, alpha-ketoglutarate, ascorbate and oxygen. Initial attempts to purify the protein from rat liver showed that gamma-butyrobetaine

  3. Activity of D-carnitine and its derivatives on Trypanosoma infections in rats and mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manganaro M.

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Little progress has been made in the treatment of African trypanosomiasis over the past decades. L-carnitine has a major role in glycolysis-based energy supply of blood trypanosomes for it stimulates constant ATP production. To investigate whether administration of the isomer D-carnitine could exert a competitive inhibition on the metabolic pathway of the L-form, possibily resulting in parasite replication inhibition, several formulations of this compound were tested on Trypanosoma lewisi and T. brucei rhodesiense in rodent models. High oral dosages of D-carnitine inner salt and proprionyl-D-carnitine were not toxic to animals and induced about 50 % parasite growth inhibition in reversible, i.e. competitive, fashion. A putative mechanism could be an interference in pyruvate kinase activity and hence ATP production. Considering both, lack of toxicity and inhibitory activity, D-carnitine may have a role in the treatment of African trypanosomiasis, in association with available trypanocidal drugs.

  4. Effect of L-carnitine Supplementation on Nutritional Status and Physical Performance Under Calorie Restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Swati; Singh, Som Nath

    2015-04-01

    L-carnitine is popular as a potential ergogenic aid because of its role in the conversion of fat into energy. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of short term supplementation of L-carnitine on metabolic markers and physical efficiency tests under short term calorie restriction. Male albino rats were divided into four groups (n = 12 in each)-control, calorie restricted (CR for 5 days, 25 % of basal food intake), L-carnitine supplemented (CAR, given orally for 5 days at a dose of 100 mg/kg), CR with L-carnitine supplementation (CR + CAR). Food intake and body weight of the rats were measured along with biochemical variables like blood glucose, tissue glycogen, plasma and muscle protein and enzymatic activities of CPT-1 (carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1) and AMP kinase. Results demonstrated that L-carnitine caused marked increase in muscle glycogen, plasma protein, CPT-1 activity and swim time of rats (P supplementation. In addition to the substantive effects caused by CR alone, L-carnitine under CR significantly affected muscle glycogen, plasma protein, CPT-1 activity and AMP kinase (P < 0.05). Short term CR along with L-carnitine also resulted in increased swim time of rats than control, CR and L-carnitine treated rats (P < 0.05). The present study was an attempt towards developing an approach for better adherence to dietary restriction regimen, with the use of L-carnitine.

  5. Topically applied L-carnitine effectively reduces sebum secretion in human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peirano, Reto I; Hamann, Tina; Düsing, Hans-Jürgen; Akhiani, Mehdi; Koop, Urte; Schmidt-Rose, Thomas; Wenck, Horst

    2012-03-01

      Oily skin condition is caused by an excessive sebaceous gland activity, resulting in an overproduction of sebum, giving the skin an undesired shiny, oily appearance.   To identify an active substance that reduces sebum production in human sebaceous glands by regulating fat metabolism in a natural way.   The effects of L-carnitine on β-oxidation and intracellular lipid content were investigated in vitro using the human sebaceous cell line SZ95. Penetration experiments utilizing pig skin as a model system were performed with a cosmetic formulation containing radioactively labeled L-carnitine. To determine the in vivo effects, a vehicle-controlled, randomized study was carried out using a cosmetic formulation containing 2%l-carnitine for 3 weeks. Sebum production was investigated utilizing the lipid-absorbent Sebutape(®).   SZ95 cells treated with 0.5% or 1% L-carnitine demonstrated a significant concentration-dependent increase in β-oxidation compared to control cells. Following the treatment with L-carnitine, intracellular lipid concentrations decreased significantly in a dose-dependent manner compared with untreated control cells. In skin penetration experiments, topically applied L-carnitine reached the dermis. In addition, topical in vivo application of a formulation containing 2% L-carnitine for 3 weeks significantly decreased the sebum secretion rate compared to the treatment with vehicle.   Our results show that the treatment of human sebocytes with L-carnitine significantly augments β-oxidation and significantly decreases intracellular lipid content in human sebocytes. Topically applied L-carnitine is bioavailable and leads to a significant sebum reduction in vivo. In conclusion, L-carnitine represents a valuable compound, produced naturally within the body, for the topical treatment of oily skin in humans. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. L-carnitine protects against cyclosporine-induced pancreatic and renal injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Y; Piao, S G; Zou, H B; Jin, J; Fang, M R; Lei, D M; Gao, B H; Yang, C W; Li, C

    2013-10-01

    L-carnitine has protective effects against various types of injury. This study was designed to evaluate the beneficial effects of L-carnitine on pancreatic and renal injuries caused by cyclosporine (CsA). Rats maintained on a low sodium diet were given vehicle (olive oil, 1 mL/kg/d), CsA (15 mg/kg/d), L-carnitine (50 or 200 mg/kg/d), or a combination of CsA and L-carnitine for 4 weeks. The impact of L-carnitine on pancreatic injury was assessed by blood glucose levels, plasma insulin concentrations, and hemoglobulin A1c (HbA1c). In addition, the protective effects of L-carnitine against CsA-induced kidney injury were evaluated in terms of renal function, histopathology (inflammatory cell influx and tubulointerstitial fibrosis), oxidative stress (8-hydroxy 2'-deoxyguanosine, 8-OHdG), transforming growth factor-betal (TGF-β1), apoptosis (caspase-3), and autophagy (LC3-II). CsA treatment caused diabetes, renal dysfunction, tubulointerstitial inflammation (ED-1-positive cells), and fibrosis, which were accompanied by an increase in 8-OHdG production and upregulation of TGF-β1, caspase-3, and LC3-II. Concomitant administration of L-carnitine increased plasma insulin concentrations, decreasing plasma glucose and HbA1c levels. In the kidney, L-carnitine induced dose-dependent improvement of renal function, inflammation, and fibrosis in parallel with suppression of the expression of TGF-β1 and 8-OHdG. Furthermore, the administration of L-carnitine at a high dose inhibited the expression of caspase-3 and LC3-II. These findings suggest that L-carnitine has a protective effect against CsA-induced pancreatic and renal injuries. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Chronic oral ingestion of L-carnitine and carbohydrate increases muscle carnitine content and alters muscle fuel metabolism during exercise in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Benjamin T; Stephens, Francis B; Constantin-Teodosiu, Dumitru; Marimuthu, Kanagaraj; Macdonald, Ian A; Greenhaff, Paul L

    2011-02-15

    We have previously shown that insulin increases muscle total carnitine (TC) content during acute i.v. l-carnitine infusion. Here we determined the effects of chronic l-carnitine and carbohydrate (CHO; to elevate serum insulin) ingestion on muscle TC content and exercise metabolism and performance in humans. On three visits, each separated by 12 weeks, 14 healthy male volunteers (age 25.9 ± 2.1 years, BMI 23.0 ± 0.8 kg m−2) performed an exercise test comprising 30 min cycling at 50% , 30 min at 80% , then a 30 min work output performance trial. Muscle biopsies were obtained at rest and after exercise at 50% and 80% on each occasion. Following visit one, volunteers ingested either 80 g of CHO (Control) or 2 g of l-carnitine-l-tartrate and 80 g of CHO (Carnitine) twice daily for 24 weeks in a randomised, double blind manner. All significant effects reported occurred after 24 weeks. Muscle TC increased from basal by 21% in Carnitine (P production. Furthermore, these changes were associated with an improvement in exercise performance.

  8. Fenofibrate Therapy in Carnitine Palmitoyl Transferase Type 2 Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Hamilton-Craig

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bezafibrate therapy has been shown to improve beta-oxidation of fatty acids and to reduce episodes of rhabdomyolysis in patients with carnitine palmitoyltransferase type-2 (CPT2 deficiency. We report the efficacy of fenofibrate in a patient with CPT2 deficiency, in whom beta-oxidation was improved but an episode of rhabdomyolysis nevertheless occurred. This suggests additional methods to avoid rhabdomyolysis in patients with CPT2 deficiency should accompany fibrate therapy, including avoidance of muscular overexertion, dehydration, and heat exposure.

  9. Model of central and trimethylammonium metabolism for optimizing L-carnitine production by E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevilla, Angel; Schmid, Joachim W; Mauch, Klaus; Iborra, Jose L; Reuss, Mathias; Cánovas, M

    2005-01-01

    The application of metabolic engineering principles to the rational design of microbial production processes crucially depends on the ability to make quantitative descriptions of the systemic ability of the central carbon metabolism to redirect fluxes to the product-forming pathways. The aim of this work was to further our understanding of the steps controlling the biotransformation of trimethylammonium compounds into L-carnitine by Escherichia coli. Despite the importance of L-carnitine production processes, development of a model of the central carbon metabolism linked to the secondary carnitine metabolism of E. coli has been severely hampered by the lack of stoichiometric information on the metabolic reactions taking place in the carnitine metabolism. Here we present the design and experimental validation of a model which, for the first time, links the carnitine metabolism with the reactions of glycolysis, the tricarboxylic acid cycle and the pentose-phosphate pathway. The results demonstrate a need for a high production rate of ATP to be devoted to the biotransformation process. The results demonstrate that ATP is used up in a futile cycle, since both trimethylammonium compound carriers CaiT and ProU operate simultaneously. To improve the biotransformation process, resting processes as well as CaiT or ProU knock out mutants would yield a more efficient system for producing L-carnitine from crotonobetaine or D-carnitine.

  10. Update on critical evidence for use of carnitine analogs in clinical practice in CNS disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traina G

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Giovanna TrainaDepartment of Economics and Food Sciences, University of Perugia, Perugia, ItalyAbstract: L-carnitine (LC is part of the carnitine shuttle system at the mitochondrial inner membrane (MIM and transports long chain fatty acids over the MIM route. Acetyl-L -carnitine (ALC, the acetyl ester of LC, plays an essential role in intermediary metabolism. To ALC are ascribed neurotrophic actions, antioxidant and antiapoptotic activity, positive effects on mitochondrial metabolism, and stabilization of intracellular membranes. Acylcarnitine and LC supplementation have shown beneficial effects in the treatment of aging, chronic degenerative pathologies and the slowing of the progression of mental deterioration in neurodegenerative diseases, and painful neuropathies. ALC is reported to affect brain energy and phospholipid metabolism and to interact with cell membranes, proteins, and enzymes. It also shows a neuromodulatory effect on synaptic morphology and neurotransmitter synaptic transmission, including that of acetylcholine and dopamine. All these data suggest that ALC can affect several targets in the central nervous system. The roles and effects of LC and ALC have led researchers to investigate carnitine's involvement in a variety of neuropathological states and treatments, including autism, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, Down's syndrome, Huntington's disease, cerebellar ataxia, age-associated mental decline, hepatic encephalopathy, and ammonia neurotoxicity. This review summarizes evidence that carnitine analogs play many roles in serious neurological pathologies.Keywords: L-carnitine, acetyl-L-carnitine, brain, neural disorders

  11. L-carnitine Supplemented Extender Improves Cryopreserved-thawed Cat Epididymal Sperm Motility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Manee-in

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cryopreservation of epididymal sperm is an effective technique to preserve genetic materials of domestic cats and wild felids when they unexpectedly die. However, this technique inevitably causes detrimental changes of cryopreserved-thawed spermatozoa, for example, by physical damage and excessive oxidative stress. L-carnitine is an antioxidant that has been used to improve sperm motility in humans and domestic animals. This study aimed to investigate the effects of L-carnitine on cat epididymal sperm quality following cryopreservation and thawing. After routine castration, cauda epididymides were collected from 60 cat testes. The epididymal spermatozoa from 3 cauda epididymides were pooled as 1 replicate. Spermatozoa samples (16 replicates were examined for spermatozoa quality and then randomly divided into 4 groups: 0 mM L-carnitine (control, 12.5 mM, 25 mM and 50 mM L-carnitine. The sperm aliquots were then equilibrated and conventionally frozen. After thawing, sperm motility, plasma membrane integrity, DNA integrity and acrosome integrity were evaluated. The 25 mM L-carnitine significantly improved sperm motility compared with a control group (p<0.05, although this was not significantly different among other concentrations. In conclusion, supplementation of 25 mM L-carnitine in freezing extender improves cauda epididymal spermatozoa motility. The effects of L-carnitine on the levels of oxidative stress during freezing and thawing remains to be examined.

  12. Effect of Adding L-carnitine and Probiotic on Performance and Carcass Parameters of Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyril Hrnčár

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The study was realised to investigate the effects of adding L-carnitine and probiotic on performance and carcass parameters of broiler chickens. Totally 240 one-day old broiler Ross 308 chickens randomly divided into four groups. Control group with basal diet without supplementation, experimental group 1 with probiotic in feed mixture in dose of 7.5 g/kg; experimental group 2 with L-carnitine in dose of 1ml/1.2 l in drinking water and experimental group 3 with probiotic in feed mixture in dose of 7.5 g/ kg + L-carnitine in drinking water in dose of 1 ml/1.2 l in drinking water. The results of this study indicated that supplementation with L-carnitine and probiotic statistically increased (p0.05 in feed consumption among groups in 42 days of age and broiler chickens receiving L-carnitine + probiotic had lowest mortality compared to the other groups. Furthermore, diet supplementation with L-carnitine and probiotic slightly increased (p>0.05 breast proportion of broiler chickens at the expense of a slight reduction (p>0.05 of thighs proportion in recognized statistically no significant differences (p>0.05. Further result showed statistically decreased weight of abdominal fat in broiler chickens with L-carnitine and probiotic and no significant effect in weight of giblets and carcass yield between control and other groups.

  13. L-carnitine supplementation as a potential antioxidant therapy for inherited neurometabolic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribas, Graziela S; Vargas, Carmen R; Wajner, Moacir

    2014-01-10

    In recent years increasing evidence has emerged suggesting that oxidative stress is involved in the pathophysiology of a number of inherited metabolic disorders. However the clinical use of classical antioxidants in these diseases has been poorly evaluated and so far no benefit has been demonstrated. l-Carnitine is an endogenous substance that acts as a carrier for fatty acids across the inner mitochondrial membrane necessary for subsequent beta-oxidation and ATP production. Besides its important role in the metabolism of lipids, l-carnitine is also a potent antioxidant (free radical scavenger) and thus may protect tissues from oxidative damage. This review addresses recent findings obtained from patients with some inherited neurometabolic diseases showing that l-carnitine may be involved in the reduction of oxidative damage observed in these disorders. For some of these diseases, reduced concentrations of l-carnitine may occur due to the combination of this compound to the accumulating toxic metabolites, especially organic acids, or as a result of protein restricted diets. Thus, l-carnitine supplementation may be useful not only to prevent tissue deficiency of this element, but also to avoid oxidative damage secondary to increased production of reactive species in these diseases. Considering the ability of l-carnitine to easily cross the blood-brain barrier, l-carnitine supplementation may also be beneficial in preventing neurological damage derived from oxidative injury. However further studies are required to better explore this potential. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of L-carnitine on high glucose-induced oxidative stress in retinal ganglion cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yu; Li, Xin; Shi, Ping; Wang, Le-xin; Sui, Zhong-guo

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays a role in diabetic retinopathy. L-Carnitine is an endogenous mitochondrial membrane compound. To elucidate the protective effects of L-carnitine on high glucose-induced oxidative stress in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Hoechst 33258 staining was used to estimate cell loss. Mitochondrial function was predicted by mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) measurement. The expression of apoptosis-related protein was measured by Western blotting. Assays for reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, lipid peroxidation, total antioxidative capacity (T-AOC) and antioxidant defense enzymes were completed to explain the antioxidative capacity of L-carnitine. L-Carnitine (12 h) inhibited high glucose-mediated cell loss and restored mitochondrial function including a reversion of ΔΨm loss and cytochrome c release. Cell apoptosis triggered by high glucose was also inhibited by L-carnitine, characterized by the downregulation of caspase-9, caspase-3 and Bax/Bcl-2. Furthermore, L-carnitine inhibited high glucose-induced ROS production and lipid peroxidation and promoted endogenous antioxidant defense components including superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase and T-AOC in a concentration-dependent manner. L-Carnitine may protect RGCs from high glucose-induced injury through the inhibition of oxidative damage, mitochondrial dysfunction and, ultimately, cell apoptosis. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Relationship of Serum Carnitine Level with Falls and Gait Disturbance in the Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, K; Koshiba, H; Shibata, S; Hirasawa, A; Ebihara, T; Kozaki, K

    2017-01-01

    Gait disturbance and falls are serious events that can impair activities of daily living (ADL) in the elderly. On the other hand, carnitine plays essential roles in energy production, and carnitine deficiency leads to low activity levels. We examined whether a lower serum carnitine concentration was correlated with falls and gait disturbances in the elderly. We performed a cross-sectional study. One hundred and ninety-eight elderly patients (male, 83; female, 115; 81 ± 6 years old) were enrolled in this study. Physical performance (hand grip strength, leg strength, walking speed, one-leg standing time, and tandem gait steps) and frailty status (The Edmonton Frail Scale: EFS) were evaluated. The serum total, free, and acylated carnitine levels were measured using an enzyme cycling method. We then investigated the associations between the serum carnitine level, history of falls, and the results of these physical examinations. Of the 198 subjects, 56 (28%) had a history of falls within the past one year. The patients with a history of falls had lower serum total carnitine and free carnitine levels than those without a history of falls. Regarding the physical performance results, the patients with a history of falls had higher EFS scores, a weaker hand grip strength, a slower walking speed, a shorter one-leg standing time, and a smaller number of tandem gait steps than those without a history of falls. A logistic regression analysis showed that the low serum total carnitine concentration was identified as an independent factor associated with a history of falls, a slow walking speed after adjustments for age, sex and modified EFS. A low serum carnitine level is associated with a history of falls and gait disturbances in elderly people.

  16. Does left ventricular function improve with L-carnitine after acute myocardial infarction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyer R

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available A double blind randomized placebo controlled clinical trial was carried out to assess the efficacy and safety of L-carnitine in patients suffering from acute anterior wall myocardial infarction with respect to left ventricular function. Sixty patients (34 men, 26 women, mean age 56+11 yr. with acute anterior wall myocardial infarction were randomized to placebo and L-carnitine. All the patients were given intravenous L-carnitine / placebo in the dose of 6gm/day for the first seven days followed by oral L-carnitine / placebo 3 gm/day in three divided doses for a period of three months. Echocardiography was performed for regional wall motion abnormality, left ventricular end systolic volume (ESV, end diastolic volume (EDV and ejection fraction (EF on admission, after seven days and after three months of the infarction. Forty-four patients completed the study. There were three deaths, two in the placebo and one in the L-carnitine group (p>0.05. Thirteen patients were lost to follow up. Echo parameters in both groups were comparable (p>0.05. The duration of chest pain prior to initiation of the I.V. L-carnitine was 7.5 + 5.2 hrs in the L-carnitine group and 7 + 4 hrs in the placebo group (p>0.05. There was no statistical difference in the EF, ESV and EDV on admission, at discharge and after three months in the L-carnitine and the placebo groups (p>0.05. No significant adverse effects were noted. L-carnitine, though a safe drug, does not affect the left ventricular function in patients with myocardial infarction.

  17. Reconstruction of the carnitine biosynthesis pathway from Neurospora crassa in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franken, Jaco; Burger, Anita; Swiegers, Jan H; Bauer, Florian F

    2015-08-01

    Industrial synthesis of L-carnitine is currently performed by whole-cell biotransformation of industrial waste products, mostly D-carnitine and cronobetaine, through specific bacterial species. No comparable system has been established using eukaryotic microorganisms, even though there is a significant and growing international demand for either the pure compound or carnitine-enriched consumables. In eukaryotes, including the fungus Neurospora crassa, L-carnitine is biosynthesized through a four-step metabolic conversion of trimethyllysine to L-carnitine. In contrast, the industrial yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae lacks the enzymes of the eukaryotic biosynthesis pathway and is unable to synthesize carnitine. This study describes the cloning of all four of the N. crassa carnitine biosynthesis genes and the reconstruction of the entire pathway in S. cerevisiae. The engineered yeast strains were able to catalyze the synthesis of L-carnitine, which was quantified using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HILIC-ESI-MS) analyses, from trimethyllysine. Furthermore, the yeast threonine aldolase Gly1p was shown to effectively catalyze the second step of the pathway, fulfilling the role of a serine hydroxymethyltransferase. The analyses also identified yeast enzymes that interact with the introduced pathway, including Can1p, which was identified as the yeast transporter for trimethyllysine, and the two yeast serine hydroxymethyltransferases, Shm1p and Shm2p. Together, this study opens the possibility of using an engineered, carnitine-producing yeast in various industrial applications while providing insight into possible future strategies aimed at tailoring the production capacity of such strains.

  18. Muscle carnitine availability plays a central role in regulating fuel metabolism in the rodent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Craig; Constantin-Teodosiu, Dumitru; Constantin, Despina; Leighton, Brendan; Poucher, Simon M; Greenhaff, Paul L

    2017-09-01

    Meldonium inhibits endogenous carnitine synthesis and tissue uptake, and accelerates urinary carnitine excretion, although the impact of meldonium-mediated muscle carnitine depletion on whole-body fuel selection, and muscle fuel metabolism and its molecular regulation is under-investigated. Ten days of oral meldonium administration did not impact on food or fluid intake, physical activity levels or body weight gain in the rat, whereas it depleted muscle carnitine content (all moieties), increased whole-body carbohydrate oxidation and muscle and liver glycogen utilization, and reduced whole-body fat oxidation. Meldonium reduced carnitine transporter protein expression across muscles of different contractile and metabolic phenotypes. A TaqMan PCR low-density array card approach revealed the abundance of 189 mRNAs regulating fuel selection was altered in soleus muscle by meldonium, highlighting the modulation of discrete cellular functions and metabolic pathways. These novel findings strongly support the premise that muscle carnitine availability is a primary regulator of fuel selection in vivo. The body carnitine pool is primarily confined to skeletal muscle, where it regulates carbohydrate (CHO) and fat usage. Meldonium (3-(2,2,2-trimethylhydrazinium)-propionate) inhibits carnitine synthesis and tissue uptake, although the impact of carnitine depletion on whole-body fuel selection, muscle fuel metabolism and its molecular regulation is under-investigated. Male lean Zucker rats received water (control, n = 8) or meldonium-supplemented water (meldonium, n = 8) for 10 days [1.6 g kg -1 body mass (BM) day -1 days 1-2, 0.8 g kg -1  BM day -1 thereafter]. From days 7-10, animals were housed in indirect calorimetry chambers after which soleus muscle and liver were harvested. Food and fluid intake, weight gain and physical activity levels were similar between groups from days 7 to 10. Compared to control, meldonium depleted muscle total carnitine (P

  19. Funktionelle und pharmakologische Charakterisierung des humanen Natrium-/Carnitin-Cotransporters hOCTN2

    OpenAIRE

    Lükewille, Ulrike

    2002-01-01

    L-Carnitin ist notwendig für der Translokation langkettiger Fettsäuren über die innere Mitochondrienmembran und somit für die anschließende Energiegewinnung durch b-Oxidation. Carnitin selbst wird über den kürzlich klonierten plasmamembranständigen hochaffinen Na+/Carnitin-Cotransporter hOCTN2 in die Zelle transportiert. Dieser Transporter gehört zu der Familie der organischen Kationentransporter (OCT). Ziel der vorliegenden Arbeit war eine funktionelle und pharmakologische Charakterisierung ...

  20. L-Carnitine and its Protective Role in Contrast-Induced Renal Injury in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosaddeg Jabbari

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Contrast media-induced nephrotoxicity is one of the most common causes of acute renal failure and promotes both increased morbidity and greater healthcare costs. several mechanisms by which contrast media induces renal injury. These include renal vasoconstriction and direct effect of the contrast agents and reactive oxygen metabolites production. L-carnitine facilitates the transfer of long-chain fatty acids into the mitochondria. By this mechanism carnitine maintains low pools of fatty acid (acyl-coenzyme a compounds, which are potentially toxic. However some of the actions of L-carnitine may be opposite to the toxic effects of contrast media. This study examined wheter administration of L-carnitine ameliorates contrast media-induced renal injury in rats.   Methods : Fifty Sprauge-Dawley rats, weighting 140-230 gr were assigned to one of five treatment groups: group A(control rats were given normal saline injections daily for 4 consecutive days, group B rats were given contrast media(diatrizoate meglumine 1cc/kg/d, group C rats were given meglumine 1cc/kg/d and carnitine 200mg/kg/d, group D rats were given meglumine 1cc/kg and carnitine 80mg/kg/d, and group E rats were given carnitine 200mg/kg/d. Four days after injections, the rat were killed and their kidneys and blood samples were prepared for pathological and biochemistry examination. Histological scoring of renal cortical pathology was performed.   Results: In rats that were given meglumine and no carnitine, renal function tend to be lower than in control group (p=0.001. Among rats injected with meglumine, those given 200mg/kg/d of L-carnitine had higher creatinine clearances at day 4 than the rats not given carnitine (p=00.04. Renal cortical histopathology changes were milder with meglumine and L-carnitine, particularly at 200mg/kg/d.   Conclusions: In rats receiving meglumine, daily L- carnitine injections, particularly at 200 mg/kg ameliorates the severity of

  1. L-carnitine is essential to beta-oxidation of quarried fatty acid from mitochondrial membrane by PLA(2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Hiromi; Oyanagi, Eri; Kato, Yasuko; Samejima, Yoshiyuki; Sasaki, Junzo; Utsumi, Kozo

    2010-09-01

    Mitochondrial beta-oxidation is an important system involved in the energy production of various cells. In this system, the function of L-carnitine is essential for the uptake of fatty acids to mitochondria. However, it is unclear whether or not endogenous respiration, ADP-induced O(2) consumption without substrates, is caused by L-carnitine treatment. In this study, we investigated whether L-carnitine is essential to the beta-oxidation of quarried fatty acids from the mitochondrial membrane by phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) using isolated mitochondria from the liver of rats. Intact mitochondria were incubated in a medium containing Pi, CoA and L-carnitine. The effect of L-carnitine treatment on ADP-induced mitochondrial respiration was observed without exogenous respiratory substrate. Increase in mitochondrial respiration was induced by treatment with L-carnitine in a concentration-dependent manner. Treatment with rotenone, a complex I blocker, completely inhibited ADP-induced oxygen consumption even in the presence of L-carnitine. Moreover, the L-carnitine dependent ADP-induced mitochondrial oxygen consumption did not increase when PLA(2) inhibitors were treated before ADP treatment. The L-carnitine-dependent ADP-induced oxygen consumption did contribute to ATP productions but not heat generation via an uncoupling system. These results suggest that L-carnitine might be essential to the beta-oxidation of quarried fatty acids from the mitochondrial membrane by PLA(2).

  2. The effect of L-carnitine on carbonic anhydrase level in rats exposed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-07-06

    characterized pH ... In the present study, the effect of L-carnitine on carbonic anhydrase levels in rats exposed to hypothermic stress was investigated. ..... exercise done hypothermic and hyperthermic ambient. (Jansens et al., 1998) ...

  3. Ameliorative effects of l-carnitine on rats raised on a diet supplemented with lead acetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Said El-Sherbini

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion:l-Carnitine may play an important role in reversing the undesirable effects of lead intoxication. Future studies should be conducted to see whether such an effect is applicable in humans exposed to lead poising.

  4. Reduced L-Carnitine Transport in Aortic Endothelial Cells from Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salsoso, Rocío; Guzmán-Gutiérrez, Enrique; Arroyo, Pablo; Salomón, Carlos; Zambrano, Sonia; Ruiz-Armenta, María Victoria; Blanca, Antonio Jesús; Pardo, Fabián; Leiva, Andrea; Mate, Alfonso; Sobrevia, Luis; Vázquez, Carmen María

    2014-01-01

    Impaired L-carnitine uptake correlates with higher blood pressure in adult men, and L-carnitine restores endothelial function in aortic rings from spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). Thus, endothelial dysfunction in hypertension could result from lower L-carnitine transport in this cell type. L-Carnitine transport is mainly mediated by novel organic cation transporters 1 (Octn1, Na+-independent) and 2 (Octn2, Na+-dependent); however, their kinetic properties and potential consequences in hypertension are unknown. We hypothesize that L-carnitine transport kinetic properties will be altered in aortic endothelium from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). L-Carnitine transport was measured at different extracellular pH (pHo 5.5–8.5) in the absence or presence of sodium in rat aortic endothelial cells (RAECs) from non-hypertensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats and SHR. Octn1 and Octn2 mRNA relative expression was also determined. Dilation of endothelium-intact or denuded aortic rings in response to calcitonine gene related peptide (CGRP, 0.1–100 nmol/L) was measured (myography) in the absence or presence of L-carnitine. Total L-carnitine transport was lower in cells from SHR compared with WKY rats, an effect due to reduced Na+-dependent (Na+ dep) compared with Na+-independent (Na+ indep) transport components. Saturable L-carnitine transport kinetics show maximal velocity (V max), without changes in apparent K m for Na+ indep transport in SHR compared with WKY rats. Total and Na+ dep component of transport were increased, but Na+ indep transport was reduced by extracellular alkalization in WKY rats. However, alkalization reduced total and Na+ indep transport in cells from SHR. Octn2 mRNA was higher than Octn-1 mRNA expression in cells from both conditions. Dilation of artery rings in response to CGRP was reduced in vessels from SHR compared with WKY rats. CGRP effect was endothelium-dependent and restored by L-carnitine. All together these results suggest that reduced

  5. Environmental Enteric Dysfunction is Associated with Carnitine Deficiency and Altered Fatty Acid Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard D. Semba

    2017-03-01

    Interpretation: EED is a syndrome characterized by secondary carnitine deficiency, abnormal fatty acid oxidation, alterations in polyphenol and amino acid metabolites, and metabolic dysregulation of sulfur amino acids, tryptophan, and the urea cycle. Future studies are needed to corroborate the presence of secondary carnitine deficiency among children with EED and to understand how these metabolic derangements may negatively affect the growth and development of young children.

  6. Carnitine metabolism to trimethylamine by an unusual Rieske-type oxygenase from human microbiota

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Yijun; Jameson, Eleanor; Crosatti, Marialuisa; Schäfer, Hendrik; Rajakumar, Kumar; Bugg, Timothy D. H.; Chen, Yin

    2014-01-01

    Dietary intake of L-carnitine can promote cardiovascular diseases in humans through microbial production of trimethylamine (TMA) and its subsequent oxidation to trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) by hepatic flavin-containing monooxygenases. Although our microbiota are responsible for TMA formation from carnitine, the underpinning molecular and biochemical mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, using bioinformatics approaches, we first identified a two-component Rieske-type oxygenase/reductase (...

  7. Effects of feeding carnitine and ractopamine on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum 1972)

    OpenAIRE

    Jalali Haji Abadi, Sayed Mohammad Ali

    2009-01-01

    L-carnitine is required for the transfer of long-chain fatty acids from the cytosol to the mitochondrial matrix for 13-oxidation of them and ractopamine, beta adrenergic agonists, have potential stimulating lipolysis and altering rates of protein degradation and synthesis. Present study was carried out to improve lipid body oxidation and protein-sparing action of fish through addition of L-carnitine and ractopamine to diet of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum 1972. An eight-week fee...

  8. Perioperative L-Carnitin-Supplementierung bei kardiochirurgischen Eingriffen angeborener Herzfehler im Säuglingsalter

    OpenAIRE

    Kipp, Isabel Katrin

    2003-01-01

    Ein intakter zellulärer Energiestoffwechsel ist essentielle Voraussetzung der strukturellen und funktionellen Integrität des Myokards. Durch mitochondriale Oxidation von Fettsäuren und Glukose sowie Glykolyse und Glykogenolyse deckt die Herzmuskelzelle ihren zellulären Energiebedarf. L-Carnitin als Carrier für den mitochondrialen Transport aktivierter Fettsäuren und Carnitin-abhängige Acyl-Transferasen und Translokasen sind unabdingbare Bestandteile der Fettsäureoxidation un...

  9. Impaired exercise performance and skeletal muscle mitochondrial function in rats with secondary carnitine deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal BOUITBIR

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The effects of carnitine depletion upon exercise performance and skeletal muscle mitochondrial function remain largely unexplored. We therefore investigated the effect of N-trimethyl-hydrazine-3-propionate (THP, a carnitine analogue inhibiting carnitine biosynthesis and renal carnitine reabsorption, on physical performance and skeletal muscle mitochondrial function in rats.Methods: Male Sprague Dawley rats were treated daily with water (control rats; n=12 or with 20 mg/100 g body weight THP (n=12 via oral gavage for 3 weeks. Following treatment, half of the animals of each group performed an exercise test until exhaustion.Results: Distance covered and exercise performance were lower in THP-treated compared to control rats. In the oxidative soleus muscle, carnitine depletion caused atrophy (-24% and impaired function of complex II and IV of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. The free radical leak (ROS production relative to oxygen consumption was increased and the cellular glutathione pool decreased. Moreover, mRNA expression of markers of mitochondrial biogenesis and mitochondrial DNA were decreased in THP-treated compared to control rats. In comparison, in the glycolytic gastrocnemius muscle, carnitine depletion was associated with impaired function of complex IV and increased free radical leak, whilst muscle weight and cellular glutathione pool were maintained. Markers of mitochondrial proliferation and mitochondrial DNA were unaffected.Conclusions: Carnitine deficiency is associated with impaired exercise capacity in rats treated with THP. THP-induced carnitine deficiency is associated with impaired function of the electron transport chain in oxidative and glycolytic muscle as well as with atrophy and decreased mitochondrial DNA in oxidative muscle.

  10. L-carnitine protects C2C12 cells against mitochondrial superoxide overproduction and cell death

    OpenAIRE

    Le Borgne, Fran?oise; Ravaut, Ga?tan; Bernard, Arnaud; Demarquoy, Jean

    2017-01-01

    AIM To identify and characterize the protective effect that L-carnitine exerted against an oxidative stress in C2C12 cells. METHODS Myoblastic C2C12 cells were treated with menadione, a vitamin K analog that engenders oxidative stress, and the protective effect of L-carnitine (a nutrient involved in fatty acid metabolism and the control of the oxidative process), was assessed by monitoring various parameters related to the oxidative stress, autophagy and cell death. RESULTS Associated with it...

  11. Ameliorative effects of l-carnitine on rats raised on a diet supplemented with lead acetate

    OpenAIRE

    El-Sherbini, El-Said; El-Sayed, Gehad; El Shotory, Rehab; Gheith, Nervana; Abou-Alsoud, Mohamed; Harakeh, Steve Mustapha; Karrouf, Gamal I.

    2016-01-01

    Lead intoxication has been a major health hazard in humans. It affects people at all ages. Its toxicity is associated with various organs of the body and affects different metabolic pathways. Based on histological data, l-carnitine reduced the severity of tissue damage produced as a result of exposure of rats to lead acetate. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the underlying mechanism of protection offered by l-carnitine against lead acetate intoxication using male Sprague–Dawle...

  12. L-carnitine Supplemented Extender Improves Cryopreserved-thawed Cat Epididymal Sperm Motility

    OpenAIRE

    S. Manee-in; S. Parmornsupornvichit; S. Kraiprayoon; T. Tharasanit; P. Chanapiwat; K. Kaeoket

    2014-01-01

    Cryopreservation of epididymal sperm is an effective technique to preserve genetic materials of domestic cats and wild felids when they unexpectedly die. However, this technique inevitably causes detrimental changes of cryopreserved-thawed spermatozoa, for example, by physical damage and excessive oxidative stress. L-carnitine is an antioxidant that has been used to improve sperm motility in humans and domestic animals. This study aimed to investigate the effects of L-carnitine on cat epididy...

  13. FREE FATTY ACIDS PROFILING IN RESPONSE TO CARNITINE SYNERGIZE WITH LUTEIN IN DIABETIC RATS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Malki, Abdulrahman L; Moselhy, Said S

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the fatty acids profiling in diabetic rats induced by sterptozocine (STZ) and their response to administration of lutein and carnitine. Ninety male albino rats were divided into 6 groups as follows: Normal control. The remaining rats were injected i.p a single dose of STZ (65 mg /kg bw) for induction of diabetes. Diabetic rats were grouped as: GP II: (Untreated): GP III: Rats were given orally with L-lutein (100 mg/kg bw).GP IV: Rats were given carnitine (30 μg/kg) i.p . GP V: Rats were given carnitine and lutein GP VI were given metformin (100mg/kg bw/d) for 6 weeks. Treatment of diabetic rats with lutein, L-carnitine, combined decreased the levels of glucose, HA1C compared with untreated diabetic (plutein, carnitine, combined to normal rats significantly decreased the levels of myristic, palmitice, palmitoleic, stearic, linoleic, α-linolenic, arachidic and eicosadienoic when compared with control normal rats (plutein and carnitine could ameliorate deleterious effect induced by STZ and attenuate the changed fatty acid composition.

  14. Failure of carnitine in improving hepatic nitrogen content in alcoholic and non-alcoholic malnourished rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana P. Rodrigues

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available AIMS: To investigate the effect of carnitine supplementation on alcoholic malnourished rats' hepatic nitrogen content. METHODS: Malnourished rats, on 50% protein-calorie restriction with free access to water (malnutrition group and malnourished rats under the same conditions with free access to a 20% alcohol/water solution (alcohol group were studied. After the undernourishment period (4 weeks with or without alcohol, both groups were randomly divided into two subgroups, one of them nutritionally recovered for 28 days with free access to a normal diet and water (recovery groups and the other re-fed with free access to diet and water plus carnitine (0.1 g/g body weight/day by gavage (carnitine groups. No alcohol intake was allowed during the recovery period. RESULTS: The results showed: i no difference between the alcohol/no alcohol groups, with or without carnitine, regarding body weight gain, diet consumption, urinary nitrogen excretion, plasma free fatty acids, lysine, methionine, and glycine. ii Liver nitrogen content was highest in the carnitine recovery non-alcoholic group (from 1.7 to 3.3 g/100 g, P.05 was highest in the alcoholic animals. CONCLUSION: Carnitine supplementation did not induce better nutritional recovery.

  15. The effect of dietary L-carnitine on semen traits of White Leghorns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, W; Neuman, S L; Latour, M A; Hester, P Y

    2007-10-01

    A previous study conducted in our laboratory showed that feeding 500 ppm of dietary L-carnitine to young and aging White Leghorns for 5 wk improved sperm concentration and reduced sperm lipid peroxidation during the last half of supplementation. The current study examined the effect of feeding dosimetric as well as lower levels of L-carnitine for longer durations on semen traits of White Leghorns. In experiments 1 and 2, White Leghorns consumed diets supplemented with 0, 125, 250, or 500 mg of L-carnitine/kg of feed. For experiment 1, an 8-wk trial was conducted with 48 White Leghorns from 46 to 54 wk of age. For experiment 2, a 17-wk trial was conducted with 96 White Leghorn roosters from 46 to 63 wk of age. For experiment 3, 84 roosters were provided for ad libitum consumption a diet formulated to contain 0 or 125 ppm of L-carnitine beginning at hatch until 37 wk of age. Long-term consumption of 125 ppm of L-carnitine beginning at hatch was the only dietary treatment that sustained a persistent increase in sperm concentration. These results suggest that L-carnitine's antioxidant influence on sperm production begins before the onset of sexual maturity.

  16. L-carnitine enhances extracellular matrix synthesis in human primary chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoppoloni, Daniela; Politi, Laura; Dalla Vedova, Pietro; Messano, Masa; Koverech, Aleardo; Scandurra, Roberto; Scotto d'Abusco, Anna

    2013-09-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most common degenerative joint disease for which there is no cure. It is treated mainly with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs to control the symptoms and some supplements, such as glucosamine and chondroitin sulphate in order to obtain structure-modifying effects. Aim of this study is to investigate the effects of L-carnitine, a molecule with a role in cellular energy metabolism, on extracellular matrix synthesis in human primary chondrocytes (HPCs). Dose-dependent effect of L-carnitine on cartilage matrix production, cell proliferation and ATP synthesis was examined by incubating HPCs with various amounts of molecule in monolayer (2D) and in hydromatrix scaffold (3D). L-Carnitine affected extracellular matrix synthesis in 3D in a dose-dependent manner; moreover, L-carnitine was very effective to stimulate cell proliferation and to induce ATP synthesis, mainly in 3D culture condition. In conclusion, L-carnitine enhances cartilage matrix glycosaminoglycan component production and cell proliferation, suggesting that this molecule could be useful in the treatment of pathologies where extracellular matrix is degraded, such as OA. To our knowledge, this is the first study where the effects of L-carnitine are evaluated in HPCs.

  17. L-Carnitine prevents the development of ventricular fibrosis and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction in hypertensive heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omori, Yosuke; Ohtani, Tomohito; Sakata, Yasushi; Mano, Toshiaki; Takeda, Yasuharu; Tamaki, Shunsuke; Tsukamoto, Yasumasa; Kamimura, Daisuke; Aizawa, Yoshihiro; Miwa, Takeshi; Komuro, Issei; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro

    2012-09-01

    Prognosis of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) remains poor because of unknown pathophysiology and unestablished therapeutic strategy. This study aimed to identify a potential therapeutic intervention for HFpEF through metabolomics-based analysis. Metabolomics with capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry was performed using plasma of Dahl salt-sensitive rats fed high-salt diet, a model of hypertensive HFpEF, and showed decreased free-carnitine levels. Reassessment with enzymatic cycling method revealed the decreased plasma and left-ventricular free-carnitine levels in the HFpEF model. Urinary free-carnitine excretion was increased, and the expression of organic cation/carnitine transporter 2, which transports free-carnitine into cells, was down-regulated in the left ventricle (LV) and kidney in the HFpEF model. L-Carnitine was administered to the hypertensive HFpEF model. L-Carnitine treatment restored left-ventricular free-carnitine levels, attenuated left-ventricular fibrosis and stiffening, prevented pulmonary congestion, and improved survival in the HFpEF model independent of the antihypertensive effects, accompanied with increased expression of fatty acid desaturase (FADS) 1/2, rate-limiting enzymes in forming arachidonic acid, and enhanced production of arachidonic acid, a precursor of prostacyclin, and prostacyclin in the LV. In cultured cardiac fibroblasts, L-carnitine attenuated the angiotensin II-induced collagen production with increased FADS1/2 expression and enhanced production of arachidonic acid and prostacyclin. L-Carnitine-induced increase of arachidonic acid was canceled by knock-down of FADS1 or FADS2 in cultured cardiac fibroblasts. Serum free-carnitine levels were decreased in HFpEF patients. L-carnitine supplementation attenuates cardiac fibrosis by increasing prostacyclin production through arachidonic acid pathway, and may be a promising therapeutic option for HFpEF.

  18. Oxygen glucose deprivation in rat hippocampal slice cultures results in alterations in carnitine homeostasis and mitochondrial dysfunction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas F Rau

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial dysfunction characterized by depolarization of mitochondrial membranes and the initiation of mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis are pathological responses to hypoxia-ischemia (HI in the neonatal brain. Carnitine metabolism directly supports mitochondrial metabolism by shuttling long chain fatty acids across the inner mitochondrial membrane for beta-oxidation. Our previous studies have shown that HI disrupts carnitine homeostasis in neonatal rats and that L-carnitine can be neuroprotective. Thus, this study was undertaken to elucidate the molecular mechanisms by which HI alters carnitine metabolism and to begin to elucidate the mechanism underlying the neuroprotective effect of L-carnitine (LCAR supplementation. Utilizing neonatal rat hippocampal slice cultures we found that oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD decreased the levels of free carnitines (FC and increased the acylcarnitine (AC: FC ratio. These changes in carnitine homeostasis correlated with decreases in the protein levels of carnitine palmitoyl transferase (CPT 1 and 2. LCAR supplementation prevented the decrease in CPT1 and CPT2, enhanced both FC and the AC∶FC ratio and increased slice culture metabolic viability, the mitochondrial membrane potential prior to OGD and prevented the subsequent loss of neurons during later stages of reperfusion through a reduction in apoptotic cell death. Finally, we found that LCAR supplementation preserved the structural integrity and synaptic transmission within the hippocampus after OGD. Thus, we conclude that LCAR supplementation preserves the key enzymes responsible for maintaining carnitine homeostasis and preserves both cell viability and synaptic transmission after OGD.

  19. Endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation induced by L-carnitine in isolated aorta from normotensive and hypertensive rats

    OpenAIRE

    Herrera González, María Dolores; Bueno, Rosario; Álvarez de Sotomayor Paz, María; Pérez Guerrero, María Concepción; Vázquez, Carmen M.; Marhuenda Requena, Elisa

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the mechanism of the vasodilatory effect induced by L- carnitine. Relaxation produced by L-carnitine was studied in rat aortic rings with and without functional endothelium, pre-contracted with phenylephrine by adding cumulative doses of L- carnitine (10-7 to 10-3 M). The relaxation evoked by L-carnitine reached higher values in aortic rings from spontaneously hypertensive rats than those obtained in arteries from normotensive rats; no relaxation was pr...

  20. The adverse effects of long-term l-carnitine supplementation on liver and kidney function in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L; Zhang, D-M; Wang, M-X; Fan, C-Y; Zhou, F; Wang, S-J; Kong, L-D

    2015-11-01

    Levo-Carnitine (l-carnitine) is widely used in health and food. This study was to focus on the adverse effects of 8-week oral supplementation of l-carnitine (0.3 and 0.6 g/kg) in female and male Sprague Dawley rats. l-carnitine reduced body and fat weights, as well as serum, liver, and kidney lipid levels in rats. Simultaneously, hepatic fatty acid β-oxidation and lipid synthesis were disturbed in l-carnitine-fed rats. Moreover, l-carnitine accelerated reactive oxygen species production in serum and liver, thereby triggering hepatic NOD-like receptor 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome activation to elevate serum interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18 levels in rats. Alteration of serum alkaline phosphatase levels further confirmed liver dysfunction in l-carnitine-fed rats. Additionally, l-carnitine may potentially disturb kidney function by altering renal protein levels of rat organic ion transporters. These observations may provide the caution information for the safety of long-term l-carnitine supplementation. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. In HepG2 cells, coexisting carnitine deficiency masks important indicators of marginal biotin deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogusiewicz, Anna; Boysen, Gunnar; Mock, Donald M

    2015-01-01

    A large number of birth defects are related to nutrient deficiencies; concern that biotin deficiency is teratogenic in humans is reasonable. Surprisingly, studies indicate that increased urinary 3-hydroxyisovalerylcarnitine (3HIAc), a previously validated marker of biotin deficiency, is not a valid biomarker in pregnancy. In this study we hypothesized that coexisting carnitine deficiency can prevent the increase in 3HIAc due to biotin deficiency. We used a 2-factor nutrient depletion design to induce isolated and combined biotin and carnitine deficiency in HepG2 cells and then repleted cells with carnitine. To elucidate the metabolic pathogenesis, we quantitated intracellular and extracellular free carnitine, acylcarnitines, and acylcarnitine ratios using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Relative to biotin-sufficient, carnitine-sufficient cells, intracellular acetylcarnitine increased by 90%, propionylcarnitine more than doubled, and 3HIAc increased by >10-fold in biotin-deficient, carnitine-sufficient (BDCS) cells, consistent with a defensive mechanism in which biotin-deficient cells transesterify the acyl-coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) substrates of the biotin-dependent carboxylases to the related acylcarnitines. Likewise, in BDCS cells, the ratio of acetylcarnitine to malonylcarnitine and the ratio of propionylcarnitine to methylmalonylcarnitine both more than tripled, and the ratio of 3HIAc to 3-methylglutarylcarnitine (MGc) increased by >10-fold. In biotin-deficient, carnitine-deficient (BDCD) cells, the 3 substrate-derived acylcarnitines changed little, but the substrate:product ratios were masked to a lesser extent. Moreover, carnitine repletion unmasked biotin deficiency in BDCD cells as shown by increases in acetylcarnitine, propionylcarnitine, and 3HIAc (each increased by >50-fold). Likewise, ratios of acetylcarnitine:malonylcarnitine, propionylcarnitine:methylmalonylcarnitine, and 3HIAc:MGc all increased by >8-fold. Our findings provide strong

  2. Ameliorative effects of l-carnitine on rats raised on a diet supplemented with lead acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sherbini, El-Said; El-Sayed, Gehad; El Shotory, Rehab; Gheith, Nervana; Abou-Alsoud, Mohamed; Harakeh, Steve Mustapha; Karrouf, Gamal I

    2017-09-01

    Lead intoxication has been a major health hazard in humans. It affects people at all ages. Its toxicity is associated with various organs of the body and affects different metabolic pathways. Based on histological data, l-carnitine reduced the severity of tissue damage produced as a result of exposure of rats to lead acetate. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the underlying mechanism of protection offered by l-carnitine against lead acetate intoxication using male Sprague-Dawley rats. Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups with ten rats in each. The first group (G1) served as the control group and animals received standard diet only. The second group (G2) received lead acetate in their diet. The third group (G3) was the l-carnitine treated group and received the normal standard diet supplemented with l-carnitine. While the fourth group (G4) had a diet supplemented with both lead acetate and l-carnitine. At the end of each experiment, blood (serum and whole blood) were collected from each animal and analyzed for the following parameters: serum testosterone levels, serum nitric oxide and serum malondialdehyde. This is in addition to looking at the enzymatic activities of two important enzymes (superoxide dismutase and catalase) and on (glutathione reductase) which are indicative of the antioxidant activities in the whole blood. The results indicated that l-carnitine will counteract the undesirable effects of lead intoxication. It exerted its antioxidant potential by reducing the production of ROS and scavenging free radicals by maintaining and protecting the level of the of antioxidant enzymes SOD, CAT and glutathione peroxidase. Conclusion: l-Carnitine may play an important role in reversing the undesirable effects of lead intoxication. Future studies should be conducted to see whether such an effect is applicable in humans exposed to lead poising.

  3. Protective Effects of L-Carnitine Against Oxidative Injury by Hyperosmolarity in Human Corneal Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Xia; Deng, Ruzhi; Li, Jin; Chi, Wei; Su, Zhitao; Lin, Jing; Pflugfelder, Stephen C; Li, De-Quan

    2015-08-01

    L-carnitine suppresses inflammatory responses in human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs) exposed to hyperosmotic stress. In this study, we determined if L-carnitine induces this protective effect through suppression of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced oxidative damage in HCECs. Primary HCECs were established from donor limbal explants. A hyperosmolarity dry-eye model was used in which HCECs are cultured in 450 mOsM medium with or without L-carnitine for up to 48 hours. Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), oxidative damage markers, oxygenases and antioxidative enzymes were analyzed by 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFDA) kit, semiquantitative PCR, immunofluorescence, and/or Western blotting. Reactive oxygen species production increased in HCECs upon substitution of the isotonic medium with the hypertonic medium. L-carnitine supplementation partially suppressed this response. Hyperosmolarity increased cytotoxic membrane lipid peroxidation levels; namely, malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydroxynonenal (HNE), as well as mitochondria DNA release along with an increase in 8-OHdG and aconitase-2. Interestingly, these oxidative markers were significantly decreased by coculture with L-carnitine. Hyperosmotic stress also increased the mRNA expression and/or protein production of heme oxygenase-1 (HMOX1) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2), but inhibited the levels of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1), glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPX1), and peroxiredoxin-4 (PRDX4). However, L-carnitine partially reversed this altered imbalance between oxygenases and antioxidant enzymes induced by hyperosmolarity. Our findings demonstrate for the first time that L-carnitine protects HCECs from oxidative stress by lessening the declines in antioxidant enzymes and suppressing ROS production. Such suppression reduces membrane lipid oxidative damage markers and mitochondrial DNA damage.

  4. L-carnitine increases survival in a murine model of severe verapamil toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Eric; Chu, Jason; Bania, Theodore; Medlej, Kamal

    2011-11-01

    L-carnitine is an essential compound involved in cellular energy production through free fatty acid metabolism. It has been theorized that severe verapamil toxicity "shifts" heart energy production away from free fatty acids and toward other sources, contributing to profound cardiogenic shock. The primary study objective was to determine whether intravenous (IV) L-carnitine affects survival in severe verapamil toxicity. Secondary objectives were to determine the effects on hemodynamic parameters. The authors hypothesized that IV L-carnitine would increase both survival and hemodynamic parameters in severe verapamil toxicity. This was a controlled, blinded animal investigation. Sixteen male rats were anesthetized, ventilated, and instrumented to record mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate. Verapamil toxicity was achieved by a constant infusion of 5 mg/kg/hr. After 5 minutes a bolus of 50 mg/kg of either L-carnitine or normal saline was given. The experiment concluded when either 10% of baseline MAP was achieved or 150 minutes had elapsed. The data were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier analysis, log rank test, and analysis of variance. The median survival for the animals in the L-carnitine group was 140.75 minutes (interquartile range [IQR] = 98.6 to 150 minutes), and for those in the normal saline group it was 49.19 minutes (IQR = 39.02 to 70.97 minutes; p = 0.0001). At 15 minutes the MAP was 20.45 mm Hg greater in the animals in the L-carnitine group than in the animals in the normal saline group (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.25 to 40.65; p = 0.047). When compared with saline, IV L-carnitine increases survival and MAP in a murine model of severe verapamil toxicity. © 2011 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  5. Effects of exercise on l-carnitine and lipid metabolism in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) fed different dietary l-carnitine and lipid levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozorio, R.O.A.; Ginneken, van V.J.T.; Bessa, R.J.B.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Huisman, E.A.

    2010-01-01

    African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) were fed four isonitrogenous diets (34 % crude protein), each containing one of two lipid (100 or 180 g/kg) and two l-carnitine (15 or 1000 mg/kg) levels. After 81 d of feeding, thirty-two fish (body weight 32 g) from each dietary group were randomly selected,

  6. Normal Levels of Plasma Free Carnitine and Acylcarnitines in Follow-Up Samples From a Presymptomatic Case of Carnitine Palmitoyl Transferase 1 (CPT1) Deficiency Detected Through Newborn Screening in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch, Luise; Lund, Allan; Wibrand, Flemming

    2011-01-01

    of presymptomatic CPT1A deficiency detected through newborn screening in Denmark with diagnostic levels of carnitine and acylcarnitines in the initial dried blood spot. Levels of plasma-free carnitine and acylcarnitines in follow-up samples were normal, but reverted to diagnostic levels when the patient developed...

  7. Effect of short- and long-term feeding of L-carnitine and its congeners on the production of eicosanoids from rat peritoneal leukocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garrelds, I.M.; Elliott, G.R.; Zijlstra, F.; Bonta, I.

    1994-01-01

    The effect of short- and long-term feeding with L-carnitine, L-acetyl carnitine and L-propionyl carnitine on the production of eicosanoids from in vitro stimulated carrageenan-induced rat peritoneal macrophages was investigated. Both young (4 weeks) and old (18 months) rats were used. A lower number

  8. Effects of short- and long-term feeding of L-carnitine and congeners on the production of eicosanoids from rat peritoneal leucocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.M. Garrelds (Ingrid); G.R. Elliott (G.); F.J. Zijlstra (Freek); I.L. Bonta

    1994-01-01

    textabstractThe effect of short- and long-term feeding with L-carnitine, L-acetyl carnitine and L-propionyl carnitine on the production of eicosanoids front in vitro stimulated carrageenan-induced rat peritoneal macrophages was investigated. Both young (4 weeks) and old (18 months) rats were used. A

  9. Effect of dietary lipid, carnitine and exercise on lipid profile in rat blood, liver and muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanth, Jyothsna; Jeevaratnam, K

    2009-09-01

    Aim of this study was to investigate the influence of physical exercise on effects of the daily intake of vegetarian diet of either vegetable hydrogenated fat (HF) or peanut oil (PO) with or without carnitine on the lipid profile. Eight groups of male Wistar rats were fed HF-diet (4 groups) or PO-diet (4 groups), with or without carnitine for 24 weeks. One group for each diet acted as sedentary control while the other groups were allowed swimming for 1 hr a day, 6 days/week, for 24 weeks. Plasma triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), HDL-cholesterol, free fatty acids (FFA), liver and thigh muscle glycogen, total fat (TF), TG, TC and FFA were analyzed. HF-fed rats showed significantly increased plasma TC, VLDL+LDL-cholesterol and TG compared to PO-fed rats, wherein a lowered plasma TC, TG levels in all the groups with significantly increased liver cholesterol and decreased muscle cholesterol was observed. Physical exercise of moderate intensity reduced plasma TC and TG accompanied by significantly reduced tissue TG and cholesterol while FFA and glycogen increased in all the groups. The influence of exercise was less pronounced in carnitine supplemented rats since carnitine could significantly reduce TG in plasma and tissues of sedentary rats. Results from the present study showed that the intake of HF diet significantly increased the plasma and tissue lipid profile and MUFA-rich diet or carnitine supplementation and/or exercise may ameliorate the deleterious effects of HF.

  10. Intestinal microbiota metabolism of L-carnitine, a nutrient in red meat, promotes atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeth, Robert A.; Wang, Zeneng; Levison, Bruce S.; Buffa, Jennifer A.; Org, Elin; Sheehy, Brendan T.; Britt, Earl B.; Fu, Xiaoming; Wu, Yuping; Li, Lin; Smith, Jonathan D.; DiDonato, Joseph A.; Chen, Jun; Li, Hongzhe; Wu, Gary D.; Lewis, James D.; Warrier, Manya; Brown, J. Mark; Krauss, Ronald M.; Tang, W. H. Wilson; Bushman, Frederic D.; Lusis, Aldons J.; Hazen, Stanley L.

    2013-01-01

    Intestinal microbiota metabolism of choline/phosphatidylcholine produces trimethylamine (TMA), which is further metabolized to a proatherogenic species, trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO). Herein we demonstrate that intestinal microbiota metabolism of dietary L-carnitine, a trimethylamine abundant in red meat, also produces TMAO and accelerates atherosclerosis. Omnivorous subjects are shown to produce significantly more TMAO than vegans/vegetarians following ingestion of L-carnitine through a microbiota-dependent mechanism. Specific bacterial taxa in human feces are shown to associate with both plasma TMAO and dietary status. Plasma L-carnitine levels in subjects undergoing cardiac evaluation (n = 2,595) predict increased risks for both prevalent cardiovascular disease (CVD) and incident major adverse cardiac events (MI, stroke or death), but only among subjects with concurrently high TMAO levels. Chronic dietary L-carnitine supplementation in mice significantly altered cecal microbial composition, markedly enhanced synthesis of TMA/TMAO, and increased atherosclerosis, but not following suppression of intestinal microbiota. Dietary supplementation of TMAO, or either carnitine or choline in mice with intact intestinal microbiota, significantly reduced reverse cholesterol transport in vivo. Intestinal microbiota may thus participate in the well-established link between increased red meat consumption and CVD risk. PMID:23563705

  11. The Protective Effects of Acetyl L-Carnitine on Testis Gonadotoxicity Induced by Cisplatin in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neslihan Coşkun

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cisplatin, an effective antineoplastic agent, damages normal cells in a manner related to chemotherapy. Acetyl L-carnitine protects cells against mitochondrial and nuclear damage induced by chemotherapy. Aims: The aim of this study was to examine the protective effects of acetyl L-carnitine on cisplatin-induced gonadotoxicity in testicular structures. Study Design: Animal experiment. Methods: Twenty-four male Wistar albino rats were divided into four Groups (n=6: Group 1 (control was administered saline; Group 2 was administered acetyl L-carnitine; Group 3 was administered cisplatin; and Group 4 was pre-treated with acetyl L-carnitine before cisplatin administration. After 72hr of treatment with cisplatin, the rats were sacrificed, and the testicular tissues were removed. Morphometric, histomorphologic and immunohistochemical analyses were conducted. Results: At the end of the experiment, Group 3 was characterised by statistically significant weight loss, a degenerative appearance of the seminiferous tubules in the peripheral region, separation of spermatogenic cell series from the tubular wall, cellular debris in the lumen and central interstitial oedema. Sperm morphology appeared to be abnormal. Tubular diameter and wall thickness decreased, and the number of TUNEL- and active caspase-positive cells increased compared with the other Groups. The histological findings in Group 4 were better than those in Group 3. Conclusion: It was concluded that the prophylactic use of acetyl L-carnitine protects against cisplatin-induced testicular tissue damage.

  12. Acetyl-L-carnitine suppresses thyroid hormone-induced and spontaneous anuran tadpole tail shortening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanada, Hideki; Kobuchi, Hirotsugu; Yamamoto, Masanao; Kashiwagi, Keiko; Katsu, Kenjiro; Utsumi, Toshihiko; Kashiwagi, Akihiko; Sasaki, Junzo; Inoue, Masayasu; Utsumi, Kozo

    2013-02-01

    Mitochondrial membrane permeability transition (MPT) plays a crucial role in apoptotic tail shortening during anuran metamorphosis. L-carnitine is known to shuttle free fatty acids (FFAs) from the cytosol into mitochondria matrix for β-oxidation and energy production, and in a previous study we found that treatment with L-carnitine suppresses 3, 3', 5-triiodothyronine (T3 ) and FFA-induced MPT by reducing the level of FFAs. In the present study we focus on acetyl-L-carnitine, which is also involved in fatty acid oxidation, to determine its effect on T3 -induced tail regression in Rana rugosa tadpoles and spontaneous tail regression in Xenopus laevis tadpoles. The ladder-like DNA profile and increases in caspase-3 and caspase-9 indicative of apoptosis in the tails of T3 -treated tadpoles were found to be suppressed by the addition of acetyl-L-carnitine. Likewise, acetyl-L-carnitine was found to inhibit thyroid hormone regulated spontaneous metamorphosis in X. laevis tadpoles, accompanied by decreases in caspase and phospholipase A2 activity, as well as non-ladder-like DNA profiles. These findings support our previous conclusion that elevated levels of FFAs initiate MPT and activate the signaling pathway controlling apoptotic cell death in tadpole tails during anuran metamorphosis. © 2013 The Authors.

  13. L-carnitine mediates protection against DNA damage in lymphocytes of aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangasamy, Thilakavathy; Jeyakumar, Preethy; Sittadjody, Sivanandane; Joyee, Antony George; Chinnakannu, Panneerselvam

    2009-04-01

    It has been proposed that age-associated disorders are related to a time-dependent shift in the antioxidant/prooxidant balance towards oxidative damage. Increased production of oxidants in vivo can cause damage to intracellular macromolecules such as DNA, proteins and lipids, which can in turn lead to oxidative injury. Carnitine is a vitamin-like compound that serves as a carrier to transport long-chain fatty acids into the mitochondria for beta-oxidation. In the present study, the effect of L-carnitine, a widely recognized essential nutrient, was evaluated on the status of lipid peroxidation and certain antioxidant enzymes and DNA damage in lymphocytes with relation to age in male wistar rats. The levels of lipid peroxides were remarkably increased whereas, the activities of antioxidant enzymes were significantly decreased in aged control animals when compared to younger controls. In aged animals, administration of L-carnitine for 21 days significantly decreased the levels of lipid peroxides and improved the activities of antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase. L-Carnitine enhanced T-cell proliferative responses as evaluated by T-cell proliferation assay using [3H] thymidine incorporation and also significantly reduced DNA damage, apoptosis and TNF-alpha level in lymphocytes of aged animals. Our results suggest that L -carnitine may have a vital role in improving functions in the cells of the immune system particularly the lymphocytes possibly through its antioxidant action.

