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Sample records for carnea neuroptera chrysopidae

  1. Life history comparison of two green lacewing species Chrysoperla johnsoni and Chrysoperla carnea (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae).

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    Amarasekare, Kaushalya G; Shearer, Peter W

    2013-10-01

    We investigated the life histories of two green lacewing species, Chrysoperla johnsoni Henry, Wells, and Pupedis from western North America, and Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) from western Europe in the laboratory. There were both similarities and differences in their life history characteristics. C. johnsoni exhibited a significantly longer developmental time for egg, first instar, and pupal stage than C. carnea. C. carnea exhibited a significantly shorter egg to adult developmental time than C. johnsoni. Except for the pupal stage, the survival of all other life history stages was not species-specific. All C. carnea pupae were able to develop into adults, whereas only 92% of adult eclosion was observed from C. johnsoni pupae. There was no difference in egg to adult survival between the two species. Adult longevity was not species- or gender-specific. Sex ratio of emerged adults was ≈50% in both species. C. johnsoni had a longer preoviposition period than C. carnea, while the oviposition period was similar for both species. C. carnea had higher lifetime fecundity and fertility than C. johnsoni, as measured by total number of eggs laid and production of fertile eggs, respectively. Egg viability did not differ between the two species. Intrinsic rates of increase (rm) for C. carnea and C. johnsoni were 0.161 and 0.132, respectively. All lacewings used in this experiment were laboratory reared under environmental conditions similar to field as possible. This is the first available information on the life history parameters of C. johnsoni.

  2. Comparing effects of insecticides on two green lacewings species, Chrysoperla johnsoni and Chrysoperla carnea (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae).

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    Amarasekare, K G; Shearer, P W

    2013-06-01

    This study compared lethal and sublethal effects of five insecticides, chlorantraniliprole, cyantraniliprole, spinetoram, novaluron, and lambda-cyhalothrin, on adult and second instars of two green lacewing species, Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) and Chrysoperla johnsoni Henry, Wells and Pupedis (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) in the laboratory. Formulated pesticides were tested using concentrations equivalent to the high label rate dissolved in 378.5 liters of water. Novaluron and lambda-cyhalothrin were toxic to larvae and no treated larvae survived to the adult stage. Larva to adult survival was reduced in chlorantraniliprole, cyantraniliprole, and spinetoram treatments. Larva to adult developmental time and sex ratio were not different among the treatments within a species. Chlorantraniliprole, cyantraniliprole, spinetoram, and lambda-cyhalothrin treatments were highly toxic to adults of both species. C. johnsoni females had lower fecundity than C. carnea females in the control. Fecundity of females was similar in the control and novaluron treatment within each species. However, fertility and egg viability were negatively impacted for both species when females were treated with novaluron. C. carnea females had higher fertility and egg viability than C. johnsoni females in the control. Adults of both species had similar longevity in the control and novaluron treatment and adult longevity was not gender specific. All insecticides tested were toxic to C. johnsoni and C. carnea either at the immature or adult stage or both. Results of this study demonstrate a similarity between C. johnsoni and C. carnea for pesticide toxicity irrespective of their varied geographical distributions.

  3. Evidence of field-evolved resistance to organophosphates and pyrethroids in Chrysoperla carnea (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae).

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    Pathan, Attaullah Khan; Sayyed, Ali H; Aslam, Muhammad; Razaq, Muhammad; Jilani, Ghulam; Saleem, Mushtaq Ahmad

    2008-10-01

    The toxicity of some of the most commonly used insecticides in the organophosphate and pyrethroid classes were investigated against different Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) populations collected over three consecutive years (2005-2007). The populations were tested using leaf dip bioassays for residual effects and topical applications to measure the response of larvae that would come into direct contact with field application of insecticides. In leaf dip assays, the LC50 (micrograms per milliliter; 120 h) values for chlorpyrifos and profenofos were in the range of 59.3-1,023 and 180.02-1,118 respectively. The LC50 values for lambda-cyhalthrin, alphamethrin, and deltamethrin were 359.08-2,677, 112.9-923.5, and 47.81-407.03, respectively. The toxicity for the above insecticides in topical application was similar to toxicity in leaf dip assays. The susceptibility of a laboratory population, which was locally developed and designated as (Lab-PK), to deltamethrin was comparable with another susceptible laboratory population. Resistance ratios for five field populations were generally low to medium for deltamethrin, but high to very high for chlorpyrifos, profenofos, lambda-cyhalthrin and alphamethrin compared with the Lab-PK population. Our data also suggested that the five field populations had multiple resistance to two classes of insecticides. The populations showed resistance to two organophosphates tested and to lambda-cyhalthrin and alphamethrin; however, resistance to deltamethrin was only found at two locations. This pattern indicates occurrence of two divergent patterns of resistance within pyrethroids. The resistance to the insecticides was stable across 3 yr, suggesting field selection for general fitness had also taken place in various populations of C. carnea. The broad spectrum of resistance and stability of resistance to insecticides in C. carnea in the current study suggested that it could be a prime candidate for mass releases

  4. Development of Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) on pollen from Bt-transgenic and conventional maize.

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    Meissle, Michael; Zünd, Jan; Waldburger, Mario; Romeis, Jörg

    2014-07-31

    Maize (Zea mays) pollen is highly nutritious and can be used by predatory arthropods to supplement or replace a carnivorous diet. We demonstrate that maize pollen can be utilized by larvae of the green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) under laboratory conditions. Complete development on maize pollen was not possible, but 25% of neonates reached the third instar. When only one instar was fed with pollen and the other two instars with eggs of Ephestia kuehniella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), 58-87% of the larvae reached the pupal stage. The experiments included pollen produced by nine cultivars: three genetically modified (GM) cultivars expressing the Bacillus thuringiensis proteins Cry1Ab or Cry3Bb1, their corresponding non-transformed near-isolines, and three conventional cultivars. Maize cultivars were grown in two batches in a glasshouse. Their pollen differed by up to 59% in total protein content, 25% in C:N ratio, and 14% in grain diameter, but the differences were inconsistent and depended on the batch. Lacewing performance was not affected by maize cultivar. For environmental risk assessment of GM plants, in planta studies must consider the variability among conventional cultivars, individual plants, batches, and environmental conditions when evaluating the ecological significance of differences observed between GM and near-isolines.

  5. Toxicity of three aphicides to the generalist predators Chrysoperla carnea (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) and Orius insidiosus (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae).

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    Barbosa, Paulo R R; Michaud, J P; Bain, Clint L; Torres, Jorge B

    2017-07-01

    Recent widespread infestations of the invasive sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), in sorghum fields in the southern USA have created demand for insecticides that will provide effective control of sugarcane aphid, while conserving those beneficial species that contribute to biological control of the pest. We tested the susceptibility of both adult and immature stages of two aphid predators, the green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), and the insidious flower bug, Orius insidiosus (Say) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae), to three aphicides, flonicamid, sulfoxaflor and flupyradifurone. Flonicamid was innocuous to both species regardless of life stage or route of exposure. Lacewing adults were more susceptible to sulfoxaflor and flupyradifurone than were larvae, and had higher mortality when fed contaminated honey solution than when contacting residues on an inert surface. When laid in sunflower stems treated with these two materials, eggs of O. insidiosus hatched successfully, but nymphs experienced significant mortality when exposed to treated stems, likely due to phytophagous behavior that resulted in some insecticide ingestion. Despite these impacts, we conclude that both sulfoxaflor and flupyradifurone are likely to be relatively innocuous in comparison to more broad-spectrum insecticides and are thus potentially compatible with biological control and overall management of M. sacchari in grain sorghum.

  6. Consumption of Bt maize pollen expressing Cry1Ab or Cry3Bb1 does not harm adult green Lacewings, Chrysoperla carnea (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae.

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    Yunhe Li

    Full Text Available Adults of the common green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae, are prevalent pollen-consumers in maize fields. They are therefore exposed to insecticidal proteins expressed in the pollen of insect-resistant, genetically engineered maize varieties expressing Cry proteins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt. Laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate the impact of Cry3Bb1 or Cry1Ab-expressing transgenic maize (MON 88017, Event Bt176 pollen on fitness parameters of adult C. carnea. Adults were fed pollen from Bt maize varieties or their corresponding near isolines together with sucrose solution for 28 days. Survival, pre-oviposition period, fecundity, fertility and dry weight were not different between Bt or non-Bt maize pollen treatments. In order to ensure that adults of C. carnea are not sensitive to the tested toxins independent from the plant background and to add certainty to the hazard assessment, adult C. carnea were fed with artificial diet containing purified Cry3Bb1 or Cry1Ab at about a 10 times higher concentration than in maize pollen. Artificial diet containing Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA was included as a positive control. No differences were found in any life-table parameter between Cry protein containing diet treatments and control diet. However, the pre-oviposition period, daily and total fecundity and dry weight of C. carnea were significantly negatively affected by GNA-feeding. In both feeding assays, the stability and bioactivity of Cry proteins in the food sources as well as the uptake by C. carnea was confirmed. These results show that adults of C. carnea are not affected by Bt maize pollen and are not sensitive to Cry1Ab and Cry3Bb1 at concentrations exceeding the levels in pollen. Consequently, Bt maize pollen consumption will pose a negligible risk to adult C. carnea.

  7. Consumption of Bt maize pollen expressing Cry1Ab or Cry3Bb1 does not harm adult green Lacewings, Chrysoperla carnea (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae).

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    Li, Yunhe; Meissle, Michael; Romeis, Jörg

    2008-08-06

    Adults of the common green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), are prevalent pollen-consumers in maize fields. They are therefore exposed to insecticidal proteins expressed in the pollen of insect-resistant, genetically engineered maize varieties expressing Cry proteins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). Laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate the impact of Cry3Bb1 or Cry1Ab-expressing transgenic maize (MON 88017, Event Bt176) pollen on fitness parameters of adult C. carnea. Adults were fed pollen from Bt maize varieties or their corresponding near isolines together with sucrose solution for 28 days. Survival, pre-oviposition period, fecundity, fertility and dry weight were not different between Bt or non-Bt maize pollen treatments. In order to ensure that adults of C. carnea are not sensitive to the tested toxins independent from the plant background and to add certainty to the hazard assessment, adult C. carnea were fed with artificial diet containing purified Cry3Bb1 or Cry1Ab at about a 10 times higher concentration than in maize pollen. Artificial diet containing Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA) was included as a positive control. No differences were found in any life-table parameter between Cry protein containing diet treatments and control diet. However, the pre-oviposition period, daily and total fecundity and dry weight of C. carnea were significantly negatively affected by GNA-feeding. In both feeding assays, the stability and bioactivity of Cry proteins in the food sources as well as the uptake by C. carnea was confirmed. These results show that adults of C. carnea are not affected by Bt maize pollen and are not sensitive to Cry1Ab and Cry3Bb1 at concentrations exceeding the levels in pollen. Consequently, Bt maize pollen consumption will pose a negligible risk to adult C. carnea.

  8. Fitness cost and realized heritability of resistance to spinosad in Chrysoperla carnea (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae).

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    Abbas, N; Mansoor, M M; Shad, S A; Pathan, A K; Waheed, A; Ejaz, M; Razaq, M; Zulfiqar, M A

    2014-12-01

    The common green lacewing Chrysoperla carnea is a key biological control agent employed in integrated pest management (IPM) programs for managing various insect pests. Spinosad is used for the management of pests in ornamental plants, fruit trees, vegetable and field crops all over the world, including Pakistan. A field-collected population of C. carnea was selected with spinosad and fitness costs and realized heritability were investigated. After selection for five generations, C. carnea developed 12.65- and 73.37-fold resistance to spinosad compared to the field and UNSEL populations. The resistant population had a relative fitness of 1.47, with substantially higher emergence rate of healthy adults, fecundity and hatchability and shorter larval duration, pupal duration, and development time as compared to a susceptible laboratory population. Mean relative growth rate of larvae, intrinsic rate of natural population increase and biotic potential was higher for the spinosad-selected population compared to the susceptible laboratory population. Chrysoperla species are known to show resistance to insecticides which makes the predator compatible with most IPM systems. The realized heritability (h 2) value of spinosad resistance was 0.37 in spinosad-selected population of C. carnea.

  9. Increased fitness and realized heritability in emamectin benzoate-resistant Chrysoperla carnea (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae).

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    Mansoor, Muhammad Mudassir; Abbas, Naeem; Shad, Sarfraz Ali; Pathan, Attaullah Khan; Razaq, Muhammad

    2013-10-01

    The common green lacewing Chrysoperla carnea is a key biological control agent employed in integrated pest management (IPM) programs for managing various insect pests. A field collected population of C. carnea was selected for emamectin benzoate resistance in the laboratory and fitness costs and realized heritability were investigated. After five generations of selection with emamectin benzoate, C. carnea developed a 318-fold resistance to the insecticide. The resistant population had a relative fitness of 1.49, with substantially higher emergence rate of healthy adults, fecundity and hatchability and shorter larval duration, pupal duration, and development time compared to the susceptible population. Mean population growth rates; such as the intrinsic rate of natural population increase and biotic potential were higher for the emamectin benzoate selected population compared to the susceptible population. The realized heritability (h(2)) value of emamectin benzoate resistance was 0.34 in emamectin benzoate selected population of C. carnea. Chrysoperla species which show resistance to insecticides makes them compatible with those IPM systems where emamectin benzoate is employed.

  10. The propensity of different larval stages of lacewing Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae to control aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer (Homoptera: Aphididae evaluated on Canola Brassica napus L.

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    Muhammad Sarwar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Green lacewings (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae are considered among the most effective generalist predators of aphids. In the present experimentation, the use of 1st, 2nd and 3rd instars of the chrysopid Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens larvae against aphids pest was investigated under field conditions in Brassica napus L. Four releases of predator’s 1st, 2nd and 3rd instar larvae were made from the time of aphid’s appearance on canola crop till its maturity at fortnightly intervals. The influences on aphids due to the larvae of C. carnea predator were assessed by examining pest incidence and abundance of the natural enemies at plant growth stage, and seed yield recorded at crop harvest in the test field. Results indicated that predators, irrespective of their developmental stage, reacted very positively to their preys’ reduction except in untreated control. Of the different larval stages tested, the applications of 1st instar followed by 2nd and 3rd instar larvae were most effective in reducing aphids’ population compared with untreated control. In the similar fashion, the releases of 1st and 2nd instar larvae of C. carnea were more effective in increasing crop yields compared with check treatment. Obviously, the applications of 1st and 2nd instar larvae of C. carnea involved efficiently in prey location and consumption, and performed predation activity for longer period (2-3 weeks. On the other hand, the release of 3rd instar larvae was too late to play a direct beneficial role in crop protection suggesting that they may have less time (1 week to remain involved in efficient prey consumption. Further, 1st or 2nd instar larvae may be much hungrier and eaten more pests in study areas without resting or moving to new location and thus can potentially be used to enhance biological control of aphids.

  11. Host Plant-Herbivore-Predator Interactions in Chrysoperla carnea (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) and Myzus persicae (Homoptera: Aphididae) on Four Plant Species Under Laboratory Conditions.

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    Farrokhi, Milad; Gharekhani, Gholamhossein; Iranipour, Shahzad; Hassanpour, Mahdi

    2017-12-05

    The common green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), is a well-known biocontrol agent. The current study examined host plant-herbivore-predator interactions with C. carnea and Myzus persicae on four host plants (peach, almond, pepper, and potato). The experiments were carried out at 25 ± 1°C and 65 ± 5% RH at a photoperiod of 16:8 (L:D) h). Duration of the preadult growth period, adult longevity, fecundity, and population growth parameters were analyzed based on the age-stage, two-sex life table theory. The shortest and longest preadult developmental times of the predator were observed on the peach and potato, respectively. The highest and lowest predation rate, oviposition period, and male and female longevity of predator were also observed on the peach and potato, respectively. The lowest intrinsic rate of increase (r) and finite rate of increase (λ) were observed on the potato (0.1087 and 1.11 d-1, respectively) and the highest on the peach (0.1460 and 1.15 d-1, respectively). The maximum and minimum mean generation times (T) were 41.84 and 35.59 d in the potato and peach, respectively. Overall, peach was found to be a more appropriate host than the other host plants for development and predation fitness of C. carnea. These findings reveal that information on tritrophic interactions and subsequent life table evaluation of natural enemies improves integrated pest management programs. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  12. Use of maize pollen by adult Chrysoperla carnea (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) and fate of Cry proteins in Bt-transgenic varieties.

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    Li, Yunhe; Meissle, Michael; Romeis, Jörg

    2010-02-01

    We investigated the use of maize pollen as food by adult Chrysoperla carnea under laboratory and field conditions. Exposure of the insects to insecticidal Cry proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) contained in pollen of transgenic maize was also assessed. Female C. carnea were most abundant in a maize field when the majority of plants were flowering and fresh pollen was abundant. Field-collected females contained an average of approximately 5000 maize pollen grains in their gut at the peak of pollen shedding. Comparable numbers were found in females fed ad libitum maize pollen in the laboratory. Maize pollen is readily used by C. carnea adults. When provided with a carbohydrate source, it allowed the insects to reach their full reproductive potential. Maize pollen was digested mainly in the insect's mid- and hindgut. When Bt maize pollen passed though the gut of C. carnea, 61% of Cry1Ab (event Bt176) and 79% of Cry3Bb1 (event MON 88017) was digested. The results demonstrate that maize pollen is a suitable food source for C. carnea. Even though the pollen grains are not fully digested, the insects are exposed to transgenic insecticidal proteins that are contained in the pollen. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Obligatory duetting behaviour in the Chrysoperla carnea-group of cryptic species (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae): its role in shaping evolutionary history.

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    Henry, Charles S; Brooks, Stephen J; Duelli, Peter; Johnson, James B; Wells, Marta M; Mochizuki, Atsushi

    2013-11-01

    An unusual system of communication has evolved in green lacewings of the Chrysoperla carnea-group, triggering rapid proliferation of numerous cryptic species across all of the Northern Hemisphere and large portions of Africa. The system is based on sexually monomorphic, substrate-borne vibrational signals, produced by abdominal oscillation. These low-frequency signals are exchanged between courting individuals in a precise duetting format. The song of each of the more than 20 described species exhibits a unique acoustical phenotype that reproductively isolates the taxon from all other species with which it might come into contact. Here, we review what is known about duetting behaviour in the carnea-group, emphasizing the dominant role that duetting has played in the evolution, ecology, and speciation of the complex. Included are descriptions and discussions of song diversity and its impact on reproductive isolation among species, the genetic basis of interspecific song differences, partitioning of acoustic space among sympatric species, parallel song evolution in allopatric species pairs, and modes of speciation within the complex. We also emphasize the importance of correctly identifying by song all species of the carnea-group that are to be used either in experimental studies or programs of biological control, while acknowledging the continuing relevance of morphology to carnea-group systematics. © 2013 The Authors. Biological Reviews © 2013 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  14. CONVERGENT EVOLUTION OF COURTSHIP SONGS AMONG CRYPTIC SPECIES OF THE CARNEA GROUP OF GREEN LACEWINGS (NEUROPTERA: CHRYSOPIDAE: CHRYSOPERLA).

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    Henry, Charles S; Wells, Marta Lucía Martínez; Simon, Chris M

    1999-08-01

    Although traits of related species are likely to be similar due to common ancestry, mating signals are an exception. In singing insects, for example, song similarity has been documented only for allopatric or allochronic species pairs, and even then, not often. Where song similarity does occur, it has been logically attributed to the inheritance of ancestral traits rather than convergence. It is quite common for related, sympatric insect species to differ dramatically in calling song, which is predicted by evolutionary theory to maximize intraspecific mating success. Given that there are a limited number of ways to make sounds on anatomically similar organs and given that there would be no selective pressure for songs to differ in widely separated geographic areas, convergence in songs among related species living on different continents might be expected. Here we present the first well-documented case of such convergence, in a group of sibling, cryptic species characterized by substrate-borne vibrational mating songs. In this example from green lacewings of the carnea group of the genus Chrysoperla, a variety of statistical tests shows that one species in North America and another in Asia possess songs that are strikingly similar to each other. DNA data demonstrate that the species involved belong to divergent speciose lineages, and behavioral data demonstrate that the convergent songs are readily accepted by members of both species. © 1999 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  15. Metschnikowia chrysoperlae sp. nov., Candida picachoensis sp. nov. and Candida pimensis sp. nov., isolated from the green lacewings Chrysoperla comanche and Chrysoperla carnea (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae).

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    Suh, Sung-Oui; Gibson, Cara M; Blackwell, Meredith

    2004-09-01

    Fourteen yeast isolates comprising three taxa were cultured from digestive tracts of adult Chrysoperla species (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) and their eggs. The yeast taxa were distinguished based on an estimated molecular phylogeny, DNA sequences and traditional taxonomic criteria. The new yeasts are closely related to Metschnikowia pulcherrima but are sufficiently distinguished by sequence comparison of rRNA gene sequences to consider them as novel species. Here, three novel species are described and their relationships with other taxa in the Saccharomycetes are discussed. Metschnikowia chrysoperlae sp. nov. (type strain, NRRL Y-27615T = CBS 9803T) produced needle-shaped ascospores and was the only teleomorph found. Large numbers of chlamydospores similar to those observed in M. pulcherrima were also produced. The other two novel species are asexual yeasts, Candida picachoensis sp. nov. (type strain, NRRL Y-27607T = CBS 9804T) and Candida pimensis sp. nov. (type strain, NRRL Y-27619T = CBS 9805T), sister taxa of M. chrysoperlae and M. pulcherrima. A specialized relationship between yeasts and lacewing hosts may exist, because the yeasts were isolated consistently from lacewings only. Although M. chrysoperlae was isolated from eggs and adult lacewings, suggesting the possibility of vertical transmission, no yeast was isolated from larvae.

  16. Functional response of Chrysoperla carnea (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) to Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae): effect of prey and predator stages

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    Hassanpour, Mehdi; Mohaghegh, Jafar; Iranipour, Shahzad

    2011-01-01

    Understanding predator–prey interactions has a pivotal role in biological control programs. This study evaluated the functional response of three larval instars of the green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens), preying upon eggs and first instar larvae of the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa...... armigera Hübner. The first and second instar larvae of C. carnea exhibited type II functional responses against both prey stages. However, the third instar larvae of C. carnea showed a type II functional response to the first instar larvae of H. armigera, but a type III functional response to the eggs....... For the first instar larvae of C. carnea, the attack rate on H. armigera eggs was significantly higher than that on the larvae, whereas the attack rate of the second instar C. carnea on H. armigera larvae was significantly higher than that on the eggs. For the third instar larvae of C. carnea, the attack rate...

  17. The rare Chrysopidae (Neuroptera) of southwestern Europe

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    Canard, Michel; Letardi, Agostino; Thierry, Dominique

    2007-05-01

    Quantitative surveys of the chrysopid fauna from southwestern Europe, namely the Iberian and Italian peninsulas, France south of 46° N, and the west-Mediterranean Islands, were analysed. A total of 56 species of Chrysopidae were reported, of which three species were abundant. These, Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens, 1836) sensu lato, Dichochrysa prasina (Burmeister, 1839) and D. flavifrons (Brauer, 1850), comprised a large percentage of the specimens. For the rarer species, comments are made on their distributions, the enhanced geographic range of exotic ones, and on levels of endemism and stenotopy.

  18. Bacillus thuringiensis toxin (Cry1Ab) has no direct effect on larvae of the green lacewing Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae).

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    Romeis, Jörg; Dutton, Anna; Bigler, Franz

    2004-01-01

    Earlier studies have shown that larvae of the green lacewing predator Chrysoperla carnea are negatively affected when preying on lepidopteran larvae that had been fed with transgenic maize expressing the cry1Ab gene from Bacillus thuringiensis. To test whether the observed effects were directly caused by the Cry1Ab toxin, we have developed a bioassay which allows us to feed high concentrations of the toxin directly to the predator. The results of these feeding studies show no direct toxic effect of Cry1Ab on C. carnea larvae. The amount of toxin ingested by first instar C. carnea in the present study was found to be a factor 10,000 higher than the concentration ingested when feeding on Bt-reared lepidopteran larvae, a treatment that was previously shown to have a negative impact on the predator. In addition, feeding first instar C. carnea with the Cry1Ab toxin did not affect the utilisation of subsequently provided prey. Furthermore, the quality of the prey provided to first instars did not affect the sensitivity of second and third instar C. carnea to the Bt-toxin. The presented results strongly suggest that C. carnea larvae are not sensitive to Cry1Ab and that earlier reported negative effects of Bt-maize were prey-quality mediated rather than direct toxic effects. These results, together with the fact that lepidopteran larvae are not regarded as an important prey for C. carnea in the field, led us to conclude that transgenic maize expressing Cry1Ab poses a negligible risk for this predator.

  19. Attraction of Chrysoperla carnea complex and Chrysopa spp. lacewings (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) to aphid sex pheromone components and a synthetic blend of floral compounds in Hungary.

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    Koczor, Sándor; Szentkirályi, Ferenc; Birkett, Michael A; Pickett, John A; Voigt, Erzsébet; Tóth, Miklós

    2010-12-01

    The deployment of synthetic attractants for the manipulation of lacewing populations as aphid predators is currently used in integrated pest management. This study investigates a synthetic bait comprising floral compounds previously found to attract the Chrysoperla carnea complex, and, for the first time, the aphid sex pheromone components (1R,4aS,7S,7aR)-nepetalactol and (4aS,7S,7aR)-nepetalactone, in field experiments in Hungary, for their ability to manipulate lacewing populations. The synthetic floral bait attracted both sexes of the Chrysoperla carnea complex, and Chrysopa formosa Brauer showed minimal attraction. The aphid sex pheromone compounds alone attracted males of C. formosa and C. pallens (Rambur). When the two baits were combined, Chrysopa catches were similar to those with aphid sex pheromone baits alone, but carnea complex catches decreased significantly (by 85-88%). As the floral bait alone attracted both sexes of the carnea complex, it showed potential to manipulate the location of larval density via altering the site of oviposition. Aphid sex pheromone compounds alone attracted predatory males of Chrysopa spp. and can potentially be used to enhance biological control of aphids. For the carnea complex, however, a combination of both baits is not advantageous because of the decrease in adults attracted. Assumptions of intraguild avoidance underlying this phenomenon are discussed. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Post-exposure temperature influence on the toxicity of conventional and new chemistry insecticides to green lacewing Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae).

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    Mansoor, Muhammad Mudassir; Afzal, Muhammad; Raza, Abu Bakar M; Akram, Zeeshan; Waqar, Adil; Afzal, Muhammad Babar Shahzad

    2015-05-01

    Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) is an important biological control agent currently being used in many integrated pest management (IPM) programs to control insect pests. The effect of post-treatment temperature on insecticide toxicity of a spinosyn (spinosad), pyrethroid (lambda cyhalothrin), organophosphate (chlorpyrifos) and new chemistry (acetamiprid) to C. carnea larvae was investigated under laboratory conditions. Temperature coefficients of each insecticide tested were evaluated. From 20 to 40 °C, toxicity of lambda cyhalothrin and spinosad decreased by 2.15- and 1.87-fold while toxicity of acetamiprid and chlorpyrifos increased by 2.00 and 1.79-fold, respectively. The study demonstrates that pesticide effectiveness may vary according to environmental conditions. In cropping systems where multiple insecticide products are used, attention should be given to temperature variation as a key factor in making pest management strategies safer for biological control agents. Insecticides with a negative temperature coefficient may play a constructive role to conserve C. carnea populations.

  1. Toxicity and sublethal effects of six insecticides to last instar larvae and adults of the biocontrol agents Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) and Adalia bipunctata (L.) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzón, A; Medina, P; Amor, F; Viñuela, E; Budia, F

    2015-08-01

    To further develop Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategies against crop pests, it is important to evaluate the effects of insecticides on biological control agents. Therefore, we tested the toxicity and sublethal effects (fecundity and fertility) of flonicamid, flubendiamide, metaflumizone, spirotetramat, sulfoxaflor and deltamethrin on the natural enemies Chrysoperla carnea and Adalia bipunctata. The side effects of the active ingredients of the insecticides were evaluated with residual contact tests for the larvae and adults of these predators in the laboratory. Flonicamid, flubendiamide, metaflumizone and spirotetramat were innocuous to last instar larvae and adults of C. carnea and A. bipunctata. Sulfoxaflor was slightly toxic to adults of C. carnea and was highly toxic to the L4 larvae of A. bipunctata. For A. bipunctata, sulfoxaflor and deltamethrin were the most damaging compounds with a cumulative larval mortality of 100%. Deltamethrin was also the most toxic compound to larvae and adults of C. carnea. In accordance with the results obtained, the compounds flonicamid, flubendiamide, metaflumizone and spirotetramat might be incorporated into IPM programs in combination with these natural enemies for the control of particular greenhouse pests. Nevertheless, the use of sulfoxaflor and deltamethrin in IPM strategies should be taken into consideration when releasing either of these biological control agents, due to the toxic behavior observed under laboratory conditions. The need for developing sustainable approaches to combine the use of these insecticides and natural enemies within an IPM framework is discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Topical toxicity of two acetonic fractions of Trichilia havanensis Jacq. and four insecticides to larvae and adults of Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta, A; Medina, P; Smagghe, G; Castañera, P; Viñuela, E

    2003-01-01

    The toxicity of botanical origin compounds such as two acetonic fractions of the seed kernels of the Meliacea Trichilia havanensis Jacq with insecticide properties (azadirone (F12) and the mixture F18 [1,7+3,7-di-O-acethylhavanensin (4:1)], three insecticides commercially available (imidacloprid, natural pyrethrins+PBO, triflumuron) and phloxine B, were tested in the laboratory. Topical bioassays using third instar and newly emerged adults of the lacewing Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) at the maximum field recommended rate in Spain for commercials and at 1,000 ppm of active ingredient for T. havanensis acetone fractions and phloxine-B, were carried out. Imidacloprid and triflumuron were very toxic to third instar larvae inhibiting adult emergence, being the rest of insecticides harmless. Fecundity and fertility were not affected by the non-toxic compounds. Concerning adults, only imidacloprid and natural pyrethrins killed them significantly 24 hours after treatment. Phloxine B, triflumuron and T. havanensis fractions were harmless and did not cause any effect on fecundity and fertility with the exception of triflumuron, which reduced considerably the egg hatch. It can be concluded that T. havanensis acetonic fractions and phloxine B were non-toxic to larvae and adults of C. carnea when treated topically, whereas triflumuron, natural pyrethrins and imidacloprid affected one or more of the evaluated parameters under our conditions.

  3. Ultrastructure and molecular characterization of the microsporidium, Nosema chrysoperlae sp. nov., from the green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) used for biological pest control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørnson, S; Steele, T; Hu, Q; Ellis, B; Saito, T

    2013-09-01

    Lacewing larvae are generalist predators that are commercially available for aphid control on a variety of crops in both Europe and North America. Although lacewings are known for their symbiotic association with yeasts and bacteria, there are few reports of microsporidia in these natural enemies. An undescribed microsporidium was found in Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) during the routine examination of specimens that were obtained from a commercial insectary for biological pest control. The objective of this study was to describe the pathogen by means of ultrastructure, molecular characterization and tissue pathology. All stages of the microsporidium were diplokaryotic and developed in direct contact with the host cell cytoplasm. Merogony and sporogony were not observed. Mature spores measured 3.49±0.10×1.52±0.05μm and had an isofilar polar filament with 8-10 coils that were frequently arranged in a single row, although double rows were also observed. Spores contained a lamellar polaroplast and a relatively small and inconspicuous polar vacuole was observed in the posterior region of about half of the spores that were examined. Tubular structures, similar in appearance to those in Nosema granulosis were observed in both sporonts and in spores. A cluster of small tubules was also observed in the posterior region of some spores. Microsporidian spores were observed in cells of the proventriculus, diverticulum and in epithelial cells of the posterior midgut. The Malpighian tubules, ileum, and rectum were heavily infected. Spores were also observed in the fat body, peripheral region of the ganglia, within and between the flight muscles, and beneath the cuticle. Although the tissues adjacent to the ovaries were heavily infected, microsporidian spores were not observed within the developing eggs. Pathogen transmission was not studied directly because it was difficult to maintain microsporidia-infected C. carnea in the laboratory. The presence of microsporidian spores

  4. Preference and Performance of Hippodamia convergens (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and Chrysoperla carnea (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) on Brevicoryne brassicae, Lipaphis erysimi, and Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) from Winter-Adapted Canola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessie, W P; Giles, K L; Rebek, E J; Payton, M E; Jessie, C N; McCornack, B P

    2015-06-01

    In the southern plains of the United States, winter-adapted canola (Brassica napus L.) is a recently introduced annual oilseed crop that has rapidly increased in hectares during the past 10 yr. Winter canola fields are infested annually with populations of Brevicoryne brassicae (L.) and Lipaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach), and these Brassica specialists are known to sequester plant volatiles from host plants, producing a chemical defense system against predators. Myzus persicae (Sulzer) is also common in winter canola fields, but as a generalist herbivore, does not sequester plant compounds. These three aphid species are expected to affect predator survival and development in very different ways. We conducted laboratory studies to 1) determine whether Hippodamia convergens (Guérin-Méneville) and Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) larvae demonstrate feeding preferences among winter canola aphids and 2) describe the suitability of these prey species. Predators demonstrated no significant preference among prey, and each aphid species was suitable for predator survival to the adult stage. However, prey species significantly affected development times and adult weights of each predator species. Overall, predator development was delayed and surviving adults weighed less when provided with L. erysimi or B. brassicae, which sequestered high levels of indole glucosinolates from their host plants. Our results indicate that although common winter canola aphids were suitable prey for H. convergens and C. carnea, qualitative differences in nutritional suitability exist between Brassica-specialist aphids and the generalist M. persicae. These differences appear to be influenced by levels of sequestered plant compounds that are toxic to aphid predators. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Lethal and sublethal effects of pesticides on Chrysoperla carnea larvae (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) and the influence of rainfastness in their degradation pattern over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Jader Braga; Carvalho, Geraldo Andrade; Medina, Pilar; Garzón, Agustín; Gontijo, Pablo da Costa; Viñuela, Elisa

    2016-07-01

    The predator Chrysoperla carnea is a model species for the study of non-target effects of pesticides under different scenarios: registration of plant protection products under the European Union and effects of the Bt toxin. Laboratory and persistence studies were carried out with six pesticides currently used in corn crops in Spain that were applied at their maximum field recommended concentrations. The assessed end-points were larval mortality, survivorship until adult stage, duration of the larval and pupal periods, fecundity, fertility and sex ratio of the emerged adults. Based on the total effect (lethal and sublethal) caused to L3 larvae in contact with fresh residues in the laboratory, pendimethalin was harmless (IOBC 1), lambda-cyhalothrin, abamectin, and hexythiazox were slightly harmful (IOBC 2), deltamethrin was moderately harmful (IOBC 3) and chlorpyrifos was harmful (IOBC 4). Afterwards, the residues of the two most toxic pesticides in the lab (deltamethrin and chlorpyrifos) were aged under greenhouse conditions (22 ± 2 °C, 40 ± 10 % R.H., 16.9 μmol m(-2) s(-1) UV radiation) in the presence and absence of artificial rainfall (10 l m(-2) h(-1), applied 24 h after pesticide application). Deltamethrin was classified as short lived (IOBC A) in both cases. However, degradation of chlorpyrifos residues was accelerated in the presence of rainfall, leading to the classification as slightly persistent (IOBC B), while in absence of rainfall it behaved as persistent (IOBC D). Every pesticide can be recommended for inclusion in corn IPM programs where the predator is present except chlorpyrifos that exhibited high direct toxicity in the lab and prolonged residual action even in the presence of rainfall.

  6. The effect of Chrysoperla carnea (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) and Adalia bipunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) on the spread of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) by Aphis gossypii (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzón, A; Budia, F; Medina, P; Morales, I; Fereres, A; Viñuela, E

    2015-02-01

    The effects of two aphidophagous predators, the larvae of Chrysoperla carnea and adults of Adalia bipunctata, on the spread of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) transmitted in a non-persistent manner by the cotton aphid Aphis gossypii were studied under semi-field conditions. Natural enemies and aphids were released inside insect-proof cages (1 m × 1 m × 1 m) with a central CMV-infected cucumber plant surrounded by 48 healthy cucumber seedlings, and the spatiotemporal dynamics of the virus and vector were evaluated in the short and long term (1 and 5 days) in the presence and absence of the natural enemy. The spatial analysis by distance indices methodology together with other indices measuring the dispersal around a single focus was used to assess the spatial pattern and the degree of association between the virus and its vector. Both natural enemies significantly reduced the number of aphids in the CMV-source plant after 5 days but not after 1 day. The CMV transmission rate was generally low, especially after 1 day, due to the limited movement of aphids from the central CMV-source plant, which increased slightly after 5 days. Infected plants were mainly located around the central virus-infected source plant, and the percentage of aphid occupation and CMV-infected plants did not differ significantly in absence and presence of natural enemies. The distribution patterns of A. gossypii and CMV were only coincident close to the central plant. The complexity of multitrophic interactions and the role of aphid predators in the spread of CMV are discussed.

  7. Resistance to pyrethroids and organophosphates increased fitness and predation potential of Chrysoperla carnae (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathan, Attaullah Khan; Sayyed, Ali H; Aslam, Muhammad; Liu, T X; Razzaq, Muhammad; Gillani, Waseem Ahmed

    2010-06-01

    Insect natural enemies can develop resistance to insecticides in the field like their host insects. Recently, a high level of resistance to several groups of insecticides from Pakistan has been shown in Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae). Here, we were interested to determine the impact of insecticides resistance on fitness of various populations of C. carnea collected over three consecutive years (2005-2007) from different areas of Pakistan. The populations were examined for intrinsic rate of population increase, growth index, fertility, eggs viability, survival to adult hood and doubling time. The results of the study showed significantly higher intrinsic rate of population increase in insecticides resistant population compared with laboratory susceptible population Lab-PK. Similarly, the resistant population laid more numbers of eggs, which were significantly more viable than susceptible population. The survival to adulthood and doubling time were greater in field populations than the susceptible. The most intriguing finding was that the predation potential of all resistant populations was significantly great compared with Lab-PK. The data point to the fact that resistance to insecticides had positive impact on C. carnea, which could be used in integrated pest management system. The potential for introducing these natural enemies into cropping systems where they have not developed resistance could be a useful tactic for management of various insect pests.

  8. Nontarget effect of entomopathogenic nematodes on larvae of twospotted lady beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and green lacewing (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojht, Helena; Kac, Milica; Trdan, Stanislav

    2009-08-01

    The nontarget effect of Steinernema feltiae, Steinernema carpocapsae, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, and three mixed suspensions of two species of entomopathogenic nematodes on the larvae of the twospotted lady beetle, Adalia bipunctata (L.) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), and on the larvae of the lacewing Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), were studied in a laboratory bioassay. The assay was performed at three temperature (15, 20, and 25 degrees C) and at three different concentrations of the suspension (500, 2,500, and 5,000 infective juveniles [IJs]/ml). The larvae of A. bipunctata were more susceptible to nematode attack than the larvae of C. carnea. Four days after treatment, significantly the lowest mortality of A. bipunctata and C. carnea larvae was recorded at 15 degrees C, whereas no significant differences were noted between 20 and 25 degrees C. At 500 IJs/ml, the nematodes had significantly the lowest nontarget effect on the larvae of both aphid predators, whereas no significant differences in this regard were established between 2,500 and 5,000 IJs/ml. We conclude that the entomopathogenic nematodes under investigation exhibit a pronounced nontarget effect on the larvae of both predators mentioned.

  9. Volatile Semiochemicals Increase Trap Catch of Green Lacewings (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) and Flower Flies (Diptera: Syrphidae) in Corn and Soybean Plots

    OpenAIRE

    Hesler, Louis S.

    2016-01-01

    This study reports on the attractiveness of volatile chemicals to green lacewings (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) and flower flies (Diptera: Syrphidae) as measured by catch on yellow sticky traps within corn [Zea mays L.?(Cyperales: Poaceae)] and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr. (Fabales: Fabaceae)] plots. Green lacewings were attracted to eugenol-baited traps in two tests in soybean plots. Follow-up testing in corn showed that catch of green lacewings was enhanced when traps were baited with eugeno...

  10. The Green Lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shrestha, Govinda; Enkegaard, Annie

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the prey preference of 3rd instar green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea Stephens (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), between western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), and lettuce aphids, Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosley) (Hemiptera: Aphididae......) in laboratory experiments at 25 ± 1° C and 70 ± 5% RH with five prey ratios (10 aphids:80 thrips, 25 aphids:65 thrips, 45 aphids:45 thrips, 65 aphids:25 thrips, and 80 aphids:10 thrips). Third instar C. carnea larvae readily preyed upon both thrips and aphids, with thrips mortality varying between 40 and 90......%, and aphid mortality between 52 and 98%. Chrysoperla carnea had a significant preference for N. ribisnigri at two ratios (10 aphids:80 thrips, 65 aphids:25 thrips), but no preference for either prey at the other ratios. There was no significant linear relationship between preference index and prey ratio...

  11. Genetic diversity analysis of Chrysopidae family (Insecta, Neuroptera) via molecular markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yari, Kheirollah; Mirmoayedi, Alinaghi; Marami, Marzieh; Kazemi, Elham; Kahrizi, Danial

    2014-09-01

    In entomology, improvement of molecular methods would be beneficial tools for accurate identification and detecting the genetic diversity of insect species to discover a corroborative evidence for the traditional classification based on morphology. The aim of this study was focused on RAPD-PCR method for distinguishing the genetic diversity between eight species of Chrysopidae family. In current research, many specimens were collected in different locations of Tehran province (Iran), between them 24 specimens were identified. The wing venation, male genitalia and other morphological characters were used for identification and also the sexing of species was recognized with study of external genitalia. Then, the DNA was extracted with CTAB method. The RAPD-PCR method was carried out with twenty random primers. The agarose gel electrophoresis was used for separation of the PCR products. Based on electrophoresis results, 133 bands were amplified and between them, 126 bands were poly-morph and others were mono-morph. Also, among the applied primers, the primers OPA02 with 19 bands and OPA03 with 8 bands were amplified the maximum and minimum of bands, respectively. The results showed that 80.35 and 73.21 % of genetic similarity existed between Chrysopa pallens-Chrysopa dubitans, and between the Chrysoperla kolthoffi and Chrysoperla carnea, respectively. The minimum (45.53 %) of genetic similarity was observed between C. kolthoffi and C. dubitans, and the maximum (0.80 %) was seen between C. pallens and C. dubitans.

  12. Conspecific and Heterogeneric Lacewings Respond to (Z)-4-Tridecene Identified from Chrysopa formosa (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koczor, Sándor; Szentkirályi, Ferenc; Vuts, József; Caulfield, John C; Withall, David M; Pickett, John A; Birkett, Michael A; Tóth, Miklós

    2018-02-01

    Green lacewings (Chrysopidae) are predators of soft-bodied pest insects and are among the most important biological control agents in crop protection. Chrysopa spp. are of special importance since, unlike most green lacewing species, adults are also predatory. The current study was undertaken in search of Chrysopa formosa compounds with semiochemical activity. Using coupled gas chromatography-electroantennography (GC-EAG), head and thorax extracts of C. formosa elicited EAG responses to a compound subsequently identified by coupled GC/mass spectrometry, microchemistry, chemical synthesis and GC peak enhancement as (Z)-4-tridecene. In field experiments, this compound decreased attraction of adult C. formosa to (1R,4aS,7S,7aR)-nepetalactol and that of Chrysoperla carnea species-complex to a ternary floral lure, with the inhibitory effect found to be dose-dependent. Our results suggest that (Z)-4-tridecene may serve as a general warning signal among multiple green lacewing species. Perspectives for potential practical applications are discussed.

  13. A charismatic new species of green lacewing discovered in Malaysia (Neuroptera, Chrysopidae): the confluence of citizen scientist, online image database and cybertaxonomy

    OpenAIRE

    Winterton, Shaun L.; Guek, Hock Ping; Brooks, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract An unusual new species of green lacewing (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae: Semachrysa jade sp. n.) is described from Selangor (Malaysia) as a joint discovery by citizen scientist and professional taxonomists. The incidental nature of this discovery is underscored by the fact that the species was initially photographed and then released, with images subsequently posted to an online image database. It was not until the images in the database were randomly examined by the professional taxonomis...

  14. The Green Lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea: Preference between Lettuce Aphids, Nasonovia ribisnigri, and Western Flower Thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis

    OpenAIRE

    Shrestha, Govinda; Enkegaard, Annie

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the prey preference of 3rd instar green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea Stephens (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), between western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), and lettuce aphids, Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosley) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in laboratory experiments at 25 ? 1? C and 70 ? 5% RH with five prey ratios (10 aphids:80 thrips, 25 aphids:65 thrips, 45 aphids:45 thrips, 65 aphids:25 thrips, and 80 aphids:10 thrips). Third instar...

  15. Reproductive capacity of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen) (Neuroptera, Chrysopidae) in function of the number of individuals per unit of rearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pessoa, Luis Gustavo Amorim; Freitas, Sergio de

    2008-01-01

    Reproductive capacity of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen) (Neuroptera, Chrysopidae) in function of the number of individuals per unit of rearing. This work was carried out to investigate the reproductive potential of Chrysoperla externa subjected to different densities per rearing unit. Adults of the F 4 offspring were kept at 25 ± 1 deg C, RH 70 ± 10% and 12 h photo phase. It was used the following densities per rearing unit (10 cm of diameter by 23 cm of height, and volume of 1650 cm 3 ): 1 male: 3 female, 2 males: 6 females, 3 males: 9 females and 4 males: 12 females. It was evaluated the pre-oviposition period, the daily and total oviposition per female and per rearing unit, the percentage of viable and infertile eggs percentage and the exploitation index per female and per rearing unit. The density 4 males: 12 females presented better exploitation when compared to the other densities thus equalizing the low values obtained for the mean and total egg laying per female. (author)

  16. A charismatic new species of green lacewing discovered in Malaysia (Neuroptera, Chrysopidae: the confluence of citizen scientist, online image database and cybertaxonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun Winterton

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available An unusual new species of green lacewing (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae: Semachrysa jade sp. n. is described from Selangor (Malaysia as a joint discovery by citizen scientist and professional taxonomists. The incidental nature of this discovery is underscored by the fact that the species was initially photographed and then released, with images subsequently posted to an online image database. It was not until the images in the database were randomly examined by the professional taxonomists that it was determined that the species was in fact new. A subsequent specimen was collected at the same locality and is described herein along with another specimen identified from nearby Sabah.

  17. Seletividade de inseticidas usados na cultura da macieira a ovos de Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae Selectivity of insecticides used in apple orchards to eggs of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio José Ferreira

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, foi avaliado o efeito de inseticidas sobre ovos de duas populações de Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae. O trabalho foi realizado em laboratório (25±2°C, UR de 70±10% e fotofase de 12 horas avaliando-se inseticidas, nas concentrações indicadas pelos fabricantes e/ou que estão em fase de pesquisa para o controle da mariposa-oriental, lagarta-enroladeira e mosca-das-frutas na cultura da macieira. Os produtos e dosagens (g ou mL do p.c. 100L-1 de água avaliados foram: fosmet (Imidan 500 PM - 200, metoxifenozide (Intrepid 240 SC - 60, tebufenozide (Mimic 240 SC - 60, benzoato de emamectina (Proclaim 5 SG - 15, spinosad (Tracer 480 SC - 20, etofenprox (Trebon 100 SC - 150, clorpirifós etil (Lorsban 480 BR - 150 e testemunha (somente água. As pulverizações foram realizadas em ovos com até 12 horas de idade, utilizando-se torre de Potter. Avaliaram-se a viabilidade dos ovos, o período embrionário, e a sobrevivência das larvas de primeiro e segundo estádios provenientes dos ovos tratados. A toxicidade dos produtos foi determinada em função da mortalidade acumulada do predador durante o seu desenvolvimento, classificando-os conforme escala proposta pela IOBC. As duas populações de C. externa apresentaram o mesmo padrão de resposta aos produtos fitossanitários avaliados quando aplicados sobre ovos. Fosmet, metoxifenozide, tebufenozide, benzoato de emamectina, spinosad e etofenprox foram considerados inócuos, e clorpirifós etil levemente nocivo a ovos de C. externa, provocando a redução de 43,7% na viabilidade dos ovos e afetando em 20% a sobrevivência das larvas de primeiro estádio originadas dos ovos tratados.The effect of some insecticides on eggs of two populations of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae were evaluated under laboratory conditions (25±2°C, RH of 70±10% and 12 hours-photophase. The compounds were used at commercial or research concentrations

  18. Seletividade de inseticidas usados na cultura da macieira a duas populações de Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae Selectivity of insecticides used in apple orchards to two populations of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio José Ferreira

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, foi avaliado o efeito de inseticidas sobre larvas de duas populações de Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae, oriundas de pomares de Bento Gonçalves e Vacaria, RS. O trabalho foi realizado em laboratório (25±2°C, UR de 70±10% e fotofase de 12 horas avaliando-se inseticidas, nas concentrações indicadas pelos fabricantes e/ou que estão em fase de pesquisa para o controle da mariposa oriental, lagarta enroladeira e mosca-das-frutas na cultura da macieira. Os inseticidas e dosagens (g ou mL do p.c./100L de água avaliados foram: fosmet (Imidan 500 PM - 200, metoxifenozide (Intrepid 240 SC - 60, tebufenozide (Mimic 240 SC - 60, benzoato de emamectina (Proclaim 5 SG - 15, spinosad (Tracer 480 SC - 20, etofenprox (Trebon 100 SC - 150, clorpirifós etil (Lorsban 480 BR - 150 e testemunha (somente água. As pulverizações foram realizadas em larvas de primeiro ínstar utilizando torre de Potter. Avaliaram-se a sobrevivência e a duração das fases de larva e pupa e, a fecundidade e a fertilidade dos adultos sobreviventes. A toxicidade dos produtos foi calculada em função do efeito total (E de cada produto, conforme recomendações da IOBC. Para larvas de primeiro ínstar do crisopídeo oriundas de Bento Gonçalves, benzoato de emamectina, foi classificado como inofensivo (classe 1; metoxifenozide, etofenprox, tebufenozide, spinosad e fosmet, como levemente nocivos (classe 2 e clorpirifós, como nocivo (classe 4. Já para a população larval de C. externa de Vacaria, benzoato de emamectina, metoxifenozide, etofenprox, tebufenozide e spinosad foram inofensivos; fosmet mostrou-se moderadamente nocivo (classe 3 e clorpirifós foi nocivo.The effect of some insecticides on larvae of two populations of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae from Bento Gonçalves and Vacaria, RS were evaluated under laboratory conditions (25±2°C, RH of 70±10% and 12 hours-photophase. The compounds were

  19. Chrysoperla externa (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae and Utetheisa ornatrix (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae on organically grown Crotalaria juncea (Fabaceae Chrysoperla externa (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae e Utetheisa ornatrix (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae sobre Crotalaria juncea (Fabaceae cultivada organicamente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Costa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Chrysoperla externa (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae larvae can avoid foraging on plants of Crotalaria juncea (Fabaceae after the issuance of floral buds, when the prey of Utetheisa ornatrix (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae incorporate toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids from this plant. This reduces the predation and favors increasing the number of adults and eggs of this defoliator on crops of this plant. The aim of the present paper was to evaluate some biological and ecological aspects of C. externa and U. ornatrix on the organic crop of C. juncea in the EMBRAPA Maize and Sorghum in Sete Lagoas, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Chrysoperla externa and U. ornatrix were more abundant in the vegetative and flowering stages of C. juncea, respectively, with caterpillars of this defoliator feeding on leaves and seeds of this plant. The duration of the stages/instars, survival, lifetime fecundity, and oviposition showed that the branches of C. juncea are a suitable food for U. ornatrix. The abundance of adults and larvae of C. externa was lower in the flowering and pods stages of C. juncea, respectively, when the postures of U. ornatrix are present, probably due to the toxicity of the eggs of this prey to this predator. During these stages, C. externa may be reared with alternative hosts, and when the crops of C. juncea are scarce, an artificial diet should be used for rearing this defoliator in the laboratory for biological research and the development of biological control tactics.Larvas de Chrysoperla externa (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae podem evitar o forrageamento sobre plantas de Crotalaria juncea (Fabaceae após a emissão de botões florais, quando presas de Utetheisa ornatrix (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae incorporam alcalóides pirrolizidínicos tóxicos dessa planta. Isso reduz a predação e favorece o aumento do número de adultos e ovos desse desfolhador sobre cultivos dessa planta. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar alguns aspectos biológicos e ecológicos de C

  20. Agricultural management systems affect the green lacewing community (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) in olive orchards in southern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcel, M; Ruano, F; Cotes, B; Peña, A; Campos, M

    2013-02-01

    Green lacewings are generalist predators whose conservation is important for pest control in olive orchards (Olea europaea L.) Sustainable farming practices, as opposed to conventional management techniques, are believed to foster the presence of natural enemies. This study therefore aims to analyze the effect of 1) herbicidal weed cover removal and insecticide applications, and 2) the general management systems used in the olive orchards of southern Spain on chrysopid assemblages and abundance. Green lacewing adults and larvae were collected from olive orchards under conventional, integrated, and organic management systems. In addition, chemical analyses of residues were carried out to determine the presence of insecticidal and herbicidal residues. Eight adult species and three genera of larvae were identified. No rare species were captured from the most intensively farmed orchard, which therefore recorded the most limited chrysopid diversity with a very marked dominance of Chrysoperla carnea s.l.. No effect of dimethoate treatments on Chrysoperla larvae or C. carnea s.l. adults was observed. However, the presence of insecticide residues was associated with the depletion of Dichochrysa larvae. The absence of herbicide treatments favored C. carnea s.l. adult presence on olive trees while larval abundance decreased. Dichochrysa larvae were more abundant when weed cover received no treatment. In relation to the management systems studied, no difference in Chrysoperla larval abundance was observed between conventional and organic orchards. However, Dichochrysa larvae were more abundant in orchards under organic management.

  1. Volatile Semiochemicals Increase Trap Catch of Green Lacewings (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) and Flower Flies (Diptera: Syrphidae) in Corn and Soybean Plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesler, Louis S.

    2016-01-01

    This study reports on the attractiveness of volatile chemicals to green lacewings (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) and flower flies (Diptera: Syrphidae) as measured by catch on yellow sticky traps within corn [Zea mays L. (Cyperales: Poaceae)] and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr. (Fabales: Fabaceae)] plots. Green lacewings were attracted to eugenol-baited traps in two tests in soybean plots. Follow-up testing in corn showed that catch of green lacewings was enhanced when traps were baited with eugenol, its structural analog isoeugenol, or 2-phenylethanol; trap catch of green lacewings was greater with these compounds than with structural analog, 4-alllylanisole. In a follow-up test in soybean, more green lacewings were caught on traps baited with isoeugenol than with 4-allylanisole. Catch did not differ among traps baited with eugenol, isoeugenol, or 2-phenylethanol or among those baited with eugenol, 2-phenylethanol, or the ethanol control. In a 6-wk experiment in soybean, green lacewings were attracted to eugenol-baited traps in 5 of 6 wks but to traps baited with structural analog methyl eugenol in only 1 wk. Flower flies were attracted to 2-phenylethanol in initial tests in corn and soybean plots. Subsequent testing in soybeans with 2-phenylethanol and structural analogs confirmed attraction to 2-phenylethanol and also showed attractancy of 2-phenylacetaldehyde but not benzylamine. A 6-wk test in soybean found that flower flies were also attracted to traps baited with either eugenol or methyl eugenol. This is the first report of green lacewing attraction to eugenol and isoeugenol and first report of flower fly attraction to eugenol. Structure-activity relationships among attractants and practical aspects of their use are discussed. PMID:27531905

  2. Volatile Semiochemicals Increase Trap Catch of Green Lacewings (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) and Flower Flies (Diptera: Syrphidae) in Corn and Soybean Plots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesler, Louis S

    2016-01-01

    This study reports on the attractiveness of volatile chemicals to green lacewings (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) and flower flies (Diptera: Syrphidae) as measured by catch on yellow sticky traps within corn [Zea mays L. (Cyperales: Poaceae)] and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr. (Fabales: Fabaceae)] plots. Green lacewings were attracted to eugenol-baited traps in two tests in soybean plots. Follow-up testing in corn showed that catch of green lacewings was enhanced when traps were baited with eugenol, its structural analog isoeugenol, or 2-phenylethanol; trap catch of green lacewings was greater with these compounds than with structural analog, 4-alllylanisole. In a follow-up test in soybean, more green lacewings were caught on traps baited with isoeugenol than with 4-allylanisole. Catch did not differ among traps baited with eugenol, isoeugenol, or 2-phenylethanol or among those baited with eugenol, 2-phenylethanol, or the ethanol control. In a 6-wk experiment in soybean, green lacewings were attracted to eugenol-baited traps in 5 of 6 wks but to traps baited with structural analog methyl eugenol in only 1 wk. Flower flies were attracted to 2-phenylethanol in initial tests in corn and soybean plots. Subsequent testing in soybeans with 2-phenylethanol and structural analogs confirmed attraction to 2-phenylethanol and also showed attractancy of 2-phenylacetaldehyde but not benzylamine. A 6-wk test in soybean found that flower flies were also attracted to traps baited with either eugenol or methyl eugenol. This is the first report of green lacewing attraction to eugenol and isoeugenol and first report of flower fly attraction to eugenol. Structure-activity relationships among attractants and practical aspects of their use are discussed. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America 2016. This work is written by a US Government employee and is in the public domain in the US.

  3. Seletividade de agrotóxicos utilizados em pomares de pêssego a adultos do predador Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae Selectivity of pesticides used in peach orchard on adults of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae

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    Rodolfo Vargas Castilhos

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A seletividade de dezesseis agrotóxicos utilizados na produção integrada e convencional de pêssego foi avaliada sobre a fase adulta de Chrysoperla externa através de bioensaios de exposição residual conduzidos em laboratório (temperatura de 25±1ºC, umidade relativa 70±10% e fotofase 14 horas, utilizando-se de metodologia prescrita pela "International Organization for Biological Control" (IOBC. Os agrotóxicos (% de ingrediente ativo na calda azoxystrobina (0,016, captana (0,192, dodina (0,126, folpete (0,200, mancozebe (0,256, mancozebe + oxicloreto de cobre (0,140 + 0,096, tebuconazole (0,320, abamectina (0,002, óleo mineral 1 (2,420, óleo mineral 2 (1,920, dicloreto de paraquate (0,300 e glifosato (1,440 foram inócuos; deltametrina (0,002 foi levemente nocivo e dimetoato (0,160, fosmete (0,160 e malationa (0,240 foram nocivos a adultos de C. externa.The selectivity of sixteen pesticides used in integrated and conventional peach production was evaluated on adults of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen,1861 (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae under bioassays in laboratory conditions (temperature of 25±1ºC, relative humidity 70±10% and 14 hours photophase, using the "International Organization for Biological Control" (IOBC methodology. The pesticides (% active ingredient azoxystrobin (0.016, captan (0.192, dodine (0.126, pholpet (0.200, mancozeb (0.256, mancozeb + cooper oxichloride (0.140 + 0.096, tebuconazole (0.320, abamectin (0.002, mineral oil 1 (2.420, mineral oil 2 (1.920, paraquat dichloride (0.300 and gliphosate (1.440 were harmless; deltametrin (0.002 was slightly harmful and dimetoate (0.160, phosmet (0.160 and malathion (0.240, were harmful to C. externa adults.

  4. SIBLING SPECIES, CALL DIFFERENCES, AND SPECIATION IN GREEN LACEWINGS (NEUROPTERA: CHRYSOPIDAE: CHRYSOPERLA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Charles S

    1985-09-01

    Green lacewings of the morphologically homogeneous carnea-plorabunda-downesi group within the chrysopid genus Chrysoperla produce unique, species-specific, substrate-borne songs during courtship and mating; both sexes sing, and partners must reciprocally exchange their acoustical signals before copulation will occur. Two widespread, sympatric North American representatives of this complex, the sibling species pair C. plorabunda and C. downesi, hybridize readily in the laboratory but not in nature. This species pair has been presented as exemplifying sympatric speciation by disruptive selection. Here, it is shown from tape-playback and female-choice experiments that calls represent bona fide reproductive isolating mechanisms between the two species. Furthermore, call analyses of F 1 , F 2 , F 3 , and backcross progeny of the two species confirm polygenic control of call expression, in which different alleles at each of several loci are fixed in each taxon. Sex linkage of traits is absent, but the various features of the calls are not completely independent of one another in their patterns of inheritance. These and other life-history data cast doubt on several major premises of the sympatric speciation hypothesis and suggest that call alteration might have triggered the speciation event giving rise to the siblings. A complex of cryptic "song morphs" physically and ecologically identical to C. plorabunda and C. downesi, but singing different songs, exists in the mountains of western North America, while the Alps of central Europe harbor populations of C. carnea that have undergone call differentiation in an analogous but independent manner. It is proposed that call divergence may in itself be driving the speciation process within this section of Chrysoperla, by greatly accelerating the rate at which full reproductive isolation between populations can be achieved. © 1985 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  5. Development and consumption capacity of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen (Neuroptera, Chrysopidae fed with Cinara spp. (Hemiptera, Aphididae under three temperatures

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    Josiane T. Cardoso

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The giant conifer aphids Cinara pinivora (Wilson, 1919 and Cinara atlantica (Wilson, 1919 (Hemiptera: Aphididae are pests on Pinus spp. (Pinaceae in the South and Southeast regions of Brazil. Larvae of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 (Neuroptera, Chrysopidae were observed feeding voraciously on these aphid colonies. In order to evaluate their potential as biological control agents, some biological parameters and their consumption capacity were studied in laboratory. Ten larvae were isolated in plastic vials and fed with aphids of small size (nymphs of 1st and 2nd instars and 10 with aphids of medium size (nymphs of 3rd and 4th instars, maintained at 15ºC, 20ºC and 25ºC, under 12:12 h photoperiod and 70 ± 10% RH, and observed daily. The egg incubation period was nine days at 20ºC and four days at 25ºC. The mean larval development period for C. externa was 59.5 days; 22.3 days and 10.9 days, respectively at 15ºC, 20ºC and 25ºC. The pupal stage last 23.2 at 20ºC and 11.1 days at 25ºC. Unfortunately, data of egg and pupal development at 15ºC are not available because the rearing chamber overheated. The mortality rate from egg to adult was 46.2% 46.6% and 20.2% at 15ºC, 20ºC and 25ºC, respectively. The average aphid consumption of each C. externa larva to complete its development was 499.1; 341.7 and 215.1 small aphids, and 126.4; 105.6 and 67.0 medium aphids, at 15ºC, 20ºC and 25ºC, respectively. About 80% of the total food consumption was by the 3rd instar larvae. Although the development was faster and viability higher at 25ºC than at the other two temperatures, the consumption was the highest at 15ºC because the larval period was much longer. Therefore, the larvae of C. externa can be regarded as potential biological control agents of Cinara spp. throughout the year and even in cool areas of Southern Brazil during some periods o the year.

  6. Tempo de busca e de manuseio de larvas de Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 (Neuroptera, Chrysopidae alimentadas com Uroleucon ambrosiae (Thomas, 1878 (Hemiptera, Aphididae

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    Alexander M. Auad

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Searching and handling time of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 (Neuroptera, Chrysopidae larvae fed on Uroleucon ambrosiae (Thomas, 1878 (Hemiptera, Aphididae. The objective of this research was to determine the searching and handling times of three larval instars of C. externa fed on U. ambrosiae at densities of 30, 40 and 50 per vial, with the feeding of the larvae at the preceding instars being U. ambrosiae nymphs or Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier, 1819 eggs. The larvae were maintained at 25 ± 2 ºC, 70 ± 10% RH and a 14-h photophase. A completely randomized design in a 6 x 3 factorial scheme with 12 replicates was adopted. The shortest searching time was found for the 2nd and 3rd instar larvae of C. externa, and this parameter was variable depending on the feeding given to the larvae previously. The handling time was similar for the 1st, 2nd and 3rd instar larvae. The longest searching time was found at an aphid density of 30, as compared to densities of 40 and 50 prey, with which there were no significant differences. Prey density did not have any influence on handling time.

  7. TOXICITY OF INSECTICIDES USED IN MUSKMELON ON FIRST-INSTAR LARVAE OF Chrysoperla genanigra FREITAS (NEUROPTERA: CHRYSOPIDAE)

    OpenAIRE

    SILVA, BÁRBARA KARINE DE ALBUQUERQUE; GODOY, MAURÍCIO SEKIGUCHI DE; LIMA, ALRICÉLIA GOMES DE; OLIVEIRA, ANNA KÉZIA SOARES DE; PASTORI, PATRIK LUIZ

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Brazil is one of the world's largest producers of melon (Cucumis melo L.), and Rio Grande do Norte and Ceará are the largest producers states of the country (99% of exports). This crop had great socio- economic importance in the Brazilian Northeast, however, it is affected by insect pests and consequently, large amounts of pesticides are applied to it, which greatly affect beneficial organisms, such as Chrysopidae. This bioassay evaluated the toxicity of nine insecticides used in com...

  8. Ação de produtos fitossanitários utilizados em cafeeiros sobre pupas e adultos de Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae

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    Silva Rogério Antônio

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a ação de produtos fitossanitários usados em cafeeiros sobre pupas e adultos de Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae. Os bioensaios foram conduzidos no Departamento de Entomologia da Universidade Federal de Lavras - UFLA, Lavras, MG, Brasil. Os tratamentos avaliados, em g i.a.L-1 de água, foram: 1- endosulfan (Thiodan 350 CE - 1,75, 2- chlorpyrifos (Lorsban 480 CE -1,2, 3- betacyfluthrin (Turbo 50 CE - 0,013, 4- enxofre (Kumulus 800 PM - 4,0, 5- azocyclotin (Peropal 250 PM - 0,31, 6- oxicloreto de cobre (Cuprogarb 500 PM - 5,0 e 7- Testemunha (água. As pulverizações foram realizadas diretamente sobre pupas e adultos do crisopídeo por meio de torre de Potter. As pupas foram colocadas em tubos de vidro e os adultos em gaiolas de PVC, e mantidos em sala climatizada a 25 ? 2degreesC, UR de 70 ? 10% e fotofase de 12 horas. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com sete tratamentos e dez repetições, sendo cada parcela formada por quatro pupas ou um casal de C. externa. Os produtos foram distribuídos nas quatro classes de toxicidade conforme escala estabelecida pela IOBC. O chlorpyrifos mostrou-se levemente nocivo para pupas (classe 2, 30?E?79%, e os demais produtos foram inócuos (classe 1, E99%. Os produtos testados à base de endosulfan, enxofre, azocyclotin e oxicloreto de cobre podem ser recomendados em programas de manejo de pragas do cafeeiro em associação com C. externa, em função da baixa toxidade apresentada por esses compostos ao predador.

  9. The green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea: preference between lettuce aphids, Nasonovia ribisnigri, and Western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Govinda; Enkegaard, Annie

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the prey preference of 3(rd) instar green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea Stephens (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), between western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), and lettuce aphids, Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosley) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in laboratory experiments at 25 ± 1° C and 70 ± 5% RH with five prey ratios (10 aphids:80 thrips, 25 aphids:65 thrips, 45 aphids:45 thrips, 65 aphids:25 thrips, and 80 aphids:10 thrips). Third instar C. carnea larvae readily preyed upon both thrips and aphids, with thrips mortality varying between 40 and 90%, and aphid mortality between 52 and 98%. Chrysoperla carnea had a significant preference for N. ribisnigri at two ratios (10 aphids:80 thrips, 65 aphids:25 thrips), but no preference for either prey at the other ratios. There was no significant linear relationship between preference index and prey ratio, but a significant intercept of the linear regression indicated an overall preference of C. carnea for aphids with a value of 0.651 ± 0.054. The possible implications of these findings for control of N. ribisnigri and F. occidentalis by C. carnea are discussed.

  10. TOXICITY OF INSECTICIDES USED IN MUSKMELON ON FIRST-INSTAR LARVAE OF Chrysoperla genanigra FREITAS (NEUROPTERA: CHRYSOPIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BÁRBARA KARINE DE ALBUQUERQUE SILVA

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is one of the world's largest producers of melon (Cucumis melo L., and Rio Grande do Norte and Ceará are the largest producers states of the country (99% of exports. This crop had great socio- economic importance in the Brazilian Northeast, however, it is affected by insect pests and consequently, large amounts of pesticides are applied to it, which greatly affect beneficial organisms, such as Chrysopidae. This bioassay evaluated the toxicity of nine insecticides used in commercial crops of muskmelon, applied to first- instar larvae of Chrysoperla genanigra of up to 24-hour-old, from mass rearing cultures. Sublethal effects were evaluated, classifying the insecticides into the toxicity classes recommended by the IOBC. A completely randomized design was used, consisting of ten treatments (clothianidin, pymetrozine, lambda-cyhalothrin, chlorantraniliprole, indoxacarb, pyriproxyfen, beta-cyfluthrin+imidacloprid, imidacloprid, beta-cypermethrin and a control consisted of distilled water. The treatments consisted of exposure of thirty larvae to dry residues of each product in Petri dishes, assessing their mortality, duration of instars, sex ratio, fecundity and viability of eggs from adults of the insects evaluated. The products were classified in toxicity classes as harmful (Class 4 (clothianidin, pymetrozine, indoxacarb, lambda-cyhalothrin, beta-cyfluthrin+imidacloprid, imidacloprid, beta- cypermethrin and pyriproxyfen and innocuous (Class 1 (chlorantraniliprole to first -instar larvae of C. genanigra, by calculate their total effect. Based on this work, chlorantraniliprole is the only recommended insecticide for use in integrated pest management (IPM programs in muskmelon crops.

  11. Two common and problematic leucochrysine species - Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa) varia (Schneider) and L. (L.) pretiosa (Banks) (Neuroptera, Chrysopidae): redescriptions and synonymies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauber, Catherine A; Sosa, Francisco; Albuquerque, Gilberto S

    2013-01-01

    We dedicate this article to the memory of Sergio de Freitas, FCAV-UNESP, Jaboticabal, São Paulo, Brazil (deceased, 2012). He was an active and enthusiastic Neuropterist and the cherished mentor and friend of Francisco Sosa. Leucochrysa McLachlan is the largest genus in the Chrysopidae, yet it has received relatively little taxonomic attention. We treat two problematic and common Leucochrysa species - Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa) varia (Schneider, 1851) and Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa) pretiosa (Banks, 1910). Both are highly variable in coloration and were described before the systematic importance of chrysopid genitalia was recognized. Recent studies show that these species occur within a large complex of cryptic species and that they have accumulated a number of taxonomic problems. We identify new synonymies for each of the species-for Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa) varia: Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa) ampla (Walker, 1853), Leucochrysa internata (Walker, 1853), and Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa) walkerina Navás, 1913; for Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa) pretiosa: Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa) erminea Banks, 1946. The synonymy of Leucochrysa delicata Navás, 1925 with Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa) pretiosa is stabilized by the designation of a neotype. The following species, which were previously synonymized with Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa) varia or Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa) pretiosa, are reinstated as valid: Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa) phaeocephala Navás, 1929, Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa) angrandi (Navás, 1911), and Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa) variata (Navás, 1913). To help stabilize Leucochrysa taxonomy, lectotypes are designated for Allochrysa pretiosa and Allochrysa variata. Finally, Leucochrysa vegana Navás, 1917 is considered a nomen dubium.

  12. Structure of the subgenual organ in the green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devetak, D; Pabst, M A

    1994-04-01

    REM and TEM studies of the subgenual organ in Chrysoperla carnea (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) show that it is composed of three scolopidia, each with one sensory, one scolopale and one cap cell. The distal part of the dendrite shows a cilium with a '9 + 0' structure. The cross-handing pattern of the ciliary root has a periodicity of bands of about 61 nm. The scolopale material in a certain part of the scolopale cell is organized into five rods. The cell bodies of all three cap cells form a lens-like structure. the velum, which is fixed to the leg wall and the trachea with an extracellular material. The importance of the velum is discussed. Four types of intercellular junction are found; spot desmosomes. belt desmosomes, septate junctions and gap junctions.

  13. A contribution to the functional morphology of the femoral chordotonal organ in the green lacewing Chrysoperla carnea (Neuroptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipovsek, S; Devetak, D; Strus, J; Pabst, M A

    2003-10-01

    The femoral chordotonal organ (FCO) and the subgenual organ (SGO) of the green lacewing Chrysoperla carnea were examined by conventional light and confocal laser scanning microscopy in order to search for neuroactive substances which are used for neurotransmission in sensory cells of these organs. Antibodies against serotonin, histamine and choline acetyltransferase were tested immunohistochemically. In the FCO, antiserum against serotonin strongly labelled cell bodies and axons of about 16 sensory cells. In the proximal scoloparium all 12 sensory cells showed immunoreaction with antiserotonin. In the distal scoloparium only four of 40 sensory cells were immunoreactive. These results suggest that different neuroactive substances are employed as neurotransmitters in the FCO of the green lacewing and that the proximal scoloparium and the distal scoloparium are functionally differentiated. Contrary to the FCO in the locust, acetylcholine was not found as a neurotransmitter in the FCO of the green lacewing. Additionally, histamine showed a negative result in the sensory cells of the FCO. Other neuroactive substances seem to be used as transmitters in the SGO because none of the tested antibodies showed positive reaction.

  14. Efeito da idade das fêmeas e de fatores ambientais sobre a reprodução do predador Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v25i2.2014 Effect of female age and environmental factors on reproduction of the predator Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v25i2.2014

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    Cesar Freire Carvalho

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Os fatores bióticos e abióticos afetam o potencial reprodutivo dos insetos. Portanto, estudou-se o efeito da idade das fêmeas e de fatores ambientais sobre a reprodução de Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae. Adultos do predador foram criados em gaiolas de PVC, fechadas na parte superior com tecido de malha fina (organza, colocadas sobre plantas de algodão em casa-de-vegetação. A maior produção de ovos por fêmea (87,7 ovos ocorreu aos 49 dias, e a menor (32,2 ovos, aos 63 dias de idade. O reacasalamento ocorreu após o esgotamento das reservas espermáticas, a partir do 28o dia. A fecundidade de fêmeas de C. externa aumentou com a elevação da umidade relativa do ar. Verificou-se, também, um rápido desenvolvimento embrionário com a elevação da temperatura e com fêmeas longevas. Esses resultados fornecem subsídios para o conhecimento da reprodução de C. externa em algodoeiroThe biotic and abiotic factors affect the reproductive potential of insects. Thus, the effects of female age and environmental factors on reproduction of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae were studied. Adults of the predator were reared in "PVC" cages, closed in the upper portion with a thin mesh, organdie, placed on cotton plants at a greenhouse. The largest production of eggs by female (87.7 eggs occurred with 49 days and the smallest (32.2 eggs with 63 days of female age. The remating occurred after the exhaustion of spermatic reservations, starting on 28th day. The fecundity of C. externa females increased with elevation of the relative humidity of air. It was also verified a fast embryonic development with increase of temperature and female age. All these results supply subsidies for knowledge of the reproduction of C. externa in cotton system

  15. Optimization of a phenylacetaldehyde-based attractant for common green lacewings (Chrysoperla carnea s.l.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Miklós; Szentkirályi, Ferenc; Vuts, József; Letardi, Agostino; Tabilio, Maria Rosaria; Jaastad, Gunnhild; Knudsen, Geir K

    2009-04-01

    In field trapping tests, the catch of Chrysoperla carnea sensu lato (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) increased when acetic acid was added to lures with phenylacetaldehyde. The addition of methyl salicylate to the binary mixture of phenylacetaldehyde plus acetic acid increased catches even further. The ternary blend proved to be more attractive than beta-caryophyllene, 2-phenylethanol, or 3-methyl eugenol (compounds previously described as attractants for chrysopids) on their own, and no influence on catches was recorded when these compounds were added as fourth components to the ternary blend. There were minimal changes in activity when (E)-cinnamaldehyde or methyl anthranylate (both evoking large responses from female or male antennae of C. carnea in this study) were added, although both compounds showed significant attraction on their own when compared to unbaited traps. In subtractive field bioassays with the ternary mixture, it appeared that the presence of either phenylacetaldehyde or methyl salicylate was important, whereas acetic acid was less so in the ternary mixture. The ternary blend attracted both female and male lacewings at sites in southern, central, and northern Europe. Possible applications of a synthetic attractant for lacewings are discussed.

  16. Trophic interactions between two herbivorous insects, Galerucella calmariensis and Myzus lythri, feeding on purple loosestrife, Lythrum salicaria, and two insect predators, Harmonia axyridis and Chrysoperla carnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Bethzayda; Obrycki, John J

    2007-01-01

    The effects of two herbivorous insects, Galerucella calmariensis Duftschmid and Myzus lythri L. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), feeding on purple loosestrife, Lythrum salicaria L. (Myrtiflorae: Lythraceae), were measured in the presence of two insect predators, Harmonia axyridis Pallas (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae). A greenhouse cage experiment examined the direct effects of these predators on these herbivores, and indirect effects of predation on aboveground biomass, defoliation, number of leaves, and internode length. Eight treatment combinations with G. calmariensis, M. lythri, H. axyridis and C. carnea were applied to caged L. salicaria. The experiment ended when G. calmariensis adults were observed, 11 to 13 days after release of first instar G. calmariensis. G. calmariensis larvae alone removed significant amounts of leaf tissue and reduced the number of L. salicaria leaves. Predators did not reduce levels of defoliation by G. calmariensis. C. carnea had no effect on G. calmariensis survival, but H. axyridis reduced G. calmariensis survival in the presence of M. lythri. Both predators reduced the survival of M. lythri. This short duration greenhouse study did not demonstrate that predator-prey interactions altered herbivore effects on L. salicaria.