  14. Impairing and monitoring glucose catabolite repression in L-carnitine biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevilla, A; Cánovas, M; Keller, D; Reimers, S; Iborra, J L

    2007-01-01

    Signal transduction pathways are usually avoided when optimizing a biotransformation process because they require complex mathematical formulations. The aim of this work was to use a Systems Biology approach to optimize and monitor the biotransformation of L-carnitine using signal transduction pathways. To this end, a dynamic model was constructed, integrating the metabolic pathways of L-carnitine biosynthesis as well as the expression of this metabolism by means of its regulation by transcription factors such as cAMP-CRP and CaiF. The model was validated using different C-sources as well as different reactor feeding approaches. A linear relationship between the external cellular cAMP and the L-carnitine production levels was predicted before being experimentally confirmed in several scenarios. Moreover, results of the model simulations and subsequent experimental findings demonstrated that the addition of exogenous cAMP was able to restore the L-carnitine production when glucose was used as C-source. Additionally, a way to monitor the L-carnitine biosynthesis by using the level of cAMP as a marker of the biotransformation state was in silico and experimentally demonstrated.

  15. Natural zwitterionic l-Carnitine as efficient cryoprotectant for solvent-free cell cryopreservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Hongwen; Yang, Jing; Zhang, Jiamin; Pan, Chao; Cai, Nana; Zhu, Yingnan; Zhang, Lei

    2017-07-15

    Organic solvents, such as dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and glycerol, have been commonly used as cryoprotectants (CPAs) in cell cryopreservation. However, their cytotoxicity and need of complex freezing protocols have impeded their applications especially in clinical cell therapy and regenerative medicine. Trehalose has been explored as a natural CPA to cryopreserve cells, but its poor cell permeability frequently results in low cryopreservation efficacy. In this work, we presented that a natural zwitterionic molecule-l-carnitine-could serve as a promising CPA for solvent-free cryopreservation. We demonstrated that l-carnitine possessed strong ability to depress water freezing point, and with ultrarapid freezing protocol, we studied the post-thaw survival efficiency of four cell lines (GLC-82 cells, MCF-7 cells, NIH-3T3 cells and Sheep Red Blood Cells) using l-carnitine without addition of any organic solvents. At the optimum l-carnitine concentration, all four cell lines could achieve above 80% survival efficiency, compared with the significantly lower efficiency using organic CPAs and trehalose. After cryopreservation, the recovered cell behaviors including cell attachment and proliferation were found to be similar to the normal cells, indicating that the cell functionalities were not affected. Moreover, l-carnitine showed no observable cytotoxicity, which was superior to the organic CPAs. This work offered an attractive alternative to traditional CPAs and held great promise to revolutionize current cryopreservation technologies, to benefit the patients in various cell-based clinical applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Carnitine supplementation attenuates myocardial lipid accumulation in long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase knockout mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakermans, Adrianus J.; van Weeghel, Michel; Denis, Simone; Nicolay, Klaas; Prompers, Jeanine J.; Houten, Sander M.

    2013-01-01

    Elevation of long-chain acylcarnitine levels is a hallmark of long-chain mitochondrial β-oxidation (FAO) disorders, and can be accompanied by secondary carnitine deficiency. To restore free carnitine levels, and to increase myocardial export of long-chain fatty acyl-CoA esters, supplementation of

  17. Carnitine supplementation and ketogenesis by small-for-date neonates on medium-and long-chain fatty acid formulae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labadaridis, J; Mavridou, I; Sarafidou, G; Alexiou, N; Costalos, C; Michelakakis, H

    2000-01-01

    Carnitine is a key molecule in energy production from various substrates. Although it is generally believed that it plays no role in the metabolism of medium-chain triglycerides, quite a few data exist to the contrary. In the present study we investigated the effect of carnitine on ketogenesis in small-for-date neonates fed formulae of equal caloric value and fat content that was predominantly long-chain triglycerides or medium-chain triglycerides (46% of total fat). According to our results there was a statistically significant interaction between carnitine and the chain length of the administered fat with respect to ketone production. Increased ketogenesis was only shown by the neonates receiving medium-chain triglycerides and carnitine. Our results provide further evidence for the involvement of carnitine in medium-chain triglyceride metabolism.

  18. Carnitine protects the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans from glucose-induced reduction of survival depending on the nuclear hormone receptor DAF-12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deusing, Dorothé Jenni, E-mail: Dorothe.J.Deusing@ernaehrung.uni-giessen.de; Beyrer, Melanie, E-mail: m.beyrer@web.de; Fitzenberger, Elena, E-mail: Elena.Fitzenberger@ernaehrung.uni-giessen.de; Wenzel, Uwe, E-mail: uwe.wenzel@ernaehrung.uni-giessen.de

    2015-05-08

    Besides its function in transport of fatty acids into mitochondria in order to provide substrates for β-oxidation, carnitine has been shown to affect also glucose metabolism and to inhibit several mechanisms associated with diabetic complications. In the present study we used the mev-1 mutant of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans fed on a high glucose concentration in liquid media as a diabetes model and tested the effects of carnitine supplementation on their survival under heat-stress. Carnitine at 100 μM completely prevented the survival reduction that was caused by the application of 10 mM glucose. RNA-interference for sir-2.1, a candidate genes mediating the effects of carnitine revealed no contribution of the sirtuin for the rescue of survival. Under daf-12 RNAi rescue of survival by carnitine was abolished. RNA-interference for γ-butyrobetaine hydroxylase 2, encoding the key enzyme for carnitine biosynthesis did neither increase glucose toxicity nor prevent the rescue of survival by carnitine, suggesting that the effects of carnitine supplementation on carnitine levels were significant. Finally, it was demonstrated that neither the amount of lysosomes nor the proteasomal activity were increased by carnitine, excluding that protein degradation pathways, such as autophagy or proteasomal degradation, are involved in the protective carnitine effects. In conclusion, carnitine supplementation prevents the reduction of survival caused by glucose in C. elegans in dependence on a nuclear hormone receptor which displays high homologies to the vertebrate peroxisomal proliferator activated receptors. - Highlights: • Carnitine protects from glucose-induced reduction of stress-resistance. • Carnitine acts via the PPAR homolog DAF-12 on glucose toxicity. • Carnitine protects from glucose toxicity independent of protein degradation.

  19. Carnitine protects the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans from glucose-induced reduction of survival depending on the nuclear hormone receptor DAF-12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deusing, Dorothé Jenni; Beyrer, Melanie; Fitzenberger, Elena; Wenzel, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    Besides its function in transport of fatty acids into mitochondria in order to provide substrates for β-oxidation, carnitine has been shown to affect also glucose metabolism and to inhibit several mechanisms associated with diabetic complications. In the present study we used the mev-1 mutant of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans fed on a high glucose concentration in liquid media as a diabetes model and tested the effects of carnitine supplementation on their survival under heat-stress. Carnitine at 100 μM completely prevented the survival reduction that was caused by the application of 10 mM glucose. RNA-interference for sir-2.1, a candidate genes mediating the effects of carnitine revealed no contribution of the sirtuin for the rescue of survival. Under daf-12 RNAi rescue of survival by carnitine was abolished. RNA-interference for γ-butyrobetaine hydroxylase 2, encoding the key enzyme for carnitine biosynthesis did neither increase glucose toxicity nor prevent the rescue of survival by carnitine, suggesting that the effects of carnitine supplementation on carnitine levels were significant. Finally, it was demonstrated that neither the amount of lysosomes nor the proteasomal activity were increased by carnitine, excluding that protein degradation pathways, such as autophagy or proteasomal degradation, are involved in the protective carnitine effects. In conclusion, carnitine supplementation prevents the reduction of survival caused by glucose in C. elegans in dependence on a nuclear hormone receptor which displays high homologies to the vertebrate peroxisomal proliferator activated receptors. - Highlights: • Carnitine protects from glucose-induced reduction of stress-resistance. • Carnitine acts via the PPAR homolog DAF-12 on glucose toxicity. • Carnitine protects from glucose toxicity independent of protein degradation

  20. Carnitine supplementation modulates high dietary copper-induced oxidative toxicity and reduced performance in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güçlü, Berrin Kocaoğlu; Kara, Kanber; Çakır, Latife; Çetin, Ebru; Kanbur, Murat

    2011-12-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of L-carnitine on performance, egg quality and certain biochemical parameters in laying hens fed a diet containing high levels of copper proteinate. Forty-eight 42-week-old laying hens were divided into four groups with four replicates. The laying hens were fed with a basal diet (control) or the basal diet supplemented with either 400 mg carnitine (Car)/kg diet, 800 mg copper proteinate (CuP)/kg diet or 400 mg carnitine + 800 mg copper (Car+CuP)/kg diet, for 6 weeks. Supplemental CuP decreased feed consumption (p alkaline phosphatase (p effects of high dietary copper on performance and lipid peroxidation in hens.

  1. Effects of Dietary L-carnitine Supplementation on Growth, Muscle Fatty acid Composition and Economic Profit of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    OpenAIRE

    Dikel, S.; Ünalan, B.; Eroldoğan, O.T.; Hunt, A. Özlüer

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the effect of dietary L-carnitine on growth, proximate and muscle fatty acid compositions of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were investigated. The fish were fed with diets containing 300 mg kg-1 L-carnitine (LC300), other group was fed with diets containing 600 mg kg-1 L-carnitine (LC600) and control group was not supplementary L-carnitine for 63 days. The weight gain of LC600 fed with L-carnitine supplemented was found to be 7.73% higher than in control group. Feed co...

  2. Plasma free and total carnitine measured in children by tandem mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.H. Osorio

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Free and total carnitine quantification is important as a complementary test for the diagnosis of unusual metabolic diseases, including fatty acid degradation disorders. The present study reports a new method for the quantification of free and total carnitine in dried plasma specimens by isotope dilution electrospray tandem mass spectrometry with sample derivatization. Carnitine is determined by looking for the precursor of ions of m/z = 103 of N-butylester derivative, and the method is validated by comparison with radioenzymatic assay. We obtained an inter- and intra-day assay coefficient of variation of 4.3 and 2.3, respectively. Free and total carnitine was analyzed in 309 dried plasma spot samples from children ranging in age from newborn to 14 years using the new method, which was found to be suitable for calculating reference age-related values for free and total carnitine (less than one month: 19.3 ± 2.4 and 23.5 ± 2.9; one to twelve months: 28.8 ± 10.2 and 35.9 ± 11.4; one to seven years: 30.7 ± 10.3 and 38.1 ± 11.9; seven to 14 years: 33.7 ± 11.6, and 43.1 ± 13.8 µM, respectively. No difference was found between males and females. A significant difference was observed between neonates and the other age groups. We compare our data with reference values in the literature, most of them obtained by radioenzymatic assay. However, this method is laborious and time consuming. The electrospray tandem mass spectrometry method presented here is a reliable, rapid and automated procedure for carnitine quantitation.

  3. Promoting lipid utilization with l-carnitine to improve oocyte quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunning, Kylie R; Robker, Rebecca L

    2012-09-01

    Successful embryo and fetal development is dependent on the quality of the oocyte from which it was derived. Several studies to date have demonstrated the link between appropriate metabolism and sufficient ATP production with oocyte quality and preimplantation embryo development. Metabolism of fatty acids for the purpose of synthesizing ATP occurs within mitochondria via β-oxidation and entry of fatty acids into this organelle is the rate-limiting step in this process. Transport of activated fatty acids into mitochondria is catalyzed by carnitine palmitoyl transferase-I (CPTI) which also requires the metabolite carnitine. Once inside the mitochondrial matrix, fatty acids are broken down into acetyl CoA molecules which are further metabolized via the TCA cycle and electron transport chain to produce ATP. The potential to improve oocyte quality by modulating fatty acid metabolism and β-oxidation with carnitine in culture media formulations or via dietary supplementation has received little attention. This review summarizes studies to date investigating the developmental importance of β-oxidation through the use of metabolic inhibitors and whether regulation by carnitine, in vitro or in vivo, has beneficial effects on oocyte and embryo development. Overall, there is little evidence to date that dietary carnitine can improve oocyte quality or female fertility; however inclusion of l-carnitine to in vitro oocyte maturation and embryo growth media improves embryo outcomes, most likely by supplying the oocyte and embryo with an essential co-factor required to utilize fatty acids. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The role of oral L-Carnitine therapy in chronic hemodialysis patients

    OpenAIRE

    Sabry Alaa

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of L-carnitine oral supplementation on anemia and cardiac function in patients on maintenance hemodialysis (HD), we studied 55 adult chronic HD patients at our center during the period from January 2006 to June 2006 and divided them into two groups; a group of 20 patients who received 1,500 mg/day oral L-carnitine and a control group of 35 patients. Both groups were on erythropoietin therapy. Echogardiographic studies were performed before and at the end of the study. ...

  5. Systemic primary carnitine deficiency: an overview of clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magoulas Pilar L

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Systemic primary carnitine deficiency (CDSP is an autosomal recessive disorder of carnitine transportation. The clinical manifestations of CDSP can vary widely with respect to age of onset, organ involvement, and severity of symptoms, but are typically characterized by episodes of hypoketotic hypoglycemia, hepatomegaly, elevated transaminases, and hyperammonemia in infants; skeletal myopathy, elevated creatine kinase (CK, and cardiomyopathy in childhood; or cardiomyopathy, arrhythmias, or fatigability in adulthood. The diagnosis can be suspected on newborn screening, but is established by demonstration of low plasma free carnitine concentration (SLC22A5 gene. The incidence of CDSP varies depending on ethnicity; however the frequency in the United States is estimated to be approximately 1 in 50,000 individuals based on newborn screening data. CDSP is caused by recessive mutations in the SLC22A5 gene. This gene encodes organic cation transporter type 2 (OCTN2 which transport carnitine across cell membranes. Over 100 mutations have been reported in this gene with the c.136C > T (p.P46S mutation being the most frequent mutation identified. CDSP should be differentiated from secondary causes of carnitine deficiency such as various organic acidemias and fatty acid oxidation defects. CDSP is an autosomal recessive condition; therefore the recurrence risk in each pregnancy is 25%. Carrier screening for at-risk individuals and family members should be obtained by performing targeted mutation analysis of the SLC22A5 gene since plasma carnitine analysis is not a sufficient methodology for determining carrier status. Antenatal diagnosis for pregnancies at increased risk of CDSP is possible by molecular genetic testing of extracted DNA from chorionic villus sampling or amniocentesis if both mutations in SLC22A5 gene are known. Once the diagnosis of CDSP is established in an individual, an echocardiogram, electrocardiogram, CK concentration

  6. Carnitine acetyltransferase: A new player in skeletal muscle insulin resistance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Mikkelsen Berg

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Carnitine acetyltransferase (CRAT deficiency has previously been shown to result in muscle insulin resistance due to accumulation of long-chain acylcarnitines. However, differences in the acylcarnitine profile and/or changes in gene expression and protein abundance of CRAT in myotubes obtained from obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and glucose-tolerant obese and lean controls remain unclear. The objective of the study was to examine whether myotubes from obese patients with T2DM express differences in gene expression and protein abundance of CRAT and in acylcarnitine species pre-cultured under glucose and insulin concentrations similar to those observed in healthy individuals in the over-night fasted, resting state. Primary myotubes obtained from obese persons with or without T2DM and lean controls (n=9 in each group were cultivated and harvested for LC-MS-based profiling of acylcarnitines. The mRNA expression and protein abundance of CRAT were determined by qPCR and Western Blotting, respectively. Our results suggest that the mRNA levels and protein abundance of CRAT were similar between groups. Of the 14 different acylcarnitine species measured by LC-MS, the levels of palmitoylcarnitine (C16 and octadecanoylcarnitine (C18 were slightly reduced in myotubes derived from T2DM patients (p<0.05 compared to glucose-tolerant obese and lean controls. This suggests that the CRAT function is not the major contributor to primary insulin resistance in cultured myotubes obtained from obese T2DM patients.

  7. The effect of fermented buckwheat on producing l-carnitine- and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-enriched designer eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Namhyeon; Lee, Tae-Kyung; Nguyen, Thi Thanh Hanh; An, Eun-Bae; Kim, Nahyun M; You, Young-Hyun; Park, Tae-Sub; Kim, Doman

    2017-07-01

    The potential of fermented buckwheat as a feed additive was studied to increase l-carnitine and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in designer eggs. Buckwheat contains high levels of lysine, methionine and glutamate, which are precursors for the synthesis of l-carnitine and GABA. Rhizopus oligosporus was used for the fermentation of buckwheat to produce l-carnitine and GABA that exert positive effects such as enhanced metabolism, antioxidant activities, immunity and blood pressure control. A novel analytical method for simultaneously detecting l-carnitine and GABA was developed using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) and LC/MS/MS. The fermented buckwheat extract contained 4 and 34 times more l-carnitine and GABA respectively compared with normal buckwheat. Compared with the control, the fermented buckwheat extract-fed group showed enriched l-carnitine (13.6%) and GABA (8.4%) in the yolk, though only l-carnitine was significantly different (P superfood production and supplement industries. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. l-Carnitine Supplementation in Older Women. A Pilot Study on Aging Skeletal Muscle Mass and Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika K. Sawicka

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle wasting, associated with aging, may be regulated by the inflammatory cytokines as well as by insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1. l-carnitine possesses anti-inflammatory properties and increases plasma IGF-1 concentration, leading to the regulation of the genes responsible for protein catabolism and anabolism. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of a 24-week l-carnitine supplementation on serum inflammatory markers, IGF-1, body composition and skeletal muscle strength in healthy human subjects over 65 years of age. Women between 65 and 70 years of age were supplemented for 24 weeks with either 1500 mg l-carnitine-l-tartrate or an isonitrogenous placebo per day in a double-blind fashion. Before and after the supplementation protocol, body mass and composition, as well as knee extensor and flexor muscle strength were determined. In the blood samples, free carnitine, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, C-reactive protein and IGF-1 were determined. A marked increase in free plasma carnitine concentration was observed due to l-carnitine supplementation. No substantial changes in other parameters were noted. In the current study, supplementation for 24 weeks affected neither the skeletal muscle strength nor circulating markers in healthy women over 65 years of age. Positive and negative aspects of l-carnitine supplementation need to be clarified.

  9. Pharmacological evaluation of a β-hydroxyphosphonate analogue of l-carnitine in obese Zucker fa/fa rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Esparza, Jorge; Mendoza-Rivera, Brissa; De la Cruz-Cordero, Ricardo; Rosado, Jorge L; Duarte-Vázquez, Miguel Á; Solis, Mario G; Vite-Vallejo, Odón; Rodríguez-Fragoso, Lourdes

    2013-04-01

    In this study, we evaluated the effect of an analogue of l-carnitine on parameters involved with Metabolic Syndrome in obese Zucker rats. Twenty-four rats were treated for 5 weeks with l-carnitine (300 mg/kg) and its analogue at two concentrations (100 and 250 mg/kg) to assess their impact on glucose, triglycerides and cholesterol in liver and blood samples, as well as the amount of liver glycogen. Liver slices were also analysed. The analogue reduced the levels of glucose, triglycerides and cholesterol in liver and the level of triglycerides in serum. At 100 mg/kg, the analogue proved more effective than l-carnitine in improving the biochemical alterations present in liver. The amount of liver glycogen content was higher in obese animals treated with both l-carnitine and the analogue. No changes on insulin and leptin were observed in animals treated. l-carnitine and its analogue reduced the microvesicular fatty infiltration in liver. This study demonstrated that the analogue tested is more potent and efficient than l-carnitine and improves the pharmacological profile of l-carnitine. © 2012 The Authors Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology © 2012 Nordic Pharmacological Society.

  10. L-Carnitine Reduces in Human Conjunctival Epithelial Cells Hypertonic-Induced Shrinkage through Interacting with TRPV1 Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noushafarin Khajavi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Ocular surface health depends on conjunctival epithelial (HCjE layer integrity since it protects against pathogenic infiltration and contributes to tissue hydration maintenance. As the same increases in tear film hyperosmolarity described in dry eye disease can increase corneal epithelial transient receptor potential vanilloid type-1 (TRPV1 channel activity, we evaluated its involvement in mediating an osmoprotective effect by L-carnitine against such stress. Methods: Using siRNA gene silencing, Ca2+ imaging, planar patch-clamping and relative cell volume measurements, we determined if the protective effects of this osmolyte stem from its interaction with TRPV1. Results: TRPV1 activation by capsaicin (CAP and an increase in osmolarity to ≈ 450 mOsM both induced increases in Ca2+ levels. In contrast, blocking TRPV1 activation with capsazepine (CPZ fully reversed this response. Similarly, L-carnitine (1 mM also reduced underlying whole-cell currents. In calcein-AM loaded cells, hypertonic-induced relative cell volume shrinkage was fully blocked during exposure to L-carnitine. On the other hand, in TRPV1 gene-silenced cells, this protective effect by L-carnitine was obviated. Conclusion: The described L-carnitine osmoprotective effect is elicited through suppression of hypertonic-induced TRPV1 activation leading to increases in L-carnitine uptake through a described Na+-dependent L-carnitine transporter.

  11. Effect of L-carnitine on the synthesis of nitric oxide in RAW 264·7 murine macrophage cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koc, A; Ozkan, T; Karabay, A Z; Sunguroglu, A; Aktan, F

    2011-12-01

    L-Carnitine (β-hydroxy-γ-trimethyl aminobutyric acid) plays a critical role in inflammatory diseases by modulating inflammatory cell functions. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), a proinflammatory enzyme responsible for the generation of nitric oxide (NO), has been implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases. Mechanism of action of L-carnitine on inflammation via iNOS and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) is unclear. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of L-carnitine on nitric oxide synthesis in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264·7 macrophage cells. For this purpose, cells were pretreated with various concentrations of L-carnitine and subsequently incubated with LPS (1 µg·ml(-1) ). NO levels, iNOS protein expression, and NF-κB activity were determined using colorimetric detection, Western blotting and transfection assays. Our results showed that treatment with L-carnitine suppressed nitric oxide production, iNOS protein expression and NF-κB activity. We demonstrated that inhibitory effect of L-carnitine on iNOS protein expression is at transcriptional level. This study may contribute to understanding the anti-inflammatory effect of L-carnitine. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. γ–Butyrobetaine is a pro-atherogenic intermediate in gut microbial metabolism of L-carnitine to TMAO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeth, Robert A.; Levison, Bruce S.; Culley, Miranda K.; Buffa, Jennifer A.; Wang, Zeneng; Gregory, Jill C.; Org, Elin; Wu, Yuping; Li, Lin; Smith, Jonathan D.; Wilson Tang, W. H.; DiDonato, Joseph A.; Lusis, Aldons J.; Hazen, Stanley L.

    2014-01-01

    Summary L- Carnitine, a nutrient in red meat, was recently reported to accelerate atherosclerosis via a metaorganismal pathway involving gut microbial trimethylamine (TMA) formation and host hepatic conversion into trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO). Herein we show that following L-carnitine ingestion, γ-butyrobetaine (γBB) is produced as an intermediary metabolite by gut microbes at a site anatomically proximal to and at a rate ~1000-fold higher than the formation of TMA. Moreover, we show γBB is the major gut microbial metabolite formed from dietary L-carnitine in mice, and like dietary L-carnitine, in a gut microbiota-dependent manner is converted into TMA and TMAO, and accelerates atherosclerosis. Gut microbial composition and functional metabolic studies reveal distinct taxa are associated with the production of γBB versus TMA/TMAO from dietary L-carnitine. Moreover, despite their close structural similarity, chronic dietary exposure to L-carnitine versus γBB promotes development of functionally distinct microbial communities optimized for the metabolism of L-carnitine versus γBB, respectively. PMID:25440057

  13. γ-Butyrobetaine is a proatherogenic intermediate in gut microbial metabolism of L-carnitine to TMAO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeth, Robert A; Levison, Bruce S; Culley, Miranda K; Buffa, Jennifer A; Wang, Zeneng; Gregory, Jill C; Org, Elin; Wu, Yuping; Li, Lin; Smith, Jonathan D; Tang, W H Wilson; DiDonato, Joseph A; Lusis, Aldons J; Hazen, Stanley L

    2014-11-04

    L-carnitine, a nutrient in red meat, was recently reported to accelerate atherosclerosis via a metaorganismal pathway involving gut microbial trimethylamine (TMA) formation and host hepatic conversion into trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO). Herein, we show that following L-carnitine ingestion, γ-butyrobetaine (γBB) is produced as an intermediary metabolite by gut microbes at a site anatomically proximal to and at a rate ∼1,000-fold higher than the formation of TMA. Moreover, we show that γBB is the major gut microbial metabolite formed from dietary L-carnitine in mice, is converted into TMA and TMAO in a gut microbiota-dependent manner (like dietary L-carnitine), and accelerates atherosclerosis. Gut microbial composition and functional metabolic studies reveal that distinct taxa are associated with the production of γBB or TMA/TMAO from dietary L-carnitine. Moreover, despite their close structural similarity, chronic dietary exposure to L-carnitine or γBB promotes development of functionally distinct microbial communities optimized for the metabolism of L-carnitine or γBB, respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Isolation of soluble scFv antibody fragments specific for small biomarker molecule, L-Carnitine, using phage display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou El-Magd, Rabab M; Vozza, Nicolas F; Tuszynski, Jack A; Wishart, David S

    2016-01-01

    Isolation of single chain antibody fragment (scFv) clones from naïve Tomlinson I+J phage display libraries that specifically bind a small biomarker molecule, L-Carnitine, was performed using iterative affinity selection procedures. L-Carnitine has been described as a conditionally essential nutrient for humans. Abnormally high concentrations of L-Carnitine in urine are related to many health disorders including diabetes mellitus type 2 and lung cancer. ELISA-based affinity characterization results indicate that selectants preferentially bind to L-Carnitine in the presence of key bioselecting component materials and closely related L-Carnitine derivatives. In addition, the affinity results were confirmed using biophysical fluorescence quenching for tyrosine residues in the V segment. Small-scale production of the soluble fragment yielded 1.3mg/L using immunopure-immobilized protein A affinity column. Circular Dichroism data revealed that the antibody fragment (Ab) represents a folded protein that mainly consists of β-sheets. These novel antibody fragments may find utility as molecular affinity interface receptors in various electrochemical biosensor platforms to provide specific L-Carnitine binding capability with potential applications in metabolomic devices for companion diagnostics and personalized medicine applications. It may also be used in any other biomedical application where detection of the L-Carnitine level is important. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Chronic Oral L-Carnitine Supplementation Drives Marked Plasma TMAO Elevations in Patients with Organic Acidemias Despite Dietary Meat Restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Marcus J; Bostwick, Bret L; Kennedy, Adam D; Donti, Taraka R; Sun, Qin; Sutton, V Reid; Elsea, Sarah H

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have implicated trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) in atherosclerosis, raising concern about L-carnitine, a common supplement for patients with inborn errors of metabolism (IEMs) and a TMAO precursor metabolized, in part, by intestinal microbes. Dietary meat restriction attenuates carnitine-to-TMAO conversion, suggesting that TMAO production may not occur in meat-restricted individuals taking supplemental L-carnitine, but this has not been tested. Here, we mine a metabolomic dataset to assess TMAO levels in patients with diverse IEMs, including organic acidemias. These data were correlated with clinical information and confirmed using a quantitative TMAO assay. Marked plasma TMAO elevations were detected in patients treated with supplemental L-carnitine, including those on a meat-free diet. On average, patients with an organic acidemia had ~45-fold elevated [TMAO], as compared to the reference population. This effect was mitigated by metronidazole therapy lasting 7 days each month. Collectively, our data show that TMAO production occurs at high levels in patients with IEMs receiving oral L-carnitine. Further studies are needed to determine the long-term safety and efficacy of chronic oral L-carnitine supplementation and whether suppression or circumvention of intestinal bacteria may improve L-carnitine therapy.

  16. Regulation of Genes Involved in Carnitine Homeostasis by PPARα across Different Species (Rat, Mouse, Pig, Cattle, Chicken, and Human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Ringseis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies in rodents convincingly demonstrated that PPARα is a key regulator of genes involved in carnitine homeostasis, which serves as a reasonable explanation for the phenomenon that energy deprivation and fibrate treatment, both of which cause activation of hepatic PPARα, causes a strong increase of hepatic carnitine concentration in rats. The present paper aimed to comprehensively analyse available data from genetic and animal studies with mice, rats, pigs, cows, and laying hens and from human studies in order to compare the regulation of genes involved in carnitine homeostasis by PPARα across different species. Overall, our comparative analysis indicates that the role of PPARα as a regulator of carnitine homeostasis is well conserved across different species. However, despite demonstrating a well-conserved role of PPARα as a key regulator of carnitine homeostasis in general, our comprehensive analysis shows that this assumption particularly applies to the regulation by PPARα of carnitine uptake which is obviously highly conserved across species, whereas regulation by PPARα of carnitine biosynthesis appears less well conserved across species.

  17. Carnitine supplementation attenuates myocardial lipid accumulation in long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakermans, Adrianus J; van Weeghel, Michel; Denis, Simone; Nicolay, Klaas; Prompers, Jeanine J; Houten, Sander M

    2013-11-01

    Elevation of long-chain acylcarnitine levels is a hallmark of long-chain mitochondrial β-oxidation (FAO) disorders, and can be accompanied by secondary carnitine deficiency. To restore free carnitine levels, and to increase myocardial export of long-chain fatty acyl-CoA esters, supplementation of L-carnitine in patients has been proposed. However, carnitine supplementation is controversial, because it may enhance the potentially lipotoxic buildup of long-chain acylcarnitines in the FAO-deficient heart. In this longitudinal study, we investigated the effects of carnitine supplementation in an animal model of long-chain FAO deficiency, the long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCAD) knockout (KO) mouse. Cardiac size and function, and triglyceride (TG) levels were quantified using proton magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) in LCAD KO and wild-type (WT) mice. Carnitine was supplemented orally for 4 weeks starting at 5 weeks of age. Non-supplemented animals served as controls. In vivo data were complemented with ex vivo biochemical assays. LCAD KO mice displayed cardiac hypertrophy and elevated levels of myocardial TG compared to WT mice. Carnitine supplementation lowered myocardial TG, normalizing myocardial TG levels in LCAD KO mice. Furthermore, carnitine supplementation did not affect cardiac performance and hypertrophy, or induce an accumulation of potentially toxic long-chain acylcarnitines in the LCAD KO heart. This study lends support to the proposed beneficial effect of carnitine supplementation alleviating toxicity by exporting acylcarnitines out of the FAO-deficient myocardium, rather than to the concern about a potentially detrimental effect of supplementation-induced production of lipotoxic long-chain acylcarnitines.

  18. l-carnitine preserves cardiac function by activating p38 MAPK/Nrf2 signalling in hearts exposed to irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zhigang; Han, Yang; Ye, Yuanpeng; Liu, Chao; Cai, Hui

    2017-06-05

    Radiation-induced heart damage (RIHD) is now considered to be one of the causes of mortality in cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy. Cardiac function impairments are clinical manifestations of RIHD. L-carnitine shows protective effects against irradiation and heart disease. This study was aimed to investigate the cardioprotective effects and potential molecular mechanisms of L-carnitine against RIHD. Mouse hearts were exposed to γ-radiation to induce RIHD. L-carnitine at doses of 100mg/Kg and 200mg/Kg was used to treat animals intraperitoneally. Additionally, a specific inhibitor of p38 MAPK was used to treat animals by intraperitoneal injections. Cardiac systolic/diastolic functions were determined using invasive hemodynamic methods; myocyte apoptosis was assessed using the TUNEL assay; intracellular reactive oxygen species production was measured using DHE staining; and western blotting was used to evaluate the phosphorylation of p38MAPK, phosphorylation of Nrf2, and expression levels of HO1, NQO1, caspase3 and bax. L-carnitine treatments inhibited irradiation induced cardiac function impairments. Radiation exposure induced myocyte apoptosis and reactive oxygen species production, which were attenuated by L-carnitine treatments. However, administration of a p38 MAPK inhibitor (SB203580) dramatically impaired L-carnitine's effect on attenuating apoptosis, reactive oxygen species accumulation and cardiac functions in irradiated hearts. Our study showed that L-carnitine administration activated p38MAPK/Nrf2 signalling, initiating the expression of HO1 and NQO1, which have anti-apoptotic and anti-oxidative effects, respectively. In conclusion, L-carnitine attenuates cardiac function loss by inhibiting reactive oxygen species production and apoptosis in hearts exposed to radiation. The cardioprotective effects of L-carnitine were mediated by p38MAPK/Nrf2 signalling. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Radioiodinated fatty acid carnitine ester: synthesis and biodistribution of 15-(p-iodo(/sup 131/I)-phenyl)pentadecanoyl-D,L-carnitine chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenhut, M.; Liefhold, J.

    After the uptake into heart muscle cells long chain fatty acids enter predominantly into the triglyceride and phospholipid pool before they are degraded in the mitochondria by ..beta..-oxidation. Therefore the formation of fatty acid esters with glycerine obscures the functional ability of the heart namely to catabolize free fatty acids. The sum of the two reaction pathways are visualized by sequential heart scintigraphy with e.g. /sup 131/I labeled 15-(p-iodo-phenyl)-pentadecanoic acid (IPPA). Before the fatty acids can be degraded by ..beta..-oxidation they are bound to carnitine for mitochondrial membrane transport. Thus IPPA would not participate in lipid formation, if it is offered as 15-(p-iodo(/sup 131/I)-phenyl)-pentadecanoyl-D,L-carnitine chloride (IPPA-CE) to the heart muscle cells. Additionally carnitine esters of fatty acids are known to be better substrates for ..beta..-oxidation than free fatty acids. We were therefore interested in the biochemical fate of radioiodinated IPPA-CE in rats.

  20. L-carnitine and cancer cachexia. I. L-carnitine distribution and metabolic disorders in cancer cachexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szefel, Jarosław; Kruszewski, Wiesław Janusz; Ciesielski, Maciej; Szajewski, Mariusz; Kawecki, Krzysztof; Aleksandrowicz-Wrona, Ewa; Jankun, Jerzy; Lysiak-Szydłowska, Wiesława

    2012-07-01

    Cancer cachexia (CC), a progressive loss of body mass, is associated with decreased energy production. Abnormally low levels of L-carnitine (LC) in skeletal muscle means that mitochondrial β-oxidation of long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) does not occur efficiently in patients with CC. We assessed the influence of CC on LC distribution and the effects of parenteral lipid emulsions on plasma LC levels and urinary excretion. Fifty patients with CC were randomly assigned to total parenteral nutrition (TPN) with long-chain triglycerides (LCTs), or LCTs plus medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) as 50/50. Patients were further separated into those with body-mass index (BMI) ≤ 19 kg/m(2) and BMI >19 kg/m(2). Plasma concentrations of total LC (TC) and free LC (FC) and their urinary excretion were measured, along with skeletal muscle LC levels. On average, plasma FC and TC were higher than reference values in all patients. Patients with BMI ≤ 19 kg/m(2) had lower plasma FC and TC than those with BMI >19 kg/m(2). Skeletal muscle FC in the BMI ≤ 19 kg/m(2) group was lower than reference value, but within the normal range in others. LC and FC urinary excretion was higher than reference values. Plasma LC and its urinary excretion were higher in patients administered pure LCTs relative to those given MCTs/LCTs. A decrease in skeletal muscle LC in cancer patients with CC (BMI ≤ 19 kg/m(2)) correlates with an increase in its plasma levels and increased renal excretion. A diet of MCTs/LCTs reduces LC release from muscle to plasma and urine more effectively than LCTs.

  1. The Effect of Orally Administered L-carnitine on Testis Tissue Sperm Parameters and Daily Sperm Production in Adult Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Zohre Zare; Hossein Eimani; Moslem Mohammadi; Mahmood Mofid; Hossein Dashtnavard

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to evaluate body and testis weight, testis tissue,counts, motility, viability, morphology, and chromatin quality of epididymal sperm, aswell as the testicular spermatid number (TSN) per gram of testis, and daily sperm production(DSP) in L-carnitine treated mice.Materials and Methods: In the present study, adult male NMRI mice (mean age of 4weeks) were administered L-carnitine by gavage for two weeks. The experimental groupsreceived 1mg L-carnitine/1...

  2. The effect of male and female supplementation of L-carnitine on reproductive traits of white leghorns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, W; Neuman, S L; Latour, M A; Hester, P Y

    2008-06-01

    Previous work in our laboratory showed that including 125 ppm of l-carnitine in the diets of roosters increased sperm concentration. The objective of this experiment was to determine whether reproductive efficiency could be improved by feeding l-carnitine to both parents over that of feeding l-carnitine to only the male or female. Diets formulated to contain 0 or 125 ppm of l-carnitine were fed to male and female birds from hatch until 37 wk of age. Eighty-four roosters were used, with the semen of 2 roosters constituting an experimental unit. Pools of semen from either l-carnitine-supplemented or control roosters were artificially inseminated into each of 288 hens with 23.5 muL of semen at weekly intervals, in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement, resulting in a mean insemination dose of 1.2 and 1.1 x 10(8) sperm/hen for l-carnitine and control hens, respectively. Dietary l-carnitine, as compared with the control diet, increased egg yolk l-carnitine concentration (P = 0.001), decreased hatchling yolk sac weights (P = 0.0001), decreased yolk sac lipid content at hatch (P = 0.01), and culminated in compositional changes of yolk fatty acids, but it did not affect hatch rate, egg production, and egg traits. Although supplementing diets with l-carnitine improved sperm concentration, it did not result in a subsequent improvement in hatch rate, most likely because of the high numbers of sperm that were inseminated artificially in both the control and l-carnitine-supplemented hens. The higher concentrations of l-carnitine in the yolk of hatching eggs obtained from hens consuming l-carnitine as compared with controls may have encouraged the utilization of fat by developing embryos, as indicated by the decreased hatchling yolk sac weights and yolk sac lipid content, perhaps leading to the selective utilization of linoleic (C18:2n-6) and alpha-linolenic (C18:3n-3) acids for growth and development over myristic (C14:0) and oleic (C18:1n-9) acids.

  3. L-carnitine prevents memory impairment induced by chronic REM-sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzoubi, Karem H; Rababa'h, Abeer M; Owaisi, Amani; Khabour, Omar F

    2017-05-01

    Sleep deprivation (SD) negatively impacts memory, which was related to oxidative stress induced damage. L-carnitine is a naturally occurring compound, synthesized endogenously in mammalian species and known to possess antioxidant properties. In this study, the effect of L-carnitine on learning and memory impairment induced by rapid eye movement sleep (REM-sleep) deprivation was investigated. REM-sleep deprivation was induced using modified multiple platform model (8h/day, for 6 weeks). Simultaneously, L-carnitine was administered (300mg/kg/day) intraperitoneally for 6 weeks. Thereafter, the radial arm water maze (RAWM) was used to assess spatial learning and memory. Additionally, the hippocampus levels of antioxidant biomarkers/enzymes: reduced glutathione (GSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), GSH/GSSG ratio, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) were assessed. The results showed that chronic REM-sleep deprivation impaired both short- and long-term memory (Psleep deprivation induced reduction in the hippocampus ratio of GSH/GSSG, activity of catalase, GPx, and SOD. No change was observed in TBARS among tested groups (P>0.05). In conclusion, chronic REM-sleep deprivation induced memory impairment, and treatment with L-carnitine prevented this impairment through normalizing antioxidant mechanisms in the hippocampus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Hepatic carnitine palmitoyltransferase I deficiency presenting as maternal illness in pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Innes, A. M.; Seargeant, L. E.; Balachandra, K.; Roe, C. R.; Wanders, R. J.; Ruiter, J. P.; Casiro, O.; Grewar, D. A.; Greenberg, C. R.

    2000-01-01

    The spectrum of clinical presentation of fatty acid oxidation defects (FAOD) continues to expand. One FAOD, L-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCHAD) deficiency has been associated with liver disease in pregnancies involving a heterozygous mother carrying an affected fetus. Hepatic carnitine

  5. Effect of L-carnitine supplementation on drake semen quality | Al ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to determine the effect on semen quality traits of supplementing the diets of Iraqi drakes with L-carnitine. Forty eight male Iraqi ducks, 30 weeks old, were randomly allocated to four treatments with 12 drakes per treatment group, replicated three times, with four drakes per replicate. The treatment ...

  6. Effects of ethanol feeding on the activity and regulation of hepatic carnitine palmitoyltransferase I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guzman, M.; Geelen, M.J.H.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of ethanol administration on activity and regulation of carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT-I) were studied in hepatocytes isolated from rats fed a liquid, high-fat diet containing 36% of total calories as ethanol or an isocaloric amount of sucrose. Cells were isolated at several time

  7. Rationale for a conditional knockout mouse model to study carnitine palmitoyltransferase I deficiencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Leij, FR; Drijfholt, A; Kuipers, JRG; Quant, PA; Eaton, S

    1999-01-01

    Several severe congenital cardiomyopathies are known to be associated with deficiencies in long-chain fatty acid transport and oxidation. Our studies are focused on a key enzyme in the regulation of intracellular long-chain fatty acid transport: carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1. Of this enzyme, two

  8. Rate-dependent distal renal tubular acidosis and carnitine palmitoyltransferase I deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergman, A. J.; Donckerwolcke, R. A.; Duran, M.; Smeitink, J. A.; Mousson, B.; Vianey-Saban, C.; Poll-The, B. T.

    1994-01-01

    An infant girl presented with recurrent episodes of Reye-like syndrome associated with hypoketosis and plasma carnitine levels in the high-normal range. A liver biopsy revealed massive macrovesicular steatosis. Ketogenesis was absent after a long-chain triglyceride loading test; in contrast, the

  9. Analysis of carnitine biosynthesis metabolites in urine by HPLC-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaz, Frédéric M.; Melegh, Bela; Bene, Judit; Cuebas, Dean; Gage, Douglas A.; Bootsma, Albert; Vreken, Peter; van Gennip, Albert H.; Bieber, Loran L.; Wanders, Ronald J. A.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We developed a method to determine the urinary concentrations of metabolites in the synthetic pathway for carnitine from N(6)-trimethyllysine and applied this method to determine their excretion in control individuals. In addition, we investigated whether newborns are capable of

  10. Proximate Composition, and -Carnitine and Betaine Contents in Meat from Korean Indigenous Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samooel Jung

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the proximate composition and l-carnitine and betaine content of meats from 5 lines of Korean indigenous chicken (KIC for developing highly nutritious meat breeds with health benefits from the bioactive compounds such as l-carnitine and betaine in meat. In addition, the relevance of gender (male and female and meat type (breast and thigh meat was examined. A total of 595 F1 progeny (black [B], grey-brown [G], red-brown [R], white [W], and yellow-brown [Y] from 70 full-sib families were used. The moisture, protein, fat, and ash contents of the meats were significantly affected by line, gender, and meat type (p<0.05. The males in line G and females in line B showed the highest protein and the lowest fat content of the meats. l-carnitine and betaine content showed effects of meat type, line, and gender (p<0.05. The highest l-carnitine content was found in breast and thigh meats from line Y in both genders. The breast meat from line G and the thigh meat from line R had the highest betaine content in males. The female breast and thigh meats showed the highest betaine content in line R. These data could be valuable for establishing selection strategies for developing highly nutritious chicken meat breeds in Korea.

  11. L-Carnitine-supplementation in advanced pancreatic cancer (CARPAN - a randomized multicentre trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kraft Matthias

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cachexia, a >10% loss of body-weight, is one factor determining the poor prognosis of pancreatic cancer. Deficiency of L-Carnitine has been proposed to cause cancer cachexia. Findings We screened 152 and enrolled 72 patients suffering from advanced pancreatic cancer in a prospective, multi-centre, placebo-controlled, randomized and double-blinded trial to receive oral L-Carnitine (4 g or placebo for 12 weeks. At entry patients reported a mean weight loss of 12 ± 2,5 (SEM kg. During treatment body-mass-index increased by 3,4 ± 1,4% under L-Carnitine and decreased (−1,5 ± 1,4% in controls (p  Conclusion While these data are preliminary and need confirmation they indicate that patients with pancreatic cancer may have a clinically relevant benefit from the inexpensive and well tolerated oral supplementation of L-Carnitine.

  12. Dietary L-Carnitine and energy and lipid metabolism in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) juveniles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Ozório, de R.O.

    2001-01-01

    As the lipid content of the diet increases so does the requirement for certain components involved in lipid metabolism. Carnitine is a normal constituent of animal tissues and plasma, which is required for the transport of long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) to the site of

  13. Effects of vitamin C and L-carnitine supplementation on metabolic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Fasting as a means of protest or religious purposes have increased in the last two decades, individuals involved take only water and supplements. This study investigated the roles of vitamin C and L-carnitine on metabolic parameters during fasting and re-feeding. Methods: Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats ...

  14. Curative role of lactulose, L-carnitine, alpha-lipoic acid and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine whether a combination L-carnitine and α-lipoic acid (ALA) can alleviate the toxic effects of thioacetamide (TAA) via their potent antioxidant and free radical-scavenging activities. Methods: Rats were injected with TAA for 3 days to induce acute hepatic failure. TAA induced rats were treated with each of ...

  15. Effect of craniotomy on oxidative stress and its effect on plasma L-carnitine levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huan-ting; Zhao, Zhen-huan; Ding, Hai-yan; Wang, Le-xin; Cao, Yu

    2014-11-01

    to investigate the impact of craniotomy on oxidative stress and its effect on levels of plasma L-carnitine (LC). plasma levels of reactive oxygen species, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathion peroxidase (GSH-Px), catalase (CAT), total antioxidative capacity (T-AOC), and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were measured in 34 patients (26 males and 8 females, mean age 47.7 ± 6.7 years) before and after craniotomy. Plasma levels of LC, acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC), and propionyl-L-carnitine (PLC) were also measured before and after the craniotomy. the plasma concentrations of SOD, GSH-Px, CAT, and T-AOC within the first 4 h after craniotomy were lower than their baseline values (P craniotomy was lower than the pre-operative level (P 0.05). Plasma levels of LC, ALC, and PLC were lower after the craniotomy (P craniotomy and the associated procedures for surgery/anesthesia temporarily reduce antioxidant activity and plasma levels of L-carnitine.

  16. Effects of dietary energy density and L-carnitine supplementation on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary metabolisable energy (ME) density and L-carnitine supplementation on the performance, carcass traits and blood parameters of broiler chickens. The experiment was designed with three levels of dietary energy (low, medium and high) and two levels of ...

  17. The effect of L-carnitine on carbonic anhydrase level in rats exposed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It plays an important regulatory role in the mitochondria and is required for the transport of fatty acids from the cytosol into the mitochondria during the breakdown of lipids or fats for the generation of metabolic energy. The functions of L-carnitine in skeletal muscle are critical to sustaining normal bioenergetics during exercise ...

  18. L-Carnitine for the treatment of a calcium channel blocker and metformin poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Onge, Maude; Ajmo, Ian; Poirier, Diane; Laliberté, Martin

    2013-09-01

    The object of the current communication is to discuss the theory and the evidence for the use of L-carnitine in calcium channel blocker and metformin poisonings. A 68-year-old male known for hypertension and type II diabetes was admitted to the critical care unit of a community hospital following an overdose of amlodipine and metformin. The patient was intubated, ventilated, and hemodynamically supported with vasopressors. Despite calcium, glucagon, high-dose insulin (HDI), and lipid emulsion for calcium channel blocker and bicarbonate for metabolic acidosis, the patient remained hemodynamically unstable. The patient was considered too unstable to initiate continuous renal replacement therapy; and without access to extracorporeal life support, the administration of L-carnitine was administered as a last resort. One hour after L-carnitine, the norepinephrine requirements started to decrease, the patient began to improve and was subsequently extubated successfully without apparent sequelae in less than 4 days. L-Carnitine combined with HDI may have helped with the calcium channel blocker (CCB) poisoning by decreasing insulin resistance, promoting intracellular glucose transport, facilitating the metabolism of free fatty acids, and increasing calcium channel sensitivity. It may have also stimulated oxidative utilization of glucose instead of converting pyruvate into lactate and contributed to decrease lactate production with metformin poisoning.

  19. Carnitine: function, metabolism and value in hepatic failure during chronic alcohol intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Kępka

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Alcoholism is one of the most frequent dependences among people, leading to damage of the liver and death of the person. Chronic alcohol consumption decreases fatty acid oxidation by interfering with carnitine metabolism and citric acid cycle activity. Block in activity of the citric acid cycle caused by alcohol and its metabolites is partially compensated by increased ketone body production, which results in ketosis. Chronic administration of alcohol induces liver injury, inflammation, cirrhosis, focal necrosis and steatosis.L-carnitine (L-3-hydroxy-4-N, N, N-trimethylaminebutyric acid is an essential factor in fatty acid metabolism, which plays a major role in transport of activated long-chain fatty acids to sites of β-oxidation in mitochondria. Carnitine also stabilizes cell membranes by removing long-chain acyl-CoA and excess of the acyl group from the body. L-carnitine can be a useful and safe drug in the liver pathology induced by chronic ethanol exposure.

  20. L-carnitine protects C2C12 cells against mitochondrial superoxide overproduction and cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Borgne, Françoise; Ravaut, Gaétan; Bernard, Arnaud; Demarquoy, Jean

    2017-02-26

    To identify and characterize the protective effect that L-carnitine exerted against an oxidative stress in C2C12 cells. Myoblastic C2C12 cells were treated with menadione, a vitamin K analog that engenders oxidative stress, and the protective effect of L-carnitine (a nutrient involved in fatty acid metabolism and the control of the oxidative process), was assessed by monitoring various parameters related to the oxidative stress, autophagy and cell death. Associated with its physiological function, a muscle cell metabolism is highly dependent on oxygen and may produce reactive oxygen species (ROS), especially under pathological conditions. High levels of ROS are known to induce injuries in cell structure as they interact at many levels in cell function. In C2C12 cells, a treatment with menadione induced a loss of transmembrane mitochondrial potential, an increase in mitochondrial production of ROS; it also induces autophagy and was able to provoke cell death. Pre-treatment of the cells with L-carnitine reduced ROS production, diminished autophagy and protected C2C12 cells against menadione-induced deleterious effects. In conclusion, L-carnitine limits the oxidative stress in these cells and prevents cell death.

  1. Effect of carnitine supplementation on fatigue level in the gastrocnemius muscle of trained and sedentary rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossana Anelice Gomez

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2012v14n3p324 L-carnitine, considered to be of great value in metabolic processes, plays an important role in the mitochondrial β-oxidation process. It may be used to improve athletic performance and to maintain a higher workload during exercise. This study aimed to investigate the effect of L-carnitine supplementation on muscle fatigue in sciatic nerve-gastrocnemius muscle preparations in sedentary and trained rats. The animals were divided into 4 groups: non-supplemented sedentary (NSS, supplemented sedentary (SS, non-supplemented trained (NST, and supplemented trained (ST rats. The animals were trained in daily 1-h sessions (5 days/week and received chronic oral L-carnitine supplementation (1 mg/mL for 4 weeks. Muscle fatigue was determined by supramaximal tetanic stimulation of the sciatic nerve (50 Hz. Time values for strength reduction were significantly different (p<0.05 between NSS vs. SS and NST vs. ST rats. No significant differences were observed between SS vs. ST and NST vs. NSS rats. These findings demonstrate that L-carnitine lengthen the time required for induction of muscle fatigue.

  2. Mutation and biochemical analysis in carnitine palmitoyltransferase type II (CPT II) deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olpin, S E; Afifi, A; Clark, S

    2003-01-01

    Carnitine palmitoyltransferase type II (CPT II) deficiency has three basic phenotypes, late-onset muscular (mild), infantile/juvenile hepatic (intermediate) and severe neonatal. We have measured fatty acid oxidation and CPT II activity and performed mutation studies in 24 symptomatic patients rep...

  3. Effect of L-carnitine and meloxicam treatment on testicular leydig cell numbers of varicocelized rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fouad K. Al-Rubiey

    2012-03-01

    Conclusion: It is concluded that L-carnitine plus meloxicam treatment appears to have a beneficial effect in decreasing, restoring and maintaining the number of testicular leydig cells in experimental varicocelized rats close to that control of non-varicocelized rats.

  4. Effects of l-carnitine on oxidative stress parameters in oophorectomized rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emel Peri Canbolat

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion(s: Levels of MDA in the heart tissue were significantly higher in OXSALINE group compared to OXL500 group. Thus, it may be suggested that l-carnitine reduces oxidative stress at least in the heart of oophorectomized rats.

  5. Expression of genes involved in hepatic carnitine synthesis and uptake in dairy cows in the transition period and at different stages of lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schlegel Gloria

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In rodents and pigs, it has shown that carnitine synthesis and uptake of carnitine into cells are regulated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARA, a transcription factor which is physiologically activated during fasting or energy deprivation. Dairy cows are typically in a negative energy balance during early lactation. We investigated the hypothesis that genes of carnitine synthesis and uptake in dairy cows are enhanced during early lactation. Results mRNA abundances of PPARA and some of its classical target genes and genes involved in carnitine biosynthesis [trimethyllysine dioxygenase (TMLHE, 4-N-trimethylaminobutyraldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH9A1, γ-butyrobetaine dioxygenase (BBOX1] and uptake of carnitine [novel organic cation transporter 2 (SLC22A5] as well as carnitine concentrations in liver biopsy samples of 20 dairy cows in late pregnancy (3 wk prepartum and early lactation (1 wk, 5 wk, 14 wk postpartum were determined. From 3 wk prepartum to 1 wk postpartum, mRNA abundances of PPARΑ and several PPARΑ target genes involved in fatty acid uptake, fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis in the liver were strongly increased. Simultaneously, mRNA abundances of enzymes of carnitine synthesis (TMLHE: 10-fold; ALDH9A1: 6-fold; BBOX1: 1.8-fold and carnitine uptake (SLC22A5: 13-fold and the concentration of carnitine in the liver were increased from 3 wk prepartum to 1 wk postpartum (P P P Conclusions The results of this study show for the first time that the expression of hepatic genes of carnitine synthesis and cellular uptake of carnitine is enhanced in dairy cows during early lactation. These changes might provide an explanation for increased hepatic carnitine concentrations observed in 1 wk postpartum and might be regarded as a physiologic means to provide liver cells with sufficient carnitine required for transport of excessive amounts of NEFA during a negative energy balance.

  6. Orlistat and L-carnitine compared to orlistat alone on insulin resistance in obese diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derosa, Giuseppe; Maffioli, Pamela; Ferrari, Ilaria; D'Angelo, Angela; Fogari, Elena; Palumbo, Ilaria; Randazzo, Sabrina; Cicero, Arrigo F G

    2010-01-01

    Our study wants to evaluate the effects of one year treatment with orlistat plus L-carnitine compared to orlistat alone on body weight, glycemic and lipid control, and insulin resistance state in type 2 diabetic patients. Two hundred and fifty-eight patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) [glycated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)) > 8.0%] in therapy with different oral hypoglycemic agents or insulin were enrolled in this study and randomised to take orlistat 120 mg three times a day plus L-carnitine 2 g one time a day or orlistat 120 mg three times a day. We evaluated at baseline, and after 3, 6, 9, and 12 months these parameters: body weight, body mass index (BMI), HbA(1c), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), post-prandial plasma glucose (PPG), fasting plasma insulin (FPI), homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides (Tg), retinol binding protein-4 (RBP-4), resistin, visfatin, high sensitivity-C reactive protein (Hs-CRP). We observed a faster, and better decrease of body weight, HbA(1c), FPG, PPG, LDL-C, HOMA-IR with orlistat plus L-carnitine compared to orlistat. A faster improvement of TC, Tg, FPI, resistin, RBP-4, visfatin, and Hs-CRP was reached with orlistat plus L-carnitine compared to orlistat. We can safely conclude that the association of orlistat plus L-carnitine was better than orlistat in improving body weight, glycemic and lipid profile, insulin resistance, and inflammatory parameters and no significant adverse events were recorded.

  7. Serum levo-carnitine levels and skeletal muscle functions in type 2 diabetes mellitus in rodents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleem, S.B.; Hussain, M.M.; Farooq, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To study serum levo-carnitine (l-carnitine) levels and isometric contraction, force frequency relationship and fatigue of rodent skeletal muscles in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Study Design: Randomized controlled trial. Place and Duration of Study: Physiology Department, Army Medical College, Rawalpindi, from January 2009 to January 2010. Methodology: Sixty Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups; group I (control), fed on normal diet ad libitum and Group II (diabetic), fed on high fat diet and administered streptozocin to induce type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). At 21st day, plasma glucose and TG/HDL ratio were measured to confirm the development of T2DM in group II. At 28th day, blood was drawn by intracardiac puncture to estimate serum levo-carnitine levels. Contractile functions of skeletal muscles were assessed by using iWorx AHK/214 physiological data acquisition unit. Simple muscle twitches, maximum isometric twitch tension (MITT), time-to-peak twitch tension (TPTT) and time-to-relax to 50% of the peak twitch tension (1/2RT) of extensor digitorum muscles were recorded. Muscles were stimulated at higher frequencies to determine maximum fused tetanic tension (MFTT), maximum fused tetanic tension after fatigue protocol (TTFP) and recovery from fatigue (RF). Results: Serum levo-carnitine level decreased significantly in the diabetic group. Both groups had similar MITT, TPTT and 1/2RT but decline in MFTT, TTFP and RF was significant in the diabetic rats. Conclusion: T2DM adversely affected serum levo-carnitine levels and the contractile functions of rodent skeletal muscle at high frequency stimulation. (author)

  8. Effects of L-Carnitine Added to Erythropoietin in Anemic Chronic Renal Failure Patients on Hemodialysis.

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    N Taheri

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chronic renal disease (C.R.D is a pathophysiological process due to progressive and irreversible decrease in number and function of nephrons in the kidney. Anemia is one of the most important complications in CRD patients. Anemia is caused mainly due to diminished production of erythropoietin (EPO, which is treated by weekly injection of the EPO. L-carnitine added to EPO can increase the efficacy of EPO. Methods: Present study, from March 2003 until September 2004 (18 months, evaluates the effects of L-carnitine added to EPO in 30 patients at Shaheed Rahnemon hemodialysis center of Yazd. Each patient was administered one oral table (250 mg of L-carnitine, twice a day along with EPO for 90 days. EPO was in the form of injection 2000 iu/sc after dialysis.(three times per week. One questionnaire was completed for each patient, which included demographic characteristics, type of disease, duration of the hemodialysis, Hb and Hct levels, transferrin saturation and ferritin levels. Hb ,Hct and transferrin saturations were measured on days 1, 45 and 90. Results were analyzed by paired t test and analysis of variance. Results: Results of this study showed that the mean Hb levels and Hct were significantly raised up to 1.1 mg/dl (P.value<0.001 and 2.7% (P.Value<0.001, respectively. In addition, significant decrease of 5.75% in transferrin (P.Value< 0.001 and 121ng/ml in ferritin levels (P.Value< 0.001 was observed. Efficacy of EPO plus L-carnitine was affected only by duration of hemodialysis and not by age, sex or causes of CRD. Conclusion: L-carnitine added to EPO increases the efficacy of EPO after 3 months.

  9. Antioxidants L-carnitine and D-methionine modulate neuronal activity through GABAergic inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Calvin; Gopal, Kamakshi V; Moore, Ernest J; Gross, Guenter W

    2014-07-01

    Antioxidants are well known for their neuroprotective properties against reactive oxygen species in cortical neurons and auditory cells. We recently identified L-carnitine and D-methionine to be among agents that provide such protection. Here, we investigated their neuronal modulatory actions. We used cultured neuronal networks grown on microelectrode arrays to assess the effects of L-carnitine and D-methionine on network function. Spike production and burst properties of neuronal networks were used as parameters to monitor pharmacological responses. L-Carnitine and D-methionine reduced spike activity with 100% efficacy with EC50 values of 0.22 (± 0.01) mM and 1.06 (± 0.05) mM, respectively. In the presence of 1.0-40 μM of the GABAA antagonist bicuculline, the sigmoidal concentration-response curves of both compounds exhibited stepwise shifts, without a change in efficacy. Under a maximal bicuculline concentration of 40 μM, the EC50 increased to 3.57 (± 0.26) mM for L-carnitine and to 10.52 (± 0.97) mM for D-methionine, more than a tenfold increase. The agonist-antagonist interactions with bicuculline were estimated by Lineweaver-Burk plot analyses to be competitive, corroborated by the computed dissociation constants of bicuculline. For both compounds, the effects on the network burst pattern, activity reversibility, and bicuculline antagonism resembled that elicited by the GABAA agonist muscimol. We showed that the antioxidants L-carnitine and D-methionine modulate cortical electrical spike activity primarily through GABAA receptor activation. Our findings suggest the involvement of GABAergic mechanisms that perhaps contribute to the protective actions of these compounds.

  10. Synthesis, transport and mechanism of a type I prodrug: L-carnitine ester of prednisolone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Jing-xin; Shi, San-jun; Zhang, Qin; Gong, Tao; Sun, Xun; Zhang, Zhi-rong

    2011-10-03

    Aerosol glucocorticoid medications have become more and more important in treating BA (bronchial asthma). Although these agents are dosed to directly target airway inflammation, adrenocortical suppression and other systematic effects are still seen. To tackle this problem in a novel way, two L-carnitine ester derivatives of prednisolone (as the model drug), namely, PDC and PDSC, were synthesized to increase the absorption of prednisolone across the human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells by the organic cation/carnitine transporter OCTN2 (SLC22A5) and then to slowly and intracellularly release prednisolone. The transport of prednisolone, PDC and PDSC into the human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells was in the order PDSC > prednisolone > PDC at 37 °C. It was found that PDSC displayed 1.79-fold increase of uptake compared to prednisolone. Transport of PDSC by BEAS-2B was temperature-, time-, and Na(+)-dependent and saturable, with an apparent K(m) value of 329.74 μM, suggesting the involvement of carrier-mediated uptake. An RT-PCR study showed that organic cation/carnitine transporters OCTN1 and OCTN2 are expressed in BEAS-2B cells, but little in HEK293T cells. The order of uptake by HEK293T was prednisolone > PDC > PDSC. In addition, the inhibitory effects of organic cations such as L-carnitine, ergothioneine, TEA(+) and ipratropium on PDSC uptake in BEAS-2B cells were in the order L-carnitine > ipratropium > TEA(+) > ergothioneine, whereas their inhibitory effects on PDSC uptake in HEK293T cells were negligible. Finally, in vitro LPS-induced IL-6 production from BEAS-2B was more and longer suppressed by PDSC than prednisolone and PDC. All of these results suggested PDSC may be an attractive candidate for asthma treatment.

  11. Increased plasma leptin through l-carnitine supplementation is associated with an enhanced glucose tolerance in healthy ponies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Weyenberg, S; Buyse, J; Janssens, G P J

    2009-04-01

    In this study 0 or 4 g of l-carnitine was supplemented for 7 days in a cross-over design of six healthy ponies to modulate glucose metabolism and leptin production. At the end of each period, serial blood samples were taken to measure glucose and insulin response, leptin, triglyceride (TG), non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and creatine phosphokinase. l-carnitine supplementation was associated with a decrease in postprandial plasma glucose and insulin concentration, indicating an enhanced glucose tolerance. In contrast, postprandial plasma leptin concentration was increased when l-carnitine was supplemented. Yet, this increase in leptin concentration was not preceded by an increase in insulin concentration, suggesting that other factors apart from plasma insulin concentration could influence plasma leptin concentration. Although NEFA and TG were not significantly influenced by l-carnitine supplementation under these experimental conditions, further research must clarify whether net TG synthesis might be responsible for this increase in leptin.

  12. Developmental regulation and modulation of apoptotic genes expression in sheep oocytes and embryos cultured in vitro with L-carnitine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, A; Reddy, I J; Gupta, Psp; Mondal, S

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study was to find out the impact of L-carnitine (10 mM) on developmental regulation of preimplantation sheep embryos cultured in vitro when supplemented in maturation medium and post-fertilization medium separately. Subsequent objective was to observe the L-carnitine-mediated alteration in expression of apoptotic genes (Bcl2, Bax, Casp3 and PCNA) in sheep oocytes and developing embryos produced in vitro. Oocytes matured with L-carnitine showed significantly (p embryos cultured with actinomycin D and TNFα showed developmental arrest with significant (p embryo development and supplementation of L-carnitine during IVM altered the expression of apoptotic genes in the developmental stages of embryos. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Carnitine prevents the early mitochondrial damage induced by methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) in L1210 leukaemia cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Nikula, P; Ruohola, H; Alhonen-Hongisto, L; Jänne, J

    1985-01-01

    We previously found that the anti-cancer drug methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) (mitoguazone) depresses carnitine-dependent oxidation of long-chain fatty acids in cultured mouse leukaemia cells [Nikula, Alhonen-Hongisto, Seppänen & Jänne (1984) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 120, 9-14]. We have now investigated whether carnitine also influences the development of the well-known mitochondrial damage produced by the drug in L1210 leukaemia cells. Palmitate oxidation was distinctly inhibited in...

  14. L-carnitine prevents progression of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in a mouse model with upregulation of mitochondrial pathway.

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    Hisashi Ishikawa

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH is a severe form of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease characterized by lobular inflammation, hepatocellular ballooning, and fibrosis with an inherent risk for progression to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. Mitochondrial dysfunction appears to play a role in the progression from simple steatosis to NASH. L-carnitine (L-b-hydroxy-g-N-trimethylaminobutyric acid, an essential nutrient that converts fat into energy in mitochondria, has been shown to ameliorate liver damage. The aim of the present study was to explore the preventive and therapeutic effect of L-carnitine in NASH model mice. Eight-week-old male STAM mice, a NASH-cirrhosis-hepatocarcinogenic model, were divided into 3 experimental groups and fed as follows: 1 high-fat diet (HFD (control group; 2 HFD mixed with 0.28% L-carnitine (L-carnitine group; and 3 HFD mixed with 0.01% α-tocopherol (α-tocopherol group. After 4 or 8 weeks, mice were sacrificed. Blood samples and livers were collected, and hepatic tumors were counted and measured. Livers were subjected to histological study, immunohistochemical staining of 4-hydroxynonenal and ferritin, determination of 8-OHdG levels, mRNA and protein expressions for multiple genes, and metabolomic analysis. The intestinal microbiome was also analyzed. L-carnitine increased hepatic expression of genes related to long-chain fatty acid transport, mitochondrial β-oxidation, and antioxidant enzymes following suppression of hepatic oxidative stress markers and inflammatory cytokines in NASH, and mice treated with L-carnitine developed fewer liver tumors. Although α-tocopherol resulted in NASH improvement in the same manner as L-carnitine, it increased periodontitis-related microbiotic changes and hepatic iron transport-related gene expression and led to less effective for anti-hepatocarcinogenesis. Conclusion: L-carnitine prevents progression of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in a mouse model by

  15. The Effects of Oral L-Carnitine Supplementation on Physical Capacity and Lipid Metabolism in Chronic Hemodialysis Patients

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    Yasuo Kudoh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is well known that the physical activity in chronic hemodialysis patients decreases compared to that in normal subjects. In order to investigate the effects of L-carnitine on physical capacity and lipid metabolism, a cardiopulmonary exercise test using a bicycle ergometer was performed before and after 3 months of oral L-carnitine supplementation under double-blind conditions. Methods and Results: A total of 20 stable outpatients undergoing hemodialysis treatment were randomly divided into 2 groups: controls receiving placebo and patients receiving 900 mg L-carnitine p.o. daily. The levels of free and acyl carnitine increased significantly from 22.9 ± 7.3 to 149.9 ± 51.8 μmol/l and from 16.0 ± 2.8 to 100.3 ± 50.2 μmol/l, respectively, in the L-carnitine group; however, there was no significant change in other plasma lipid profiles. The exercise time was decreased and the heart rate at the anaerobic threshold was increased in the control group 3 months after the study period, but there were no such changes observed in the L-carnitine group. The minute ventilation/CO2 output slope increased significantly from 38.9 ± 7.8 to 43.8 ± 11.8 in the L-carnitine group. It has been speculated that a shift in the energy source occurs from carbohydrate to lipid, in terms of an increase of oxygen demand. Conclusion:L-Carnitine supplementation might have some beneficial effects on the physical capacity of chronic hemodialysis patients due to the improvement of the lipid metabolism in the muscle.

  16. Propionyl-l-carnitine: Labelling in the N-methyl position with Carbon-11 and pharmacokinetic studies in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davenport, Raymond J.; Law, Marilyn P.; Pike, Victor W.; Osman, Safiye; Poole, Keith G

    1995-08-01

    The prospective therapeutic, propionyl-l-carnitine, was labelled in the N-methyl position with the positron-emitter, carbon-11 (t{sub (1(2))} = 20.4 min), with a view to studying its pharmacokinetics in humans using PET. Labelling was achieved by methylating nor-propionyl-l-carnitine hydrochloride with no-carrier-added [{sup 11}C]iodomethane (produced from cyclotron-produced [{sup 11}C]carbon dioxide) in ethanol in the presence of 1,2,2,6,6,-pentamethylpiperidine. HPLC of the reaction mixture on a strong cation exchange column provided high purity [N-methyl-{sup 11}C]propionyl-l-carnitine in 62% radiochemical yield (decay-corrected from [{sup 11}C]iodomethane), ready for intravenous administration within 35 min from the end of radionuclide production. [N-methyl-{sup 11}C]Propionyl-l-carnitine, given intravenously to rats, cleared rapidly from plasma. A slow uptake of radioactivity into myocardium and striated muscle was observed. In plasma, unchanged tracer represented 84% of the radioactivity at 2.5 min and 2.5% of the radioactivity at 60 min. In heart, unchanged tracer represented 18% of radioactivity at 2.5 min and 2.4% at 15 min. The remainder of radioactivity detected in plasma and heart was identified as [N-methyl-{sup 11}C]l-carnitine and [N-methyl-{sup 11}C]acetyl-l-carnitine.

  17. Effect of Monosodium Glutamate and L-Carnitine on Density and Structure of Granular Cells of Cerebellum in Rat

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    Mojdeh Fatahzadeh

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Monosodium glutamate (MSG is a widely-used flavor enhancer and stabilizer in ready-made or packaged foods. The excessive use of MSG has been shown to increase oxidative stress in different regions of the brain. In this study, the neuroprotective effect of L-carnitine was investigated against MSG intoxication in granular cell of cerebellum in rats. Materials and Methods: 48 adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 6 groups: the control, sham (normal saline treated, MSG (3%, L-Carnitine200, MSG+L-Carnitine100 and MSG+L-Carnitine200. After 30 days of treatment, through transcardialy perfusion, the rats were sacrificed and histopathological analyses were conducted on cerebellum. Results: The results indicated that the density of granular cells in cerebellar folium IV, V and VI of rats in the MSG group had significantly decreased in comparison to that of the control and sham groups. Furthermore, the MSG+L-Carnitine200 group showed the higher density of granular cells compared with the MSG group in the three folia. Conclusion: Treatment with L-Carnitine could protect the granular cells in cerebellum against MSG intoxication in rats.

  18. Salt stress effects on the central and carnitine metabolisms of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cánovas, M; Bernal, V; Sevilla, A; Torroglosa, T; Iborra, J L

    2007-03-01

    The aim was to understand how interaction of the central carbon and the secondary carnitine metabolisms is affected under salt stress and its effect on the production of L-carnitine by Escherichia coli. The biotransformation of crotonobetaine into L-carnitine by resting cells of E. coli O44 K74 was improved by salt stress, a yield of nearly twofold that for the control being obtained with 0.5 M NaCl. Crotonobetaine and the L-carnitine formed acted as an osmoprotectant during cell growth and biotransformation in the presence of NaCl. The enzyme activities involved in the biotransformation process (crotonobetaine hydration reaction and crotonobetaine reduction reaction), in the synthesis of acetyl-CoA/acetate (pyruvate dehydrogenase, acetyl-CoA synthetase [ACS] and ATP/acetate phosphotransferase) and in the distribution of metabolites for the tricarboxylic acid cycle (isocitrate dehydrogenase [ICDH]) and glyoxylate shunt (isocitrate lyase [ICL]) were followed in batch with resting cells both in the presence and absence of NaCl and in perturbation experiments performed on growing cells in a high density cell recycle membrane reactor. Further, the levels of carnitine, crotonobetaine, gamma-butyrobetaine and ATP and the NADH/NAD(+) ratio were measured in order to know how the metabolic state was modified and coenzyme pools redistributed as a result of NaCl's effect on the energy content of the cell. The results provided the first experimental evidence of the important role played by salt stress during resting and growing cell biotransformation (0.5 M NaCl increased the L-carnitine production in nearly 85%), and the need for high levels of ATP to maintain metabolite transport and biotransformation. Moreover, the main metabolic pathways and carbon flow operating during cell biotransformation was that controlled by the ICDH/ICL ratio, which decreased from 8.0 to 2.5, and the phosphotransferase/ACS ratio, which increased from 2.1 to 5.2, after a NaCl pulse fivefold the

  19. Effect of L-carnitine administration on serum insulin and adiponectin levels, and AMPK, APPL1 and PPARγ gene expression in STZ-induced diabetic rat liver

    OpenAIRE

    B. Shahouzehi; K. Barkhordari; S. Aminizadeh; Y. Masoumi-Ardakani

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes is considered as a metabolic disease in which insulin secretion and functions are disturbed and characterized by hyperglycemia. L-carnitine is synthesized in most mammals and plays critical role in fatty acid oxidation and energy production. Data about the L-carnitine hypoglycemic effects are controversial. We evaluated long-term oral L-carnitine administration effects on blood glucose, insulin and adiponectin levels, as well as expression of AMPK, APPL1 and PPARγ genes in liver of S...

  20. Carnitine deficiency presenting with a decreased mental state in a patient with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis receiving long-term tube feeding: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isse, Naohi; Miura, Yoh; Obata, Toshiyuki; Takahara, Noriko

    2013-12-30

    L-carnitine is an important metabolic mediator involved in fatty acid transport. It is obtained from the diet, particularly from animal products, such as red meat. Previous reports have revealed that long-term tube feeding with a commercial product containing no or low levels of carnitine can lead to an altered mental state caused by hyperammonemia. A 72-year-old Japanese man had a 12-year history of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. He was bedridden and had required mechanical ventilation and enteral tube feeding for 10 years at home. His main enteral solution was a commercial product that contained low carnitine levels, and he sometimes received coffee and homemade products such as miso soup. Our patient's ability to communicate gradually deteriorated over a period of one year. His serum total carnitine level was abnormally low, at 26.7μmol/L (normal range, 45 to 91μmol/L), but his ammonium level was normal. His mental state improved dramatically after starting L-carnitine supplementation (600mg twice daily). This case highlights the importance of avoiding carnitine deficiency in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis undergoing long-term tube feeding. These patients experience progressive muscle atrophy that might cause impaired carnitine storage and might manifest as communication difficulties. Carnitine deficiency can be misdiagnosed as a progression of systemic muscle atrophy. Clinicians should be aware of this disorder and should consider periodically measuring carnitine levels, regardless of the patient's serum ammonium levels.

  1. In HepG2 Cells, Coexisting Carnitine Deficiency Masks Important Indicators of Marginal Biotin Deficiency123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogusiewicz, Anna; Boysen, Gunnar; Mock, Donald M

    2015-01-01

    Background: A large number of birth defects are related to nutrient deficiencies; concern that biotin deficiency is teratogenic in humans is reasonable. Surprisingly, studies indicate that increased urinary 3-hydroxyisovalerylcarnitine (3HIAc), a previously validated marker of biotin deficiency, is not a valid biomarker in pregnancy. Objective: In this study we hypothesized that coexisting carnitine deficiency can prevent the increase in 3HIAc due to biotin deficiency. Methods: We used a 2-factor nutrient depletion design to induce isolated and combined biotin and carnitine deficiency in HepG2 cells and then repleted cells with carnitine. To elucidate the metabolic pathogenesis, we quantitated intracellular and extracellular free carnitine, acylcarnitines, and acylcarnitine ratios using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Results: Relative to biotin-sufficient, carnitine-sufficient cells, intracellular acetylcarnitine increased by 90%, propionylcarnitine more than doubled, and 3HIAc increased by >10-fold in biotin-deficient, carnitine-sufficient (BDCS) cells, consistent with a defensive mechanism in which biotin-deficient cells transesterify the acyl-coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) substrates of the biotin-dependent carboxylases to the related acylcarnitines. Likewise, in BDCS cells, the ratio of acetylcarnitine to malonylcarnitine and the ratio of propionylcarnitine to methylmalonylcarnitine both more than tripled, and the ratio of 3HIAc to 3-methylglutarylcarnitine (MGc) increased by >10-fold. In biotin-deficient, carnitine-deficient (BDCD) cells, the 3 substrate-derived acylcarnitines changed little, but the substrate:product ratios were masked to a lesser extent. Moreover, carnitine repletion unmasked biotin deficiency in BDCD cells as shown by increases in acetylcarnitine, propionylcarnitine, and 3HIAc (each increased by >50-fold). Likewise, ratios of acetylcarnitine:malonylcarnitine, propionylcarnitine:methylmalonylcarnitine, and 3HIAc:MGc all increased

  2. Effects of acetyl-L-carnitine on lamb oocyte blastocyst rate, ultrastructure, and mitochondrial DNA copy number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reader, Karen L; Cox, Neil R; Stanton, Jo-Ann L; Juengel, Jennifer L

    2015-06-01

    Viable lambs can be produced after transfer of in vitro-derived embryos from oocytes harvested from prepubertal lambs. However, this occurs at a much lower efficiency than from adult ewe oocyte donors. The reduced competence of prepubertal oocytes is believed to be due, at least in part, to deficiencies in cytoplasmic maturation. Differences in the cytoplasmic ultrastructure between prepubertal and adult oocytes have been described in the sheep, pig, and cow. Prepubertal lamb oocytes have been shown to have a different distribution of mitochondria and lipid droplets, and less mitochondria and storage vesicles than their adult counterparts. L-carnitine plays a role in supplying energy to the cell by transporting long-chain fatty acids into mitochondria for β-oxidation to produce ATP. Both L-carnitine and its derivative acetyl-L-carnitine have been reported to increase the blastocyst rate of oocytes from mice, cows, and pigs, treated during IVM. L-carnitine has also been shown to increase mitochondrial biogenesis in adipose cells. Therefore, the aims of this study were to determine if treatment of oocytes from prepubertal lambs with acetyl-L-carnitine during IVM could increase the blastocyst rate and alter mitochondria, vesicle, or lipid droplet number, volume, or distribution. The blastocyst rate was doubled in prepubertal lamb oocytes treated with acetyl-L-carnitine when compared to untreated oocytes (10.0% and 4.6%, respectively; P = 0.028). Light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and stereology techniques were used to quantify organelles in untreated and acetyl-L-carnitine-treated lamb oocytes, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction methods were used to measure the mitochondrial DNA copy number. There were no differences in mitochondrial volume, number, or mitochondrial DNA copy number. Acetyl-L-carnitine treatment increased the cytoplasmic volume (P = 0.015) of the oocytes, and there were trends toward an increase in the vesicle volume (P = 0

  3. Carnitine partially protects the rat testis against the late damage produced by doxorubicin administered during pre-puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, R E L; Okada, F K; Stumpp, T; Vendramini, V; Miraglia, S M

    2014-11-01

    Doxorubicin, an anticancer drug, is widely included in chemotherapy protocols to combat childhood cancer. Carnitine, an important quaternary amine, is present in testis and epididymis and is involved in sperm maturation; it has been used in infertility treatment. In a previous study, our group observed that L-carnitine given before etoposide, another chemotherapeutic drug, reduces the spermatogenic damage and protects germ cells against apoptosis. This study aimed to evaluate the antiapoptotic and cytoprotective actions of L-carnitine in long- and mid-term basis, on the seminiferous epithelium of doxorubicin-treated pre-pubertal rats. Forty-eight 30-day-old male Wistar rats were distributed into four groups: sham-control; doxorubicin; carnitine; carnitine/doxorubicin (L-carnitine injected 1 h before doxorubicin). The rats were submitted to euthanasia at 64 and 100 days of age and their testes were collected for biometric, morphometric, and histopathological analyses. The numerical density of apoptotic germ cells was obtained (TUNEL method). In adult phase (100 days), the following spermatic parameters were analyzed: mature spermatid (19 step) count and sperm daily production per testis; sperm number and transit time through the epididymal caput/corpus and cauda; frequency of morphologically abnormal spermatozoa (from epididymal fluid), as well as sperm DNA integrity (Comet assay). The testicular and spermatic parameters at both ages were improved in rats treated with carnitine before doxorubicin. At 64 days, the TUNEL-positive germ cell frequency was lower in the carnitine/doxorubicin-treated rats comparatively to the doxorubicin-treated rats. At 100 days of age, the sperm DNA fragmentation was also lower in the previously carnitine-treated rats, as evidenced by the analysis of three parameters. Carnitine reduced the late testicular and spermatic damages caused by doxorubicin, probably providing a partial cytoprotection against the deleterious action of doxorubicin

  4. Effect of Carnitine and herbal mixture extract on obesity induced by high fat diet in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Kamal A

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity-associated type 2 diabetes is rapidly increasing throughout the world. It is generally recognized that natural products with a long history of safety can modulate obesity. Aim To investigate the development of obesity in response to a high fat diet (HFD and to estimate the effect of L-carnitine and an Egyptian Herbal mixture formulation (HMF (consisting of T. chebula, Senae, rhubarb, black cumin, aniseed, fennel and licorice on bodyweight, food intake, lipid profiles, renal, hepatic, cardiac function markers, lipid Peroxidation, and the glucose and insulin levels in blood and liver tissue in rats. Method White male albino rats weighing 80-90 gm, 60 days old. 10 rats were fed a normal basal diet (Cr, 30 rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD for 14 weeks during the entire study. Rats of the HFD group were equally divided into 3 subgroups each one include 10 rats. The first group received HFD with no supplement (HFD, the 2nd group HFD+L-carnitine and the third group received HFD+HMF. Carnitine and HMF were administered at 10th week (start time for treatments for 4 weeks. Body weight, lipid profile & renal function (urea, uric acid creatinine ALT & AST activities, cardiac markers, (LDH, C.K-NAC and MB the oxidative stress marker reduced glutathione (GSH, and Malondialdehyde (MDA catalase activity, in addition to glucose, insulin, and insulin resistance in serum & tissues were analyzed. Results Data showed that feeding HFD diet significantly increased final body weight, triglycerides (TG, total cholesterol, & LDL concentration compared with controls, while significantly decreasing HDL; meanwhile treatment with L-carnitine, or HMF significantly normalized the lipid profile. Serum ALT, urea, uric acid, creatinine, LDH, CK-NAC, CK-MB were significantly higher in the high fat group compared with normal controls; and administration of L-carnitine or herbal extract significantly lessened the effect of the HFD. Hyperglycemia

  5. Protective effects of L-carnitine on intestinal ischemia/reperfusion injury in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yong; Guo, Hao; Zhang, Yi; Zhou, Dong; Gan, Ping; Liang, Dao Ming; Chen, Jia Yong

    2011-04-04

    Ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury of the intestine is a major problem in abdominal pathological condition and is associated with a high morbidity and mortality. The purpose of the study is to determine whether the L-carnitine can prevent the harmful effects of small intestinal IR injury in rats. Thirty Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups. Sham operated group (S), for shamoperated, the IR group for rats submitted to 45-minute of intestinal ischemia and 2-hour reperfusion, and IR+L group for those IR group treated with L-carnitine before reperfusion. All the rats were given EmGFP labelled E. coli DH5α through gavage 2-hour before the operative procedure. Afterwards the bacterial translocation (BT) from mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN), liver, spleen, lung and portal vein blood were detected. And the colony forming units/g (CFU/g) were counted. The TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-10 in serum were measured by ELISA. The morphometric study was measured by Chius classification. The levels of BT were higher in the IR group than IR+L group (P E. coli DH5α was hardly detected in the S group. The IR+L rats had enhancement of IL-10 and suppressed production of serum TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6, compared to IR group rats (P L-carnitine pretreatment has a positive effect on reducing levels of BT, on inhibiting secretion of proinflammatory cytokines, and on lessening intestinal mucosa injury during small intestinal IR injury. L-carnitine; Ischemia/reperfusion injury; Intestine.

  6. Protective Effects of L-Carnitine on Intestinal Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in a Rat Model

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Yong; Guo, Hao; Zhang, Yi; Zhou, Dong; Gan, Ping; Liang, Dao Ming; Chen, Jia Yong

    2011-01-01

    Background Ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury of the intestine is a major problem in abdominal pathological condition and is associated with a high morbidity and mortality. The purpose of the study is to determine whether the L-carnitine can prevent the harmful effects of small intestinal IR injury in rats. Methods Thirty Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups. Sham operated group (S), for shamoperated, the IR group for rats submitted to 45-minute of intestinal ischemia and...

  7. The effects of acute L-carnitine supplementation on endurance performance of athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orer, Gamze E; Guzel, Nevin A

    2014-02-01

    This study examined the effect of acute L-carnitine loading on the endurance performance of footballers. Measurements were performed on 26 candidate professional footballers who volunteered to take part in the study. Athletes were given a glass of fruit juice 1 hour before applying L-carnitine with the double-blind method. Then, 12 participants were given 3 g of L-carnitine (LK-3) and the remaining 14 were given 4 g (LK-4). Athletes began the exercise test at a running speed of 8 km·h and then continued at 10 km·h. The speed was increased 1 km·h every 3 minutes, and the test continued until the subject chose to quit. Heart rate was registered using a portable telemetric heart rate monitor during the test. Blood samples were taken from the earlobes of the footballers both before the test and before the speed increase (during the 1-minute interval), and the lactate (La) concentration was measured electroenzymatically. The test was repeated after 1 week as a group of placebos (P-3 and P-4). The result showed that the running speeds corresponding to specific La concentrations were increased, and La and heart rate responses to the running speeds were decreased in both supplemented groups compared with placebos (p ≤ 0.05). A significant reduction in heart rate was found in LK-4 and P-4 (p ≤ 0.05). When the Borg responses to the running speeds were analyzed, a significant difference was found in both supplemented groups (p ≤ 0.05). The results show that 3 or 4 g of L-carnitine taken before physical exercise prolonged exhaustion.

  8. Effect of telmisartan in combined with L-carnitine on peritoneal dialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Effect of telmisartan in combined with L-carnitine on peritoneal dialysis patients

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To observe the therapeutic effect of telmisartan in combined with L-carnitine on the peritoneal dialysis (PD patients in order to guide the clinical medication. Methods: A total of 80 patients with chronic renal failure (CRF who were admitted in our hospital from November, 2011 to January, 2014 for PD were included in the study and randomized into the treatment group and the control group. The patients in the two groups were routinely performed with PD. The patients in the treatment group were given L-carnitine oral liquid, 10mL/time, 3 times/d, and telmisartan, 80 mg/time, 1 time/d. The patients in the control group were given L-carnitine oral liquid, 10mL/time, 3 times a day. The patients in the two groups were treated for 24 weeks continuously. The serum SCr and BUN levels before and after treatment in the two groups were observed. RRF was calculated. The changes of daily average urine volume and blood pressure before and after treatment in the two groups were observed. Results: After treatment, the reduced degree of SCr and BUN in the treatment group was significantly greater than that in the control group, while the reduced degree of RRF was significantly less than that in the control group (P<0.05. After treatment, the daily urine volume was reduced, but the reduced degree in the treatment group was significantly less than that in the control group (P<0.05. After treatment, SBP and DBP were reduced, but the reduced degree in the treatment group was significantly superior to that in the control group (P<0.05. Conclusions: Telmisartan in combined with L-carnitine applied in PD patients can effectively delay the loss of RRF and the reduction of urine volume, and regulate the blood pressure in order to alleviate the clinical symptoms and improve the patients’ living qualities.

  9. Melatonin and L-carnitin improves endothelial disfunction and oxidative stress in Type 2 diabetic rats

    OpenAIRE

    Salmanoglu, Derya Selcen; Gurpinar, Tugba; Vural, Kamil; Ekerbicer, Nuran; Dar?verenli, Ertan; Var, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    Vascular dysfunction is thought to play a major role in the development of diabetic cardiovascular disease. The roles of endothelial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and dyslipidemia will be considered. Melatonin as well as L-carnitine were shown to possess strong antioxidant properties. Diabetes induced with high fat diet (for 8 weeks) and multipl low doses intraperitoneal injection of STZ (twice, 30 mg/kg/d i.p). The diabetic animals were randomly assigned to one of the experimental groups as...

  10. effect of dl-carnitine on tissue content of ad eno ine triphospha te

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BSN

    values of 16.2 ± 5.2µ mols lg dry weight for ATP and I 1.7± 2.5 ~11nols/g dry weight for CP in normal (non ischaem1c) myocardial tissue. Continuous perfusion of the heans "ith perfusate contaming 4.9µmols/ml. DL-Carnitine appeared to prevent the lowermg of ATP and CP levels as a result of induction of ischaemia.

  11. Inhibition of Palmityl Carnitine Oxidation in Rat Liver Mitochondria by Tert-Butyl Hydroperoxide

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Červinková, Z.; Rauchová, Hana; Křiváková, P.; Drahota, Zdeněk

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 1 (2008), s. 133-136 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GD303/03/H065; GA ČR(CZ) GA305/04/0500; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0520 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : liver mitochondria * palmityl carnitine oxidation * tert-butylhydroperoxide Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.653, year: 2008

  12. Improved N-retention during L-carnitine-supplemented total parenteral nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Bohles, H.; Segerer, Hugo; Fekl, W.

    1984-01-01

    The influence of intravenously administered L-carnitine on lipid- and nitrogen-metabolism was studied during total parenteral nutrition of piglets (mean weight 4077 g; n = 9). The infusion protocol was divided into three isocaloric and isonitrogenous 48-hr periods. Amino acids (3 g/kg day) were administered throughout all three periods: 140 cal/kg/day were given as nonprotein calories, consisting only of glucose during period 1; during periods 2 and 3, an amount of glucose calorically equival...

  13. Opposing effects of ketamine and acetyl L-carnitine on the serotonergic system of zebrafish

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Bonnie L.; Dumas, Melanie; Paule, Merle G.; Ali, Syed F.; Kanungo, Jyotshna

    2015-01-01

    Ketamine, a pediatric anesthetic, is a noncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor antagonist. Studies show that ketamine is neurotoxic in developing mammals and zebrafish. In both mammals and zebrafish, acetyl L-carnitine (ALCAR) has been shown to be protective against ketamine toxicity. Ketamine is known to modulate the serotonergic system in mammals. Here, we measured the levels of serotonin (5-HT) and its metabolite, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) in the embryos exposed t...

  14. Plasma L-Carnitine and L-Lysine Concentrations in HIV-Infected Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butorov, Evgeny V

    2017-01-01

    Virus infections are associated with significant alterations in host cells amino acids profiles that support biosynthetic demands necessary for production of viral progeny. Amino acids play an important role in the pathogenesis of all virus-related infections both as basic substrates for protein synthesis and as regulators in many metabolic pathways. Our aim was to determine the changes in plasma L-carnitine levels and its amino acid precursor (L-lysine) in HIV-infected patients. We performed a case-control study of 430 HIV-1 infected males (non-vegetarians) without any restriction in the nourishment, before highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and 125 HIV-1 subjects after the introduction of HAART who were periodically monitored in the Municipal Center of HIV/AIDS prophylaxis, Surgut, Russian Federation. The plasma total (TC) and free (FC) L-carnitine concentrations markedly decreased with the clinical stages of HIV infection. The mean plasma TC, FC and L-lysine levels were significantly lower in asymptomatic stage (A) and advanced CDC stages (B, C) HIV-infected patients compared with our reference values. The total and free L-carnitine and its amino acid precursor concentrations mild increased in HIV-infected subjects after the introduction of HAART.Our data revealed that L-lysine amino acid and its derivative (TC) levels were negatively correlated with viral load and inversely with CD4 count lymphocytes in the total cohort. The study results show that there was evidence for an association between plasma L-carnitine, L-lysine and HIV-1 RNA levels, immunological markers and clinical stages of HIV infection. The obtained data indicate that level changes of these host essential nutritional elements can play an important role in the HIV life cycle. These findings are important for understanding the pathophysiology of HIV infection and must be considered in further research for the development of new approaches in the treatment of the disease.

  15. Effect of L-carnitine on oxidative stress and platelet activation after major surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignatelli, P; Tellan, G; Marandola, M; Carnevale, R; Loffredo, L; Schillizzi, M; Proietti, M; Violi, F; Chirletti, P; Delogu, G

    2011-09-01

    The surgical/anesthesia trauma is associated with an increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). This enhanced oxidative stress leads to cell damage resulting in various complications such as sepsis, myocardial injury and increased mortality. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of antioxidant treatment with l-carnitine in oxidative stress and platelet activation in patients undergoing major abdominal surgery. Forty patients scheduled for abdominal surgery were randomly allocated to l-carnitine, administered with a rapid infusion (0.05 g/kg) diluted in 250 ml of saline solution, vs. placebo treatment just before the surgical intervention. At baseline and after treatment, oxidative stress was evaluated by detection of circulating levels of soluble NOX2-derived peptide (sNOX2-dp), a marker of NADPH oxidase activation, and by analyzing platelet ROS formation. Platelet activation was studied by dosing sCD40L. We observed an increase of soluble sNOX2-dp, sCD40L and ROS production in the placebo group compared with the baseline after the surgical intervention. Conversely, in the l-carnitine-treated group, sNOX2-dp, sCD40L and ROS production did not significantly differ from the baseline. A linear correlation analysis showed that Δ of ROS correlated with Δ of sNOX2 (R(s) =0.817; Pl-carnitine could be helpful in modulating oxidative stress and platelet activation during major abdominal surgery-dependent oxidative damage. © 2011 The Authors. Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica © 2011 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  16. Vulnerability of vascular endothelium in lipopolysaccharide toxicity: effect of (acyl carnitine on endothelial stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. C. Hülsmann

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available The literature presented illustrates that lipopolysaccharide (LPS, from bacterial cell walls, induces tumour necrosis factor (TNF synthesis in macrophages. TNF affects a number of cell types, amongst which are endothelial cells, within a few hours. Its injection has been shown to produce all symptoms of the toxic syndrome. In the present communication the vulnerability of endothelial cells will be stressed. These cells require carnitine not only for fatty acid oxidation but also for membrane protection and repair. As endothelial cells lose carnitine during hypoperfusion, it is speculated that the supply of carnitine during the early phase of LPS toxicity in rats might delay or avoid loss of endothelial functions. Earlier it was observed that hearts from rats, injected 3 h previously with LPS, showed strongly increased interstitial fluid production compared to hearts from control rats, even when TNF was present during a 3 h in vitro perfusion. It showed that LPS in vivo generates factors other than TNF, such as platelet activating factor (PAF, that are responsible for the increased capillary permeability.

  17. Identification of SLC22A5 Gene Mutation in a Family with Carnitine Uptake Defect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Mutlu-Albayrak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary systemic carnitine deficiency is caused by homozygous or compound heterozygous mutation in the SLC22A5 gene on chromosome 5q31. The most common presentations are in infancy and early childhood with either metabolic decompensation or cardiac and myopathic manifestations. We report a case of 9-year-old boy with dysmorphic appearance and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Tandem MS spectrometry analysis was compatible with carnitine uptake defect (CUD. His sister had died due to sudden infant death at 19 months. His second 4-year-old sister’s echocardiographic examination revealed hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, also suffering from easy fatigability. Her tandem MS spectrometry analyses resulted in CUD. We sequenced all the exons of the SLC22A5 gene encoding the high affinity carnitine transporter OCTN2 in the DNA. And one new mutation (c.1427T>G → p.Leu476Arg was found in the boy and his sister in homozygous form, leading to the synthesis of an altered protein which causes CUD. The parent’s molecular diagnosis supported the carrier status. In order to explore the genetic background of the patient’s dysmorphic appearance, an array-CGH analysis was performed that revealed nine copy number variations only. Here we report a novel SLC22A5 mutation with the novel hallmark of its association with dysmorphologic feature.

  18. Where does N(ε-trimethyllysine for the carnitine biosynthesis in mammals come from?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Servillo

    Full Text Available N(ε-trimethyllysine (TML is a non-protein amino acid which takes part in the biosynthesis of carnitine. In mammals, the breakdown of endogenous proteins containing TML residues is recognized as starting point for the carnitine biosynthesis. Here, we document that one of the main sources of TML could be the vegetables which represent an important part of daily alimentation for most mammals. A HPLC-ESI-MS/MS method, which we previously developed for the analysis of N(G-methylarginines, was utilized to quantitate TML in numerous vegetables. We report that TML, believed to be rather rare in plants as free amino acid, is, instead, ubiquitous in them and at not negligible levels. The occurrence of TML has been also confirmed in some vegetables by a HPLC method with fluorescence detection. Our results establish that TML can be introduced as free amino acid in conspicuous amounts from vegetables. The current opinion is that mammals utilize the breakdown of their endogenous proteins containing TML residues as starting point for carnitine biosynthesis. However, our finding raises the question of whether a tortuous and energy expensive route as the one of TML formation from the breakdown of endogenous proteins is really preferred when the substance is so easily available in vegetable foods. On the basis of this result, it must be taken into account that in mammals TML might be mainly introduced by diet. However, when the alimentary intake becomes insufficient, as during starvation, it might be supplied by endogenous protein breakdown.

  19. A Moderate Carnitine Deficiency Exacerbates Isoproterenol-Induced Myocardial Injury in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giudice, Pietro Lo; Bonomini, Mario; Arduini, Arduino

    2016-04-01

    The myocardium is largely dependent upon oxidation of fatty acids for the production of ATP. Cardiac contractile abnormalities and failure have been reported after acute emotional stress and there is evidence that catecholamines are responsible for acute stress-induced heart injury. We hypothesized that carnitine deficiency increases the risk of stress-induced heart injury. Carnitine deficiency was induced in Wistar rats by adding 20 mmol/L of sodium pivalate to drinking water (P). Controls (C) received equimolar sodium bicarbonate and a third group (P + Cn) received pivalate along with 40 mmol/L carnitine. After 15 days, 6 rats/group were used to evaluate function of isolated hearts under infusion of 0.1 μM isoproterenol and 20 rats/group were submitted to a single subcutaneous administration of 50 mg/kg isoproterenol. Isoproterenol infusion in C markedly increased the heart rate, left ventricular (LV) systolic pressure and coronary flow rate. In P rats, isoproterenol increased the heart rate and LV systolic pressure but these increases were not paralleled by a rise in the coronary flow rate and LV diastolic pressure progressively increased. Subcutaneous isoproterenol induced 15 % mortality rate in C and 50 % in P (p deficiency exposes the heart to a greater risk of injury when sympathetic nerve activity is greatly stimulated, for example during emotional, mental or physical stress.

  20. The effects of L-carnitin in Budd-Chiari syndrome in a domestic cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliye Sağkan Öztürk

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a thrombosis in the vena cava caudalis of a 15 year-old cat with ascites. Trauma and eventually feline enteric corona virus infection in the cat were not detected. In the intrahepatic region, a blockage of vena cava caudalis was brought to light by ultrasonographic imaging. An aspirate of abdominal fl uid revealed modified transudate. Liver enzyme levels were increased in the serum sample of the cat. The levels of total oxidant status (TOS and total antioxidant status (TAS were elevated in the peritoneal fluid. Liver protection diet with L-carnitine, diuretic therapy and antimicrobial drugs were administrated for treatment of the cat. During the continuous treatment, the amount of abdominal fluid decreased, but never completely absorbed. L-carnitine was administered to the cat during the time of treatment, and subsequently the levels of liver enzymes decreased. However, the cat died because of recurrent ascites and persistent thrombosis. In conclusion, ultrasonographic examination was very reliable, non-invasive and highly useful diagnostic method for BCS and L-carnitine has crucial effects on the quality of life, energy metabolism and liver enzyme levels. However, the blockage of the vena cava caudalis could not completely respond to medical treatment and thrombosis should be eliminated by surgical intervention.

  1. Effect of dosage and application mode of L-carnitine on plasma lipid and egg-yolk cholesterol of turkeys, hatchability of eggs and post-hatch growth of their offsprings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oso, A O; Fafiolu, A O; Adeleke, M A; Ladokun, O A; Sobayo, R A; Jegede, A V; Peters, S O; Oyebamiji, O A; Akinsola, J

    2014-08-01

    The effect of dosage and application mode of L-carnitine on plasma lipid and egg-yolk cholesterol of breeder turkeys, hatchability of eggs and post-hatch growth response was investigated using 180 breeder hens. The hens were assigned to six dietary treatments in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangements of two application modes of L-carnitine (diet and drinking water) supplemented at 0, 50 and 100 ppm (mg/kg or mg/l) levels, respectively. Each treatment was replicated five times with six hens per replicate. Dietary inclusion of 50 ppm L-carnitine showed the lowest (p L-carnitine with no regard to application mode recorded the highest (p L-carnitine irrespective of application mode also showed reduced (p L-carnitine for breeder turkeys recorded the lowest (p L-carnitine irrespective of application mode recorded the highest (p production. Incidence of dead-in-shell also reduced (p L-carnitine. Dietary supplementation of 50 ppm and oral application in drinking water of 100 ppm L-carnitine for breeder turkeys resulted in highest (p L-carnitine recorded no post-hatch mortality. Highest (p L-carnitine. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of 50 ppm L-carnitine for turkey hens showed improved serum lipid profile, egg fertility, reduced dead-in-shell, egg-yolk cholesterol and resulted in improved post-hatch growth performance.

  2. Effects of L-carnitine against oxidative stress in human hepatocytes: involvement of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jin-Lian

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Excessive oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation have been demonstrated to play important roles in the production of liver damage. L-carnitine is a natural substance and acts as a carrier for fatty acids across the inner mitochondrial membrane for subsequent beta-oxidation. It is also an antioxidant that reduces metabolic stress in the cells. Recent years L-carnitine has been proposed for treatment of various kinds of disease, including liver injury. This study was conducted to evaluate the protective effect of L-carnitine against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2-induced cytotoxicity in a normal human hepatocyte cell line, HL7702. Methods We analyzed cytotoxicity using MTT assay and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH release. Antioxidant activity and lipid peroxidation were estimated by reactive oxygen species (ROS levels, activities and protein expressions of superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT, and malondialdehyde (MDA formation. Expressions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR-alpha and its target genes were evaluated by RT-PCR or western blotting. The role of PPAR-alpha in L-carnitine-enhanced expression of SOD and CAT was also explored. Statistical analysis was performed by a one-way analysis of variance, and its significance was assessed by Dennett's post-hoc test. Results The results showed that L-carnitine protected HL7702 cells against cytotoxity induced by H2O2. This protection was related to the scavenging of ROS, the promotion of SOD and CAT activity and expression, and the prevention of lipid peroxidation in cultured HL7702 cells. The decreased expressions of PPAR-alpha, carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1 (CPT1 and acyl-CoA oxidase (ACOX induced by H2O2 can be attenuated by L-carnitine. Besides, we also found that the promotion of SOD and CAT protein expression induced by L-carnitine was blocked by PPAR-alpha inhibitor MK886. Conclusions Taken together, our findings suggest that L-carnitine could protect HL

  3. L-carnitine reduces doxorubicin-induced apoptosis through a prostacyclin-mediated pathway in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Hung-Hsin; Liu, Ju-Chi; Hong, Hong-Jye; Lin, Jia-wei; Chen, Cheng-Hsien; Cheng, Tzu-Hurng

    2011-01-21

    Clinical use of doxorubicin is greatly limited by its severe cardiotoxic side effects. L-carnitine is a vitamin-like substance which has been successfully used in many cardiomyopathies, however, the intracellular mechanism(s) remain unclear. The objective of this study was set to evaluate the protective effect of L-carnitine on doxorubicin-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis, and to explore its intracellular mechanism(s). Primary cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were treated with doxorubicin (1 µM) with or without pretreatment with L-carnitine (1-30 mM). Lactate dehydrogenase assay, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end-labeling staining, and flow cytometry measurement were used to assess cytotoxicity and apoptosis. Fluorescent probes 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate and chemiluminescence assay of superoxide production were used to detect the production of reactive oxygen species. Western blotting was used to evaluate the quantity of cleaved caspase-3, cytosol cytochrome c, and Bcl-x(L) expression. L-carnitine inhibited doxorubicin-induced reactive oxygen species generation and NADPH oxidase activation, reduced the quantity of cleaved caspase-3 and cytosol cytochrome c, and increased Bcl-x(L) expression, resulting in protecting cardiomyocytes from doxorubicin-induced apoptosis. In addition, L-carnitine was found to increase the prostacyclin (PGI(2)) generation in cardiomyocytes. The siRNA transfection for PGI(2) synthase significantly reduced L-carnitine-induced PGI(2) and L-carnitine's protective effect. Furthermore, blockade the potential PGI(2) receptors, including PGI(2) receptors (IP receptors), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors alpha and delta (PPARα and PPARδ), revealed that the siRNA-mediated blockage of PPARα considerably reduced the anti-apoptotic effect of L-carnitine. These findings suggest that L-carnitine protects cardiomyocytes from doxorubicin-induced apoptosis in part through PGI(2

  4. Effects of L-carnitine against oxidative stress in human hepatocytes: involvement of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin-Lian; Wang, Qiao-Yun; Luan, Hai-Yun; Kang, Ze-Chun; Wang, Chun-Bo

    2012-03-21

    Excessive oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation have been demonstrated to play important roles in the production of liver damage. L-carnitine is a natural substance and acts as a carrier for fatty acids across the inner mitochondrial membrane for subsequent beta-oxidation. It is also an antioxidant that reduces metabolic stress in the cells. Recent years L-carnitine has been proposed for treatment of various kinds of disease, including liver injury. This study was conducted to evaluate the protective effect of L-carnitine against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced cytotoxicity in a normal human hepatocyte cell line, HL7702. We analyzed cytotoxicity using MTT assay and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. Antioxidant activity and lipid peroxidation were estimated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, activities and protein expressions of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), and malondialdehyde (MDA) formation. Expressions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-alpha and its target genes were evaluated by RT-PCR or western blotting. The role of PPAR-alpha in L-carnitine-enhanced expression of SOD and CAT was also explored. Statistical analysis was performed by a one-way analysis of variance, and its significance was assessed by Dennett's post-hoc test. The results showed that L-carnitine protected HL7702 cells against cytotoxity induced by H2O2. This protection was related to the scavenging of ROS, the promotion of SOD and CAT activity and expression, and the prevention of lipid peroxidation in cultured HL7702 cells. The decreased expressions of PPAR-alpha, carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1 (CPT1) and acyl-CoA oxidase (ACOX) induced by H2O2 can be attenuated by L-carnitine. Besides, we also found that the promotion of SOD and CAT protein expression induced by L-carnitine was blocked by PPAR-alpha inhibitor MK886. Taken together, our findings suggest that L-carnitine could protect HL7702 cells against oxidative stress through the

  5. Interactive effects of dietary ractopamine HCl and L-carnitine on finishing pigs: II. Carcass characteristics and meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, B W; Tokach, M D; Goodband, R D; Nelssen, J L; Dritz, S S; Owen, K Q; Woodworth, J C; Sulabo, R C

    2013-07-01

    Three experiments using 1,356 pigs (C22 × 336 PIC) were conducted to determine the interactive effects of dietary L-carnitine and ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC) on carcass characteristics and meat quality of finishing pigs. Experiments were arranged as factorials with main effects of L-carnitine and RAC; L-carnitine levels were 0, 25, or 50 mg/kg in Exp. 1 and 2 and 0 or 50 mg/kg in Exp. 3, and RAC levels of 0, 5, or 10 mg/kg in Exp. 1 and 0 or 10 mg/kg in Exp. 2 and 3. Dietary L-carnitine was fed from 38 kg to slaughter (109 and 118 kg in Exp. 1 and 3, respectively) or for 4 wk before slaughter (109 kg in Exp. 2). Ractopamine HCl was fed for 4 wk in all experiments. Exp. 1 and 2 were conducted at university research facilities (2 pigs per pen), and Exp. 3 was conducted in a commercial research barn (23 pigs per pen). In Exp. 1, an L-carnitine × RAC interaction (P combination with RAC.

  6. Effects of L-carnitine supplementation on the quality of life in diabetic patients with muscle cramps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbe, Ayumi; Tanimoto, Keiji; Inaba, Yuiko; Sakai, Satoshi; Shishikura, Kanako; Imbe, Hisashi; Tanimoto, Yoshimi; Terasaki, Jungo; Imagawa, Akihisa; Hanafusa, Toshiaki

    2018-03-06

    Diabetic patients often suffer from muscle cramps. This study aimed to compare the quality of life (QOL) of diabetic patients with and without muscle cramps and to investigate the effect of L-carnitine supplementation in diabetic patients with muscle cramps. A total of 91 patients with diabetes were enrolled in this study: 69 patients with muscle cramps and 22 patients without muscle cramps. Muscle cramps and QOL were evaluated using the muscle cramp questionnaire and the Short Form 36 health survey version 2 (SF-36), respectively. Clinical characteristics were compared between diabetic patients with and without muscle cramps. In the prospective portion of the study, 25 diabetic patients with muscle cramps received L-carnitine supplementation (600 mg/day orally) for 4 months. The questionnaires were administered before and after supplementation. The SF-36 scores in diabetic patients with muscle cramps were lower than those in patients without muscle cramps on the subscales of physical function, role physical, bodily pain, vitality, general health, and social function. In the 25 patients with muscle cramps who received L-carnitine supplementation, the monthly frequency of muscle cramps and Wong-Baker FACES ® Pain Rating Scale scores were significantly decreased. Scores on the following SF-36 subscales improved after L-carnitine supplementation: body pain, vitality, social function, and role emotional. This study demonstrated that muscle cramps decrease the QOL in patients with diabetes, and L-carnitine supplementation may improve the QOL by reducing the frequency and severity of muscle cramps in these patients.

  7. L-carnitine pretreatment protects slow-twitch skeletal muscles in a rat model of ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirel, Mert; Kaya, Burak; Cerkez, Cem; Ertunc, Mert; Sara, Yildirim

    2013-10-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury negatively affects the outcome of surgical interventions for amputated or severely traumatized extremities. This study aimed to evaluate the protective role of l-carnitine on the contractile properties of fast-twitch (extensor digitorum longus [EDL]) and slow-twitch (soleus [SOL]) skeletal muscles following I/R-induced injury in a rat model. Rats were divided into 4 groups (1) saline pretreatment, (2) l-carnitine pretreatment, (3) saline pretreatment and I/R, and (4) l-carnitine pretreatment and I/R. Twitch and tetanic contractions in the EDL and SOL muscles in each group were recorded. Additionally, a fatigue protocol was performed in these muscles. Twitch and tetanic contraction amplitudes were lower in the EDL and SOL muscles in which I/R was induced (P < .01). l-Carnitine pretreatment significantly increased tetanic contraction amplitude in the SOL muscles following I/R (P < .01) but not in the EDL muscles. l-Carnitine pretreatment did not alter the fatigue response in any of the muscles.

  8. Noninvasive evaluation of adult onset myopathy from carnitine palmitoyl transferase II deficiency using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Videen, J S; Haseler, L J; Karpinski, N C; Terkeltaub, R A

    1999-08-01

    The adult onset metabolic myopathy of carnitine palmitoyl transferase II (CPT II) deficiency is under-recognized, in part due to variable degrees of enzyme deficiency and symptomatology, as well as limitations in means for noninvasive evaluation. We describe a proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) technique, using a standard clinical magnetic resonance imaging scanner, to diagnose and help monitor the response to therapy in adult CPT II deficiency. A 53-year-old woman presented with a long standing history of diffuse aching and fatigue provoked by high fat intake, fasting, or prolonged exertion. Muscle biopsy revealed myopathic features and a deficiency (33% of control) of CPT II activity with elevated palmitoyl carnitine. Proton MRS of the soleus muscle was performed using a 1.5 Tesla scanner before and during dietary therapy. Proton MRS revealed shortening of the transverse relaxation time (T2), consistent with increased acetylation of the carnitine pool. The symptoms resolved completely by treatment with frequent feedings of a high carbohydrate diet low in long chain fatty acids supplemented with medium chain triglycerides and L-carnitine. Recovery of normal muscle MRS and carnitine T2 relaxation was documented by the third month of therapy. Proton MRS is a novel, potentially useful, and readily available adjunct in the diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of muscle CPT II deficiency.

  9. Downregulation of Oxidative and Nitrosative Apoptotic Signaling by L-Carnitine in Ifosfamide-Induced Fanconi Syndrome Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed M. Sayed-Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well documented that ifosfamide (IFO therapy is associated with sever nephropathy in the form of Fanconi syndrome. Although oxidative stress has been reported as a major player in IFO-induced Fanconi syndrome, no mechanism for this effect has been ascertained. Therefore, this study has been initiated to investigate, on gene expression level, the mechanism of IFO-induce nephrotoxicity and those whereby carnitine supplementation attenuates this serious side effect of IFO. To achieve the ultimate goals of this study, adult male rats were assigned to one of four treatment groups, namely, control, L-carnitine, IFO, and IFO plus L-carnitine. Administration of IFO for 5 days significantly increased serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN, and total nitrate/nitrite (NOx production in kidney tissues. In addition, IFO significantly increased mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, caspase-9, and caspase-3 and significantly decreased expression of glutathione peroxides (GPx, catalase (CAT, and Bcl2 in kidney tissues. Administration of L-carnitine to IFO-treated rats resulted in a complete reversal of the all biochemical and gene expression changes, induced by IFO, to the control values. Data from this study suggest that L-carnitine prevents the development of IFO-induced nephrotoxicity via downregulation of oxidative and nitrosative apoptotic signaling in kidney tissues.

  10. Downregulation of oxidative and nitrosative apoptotic signaling by L-carnitine in Ifosfamide-induced Fanconi syndrome rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayed-Ahmed, Mohamed M; Hafez, Mohamed M; Aldelemy, Meshan Lafi; Aleisa, Abdulaziz M; Al-Rejaie, Salem S; Al-Hosaini, Khaled A; Al-Harbi, Naif O; Al-Harbi, Mohamed M; Al-Shabanah, Othman A

    2012-01-01

    It is well documented that ifosfamide (IFO) therapy is associated with sever nephropathy in the form of Fanconi syndrome. Although oxidative stress has been reported as a major player in IFO-induced Fanconi syndrome, no mechanism for this effect has been ascertained. Therefore, this study has been initiated to investigate, on gene expression level, the mechanism of IFO-induce nephrotoxicity and those whereby carnitine supplementation attenuates this serious side effect of IFO. To achieve the ultimate goals of this study, adult male rats were assigned to one of four treatment groups, namely, control, L-carnitine, IFO, and IFO plus L-carnitine. Administration of IFO for 5 days significantly increased serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and total nitrate/nitrite (NOx) production in kidney tissues. In addition, IFO significantly increased mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), caspase-9, and caspase-3 and significantly decreased expression of glutathione peroxides (GPx), catalase (CAT), and Bcl2 in kidney tissues. Administration of L-carnitine to IFO-treated rats resulted in a complete reversal of the all biochemical and gene expression changes, induced by IFO, to the control values. Data from this study suggest that L-carnitine prevents the development of IFO-induced nephrotoxicity via downregulation of oxidative and nitrosative apoptotic signaling in kidney tissues.

  11. Effect of L-carnitine administration on serum insulin and adiponectin levels, and AMPK, APPL1 and PPARγ gene expression in STZ-induced diabetic rat liver

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    B. Shahouzehi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is considered as a metabolic disease in which insulin secretion and functions are disturbed and characterized by hyperglycemia. L-carnitine is synthesized in most mammals and plays critical role in fatty acid oxidation and energy production. Data about the L-carnitine hypoglycemic effects are controversial. We evaluated long-term oral L-carnitine administration effects on blood glucose, insulin and adiponectin levels, as well as expression of AMPK, APPL1 and PPARγ genes in liver of STZ-induced diabetic rats. Group 1 (control, did not receive any treatment, group 2 received 50 mg/kg STZ by i.p injection, group 3 received single dose of 50 mg/kg STZ by i.p injection and also 600 mg/kg/day L-carnitine orally for 5 weeks. Our results showed that L-carnitine long-term oral supplementation significantly reduced blood glucose and normalized insulin levels in diabetic rats. Also, we found that L-carnitine significantly increased AMPK and APPL1 expression, and showed a mild elevation of PPARγ expression. In sum, we suggest that long-term L-carnitine supplementation has beneficial effects on diabetic rats which showed hypoglycemic effects. Probably the beneficial effects of L-carnitine are contributed to the upregulation of insulin sensitizers such as AMPK and adiponectin.

  12. L-carnitine Mediated Reduction in Oxidative Stress and Alteration in Transcript Level of Antioxidant Enzymes in Sheep Embryos Produced In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, A; Reddy, I J; Gupta, P S P; Mondal, S

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to find out the effect of L-carnitine on oocyte maturation and subsequent embryo development, with L-carnitine-mediated alteration if any in transcript level of antioxidant enzymes (GPx, Cu/Zn-SOD (SOD1) and Mn-SOD (SOD2) in oocytes and developing sheep embryos produced in vitro. Different concentrations of L-carnitine (0 mm, 2.5 mm, 5 mm, 7.5 mm and 10 mm) were used in maturation medium. Oocytes matured with 10 mm L-carnitine showed significantly (p embryos than control group. Antioxidant effect of L-carnitine was proved by culturing oocytes and embryos with H2O2 in the presence of L-carnitine which could be able to protect oocytes and embryos from H2O2-induced oxidative damage. L-carnitine supplementation significantly (p embryos. It was concluded from the study that L-carnitine supplementation during in vitro maturation reduces oxidative stress-induced embryo toxicity by decreasing intracellular ROS and increasing intracellular GSH that in turn improved developmental potential of oocytes and embryos and alters transcript level of antioxidant enzymes. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. L-carnitine and contribution to normal lipid metabolism: evaluation of a health claim pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjödin, Anders Mikael

    2018-01-01

    on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to L-carnitine and normal lipid metabolism. The food that is proposed as the subject of the health claim is L-carnitine. The Panel considers that L-carnitine is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect proposed by the applicant is ‘normal lipid....... The Panel considers that the evidence provided does not establish that dietary L-carnitine is required to maintain normal lipid metabolism in the target population, for which the claim is intended. The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of L-carnitine......Following an application from Lonza Ltd., submitted for authorisation of a health claim pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Germany, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion...

  14. L-Carnitine Supplementation for the Management of Fatigue in Patients With Cancer: An Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Phase III, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruciani, Ricardo A.; Zhang, Jenny J.; Manola, Judith; Cella, David; Ansari, Bilal; Fisch, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose L-carnitine, a popular complementary and alternative medicine product, is used by patients with cancer for the treatment of fatigue, the most commonly reported symptom in this patient population. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of L-carnitine supplementation as a treatment for fatigue in patients with cancer. Patients and Methods In this double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, patients with invasive malignancies and fatigue were randomly assigned to either 2 g/d of L-carnitine oral supplementation or matching placebo. The primary end point was the change in average daily fatigue from baseline to week 4 using the Brief Fatigue Inventory (BFI). Results Three hundred seventy-six patients were randomly assigned to treatment with L-carnitine supplementation or placebo. L-carnitine supplementation resulted in significant carnitine plasma level increase by week 4. The primary outcome, fatigue, measured using the BFI, improved in both arms compared with baseline (L-carnitine: −0.96, 95% CI, −1.32 to −0.60; placebo: −1.11, 95% CI −1.44 to −0.78). There were no statistically significant differences between arms (P = .57). Secondary outcomes, including fatigue measured by the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy–Fatigue instrument, depression, and pain, did not show significant difference between arms. A separate analysis of patients who were carnitine-deficient at baseline did not show statistically significant improvement in fatigue or other outcomes after L-carnitine supplementation. Conclusion Four weeks of 2 g of L-carnitine supplementation did not improve fatigue in patients with invasive malignancies and good performance status. PMID:22987089

  15. Anaesthetics modulate tumour necrosis factor α: effects of L-carnitine supplementation in surgical patients. Preliminary results.

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    Giovanna Delogu

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Both anaesthetics and surgical trauma could strongly affect the production of tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα. During in vitro experiments the authors found that anaesthetics modulate the production of TNFα by peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Notably, Pentothal strongly increased the production of the cytokine as compared to both lipopolysacchride treated and control mononuclear cells, whereas in supernatants from Leptofen driven mononuclear cells TNFα was strongly reduced. On the other hand, Pavulon did not significantly affect the cytokine production. In the in vivo study, in an attempt to ameliorate the metabolic response to surgical trauma, L-carnitine was administered to 20 surgical patients, then the circulating TNFα was measured. The results indicate that the levels of circulating TNFα were strongly increased following surgery and that L-carnitine administration resulted in a strong reduction of TNFα. Thus, the data suggest that L-carnitine could be helpful in protecting surgical patients against dysmetabolism dependent on dysregulated production of TNFα.

  16. Effects of dietary L-carnitine and ractopamine HCl on the metabolic response to handling in finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, B W; Tokach, M D; Goodband, R D; Nelssen, J L; Dritz, S S; Owen, K Q; Woodworth, J C; Sulabo, R C

    2013-09-01

    Two experiments (384 pigs; C22 × L326; PIC) were conducted to determine the interactive effect of dietary L-carnitine and ractopamine HCl (RAC) on the metabolic response of pigs to handling. Experiments were arranged as split-split plots with handling as the main plot and diets as subplots (4 pens per treatment). Dietary L-carnitine (0 or 50 mg/kg) was fed from 36.0 kg to the end of the experiments (118 kg), and RAC (0 or 20 mg/kg) was fed the last 4 wk of each experiment. At the end of each experiment, 4 pigs per pen were assigned to 1 of 2 handling treatments. Gently handled pigs were moved at a moderate walking pace 3 times through a 50-m course and up and down a 15° loading ramp. Aggressively handled pigs were moved as fast as possible 3 times through the same course, but up and down a 30° ramp, and shocked 3 times with an electrical prod. Blood was collected immediately before and after handling in Exp. 1 and immediately after and 1 h after handling in Exp. 2. Feeding RAC increased (P 0.10) of L-carnitine on growth performance. In Exp. 1 and 2, aggressive handling increased (P 0.10) between pigs fed L-carnitine and those fed RAC, indicating that L-carnitine did not decrease recovery time of pigs subjected to aggressive handling. These results suggest that pigs fed 20 mg/kg of RAC are more susceptible to stress when handled aggressively compared with pigs not fed RAC. Dietary L-carnitine fed in combination with RAC did not alleviate the effects of stress. This research emphasizes the importance of using proper animal handling techniques when marketing finishing pigs fed RAC.

  17. Effect of cholecalciferol and levo carnitine on plasma glucose, plasma insulin and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar, M. K.; Hussain, M. M.; Khan, M. A.; Ahmad, T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effects of combined and individual supplementation of cholecalciferol and levo carnitine on plasma glucose, plasma insulin and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic rats. Methods: The randomised controlled trial was conducted at the Department of Physiology, Army Medical College, Rawalpindi, between October 2010 and April 2011. It comprised 80 healthy Sprague Dawley rats who were divided into four groups (n = 20 each). Rats were fed high-fat diet for 2 weeks followed by an intraperitoneal injection of streptozocin to induce type 2 diabetes mellitus. Group I served as diabetic control; group II was given cholecalciferol; group III; levo carnitine; and group IV was administered cholecalciferol and levo carnitine together. After 6 days of supplementation, terminal intracardiac blood extraction was done and samples were analysed for fasting plasma glucose and plasma insulin. Insulin resistance was calculated by homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance. SPSS 17.0 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Fasting plasma glucose levels were significantly decreased (p <0.001) in the combined supplementation group compared to the diabetic control and individual supplementation groups. Combined supplementation showed a significant increase in fasting plasma insulin levels when compared with diabetic control and levo carnitine groups (p <0.001), and the effect of combined supplementation on ameliorating insulin resistance was significantly better (p <0.001) as compared to the individual supplementation of cholecalciferol and levo carnitine. Conclusions: The combined supplementation of cholecalciferol and levo carnitine for 6 days markedly improved the glycaemic control, insulin secretion and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic rats on high-fat diet. A prolonged supplementation by both the compounds along with caloric restriction may yield a more promising outcome. (author)

  18. Influence of L-Carnitine Supplementation on Serum Lipid Profile in Hemodialysis Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

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    Haohai Huang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: An increasing body of evidence demonstrates that L-carnitine plays a pivotal role in lipid metabolism of hemodialysis (HD patients. However, there are still some reservations about its benefits. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to assess the effects of L-carnitine supplementation on lipid profile in HD patients. Methods: Literature search was performed to identify the relevant randomized controlled trials that investigated the effects of L-carnitine on the lipid profile of subjects. Two independent authors used an Excel file to extract data and assess trials quality. The primary effect measure was the difference in means of the final lipid measurements between the intervention and control groups. The meta-analysis was performed with the fixed-effects model or random-effects model according to heterogeneity. Results: Twelve studies with a total of 391 patients met the inclusion criteria. The use of L-carnitine was not associated with a reduction in the total cholesterol (SMD, -0.11; 95% CI, -0.31 to 0.09, HDL-cholesterol (SMD, 0.01; 95% CI, -0.36 to 0.39, VLDL-cholesterol (SMD, 0.54; 95% CI, -0.06 to 1.14, and the serum triglycerides (SMD, -0.12; 95% CI, -0.36 to 0.12. However, L-carnitine can significantly decrease the LDL-cholesterol (SMD, -0.29; 95% CI, -0.53 to -0.06 in HD patients. In a subgroup meta-analysis, a significant LDL-cholesterol-lowering effect of L-carnitine supplementation was observed in intravenous application group, and patients with longer interventional duration and renal diseases. Conclusion: The limited evidence suggests that there was no effect of L-carnitine on serum total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, VLDL-cholesterol and serum triglycerides. By contrast, this meta-analysis suggests a promising effect of L-carnitine on LDL-cholesterol. Further large-scale, well-designed randomized controlled trials are urgently needed

  19. γ–Butyrobetaine is a pro-atherogenic intermediate in gut microbial metabolism of L-carnitine to TMAO

    OpenAIRE

    Koeth, Robert A.; Levison, Bruce S.; Culley, Miranda K.; Buffa, Jennifer A.; Wang, Zeneng; Gregory, Jill C.; Org, Elin; Wu, Yuping; Li, Lin; Smith, Jonathan D.; Wilson Tang, W. H.; DiDonato, Joseph A.; Lusis, Aldons J.; Hazen, Stanley L.