  17. A new East-Asian species in the Chrysoperla carnea-group of cryptic lacewing species (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) based on distinct larval morphology and a unique courtship song.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Charles S; Brooks, Stephen J; Johnson, James B; Haruyama, Naoto; Duelli, Peter; Mochizuki, Atsushi

    2015-02-11

    Larval morphology and substrate-borne vibrational courtship songs have been hypothesized to distinguish and isolate Chrysoperla 'nipponensis-B' from true 'Type A' Chrysoperla nipponensis (Okamoto), both of which occur sympatrically in eastern Asia. Here, we formally describe C. 'nipponensis-B' as Chrysoperla nigrocapitata sp.n., based on populations sampled throughout Japan and at two sites in South Korea. Behavioral playback experiments show that males and females of each species reject the duetting songs of non-conspecifics, supporting the existence in nature of strong premating reproductive isolation between the two species. Detailed morphological analysis substantiates that the adults of the two species are nearly identical. However, the dorsum of the larval head of C. nigrocapitata is usually darkly and heavily pigmented, in striking contrast to the condition seen in C. nipponensis; if available, it is probably the best trait for distinguishing the two species morphologically. Other aspects of life history, ecology, geographic distribution, and molecular systematics of the new species are briefly considered.

  18. DURAÇÃO DO PERÍODO PRÉ-IMAGINAL E FECUNDIDADE DE Chrysoperla externa (HAGEN, 1861 (NEUROPTERA: CHRYSOPIDAE EM DIFERENTES POPULAÇÕES E GERAÇÕES

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    SERGIO ANTONIO DE BORTOLI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The lacewings appear in many agroecosystems, preying several species of agricultural pests. They have great search capability, high voracity, high reproductive potential and are easily maintained in laboratory conditions. In laboratory rearing, to avoid problems in the mass production are recommended adjustments in the type and quality of prey to be used in order to obtain individuals with desirable characteristics. It is necessary special care with the laboratory populations, avoiding problems from inbreeding. Larvae were reared individually in Petri dishes (9.0 cm diameter and fed with eggs of Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier, 1789 (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, in the amount of 25 mg / larva, while the adults were kept in PVC cylindrical cages (10 cm x 30 cm. Thus, the study analyzed the influence of the size of the population of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae on the pre-imaginal period (egg to adult and reproductive capacity of this specie come from different populations and generations of laboratory. To this end, we used two populations, one of Jaboticabal (F8 and F21 and one of Piracicaba (F6 and F15, and subpopulations of 1, 5, 10, 15 and 20 couples, analyzing the incubation of eggs and the number of eggs per female in each population, generation and subpopulation. The pre-imaginal period (egg to adult and the number of eggs per female of C. externa are influenced by the generation and the number of founding individuals, being these parameters favored when laboratory populations are established with the largest number of couples.

  19. Two common and problematic leucochrysine species – Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa varia (Schneider and L. (L. pretiosa (Banks (Neuroptera, Chrysopidae: redescriptions and synonymies

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    Catherine Tauber

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Leucochrysa McLachlan is the largest genus in the Chrysopidae, yet it has received relatively little taxonomic attention. We treat two problematic and common Leucochrysa species – Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa varia (Schneider, 1851 and Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa pretiosa (Banks, 1910. Both are highly variable in coloration and were described before the systematic importance of chrysopid genitalia was recognized. Recent studies show that these species occur within a large complex of cryptic species and that they have accumulated a number of taxonomic problems. We identify new synonymies for each of the species – for L. (L. varia: Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa ampla (Walker, 1853, Leucochrysa internata (Walker, 1853, and Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa walkerina Navás, 1913; for L. (L. pretiosa: Leucochrysa erminea Banks 1946. The synonymy of Leucochrysa delicata Navás 1925 with L. (L. pretiosa is stabilized by the designation of a neotype. The following species, which were previously synonymized with L. (L. varia or L. (L. pretiosa, are reinstated as valid: Leucochrysa phaeocephala Navás 1929, Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa angrandi (Navás, 1911, and Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa variata (Navás, 1913. Finally, Leucochrysa vegana Navás 1917 is considered a nomen dubium.

  20. Influence of azadirachtin, a botanical insecticide, on Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) reproduction: toxicity and ultrastructural approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, P; Budia, F; del Estal, P; Viñuela, E

    2004-02-01

    A commercial formulation of azadirachtin (Align) was tested on Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) adults to determine its effects on reproduction. Three methods of exposure were carried out in the laboratory (residual, direct contact and ingestion) with concentrations close to the maximum field recommended concentration in Spain (48 mg AI/liter). Align proved to be harmless to newly emerged adults irrespective of the mode of exposure. Nevertheless, fecundity was reduced in a reversible way in females that have ingested azadiracthin after the onset of oviposition. Fertility was not different from that of controls in all treatments. Additional tests showed that males were not involved in the reduction of oviposition. Electron microscopy studies pointed out that Align interfered with vitellogenin synthesis and/or its uptake by developing oocytes; thus, growing follicles in treated females were significantly smaller that those of the controls. The role of azadirachtin as a compound that may influence several hormonal and protein titers involved in reproduction is also discussed.

  1. Chemical Ecology of Neuroptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrich, Jeffrey R; Zhang, Qing-He

    2016-01-01

    With 6,000 species, Neuroptera (lacewings, antlions, dustywings, and allies) is a relatively small order; however, most larval neuropterans are predacious, often in agricultural systems, lending added importance to this group. Advances in neuropteran phylogeny, most recently through genomic studies, stabilized the nomenclature of this ancestral order of Holometabola, facilitating basic and applied research on these important and interesting insects. The first pheromones for green lacewings (Chrysopidae) have been identified; this, and other research on antlions (Myrmeleontidae), suggests that male-produced long-range pheromones are the norm for the order. Characterizations of the myriad neuropteran exocrine gland systems, including prothoracic, metathoracic, abdominal, dermal, and anal glands, are revealing unforeseen trophic relationships with biological control implications. For examples, males of Chrysopa and other lacewing genera evidently must sequester specific chemical precursors from prey or plants to produce their attractant pheromones, and larval antlion venoms are potentially important genetic leads for insecticidal peptides.

  2. Resistance of green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea Stephens to nitenpyram: Cross-resistance patterns, mechanism, stability, and realized heritability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansoor, Muhammad Mudassir; Raza, Abu Bakar Muhammad; Abbas, Naeem; Aqueel, Muhammad Anjum; Afzal, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    The green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea Stephens (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) is a major generalist predator employed in integrated pest management (IPM) plans for pest control on many crops. Nitenpyram, a neonicotinoid insecticide has widely been used against the sucking pests of cotton in Pakistan. Therefore, a field green lacewing strain was exposed to nitenpyram for five generations to investigate resistance evolution, cross-resistance pattern, stability, realized heritability, and mechanisms of resistance. Before starting the selection with nitenpyram, a field collected strain showed 22.08-, 23.09-, 484.69- and 602.90-fold resistance to nitenpyram, buprofezin, spinosad and acetamiprid, respectively compared with the Susceptible strain. After continuous selection for five generations (G1-G5) with nitenpyram in the laboratory, the Field strain (Niten-SEL) developed a resistance ratio of 423.95 at G6. The Niten-SEL strain at G6 showed no cross-resistance to buprofezin and acetamiprid and negative cross-resistance to spinosad compared with the Field strain (G1). For resistance stability, the Niten-SEL strain was left unexposed to any insecticide for four generations (G6-G9) and bioassay results at G10 showed that resistance to nitenpyram, buprofezin and spinosad was stable, while resistance to acetamiprid was unstable. The realized heritability values were 0.97, 0.16, 0.03, and -0.16 to nitenpyram, buprofezin, acetamiprid and spinosad, respectively, after five generations of selection. Moreover, the enzyme inhibitors (PBO or DEF) significantly decreased the nitenpyram resistance in the resistant strain, suggesting that resistance was due to microsomal oxidases and esterases. These results are very helpful for integration of green lacewings in IPM programs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Los estadios larvarios de los Crisópidos ibéricos (Insecta, Neuroptera, Chrysopidae, nuevos elementos sobre la morfología larvaria aplicables a la sistemática de la familia

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    Monserrat, V. J.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available After a brief historical introduction to the knowledge of chrysopid immature stages, their biology, behaviour, and especially interesting morphological features, we review the preimaginal stages of the Iberian species (38 of the 49 Iberian species, belonging to the 13 Iberian genera. Our presentation includes information from the literature and new descriptions by the authors after collecting gravid females, obtaining eggs and rearing larvae. Specifically, it provides new information on the biology, behavior, appearance, pigmentation and detailed chaetotaxy of the neonate and mature larvae of these 38 species, and describes for the first time the preimaginal stages of Chrysopa dorsalis, Nineta guadarramensis, Suarius iberiensis and Italochrysa stigmatica. We propose a series of morphological characters that differentiate the Iberian larvae at subfamilial, tribal, generic, and species levels. At the subfamilial level: morphology of the antenna and sensilla number of the last segment of labial palp. At the generic level: cephalic chaetotaxy, presence or absence of a transverse row of setae on the mesonotum, number of dorsal and laterodorsal tubercles on the abdomen, morphology and size of the lateral tubercles of the thorax, and morphology of the setae. And at the species level: cephalic pigmentation, morphology of the claw, shape of the mesothoracic spiracle, shape of the prothoracic laterodorsal sclerite, number and length of the setae on lateral and laterodorsal abdominal tubercles, number of setae of the posteroventral row on the tenth abdominal segment, and integumentary coloration. Based on these characters, the article offers a key that enables the identification of subfamilies, genera and Iberian species of Chrysopidae. We found that the use of larval morphological characters supports, in general, the current classification based on imagoes, but the study of the larval morphology of these species, has allowed us to detect a

  4. Bazı Uçucu Yağların Myzus persicae ve Avcısı Chrysoperla carnea Üzerindeki Etkileri

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    Ali KAYAHAN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada, laboratuvar koşullarında farklı bitkisel uçucu yağların Şeftali yeşil yaprakbiti Myzus persicae (Sulz. (Hemiptera: Aphididae ve bu zararlının avcısı olan Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae üzerindeki etkisi belirlenmiştir. Denemeler 25±1° C sıcaklığa, %60±5 ve 16:8 aydınlatma koşullarına sahip iklim odalarında gerçekleştirilmiştir. Yaprak biti bireyleri biber bitkileri (Capsicum annuum L. üzerinde üretilirken, avcılar bu afit ile beslenmiştir.  Bitkisel yağların etkileri püskürtme yöntemi ile araştırılmıştır. Kontrol uygulamalarında saf su kullanılmıştır. Uygulamadan 1., 3., 5. ve 7. günden sonra ölü ve canlı bireyler sayılmıştır. Bitkisel yağların etkisi Abbott formülü kullanılarak değerlendirilmiştir. Denemeler 5 tekerrürlü olarak yürütülmüştür. Elde edilen sonuçlara göre; karanfil, lavanta ve ardıcın M. persicae üzerindeki 7. gündeki etkisi sırasıyla %78.26, %69.57 ve %47.83 olarak bulunmuştur. Uygulanan tüm uçucu yağların C. carnea için zararsız olduğu görülmüştür.

  5. (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae fed with Aleurocanthus woglumi (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae

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    Robério de Oliveira

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the development and reproduction of Ceraeochrysa cubana when fed the citrus blackfly Aleurocanthus woglumi. The study was carried out at the Laboratory of Entomology, Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Federal University of Paraíba – Areia/PB. It used a completely randomized design. The study was conducted in climate chambers, regulated to 26 ± 2°C and a relative humidity of 70 ± 10% with a 12 h photoperiod. The treatments were as follows: eggs, nymphs of only the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, or 4th instars, and nymphs of multiple instars (1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th instars of A. woglumi, with eggs of Sitotroga cerealella as a control. The 1st instar of C. cubana lasted 5.8 to 10.7 days, the 2nd instar lasted 6.0 to 13.3 days, and the 3rd instar lasted 8.2 to 18.5 days. The larvae of C. cubana did not survive when the food provided was only the eggs of A. woglumi, since the predator could not eat them. C. cubana, when provided nymphs of multiple instars (1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th instars of the citrus blackfly, had a shorter pre-pupal period and lower longevity than when consuming the eggs of S. cerealella, but the sex ratio and oviposition period were not affected. However, changes occurred in the pre-oviposition period, the total number of eggs, and the number of viable eggs.

  6. Shallot aphids, Myzus ascalonicus, in strawberry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enkegaard, Annie; Sigsgaard, Lene; Kristensen, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    to either inoculative or inundative biocontrol of shallot aphids in strawberry. The three predators studied were the green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea Steph. (Neuroptera: Chrysopi-dae), the two-spotted lady beetle, Adalia bipunctata L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), and the gall midge Aphidoletes aphidimyza...

  7. Toxicidade de acaricidas a ovos e adultos de Ceraeochrysa cubana (Hagen, 1861 (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae Toxicity of acaricides to eggs and adults of Ceraeochrysa cubana (Hagen, 1861 (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae

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    Geraldo Andrade Carvalho

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar o efeito de treze acaricidas sobre ovos e adultos de Ceraeochrysa cubana (Hagen, 1861. Os acaricidas foram pulverizados por meio de torre de Potter, nas concentrações recomendadas para o controle de ácaros na cultura dos citros. Os ensaios foram conduzidos sob condições controladas de 25 ± 2º C, umidade relativa de 70 ± 10% e fotofase de 12 horas. Os acaricidas não foram tóxicos ao predador em sua fase de ovo. Em relação aos adultos, o carbosulfan e o triazophos foram altamente tóxicos (100% de mortalidade, enquanto que os piretróides bifenthrin e fenpropathrin causaram mortalidade aproximadamente de 60%. Os acaricidas dicofol, bromopropylate, tetradifon, clofentezine, abamectin, hexythiazox, cyhexatin e óxido de fenbutatin não provocaram mortalidade dos adultos de C. cubana. Flufenoxuron inibiu a capacidade de oviposição e provocou a inviabilização dos ovos. Baseando-se na escala da IOBC, os acaricidas carbosulfan, triazophos e flufenoxuron foram enquadrados na classe 4 = nocivos; bifenthrin e fenpropathrin na classe 2 = levemente nocivos, e dicofol, bromopropylate, tetradifon, clofentezine, abamectin, hexythiazox, cyhexatin e óxido de fenbutatin na classe 1 = inócuos a C. cubana. Os compostos enquadrados na classe 1 podem ser recomendados em programas de manejo integrado de pragas de citros objetivando a integração entre os métodos químico e biológico por meio dessa espécie de predador.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of thirteen acaricides on eggs and adults of the lacewing Ceraeochrysa cubana (Hagen, 1861. The acaricides were sprayed using a Potter's tower at the rate recommended for mite control in citrus orchard. The trials were performed in climatic chamber at 25 ± 2º C, 70 ± 10% RH and photophase of 12 hours. The egg stage showed high tolerance to the tested acaricides. Carbosulfan and triazophos caused 100% adult mortality, whereas bifenthrin and fenpropathrin caused around 60%. All other acaricides, dicofol, bromopropylate, tetradifon, clofentezine, abamectin, hexythiazox, cyhexatin and fenibutatin oxide did not cause mortality of C. cubana adult. Flufenoxuron reduced adult egg laying and all eggs were nonviable. According to IOBC scale, the acaricides carbosulfan, triazophos and flufenoxuron were classified into class 4 = harmful; bifenthrin and fenpropathrin into class 2 = slightly toxic; and dicofol, clofentezine, abamectin, hexythiazox, cyhexatin, and fenbutatin oxide into class 1 = harmless to C. cubana. The compounds classified as first class may be recommended in programs of integrated pest management of citrus aiming at the integration between the biological and chemical control through this kind of predator.

  8. Aspectos biológicos de Chrysoperla raimundoi Freitas & Penny (Neuroptera, Chrysopidae Biological aspects of Chrysoperla raimundoi Freitas & Penny (Neuroptera, Chrysopidae

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    Taís Carmona Lavagnini

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Os crisopídeos são importantes predadores e são encontrados em diversos agroecossistemas. A temperatura é um dos fatores determinantes para o desenvolvimento dos insetos, sendo que existe um gradiente de variação aceitável para cada espécie. Portanto, objetivou-se com este estudo verificar a influência de diferentes temperaturas sobre o desenvolvimento embrionário e pós-embrionário de C. raimundoi assim como verificar as conseqüências nas diferentes gerações. As fases jovens foram criadas em três ambientes com temperaturas constantes de 19,0, 25,0 e 31,0ºC e em um ambiente externo sem controle dos fatores abióticos. Foram observados a duração do período embrionário, do primeiro, segundo e terceiro ínstares, a duração do período larval, pupal e ovo-adulto, assim como, a sobrevivência em cada estágio, estádio e a porcentagem de emergência. O desenvolvimento embrionário e pós-embrionário diferiu entre as gerações F2 e F4. Quanto à influência de diferentes temperaturas para a geração F2, os indivíduos criados a 31,0ºC demonstraram redução na taxa de desenvolvimento com relação aos outros dois ambientes. Para a geração F4, observou-se que as diferentes temperaturas influenciaram no desenvolvimento, sendo que a 19,0ºC houve prolongamento do mesmo.The green lacewings are important predators and are found in several agroecosystems. The temperature is one of the decisive factors for the development of insects, and there is an acceptable variation gradient for each species. Therefore, the purpose of this study was not only to check the influence of different temperatures on the embryonic and post-embryonic development of Chrysoperla raimundoi, as well as check the consequences in the different generations. The immature stages were reared at four different environmental conditions, three of them with constant temperatures (19,0, 25,0 e 31,0ºC and the fourth rearing place was external to the laboratory without control of the abiotic factors. The duration of the embryonic period, first, second and third larval instar, pupal stage, and from egg to adult were evaluated; also the survival rate of each instar and stage and the emergence rate were calculated. The embryonic and post embryonic development differed between the generations F2 and F4. Also, the influence of different temperatures for the generation F2 among individuals created at 31,0ºC showed reduction on the development rate regarding the other two environments. It was possible to observe that the generation F4 has its development influenced by different temperatures, and the 19,0ºC temperature prolonged its development.

  9. Compatibilidade de Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff Sorokin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae com Chrysoperla externa (Hagen (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae

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    Eunice Claúdia Souza

    2015-12-01

    Abstract. The ecoagrossistemas several biological control agents acting simultane ously on different or the same target insect. The culture of cotton presents a rich complex of natural enemies associated with pests, among which stands out the predator Chrysoperla externa (Hagen and the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff Sorokin. The objective of this study was to evaluate the compatibility of the fungus M. anisopliae on the biological aspects of the predator C. externa. The first study evaluated the development of C. externa when treated with the following suspensions of M. anisopliae: T1 water (control; T2- 105 conídios.mL-1 de M. anisopliae (M.a.; T3- 106 conídios.mL-1 de M.a.; T4- 107 conídios.mL-1 de M.a.;T5- 108 conídios.mL-1 de M.a.. The second assay measured the duration of the larval and pupal predator and larval mortality in each treatment. For this, C. externa eggswere individualized in Petri dishes and kept under laboratory conditions. When the larvae of C. externa hatched, whitefly nymphs were offered on leaf discs coming from cotton treated with: T1-water (control; T2 - 105 conídios.mL-1 de M.a. e T3 - 108 conídios.mL-1 de M.a.. The results suggest that the fungus M. anisopliae at doses of 105 e 108 conídios.mL-1 de M.a. not interfere with the biological aspects of the predator C. externa.

  10. Two new endemic species of Chrysopodes (Neosuarius (Neuroptera, Chrysopidae from the Galapagos Islands

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    Catherine Tauber

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Two new species that were previously undistinguished from the Galapagos endemic Chrysopodes (Neosuarius nigripilosus (Banks, are described. These descriptions double, from two to four, the number of endemic green lacewing species known from the archipelago. The four species include: Chrysoperla galapagoensis (Banks, Chrysopodes (N. nigricubitus sp. n.; C. (N. nigripilosus; and C. (N. pecki sp. n. Three of these species – C. (N. nigripilosus, C. (N. nigricubitus and Chrysoperla galapagoensis – each occur on more than one island, whereas C. (N. pecki is known only from the summits of two craters on Isabela Island. A suite of very distinctive features differentiates the three Galapagos Chrysopodes (N. species from their congeners on mainland South America. Subtle, but consistent characteristics separate the three Galapagos species from each other. The small degree of morphological divergence among the Galapagos lacewings is in marked contrast to the spectacular radiation of Hawaiian lacewings; the processes of diversification and speciation may differ significantly between the two island archipelagos.

  11. Are the Pupae and Eggs of the Lacewing Ceraeochrysa cubana (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) Tolerant to Insecticides?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugno, Gabriel Rodrigo; Zanardi, Odimar Zanuzo; Yamamoto, Pedro Takao

    2015-12-01

    The tolerance of Ceraeochrysa cubana (Hagen) pupae and eggs to 11 insecticides was evaluated under laboratory conditions, based on lethal and sublethal effects. Eggs at three ages (≤24-h-old, 48- to 72-h-old, and 96- to 120-h-old) and pupae at ≤48-h-old were used. All the insecticides were considered harmless when applied at the pupal stage. Phosmet and pyriproxyfen insecticides were considered harmless to eggs irrespective of the age. Esfenvalerate was harmless to eggs at the ages of ≤24-h-old and 48- to 72-h-old. Imidacloprid SC and azadirachtin were harmless to eggs at ages of 48- to 72-h-old and 96- to 120-h-old, and thiamethoxam was only harmless to eggs at 96- to 120-h-old of age. In contrast, chlorpyrifos and malathion were harmful to eggs at the age of 96- to 120-h-old, and imidacloprid WG was slightly harmful to the three egg ages evaluated. Lambda-cyhalothrin + chlorantraniliprole and lambda-cyhalothrin + thiamethoxam were slightly and/or moderately harmful to all egg ages evaluated. Based on the life table parameters, the insecticides thiamethoxam, imidacloprid SC, phosmet, pyriproxyfen, and azadirachtin did not affect the net rate of reproduction (Ro) of C. cubana. Lambda-cyhalothrin + chlorantraniliprole decreased the Ro and increased the population doubling time (Td) independently of the egg ages evaluated. Therefore, the insecticides pyriproxyfen and phosmet are compatible with eggs of the predator C. cubana, but other insecticides should be evaluated under field conditions to verify their effects on the predator. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Femoral chordotonal organ in the legs of an insect,Chrysoperla carnea(Neuroptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipovsek, S; Pabst, M A; Devetak, D

    1999-05-01

    The femoral chordotonal organ (FCO) inChrysoperla carneais situated in the distal part of the femur and consists of two scoloparia, which are fused at their distal end. The distal scoloparium contains 17-20 scolopidia, and the proximal one six scolopidia. Each scolopidium consists of two sensory cells and three types of enveloping cells (glial, scolopale and attachment cell). The sensory cells of different scolopidia do not lie at the same level in the FCO. Therefore the attachment cells of different scolopidia have different lengths. In the FCO, three types of ciliary roots are found in different sensory cells. The dendrite of the sensory cell terminates in a distal process, which has the structure of a modified cilium (9x2+0). The very distal part of the cilium is surrounded by an extracellular electron dense material, the cap, and ends in a terminal dilation. The scolopale cell contains the electron dense scolopale rods, consisting of plentiful microtubules. In their middle third the scolopale rods are fused and form the scolopale. In the FCO septate junctions, desmosomes and hemidesmosomes are found.

  13. Five novel Candida species in insect-associated yeast clades isolated from Neuroptera and other insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nhu H; Suh, Sung-Oui; Blackwell, Meredith

    2007-01-01

    Ascomycete yeasts are found commonly in the guts of basidioma-feeding beetles but little is known about their occurrence in the gut of other insects. In this study we isolated 95 yeasts from the gut of adult insects in five neuropteran families (Neuroptera: Corydalidae, Chrysopidae, Ascalaphidae, Mantispidae and Hemerobiidae) and a roach (Blattodea: Blattidae). Based on DNA sequence comparisons and other taxonomic characteristics, they were identified as more than 15 species of Saccharomycetes as well as occasional Cryptococcus-like basidiomycete yeasts. Yeast species such as Lachancea fermentati, Lachancea thermotolerans and Hanseniaspora vineae were isolated repeatedly from the gut of three species of corydalids, suggesting a close association of these species and their insect hosts. Among the yeasts isolated in this study 12 were identified as five novel Candida species that occurred in three phylogenetically distinct clades. Molecular phylogenetic analyses showed that Candida chauliodes sp. nov. (NRRL Y-27909T) and Candida corydali sp. nov. (NRRL Y-27910T) were sister taxa in the Candida albicans/ Lodderomyces elongisporus clade. Candida dosseyi sp. nov. (NRRL Y-27950T) and Candida blattae sp. nov. (NRRL Y-27698T) were sister taxa in the Candida intermedia clade. Candida ascalaphidarum sp. nov. (NRRL Y-27908T) fell on a basal branch in a clade containing Candida membranifaciens and many other insect-associated species. Descriptions of these novel yeast species are provided as well as discussion of their ecology in relation to their insect hosts.

  14. Biological aspects of the immature stages of Ceraeochrysa everes (Banks (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae Aspectos biológicos dos estágios imaturos de Ceraeochrysa everes (Banks (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae

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    Leonardo Rodrigues Barbosa

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available A knowledge of the behavior and biological aspects of natural enemies is extremely important for the establishment of biological control programs. Biological aspects of the larvae, pre-pupae and pupae of the predator Ceraeochrysa everes (Banks were studied. Larvae of the adult F1 generation were reared in the laboratory (25 ± 2°C, 65 ± 10 % RH and 14h photophase on eggs of the Angoumois grain moth Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier. The duration and viability of the embryonic period, development of the immature stages and egg-adult period were evaluated. The mean embryonic period was 5.0 days, while the mean durations of the first, second and third instars were: 5.1 ± 0.03; 4.3 ± 0.05 and 4.5 ± 0.05 days, respectively, with viability exceeding 90%. Duration of the larval, pre-pupal and pupal stages averaged 13.9 ± 0.07; 5.7 ± 0.07 and 9.6 ± 0.12 days, respectively. Duration of the biological cycle was 34 ± 0.11 days on average. S. cerealella eggs were not suitable for rearing C. everes under laboratory conditions because they affected predator development.Para o estabelecimento de um programa de controle biológico, o conhecimento de alguns aspectos biológicos e de comportamento dos inimigos naturais é de extrema importância. Os aspectos biológicos do desenvolvimento larval e pupal do predador Ceraeochrysa everes (Banks foram estudados. Larvas oriundas de adultos da geração F1 foram mantidas em laboratório a 25 ± 21°C, 70 ± 10 % UR e fotofase 14 horas, sendo alimentadas com ovos de Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier. A duração e viabilidade do período embrionário, estágios imaturos de desenvolvimento e o período de ovo a adulto foram avaliados. O período embrionário foi em média de 5,0 dias, enquanto que as durações médias para o primeiro, segundo e terceiro instares foram de 5,1 ± 0,03; 4,3 ± 0,05 e 4,5 ± 0,05 dias, respectivamente, com viabilidade superior a 90 %. Os estágios larval, pré-pupal e pupal apresentaram duração média de 13,9 ± 0,07; 5,7 ± 0,07 e 9,6 ± 0,12 dias, respectivamente. A duração do ciclo biológico foi de 34 ± 0,11 dias em média. Ovos de S. cerelella não foram adequados para a manutenção de C. everes em laboratório, por interferir no desenvolvimento do predador.

  15. Muscular anatomy of the Podocoryna carnea hydrorhiza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, Leo W; Anderson, Christopher; Bolton, Edward W

    2013-01-01

    The muscular anatomy of the athecate hydroid Podocoryna carnea hydrorhiza is elucidated. The polyp-stolon junction is characterized by an opening, here called the chloe, in the otherwise continuous hydrorhizal perisarc. The chloe is elliptical when the polyp first arises, but takes on a more complex outline as multiple stolons anastomose to communicate with that polyp. Surrounding the polyp base are spots, here called anchors, which autofluoresce at the same wavelengths as perisarc and which, like perisarc, contain chitin as assessed by Calcofluor White, Congo Red and wheat germ agglutinin staining. Anchors remain after living tissues are digested using KOH. Collagen IV staining indicates that the mesoglea is pegged to the anchors and rhodamine phallodin staining detects cytoskeletal F-actin fibers of the basal epidermis surrounding the anchors. Longitudinal muscle fibers of the polyp broaden at the polyp base and are inserted into the mesoglea of the underlying stolon, but were neither observed to extend along the stolonal axis nor to attach to the anchors. Circular muscular fibers of the polyp extend into stolons as a dense collection of strands running along the proximal-distal axis of the stolon. These gastrodermal axial muscular fibers extend to the stolon tip. Epidermal cells at the stolon tip and the polyp bud display a regular apical latticework of F-actin staining. A similar meshwork of F-actin staining was found in the extreme basal epidermis of all stolons. Immunohistochemical staining for tubulin revealed nerves at stolon tips, but at no other hydrorhizal locations. These studies bear on the mechanisms by which the stolon tip and polyp bud pulsate, the manner in which the stolon lumen closes, and on the developmental origin of the basal epidermis of the hydrorhiza.

  16. An Overview of Ipomoea carnea subspecies fistulosa toxicosis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa (convolvulaceae) is identified and confirmed as a poisonous plant to animals in many parts of the world. It is evergreen and common in Sahel region of Nigeria where there is lack of green pasture in most part of the year. It contains two toxic principles, swainsonine and calystegines causing ...

  17. Fangst af netvinger (Neuroptera) med lysfælde på Zoologisk Museums tag

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole Fogh; Karsholt, Ole

    2014-01-01

    In the period 1992-2001 Neuroptera were collected in a light trap located at the roof of the Zoological Museum of Copenhagen 17,5 m above the ground. A total of 4878 specimens were collected belonging to 27 species (Tabel 1). Most interesting were the findings of the two species Parasemidalis...... fuscipennis (Reuter, 1894) and Sympherobius pygmaeus (Rambur, 1842). Only very few specimens were known from Denmark until know. In 2012 Neuroptera were also collected at the roof of the Zoological Museum of Copenhagen (Tabel 2). The Neuroptera caught in the light trap represents 41%of the known Danish...

  18. Changes in swainsonine, calystegine, and nitrogen concentrations on an annual basis in Ipomoea carnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Daniel; Oliveira, Carlos A; Gardner, Dale R; Pfister, James A; Riet-Correa, Gabriela; Riet-Correa, Franklin

    2015-03-01

    Ipomoea carnea, a swainsonine containing plant, is known to cause a neurologic disease in grazing livestock in Brazil and other parts of the world. To better understand the relative toxicity and nutritional content of I. carnea we investigated swainsonine, calystegine, and crude protein concentrations in leaves of I. carnea on a monthly basis for one year in northern and northeastern Brazil. Swainsonine concentrations were detected at concentrations that could potentially poison an animal throughout the year although there was some variation between months. At one location swainsonine concentrations were generally the highest during the rainy season or the months immediately following the rainy season. Total calystegine concentrations were similar to those reported previously while crude protein concentrations were similar to those found in other Ipomoea species and are such that they may explain why I. carnea becomes desirable to grazing livestock as forage becomes limited during the dry season. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. The first mitochondrial genomes of antlion (Neuroptera: Myrmeleontidae) and split-footed lacewing (Neuroptera: Nymphidae), with phylogenetic implications of Myrmeleontiformia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yan; Wang, Yuyu; Liu, Xingyue; Winterton, Shaun L; Yang, Ding

    2014-01-01

    In the holometabolous insect order Neuroptera (lacewings), the cosmopolitan Myrmeleontidae (antlions) are the most species-rich family, while the closely related Nymphidae (split-footed lacewings) are a small endemic family from the Australian-Malesian region. Both families belong to the suborder Myrmeleontiformia, within which controversial hypotheses on the interfamilial phylogenetic relationships exist. Herein, we describe the complete mitochondrial (mt) genomes of an antlion (Myrmeleon immanis Walker, 1853) and a split-footed lacewing (Nymphes myrmeleonoides Leach, 1814), representing the first mt genomes for both families. These mt genomes are relatively small (respectively composed of 15,799 and 15,713 bp) compared to other lacewing mt genomes, and comprise 37 genes (13 protein coding genes, 22 tRNA genes and two rRNA genes). The arrangement of these two mt genomes is the same as in most derived Neuroptera mt genomes previously sequenced, specifically with a translocation of trnC. The start codons of all PCGs are started by ATN, with an exception of cox1, which is ACG in the M. immanis mt genome and TCG in N. myrmeleonoides. All tRNA genes have a typical clover-leaf structure of mitochondrial tRNA, with the exception of trnS1(AGN). The secondary structures of rrnL and rrnS are similar with those proposed insects and the domain I contains nine helices rather than eight helices, which is common within Neuroptera. A phylogenetic analysis based on the mt genomic data for all Neuropterida sequenced thus far, supports the monophyly of Myrmeleontiformia and the sister relationship between Ascalaphidae and Myrmeleontidae.

  20. Electroantennogram responses of Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) to volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raina, Ruchira; Joseph, Mary; Avalokiteswar, Sen

    2004-12-01

    Electrophysiological responses of adult males and females of C. carnea to commonly occurring plant volatiles were recorded using the electroantennogram technique. Responses to 28 volatiles evaluated indicate that both depolarization and recovery to the baseline were rapid in females compared to males. Normalized EAG responses relative to the standard, trans-caryophyllene reveal significant differences between the chemicals as also between the sexes. The response of males to several of the compounds, particularly the terpenoids was higher than females. The pooled averages to the different classes of chemical compounds reveal greater response for fatty acid derivatives and terpenoids, particularly the oxygenated monoterpenes and the sesquiterpenes. These findings are discussed in relation to volatiles released in the cotton ecosystem.

  1. Foraging on and consumption of two species of papaya pest mites, Tetranychus kanzawai and Panonychus citri (Acari: tetranychidae) by Mallada basalis (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetranychus kanzawai Kishida and Panonychus citri (McGregor) are two major acarine pests of the principal papaya variety in Taiwan, and they often co-occur in the same papaya screenhouses. This study measured prey acceptability, foraging schedule, short-term consumption rate, and handling time of la...

  2. Development and Reproduction of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) Fed on Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Vectoring Potato leafroll virus (PLRV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzón, A; Freire, B C; Carvalho, G A; Oliveira, R L; Medina, P; Budia, F

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the biological parameters of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen) while feeding on Myzus persicae (Sulzer) acting as a vector of potato leafroll virus (PLRV). In laboratory experiments, three different diets were offered ad libitum to C. externa during the larval period: M. persicae fed on PLRV-infected potato leaves, M. persicae fed on uninfected potato leaves, and eggs of the factitious prey Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller) as the control. The following parameters were studied: the developmental time and survival rate of the larval and pupal stages, the sex ratio, the proportion of fertile females, female fecundity and egg viability, and the survival curve of the first 30 days after adult emergence. PLRV-infected aphids influenced the C. externa larval developmental time and survival compared to PLRV-uninfected aphids and A. kuehniella eggs. The pupal developmental time of C. externa was shorter when fed on aphids compared to A. kuehniella eggs, but no differences were recorded between the PLRV-infected and uninfected aphid diets. Additionally, no differences were observed for pupal survival and reproduction. However, adult survival was affected by the prey type, as 75% of C. externa control adults remained alive at an age of 30 days compared to 51 and 54% for those fed on PLRV-uninfected and infected aphids, respectively.

  3. Life table and efficacy of Mallada desjardinsi (Chrysopidae: Neuroptera), an important predator of tea red spider mite, Oligonychus coffeae (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasanthakumar, Duraikannu; Babu, Azariah

    2013-09-01

    Green lacewing, Mallada desjardinsi Navas, is an important predator of red spider mite, Oligonychus coffeae infesting tea. Life history, life table and efficacy of M. desjardinsi were determined using red spider mite as prey under laboratory conditions. Duration of development of M. desjardinsi recorded was 5.1, 13.8 and 13 days for eggs, larvae and pupae respectively, with an average of 31.9 days from egg to adult emergence. After a mean pre oviposition period of 7.1 days, a single female laid an average of 252.6 eggs in its life time. Adult longevity of the male was recorded as 39.6 days while the females lived longer (58.2 days). The life table of M. desjardinsi was characterized by an intrinsic rate of increase (r) of 0.096 day, net reproductive rate (R 0 ) of 153.19 eggs/female, gross reproduction rate (∑mx) of 167.28 eggs/female, generation time (T) of 52.47 days, doubling time of 7.22 days and finite rate of increase(λ) of 1.1 day. The optimum predator-prey ratios were 1:50 and 1:33 under laboratory conditions however, 1:33 and 1:25 ratios were effective in green house conditions. The results of the study can be considered as a first step towards the utilization of this predator in an IPM program for the management of red spider mite infesting tea.

  4. Enhancement of the reproductive potential of Mallada boninensis Okamoto (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae, a predator of red spider mite infesting tea: An evaluation of artificial diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasanthakumar Duraikkannu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Green lacewing Mallada boninensis is an important predator of various soft-bodied arthropods, including red spider mites in tea. Efforts were made to develop mass rearing technology for this predator in a cost effective manner. Three combinations of artificial diets (Protinex (AD1, egg yolk (AD2 and royal jelly (AD3 based were evaluated in comparison with standard diet (Protinex + Honey. All the tested diets influenced the egg-laying capacity of M. boninensis. The egg yolk-based diet resulted in more egg production than the other two diets. Survival of all life stages of M. boninensis was also observed on each diet and no significant difference was noticed. Results revealed that the egg yolk-based diet is the best of the three diet combinations tested in view of high fecundity and survival rate of M. boninensis.

  5. Toxicological and ultrastructural analysis of the impact of pesticides used in temperate fruit crops on two populations of Chrysoperla externa (Neuroptera, Chrysopidae

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    Alexandre Pinho de Moura

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effects of (g a.i. L-1 abamectin (0.02, carbaryl (1.73, sulphur (4.8, fenitrothion (0.75, methidathion (0.4, and trichlorfon (1.5 on the survival of larvae and pupae, on the oviposition of adults and hatching of eggs from treated Chrysoperla externa third-instar larvae from two different populations (Bento Gonçalves and Vacaria, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Morphological changes caused by abamectin to eggs laid by C. externa from Vacaria population were evaluated by mean of ultrastructural analysis. The pesticides were applied on glass plates. Distilled water was used as control. For the evaluation of larvae mortality, a fully randomized experimental design in a 2 x 7 (two populations x seven treatments factorial scheme was used, whereas for the effects of the compounds on oviposition capacity and egg viability, a 2 x 4 factorial scheme was used. Carbaryl, fenitrothion, and methidathion caused 100% mortality of larvae. Abamectin reduced the hatching of eggs from treated third-instar larvae of both populations; however, this pesticide presented highest toxicity on insects from Vacaria. The ultrastructural analysis showed that abamectin caused malformations in micropyle and in chorion external surface of C. externa eggs. Based in the total effect (E, carbaryl, fenitrothion, and methidathion are harmful to C. externa; trichlorfon is harmless to third-instar larvae, while abamectin and sulphur are harmless and slightly harmful to third-instar larvae from Bento Gonçalves and Vacaria, respectively.