    2014-01-01

    L- Carnitine, a nutrient in red meat, was recently reported to accelerate atherosclerosis via a metaorganismal pathway involving gut microbial trimethylamine (TMA) formation and host hepatic conversion into trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO). Herein we show that following L-carnitine ingestion, γ-butyrobetaine (γBB) is produced as an intermediary metabolite by gut microbes at a site anatomically proximal to and at a rate ~1000-fold higher than the formation of TMA. Moreover, we show γBB is the maj...

  20. Melatonin and L-carnitin improves endothelial disfunction and oxidative stress in Type 2 diabetic rats

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    Derya Selcen Salmanoglu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Vascular dysfunction is thought to play a major role in the development of diabetic cardiovascular disease. The roles of endothelial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and dyslipidemia will be considered. Melatonin as well as L-carnitine were shown to possess strong antioxidant properties. Diabetes induced with high fat diet (for 8 weeks and multipl low doses intraperitoneal injection of STZ (twice, 30 mg/kg/d i.p. The diabetic animals were randomly assigned to one of the experimental groups as follows: Control group (C, high fat diet (HFD, STZ-induced diabetic group (HFD+STZ , HFD+STZ diabetic group received melatonin (10 mg/kg/d i.p, HFD+STZ diabetic group received L-carnitine (0.6 g/kg/d i.p, and HFD+STZ diabetic group received glibenclamide (5 mg/kg/d, oral. The serum fasting blood glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, HDL- cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglyceride and malondialdehyde (MDA levels were tested. Acetylcholine induced endothelium-dependent relaxation and sodium nitroprusside induced endothelium-independent relaxation were measured in aortas for estimating endothelial function. Also, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, superoxide dismutase (SOD and nitric oxide (NO levels activities were determined in rat liver. According to our results melatonin and L-carnitine treatment decreased fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, and LDL levels. MDA levels significantly decreased with the melatonin treatment whereas SOD levels were not significantly changed between the groups. The results suggest that especially melatonin restores the vascular responses and endothelial dysfunction in diabetes.

  1. Melatonin and L-carnitin improves endothelial disfunction and oxidative stress in Type 2 diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmanoglu, Derya Selcen; Gurpinar, Tugba; Vural, Kamil; Ekerbicer, Nuran; Darıverenli, Ertan; Var, Ahmet

    2016-08-01

    Vascular dysfunction is thought to play a major role in the development of diabetic cardiovascular disease. The roles of endothelial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and dyslipidemia will be considered. Melatonin as well as L-carnitine were shown to possess strong antioxidant properties. Diabetes induced with high fat diet (for 8 weeks) and multipl low doses intraperitoneal injection of STZ (twice, 30mg/kg/d i.p). The diabetic animals were randomly assigned to one of the experimental groups as follows: Control group (C), high fat diet (HFD), STZ-induced diabetic group (HFD+STZ) , HFD+STZ diabetic group received melatonin (10mg/kg/d i.p), HFD+STZ diabetic group received L-carnitine (0.6g/kg/d i.p), and HFD+STZ diabetic group received glibenclamide (5mg/kg/d, oral). The serum fasting blood glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, HDL- cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglyceride and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were tested. Acetylcholine induced endothelium-dependent relaxation and sodium nitroprusside induced endothelium-independent relaxation were measured in aortas for estimating endothelial function. Also, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and nitric oxide (NO) levels activities were determined in rat liver. According to our results melatonin and L-carnitine treatment decreased fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, and LDL levels. MDA levels significantly decreased with the melatonin treatment whereas SOD levels were not significantly changed between the groups. The results suggest that especially melatonin restores the vascular responses and endothelial dysfunction in diabetes. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The Effect of Cadmium on Hippocampus Development of Rat Embryos and L-carnitine Protective Role

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    Ramezani M

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Cadmium is a toxic metal which is widely used in industry. This metal exerts toxic effects on multiple organs, including nervous system. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of cadmium on weight and development of hippocampus in Wistar rat embryos and then determining whether L-carnitine, as an antioxidant, can protect hippocampus from the toxic effects.Methods: Female Wistar rats (250-300g were used in this study. 24 hours after mating with male rats, the females were separated and their vaginal smears were examined for sperm detection. This day was considered as embryonic zero day. The female rats were divided into three groups: The control group which received no injection, the experimental group 1 which received 1mg/kg B.W cadmium and the experimental group 2 which received 1mg/kg B.W cadmium+500mg/kg B.W L-carnitin in days 7 and 10 of gestation. On day 17 of gestation, the animals were sacrificed by chloroform over dose and their embryos were removed surgically. The embryos were fixed in formalin 10% for 30 days, the weight of embryos were measured. Then tissue processing, sectioning and Hematoxylin-Eosin (H & M staining were done. Some sections of hippocampus were evaluated using light microscope and MOTIC soft ware. Results: The weight of embryos were significantly decreased in experimental groups. This decrease was significantly greater in the Experimental group 2. The number of cells and thickness of hippocampus layers were decreased significantly just in the second group. Conclusion: These findings indicate that cadmium has teratogenic effects on embryo’s weight and development of hippocampus and at least a part of these effects may be inhibited by L-carnitine.

  3. Co-ordinate induction of hepatic mitochondrial and peroxisomal carnitine acyltransferase synthesis by diet and drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, P S; Marine, K A; Brady, L J; Ramsay, R R

    1989-01-01

    The present studies examined the effect of agents that induce peroxisomal and mitochondrial beta-oxidation on hepatic mitochondrial carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) and peroxisomal carnitine acyltransferase [CPTs of Ramsay (1988) Biochem. J. 249, 239-245; COT of Farrell & Bieber (1983) Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 222, 123-132 and Miyazawa, Ozasa, Osumi & Hashimoto (1983) J. Biochem. 94, 529-542]. In the first studies, high fat diets containing corn oil or fish oil were used to induce peroxisomal and mitochondrial enzymes. Rats were fed one of three diets for 4 weeks: (1) low fat, with corn oil as 11% of energy (kJ); (2) high fat, with corn oil as 45% of kJ; (3) high fat, with fish oil as 45% of kJ. At the end of 4 weeks, both mitochondrial CPT and peroxisomal CPTs exhibited increases in activity, immunoreactive protein, mRNA levels and transcription rates in livers of rats fed either high-fat diet compared to the low fat diet. Riboflavin deficiency or starvation for 48 h also increased the peroxisomal CPTs mRNA. A second set of studies used the plasticizer 2-(diethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), 0.5% clofibrate or 1% acetylsalicylic acid (fed for 3 weeks) to alter peroxisomal and mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation. With DEHP, the mitochondrial CPT and peroxisomal CPTs activity, immunoreactive protein, mRNA levels and and transcription rate were all increased by 3-5-fold. The peroxisomal CPTs activity, immunoreactive protein, mRNA levels and transcription rate were increased 2-3-fold by clofibrate and acetylsalicylic acid, again similar to mitochondrial CPT. The results of the combined studies using both diet and drugs to cause enzyme induction suggest that the synthesis of the carnitine acyltransferases (mitochondrial CPT and peroxisomal CPTs) may be co-ordinated with each other; however, the co-ordinate regulatory factors have not yet been identified. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:2775196

  4. Role of energetic coenzyme pools in the production of L-carnitine by Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cánovas, M; Sevilla, A; Bernal, V; Leal, R; Iborra, J L

    2006-11-01

    The aim of this work was to understand the steps controlling the biotransformation of trimethylammonium compounds into L(-)-carnitine by Escherichia coli. The high-cell density reactor steady-state levels of carbon source (glycerol), biotransformation substrate (crotonobetaine), acetate (anaerobiosis product) and fumarate (as an electron acceptor) were pulsed by increasing them fivefold. Following the pulse, the evolution of the enzyme activities involved in the biotransformation process of crotonobetaine into L(-)-carnitine (crotonobetaine hydration), in the synthesis of acetyl-CoA (ACS: acetyl-CoA synthetase and PTA: ATP: acetate phosphotransferase) and in the distribution of metabolites for the tricarboxylic acid (ICDH: isocitrate dehydrogenase) and glyoxylate (ICL: isocitrate lyase) cycles was monitored. In addition, the levels of carnitine, the cell ATP content and the NADH/NAD(+) ratio were measured in order to assess the importance and participation of these energetic coenzymes in the catabolic system. The results provided an experimental demonstration of the important role of the glyoxylate shunt during biotransformation and the need for high levels of ATP to maintain metabolite transport and biotransformation. Moreover, the results obtained for the NADH/NAD(+) pool indicated that it is correlated with the biotransformation process at the NAD(+) regeneration and ATP production level in anaerobiosis. More importantly, a linear correlation between the NADH/NAD(+) ratio and the levels of the ICDH and ICL (carbon and electron flows) and the PTA and ACS (acetate and ATP production and acetyl-CoA synthesis) activity levels was assessed. The main metabolic pathway operating during cell metabolic perturbation with a pulse of glycerol and acetate in the high-cell density membrane reactor was that related to ICDH and ICL, both regulating the carbon metabolism, together with PTA and ACS enzymes (regulating ATP production).

  5. Newborn screening for citrin deficiency and carnitine uptake defect using second-tier molecular tests

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    Wang Li-Yun

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS analysis is a powerful tool for newborn screening, and many rare inborn errors of metabolism are currently screened using MS/MS. However, the sensitivity of MS/MS screening for several inborn errors, including citrin deficiency (screened by citrulline level and carnitine uptake defect (CUD, screened by free carnitine level, is not satisfactory. This study was conducted to determine whether a second-tier molecular test could improve the sensitivity of citrin deficiency and CUD detection without increasing the false-positive rate. Methods Three mutations in the SLC25A13 gene (for citrin deficiency and one mutation in the SLC22A5 gene (for CUD were analyzed in newborns who demonstrated an inconclusive primary screening result (with levels between the screening and diagnostic cutoffs. Results The results revealed that 314 of 46 699 newborns received a second-tier test for citrin deficiency, and two patients were identified; 206 of 30 237 newborns received a second-tier testing for CUD, and one patient was identified. No patients were identified using the diagnostic cutoffs. Although the incidences for citrin deficiency (1:23 350 and CUD (1:30 000 detected by screening are still lower than the incidences calculated from the mutation carrier rates, the second-tier molecular test increases the sensitivity of newborn screening for citrin deficiency and CUD without increasing the false-positive rate. Conclusions Utilizing a molecular second-tier test for citrin deficiency and carnitine transporter deficiency is feasible.

  6. l-carnitine as a Potential Additive in Blood Storage Solutions: A Study on Erythrocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Soumya, R.; Carl, H.; Vani, R.

    2015-01-01

    Erythrocytes undergo various changes during storage (storage lesion) that in turn reduces their functioning and survival. Oxidative stress plays a major role in the storage lesion and antioxidants can be used to combat this stress. This study elucidates the effects of l-carnitine (LC) on erythrocytes of stored blood. Blood was obtained from male Wistar rats and stored (4 °C) for 20 days in CPDA-1 (citrate phosphate dextrose adenine) solution. Samples were divided into–(i) controls (ii) LC 10 ...

  7. ACETYL-L-CARNITINE AFFECTS THE ELECTRICAL ACTIVITY OF MECHANOSENSORY NEURONS IN HIRUDO MEDICINALIS GANGLIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Traina

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Was previously discovered that in the leech Hirudo medicinalis, acetyl-l-carnitine (ALC affects forms of non-associative learning, such as sensitization and dishabituation, due to nociceptive stimulation of the dorsal skin in the swim induction behavioural paradigm, likely through modulating the activity of the mechanosensory tactile (T neurons, which initiate swimming. Since was found that ALC impaired sensitization and dishabituation, both of which are mediated by the neurotransmitter serotonin, the present study analyzed how ALC may interfere with the sensitizing response. Was already found that ALC reduced the activity of nociceptive (N neurons, which modulate T cell activity through serotonergic mediation.

  8. Effect of L-carnitine on proliferative response and mRNA expression of some of its associated factors in splenic mononuclear cells of male broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kazuaki; Kitano, Ayumi; Akiba, Yukio

    2010-04-01

    The effect of L-carnitine supplementation on mitogen (concanavalin A, Con A) induced proliferation of mononuclear cells (MNC) in the spleen was investigated in broiler chickens at different ages. Day-old chickens were fed a diet supplemented with or without L-carnitine (100 ppm) for 24 days. The carnitine-supplemented group showed greater proliferation of MNC in the spleen in response to Con A than that of the control group at 24 days of age. In addition, at 24 days of age the carnitine-supplemented group showed higher expression of interleukin (IL)-2 and interferon (IFN)-gamma mRNA, but lower expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the Con A-stimulated splenic MNC than the control group. The enhancement effect of L-carnitine on MNC proliferation and IL-2 mRNA expression was not found in chicks at 14 days of age. Addition of L-carnitine (50 nmol/mL) to the culture medium enhanced proliferation and IL-2 mRNA expression of splenic MNC obtained from 24-day-old but not from 14-day-old broiler chickens. The results suggest that L-carnitine is capable of enhancing MNC proliferation in broiler chickens at 24 days of age partly through increasing IL-2 and IFN-gamma production and decreasing NO production.

  9. Suppression of intestinal microbiota-dependent production of pro-atherogenic trimethylamine N-oxide by shifting L-carnitine microbial degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuka, Janis; Liepinsh, Edgars; Makrecka-Kuka, Marina; Liepins, Janis; Cirule, Helena; Gustina, Daina; Loza, Einars; Zharkova-Malkova, Olga; Grinberga, Solveiga; Pugovics, Osvalds; Dambrova, Maija

    2014-11-11

    Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) is produced in host liver from trimethylamine (TMA). TMAO and TMA share common dietary quaternary amine precursors, carnitine and choline, which are metabolized by the intestinal microbiota. TMAO recently has been linked to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and severity of cardiovascular diseases. We examined the effects of anti-atherosclerotic compound meldonium, an aza-analogue of carnitine bioprecursor gamma-butyrobetaine (GBB), on the availability of TMA and TMAO. Wistar rats received L-carnitine, GBB or choline alone or in combination with meldonium. Plasma, urine and rat small intestine perfusate samples were assayed for L-carnitine, GBB, choline and TMAO using UPLC-MS/MS. Meldonium effects on TMA production by intestinal bacteria from L-carnitine and choline were tested. Treatment with meldonium significantly decreased intestinal microbiota-dependent production of TMA/TMAO from L-carnitine, but not from choline. 24hours after the administration of meldonium, the urinary excretion of TMAO was 3.6 times lower in the combination group than in the L-carnitine-alone group. In addition, the administration of meldonium together with L-carnitine significantly increased GBB concentration in blood plasma and in isolated rat small intestine perfusate. Meldonium did not influence bacterial growth and bacterial uptake of L-carnitine, but TMA production by the intestinal microbiota bacteria K. pneumoniae was significantly decreased. We have shown for the first time that TMA/TMAO production from quaternary amines could be decreased by targeting bacterial TMA-production. In addition, the production of pro-atherogenic TMAO can be suppressed by shifting the microbial degradation pattern of supplemental/dietary quaternary amines. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. dif-1 and colt, both implicated in early embryonic development, encode carnitine acylcarnitine translocase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oey, Nadia A; Ijlst, Lodewijk; van Roermund, Carlo W T; Wijburg, Frits A; Wanders, Ronald J A

    2005-06-01

    It has always been assumed that during development the embryo and fetus depend only on glycolysis for energy generation and that they do not oxidize fatty acids. Recently, however, we found abundant expression and activity of fatty acid oxidation (FAO) enzymes in the human embryo and fetus. In a search for FAO gene expression during development we came across two embryonic differentiation genes: differentiation defective (dif-1) and congested-like trachea (colt) of Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster, respectively. Earlier studies showed that expression of these two genes is essential during developmental stages with high energy requirements. Both dif-1 and colt encode proteins with sequence similarity to the mitochondrial carnitine acylcarnitine carrier (CACT), which suggests that the DIF-1 and COLT proteins might be functional orthologues of CACT. To investigate this, we expressed both dif-1 and colt in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Our results show that DIF-1 and COLT can functionally complement a yeast CACT deletion strain and thus function as carnitine acylcarnitine transporters. This finding is well in line with the recent observation that embryos are capable of oxidizing fatty acids and furthermore implies that FAO is essential during early embryonic development when the energy demand is high.

  11. Effects of acetyl-L-carnitine in diabetic neuropathy and other geriatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergi, G; Pizzato, S; Piovesan, F; Trevisan, C; Veronese, N; Manzato, E

    2018-02-01

    A long history of diabetes mellitus and increasing age are associated with the onset of diabetic neuropathy, a painful and highly disabling complication with a prevalence peaking at 50% among elderly diabetic patients. Acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) is a molecule derived from the acetylation of carnitine in the mitochondria that has an essential role in energy production. It has recently been proposed as a therapy to improve the symptoms of diabetic neuropathy. ALC is widely distributed in mammalian tissues, including the brain, blood-brain barrier, brain neurons, and astrocytes. Aside from its metabolic activity, ALC has demonstrated cytoprotective, antioxidant, and antiapoptotic effects in the nervous system. It exerts an analgesic action by reducing the concentration of glutamate in the synapses. It facilitates nerve regeneration and damage repair after primary trauma: its positive effects on metabolism promote the synthesis, fluidity, and functionality of neuronal membranes, increase protein synthesis, and improve the axonal transport of neurofilament proteins and tubulin. It also amplifies nerve growth factor responsiveness, an effect that is believed to enhance overall neurite growth. ALC has been proposed for the treatment of various neurological and psychiatric diseases, such as mood disorders and depression, dementias, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease, because synaptic energy states and mitochondrial dysfunction are core factors in their pathogenesis.

  12. Pharmacological preconditioning with L-carnitine: relevance to myocardial hemodynamic function and glycogen and lactate content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi, Moslem; Javidnia, Ali; Ghorbani-Haghjo, Amir; Mohammadi, Sadollah; Garjani, Alireza

    2010-07-01

    Carnitine is a vital biologic substance facilitating fatty acids transport into mitochondria for ATP production. This study was to investigate the effects of pre-ischemic pharmacological preconditioning (PC) with L-carnitine (L-Car) on myocardial infarct size and cardiac functions in ischemic and reperfused isolated rat heart and meanwhile on left ventricular glycogen and lactate content. Isolated rat hearts were subjected to 30 min coronary artery occlusion followed by 120 min reperfusion. The hearts (n= 8-12) were perfused with L-Car (0.5-5 mM) only for 15 min before to 10 min after induction of ischemia. Preconditioning of the hearts with L-Car provided concentration-dependent cardioprotection as evidenced by improved postischemic ventricular functional recovery (developed pressure, left ventricular end diastolic pressure and coronary flow rate) and reduced myocardial infarct size (p0.05) content in left ventricle during ischemia compared with the control. The results of this study demonstrate that L-Car pharmacologically precondition the hearts against ischemic and reperfusion injury in part by recovery of postischemic ventricular hemodynamic functions, depletion of glycogen and therefore reduction of lactate accumulation.

  13. Carcass Traits and Immune Response of Broiler Chickens Fed Dietary L-Carnitine, Coenzyme Q10 and Ractopamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Asadi

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of coenzyme Q10, L-carnitine and ractopamine supplementation, alone and in combinations, on carcass traits and immune response of broiler chickens. Five hundred and twelve one-day-old Ross 308 male broiler chickens were randomly allocated into eight treatments with four replicates each. A 2×2×2 factorial arrangement was applied, with two levels of coenzyme Q10 (0 and 40 mg/kg, two levels of L-carnitine (0 and 200 mg/kg and two levels of ractopamine (0 and 10 mg/kg. The birds were reared until day 42 of age under standard conditions. Blood samples were collected at the end of grower and finisher periods from the wing vein. Four birds per group were sacrificed at day 42 of age. Except for carcass yield, other carcass traits were not significantly affected (p>0.05 by different levels of coenzyme Q10, L-carnitine, or ractopamine. Immune response parameters were significantly (p<0.05 different between the treatments. The lowest antibody titers against Newcastle disease virus and relative spleen weight were observed in control group. The results of this study suggest that addition of coenzyme Q10 and L-carnitine to broiler diets has benefit effect on immune response of broiler chickens.

  14. The effects of different levels of L-carnitine and fat on performance and egg quality of laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. REZAEI

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available L-carnitine is used as feed additive in poultry diets to increase yield and to improve feed efficiency. The major role of L-carnitine appears to be the transport of long-chain fatty acids into mitochondria for ƒÀ oxidation. This experiment was carried out to determine the effects of two levels of fat (10 and 30 g kg-1 DM and two levels of L-carnitine (0 and 250 mg kg-1 on performance, egg quality, and blood parameters of laying hens in a factorial arrangement (2~2 with completely randomized design with six replicates and four laying hens in each replicate. During the experiment feed intake, egg weight, egg production, feed conversion ratio, and some blood parameters (triglyceride, cholesterol, LDL, HDL, egg quality (albumen height, egg shell thickness, egg shell breaking strength, and cholesterol content of eggs were measured. Results of this experiment indicated that supplementation of L-carnitine in laying hens diets had not significant effect on performance, cholesterol content of eggs, but decreased the levels of triglyceride, cholesterol, LDL in blood serum and increased albumen height of eggs significantly (p

  15. Inhibition of carnitine-acyl transferase I by oxfenicine studied in vivo with [11C]-labeled fatty acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angsten, Gertrud; Valind, Sven; Takalo, Reijo; Neu, Henrik; Meurling, Staffan; Langstroem, Bengt

    2005-01-01

    Methods: Anesthetized pigs were studied with [ 11 C]-labeled fatty acids (FAs) with carbon chain length ranging from 8 to 16 carbon atoms, during control conditions and during inhibition of carnitine-palmitoyl transferase I (CPT I) with oxfenicine. The myocardial uptake of [ 11 C]-FAs from blood was measured together with the relative distribution of [ 11 C]-acyl-CoA between rapid mitochondrial oxidation and incorporation into slow turnover lipid pools in the heart. Results: During baseline conditions, the fractional oxidative utilization of palmitate was almost as high as that of carnitine-independent short-chain FAs, unless the carnitine shuttle was inhibited by high levels of lactate. Inhibition of CPT I almost completely blocked the oxidative pathway for palmitic acid and reduced the fractional oxidative utilization, while the rate of oxidative metabolism of acyl-CoA was unaffected. Conclusions: [ 11 C]-Labeled FAs allow rapid oxidation to be well separated from esterification into slow turnover lipid pools in the heart of anaesthetized pigs. The fractional oxidative utilization of [ 11 C]-palmitate serves well to characterize, in vivo, the carnitine-dependent transfer of long-chain FAs

  16. Carnitine prevents the early mitochondrial damage induced by methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) in L1210 leukaemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikula, P; Ruohola, H; Alhonen-Hongisto, L; Jänne, J

    1985-06-01

    We previously found that the anti-cancer drug methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) (mitoguazone) depresses carnitine-dependent oxidation of long-chain fatty acids in cultured mouse leukaemia cells [Nikula, Alhonen-Hongisto, Seppänen & Jänne (1984) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 120, 9-14]. We have now investigated whether carnitine also influences the development of the well-known mitochondrial damage produced by the drug in L1210 leukaemia cells. Palmitate oxidation was distinctly inhibited in tumour cells exposed to 5 microM-methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) for only 7 h. Electron-microscopic examination of the drug-exposed cells revealed that more than half of the mitochondria were severely damaged. Similar exposure of the leukaemia cells to the drug in the presence of carnitine not only abolished the inhibition of fatty acid oxidation but almost completely prevented the drug-induced mitochondrial damage. The protection provided by carnitine appeared to depend on the intracellular concentration of methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone), since the mitochondria-sparing effect disappeared at higher drug concentrations.

  17. [Effects of panthenol and carnitine on aldehyde metabolic enzymes in rats with tetrachloromethane-induced liver injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satanovskaia, V I; Pron'ko, P S; Gaĭshmanova, A V; Miskevich, D A

    2009-01-01

    Tetrachloromethane (2 g/kg, intragastric) produced a decrease in the activity of NAD- and NADH- dependent aldehyde dehydrogenases with high Km for aldehydes in rat liver. Panthenol and L-carnitine administered separately normalized the activity of aldehyde dehydrogenases, while a combination of the drugs did not produce any significant effect.

  18. Acyl/free carnitine ratio is a risk factor for hepatic steatosis after pancreatoduodenectomy and total pancreatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Masafumi; Nakata, Kohei; Matsumoto, Hideo; Ohtsuka, Takao; Yoshida, Koji; Tokunaga, Shoji; Hino, Keisuke

    Hepatic steatosis, one of the most frequent long-term complications of pancreatectomy, influences not only hepatic function but also survival rate. However, its risk factors and pathogenesis have not been established. The purpose of this study was to clarify the risk factors for hepatic steatosis after pancreatectomy. In this retrospective study of 21 patients who had undergone pancreatectomy (19 cases of pancreatoduodenectomy and 2 cases of total pancreatectomy), serum carnitine concentrations, fractions of carnitine, and hepatic attenuation on computed tomography images were analyzed with the aim of identifying risk factors for hepatic steatosis. Thirteen (61.9%) of the 21 patients were diagnosed as having hypocarnitinemia after pancreatectomy. Average hepatic attenuation was as low as 42.2HU (±21.3 SD). A high ratio of acyl/free carnitine was associated with less pronounced hepatic attenuation according to both univariate (P pancreatectomy in some patients. The statistical analyses suggest that a high ratio of acyl/free carnitine is an independent risk factor for hepatic steatosis after pancreatectomy. Copyright © 2016 IAP and EPC. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Short-term carnitine supplementation does not augment LCP omega 3 status of vegans and lacto-ovo-vegetarians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkema, MR; van Rieke, HM; Bauermann, OJ; Smit, EN; Muskiet, FAJ

    Objective: Long-chain polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids (LCPomega3) synthesis, notably that of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), from the precursor alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) proceeds with difficulty. We investigated whether carnitine supplementation augments the LCPomega3 status of apparently healthy

  20. The Outer Membrane Protein OmpW Enhanced V. cholerae Growth in Hypersaline Conditions by Transporting Carnitine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuping Fu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Pathogenic marine bacteria are found in environments and food sources with high salt concentrations, which the bacteria must effectively manage for their survival. Several mechanisms, such as the transport of ions and compatible solutes as well as changes in aerobic and anaerobic respiration, confer salt tolerance to bacteria. In this study, we found that the outer membrane protein OmpW was related to salt stress in Vibrio cholerae and that ompW gene transcription and expression were up-regulated in cultures containing high NaCl concentrations. Deletion of ompW resulted in reduced V. cholerae growth in hypersaline culture conditions. Supplements of the compatible solutes betaine, L-carnitine, or L-lysine enhanced the growth of V. cholerae in hypersaline media. Supplements of betaine or L-lysine had the same growth enhancement effect on the ompW-deletion mutant cultured in hypersaline media, whereas L-carnitine supplementation did not restore mutant growth. In addition, the uptake of L-carnitine was decreased in the ompW-deletion mutant. Our study showed that among the multiplex factors that enhance the hypersaline tolerance of V. cholerae, OmpW also plays a role by transporting L-carnitine.

  1. L-Carnitine Protects Renal Tubular Cells Against Calcium Oxalate Monohydrate Crystals Adhesion Through Preventing Cells From Dedifferentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shujue; Wu, Wenqi; Wu, Wenzheng; Duan, Xiaolu; Kong, Zhenzhen; Zeng, Guohua

    2016-01-01

    The interactions between calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals and renal tubular epithelial cells are important for renal stone formation but still unclear. This study aimed to investigate changes of epithelial cell phenotype after COM attachment and whether L-carnitine could protect cells against subsequent COM crystals adhesion. Cultured MDCK cells were employed and E-cadherin and Vimentin were used as markers to estimate the differentiate state. AlexaFluor-488-tagged COM crystals were used in crystals adhesion experiment to distinguish from the previous COM attachment, and adhesive crystals were counted under fluorescence microscope, which were also dissolved and the calcium concentration was assessed by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Dedifferentiated MDCK cells induced by transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) shown higher affinity to COM crystals. After exposure to COM for 48 hours, cell dedifferentiation were observed and more subsequent COM crystals could bind onto, mediated by Akt/GSK-3β/Snail signaling. L-carnitine attenuated this signaling, resulted in inhibition of cell dedifferentiation and reduction of subsequent COM crystals adhesion. COM attachment promotes subsequent COM crystals adhesion, by inducing cell dedifferentiation via Akt/GSK-3β/Snail signaling. L-carnitine partially abolishes cell dedifferentiation and resists COM crystals adhesion. L-carnitine, may be used as a potential therapeutic strategy against recurrence of urolithiasis. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Cloning of the human carnitine-acylcarnitine carrier cDNA and identification of the molecular defect in a patient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizing, M.; Iacobazzi, V.; IJlst, L.; Savelkoul, P.; Ruitenbeek, W.; van den Heuvel, L.; Indiveri, C.; Smeitink, J.; Trijbels, F.; Wanders, R.; Palmieri, F.

    1997-01-01

    The carnitine-acylcarnitine carrier (CAC) catalyzes the translocation of long-chain fatty acids across the inner mitochondrial membrane. We cloned and sequenced the human CAC cDNA, which has an open reading frame of 903 nucleotides. Northern blot studies revealed different expression levels of CAC

  3. Urine and serum metabolomic profiling reveals that bile acids and carnitine may be potential biomarkers of primary biliary cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ying-Mei; Wang, Jia-Ping; Bao, Wei-Min; Yang, Jin-Hui; Ma, Lin-Kun; Yang, Jing; Chen, Hui; Xu, Ying; Yang, Li-Hong; Li, Wen; Zhu, Yan-Ping; Cheng, Ji-Bin

    2015-08-01

    In order to provide non-invasive, reliable and sensitive laboratory parameters for the diagnosis of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), metabolic technology of ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF MS) was used to compare small molecule metabolites in blood and urine from patients with PBC and healthy controls. We then screened for bio-markers in the blood and urine of the patients with PBC. Data were processed by Bruker ProfileAnalysis metabonomic software and imported to SIMCA-P software, which utilized principal component analysis (PCA) to create models of patients with PBC and healthy controls. In total, 18 urinary markers were found and the levels of 11 of these urinary markers were elevated in the patients with PBC, whereas the levels of the remaining 7 markers were lower in the PBC group compared to the control group. We also identified 20 blood-based biomarkers in the patients with PBC and the levels of 9 of these markers were higher in the PBC group, whereas the levels of the remaining 11 markers were lower in the patients with PBC compared to the controls. Among these biomarkers, the levels of bile acids increased with the progression of PBC, while the levels of carnitines, such as propionyl carnitine and butyryl carnitine, decreased with the progression of PBC. In conclusion, the findings of the present study suggest that the circulating levels of bile acids and carnitine are differentially altered in patients with PBC.

  4. Acylcarnitine ester utilization by the hindlimb of warmblood horses at rest and following low intensity exercise and carnitine supplementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, L W E; Smiet, E; de Sain-van der Velden, M G M; van der Kolk, J H

    BACKGROUND: Acylcarnitines play an important role in fuel metabolism in skeletal muscle. OBJECTIVE: To assess acylcarnitine ester utilization by the hindlimb of horses at rest and following low intensity exercise and carnitine supplementation. ANIMALS AND METHODS: Acylcarnitine ester uptake by the

  5. Protective effects of l-carnitine and piracetam against mitochondrial permeability transition and PC3 cell necrosis induced by simvastatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Rute A P; Fernandes, Mariana P; de Souza-Pinto, Nadja C; Vercesi, Aníbal E

    2013-02-15

    Mitochondrial oxidative stress followed by membrane permeability transition (MPT) has been considered as a possible mechanism for statins cytotoxicity. Statins use has been associated with reduced risk of cancer incidence, especially prostate cancer. Here we investigated the pathways leading to simvastatin-induced prostate cancer cell death as well as the mechanisms of cell death protection by l-carnitine or piracetam. These compounds are known to prevent and/or protect against cell death mediated by oxidative mitochondrial damage induced by a variety of conditions, either in vivo or in vitro. The results provide evidence that simvastatin induced MPT and cell necrosis were sensitive to either l-carnitine or piracetam in a dose-dependent fashion and mediated by additive mechanisms. When combined, l-carnitine and piracetam acted at concentrations significantly lower than they act individually. These results shed new light into both the cytotoxic mechanisms of statins and the mechanisms underlying the protection against MPT and cell death by the compounds l-carnitine and piracetam. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Combination therapy with losartan and L-carnitine protects against endothelial dysfunction of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleem, Mostafa; Taye, Ashraf; El-Moselhy, Mohamed A; Mangoura, Safwat A

    2014-12-05

    Endothelial dysfunction is a critical factor during the initiation of diabetic cardiovascular complications and angiotensin II appears to play a pivotal role in this setting. The present study aimed to investigate whether the combination therapy with losartan and the nutritional supplement, L-carnitine can provide an additional protection against diabetes-associated endothelial dysfunction and elucidate the possible mechanism(s) underlying this effect. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ) (60 mg/kg) in rat. Effects of losartan (20 mg/kg, orally, 3 months) and L-carnitine (200 mg/kg, orally, 3 months) on tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, oxidative stress parameters, endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression (eNOS), and vascular function were evaluated. Our results showed a marked increase in aortic superoxide anion (O2(-)) production and serum malondialdehyde (MDA) level alongside attenuating antioxidant enzyme capacities in diabetic rats. This was associated with a significant increase in anigiotensin II type 1 receptor gene expression and TNF-α serum level of diabetic rats alongside reducing aortic eNOS gene expression and nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. The single or combined administration of losartan and L-carnitine significantly inhibited these changes. Additionally, the vascular endothelium-dependent relaxation with acetylcholine (ACh) in aortic diabetic rat was significantly ameliorated by the single and combined administration of losartan or L-carnitine. Noteworthy, the combination therapy exhibited a more profound response over the monotherapy. Collectively, our results demonstrate that the combined therapy of losartan and L-carnitine affords additive beneficial effects against diabetes-associated endothelial dysfunction, possibly via normalizing the dysregulated eNOS and reducing the inflammation and oxidative stress in diabetic rats. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Topically-administered acetyl-L-carnitine increases sciatic nerve regeneration and improves functional recovery after tubulization of transected short nerve gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Rahim; Amini, Keyvan

    2017-08-01

    Peripheral nerve injuries repair is still among the most challenging and concern-raising tasks in neurosurgery. The effect of an acetyl-L-carnitin-loaded silicone tube as an in-situ delivery system in defects bridging was studied using a rat sciatic nerve regeneration model. A 10-mm sciatic nerve defect was bridged using a silicone tube (SIL/ALC) filled with 10 µL acetyl-L-carnitine (100 ng/mL). In the control group (SIL), the tube was filled with the same volume of the phosphate-buffered solution. The regenerated fibers were studied 4, 8, 12 and 16 weeks after surgery. The functional study confirmed faster recovery of the regenerated axons in acetyl-L-carnitine treated than control group (PL-carnitine, when loaded in a silicone tube, can bring to an improvement in functional recovery and quantitative morphometric indices of sciatic nerve.

  8. Modulation of chaperone-like and membranolytic activities of major horse seminal plasma protein HSP-1/2 by L-carnitine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudheer Kumar, C; Swamy, Musti J

    2017-09-01

    The major protein of horse seminal plasma, HSP-1/2, exhibits membranolytic and chaperone-like activities and plays a crucial role in regulating sperm capacitation. L-Carnitine is a small polar molecule present in high concentrations in mammalian seminal plasma. The present results demonstrate that L-carnitine binds to HSP-1/2 and increases its thermal stability, enhances cooperativity of its chemical unfolding and decreases both chaperone-like and membranolytic activities of this protein. The HSP-1/2-L-carnitine complex exhibits anti-oxidative behaviour by inhibiting the production of hydroxyl radicals, suggesting that it can protect other constituents of seminal plasma from damage by hydroxyl radicals. As HSP-1/2 and L-carnitine share the same spatiotemporal location in the horse reproductive tract, this interaction is physiologically significant and may prevent premature interaction of HSP-1/2 with sperm, which in turn regulates the sperm capacitation.

  9. Effects of Dietary L-carnitine Supplementation on Growth Performance, Organ Weight, Biochemical Parameters and Ascites Susceptibility in Broilers Reared Under Low-temperature Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. W. Wang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of L-carnitine on growth performance, organ weight, biochemical parameters of blood, heart and liver, and ascites susceptibility of broilers at different ages reared under a low-temperature environment. A total of 420 1-d-old male Ross 308 broilers were randomly assigned to two dietary treatments with fifteen replicates of fourteen broilers each. Treatment diets consisted of L-carnitine supplementation at levels of 0 and 100 mg/kg. At 11-d of age, low temperature stress was used to increase ascites susceptibility. Blood, heart and liver samples were collected at different ages for analysis of boichemical parameters. The results showed that, there was no significant difference in growth performance with L-carnitine supplementation, but the mortality due to ascites was significantly decreased. Dietary L-carnitine supplementation significantly reduced heart index (HI and ascites heart index (AHI on d 21, lung index (LUI on d 35 and liver index (LI on d 42. The broilers fed diets containing L-carnitine had significantly lower red blood cell counts (RBC, hemoglobin (HGB concentration and hematocrit (HCT on d 42. Dietary L-carnitine supplementation significantly reduced malondialdehyde (MDA content of heart tissue on d 21 and 35, and significantly increased total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD and Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px activity of the heart on d 21 and 42. L-carnitine supplementation significantly reduced serum triglyceride (TG content on d 28 and 35 and serum glucose (GLU on d 35 and 42, and significantly increased serum total protein (TP and globulin (GLO content on d 42. L-carnitine supplementation significantly enhanced liver succinodehydrogenase (SDH, malic dehydrogenase (MDH and Na+-K+-ATPase activity on d 28, and tended to reduce the lactic acid (LD level of liver on d 35 (p = 0.06. L-carnitine supplementation significantly reduced serum uric acid (UA content on d 28, 35 and 42

  10. Effect of L-Carnitine Supplementation on Reverse Remodeling in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Guimarães, Sheila; de Souza Cruz, Wanise; da Silva, Licinio; Maciel, Gabrielle; Huguenin, Ana Beatriz; de Carvalho, Monicque; Costa, Bárbara; da Silva, Geisiane; da Costa, Carlos; D'Ippolito, João Alvaro; Colafranceschi, Alexandre; Scalco, Fernanda; Boaventura, Gilson

    2017-01-01

    During cardiac failure, cardiomyocytes have difficulty in using the substrates to produce energy. L-carnitine is a necessary nutrient for the transport of fatty acids that are required for generating energy. Coronary artery graft surgery reduces the plasma levels of L-carnitine and increases the oxidative stress. This study demonstrates the effect of L-carnitine supplementation on the reverse remodeling of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft. Patients with ischemic heart failure who underwent coronary graft surgery were randomized to group A - supplemented with L-carnitine or group B controls. Left ventricular ejection fraction, left ventricular systolic and diastolic diameters were assessed preoperatively, 60 and 180 days after surgery. Our study included 28 patients (26 [93.0%] males) with a mean age ± SD of 58.1 ± 10.5 years. The parameters for the evaluation of reverse remodeling did not improve after 60 and 180 days of coronary artery bypass grafting in comparison between groups (p > 0.05). Evaluation within the L-carnitine group showed a 37.1% increase in left ventricle ejection fraction (p = 0.002) and 14.3% (p = 0.006) and 3.3% (p > 0.05) reduction in systolic and diastolic diameters, respectively. L-carnitine supplementation at a dose of 50 mg/kg combined with artery bypass surgery did not demonstrate any additional benefit in reverse remodeling. However, evaluation within the L-carnitine group may indicate a clinical benefit of L-carnitine supplementation. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Influence of dietary supplementation with (L)-carnitine on metabolic rate, fatty acid oxidation, body condition, and weight loss in overweight cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center, Sharon A; Warner, Karen L; Randolph, John F; Sunvold, Gregory D; Vickers, Jason R

    2012-07-01

    To investigate the influence of dietary supplementation with l-carnitine on metabolic rate, fatty acid oxidation, weight loss, and lean body mass (LBM) in overweight cats undergoing rapid weight reduction. 32 healthy adult neutered colony-housed cats. Cats fattened through unrestricted ingestion of an energy-dense diet for 6 months were randomly assigned to 4 groups and fed a weight reduction diet supplemented with 0 (control), 50, 100, or 150 μg of carnitine/g of diet (unrestricted for 1 month, then restricted). Measurements included resting energy expenditure, respiratory quotient, daily energy expenditure, LBM, and fatty acid oxidation. Following weight loss, cats were allowed unrestricted feeding of the energy-dense diet to investigate weight gain after test diet cessation. Median weekly weight loss in all groups was ≥ 1.3%, with no difference among groups in overall or cumulative percentage weight loss. During restricted feeding, the resting energy expenditure-to-LBM ratio was significantly higher in cats that received l-carnitine than in those that received the control diet. Respiratory quotient was significantly lower in each cat that received l-carnitine on day 42, compared with the value before the diet began, and in all cats that received l-carnitine, compared with the control group throughout restricted feeding. A significant increase in palmitate flux rate in cats fed the diet with 150 μg of carnitine/g relative to the flux rate in the control group on day 42 corresponded to significantly increased stoichiometric fat oxidation in the l-carnitine diet group (> 62% vs 14% for the control group). Weight gain (as high as 28%) was evident within 35 days after unrestricted feeding was reintroduced. Dietary l-carnitine supplementation appeared to have a metabolic effect in overweight cats undergoing rapid weight loss that facilitated fatty acid oxidation.

  12. Effect of Combined Treatment with Alpha Lipoic Acid and Acetyl-L-Carnitine on Vascular Function and Blood Pressure in Coronary Artery Disease Patients

    OpenAIRE

    McMackin, Craig J.; Widlansky, Michael E.; Hamburg, Naomi M.; Huang, Alex L.; Weller, Susan; Holbrook, Monika; Gokce, Noyan; Hagen, Tory M.; Keaney, John F.; Vita, Joseph A.

    2007-01-01

    Mitochondria produce reactive oxygen species that may contribute to vascular dysfunction. Alpha-lipoic acid and acetyl-L-carnitine reduce oxidative stress and improve mitochondrial function. In a double blind, crossover study, we examined the effects of combined alpha-lipoic acid /acetyl-L-carnitine treatment and placebo (eight weeks per treatment) on vasodilator function and blood pressure in 36 subjects with coronary artery disease. Active treatment increased brachial artery diameter by 2.3...

  13. Carnitine deficiency in OCTN2-/- newborn mice leads to a severe gut and immune phenotype with widespread atrophy, apoptosis and a pro-inflammatory response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Sonne

    Full Text Available We have investigated the gross, microscopic and molecular effects of carnitine deficiency in the neonatal gut using a mouse model with a loss-of-function mutation in the OCTN2 (SLC22A5 carnitine transporter. The tissue carnitine content of neonatal homozygous (OCTN2(-/- mouse small intestine was markedly reduced; the intestine displayed signs of stunted villous growth, early signs of inflammation, lymphocytic and macrophage infiltration and villous structure breakdown. Mitochondrial β-oxidation was active throughout the GI tract in wild type newborn mice as seen by expression of 6 key enzymes involved in β-oxidation of fatty acids and genes for these 6 enzymes were up-regulated in OCTN2(-/- mice. There was increased apoptosis in gut samples from OCTN2(-/- mice. OCTN2(-/- mice developed a severe immune phenotype, where the thymus, spleen and lymph nodes became atrophied secondary to increased apoptosis. Carnitine deficiency led to increased expression of CD45-B220(+ lymphocytes with increased production of basal and anti-CD3-stimulated pro-inflammatory cytokines in immune cells. Real-time PCR array analysis in OCTN2(-/- mouse gut epithelium demonstrated down-regulation of TGF-β/BMP pathway genes. We conclude that carnitine plays a major role in neonatal OCTN2(-/- mouse gut development and differentiation, and that severe carnitine deficiency leads to increased apoptosis of enterocytes, villous atrophy, inflammation and gut injury.

  14. Bioconversion of a L-carnitin precursor in a one- or two-phase system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bare, G; Jacques, P; Hubert, J B; Rikir, R; Thonart, P

    1991-01-01

    The ability of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to bioconvert stereo-selectively octyl-4-chloroacetoacetate (OCA) into the corresponding chiral alcohol, precursor of L-carnitin, an important physiological agent, was investigated. In a monophasic system with free cells, more than 90% of OCA (0.018 M) bioconversion have been reached after 6 h (enantiomeric excess for the R form, eeR:97%). Immobilized cells in alginate beads were less efficient in conversion of OCA than free cells. In a two-phase system with free cells, the level of reduction of OCA (0.018 M) reached 85% after 48 h. With a medium containing a higher OCA concentration (0.270 M), 41% of this product were bioconverted after the same period. On the other hand, immobilized cells did not show any significant bioconversion of OCA in two-phase reactors. The limiting factor of these reactors in the regeneration of the cofactors involved in the OCA reduction.

  15. Mutation and biochemical analysis in carnitine palmitoyltransferase type II (CPT II) deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olpin, S E; Afifi, A; Clark, S

    2003-01-01

    Carnitine palmitoyltransferase type II (CPT II) deficiency has three basic phenotypes, late-onset muscular (mild), infantile/juvenile hepatic (intermediate) and severe neonatal. We have measured fatty acid oxidation and CPT II activity and performed mutation studies in 24 symptomatic patients...... representing the full clinical spectrum of disease. Severe and intermediate phenotypes show a clear correlation with biochemical indices and genetic analysis revealed causative mutations in most patients. Studies of mild phenotypes suggest a more complex interaction, with higher residual fatty acid oxidation...... of symptomatic patients appear to have significant residual CPT II activity (42-60%) The synergistic interaction of partial deficiencies of CPT II, muscle adenosine monophosphate deaminase and possibly other enzymes of muscle energy metabolism in the aetiology of episodic myopathy deserves wider consideration....

  16. Short Term Administration of L-Carnitine Can Be Detrimental to the Ischemic Heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moslem Najafi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that L-carnitine (LC supplementation may exert a cardioprotective effect in cardiomyopathy, prevent arrhythmias in myocardial infarction and increase exercise tolerance in angina. Interestingly, we demonstrated that short term preischemic administration of LC can be detrimental to ischemic heart. In isolated rat hearts treated with LC for 10 min before ischemia, a marked and concentration dependent arrhythmogenic activity were produced during both ischemia and reperfusion as increases in the number of ventricular ectopic beats, ventricular tachycardia and incidence of ventricular fibrillation. We hypothesized that preischemic using of LC for an inadequate time may pose arrhythmogenic activity, due to incomplete metabolism of fatty acids which in turn lead to production of toxic long chain fatty acid metabolites and also because of interruption in glucose oxidation.

  17. Urinary biomarkers of oxidative damage in Maple syrup urine disease: the L-carnitine role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerreiro, Gilian; Mescka, Caroline Paula; Sitta, Angela; Donida, Bruna; Marchetti, Desirèe; Hammerschmidt, Tatiane; Faverzani, Jessica; Coelho, Daniella de Moura; Wajner, Moacir; Dutra-Filho, Carlos Severo; Vargas, Carmen Regla

    2015-05-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a disorder of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA). The defect in the branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase complex activity leads to an accumulation of these compounds and their corresponding α-keto-acids and α-hydroxy-acids. Studies have shown that oxidative stress may be involved in neuropathology of MSUD. L-carnitine (L-car), which has demonstrated an important role as antioxidant by reducing and scavenging free radicals formation and by enhancing the activity of antioxidant enzymes, have been used in the treatment of some metabolic rare disorders. This study evaluated the oxidative stress parameters, di-tyrosine, isoprostanes and antioxidant capacity, in urine of MSUD patients under protein-restricted diet supplemented or not with L-car capsules at a dose of 50 mg kg(-1) day(-1). It was also determined urinary α-keto isocaproic acid levels as well as blood free L-car concentrations in blood. It was found a deficiency of carnitine in patients before the L-car supplementation. Significant increases of di-tyrosine and isoprostanes, as well as reduced antioxidant capacity, were observed before the treatment with L-car. The L-car supplementation induced beneficial effects on these parameters reducing the di-tyrosine and isoprostanes levels and increasing the antioxidant capacity. It was also showed a significant increase in urinary of α-ketoisocaproic acid after 2 months of L-car treatment, compared to control group. In conclusion, our results suggest that L-car may have beneficial effects in the treatment of MSUD by preventing oxidative damage to the cells and that urine can be used to monitorize oxidative damage in patients affected by this disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Modeling of the biotransformation of crotonobetaine into L-(-)-carnitine by Escherichia coli strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canovas, M; Maiquez, J R; Obón, J M; Iborra, J L

    2002-03-30

    A simple unstructured model, which includes carbon source as the limiting and essential substrate and oxygen as an enhancing substrate for cell growth, has been implemented to depict cell population evolution of two Escherichia coli strains and the expression of their trimethylammonium metabolism in batch and continuous reactors. Although the model is applied to represent the trans-crotonobetaine to L-(-)-carnitine biotransformation, it is also useful for understanding the complete metabolic flow of trimethylammonium compounds in E. coli. Cell growth and biotransformation were studied in both anaerobic and aerobic conditions. For this reason we derived equations to modify the specific growth rate, mu, and the cell yield on the carbon source (glycerol), Y(xg), as oxygen increased the rate of growth. Inhibition functions representing an excess of the glycerol and oxygen were included to depict cell evolution during extreme conditions. As a result, the model fitted experimental data for various growth conditions, including different carbon source concentrations, initial oxygen levels, and the existence of a certain degree of cell death. Moreover, the production of enzymes involved within the E. coli trimethylammonium metabolism and related to trans-crotonobetaine biotransformation was also modeled as a function of both the cell and oxygen concentrations within the system. The model describes all the activities of the different enzymes within the transformed and wild strains, able to produce L-(-)-carnitine from trans-crotonobetaine under both anaerobic and aerobic conditions. Crotonobetaine reductase inhibition by either oxygen or the addition of fumarate as well as its non-reversible catalytic action was taken into consideration. The proposed model was useful for describing the whole set of variables under both growing and resting conditions. Both E. coli strains within membrane high-density reactors were well represented by the model as results matched the

  19. Propionyl-L-Carnitine Enhances Wound Healing and Counteracts Microvascular Endothelial Cell Dysfunction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Giovanna Scioli

    Full Text Available Impaired wound healing represents a high cost for health care systems. Endothelial dysfunction characterizes dermal microangiopathy and contributes to delayed wound healing and chronic ulcers. Endothelial dysfunction impairs cutaneous microvascular blood flow by inducing an imbalance between vasorelaxation and vasoconstriction as a consequence of reduced nitric oxide (NO production and the increase of oxidative stress and inflammation. Propionyl-L-carnitine (PLC is a natural derivative of carnitine that has been reported to ameliorate post-ischemic blood flow recovery.We investigated the effects of PLC in rat skin flap and cutaneous wound healing. A daily oral PLC treatment improved skin flap viability and associated with reactive oxygen species (ROS reduction, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and NO up-regulation, accelerated wound healing and increased capillary density, likely favoring dermal angiogenesis by up-regulation for iNOS, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, placental growth factor (PlGF and reduction of NADPH-oxidase 4 (Nox4 expression. In serum-deprived human dermal microvascular endothelial cell cultures, PLC ameliorated endothelial dysfunction by increasing iNOS, PlGF, VEGF receptors 1 and 2 expression and NO level. In addition, PLC counteracted serum deprivation-induced impairment of mitochondrial β-oxidation, Nox4 and cellular adhesion molecule (CAM expression, ROS generation and leukocyte adhesion. Moreover, dermal microvascular endothelial cell dysfunction was prevented by Nox4 inhibition. Interestingly, inhibition of β-oxidation counteracted the beneficial effects of PLC on oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction.PLC treatment improved rat skin flap viability, accelerated wound healing and dermal angiogenesis. The beneficial effects of PLC likely derived from improvement of mitochondrial β-oxidation and reduction of Nox4-mediated oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction. Antioxidant therapy and

  20. Propionyl-L-Carnitine Enhances Wound Healing and Counteracts Microvascular Endothelial Cell Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scioli, Maria Giovanna; Lo Giudice, Pietro; Bielli, Alessandra; Tarallo, Valeria; De Rosa, Alfonso; De Falco, Sandro; Orlandi, Augusto

    2015-01-01

    Impaired wound healing represents a high cost for health care systems. Endothelial dysfunction characterizes dermal microangiopathy and contributes to delayed wound healing and chronic ulcers. Endothelial dysfunction impairs cutaneous microvascular blood flow by inducing an imbalance between vasorelaxation and vasoconstriction as a consequence of reduced nitric oxide (NO) production and the increase of oxidative stress and inflammation. Propionyl-L-carnitine (PLC) is a natural derivative of carnitine that has been reported to ameliorate post-ischemic blood flow recovery. We investigated the effects of PLC in rat skin flap and cutaneous wound healing. A daily oral PLC treatment improved skin flap viability and associated with reactive oxygen species (ROS) reduction, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and NO up-regulation, accelerated wound healing and increased capillary density, likely favoring dermal angiogenesis by up-regulation for iNOS, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), placental growth factor (PlGF) and reduction of NADPH-oxidase 4 (Nox4) expression. In serum-deprived human dermal microvascular endothelial cell cultures, PLC ameliorated endothelial dysfunction by increasing iNOS, PlGF, VEGF receptors 1 and 2 expression and NO level. In addition, PLC counteracted serum deprivation-induced impairment of mitochondrial β-oxidation, Nox4 and cellular adhesion molecule (CAM) expression, ROS generation and leukocyte adhesion. Moreover, dermal microvascular endothelial cell dysfunction was prevented by Nox4 inhibition. Interestingly, inhibition of β-oxidation counteracted the beneficial effects of PLC on oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction. PLC treatment improved rat skin flap viability, accelerated wound healing and dermal angiogenesis. The beneficial effects of PLC likely derived from improvement of mitochondrial β-oxidation and reduction of Nox4-mediated oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction. Antioxidant therapy and pharmacological

  1. L-CARNITINE-INDUCED MODULATION OF PLASMA FATTY ACIDS METABOLISM IN HYPERLIPIDEMIC RABBITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Hernández Rosales PhD

    2006-02-01

    mejoramiento del metabolismo de las lipoproteínas. ABSTRACTThe present study was designed to examine whether the hipocholesterolemic effect of L-carnitine supplementation is related with lipoprotein fatty acid metabolism. Fatty acid compositional and cholesterol content changes were measured in lipoproteins of six different groups of rabbits. Group 1, rabbits fed a standard diet; group 2, rabbits fed standard diet plus L-carnitine 80 mg/kg bw; group 3, rabbits fed a 0.5 % cholesterol diet; group 4, rabbits fed a 0.5 % cholesterol diet plus L-carnitine 80 mg/kg b.w. These four groups were fed their diets during 126 days. Group 5 and 6 were fed the same diet as group 4 in a previous period of 126 days, and after this time, group 5 was fed the same diet as group 1, and group 6 fed the same diet as group 2, during a second period of 65 days.However, the progression of hypercholesterolemia was reduced 50 % by L-carnitine administration in those animals fed cholesterol diet. Fatty acid compositional changes in lipoprotein-cholesteryl esters were found in all groups of animals supplemented with L-carnitine. During the standard-fed period the saturated and unsaturated fatty acid ratio was increased in VLDL and HDL particles whereas was decreased in LDL. In the hyperlipidemia progression period the saturated to unsaturated fatty acid ratio in HDL fraction was slightly enhanced and in the VLDL+LDL modified particle was diminished. In the hyperlipidemia regression period, plasma cholesterol level was additionally reduced in a 33 % in the group 6; and the saturated to unsaturated fatty ratio had the same behaviour from that observed in the progression period for HDL and VLDL+LDL particles. A remarkable reduction (75% of aorta atherosclerotic plaques in the group 6 was found. From these results we concluded that L-carnitine, in this experimental model, induces an improved lipoprotein metabolism.

  2. Plasma fatty acyl-carnitines during 8 Weeks of overfeeding: relation to diet energy expenditure and body composition: the PROOF study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, George A; Redman, Leanne M; de Jonge, Lilian; Rood, Jennifer; Sutton, Elizabeth F; Smith, Steven R

    2018-01-24

    Overfeeding is a strategy for evaluating the effects of excess energy intake. In this secondary analysis we tested the possibility that different levels of dietary protein might differentially modify the response of fatty acyl-carnitines to overfeeding. Twenty-three healthy adult men and women were overfed by 40% for 8 weeks while in-patients with diets containing 5% (LPD), 15% (NPD) or 25% (HPD) protein. Plasma fatty acyl-carnitines were measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) at baseline and after 8 weeks of overfeeding. Measurements included: body composition by DXA, energy expenditure by ventilated hood and doubly-labeled water, fat cell size from subcutaneous fat biopsies, and fat distribution by CT scan. Analysis was done on 5 groups of fatty acyl-carnitines identified by principal components analysis and 6 individual short-chain fatty acyl carnitines. Higher protein intake was associated with significantly lower 8 week levels of medium chain fatty acids and C2, C4-OH and C 6:1, but higher values of C3 and C5:1 acyl-carnitines derived from essential amino acids. In contrast energy and fat intake were only weakly related to changes in fatty acyl-carnitines. A decease or smaller rise in 8 week medium chain acyl-carnitines was associated with an increase in sleeping energy expenditure (P = 0.0004), and fat free mass (P < 0.0001) and a decrease in free fatty acid concentrations (FFA) (P = 0.0067). In contrast changes in short-chain fatty acyl-carnitines were related to changes in resting energy expenditure (P = 0.0026), and fat free mass (P = 0.0007), and C4-OH was positively related to FFA (P = 0006). Protein intake was the major factor influencing changes in fatty acyl carnitines during overfeeding with higher values of most acyl-fatty acids on the low protein diet. The association of dietary protein and fat intake may explain the changes in energy expenditure and metabolic variables resulting in the observed

  3. LPS-induced serum TNF production and lethality in mice: effect of L-carnitine and some acyl-derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vito Ruggiero

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of L-carnitine and some of its acyl derivatives on serum TNF production and lethality in a murine experimental endotoxin shock model was investigated. In some instances, serum IL-6 production was also evaluated. In this experimental model, C57BL/6 mice received 30 mg/kg LPS (E. cell 055:B5 injected intraperitoneally, while L-carnitine and its derivatives were administered according to different schedules. Serum levels of TNF and IL-6 were evaluated 1 h following LPS injection. The treated animals were also monitored daily for differences in body temperature, feeding, and survival for 10 days after LPS injection. Although some derivatives were able to significantly affect TNF production, the marked decrease in serum TNF levels of LPS-treated mice was not paralleled by a substantial increase in survival.

  4. L-Carnitine Protects Renal Tubular Cells Against Calcium Oxalate Monohydrate Crystals Adhesion Through Preventing Cells From Dedifferentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Shujue Li; Wenqi Wu; Wenzheng Wu; Xiaolu Duan; Zhenzhen Kong; Guohua Zeng

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: The interactions between calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals and renal tubular epithelial cells are important for renal stone formation but still unclear. This study aimed to investigate changes of epithelial cell phenotype after COM attachment and whether L-carnitine could protect cells against subsequent COM crystals adhesion. Methods: Cultured MDCK cells were employed and E-cadherin and Vimentin were used as markers to estimate the differentiate state. AlexaFluor-48...

  5. Effect of Electromagnetic Field (Wi-Fi on the Pancreas: Role of Selenium and L-Carnitine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Koyu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Effects of electromagnetic fields (Wi-Fi on the pancreatic tissue of rats and the role of selenium and L-carnitine were investigated. Material and Method: Thirty male Wistar Albino rats were used in this study. The rats were divided randomly into 5 groups. Group I: EMR (n = 6: 28 days, 60 min / day was exposed to 2.45 GHz EMR. Group II: EMR + Selenium (n = 6: 28 days, 60 min / day was exposed to 2.45 GHz EMR and selenium 1.5 mg / kg / alternate day by intraperitoneal (i.p. Group III EMR + L-carnitine (n = 6: 28 days, 60 min / day were exposed to 2.45 GHz EMR and L-carnitine 100 mg / kg / day by i.p. Group IV: Sham control (n = 6: 28 days 60 min / day in the experimental setup without EMR and saline 0.5 ml / day of i.p. was administered. Group V: Cage control (n = 6: 28 days without any application were kept under the same environmental conditions. At the end of the experiment the rats’ blood samples were collected for amylase and lipase measurement and pancreas tissue was evaluated by histopathologically. Results: Amylase (p = 0.007 and lipase (p = 0.004 levels were found statistically significant between the groups. These parameters were increased related to EMR in Group I and amylase and lipase were significantly decreased in Group II and III. Histopathological evaluation; serous glands degeneration of the pancreas tissue (p = 0.009 and vascular congestion (p = 0.009 increased in the group I. These parameters were significantly decreased in group II and III. Discussions: EMR caused pancreatic tissue damage and selenium has been demonstrated protective effect more than L-carnitine.

  6. Effect of acetyl-L-carnitine on Vip-ergic neurons in jejunum submucous plexus of diabetic rats

    OpenAIRE

    Defani,Marli Aparecida; Zanoni,Jacqueline Nelisis; Natali,Maria Raquel Marçal; Bazotte,Roberto Barbosa; Miranda-Neto,Marcílio Hubner de

    2003-01-01

    The effect of the treatment with acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) on neurons releasing the vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) of the submucous plexus in the jejunum of diabetic rats was the purpose of our investigation. Diabetes (DM) was induced by injecting streptozotocin endovenously (35mg/kg). After sacrificing the animals, the jejunum was collected and processed for VIP detection. Four groups were used: C (non-diabetic), CC (non-diabetic treated with ALC), D (diabetic), DC (diabetes treated ...

  7. HDAC Inhibitor L-Carnitine and Proteasome Inhibitor Bortezomib Synergistically Exert Anti-Tumor Activity In Vitro and In Vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Hongbiao; Liu, Ningning; Yang, Changshan; Liao, Siyan; Guo, Haiping; Zhao, Kai; Li, Xiaofen; Liu, Shouting; Guan, Lixia; Liu, Chunjiao; Xu, Li; Zhang, Change; Song, Wenbin; Li, Bing; Tang, Ping

    2012-01-01

    Combinations of proteasome inhibitors and histone deacetylases (HDAC) inhibitors appear to be the most potent to produce synergistic cytotoxicity in preclinical trials. We have recently confirmed that L-carnitine (LC) is an endogenous HDAC inhibitor. In the current study, the anti-tumor effect of LC plus proteasome inhibitor bortezomib (velcade, Vel) was investigated both in cultured hepatoma cancer cells and in Balb/c mice bearing HepG2 tumor. Cell death and cell viability were assayed by fl...

  8. L- carnitine and trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid on in vitro bovine embryo production and cryopreservation

    OpenAIRE

    Zolini, Adriana Moreira

    2015-01-01

    High lipid content in embryo is associated with low freezing tolerance. This study assessed the effects of exogenous L-carnitine and trans-10, cis-12 (t10, c12) conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on in-vitro development and cryotolerance of bovine embryos when added during different stages of in vitro production of embryos. For all experiments, embryos were produced in vitro using slaughterhouse cows oocytes. Cleavage rates on Day 3, blastocyst and advanced blastocyst (hatching/hatched blastocyst...

  9. C26:0-Carnitine Is a New Biomarker for X-Linked Adrenoleukodystrophy in Mice and Man.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malu-Clair van de Beek

    Full Text Available X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD, a progressive neurodegenerative disease, is caused by mutations in ABCD1 and characterized by very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA accumulation. Virtually all males develop progressive myelopathy (AMN. A subset of patients, however, develops a fatal cerebral demyelinating disease (cerebral ALD. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is curative for cerebral ALD provided the procedure is performed in an early stage of the disease. Unfortunately, this narrow therapeutic window is often missed. Therefore, an increasing number of newborn screening programs are including ALD. To identify new biomarkers for ALD, we developed an Abcd1 knockout mouse with enhanced VLCFA synthesis either ubiquitous or restricted to oligodendrocytes. Biochemical analysis revealed VLCFA accumulation in different lipid classes and acylcarnitines. Both C26:0-lysoPC and C26:0-carnitine were highly elevated in brain, spinal cord, but also in bloodspots. We extended the analysis to patients and confirmed that C26:0-carnitine is also elevated in bloodspots from ALD patients. We anticipate that validation of C26:0-carnitine for the diagnosis of ALD in newborn bloodspots may lead to a faster inclusion of ALD in newborn screening programs in countries that already screen for other inborn errors of metabolism.

  10. C26:0-Carnitine Is a New Biomarker for X-Linked Adrenoleukodystrophy in Mice and Man

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Beek, Malu-Clair; Dijkstra, Inge M. E.; van Lenthe, Henk; Ofman, Rob; Goldhaber-Pasillas, Dalia; Schauer, Nicolas; Schackmann, Martin; Engelen-Lee, Joo-Yeon; Vaz, Frédéric M.; Kulik, Wim; Wanders, Ronald J. A.; Engelen, Marc; Kemp, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD), a progressive neurodegenerative disease, is caused by mutations in ABCD1 and characterized by very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA) accumulation. Virtually all males develop progressive myelopathy (AMN). A subset of patients, however, develops a fatal cerebral demyelinating disease (cerebral ALD). Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is curative for cerebral ALD provided the procedure is performed in an early stage of the disease. Unfortunately, this narrow therapeutic window is often missed. Therefore, an increasing number of newborn screening programs are including ALD. To identify new biomarkers for ALD, we developed an Abcd1 knockout mouse with enhanced VLCFA synthesis either ubiquitous or restricted to oligodendrocytes. Biochemical analysis revealed VLCFA accumulation in different lipid classes and acylcarnitines. Both C26:0-lysoPC and C26:0-carnitine were highly elevated in brain, spinal cord, but also in bloodspots. We extended the analysis to patients and confirmed that C26:0-carnitine is also elevated in bloodspots from ALD patients. We anticipate that validation of C26:0-carnitine for the diagnosis of ALD in newborn bloodspots may lead to a faster inclusion of ALD in newborn screening programs in countries that already screen for other inborn errors of metabolism. PMID:27124591

  11. C26:0-Carnitine Is a New Biomarker for X-Linked Adrenoleukodystrophy in Mice and Man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Beek, Malu-Clair; Dijkstra, Inge M E; van Lenthe, Henk; Ofman, Rob; Goldhaber-Pasillas, Dalia; Schauer, Nicolas; Schackmann, Martin; Engelen-Lee, Joo-Yeon; Vaz, Frédéric M; Kulik, Wim; Wanders, Ronald J A; Engelen, Marc; Kemp, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD), a progressive neurodegenerative disease, is caused by mutations in ABCD1 and characterized by very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA) accumulation. Virtually all males develop progressive myelopathy (AMN). A subset of patients, however, develops a fatal cerebral demyelinating disease (cerebral ALD). Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is curative for cerebral ALD provided the procedure is performed in an early stage of the disease. Unfortunately, this narrow therapeutic window is often missed. Therefore, an increasing number of newborn screening programs are including ALD. To identify new biomarkers for ALD, we developed an Abcd1 knockout mouse with enhanced VLCFA synthesis either ubiquitous or restricted to oligodendrocytes. Biochemical analysis revealed VLCFA accumulation in different lipid classes and acylcarnitines. Both C26:0-lysoPC and C26:0-carnitine were highly elevated in brain, spinal cord, but also in bloodspots. We extended the analysis to patients and confirmed that C26:0-carnitine is also elevated in bloodspots from ALD patients. We anticipate that validation of C26:0-carnitine for the diagnosis of ALD in newborn bloodspots may lead to a faster inclusion of ALD in newborn screening programs in countries that already screen for other inborn errors of metabolism.

  12. l-Carnitine Inhibits Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Nitric Oxide Production of SIM-A9 Microglia Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Emily L; Raman, Shreya; Yost, Richard A; Garrett, Timothy J; Vedam-Mai, Vinata

    2018-01-31

    Microglia are the resident immune effector cells of the central nervous system. They account for approximately 10-15% of all cells found in the brain and spinal cord, acting as macrophages, sensing and engaging in phagocytosis to eliminate toxic proteins. Microglia are dynamic and can change their morphology in response to cues from their milieu. Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disease, associated with reactive gliosis, neuroinflammation, and oxidative stress. It is thought that Parkinson's disease is caused by the accumulation of abnormally folded alpha-synuclein protein, accompanied by persistent neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, and subsequent neuronal injury/death. There is evidence in the literature for mitochondrial dysfunction in Parkinson's disease as well as fatty acid beta-oxidation, involving l-carnitine. Here we investigate l-carnitine in the context of microglial activation, suggesting a potential new strategy of supplementation for PD patients. Preliminary results from our studies suggest that the treatment of activated microglia with the endogenous antioxidant l-carnitine can reverse the effects of detrimental neuroinflammation in vitro.

  13. Protective effect of L-carnitine and L-arginine against busulfan-induced oligospermia in adult rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-Elrazek, A M; Ahmed-Farid, O A H

    2018-02-01

    Busulfan is an anticancer drug caused variety of adverse effects for patients with cancer. But it could cause damage to the male reproductive system as one of its adverse effects. This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of L-carnitine and L-arginine on semen quality, oxidative stress parameters and testes cell energy after busulfan treatment. Adult male rats were divided into four groups: control (Con), busulfan (Bus), busulfan plus L-arginine (Bus + L-arg) and busulfan plus L-carnitine (Bus + L-car). After 28 days, the semen was collected from the epididymis and the testes were assessed. Sperm count, motility and velocity were measured by CASA, and smears were prepared for assessment of sperm morphology. Serum and testes supernatants were separated for DNA metabolites, oxidative stress and cell energy parameters. Testes tissues also subjected for caspase-3. The results showed significant improvement in sperm morphology, motility, velocity and count in the groups treated with L-arginine and L-carnitine and accompanied with an increase in MDA, GSSG and ATP, reduction in GSH, AMP, ADP, NO and 8-OHDG also recorded. These results are supported by caspase-3. Administration of L-arg and L-car attenuated the cytotoxic effects of busulfan by improving semen parameters, reducing oxidative stress and maintaining cell energy. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. A pilot trial of l-carnitine in patients with traumatic brain injury: Effects on biomarkers of injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoodpoor, Ata; Shokouhi, Ghaffar; Hamishehkar, Hadi; Soleimanpour, Hassan; Sanaie, Sarvin; Porhomayon, Jahan; Rasouli, Fatemeh; Nader, Nader D

    2018-02-09

    To investigate the effects of l-Carnitine on neuron specific enolase (NSE) as a marker of inflammation in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Forty patients with severe TBI were randomized into 2 groups. The (LCA-) group received standard treatment with placebo while the (LCA+) group received l-Carnitine 2g/day for one week. NSE was measured on days 1, 3 and 7 after the initiation of the study. Neurocognitive and neurobehavioral disorders were recorded on the first and third months. Neurocognitive function and NSE significantly improved within one week in both groups. Patient mortality was similar in LCA+ and LCA- groups (P value: 0.76). Brain edema was present in 7 patients in LCA+ group and 13 patients in LCA-group (P value: 0.044). While there was no difference in NSE levels between the two groups. Neurological function was preserved in the LCA+ group with an exception of attention deficit, which was frequent in the LCA+ group. We concluded that despite improvements in neurobehavioral function and the degree of cerebral edema, 7-days of treatment with l-Carnitine failed to reduce serum NSE levels or improve mortality rate at 90days in patients with TBI. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Effect of supplementation of lecithin and carnitine on growth performance and nutrient digestibility in pigs fed high-fat diet

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    Arathy Saseendran

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the effect of dietary supplementation of lecithin and carnitine on growth performance and nutrient digestibility in pigs fed high-fat diet. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 weaned female large white Yorkshire piglets of 2 months of age were selected and randomly divided into three groups allotted to three dietary treatments, T1 - Control ration as per the National Research Council nutrient requirement, T2 - Control ration plus 5% fat, and T3 - T2 plus 0.5% lecithin plus 150 mg/kg carnitine. The total dry matter (DM intake, fortnightly body weight of each individual animal was recorded. Digestibility trial was conducted toward the end of the experiment to determine the digestibility coefficient of various nutrients. Results: There was a significant improvement (p0.05 among the three treatments on average daily gain, feed conversion efficiency, and nutrient digestibility during the overall period. Conclusion: It was concluded that the dietary inclusion of animal fat at 5% level or animal fat along with lecithin (0.5% and carnitine (150 mg/kg improved the growth performance in pigs than non-supplemented group and from the economic point of view, dietary incorporation of animal fat at 5% would be beneficial for improving growth in pigs without dietary modifiers.

  16. Identification and diagnostic value of phytanoyl- and pristanoyl-carnitine in plasma from patients with peroxisomal disorders.

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    Herzog, Katharina; van Lenthe, Henk; Wanders, Ronald J A; Vaz, Frédéric M; Waterham, Hans R; Ferdinandusse, Sacha

    2017-07-01

    Phytanic acid is a branched-chain fatty acid, the level of which is elevated in patients with a variety of peroxisomal disorders, including Refsum disease, and Rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata type 1 and 5. Elevated levels of both phytanic and pristanic acid are found in patients with Zellweger Spectrum Disorders, and pristanic acid is elevated in patients with α-methylacyl-CoA racemase deficiency. For the diagnosis of peroxisomal disorders, a variety of metabolites can be measured in blood samples from suspected patients, including very long-chain fatty acids, phytanic and pristanic acid. Based on the fact that very long-chain fatty acylcarnitines are elevated in tissues and plasma from patients with certain peroxisomal disorders, we investigated whether phytanoyl- and pristanoyl-carnitine are also present in plasma from patients with different peroxisomal disorders. Our study shows that phytanoyl- and pristanoyl-carnitine are indeed present in plasma samples from patients with different types of peroxisomal disorders, but only when the total plasma levels of their corresponding fatty acids, phytanic acid and pristanic acid, are markedly elevated. We conclude that the measurement of phytanoyl- and pristanoyl-carnitine is not sensitive and specific enough to use these acylcarnitines as conclusive diagnostic markers for peroxisomal disorders. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Effects of oral L-carnitine administration in narcolepsy patients: a randomized, double-blind, cross-over and placebo-controlled trial.

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    Taku Miyagawa

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Narcolepsy is a sleep disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplexy, and rapid eye movement (REM sleep abnormalities. A genome-wide association study (GWAS identified a novel narcolepsy-related single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP, which is located adjacent to the carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1B (CPT1B gene encoding an enzyme involved in β-oxidation of long-chain fatty acids. The mRNA expression levels of CPT1B were associated with this SNP. In addition, we recently reported that acylcarnitine levels were abnormally low in narcolepsy patients. To assess the efficacy of oral L-carnitine for the treatment of narcolepsy, we performed a clinical trial administering L-carnitine (510 mg/day to patients with the disease. The study design was a randomized, double-blind, cross-over and placebo-controlled trial. Thirty narcolepsy patients were enrolled in our study. Two patients were withdrawn and 28 patients were included in the statistical analysis (15 males and 13 females, all with HLA-DQB1*06:02. L-carnitine treatment significantly improved the total time for dozing off during the daytime, calculated from the sleep logs, compared with that of placebo-treated periods. L-carnitine efficiently increased serum acylcarnitine levels, and reduced serum triglycerides concentration. Differences in the Japanese version of the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS and the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36 vitality and mental health subscales did not reach statistical significance between L-carnitine and placebo. This study suggests that oral L-carnitine can be effective in reducing excessive daytime sleepiness in narcolepsy patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION: University hospital Medical Information Network (UMIN UMIN000003760.

  18. [ACTION OF L-CARNITINE, CORVITIN AND THEIR COMBINATION ON FUNCTIONAL STATE OF LIVER IN EXPERIMENTAL MODEL OF REYE SYNDROME IN RATS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghonghadze, M; Antelava, N; Liluashvili, K; Okujava, M; Pachkoria, K

    2017-02-01

    Administration of Aacetylsalicylic acid in children with viral infections (influence B, chickenpox) can be related with development of Reye syndrome - severe encephalopathy and liver insufficiency with mortality in 50% of cases. During Reye syndrome most important is deficiency of carnitine and hepatocyte damage. Decreased amount of carnitine impairs the energy function of mitochondria and gluconeogenesis as well as production of urea. As a result develops toxic encephalopathy and liver insufficiency. The goal of the research was assessment of efficacy of L-Carnitine, Corvitin and their combination on functional state of liver in experimental model of Reye Syndrome in rats. The study was performed on mature white male Wistar rates with body mass 150-180g. 50 rats were randomly divided into 5 groups (10 rats in each group). The model of Reye syndrome was induced in accordance with A.Vengersky's method. Intraperitoneal administration of 4-pentenoic acid was performed once daily during seven days, the used dosage was 20mg/kg. The treatment of toxic hepatitis was carried with intraperitoneal administration of L-Carnitine 300mg/kg, Corvitine 100mg/kg and concurrent administration of these drugs. Monotherapy with Corvitin and L-Carnitin successfully improved liver function and equally decreased indicators of hepatocyte's cytolyses and increased levels of glucose and urea. The markers of cholestasis was slightly more improved during use of L-Carnitine. Simultaneous use of both drugs was effective in rats with Reye syndrome, indicators of liver damage normalized and herewith, no mortality outcome was observed. The most pronounced hepatoprotective effect of concurrent administration of L-Carnitine and Corvitin may be due to synergic action of these drugs and such regime can be recommended for correction of liver function during Reye syndrome.

  19. Metabolism of acetyl-L-carnitine for energy and neurotransmitter synthesis in the immature rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scafidi, Susanna; Fiskum, Gary; Lindauer, Steven L; Bamford, Penelope; Shi, Da; Hopkins, Irene; McKenna, Mary C

    2010-08-01

    Acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR) is an endogenous metabolic intermediate that facilitates the influx and efflux of acetyl groups across the mitochondrial inner membrane. Exogenously administered ALCAR has been used as a nutritional supplement and also as an experimental drug with reported neuroprotective properties and effects on brain metabolism. The aim of this study was to determine oxidative metabolism of ALCAR in the immature rat forebrain. Metabolism was studied in 21-22 day-old rat brain at 15, 60 and 120 min after an intraperitoneal injection of [2-(13)C]acetyl-L-carnitine. The amount, pattern, and fractional enrichment of (13)C-labeled metabolites were determined by ex vivo(13)C-NMR spectroscopy. Metabolism of the acetyl moiety from [2-(13)C]ALCAR via the tricarboxylic acid cycle led to incorporation of label into the C4, C3 and C2 positions of glutamate (GLU), glutamine (GLN) and GABA. Labeling patterns indicated that [2-(13)C]ALCAR was metabolized by both neurons and glia; however, the percent enrichment was higher in GLN and GABA than in GLU, demonstrating high metabolism in astrocytes and GABAergic neurons. Incorporation of label into the C3 position of alanine, both C3 and C2 positions of lactate, and the C1 and C5 positions of glutamate and glutamine demonstrated that [2-(13)C]ALCAR was actively metabolized via the pyruvate recycling pathway. The enrichment of metabolites with (13)C from metabolism of ALCAR was highest in alanine C3 (11%) and lactate C3 (10%), with considerable enrichment in GABA C4 (8%), GLN C3 (approximately 4%) and GLN C5 (5%). Overall, our (13)C-NMR studies reveal that the acetyl moiety of ALCAR is metabolized for energy in both astrocytes and neurons and the label incorporated into the neurotransmitters glutamate and GABA. Cycling ratios showed prolonged cycling of carbon from the acetyl moiety of ALCAR in the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Labeling of compounds formed from metabolism of [2-(13)C]ALCAR via the pyruvate recycling pathway

  20. Effect of Different Levels of L-Carnitine on the Productive Performance, Egg Quality, Blood Parameters and Egg Yolk Cholesterol in Laying Hens

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    Kazemi-Fard M

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of different levels of L-carnitine on productive performance, egg quality and blood parameters in laying hens. Forty-eight Hy-Line W-36 egg Layers were weighed at 90 weeks of age and randomly allocated into 16 cages (three hens per cage. Four dietary treatments were prepared by supplementing L-carnitine (0, 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg of diet to corn-soybean meal diet and offered ad libitum to hens. After two weeks of acclimatization, the eggs were weighed daily and feed intake as well as egg quality traits were measured biweekly. At the end of the experiment, two hens from each cage were selected to determine blood parameters and two eggs from each replicate were collected for cholesterol analysis. Results showed that L-carnitine supplementation at 100 and 150 mg/kg significantly increased egg production and egg mass, but decreased yolk cholesterol content. Laying hens receiving diet containing 50 mg/kg L-carnitine had significantly higher Hough unit, but lower progesterone than the hens fed control diet (P < 0.05. The results of this study showed that supplementing hens' diet with L-carnitine had beneficial effects on productive performance and decreased yolk cholesterol concentration; so it can be used as an effective supplement in the diet of laying hens.

  1. Survey of Synergistic Effect of L-carnitine with Glutamine on Body Composition and Dietary Intake in Soccer Players: A Double-blind, Randomized Clinical Trial

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    Mohammad Hozoori

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study was conducted to investigate the possible effects of L-carnitine and glutamine and their synergistic effects on male soccer athletes. Methods: 28 male soccer players (21.1 ± 0.7 y were enrolled in a randomized pre and post intervention, double-blind design. Before the intervention, their performances were assessed by Bruce protocol, and their body composition was measured with the body composition analyzer. Then, athletes were randomly allocated into four groups: 2 g L-glutamine, 2 g L-carnitine, 2 g L-carnitine + 2 g L-glutamine and placebo. Supplements were prescribed for 21 days and after three weeks, athletes' performances and body composition were re-evaluated. Results: The results showed that body weight, body fat percentage, lean muscle mass, and dietary intake made no significant changes in different groups of athletes. In between groups comparison, results did not significantly change in any performance indices. However, in L-carnitine supplement group, the results of pre and post intervention showed that the running distance and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max increased significantly while the subjective sense of fatigue decreased significantly. Conclusions: Based on our findings, a three-week prescription of separateor combined glutamine and L-carnitine, had no effects on body composition or dietary intake in soccer players. But, the athletes' energy intake was more than the one reported in other studies. Although further studies are required to assess these effects on athletic performance.

  2. Phase II Randomized Study of Plitidepsin (Aplidin, Alone or in Association with L-carnitine, in Patients with Unresectable Advanced Renal Cell Carcinoma

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    Patrick Schöffski

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This randomized phase II study evaluated two schedules of the marine compound Plitidepsin with or without co-administration of L-carnitine in patients with renal cell carcinoma. Patients had adequate performance status and organ function.The primary endpoint was the rate of disease control (no progression at 12 weeks (RECIST.Other endpoints included the response rate and time dependent efficacy measures.The trial also assessed the efficacy of L-carnitine to prevent Plitidepsin-related toxicity. The two regimes given as 24 hour infusion every two weeks showed hints of antitumoral activity. Disease control at 12 weeks was 15.8% in Arm A (5mg/m2, no L-carnitine and 11,1% in Arm B (7mg/m2 with L-carnitine. Two partial responses were observed in Arm A (19 patients, none in Arm B (20 patients. Both schedules had the same progression-free interval (2.1 months.The median overall survival was 7.0 and 7.6 months.The safety profile was similar in both arms of the trial and adverse events were mainly mild to moderate (NCI CTC version 2.0. Increasing the dose to 7mg/m2 did not increase the treatment efficacy but the incidence of transaminase and CPK elevations and serious AEs. Coadministration of L-carnitine did not prevent muscular toxicity or CPK-elevation associated with Plitidepsin.

  3. Digestibility and Egg Yolk Pigment Intensity of Local Ducks Fed Shrimps Head Meal, Leucaena Leaf Meal and L-Carnitine Supplementation

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    T Widiyastuti

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to determine the nutrient digestibility and egg yolk pigment intensity of local ducks which fed shrimps head meal, leucaena leaf meal and L-Carnitine supplement. The experimental method used was a Completely Randomized Design (CRD with four treatments i.e : R0 (feed with leucaena leaf meal, R1 (feed with 25 ppm L-Carnitine supplement, R2 (feed with 2% shrimps head meal and R3 (feed with 4% shrimps head meal. A total of 0,20% FeSO4/kg feed were supplemented to all treatments. The results showed that L-Carnitine supplements and fed shrimps head meal (2% and 4% have no significant effects (P>0,05 on crude fat and crude protein digestibility but have significant (P<0.05 effects on yolk pigment intensity. L-Carnitine supplements resulted in 86,69% crude fat and 90,78% crude protein digestibility. Ducks fed with 4% shrimps head meal (R3 produced eggs with highest yolk pigment intensity (10,55. (Animal Production 9(1: 30-35 (2007 Key Words : shrimps head meal, L-Carnitine, digestibility, yolk pigment intensity

  4. Effect of combination therapy of hydroxyurea with l-carnitine and magnesium chloride on hematologic parameters and cardiac function of patients with beta-thalassemia intermedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Mehran; Mohammadi, Faranak; Behmanesh, Farzane; Samani, Soleiman M; Borzouee, Mohammad; Amoozgar, Hamid; Haghpanah, Sezaneh

    2010-01-01

    l-Carnitine and magnesium have antioxidant properties. They have the potential to stimulate production of fetal hemoglobin and stabilize the RBC membrane, respectively. Several studies have also shown the beneficial effects of hydroxyurea in thalassemic patients. We assessed the effect of combination therapy of hydroxyurea with l-carnitine and magnesium chloride on hematologic parameters and cardiac function of patients with beta-thalassemia intermedia. One-hundred-and-twenty patients with thalassemia intermedia (range, 4-35 yr; mean, 19 +/- 6.4 yr) who had no need for blood transfusion or requirement for blood transfusion with an interval of >6 months were randomly selected. All patients had been on hydroxyurea for >6 months. They were randomly divided into four groups: group A (hydroxyurea alone); group B (hydroxyurea and l-carnitine); group C (hydroxyurea and magnesium chloride); and group D (hydroxyurea, l-carnitine and magnesium chloride). In groups B, C, and D, mean Hb and hematocrit increased during 6-month treatment (P l-carnitine or magnesium could be more effective in improving hematologic parameters and cardiac status in patients with beta-thalassemia intermedia than hydroxyurea alone.

  5. The disruption of L-carnitine metabolism by aluminum toxicity and oxidative stress promotes dyslipidemia in human astrocytic and hepatic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemire, Joseph; Mailloux, Ryan; Darwich, Rami; Auger, Christopher; Appanna, Vasu D

    2011-06-24

    L-Carnitine is a critical metabolite indispensable for the metabolism of lipids as it facilitates fatty acid transport into the mitochondrion where β-oxidation occurs. Human astrocytes (CCF-STTG1 cells) and hepatocytes (HepG2 cells) exposed to aluminum (Al) and hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂), were characterized with lower levels of L-carnitine, diminished β-oxidation, and increased lipid accumulation compared to the controls. γ-Butyrobetainealdehyde dehydrogenase (BADH) and butyrobetaine dioxygenase (BBDOX), two key enzymes mediating the biogenesis of L-carnitine, were sharply reduced during Al and H₂O₂ challenge. Exposure of the Al and H₂O₂-treated cells to α-ketoglutarate (KG), led to the recovery of L-carnitine production with the concomitant reduction in ROS levels. It appears that the channeling of KG to combat oxidative stress results in decreased L-carnitine synthesis, an event that contributes to the dyslipidemia observed during Al and H₂O₂ insults in these mammalian cells. Hence, KG may help alleviate pathological conditions induced by oxidative stress. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of a therapeutic lifestyle change diet and supplementation with Q10 plus L-carnitine on quality of life in patients with myocardial infarction: A randomized clinical trial

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    Mohammad Hossein Sharifi

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: Both TLC diet and supplementation with Q10 and L- carnitine had a positive effect on the physical and emotional subscales of MacNew questionnaire and may improve post-MI prognosis. Based on the results, combination of Q10 plus L-carnitine and TLC die can be a potential intervention for improving QoL and secondary prevention.

  7. Propionyl-L-carnitine improves endothelial function, microcirculation and pain management in critical limb ischemia.

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    De Marchi, S; Zecchetto, S; Rigoni, A; Prior, M; Fondrieschi, L; Scuro, A; Rulfo, F; Arosio, E

    2012-10-01

    Chronic critical limb ischemia (CLI) is a severe condition of hypo-perfusion of lower limbs, which is associated with inflammation and a pro-coagulative state. It is a disease at high risk of amputation and cardiovascular death. Propionyl-L-carnitine (PLC) is efficacious in improving pain free walking distance in peripheral arterial disease with claudication; it also exerts favorable effects on the arterial wall and on endothelial function. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of PLC on microcirculation, endothelial function and pain relief in patients affected by CLI not suitable for surgical intervention. We enrolled 48 patients with CLI. Patients were randomized into two groups: the first group was treated with PLC, the second was treated with saline solution. All of them underwent the following tests: laser Doppler flowmetry at the forefoot at rest and after ischemia, trans cutaneous oxygen partial pressure and carbon dioxide partial pressure at the forefoot at rest and after ischemia, endothelium dependent dilation of the brachial artery. All tests were repeated after treatments. Pain was assessed by visual analog pain scale. Endothelium dependent dilation increased after PLC (9.5 ± 3.2 vs 4.9 ± 1.4 %; p production decreased after PLC. VAS showed a significant reduction in pain perception after active treatment. In CLI patients, PLC can improve microcirculation (post ischemic hyperemia, TcPO2 and TcPCO2 production). PLC also enhances endothelium dependent dilation and reduces analgesic consumption and pain perception.

  8. Potential Therapeutic Role of L-Carnitine in Skeletal Muscle Oxidative Stress and Atrophy Conditions

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    Anna Montesano

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The targeting of nutraceutical treatment to skeletal muscle damage is an emerging area of research, driven by the need for new therapies for a range of muscle-associated diseases. L-Carnitine (CARN is an essential nutrient and plays a key role in mitochondrial β-oxidation and in the ubiquitin-proteasome system regulation. As a dietary supplement to improve athletic performance, CARN has been studied for its potential to enhance β-oxidation. However, CARN effects on myogenesis, mitochondrial activity, and hypertrophy process are not completely elucidated. This in vitro study aims to investigate CARN role on skeletal muscle remodeling, differentiation process, and myotubes formation. We analyzed muscle differentiation and morphological features in C2C12 myoblasts exposed to 5 mM CARN. Our results showed that CARN was able to accelerate C2C12 myotubes formation and induce morphological changes, characterizing the start of hypertrophy process. In addition, CARN improved AKT activation and downstream cellular signaling pathways involved in skeletal muscle atrophy process prevention. Also, CARN positively regulated the pathways involved in oxidative stress defense. In this work, we provide an interesting novel mechanism of the potential therapeutic use of CARN to treat pathological conditions characterized by skeletal muscle morphological and functional impairment, oxidative stress production, and atrophy process in aging.

  9. Potential therapeutic role of L-carnitine in skeletal muscle oxidative stress and atrophy conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesano, Anna; Senesi, Pamela; Luzi, Livio; Benedini, Stefano; Terruzzi, Ileana

    2015-01-01

    The targeting of nutraceutical treatment to skeletal muscle damage is an emerging area of research, driven by the need for new therapies for a range of muscle-associated diseases. L-Carnitine (CARN) is an essential nutrient and plays a key role in mitochondrial β-oxidation and in the ubiquitin-proteasome system regulation. As a dietary supplement to improve athletic performance, CARN has been studied for its potential to enhance β-oxidation. However, CARN effects on myogenesis, mitochondrial activity, and hypertrophy process are not completely elucidated. This in vitro study aims to investigate CARN role on skeletal muscle remodeling, differentiation process, and myotubes formation. We analyzed muscle differentiation and morphological features in C2C12 myoblasts exposed to 5 mM CARN. Our results showed that CARN was able to accelerate C2C12 myotubes formation and induce morphological changes, characterizing the start of hypertrophy process. In addition, CARN improved AKT activation and downstream cellular signaling pathways involved in skeletal muscle atrophy process prevention. Also, CARN positively regulated the pathways involved in oxidative stress defense. In this work, we provide an interesting novel mechanism of the potential therapeutic use of CARN to treat pathological conditions characterized by skeletal muscle morphological and functional impairment, oxidative stress production, and atrophy process in aging.

  10. Assessment of pharmacokinetic interaction between piracetam and l-carnitine in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Gustavo D; Zaffalon, Gabriela Traldi; Silveira, Antonio Sérgio; Ramacciato, Juliana Cama; Motta, Rogério Heládio Lopes; Gagliano-Jucá, Thiago; Lopes, Anibal Gil; de Almeida Magalhães, José Cássio; De Nucci, Gilberto

    2016-04-01

    A rapid, sensitive and specific method for quantifying piracetam in human plasma using Piracetam d-8 as the internal standard (IS) is described. The analyte and the IS were extracted from plasma by one-step precipitation of protein using an acetonitrile (100%). The extracts were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The method had a chromatographic run time of 3.8 min and a linear calibration curve over the range 0.5-50 µg/mL (r > 0.99). This LC-MS-MS procedure was used to assess the bioavailability of two piracetam formulations: piracetam + l-carnitine (Piracar®; 270/330 mg tablet) and piracetam (Nootropil®; 800 mg tablet) in healthy volunteers of both sexes. The geometric means with corresponding 90% confidence interval (CI) for test/reference percentage ratios were 88.49% (90% CI = 81.19 - 96.46) for peak concentration/dose and 102.55% (90% CI = 100.62 - 104.51) for AUCinf /dose. The limit of quantitation of 0.5 µg/mL is well suited for pharmacokinetic studies in healthy volunteers. It was concluded that piracetam (Piracar®; 270/330 mg tablet) has a bioavailability equivalent to the piracetam (Nootropil®; 800 mg tablet) formulation with regard to both the rate and the extent of absorption. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Differentially expressed genes in Hirudo medicinalis ganglia after acetyl-L-carnitine treatment.

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    Giuseppe Federighi

    Full Text Available Acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC is a naturally occurring substance that, when administered at supra-physiological concentration, is neuroprotective. It is involved in membrane stabilization and in enhancement of mitochondrial functions. It is a molecule of considerable interest for its clinical application in various neural disorders, including Alzheimer's disease and painful neuropathies. ALC is known to improve the cognitive capability of aged animals chronically treated with the drug and, recently, it has been reported that it impairs forms of non-associative learning in the leech. In the present study the effects of ALC on gene expression have been analyzed in the leech Hirudo medicinalis. The suppression subtractive hybridisation methodology was used for the generation of subtracted cDNA libraries and the subsequent identification of differentially expressed transcripts in the leech nervous system after ALC treatment. The method detects differentially but also little expressed transcripts of genes whose sequence or identity is still unknown. We report that a single administration of ALC is able to modulate positively the expression of genes coding for functions that reveal a lasting effect of ALC on the invertebrate, and confirm the neuroprotective and neuromodulative role of the substance. In addition an important finding is the modulation of genes of vegetal origin. This might be considered an instance of ectosymbiotic mutualism.

  12. Differentially expressed genes in Hirudo medicinalis ganglia after acetyl-L-carnitine treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federighi, Giuseppe; Macchi, Monica; Bernardi, Rodolfo; Scuri, Rossana; Brunelli, Marcello; Durante, Mauro; Traina, Giovanna

    2013-01-01

    Acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) is a naturally occurring substance that, when administered at supra-physiological concentration, is neuroprotective. It is involved in membrane stabilization and in enhancement of mitochondrial functions. It is a molecule of considerable interest for its clinical application in various neural disorders, including Alzheimer's disease and painful neuropathies. ALC is known to improve the cognitive capability of aged animals chronically treated with the drug and, recently, it has been reported that it impairs forms of non-associative learning in the leech. In the present study the effects of ALC on gene expression have been analyzed in the leech Hirudo medicinalis. The suppression subtractive hybridisation methodology was used for the generation of subtracted cDNA libraries and the subsequent identification of differentially expressed transcripts in the leech nervous system after ALC treatment. The method detects differentially but also little expressed transcripts of genes whose sequence or identity is still unknown. We report that a single administration of ALC is able to modulate positively the expression of genes coding for functions that reveal a lasting effect of ALC on the invertebrate, and confirm the neuroprotective and neuromodulative role of the substance. In addition an important finding is the modulation of genes of vegetal origin. This might be considered an instance of ectosymbiotic mutualism.

  13. Effects of supplemental L-carnitine in drinking water on performance and egg quality of laying hens exposed to a high ambient temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, L B; Tekeli, A; Oztürkcan, O

    2004-06-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate effects of L-carnitine supplied with drinking water on performance and egg quality of laying hens under high environmental temperature. In the study, 47-week-old laying hens (Brown hisex) were divided into two groups (control and treatment) and fed with a standard layer diet. Treatment group was received 50 p.p.m L-carnitine with drinking water for an 8-week period. Throughout the study, 8 h hot (35-37 degrees C) and 16 h thermoneutral (20-22 degrees C) environmental temperature regime was employed daily. The results showed that L-carnitine supplementation affected some egg quality characteristics of layers under high environmental temperature. Relative albumen weight and height were increased (p quality under high environmental temperature. Copyright 2004 Blackwell Verlag, Berlin

  14. Effect of methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) on hepatic, heart and skeletal muscle mitochrondrial carnitine palmitoyltransferase and. beta. -oxidation of fatty acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brady, L.J.; Brady, P.S.; Gandour, R.D.

    1986-05-01

    Methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) (MGBG) is an antileukemic agent and polyamine analog which inhibits S-adenosyl methionine decarboxylase. However, MGBG also produces mitochondrial structural damage and inhibition of ..beta..-oxidation. The present experiments were designed to determine if MGBG acts via carnitine palmitoyltransferase-A (CPT-A) inhibition. Liver, heart and skeletal muscle mitochondria were isolated from rats following a 24 h fast. MGBG was competitive with 1-carnitine. The MGBG CPT-A Ki were (mM): liver, 5.0 +/- 0.6 (n = 15); heart, 3.2 +/- 1.2 (n = 3); skeletal muscle, 2.8 +/- 1.0 (n = 3). Lysis of hepatic mitochondria with Triton X-100 yielded a Ki of 4.0 +/- 2.0. Purified hepatic CPT was also sensitive to MGBG inhibition (Ki = 4.5 mM). Spermine and spermidine, which are structurally similar to MGBG, did not inhibit CPT or acid-soluble product formation from 1-(/sup 14/C)-palmitoyl-CoA. MGBG inhibited mitochondrial state 3 oxidation rates of palmitoyl-CoA and palmitoylcarnitine, as well as of glutamate. However, the fatty acid substrates were considerably more sensitive than glutamate to MGBG inhibition. MGBG also increased hepatic mitochondrial aggregation which was reversed by 1-carnitine. Fluorescence polarization, using diphenylhexatriene as a probe, indicated that MGBG increased membrane rigidity in a dose dependent manner. This effect was not reversed by 1-carnitine. The authors conclude that MGBG exhibits competitive competition with 1-carnitine for CPT. However, MGBG also exhibits a number of effects which may be mediated through membrane interaction and which are not necessarily reversed by carnitine.

  15. Effect of methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) on hepatic, heart and skeletal muscle mitochrondrial carnitine palmitoyltransferase and β-oxidation of fatty acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brady, L.J.; Brady, P.S.; Gandour, R.D.

    1986-01-01

    Methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) (MGBG) is an antileukemic agent and polyamine analog which inhibits S-adenosyl methionine decarboxylase. However, MGBG also produces mitochondrial structural damage and inhibition of β-oxidation. The present experiments were designed to determine if MGBG acts via carnitine palmitoyltransferase-A (CPT-A) inhibition. Liver, heart and skeletal muscle mitochondria were isolated from rats following a 24 h fast. MGBG was competitive with 1-carnitine. The MGBG CPT-A Ki were (mM): liver, 5.0 +/- 0.6 (n = 15); heart, 3.2 +/- 1.2 (n = 3); skeletal muscle, 2.8 +/- 1.0 (n = 3). Lysis of hepatic mitochondria with Triton X-100 yielded a Ki of 4.0 +/- 2.0. Purified hepatic CPT was also sensitive to MGBG inhibition (Ki = 4.5 mM). Spermine and spermidine, which are structurally similar to MGBG, did not inhibit CPT or acid-soluble product formation from 1-[ 14 C]-palmitoyl-CoA. MGBG inhibited mitochondrial state 3 oxidation rates of palmitoyl-CoA and palmitoylcarnitine, as well as of glutamate. However, the fatty acid substrates were considerably more sensitive than glutamate to MGBG inhibition. MGBG also increased hepatic mitochondrial aggregation which was reversed by 1-carnitine. Fluorescence polarization, using diphenylhexatriene as a probe, indicated that MGBG increased membrane rigidity in a dose dependent manner. This effect was not reversed by 1-carnitine. The authors conclude that MGBG exhibits competitive competition with 1-carnitine for CPT. However, MGBG also exhibits a number of effects which may be mediated through membrane interaction and which are not necessarily reversed by carnitine

  16. Dynamic monitoring of plasma amino acids and carnitine during chemotherapy of patients with alimentary canal malignancies and its clinical value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang XY

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Xiaoyu Wang,1 Jiaqi Wang,2 Zhenghua Wang,1 Qingjun Wang,1 Hua Li1 1Second Ward of Oncology Department, 2Traditional Chinese Medicine Department, The First Affiliated Hospital of Liaoning Medical University, Jinzhou, People’s Republic of ChinaObjective: The aim of this study was to observe the plasma amino acid and carnitine characteristics in patients with metastatic gastrointestinal malignancies during chemotherapy and to identify markers for the early diagnosis and evaluation of adverse reactions and prognosis of the digestive tract malignant tumor patients.Methods: Blood samples of 30 patients with metastatic gastrointestinal malignancies were collected at four time points: before chemotherapy, the first day after chemotherapy (+1 day, bone marrow depression period (+14 days, and hematopoietic recovery period (+21 days. The plasma amino acids and carnitine from those 30 patients were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry method. Simultaneously, the levels of 21 amino acids were detected in 30 healthy individuals, who were considered as control. Biochemical indexes were also detected at four time points, adverse reactions were recorded during the chemotherapy process, and patients were followed up for 1 year to observe time to progression (TTP and progression-free survival (PFS.Results: Compared to healthy people in the control group, patients with malignancies showed significantly increased levels of plasma amino acids such as Arg, Asp, Cit, Gly, Orn, Tyr, Val, and carnitine (such as C2. The levels of compounds such as C3, Asn, Leu, Lys, Pip, Pro, C0, C5:1 decreased significantly before chemotherapy. The levels of Cit, Cys, Lys, Pro, Tyr, Val, C0, and C2 decreased significantly on the second day of chemotherapy (+1 day, whereas the level of C3 increased significantly. During myelosuppression (+14 days, the levels of Asp, Cit, Met, and Orn were observed to still decrease significantly, whereas the

  17. [Myocardial protective effect of L-carnitine in children with hand, foot and mouth disease caused by Coxsackie A16 virus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ya-Jie; Song, Chun-Lan; Chen, Fang; Li, Peng; Cheng, Yi-Bing

    2017-08-01

    To investigate the myocardial protective effect of L-carnitine in children with hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) caused by Coxsackie A16 virus and possible mechanisms. A total of 60 HFMD children with abnormal myocardial enzyme after Coxsackie A16 virus infection were enrolled and randomly divided into L-carnitine group and fructose-1,6-diphosphate group (fructose group), with 30 children in each group. The two groups were given L-carnitine or fructose diphosphate in addition to antiviral and heat clearance treatment. Another 30 healthy children who underwent physical examination were enrolled as control group. The changes in myocardial zymogram, malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and apoptosis factors sFas and sFasL after treatment were compared between groups. There was no significant difference in treatment response between the L-carnitine group and the fructose group (P>0.05). One child in the fructose group progressed to critical HFMD, which was not observed in the L-carnitine group. Before treatment, the L-carnitine group and the fructose group had significantly higher indices of myocardial zymogram and levels of MDA, sFas, and sFasL and a significantly lower level of SOD than the control group (P0.05). After treatment, the L-carnitine group and the fructose group had significant reductions in the indices of myocardial zymogram and levels of MDA, sFas, and sFasL and a significant increase in the level of SOD (P0.05). SOD level was negatively correlated with aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), CK, and creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) (r=-0.437, -0.364, -0.397, and -0.519 respectively; P<0.05), and MDA level was positively correlated with LDH and CK-MB (r=0.382 and 0.411 respectively; P<0.05). L-carnitine exerts a good myocardial protective effect in children with HFMD caused by Coxsackie A16 virus, possibly by clearing oxygen radicals and inhibiting cardiomyocyte apoptosis.

  18. Patients with medium-chain acyl-coenzyme a dehydrogenase deficiency have impaired oxidation of fat during exercise but no effect of L-carnitine supplementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, K L; Preisler, N; Orngreen, M C

    2013-01-01

    It is not clear to what extent skeletal muscle is affected in patients with medium-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency (MCADD). l-Carnitine is commonly used as a supplement in patients with MCADD, although its beneficial effect has not been verified.......It is not clear to what extent skeletal muscle is affected in patients with medium-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency (MCADD). l-Carnitine is commonly used as a supplement in patients with MCADD, although its beneficial effect has not been verified....

  19. The Protective Effect of Proponyl-L-Carnitine Against Ultrastructural Alterations in Cardiac Muscle of Irradiated and / or diabetic Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu Nour, S.M.; Abdel-Azeem, M.G.; El-Nashar, D.E.M.

    2011-01-01

    Heart dysfunction in chronic diabetes has been observed to be associated with depressed myofibrillar adenosine triphosphatase activities. Oxidative stress a factor implicated in the heart injury may contribute towards some of these alterations. The present study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of L-carnitine on gamma radiation and diabetes induced oxidative damage in the heart by investigating alterations in the ultrastructural level. Streptozotocin was intraperitoneally injected (i.p) to rats at a dose of 28 mg/Kg b.wt / day for 2 weeks pre-irradiation. In irradiated groups, animals were exposed to 6.5 Gy whole body gamma radiation. L-carnitine was intraperitoneally injected (i.p) to rats at a dose of 250 mg/Kg b.wt/day for 2 weeks pre-irradiation. Animals were sacrificed on the 7th day after irradiation. The results demonstrated that the whole body exposure of rats to ionizing radiation induce oxidative stress which showed alterations on the ultrastructural level included dis organization with mayofibrillolysis relatively intact z-band (Z), fibrosis, swollen mitochondria, apoptotic nuclei and thickened walls of capillaries. In diabetic rats cardio muscle focal loss of myofilaments, also swelling of mitochondria and rupture of sacroplasmic reticulum, apoptotic nuclei with dilation of capillaries were evident. Administration of L-carnitine pre-irradiation has improved the ultrastructural alterations of the heart tissue. It is proposed that the oxidative stress is associated with a deficit in the status of the antioxidant defense system which may play a critical role in subcellular remodeling, calcium-handling abnormalities and subsequent diabetic cardiomyopathy

  20. Fish oil and the pan-PPAR agonist tetradecylthioacetic acid affect the amino acid and carnitine metabolism in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørndal, Bodil; Brattelid, Trond; Strand, Elin; Vigerust, Natalya Filipchuk; Svingen, Gard Frodahl Tveitevåg; Svardal, Asbjørn; Nygård, Ottar; Berge, Rolf Kristian

    2013-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are important in the regulation of lipid and glucose metabolism. Recent studies have shown that PPARα-activation by WY 14,643 regulates the metabolism of amino acids. We investigated the effect of PPAR activation on plasma amino acid levels using two PPARα activators with different ligand binding properties, tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA) and fish oil, where the pan-PPAR agonist TTA is a more potent ligand than omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. In addition, plasma L-carnitine esters were investigated to reflect cellular fatty acid catabolism. Male Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) were fed a high-fat (25% w/w) diet including TTA (0.375%, w/w), fish oil (10%, w/w) or a combination of both. The rats were fed for 50 weeks, and although TTA and fish oil had hypotriglyceridemic effects in these animals, only TTA lowered the body weight gain compared to high fat control animals. Distinct dietary effects of fish oil and TTA were observed on plasma amino acid composition. Administration of TTA led to increased plasma levels of the majority of amino acids, except arginine and lysine, which were reduced. Fish oil however, increased plasma levels of only a few amino acids, and the combination showed an intermediate or TTA-dominated effect. On the other hand, TTA and fish oil additively reduced plasma levels of the L-carnitine precursor γ-butyrobetaine, as well as the carnitine esters acetylcarnitine, propionylcarnitine, valeryl/isovalerylcarnitine, and octanoylcarnitine. These data suggest that while both fish oil and TTA affect lipid metabolism, strong PPARα activation is required to obtain effects on amino acid plasma levels. TTA and fish oil may influence amino acid metabolism through different metabolic mechanisms.

  1. Effects of Supplementation Time of L-Carnitine and Garlic Powder on Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Khatibjoo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Carnitine has several roles in lipid oxidation, immunomodulation function and enhancing antibody responses. L-carnitine has been found to exhibit immunomodulatory effects. It enhances serum primary antibody response to sheep red blood cells (SRBC and subsequent humoral immunity using 100 mg L-carnitine/ kg diet compared with control group in Leghorn chickens (Deng et al., 2006. It was reported that only the immediate effects of dietary carnitine on immunocompetence is known while comparing long and short-term effects on early life on the immune system of broiler chickens is unknown. The organic allyl sulfur components in garlic (mainly allicin were implicated to mediate its biological activity. The biological activities of these compounds may be related to their SH modification and antioxidant properties (Prasad et al., 1996. AGE treatment prevented the reduction of the antibody production response in thymectomized mice and improved the thymectomy-induced deterioration of learning behaviors in passive avoidance performance and in a spatial memory task (Zhang et al., 1998. Materials and Methods Four hundred Arian one-day-old broiler chicks were used. This experiment was conducted in order to consider the effects of L-Carnitine and garlic powder on broiler chicken performance, blood metabolites and carcass characteristics in a 2×5 factorial arrangement in randomized complete design with 5 dietary treatments, 4 replicates and 12 birds in each and two periods: short (first 3 weeks and long time (total production period. Dietary treatments were 1 Basal diet (BD: no supplementation, 2 ration having 0.02% flavomycin (positive control, 3 ration having 1.5% garlic powder, 4 ration having 0.025% L-Carnitine and 5 ration having 0.025% L-Carnitine plus 1.5% garlic powder. The birds were kept under conventional conditions for vaccination, temperature, ventilation, and lighting based on Ross catalogue recommendations. Standard management

  2. Propionyl-L-carnitine in Leriche-Fontaine stage II peripheral arterial obstructive disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegra, Claudio; Antignani, Pier Luigi; Schachter, Ilana; Koverech, Aleardo; Messano, Masa; Virmani, Ashraf

    2008-01-01

    Peripheral arterial obstructive disease (PAOD) of the lower limbs affects 5% of the adult population. Uncontrolled arteriopathy is established due to a microcirculatory deficit, which may be present despite a good Winsor index and which leads to exhaustion of the functional microcirculatory reserve. The target of this study was to examine possible improvements in microvascular and tissue homeostasis by the administration of propionyl-L-carnitine (PLC). A total of 26 patients were enrolled in this study, aged 65 +/- 15 years; two males were diagnosed at stage IIA and 17 males and seven females at stage IIB PAOD. The main criterion of inclusion was the worsening of walking distance during the last month. In this study the duration of therapy was 33 days. PLC was administered in three flasks, each containing 300 mg in 250 cc saline by continuous infusion. The following parameters were measured before and after treatment: pain-free and maximum walking distance (measured on a treadmill at 3.2 km/hr with a gradient of 12%), recovery time from pain after maximum walking distance, ankle-brachial index by means of the Doppler apparatus, and evaluation of the microcirculation using capillaroscopy. The results showed that therapy with PLC was effective at restoring activity of skeletal muscle in ischemic conditions. In particular, capillaroscopy showed improvement in the angioarchitecture in the microcirculation fields, expressed as increased numbers of visible capillaries and diminution in the time of loss of sodium fluorescein marker. The clinical data showed increased walking distance and diminished time to recover from pain, and the clinical improvement correlated with improved microcirculatory function. From these preliminary data has emerged an indication of therapy with PLC for chronic obstructive arteriopathy of the lower limbs at stage II. Further studies with higher numbers of patients and more controlled variables are planned.

  3. Role of carnitine palmitoyltransferase I in the control of ketogenesis in primary cultures of rat astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blázquez, C; Sánchez, C; Velasco, G; Guzmán, M

    1998-10-01

    The role of carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT-I) in the control of ketogenesis was studied in primary cultures of rat astrocytes. Ketone bodies were the major product of [14C]palmitate oxidation by cultured astrocytes, whereas CO2 made a minor contribution to the total oxidation products. Using tetradecylglycidate as a specific, cell-permeable inhibitor of CPT-I, a flux control coefficient of 0.77 +/- 0.07 was calculated for CPT-I over the flux of [14C]palmitate to ketone bodies. CPT-I from astrocytes was sensitive to malonyl-CoA (IC50 = 3.4 +/- 0.8 microM) and cross-reacted on western blots with an antibody raised against liver CPT-I. On the other hand, astrocytes expressed significant acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) activity, and consequently they contained considerable amounts of malonyl-CoA. Western blot analysis of ACC isoforms showed that ACC in astrocytes--like in neurons, liver, and white adipose tissue--mostly comprised the 265-kDa isoform, whereas the 280-kDa isoform--which was highly expressed in skeletal muscle--showed much lower abundance. Forskolin was used as a tool to study the modulation of the ketogenic pathway in astrocytes. Thus, forskolin decreased in parallel ACC activity and intracellular malonyl-CoA levels, whereas it stimulated CPT-I activity and [14C]palmitate oxidation to both ketone bodies and CO2. Results show that in cultured astrocytes (a) CPT-I exerts a very high degree of control over ketogenesis from palmitate, (b) the ACC/malonyl-CoA/CPT-I system is similar to that of liver, and (c) the ACC/malonyl-CoA/CPT-I system is subject to regulation by cyclic AMP.

  4. Distinct effects of ketamine and acetyl l-carnitine on the dopamine system in zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Bonnie L.; Dumas, Melanie; Cuevas, Elvis; Gu, Qiang; Paule, Merle G.; Ali, Syed F.; Kanungo, Jyotshna

    2016-01-01

    Ketamine, a noncompetitive N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor antagonist is commonly used as a pediatric anesthetic. We have previously shown that acetyl L-carnitine (ALCAR) prevents ketamine toxicity in zebrafish embryos. In mammals, ketamine is known to modulate the dopaminergic system. NMDA receptor antagonists are considered as promising anti-depressants, but the exact mechanism of their function is unclear. Here, we measured the levels of dopamine (DA) and its metabolites, 3, 4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA), in the zebrafish embryos exposed to ketamine in the presence and absence of 0.5 mM ALCAR. Ketamine, at lower doses (0.1–0.3 mM), did not produce significant changes in DA, DOPAC or HVA levels in 52 h post-fertilization embryos treated for 24 h. In these embryos, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) mRNA expression remained unchanged. However, 2 mM ketamine (internal embryo exposure levels equivalent to human anesthetic plasma concentration) significantly reduced DA level and TH mRNA indicating that DA synthesis was adversely affected. In the presence or absence of 2 mM ketamine, ALCAR showed similar effects on DA level and TH mRNA, but increased DOPAC level compared to control. ALCAR reversed 2 mM ketamine-induced reduction in HVA levels. With ALCAR alone, the expression of genes encoding the DA metabolizing enzymes, MAO (monoamine oxidase) and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), was not affected. However, ketamine altered MAO mRNA expression, except at the 0.1 mM dose. COMT transcripts were reduced in the 2 mM ketamine-treated group. These distinct effects of ketamine and ALCAR on the DA system may shed some light on the mechanism on how ketamine can work as an anti-depressant, especially at sub-anesthetic doses that do not affect DA metabolism and suppress MAO gene expression. PMID:26898327

  5. PGC-1{beta} regulates mouse carnitine-acylcarnitine translocase through estrogen-related receptor {alpha}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gacias, Mar; Perez-Marti, Albert; Pujol-Vidal, Magdalena; Marrero, Pedro F. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Pharmacy and the Institute of Biomedicine of the University of Barcelona (IBUB) (Spain); Haro, Diego, E-mail: dharo@ub.edu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Pharmacy and the Institute of Biomedicine of the University of Barcelona (IBUB) (Spain); Relat, Joana [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Pharmacy and the Institute of Biomedicine of the University of Barcelona (IBUB) (Spain)

    2012-07-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Cact gene is induced in mouse skeletal muscle after 24 h of fasting. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Cact gene contains a functional consensus sequence for ERR. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This sequence binds ERR{alpha} both in vivo and in vitro. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This ERRE is required for the activation of Cact expression by the PGC-1/ERR axis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Our results add Cact as a genuine gene target of these transcriptional regulators. -- Abstract: Carnitine/acylcarnitine translocase (CACT) is a mitochondrial-membrane carrier proteins that mediates the transport of acylcarnitines into the mitochondrial matrix for their oxidation by the mitochondrial fatty acid-oxidation pathway. CACT deficiency causes a variety of pathological conditions, such as hypoketotic hypoglycemia, cardiac arrest, hepatomegaly, hepatic dysfunction and muscle weakness, and it can be fatal in newborns and infants. Here we report that expression of the Cact gene is induced in mouse skeletal muscle after 24 h of fasting. To gain insight into the control of Cact gene expression, we examine the transcriptional regulation of the mouse Cact gene. We show that the 5 Prime -flanking region of this gene is transcriptionally active and contains a consensus sequence for the estrogen-related receptor (ERR), a member of the nuclear receptor family of transcription factors. This sequence binds ERR{alpha}in vivo and in vitro and is required for the activation of Cact expression by the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator (PGC)-1/ERR axis. We also demonstrate that XTC790, the inverse agonist of ERR{alpha}, specifically blocks Cact activation by PGC-1{beta} in C2C12 cells.

  6. L-carnitine significantly decreased aging of rat adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobarak, Halimeh; Fathi, Ezzatollah; Farahzadi, Raheleh; Zarghami, Nosratollah; Javanmardi, Sara

    2017-03-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells are undifferentiated cells that have the ability to divide continuously and tissue regeneration potential during the transplantation. Aging and loss of cell survival, is one of the main problems in cell therapy. Since the production of free radicals in the aging process is effective, the use of antioxidant compounds can help in scavenging free radicals and prevent the aging of cells. The aim of this study is evaluate the effects of L-carnitine (LC) on proliferation and aging of rat adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (rADSC). rADSCs were isolated from inguinal region of 5 male Rattus rats. Oil red-O, alizarin red-S and toluidine blue staining were performed to evaluate the adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation of rADSCs, respectively. Flow cytometric analysis was done for investigating the cell surface markers. The methyl thiazol tetrazolium (MTT) method was used to determine the cell proliferation of rADSCs following exposure to different concentrations of LC. rADSCs aging was evaluated by beta-galactosidase staining. The results showed significant proliferation of rADSCs 48 h after treatment with concentrations of 0.2 mM LC. In addition, in the presence of 0.2 mM LC, rADSCs appeared to be growing faster than control group and 0.2 mM LC supplementation could significantly decrease the population doubling time and aging of rADSCs. It seems that LC would be a good antioxidant to improve lifespan of rADSCs due to the decrease in aging.

  7. Methamphetamine inhibits the glucose uptake by human neurons and astrocytes: stabilization by acetyl-L-carnitine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P M Abdul Muneer

    Full Text Available Methamphetamine (METH, an addictive psycho-stimulant drug exerts euphoric effects on users and abusers. It is also known to cause cognitive impairment and neurotoxicity. Here, we hypothesized that METH exposure impairs the glucose uptake and metabolism in human neurons and astrocytes. Deprivation of glucose is expected to cause neurotoxicity and neuronal degeneration due to depletion of energy. We found that METH exposure inhibited the glucose uptake by neurons and astrocytes, in which neurons were more sensitive to METH than astrocytes in primary culture. Adaptability of these cells to fatty acid oxidation as an alternative source of energy during glucose limitation appeared to regulate this differential sensitivity. Decrease in neuronal glucose uptake by METH was associated with reduction of glucose transporter protein-3 (GLUT3. Surprisingly, METH exposure showed biphasic effects on astrocytic glucose uptake, in which 20 µM increased the uptake while 200 µM inhibited glucose uptake. Dual effects of METH on glucose uptake were paralleled to changes in the expression of astrocytic glucose transporter protein-1 (GLUT1. The adaptive nature of astrocyte to mitochondrial β-oxidation of fatty acid appeared to contribute the survival of astrocytes during METH-induced glucose deprivation. This differential adaptive nature of neurons and astrocytes also governed the differential sensitivity to the toxicity of METH in these brain cells. The effect of acetyl-L-carnitine for enhanced production of ATP from fatty oxidation in glucose-free culture condition validated the adaptive nature of neurons and astrocytes. These findings suggest that deprivation of glucose-derived energy may contribute to neurotoxicity of METH abusers.

  8. Acetyl-L-carnitine improves behavior and dendritic morphology in a mouse model of Rett syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura R Schaevitz

    Full Text Available Rett syndrome (RTT is a devastating neurodevelopmental disorder affecting 1 in 10,000 girls. Approximately 90% of cases are caused by spontaneous mutations in the X-linked gene encoding methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2. Girls with RTT suffer from severe motor, respiratory, cognitive and social abnormalities attributed to early deficits in synaptic connectivity which manifest in the adult as a myriad of physiological and anatomical abnormalities including, but not limited to, dimished dendritic complexity. Supplementation with acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC, an acetyl group donor, ameliorates motor and cognitive deficits in other disease models through a variety of mechanisms including altering patterns of histone acetylation resulting in changes in gene expression, and stimulating biosynthetic pathways such as acetylcholine. We hypothesized ALC treatment during critical periods in cortical development would promote normal synaptic maturation, and continuing treatment would improve behavioral deficits in the Mecp2(1lox mouse model of RTT. In this study, wildtype and Mecp2(1lox mutant mice received daily injections of ALC from birth until death (postnatal day 47. General health, motor, respiratory, and cognitive functions were assessed at several time points during symptom progression. ALC improved weight gain, grip strength, activity levels, prevented metabolic abnormalities and modestly improved cognitive function in Mecp2 null mice early in the course of treatment, but did not significantly improve motor or cognitive functions assessed later in life. ALC treatment from birth was associated with an almost complete rescue of hippocampal dendritic morphology abnormalities with no discernable side effects in the mutant mice. Therefore, ALC appears to be a promising therapeutic approach to treating early RTT symptoms and may be useful in combination with other therapies.

  9. Effect of L-carnitine on fatty acid oxidation of the muscle in hemodialysis patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siami, G.; Clinton, M.; Borum, P.

    1986-01-01

    Muscle weakness is a major cause of morbidity in end stage renal disease (ESRD) patients on long term hemodialysis (HD). Carnitine (C) is important for transport of fatty acids into mitochondria. The kidney is a major site of C biosynthesis which may be compromised in ESRD. C is lost during dialysis and is reduced in plasma and muscle. Although the cause of muscle weakness is multifactorial, the effect of supplemental C was tested on a group of ESRD patients on HD. C (1 gm I.V. 3 x/wk) or placebo was given to HD patients for 6 months. Muscle biopsies were obtained before and after C supplementation and from control subjects. Muscle pathology was examined by histochemical light microscopy. Fatty acid oxidation (FAO) by homogenate of the biopsied muscle was measured using [ 14 C] palmitate. Plasma aluminum (AL) and parthyroid hormone (PTH) were also measured and patients were evaluated for the degree of muscle weakness. All Pts had abnormal muscle pathology and C supplementation did not improve it. FAO by 3 HD Pts who had received placebo was 639 +/- 285 (S.D.) dpm/mg protein while control subjects were 1487 +/- 267 and was statistically different (p < .003). FAO by 8 HD Pts receiving C was not different from placebo. Addition of C in vitro stimulated FAO 70 to 80%, but there was not difference between groups. The degree of FAO was inversely correlated with the severity of the muscle pathology, and was directly correlated with the concentration of C in muscle. Pts with high plasma AL had lower FAO, but there was no correlation between FAO and PTH

  10. Efficacy of L-carnitine supplementation on frailty status and its biomarkers, nutritional status, and physical and cognitive function among prefrail older adults: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badrasawi, M; Shahar, Suzana; Zahara, A M; Nor Fadilah, R; Singh, Devinder Kaur Ajit

    2016-01-01

    Frailty is a biological syndrome of decreased reserve and resistance to stressors due to decline in multiple physiological systems. Amino acid deficiency, including L-carnitine, has been proposed to be associated with its pathophysiology. Nevertheless, the efficacy of L-carnitine supplementation on frailty status has not been documented. Thus, this study aimed to determine the effect of 10-week L-carnitine supplement (1.5 g/day) on frailty status and its biomarkers and also physical function, cognition, and nutritional status among prefrail older adults in Klang Valley, Malaysia. This study is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial conducted among 50 prefrail subjects randomized into two groups (26 in L-carnitine group and 24 in placebo group). Outcome measures include frailty status using Fried criteria and Frailty Index accumulation of deficit, selected frailty biomarkers (interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and insulin-like growth factor-1), physical function, cognitive function, nutritional status and biochemical profile. The results indicated that the mean scores of Frailty Index score and hand grip test were significantly improved in subjects supplemented with L-carnitine ( P <0.05 for both parameters) as compared to no change in the placebo group. Based on Fried criteria, four subjects (three from the L-carnitine group and one from the control group) transited from prefrail status to robust after the intervention. L-carnitine supplementation has a favorable effect on the functional status and fatigue in prefrail older adults.