  6. Seletividade de agrotóxicos utilizados em pomares de pêssego a adultos do predador Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae

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    Rodolfo Vargas Castilhos

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A seletividade de dezesseis agrotóxicos utilizados na produção integrada e convencional de pêssego foi avaliada sobre a fase adulta de Chrysoperla externa através de bioensaios de exposição residual conduzidos em laboratório (temperatura de 25±1ºC, umidade relativa 70±10% e fotofase 14 horas, utilizando-se de metodologia prescrita pela "International Organization for Biological Control" (IOBC. Os agrotóxicos (% de ingrediente ativo na calda azoxystrobina (0,016, captana (0,192, dodina (0,126, folpete (0,200, mancozebe (0,256, mancozebe + oxicloreto de cobre (0,140 + 0,096, tebuconazole (0,320, abamectina (0,002, óleo mineral 1 (2,420, óleo mineral 2 (1,920, dicloreto de paraquate (0,300 e glifosato (1,440 foram inócuos; deltametrina (0,002 foi levemente nocivo e dimetoato (0,160, fosmete (0,160 e malationa (0,240 foram nocivos a adultos de C. externa.

  7. Uso de dietas artificiales para la cría de larvas y adultos de Ceraeochrysa cubana (Hagen (Neuroptera: chrysopidae Use of artificial diets for rearing larvae and adults of Ceraeochrysa cubana (Hagen (Neuroptera: chrysopioae

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    Vargas Serrano Camilo

    1988-12-01

    Full Text Available Se ensayaron tres dietas artificiales para la cría de larvas y tres dietas para la cría de adultos de Ceraeochrysa cubana. En la cría de larvas se emplearon las dietas de Hassan y Hagen (1978, Ponomoreva (1971 y una dieta constituida. por la combinación de las dietas anteriores y la utilizada por Vanderzant (1969, 1973. La primera dieta con la cual se obtuvieron los mejores resultados, se continuó evaluándola durante tres generaciones consecutivas. El tiempo promedio de desarrollo de los estados juveniles fue de 35,23 días, comparado con 17,4 días cuando se al imentaron con huevos de Sitotroga cerealella, el peso pupal promedio fue de 6,3 mg con la dieta artificial y de 8,6 mg con huevos de Sitotroga. Además del incremento del tiempo de desarrollo de los estados juveniles hasta la madurez (desunítorrnídad
    fisiológica y bajo peso pupal, con el uso de estas dietas artificiales se incrementó la mortalidad juvenil y en los adultos obtenidos decreció la fecundidad, longevidad y fertilidad, mientras que cuando se alimentaron con huevos de S. cerealella, los anteriores parámetros biológicos se mantuvieron en un nivel constante durante la segunda y tercera generación. Al utilizar las tres dietas artificiales ensayadas en la cría de adultos de C. cubana se logró una alta fecundidad, fertilidad y longevidad, obteniéndose en promedio 490; 493 y 458 huevos/hembra/28 días.Three artificial diets for rearing larvae and three artificial diets for rearing adults of Ceraeochrysa cubana were tested. In the rearing larvae used diets were the Hassan and Hagen, (1978, Ponomoreva, (1971 and a diet composed by the combination
    of the precceding diets and the one used by Vanderzant, (1973. With the first diet which showed better results, the testing kept on for three consecutive generations; the average duration of development of the early stages was 35,23 days compared to 17,3 days when they were fed with S. cerealella eggs, the average pupal weight was 6,3
    mg wiht diet number one compared to 8,6 mg when S. cerealella eggs were used. Besides the increase in the development duration of early phases up to maturity stages
    (physiological disdjustment under pupal weight with fictitious diets use, juvenile mortaly was increased and in the grown - ups obtained decreased the fecundity, longevity and fertility, while when feeding was with S. cerealella eggs the preceeding standards of biological nature kept a constant level during
    second and third generations. In the using of three the tested artificial diets in the rearing of adults of C. cubana high fecundity was reached as well as fertily and longevity with
    490, 493 and 458 eggs/female/28 days average.

  8. Alkaloidal components in the poisonous plant, Ipomoea carnea (Convolvulaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haraguchi, Mitsue; Gorniak, Silvana L; Ikeda, Kyoko; Minami, Yasuhiro; Kato, Atsushi; Watson, Alison A; Nash, Robert J; Molyneux, Russell J; Asano, Naoki

    2003-08-13

    Natural intoxication of livestock by the ingestion of Ipomoea carnea (Convolvulaceae) sometimes occurs in tropical regions of the world. Polyhydroxylated alkaloids were isolated from the leaves, flowers, and seeds of the poisonous plant and characterized. Chromatographic separation of the leaf extract resulted in the isolation of swainsonine (1), 2-epi-lentiginosine (2), calystegines B(1) (3), B(2) (4), B(3) (5), and C(1) (6), and N-methyl-trans-4-hydroxy-l-proline (7). The contents of 1 in the fresh leaves and flowers were 0.0029 and 0.0028%, respectively, whereas the contents of 1, 3, and 4 in the seeds were approximately 10 times higher than those in the leaves and flowers. Alkaloids 3, 4, and 6 showed a potent inhibitory activity toward rat lysosomal beta-glucosidase, with IC(50) values of 2.1, 0.75, and 0.84 microM, respectively, and alkaloid 5 was a moderate inhibitor of alpha- and beta-mannosidases. Although alkaloid 1 is known as a powerful inhibitor of lysosomal alpha-mannosidase (IC(50) = 0.02 microM), alkaloid 2, which has been thought to be an intermediate in the biosynthesis of 1, was also a potent inhibitor of alpha-mannosidase with an IC(50) value of 4.6 microM.

  9. Wing base structural data support the sister relationship of megaloptera and neuroptera (insecta: neuropterida.

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    Chenjing Zhao

    Full Text Available The phylogenetic status and the monophyly of the holometabolous insect order Megaloptera has been an often disputed and long unresolved problem. The present study attempts to infer phylogenetic relationships among three orders, Megaloptera, Neuroptera, and Raphidioptera, within the superorder Neuropterida, based on wing base structure. Cladistic analyses were carried out based on morphological data from both the fore- and hindwing base. A sister relationship between Megaloptera and Neuroptera was recovered, and the monophyly of Megaloptera was corroborated. The division of the order Megaloptera, the traditional higher classification, into Corydalidae (Corydalinae + Chauliodinae and Sialidae, was also supported by our wing base data analyses.

  10. Nerve net differentiation in medusa development of Podocoryne carnea

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    Hans Gröger

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The phylum Cnidaria is the most primitive phylum with a well-developed nervous system. Planula larvae and polyps display a diffuse nerve net (plexus, which is densest in the polyp hypostome. In contrast, the nervous system of the medusa is more complexly structured and reflects the anatomical needs of a well differentiated non-sessile animal. We analyzed the nervous system of two life stages of the hydrozoan Podocoryne carnea. Nerve nets of both polyps and developing medusae were examined in whole mounts and gelatin sections by using antibodies and vital staining with reduced Methylene Blue. In the polyp, both RFamide-positive nerve cells and tyrosine-tubulin containing nerve cells form an ectodermal plexus. However, apical neuronal concentration is stressed by a particular nerve ring formed by tyrosine-tubulin positive nerve cells in the hypostome above the tentacle zone. This apical nerve ring is not detected with antisera against RFamide. In developing medusa buds, the earliest detected RFamide positive nerve cells occur at stage 4 at the location of the prospective ring canal. The nerve net of the developing medusa is fully differentiated at bud stage 8. Similar results were obtained with the anti tyrosine-tubulin antibody. Strikingly, two different nerve nets were discovered which connect the medusa bud with the plexus of the gonozoid, suggesting neuronal control by the polyp during medusa bud development. Vital staining with reduced Methylene Blue (Unna's identified not only nerve cells at the ring canal but also bipolar cells within the radial canal. These cells may fulfill sensory functions.

  11. Impact of snowdrop lectin (Galanthus nivalis agglutinin; GNA) on adults of the green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yunhe; Romeis, Jörg

    2009-02-01

    Based on the finding that Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA) has direct negative effects on larvae of Chrysoperla carnea, laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate its toxicity to the adults. While the ingestion of GNA dissolved in an artificial diet did not affect adult longevity, there were concentration-dependent negative effects on the pre-oviposition period, daily fecundity and total fecundity (number of eggs laid). When GNA was ingested by larvae of C. carnea, it caused a significant extension of larval development time. Adults that had emerged from GNA-fed larvae did not differ from those that developed from control larvae in terms of adult fresh weight, pre-oviposition period and daily or total fecundity. However, fertility (proportion of hatching eggs) was significantly decreased in adults raised from GNA-treated larvae. Western blots revealed that GNA ingested by larvae of C. carnea was partly transferred to the adult stage and was subsequently excreted or digested within a few days. Our toxicity studies (Tier-1 tests) clearly established a hazard of GNA to adult C. carnea when administered to larvae or adults at high concentrations. Implications of these toxicity data for the non-target risk assessment of GNA-expressing transgenic crops are discussed.

  12. Anti-hepatotoxic and antioxidant influence of Ipomoea carnea against anti-tubercular drugs induced acute hepatopathy in experimental rodents

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    Ramesh Kumar Gupta

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the hepatoprotective effect of Ipomoea carnea (I. carnea extract against antitubercular drug-induced liver toxicity in experimental animals. Methods: I. carnea extracts (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg, p.o. body weight were administered daily for 35 d in experimental animals. Liver toxicity was induced by combination of three antitubercular drugs (isoniazid 7.5 mg/kg, rifampicin 10 mg/kg and pyrazinamide 35 mg/kg given orally as suspension for 35 d in rats. Treatment groups received I. carnea extracts along with antitubercular drugs. The hepatoprotective activity was assessed using various biochemical parameters like aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatise and total bilirubin. Meanwhile, in-vivo antioxidant activities as lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase and catalase were measured in rat liver homogenate along with ATPase and G-6-Pase. The biochemical observations were supplemented by histopathological examination. Results: Obtained results demonstrated that treatment with I. carnea extracts significantly (P<0.05-P<0.001 and dose-dependently prevented drug induced increase in serum levels of hepatic enzymes. Furthermore, I. carnea extracts significantly (up to P<0.001 reduced the lipid peroxidation in the liver tissue and restored activities of defence antioxidant enzymes, reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase and catalase towards normal levels. Histopathology of the liver tissue showed that I. carnea extracts attenuated the hepatocellular necrosis, massive fatty changes and led to reduction in inflammatory cells infiltration. Conclusions: The results of this study strongly indicate the protective effect of I. carnea extracts against liver injury, which may be attributed to its hepatoprotective activity, and there by scientifically support its traditional use.

  13. Polimorfismo no padrão de manchas tegumentares de larvas e adultos de Ceraeochrysa caligata (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae e redescrição dos instares larvais Polymorphism in the pattern of integument markings of Ceraeochrysa caligata (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae larvae and adults and redescription of the larval instars

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    Gustavo G. Viana

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Ceraeochrysa caligata (Banks, 1945 is one of the several species of Ceraeochrysa Adams, 1982 that occur in agroecosystems of the Neotropical region and show potential for use in biological control programs. However, little is known about its biology, partly because of the poor status of the systematics of this group. To help in the identification of C. caligata and to contribute with additional characters for future phylogenetic studies with the genus, here we characterize the variations in relation to the pattern of integument markings originally described for the adults and larvae and redescribe the three larval instars, including characters not considered in the original description, especially the number of setae in the tubercles and somatic segments. We also present preliminary results regarding the nature of the variation in the pattern of adult markings.

  14. Eficiência de Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861(Neuroptera: Chrysopidae no controle de Myzus persicae (Sulzer, 1776 (Hemiptera: Aphididae em pimentão (Capsicum annum L. Efficiency of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae in the Myzus persicae (Sulzer, 1776 (Hemiptera: Aphididae population reduction in sweet pepper (Capsicum annum L.

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    Leonardo Rodrigues Barbosa

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a eficiência de larvas de primeiro ínstar de Chrysoperla externa no controle Myzus persicae em pimentão, em experimentos realizados em câmara e sala climatizadas a 25 ± 1ºC, UR de 70 ± 10% e fotofase de 12 horas. Larvas de C. externa recém-eclodidas foram liberadas em discos foliares, contendo 5; 10 ou 20 ninfas do afídeo, acondicionados em placas de Petri. Em um segundo experimento, larvas do predador foram liberadas nas proporções 1:5, 1:10 e 1:20, em plantas inoculadas com 60; 100 e 140 ninfas do pulgão. O potencial predatório de C. externa nos discos foliares foi influenciado pela densidade inicial do pulgão. A eficiência do predador nas densidades de 5; 10 e 20 pulgões foi de 100%; 96,7% e 79,3%, respectivamente. A eficiência das larvas em eliminar as populações do pulgão nas plantas de pimentão variou em função do tempo. Na proporção 1:5, a eliminação das ninfas ocorreu entre um e dois dias após a liberação do predador, enquanto nas proporções 1:10 e 1:20 o período de quatro dias não foi suficiente para que os pulgões fossem eliminados. As larvas de C. externa quando liberadas nas três proporções promoveram reduções na população de M. persicae, se comparada à testemunha. No entanto, nas proporções 1:5 e 1:10 o predador se mostrou mais eficiente.The efficiency of Chrysoperla externa first instar larvae in the control of Myzus persicae in sweet pepper was evaluated in experiments conducted in climatic chamber and room at 25 ± 1ºC, 70 ± 10% RH and 12h photophase. C. externa newly emerged larvae were released in sweet pepper foliar discs containing 5; 10 or 20 aphid nymphs, putted in Petri dishes. In a second experiment, predator larvae were released in 1:5, 1:10 and 1:20 proportions in sweet pepper plants inoculated with 60; 100 and 140 aphids nymphs. The C. externa predatory potential in the foliar discs was affected by aphid initial density. The predator efficiency in 5; 10 and 20 aphid densities was 100%; 96,7% and 79,3%, respectively. The larvae efficiency in eliminating aphids populations in sweet pepper plants range as a result of the time. In 1:5 proportion the nymphs elimination occurred between one and two days after the predator release, while in 1:10 and 1:20 proportions four days were not sufficient to the aphids elimination. C. externa larvae released in the three proportions promoted reductions in M. persicae population when compared to the control. The proportions 1:5 and 1:10 the predator was more efficient.

  15. Aspectos biológicos da fase adulta de Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae oriunda de larvas alimentadas com Planococcus citri (Risso, 1813 (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae Biological aspects of the adult stage of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae originating from the larvae fed Planococcus citri (Risso, 1813 (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae

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    Gerane Celly Dias Bezerra

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se estudar alguns aspectos biológicos da fase adulta de Chrysoperla externa (Hagen quando as larvas desse predador foram alimentadas com ninfas e fêmeas adultas de Planococcus citri (Risso. O experimento foi conduzido em câmara climatizada regulada a 25 ± 1 ºC, 70 ± 10% de UR e fotofase de 12 horas. Os adultos de C. externa cujas larvas foram alimentadas com ninfas nos três ínstares e fêmeas adultas da cochonilha, foram separados por sexo e 25 casais foram individualizados em gaiolas determinando-se a razão sexual, período de pré-oviposição, capacidade de oviposição diária e total durante 40 dias consecutivos, longevidade, período embrionário e viabilidade de ovos. Constatou-se que as ninfas nos três ínstares e fêmeas adultas fornecidas como alimento, não afetaram a razão sexual, período de pré-oviposição, período embrionário e longevidade dos adultos de C. externa. A produção diária e total de ovos por C. externa foi afetada pelo tipo de alimento fornecido ao predador durante a fase de larva, observando-se uma maior produção quando os casais foram alimentados na fase de larva com fêmeas adultas da cochonilha. Analisando-se a produção de ovos, observou-se uma maior concentração de oviposição nos primeiros dez dias do período reprodutivo, decrescendo nas avaliações seguintes. Foram obtidas porcentagens maiores de ovos viáveis e menores de inviáveis e inférteis, porém, não diferiram em função do alimento fornecido ao predador na fase de larva.It was aimed to study some biological aspects in the adult stage of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen when the larvae of predator were fed both nymphs and adult females of Planococcus citri (Risso. The experiment was conducted in climate chamber at 25 ± 1°C, 70 ± 10% of RH and 12-h photophase. The adults of C. externa whose larvae were fed nymphs at the three instars and adult females of mealybug were separated by sex and 25 couples were individualized in cages of PVC determining sex ratio, pre-oviposition period, daily and total oviposition for 40 days on end, longevity, embryonic period and survival rate of eggs. It was found that the nymphs at the three instars and adult females given as food did not affect sex ratio, pre-oviposition period, embryonic period and longevity of adults of C. externa. The daily and total egg production by C. externa was affected by the sort of food given to the predator during the larval stage, observing a greater production when the couples were fed at the larval stage with adults females of mealybug. By assessing egg production, a higher concentration of oviposition on the first ten days of the reproductive period was found, decreasing in the next evaluations. The survival rates of eggs not differ in function of feed in the different stages of development of prey that was consumed by differents predator larvae stage.

  16. Aspectos biológicos de Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae alimentada com Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius, 1889 biótipo B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae criada em três hospedeiros Biological aspects of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae fed on Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius, 1889 biotype B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae reared in three hosts

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    Cláudio Gonçalves Silva

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Estudaram-se alguns aspectos biológicos de adultos de Chrysoperla externa (Hagen oriundos de larvas alimentadas com ninfas da mosca-branca Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius biótipo B, criadas em folhas de pepino (Cucumis sativus var. caipira, couve (Brassica oleraceae var. acephala e na planta invasora leiteiro (Euphorbia heterophylla. Discos foliares dos hospedeiros contendo ninfas de terceiro e quarto estádios da mosca-branca foram acondicionados em placas de Petri contendo ágar-água a 1%. Em cada placa foi colocada uma larva de C. externa recém-eclodida, onde permaneceram até a emergência dos adultos. Foram avaliados o peso logo após a emergência, os períodos de pré-oviposição, oviposição, efetivo de oviposição, pós-oviposição, número total de ovos produzidos por fêmea e longevidade. Avaliaram-se, também, o período embrionário e a viabilidade dos ovos, coletando-se, uma vez por semana, uma amostra de 10% do total de ovos produzidos no dia, ao longo de todo o período reprodutivo. O peso de machos e fêmeas não diferiu significativamente em função do hospedeiro da presa, sendo em média de 4,7 mg. De maneira geral, adultos de C. externa oriundos de larvas alimentadas com ninfas de B. tabaci biótipo B criadas em leiteiro apresentaram performance inferior em relação àqueles oriundos do pepino e da couve. O período de oviposição foi, em média, de 49,5 dias para o pepino e a couve, e de 31,6 dias para o leiteiro. A produção de ovos foi reduzida em aproximadamente 50% em leiteiro, sendo de 293,8 ovos; no pepino e couve, a média foi de 591,3 ovos. Ninfas de B. tabaci biótipo B criadas em leiteiro causaram uma redução da viabilidade dos ovos de C. externa, que foi 62,8% e 57,7% inferior ao verificado para o pepino e a couve, respectivamente.The aim was to study some biological aspects of adults of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, from larvae fed on nymphs of third and fourth stages of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius biotype B, and reared on leaves of cucumber (Cucumis sativus, kale (Brassica oleracea and wild poinsettia (Euphorbia heterophylla. Leaf discs from the hosts containing third and fourth stage nymphs of whitefly, were placed in Petri dishes containing 1% agar. One recently hatched larvae of C. externa was placed in each dish, until adult emergence. The weight after emergence,eoviposition, oviposition, effective oviposition and postoviposition periods, the total number of eggs per female and longevity were evaluated. The embryonic period and the survival rate of the eggs were also recorded by collecting weekly samples of 10% of the daily egg production, throughout the reproductive period. The weights of males and females did not differ in relation to the hosts, the average being 4.7 mg. In general, adults of C. externa, coming from larvae fed on B. tabaci biotype B nymphs reared on leaves of the host wild poinsettia, had their biological characters affected, in comparison with those on leaves of cucumber and kale. The oviposition period averaged 49.5 days for cucumber and kale, and 31.6 days for wild poinsettia. Egg laying capacity was reduced by 50% on wild poinsettia, its being 293.8 eggs. In cucumber and kale, the average was 591.3 eggs. Nymphs of B. tabaci biotype B reared on wild poinsettia caused increase of the embrionic period and a reduction of the survival rate of the eggs, its being 62.8% and 57.7% lower than that presented by the ones reared on cucumber and kale, respectively.

  17. Toxicological and ultrastructural analysis of the impact of pesticides used in temperate fruit crops on two populations of Chrysoperla externa (Neuroptera, Chrysopidae Análises toxicológica e ultra-estrutural do impacto de agrotóxicos usados no cultivo de frutíferas de clima temperado sobre duas populações de Chrysoperla externa (Neuroptera, Chrysopidae

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    Alexandre Pinho de Moura

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effects of (g a.i. L-1 abamectin (0.02, carbaryl (1.73, sulphur (4.8, fenitrothion (0.75, methidathion (0.4, and trichlorfon (1.5 on the survival of larvae and pupae, on the oviposition of adults and hatching of eggs from treated Chrysoperla externa third-instar larvae from two different populations (Bento Gonçalves and Vacaria, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Morphological changes caused by abamectin to eggs laid by C. externa from Vacaria population were evaluated by mean of ultrastructural analysis. The pesticides were applied on glass plates. Distilled water was used as control. For the evaluation of larvae mortality, a fully randomized experimental design in a 2 x 7 (two populations x seven treatments factorial scheme was used, whereas for the effects of the compounds on oviposition capacity and egg viability, a 2 x 4 factorial scheme was used. Carbaryl, fenitrothion, and methidathion caused 100% mortality of larvae. Abamectin reduced the hatching of eggs from treated third-instar larvae of both populations; however, this pesticide presented highest toxicity on insects from Vacaria. The ultrastructural analysis showed that abamectin caused malformations in micropyle and in chorion external surface of C. externa eggs. Based in the total effect (E, carbaryl, fenitrothion, and methidathion are harmful to C. externa; trichlorfon is harmless to third-instar larvae, while abamectin and sulphur are harmless and slightly harmful to third-instar larvae from Bento Gonçalves and Vacaria, respectively.Avaliaram-se os efeitos de (g i.a. L-1 abamectina (0,02, carbaril (1,73, enxofre (4,8 fenitrotiona (0,75, metidationa (0,4 e triclorfom (1,5 sobre a sobrevivência de larvas e pupas, na oviposição de adultos e viabilidade de ovos de Chrysoperla externa de duas populações (Bento Gonçalves e Vacaria, Rio Grande do Sul. Alterações morfológicas causadas por abamectina em ovos depositados por C. externa da população de Vacaria foram avaliadas por meio de análises ultra-estruturais. Os agrotóxicos foram aplicados sobre placas de vidro. Água destilada foi utilizada como testemunha. Para avaliação da mortalidade de larvas utilizou-se delineamento experimental inteiramente ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 2 x 7 (duas populações x sete tratamentos e para avaliação dos efeitos dos compostos sobre a capacidade de oviposição e viabilidade de ovos utilizou-se esquema fatorial 2 x 4. Carbaril, fenitrotiona e metidationa causaram 100% de mortalidade das larvas. Abamectina reduziu a viabilidade de ovos de C. externa, provenientes de larvas de terceiro ínstar de ambas as populações; entretanto, apresentou toxicidade mais elevada sobre insetos de Vacaria. Análises ultra-estruturais evidenciaram que abamectina causou deformações na micrópila e na superfície externa do córion de ovos de C. externa. Baseando-se no efeito total (E, carbaril, fenitrotiona e metidationa são prejudiciais a C. externa; triclorfom é inócuo, enquanto abamectina e enxofre são inócuos e levemente prejudiciais a larvas de terceiro ínstar oriundas de Bento Gonçalves e Vacaria, respectivamente.

  18. Consumo de Uroleucon ambrosiae (Thomas, 1878 (Hemiptera: Aphididae por larvas de Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae em casa-de-vegetação Consumption of Uroleucon ambrosiae (Thomas, 1878 (Hemiptera: Aphididae BY Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae larvae in greenhouse

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    Alexander M. Auad

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Com esta pesquisa objetivou-se verificar o consumo de Uroleucon ambrosiae em diferentes densidades, por larvas de Chrysoperla externa provenientes de diferentes regimes alimentares, em casa-de-vegetação. Ninfas de 3º e 4º ínstares do afídeo foram separadas nas densidades 30, 40 e 50, e colocadas nas plantas de alface (35 dias de idade, as quais, foram envolvidas por gaiola de armação de ferro de 27x27x26 cm cobertas com tecido “voil” e acoplada nos tubos de PVC do cultivo hidropônico. Quatro horas após, uma larva de C. externa, de diferentes ínstares e previamente alimentadas com U. ambrosiae ou ovos de Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier, 1819, foi liberada próximo à colônia de afídeos, sendo a gaiola fechada imediatamente; o mesmo procedimento foi adotado sem que a larva fosse confinada. Após quarenta e oito horas, realizou-se a contagem do número de afídeos consumidos em cada densidade de presa disponível. A eficiência do predador, confinado em gaiola, foi de 12,46%, 13,63% e 25,76% para larvas de 1º, 2º e 3º ínstares previamente alimentadas com ovos de S. cerealella; 9,59% e 17,63% para aquelas de 2º e 3º ínstares alimentadas anteriormente com ninfas de U. ambrosiae, respectivamente e de 18,62% para larvas de 3º ínstar previamente alimentadas com ovos do lepidóptero no 1º ínstar e ninfas dos afídeos no 2º instar; no entanto, para larvas não confinadas, não foram verificadas diferenças significativas na eficiência. Nas densidades de 40 e 50 afídeos, as porcentagens de predação (18,30 e 18,72, respectivamente foram significativamente superiores quando comparada à densidade 30 (11,79; para testes sem confinamento, não houve influência da densidade da presa na resposta do predador. Assim, o alimento fornecido às larvas de C. externa antes de serem liberadas em casa-de-vegetação, o confinamento das mesmas e a densidade de U. ambrosiae disponível influenciaram o potencial de consumo do predador.The objective of this research was to evaluate the consumption of Uroleucon ambrosiae in different densities by Chrysoperla externa larvae derived from different alimentary regimes, in greenhouse conditions. The 3rd and 4th instars nymphs of the aphid were separated in the densities 30, 40, 50 and put on the lettuce plants (35 days old which were kepted in a voil cage of 27x27x26 cm connected to the PVC tube used for hydroponic cultivation. After four hours, one larva of C. externa previously fed with U. ambrosiae or eggs of Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier, 1819 was released near the aphid colony, with the lettuce plant being immediately covered. The same procedure was adopted without confinement of the larvae. The different instars of C. externa were evaluated, through counting of the aphids after forty eight hours. The efficiencies of the predator, confined in a cage, were 12.46, 13.63 and 25.76% for 1st, 2nd and 3th instars which were previously fed with eggs of S. cerealella. For 2nd and 3rd instar larvae fed with aphids, the efficiencies were 9.59 and 17.63%, respectively. Efficiency was 18.62% for 3th instar larvae fed previously with eggs of the lepidopterous in the 1st instar and with nymphs of aphids in the 2nd ínstar.However, for larvae without confinement, there were no differences among the instars or alimentary regimes. In the densities of 40 and 50 aphids, the percentages of predation (18.3 and 18.72, respectively were significantly superior as compared with density 30 (11.79. There was no influence of density of prey in response to predator in the experiments without confinement. Thus, the food provided to C. externa larvae before releasing into a greenhouse, their confinement and available density of U. ambrosiae influenced the potential of consumption of the predator.

  19. Seletividade de Lecanicillium lecanii e Metarhizium anisopliae para larvas de primeiro ínstar de Ceraeochrysa cincta (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae em laboratório = Selectivicty of Lecanicillium lecanii and Metarhizium anisopliae for Ceraeochrysa cincta first instar larvae (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae in laboratory

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    Eliane Ribeiro Cardoso

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a seletividade dos fungos Lecanicillium lecanii e Metarhizium anisopliae para larvas de Ceraeochrysa cincta, utilizando-se a aplicação por imersão e aaplicação em bases de vidro, formando filme seco (IOBC modificado. Nos dois métodos, foram aplicados os tratamentos: 1 - L. lecanii; 2 - M. anisopliae - 2.1x107 conídios viáveis mL-1; 3 - solução de Tween 80® a 0,05% como testemunha. Avaliou-se a mortalidade, duração médiado período larval, fecundidade e a viabilidade dos ovos. Todos os insetos mortos foram submetidos à assepsia, para confirmação da mortalidade causada pelo fungo. Em ambos os bioensaios, as mortalidades confirmadas pelos fungos foram iguais a zero. No filme seco o efeito total dos fungos sobre o predador foi classificado como pouco nocivo de acordo com as categorias propostas pelo método IOBC. L. lecanii e M. anisopliae não afetaram a viabilidade dos ovos de C. cincta, quando aplicados por imersão. Na concentração que foi estabelecida para a realização dos bioensaios, os fungos entomopatogênicos L. lecanii e M. anisopliae foram seletivos para larvas de 1o ínstar de C. cincta.This paper aimed to evaluate the selectivity of the fungi Lecanicillium lecanii and Metarhizium anisopliae for Ceraeochrysa cincta. Two bioassays were developed: 1st application of dry filmproposed by the International Organization for Biological Control IOBC (modified - they were applied in glass bases, forming dry film. 2nd immersion application. In the two methods, the following treatments were applied: 1- watery suspension of L. lecanii; 2- the same for M. anisopliae (both at 2.1x107 viable conidia mL-1; and 3- Tween 80® 0.05% watery solution. The larvae mortality, the average duration of the larvae period, the females fecundity and the eggsviability were evaluated. All the dead insects were submitted to asepsis to confirm the mortality caused by the fungi. In both bioassays, the mortality caused by the fungi was not verified. In the bioassay dry film, the fungi total effect on the predator was classified as not very harmful according to the categories proposed by the IOBC method. L. lecanii and M. anisopliae did not affect the viability of C. cincta eggs, when applied by immersion. In theestablished concentration for the accomplishment of the bioassays, entomopatogenic fungi L. lecanii and M. anisopliae were selective for first instar larvae of C. cincta.

  20. Efeito da escassez de alimento no desenvolvimento pós-embrionário e no potencial reprodutivo de Chrysoperla externa (Hagen (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae em laboratório Effect of food shortage on the post-embryonic development and reproductive potential of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae in the laboratory

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    Marina Robles Angelini

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available As conseqüências da escassez alimentar no período pós-embrionário e potencial reprodutivo de Chrysoperla externa (Hagen em laboratório foram avaliadas. Larvas de 1.°, 2.º e 3.° ínstares receberam alimento apenas no 1.°, 2.º ou 3.° dia após a ecdise. Nos períodos em que antecederam ou sucederam os testes com os respectivos ínstares, as larvas receberam uma, duas e três unidades de alimentação (UA a cada dois dias para o 1.°, 2.º e 3.° ínstares, respectivamente. Cada UA constou de um disco de cartolina contendo ovos de Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae. Diariamente, avaliou-se a viabilidade nos diferentes ínstares, da fase larval e pupal, assim como os períodos de pré-oviposição e oviposição, o número e a viabilidade de ovos. A escassez de alimento durante o 1.° ínstar pode ser suprida no decorrer do desenvolvimento larval. Entretanto, as larvas precisam encontrar alimento nas primeiras 48 horas de vida, pois a viabilidade nesse ínstar foi decrescendo com a ausência de alimento, podendo ocorrer 100% de mortalidade quando as larvas não se alimentam em até 48 horas após a eclosão. Os períodos de pré-oviposição e oviposição, assim como a fecundidade, não foram influenciados pela escassez de alimento durante o 1.° ínstar larval. Durante os 2.° e 3.° ínstares larvais, C. externa necessita de alimentação rica em proteína, pois a ingestão de apenas água e açúcares nesses estádios ocasionou alta mortalidade. Entretanto, a fecundidade e viabilidade dos ovos não foram afetadas pela escassez de alimento nesses ínstares.The consequences of food shortage on the post-embryonic development and reproductive potential of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen in the laboratory were evaluated. First, second, and third instar larvae received only food on the 1.st, 2.nd, or 3.rd day after ecdysis. During the periods that preceded or followed the tests in the corresponding instars, the larvae received one, two, and three feeding units (FU at every two days for the 1.st, 2.nd, and 3.rd instars, respectively. Each FU consisted of a cardstock disc containing Sitotroga cerealella eggs (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae. Daily evaluations included survival in the different instars and in the larval and pupal stages, as well as the pre-oviposition and oviposition periods, plus number and viability of eggs. The results showed that food shortage during the 1st instar could be offset during larval development. However, the larvae must find food in their first 48 hours of age, because survival in that instar gradually decreased in the absence of food, and 100% mortality may occur when the larvae do not feed until 48 hours after hatching. The pre-oviposition and oviposition periods, as well as fecundity, were not influenced by food shortage during the 1st larval instar. C. externa larvae require a protein-rich diet during the 2.nd and 3.rd instars, since the ingestion of water and sugars alone during these stages caused high larval mortality. However, fecundity and egg viability were not affected by food shortage during the studied instars.

  1. Post-embryonic development of Ceraeochrysa cincta (Schneider, 1851 (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae fed with eggs of Diatraea saccharallis (Fabricius, 1794 (Lepidoptera: CrambidaeDesenvolvimento pós-embrionário de Ceraeochrysa cincta (Schneider, 1851 (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae alimentada com ovos de Diatraea saccharallis (Fabricius, 1794 (Lepidoptera: Crambidae

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    Luis Gustavo Amorim Pessoa

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The lacewings (Ceraeochrysa cincta are important predators found associated to many pests in several agroecosystems. Eggs of Sitotroga cerealella and Anagasta kuehniella are used traditionally for massal rearing of these predators. Other foods can be used in substitution to the traditional ones, but little is known about the biology of lacewings and other alternative foods. So, this work was carried out to evaluate the effect of different diets on the post-embryonic development of C. cincta in laboratory. After been individualized in glass tubes, each larva was fed with S. cereallella and Diatraea saccharallis. It was evaluated the larvae duration, weight and viability in each instar, the duration, weight and viability of the pupa and pre-pupa stages and the duration of the post-embryonic period. It was adopted a completely randomized design with ten replications per treatment, each consisting of five eggs or larvae of C. cincta. Larvae were weighed 48 hours after hatching and 48 hours after each molt, and pre-pupae and pupae, 48 hours after starting these stages. There was no effect of the kind of food provided on the parameters evaluated. Therefore, D. saccharallis eggs can be used to feed C. cincta.Os crisopídeos são importantes predadores encontrados associados a diversos artrópodes-praga em diversos agroecossistemas. Para a criação massal desses predadores são utilizados tradicionalmente ovos de Sitotroga cerealella e de Anagasta kuehniella. Outros alimentos podem ser utilizados em substituição aos tradicionais, mas pouco se conhece sobre a biologia de crisopídeos e outros alimentos alternativos. Assim, este trabalho objetivou verificar o efeito de diferentes dietas sobre o desenvolvimento pós-embrionário dessa espécie em laboratório. Após a individualização em tubos de vidro, cada larva foi alimentada com ovos de S. cerealella e Diatraea saccharallis. Avaliou-se a duração, o peso e a viabilidade das larvas em cada ínstar, a duração o peso e viabilidade das fases de pré-pupa e pupa e a duração do período pós-embrionário. Adotou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com dez repetições por tratamento, cada uma constituída por cinco ovos ou larvas de C. cincta. As larvas foram pesadas 48 horas após a eclosão e 48 horas após cada ecdise, e as pré-pupas e pupas, 48 horas após iniciarem esses estágios Não houve interferência do tipo de alimento fornecido sobre os parâmetros avaliados. Desta forma, ovos de D. saccharallis podem ser utilizados para alimentação de C. cincta.

  2. Effect of different artificial diets on the biology of adult green lacewing (Chrysoperla carnea Stephens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sana Ullah Khan Khattak

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Chrysoperla carnea (Green lacewing is voracious predator of insect eggs and varieties of soft-bodied arthropods such as caterpilllars, aphids, jassids and mealy bugs. It is currently mass-reared and used in biological control of insect pests. Experiments were conducted to find out a better and cheaper artificial diet for mass-rearing of adult C. carnea. Three adult diets were tested in the laboratory conditions in comparison with standard diet; that was mixture of yeast extract, casein, honey, sugar and distilled water. Parameters were fecundity, larval period, pupal period and adult longevity. The results revealed that the mixture of egg yolk, milk and honey was better than all other diets.

  3. Experimental intoxication of guinea pigs with Ipomoea carnea: behavioural and neuropathological alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholich, Luciana A; Márquez, Mercedes; Pumarola i Batlle, Martí; Gimeno, Eduardo J; Teibler, Gladys P; Rios, Elvio E; Acosta, Ofelia C

    2013-12-15

    Ipomoea carnea is a toxic plant that affects goats, with symptoms being characterised by nervous disorders and death. Swainsonine and calystegines are the principal toxic components isolated from I. carnea, which also yields lysergic acid derivatives. The aim of this study was to improve the clinical characterisation of experimental intoxication by I. carnea in guinea pigs through the evaluation of behavioural changes and to perform a thorough histopathological analysis of the affected CNS. Leaves of I. carnea were administered to guinea pigs. Open-field gait analysis and monoamine levels were measured. The poisoned animals exhibited increased vocalisation, lethargy, and a reduction in the locomotion frequency after the fourth week of intoxication, as demonstrated in the open-field test. Significant differences were observed in hind-limb gait width by the last week of intoxication. After 65 days, the guinea pigs were euthanised, necropsied, and examined using light and electron microscopy. At the end of the experiment, plasma serotonin decreased. In contrast, dopamine decreased, and noradrenaline increased in urine. Brain sections were evaluated with conventional histological methods and immunohistochemistry (IHC), as well as by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Vacuoles were observed throughout the brain, but they were particularly prominent in the brainstem. In addition, there were PAS-negative regions, and the Nissl substance was dispersed or absent, which was confirmed with the Kluver-Barreda stain. Moderate microgliosis was observed by immunohistochemistry. In the medulla oblongata, numerous ubiquitin-positive spheroids together with neuronal degeneration were observed in the nucleus gracilis/cuneatus. Furthermore, vacuoles were observed in astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and endothelial cells by TEM. Our results showed that the behavioural effects may have been caused by alterations in the brain in conjunction with changes in monoamine levels. This

  4. Effect of some insecticides on acetylcholinesterase from beneficial insects: Coccinella septempunctata, Chrysoperla carnea and Forficula auricularia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozsik, Andras; Francis, Frédéric; Gaspar, Charles; Haubruge, Eric

    2002-01-01

    In vitro enzyme activity of head homogenates from adults of Coccinella septempunctata, Chrysoperla carnea and Forficula auricularia originated from different habitats in Belgium (wheat, barley, rye, set-aside fields and experimental orchard, uncultivated area) were investigated in presence of insecticide active ingredients. Using the procedure of Ellman, I50 (M) and Ki (M-1 min-1) values were established. The beneficial insects showed the least susceptibility to diazinon and the differences between their measured values were not remarkable. Paraoxon was extremely toxic to the AChE of F. auricularia but Ch. carnea and C. septempunctata were similarly more tolerant to this organophosphate. In the case of malaoxon earwig and green lacewing AChEs were much more sensitive than AChE of the ladybird beetle. Measuring the carbaryl inhibition, F. auricularia was the least tolerant. The susceptibility of ladybird AChE differed highly from that of both species. According to the measured values, the green lacewing was less tolerant than the ladybird beetle but more tolerant compared with the common earwig. Summarizing our biochemical results, the order of susceptibility of beneficial insects to insecticides investigated was the following F. auricularia > Ch. carnea > C. septempunctata.