  11. Association between the blood concentrations of ammonia and carnitine/amino acid of schizophrenic patients treated with valproic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Masazumi; Amayasu, Hideaki; Itai, Takahiro; Yoshida, Hisahiro

    2017-01-01

    Administration of valproic acid (VPA) is complicated with approximately 0.9% of patients developing hyperammonemia, but the pathogenesis of this adverse effect remains to be clarified. The aim of the present study was to search for mechanisms associated with VPA-induced hyperammonemia in the light of changes in serum amino acids concentrations associated with the urea cycle of schizophrenic patients. Blood samples (10 mL) were obtained from 37 schizophrenic patients receiving VPA for the prevention of violent behaviors in the morning after overnight fast. Blood concentrations of ammonia, VPA, free carnitine, acyl-carnitine, and 40 amino acids including glutamate and citrulline were measured for each patient. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed to identify amino acids or concomitantly administered drugs that were associated with variability in the blood concentrations of ammonia. The blood ammonia level was positively correlated with the serum glutamate concentration ( r  = 0.44, p  blonanserin ( p  < 0.01) was positively associated with the elevation of the blood ammonia level. We hypothisized that VPA would elevate the blood ammonia level of schizophrenic patients. The observed changes in serum amino acids are compatible with urea cycle dysfunction, possibly due to reduced carbamoyl-phosphate synthase 1 (CPS1) activity. We conclude that VPA should be prudently prescribed to schizophrenic patients, particularly those receiving mood stabilizers or certain antipsychotics.

  12. The Acetyl Group Buffering Action of Carnitine Acetyltransferase Offsets Macronutrient-Induced Lysine Acetylation of Mitochondrial Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael N. Davies

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lysine acetylation (AcK, a posttranslational modification wherein a two-carbon acetyl group binds covalently to a lysine residue, occurs prominently on mitochondrial proteins and has been linked to metabolic dysfunction. An emergent theory suggests mitochondrial AcK occurs via mass action rather than targeted catalysis. To test this hypothesis, we performed mass spectrometry-based acetylproteomic analyses of quadriceps muscles from mice with skeletal muscle-specific deficiency of carnitine acetyltransferase (CrAT, an enzyme that buffers the mitochondrial acetyl-CoA pool by converting short-chain acyl-CoAs to their membrane permeant acylcarnitine counterparts. CrAT deficiency increased tissue acetyl-CoA levels and susceptibility to diet-induced AcK of broad-ranging mitochondrial proteins, coincident with diminished whole body glucose control. Sub-compartment acetylproteome analyses of muscles from obese mice and humans showed remarkable overrepresentation of mitochondrial matrix proteins. These findings reveal roles for CrAT and L-carnitine in modulating the muscle acetylproteome and provide strong experimental evidence favoring the nonenzymatic carbon pressure model of mitochondrial AcK.

  13. L-Carnitine reverses maternal cigarette smoke exposure-induced renal oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in mouse offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Long T; Stangenberg, Stefanie; Chen, Hui; Al-Odat, Ibrahim; Chan, Yik L; Gosnell, Martin E; Anwer, Ayad G; Goldys, Ewa M; Pollock, Carol A; Saad, Sonia

    2015-04-01

    Maternal smoking is associated with metabolic disorders, renal underdevelopment, and a predisposition to chronic kidney disease in offspring, yet the underlying mechanisms are unclear. By exposing female Balb/c mice to cigarette smoke for 6 wk premating and during gestation and lactation, we showed that maternal smoke exposure induced glucose intolerance, renal underdevelopment, inflammation, and albuminuria in male offspring. This was associated with increased renal oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction at birth and in adulthood. Importantly, we demonstrated that dietary supplementation of l-carnitine, an amino acid shown to increase antioxidant defenses and mitochondrial function in numerous diseases, in smoke-exposed mothers during pregnancy and lactation significantly reversed the detrimental maternal impacts on kidney pathology in these male offspring. It increased SOD2 and glutathione peroxidase 1, reduced ROS accumulation, and normalized levels of mitochondrial preprotein translocases of the outer membrane, and oxidative phosphorylation complexes I-V in the kidneys of mouse progeny after intrauterine cigarette smoke exposure. These findings support the hypothesis that oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are closely linked to the adverse effects of maternal smoking on male offspring renal pathology. The results of our study suggest that l-carnitine administration in cigarette smoke-exposed mothers mitigates these deleterious renal consequences. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Inhibition by etomoxir of rat liver carnitine octanoyltransferase is produced through the co-ordinate interaction with two histidine residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morillas, M; Clotet, J; Rubí, B; Serra, D; Ariño, J; Hegardt, F G; Asins, G

    2000-10-15

    Rat peroxisomal carnitine octanoyltransferase (COT), which facilitates the transport of medium-chain fatty acids through the peroxisomal membrane, is irreversibly inhibited by the hypoglycaemia-inducing drug etomoxir. To identify the molecular basis of this inhibition, cDNAs encoding full-length wild-type COT, two different variant point mutants and one variant double mutant from rat peroxisomal COT were expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, an organism devoid of endogenous COT activity. The recombinant mutated enzymes showed activity towards both carnitine and decanoyl-CoA in the same range as the wild type. Whereas the wild-type version expressed in yeast was inhibited by etomoxir in an identical manner to COT from rat liver peroxisomes, the activity of the enzyme containing the double mutation H131A/H340A was completely insensitive to etomoxir. Individual point mutations H131A and H340A also drastically reduced sensitivity to etomoxir. Taken together, these results indicate that the two histidine residues, H131 and H340, are the sites responsible for inhibition by etomoxir and that the full inhibitory properties of the drug will be shown only if both histidines are intact at the same time. Our data demonstrate that both etomoxir and malonyl-CoA inhibit COT by interacting with the same sites.

  15. L-carnitine, a diet component and organic cation transporter OCTN ligand, displays immunosuppressive properties and abrogates intestinal inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin, G; Yurchenko, K; Collette, C; Rubio, M; Villani, A-C; Bitton, A; Sarfati, M; Franchimont, D

    2009-04-01

    Allele variants in the L-carnitine (LCAR) transporters OCTN1 (SLC22A4, 1672 C --> T) and OCTN2 (SLC22A5, -207 G --> C) have been implicated in susceptibility to Crohn's disease (CD). LCAR is consumed in the diet and transported actively from the intestinal lumen via the organic cation transporter OCTN2. While recognized mainly for its role in fatty acid metabolism, several lines of evidence suggest that LCAR may also display immunosuppressive properties. This study sought to investigate the immunomodulatory capacity of LCAR on antigen-presenting cell (APC) and CD4+ T cell function by examining cytokine production and the expression of activation markers in LCAR-supplemented and deficient cell culture systems. The therapeutic efficacy of its systemic administration was then evaluated during the establishment of colonic inflammation in vivo. LCAR treatment significantly inhibited both APC and CD4+ T cell function, as assessed by the expression of classical activation markers, proliferation and cytokine production. Carnitine deficiency resulted in the hyperactivation of CD4+ T cells and enhanced cytokine production. In vivo, protection from trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid colitis was observed in LCAR-treated mice and was attributed to the abrogation of both innate [interleukin (IL)-1beta and IL-6 production] and adaptive (T cell proliferation in draining lymph nodes) immune responses. LCAR therapy may therefore represent a novel alternative therapeutic strategy and highlights the role of diet in CD.

  16. Partial characterization of a malonyl-CoA-sensitive carnitine O-palmitoyltransferase I from Macrobrachium borellii (Crustacea: Palaemonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavarías, Sabrina; Pasquevich, María Y; Dreon, Marcos S; Heras, Horacio

    2009-04-01

    The shuttle system that mediates the transport of fatty acids across the mitochondrial membrane in invertebrates has received little attention. Carnitine O-palmitoyltransferase I (EC 2.3.1.21; CPT I) is a key component of this system that in vertebrates controls long-chain fatty acid beta-oxidation. To gain knowledge on the acyltransferases in aquatic arthropods, physical, kinetic, regulatory and immunological properties of CPT of the midgut gland mitochondria of Macrobrachium borellii were assayed. CPT I optimum conditions were 34 degrees C and pH=8.0. Kinetic analysis revealed a Km for carnitine of 2180+/-281 microM and a Km for palmitoyl-CoA of 98.9+/-8.9 microM, while V(max) were 56.5+/-6.6 and 36.7+/-4.8 nmol min(-1) mg protein(-1), respectively. A Hill coefficient, n~1, indicate a Michaelis-Menten behavior. The CPT I activity was sensitive to regulation by malonyl-CoA, with an IC(50) of 25.2 microM. Electrophoretic and immunological analyses showed that a 66 kDa protein with an isoelectric point of 5.1 cross-reacted with both rat liver and muscle-liver anti CPT I polyclonal antibodies, suggesting antigenic similarity with the rat enzymes. Although CPT I displayed kinetic differences with insect and vertebrates, prawn showed a high capacity for energy generation through beta-oxidation of long-chain fatty acids.

  17. Cytological evidence that the C-terminus of carnitine palmitoyltransferase I is on the cytosolic face of the mitochondrial outer membrane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Leij, FR; Kram, AM; Bartelds, B; Roelofsen, H; Smid, GB; Takens, J; Zammit, VA; Kuipers, JRG

    1999-01-01

    Carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT I) is a key enzyme in the regulation of beta-oxidation, The topology of this enzyme has been difficult to elucidate by biochemical methods. We studied the topology of a fusion protein of muscle-type CPT I (M-CPT I) and green fluorescent protein (GFP) by

  18. Fatty acid beta-oxidation in peroxisomes and mitochondria: the first, unequivocal evidence for the involvement of carnitine in shuttling propionyl-CoA from peroxisomes to mitochondria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakobs, B. S.; Wanders, R. J.

    1995-01-01

    We have investigated how [1-14C]propionyl-CoA, which is the first product of the peroxisomal beta-oxidation of [1-14C] pristanic acid, is transported to mitochondria for further oxidation in human skin fibroblasts from patients with a defect in the mitochondrial carnitine/acylcarnitine translocase

  19. Changes in fatty acid concentrations in tissues of African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, as a consequence of dietary carnitine, lysine and lipid supplements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozorio, E.O.A.; Uktolseja, J.L.A.; Huisman, E.A.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2001-01-01

    A study was undertaken to examine the effect of different dietary carnitine (200 and 1000 mg/kg diet) and fat (90 and 190 g/kg diet) supplementation on growth and fatty acid concentrations of fish fed either with a low- (13 g/kg) or a high-lysine (21 g/kg) diet. African catfish (22?7 g/fish),

  20. Effects of dietary carnitine and protein energy: non-protein energy ratios on growth, ammonia excretion and respiratory quotient in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) (Burchell) juveniles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozorio, R.O.A.; Eekeren, van T.H.B.; Huisman, E.A.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2001-01-01

    Two separate feeding experiments were carried out to determine the effects of dietary carnitine supplements on growth rates, total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) excretion and respiratory quotient rates (RQ) in the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell), juveniles fed various diets differing in

  1. The effect of acute L-Carnitine supplementation on the blood lactate, glucose, VO2max and power in trained men: a brief report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arazi H

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Probably L-Carnitine can induce increasing of Pyruvate dehydrogenase activity, decreasing of lactic acid production and performance improvements due to the reinforcement of long chain fatty acid oxidation and stabilize of Coenzyme A (CoASH to free Coenzyme A (COA. Based on this, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of acute L-Carnitine supplementation on blood lactate, glucose, VO2max and anaerobic power in trained men.Methods: Sixteen trained men (aged 19-23 volunteers from University of Guilan, facul-ty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences participated as subjects in this investiga-tion. Subjects divided to aerobic (A and anaerobic (An group randomly. In a double blind design, subjects participated in two separated tests by one week. Subjects ingested 3 grams of L-Carnitine supplementation or placebo (maltodextrin 90 minute before aerobic and anaerobic exercise. For aerobic activity used shuttle run 20 meter and for anaerobic activity used RAST test. Blood samples were collected 5 minute prior at rest and 4 minute post tests. Participants were asked in the morning to obtain fasting blood samples and perform tests. A t-test was used to detect differences between supplementa-tion and placebo groups in each exercise.Results: L-Carnitine group ((A 141.25±20.62 and (An 145.38±55.47 significantly had lower lactate concentration than placebo ((A 151.00±20.85 and (An 152.50±28.59 after tests (P≤0.05. L-Carnitine group ((A 136.00±19.74 and (An 115.50±13.64 had significa-ntly higher blood glucose compared to placebo ((A 121.62±15.65 and (An 110.12±12.63 too (P≤0.05. Also, VO2max, mean and maximum anaerobic power in L-Carnitine group were significantly more than ones in placebo (P<0.05.Conclusion: These findings indicate that acute oral supplementation of L-Carnitine can induce fatigue decreasing and improvement of aerobic and anaerobic performance.

  2. Role of l-carnitine in the prevention of seminiferous tubules damage induced by gamma radiation: a light and electron microscopic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topcu-Tarladacalisir, Yeter; Kanter, Mehmet; Uzal, Mustafa Cem

    2009-01-01

    The present study, we hypothesized that l-carnitine can minimize germ-cell depletion and morphological features of late cell damage in the rat testis following gamma (γ)-irradiation. Wistar albino male rats were divided into three groups. Control group received physiological saline 0.2 ml intraperitoneally (i.p.), as placebo. Radiation group received scrotal γ-irradiation of 10 Gy as a single dose plus physiological saline. Radiation + l-carnitine group received scrotal γ-irradiation plus 200 mg/kg i.p. l-carnitine. l-carnitine starting 1 day before irradiation and 21 days (three times per week) after irradiation. Testis samples of the all groups were taken at day 21, 44 and 70 post-irradiation. All samples were processed at the light and electron microscopic levels. Morphologically, examination of γ-irradiated testis revealed presence of marked disorganization and depletion of germ cells, arrest of spermatogenesis, formation of multinucleated giant cells, and vacuolization in the germinal epithelium. The type and extent of these changes varied at different post-treatment intervals. The damage was evident at the 21st day and reached maximum level by the 44th day. By day 44 post-irradiation, the changes were most advanced, and were associated with atrophied seminiferous tubules without germ cells, the increase in the number and size of vacuolizations in germinal epithelium, and the absent multinucleated giant cells due to spermatids had completely disappeared. The increase in nucleus invaginations, the dilatation of smooth endoplasmic reticulum cysternas and the increase in the number and size of lipid droplets in the Sertoli cells were determined at the electron microscopic level. In conclusion, l-carnitine supplementation during the radiotherapy would be effective in protecting against radiation-induced damages in rat testis, and thereby may improve the quality of patient's life after the therapy. (orig.)

  3. Acetyl-L-carnitine and α-lipoic acid affect rotenone-induced damage in nigral dopaminergic neurons of rat brain, implication for Parkinson's disease therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitone, Sawsan A; Abo-Elmatty, Dina M; Shaalan, Aly A

    2012-01-01

    Although the mechanisms of neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease are not fully understood, mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress and environmental toxins may be involved. The current research was directed to investigate the protective role of two bioenergetic antioxidants, acetyl-L-carnitine and α-lipoic acid, in rotenone-parkinsonian rats. Ninety six male rats were divided into five groups. Group I is the vehicle-injected group, group II is the disease control group and was injected with six doses of rotenone (1.5 mg/kg/48 h, s.c.). Groups III, IV and V received rotenone in addition to acetyl-L-carnitine (100 mg/kg/day, p.o.), α-lipoic acid (50 mg/kg/day, p.o.) or their combination, respectively. Results showed that rotenone-treated rats exhibited bradykinesia and motor impairment in the open-field and square bridge tests. In addition, ATP level was decreased whereas lipid peroxides and protein carbonyls increased in the striata of rotenone-treated rats as compared to vehicle-treated rats. Treatment with acetyl-L-carnitine or α-lipoic acid improved the motor performance and reduced the level of lipid peroxides in rat brains as compared to rotenone group. Further, ATP production was enhanced along with acetyl-L-carnitine treatments (p≤0.05). Taken together, our study reinforces the view that acetyl-L-carnitine and α-lipoic acid are promising candidates for neuroprotection in Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Role of l-carnitine in the prevention of seminiferous tubules damage induced by gamma radiation: a light and electron microscopic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Topcu-Tarladacalisir, Yeter; Kanter, Mehmet [Trakya University, Department of Histology and Embryology, Faculty of Medicine, Edirne (Turkey); Uzal, Mustafa Cem [Trakya University, Department of Radiation Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, Edirne (Turkey)

    2009-08-15

    The present study, we hypothesized that l-carnitine can minimize germ-cell depletion and morphological features of late cell damage in the rat testis following gamma ({gamma})-irradiation. Wistar albino male rats were divided into three groups. Control group received physiological saline 0.2 ml intraperitoneally (i.p.), as placebo. Radiation group received scrotal {gamma}-irradiation of 10 Gy as a single dose plus physiological saline. Radiation + l-carnitine group received scrotal {gamma}-irradiation plus 200 mg/kg i.p. l-carnitine. l-carnitine starting 1 day before irradiation and 21 days (three times per week) after irradiation. Testis samples of the all groups were taken at day 21, 44 and 70 post-irradiation. All samples were processed at the light and electron microscopic levels. Morphologically, examination of {gamma}-irradiated testis revealed presence of marked disorganization and depletion of germ cells, arrest of spermatogenesis, formation of multinucleated giant cells, and vacuolization in the germinal epithelium. The type and extent of these changes varied at different post-treatment intervals. The damage was evident at the 21st day and reached maximum level by the 44th day. By day 44 post-irradiation, the changes were most advanced, and were associated with atrophied seminiferous tubules without germ cells, the increase in the number and size of vacuolizations in germinal epithelium, and the absent multinucleated giant cells due to spermatids had completely disappeared. The increase in nucleus invaginations, the dilatation of smooth endoplasmic reticulum cysternas and the increase in the number and size of lipid droplets in the Sertoli cells were determined at the electron microscopic level. In conclusion, l-carnitine supplementation during the radiotherapy would be effective in protecting against radiation-induced damages in rat testis, and thereby may improve the quality of patient's life after the therapy. (orig.)

  5. Testicular toxicity and sperm quality following copper exposure in Wistar albino rats: ameliorative potentials of L-carnitine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khushboo, Maurya; Murthy, Meesala Krishna; Devi, Maibam Sunita; Sanjeev, Sanasam; Ibrahim, Kalibulla Syed; Kumar, Nachimuthu Senthil; Roy, Vikas Kumar; Gurusubramanian, Guruswami

    2018-01-01

    Copper is a persistent toxic and bio-accumulative heavy metal of global concern. Continuous exposure of copper compounds of different origin is the most common form of copper poisoning and in turn adversely altering testis morphology and function and affecting sperm quality. L-carnitine has a vital role in the spermatogenesis, physiology of sperm, sperm production and quality. This study was designed to examine whether the detrimental effects of long-term copper consumption on sperm quality and testis function of Wistar albino rat could be prevented by L-carnitine therapy. The parameters included were sperm quality (concentration, viability, motility, and morphology), histopathology, serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), serum urea, serum creatinine, serum testosterone and testis antioxidant enzyme levels (superoxide dismutase and glutathione-S-transferase), and biomarkers of oxidative stress (lipid peroxidation and expression of heat shock protein 70 in testis). Three-month-old male Wistar rats (n = 30) were divided into six groups as group 1 (G1, 0.9% saline control), group 2 (G2, CuSO4 200 mg/kg dissolved in 0.9% saline water), groups 3 and 4 (G3 and G4, L-carnitine 50 and 100 mg/kg dissolved in 0.9% saline water, respectively), and groups 5 and 6 (G5 and G6, CuSO 4 200 mg/kg plus L-carnitine, 50 and 100 mg/kg dissolved in 0.9% saline water, respectively). Doses of copper (200 mg/kg) and L-carnitine (50 and 100 mg/kg) alone and in combinations along with untreated control were administered orally for 30 days. The following morphological, physiological, and biochemical alterations were observed due to chronic exposure of copper (200 mg/kg) to rats in comparison with the untreated control: (1) generation of oxidative stress through rise in testis lipid peroxidation (12.21 vs 3.5 nmol MDA equivalents/mg protein) and upregulation of heat shock protein (overexpression of HSP70 in testis), (2) liver and kidney

  6. Creatine, L-carnitine, and ω3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation from healthy to diseased skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Antona, Giuseppe; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad; Micheletti, Piero; Di Lorenzo, Arianna; Aquilani, Roberto; Nisoli, Enzo; Rondanelli, Mariangela; Daglia, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Myopathies are chronic degenerative pathologies that induce the deterioration of the structure and function of skeletal muscle. So far a definitive therapy has not yet been developed and the main aim of myopathy treatment is to slow the progression of the disease. Current nonpharmacological therapies include rehabilitation, ventilator assistance, and nutritional supplements, all of which aim to delay the onset of the disease and relieve its symptoms. Besides an adequate diet, nutritional supplements could play an important role in the treatment of myopathic patients. Here we review the most recent in vitro and in vivo studies investigating the role supplementation with creatine, L-carnitine, and ω3 PUFAs plays in myopathy treatment. Our results suggest that these dietary supplements could have beneficial effects; nevertheless continued studies are required before they could be recommended as a routine treatment in muscle diseases.

  7. An ignored cause of red urine in children: rhabdomyolysis due to carnitine palmitoyltransferase II (CPT-II) deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melek, Engin; Bulut, Fatma Derya; Atmış, Bahriye; Yılmaz, Berna Şeker; Bayazıt, Aysun Karabay; Mungan, Neslihan Önenli

    2017-02-01

    Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II (CPT-II) deficiency is an autosomal recessively inherited disorder involving the β-oxidation of long-chain fatty acids, which leads to rhabdomyolysis and subsequent acute renal failure. The clinical phenotype varies from a severe infantile form to a milder muscle form. Here, we report a 9-year-old boy referred to our hospital for the investigation of hematuria with a 2-day history of dark urine and malaise. As no erythrocytes in the microscopic examination of the urine and hemoglobinuria were present, myoglobinuria due to rhabdomyolysis was the most probable cause of dark urine. After excluding the other causes of rhabdomyolysis, with the help of metabolic investigations, the patient was suspected to have CPT-II deficiency, the most common cause of metabolic rhabdomyolysis. Our aim in presenting this case is to emphasize considering rhabdomyolysis in the differential diagnosis of dark urine in order to prevent recurrent rhabdomyolysis and renal injury.

  8. Effects of L-carnitine, erythritol and betaine on pro-inflammatory markers in primary human corneal epithelial cells exposed to hyperosmotic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Xia; Su, Zhitao; Deng, Ruzhi; Lin, Jing; Li, De-Quan; Pflugfelder, Stephen C

    2015-07-01

    To explore the effects of osmoprotectants on pro-inflammatory mediator production in primary human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs) exposed to hyperosmotic stress. HCECs cultured in iso-osmolar medium (312 mOsM) were switched to hyperosmotic media with or without prior incubation with 2-20 mM of l-carnitine, erythritol or betaine for different time periods. The mRNA expression and protein production of pro-inflammatory markers in HCECs were evaluated by RT-qPCR and ELISA. Hyperosmolar media significantly stimulated the mRNA and protein expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6, and chemokines, IL-8, CCL2 and CCL20 in HCECs in an osmolarity dependent manner. The stimulated expression of these pro-inflammatory mediators was significantly but differentially suppressed by l-carnitine, erythritol or betaine. l-Carnitine displayed the greatest inhibitory effects and down-regulated 54-77% of the stimulated mRNA levels of TNF-α (down from 12.3-5.7 fold), IL-1β (2.2-0.9 fold), IL-6 (7.3-2.9 fold), IL-8 (4.6-2.0 fold), CCL2 (15.3-3.5 fold) and CCL20 (4.1-1.5 fold) in HCECs exposed to 450 mOsM. The stimulated protein production of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 was also significantly suppressed by l-carnitine, erythritol and betaine. l-carnitine suppressed 49-79% of the stimulated protein levels of TNF-α (down from 81.3 to 17.4 pg/ml), IL-1β (56.9-29.2 pg/ml), IL-6 (12.8-4.6 ng/ml) and IL-8 (21.2-10.9 ng/ml) by HCECs exposed to 450 mOsM. Interestingly, hyperosmolarity stimulated increase in mRNA and protein levels of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 were significantly suppressed by a transient receptor potential vanilloid channel type 1 (TRPV1) activation inhibitor capsazepine. l-carnitine, erythritol and betaine function as osmoprotectants to suppress inflammatory responses via TRPV1 pathway in HCECs exposed to hyperosmotic stress. Osmoprotectants may have efficacy in reducing innate inflammation in dry eye disease.

  9. L-carnitine is an endogenous HDAC inhibitor selectively inhibiting cancer cell growth in vivo and in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbiao Huang

    Full Text Available L-carnitine (LC is generally believed to transport long-chain acyl groups from fatty acids into the mitochondrial matrix for ATP generation via the citric acid cycle. Based on Warburg's theory that most cancer cells mainly depend on glycolysis for ATP generation, we hypothesize that, LC treatment would lead to disturbance of cellular metabolism and cytotoxicity in cancer cells. In this study, Human hepatoma HepG2, SMMC-7721 cell lines, primary cultured thymocytes and mice bearing HepG2 tumor were used. ATP content was detected by HPLC assay. Cell cycle, cell death and cell viability were assayed by flow cytometry and MTS respectively. Gene, mRNA expression and protein level were detected by gene microarray, Real-time PCR and Western blot respectively. HDAC activities and histone acetylation were detected both in test tube and in cultured cells. A molecular docking study was carried out with CDOCKER protocol of Discovery Studio 2.0 to predict the molecular interaction between L-carnitine and HDAC. Here we found that (1 LC treatment selectively inhibited cancer cell growth in vivo and in vitro; (2 LC treatment selectively induces the expression of p21(cip1 gene, mRNA and protein in cancer cells but not p27(kip1; (4 LC increases histone acetylation and induces accumulation of acetylated histones both in normal thymocytes and cancer cells; (5 LC directly inhibits HDAC I/II activities via binding to the active sites of HDAC and induces histone acetylation and lysine-acetylation accumulation in vitro; (6 LC treatment induces accumulation of acetylated histones in chromatin associated with the p21(cip1 gene but not p27(kip1 detected by ChIP assay. These data support that LC, besides transporting acyl group, works as an endogenous HDAC inhibitor in the cell, which would be of physiological and pathological importance.

  10. L-carnitine is an endogenous HDAC inhibitor selectively inhibiting cancer cell growth in vivo and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hongbiao; Liu, Ningning; Guo, Haiping; Liao, Siyan; Li, Xiaofen; Yang, Changshan; Liu, Shouting; Song, Wenbin; Liu, Chunjiao; Guan, Lixia; Li, Bing; Xu, Li; Zhang, Change; Wang, Xuejun; Dou, Q Ping; Liu, Jinbao

    2012-01-01

    L-carnitine (LC) is generally believed to transport long-chain acyl groups from fatty acids into the mitochondrial matrix for ATP generation via the citric acid cycle. Based on Warburg's theory that most cancer cells mainly depend on glycolysis for ATP generation, we hypothesize that, LC treatment would lead to disturbance of cellular metabolism and cytotoxicity in cancer cells. In this study, Human hepatoma HepG2, SMMC-7721 cell lines, primary cultured thymocytes and mice bearing HepG2 tumor were used. ATP content was detected by HPLC assay. Cell cycle, cell death and cell viability were assayed by flow cytometry and MTS respectively. Gene, mRNA expression and protein level were detected by gene microarray, Real-time PCR and Western blot respectively. HDAC activities and histone acetylation were detected both in test tube and in cultured cells. A molecular docking study was carried out with CDOCKER protocol of Discovery Studio 2.0 to predict the molecular interaction between L-carnitine and HDAC. Here we found that (1) LC treatment selectively inhibited cancer cell growth in vivo and in vitro; (2) LC treatment selectively induces the expression of p21(cip1) gene, mRNA and protein in cancer cells but not p27(kip1); (4) LC increases histone acetylation and induces accumulation of acetylated histones both in normal thymocytes and cancer cells; (5) LC directly inhibits HDAC I/II activities via binding to the active sites of HDAC and induces histone acetylation and lysine-acetylation accumulation in vitro; (6) LC treatment induces accumulation of acetylated histones in chromatin associated with the p21(cip1) gene but not p27(kip1) detected by ChIP assay. These data support that LC, besides transporting acyl group, works as an endogenous HDAC inhibitor in the cell, which would be of physiological and pathological importance.

  11. Glycine propionyl-L-carnitine increases plasma nitrate/nitrite in resistance trained men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Webb A

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We have recently demonstrated that oral intake of glycine propionyl-L-carnitine (GPLC increases plasma nitrate/nitrite (NOx, a surrogate measure of nitric oxide production. However, these findings were observed at rest, and in previously sedentary subjects. Purpose In the present study, we sought to determine the impact of oral GPLC on plasma NOx at rest and in response to a period of reactive hyperemia in resistance trained men. Methods Using a double blind, crossover design, 15 healthy men (24 ± 4 years were assigned to GPLC (3 g/d PLC + 1044 mg glycine and a placebo in random order, for a four-week period, with a two-week washout between condition assignment. Blood samples were taken from subjects at rest and at 0, 3, and 10 minutes following an ischemia-reperfusion protocol (six minutes of upper arm cuff occlusion at 200 mmHg followed by rapid reperfusion with cuff removal. Blood samples were taken from a forearm vein from the same arm used for the protocol and analyzed for total nitrate/nitrite. Data are presented as mean ± SEM. Results A condition main effect (p = 0.0008 was noted for NOx, with higher values in subjects when using GPLC (45.6 ± 2.8 μmol·L-1 compared to placebo (34.9 ± 1.2 μmol·L-1. No time main effect was noted (p = 0.7099, although values increased approximately 12% from rest (37.7 ± 2.7 μmol·L-1 to a peak at 10 minutes post protocol (42.3 ± 3.3 μmol·L-1. The interaction effect was not significant (p = 0.8809, although paired time contrasts revealed higher values for GPLC compared to placebo at 3 (48.2 ± 6.7 vs. 34.9 ± 2.4 μmol·L-1; p = 0.033 and 10 (48.8 ± 5.9 vs. 35.7 ± 2.1 μmol·L-1; p = 0.036 minutes post protocol, with non-statistically significant differences noted at rest (41.8 ± 4.5 vs. 33.6 ± 2.5 μmol·L-1; p = 0.189 and at 0 minutes (43.6 ± 5.1 vs. 35.4 ± 2.7 μmol·L-1; p = 0.187 post protocol. An analysis by subject (collapsed across time indicated that 11 of the 15 subjects

  12. Effect of L-carnitine and pyruvate on equine sperm maintained at 5 ºC and 15 ºC during 24 h: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avila G

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate if the addition of L-carnitine and pyruvate to two semen transport extenders (Kenney and Kenney modified by Tyrodes is able to maintain sperm parameters for 24 h at 5 ºC and 15 ºC. Semen was obtained from 3 stallions (n=3; r=2 and at time 0 and after 24 h of cooling, the following parameters evaluated: total and progressive motility (CASA, viability and acrosome status (FITC-PNA-PI, membrane function (HOS, and DNA with Toluidine Blue stain (TB and the Sperm Chromatin Dispersion assay (SCD. Each temperature was individually analyzed using a factorial design with a 5% significance level. No interactions were observed. For the moment, the Kenney extender with the addition of L-carnitine and pyruvate showed the best results for maintaining most sperm parameters for 24 h at both 5 ºC and 15 ºC.

  13. L-carnitine as an ergogenic aid for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease submitted to whole-body and respiratory muscle training programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borghi-Silva A.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of adding L-carnitine to a whole-body and respiratory training program were determined in moderate-to-severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients. Sixteen COPD patients (66 ± 7 years were randomly assigned to L-carnitine (CG or placebo group (PG that received either L-carnitine or saline solution (2 g/day, orally for 6 weeks (forced expiratory volume on first second was 38 ± 16 and 36 ± 12%, respectively. Both groups participated in three weekly 30-min treadmill and threshold inspiratory muscle training sessions, with 3 sets of 10 loaded inspirations (40% at maximal inspiratory pressure. Nutritional status, exercise tolerance on a treadmill and six-minute walking test, blood lactate, heart rate, blood pressure, and respiratory muscle strength were determined as baseline and on day 42. Maximal capacity in the incremental exercise test was significantly improved in both groups (P < 0.05. Blood lactate, blood pressure, oxygen saturation, and heart rate at identical exercise levels were lower in CG after training (P < 0.05. Inspiratory muscle strength and walking test tolerance were significantly improved in both groups, but the gains of CG were significantly higher than those of PG (40 ± 14 vs 14 ± 5 cmH2O, and 87 ± 30 vs 34 ± 29 m, respectively; P < 0.05. Blood lactate concentration was significantly lower in CG than in PG (1.6 ± 0.7 vs 2.3 ± 0.7 mM, P < 0.05. The present data suggest that carnitine can improve exercise tolerance and inspiratory muscle strength in COPD patients, as well as reduce lactate production.

  14. SMA CARNIVAL TRIAL PART II: a prospective, single-armed trial of L-carnitine and valproic acid in ambulatory children with spinal muscular atrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John T Kissel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Multiple lines of evidence have suggested that valproic acid (VPA might benefit patients with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA. The SMA CARNIVAL TRIAL was a two part prospective trial to evaluate oral VPA and L-carnitine in SMA children. Part 1 targeted non-ambulatory children ages 2-8 in a 12 month cross over design. We report here Part 2, a twelve month prospective, open-label trial of VPA and L-carnitine in ambulatory SMA children. METHODS: This study involved 33 genetically proven type 3 SMA subjects ages 3-17 years. Subjects underwent two baseline assessments over 4-6 weeks and then were placed on VPA and L-carnitine for 12 months. Assessments were performed at baseline, 3, 6 and 12 months. Primary outcomes included safety, adverse events and the change at 6 and 12 months in motor function assessed using the Modified Hammersmith Functional Motor Scale Extend (MHFMS-Extend, timed motor tests and fine motor modules. Secondary outcomes included changes in ulnar compound muscle action potential amplitudes (CMAP, handheld dynamometry, pulmonary function, and Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory scores. RESULTS: Twenty-eight subjects completed the study. VPA and carnitine were generally well tolerated. Although adverse events occurred in 85% of subjects, they were usually mild and transient. Weight gain of 20% above body weight occurred in 17% of subjects. There was no significant change in any primary outcome at six or 12 months. Some pulmonary function measures showed improvement at one year as expected with normal growth. CMAP significantly improved suggesting a modest biologic effect not clinically meaningful. CONCLUSIONS: This study, coupled with the CARNIVAL Part 1 study, indicate that VPA is not effective in improving strength or function in SMA children. The outcomes used in this study are feasible and reliable, and can be employed in future trials in SMA. TRIAL REGSITRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00227266.

  15. Flux control analysis of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in rat skeletal muscle: pyruvate and palmitoyl-carnitine as substrates give different control patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritzen, Anette J; Grunnet, Niels; Quistorff, Bjørn

    2007-01-01

    was associated with the ADP-generating system, i.e., 0.58 +/- 0.05 with pyruvate, but significantly lower, 0.40 +/- 0.05, with palmitoyl-carnitine as substrate. The flux control coefficients of complex I, III and IV, the ATP synthase, the ATP/ADP carrier and the P(i) carrier were 0.070 +/- 0.03, 0.083 +/- 0...

  16. Examinations to investigate the effects of feeding propylene glycol, glycerin and L-carnitin on metabolism and parameters of efficiency of dairy cows concerning ketosis prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Malchau, Inke

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of subclinical ketosis and metabolic disorders caused by negative energy balance in many modern dairy farms often are a reason for insufficient milk yield, high rate of disease and impaired reproduction performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of feeding propylene glycol, glycerin, and L-carnitin on metabolism and milk production. 97 Holstein Friesian cows were divided into four groups, at least five days before calving. All four groups were fed w...

  17. Flux control exerted by mitochondrial outer membrane carnitine palmitoyltransferase over beta-oxidation, ketogenesis and tricarboxylic acid cycle activity in hepatocytes isolated from rats in different metabolic states.

    OpenAIRE

    Drynan, L; Quant, P A; Zammit, V A

    1996-01-01

    The Flux Control Coefficients of mitochondrial outer membrane carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT I) with respect to the overall rates of beta-oxidation, ketogenesis and tricarboxylic acid cycle activity were measured in hepatocytes isolated from rats in different metabolic states (fed, 24 h-starved, starved-refed and starved/insulin-treated). These conditions were chosen because there is controversy as to whether, when significant control ceases to be exerted by CPT I over the rate of fatty ...

  18. Simple determination of betaine, l-carnitine and choline in human urine using self-packed column and column-switching ion chromatography with nonsuppressed conductivity detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Dan; Zhu, Yan; Guo, Ming

    2018-02-01

    A sequential online extraction, clean-up and separation system for the determination of betaine, l-carnitine and choline in human urine using column-switching ion chromatography with nonsuppressed conductivity detection was developed in this work. A self-packed pretreatment column (50 × 4.6 mm, i.d.) was used for the extraction and clean-up of betaine, l-carnitine and choline. The separation was achieved using self-packed cationic exchange column (150 × 4.6 mm, i.d.), followed by nonsuppressed conductivity detection. Under optimized experimental conditions, the developed method presented good analytical performance, with excellent linearity in the range of 0.60-100 μg mL -1 for betaine, 0.75-100 μg mL -1 for l-carnitine and 0.50-100 μg mL -1 for choline, with all correlation coefficients (R 2 ) >0.99 in urine. The limits of detection were 0.15 μg mL -1 for betaine, 0.20 μg mL -1 for l-carnitine and 0.09 μg mL -1 for choline. The intra- and inter-day accuracy and precision for all quality controls were within ±10.32 and ±9.05%, respectively. Satisfactory recovery was observed between 92.8 and 102.0%. The validated method was successfully applied to the detection of urinary samples from 10 healthy people. The values detected in human urine using the proposed method showed good agreement with the measurement reported previously. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Determination of betaine, l-carnitine, and choline in human urine using a self-packed column and column-switching ion chromatography with nonsuppressed conductivity detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Dan; Liu, Junwei; Guo, Ming; Zhu, Yan

    2017-11-01

    A simple method for the determination of betaine, l-carnitine, and choline in human urine was developed based on column-switching ion chromatography coupled with nonsuppressed conductivity detection by using a self-packed column. A pretreatment column (50 mm × 4.6 mm, id) packed with poly(glycidyl methacrylate-divinylbenzene) microspheres was used for the extraction and cleanup of analytes. Chromatographic separation was achieved within 10 min on a cationic exchange column (150 mm × 4.6 mm, id) using maleic anhydride modified poly(glycidyl methacrylate-divinylbenzene) as the particles for packing. The detection was performed by ion chromatography with nonsuppressed conductivity detection. Parameters including column-switching time, eluent type, flow rates of eluent, and interfering effects were optimized. Linearity (r 2 ≥ 0.99) was obtained for the concentration range of 0.50-100, 0.75-100, and 0.25-100 μg/mL for betaine, l-carnitine, and choline, respectively. Detection limits were 0.12, 0.20, and 0.05 μg/mL for betaine, l-carnitine, and choline, respectively. The intra- and interday accuracy and precision for all quality controls were within ±10.11%. Satisfactory recovery was observed between 92.5 and 105.0%. The validated method was successfully applied for the determination of betaine, l-carnitine, and choline in urine samples from healthy people. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Automated chemoenzymatic synthesis of no-carrier-added [carbonyl-{sup 11}C]propionyl L-carnitine for pharmacokinetic studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davenport, R.J.; Pike, V.W.; Dowsett, K.; Turton, D.R.; Poole, K. [Hammersmith Hospital, London (United Kingdom). MRC Cyclotron Unit

    1997-07-30

    Propionyl-L-carnitine (PLC) is under development as a therapeutic for the treatment of peripheral artery disease, coronary heart disease and chronic heart failure. Three methods were examined for labelling PLC in its propionyl group with positron-emitting carbon-11 (t{sub 1/2} = 20.3 min), one chemical and two chemoenzymatic. The former was based on the preparation of [{sup 11}C]propionyl chloride as labelling agent via {sup 11}C-carboxylation of ethylmagnesium bromide with cyclotron-produced [{sup 11}C]carbon dioxide and subsequent chlorination. Reaction of carrier-added [{sup 11}C]propionyl chloride with L-carnitine in trifluoroacetic acid gave [{sup 11}C]PLC in 12% radiochemical yield (decay-corrected) from cyclotron-produced [{sup 11}C]carbon dioxide. However, the radiosynthesis was unsuccessful at the no-carrier added (NCA) level of specific radioactivity. [{sup 11}C]Propionate, as a radioactive precursor for chemoenzymatic routes, was prepared via carboxylation of ethylmagnesium bromide with [{sup 11}C]carbon dioxide and hydrolysis. NCA [{sup 11}C]PLC was prepared in 68 min in 14% radiochemical yield (decay-corrected) from [{sup 11}C]propionate via sequential conversions catalysed by acetate kinase, phosphotransacetylase and carnitine acetyltransferase. A superior chemoenzymatic synthesis of NCA [{sup 11}C]PLC was developed, based on the use of a novel supported Grignard reagent for the synthesis of [{sup 11}C]propionate and conversions by S-acetyl-CoA synthetase and carnitine acetyltransferase. This gave an overall radiochemical yield of 30-48% (decay-corrected). This synthesis was automated for radiation safety and provides pure NCA [{sup 11}C]PLC in high radioactivities ready for intravenous administration within 25 min from radionuclide production. The [{sup 11}C]PLC is suitable for pharmacokinetic studies in human subjects with PET and the elucidation of the fate of the propionyl group of PLC in vivo. (Author).

  1. Comparative effects of captopril and l-carnitine on blood pressure and antioxidant enzyme gene expression in the heart of spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel-Carrasco, José L; Monserrat, María T; Mate, Alfonso; Vázquez, Carmen M

    2010-04-25

    It has been shown that oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of arterial hypertension. The aim of this work was to study and compare the molecular mechanisms of the antioxidant properties of l-carnitine and captopril in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Antioxidant enzyme activity/regulation (glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and superoxide dismutase) was measured in the erythrocytes and hearts of SHR. The molecular expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), NADPH oxidase, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), angiotensin II type I receptor (AT(1) receptor) and NF-kappaB/IkappaB system was also measured in the hearts of these animals. Both l-carnitine and captopril augmented the antioxidant defense capacity in SHRs. This effect was mediated by an upregulation of antioxidant enzymes, an increase in the plasma total antioxidant capacity and a reduction of lipid peroxidation and superoxide anion production in the heart. The administration of both compounds to hypertensive animals also produced an upregulation of eNOS and a normalization of ACE, angiotensin AT(1) receptor, and the NF-kappaB/IkappaB system expression. In addition, captopril reduced the arterial blood pressure and the relative heart weights back to control values, whereas l-carnitine caused only a partial reduction of blood pressure values and did not alter the cardiac hypertrophy found in SHRs. In conclusion, we have found that l-carnitine and captopril have a similar antioxidant effect in the hearts of hypertensive rats. The molecular regulation of antioxidant enzymes through an inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system and a modulation of the NF-kappaB/IkappaB system seems to be responsible for this antioxidant effect. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Investigation of protective effect of L-carnitine on L-asparaginase-induced acute pancreatic injury in male Balb/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Inan; Citil, Mehmet; Sozmen, Mahmut; Karapehlivan, Mahmut; Cigsar, Gulsen

    2015-05-01

    The present analysis deals with the biochemical and histopathological effects of L-carnitine in mice with L-asparaginase (ASNase)-induced experimental acute pancreatic injury (API). A total of 32 male Balb/c mice were divided into four groups as follows. Group I (control) was injected with single saline via the intraperitoneal route. Group II received 500 mg/kg of L-carnitine daily with the injected volume of 62.5-75 μl for 25-30 g mice using a Hamilton microinjector applied for 5 days. Group III received a single 10,000 IU Escherichia coli ASNase/kg body weight dose of ASNase at a dose of 500 mg/kg. Group IV received 500 mg/kg of L-carnitine daily and a single dose of 500 mg/kg of ASNase and were decapitated on the fifth day following the injection. Blood and pancreatic tissue samples were obtained for evaluation of histopathological structure and levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), total sialic acid (TSA), glucose, amylase and triglyceride. In group III, compared to group IV and group I it was determined that levels of GSH and amylase were significantly lower while levels of MDA, TSA, glucose and triglyceride were higher. Levels of GSH, MDA, TSA, glucose, triglyceride and amylase, especially in group IV, approached that of group I. As a result, L-carnitine for ASNase-induced API mice may be protective against pancreatic tissue degeneration and oxidative stress or lipid peroxidation.

  3. CHANGES IN MAXIMAL STRENGTH AND BODY COMPOSITION AFTER DIFFERENT METHODS OF DEVELOPING MUSCLE STRENGTH AND SUPPLEMENTATION WITH CREATINE, L-CARNITINE AND HMB

    OpenAIRE

    M Kruszewski

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of bodybuilding training combined with administration of L-carnitine, weightlifting training combined with administration of creatine, and isometric training combined with administration of β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) on maximal strength and body composition of athletes. The studies were conducted on groups of beginners practising bodybuilding training (n=63) and isometric training (n=69) as well as on a group of advanced powerlifter...

  4. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to L-carnitine and faster recovery from muscle fatigue after exercise (ID 738, 1492, 1493), skeletal muscle tissue repair (ID 738, 1492, 1493), increase in endurance, capacity (ID 4305, 4684), maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations (ID 1494, 4684), contribution to normal spermatogenesis (ID 1822), “energy metabolism” (ID 1821), and increasing L-carnitine concentrations and/or decreasing free fatty acids in blood during pregnancy (ID 1495) pursuant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claims in relation to L-carnitine and faster recovery from muscle fatigue after exercise, skeletal muscle tissue repair, increase in endurance capacity, maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations, contribution to normal spermatogenesis, “energy metabolism”, and increasing L-carnitine....... The food constituent that is the subject of the health claims is carnitine (as L-carnitine). The Panel considers that L-carnitine is sufficiently characterised.......Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a list of health claims pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. This opinion addresses the scientific substantiation of health...

  5. Definition of the locus responsible for systemic carnitine deficiency within a 1.6-cM region of mouse chromosome 11 by detailed linkage analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okita, Kohei; Tokino, Takashi; Nishimori, Hiroyuki [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan)] [and others

    1996-04-15

    Carnitine is an essential cofactor for oxidation of mitochondrial fatty acids. Carnitine deficiency results in failure of energy production by mitochondria and leads to metabolic encephalopathy, lipid-storage myopathy, and cardiomyopathy. The juvenile visceral steatosis (JVS) mouse, an animal model of systemic carnitine deficiency, inherits the JVS phenotype in autosomal recessive fashion, through a mutant allele mapped to mouse chromosome 11. As a step toward identifying the gene responsible for JVS by positional cloning, we attempted to refine the jvs locus in the mouse by detailed linkage analysis with 13 microsatellite markers, using 190 backcross progeny. Among the 13 loci tested, 5 (defined by markers D11Mit24, D11Mit111,D11Nds9, D11Mit86, and D11Mit23) showed no recombination, with a maximum lod score of 52.38. Our results implied that the jvs gene can be sought on mouse chromosome 11 within a genetic distance no greater than about 1.6 cM. 21 refs., 2 figs.

  6. Effects of acute L-carnitine supplementation on nitric oxide production and oxidative stress after exhaustive exercise in young soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atalay Guzel, N; Erikoglu Orer, G; Sezen Bircan, F; Coskun Cevher, S

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of acute L-carnitine supplementation at two different doses on nitric oxide (NO) production and oxidative stress after exhaustive exercise. The subjects were 26 healthy males aged 17-19 years. Subjects were randomly divided into two groups of 13 each and received 3 or 4 g L-carnitine via a glass of fruit juice. After 1 h, the treadmill test was started at a speed of 8 km/h, afterwards increasing the speed 1 km/h every 3 min with a 1 min rest before every speed increase until exhaustion. Venous blood samples were collected again within 5 min following the exercise test. One week later, the test was repeated on the same athletes with placebo fluids. All subjects received a placebo via a glass of fruit juice. 1 h after the same exercise protocol mentioned above was performed and blood samples were drawn immediately. These plasma samples were used for measurement of nitrate-nitrite (NOx), which are known to be the stable end products of NO, TBARs as a lipid peroxidation indicator and an antioxidant glutathione (GSH) levels. The results of this study have shown that L-carnitine applied at a 3 g dose provides strong antioxidant action by increasing the GSH and NOx level and decreasing the TBARs level.

  7. Pre-Treatment with Either L-Carnitine or Piracetam Increases Ultrasound-Mediated Gene Transfection by Reducing Sonoporation-Associated Apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Wei-Hao; Wu, Chueh-Hung; Chen, Wen-Shiang

    2018-03-14

    Sonoporation, the use of ultrasound to alter the permeability of cell membranes, is a non-viral technique used to facilitate gene delivery, possibly by opening transient pores in the cell membrane. However, sonoporation may have negative bio-effects on cells, such as causing apoptosis, which limits its efficacy in gene delivery. In this study, we investigated whether pre-treatment with either L-carnitine or piracetam could protect cells from undergoing apoptosis after sonoporation and the possible mechanisms. We found that either L-carnitine or piracetam can promote gene transfection without reducing cell viability, possibly by reducing cavitation-induced reactive oxygen species generation, reversing alterations of mitochondrial membrane potential, preventing caspase-3/7 activity and facilitating mitochondrial ATP production. In conclusion, pre-treatment with either L-carnitine or piracetam could protect cells from sonoporation-associated apoptosis by preserving mitochondrial function. Copyright © 2018 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Quantitative analysis of the dynamic signaling pathway involved in the cAMP mediated induction of l-carnitine biosynthesis in E. coli cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormiga, José; González-Alcón, Carlos; Sevilla, Angel; Cánovas, Manuel; Torres, Néstor V

    2010-04-01

    L-(-)-carnitine can be synthesized from waste bioprecursors in the form of crotonobetaine. Such biotransformation is carried out in E. coli by the enzymes encoded by operons regulated by the cAMP receptor proteins. Non-phosphorylated sugars, such as glycerol are used as energy and carbon source since glucose inhibits cAMP synthesis. Until now little attention has been paid to the regulatory signaling structure that operates during the transition from a glucose-consuming, non-l-carnitine producing steady state, to a glycerol-consuming l-carnitine producing steady state. In this work we aim to elucidate and quantify the underlying regulatory mechanisms operating in the abolition of the glucose inhibiting effect. For this purpose we make use of the systemic approach by integrating the available information and our own experimentally generated data to construct a mathematical model. The model is built using power-law representation and is used as a platform to make predictive simulations and to assess the consistency of the regulatory structure of the overall process. The model is subsequently checked for quality through stability and a special, dynamic sensitivity analysis. The results show that the model is able to deal with the observed system transient phase. The model is multi-hierarchical, comprising the metabolic, gene expression, signaling and bioreactor levels. It involves variables and parameters of a very different nature that develop in different time scales and orders of magnitude. Some of the most relevant conclusions obtained are: (i) the regulatory interactions among glucose, glycerol and cAMP metabolism are far stronger than those present in the l-carnitine transport, production and degradation processes; (ii) carnitine biosynthesis is very sensitive to the cAMP signaling system since it reacts at very low cAMP receptor concentrations, and (iii) ATP is a critical factor in the transient dynamics. All these model-derived observations have been

  9. L-carnitine contributes to enhancement of neurogenesis from mesenchymal stem cells through Wnt/β-catenin and PKA pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathi, Ezzatollah; Farahzadi, Raheleh; Charoudeh, Hojjatollah Nozad

    2017-03-01

    The identification of factors capable of enhancing neurogenesis has great potential for cellular therapies in neurodegenerative diseases. Multiple studies have shown the neuroprotective effects of L-carnitine (LC). This study determined whether neuronal differentiation of rat adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) can be activated by LC. In this study, protein kinase A (PKA) and Wnt/β-catenin pathways were detected to show if this activation was due to these pathways. The expression of LC-induced neurogenesis markers in ADSCs was characterized using real-time PCR. ELISA was conducted to assess the expression of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and PKA. The expression of β-catenin, reduced dickkopf1 (DKK1), low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5), Wnt1, and Wnt3a genes as Wnt/β-catenin signaling members were used to detect the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. It was observed that LC could promote neurogenesis in ADSCs as well as expression of some neurogenic markers. Moreover, LC causes to increase the cAMP levels and PKA activity. Treatment of ADSCs with H-89 (dihydrochloride hydrate) as PKA inhibitor significantly inhibited the promotion of neurogenic markers, indicating that the PKA signaling pathway could be involved in neurogenesis induction. Analyses of real-time PCR data showed that the mRNA expressions of β-catenin, DKK1, LRP5c-myc, Wnt1, and Wnt3a were increased in the presence of LC. Therefore, the present study showed that LC promotes ADSCs neurogenesis and the LC-induced neurogenic markers could be due to both the PKA and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Impact statement Neural tissue has long been believed as incapable of regeneration and the identification of cell types and factors capable of neuronal differentiation has generated intense interest. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are considered as potential targets for stem cell-based therapy. L-carnitin (LC) as an antioxidant may have neuroprotective effects in

  10. L-carnitine and pyruvate are prosurvival factors during the storage of stallion spermatozoa at room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibb, Zamira; Lambourne, Sarah R; Quadrelli, Julianne; Smith, Nathan D; Aitken, Robert J

    2015-10-01

    The spermatozoa of many stallions do not tolerate being cooled, restricting the commercial viability of these animals and necessitating the development of a chemically defined room temperature (RT) storage medium. This study examined the impact of two major modulators of oxidative phosphorylation, pyruvate (Pyr) and L-carnitine (L-C), on the storage of stallion spermatozoa at RT. Optimal concentrations of Pyr (10 mM) and L-C (50 mM) were first identified and these concentrations were then used to investigate the effects of these compounds on sperm functionality and oxidative stress at RT. Mitochondrial and cytosolic reactive oxygen species, along with lipid peroxidation, were all significantly suppressed by the addition of L-C (48 h MitoSOX Red negative: 46.2% vs. 26.1%; 48 and 72 h dihydroethidium negative: 61.6% vs. 43.1% and 64.4% vs. 46.9%, respectively; 48 and 72 h 4-hydroxynonenal negative: 37.1% vs. 23.8% and 41.6% vs. 25.7%, respectively), while the Pyr + L-C combination resulted in significantly higher motility compared to the control at 72 h (total motility: 64.2% vs. 39.4%; progressive motility: 34.2% vs. 15.2%). In addition, supplementation with L-C significantly reduced oxidative DNA damage at 72 h (9.0% vs. 15.6%). To investigate the effects of L-C as an osmolyte, comparisons were made between media that were osmotically balanced with NaCl, choline chloride, or L-C. This analysis demonstrated that spermatozoa stored in the L-C balanced medium had significantly higher total motility (55.0% vs. 39.0%), rapid motility (44.0% vs. 25.7%), and ATP levels (70.9 vs. 12.8 ng/ml) following storage compared with the NaCl treatment, while choline chloride did not significantly improve these parameters compared to the control. Finally, mass spectrometry was used to demonstrate that a combination of Pyr and L-C produced significantly higher acetyl-L-carnitine production than any other treatment (6.7 pg/10(6) spermatozoa vs. control at 4.0 pg/10(6) spermatozoa

  11. Effect of different levels of vitamin C and L-carnitine on performance and some blood and immune parameters of broilers under heat stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Mirzapor Sarab

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: High Environmental temperature during summer months which leading to heat stress, is of great concern in all types of poultry production. Feed consumption, growth rate, hatchability, mortality, and other important traits governing the prosperity of the industry are adversely affected by severe heat stress. Literature suggests that the advantages of dietary L-carnitine and ascorbic acid have been particularly apparent under heat stress (8. L- carnitine is a zwitterionic compound synthesized in vivo from lysine and methonine, and is essential for the transport of long – chain fatty acid across the inner mitochondria membrane for β – oxidation and remove toxic accumulations of fatty acids from mitochondria (18. Vitamin C is an effective antioxidant, which is essential for collagen synthesis, helps to maintain various enzymes in their required reduced form, and participates in the biosynthesis of carnitine, norepinephrine and certain neuroendocrine peptides (11. Invertebrates, insects, most fishes, some birds, guinea-pigs, bats and primates are not able to synthesize ascorbic acid. Thus, these animals must depend upon a dietary supply of this vitamin C. In poultry, ascorbic acid has been demonstrated to be essential for growth (25. Materials and Methods: In this study, 396 of Ross 308 broiler chicks in a completely randomized design with 3 × 3 factorial arrangement with 4 replicates of 11 chicks in each replicate were used for 42 days. Treatments were 3 levels of vitamin C (0, 250 and 500 mg/ kg and 3 levels of L-carnitine (0, 50 and 100 mg kg. In the first 3 weeks of breeding, broilers were under normal temperature and heat stress was done from the beginning of forth week. Feed and water were provided ad-libitum. Performance parameters were recorded weekly. The 0.5 mL suspension of 5% SRBC was injected at 28 and 35 days of age in one bird of each pen. To determine the antibody titer, blood was collected 1 week after each

  12. Aplicações clínicas da suplementação de L-carnitina Clinical uses of L-carnitine supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christianne de Faria Coelho

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available A carnitina, uma amina quaternária (3-hidroxi-4-N-trimetilamino-butirato, é sintetizada no organismo (fígado, rins e cérebro a partir de dois aminoácidos essenciais: lisina e metionina, exigindo para sua síntese a presença de ferro, ácido ascórbico, niacina e vitamina B6. Tem função fundamental na geração de energia pela célula, pois age nas reações transferidoras de ácidos graxos livres do citosol para mitocôndrias, facilitando sua oxidação e geração de adenosina Trifosfato. A concentração orgânica de carnitina é resultado de processos metabólicos - como ingestão, biossíntese, transporte dentro e fora dos tecidos e excreção - que, quando alterados em função de diversas doenças, levam a um estado carencial de carnitina com prejuízos relacionados ao metabolismo de lipídeos. A suplementação de L-carnitina pode aumentar o fluxo sangüíneo aos músculos devido também ao seu efeito vasodilatador e antioxidante, reduzindo algumas complicações de doenças isquêmicas, como a doença arterial coronariana, e as conseqüências da neuropatia diabética. Por esse motivo, o objetivo do presente trabalho foi descrever possíveis benefícios da suplementação de carnitina nos indivíduos com necessidades especiais e susceptíveis a carências de carnitina, como os portadores de doenças renais, neuropatia diabética, síndrome da imunodefeciência adquirida e doenças cardiovasculares.Carnitine, a quaternary amine (3-hidroxy-4-n-trimethylaminobutyrate is synthesized in the body (liver, kidney and brain from lysine and methionine, two essential amino acids, in the presence of iron, ascorbate, niacin and vitamin B6. Carnitine plays a central role in the cellular energy metabolism because it transports long-chain fatty acids from the cytosol to the mitochondria for oxidation and adenosine 5'-triphosphate generation. The organic concentration of carnitine is a result of several metabolic pathways such as ingestion

  13. Effects of Oral L-Carnitine Supplementation on Lipid Profile, Anemia, and Quality of Life in Chronic Renal Disease Patients under Hemodialysis: A Randomized, Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled Trial

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    Afsoon Emami Naini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In patients on maintenance hemodialysis several factors reduce the body stored carnitine which could lead to dyslipidemia, anemia, and general health in these patients. We evaluated the effect of oral L-carnitine supplementation on lipid profiles, anemia, and quality of life (QOL in hemodialysis patients. In a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial, end-stage renal disease (ESRD patients on hemodialysis received either L-carnitine 1 g/d (n=24 or placebo (27 patients for 16 weeks. At the end of the study, there was a significant decrease in triglyceride (-31.1±38.7 mg/dL, P=0.001 and a significant increase in HDL (3.7±2.8 mg/dL, P0.05. Erythropoietin dose was significantly decreased in both the carnitine (-4750±5772 mg, P=0.001 and the placebo group (-2000±4296 mg, P<0.05. No improvement was observed in QOL scores of two groups. In ESRD patients under maintenance hemodialysis, oral L-carnitine supplementation may reduce triglyceride and cholesterol and increase HDL and hemoglobin and subsequently reduce needed erythropoietin dose without effect on QOL.

  14. Efficacy of L-carnitine supplementation on frailty status and its biomarkers, nutritional status, and physical and cognitive function among prefrail older adults: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badrasawi, M; Shahar, Suzana; Zahara, AM; Nor Fadilah, R; Singh, Devinder Kaur Ajit

    2016-01-01

    Background Frailty is a biological syndrome of decreased reserve and resistance to stressors due to decline in multiple physiological systems. Amino acid deficiency, including L-carnitine, has been proposed to be associated with its pathophysiology. Nevertheless, the efficacy of L-carnitine supplementation on frailty status has not been documented. Thus, this study aimed to determine the effect of 10-week L-carnitine supplement (1.5 g/day) on frailty status and its biomarkers and also physical function, cognition, and nutritional status among prefrail older adults in Klang Valley, Malaysia. Methodology This study is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial conducted among 50 prefrail subjects randomized into two groups (26 in L-carnitine group and 24 in placebo group). Outcome measures include frailty status using Fried criteria and Frailty Index accumulation of deficit, selected frailty biomarkers (interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and insulin-like growth factor-1), physical function, cognitive function, nutritional status and biochemical profile. Results The results indicated that the mean scores of Frailty Index score and hand grip test were significantly improved in subjects supplemented with L-carnitine (Pfunctional status and fatigue in prefrail older adults. PMID:27895474

  15. Long-term increased carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A expression in ventromedial hypotalamus causes hyperphagia and alters the hypothalamic lipidomic profile.

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    Paula Mera

    Full Text Available Lipid metabolism in the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH has emerged as a crucial pathway in the regulation of feeding and energy homeostasis. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT 1A is the rate-limiting enzyme in mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation and it has been proposed as a crucial mediator of fasting and ghrelin orexigenic signalling. However, the relationship between changes in CPT1A activity and the intracellular downstream effectors in the VMH that contribute to appetite modulation is not fully understood. To this end, we examined the effect of long-term expression of a permanently activated CPT1A isoform by using an adeno-associated viral vector injected into the VMH of rats. Peripherally, this procedure provoked hyperghrelinemia and hyperphagia, which led to overweight, hyperglycemia and insulin resistance. In the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH, long-term CPT1AM expression in the VMH did not modify acyl-CoA or malonyl-CoA levels. However, it altered the MBH lipidomic profile since ceramides and sphingolipids increased and phospholipids decreased. Furthermore, we detected increased vesicular γ-aminobutyric acid transporter (VGAT and reduced vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGLUT2 expressions, both transporters involved in this orexigenic signal. Taken together, these observations indicate that CPT1A contributes to the regulation of feeding by modulating the expression of neurotransmitter transporters and lipid components that influence the orexigenic pathways in VMH.

  16. HDAC inhibitor L-carnitine and proteasome inhibitor bortezomib synergistically exert anti-tumor activity in vitro and in vivo.