  5. Phylogeographic Investigations of the Widespread, Arid-Adapted Antlion Brachynemurus sackeni Hagen (Neuroptera: Myrmeleontidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Joseph S.; Williams, Kevin A.; Gunnell, Clayton F.; Pitts, James P.

    2010-01-01

    Several recent studies investigating patterns of diversification in widespread desert-adapted vertebrates have associated major periods of genetic differentiation to late Neogene mountain-building events; yet few projects have addressed these patterns in widespread invertebrates. We examine phylogeographic patterns in the widespread antlion species Brachynemurus sackeni Hagen (Neuroptera: Myrmeleontidae) using a region of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase I (COI). We then use a mole...

  6. Health and environmental risk assessment of the larvae Chrysoperla Carnea for use as a plant protection product

    OpenAIRE

    Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety

    2014-01-01

    Gulløyelarver (green lacewing larvae, Chrysoperla carnea) is a product for biological control. The application is for use against aphids in green-houses and tunnels. Gulløyelarver was used in Norway from 1985-1993. An assessment in 2001 concluded, however, that the use of products with Chrysoperla carnea could represent an environmental risk since it was not known if the species in the products were the same as the ones with natural occurrence in Scandinavia. In this regard, The Norwegian ...

  7. Micromorphology of the floral nectary of red horse chestnut (Aesculus ×carnea Hayne

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    Elżbieta Weryszko-Chmielewska

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In Europe Aesculus ×carnea Hayne is planted in cities as an avenue tree. Compared to A. hippocastanum L., it is more drought resistant, but less resistant to low temperatures. A. ×carnea is a lower tree than A. hippocastanum and develops a smaller corolla. It produces dark green, shiny and crinkled leaves. Its flowers have different colours, from bright pink to carmine red. The nectary glands secrete nectar abundantly. Due to the long corolla tube, nectar is difficult to reach for bees. The aim of this study was to investigate the topography and micromorphology of the nectaries of A. ×carnea using scanning electron microscopy. The study shows that the nectary gland of red horse chestnut forms an incomplete ring around the base of the staminal filaments, surrounding only four stamens out of the seven that occur in the flower. Three stamens are outside the nectary. In its widest place, the nectary diameter reaches 2.7 mm. Three expanded portions of the gland can bee seen in the marginal part of the nectary, adjoining the petals. The part of the nectary adjacent to the filaments forms a convex protrusion with a wavy appearance (shape, which results from the vicinity of the filaments. Nectar is secreted through numerous stomata located beneath the convex part of the nectary. The stoma length is 21.7 μm, while the width 23.3 μm. In the material examined, most stomata had open pores. Secretion was observed in many places. The stomata were surrounded by 6-7 guard cells; this allows them to be classified as the cyclocytic type. The cells of the stomatal complex were raised above the surface of the other epidermal cells. The walls of the guard cells and of the adjacent epidermal cells were covered by a cuticle with irregular striation.

  8. Singing from the grave: DNA from a 180 year old type specimen confirms the identity of Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Ben W; Henry, Charles S; Hall, Andie C; Mochizuki, Atsushi; Duelli, Peter; Brooks, Stephen J

    2015-01-01

    Historically serving as repositories for morphologically-based taxonomic research, natural history collections are now increasingly being targeted in studies utilizing DNA data. The development of advanced molecular techniques has facilitated extraction of useable DNA from old specimens, including type material. Sequencing diagnostic molecular markers from type material enables accurate species designation, especially where modern taxonomic hypotheses confirm morphologically cryptic species complexes. One such example is Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens), which belongs to a complex of about 20 cryptic species, most of which can only be reliably distinguished by their pre-mating courtship songs or by DNA analysis. The subtle morphological variation in the group has led to disagreement over the previous designation of the lectotype for C. carnea, an issue that has been further compounded because Chrysoperla carnea is a highly valued biological control agent in arable crops. Archival DNA extraction and sequencing from the 180 year old lectotype specimen, combined with Bayesian and Likelihood based phylogenetic analyses of modern specimens from the entire complex, were used to establish unambiguously the true identity of Chrysoperla carnea.

  9. Singing from the grave: DNA from a 180 year old type specimen confirms the identity of Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben W Price

    Full Text Available Historically serving as repositories for morphologically-based taxonomic research, natural history collections are now increasingly being targeted in studies utilizing DNA data. The development of advanced molecular techniques has facilitated extraction of useable DNA from old specimens, including type material. Sequencing diagnostic molecular markers from type material enables accurate species designation, especially where modern taxonomic hypotheses confirm morphologically cryptic species complexes. One such example is Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens, which belongs to a complex of about 20 cryptic species, most of which can only be reliably distinguished by their pre-mating courtship songs or by DNA analysis. The subtle morphological variation in the group has led to disagreement over the previous designation of the lectotype for C. carnea, an issue that has been further compounded because Chrysoperla carnea is a highly valued biological control agent in arable crops. Archival DNA extraction and sequencing from the 180 year old lectotype specimen, combined with Bayesian and Likelihood based phylogenetic analyses of modern specimens from the entire complex, were used to establish unambiguously the true identity of Chrysoperla carnea.

  10. Abundancia de juveniles y crecimiento de Pinna carnea (Mytiloida: Pinnacea en cultivo suspendido

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    N Narváez

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la abundancia de juveniles de Pinna carnea, el crecimiento y su relación con factores ambientales en cultivo suspendido en Turpialito, Golfo de Cariaco, Venezuela. La abundancia se determinó usando colectores suspendidos a 8 m de profundidad en "long line" durante 16 meses. El crecimiento se determinó en cestas de cultivo en un "long line" a 8 m de profundidad y la temperatura y disponibilidad de alimento fueron registrados durante 15 meses. Todos los componentes del cuerpo se incrementaron rápidamente durante los primeros cuatro-cinco meses, posteriormente la masa de todos los tejidos somáticos muestran disminución y gran variabilidad en el crecimiento, coincidiendo con el primer período de desove, lo cual sugiere una influencia negativa de la gametogénesis en el crecimiento somático. Un análisis de regresión múltiple indicó una alta relación del crecimiento y la disponibilidad de alimento. Aunque se determinó una adecuada abundancia de juveniles (máximo 80 por colector-30x60 cm, la recolecta no fue continua. Esta característica, junto con la alta variabilidad del crecimiento y la influencia negativa de los factores ambientales en períodos desfavorables, además de la obtención de músculos de talla comercial en 14 meses, sugieren que la especie no es apropiada para la producción de músculos. Sin embargo, la elevada masa total de sus tejidos comestibles (21 g y la alta sobrevivencia (96%, sugieren a P. carnea para ser cultivada.We quantified the abundance of juvenile Pinna carnea at Turpialito, Golfo de Cariaco, Venezuela, using collectors suspended at 8 m depth for 16 months and then evaluated their subsequent growth in suspended enclosures over 14 months in relation to concurrent measures of temperature and planktontonic food availability. All body components showed a rapid increase during the first four-five months. There was a decrease in somatic tissue mass and great variability in growth coincident at first

  11. Myrmeleon almohadarum sp. nov., from Spain and North Africa, with description of the larva (Neuroptera Myrmeleontidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badano, Davide; Acevedo, Fernando; Pantaleoni, Roberto A; Monserrat, Víctor J

    2016-11-22

    A new antlion (Neuroptera Myrmeleontidae Myrmeleontini), Myrmeleon almohadarum  sp. nov., is described from southern Spain and Tunisia. The new taxon is closely related  to the mostly sympatric M. inconspicuus Rambur and M. mariaemathildae Pantaleoni, Cesaroni & Nicoli Aldini but differing in body pattern, wing venation and larval chaetotaxy. The validity of the new species is also supported by a phylogenetic analysis based on COI sequences. The larva of this new species is described and compared with congeners. M. almohadarum appears to be associated with sandy environments.

  12. Lack of detrimental effects of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry toxins on the insect predator Chrysoperla carnea: a toxicological, histopathological, and biochemical analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigo-Simón, A.; Maagd, de R.A.; Avilla, C.; Bakker, P.L.; Molthoff, J.W.; González-Zamora, J.; Ferré, J.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of Cry proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis on the green lacewing (Chrysoperla carnea) was studied by using a holistic approach which consisted of independent, complementary experimental strategies. Tritrophic experiments were performed, in which lacewing larvae were fed Helicoverpa

  13. Intoxicação espontânea por Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa (Convolvulaceae em bovinos no Pantanal Matogrossense Spontaneous Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa (Convolvulaceae poisoning of cattle in the Brazilian Pantanal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia A.B. Antoniassi

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se a intoxicação espontânea por Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa (canudo, algodoeiro em bovinos no Pantanal Matogrossense. As investigações iniciaram após a morte de 12 bovinos, de um rebanho de 500 animais, criados em uma extensa área intensamente infestada por I. carnea subsp. fistulosa com escassa disponibilidade de outra forragem. As mortes ocorreram entres os meses de junho e setembro de 2006. O quadro clínico foi caracterizado por emagrecimento e sinais neurológicos com dificuldade locomotora. Um bovino foi necropsiado sem que se observassem alterações macroscópicas significativas. Histologicamente havia tumefação e vacuolização celular, em neurônios, células acinares pancreáticas, tubulares renais e foliculares da tireóide. Bovinos com quadro clínico similar foram retirados da área invadida por I. carnea subsp. fistulosa e colocadas em áreas com pastagem nativa e de Brachiaria sp. e apresentaram melhora clínica após período de 15 dias.A spontaneous Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa (canudo, algodoeiro poisoning of cattle in the county of Poconé, Brazilian Pantanal, is reported. The investigation began after 12 cattle had died from a flock of 500 animals maintained in an extensive area intensely infested by I. carnea subsp. fistulosa with scarce availability of other fodder plants. The deaths occurred from June to September of 2006. Clinical signs were loss of weight and neurological deficits with hypermetry and incoordination. No significant gross lesions were observed at postmortem examination of one bovine. Histological changes comprised widespread cytoplasmic vacuolation of neurons, cells of the thyroid, kidney and pancreas. Cattle with similar clinical picture, that had been removed from the area invaded by I. carnea subsp. fistulosa and placed into areas with native and Brachiaria sp. pasture, recovered clinically within 15 days.

  14. A first higher-level time-calibrated phylogeny of antlions (Neuroptera: Myrmeleontidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Bruno; Clamens, Anne-Laure; Béthoux, Olivier; Kergoat, Gael J; Condamine, Fabien L

    2017-02-01

    In this study, we reconstruct the first time-calibrated phylogeny of the iconic antlion family, the Myrmeleontidae (Neuroptera: Myrmeleontiformia). We use maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference to analyse a molecular dataset based on seven mitochondrial and nuclear gene markers. The dataset encompasses 106 species of Neuroptera, including 94 antlion species. The resulting phylogenetic framework provides support for a myrmeleontid classification distinguishing four subfamilies: Acanthaclisinae, Myrmeleontinae, Palparinae, and Stilbopteryginae. Within Myrmeleontinae, Myrmecaelurini and Nemoleontini are recovered as monophyletic clades; Gepini also appears as a valid tribe, distinct from Myrmecaelurini whereas Myrmecaelurini and Nesoleontini on one hand and Brachynemurini and Dendroleontini on the other hand, appear closely related. Some preliminary information related to generic and specific levels are also implied from our results, such as the paraphyly of several genera. Dating analyses based on thoroughly evaluated fossil calibrations indicate that the antlion family likely originated in the Cretaceous, between 135 and 138 million years ago (depending on the set of fossil calibrations), and that all higher-level lineages appeared during the Early Cretaceous. This first phylogenetic hypothesis will provide a valuable basis to further expand the taxonomic coverage and molecular sampling, and to lay the foundations of future systematic revisions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Alien vs. Predator - the native lacewing Chrysoperla carnea is the superior intraguild predator in trials against the invasive ladybird Harmonia axyridis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nedvěd, Oldřich; Fois, X.; Ungerová, D.; Kalushkov, P.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 1 (2013), s. 73-78 ISSN 1721-8861 Grant - others:Mze ČR(CZ) QH82047 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Coccinellidae * Chrysopidae * Syrphidae Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.722, year: 2013 http://www.bulletinofinsectology.org/pdfarticles/vol66-2013-073-078nedved.pdf

  16. Phylogeographic Investigations of the Widespread, Arid-Adapted Antlion Brachynemurus sackeni Hagen (Neuroptera: Myrmeleontidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph S. Wilson

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Several recent studies investigating patterns of diversification in widespread desert-adapted vertebrates have associated major periods of genetic differentiation to late Neogene mountain-building events; yet few projects have addressed these patterns in widespread invertebrates. We examine phylogeographic patterns in the widespread antlion species Brachynemurus sackeni Hagen (Neuroptera: Myrmeleontidae using a region of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase I (COI. We then use a molecular clock to estimate divergence dates for the major lineages. Our analyses resulted in a phylogeny that shows two distinct lineages, both of which are likely distinct species. This reveals the first cryptic species-complex in Myrmeleontidae. The genetic split between lineages dates to about 3.8–4.7 million years ago and may be associated with Neogene mountain building. The phylogeographic pattern does not match patterns found in other taxa. Future analyses within this species-complex may uncover a unique evolutionary history in this group.

  17. Cannibalism among Myrmeleon brasiliensis larvae (Návas, 1914 (Neuroptera, Myrmeleontidae

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    Tatiane do Nascimento Lima

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cannibalism is influenced by various intrinsic and extrinsic factors of the population, such as density, population structure, prey availability, habitat structure and famine. These factors acting either independently or in synergy determine the frequency of cannibalism. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the effect of density and food availability on the occurrence of cannibalism among Myrmeleon brasiliensis larvae (Neuroptera, Myrmeleontidae. In the present study, the occurrence of cannibalism among M. brasiliensis larvae was greater in the treatments that simulated an absence of food in situations of both high and low density. The search for food makes a larva move about to forage, thereby increasing the risk of falling into the trap of a neighboring larva. Thus, the cannibalistic behavior of M. brasiliensis larvae may be associated with opportunity rather than a direct attempt to pray on the same species.

  18. Insect mitochondrial genomics 3: the complete mitochondrial genome sequences of representatives from two neuropteroid orders: a dobsonfly (order Megaloptera) and a giant lacewing and an owlfly (order Neuroptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckenbach, Andrew T; Stewart, James Bruce

    2009-01-01

    We describe the complete mitochondrial genomes from representatives of two orders of the Neuropterida: a dobsonfly, Corydalus cornutus (Megaloptera: Corydalidae, GenBank Accession No. FJ171323), a giant lacewing Polystoechotes punctatus (Neuroptera: Polystoechotidae, FJ171325), and an owlfly, Ascaloptynx appendiculatus (Neuroptera: Ascalaphidae, FJ171324). The dobsonfly sequence is 15,687 base pairs with a major noncoding (A+T rich) region of approximately 967 bp. The gene content and organization of the dobsonfly is identical to that of most insects. The giant lacewing sequence is 16 036 bp with a major noncoding region of about 1123 bp, while the owlfly sequence is 15,877 bp with a major noncoding region of about 1066 bp. The two Neuroptera sequences include a transposition of two tRNA genes, tRNATrp and tRNACys. These tRNA genes are coded on opposite strands and overlap by seven residues in the standard insect mitochondrial gene arrangement. Thus, the transposition required a duplication of at least the region of overlap. It is likely that the transposition occurred by a duplication of both genes followed by deletion of one copy of each gene. Examination of this region in two other neuropteroid species, a snakefly, Agulla sp. (Raphidioptera: Raphidiidae), and an antlion, Myrmeleon immaculatus (Neuroptera: Myrmeleontidae), shows that the rearrangement is widespread in the order Neuroptera but not present in either of the other two orders of Neuropterida.

  19. Ocorrência e flutuação populacional de Chrysopidae (Neuroptera em áreas de plantio de Pinus taeda (L. (Pinaceae no sul do Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cardoso Josiane Teresinha

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The lacewings are very voracious predators of aphids. The objective of this research was to evaluate the occurrence of adult chrysopids in areas of Pinus reforestation where the giant conifer aphid Cinara spp. (Hemiptera: Aphididae is causing severe damages. A total of 47 specimens were collected during one year and identified as: Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861, Leucochrysa (Nodita intermedia (Scheneir, 1851 and Leucochrysa (Nodita vieirana (Navás, 1913. The captures in the area where the plants were one year old represented about 75% of the adults probably due to the high Cinara infestation on the trees in this area. The chrysopids were recorded mostly during the summer, possibly influenced by temperature.

  20. Evaluación de la tolerancia y susceptibilidad a insecticidas convencionales y biorracionales en Chrysoperla externa y C. asoralis (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Haramboure, Marina

    2016-01-01

    El Manejo Integrado de Plagas (MIP) es un sistema de toma de decisiones para la selección de estrategias de manera armoniosa para el control de artrópodos fitófagos. Este manejo se basa en el análisis del costo/beneficio, teniendo en cuenta los intereses y el impacto en los productores, la sociedad y el medio ambiente. Entre las diferentes estrategias implementadas por el MIP, se encuentran: el control cultural (métodos mecánicos de labranza, manejo de suelos, rotación de cultivos, etc.), el ...

  1. Interventricular comparison of the energetics of contraction of trabeculae carneae isolated from the rat heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, June-Chiew; Taberner, Andrew J; Nielsen, Poul M F; Loiselle, Denis S

    2013-02-01

    We compare the energetics of right ventricular and left ventricular trabeculae carneae isolated from rat hearts. Using our work-loop calorimeter, we subjected trabeculae to stress-length work (W), designed to mimic the pressure-volume work of the heart. Simultaneous measurement of heat production (Q) allowed calculation of the accompanying change of enthalpy (H = W + Q). From the mechanical measurements (i.e. stress and change of length), we calculated work, shortening velocity and power. In combination with heat measurements, we calculated activation heat (Q(A)), crossbridge heat (Q(xb)) and two measures of cardiac efficiency: 'mechanical efficiency' ((mech) = W/H) and 'crossbridge efficiency' ((xb) = W/(H - Q(A))). With respect to their left ventricular counterparts, right venticular trabeculae have higher peak shortening velocity, and higher peak mechanical efficiency, but with no difference of stress development, twitch duration, work performance, shortening power or crossbridge efficiency. That is, the 35% greater maximum mechanical efficiency of right venticular than left ventricular trabeculae (13.6 vs. 10.2%) is offset by the greater metabolic cost of activation (Q(A)) in the latter. When corrected for this difference, crossbridge efficiency does not differ between the ventricles.

  2. [Effects of Beauveria bassiana on Myzus persicae and its two predaceous natural enemies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hong; Luo, Xu-mei; Song, Jin-xin; Fan, Mei-zhen; Li, Zeng-zhi

    2011-09-01

    A Beauveria bassiana strain Bb21 was isolated from naturally infected green peach aphid Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae). The effects of the strain on M. persicae and its two predaceous natural enemies Chrysoperla carnea (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) and Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) were investigated under laboratory conditions. Bb21 had strong pathogenicity to M. persicae, with the LD50 of 97 conidia x mm(-2) (45-191, 95% confidence interval), but was less pathogenic to the second instar nymph of C. carnea, with the LD50 of 1089 conidia x mm(-2). The LD50 for C. carnea was 10.2 times higher than that for M. persicae. The pathogenicity of Bb21 to H. axyridis was very weak, with a low infection rate of 13% even at a high concentration 5 x 10(8) conidia x mL(-1). The Bb21 at low conidia concentration had less effect on the developmental period and fecundity of the two predaceous natural enemies. However, when applied at the high concentration 5 x 10(8) spores x mL(-1), Bb21 shortened the larval stage of H. axyridis averagely by 1.4 d and decreased the adult emergence rate and fecundity by 33% and 14%, respectively, and shortened the larval stage of C. carnea averagely by 0.7 d and decreased the adult emergence rate and fecundity by 24% and 11%, respectively. Since the LD50 for green peach aphid was much lower than that for the two predaceous natural enemies, and had very low effect on the adult emergence rate and fecundity of the two predators at the concentration recommended for field spray, Bb21 could be applied as a biocontrol agent of M. persicae in the integrated management of pernicious organisms.

  3. Speciation is not necessarily easier in species with sexually monomorphic mating signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, S; Henry, C S

    2015-11-01

    Should we have different expectations regarding the likelihood and pace of speciation by sexual selection when considering species with sexually monomorphic mating signals? Two conditions that can facilitate rapid species divergence are Felsenstein's one-allele mechanism and a genetic architecture that includes a genetic association between signal and preference loci. In sexually monomorphic species, the former can manifest in the form of mate choice based on phenotype matching. The latter can be promoted by selection acting upon genetic loci for divergent signals and preferences expressed simultaneously in each individual, rather than acting separately on signal loci in males and preference loci in females. Both sexes in the Chrysoperla carnea group of green lacewings (Insecta, Neuroptera, Chrysopidae) produce sexually monomorphic species-specific mating signals. We hybridized the two species C. agilis and C. carnea to test for evidence of these speciation-facilitating conditions. Hybrid signals were more complex than the parents and we observed a dominant influence of C. carnea. We found a dominant influence of C. agilis on preferences in the form of hybrid discrimination against C. carnea. Preferences in hybrids followed patterns predicting preference loci that determine mate choice rather than a one-allele mechanism. The genetic association between signal and preference we detected in the segregating hybrid crosses indicates that speciation in these species with sexually monomorphic mating signals can have occurred rapidly. However, we need additional evidence to determine whether such genetic associations form more readily in sexually monomorphic species compared to dimorphic species and consequently facilitate speciation. © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  4. Effect of plant nutrition on aphid size, prey consumption, and life history characteristics of green lacewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aqueel, Muhammad A; Collins, Catherine M; Raza, Abu-bakar M; Ahmad, Shahbaz; Tariq, Muhammad; Leather, Simon R

    2014-02-01

    Plant quality can directly and indirectly affect the third trophic level. The predation by all the instars of green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea (S.) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) on the cereal aphids, Rhopalosiphum padi (L.), and Sitobion avenae (F.) at varying nitrogen fertilizer levels was calculated under laboratory conditions. Wheat plants were grown on four nitrogen fertilizer levels and aphids were fed on these plants and subsequently offered as food to the C. carnea. Aphid densities of 10, 30, and 90 were offered to first, second, and third instar larvae of green lacewing. Increased nitrogen application improved nitrogen contents of the plants and also the body weight of cereal aphids feeding on them. Aphid consumption by green lacewings was reduced with the increase in nitrogen content in the host plants of aphids. Predation of both aphid species by first, second, and third instars larvae of C. carnea was highest on aphids reared on plants with the lowest rate of fertilization, suggesting a compensatory consumption to overcome reduced biomass (lower aphid size). Total biomass devoured by C. carnea on all nitrogen fertilizer treatments was not statistically different. Additionally, the heavier host prey influenced by the plant nutrition had an effect on the life history characteristics of green lacewings. The larval duration, pupal weight, pupal duration, fecundity, and male and female longevity were significantly affected by the level of nitrogen fertilization to the aphid's host plants, except for pupal duration when fed on S. avenae. This study showed that quantity of prey supplied to the larvae affects the prey consumption and thereafter the life history characteristics of green lacewings. © 2013 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  5. Effect of pollination of strawberry by Apis mellifera L. and Chrysoperla carnea S. on quality of the fruits

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    Iván Interiano Zapata

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la contribución de Apis mellifera L. y Chrysoperla carnea S. como polinizadores del cultivo de la fresa, utilizando flores primarias de la variedad Festival en un experimento realizado en Irapuato, Guanajuato, México. Los tratamientos utilizados fueron: autogamia (SF, polinización abierta (OP, Apis mellifera (AM y Chrysoperla carnea (CC. La tasa de polinización mostró que hubo diferencias significativas en el tratamiento AM (85.20 ± 2.41 en comparación con SF (41.51 ± 3.92, OP (77.98 ± 2.11 y CC (48.46 ± 2.97. Igualmente se encontraron diferencias significativas en el grado de malformación en AM (16.78 ± 1.20 en comparación con el SF (52.53 ± 1.54, OP (23.34 ± 1.03 y CC (47.88 ± 2.02. El total de antocianinas, peso, diámetro y sólidos totales solubles de los frutos fueron significativamente mayores en AM comparados con los tratamientos SF, OP y CC. El número de óvulos fertilizados se correlacionó positivamente con el peso de la fruta. Se considera a Chrysoperla carnea como deficiente polinizador, pero en contraparte se concluye que la utilización de Apis mellifera puede ser una alternativa para incrementar la producción y calidad de la fruta en los cultivos de la fresa establecidos en Irapuato, Guanajuato, México.

  6. Susceptibility of natural enemies of pests of agriculture to commonly applied insecticides in Honduras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bustamante, M.; Sabillon, A.; Velasquez, C.; Ordonez, J.; Baquedano, F.

    1999-01-01

    Insecticides are commonly used by Honduran farmers to control pest insects in agricultural crops such as corn, melons and tomatoes. However, the insecticides have the potential for toxicity to the natural enemies of the pest insects also. Therefore, efforts are being made to identify insecticides which, when used within the Inegerated Pest Management (IPM) programme, are selectively more toxic to the pest insects than their natural enemies. A number of selected chemical insecticides and a biological insecticide (NPV) were tested in three different tests to determine toxicity to two beneficial insects: Telenomus remus Nixon (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae) and Chrysoperla carnea Steph. (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae). All insecticides were toxic to T. remus which suffered high mortality. There was no significant difference in mortality of the insect due to the method of exposure to the insecticides. There were some differences in the toxicity of the insecticides to C. carnea, and abamectin, bifenthrin, cypermethrin, diafenthiuron, imidacloprid and fenpropathrin were relatively less toxic and could be used in IPM for the control of pest insects. (author)

  7. Populations of predators and parasitoids of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) after the application of eight biorational insecticides in vegetable crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Alvin M; Shaaban, Abd-Rabou

    2011-08-01

    The sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), is an important pest of vegetables and many other crops worldwide. Eight biorational insecticides (based on oil, plant derivatives, insect growth regulator and fungus) were evaluated in the field for their influence on populations of six natural enemies of B. tabaci. Natural populations of two predators [Chrysoperla carnea Stephen (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) and Orius spp. (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae)] and two genera of parasitoids [Encarsia spp. and Eretmocerus spp. (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae)] were evaluated in eggplant (Solanum melongena L.). Also, augmented field populations of three predators [C. carnea, Coccinella undecimpunctata L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and Macrolophus caliginosus (Wagner) (Hemiptera: Miridae)] were evaluated in cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.), cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and squash (Cucurbita pepo L.). Regardless of natural enemy or crop, jojoba oil, Biovar and Neemix had the least effect on abundance of the natural enemies in comparison with the other insecticides during a 14 day evaluation period. Conversely, Admiral, KZ oil, Mesrona oil, Mesrona oil + sulfur and natural oil had a high detrimental effect on abundance of the natural enemies. These results demonstrate the differential effects of biorational insecticides for whitefly control on predators and parasitoids in the field. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Published 2011 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Recovery of methane-rich gas from solid-feed anaerobic digestion of ipomoea (Ipomoea carnea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar Ganesh, P; Sanjeevi, R; Gajalakshmi, S; Ramasamy, E V; Abbasi, S A

    2008-03-01

    Studies are presented on new types of anaerobic digesters in which chopped or dry crushed Ipomoea carnea was fed without any other pretreatment, in an attempt to develop commercially viable means of utilizing the otherwise very harmful plant. Two types of solid-feed anaerobic digesters (SFADs) were studied. The first type had a single vessel in which the bottom 35% portion was separated from the top portion by a perforated PVC disk. The weed was charged from the top and inoculated with anaerobically digested cowdung-water slurry. The fermentation of the weed in the reactor led to the formation of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) plus some biogas. The leachate, rich in the VFAs, was passed through the perforated PVC sheet and collected in the lower portion of the vessel. The other type of reactors had two vessels, the first one was fully charged with the weed and the second received the VFA leachate. With both types were attached upflow anaerobic filters (UAFs) which converted the leachate into combustible biogas consisting of approximately 70% methane. All SFADs developed very consistent performance in terms of biogas yield within 17 weeks of start. The two-compartment reactors yielded significantly more biogas than the single-compartment reactors of corresponding total volume, and the reactors with which anaerobic filters (AF) were attached yielded more biogas than the ones without AF. The best performing units generated 2.41m(3) of biogas per m(3) of digester volume, as compared to 0.1-0.2m(3) of biogas, m(-3)d(-1), obtainable with conventional digesters. This indicates the viability of this technology. The spent weed can be vermicomposted directly to obtain good soil-conditioner cum fertilizer; earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae produced 540mg vermicast per animal every day, achieving near total conversion of feed to vermicast in 20 days. The proposed systems, thus, makes it possible to accomplish total utilization of ipomoea.

  9. Characterizing indirect prey-quality mediated effects of a Bt crop on predatory larvae of the green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawo, Nora C; Wäckers, Felix L; Romeis, Jörg

    2010-11-01

    There is increasing evidence that insecticidal transgenic crops can indirectly cause detrimental effects on arthropod predators or parasitoids when they prey on or parasitize sublethally affected herbivores. Our studies revealed that Chrysoperla carnea is negatively affected when fed Bt-susceptible but not Cry1Ac-resistant Helicoverpa armigera larvae that had fed Bt-transgenic cotton expressing Cry1Ac. This despite the fact that the predators ingested 3.5 times more Cry1Ac when consuming the resistant caterpillars. In order to detect potential differences in the nutrient composition of prey larvae, we evaluated the glycogen and lipid content plus the sugar and free amino acid content and composition of caterpillars fed non-Bt and Bt cotton. The only change in susceptible H. armigera larvae attributable to Bt cotton feeding were changes in sugar concentration and composition. In case of the Cry1Ac-resistant H. armigera strain, feeding on Bt cotton resulted in a reduced glycogen content in the caterpillars. The predators, however, appeared to compensate for the reduced carbohydrate content of the prey by increasing biomass uptake which caused an excess intake of the other analyzed nutritional compounds. Our study clearly proves that nutritional prey-quality factors other then the Bt protein underlie the observed negative effects when C. carnea larvae are fed with Bt cotton-fed prey. Possible factors were an altered sugar composition or fitness costs associated with the excess intake of other nutrients. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A Remarkable New Family of Jurassic Insects (Neuroptera) with Primitive Wing Venation and Its Phylogenetic Position in Neuropterida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qiang; Makarkin, Vladimir N.; Winterton, Shaun L.; Khramov, Alexander V.; Ren, Dong

    2012-01-01

    Background Lacewings (insect order Neuroptera), known in the fossil record since the Early Permian, were most diverse in the Mesozoic. A dramatic variety of forms ranged in that time from large butterfly-like Kalligrammatidae to minute two-winged Dipteromantispidae. Principal Findings We describe the intriguing new neuropteran family Parakseneuridae fam. nov. with three new genera and 15 new species from the Middle Jurassic of Daohugou (Inner Mongolia, China) and the Early/Middle Jurassic of Sai-Sagul (Kyrgyzstan): Parakseneura undula gen. et sp. nov., P. albomacula gen. et sp. nov., P. curvivenis gen. et sp. nov., P. nigromacula gen. et sp. nov., P. nigrolinea gen. et sp. nov., P. albadelta gen. et sp. nov., P. cavomaculata gen. et sp. nov., P. inflata gen. et sp. nov., P. metallica gen. et sp. nov., P. emarginata gen. et sp. nov., P. directa gen. et sp. nov., Pseudorapisma jurassicum gen. et sp. nov., P. angustipenne gen. et sp. nov., P. maculatum gen. et sp. nov. (Daohugou); Shuraboneura ovata gen. et sp. nov. (Sai-Sagul). The family comprises large neuropterans with most primitive wing venation in the order indicated by the presence of ScA and AA1+2, and the dichotomous branching of MP, CuA, CuP, AA3+4, AP1+2. The phylogenetic position of Parakseneuridae was investigated using a phylogenetic analysis of morphological scoring for 33 families of extinct and extant Neuropterida combined with DNA sequence data for representatives of all extant families. Parakseneuridae were recovered in a clade with Osmylopsychopidae, Prohemerobiidae, and Ithonidae. Conclusions/Significance The presence of the presumed AA1+2 in wings of Parakseneuridae is a unique plesiomorphic condition hitherto unknown in Neuropterida, the clade comprising Neuroptera, Megaloptera, Raphidioptera. The relative uncertainty of phylogenetic position of Parakseneuridae and the majority of other families of Neuroptera reflects deficient paleontological data, especially from critical important periods

  11. Cytogenetic study on antlions (Neuroptera, Myrmeleontidae: first data on telomere structure and rDNA location

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    Valentina G. Kuznetsova

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Myrmeleontidae, commonly known as “antlions”, are the most diverse family of the insect order Neuroptera, with over 1700 described species (in 191 genera of which 37 species (in 21 genera have so far been studied in respect to standard karyotypes. In the present paper we provide first data on the occurrence of the “insect-type” telomeric repeat (TTAGGn and location of 18S rDNA clusters in the antlion karyotypes studied using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH. We show that males of Palpares libelluloides (Linnaeus, 1764 (Palparinae, Acanthaclisis occitanica (Villers, 1789 (Acanthaclisinae and Distoleon tetragrammicus (Fabricius, 1798 (Nemoleontinae have rDNA clusters on a large bivalent, two last species having an additional rDNA cluster on one of the sex chromosomes, most probably the X. (TTAGGn - containing telomeres are clearly characteristic of P. libelluloides and A. occitanica; the presence of this telomeric motif in D. tetragrammicus is questionable. In addition, we detected the presence of the (TTAGGn telomeric repeat in Libelloides macaronius (Scopoli, 1763 from the family Ascalaphidae (owlflies, a sister group to the Myrmeleontidae. We presume that the “insect” motif (TTAGGn was present in a common ancestor of the families Ascalaphidae and Myrmeleontidae within the neuropteran suborder Myrmeleontiformia.

  12. Cytogenetic study on antlions (Neuroptera, Myrmeleontidae): first data on telomere structure and rDNA location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, Valentina G; Khabiev, Gadzhimurad N; Anokhin, Boris A

    2016-01-01

    Myrmeleontidae, commonly known as "antlions", are the most diverse family of the insect order Neuroptera, with over 1700 described species (in 191 genera) of which 37 species (in 21 genera) have so far been studied in respect to standard karyotypes. In the present paper we provide first data on the occurrence of the "insect-type" telomeric repeat (TTAGG) n and location of 18S rDNA clusters in the antlion karyotypes studied using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). We show that males of Palpares libelluloides (Linnaeus, 1764) (Palparinae), Acanthaclisis occitanica (Villers, 1789) (Acanthaclisinae) and Distoleon tetragrammicus (Fabricius, 1798) (Nemoleontinae) have rDNA clusters on a large bivalent, two last species having an additional rDNA cluster on one of the sex chromosomes, most probably the X. (TTAGG) n - containing telomeres are clearly characteristic of Palpares libelluloides and Acanthaclisis occitanica ; the presence of this telomeric motif in Distoleon tetragrammicus is questionable. In addition, we detected the presence of the (TTAGG) n telomeric repeat in Libelloides macaronius (Scopoli, 1763) from the family Ascalaphidae (owlflies), a sister group to the Myrmeleontidae. We presume that the "insect" motif (TTAGG) n was present in a common ancestor of the families Ascalaphidae and Myrmeleontidae within the neuropteran suborder Myrmeleontiformia.

  13. Familial Clarification of Saucrosmylidae stat. nov. and New Saucrosmylids from Daohugou, China (Insecta, Neuroptera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Fang

    Full Text Available Saucrosmylids are characterized by the typically large body size, complicated venation and diverse wing markings, which were only discovered in Middle Jurassic of Daohugou, Ningcheng county, Inner Mongolia, China.Saucrosmylinae Ren, 2003, originally included as a subfamily in the Osmylidae, was transferred and elevated to family rank based on the definitive synapomorphic character. The updated definition of Saucrosmylidae stat. nov. was outlined in detail: presence of nygma and trichosors; diverse markings on membrane; complicated cross-veins; distal fusion of Sc and R1; expanded space between R1 and Rs having 2-7 rows of cells that should be a synapomorphic character of the family; proximal MP fork. And the previous misuses of Saucrosmylidae are also clarified. Furthermore, a new genus with a new species and an indeterminate species of Saucrosmylidae are described as Ulrikezza aspoeckae gen. et sp. nov. and Ulrikezza sp. from the Middle Jurassic of Daohugou, Inner Mongolia, China. A key to genera of Saucrosmylidae is provided.The intriguing group represents a particular lineage of Neuroptera in the Mesozoic Era. The familial status of Saucrosmylidae was firstly advanced that clarified the former incorrect citation and use of the family name. As an extinct clade, many species of the saucrosmylids were erected just based on a single fore- or hindwing, and it should be realized that providing more stable characters is necessary when describing new lacewing taxa just based on an isolated hindwing. It is vital for the systematics of Saucrosmylidae.