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    Hongbiao Huang

    Full Text Available Combinations of proteasome inhibitors and histone deacetylases (HDAC inhibitors appear to be the most potent to produce synergistic cytotoxicity in preclinical trials. We have recently confirmed that L-carnitine (LC is an endogenous HDAC inhibitor. In the current study, the anti-tumor effect of LC plus proteasome inhibitor bortezomib (velcade, Vel was investigated both in cultured hepatoma cancer cells and in Balb/c mice bearing HepG2 tumor. Cell death and cell viability were assayed by flow cytometry and MTS, respectively. Gene, mRNA expression and protein levels were detected by gene microarray, quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot, respectively. The effect of Vel on the acetylation of histone H3 associated with the p21(cip1 gene promoter was examined by using ChIP assay and proteasome peptidase activity was detected by cell-based chymotrypsin-like (CT-like activity assay. Here we report that (i the combination of LC and Vel synergistically induces cytotoxicity in vitro; (ii the combination also synergistically inhibits tumor growth in vivo; (iii two major pathways are involved in the synergistical effects of the combinational treatment: increased p21(cip1 expression and histone acetylation in vitro and in vivo and enhanced Vel-induced proteasome inhibition by LC. The synergistic effect of LC and Vel in cancer therapy should have great potential in the future clinical trials.

  17. The stimulation of ketogenesis by cannabinoids in cultured astrocytes defines carnitine palmitoyltransferase I as a new ceramide-activated enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blázquez, C; Sánchez, C; Daza, A; Galve-Roperh, I; Guzmán, M

    1999-04-01

    The effects of cannabinoids on ketogenesis in primary cultures of rat astrocytes were studied. Delta9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the major active component of marijuana, produced a malonyl-CoA-independent stimulation of carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT-I) and ketogenesis from [14C]palmitate. The THC-induced stimulation of ketogenesis was mimicked by the synthetic cannabinoid HU-210 and was prevented by pertussis toxin and the CB1 cannabinoid receptor antagonist SR141716. Experiments performed with different cellular modulators indicated that the THC-induced stimulation of ketogenesis was independent of cyclic AMP, Ca2+, protein kinase C, and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). The possible involvement of ceramide in the activation of ketogenesis by cannabinoids was subsequently studied. THC produced a CB1 receptor-dependent stimulation of sphingomyelin breakdown that was concomitant to an elevation of intracellular ceramide levels. Addition of exogenous sphingomyelinase to the astrocyte culture medium led to a MAPK-independent activation of ketogenesis that was quantitatively similar and not additive to that exerted by THC. Furthermore, ceramide activated CPT-I in astrocyte mitochondria. Results thus indicate that cannabinoids stimulate ketogenesis in astrocytes by a mechanism that may rely on CB1 receptor activation, sphingomyelin hydrolysis, and ceramide-mediated activation of CPT-I.

  18. Comparison of the effects of aminoguanidine and L-carnitine treatments on somatosensorial evoked potentials in alloxan-diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, O; Ozata, M; Ozkardeş, A; Deniz, G; Yildirimkaya, M; Corakçi, A; Yardim, M; Gündoğan, M A

    1996-10-01

    The effects of aminoguanidine (AG) and L-carnitine (LC) on somatosensorial evoked potential (SEP) latency and neural levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), products of lipid peroxidation, were compared in alloxan-diabetic rats. AG and LC were given to diabetic rats starting from the 3rd week after the induction of diabetes and lasting for 4 weeks. SEP latency was measured by stimulating via caudal nerve and recording via cortex, once weekly during the treatments. Diabetes caused deficits in SEP (P < 0.05 vs non-diabetic control rats, respectively). AG and LC restored SEP latencies slightly but not significantly, with the exception of the prominent effect of AG at the first week and both treatments at the 4th week of the treatments (P < 0.05 vs untreated diabetic rats, respectively). Diabetes caused elevation in neural TBARS levels (P < 0.05 vs non-diabetic group), which was prevented by both AG and LC (P < 0.05 vs untreated diabetic rats, respectively). Weight and the glucose levels were not influenced by the treatments. Our results suggest that AG improves SEP latencies better than LC. Our results also suggest that the beneficial effects of both AG and LC on diabetic neuropathy are not associated with the regulation of glycemia, but these effects may be related in part with prevention of lipid peroxidation.

  19. Glycine propionyl-L-carnitine produces enhanced anaerobic work capacity with reduced lactate accumulation in resistance trained males

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    Orem Ihsan

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent research has indicated that short term administration of glycine propionyl-L-carnitine (GPLC significantly elevates levels of nitric oxide metabolites at rest and in response to reactive hyperaemia. However, no scientific evidence exists that suggests such supplementation enhances exercise performance in healthy, trained individuals. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of GPLC on the performance of repeated high intensity stationary cycle sprints with limited recovery periods in resistance trained male subjects. Methods In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over design, twenty-four male resistance trained subjects (25.2 ± 3.6 years participated in two test sessions separated by one week. Testing was performed 90 minutes following oral ingestion of either 4.5 grams GPLC or 4.5 grams cellulose (PL, in randomized order. The exercise testing protocol consisted of five 10-second Wingate cycle sprints separated by 1-minute active recovery periods. Peak (PP and mean values (MP of sprint power output and percent decrement of power (DEC were determined per bout and standardized relative to body masss. Heart rate (HR and blood lactate (LAC were measured prior to, during and following the five sprint bouts. Results Significant main effects (p Conclusion These findings indicate that short-term oral supplementation of GPLC can enhance peak power production in resistance trained males with significantly less LAC accumulation.

  20. Immunological responses in patients with tuberculosis and in vivo effects of acetyl-L-carnitine oral administration

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    Emilio Jirillo

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TBC is characterized by a complex immune response which parallels the clinical course of the disease. In this respect, acquired resistance, delayed hypersensitivity reaction and anergy are the main types of immune reactivity to mycobacterial antigens. In view of the presence of nonspecific and specific immune deficits in TBC patients, a clinical trial was carried out in a group of 20 individuals with active pulmonary TBC by oral administration of acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC. This drug, which has been shown to possess immunomodulating activities, was able to upregulate the T-dependent antibacterial activity in TBC patients after 30 days' treatment, while the same activity decreased in patients receiving placebo only. On the other hand, ALC did not modify serum levels of tumour necrosis factor-α, in the same individuals. This cytokine plays a detrimental rather than beneficial role in TBC pathogenesis. In the light of these data, ALC seems to be a powerful immunomodulator in the course of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and other mycobacteriosis.

  1. Inhibition of Inflammatory Gene Expression in Keratinocytes Using a Composition Containing Carnitine, Thioctic Acid and Saw Palmetto Extract

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    Sridar Chittur

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic inflammation of the hair follicle (HF is considered a contributing factor in the pathogenesis of androgenetic alopecia (AGA. Previously, we clinically tested liposterolic extract of Serenoa repens (LSESr and its glycoside, β-sitosterol, in subjects with AGA and showed a highly positive response to treatment. In this study, we sought to determine whether blockade of inflammation using a composition containing LSESr as well as two anti-inflammatory agents (carnitine and thioctic acid could alter the expression of molecular markers of inflammation in a well-established in vitro system. Using a well-validated assay representative of HF keratinocytes, specifically, stimulation of cultured human keratinocyte cells in vitro, we measured changes in gene expression of a spectrum of well-known inflammatory markers. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS provided an inflammatory stimulus. In particular, we found that the composition effectively suppressed LPS-activated gene expression of chemokines, including CCL17, CXCL6 and LTB(4 associated with pathways involved in inflammation and apoptosis. Our data support the hypothesis that the test compound exhibits anti-inflammatory characteristics in a well-established in vitro assay representing HF keratinocyte gene expression. These findings suggest that 5-alpha reductase inhibitors combined with blockade of inflammatory processes could represent a novel two-pronged approach in the treatment of AGA with improved efficacy over current modalities.

  2. Solving manufacturing problems for L-carnitine-L-tartrate to improve the likelihood of successful product scale-up

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    Badawi Aliaa A.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available L-carnitine-L-tartrate, a non-essential amino acid, is hygroscopic. This causes a problem in tablet production due to pronounced adhesion of tablets to punches. A 33 full factorial design was adopted to suggest a tablet formulation. Three adsorbents were suggested (Aerosil 200, Aerosil R972, talc to reduce stickiness at three concentrations (1, 3 and 5 %, and three fillers (mannitol, Avicel PH 101, Dibasic calcium phosphate were chosen to prepare 27 formulations. Micromeritic properties of formulations were studied, and tablets were prepared by wet granulation. Absence of picking, sticking or capping, recording of sufficient hardness, acceptable friability and tablet ejection force indicated formulation success. The resulting formulation prepared using Avicel PH 101 and 1 % Aerosil 200 was submitted to further investigation in order to choose the most suitable compression conditions using a 33 full factorial design. Variables included compression force, tableting rate and magnesium stearate (lubricant concentration. The formulation prepared at compression force of 25 kN, using 2 % magnesium stearate, at a production rate of 30 tablets/ minute, was found to be the most appropriate scale up candidate.

  3. ATP production and TCA activity are stimulated by propionyl-L-carnitine in the diabetic rat heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broderick, Tom L

    2008-01-01

    The beneficial effect of propionyl-L-carnitine (PLC) on cardiac function in diabetes mellitus is well documented. This study was designed to determine whether the improvement in cardiac function mediated by PLC in the diabetic rat heart is associated with an increase in ATP production and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle activity. Diabetes was induced by an intravenous injection of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg). Following diagnosis of diabetes, treatment was initiated by supplementing the drinking water with PLC at a concentration of 1 g/L for a period of 6 weeks. ATP production and TCA cycle activity were determined from oxidative rates of glucose and palmitate measured in isolated working hearts from control and diabetic animals. The effect of diabetes was associated with a decrease in heart function, expressed as rate-pressure product (RPP), and in rates of myocardial glucose oxidation. Rates of palmitate oxidation in diabetic hearts were similar to those of control hearts. In PLC-treated diabetic hearts, rates of both glucose and palmitate oxidation were increased and a significant improvement in RPP was observed. As a result, overall ATP production and TCA cycle activity from glucose and palmitate oxidation were increased in diabetic hearts. Our results indicate that the depression in RPP in the diabetic rat heart can be prevented with chronic PLC treatment. Increases in glucose and palmitate utilization with resultant increases in ATP production and TCA cycle activity may explain the benefit of PLC on diabetic rat heart function.

  4. Solving manufacturing problems for L-carnitine-L-tartrate to improve the likelihood of successful product scale-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawi, Aliaa A; Hegazy, Mahmoud M; Louis, Dina; Eldegwy, Mohammed A

    2017-12-20

    L-carnitine-L-tartrate, a non-essential amino acid, is hygroscopic. This causes a problem in tablet production due to pronounced adhesion of tablets to punches. A 33 full factorial design was adopted to suggest a tablet formulation. Three adsorbents were suggested (Aerosil 200, Aerosil R972, talc) to reduce stickiness at three concentrations (1, 3 and 5 %), and three fillers (mannitol, Avicel PH 101, Dibasic calcium phosphate) were chosen to prepare 27 formulations. Micromeritic properties of formulations were studied, and tablets were prepared by wet granulation. Absence of picking, sticking or capping, recording of sufficient hardness, acceptable friability and tablet ejection force indicated formulation success. The resulting formulation prepared using Avicel PH 101 and 1 % Aerosil 200 was submitted to further investigation in order to choose the most suitable compression conditions using a 33 full factorial design. Variables included compression force, tableting rate and magnesium stearate (lubricant) concentration. The formulation prepared at compression force of 25 kN, using 2 % magnesium stearate, at a production rate of 30 tablets/ minute, was found to be the most appropriate scale up candidate.

  5. Prevention of di (2-ethylhexyl Phthalate-induced Testicular Disturbance in Mice by Co-administration of L-carnitine

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    Majid Malekzadeh Shafaroudi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: di (2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP is widely used in the plastic industry and caninduce reproductive toxicity. On the other hand, L-carnitine (LC plays a crucial role in spermmetabolism and maturation. This study evaluates the effect of LC on body and testis weight,testis tissue, count, motility, viability, morphology, and chromatin quality of epididymal sperm,testicular spermatid number (TSN per gram testis and daily sperm production (DSP in LCtreatedmice.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, adult male NMRI mice (mean age: 4weeks were given doses of DEHP and LC by gavaging for 2 weeks. All samples were assessedaccording to World Health Organization (WHO criteria. Sperm morphology was assessed usingPapanicolaou staining and sperm chromatin quality by aniline-blue staining.The left testes were fixed in Bouinś solution for histological examination and the end slices werestained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E. The right testes were homogenized, and then TSNand DSP were calculated with an improved Neubauer haemocytometer and respective frames.Paired t-test, ANOVA, and Kruskal-Wallis tests were utilized for data analysis.Results: Co-administration of DEHP and LC not only prevented significant gains in testicularweight, but also maintained the sperm’s normal morphology and chromatin quality (p<0.05. Inaddition, LC recovered histological changes, TSN, DSP, and sperm count.Conclusion: These results demonstrated that oral administration of LC partially or generallyprotects spermatogenesis from DEHP-toxicity in mice.

  6. Carnitine congener mildronate protects against stress- and haloperidol-induced impairment in memory and brain protein expression in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beitnere, Ulrika; Dzirkale, Zane; Isajevs, Sergejs; Rumaks, Juris; Svirskis, Simons; Klusa, Vija

    2014-12-15

    The present study investigates the efficacy of mildronate, a carnitine congener, to protect stress and haloperidol-induced impairment of memory in rats and the expression of brain protein biomarkers involved in synaptic plasticity, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), acetylcholine esterase and glutamate decarboxylase 67 (GAD67). Two amnesia models were used: 2h immobilization stress and 3-week haloperidol treatment. Stress caused memory impairment in the passive avoidance test and induced a significant 2-fold BDNF elevation in hippocampal and striatal tissues that was completely inhibited by mildronate. Mildronate decreased the level of GAD67 (but not acetylcholine esterase) expression by stress. Haloperidol decrease by a third hippocampal BDNF and acetylcholine esterase (but not GAD67) expression, which was normalized by mildronate; it also reversed the haloperidol-induced memory impairment in Barnes test. The results suggest the usefulness of mildronate as protector against neuronal disturbances caused by stress or haloperidol. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The Effect of L-Carnitine, Hypotaurine, and Taurine Supplementation on the Quality of Cryopreserved Chicken Semen.

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    Partyka, Agnieszka; Rodak, Olga; Bajzert, Joanna; Kochan, Joanna; Niżański, Wojciech

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of L-carnitine (LC), hypotaurine (HT), and taurine (T) on the quality of frozen-thawed chicken semen. Pooled semen samples were divided into seven aliquots (control, 1 mM LC, 5 mM LC, 1 mM HT, 10 mM HT, 1 mM T, and 10 mM T) and subjected to cryopreservation. Postthaw sperm motility was determined by IVOS system and sperm characteristics were assessed with fluorochromes and flow cytometry. The highest sperm motility and the highest percentage of viable sperm were in the HT1 group ( P < 0.01 and P < 0.05) following cryopreservation. After thawing, we observed a higher percentage of sperm without apoptosis and membrane reorganization changes in the LC1 and T1 group when compared to the control ( P < 0.05). There was a higher percentage of live sperm without lipid peroxidation (LPO) in all treatments ( P < 0.01; P < 0.05), when compared to the control group. The percentage of sperm with high mitochondrial potential significantly increased with LC1, T1, and T10 ( P < 0.05). Supplementation of the diluent with LC1, LC5, and T1 significantly ( P < 0.05) reduced DNA susceptibility to fragmentation, compared to the control and HT1 groups. These results indicate that the addition of examined antioxidants improves the quality of cryopreserved chicken semen.

  8. Effect of L-Carnitine on Skeletal Muscle Lipids and Oxidative Stress in Rats Fed High-Fructose Diet

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    Panchamoorthy Rajasekar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available There is evidence that high-fructose diet induces insulin resistance, alterations in lipid metabolism, and oxidative stress in rat tissues. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of L-carnitine (CAR on lipid accumulation and peroxidative damage in skeletal muscle of rats fed high-fructose diet. Fructose-fed animals (60 g/100 g diet displayed decreased glucose/insulin (G/I ratio and insulin sensitivity index (ISI0,120 indicating the development of insulin resistance. Rats showed alterations in the levels of triglycerides, free fatty acids, cholesterol, and phospholipids in skeletal muscle. The condition was associated with oxidative stress as evidenced by the accumulation of lipid peroxidation products, protein carbonyls, and aldehydes along with depletion of both enzymic and nonenzymic antioxidants. Simultaneous intraperitoneal administration of CAR (300 mg/kg/day to fructose-fed rats alleviated the effects of fructose. These rats showed near-normal levels of the parameters studied. The effects of CAR in this model suggest that CAR supplementation may have some benefits in patients suffering from insulin resistance.

  9. BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF LIPID METABOLISM IN ANIMALS AFFECTED BY HEAVY METAL SALTS AND TREATED WITH CARNITINE CHLORIDE AND SODIUM ALGINATE

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    I. R. Bekus

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Lipid metabolism disorders in the organism affected by environmental pollutants, including poisoning with cadmium and lead salts are of topical matter nowadays. Objective. The study was aimed to examine biochemical features of lipid metabolism in rats subjected to toxic damage by lead and cadmium salts and treated with carnitine chloride and Algigel. Methods. Experiments were carried out on white mature outbred male rats weighing 180-200 g. To cause the toxic damage the animals were administered with aqueous solution of cadmium chloride and lead acetate daily for the period of 30 days using intra-gastric lavage. The indices of lipid metabolism were detected by biochemical methods. Results. In animals treated with cadmium chloride and lead acetate the following changes were observed: HDL-cholesterol concentrations significantly decreased, resulting in 87% of the levels in the intact animals on the third day, 84% on the fifth and 80% on the seventh day. Conversely, concentrations of HDL-cholesterol and VLDL-cholesterol significantly increased during the experiment. Respectively, the ratios for HDL-cholesterol are 240%, 352%, and 388%; and for VLDL-cholesterol 108%, 116%, and 132%. Conclusions. Lipids profile of the rats displayed changes in the levels of cholesterol, triglycerides and lipoproteins of low, high and very low density.

  10. Serum Trimethylamine N-oxide, Carnitine, Choline, and Betaine in Relation to Colorectal Cancer Risk in the Alpha Tocopherol, Beta Carotene Cancer Prevention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guertin, Kristin A; Li, Xinmin S; Graubard, Barry I; Albanes, Demetrius; Weinstein, Stephanie J; Goedert, James J; Wang, Zeneng; Hazen, Stanley L; Sinha, Rashmi

    2017-06-01

    Background: Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), a choline-derived metabolite produced by gut microbiota, and its biomarker precursors have not been adequately evaluated in relation to colorectal cancer risk. Methods: We investigated the relationship between serum concentrations of TMAO and its biomarker precursors (choline, carnitine, and betaine) and incident colorectal cancer risk in a nested case-control study of male smokers in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study. We measured biomarker concentrations in baseline fasting serum samples from 644 incident colorectal cancer cases and 644 controls using LC/MS-MS. Logistic regression models estimated the ORs and 95% confidence interval (CI) for colorectal cancer by quartile (Q) of serum TMAO, choline, carnitine, and betaine concentrations. Results: Men with higher serum choline at ATBC baseline had approximately 3-fold greater risk of developing colorectal cancer over the ensuing (median ± IQR) 14 ± 10 years (in fully adjusted models, Q4 vs. Q1, OR, 3.22; 95% CI, 2.24-4.61; P trend colorectal cancer was similarly robust for proximal, distal, and rectal colon cancers (all P colorectal cancer risk was not statistically significant ( P = 0.25, 0.71, and 0.61, respectively). Conclusions: Higher serum choline concentration (but not TMAO, carnitine, or betaine) was associated with increased risk of colorectal cancer. Impact: Serum choline levels showed strong prognostic value for prediction of incident colorectal cancer risk across all anatomical subsites, suggesting a role of altered choline metabolism in colorectal cancer pathogenesis. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(6); 945-52. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  11. Effect of Vegan Fecal Microbiota Transplantation on Carnitine- and Choline-Derived Trimethylamine-N-Oxide Production and Vascular Inflammation in Patients With Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, Loek P; Kootte, Ruud S; Levin, Evgeni; Prodan, Andrei; Fuentes, Susana; Zoetendal, Erwin G; Wang, Zeneng; Levison, Bruce S; Cleophas, Maartje C P; Kemper, E Marleen; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M; Groen, Albert K; Joosten, Leo A B; Netea, Mihai G; Stroes, Erik S G; de Vos, Willem M; Hazen, Stanley L; Nieuwdorp, Max

    2018-03-26

    Intestinal microbiota have been found to be linked to cardiovascular disease via conversion of the dietary compounds choline and carnitine to the atherogenic metabolite TMAO (trimethylamine-N-oxide). Specifically, a vegan diet was associated with decreased plasma TMAO levels and nearly absent TMAO production on carnitine challenge. We performed a double-blind randomized controlled pilot study in which 20 male metabolic syndrome patients were randomized to single lean vegan-donor or autologous fecal microbiota transplantation. At baseline and 2 weeks thereafter, we determined the ability to produce TMAO from d 6 -choline and d 3 -carnitine (eg, labeled and unlabeled TMAO in plasma and 24-hour urine after oral ingestion of 250 mg of both isotope-labeled precursor nutrients), and fecal samples were collected for analysis of microbiota composition. 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography scans of the abdominal aorta, as well as ex vivo peripheral blood mononuclear cell cytokine production assays, were performed. At baseline, fecal microbiota composition differed significantly between vegans and metabolic syndrome patients. With vegan-donor fecal microbiota transplantation, intestinal microbiota composition in metabolic syndrome patients, as monitored by global fecal microbial community structure, changed toward a vegan profile in some of the patients; however, no functional effects from vegan-donor fecal microbiota transplantation were seen on TMAO production, abdominal aortic 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake, or ex vivo cytokine production from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Single lean vegan-donor fecal microbiota transplantation in metabolic syndrome patients resulted in detectable changes in intestinal microbiota composition but failed to elicit changes in TMAO production capacity or parameters related to vascular inflammation. URL: http://www.trialregister.nl. Unique identifier: NTR 4338. © 2018 The Authors. Published on

  12. Modelling and Analysis of Central Metabolism Operating Regulatory Interactions in Salt Stress Conditions in a L-Carnitine Overproducing E. coli Strain

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Guido; Hormiga, José A.; Arense, Paula; Cánovas, Manuel; Torres, Néstor V.

    2012-01-01

    Based on experimental data from E. coli cultures, we have devised a mathematical model in the GMA-power law formalism that describes the central and L-carnitine metabolism in and between two steady states, non-osmotic and hyperosmotic (0.3 M NaCl). A key feature of this model is the introduction of type of kinetic order, the osmotic stress kinetic orders (g(OSn)), derived from the power law general formalism, which represent the effect of osmotic stress in each metabolic process of the model....

  13. Regulation der Carnitin-Palmitoyltransferase 1 in systemischen Entzündungszuständen unter besonderer Berücksichtigung des Mediators Stickstoffmonoxid

    OpenAIRE

    Gans, Annette

    2004-01-01

    Fettsäuren haben vielfältige Funktionen im Organismus. Sie sind der wichtigste Energieträger des menschlichen Körpers. Fettsäuren sind Bestandteil menschlicher Membranen und Ausgangspunkt für die Biosynthese biologisch aktiver Substanzen. Der Abbau der Fettsäuren und deren energetische Verwertung geschieht im Mitochondrium, dem Ort der ß-Oxidation. Hierfür werden die Fettsäuren mit Hilfe des aus 3 Enzymen bestehenden Carnitin- Palmitoyltransferase-Systems aus dem Cytosol in das Mitochondrium ...

  14. Protective effects of coenzyme Q10 and L-carnitine against statin-induced pancreatic mitochondrial toxicity in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadighara, Melina; Joktaji, Jalal Pourahamad; Hajhashemi, Valiollah; Minaiyan, Mohsen

    2017-01-01

    Statins are widely used in patients with hyperlipidemia and whom with high risk of cardiovascular diseases. Unfortunately, statins also exert some adverse effects on the liver and pancreas and enhance the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The objective of the present research was to investigate the protective effects of coenzyme Q10 (Co-Q10) and L-carnitine (LC) on statins induced toxicity on pancreatic mitochondria in vivo. Seven groups of male Wistar rats received atorvastatin (20 mg/kg, p.o.), atorvastatin + Co-Q10 (10 mg/kg, i.p.), atorvastatin + LC (500 mg/kg, i.p.), lovastatin (80 mg/kg, p.o), lovastatin + Co-Q10 (10 mg/kg, i.p.), and lovastatin + LC (500 mg/kg, i.p.). Serum glucose and insulin levels were measured before and after two weeks of treatment, while the pancreas was removed and toxic effects of statins, as well as the protective effects of Co-Q10 and LC were assessed. The results showed that atorvastatin and lovastatin significantly increased glucose level and decreased insulin secretion. The glucose level in Co-Q10 and LC groups was significantly lower than statins alone groups. The findings also showed that statin groups had higher rate of pancreatic toxicity including higher level of reactive oxygen species production, decreased cytochrome c oxidase activity, collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential and swelling in comparison to controls. These factors were significantly diminished by co-administration of Co-Q10 or LC compared to statin groups alone. Additionally, supplements caused a significant increase in serum insulin and succinate dehydrogenase activity. Our study provided new evidence supporting beneficial effects of Co-Q10 and LC on statin-induced pancreatic toxicity. PMID:29204172

  15. Effects of high-intensity intermittent training on carnitine palmitoyl transferase activity in the gastrocnemius muscle of rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnevali, L.C. Jr. [Grupo de Biologia Molecular da Célula, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo SP (Brazil); Centro Universitário Ítalo-Brasileiro (Unítalo), São Paulo SP (Brazil); Eder, R.; Lira, F.S. [Grupo de Biologia Molecular da Célula, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo SP (Brazil); Lima, W.P. [Grupo de Biologia Molecular da Célula, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo SP (Brazil); Instituto Federal de Educação,Ciência e Tecnologia de São Paulo, São Paulo SP (Brazil); Gonçalves, D.C. [Grupo de Biologia Molecular da Célula, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo SP (Brazil); Zanchi, N.E. [Laboratorio de Nutrição e Metabolismo Aplicado à Atividade Motora, Escola de Educação Física e Esporte, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo SP (Brazil); Centro de Pesquisa do Genoma Humano, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo SP (Brazil); Nicastro, H. [Laboratorio de Nutrição e Metabolismo Aplicado à Atividade Motora, Escola de Educação Física e Esporte, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo SP (Brazil); Lavoie, J.M. [Department of Kinesiology, University of Montreal, Montreal (Canada); Seelaender, M.C.L. [Grupo de Biologia Molecular da Célula, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo SP (Brazil)

    2012-06-29

    We examined the capacity of high-intensity intermittent training (HI-IT) to facilitate the delivery of lipids to enzymes responsible for oxidation, a task performed by the carnitine palmitoyl transferase (CPT) system in the rat gastrocnemius muscle. Male adult Wistar rats (160-250 g) were randomly distributed into 3 groups: sedentary (Sed, N = 5), HI-IT (N = 10), and moderate-intensity continuous training (MI-CT, N = 10). The trained groups were exercised for 8 weeks with a 10% (HI-IT) and a 5% (MI-CT) overload. The HI-IT group presented 11.8% decreased weight gain compared to the Sed group. The maximal activities of CPT-I, CPT-II, and citrate synthase were all increased in the HI-IT group compared to the Sed group (P < 0.01), as also was gene expression, measured by RT-PCR, of fatty acid binding protein (FABP; P < 0.01) and lipoprotein lipase (LPL; P < 0.05). Lactate dehydrogenase also presented a higher maximal activity (nmol·min{sup −1}·mg protein{sup −1}) in HI-IT (around 83%). We suggest that 8 weeks of HI-IT enhance mitochondrial lipid transport capacity thus facilitating the oxidation process in the gastrocnemius muscle. This adaptation may also be associated with the decrease in weight gain observed in the animals and was concomitant to a higher gene expression of both FABP and LPL in HI-IT, suggesting that intermittent exercise is a “time-efficient” strategy inducing metabolic adaptation.

  16. Effects of high-intensity intermittent training on carnitine palmitoyl transferase activity in the gastrocnemius muscle of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnevali, L.C. Jr.; Eder, R.; Lira, F.S.; Lima, W.P.; Gonçalves, D.C.; Zanchi, N.E.; Nicastro, H.; Lavoie, J.M.; Seelaender, M.C.L.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the capacity of high-intensity intermittent training (HI-IT) to facilitate the delivery of lipids to enzymes responsible for oxidation, a task performed by the carnitine palmitoyl transferase (CPT) system in the rat gastrocnemius muscle. Male adult Wistar rats (160-250 g) were randomly distributed into 3 groups: sedentary (Sed, N = 5), HI-IT (N = 10), and moderate-intensity continuous training (MI-CT, N = 10). The trained groups were exercised for 8 weeks with a 10% (HI-IT) and a 5% (MI-CT) overload. The HI-IT group presented 11.8% decreased weight gain compared to the Sed group. The maximal activities of CPT-I, CPT-II, and citrate synthase were all increased in the HI-IT group compared to the Sed group (P < 0.01), as also was gene expression, measured by RT-PCR, of fatty acid binding protein (FABP; P < 0.01) and lipoprotein lipase (LPL; P < 0.05). Lactate dehydrogenase also presented a higher maximal activity (nmol·min −1 ·mg protein −1 ) in HI-IT (around 83%). We suggest that 8 weeks of HI-IT enhance mitochondrial lipid transport capacity thus facilitating the oxidation process in the gastrocnemius muscle. This adaptation may also be associated with the decrease in weight gain observed in the animals and was concomitant to a higher gene expression of both FABP and LPL in HI-IT, suggesting that intermittent exercise is a “time-efficient” strategy inducing metabolic adaptation

  17. The protective effects of l-carnitine and vitamin e in rat lenses in irradiation-induced oxidative injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taysi, S.; Okumus, S.; Ezirmik, S.; Uzun, N.; Yilmaz, A.; Akyuz, M.; Tekelioglu, U.; Dirier, A.; Al, B.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant role of L-carnitine (LC) and vitamin E against radiation-induced cataracts in rat lenses after total cranial irradiation with a single 5 Gray (Gy) dose of gamma irradiation. Material and Methods. Thirty two Sprague-Dawley rats were used for the experiment. The control group did not receive LC and vitamin E or irradiation but received both 0.1 ml physiological saline intraperitoneally and sham irradiation. The irradiation (IR) group received 5 Gy gamma irradiation to the total cranium as a single dose plus 0.1 ml physiological saline intraperitoneally. The IR plus vitamin E group received irradiation to total cranium plus 10 mg/kg/day vitamin E intraperitoneally. The IR plus LC group received irradiation to total cranium plus 100 mg/kg/day LC intraperitoneally. Biochemical parameters measured in murine lenses were carried out using spectrophotometric techniques. Results. Total superoxide scavenger activity (TSSA), non-enzymatic superoxide scavenger activity (NSSA), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GRD) activities, significantly increased in the control, IR plus vitamin E and LC plus IR groups when compared with the IR only group. Lens TSSA and NSSA activities in the control group were significantly increased compared to that of the IR only group, but decreased compared to those of the IR plus vitamin E and IR plus LC groups. Lens xanthine oxidase (XO) activity in the IR group significantly increased compared to those of other groups. Conclusions. Results show that LC and vitamin E prevented oxidative stress by scavenging free radicals generated by ionizing radiation in rat lenses. (authors)

  18. L-carnitine Prevents Oxidative Stress in the Brains of Rats Subjected to a Chemically Induced Chronic Model of MSUD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mescka, Caroline Paula; Rosa, Andrea Pereira; Schirmbeck, Gabriel; da Rosa, Thales Hein; Catarino, Felipe; de Souza, Laila Oliveira; Guerreiro, Gilian; Sitta, Angela; Vargas, Carmen Regla; Dutra-Filho, Carlos Severo

    2016-11-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), or branched-chain α-keto aciduria, is an inherited disorder that is caused by a deficiency in branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase complex (BCKAD) activity. Blockade of this pathway leads to the accumulation of the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), leucine, isoleucine, and valine, and their respective ketoacids in tissues. The main clinical symptoms presented by MSUD patients include ketoacidosis, hypoglycemia, opisthotonos, poor feeding, apnea, ataxia, convulsions, coma, psychomotor delay, and mental retardation. Although increasing evidence indicates that oxidative stress is involved in the pathophysiology of this disease, the mechanisms of the brain damage caused by this disorder remain poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the effect of BCAAs on some oxidative stress parameters and evaluated the efficacy of L-carnitine (L-car), an efficient antioxidant that may be involved in the reduction of oxidative damage observed in some inherited neurometabolic diseases, against these possible pro-oxidant effects of a chronic MSUD model in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum of rats. Our results showed that chronic BCAA administration was able to promote both lipid and protein oxidation, impair brain antioxidant defenses, and increase reactive species production, particularly in the cerebral cortex, and that L-car was able to prevent these effects. Taken together, the present data indicate that chronic BCAA administration significantly increased oxidative damage in the brains of rats subjected to a chronic model of MSUD and that L-car may be an efficient antioxidant in this disorder.

  19. Intrathecal Acetyl-L-Carnitine Protects Tissue and Improves Function after a Mild Contusive Spinal Cord Injury in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewan, Eric E; Hagg, Theo

    2016-02-01

    Primary and secondary ischemia after spinal cord injury (SCI) contributes to tissue and axon degeneration, which may result from decreased energy substrate availability for cellular and axonal mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production. Therefore, providing spinal tissue with an alternative energy substrate during ischemia may be neuroprotective after SCI. To assess this, rats received a mild contusive SCI (120 kdyn, Infinite Horizons impactor) at thoracic level 9 (T9), which causes loss of ∼ 80% of the ascending sensory dorsal column axonal projections to the gracile nucleus. Immediately afterwards, the energy substrate acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC; 1 mg/day) or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) was infused intrathecally (sub-arachnoid) for 6 days via an L5/6 catheter attached to a subcutaneous Alzet pump. ALC treatment improved overground locomotor function (Basso-Beattie-Breshnahan [BBB] score 18 vs. 13) at 6 days, total spared epicenter (71% vs. 57%) and penumbra white matter (90% vs. 85%), ventral penumbra microvessels (108% vs. 79%), and penumbra motor neurons (42% vs. 15%) at 15 days post-SCI, compared with PBS treatment. However, the ascending sensory projections (anterogradely traced with cholera toxin B from the sciatic nerves) and dorsal column white matter and perfused blood vessels were not protected. Furthermore, grid walking, a task we have shown to be dependent on dorsal column function, was not improved. Thus, mitochondrial substrate replacement may only be efficacious in areas of lesser or temporary ischemia, such as the ventral spinal cord and injury penumbra in this study. The current data also support our previous evidence that microvessel loss is central to secondary tissue degeneration.

  20. Protective effects of coenzyme Q10and L-carnitine against statin-induced pancreatic mitochondrial toxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadighara, Melina; Joktaji, Jalal Pourahamad; Hajhashemi, Valiollah; Minaiyan, Mohsen

    2017-12-01

    Statins are widely used in patients with hyperlipidemia and whom with high risk of cardiovascular diseases. Unfortunately, statins also exert some adverse effects on the liver and pancreas and enhance the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The objective of the present research was to investigate the protective effects of coenzyme Q 10 (Co-Q 10 ) and L-carnitine (LC) on statins induced toxicity on pancreatic mitochondria in vivo . Seven groups of male Wistar rats received atorvastatin (20 mg/kg, p.o.), atorvastatin + Co-Q 10 (10 mg/kg, i.p.), atorvastatin + LC (500 mg/kg, i.p.), lovastatin (80 mg/kg, p.o), lovastatin + Co-Q 10 (10 mg/kg, i.p.), and lovastatin + LC (500 mg/kg, i.p.). Serum glucose and insulin levels were measured before and after two weeks of treatment, while the pancreas was removed and toxic effects of statins, as well as the protective effects of Co-Q 10 and LC were assessed. The results showed that atorvastatin and lovastatin significantly increased glucose level and decreased insulin secretion. The glucose level in Co-Q 10 and LC groups was significantly lower than statins alone groups. The findings also showed that statin groups had higher rate of pancreatic toxicity including higher level of reactive oxygen species production, decreased cytochrome c oxidase activity, collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential and swelling in comparison to controls. These factors were significantly diminished by co-administration of Co-Q 10 or LC compared to statin groups alone. Additionally, supplements caused a significant increase in serum insulin and succinate dehydrogenase activity. Our study provided new evidence supporting beneficial effects of Co-Q 10 and LC on statin-induced pancreatic toxicity.

  1. Effects of Acetyl-L-Carnitine on Cardiac Arrhythmias and Infarct Size in Ischemic-Reperfused Isolated Rat Heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moslem Najafi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine whether acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC was able to reduce cardiac arrhythmias and infarct size in the ischemic-reperfused isolated rat heart.Materials and MethodsThe isolated hearts were mounted on a Langendorff apparatus then perfused by a modified Krebs-Henseleit solution during 30 min regional ischemia and 120 min reperfusion (control or by enriched Krebs solution with 0.375, 0.75, 1.5 and 3 mM of ALC (treatment groups. The ECGs were recorded and analyzed to determine cardiac arrhythmias. The infarct size was determined by using a computerized planimetry package.ResultsDuring ischemia, all used concentrations of ALC decreased number and duration of ventricular tachycardia (VT, total number of ventricular ectopic beats (VEBs (P<0.01, incidence of total ventricular fibrillation (VF and the time spent for reversible VF (P<0.05. At the reperfusion phase, duration of VT, incidence of total VF and reversible VF were significantly lowered by ALC (P<0.05. In addition, infarct size significantly was decreased in all treated groups. In the control group, the infarct size was 23±3.1%, however, ALC (0.375, 0.75 and 3 mM reduced it to 8.7±2.3, 5.3±1.4, and 8±2.9%, respectively (P<0.01. ConclusionConsidering the results, it may be concluded that ALC has protective effects against cardiac ischemia-reperfusion (I/R injuries by reduction of infarct size and arrhythmias in isolated rat heart. Among the potential cardioprotective mechanisms for ALC, increase in glucose oxidation and resulting reduced lactate production, reduction of toxic fatty acid metabolites and removing free radicals from the myocytes are more relevant.

  2. The Effect of L-Carnitine, Hypotaurine, and Taurine Supplementation on the Quality of Cryopreserved Chicken Semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Partyka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of L-carnitine (LC, hypotaurine (HT, and taurine (T on the quality of frozen-thawed chicken semen. Pooled semen samples were divided into seven aliquots (control, 1 mM LC, 5 mM LC, 1 mM HT, 10 mM HT, 1 mM T, and 10 mM T and subjected to cryopreservation. Postthaw sperm motility was determined by IVOS system and sperm characteristics were assessed with fluorochromes and flow cytometry. The highest sperm motility and the highest percentage of viable sperm were in the HT1 group (P<0.01 and P<0.05 following cryopreservation. After thawing, we observed a higher percentage of sperm without apoptosis and membrane reorganization changes in the LC1 and T1 group when compared to the control (P<0.05. There was a higher percentage of live sperm without lipid peroxidation (LPO in all treatments (P<0.01; P<0.05, when compared to the control group. The percentage of sperm with high mitochondrial potential significantly increased with LC1, T1, and T10 (P<0.05. Supplementation of the diluent with LC1, LC5, and T1 significantly (P<0.05 reduced DNA susceptibility to fragmentation, compared to the control and HT1 groups. These results indicate that the addition of examined antioxidants improves the quality of cryopreserved chicken semen.

  3. Cellular properties of human erythrocytes preserved in saline-adenine-glucose-mannitol in the presence of L-carnitine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arduini, Arduino; Minetti, Giampaolo; Ciana, Annarita; Seppi, Claudio; Brovelli, Augusta; Profumo, Antonella; Vercellati, Cristina; Zappa, Manuela; Zanella, Alberto; Dottori, Secondo; Bonomini, Mario

    2007-01-01

    L-Carnitine (LC) in the preservation medium during storage of red blood cells (RBC) can improve the mean 24-hr percent recovery in vivo and increase RBC life-span after reinfusion. The purpose of the study was to investigate the differences in the biochemical properties of RBCs stored in the presence or absence of LC, and the cell-age related responses to storage conditions and to LC. RBC concentrates in saline-adenine-glucose-mannitol (SAG-M) were stored in the presence or absence of 5 mM LC at 4 degrees C for up to 8 weeks. RBC subpopulations of different densities were prepared by centrifugation on Stractan density gradient. Cells were sampled at 0, 3, 6, and 8 weeks, and hematological and cellular properties analyzed (MCV, MCHC, 4.1a/4.1b ratio as a cell age parameter, intracellular Na(+) and K(+)). After 6 weeks, MCV of RBC stored in the presence of LC was lower than that of controls (6 weeks MCV: controls 95.4 +/- 1.8 fl; LC 91.5 +/- 2.0 fl; n = 6; P < 0.005). This was due to swelling of control cells, and affected mainly older RBCs. LC appeared to reduce or retard cell swelling. Among the osmotically active substances whose changes during storage could contribute to cell swelling, only intracellular Na(+) and K(+) differed between stored control RBCs and LC-treated cells. LC reduces the swelling of older cells during storage at 4 degrees C in SAG-M, possibly by acting on the permeability of cell membrane to monovalent cations.

  4. Effects of high-intensity intermittent training on carnitine palmitoyl transferase activity in the gastrocnemius muscle of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.C. Carnevali Jr

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We examined the capacity of high-intensity intermittent training (HI-IT to facilitate the delivery of lipids to enzymes responsible for oxidation, a task performed by the carnitine palmitoyl transferase (CPT system in the rat gastrocnemius muscle. Male adult Wistar rats (160-250 g were randomly distributed into 3 groups: sedentary (Sed, N = 5, HI-IT (N = 10, and moderate-intensity continuous training (MI-CT, N = 10. The trained groups were exercised for 8 weeks with a 10% (HI-IT and a 5% (MI-CT overload. The HI-IT group presented 11.8% decreased weight gain compared to the Sed group. The maximal activities of CPT-I, CPT-II, and citrate synthase were all increased in the HI-IT group compared to the Sed group (P < 0.01, as also was gene expression, measured by RT-PCR, of fatty acid binding protein (FABP; P < 0.01 and lipoprotein lipase (LPL; P < 0.05. Lactate dehydrogenase also presented a higher maximal activity (nmol·min-1·mg protein-1 in HI-IT (around 83%. We suggest that 8 weeks of HI-IT enhance mitochondrial lipid transport capacity thus facilitating the oxidation process in the gastrocnemius muscle. This adaptation may also be associated with the decrease in weight gain observed in the animals and was concomitant to a higher gene expression of both FABP and LPL in HI-IT, suggesting that intermittent exercise is a "time-efficient" strategy inducing metabolic adaptation.

  5. Acetyl-l-carnitine partially prevents benzene-induced hematotoxicity and oxidative stress in C3H/He mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Rongli; Zhang, Juan; Wei, Haiyan; Meng, Xing; Ding, Qin; Sun, Fengxia; Cao, Meng; Yin, Lihong; Pu, Yuepu

    2017-04-01

    Benzene is an environmental pollutant and occupational toxicant which induces hematotoxicity. Our previous metabonomics study suggested that acetyl-l-carnitine (ALCAR) decreased in the mouse plasma and bone marrow (BM) cells due to benzene exposure. In the present study, the topic on whether ALCAR influences hematotoxicity caused by benzene exposure was explored. Thirty-two male C3H/He mice were divided into four groups: control group (C: vehicle, oil), benzene group (150mg/kg body weight (b.w.) benzene), benzene+A1 group (150mg/kg b.w. benzene+100mg/kg b.w. ALCAR), and benzene+A2 group (150mg/kg b.w. benzene+200mg/kg b.w. ALCAR). Benzene was injected subcutaneously, and ALCAR was orally administrated via gavage once daily for 4 weeks consecutively. After the experimental period, the blood routine, BM cell number and frequency of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell (HS/PC) were assessed. The mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP level were determined to evaluate the mitochondrial function. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were also examined, and the comet assay was performed to measure oxidative stress. Results showed that ALCAR intervention can partially reduce the benzene-induced damage on BM and HS/PCs and can simultaneously alleviate the DNA damage by reducing benzene-induced H 2 O 2, ROS, and MDA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. L-carnitine ameliorated fatty liver in high-calorie diet/STZ-induced type 2 diabetic mice by improving mitochondrial function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Yunqiu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are an increasing number of patients suffering from fatty liver caused by type 2 diabetes. We intended to study the preventive and therapeutic effect of L-carnitine (LC on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD in streptozotocin (STZ-induced type 2 diabetic mice and to explore its possible mechanism. Methods Thirty male Kungming mice were randomly divided into five groups: control group, diabetic group, pre-treatment group (125 mg/kg BW, low-dose (125 mg/kg BW therapeutic group and high-dose (250 mg/kg BW therapeutic group. The morphology of hepatocytes was observed by light and electron microscopy. LC and ALC (acetyl L-carnitine concentrations in the liver were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Moreover, liver weight, insulin levels and free fatty acid (FFA and triglyceride (TG levels in the liver and plasma were measured. Results Average liver LC and ALC levels were 33.7% and 20% lower, respectively, in diabetic mice compared to control mice (P Conclusion LC supplements ameliorated fatty liver in type 2 diabetic mice by increasing fatty acid oxidation and decreasing the LC/ALC ratio in the liver. Therefore, oral administration of LC protected mitochondrial function in liver.

  7. [Using L-carnitine to improve the adaptation of young athletes to physical load and the correction of stress-induced cardiomyopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balykova, L A; Shirokova, A A; Soldatov, O M; Shchekina, N V; Urziaeva, A N

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms of L-carnitine action and ergogenic pleiotropic effects of drugs, which play important role in sports medicine are described. Results of a comparative, parallel-group randomized clinical trial of L-carnitine (Elkar, PikFarma) in young athletes (football players, walkers) are reported. Elkar increases the body adaptation to physical stress and has a pronounced therapeutic effect in athletes with stress-induced cardiomyopathy by reducing the representation of potentially dangerous arrhythmia (sinus bradycardia less than 2 - 5 centile, 2nd degree atrioventricular block type II, T-wave inversion in more than 2 leads, and/or ST segment depression) and severity of benign ECG disturbances and hemodynamic changes, and decreasing the concentration of biochemical markers of myocardial damage (troponin, natriuretic peptide, creatine phosphokinase MB fraction) and cortisol. In general, Elkar contributed to a significant reduction in symptoms of cardiac remodeling in 75% of patients and had a weak effect in 25% of patents. It is concluded that the use of Elkar in playing sports and sports coaching quality of endurance is appropriate, especially in terms of myocardial remodeling.

  8. Comparison of the protective roles of L-carnitine and amifostine against radiation-induced acute ovarian damage by histopathological and biochemical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuslat Yurut-Caloglu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the radioprotective efficacies of L-carnitine (LC and amifostine against radiation-induced acute ovarian damage. Materials and Methods: Forty-five, 3-month-old Wistar albino rats were randomly assigned to six groups. Control (CONT, n = 7; irradiation alone RT: radiation therapy (RT, n = 8; amifostine plus irradiation (AMI + RT, n = 8; LC plus irradiation (LC + RT, n = 8; LC and sham irradiation (LC, n = 7; and amifostine and sham irradiation (AMI, n = 7. The rats in the AMI + RT, LC + RT and RT groups were irradiated with a single dose of 20 Gy to the whole abdomen. LC (300 mg/kg and amifostine (200 mg/kg was given intraperitoneally 30 min before irradiation. Five days after irradiation, both antral follicles and corpus luteum in the right ovaries were counted, and tissue levels of malondialdehyde (MDA and advanced oxidation protein product (AOPP were measured. Results: Irradiation significantly decreased antral follicles and corpus luteum (P: 0.005 and P 0.05. The level of MDA and AOPP significantly increased after irradiation (P = 0.001 and P 0.005. The levels of both MDA and AOPP were also similar when LC + RT is compared with AMI + RT group (P > 0.005. Conclusions: L-carnitine and amifostine have a noteworthy and similar radioprotective effect against radiation-induced acute ovarian toxicity.

  9. Effect of a β-Hydroxyphosphonate Analogue of ʟ-Carnitine on Insulin-Sensitive and Insulin-Resistant 3T3-L1 Adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avalos-Soriano, Anaguiven; De la Cruz-Cordero, Ricardo; López-Martínez, Francisco Josue; Rosado, Jorge L; Duarte-Vázquez, Miguel Ángel; Garcia-Gasca, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of a β-x200B;hydroxyphosphonate analog of ʟ-carnitine (L-CA) (CAS number: 1220955-x200B;20-3, Component: 1221068-91-2, C12H29NO4PI), (3-Hexanaminium, 1-(dimethoxyphosphinyl)-2-hydroxy-N,N,N,5-x200B;tetramethy-iodide (1:1), (2R, 3S)) on parameters related with type-2 diabetes in an in vitro model. Nontoxic concentrations of L-CA were assayed and compared to commercial ʟ-carnitine effects. L-CA did not affect adipogenesis in normal cells, but an increment of TG accumulation was observed on insulin-resistant adipocytes (80%) when compared with resistant control. L-CA also stimulated glucose analog 2-NBDG uptakes on insulin-resistant adipocytes in a similar way as insulin when compared to insulin-resistant cells. Our results show that the L-CA promoted insulin-like responses on insulin-resistant adipocytes without appreciable pro-adipogenic effect in sensitive adipocytes. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. CHANGES IN MAXIMAL STRENGTH AND BODY COMPOSITION AFTER DIFFERENT METHODS OF DEVELOPING MUSCLE STRENGTH AND SUPPLEMENTATION WITH CREATINE, L-CARNITINE AND HMB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Kruszewski

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of bodybuilding training combined with administration of L-carnitine, weightlifting training combined with administration of creatine, and isometric training combined with administration of β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB on maximal strength and body composition of athletes. The studies were conducted on groups of beginners practising bodybuilding training (n=63 and isometric training (n=69 as well as on a group of advanced powerlifters (n=50 practising weightlifting training. The obtained results indicate that the most desirable and beneficial supportive effect in strength sports was exhibited by HMB. No significant differences in body composition of subjects practising bodybuilding training were detected between those who were given L-carnitine and those who received placebo, an observation confirming controversies over the capacity of the former to reduce fat content. However, significant differences in maximal strength were demonstrated between the examined groups of athletes. Significant differences in the examined parameters were also detected within the group of advanced powerlifters practising weightlifting between those who were supplemented with creatine and those who were given placebo. Thus, the use of creatine in the development of physical capacity in advanced athletes may be advisable.

  11. The effect of vitamin E, L-carnitine, and ginger on production traits, immune response, and antioxidant status in two broiler strains exposed to chronic heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Zia Ur; Chand, Naila; Khan, Rifat Ullah

    2017-12-01

    The present study was designed to find the effect of natural and synthetic antioxidants on the performance of two broiler strains under high ambient temperature. A total of 320 day-old chicks of Hubbard and Cobb were reared for a period for 21 days under the same nutritional and management systems. On day 21 onward, one subgroup was kept as control while other subgroups were provided with vitamin E (250 mg/kg), ginger (2 g/kg), and L-carnitine (500 mg/kg) in basal diets. Body weight and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were significantly (P L-carnitine supplemented birds irrespective of the strain. Antibody titer against infectious bursal disease (IBD) and paraoxonase (PON1) was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in vitamin E-supplemented birds compared to the other treatments. The number of heterophils and toal oxidant status (TOS) were significantly (P < 0.05) lower in vitamin E-supplemented birds. Blood glucose was significantly (P < 0.05) lower in vitamin E-supplemented birds, while total protein was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in vitamin E-supplemented group. In conclusion, the supplementation of vitamin E at the rate of 250 mg/kg improved the antioxidant status and immune response in the two broiler strains. Further, the two strains perform similarly in terms of performance and other health status parameters with no significant difference.

  12. Increased reactive oxygen species production and lower abundance of complex I subunits and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1B protein despite normal mitochondrial respiration in insulin-resistant human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lefort, Natalie; Glancy, Brian; Bowen, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    the higher ROS production. Tandem mass spectrometry identified protein abundance differences per mitochondrial mass in insulin resistance, including lower abundance of complex I subunits and enzymes involved in the oxidation of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) and fatty acids (e.g., carnitine...

  13. Effect of carnitine supplementation on fatigue level in the gastrocnemius muscle of trained and sedentary rats. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2012v14n3p324

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Pinhero Ramos

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available L-carnitine, considered to be of great value in metabolic processes, plays an important role in the mitochondrial β-oxidation process. It may be used to improve athletic performance and to maintain a higher workload during exercise. This study aimed to investigate the effect of L-carnitine supplementation on muscle fatigue in sciatic nerve-gastrocnemius muscle preparations in sedentary and trained rats. The animals were divided into 4 groups: non-supplemented sedentary (NSS, supplemented sedentary (SS, non-supplemented trained (NST, and supplemented trained (ST rats. The animals were trained in daily 1-h sessions (5 days/week and received chronic oral L-carnitine supplementation (1 mg/mL for 4 weeks. Muscle fatigue was determined by supramaximal tetanic stimulation of the sciatic nerve (50 Hz. Time values for strength reduction were significantly different (p<0.05 between NSS vs. SS and NST vs. ST rats. No significant differences were observed between SS vs. ST and NST vs. NSS rats. These findings demonstrate that L-carnitine lengthen the time required for induction of muscle fatigue.

  14. Effect of oral acetyl L-carnitine arginate on resting and postprandial blood biomarkers in pre-diabetics

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    Tucker Patrick S

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Resting and postprandial oxidative stress is elevated in those with metabolic disorders such as diabetes. Antioxidant supplementation may attenuate the rise in oxidative stress following feeding. Therefore we sought to determine the effects of acetyl L-carnitine arginate (ALCA on resting and postprandial biomarkers of glucose and lipid metabolism, as well as oxidative stress. Methods Twenty-nine pre-diabetic men and women were randomly assigned to either 3 g·day-1 of ALCA (n = 14; 31 ± 3 yrs or placebo (n = 15; 35 ± 3 yrs in a double-blind design, to consume for eight weeks. Fasting blood samples were taken from subjects both pre and post intervention. After each fasting sample was obtained, subjects consumed a high fat, high carbohydrate meal and additional blood samples were taken at 1, 2, 4, and 6 hours post meal. Samples were analyzed for a variety of metabolic variables (e.g., glucose, HbA1c, lipid panel, C-reactive protein, nitrate/nitrite, and several markers of oxidative stress. Area under the curve (AUC was calculated for each variable measured post meal, both pre and post intervention. Results ALCA, but not placebo, resulted in an increase in nitrate/nitrite (25.4 ± 1.9 to 30.1 ± 2.8 μmol·L-1 from pre to post intervention, with post intervention values greater compared to placebo (p = 0.01. No other changes of statistical significance were noted (p > 0.05, although ALCA resulted in slight improvements in glucose (109 ± 5 to 103 ± 5 mg·dL-1, HbA1c (6.6 ± 1.1 to 6.2 ± 1.2%, and HOMA-IR (3.3 ± 1.3 to 2.9 ± 1.2. AUC postprandial data were not statistically different between ALCA and placebo for any variable (p > 0.05. However, nitrate/nitrite demonstrated a moderate effect size (r = 0.35 for increase from pre (139.50 ± 18.35 μmol·L-1·6 hr-1 to post (172.40 ± 21.75 μmol·L-1·6 hr-1 intervention with ALCA, and the magnitude of decrease following feeding was not as pronounced as with placebo

  15. Regression of fibrosis/cirrhosis by Glycine propionyl-l-carnitine treatment in d-Galactosamine induced chronic liver damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganai, Ajaz Ahmad; Ganaie, Ishfaq Ahmad; Verma, Nishika; Farooqi, Humaira

    2016-12-25

    Liver fibrosis and cirrhosis are leading causes of morbidity and mortality, with majority of preventable cases attributed to excessive alcohol consumption, viral hepatitis, or non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. We previously reported the hepatoprotective effect of Glycine propionyl-l-carnitine (GPLC) against the fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) induced by d-Galactosamine (D-GalN). In this study we evaluated the protective effect of GPLC against D-GalN induced chronic liver damage. Animals received D-GalN twice a week for 12 weeks at a dose of 250 mg/kg body weight (BW). GPLC was given daily for 12 weeks as co-treatment along with D-GalN at a dose of 35 mg/kg BW. D-GalN injection resulted in a considerable decrease in body weight, hepatocellular disintegration, necrosis and lipid peroxidation as evident from altered levels of SOD, CAT and MDA while GPLC significantly restored the reduced body weight and ameliorated hepatocellular damage and lipid peroxidation. D-GalN administration resulted in DNA damage as evident from TUNEL positive cells in disease control rats while; GPLC significantly alleviated the genotoxic effects of D-GalN. Further histopathological analysis revealed significant tissue and cellular damage, and increased collagen content in D-GalN challenged rats. GPLC however ameliorated the damage as evident from normal cellular and morphological architecture in GPLC co-treated rats. Hydroxyproline and nitrotyrosine (NTY) levels marked a significant decrease in GPLC co-treated rats relative to disease control. GPLC significantly blocked D-GalN induced pro-inflammatory cytokine (TNF-α, IL-6) production and at the same time inhibited the expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), collagen-I (COL-I) and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) significantly. Our results demonstrate significant protective activity of GPLC in chronic liver damage and other complications related to it. This study is a novel study to demonstrate the hepatoprotective effect

  16. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to acetyl-L-carnitine and contribution to normal cognitive function (ID 1432) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claims in relation to acetyl-L-carnitine and contribution to normal cognitive function. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member States or directly from...... stakeholders. The food constituent that is the subject of the health claim is acetyl-L-carnitine. The Panel considers that acetyl-L-carnitine is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect is “neurological support”. The target population is assumed to be the general population. In the context...... be drawn for the scientific substantiation of the claim. On the basis of the data presented, the Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of acetyl-L-carnitine and contribution to normal cognitive function....

  17. Modelling and analysis of central metabolism operating regulatory interactions in salt stress conditions in a L-carnitine overproducing E. coli strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Guido; Hormiga, José A; Arense, Paula; Cánovas, Manuel; Torres, Néstor V

    2012-01-01

    Based on experimental data from E. coli cultures, we have devised a mathematical model in the GMA-power law formalism that describes the central and L-carnitine metabolism in and between two steady states, non-osmotic and hyperosmotic (0.3 M NaCl). A key feature of this model is the introduction of type of kinetic order, the osmotic stress kinetic orders (g(OSn)), derived from the power law general formalism, which represent the effect of osmotic stress in each metabolic process of the model.By considering the values of the g(OSn) linked to each metabolic process we found that osmotic stress has a positive and determinant influence on the increase in flux in energetic metabolism (glycolysis); L-carnitine biosynthesis production; the transformation/excretion of Acetyl-CoA into acetate and ethanol; the input flux of peptone into the cell; the anabolic use of pyruvate and biomass decomposition. In contrast, we found that although the osmotic stress has an inhibitory effect on the transformation flux from the glycolytic end products (pyruvate) to Acetyl-CoA, this inhibition is counteracted by other effects (the increase in pyruvate concentration) to the extent that the whole flux increases. In the same vein, the down regulation exerted by osmotic stress on fumarate uptake and its oxidation and the production and export of lactate and pyruvate are reversed by other factors up to the point that the first increased and the second remained unchanged.The model analysis shows that in osmotic conditions the energy and fermentation pathways undergo substantial rearrangement. This is illustrated by the observation that the increase in the fermentation fluxes is not connected with fluxes towards the tricaboxylic acid intermediates and the synthesis of biomass. The osmotic stress associated with these fluxes reflects these changes. All these observations support that the responses to salt stress observed in E. coli might be conserved in halophiles.Flux evolution during osmotic

  18. Modelling and analysis of central metabolism operating regulatory interactions in salt stress conditions in a L-carnitine overproducing E. coli strain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Santos

    Full Text Available Based on experimental data from E. coli cultures, we have devised a mathematical model in the GMA-power law formalism that describes the central and L-carnitine metabolism in and between two steady states, non-osmotic and hyperosmotic (0.3 M NaCl. A key feature of this model is the introduction of type of kinetic order, the osmotic stress kinetic orders (g(OSn, derived from the power law general formalism, which represent the effect of osmotic stress in each metabolic process of the model.By considering the values of the g(OSn linked to each metabolic process we found that osmotic stress has a positive and determinant influence on the increase in flux in energetic metabolism (glycolysis; L-carnitine biosynthesis production; the transformation/excretion of Acetyl-CoA into acetate and ethanol; the input flux of peptone into the cell; the anabolic use of pyruvate and biomass decomposition. In contrast, we found that although the osmotic stress has an inhibitory effect on the transformation flux from the glycolytic end products (pyruvate to Acetyl-CoA, this inhibition is counteracted by other effects (the increase in pyruvate concentration to the extent that the whole flux increases. In the same vein, the down regulation exerted by osmotic stress on fumarate uptake and its oxidation and the production and export of lactate and pyruvate are reversed by other factors up to the point that the first increased and the second remained unchanged.The model analysis shows that in osmotic conditions the energy and fermentation pathways undergo substantial rearrangement. This is illustrated by the observation that the increase in the fermentation fluxes is not connected with fluxes towards the tricaboxylic acid intermediates and the synthesis of biomass. The osmotic stress associated with these fluxes reflects these changes. All these observations support that the responses to salt stress observed in E. coli might be conserved in halophiles.Flux evolution

  19. Propionyl-L-carnitine improves postischemic blood flow recovery and arteriogenetic revascularization and reduces endothelial NADPH-oxidase 4-mediated superoxide production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasi, Maria Antonietta; Scioli, Maria Giovanna; Arcuri, Gaetano; Mattera, Giovan Giuseppe; Lombardo, Katia; Marcellini, Marcella; Riccioni, Teresa; De Falco, Sandro; Pisano, Claudio; Spagnoli, Luigi Giusto; Borsini, Franco; Orlandi, Augusto

    2010-03-01

    The beneficial effect of the natural compound propionyl-l-carnitine (PLC) on intermittent claudication in patients with peripheral arterial disease is attributed to its anaplerotic function in ischemic tissues, but inadequate information is available concerning action on the vasculature. We investigated the effects of PLC in rabbit hind limb collateral vessels after femoral artery excision, mouse dorsal air pouch, chicken chorioallantoic membrane, and vascular cells by angiographic, Doppler flow, and histomorphometrical and biomolecular analyses. PLC injection accelerated hind limb blood flow recovery after 4 days (Pproduction in human umbilical vascular endothelial cells; NADPH-oxidase 4 also regulated NF-kappaB-independent intracellular adhesion molecule-1 expression. Our results provided strong evidence that PLC improves postischemic flow recovery and revascularization and reduces endothelial NADPH-oxidase-related superoxide production. We recommend that PLC should be included among therapeutic interventions that target endothelial function.