  14. Familial Clarification of Saucrosmylidae stat. nov. and New Saucrosmylids from Daohugou, China (Insecta, Neuroptera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Hui; Ren, Dong; Wang, Yongjie

    2015-01-01

    Backgound Saucrosmylids are characterized by the typically large body size, complicated venation and diverse wing markings, which were only discovered in Middle Jurassic of Daohugou, Ningcheng county, Inner Mongolia, China. Principal Findings Saucrosmylinae Ren, 2003, originally included as a subfamily in the Osmylidae, was transferred and elevated to family rank based on the definitive synapomorphic character. The updated definition of Saucrosmylidae stat. nov. was outlined in detail: presence of nygma and trichosors; diverse markings on membrane; complicated cross-veins; distal fusion of Sc and R1; expanded space between R1 and Rs having 2–7 rows of cells that should be a synapomorphic character of the family; proximal MP fork. And the previous misuses of Saucrosmylidae are also clarified. Furthermore, a new genus with a new species and an indeterminate species of Saucrosmylidae are described as Ulrikezza aspoeckae gen. et sp. nov. and Ulrikezza sp. from the Middle Jurassic of Daohugou, Inner Mongolia, China. A key to genera of Saucrosmylidae is provided. Conclusions/Significance The intriguing group represents a particular lineage of Neuroptera in the Mesozoic Era. The familial status of Saucrosmylidae was firstly advanced that clarified the former incorrect citation and use of the family name. As an extinct clade, many species of the saucrosmylids were erected just based on a single fore- or hindwing, and it should be realized that providing more stable characters is necessary when describing new lacewing taxa just based on an isolated hindwing. It is vital for the systematics of Saucrosmylidae. PMID:26485027

  15. Metabolite profiling reveals a specific response in tomato to predaceous Chrysoperla carnea larvae and herbivore(s-predator interactions with the generalist pests Tetranychus urticae and Myzus persicae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Errard

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch and the aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer both infest a number of economically significant crops, including tomato (Solanum lycopersicum. Although used for decades to control pests, the impact of green lacewing larvae Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens on plant biochemistry was not investigated. Here we used profiling methods and targeted analyses to explore the impact of the predator and herbivore(s-predator interactions on tomato biochemistry. Each pest and pest-predator combination induced a characteristic metabolite signature in the leaf and the fruit thus, the plant exhibited a systemic response. The treatments had a stronger impact on non-volatile metabolites including abscisic acid and amino acids in the leaves in comparison with the fruits. In contrast, the various biotic factors had a greater impact on the carotenoids in the fruits. We identified volatiles such as myrcene and α-terpinene which were induced by pest-predator interactions but not by single species, and we demonstrated the involvement of the phytohormone abscisic acid in tritrophic interactions for the first time. More importantly, C. carnea larvae alone impacted the plant metabolome, but the predator did not appear to elicit particular defense pathways on its own. Since the presence of both C. carnea larvae and pest individuals elicited volatiles which were shown to contribute to plant defense, C. carnea larvae could therefore contribute to the reduction of pest infestation, not only by its preying activity, but also by priming responses to generalist herbivores such as T. urticae and M. persicae. On the other hand, the use of C. carnea larvae alone did not impact carotenoids thus, was not prejudicial to the fruit quality. The present piece of research highlights the specific impact of predator and tritrophic interactions with green lacewing larvae, spider mites and aphids on different components of the tomato primary and secondary metabolism

  16. Metabolite Profiling Reveals a Specific Response in Tomato to Predaceous Chrysoperla carnea Larvae and Herbivore(s)-Predator Interactions with the Generalist Pests Tetranychus urticae and Myzus persicae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Errard, Audrey; Ulrichs, Christian; Kühne, Stefan; Mewis, Inga; Mishig, Narantuya; Maul, Ronald; Drungowski, Mario; Parolin, Pia; Schreiner, Monika; Baldermann, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    The spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch and the aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer) both infest a number of economically significant crops, including tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Although used for decades to control pests, the impact of green lacewing larvae Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) on plant biochemistry was not investigated. Here, we used profiling methods and targeted analyses to explore the impact of the predator and herbivore(s)-predator interactions on tomato biochemistry. Each pest and pest-predator combination induced a characteristic metabolite signature in the leaf and the fruit thus, the plant exhibited a systemic response. The treatments had a stronger impact on non-volatile metabolites including abscisic acid and amino acids in the leaves in comparison with the fruits. In contrast, the various biotic factors had a greater impact on the carotenoids in the fruits. We identified volatiles such as myrcene and α-terpinene which were induced by pest-predator interactions but not by single species, and we demonstrated the involvement of the phytohormone abscisic acid in tritrophic interactions for the first time. More importantly, C. carnea larvae alone impacted the plant metabolome, but the predator did not appear to elicit particular defense pathways on its own. Since the presence of both C. carnea larvae and pest individuals elicited volatiles which were shown to contribute to plant defense, C. carnea larvae could therefore contribute to the reduction of pest infestation, not only by its preying activity, but also by priming responses to generalist herbivores such as T. urticae and M. persicae. On the other hand, the use of C. carnea larvae alone did not impact carotenoids thus, was not prejudicial to the fruit quality. The present piece of research highlights the specific impact of predator and tritrophic interactions with green lacewing larvae, spider mites, and aphids on different components of the tomato primary and secondary metabolism for the first

  17. Intoxicação por Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa (Convolvulaceae em caprinos na Ilha do Marajó, Pará Poisoning by Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa in goats in the Marajó island, Pará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Oliveira

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa é uma planta que contém swainsonina causando doença de depósito lisossomal em ruminantes, principalmente em caprinos na região Nordeste do Brasil. Para o estudo das plantas tóxicas da Ilha de Marajó, foram visitadas sete propriedades rurais na Ilha de Marajó, seis localizadas no município de Cachoeira do Arari e uma no município de Soure. Em todas as propriedades visitadas as pastagens eram constituídas de campo nativo, tinham pouca disponibilidade de forragem e I. carnea subsp. fistulosa encontrava-se em grande quantidade. Nas três propriedades onde eram criados caprinos foram observados animais com sinais nervosos, incluindo tremores de intenção, aumento da base de sustentação quando em estação, ataxia, hipermetria, nistagmo, paresia espástica ou debilidade, alterações posturais, perda de equilíbrio e quedas. Em duas fazendas a prevalência foi de 32% (23/71 e 100% (32/32 e em outra havia um animal com sinais acentuados e o resto do rebanho, de 19 caprinos, não foi examinado clinicamente. Bovinos, ovinos e bubalinos não foram afetados. Foram eutanasiados e necropsiados seis caprinos que apresentavam sinais clínicos acentuados. Macroscopicamente não foram observadas alterações. Na histologia observou-se vacuolização do pericário de neurônios e do citoplasma de células epiteliais da tireóide, rim, fígado, pâncreas e macrófagos de diversos órgãos. No sistema nervoso central a vacuolização era mais grave nos neurônios de Purkinje do cerebelo e nos neurônios dos núcleos cerebelares e do tronco encefálico. Observaram-se também degeneração walleriana dos axônios e gliose. A alta freqüência da intoxicação nas três fazendas que criavam caprinos sugere que a intoxicação por I. carnea subsp. fistulosa é muito importante para caprinos na Ilha de Marajó, onde há abundante quantidade da planta, que permanece verde durante todo o período seco.Ipomoea carnea subsp

  18. Olfactory responses of Plutella xylostella natural enemies to host pheromone, larval frass, and green leaf cabbage volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, G V P; Holopainen, J K; Guerrero, A

    2002-01-01

    The parasitoids Trichogramma chilonis (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) and Cotesia plutellae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), and the predator Chrysoperla carnea (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), are potential biological control agents for the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae). We present studies on the interactions between these bioagents and various host-associated volatiles using a Y olfactometer. T chilonis was attracted to a synthetic pheromone blend (Z11-16:Ald, Z11-16:Ac, and Z11-16:OH in a 1:1:0.01 ratio), to Z11-16:Ac alone, and to a 1:1 blend of Z11-16:Ac and Z11-16:Ald. C. plutellae responded to the blend and to Z11-16:Ac and Z11-16:Ald. Male and female C. carnea responded to the blend and to a 1:1 blend of the major components of the pheromone, although no response was elicited by single compounds. Among the four host larval frass volatiles tested (dipropyl disulfide, dimethyl disulfide, allyl isothiocyanate, and dimethyl trisulfide), only allyl isothiocyanate elicited significant responses in the parasitoids and predator, but C. plutellae and both sexes of C. carnea did respond to all four volatiles. Among the green leaf volatiles of cabbage (Brassica oleracea subsp. capitata), only Z3-6:Ac elicited significant responses from T. chilonis, C. plutellae, and C. carnea, but C. plutellae also responded to E2-6:Ald and Z3-6:OH. When these volatiles were blended with the pheromone, the responses were similar to those elicited by the pheromone alone, except for C. carnea males, which had an increased response. The effect of temperature on the response of the biological agents to a mixture of the pheromone blend and Z3-6:Ac was also studied. T. chilonis was attracted at temperatures of 25-35 degrees C, while C. plutellae and C. carnea responded optimally at 30-35 degrees C and 20-25 degrees C, respectively. These results indicate that the sex pheromone and larval frass volatiles from the diamondback moth, as well as volatile compounds from

  19. Alkaloids from the poisonous plant Ipomoea carnea: effects on intracellular lysosomal glycosidase activities in human lymphoblast cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Kyoko; Kato, Atsushi; Adachi, Isao; Haraguchi, Mitsue; Asano, Naoki

    2003-12-17

    There is natural intoxication of livestock by the ingestion of Ipomoea carnea (Convolvulaceae) in Brazil and other parts of the world. The alkaloidal glycosidase inhibitors swainsonine, 2-epi-lentiginosine, and calystegines B(1), B(2), B(3), and C(1) have been identified as constituents of this plant. Swainsonine is a potent inhibitor of rat lysosomal alpha-mannosidase, with an IC(50) value of 0.02 microM, whereas calystegines B(1), B(2), and C(1) are potent inhibitors of rat lysosomal beta-glucosidase, with IC(50) values of 2.1, 0.75, and 0.84 microM, respectively. The action of swainsonine results in a lysosomal storage disorder that closely mimics alpha-mannosidosis in humans. To determine whether the toxicity of I. carnea to livestock is due to purely swainsonine or due to a combination of effects by swainsonine and calystegines, intracellular lysosomal glycosidase activities in normal human lymphoblasts grown with inhibitors in the medium were examined. Incubation of lymphoblasts with 0.1 microM swainsonine for 3 days resulted in approximately 60% reduction of alpha-mannosidase activity. On the other hand, calystegines B(2) and C(1) showed no inhibition of beta-glucosidase up to 1 mM; instead inclusion of calystegines B(2) and C(1) at 100 microM in the culture medium increased its activity by 1.5- and 1.6-fold, respectively. Calystegines B(2) and C(1) seem to act as chemical chaperones, enhancing correct folding of the enzyme and enabling smooth trafficking to the lysosome. The lysosomal beta-glucosidase inhibitory calystegines seem to have little risk of inducing intoxication of livestock.

  20. Efeitos embriotóxicos do tratamento pré-natal com extrato aquoso de Ipomoea carnea em ratos

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    Rosana Zoriki Hosomi

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Os efeitos embriotóxicos da exposição diária pré-natal a 0,0, 0,7, 3,0 ou 15,0mg/kg do extrato aquoso da I. carnea nos dias 5 a 21 de gestação foram estudados. Foram avaliados a performance reprodutiva materna, anormalidades esqueléticas e viscerais e malformações. Além disso, após o tratamento foram encontrados achados anatomopatológicos. Em relação às ratas mães, nossos resultados mostraram que a exposição às diferentes doses não afetou o peso corporal, ganho de peso, consumos de água e ração e performance reprodutiva. Apesar disso, apresentaram vacuolização citoplasmática de forma dose-dependente em fígado, rins, tireóide e glândula adrenal. Exames fetais não mostraram anormalidades externas ou malformações, sendo somente encontradas evidências de anormalidades esqueléticas e viscerais após altas doses do extrato. Foi observada redução dos centros de ossificação. Os presentes dados mostram que a ingestão prenatal do extrato de I. carnea induz embriotoxicidade. Estes efeitos são atribuídos à ação na homeostase maternal ou diretamente na concepção.

  1. Extending the "Ecology of Fear" Beyond Prey: Reciprocal Nonconsumptive Effects Among Competing Aphid Predators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, J P; Barbosa, Paulo R R; Bain, Clint L; Torres, Jorge B

    2016-12-01

    Nonconsumptive effects of predators on prey are well known, but similar effects among competing predators are not. Aphidophagous insect larvae are notorious for cannibalism and intraguild predation, as they compete for aggregated but ephemeral prey. We tested for indirect effects of competitors on the development of Coleomegilla maculata DeGeer and Hippodamia convergens Guerin-Meneville (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), and a green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea Stephens (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), with all larvae reared on eggs of Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Control larvae were reared singly, while treatment larvae were reared pairwise, with either a conspecific or heterospecific, in partitioned Petri dishes that allowed the passage of chemical cues. Larvae of C. maculata, a dietary generalist, appeared stressed by the presence of competing larvae, whether con- or heterospecific, and suffered fitness costs (longer pupation times, lower male adult mass). In contrast, H. convergens and C. carnea, both aphid specialists, responded to competing larvae with accelerated development, and without any apparent costs in terms of adult size or reproductive performance. Adult C. carnea in some treatments were heavier than solitary controls, suggesting a higher consumption rate by the induced phenotype, and those exposed to H. convergens began oviposition earlier. Thus, the phenotypes induced in the specialized aphid predators were adaptive for development in aphid colonies, whereas that induced in the generalist was not. These results indicate that nonconsumptive effects are not simply a vertical force acting on prey, but can also impact conspecific and heterospecific competitors on the same trophic level. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. The influence of microsporidian pathogens from commercially available lady beetles on larval development of the green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea, in the absence of infection.

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    Fletcher, A; Bjørnson, S

    2018-02-02

    In North America, more than 70 species of natural enemies are available for pest control, including the aphid predators, Adalia bipunctata L. (two-spotted lady beetle) and Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Méneville (convergent lady beetle), and the generalist predator Chrysoperla carnea Stephens (green lacewing). The two lady beetle species are known to host microsporidian pathogens: Nosema adaliae was originally described from Adalia bipunctata and Tubulinosema hippodamiae from H. convergens. Microsporidia are spore-forming pathogens that typically produce chronic, debilitating disease. Because the spores of both pathogens are transovarially transmitted through beetle eggs, the predation behavior of lacewing larvae provides an opportunity for the transmission of these pathogens when infected lady beetles and lacewings share the same local environment. In this study, uninfected and microsporidia-infected eggs from A. bipunctata and H. convergens were offered to C. carnea larvae. The development of larvae that consumed N. adaliae-infected eggs was not affected, but larval development was prolonged by almost 3 days for those that consumed two or more T. hippodamiae-infected eggs. Prolonged larval development is considered to be costly because larvae remain vulnerable to cannibalization by sibling larvae or other predators. Longevity did not differ significantly between sexes of C. carnea, and the sex ratio of newly eclosed adults did not differ from the previously reported sex ratio of 1♂: 1♀. Upon examination by light microscopy at the end of the trial, two C. carnea larvae were infected with N. adaliae and none were infected with T. hippodamiae, suggesting that T. hippodamiae influenced lacewing larval development without establishing an infection. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Control of amphibious weed ipomoea (Ipomoea carnea by utilizing it for the extraction of volatile fatty acids as energy precursors

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    M. Rafiq Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Volatile fatty acids (VFAs, comprising mainly of acetic acid and lesser quantities of propionic and butyric acids, are generated when zoomass or phytomass is acted upon by acidogenic and acetogenic microorganisms. VFAs can be utilized by methanogens under anaerobic conditions to generate flammable methane–carbon dioxide mixtures known as ‘biogas’. Acting on the premise that this manner of VFA utilization for generating relatively clean energy can be easily accomplished in a controlled fashion in conventional biogas plants as well as higher-rate anaerobic digesters, we have carried out studies aimed to generate VFAs from the pernicious weed ipomoea (Ipomoea carnea. The VFA extraction was accomplished by a simple yet effective technology, appropriate for use even by laypersons. For this acid-phase reactors were set, to which measured quantities of ipomoea leaves were charged along with water inoculated with cow dung. The reactors were stirred intermittently. It was found that VFA production started within hours of the mixing of the reactants and peaked by the 10th or 11th day in all the reactors, effecting a conversion of over 10% of the biomass into VFAs. The reactor performance had good reproducibility and the process appeared easily controllable, frugal and robust.

  4. Sequence Identification, Recombinant Production, and Analysis of the Self-Assembly of Egg Stalk Silk Proteins from Lacewing Chrysoperla carnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuenfeldt, Martin; Scheibel, Thomas

    2017-06-13

    Egg stalk silks of the common green lacewing Chrysoperla carnea likely comprise at least three different silk proteins. Based on the natural spinning process, it was hypothesized that these proteins self-assemble without shear stress, as adult lacewings do not use a spinneret. To examine this, the first sequence identification and determination of the gene expression profile of several silk proteins and various transcript variants thereof was conducted, and then the three major proteins were recombinantly produced in Escherichia coli encoded by their native complementary DNA (cDNA) sequences. Circular dichroism measurements indicated that the silk proteins in aqueous solutions had a mainly intrinsically disordered structure. The largest silk protein, which we named ChryC1, exhibited a lower critical solution temperature (LCST) behavior and self-assembled into fibers or film morphologies, depending on the conditions used. The second silk protein, ChryC2, self-assembled into nanofibrils and subsequently formed hydrogels. Circular dichroism and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed conformational changes of both proteins into beta sheet rich structures upon assembly. ChryC3 did not self-assemble into any morphology under the tested conditions. Thereby, through this work, it could be shown that recombinant lacewing silk proteins can be produced and further used for studying the fiber formation of lacewing egg stalks.

  5. Characterisation of adult green lacewing (Chrysoperla carnea) digestive physiology: impact of a cysteine protease inhibitor and a synthetic pyrethroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Evan A; Ferry, Natalie; Jouanin, Lise; Romeis, Jörg; Gatehouse, Angharad M R

    2010-03-01

    In spite of concern regarding potential non-target effects of GM crops, few studies have compared GM pest control with conventional methods. The impacts of cypermethrin and oilseed rape expressing oryzacystatin-1 (OC-1) were compared in this study on the predator Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens). Adults fed purified rOC-1 showed a subtle shift in digestive protease profile, with an increasing reliance on serine proteases (chymotrypsin), increase in aspartic proteases and a slight reduction in elastase activity. Although there were no effects on mortality, onset of oviposition was delayed; however, once egg production commenced, egg laying and hatching success rates were comparable with those of controls. Oryzacystatin-1 expressed in pollen showed no detrimental effects. Cypermethrin had no effect on mortality owing to high levels of non-specific esterase activity resulting in partial breakdown of the insecticide. In spite of this, there was a significant delay in onset of oviposition and a significant reduction in egg production and viability. This study demonstrates the potential for pest management to impact on predators, but importantly it highlights the ability of the predator to detoxify/respond to treatments with different modes of action. In this case, exposure to an insecticide carried a greater fitness cost than exposure to a protease inhibitor expressed in transgenic crops.

  6. Sequence Identification, Recombinant Production, and Analysis of the Self-Assembly of Egg Stalk Silk Proteins from Lacewing Chrysoperla carnea

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    Martin Neuenfeldt

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Egg stalk silks of the common green lacewing Chrysoperla carnea likely comprise at least three different silk proteins. Based on the natural spinning process, it was hypothesized that these proteins self-assemble without shear stress, as adult lacewings do not use a spinneret. To examine this, the first sequence identification and determination of the gene expression profile of several silk proteins and various transcript variants thereof was conducted, and then the three major proteins were recombinantly produced in Escherichia coli encoded by their native complementary DNA (cDNA sequences. Circular dichroism measurements indicated that the silk proteins in aqueous solutions had a mainly intrinsically disordered structure. The largest silk protein, which we named ChryC1, exhibited a lower critical solution temperature (LCST behavior and self-assembled into fibers or film morphologies, depending on the conditions used. The second silk protein, ChryC2, self-assembled into nanofibrils and subsequently formed hydrogels. Circular dichroism and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed conformational changes of both proteins into beta sheet rich structures upon assembly. ChryC3 did not self-assemble into any morphology under the tested conditions. Thereby, through this work, it could be shown that recombinant lacewing silk proteins can be produced and further used for studying the fiber formation of lacewing egg stalks.

  7. Effect of energetic cost to maintain the trap for Myrmeleon brasiliensis (Neuroptera, Myrmeleontidae) in its development and adult size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, T N; Silva, D C R

    2016-07-25

    Antlion larvae Myrmeleon brasiliensis Návas, 1914 (Neuroptera, Myrmeleontidae) are sit-and-wait predators who build traps to catch their prey. The aim of this study was to observe under laboratory conditions, how the energy cost spent on maintenance of their traps affects: the larval developmental time, time spent as a pupa, mortality rate of larvae and adult size. M. brasiliensis larvae were collected in the municipality of Aquidauana, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil and were individually maintained in plastic containers and subjected to two treatments. In the control treatment larvae did not have their traps disturbed while in the manipulated treatment, larvae had their traps disturbed three times a week. The experiments were followed until adult emergence. When the adults emerged, their body size (head-abdomen), anterior and posterior wing span and width were measured. Furthermore, the number of larvae that died during the experiment was recorded. The results showed that the larvae whose traps were manipulated had longer larval development time, smaller pupal development time and were smaller adults. It can be concluded that the energy expenditure spent on maintenance of the trap constructed by M. brasiliensis larvae can affect the development of negative ways, represented by a longer larval development and reduced adult size.

  8. Effect of energetic cost to maintain the trap for Myrmeleon brasiliensis (Neuroptera, Myrmeleontidae in its development and adult size

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    T. N. Lima

    Full Text Available Abstract Antlion larvae Myrmeleon brasiliensis Návas, 1914 (Neuroptera, Myrmeleontidae are sit-and-wait predators who build traps to catch their prey. The aim of this study was to observe under laboratory conditions, how the energy cost spent on maintenance of their traps affects: the larval developmental time, time spent as a pupa, mortality rate of larvae and adult size. M. brasiliensis larvae were collected in the municipality of Aquidauana, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil and were individually maintained in plastic containers and subjected to two treatments. In the control treatment larvae did not have their traps disturbed while in the manipulated treatment, larvae had their traps disturbed three times a week. The experiments were followed until adult emergence. When the adults emerged, their body size (head-abdomen, anterior and posterior wing span and width were measured. Furthermore, the number of larvae that died during the experiment was recorded. The results showed that the larvae whose traps were manipulated had longer larval development time, smaller pupal development time and were smaller adults. It can be concluded that the energy expenditure spent on maintenance of the trap constructed by M. brasiliensis larvae can affect the development of negative ways, represented by a longer larval development and reduced adult size.

  9. The HOX-like gene Cnox2-Pc is expressed at the anterior region in all life cycle stages of the jellyfish Podocoryne carnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda-Nakagawa, L M; Gröer, H; Aerne, B L; Schmid, V

    2000-03-01

    The marine jellyfish Podocoryne carnea (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) has a metagenic life cycle consisting of a larva, a colonial polyp and a free-swimming jellyfish (medusa). To study the function of HOX genes in primitive diploblastic animals we screened a library of P. carnea cDNA using PCR primers derived from the most conserved regions in helix 1 and helix 3 of the homeobox. A novel gene, Cnox2-Pc, has been isolated and characterized. Cnox2-Pc is a HOX cluster-like gene, and its homeodomain shows similarity to the Deformed subfamily of HOM-C/HOX genes. In situ hybridization revealed that Cnox2-Pc is expressed in the anterior region of the larva, the polyp head, and the most apical ectoderm of the differentiating bud during medusa development. In adult medusa expression is restricted to the gastrovascular entoderm. The results suggest that Cnox2-Pc is involved in establishment of an anterior-posterior axis during development in primitive metazoans.

  10. Temporally and spatially restricted expression of a gland cell gene during regeneration and in vitro transdifferentiation in the hydrozoan Podocoryne carnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baader, C D; Schuchert, P; Schmid, V; Heiermann, Reinhard; Plickert, Günter

    1995-01-01

    An antiserum to transdifferentiated striated muscle cells from the medusa of Podocoryne carnea was prepared and used to screen a λ gt11-expression library prepared from gonozoids of P. carnea. We isolated a cDNA clone termed Pod-EPPT with at least 63 tandem repeats of the tetrapeptide-motive glu-pro-pro-thr, named Pod-EPPT. Using Pod-EPPT as a molecular marker for head quality the morphological relationship between the two metagenic life stages of this hydroid, the polyp and the medusa, was studied. In situ hybridization demonstrated that expression of the gene corresponding is restricted to secretory cells in the endoderm of the oral hypostome region of polyps and medusae and, presumably, to progenitor cells of this type. Cells expressing Pod-EPPT could not be observed in the larval stage. During head regeneration in polyps, Pod-EPPT expression is upregulated soon after head removal in previously non-expressing cells and in newly differentiating secretory cells. This activation of a head-specific gene precedes the morphologically obvious events of head regeneration. Pod-EPPT is one of the genes that are activated during manubrium (mouth) regeneration from experimentally combined subumbrellar plate endoderm and striated muscle of the medusa.

  11. Predatory potential of Chrysoperla carnea and Cryptolaemus montrouzieri larvae on different stages of the mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis: a threat to cotton in South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Hafiz Azhar Ali; Sayyed, Ali H; Akram, Waseem; Raza, Sabtain; Ali, Muhammad

    2012-01-01

    The outbreaks of mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae), have created problems to cotton crops in South Asia in the recent years. To control this menace, predatory potential of Chrysoperla carnea and Cryptolaemus montrouzieri larvae were investigated under laboratory conditions (27 ± 5° C and 65 ± 5% RH). The experiments were conducted in no choice (only first, second, or third instar larvae of mealybug were offered at a time) and choice (first, second, and third instar larvae were offered simultaneously) feeding tests. Both predators had high consumption rates, with C. montrouzeiri being the most voracious feeder. In the no choice feeding tests, third instar larvae of C. montrouzeiri devoured the highest mean number of first instar P. solenopsis (439.38) In the choice feeding tests, a similar number of first instar nymphs (410) were consumed. In both feeding tests, C. carnea devoured relatively fewer numbers of P. solenopsis than C. montrouzeiri. Manly's preference index suggested that the both predators preferred first instar nymphs of P. solenopsis over second or third instar nymphs. Furthermore, studies on developmental rate and fecundity revealed that first instar nymphs of P. solenopsis significantly reduced development time but increased the fecundity of both predators.

  12. Assessment of fennel aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and their predators in fennel intercropped with cotton with colored fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalho, F S; Fernandes, F S; Nascimento, A R B; Nascimento Júnior, J L; Malaquias, J B; Silva, C A D

    2012-02-01

    The fennel aphid, Hyadaphis foeniculi (Passerini) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is a major pest of fennel, Foeniculum vulgare Miller in northeast region of Brazil. We hypothesize that intercropping can be used as an alternative pest management strategy to reduce aphid yield loss in fennel. Thus, we investigated the severity of fennel plant damage in relation to infestation by the fennel aphid and predation by Cycloneda sanguinea (L.) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) (spotless lady beetle), green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), and Scymnus spp. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in sole fennel plots and plots of fennel intercropped with cotton with colored fibers. The fennel aphid populations in nontreated plots were significantly larger in sole fennel plots than in intercropped plots. The highest densities of C. sanguinea, green lacewings and Scymnus spp., associated with the suppression of fennel aphid populations was found in fennel in the intercropping systems. Fennel aphids reduced the fennel seed yield by 80% in the sole fennel plots compared with approximately 30% for all intercropping systems. The results obtained in this research are of practical significance for designing appropriate strategies for fennel aphid control in fennel-cotton intercropping systems. In summary, intercropping fennel with cotton with colored fibers apparently promoted biocontrol of fennel aphid in fennel.

  13. Evaluation of native plant flower characteristics for conservation biological control of Prays oleae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nave, A; Gonçalves, F; Crespí, A L; Campos, M; Torres, L

    2016-04-01

    Several studies have shown that manipulating flowering weeds within an agroecosystem can have an important role in pest control by natural enemies, by providing them nectar and pollen, which are significant sources of nutrition for adults. The aim of this study was to assess if the olive moth, Prays oleae (Bernard, 1788) (Lepidoptera: Praydidae), and five of its main natural enemies, the parasitoid species Chelonus elaeaphilus Silvestri (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), Apanteles xanthostigma (Haliday) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), Ageniaspis fuscicollis (Dalman) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) and Elasmus flabellatus (Fonscolombe) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), as well as the predator Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), can theoretically access the nectar from 21 flowering weeds that naturally occur in olive groves. Thus, the architecture of the flowers as well as the mouthpart structure and/or the head and thorax width of the pest and its enemies were analyzed. The results suggested that all beneficial insects were able to reach nectar of the plant species from Apiaceae family, i.e. Conopodium majus (Gouan) Loret, Daucus carota L. and Foeniculum vulgare Mill., as well as Asparagus acutifolius L., Echium plantagineum L., Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik., Raphanus raphanistrum L., Lonicera hispanica Boiss. et Reut., Silene gallica L., Spergula arvensis L., Hypericum perforatum L., Calamintha baetica Boiss. et Reut, Malva neglecta Wallr. and Linaria saxatilis (L.) Chaz. P. oleae was not able to access nectar from five plant species, namely: Andryala integrifolia L., Chondrilla juncea L., Dittrichia viscosa (L.) Greuter, Sonchus asper (L.) Hill and Lavandula stoechas L.

  14. Sexually monomorphic mating preferences contribute to premating isolation based on song in European green lacewings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Suegene; Henry, Charles S

    2010-01-01

    When species are in intermediate stages of divergence, complicated patterns of reproductive isolation can arise among males and females of the incipient species. The Chrysoperla carnea group of green lacewings (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) has recently experienced rapid speciation. They possess sexually monomorphic mating signals that were assumed to be important in mate recognition. Our objective was to compare patterns of reproductive isolation among five European species within the species complex as well as sex differences in mating strategies that contribute to those patterns. The species were in fact reproductively isolated based on mating signals. In addition, different species showed different degrees of responsiveness to conspecific signals, and those species that responded more frequently to conspecific signals were less discriminating against heterospecific signals. This suggests differences in mating strategies among species that may be related to population densities and heterospecific encounter rates. Sexual dimorphism in mating preference was apparent only in C. agilis, whose males were more responsive to all signals and less discriminating against heterospecific signals compared to females. Thus high variance in male quality may be characteristic of C. agilis, but not the remaining four species, whose male versus female mating strategies were similar.

  15. Effects of pest control on aphids and theirs natural enemies in maize stands

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    Václav Psota

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the period of July to September 2005 effects of insecticide Integro with the effective substance methoxifenozide and biological preparation Trichoplus using parasitoid wasps Trichogramma evanescens and T. pintoi were evaluated in maize stands. These natural enemies of aphids were recorded in monitored fields (located in South Moravia, Czech Republic: parasitoids of genera Aphidius and Praon (Hymenopetra, Aphidiidae, predatory syrphid flies (Diptera, Syrphidae, ladybirds (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae, Orius bugs (Heteroptera, Anthocoridae, Green Lacewing – Chrysoperla carnea (Neuroptera, Chrysopidae and spiders (Araneida. No significant difference (T = 0.003; F = 4.894; P = 0.004 in popu­lations of aphids and their antagonists was found in the studied variants (Integro, Trichoplus. More remarkable differences were found only soon after spraying with Integro. Syrphid flies pupae decreased by 41% in the Integro variant, and by 13% in the Trichoplus variant. Ladybird larvae did not occur in the Integro variant after spraying, there where 0.12 ladybird larvae on plant in the Trichoplus variant. Number of ladybird adults increased from 0.01 to 0.53 individuals per plant in the Trichoplus variant, but from 0.03 to 0.1 individuals in the Integro variant. Number of ladybird pupae decreased from 0.32 to 0.02 pupae per plant in the Integro variant, but it has increased from 0.04 to 0.54 in the Trichoplus variant. Correlative relationship between ladybird adult growing coefficient and aphid populations in the Trichoplus variant was found.

  16. Significance of penetration, excretion, and transovarial uptake to toxicity of three insect growth regulators in predatory lacewing adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Pilar; Smagghe, Guy; Budia, Flor; Del Estal, Pedro; Tirry, Luc; Viñuela, Elisa

    2002-10-01

    Topical treatment of the predatory lacewing adults, Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) before and after the onset of oviposition with diflubenzuron (DFB) at doses based on the maximum field recommended concentration resulted in a total inhibition of egg hatch due to death of the embryo. In contrast, pyriproxyfen (PYR) and tebufenozide (TEB) did not affect fecundity and egg fertility. To explain these differences in toxicity, the patterns of penetration through the cuticle, distribution inside the insect body, and excretion were studied using [(14)C]-labeled isotopes of each insect growth regulator (IGR). Penetration of DFB and TEB reached about 16 and 26% in 7 days, whereas 88% of PYR had penetrated in 24 h. However, the rate of excretion for PYR was very high, compared to that of DFB and TEB. Low amounts of absorbed radioactivity were recovered from the female body with the exception of DFB, the ovaries and the eggs deposited during a week. DFB and PYR concentration reached a peak in the eggs deposited at the fourth and second day after treatment, respectively. The current data indicate the importance of penetration through the insect cuticle. However, other mechanisms are likely to be involved in the selectivity of the current IGRs towards this beneficial insect. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Los mirmeleónidos (hormigas-león de la Península Ibérica e Islas Baleares (Insecta, Neuropterida, Neuroptera, Myrmeleontidae

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    Monserrat, V. J.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We review the ants-lion (Insecta, Neuropterida, Neuroptera: Myrmeleontidae species known from the Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Islands. With very different degrees of presence, frequence and abundance, 26 ant-lion species belonging to 15 genera of this family are known in the area studied. Of these, an identification key of imagoes is provided, all the existing bibliographical information from the area is compiled, and a review of current knowledge about their biology and larval stages as well as their phaenological and altitudinal distribution in the studied region is provided. For 24 of these 26 species, new data on their distribution and biology within in the area are also provided.Se revisan las especies de mirmeleónidos u hormigas-león (Insecta, Neuropterida, Neuroptera: Myrmeleontidae de la Península Ibérica e Islas Baleares. Con una muy diversa presencia, frecuencia y abundancia, 26 especies pertenecientes a 15 géneros de esta familia son conocidas en la zona estudiada. De ellas, se incluye una clave de identificación de sus imagos, se recopila toda la información bibliográfica existente referente al área geográfica estudiada, y se recopilan y se anotan los datos conocidos sobre su biología, sus estadios larvarios y su distribución fenológica y altitudinal en la zona estudiada. Para 24 de estas 26 especies, se anotan nuevos datos sobre su distribución y biología en la zona tratada.

  18. Shelf life of factitious hosts and effect of stored preys on the development of the green lace wing predator, Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viji, C.P.; Gautam, R.D.; Garg, A.K.

    2005-01-01

    Mass production of the green laceweing, Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) in the laboratory is directly dependent on the mass production of its factitious host i.e., the eggs of Corcyra cephalonica. Production of host insects is often seasonal which, in turn, affects the mass rearing of chrysopids hence necessitates the storage of prey for mass production. Studies were carried out to determine the shelf life of the prey (viz., Tribolium castaneum larvae and papae, Trogoderma granarium larvae, Drosophila melanogaster larvae, Cadra cautella eggs and Corcyra cephalonica eggs) while storing it in freezer at 10-12 o C by exposing to UV and gamma radiations. T. castaneum larva and pupa could be stored in freezer chest for 6 and 8 months respectively, whereas C. cephalonica eggs could only be stored for a period of 30 days. The impact of storage on the biological attributes of the predator was studied. Effectiveness of stored food represented the order as uv irradiated + Frozen > γ-irradiated + Frozen > Frozen > UV irradiated > γ-irradiated. Even though, variations were observed on the development of predator larva on stored foods, they supported the development of the predator to a reasonable degree. (author)

  19. Lack of detrimental effects of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry toxins on the insect predator Chrysoperla carnea: a toxicological, histopathological, and biochemical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo-Simón, Ana; de Maagd, Ruud A; Avilla, Carlos; Bakker, Petra L; Molthoff, Jos; González-Zamora, Jose E; Ferré, Juan

    2006-02-01

    The effect of Cry proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis on the green lacewing (Chrysoperla carnea) was studied by using a holistic approach which consisted of independent, complementary experimental strategies. Tritrophic experiments were performed, in which lacewing larvae were fed Helicoverpa armigera larvae reared on Cry1Ac, Cry1Ab, or Cry2Ab toxins. In complementary experiments, a predetermined amount of purified Cry1Ac was directly fed to lacewing larvae. In both experiments no effects on prey utilization or fitness parameters were found. Since binding to the midgut is an indispensable step for toxicity of Cry proteins to known target insects, we hypothesized that specific binding of the Cry1A proteins should be found if the proteins were toxic to the green lacewing. In control experiments, Cry1Ac was detected bound to the midgut epithelium of intoxicated H. armigera larvae, and cell damage was observed. However, no binding or histopathological effects of the toxin were found in tissue sections of lacewing larvae. Similarly, Cry1Ab or Cry1Ac bound in a specific manner to brush border membrane vesicles from Spodoptera exigua but not to similar fractions from green lacewing larvae. The in vivo and in vitro binding results strongly suggest that the lacewing larval midgut lacks specific receptors for Cry1Ab or Cry1Ac. These results agree with those obtained in bioassays, and we concluded that the Cry toxins tested, even at concentrations higher than those expected in real-life situations, do not have a detrimental effect on the green lacewing when they are ingested either directly or through the prey.

  20. A toxin homology domain in an astacin-like metalloproteinase of the jellyfish Podocoryne carnea with a dual role in digestion and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, T; Gröger, H; Schmid, V; Spring, J

    1998-07-01

    Metalloproteinases of the astacin family such as tolloid play major roles in animal morphogenesis. Cnidarians are thought to be evolutionary simple organisms and, therefore, a metalloproteinase from the marine hydrozoan Podocoryne carnea was analysed to evaluate the role of this conserved gene familiy at the base of animal evolution. Surprisingly, the proteinase domain of Podocornyne PMP1 is more similar to human meprin than to HMP1 from another hydrozoan, the freshwater polyp Hydra vulgaris. However, PMP1 and HMP1 both contain a small C-terminal domain with six cysteines that distinguishes them from other astacin-like molecules. Similar domains have been described only recently from sea anemone toxins specific for potassium channels. This toxin homology (Tox1) domain is clearly distinct from epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like domains or other cysteine-rich modules and terminates with the characteristic pattern CXXXCXXC with three out of six cysteines in the last eight residues of the protein. PMP1 is transiently expressed at various sites of morphogenetic activity during medusa bud development. In the adult medusa, however, expression is concentrated to the manubrium, the feeding organ, where the PMP1 gene is highly induced upon feeding. These disparate expression patterns suggest a dual role of PMP1 comparable to tolloid in development and, like astacin in the crayfish, also for food digestion. The Tox1 domain of PMP1 could serve as a toxin to keep the pray paralysed after ingestion, but as a sequence module such Tox1 domains with six cysteines are neither restricted to cnidarians nor to toxins.

  1. Quantifying Conservation Biological Control for Management of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in Cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandervoet, Timothy F; Ellsworth, Peter C; Carrière, Yves; Naranjo, Steven E

    2018-03-13

    Conservation biological control can be an effective tactic for minimizing insect-induced damage to agricultural production. In the Arizona cotton system, a suite of generalist arthropod predators provides critical regulation of Bemisia tabaci Gennadius (MEAM1) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) and other pests. Arthropod predator and B. tabaci populations were manipulated with a range of broad-spectrum and selective insecticide exclusions to vary predator to prey interactions in a 2-yr field study. Predator to prey ratios associated with B. tabaci densities near the existing action threshold were estimated for six predator species found to be negatively associated with either adult and/or large nymphs of B. tabaci [Misumenops celer (Hentz) (Araneae: Thomisidae), Drapetis nr divergens (Diptera: Empididae), Geocoris pallens Stäl (Hemiptera: Geocoridae), Orius tristicolor (White) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae), Chrysoperla carnea s.l. (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), and Collops spp. (Coleoptera: Melyridae)] with the first three most consistently associated with declining B. tabaci densities. Ratios ranged from 1 M. celer per 100 sweeps to 1 B. tabaci adult per leaf to 44 D. nr. divergens per 100 sweeps to 1 large nymph per leaf disk. These ratios represent biological control informed thresholds that might serve as simple-to-use decision tool for reducing risk in the current B. tabaci integrated pest management strategy. The identification of key predators within the large, flexible food web of the cotton agro-ecosystem and estimation of predator to B. tabaci ratios clarifies the role of key predators in B. tabaci suppression, yielding potential decision-making advantages that could contribute to further improving economic and environmental sustainability of insect management in the cotton system.

  2. Predators and Parasitoids of Cacopsylla pyri (L. (Hemiptera: Psyllidae in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušanka Jerinić Prodanović

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of C. pyri and its natural enemies was studied in both treated and untreated pear orchards in Serbia from 2005 to 2009. Five parasitoid and 21 predator species were identified as present on a considerable number of sites. The following parasitoid species were found: Prionomitus mitratus (Dalman,Psyllaephagus procerus Marcet,Syrphophagus ariantes (Walker,Syrphophagus taeniatus Förster and Tamarixia sp. In the study, the species Psyllaephagus procerus,Syrphophagus ariantes and Tamarixia sp. were forthe first time identified as parasitoids of C. pyri and as new species in the Serbian fauna.Among the parasitoids determined, Prionomitus mitratus predominated. Of the predators, the following species in four orders were registered: Dermaptera [Forficula auricularia Linnaeus (Forficulidae], Heteroptera [Anthocoris nemoralis(Fabricius, Anthocoris nemorum (Linnaeus, Orius (Heterorius minutus (Linnaeus, Orius (Heterorius nigerWolff (Anthocoridae, Campylomma verbasci (Mayer-Dür, Deraeocoris (Deraeocorisruber(Linnaeusand Deraeocoris(Knightocarsuslutescens (Schilling(Miridae],Neuroptera[Chrysopa pallens Rambur,Chrysoperla carnea(Stephens,Chrysopa sp.(Chrysopidae], and Coleoptera [Coccinella septempunctata Linnaeus, Adalia bipunctata Linnaeus, Adalia decempunctata(Linnaeus, Hippodamia tredecimpunctata (Linnaeus,Hippodamia variegata(Goeze,Propylea quatuordecimpunctata (Linnaeus, Calvia (Anisocalvia quatuordecimguttata(Linnaeus(Coccinellidae, Cantharis rustica Fallén, Rhagonycha fulva (Scopoli and Rh. testacea(Linnaeus (Cantharidae]. Of the predators determined, 12 species were registered for the first time as predators of C. pyri in Serbia, while C. rustica, Rhagonycha fulva and Rh.testacea have so far been known neither in Serbia nor in the world as predators of pear suckers.

  3. Is the multicolored Asian ladybeetle, Harmonia axyridis, the most abundant natural enemy to aphids in agroecosystems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandereycken, Axel; Durieux, Delphine; Joie, Emilie; Sloggett, John J; Haubruge, Eric; Verheggen, François J

    2013-01-01

    The multicolored Asian ladybeetle, Harmonia axyridis Pallas (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), was introduced into Western Europe in the late 1990s. Since the late 2000s, this species has been commonly considered one of the most abundant aphid predators in most Western European countries. In spite of the large amount of research on H. axyridis, information concerning its relative abundance in agroecosystems is lacking. This study aims to evaluate the abundance of H. axyridis within the aphidophage community in four crops situated in southern Belgium: wheat, Triticum aestivum L. (Poales: Poaceae), corn, Zea mays, potato, Solanum tuberosum (Solanales: Solanaceae), and broad bean Vicia faba (Fabales: Fabaceae). In order to assess the species diversity, the collected data were analyzed by considering (1) the species richness and (2) the evenness according to the Shannon diversity index. Eleven aphidophages were observed in every inventoried agroecosystem, including five abundant species: three coccinellids, the seven-spotted ladybug, Coccinella septempunctata L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), the 14-spotted Ladybird, Propylea quatuordecimpunctata, and H. axyridis; one hoverfly, the marmalade hoverfly, Episyrphus balteatus De Geer (Diptera: Syrphidae); and one lacewing, the common green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea Stephens sensu lato (= s.l.) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae). Harmonia axyridis has been observed to thrive, breed, and reproduce on the four studied crops. Harmonia axyridis is the most abundant predator of aphids in corn followed by C. septempunctata, which is the main aphid predator observed in the three other inventoried crops. In wheat and potato fields, H. axyridis occurs in low numbers compared to other aphidophage. These observations suggest that H. axyridis could be considered an invasive species of agrosystems, and that potato and wheat may intermittently act as refuges for other aphidophages vulnerable to intraguild predation by this invader. Harmonia axyridis

  4. Biology and harmfulness of Planococcus vovae (Nassonov (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae in Belgrade area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Draga Graora

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Planococcus vovae (Nassonov (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae is an important pest on plants of the family Cupressaceae. Its numerous populations have been present in recent years on Juniperus spp. in Belgrade. Feeding by sap-sucking on all aboveground plant organs, it causes growth stagnation, chlorosis, drying of needles and branches, and even of entire plants under heavy infestation. Additionally, the scale excretes large quantities of honeydew, on which sooty mold develops, reducing photosynthesis and causing faster plant deterioration. Throughout 2007 and 2008, P. vovae was recorded on Juniperus spp. in 12 localities in Belgrade, and on Thuja sp. in a single locality. The pest was found to develop three generations per year and overwinter on branches at the egg or second instar stages. The first generation adults were observed at the end of May, the second generation at the beginning of August, while the third generation was recorded at the beginning of October. Different overwintering modes, and variable oviposition, embryonic and larval development periods led to an overlapping of generations and continuous presence of all developmental stages on plants. In different localities the infestation of plants varied in abundance from a few individual specimens to very large colonies. The highest infestation intensity was recorded in the localities Bežanija, Dorćol and Voždovac. The predatory species Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae and Nephus bipunctatus (Kugelann (Coleoptera: Coccinelidae were found in the scale colonies. Regarding N. bipunctatus, this was its first record as a new species in the Serbian fauna.

  5. NEW INSIGHTS OF SIDE-EFFECTS OF TAU-FLUVALINATE ON BIOLOGICAL AGENTS AND POLLINATORS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterk, G M K M; Kolokytha, P D

    2015-01-01

    A high number of side-effects trials were developed and carried out on beneficial insects and mites by the 'Side-effects on beneficial organisms' IOBC working group and subsequently published in the IOBC bulletins over a number of years. In general, these tests were mainly carried out under laboratory and/or semi-field conditions following the very worst case scenario applications, leading to an IOBC classification of 3 (moderately toxic) and 4 (harmful) for many of the tested compounds However, feedback from applications under practical conditions, often indicated that the published results were far from realism for a number of compounds. Due to the fact that some of these active ingredients are still regularly used, or even growing in importance, a number of them were tested on many beneficial arthropods and pollinators and the upcoming results were compared with the registered IOBC data. Among these compounds, Tau-fluvalinate (Mavrik), a widely used synthetic pyrethroid against aphids, caterpillars and beetles in a large number of crops, was tested in the facilities of IPM Impact. While this compound was often considered as being very toxic for all beneficial organisms, slightly toxicity was shown on adults of Aphidius colemani (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae), and larvae of Chrysoperla carnea (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) and Anthocoris nemoralis (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae). However, the moderately toxicity or toxicity appeared on adults of Trichogramma brassicae (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) as well as larvae of Adalia bipunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and Episyrphus balteatus (Diptera: Syrphidae), was moderated by short persistence of less than 3 days. Concerning large earth bumblebee, Bombus terrestris (Hymenoptera: Apidae), the compound was characterized as completely safe, even when being sprayed in the full flight phase of the bumblebees. This indicates that for a high number of pollinator species and some of the most important beneficial insects, tau

  6. Insetos coletados durante o Projeto Maracá, Roraima, Brasil: Lista complementar.

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael, J. A.

    1991-01-01

    Uma lista da isentos coletados durante o projeto Marscá é apresentada. Os seguintes táxons são listados: Neuroptera (Corydalidae, Mantispidae, Ascalaphidade, Coniopterygidae, Sisyridade, Myrmeleontidae e a Chrysopidae); Coleoptera (Cerambycidae) e Diptora (Stratymyiidae, Asilidade, Bombyliidae, Dolichopodidae., Neriidae, Tephritidae., Milichiidae, Chloropidae, Otitidae, Richardiidae., Platystomatidae, Ropalomeridae, lo chaeidae e Clusiidae). Apresenta-se também uma Lista da Orthoptera: Acrido...

  7. Antalya İlinde Portakal Bahçelerinde Gözlenen Önemli Zararlı ve Yararlı Böcek Popülasyonları

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vildan GÖL

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada, 2014 yılında, Antalya ilinde bulunan iki portakal bahçesinde önemli zararlı ve yararlı böcek popülasyonları belirlenmiştir. Bahçelerde ağırlıklı olarak portakal bulunması nedeniyle örneklemeler de bu tür üzerinde yapılmıştır. Çalışma süresince zararlılara karşı herhangi bir mücadele yöntemi uygulanmamıştır. Çalışmada örneklerin toplanması için gözle kontrol yöntemi, yaprak, sürgün, meyve örnekleme yöntemi, darbe ve tuzakla yakalama yöntemi kullanılmıştır. Çalışma sonucunda zararlı türler olarak Tetranychus urticae (Koch (Acarina: Tetranychidae, Empoasca decipiens (Paoli, Asymmetrasca decedens (Paoli (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae, Dialeurodes citri (Ashmead, Aleurothrixus floccosus (Maskell (Hem.: Aleyrodidae, Aphis craccivora (Koch (Hem.: Aphididae, Icerya purchasi Maskell (Hem.: Margarodidae, Coccus hesperidum (Linnaeus, Ceroplastes floridensis (Comstock (Hem.: Coccidae, Aonidiella aurantii (Maskell, Aonidiella citrina (Coquillet, Parlatoria pergandii (Comstock (Hem.: Diaspididae, Planococcus citri (Risso (Hem.: Pseudococcidae, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae ve Phyllocnistis citrella (Stainton (Lepidoptera: Gracillaridae saptanmıştır. Bunlardan E. decipiens (Paoli, A. decedens (Paoli, A. floccosus (Maskell, A. aurantii (Maskell ve Parlatoria pergandii (Comstock en yaygın türler olarak belirlenmiştir. Ayrıca 2 takıma bağlı 7 avcı ve asalak tür saptanmıştır. Bu türler: Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae, Coccinella septempunctata L., Chilocorus bipustulatus L., Rhyzobius lophantae (Blaisdell, Oenopia conglobata (L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae, Aphytis melinus DeBach ve Comperiella bifasciata (Coleoptera: Aphelinidae’ dır. Çalışmada ayrıca zararlı iki cicadellid türü ile A. floccosus, A. aurantii, P. pergandii, C. capitata‘nın ve doğal düşmanlardan C. carnea’nın, coccinellidlerin, A. melinus ve E. citrina

  8. Anti-proliferative effect of RCE-4 from Reineckia carnea on human cervical cancer HeLa cells by inhibiting the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway and NF-κB activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Caihong; Yang, Xiaojiao; Zou, Kun; He, Haibo; Wang, Junzhi; Qin, Huilin; Yu, Xiaoqin; Liu, Chengxiong; Zheng, Juyan; Cheng, Fan; Chen, Jianfeng

    2016-06-01

    Cervical cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in women worldwide. In recent years, the studies find that inflammation is a critical component of tumor progression, and the ideal therapeutic methods should be aimed at the inflammation reaction triggers. (1β,3β,5β,25S)-spirostan-1,3-diol1-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-D-xylopyranoside] (RCE-4) was the main active composition of Reineckia carnea (Andr.) Kunth. It significantly induced apoptosis in cervical cancer Caski cells through the mitochondrial pathway in our previous studies; however, its underlying mechanism remains poorly understood. This study aimed to further evaluate the effect of RCE-4 on human cervical cancer HeLa cells. Based on this observation, we investigated the anti-cervical cancer effect of RCE-4 by modulating phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase-B/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K/Akt/mTOR) signaling pathway, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation, and inflammation-related key factors in HeLa cells. The results indicated that the HeLa cell was the most sensitive with an IC50 of 7.01 μM; RCE-4 significantly promoted the release of cellular lactate dehydrogenase (LDH); increased DNA fragmentation and apoptosis; reduced PI3K, Akt, mTOR, and NF-κBp65 phosphorylation levels; increased the Bax and cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) protein levels; suppressed Bcl-2 protein expression; elevated the Bax/Bcl-2 expression ratio; and decreased the interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) mRNA expressions in HeLa cells in a concentration-dependent manner. These findings suggest that RCE-4 exerted beneficially anti-cervical cancer effect on HeLa cells, mainly inhibiting PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway phosphorylation and NF-κB activation, promoting HeLa cell apoptosis. Graphical abstract Anti-tumor effect of RCE-4 on HeLa cells.

  9. Predation of Myrmeleon obscurus (Navas, 1912) (neuroptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... removal of mandibles and abandonment of remains of the prey. Maximizing predation is a strategy for these seasonal insects to store energy that might help them to survive during the unfavourable rainy season. © 2010 International Formulae Group. All rights reserved. Keywords: Ant lion larvae, Cameroon, mandibles, ...

  10. Assessing granular pit construction from larval Neuroptera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Nicholas; Olafsen, Jeffrey S.; Loudon, Catherine; Steeples, Don W.

    2002-03-01

    Antlion larvae, Myrmeleon carolinus, build cone-shaped pits in dry sand for prey capture. The surface of these pits are prone to avalanches that can depend upon the physical properties of the sand in the local environment. The antlion larvae are observed to be capable of assessing both sand depth and particle size. In a polydisperse granular environment, the antlion demonstrates the ability to sort the sand by size in a dynamic manner. An imaging technique is developed to investigate the potential role of air viscosity on the pit construction process.

  11. Shallot aphids, Myzus ascalonicus, in strawberry: biocontrol potential of three predators and three parasitoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enkegaard, Annie; Sigsgaard, Lene; Kristensen, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    The parasitization capacity of 3 parasitoids and the predation capacity of 3 predators towards the shallot aphid, Myzus ascalonicus Doncaster (Homoptera: Aphididae), on strawberry, Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne (Rosales: Rosaceae) cv. Honeoye, were examined in laboratory experiments. In Petri dish assays, both Aphidius colemani Viereck (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) and A. ervi Haliday readily stung shallot aphids, with no significant difference in stinging frequency between the two species. A. ervi induced a significantly higher mortality (79.0 ± 7.2%) in terms of stung aphids compared with A. colemani (55.3 ± 4.1%); however, only a minor fraction (2.7 ± 1.8% and 7.1 ± 3.1%, respectively) of the killed aphids resulted in formation of mummies, presumably due to a physiological response to parasitism. The low percentage of mummification precludes the use of either Aphidius species in anything but inundative biocontrol. In similar set-ups, Aphelinus abdominalis (Dalman) (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) killed almost half (49.6 ± 5.3%) of the exposed aphids through host feeding. In addition, 23.2 ± 7.3% of non-host-fed aphids developed into mummified aphids, and 38.1 ± 13.2% of non-host-fed aphids died from other parasitoid-induced causes. However, the host feeding rate was reduced to only 1.2 ± 0.8%, and no significant parasitization mortality was observed on strawberry plants, suggesting that host plants interfered with A. abdominalis activity. This parasitoid does not, therefore, seem to be suited to either inoculative or inundative biocontrol of shallot aphids in strawberry. The three predators studied were the green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea Steph. (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), the two-spotted lady beetle, Adalia bipunctata L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), and the gall midge Aphidoletes aphidimyza (Rondani) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae). Third instars of all 3 predators readily preyed upon the shallot aphid in Petri dish set-ups with significant differences in daily

  12. Chromosome numbers in antlions (Myrmeleontidae) and owlflies (Ascalaphidae) (Insecta, Neuroptera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, Valentina G.; Khabiev, Gadzhimurad N.; Krivokhatsky, Victor A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A short review of main cytogenetic features of insects belonging to the sister neuropteran families Myrmeleontidae (antlions) and Ascalaphidae (owlflies) is presented, with a particular focus on their chromosome numbers and sex chromosome systems. Diploid male chromosome numbers are listed for 37 species, 21 genera from 9 subfamilies of the antlions as well as for seven species and five genera of the owlfly subfamily Ascalaphinae. The list includes data on five species whose karyotypes were studied in the present work. It is shown here that antlions and owlflies share a simple sex chromosome system XY/XX; a similar range of chromosome numbers, 2n = 14-26 and 2n = 18-22 respectively; and a peculiar distant pairing of sex chromosomes in male meiosis. Usually the karyotype is particularly stable within a genus but there are some exceptions in both families (in the genera Palpares and Libelloides respectively). The Myrmeleontidae and Ascalaphidae differ in their modal chromosome numbers. Most antlions exhibit 2n = 14 and 16, and Palparinae are the only subfamily characterized by higher numbers, 2n = 22, 24, and 26. The higher numbers, 2n = 20 and 22, are also found in owlflies. Since the Palparinae represent a basal phylogenetic lineage of the Myrmeleontidae, it is hypothesized that higher chromosome numbers are ancestral for antlions and were inherited from the common ancestor of Myrmeleontidae + Ascalaphidae. They were preserved in the Palparinae (Myrmeleontidae), but changed via chromosomal fusions toward lower numbers in other subfamilies. PMID:26807036

  13. The first araripeneurine antlion in Burmese amber (Neuroptera: Myrmeleontidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Diying; Azar, Dany; Engel, Michael S.; Garrouste, Romain; Cai, Chenyang; Nel, André

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Burmaneura minuta gen. et sp. nov., the first araripeneurine antlion in amber, is characterized, described and compared with the modern and Mesozoic Myrmeleontidae. The precise position of the fossil within this group is debatable. Interestingly, despite a rather rich fossil record, all Mesozoic Myrmeleontidae belong to subfamilies that are not recorded in the Cenozoic, although this might merely reflect the artificiality of the classification as the extinct groups may...

  14. New Philippine species ofSpilosmylusKolbe (Neuroptera, Osmylidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badano, Davide; Winterton, Shaun L

    2017-01-01

    New species of lance lacewings, Spilosmylus spilopteryx sp. n. and Spilosmylus tephrodestigma sp. n. , are described from the Philippines and compared with congeners. Both species are characterised by a distinctive wing pattern, which in the case of Spilosmylus spilopteryx sp. n. is relatively spectacular among lacewings. An identification key to the species of Spilosmylus Kolbe known from the Philippines is also provided.

  15. Antlion Dendroleon pantherinus (Fabricius, 1787) (Neuroptera: Myrmeleontidae) in Slovenia: Volkec vrste Dendroleon pantherinus (Fabricius, 1787) (Neuroptera: Myrmeleontidae) v Sloveniji:

    OpenAIRE

    Devetak, Dušan; Janžekovič, Franc; Podlesnik, Jan

    2010-01-01

    The distribution of the European antlion species, Dendroleon pantherinus (Fabricius), in Slovenia with some notes on biology is presented. Predstavljena je razširjenost volkca vrste Dendroleon pantherinus (Fabricius) v Sloveniji z nekaterimi podatki o njeni biologiji.

  16. Duração e viabilidade das fases pré-imaginais de Chrysoperla externa (Hagen alimentadas com Aphis gossypii Glover e Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier Duration and viability of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen pre-imago phases, fed with Aphis gossypii (Glover and Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Pacelli Medeiros Macedo

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a duração e a viabilidade das fases imaturas de Chrysoperla externa (Hagen (Neuroptera, Chrysopidae alimentadas com o pulgão do algodoeiro, Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera, Aphididae, e com a traça do milho, Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae. A pesquisa foi conduzida no Laboratório de Entomologia da Embrapa - CNPA, em Campina Grande, Paraíba, em 1998/99 em condições controladas sob temperatura de 25±2ºC, 70±10% UR e fotofase de 12 horas. O desenvolvimento pré-imaginal de C. externa decorreu normalmente: fase larval com três ínstares, pré-pupa e pupa. De acordo com os resultados, pode-se concluir que as larvas de C. externa alimentadas com A. gossypii apresentam uma duração significativamente maior para o primeiro e terceiro ínstares, que às alimentadas com S. cerealella. Entretanto, não há efeito dessas presas na viabilidade das fases desse predador, exceto para a de pré-pupa. C. externa pode ser criado em A. gossypii ou S. cerealella sem risco de perda de viabilidade, embora algumas fases possam ser mais longas.This work was carried out at the Laboratório de Entomologia da Embrapa - CNPA, in Campina Grande, state of Paraíba, Brazil, in 1998/99, to study the duration and viability of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen (Neuroptera, Chrysopidae larvae, fed with Aphis gossypii (Homoptera, Aphididae and Sitotroga cerealella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, under controlled conditions. The temperature was 25+-2º C, 70+-10% UR and 12-hour photophase. The C. externa pre-imaginal development was normal: larval phase with three instars, pre-pupa and pupa. The results showed that C. externa larvae fed on A. gossypii had a first and third instar longer than the ones fed with S. cerealella. However, no effect was observed in the phases' viability, excepting the pre-pupa. C. externa can feed on both preys without viability loss, although this may enhance some phases' duration.

  17. Comparative Toxicities of Newer and Conventional Insecticides: Against Four Generalist Predator Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhaker, Nilima; Naranjo, Steven; Perring, Thomas; Castle, Steven

    2017-12-05

    Generalist insect predators play an essential role in regulating the populations of Bemisia tabaci and other pests in agricultural systems, but may be affected negatively by insecticides applied for pest management. Evaluation of insecticide compatibility with specific predator species can provide a basis for making treatment decisions with the aim of conserving natural enemies. Eleven insecticides representing six modes of action groups were evaluated for toxicity against four predator species and at different developmental stages. Full-concentration series bioassays were conducted on laboratory-reared or insectary-supplied predators using Petri dish and systemic uptake bioassay techniques. Highest toxicities were observed with imidacloprid and clothianidin against first and second instar nymphs of Geocoris punctipes (Say) (Hemiptera: Geocoridae). Later instar nymphs were less susceptible to neonicotinoid treatments based on higher LC50s observed with imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, and dinotefuran against third or fourth instar nymphs. The pyrethroid insecticide bifenthrin was highly toxic against adults of G. punctipes and Orius insidiosus (Say) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae). Standard concentration/mortality evaluation of nonacute toxicity insecticides, including buprofezin, pyriproxyfen, spirotetramat, and spiromesifen, was inconclusive in terms of generating probit statistics. However, low mortality levels of insects exposed for up to 120 h suggested minimal lethality with the exception of pyriproxyfen that was mildly toxic to Chrysoperla rufilabris (Burmeister) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  18. Selectivity of pesticides used in peach orchards on the larval stage of the predator Chrysoperla externa (Hagen

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    Anderson Dionei Grützmacher

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The selectivity of sixteen pesticides used in peach orchards in Brazil was evaluated on larvae of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae in laboratory (25±1ºC, 70±10% RH and 14 hours photophase. The bioassays consisted on the exposure of larvae to fresh dry pesticide film applied on glass plates. Lenght of each development stage, the mortality, the fecundity and fertility of survival adults were evaluated. Pesticides were classified according to the total toxic effect in harmless (99%, in conformity to “International Organization for Biological Control of Noxious Animals and Plants” (IOBC recommendation. Only abamectin and deltamethrin caused significant prolongation in the post embryonic period. Fecundity and fertility of survival adults were not affected by any pesticide tested. The acaricide/insecticide abamectin, the two mineral oils, the fungicides mancozeb, dodine, azoxystrobin, captan, mancozeb + cooper oxichloride and pholpet, and the herbicide ghlyphosate were harmless; the fungicide tebuconazole was slightly harmful; the insecticide deltamethrin was moderately harmful; and the insecticides malathion, dimethoate and phosmet, and the herbicide paraquat dichloride were harmful to C. externa larvae.

  19. Development of Myrmeleon brasiliensis (Navas) (Neuroptera, Myrmeleontidae), in laboratory, with different natural diets

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    Missirian, Giani L.B. [Centro Universitario da Grande Dourados, MS (Brazil). Curso de Ciencias Biologicas; Uchoa-Fernandes, Manoel A. [Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados, MS (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Biologicas e Ambientais]. E-mail: uchoa.fernandes@ufgd.edu.br; Fischer, Erich [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul, Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia

    2006-07-01

    Antlions larvae are sit-and-wait predators that capture arthropod prey in conical sand pits. The aim of this paper were to determine the effect of different natural diets [leaf-cutting ants (Atta spp.), fruit fly larvae (Anastrepha spp. and Ceratitis capitata) and mixed diet (Atta spp. plus fruit fly larvae)] on the development of larvae and pupae of M. brasiliensis (Navas, 1914) and to estimate the number and size of prey caught in each instar and on each kind of diet. The average duration (days) of the second and third instars of M. brasiliensis was longer when larvae of antlion were fed with leaf-cutting ants. The diets did not affect the duration of the pupal stage nor the pupae size. The different diets did not affect the mean width of head capsule (mm), the mean weight (mg) or the mean body size (mm) in the different instars of M. brasiliensis. In the second and third instars, the larvae of M. brasiliensis fed with leaf-cutting ants consumed more prey than larvae kept on other diets. Adults whose larvae were fed fruit fly larvae were larger than adults on other diets. Although Myrmeleontidae are few studied in Brazil, these results contribute to knowledge of M. brasiliensis biology, but also suggest the need of studies about the development of larvae and pupae in natural environments. (author)

  20. Photoperiodic Response of the Univoltine Ant-Lion Myrmeleon formicarius (Neuroptera, Myrmeleontidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Sakuji, FURUNISHI; Sinzo, MASAKI; Laboratory of Entomology, Faculty of Agriculture, Hirosaki University; Laboratory of Entomology, Faculty of Agriculture, Hirosaki University

    1981-01-01

    Larvae of Myrmeleon formicarius showed a clear peak of maturation in July, when reared under the conditions of natural daylength cycle, constant temperature (24℃) and food supply throughout the year. At 21℃ first instars collected before hibernation responded to a photoperiod of 13 h or shorter by delaying the first two ecdyses, and most of them remained in either the third or second instar for a long period. In a photoperiod of 14 h or longer, most of them attained the third (last) larval st...

  1. Aspects of excretion of antlion larvae (Neuroptera: myrmeleontidae) during feeding and non-feeding periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Zyl, A; Van Der Westhuizen, M C.; De K Van Der Linde, T C.

    1998-12-01

    The main nitrogenous excretory products were determined for third instar Cueta sp. and Furgella intermedia larvae during periods of food abundance and for F. intermedia during starvation periods. Biochemical analysis indicated that allantoin was the main nitrogenous excretory product, with smaller quantities of ammonia, urea and uric acid. Respectively 9 and 13amino acids of low concentrations (0.005-0.329g/l) were detected by high pressure liquid chromatography in the excreta of Cueta sp. and F. intermedia larvae. The volume of urine produced and concentrations of the nitrogenous excretory products of fed Cueta sp. and fed F. intermedia larvae did not differ. F. intermedia excreted smaller volumes of urine and smaller quantities of nitrogenous excretory products during starvation than during periods of food abundance. Feeding conditions rather than the pitbuilding or non-pitbuilding lifestyles seem to be the major influence on the excretory products of these antlion larvae.

  2. Effect of substrate density on behaviour of antlion larvae (Neuroptera: Myrmeleontidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devetak, Dušan; Novak, Tone; Janžekovič, Franc

    2012-08-01

    Sand-dwelling antlion larvae are well known predators with a highly specialized prey-catching strategy, which either construct efficient pitfall traps or bury themselves in the sand ambushing prey on the surface. Although habitat selection in antlions has been extensively studied, little is known about the role substrate density plays in such behavioural decisions. We thus first quantified the natural substrate densities of 13 antlion species by collecting soil samples from 18 different field sites. We found that natural substrate densities varied from 121 g/l to 1562 g/l. The substrate densities of three non-pit-building species (Neuroleon microstenus, Distoleon tetragrammicus, Nophis teillardi) ranged from medium to high, while those of obligatory pit-builders (Euroleon nostras and eight Myrmeleon species) were more variable. The substrate density of the facultative pit-builder Cueta sp. was high. Next, we explored the responses of the pit-building antlion E. nostras to different substrate densities using both a habitat choice and a complementary no-choice experiment. We hypothesized that antlions should be capable of distinguishing between substrate types and that pit size should decrease with increased substrate density. When allowed to choose among eight substrate densities, E. nostras larvae preferred to build their pits in the fractions with low densities (i.e., 121, 353 and 512 g/l) and only a small proportion constructed pits in high density fractions (i.e., 1312 and 1546 g/l). A complementary no-choice experiment demonstrated that pit diameter, pit depth and pit angle were negatively correlated with substrate density. These reductions in pit size can negatively affect prey capture success.

  3. Specialized Learning in Antlions (Neuroptera: Myrmeleontidae), Pit-Digging Predators, Shortens Vulnerable Larval Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollis, Karen L.; Cogswell, Heather; Snyder, Kenzie; Guillette, Lauren M.; Nowbahari, Elise

    2011-01-01

    Unique in the insect world for their extremely sedentary predatory behavior, pit-dwelling larval antlions dig pits, and then sit at the bottom and wait, sometimes for months, for prey to fall inside. This sedentary predation strategy, combined with their seemingly innate ability to detect approaching prey, make antlions unlikely candidates for learning. That is, although scientists have demonstrated that many species of insects possess the capacity to learn, each of these species, which together represent multiple families from every major insect order, utilizes this ability as a means of navigating the environment, using learned cues to guide an active search for food and hosts, or to avoid noxious events. Nonetheless, we demonstrate not only that sedentary antlions can learn, but also, more importantly, that learning provides an important fitness benefit, namely decreasing the time to pupate, a benefit not yet demonstrated in any other species. Compared to a control group in which an environmental cue was presented randomly vis-à-vis daily prey arrival, antlions given the opportunity to associate the cue with prey were able to make more efficient use of prey and pupate significantly sooner, thus shortening their long, highly vulnerable larval stage. Whereas “median survival time,” the point at which half of the animals in each group had pupated, was 46 days for antlions receiving the Learning treatment, that point never was reached in antlions receiving the Random treatment, even by the end of the experiment on Day 70. In addition, we demonstrate a novel manifestation of antlions' learned response to cues predicting prey arrival, behavior that does not match the typical “learning curve” but which is well-adapted to their sedentary predation strategy. Finally, we suggest that what has long appeared to be instinctive predatory behavior is likely to be highly modified and shaped by learning. PMID:21479229

  4. Utilisation of prey by antlion larvae (Neuroptera: Myrmeleontidae) in terms of energy and nutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De K Van Der Linde, T C.; Van Der Westhuizen, M C.; Van Zyl, A

    1997-07-01

    Prey utilisation at low prey densities was determined for third instar Cueta sp., Furgella intermedia (Markl) and Palpares annulatus (Stitz) larvae in terms of wet weight, dry weight, energy and nutrients. Prey utilisation was similar to other insects on a wet weight (42-47%), dry weight (46-49%), energetic (40-58%) and nutritive basis (62-79%). Lipids (33-36%) provided energetically the highest contribution of the nutrients ingested. The quantities of water, proteins, nucleic acids, lipids and carbohydrates extracted by the antlion larvae were in proportion to their availability in their prey, the Hodotermes mossambicus larvae. The quantities of nutrients extracted by the antlion larvae at low prey densities were not significantly influenced by the differences in mandible size, antlion body weight or the trapping method (building a pit or not) of the antlion species. It is proposed that a low metabolic rate and the accumulation of fat reserves, and not the extent of prey utilisation, enable P. annulatus larvae to tolerate a 123-d starvation period in which 22.3% of their body weight is lost.

  5. Sedentary antlion larvae (Neuroptera: Myrmeleontidae) use vibrational cues to modify their foraging strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuszewska, Karolina; Miler, Krzysztof; Filipiak, Michał; Woyciechowski, Michal

    2016-09-01

    Learning abilities are exhibited by many animals, including insects. However, sedentary species are typically believed to have low capacities and requirements for learning. Despite this view, recent studies show that even such inconspicuous organisms as larval antlions, which employ an ambush predation strategy, are capable of learning, although their learning abilities are rather simple, i.e., limited to the association of vibrational cues with the arrival of prey. This study demonstrates, for the first time, that antlion larvae can use vibrational cues for complex modifications of their foraging strategies. Specifically, antlion larvae rapidly learn to differentiate between the vibrational cues associated with prey of different sizes, and they save resources by ignoring smaller prey in favour of larger, more energetically profitable prey. Moreover, antlion larvae can learn to associate vibrational cues with the loss of their prey, and they respond by burying their victims under the sand more often and more rapidly than do individuals with no opportunities to form such associations. These findings provide not only new insights into the cognitive abilities of animals but also support for the optimal foraging strategy concept, suggesting the importance of maximizing fitness output by balancing the costs and benefits of alternative foraging strategies.

  6. The larva of Tricholeon relictus Hölzel & Monserrat, 2002 a synanthropic antlion (Neuroptera, Myrmeleontidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, Fernando; Badano, Davide; Monserrat, Víctor J

    2014-07-11

    The larva of Tricholeon relictus, a Spanish endemic antlion of Afrotropical affinities, is described and illustrated for the first time also providing a comparison with the only other European member of the tribe Dendroleontini, Dendroleon pantherinus. The larva of this species is synanthropic but probably originally lived in cave-like habitats.

  7. Larval morphology of the antlion Myrmecaelurus trigrammus (Pallas, 1771) (Neuroptera, Myrmeleontidae), with notes on larval biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devetak, Dušan; Klokočovnik, Vesna; Lipovšek, Saška; Bock, Elisabeth; Leitinger, Gerd

    2013-01-01

    Morphology and behaviour of third instar larvae of the Holomediterranean antlion species Myrmecaelurus trigranunus (Pallas) are described. Larvae are facultative pit-builders, they either ambush their prey at the surface, or dig pitfall traps that prey fall in to. Dark brown spots on dorsal and ventral sides of the head and on dorsal side of the thorax are characteristic of the larvae. Eye tubercles are not prominent. Jaws are equipped with long bristles, campaniform sensilla, sensilla coeloconica, and digitiform sensilla. A unique feature is the shape of the tips of all three teeth that is screw-like with a polyhedral surface. The body surface is covered with longitudinally grooved bristles and plumose hairs. On the tip of the antennae and on terminal and subterminal parts of labial palps sensilla basiconica occur. On the 9th abdominal segment there are two bulges, each of them bearing four digging bristles. Non-prominent eye tubercles and numerous mandibular bristles are morphological traits of pit-builders. Most of the behavioural traits are related to pit builders, whereas forward movement, waiting for prey without a pit and frequent changing of ambush location are traits of non-pit builders.

  8. Insecticidal bacteria isolated from predatory larvae of the antlion species Myrmeleon bore (Neuroptera: Myrmeleontidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiwaki, Hisashi; Ito, Katsuhiko; Shimomura, Masaru; Nakashima, Kenta; Matsuda, Kazuhiko

    2007-09-01

    Various bacterial species were isolated from the crop (digestive organ) of the antlion species Myrmeleon bore and tested for their insecticidal activity against caterpillars by injection. Sixty-eight isolates from the antlion crop were grouped into twenty-four species based on homologies of 16S rRNA gene sequences and biochemical properties. Isolated Bacillus cereus, Bacillus sphaericus, Morganella morganii, Serratia marcescens and a Klebsiella species killed 80% or more cutworms when injected at a dose of 5x10(5)cells per insect. In addition, cutworms killed by these isolates resembled observations made of caterpillars attacked by antlions. A culture-independent analysis showed that the isolated bacterial species are likely to be frequently present in the antlion crop. These results suggest that insecticidal microorganisms associate with antlions, and may promote the death of prey.

  9. The first fossil brown lacewing from the Miocene of the Tibetan Plateau (Neuroptera, Hemerobiidae

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    Qiang Yang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Hemerobiidae, Wesmaelius makarkini Yang, Pang & Ren, sp. n. is described from the Lower Miocene, Garang Formation of Zeku County, Qinghai Province (northeastern Tibetan Plateau, China. The species is assigned to the widely distributed extant genus Wesmaelius Krüger (Hemerobiinae. The species represents the first named fossil of this family from China, which sheds light on the historical distribution of Wesmaelius and early divergences within Hemerobiinae.

  10. A contribution to the knowledge of the Neuroptera (Insecta fauna of Serbia

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    Petrović, S.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a record of a rare species Libelloides lacteus Brullè, 1832 (Ascalaphidae, Ascalaphinae inhabiting Jelašnica Gorge, formerly known to be present only in one single site located inside Serbia's province Kosovo and Metohija. Existing literature data regarding Balkan Peninsula distribution of this species is listed here. Jelašnica Gorge's adult and larval stage specimen findings are illustrated. Morphoanatomical parameters essential for species determination are listed. Species habitat conditions presented here, have a closer determination according to vegetation units and according to EUNIS classification system. It is concluded that a Jelašnica Gorge population has the most continental distribution on Balkan Peninsula. Further species investigation is recommended, especially the one regarding it's ecology and it's relationship to other populations.

  11. A new species of the genus Dilar Rambur (Neuroptera: Dilaridae) from Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    John D. Oswald; Nathan M. Schiff

    2001-01-01

    Dilar macleodi is described as a new species from lowland rainforest habitat in the Malaysian State of Sarawak on the island of Borneo. Diagnoses are provided to distinguish D. macleodi from the four other dilarid species that have been reported from the peninsula of Indochina or the Malay Archipelago.

  12. New fossil Osmylopsychopidae (Neuroptera) from the Early/Middle Jurassic of Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khramov, Alexander V; Makarkin, Vladimir N

    2015-12-21

    Four genera and four species of Osmylopsychopidae are described from the Jurassic of Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia: Oligophlebiopsis biramosa gen. et sp. nov. (Early Jurassic of Sogyuty); Osmylopsychoides anteromedialis gen. et sp. nov., Psychostoechotes undulatus gen. et sp. nov. and Osmylopsychostoechus sogulensis gen. et sp. nov. (all from the late Early to early Middle Jurassic of Sai-Sagul). By their poorly-developed outer gradate series of crossveins, these taxa (except O. anteromedialis gen. et sp. nov.) are more similar to Triassic genera than to the Middle/Late Jurassic Osmylopsychopidae (particularly from Daohugou, China). Two isolated hind wings from Sai-Sagul (i.e., Osmylopsychostoechus sp. and Osmylopsychopidae gen. et sp. indet.) are preliminarily assigned to this family.

  13. The Dilaridae of the Balkan Peninsula and of Anatolia (Insecta, Neuropterida, Neuroptera

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    Ulrike Aspöck

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Basing upon all available information on type material of Dilar turcicus Hagen, 1858, Dilar syriacus Navás, 1909, and Dilar lineolatus Navás, 1909, together with a large number of dilarid specimens, the pleasing lacewings of Anatolia and Southeast Europe are revised. The current taxonomic concept of D. turcicus is confirmed, and a lectotype is designated. Dilar turcicus is widely distributed in the southeast of Europe (being the only representative of Dilaridae in this region, in Anatolia, and, most probably, in the Caucasus region. Dilar syriacus and D. lineolatus remain nomina dubia. Dilar syriacus might occur in Anatolia, while D. lineolatus is a species occurring in western Central Asia. Two new species, Dilar anatolicus sp. n. and Dilar fuscus sp. n. are described from Anatolia. Wings and genital segments of the three species occurring in Anatolia are illustrated, and a map documenting the known distribution of these species is provided.