  20. l-carnitine supplementation during vitrification or warming of in vivo-produced ovine embryos does not affect embryonic survival rates, but alters CrAT and PRDX1 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiva, Helena F R A; Batista, Ribrio I T P; Alfradique, Vivian A P; Pinto, Pedro H N; Ribeiro, Lilian S; Oliveira, Clara S; Souza-Fabjan, Joanna M G; Camargo, Luiz S A; Fonseca, Jeferson F; Brandão, Felipe Z

    2018-01-01

    l-carnitine is an antioxidant and β-oxidation stimulator substance commonly used to improve metabolic performance of oocytes and embryos in in vitro systems. However, few studies have evaluated its beneficial effects in embryos produced in vivo. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of l-carnitine supplementation into vitrification or warming solutions on the post-warming character of day 6-7 in vivo-produced ovine embryos. l-carnitine (3.72 mM) was added to vitrification (Experiment 1) or warming solutions (Experiment 2). In experiments 1 and 2, the embryos were vitrified using straw and cryo-tip protocols, respectively. In vitro culture (IVC) of warmed embryos was performed for 72 h in order to evaluate survival rates, reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, total cell number (TCN), number of apoptotic cells, apoptotic index evaluation, and gene expression analysis of carnitine palmitoyltransferase I and 2 (CPT1 and CPT2), carnitine O-acetyltransferase (CrAT), and peroxiredoxin-1 (PRDX1). In experiment 1, survival rate, ROS levels after 24 h of IVC, total cell number at 24 h and 72 h, apoptotic cells and apoptotic index at 72 h of IVC were similar in embryos vitrified in medium supplemented with LC or not. Gene expression analysis showed no differences in CPT1 and CPT2 mRNA relative abundance in embryos of both experiments compared to fresh embryos (FE); however, CrAT was downregulated (p l-carnitine (LC1) groups, compared to FE. Moreover, CrAT and PRDX1 were upregulated (p < 0.05) in C2, and CrAT was downregulated (p < 0.05) in LC2, in relation to FE. Although the short-term LC supplementation at 3.72 mM did not improve survival, and quality parameters of in vivo-produced ovine embryos, it could affect their quality at a molecular level. In conclusion, further investigations with different concentrations of LC and tools are needed for improvement of the efficiency of these strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Mitochondrial 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A synthase and carnitine palmitoyltransferase II as potential control sites for ketogenesis during mitochondrion and peroxisome proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, L; Garras, A; Asins, G; Serra, D; Hegardt, F G; Berge, R K

    1999-05-01

    3-Thia fatty acids are potent hypolipidemic fatty acid derivatives and mitochondrion and peroxisome proliferators. Administration of 3-thia fatty acids to rats was followed by significantly increased levels of plasma ketone bodies, whereas the levels of plasma non-esterified fatty acids decreased. The hepatic mRNA levels of fatty acid binding protein and formation of acid-soluble products, using both palmitoyl-CoA and palmitoyl-L-carnitine as substrates, were increased. Hepatic mitochondrial carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) -II and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) synthase activities, immunodetectable proteins, and mRNA levels increased in parallel. In contrast, the mitochondrial CPT-I mRNA levels were unchanged and CPT-I enzyme activity was slightly reduced in the liver. The CoA ester of the monocarboxylic 3-thia fatty acid, tetradecylthioacetic acid, which accumulates in the liver after administration, inhibited the CPT-I activity in vitro, but not that of CPT-II. Acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase and HMG-CoA lyase activities involved in ketogenesis were increased, whereas the citrate synthase activity was decreased. The present data suggest that 3-thia fatty acids increase both the transport of fatty acids into the mitochondria and the capacity of the beta-oxidation process. Under these conditions, the regulation of ketogenesis may be shifted to step(s) beyond CPT-I. This opens the possibility that mitochondrial HMG-CoA synthase and CPT-II retain some control of ketone body formation.

  2. A novel SLC25A20 splicing mutation in patients of different ethnic origin with neonatally lethal carnitine-acylcarnitine translocase (CACT) deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korman, Stanley H; Pitt, James J; Boneh, Avihu; Dweikat, Imad; Zater, Mokhtar; Meiner, Vardiella; Gutman, Alisa; Brivet, Michèle

    2006-12-01

    Carnitine-acylcarnitine translocase (CACT) deficiency is a rare disorder of fatty acid oxidation associated with high mortality. Two female newborns of different ethnic origin (the first Anglo-Celtic and the second Palestinian Arab) both died after sudden collapse on day 2 of life. Both had elevated bloodspot long-chain acylcarnitines consistent with either CACT or carnitine palmitoyltransferase II (CPT2) deficiency; the latter was excluded by demonstrating normal CPT2 activity in fibroblasts. Direct sequencing of all SLC25A20 (CACT) gene exons and exon-intron boundaries revealed that Patient 1 was compound heterozygous for a novel c.609-3c>g (IVS6-3c>g) mutation on the paternal allele and a previously described c.326delG mutation on the maternal allele. Patient 2 was homozygous for the same, novel c.609-3c>g mutation. Previously reported SLC25A20 mutations have been almost exclusively confined to a single family or ethnic group. Analysis of fibroblast cDNA by RT-PCR, agarose gel electrophoresis and sequencing of extracted bands showed that both mutations produce aberrant splicing. c.609-3C>G results in exon 7 skipping leading to a frameshift with premature termination seven amino acids downstream. c.326delG was confirmed to produce skipping of exons 3 or 3 plus 4. CACT activity in both patients' fibroblasts was near-zero. For both families, prenatal diagnosis of an unaffected fetus was performed by mutation analysis on CVS tissue in a subsequent pregnancy. Due to the urgency of prenatal diagnosis in the second family, molecular diagnosis was performed prior to demonstration of CACT enzyme deficiency, illustrating that mutation analysis is a rapid and reliable approach to first-line diagnosis of CACT deficiency.

  3. Effects of L-carnitine and Pentoxifylline on the Activity of Lactate Dehydrogenase C4 isozyme and Motility of Testicular Spermatozoa in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliabadi, Elham; Karimi, Fatemeh; Rasti, Mozhgan; Akmali, Masoumeh; Esmaeilpour, Tahereh

    2013-04-01

    Extracted sperm from the testis have poor motility. Moreover, their motility changes during their journey through epidydimis. Meanwhile, they face high concentration of L-carnitin. In addition, lactate dehydrogenase C4 (LDH-C4) gene disorders has been shown to cause impaired sperm motility, leading to infertility in male mice. The aim of this study was to evaluate sperm motility and LDH-C4 enzyme activity upon L-carnitine (LC) and Pentoxifylline (PTX) administrations in mice. We extracted testicular sperm of 48 mice and divided them into three equal parts. One part was incubated with Ham's F10 medium (control), the other parts were treated with Ham's F10 containing LC and PTX with a final concentration of 1.76 mM, for 30 min at room temperature. Sperm motility was assessed according to the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. Sperm LDH-C4 enzyme activity was measured by spectrophotometery method. Statistical analyses were performed using ANOVA and Fisher's LSD test, and a p-value less than 0.05 was considered as a statistically significant difference. Sperm motility increased after 30 min of incubation in LC- and PTX-treated group (p<0.001). LC and PTX administrations showed a significant increase in the LDHC4 enzyme activity of sperm compared to that of the controls after 30 min (P=0.04 and 0.01, respectively). The effects of LC and PTX on motility of sperm can be explained by an increase in LDH-C4 enzyme activity that may influence male fertility status. We suggest that LC as a non-toxic antioxidant is more suitable for use in assisted reproductive technique protocols than PTX.

  4. Propionyl-L-carnitine Corrects Metabolic and Cardiovascular Alterations in Diet-Induced Obese Mice and Improves Liver Respiratory Chain Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingorance, Carmen; Duluc, Lucie; Chalopin, Matthieu; Simard, Gilles; Ducluzeau, Pierre-Henri; Herrera, Maria Dolores; Alvarez de Sotomayor, Maria; Andriantsitohaina, Ramaroson

    2012-01-01

    Aims Obesity is a primary contributor to acquired insulin resistance leading to the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular alterations. The carnitine derivate, propionyl-L-carnitine (PLC), plays a key role in energy control. Our aim was to evaluate metabolic and cardiovascular effects of PLC in diet-induced obese mice. Methods C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet for 9 weeks and then divided into two groups, receiving either free- (vehicle-HF) or PLC-supplemented water (200 mg/kg/day) during 4 additional weeks. Standard diet-fed animals were used as lean controls (vehicle-ST). Body weight and food intake were monitored. Glucose and insulin tolerance tests were assessed, as well as the HOMAIR, the serum lipid profile, the hepatic and muscular mitochondrial activity and the tissue nitric oxide (NO) liberation. Systolic blood pressure, cardiac and endothelial functions were also evaluated. Results Vehicle-HF displayed a greater increase of body weight compared to vehicle-ST that was completely reversed by PLC treatment without affecting food intake. PLC improved the insulin-resistant state and reversed the increased total cholesterol but not the increase in free fatty acid, triglyceride and HDL/LDL ratio induced by high-fat diet. Vehicle-HF exhibited a reduced cardiac output/body weight ratio, endothelial dysfunction and tissue decrease of NO production, all of them being improved by PLC treatment. Finally, the decrease of hepatic mitochondrial activity by high-fat diet was reversed by PLC. Conclusions Oral administration of PLC improves the insulin-resistant state developed by obese animals and decreases the cardiovascular risk associated to this metabolic alteration probably via correction of mitochondrial function. PMID:22457831

  5. Propionyl-L-carnitine corrects metabolic and cardiovascular alterations in diet-induced obese mice and improves liver respiratory chain activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Mingorance

    Full Text Available AIMS: Obesity is a primary contributor to acquired insulin resistance leading to the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular alterations. The carnitine derivate, propionyl-L-carnitine (PLC, plays a key role in energy control. Our aim was to evaluate metabolic and cardiovascular effects of PLC in diet-induced obese mice. METHODS: C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet for 9 weeks and then divided into two groups, receiving either free- (vehicle-HF or PLC-supplemented water (200 mg/kg/day during 4 additional weeks. Standard diet-fed animals were used as lean controls (vehicle-ST. Body weight and food intake were monitored. Glucose and insulin tolerance tests were assessed, as well as the HOMA(IR, the serum lipid profile, the hepatic and muscular mitochondrial activity and the tissue nitric oxide (NO liberation. Systolic blood pressure, cardiac and endothelial functions were also evaluated. RESULTS: Vehicle-HF displayed a greater increase of body weight compared to vehicle-ST that was completely reversed by PLC treatment without affecting food intake. PLC improved the insulin-resistant state and reversed the increased total cholesterol but not the increase in free fatty acid, triglyceride and HDL/LDL ratio induced by high-fat diet. Vehicle-HF exhibited a reduced cardiac output/body weight ratio, endothelial dysfunction and tissue decrease of NO production, all of them being improved by PLC treatment. Finally, the decrease of hepatic mitochondrial activity by high-fat diet was reversed by PLC. CONCLUSIONS: Oral administration of PLC improves the insulin-resistant state developed by obese animals and decreases the cardiovascular risk associated to this metabolic alteration probably via correction of mitochondrial function.

  6. Propionyl-L-carnitine corrects metabolic and cardiovascular alterations in diet-induced obese mice and improves liver respiratory chain activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingorance, Carmen; Duluc, Lucie; Chalopin, Matthieu; Simard, Gilles; Ducluzeau, Pierre-Henri; Herrera, Maria Dolores; Alvarez de Sotomayor, Maria; Andriantsitohaina, Ramaroson

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is a primary contributor to acquired insulin resistance leading to the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular alterations. The carnitine derivate, propionyl-L-carnitine (PLC), plays a key role in energy control. Our aim was to evaluate metabolic and cardiovascular effects of PLC in diet-induced obese mice. C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet for 9 weeks and then divided into two groups, receiving either free- (vehicle-HF) or PLC-supplemented water (200 mg/kg/day) during 4 additional weeks. Standard diet-fed animals were used as lean controls (vehicle-ST). Body weight and food intake were monitored. Glucose and insulin tolerance tests were assessed, as well as the HOMA(IR), the serum lipid profile, the hepatic and muscular mitochondrial activity and the tissue nitric oxide (NO) liberation. Systolic blood pressure, cardiac and endothelial functions were also evaluated. Vehicle-HF displayed a greater increase of body weight compared to vehicle-ST that was completely reversed by PLC treatment without affecting food intake. PLC improved the insulin-resistant state and reversed the increased total cholesterol but not the increase in free fatty acid, triglyceride and HDL/LDL ratio induced by high-fat diet. Vehicle-HF exhibited a reduced cardiac output/body weight ratio, endothelial dysfunction and tissue decrease of NO production, all of them being improved by PLC treatment. Finally, the decrease of hepatic mitochondrial activity by high-fat diet was reversed by PLC. Oral administration of PLC improves the insulin-resistant state developed by obese animals and decreases the cardiovascular risk associated to this metabolic alteration probably via correction of mitochondrial function.

  7. Propionyl-L-carnitine induces eNOS activation and nitric oxide synthesis in endothelial cells via PI3 and Akt kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Wen-hu; Zhao, Kan

    2013-01-01

    Propionyl-l-carnitine (PLC) is a natural short-chain derivative of l-carnitine (LC), a natural amino acid that plays an important role in fatty acid metabolism. Recent studies suggest that PLC has vascular protective effects. Because of the importance of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and its product, antiatherogenic molecule nitric oxide (NO), in vascular endothelial function, we sought to elucidate that if PLC would stimulate eNOS and its upstream activators Akt and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3 Kinase) in cultured human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC). PLC caused eNOS phosphorylation at Ser-1177, and dominant negative Akt and a novel Akt-selective inhibitor MK-2206 inhibited both PLC-mediated phosphorylation and activation of the enzyme. PI3 kinase inhibition also blocked the phosphorylation and activation of eNOS by PLC. Studies with specific drug inhibitors PD173955 and PP2 showed that the non-receptor tyrosine kinase, src, is an upstream stimulator of the PI3 kinase-Akt pathway in this pathway. In addition, PLC significantly decreased intracellular ATP/ADP ratio and activate AMPK, subsequently leading to Src activation. Finally, we demonstrated that the effects of PLC to augment eNOS activity were associated with a net increase in NO release from endothelial cells. NO production following incubation with PLC was abolished in endothelial cells coincubated with L-NAME, PD173955, LY294002, MK-2206 and compound C. In conclusion, PLC, via AMPK/Src-mediated signaling that leads to activation of PI3 kinase and Akt, stimulates eNOS, leading to increased production of NO. © 2013.

  8. l-Carnitine Modulates Epileptic Seizures in Pentylenetetrazole-Kindled Rats via Suppression of Apoptosis and Autophagy and Upregulation of Hsp70

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelaziz M. Hussein

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available l-Carnitine is a unique nutritional supplement for athletes that has been recently studied as a potential treatment for certain neuropsychiatric disorders. However, its efficacy in seizure control has not been investigated. Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned to receive either saline (Sal (negative control or pentylenetetrazole (PTZ 40 mg/kg i.p. × 3 times/week × 3 weeks. The PTZ group was further subdivided into two groups, the first received oral l-carnitine (l-Car (100 mg/kg/day × 4 weeks (PTZ + l-Car, while the second group received saline (PTZ + Sal. Daily identification and quantification of seizure scores, time to the first seizure and the duration of seizures were performed in each animal. Molecular oxidative markers were examined in the animal brains. l-Car treatment was associated with marked reduction in seizure score (p = 0.0002 that was indicated as early as Day 2 of treatment and continued throughout treatment duration. Furthermore, l-Car significantly prolonged the time to the first seizure (p < 0.0001 and shortened seizure duration (p = 0.028. In addition, l-Car administration for four weeks attenuated PTZ-induced increase in the level of oxidative stress marker malondialdehyde (MDA (p < 0.0001 and reduced the activity of catalase enzyme (p = 0.0006 and increased antioxidant GSH activity (p < 0.0001. Moreover, l-Car significantly reduced PTZ-induced elevation in protein expression of caspase-3 (p < 0.0001 and β-catenin (p < 0.0001. Overall, our results suggest a potential therapeutic role of l-Car in seizure control and call for testing these preclinical results in a proof of concept pilot clinical study.

  9. Effect of Caffeine Co-Ingested with Carnitine on Weight, Body-Fat Percent, Serum Leptin and Lipid Profile Changes in Male Teen Soccer Players: a Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Shirali

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Weight loss and decreasing the Body fat percentage (BF% is motivated to optimize performance. In order to achieve these, many supplements are used by athletes, however the possible negative or synergic effects have not been fully described in the literature, specifically in humans. The present study was conducted to investigate the co-administration effects of two common used supplements in body weight and BF% management to recommend athletes for safe weight and BF% reduction. Materials and Methods: In the present double-blind, randomized, parallel, placebo-controlled study, the effect of six-week co-administration of caffeine and carnitine was determined on changes in body weight (BW, BF%, serum leptin concentration and lipid profile (triglyceride, HDL Cholesterol, LDL Cholesterol and Total Cholesterol, fasting blood glucose (FBG, and free fatty acid (FFA changes. Twenty eight male teen soccer players  from Ahvaz-Iran, were divided in three groups (group CafPlc, caffeine (6 mg/kg/day + dextrose; group CafCar, caffeine (6 mg/kg/day + carnitine (2g; and group Plc, dextrose. Results: Caffeine-carnitine had a lowering effect on BW (P=0.02 and BF% (P=0.03, compared to caffeine alone and placebo in male teen soccer players (mean age of 16.92 ± 0.76 years. TG was significantly decreased in CafCar (P=0.04. FFA levels were increased in CafCar (P=0.04 and there was significant differences between CafCar and Plc groups (P=0.01. FBG was increased in both CafPlc and CafCar (P=0.01 and P=0.02, respectively, with no significant differences between groups. Conclusion: The synergistic effect of caffeine-carnitine might be suggested to decrease the BF% and BW, besides it may prevent the increment of FFA levels; however it should be prescribed cautiously since it increased FBG levels.

  10. An adaptive, phase II, dose-finding clinical trial design to evaluate L-carnitine in the treatment of septic shock based on efficacy and predictive probability of subsequent phase III success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Roger J; Viele, Kert; Broglio, Kristine; Berry, Scott M; Jones, Alan E

    2013-07-01

    Sepsis is the tenth leading cause of death in the United States. Despite extensive research, mortality rates for sepsis have not substantially improved in the last several decades. We describe an innovative phase II clinical trial design for evaluating the addition of L-carnitine to the treatment of vasopressor-dependent septic shock. The design incorporates a variety of features to increase efficiency, including a normal dynamic linear dose-response model, adaptive randomization, and early stopping for futility or success based on the probability that a future phase III trial using a 28-day mortality outcome would be successful. Trial design and computer simulation of a trial to be conducted in the emergency department and ICU. Proposed to study intravenous L-carnitine. The proposed trial uses an early endpoint, the 48-hour change in Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score, to drive adaptive randomization and dose selection. We use existing data to model the expected relationship between the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment change and the 28-day mortality to determine the trial's operating characteristics using Monte Carlo simulation. The resulting trial efficiently identifies the best dose of L-carnitine and provides clear guidance regarding whether to continue development into phase III.

  11. Development and validation of an ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-high resolution tandem mass spectrometry quantification method for hypoglycin A and methylene cyclopropyl acetic acid carnitine in horse serum in cases of atypical myopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Wiebke; Remane, Daniela; Wissenbach, Dirk K; Klein, Carmen; Barnewitz, Dirk; Peters, Frank T

    2017-11-17

    Atypical myopathy (AM) is a fatal disease in horses presumably caused by hypoglycine A (HGA) from ingested maple seeds and its active metabolite methylene cyclopropyl acetic acid (MCPA). The aim of this study was the development and validation of a rapid and simple assay for HGA and MCPA-carnitine in horse serum and its application to authentic samples. Identification and quantification were carried out by ultra high performance liquid chromatography-high resolution tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS/MS) with full-scan/data-dependent MS/MS. Chromatographic separation was performed by isocratic elution on a hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) column (100 x 2.1 mm, 1.7 μm). Serum samples (250 μL) were worked up by protein precipitation. The method was validated according to international guidelines with respect to selectivity, linearity, accuracy, precision, matrix effects, and recovery. The calibration range was from 100 to 2000 ng/mL for HGA and from 10 to 1000 ng/mL for MCPA-carnitine. HGA and MCPA-carnitine showed acceptable accuracy and precision (bias -3.0% to 1.1%; RSD 9.2% to 12.4%). The limit of quantification (LOQ) was defined as the lowest calibrator and well below the lowest published serum concentrations in affected horses. Matrix effects ranged from -79% to +20% (RSD 4.2% to 14.4%), recoveries from 17.9% to 21.1% (RSD 2.3% to 10.8 %) for low and high quality control samples, respectively. Applicability was tested in 10 authentic AM cases. In all specimens, relevant amounts of HGA and MCPA-carnitine were found (570-2000 ng/mL; ~8.5-150 ng/mL, respectively). The developed assay allows reliable identification and quantification of HGA and MCPA-carnitine in horse serum and will be helpful to further study the association between HGA/MCPA and AM. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Acetyl-l-carnitine (ALCAR) prevents hypobaric hypoxia-induced spatial memory impairment through extracellular related kinase-mediated nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barhwal, K; Hota, S K; Jain, V; Prasad, D; Singh, S B; Ilavazhagan, G

    2009-06-30

    Exposure to hypobaric hypoxia, a condition involving decreased availability of oxygen is known to be associated with oxidative stress, neurodegeneration and memory impairment. The multifactorial response of the brain and the complex signaling pathways involved therewith limits the therapeutic efficacy of several antioxidants in ameliorating hypobaric hypoxia-induced memory impairment. The present study was therefore aimed at investigating the potential of acetyl-l-carnitine (ALCAR), a known antioxidant that has been reported to augment neurotrophin-mediated survival mechanisms, in ameliorating hypoxia-induced neurodegeneration and memory impairment. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a key transcription factor involved in the cellular defense mechanism against oxidative stress related to brain injury and neurological disorders. The study was designed to understand the mechanisms involving Nrf2 stabilization following exposure to hypobaric hypoxia. The results displayed reference memory impairment in Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to hypobaric hypoxia (7620 m) for 14 consecutive days which however improved on administration of ALCAR during hypoxic exposure. The study also revealed Nrf2 regulated augmented antioxidant response on administration of ALCAR which was through a novel tyrosine kinase A (TrkA) receptor-mediated mechanism. A decrease in free radical generation, lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation was also observed along with a concomitant increase in thioredoxin and reduced glutathione levels on administration of ALCAR during exposure to hypobaric hypoxia. The present study therefore reveals the therapeutic potential of ALCAR under conditions of hypobaric hypoxia and elucidates a novel mechanism of action of the drug.

  13. In vivo longitudinal proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy on neonatal hypoxic-ischemic rat brain injury – Neuroprotective effects of acetyl-L-carnitine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Su; Waddell, Jaylyn; Zhu, Wenjun; Shi, Da; Marshall, Andrew D; McKenna, Mary C; Gullapalli, Rao P

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study evaluated the longitudinal metabolic alterations after neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI) in rats and tested the neuroprotective effect of acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR) using in vivo proton short-TE Point-RESolved Spectroscopy method. Methods Rice-Vannucci model was used on 7-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats. Data were acquired from contralateral and ipsilateral cortex and hippocampus, respectively at 4 time points (24-h, 72-h, 7-d, 28-d) post-HI. The effect of subcutaneous administration of ALCAR (100 mg/kg) immediately after HI, at 4-h, 24-h, and 48-h post-HI was determined. Results Significant reductions in glutathione (p < 0.005), myo-inositol (p < 0.002), taurine (p < 0.001), and total creatine (p < 0.005) were observed at 24-h post injury compared to the control group in the ipsilateral hippocampus of the HI rat pups. ALCAR-treated-HI rats had lower levels of lactate and maintained total creatine at 24-h and had smaller lesion size compared to the HI only rats. Conclusion Severe oxidative, osmotic stress, impaired phosphorylation, and a preference for anaerobic glycolysis were found in the ipsilateral hippocampus in the HI pups at 24-h post injury. ALCAR appeared to have a neuroprotective effect if administered early after HI by serving as an energy substrate and promote oxidative cerebral energy producing and minimize anaerobic glycolysis. PMID:25461739

  14. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase IA polymorphism P479L is common in Greenland Inuit and is associated with elevated plasma apolipoprotein A-I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rajakumar, Chandheeb; Ban, Matthew R; Cao, Henian

    2009-01-01

    Carnitine palmitoyltransferase IA, encoded by CPT1A, is a key regulator of fatty acid metabolism. Previously, a loss of function mutation, namely c.1436 CT (p.P479L), was reported in CPT1A in the homozygous state in Canadian aboriginal male with presumed CPT1A deficiency. In order to determine...... the population frequency of this variant, we determined CPT1A p.P479L genotypes in 1111 Greenland Inuit. Associations between genotype and variation in plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, HDL, apolipoprotein (apo) B, and apo A-I were also investigated. We found the L479 allele occurs at a high...... frequency in this sample (0.73), while it was completely absent in 285 non-aboriginal samples. This suggests the original proband's symptoms were not likely due to the CPT1A p.P479L mutation, since it very common in Inuit and since symptoms suggesting CPT1A deficiency have not been reported in any carrier...

  15. Molecular and biochemical evidence on the protection of cardiomyocytes from phosphine-induced oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis by acetyl-L-carnitine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghaei, Amir; Solgi, Reza; Jafari, Abbas; Abdolghaffari, Amir Hossein; Golaghaei, Alireza; Asghari, Mohammad Hossein; Baeeri, Maryam; Ostad, Seyed Nasser; Sharifzadeh, Mohammad; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR) on pathologic changes of mitochondrial respiratory chain activity, ATP production, oxidative stress, and cellular apoptosis/necrosis induced by aluminum phosphide (AlP) poisoning. The study groups included: the Sham that received almond oil only; the AlP that received oral LD50 dose of aluminum; the AC-100, AC-200, and AC-300 which received concurrent oral LD50 dose of AlP and single 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg of ALCAR by intraperitoneal injection. After 24 h, the rats were sacrificed; the heart and blood sample were taken for measurement of biochemical and mitochondrial factors. The results specified that ALCAR significantly attenuated the oxidative stress (elevated ROS and plasma iron levels) caused by AlP poisoning. ALCAR also increased the activity of cytochrome oxidase, which in turn amplified ATP production. Furthermore, flow cytometric assays and caspase activity indicated that ALCAR prohibited AlP-induced apoptosis in cardiomyocytes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Docosahexaenoic acid and L-Carnitine prevent ATP loss in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells after exposure to silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Joey Wee-Shan; Ho, Christabel Fung-Yih; Ng, Yee-Kong; Ong, Wei-Yi

    2016-02-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are among the most commonly used nanomaterials, but thus far, little is known about ways to mitigate against potential toxic effects of exposure. In this study, we examined the potential effects of AgNPs on mitochondrial function and cellular ATP levels, and whether these could be prevented by treatment with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and L-carnitine (LC). Acute exposure of AgNPs for 1 h to SH-SY5Y cells resulted in decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, and decreased ATP and ADP levels, indicating mitochondrial damage and reduced production of ATP. Incubation of cells with DHA partially reduced, while treatment with LC and DHA completely abolished the AgNP induced decreases in ATP and ADP levels. This could be due to a LC-facilitated entry of DHA to mitochondria, for repair of damaged phospholipids. It is postulated that DHA and LC may be useful for treatment of accidental environmental exposure to AgNPs. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Different involvement of promoter methylation in the expression of organic cation/carnitine transporter 2 (OCTN2) in cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Qiang; Qu, Jian; Zhan, Min; Wu, Lan-Xiang; Zhang, Yi-Wen; Lou, Xiao-Ya; Fu, Li-Juan; Zhou, Hong-Hao

    2013-01-01

    Organic cation/carnitine transporter 2 (OCTN2) is responsible for the cellular uptake of the antineoplastic agent, oxaliplatin. Epigenetic modification is a possible mechanism of altered drug-transporter expression in cancers, leading to altered efficacy of chemotherapeutic drugs. However, the mechanisms governing OCTN2 regulation are not completely understood. In this study, the low levels of OCTN2 in HepG2 and LS174T cells were elevated by the demethylating reagent, decitabine (DCA). To further reveal the epigenetic mechanism of down-regulation of OCTN2, we found that Region-1 within the OCTN2 promoter (spanning -354 to +85) was a determinant of OCTN2 expression in a luciferase reporter assay. Moreover, methylation-specific PCR (MSP) and bisulfite genomic sequencing showed that the degree of individual methylated CpG sites within this region was inversely correlated with the levels of OCTN2 in different cancer cells. Application of DCA to HepG2 and LS174T cells reversed the hypermethylation status of the OCTN2 promoter and increased OCTN2 expression, enhancing cellular uptake of oxaliplatin. Thus, we identified that promoter methylation is responsible for epigenetic down-regulation of OCTN2 in HepG2 and LS174T cells. Given the essential role of OCTN2 in cancer cell uptake of chemotherapeutics, and thus treatment efficacy, pretreatment with a demethylating reagent is a possible strategy for optimizing pharmacotherapies against cancers.

  18. Supplementation of L-carnitine during in vitro maturation of mouse oocytes affects expression of genes involved in oocyte and embryo competence: An experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare, Zohreh; Abouhamzeh, Beheshteh; Masteri Farahani, Reza; Salehi, Mohammad; Mohammadi, Moslem

    2017-12-01

    Oocyte developmental competence is one of the key factors for determining the success rate of assisted reproductive technique. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of L-carnitine (LC) supplementation during in vitro maturation (IVM), on preimplantation embryo development and expression of genes involved in embryo competence derived from oocytes selected with brilliant cresyl blue (BCB) test. Cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were obtained from NMRI mice ovaries. COCs were stained with BCB and then BCB+ (colored cytoplasm) oocytes cultured in IVM medium supplemented with 0.3 or 0.6 mg/ml LC. COCs untreated with LC were used as control. Fertilization rate and blastocyst development rate were determined after in vitro fertilization. In addition, quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was used to measure relative genes expression related with development (Ccnb1, Mos, Ces5, and Dppa2) and apoptosis (Bax and Bcl-xL) in oocytes and embryos. Oocytes treated with both LC concentrations showed higher blastocyst development rate compared with untreated oocytes (pBCB+ oocytes can ameliorate reproductive success following in vitro fertilization.

  19. Evaluating the effects of amantadin, modafinil and acetyl-L-carnitine on fatigue in multiple sclerosis--result of a pilot randomized, blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledinek, Alenka Horvat; Sajko, Mojca Cizek; Rot, Uros

    2013-12-01

    Fatigue affects more than 60% of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and is one of the most troublesome symptoms of the disease. Current treatment options for MS fatigue include amantadine, modafinil and acetyl-l-carnitine (ALCAR). The aim of our study was to compare efficacy of amantadine, modafinil and ALCAR with placebo in patients with MS. Patients with MS and a disability level ≤ 5.5 on the Kurtzke Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) and fatigue were included in the study. Patients were assigned to a one month treatment with either amantadine 200mg, ALCAR 2g, modafinil 200mg or placebo. Efficacy of the treatment was evaluated by using the modified fatigue impact scale (MFIS). Sixty patients were included in the study (39 females). The mean age of patients was 38 ± 6.7 years and the mean disease duration was 6.6 ± 1.2 years. Contrast analysis showed significantly lower mean MFIS score after one month in patients on amantadine compared to placebo (mean difference=17.3, p=0.001). There was also a trend of a lower MFIS score in ALCAR group in comparison to placebo (mean difference=12.4, p=0.05, with Keppel-corrected alpha of 0.046). The quality of life measured as SF 36 - PCS and SF 36 - MCS proved to be significantly influenced by treatment. One month treatment with amantadine improved fatigue in patients with relapsing-remitting MS as evaluated by MFIS. No or only a trend of improvement was seen in patients treated with modafinil or ALCAR, respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of Combined Treatment with Branched-Chain Amino Acids, Citric Acid, L-Carnitine, Coenzyme Q10, Zinc, and Various Vitamins in Tumor-Bearing Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awa, Hiroko; Futamura, Akihiko; Higashiguchi, Takashi; Ito, Akihiro; Mori, Naoharu; Murai, Miyo; Ohara, Hiroshi; Chihara, Takeshi; Kaneko, Takaaki

    2017-03-01

    A functional dietary supplement (FDS) containing Coenzyme Q10, branched-chain amino acids and L-carnitine was administered to tumor-bearing mice, investigating its effects on tumor and muscle tissues. Experiment (A): B16 melanoma cells were implanted subcutaneously into the right side of the abdomen of 8- to 9-week-old C57BL/6J mice. The mice were divided into two groups: a FDS group that received oral administration of FDS (n=10), and a control group that received oral administration of glucose (n=10). The moribund condition was used as the endpoint, and median survival time was determined. Experiment (B): On day 21 after tumor implantation, tumors, soleus muscle, gastrocnemius muscle, and suprahyoid muscles were collected. Tumor and muscle weight and other aspects were evaluated in each group: FDS group (n=15) and control group (n=15). The median survival time was comparable (21 d in the FDS group vs. 18 d in the control group, p=0.30). However, cumulative food intake was significantly higher in the FDS group than the control group (p=0.011). Metastasis of melanoma to the lung was observed in the control group but not in the FDS group (p=0.043). The weight of the suprahyoid muscles was significantly higher in the FDS group than in the control group (p=0.0045). The weight of the tumor was significantly lower in the FDS group than in the control group (p=0.013). The results possibly suggest oral administration of FDS in tumor-bearing mice enhances the maintenance of suprahyoid muscles, resulting in an extended feeding period and suppression of tumor growth and metastasis.

  1. The effect of dietary α-lipoic acid, betaine, l-carnitine, and swimming on the obesity of mice induced by a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Aera; Kim, Dongwook; Sung, Ki-Seung; Jung, Samooel; Kim, Hyun Joo; Jo, Cheorun

    2014-08-01

    We evaluate the effect of supplementation, at 300 mg kg(-1) body weight (BW), with the antioxidants α-lipoic acid (AL), betaine (BT), l-carnitine (LC), and the combination of these and exercise on obesity induced by a 9 week high-fat diet (HFD) in mice. Healthy 5 week-old male C57BL/6J mice were divided into 9 groups: (1) CON, control group fed with a commercial mice chow containing 10% crude fat; (2) HFD, high fat diet group fed with a commercial mice chow containing 60% crude fat; (3) HFD-AL, HFD group fed with AL; (4) HFD-BT, HFD group fed with BT; (5) HFD-LC, HFD group fed with LC; (6) HFD-SW, HFD with swimming as an exercise; (7) HFD-SWAL, HFD-AL with swimming; (8) HFD-SWBT, HFD-BT with swimming, and (9) HFD-SWLC, HFD-LC with swimming. The BW of mice with LC and swimming reduced the increase of BW after 9 weeks. Relative adipose tissue weights were reduced by the combinations of antioxidant supplementation and swimming. Levels of serum glucose and leptin were reduced in the HFD-SWLC group when compared with the HFD group. Serum triglyceride and total cholesterol and the size of adipose were also decreased in the HFD-LC and HFD-SWLC groups. These results show that LC at a dose of 300 mg kg(-1) BW was the most effective for reducing fat accumulation in mice with HFD for 9 weeks. In addition, exercise should be given in combination to enhance the BW reduction and serum lipid level.

  2. Acetyl-L-carnitine normalizes the impaired long-term potentiation and spine density in a rat model of global ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocsis, K; Knapp, L; Gellért, L; Oláh, G; Kis, Zs; Takakuwa, H; Iwamori, N; Ono, E; Toldi, J; Farkas, T

    2014-06-06

    As a consequence of an ischemic episode, energy production is disturbed, leading to neuronal cell death. Despite intensive research, the quest for promising neuroprotective drugs has largely failed, not only because of ineffectiveness, but also because of serious side-effects and dosing difficulties. Acetyl-l-carnitine (ALC) is an essential nutrient which plays a key role in energy metabolism by transporting fatty acids into mitochondria for β-oxidation. It is an endogenous compound and can be used at high dose without toxicity in research into ischemia. Its neuroprotective properties have been reported in many studies, but its potential action on long-term potentiation (LTP) and dendritic spine density has not been described to date. The aim of the present study was an evaluation of the possible protective effect of ALC after ischemic insults inflicted on hippocampal synaptic plasticity in a 2-vessel occlusion (2VO) model in rats. For electrophysiological measurements, LTP was tested on hippocampal slices. The Golgi-Cox staining technique was used to determine spine density. 2VO resulted in a decreased, unstable LTP and a significant loss of dendritic spines. ALC administered after 2VO was not protective, but as pretreatment prior to 2VO it restored LTP nearly to the control level. This finding paralleled the histological analysis: ALC pretreatment resulted in the reappearance of dendritic spines on the CA1 pyramidal cells. Our data demonstrate that ALC administration can restore hippocampal function and spine density. ALC probably acts by enhancing the aerobic metabolic pathway, which is inhibited during and following ischemic attacks. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Metabolic Agents that Enhance ATP can Improve Cognitive Functioning: A Review of the Evidence for Glucose, Oxygen, Pyruvate, Creatine, and l-Carnitine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Owen

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the past four or five decades, there has been increasing interest in the neurochemical regulation of cognition. This field received considerable attention in the 1980s, with the identification of possible cognition enhancing agents or “smart drugs”. Even though many of the optimistic claims for some agents have proven premature, evidence suggests that several metabolic agents may prove to be effective in improving and preserving cognitive performance and may lead to better cognitive aging through the lifespan. Aging is characterized by a progressive deterioration in physiological functions and metabolic processes. There are a number of agents with the potential to improve metabolic activity. Research is now beginning to identify these various agents and delineate their potential usefulness for improving cognition in health and disease. This review provides a brief overview of the metabolic agents glucose, oxygen, pyruvate, creatine, and l-carnitine and their beneficial effects on cognitive function. These agents are directly responsible for generating ATP (adenosine triphosphate the main cellular currency of energy. The brain is the most metabolically active organ in the body and as such is particularly vulnerable to disruption of energy resources. Therefore interventions that sustain adenosine triphosphate (ATP levels may have importance for improving neuronal dysfunction and loss. Moreover, recently, it has been observed that environmental conditions and diet can affect transgenerational gene expression via epigenetic mechanisms. Metabolic agents might play a role in regulation of nutritional epigenetic effects. In summary, the reviewed metabolic agents represent a promising strategy for improving cognitive function and possibly slowing or preventing cognitive decline.

  4. Comparisons of flux control exerted by mitochondrial outer-membrane carnitine palmitoyltransferase over ketogenesis in hepatocytes and mitochondria isolated from suckling or adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New, K J; Krauss, S; Elliott, K R; Quant, P A

    1999-02-01

    The primary aim of this paper was to calculate and report flux control coefficients for mitochondrial outer-membrane carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT I) over hepatic ketogenesis because its role in controlling this pathway during the neonatal period is of academic importance and immediate clinical relevance. Using hepatocytes isolated from suckling rats as our model system, we measured CPT I activity and carbon flux from palmitate to ketone bodies and to CO2 in the absence and presence of a range of concentrations of etomoxir. (This is converted in situ to etomoxir-CoA which is a specific inhibitor of the enzyme.) From these data we calculated the individual flux control coefficients for CPT I over ketogenesis, CO2 production and total carbon flux (0.51 +/- 0.03; -1.30 +/- 0.26; 0.55 +/- 0.07, respectively) and compared them with equivalent coefficients calculated by similar analyses [Drynan, L., Quant, P.A. & Zammit, V.A. (1996) Biochem. J. 317, 791-795] in hepatocytes isolated from adult rats (0.85 +/- 0.20; 0.23 +/- 0.06; 1.06 +/- 0.29). CPT I exerts significantly less control over ketogenesis in hepatocytes isolated from suckling rats than those from adult rats. In the suckling systems the flux control coefficients for CPT I over ketogenesis specifically and over total carbon flux (< 0.6) are not consistent with the enzyme being rate-limiting. Broadly similar results were obtained and conclusions drawn by reanalysis of previous data {from experiments in mitochondria isolated from suckling or adult rats [Krauss, S., Lascelles, C.V., Zammit, V.A. & Quant, P.A. (1996) Biochem. J. 319, 427-433]} using a different approach of control analysis, although it is not strictly valid to compare flux control coefficients from different systems. Our overall conclusion is that flux control coefficients for CPT I over oxidative fluxes from palmitate (or palmitoyl-CoA) differ markedly according to (a) the metabolic state, (b) the stage of development, (c) the specific

  5. The renoprotective effect of L-carnitine in hypertensive rats is mediated by modulation of oxidative stress-related gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrano, Sonia; Blanca, Antonio Jesús; Ruiz-Armenta, María Victoria; Miguel-Carrasco, José Luis; Revilla, Elisa; Santa-María, Consuelo; Mate, Alfonso; Vázquez, Carmen María

    2013-09-01

    Arterial hypertension is associated with a high production of reactive oxygen species and a decrease in the antioxidant defense systems. Based on the lack of toxicity of L-carnitine (LC) and previous studies reporting beneficial effects of this compound in experimental models of hypertension, the aim of this work was to test the hypothesis that LC might protect the kidney against hypertension-induced oxidative damage, as well as to investigate the mechanisms involved in this effect. To this end, specific activities and protein/mRNA expression of the antioxidant enzymes (glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and superoxide dismutase), and those of NADPH oxidase (the main responsible for superoxide anion production in renal tissue) have been measured in renal cortex homogenates from NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME)-treated rats and control normotensive rats. In addition, components of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and redox-sensitive transcription factors (NF-κB, Nrf2, and PPARα) have also been evaluated. Male Wistar rats aged 6-8 weeks were divided into four groups of six animals each: (1) control, normotensive Wistar rats (with free access to tap water); (2) Wistar rats subjected to treatment with 25 mg of L-NAME/kg body weight/day dissolved in the drinking water, in order to develop L-NAME-induced hypertension; (3) Wistar rats subjected to treatment with 400 mg of LC/kg body weight/day (also dissolved in the drinking water); and (4) L-NAME-treated rats subjected to simultaneous treatment with LC at the indicated doses. The beneficial effect of LC supplementation on oxidative damage in the renal cortex of hypertensive rats reversed hypertension-associated renal function damage and produced an upregulation of both antioxidant enzymes and eNOS, and with a downregulation of both NADPH oxidase and RAS components. LC improves the oxidative stress response through a specific modulation of NF-κB, Nrf2, and PPARα transcription factors. Thus, the

  6. Effects of Dietary Alpha-lipoic Acid and Acetyl-L-carnitine on Growth Performance and Meat Quality in Arbor Acres Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Zhang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary alpha-lipoic acid (LA and acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC on growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality in Arbor Acres broilers. A total of 486 1-d-old male Arbor Acres broilers were randomly allocated to 9 dietary treatments, 9 treatments were group A (0 mg/kg LA and 0 mg/kg ALC, group B (50 mg/kg LA and 0 mg/kg ALC, group C (100 mg/kg LA and 0 mg/kg ALC, group D (0 mg/kg LA and 50 mg/kg ALC, group E (50 mg/kg LA and 50 mg/kg ALC, group F (100 mg/kg LA and 50 mg/kg ALC, group G (0 mg/kg LA and 100 mg/kg ALC, group H (50 mg/kg LA and 100 mg/kg ALC, group I (100 mg/kg LA and 100 mg/kg ALC. Birds were slaughtered at 42 days old. Average daily gain (ADG, average feed intake (AFI, feed conversion rate (FCR, eviscerated rate, breast muscle percentage, thigh muscle percentage, abdominal fat percentage, liver weight, muscle color (L* value, a* value, b* value, pH values at 45 min and 24 h postmortem were measured. Results showed that there existed an interaction between LA and ALC in growth performance of broilers, carcass traits and meat quality. The overall result is that high level of LA and ALC led to lower AFI, ADG (p<0.01, lower abdominal fat percentage, liver weight (p<0.01, lower L* value, a* value, and b* value of breast muscle, L* value of thigh muscle (p<0.05, and higher FCR (p<0.01, eviscerated rate (p<0.01, breast muscle percentage, thigh muscle percentage (p<0.05, a* value, pH 45 min and pH 24 h of thigh muscle (p<0.01. These results suggested that dietary LA and ALC contributed to the improvement of meat quality in broilers.

  7. Newborn screening for carnitine palmitoyltransferase II deficiency using (C16+C18:1)/C2: Evaluation of additional indices for adequate sensitivity and lower false-positivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, Go; Hara, Keiichi; Tsumura, Miyuki; Kagawa, Reiko; Okada, Satoshi; Sakura, Nobuo; Maruyama, Shinsuke; Noguchi, Atsuko; Awaya, Tomonari; Ishige, Mika; Ishige, Nobuyuki; Musha, Ikuma; Ajihara, Sayaka; Ohtake, Akira; Naito, Etsuo; Hamada, Yusuke; Kono, Tomotaka; Asada, Tomoko; Sasai, Hideo; Fukao, Toshiyuki; Fujiki, Ryoji; Ohara, Osamu; Bo, Ryosuke; Yamada, Kenji; Kobayashi, Hironori; Hasegawa, Yuki; Yamaguchi, Seiji; Takayanagi, Masaki; Hata, Ikue; Shigematsu, Yosuke; Kobayashi, Masao

    2017-11-01

    Carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) II deficiency is one of the most common forms of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation disorder (FAOD). However, newborn screening (NBS) for this potentially fatal disease has not been established partly because reliable indices are not available. We diagnosed CPT II deficiency in a 7-month-old boy presenting with hypoglycemic encephalopathy, which apparently had been missed in the NBS using C16 and C18:1 concentrations as indices. By referring to his acylcarnitine profile from the NBS, we adopted the (C16+C18:1)/C2 ratio (cutoff 0.62) and C16 concentration (cutoff 3.0nmol/mL) as alternative indices for CPT II deficiency such that an analysis of a dried blood specimen collected at postnatal day five retroactively yielded the correct diagnosis. Thereafter, positive cases were assessed by measuring (1) the fatty acid oxidation ability of intact lymphocytes and/or (2) CPT II activity in the lysates of lymphocytes. The diagnoses were then further confirmed by genetic analysis. The disease was diagnosed in seven of 21 newborns suspected of having CPT II deficiency based on NBS. We also analyzed the false-negative patient and five symptomatic patients for comparison. Values for the NBS indices of the false-negative, symptomatic patient were lower than those of the seven affected newborns. Although it was difficult to differentiate the false-negative patient from heterozygous carriers and false-positive subjects, the fatty acid oxidation ability of the lymphocytes and CPT II activity clearly confirmed the diagnosis. Among several other indices proposed previously, C14/C3 completely differentiated the seven NBS-positive patients and the false-negative patient from the heterozygous carriers and the false-positive subjects. Genetic analysis revealed 16 kinds of variant alleles. The most prevalent, detected in ten alleles in nine patients from eight families, was c.1148T>A (p.F383Y), a finding in line with those of several previous reports on

  8. Efficacy of l-carnitine administration on fatigue, nutritional status, oxidative stress, and related quality of life in 12 advanced cancer patients undergoing anticancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramignano, Giulia; Lusso, Maria Rita; Madeddu, Clelia; Massa, Elena; Serpe, Roberto; Deiana, Laura; Lamonica, Giovanna; Dessì, Mariele; Spiga, Carla; Astara, Giorgio; Macciò, Antonio; Mantovani, Giovanni

    2006-02-01

    Fatigue is a multidimensional symptom that is described in terms of perceived energy, mental capacity, and psychological status: it can impair daily functioning and lead to negative effects on quality of life. It is one of the most common side effects of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. In recent studies, l-carnitine (LC) supplementation has been demonstrated to be able to improve fatigue symptoms in patients with cancer. In the present study we tested the efficacy and safety of LC supplementation in a population of patients who had advanced cancer and developed fatigue, high blood levels of reactive oxygen species, or both. As outcome measures we evaluated fatigue and quality of life in relation to oxidative stress, nutritional status, and laboratory variables, mainly levels of reactive oxygen species, glutathione peroxidase, and proinflammatory cytokines. From March to July 2004, 12 patients who had advanced tumors (50% at stage IV) at different sites were enrolled (male-to-female ratio 2:10, mean age 60 y, range 42-73). Patients were only slightly anemic (hemoglobin 10.9 g/dL) and hemoglobin levels did not change after treatment. LC was administered orally at 6 g/d for 4 wk. All patients underwent antineoplastic treatment during LC supplementation. Fatigue, as measured by the Multidimensional Fatigue Symptom Inventory-Short Form, decreased significantly, particularly for the General and Physical scales, and for quality of life in each subscale of quality of life in relation to oxidative stress. Nutritional variables (lean body mass and appetite) increased significantly after LC supplementation. Levels of reactive oxygen species decreased and glutathione peroxidase increased but not significantly. Proinflammatory cytokines did not change significantly. Improvement of symptoms with respect to fatigue and quality of life in relation to oxidative stress may be explained mainly by an increase in lean body mass, which may be considered the most important nutritional or

  9. Milk replacers supplemented with either L-arginine or L-carnitine potentially improve muscle maturation of early reared low birth weight piglets from hyperprolific sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, J G; Mueller, S; Kreuzer, M; Bigler, M B; Silacci, P; Bee, G

    2018-01-01

    As a result of the selection for genotypes with greater sow prolificacy, litter size increased and, concomitantly, average litter birth weight and early postnatal survival rates of low birth weight (L-BtW) offspring decreased. This study compared the impact of l-carnitine (CAR) and l-arginine (ARG) supplemented with a milk replacer and fed to L-BtW piglets born from large litters from days 7 to 28 of age on growth performance, carcass composition, organ and Semitendinosus muscle (STM) development. A total of 30 female and castrated Swiss Large White piglets weaned at 7 days of age were assigned to three milk replacer diets containing either no supplement (CON), CAR (0.40 g/piglet per day) or ARG (1.08 g/kg BW per day). Piglets were kept in pairs in rescue decks (0.54 m2). They were weighed daily and daily allowance of both, feed and ARG, was adjusted accordingly. Thus, feed allowance depended on growth. Each day, the milk replacer was prepared with water (1:4). Feed (allowance: 60 g dry matter/kg BW per day) was offered daily in six equal rations. Feed intake and feed efficiency was assessed for the pairs and apparent total tract-energy and -protein digestibility was determined from days 21 to 28 of age. On day 28, piglets were euthanized, blood samples were collected and the whole STM and organs were weighed. In STM, the size and metabolic properties of myofibers were determined. No difference in growth performance was found between dietary treatments, but piglets from the CAR group tended (Pconsume more feed from days 14 to 21 as compared with piglets of the CON group. A setback in growth in the last week in the CAR group coincided with the lower (Pimportance of the glycolytic compared with the oxidative pathway was greater in STM of CAR and ARG compared with CON piglets. These results suggest that ARG and CAR supplements were beneficial for muscle maturation whereas findings on phenotypic traits were rather unsystematic.

  10. Effect of acetyl-L-carnitine on Vip-ergic neurons in jejunum submucous plexus of diabetic rats Efeito da acetil-L-carnitina sobre neurônios Vip-érgicos do plexo submucoso do jejuno de ratos diabéticos

    OpenAIRE

    Marli Aparecida Defani; Jacqueline Nelisis Zanoni; Maria Raquel Marçal Natali; Roberto Barbosa Bazotte; Marcílio Hubner de Miranda-Neto

    2003-01-01

    The effect of the treatment with acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) on neurons releasing the vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) of the submucous plexus in the jejunum of diabetic rats was the purpose of our investigation. Diabetes (DM) was induced by injecting streptozotocin endovenously (35mg/kg). After sacrificing the animals, the jejunum was collected and processed for VIP detection. Four groups were used: C (non-diabetic), CC (non-diabetic treated with ALC), D (diabetic), DC (diabetes treated ...

  11. Performance of juvenile turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) fed varying dietary L-carnitine levels at different stocking densities Desempenho de juvenis de pregado (Scophthalmus maximus) em função da densidade de estocagem e de níveis dietéticos de L-carnitina

    OpenAIRE

    José Fernando Magalhães Gonçalves; Bruno Graziano da Silva Turini; Rodrigo Otávio de Almeida Ozório

    2010-01-01

    Commercial farming of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) at high stocking densities may lead to growth depression and increasing production costs. Moreover, the high levels of accumulated waste in an intensive system may cause rapid deterioration of water quality, which may undermine the production. L-carnitine is known as a growth-enhancer which shows promise as mitigator of crowding effects. The effects of stocking densities (4, 8, 11 and 14 kg m²) on growth performance, feed utilization and bod...

  12. Efeitos da suplementação oral de L-carnitina associada ao treinamento físico na tolerância ao exercício de pacientes com doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica Influence of oral L-carnitine supplementation combined with physical training on exercise tolerance in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Borghi Silva

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Pacientes portadores de doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica apresentam redução da tolerância ao exercício físico, principalmente devido à limitação ventilatória. A L-carnitina tem sido utilizada com o objetivo de melhorar a capacidade aeróbia de pacientes com doenças crônicas, porém não existem estudos em pacientes portadores de doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a influência da suplementação de L-carnitina, associada ao treinamento físico por seis semanas, três vezes por semana em pacientes portadores de doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica. MÉTODO: A amostra foi constituída de 30 pacientes portadores de doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica (69 ± 7 anos com volume expiratório forçado no primeiro segundo BACKGROUND: Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease usually present intolerance to physical exertion due to ventilatory limitation. L-carnitine has been used to enhance aerobic capacity in patients with chronic diseases, but no study seems to be available for this patient population. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of L-carnitine supplementation (2 g/day in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients undergoing physical training three times a week for six weeks. METHOD: Patients (mean age 69 ± 7 years, n = 30 with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and < 65% of predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 were separated into three groups of 10 patients each. Group 1 (G1, n = 10 received physical training and L-carnitine (2 g/day, group 2 (G2, n = 10 received physical training and placebo, and group 3 (G3, n = 10 received only L-carnitine (2 g/day. Spirometry and a 6-minute walking distance test were performed before and after intervention. Plasma levels of free carnitine were measured at the beginning and end of the study. RESULTS: A significant increase in walking distance was found only in G1 and G2 (421 ± 100 to 508 ± 80.7 and 496 ± 78.7 to

  13. Performance of juvenile turbot (Scophthalmus maximus fed varying dietary L-carnitine levels at different stocking densities Desempenho de juvenis de pregado (Scophthalmus maximus em função da densidade de estocagem e de níveis dietéticos de L-carnitina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Fernando Magalhães Gonçalves

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Commercial farming of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus at high stocking densities may lead to growth depression and increasing production costs. Moreover, the high levels of accumulated waste in an intensive system may cause rapid deterioration of water quality, which may undermine the production. L-carnitine is known as a growth-enhancer which shows promise as mitigator of crowding effects. The effects of stocking densities (4, 8, 11 and 14 kg m² on growth performance, feed utilization and body composition were evaluated during 75 days on turbot (75.6 ± 2.8 g fed two dietary L-carnitine levels (40 or 240 mg kg¹. At the end of the feeding trial, total ammonia excretion (TAN was measured postprandially for 24h. Specific growth rate and weight gain decreased with increasing stocking density. Fish held at 4 kg m² had higher final body weight (94-96 g than fish held at higher densities (80-87 g. Protein efficiency ratio was higher in fish held at 4 kg m² (1.33-1.36, in comparison to fish stocked at 8 kg m² (0.98 or 14 kg m² (0.45. Voluntary feed intake decreased from 0.70 to 0.56% BW with increasing stocking density. Dietary L-carnitine supplementation did not affect growth performance and body composition, except for body L-carnitine content which increased from 75 to 128 mg kg¹ BW with supplementation. Fish fed 240 mg L-carnitine supplements had lower TAN that the ones fed 40 mg L-carnitine (p A aquicultura de pregado (Scophthalmus maximus utilizando elevadas densidades pode reduzir o crescimento e aumentar os custos de produção. Elevados níveis de metabolitos gerados nestes sistemas intensivos provocam rápida deterioração da qualidade da água, podendo também comprometer a performance da produção. A L-carnitina atua como potenciadora do crescimento parecendo ser promissora por atenuar alguns desses efeitos. Os efeitos de densidades (4, 8, 11 e 14 kg m² no desempenho do crescimento, composição corporal foram avaliados em pregados

  14. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1B 531K allele carriers sustain a higher respiratory quotient after aerobic exercise, but β3-adrenoceptor 64R allele does not affect lipolysis: a human model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Gómez-Gómez

    Full Text Available Carnitine palmitoyltransferase IB (CPT1B and adrenoceptor beta-3 (ADRB3 are critical regulators of fat metabolism. CPT1B transports free acyl groups into mitochondria for oxidation, and ADRB3 triggers lipolysis in adipocytes, and their respective polymorphisms E531K and W64R have been identified as indicators of obesity in population studies. It is therefore important to understand the effects of these mutations on ADRB3 and CPT1B function in adipose and skeletal muscle tissue, respectively. This study aimed to analyze the rate of lipolysis of plasma indicators (glycerol, free fatty acids, and beta hydroxybutyrate and fat oxidation (through the non-protein respiratory quotient. These parameters were measured in 37 participants during 30 min of aerobic exercise at approximately 62% of maximal oxygen uptake, followed by 30 min of recovery. During recovery, mean respiratory quotient values were higher in K allele carriers than in non-carriers, indicating low post-exercise fatty acid oxidation rates. No significant differences in lipolysis or lipid oxidation were observed between R and W allele carriers of ADRB3 at any time during the aerobic load. The substitution of glutamic acid at position 531 by lysine in the CPT1B protein decreases the mitochondrial beta-oxidation pathway, which increases the non-protein respiratory quotient value during recovery from exercise. This may contribute to weight gain or reduced weight-loss following exercise.

  15. Bioconversion of α-linolenic acid to n-3 LCPUFA and expression of PPAR-alpha, acyl Coenzyme A oxidase 1 and carnitine acyl transferase I are incremented after feeding rats with α-linolenic acid-rich oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Mañán, Daniel; Tapia, Gladys; Gormaz, Juan Guillermo; D'Espessailles, Amanda; Espinosa, Alejandra; Masson, Lilia; Varela, Patricia; Valenzuela, Alfonso; Valenzuela, Rodrigo

    2012-07-01

    High dietary intake of n-6 fatty acids in relation to n-3 fatty acids may generate health disorders, such as cardiovascular and other chronic diseases. Fish consumption rich in n-3 fatty acids is low in Latin America, it being necessary to seek other alternatives to provide α-linolenic acid (ALA), precursor of n-3 LCPUFA (EPA and DHA). Two innovative oils were assayed, chia (Salvia hispanica) and rosa mosqueta (Rosa rubiginosa). This study evaluated hepatic bioconversion of ALA to EPA and DHA, expression of PPAR-α, acyl-Coenzyme A oxidase 1 (ACOX1) and carnitine acyltransferase I (CAT-I), and accumulation of EPA and DHA in plasma and adipose tissue in Sprague-Dawley rats. Three experimental groups were fed 21 days: sunflower oil (SFO, control); chia oil (CO); rosa mosqueta oil (RMO). Fatty acid composition of total lipids and phospholipids from plasma, hepatic and adipose tissue was assessed by gas-liquid chromatography and TLC. Expression of PPAR-α (RT-PCR) and ACOX1 and CAT-I (Western blot). CO and RMO increased plasma, hepatic and adipose tissue levels of ALA, EPA and DHA and decreased n-6:n-3 ratio compared to SFO (p oil.

  16. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, by degrading L-tryptophan, enhances carnitine palmitoyltransferase I activity and fatty acid oxidation, and exerts fatty acid-dependent effects in human alloreactive CD4+ T-cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleftheriadis, Theodoros; Pissas, Georgios; Sounidaki, Maria; Tsogka, Konstantina; Antoniadis, Nikolaos; Antoniadi, Georgia; Liakopoulos, Vassilios; Stefanidis, Ioannis

    2016-11-01

    Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is expressed in antigen-presenting cells and by degrading L-tryptophan along the kynurenine pathway suppresses CD4+ T-cell proliferation, induces apoptosis and promotes differentiation towards a regulatory as opposed to an effector phenotype. Recent findings revealed that the above effects may be mediated through alterations in T-cell metabolism. In this study, the effect of IDO on fatty acid β-oxidation in CD4+ T-cells was evaluated in human mixed lymphocyte reactions (MLRs) using the IDO inhibitor, 1-DL-methyl-tryptophan. Protein analysis of CD4+ T-cells isolated from the MLR showed that L-tryptophan degradation acts by activating the general control non‑derepressible 2 kinase and aryl-hydrocarbon receptor in T-cells. In the absence of IDO inhibition, fatty acid oxidation increased along with increased activity of carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT1), the latter due to the increased expression of CPT1 isoenzymes and alterations in acetyl-CoA carboxylase 2, the enzyme that controls CPT1 activity. Increased fatty acid oxidation due to the action of IDO was accompanied by an increased expression of forkhead box P3 (FoxP3) and a decreased expression of related orphan receptor γt (RORγt), the signature transcription factors of regulatory T-cells and T helper 17 cells, respectively. However, in MLR and in the presence of fatty acid in the culture medium, IDO did not inhibit proliferation. Additionally, fatty acid protected the CD4+ T-cells against apoptosis. Thus, IDO, by degrading L-tryptophan, enhances CPT1 activity and fatty acid oxidation, and exerts fatty acid-dependent effects in human alloreactive CD4+ T-cells.

  17. A multi-ingredient containing carbohydrate, proteins L-glutamine and L-carnitine attenuates fatigue perception with no effect on performance, muscle damage or immunity in soccer players.

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    Fernando Naclerio

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of ingesting a multi-ingredient (53 g carbohydrate, 14.5 g whey protein, 5 g glutamine, 1.5 g L-carnitine-L-tartrate supplement, carbohydrate only, or placebo on intermittent performance, perception of fatigue, immunity, and functional and metabolic markers of recovery. Sixteen amateur soccer players ingested their respective treatments before, during and after performing a 90-min intermittent repeated sprint test. Primary outcomes included time for a 90-min intermittent repeated sprint test (IRS followed by eleven 15 m sprints. Measurements included creatine kinase, myoglobin, interleukine-6, Neutrophil; Lymphocytes and Monocyte before (pre, immediately after (post, 1 h and 24 h after exercise testing period. Overall, time for the IRS and 15 m sprints was not different between treatments. However, the perception of fatigue was attenuated (P<0.001 for the multi-ingredient (15.9±1.4 vs. placebo (17.8±1.4 but not for the carbohydrate (17.0±1.9 condition. Several changes in immune/inflammatory indices were noted as creatine kinase peaked at 24 h while Interleukin-6 and myoglobin increased both immediately after and at 1 h compared with baseline (P<0.05 for all three conditions. However, Myoglobin (P<0.05 was lower 1 h post-exercise for the multi-ingredient (241.8±142.6 ng·ml(-1 and CHO (265.4±187.8 ng·ml(-1 vs. placebo (518.6±255.2 ng·ml(-1. Carbohydrate also elicited lower neutrophil concentrations vs. multi-ingredient (3.9±1.5 10(9/L vs. 4.9±1.8 10(9/L, P = 0.016 and a reduced (P<0.05 monocytes count (0.36±0.09 10(9/L compared to both multi-ingredient (0.42±0.09 10(9/L and placebo (0.42±0.12 10(9/L. In conclusion, multi-ingredient and carbohydrate supplements did not improve intermittent performance, inflammatory or immune function. However, both treatments did attenuate serum myoglobin, while only carbohydrate blunted post-exercise leukocytosis.