  14. New taxonomic and faunistic data on the dusty wings from Senegal (Insecta, Neuroptera, Coniopterygidae

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    Monserrat, V. J.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available New data on the taxonomy, biology, distribution and/or morphology of eight dusty wing species from Senegal are given. None had previously been recorded from this country. In this African area (where the Afrotropical and Palaearctic Biogeographical Regions contact a great number of species can be found, mostly afrotropical elements, but also some palaearctic elements and species with a wide circumsaharan distribution are present. A great faunistic similarity between the Senegalese Fauna and the SW Arabian Peninsula fauna is noted, and both areas show many common elements present in the East-West Afrotropical northern borders. Some new synonymies are proposed as follow: Aleuropteryx felix Meinander, 1977 = (Aleuropteryx teleki Sziráki, 1990 = Aleuropteryx transvaalensis Meinander, 1998, Aleuropteryx Arabica Meinander, 1977 = (Aleuropteryx cruciata Sziráki, 1990, Coniocompsa silvestriana Enderlein, 1914 = (Coniocompsa arabica Sziráki, 1992 = Coniocompsa fimbrata Tjeder, 1957, Coniopteryx (Coniopteryx greenpeace Monserrat, 1995 = (Coniopteryx (Coniopteryx sclerotica Meinander, 1998, Coniopteryx (Xeroconiopteryx triantennata Monserrat, 1995 = (Coniopteryx (Xeroconiopteryx sestertia Meinander, 1998 and Nimboa marroquina Monserrat, 1985 = (Nimboa manselli Meinander, 1998. Also a replacement name: Coniopteryx (Xeroconiopteryx conviventibus nom. nov. is proposed for Coniopteryx (Xeroconiopteryx furcata Meinander, 1998 nec Coniopteryx (Scotoconiopteryx furcata Meinander, 1983.

    Se anotan nuevos datos sobre la taxonomía, biología, distribución y /o morfología de ocho especies de coniopterígidos recolectados en Senegal. Ninguna de ellas había sido citada en este país. Al igual que ocurre en el SO de la Península Arábiga, esta zona del Continente Africano (donde confluyen las Regiones Biogeográficas Afrotropical y Paleártica es especialmente rica en especies, la mayoría son afrotropicales, pero también están presentes algunos elementos paleárticos y otros de amplia distribución circumsahariana. Se anota una marcada similitud faunística entre ambas zonas con elementos comunes que alcanzan las zonas septentrionales que al este y el oeste limitan la Región Afrotropical. Se proponen como nuevas sinonimias a: Aleuropteryx felix Meinander, 1977 = (Aleuropteryx teleki Sziráki, 1990 = Aleuropteryx transvaalensis Meinander, 1998, Aleuropteryx arabica Meinander, 1977 = (Aleuropteryx cruciata Sziráki, 1990, Coniocompsa silvestriana Enderlein, 1914 = (Coniocompsa arabica Sziráki, 1992 = Coniocompsa fimbrata Tjeder, 1957, Coniopteryx (Coniopteryx greenpeace Monserrat, 1995 = (Coniopteryx (Coniopteryx sclerotica Meinander, 1998, Coniopteryx (Xeroconiopteryx triantennata Monserrat, 1995 = (Coniopteryx (Xeroconiopteryx sestertia Meinander, 1998 y Nimboa marroquina Monserrat, 1985 = (Nimboa manselli Meinander, 1998 y se propone un nombre de reemplazo a: Coniopteryx (Xeroconiopteryx conviventibus nom. nov. para Coniopteryx (Xeroconiopteryx furcata Meinander, 1998 nec Coniopteryx (Scotoconiopteryx furcata Meinander, 1983.

  15. Revision of Chinese Dilaridae (Insecta: Neuroptera) (Part II): Species of the genus Dilar Rambur from Tibet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Liu, Xingyue; Aspöck, Horst; Aspöck, Ulrike

    2014-10-30

    Three species of the genus Dilar Rambur, 1838, are recorded and described from Tibet in southwestern China, including Dilar geometroides H. Aspöck & U. Aspöck, 1968, Dilar harmandi (Navás, 1909), and Dilar tibetanus Yang, 1987, with the former two species recorded in Tibet for the first time. All three species are redescribed. Dilar aspersus Yang, 1988, and Dilar pusillus Yang, 1992, are synonymized with Dilar geometroides Aspöck & Aspöck, 1968, and Dilar tibetanus Yang, 1987, respectively. A key to the Dilar species from Tibet is provided.

  16. Population biology of the potato tuber moth, Phthorimaea operculella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), in two potato cropping systems in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coll, M; Gavish, S; Dori, I

    2000-08-01

    The life cycle, within-field distribution, crop damage and impact of natural enemies of the potato tuber moth, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller) were investigated in two potato cropping systems. The two systems differed in soil type (sandy vs. loess) which in turn affected the choice of cultivars, irrigation programme, insecticide application method (ground vs. aerial), and planting and harvest times. From mid-April to the end of May, almost twice as many moths were caught in pheromone traps in sandy than in loess fields. Highest infestation of tubers was found before harvest, and infestation was greater in loess than in sandy fields. Larval densities in foliage and tubers were significantly higher at the margins of the fields than in the centre. A significant positive correlation was found between adult catch and larval infestation on foliage in sandy fields but not in loess. Tuber infestation in sand was positively correlated with foliage infestation. No such correlation was detected in loess. Five parasitic wasps emerged from P. operculella larvae collected from commercial fields and volunteer plants: Diadegma pulchripes (Kokujev) and Temelucha decorata, (Gravenhorst) (Ichneumonidae) and Bracon gelechiae Ashmead and two other unidentified Braconidae. The most abundant predators at the field site were Coccinella septempunctata Linnaeus (Coccinellidae), Chrysoperla carnea Stephens (Chrysopidae), Orius albidipennis (Reuter) (Anthocoridae) and four ant species (Formicidae). Parasitism rate reached 40% and predation was estimated at 79%. Results are discussed with regard to the development of an integrated pest management programme for this important pest.

  17. Levantamento entomofaunístico de artrópodes em algodoeiro de fibra naturalmente colorida em Ipanguaçu-RN

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    Bárbara Karine de Albuquerque Silva

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com esta pesquisa identificar a diversidade de artrópodes associados à cultura do algodão Gossypium hirsutum L. com pluma colorida, sendo realizados levantamentos entomofaunístico em Ipanguaçu-RN em áreas de produção. A área experimental foi composta por 15 variedades de algodão com pluma colorida: CNPA 2009-6; CNPA 2009-11; CNPA 2009-13; CNPA 2009-16; CNPA 2009-27; CNPA 2009-42; CNPA 2009-47; CNPA 2009-48; CNPA 2009-50; CNPA 2009-59; CNPA 2009-60; CNPA 2009-62; BRS RUBI; BRS AROEIRA; BRS TOPÁZIO. O levantamento foi realizado tendo como base três métodos de coleta ativa em pontos aleatórios da área experimental. As coletas consistiram da retirada manual de folhas e maçãs diretamente da planta, além da captura de insetos em pleno voo, com auxílio de rede entomológica. Foram encontrados um total 1884 insetos adultos e 66 larvas, dispostos em 8 ordens e 22 famílias. A família Aphididae: Hemiptera foi a mais numerosa entre o material coletado, com 1720 adultos dispersos nos três métodos de coleta aplicados. Além desta, outras famílias de pragas da cultura foram encontradas, como Curculionidae: Coleoptera. Também foram coletados organismos benéficos como os polinizadores Aphidae e Megachilidae, pertencentes a ordem Hymenoptera, predadores (Coccinellidae: Coleoptera; Vespidae: Hymenoptera; Reduviidae: Hemiptera; Chrysopidae: Neuroptera e Labiidae: Dermaptera e parasitoides, como os microhimenópteros. Foram encontrados três tipos de larvas, sendo classificadas como curculioniforme as mais numerosas, apresentando um total de 57 espécimes coletados.Entomofaunistic survey of artropods in naturally colored cotton fiber in Ipanguaçu-RNAbstract: The objective of this research was to identify the diversity of arthropods associated with cotton crop Gossypium hirsutum L. with colorful plume, it was conducted entomofaunístico survey in Ipanguaçu-RN in production areas. The experimental area was composed of 15 cotton

  18. Efeitos da aplicação de agrotóxicos utilizados na produção integrada de maçã sobre pupas de Chrysoperla externa Effects of pesticides application used in integrated apple production on Chrysoperla externa pupae

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    Alexandre Pinho de Moura

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Devido à grande importância de Chrysoperla externa (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae como agente de controle biológico de artrópodes-praga na cultura da macieira no Brasil, avaliaram-se os efeitos dos agrotóxicos (g i.a. L-1 abamectina (0,02, carbaril (1,73, enxofre (4,80, fenitrotiona (0,75, metidationa (0,40 e triclorfom (1,50 em pupas desse predador, oriundas de Bento Gonçalves e Vacaria, Rio Grande do Sul, bem como sobre o desenvolvimento dos adultos obtidos e sua reprodução. A aplicação dos compostos e de água destilada (testemunha foi realizada sobre as pupas utilizando-se torre de Potter. Carbaril e triclorfom causaram mortalidade significativa de pupas tratadas de ambas as populações. Abamectina somente causou mortalidade de pupas oriundas de Vacaria; enxofre, fenitrotiona e metidationa mostraram-se inócuos ao predador. Não foram constatadas reduções no número de ovos depositados por C. externa de Bento Gonçalves; entretanto, fenitrotiona causou reduções nessa característica biológica de fêmeas provenientes de Vacaria. Apenas carbaril e abamectina não afetaram negativamente a viabilidade dos ovos depositados por C. externa oriundas de pupas tratadas, provenientes de Bento Gonçalves e Vacaria, respectivamente. Baseando-se no efeito total (E, enxofre, fenitrotiona e metidationa são inócuos, enquanto abamectina, carbaril e triclorfom são levemente prejudiciais a insetos oriundos de Bento Gonçalves. Abamectina e enxofre são inócuos a indivíduos de Vacaria, enquanto carbaril, fenitrotiona, metidationa e triclorfom são levemente prejudiciais, conforme classificação da IOBC.Chrysoperla externa (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae is an important biological control agent of artropod-pests in apple crop. In this research the effects of the pesticides (g a.i. L-1 abamectin (0.02, carbaryl (1.73, fenitrothion (0.75, methidathion (0.40, sulphur (4.80 and trichlorfon (1.50, on C. externa pupae from Bento Gonçalves and Vacaria regions

  19. Seasonal variation in the populations of Polyphagotarsonemus latus and Tetranychus bastosi in physic nut (Jatropha curcas) plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosado, Jander F; Picanço, Marcelo C; Sarmento, Renato A; da Silva, Ricardo Siqueira; Pedro-Neto, Marçal; Carvalho, Marcos Alberto; Erasmo, Eduardo A L; Silva, Laila Cristina Rezende

    2015-07-01

    Studies on the seasonal variation of agricultural pest species are important for the establishment of integrated pest control programs. The seasonality of pest attacks on crops is affected by biotic and abiotic factors, for example, climate and natural enemies. Besides that, characteristics of the host plant, crop management, location and the pests' bioecology also affect this seasonality. The mites Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Prostigmata: Tarsonemidae) and Tetranychus bastosi (Prostigmata: Tetranychidae) are the most important pests in the cultivation of physic nut, Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae). All parts of J. curcas can be used for a wide range of purposes. In addition many researchers have studied its potential for use as neat oil, as transesterified oil (biodiesel), or as a blend with diesel. However studies about physic nut pests have been little known. The objective of this study was to assess the seasonal variation of P. latus and T. bastosi in physic nut. This study was conducted at three sites in the state of Tocantins, Brazil. We monitored climatic elements and the densities of the two mite species and of their natural enemies for a period of 2 years. Attack by P. latus occurred during rainy seasons, when the photoperiod was short and the physic nut had new leaves. In contrast, attack by T. bastosi occurred during warmer seasons with longer photoperiods and stronger winds. Populations of both mites and their natural enemies were greater in sites with greater plant diversity adjacent to the plantations. The predators found in association with P. latus and T. bastosi were Euseius concordis (Acari: Phytoseiidae), spiders, Stethorus sp. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and Chrysoperla sp. (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae).

  20. Identification of semiochemicals released by cotton, Gossypium hirsutum, upon infestation by the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, Mahabaleshwar; Oliveira, Janser N; da Costa, Joao G; Bleicher, Ervino; Santana, Antonio E G; Bruce, Toby J A; Caulfield, John; Dewhirst, Sarah Y; Woodcock, Christine M; Pickett, John A; Birkett, Michael A

    2011-07-01

    The cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii (Homoptera: Aphididae), is increasing in importance as a pest worldwide since the introduction of Bt-cotton, which controls lepidopteran but not homopteran pests. The chemical ecology of interactions between cotton, Gossypium hirsutum (Malvaceae), A. gossypii, and the predatory lacewing Chrysoperla lucasina (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), was investigated with a view to providing new pest management strategies. Behavioral tests using a four-arm (Pettersson) olfactometer showed that alate A. gossypii spent significantly more time in the presence of odor from uninfested cotton seedlings compared to clean air, but significantly less time in the presence of odor from A. gossypii infested plants. A. gossypii also spent significantly more time in the presence of headspace samples of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) obtained from uninfested cotton seedlings, but significantly less time with those from A. gossypii infested plants. VOCs from uninfested and A. gossypii infested cotton seedlings were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and coupled GC-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), leading to the identification of (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene (DMNT), methyl salicylate, and (E,E)-4,8,12-trimethyl-1,3,7,11-tridecatetraene (TMTT), which were produced in larger amounts from A. gossypii infested plants compared to uninfested plants. In behavioral tests, A. gossypii spent significantly more time in the control (solvent) arms when presented with a synthetic blend of these four compounds, with and without the presence of VOCs from uninfested cotton. Coupled GC-electroantennogram (EAG) recordings with the lacewing C. lucasina showed significant antennal responses to VOCs from A. gossypii infested cotton, suggesting they have a role in indirect defense and indicating a likely behavioral role for these compounds for the predator as well as the aphid.

  1. IPM-compatibility of foliar insecticides for citrus: Indices derived from toxicity to beneficial insects from four orders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.P. Michaud

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available A series of compounds representing four major pesticide groups were tested for toxicity to beneficial insects representing four different insect orders: Coleoptera (Coccinellidae, Hemiptera (Anthocoridae, Hymenoptera (Aphelinidae, and Neuroptera (Chrysopidae. These materials included organophosphates (methidathion, esfenvalerate and phosmet, carbamates (carbofuran, methomyl and carbaryl, pyrethroids (bifenthrin, fenpropathrin, zeta-cypermethrin, cyfluthrin and permethrin and the oxadiazine indoxacarb. Toxicity to coccinellid and lacewing species was assessed by treating 1st instar larvae with the recommended field rate of commercial products, and two 10 fold dilutions of these materials, in topical spray applications. Adult Aphytis melinus Debach and 2nd instar Orius insidiosus (Say were exposed to leaf residues of the same concentrations for 24 h. ANOVA performed on composite survival indices derived from these data resolved significant differences among materials with respect to their overall toxicity to beneficial insects. Cyfluthrin, fenpropathrin and zeta-cypermethrin all increased the developmental time of the lacewing and one or more coccinellid species for larvae that survived topical applications. Bifenthrin increased developmental time for two coccinellid species and decreased it in a third. Indoxacarb (Avaunt® WG, DuPont Corp. ranked highest overall for safety to beneficial insects, largely because of its low dermal toxicity to all species tested. Zeta-cypermethrin (Super Fury®, FMC Corporation received the second best safety rating, largely because of its low toxicity as a leaf residue to A. melinus and O. insidiosus. Phosmet (Imidan® 70W, Gowan Co. and methidathion (Supracide® 25W, Gowan Co. ranked high for safety to coccinellid species, but compounds currently recommended for use in citrus such as fenpropathrin (Danitol® 2.4EC, Sumimoto Chem. Co. and carbaryl (Sevin® XLR EC, Rhone Poulenc Ag. Co. ranked very low for IPM

  2. Side-effects of glyphosate on the life parameters of Eriopis connexa (Coleoptera: Coccinelidae) in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirande, L; Haramboure, M; Smagghe, G; Piñeda, S; Schneider, M I

    2010-01-01

    In Argentina, transgenic soybean crop (Roundup Ready, RR) has undergone a major expansion over the last 15 years, with the consequent increase of glyphosate applications, a broad-spectrum and post emergence herbicide. Soybean crops are inhabited by several arthropods. Eriopis connexa Germar (Coleoptera: Coccinelidae) is a predator associated to soybean soft-bodies pest and have a Neotropical distribution. Nowadays, it is being considered a potentially biological control agent in South America. The objectives of this work were to evaluate the side-effects of glyphosate on larvae (third instar) and adults of this predator. Commercial compound and the maximum registered concentrations for field use were employed: GlifoGlex 48 (48% glyphosate, 192 mg a.i./litre, Gleba Argentina S.A.). The exposure was by ingestion through the treated prey (Rophalosiphum padi) or by drinking treated water during 48 h for treatment of the adult. The herbicide solutions were prepared using distilled water as solvent. The bioassays were carried out in the laboratory under controlled conditions: 23 +/- 0.5 degrees C, 75 +/- 5% RH and 16:8 (L:D) of photoperiod. Development time, weight of pupae, adult emergence, pre-oviposition period, fecundity and fertility were evaluated as endpoints. Larvae from glyphosate treatment molted earlier than controls. In addition, the weight of pupae, longevity, fecundity and fertility were drastically reduced in treated organisms. The reductions were more drastic when the treatments were performed at the third larval stage than as adult. The reproduction capacity of the predator was the most affected parameter and could be related to a hormonal disruption by glyphosate in the treated organisms. This work can confirm the deleterious effects of this herbicide on beneficial organisms. Also, it agrees with prior studies carried out on other predators associated to soybean pest, such as Chrysoperla externa (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) and Alpaida veniliae (Araneae

  3. Development of Myrmeleon brasiliensis (Navás (Neuroptera, Myrmeleontidae, in laboratory, with different natural diets Desenvolvimento de Myrmeleon brasiliensis (Navás (Neuroptera, Myrmeleontidae, em laboratório, com diferentes dietas naturais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giani L. B. Missirian

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Antlions larvae are sit-and-wait predators that capture arthropod prey in conical sand pits. The aim of this paper were to determine the effect of different natural diets [leaf-cutting ants (Atta spp., fruit fly larvae (Anastrepha spp. and Ceratitis capitata and mixed diet (Atta spp. plus fruit fly larvae] on the development of larvae and pupae of M. brasiliensis (Navás, 1914 and to estimate the number and size of prey caught in each instar and on each kind of diet. The average duration (days of the second and third instars of M. brasiliensis was longer when larvae of antlion were fed with leaf-cutting ants. The diets did not affect the duration of the pupal stage nor the pupae size. The different diets did not affect the mean width of head capsule (mm, the mean weight (mg or the mean body size (mm in the different instars of M. brasiliensis. In the second and third instars, the larvae of M. brasiliensis fed with leaf-cutting ants consumed more prey than larvae kept on other diets. Adults whose larvae were fed fruit fly larvae were larger than adults on other diets. Although Myrmeleontidae are few studied in Brazil, these results contribute to knowledge of M. brasiliensis biology, but also suggest the need of studies about the development of larvae and pupae in natural environments.Larvas de formiga-leão são conhecidas por suas armadilhas ("funis" que constroem em solo arenoso, sob as quais esperam por suas presas. Este trabalho teve como objetivos verificar o efeito de diferentes dietas naturais [formigas-cortadeiras (Atta spp., larvas de moscas-das-frutas (Anastrepha spp. e Ceratitis capitata e dieta mista (Atta spp. e larvas de moscas-das-frutas] sobre o desenvolvimento larval e pupal de M. brasiliensis (Navás, 1914 e estimar o número e tamanho de presas capturadas, por instar larval, em cada dieta. No segundo e terceiro instares, as larvas de M. brasiliensis alimentadas com formigas-cortadeiras consumiram um número maior de presas e a duração média, em dias, foi maior nesta dieta. As dietas não influenciaram a duração do período pupal, nem o tamanho das pupas, e também não afetaram a largura da cápsula cefálica (mm, o peso (mg nem o tamanho corporal (mm nos diferentes instares do período larval de M. brasiliensis. Porém, as diferentes dietas afetaram o tamanho dos adultos. Tendo em vista que os mirmeleontídeos são pouco estudados no Brasil, estes resultados contribuem para o conhecimento da biologia de M. brasiliensis, mas também sugerem a necessidade de estudos sobre o desenvolvimento larval e pupal em ambientes naturais.

  4. A new species of Hemerobiella Kimmins (Neuroptera, Hemerobiidae) from Venezuela with notes on the genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, Francisco; Lara, Rogéria I R; Martins, Caleb C

    2015-10-09

    Hemerobiella periotoi Sosa & Lara sp. nov. is described from Venezuela. The new species was collected at the edges of a mature cloud forest in Lara state. This is the third species known in Hemerobiella Kimmins, and the second recorded from Venezuela. Additionally, new Venezuelan records and illustrations of H. oswaldi Monserrat, as well as, a key to Hemerobiella species are provided.

  5. Rate of Parasitism of the Antlion Larvae, Myrmeleon bore (Neuroptera : Myrmeleontidae) by the Bee Fly, Villa myrmeleonostena (Diptera : Bombyliidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Toshiaki, MATSURA; Hiroki, OHNO; Megumi, SAKAMOTO; Department of Biology, Kyoto University of Education; Department of Biology, Kyoto University of Education; Department of Biology, Kyoto University of Education

    1998-01-01

    The bee fly, Villa myrmeleonostena parasitize the antlion larva, Myrmeleon bore living in seaside dune. To obtain the ecological information on the parasitism by V. myrmeleonostena, we examined rates of parasitism in the antlion larvae collected monthly from April to October in 1991. Adult bee flies emerged from cocoons, which we obtained by rearing the antlion larvae. The emergence times of parasitoids and hosts were similar. The parasitism rate based on pooled data was the highest in the th...

  6. Larvae of Cueta sauteri (Esben-Petersen) and Myrmeleon bore (Tjeder) (Neuroptera, Myrmeleontidae): description and behavioral notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Xubo; Wang, Xinli

    2013-11-06

    Antlion larvae of Cueta sauteri (Esben-Petersen) and Myrmeleon bore (Tjeder) from mainland China were collected in the field and reared to adults in the laboratory. Larval morphology of each species was described and complemented with behavioral observations. Their most important diagnostic characteristics are head capsule markings, mandibular length, mandibular teeth length, distance between mandibular teeth, bristle number between the distal mandibular tooth and apex of the mandible, morphology of labial palpi and antennae, peduncle of mesothoracic spiracle and the arrangement of digging bristles. Larvae of these two species construct similar conical pits and wait for prey at the bottom of the traps.

  7. Description of Megistoleon thaumatopteryx sp. nov. with notes on the genus Megistoleon Navás (Neuroptera, Myrmeleontidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badano, Davide

    2013-01-01

    A new African species of antlion, Megistoleon thaumatopteryx sp. nov., is described from Mozambique. The poorly known genus Megistoleon Navás, 1931 and the only other species currently attributed to it, M. ritsemae (van der Weele, 1907) are redescribed in order to provide a better comparison with the new taxon. These myrmeleontids are easily distinguishable by means of an exclusive set of characters besides a striking appearance.

  8. Orientation of the pit-building antlion larva Euroleon (Neuroptera, Myrmeleontidae) to the direction of substrate vibrations caused by prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mencinger-Vracko, Bojana; Devetak, Dusan

    2008-01-01

    Pit-building antlion Euroleon nostras constructs efficient traps in sand to catch its prey. The predator is known to react to substrate vibrations produced by movements of its prey outside the pit with sand-tossing behaviour but it has not yet been ascertained if this reaction is directed towards the prey. The accuracy of the sand-tossing response in the presence of four prey species was measured using a video recording method. The sand-tossing angle was highly positively correlated with the prey angle. Sand tossing was most frequently elicited when prey was on the posterior sand surface. Covering the larval photoreceptors did not influence the antlion's localizing behaviour.

  9. Inventory and assessment of foliar natural enemies of the soybean aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in South Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesler, Louis S

    2014-06-01

    Soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is a major pest of soybean in northern production regions of North America, and insecticides have been the primary management approach while alternative methods are developed. Knowledge of arthropod natural enemies and their impact on soybean aphid is critical for developing biological control as a management tool. Soybean is a major field crop in South Dakota, but information about its natural enemies and their impact on soybean aphid is lacking. Thus, this study was conducted in field plots in eastern South Dakota during July and August of 2004 and 2005 to characterize foliar-dwelling, arthropod natural enemies of soybean aphid, and it used exclusion techniques to determine impact of natural enemies and ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) on soybean aphid densities. In open field plots, weekly soybean aphid densities reached a plateau of several hundred aphids per plant in 2004, and peaked at roughly 400 aphids per plant in 2005. Despite these densities, a relatively high frequency of aphid-infested plants lacked arthropod natural enemies. Lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) were most abundant, peaking at 90 and 52% of all natural enemies sampled in respective years, and Harmonia axyridis Pallas was the most abundant lady beetle. Green lacewings (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) were abundant in 2005, due mainly to large numbers of their eggs. Abundances of arachnids and coccinellid larvae correlated with soybean aphid densities each year, and chrysopid egg abundance was correlated with aphid density in 2005. Three-week cage treatments of artificially infested soybean plants in 2004 showed that noncaged plants had fewer soybean aphids than caged plants, but abundance of soybean aphid did not differ among open cages and ones that provided partial or total exclusion of natural enemies. In 2005, plants within open cages had fewer soybean aphids than those within cages that excluded natural enemies, and aphid

  10. First records of the antlion genus Solter Navás from southern Africa, with description of a new species (Neuroptera: Myrmeleontidae: Myrmecaelurini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansell, Mervyn W

    2013-10-31

    A new species of Solter Navás is described from South Africa, representing the first record of this genus from Africa south of the equator. This is a significant extension to the known distribution range of this predominantly Palaearctic genus. The species  described here is characteristically reddish brown with a banded abdomen, and was recorded at three localities in arid rocky areas in the Northern Cape Province of South Africa.

  11. Application of analytical electron microscopic methods to investigate the function of spherites in the midgut of the larval antlion Euroleon nostras (Neuroptera: Myrmeleontidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipovšek, Saška; Letofsky-Papst, Ilse; Hofer, Ferdinand; Pabst, Maria Anna; Devetak, Dušan

    2012-04-01

    This study presents an application of analytical electron microscopy in biology to investigate the chemical composition of the spherites and to elucidate the importance of these methods in the life sciences. The structure of the spherites in the midgut cells of first, second, and third instar larvae Euroleon nostras was investigated by a combination of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS), electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS), and energy filtering TEM (EFTEM). The structure and chemical composition of the spherites changed during the metamorphosis. In first larvae, the spherites are composed of amorphous, flocculent material, containing C, N, and O. In second larvae and third ones, the spherites have concentric layers of alternating electron-dense and electron-lucent material. In second larvae, Si, P, Ca, and Fe are accumulated in the spherite organic matrix, composed of C, N, and O. In the spherites of third larvae, additionally Al was found. Therefore, the spherites are thought to store organic compounds in all three larval stages of E. nostras and additionally inorganic compounds in second and third ones. In first larvae, spherites are present in the midgut cells; in second and third larvae, they are present in the cells of the midgut and in its lumen. It could be suggested that the spherites might be involved in the regulation of the appropriate mineral composition of the internal environment and could serve as the accumulation site of nontoxic waste materials that cannot be metabolized. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. (1R,2S,5R,8R)-Iridodial and Z,E-nepetalactol: first long-range 4 chemical attractants for antlions (Neuroptera: Myrmeleontidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    e synthetic green lacewing pheromone compound, (1R,2S,5R,8R)-iridodial, strongly attracted adult males and females of the North American antlion, Dendroleon speciosus Banks, and an aphid sex pheromone component, Z,E-nepetalactol, was weakly attractive to D. speciosus adults. Iridodial and Z,E-nepeta...

  13. Taxonomy and phylogeny of the genera Gymnocnemia Schneider, 1845, and Megistopus Rambur, 1842, with remarks on the systematization of the tribe Nemoleontini (Neuroptera, Myrmeleontidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Badano

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The delineation of antlion genera has often been based on morphological characters not tested in a phylogenetic context, thus seriously impairing the study of systematics of the family Myrmeleontidae. Nebulous generic limits also impede the taxonomy and study of the affinities of closely related species. As a case study, the generic placement of Megistopus mirabilis Hölzel, 1980, was based on a single leg character. To test the position of this species, the reciprocal relationships of the members of the genera Gymnocnemia Schneider, 1845, and Megistopus Rambur, 1842 were investigated, using a morphology-based phylogenetic analysis. This approach demonstrated that M. mirabilis should actually be assigned to the genus Gymnocnemia, as G. mirabilis comb. n. This analysis also supports the subdivision of the tribe Nemoleontini in two subclades based on morphology of male and female genitalia. A new characterisation of these genera is provided, as well as a redescription of the very rare G. mirabilis and the poorly investigated Megistopus lucasi (Navás, 1912. An updated identification key to the members of the genera Gymnocnemia and Megistopus is presented.

  14. The evidence on the degradation processes in the midgut epithelial cells of the larval antlion Euroleon nostras (Geoffroy in Fourcroy, 1785) (Myrmeleontidae, Neuroptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipovšek, Saška; Letofsky-Papst, Ilse; Hofer, Ferdinand; Leitinger, Gerd; Devetak, Dušan

    2012-04-01

    We analysed structural differences between midgut epithelial cells of fed instar antlions' larvae Euroleon nostras and starved ones. In starved larvae the presence of autophagolysosome-like structures was observed, which are characteristic structures associated with autophagy. The results presented here provide insight supporting the role of autophagy as a cell survival mechanism for the periods of food deprivation. Additional structural changes in the cytoplasm were seen in the spherites. The ultrastructure and chemical composition of spherites in the midgut epithelial cells of first, second and third instar larvae were observed with light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A detailed characterization of the elemental composition of the spherites was studied using analytical electron microscopy; a combination of energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS), electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) and energy filtering TEM (EFTEM) was applied. The structure and elemental composition of the spherites changed during the period of larval life. Moreover, changes in chemical composition were found between spherites from fed and starved E. nostras. In fed first instar larvae, the spherites contained an organic matrix, composed of C, N and O. In this matrix, P, Cl, Ca and Fe were detected. In starved first instar larvae, only C, N and P were present. The spherites of fed second instar larvae were rich in organic and inorganic elements and were composed of C, N, O, Na, Mg, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe and Zn. In starved second instar larvae, the chemical elements N, O, P, Ca and Fe were found. In fed third instar larvae, the spherites contained C, N, O, Na, Mg, P, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Co and Zn. In starved third larvae, C, O, Si, Ca, and Fe were detected. Generally, the spherites are exploited in starved larvae. These results suggest that the elemental supply of spherites may provide crucial support for physiological processes during starvation periods amongst E. nostras instar larvae. In some cases in fed second and fed third instar larvae, spherites were seen in the lumen of the midgut. Such spherites could serve as reservoirs for nontoxic waste material that cannot be metabolized. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Compatibilidad de Aphidius ervi (Haliday) parasitoide del vector de virosis en hortícolas Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) y Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens), depredador generalista, con nuevas barreras físicas selectivas y modernos plaguicidas en cultivos de lechuga

    OpenAIRE

    Velázquez Cruz, Eduardo Javier

    2017-01-01

    Actualmente se utilizan diversas herramientas o estrategias en el Manejo Integrado de Plagas en cultivos hortícolas bajo cubierta, buscando la compatibilidad y conservación del medio ambiente. Los insectos plaga son un problema recurrente en los cultivos de invernadero y muchos de ellos son vectores de virosis que ocasionan grandes pérdidas económicas y en el rendimiento de las cosechas para los productores. El uso de barreras físicas como mallas o plásticos absorbentes de luz-UV resulta efec...

  16. Data on knowledge of psocoptera and neuropterida in Sălaj county

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sziráki G.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of the project „Invertebrate faunistical investigation of Sălaj county” 23 Psocoptera, 1 Megaloptera, 1 Raphidioptera and 30 Neuroptera specimens were collected, belonging to 5 Psocoptera, 1 Megaloptera, 1 Raphidioptera and 7 Neuroptera species. In spite of these low numbers, three of the found insects are worth to mention. Regarding the fauna of Romania, Kolbia quisquiliarum Bertkau, 1882 (Psocoptera hitherto was mentioned only from Bucovina, Sialis fuliginosa Pictet, 1836 (Megaloptera was known only from Sinaia and Sibiu, while Sisyra terminalis Curtis, 1854 (Neuroptera was reported only one occasion and more than hundred years ago.

  17. Book Review Guides to the Freshwater Invertebrates of Southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Book Review Guides to the Freshwater Invertebrates of Southern Africa. Volume 8: Insecta II. Hemiptera, Megaloptera, Neuroptera, Trichoptera and Lepidoptera By IJ de Moor, JA Day and FC de Moor (editors) 2003.

  18. Insect drift over the northern Arabian Sea in early summer

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pathak, S.C; Kulshrestha, V.; Choubey, A.K.; Parulekar, A.H.

    ,301 insects belonging to 8 different orders, 47 families and 173 species were trapped. Of these, Hymenoptera was represented by the largest number (1082), which was followed by Hemiptera (1586), Diptera (552), Coleoptera (51), Neuroptera (10), Trichoptera (03...

  19. Serendipitous, cross familial discovery of the first long-range chemical attractants for antlions (Neuroptera: Myrmeleontidae: (1R,2S,5R,8R-Iridodial and Z,E-nepetalactol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-He eZhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic (1R,2S,5R,8R-iridodial, the key pheromone component of many green lacewings in the genus Chrysopa, strongly attracted adult males and females of the North American antlion, Dendroleon speciosus Banks. In addition, one of the common sex pheromone components of many aphids to which Chrysopa spp. are weakly attracted, Z,E-nepetalactol, was also weakly attractive to D. speciosus adults. Iridodial and Z,E-nepetalactol also elicited strong and weak electroantennogram detector (EAD responses, respectively, in D. speciosus adults. Previously reported semiochemicals from European and Israeli antlion species did not elicit EAD or behavioral responses from D. speciosus adults. The earlier studied antlions release volatile chemicals from male-specific metathoracic glands associated with structures on the hind wings (Eltringham’s organs that are thought to enhance evaporation of the secretion. Although D. speciosus males have Eltringham’s organs similar to those of other antlion species, we discovered that D. speciosus males have a pair of white tubular glands that extend posteriorly into the abdomen, opening in the resting pits of the Eltringham’s organs. Further gas chromatograph (GC-EAD analysis of another commercially available antlion species, Myrmeleon crudelis Walker, showed that this species did not respond to the lacewing or aphid related volatile compounds, but strongly responded to the reported antlion semiochemicals, namely, nerol, 10-homonerol and nerol oxide. The male-specific abdominal glands of D. speciosus are presumably pheromone glands; hopefully, positive verification of this supposition will help clarify the semiochemical relationships between antlions, lacewings and aphids.

  20. Compatibility of entomopathogenic fungi with extracts of plants and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The compatibility of some commercial botanicals (Biospark, Phytophrate, Exodos, Biodos and Neemgold) and of solvent extracts of Syndrella nodiflora, Premna tomentosa, Vitex negundo, Ipomea carnea, Pteridium aquilinum (leaves) and Annona squomosa (seeds) with Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuil., Isaria ...

  1. A comparative study of cadmium phytoextraction by accumulator and weed species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Moyukh; Singh, S.P.

    2005-01-01

    Phytoextraction has shown great potential as an alternative technique for the remediation of metal contaminated soils. The objective of this study was to investigate cadmium (Cd) phytoextraction ability of high biomass producing weeds in comparison to indicator plant species. The pot study conducted with 10 to 200 mg Cd kg -1 soil indicated that Ipomoea carnea was more effective in removing Cd from soil than Brassica juncea. Among the five species, B. juncea accumulated maximum Cd, but I. carnea followed by Dhatura innoxia and Phragmytes karka were the most suitable species for phytoextraction of cadmium from soil, if the whole plant or above ground biomass is harvested. In the relatively short time of this experiment, I. carnea produced more than 5 times more biomass in comparison to B. juncea. There were significant differences (p < 0.05) between the shoot length and shoot mass of control and treated plants. - Ipomoea carnea was more effective in extracting cadmium than was Brassica juncea

  2. Inundative Field Releases and Evaluation of Three Predators for Bemisia tabasi (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) Management in Three Vegetable Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), is a global pest on numerous crops, including vegetables. Weekly inundative releases of a coccinellid predator (Coccinella undecimpunctata L.), a mirid predator [Macrophillus caliginosus (Wagner)] and a neuropteran predator [Chrysoperla carnea S...

  3. Attraction of two lacewing species to volatiles produced by host plants and aphid prey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, J.; Obrycki, J. J.; Ochieng, Samuel A.; Baker, Thomas C.; Pickett, J. A.; Smiley, D.

    2005-06-01

    It is well documented that host-related odors enable many species of parasitoids and predatory insects to locate their prey and prey habitats. This study reports the first characterization of prey and prey host odor reception in two species of lacewings, Chrysoperla carnea (Say) and Chrysopa oculata L. 2-Phenylethanol, one of the volatiles emitted from their prey’s host plants (alfalfa and corn) evoked a significant EAG response from antennae of C. carnea. Traps baited with this compound attracted high numbers of adult C. carnea, which were predominantly females. One of the sex pheromone components (1R,4aS,7S,7aR)-nepetalactol of an aphid species, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris) attracted only C. oculata adults. Single sensillum recordings showed that the olfactory neurons of C. carnea responded to both 2-phenylethanol and aphid sex pheromone components, but those of C. oculata only responded to the latter.

  4. 1839-IJBCS-Article-Ondo Ovono Paul

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    Chrysopidae,. Hemerobiidae). Les individus appartenant à ces familles sont des insectes qualifiés d'auxiliaires, car ils s'attaquent à un ou à plusieurs insectes ravageurs des cultures assurant ainsi un certain équilibre au sein des parcelles agricoles ...

  5. Comparative effectiveness of an integrated pest management system and other control tactics for managing the spider mite Tetranychus ludeni (Acari: Tetranychidae) on eggplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, G V

    2001-01-01

    The effect of an integrated pest management (IPM) package, host plant resistance, Chrysoperla carnea predation and neem oil were evaluated against the spider mite Tetranychus ludeni on eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) fields in 1996 and 1997, by estimating the mite population density and yield levels. Compared with the IPM package (Panruti local, C. carnea plus neem oil), the standard (susceptible) eggplant variety (MDU1) grown by farmers and treated with an acaricide (dicofol) had significantly higher mite densities. The predator C. carnea was recorded in significantly lower numbers in plots with the standard variety compared to a resistant variety (panruti local) with the full IPM package. Eggplant yield level and crop value were highest in the IPM-treated plots followed by Panruti local plus C. carnea. The standard variety treated with an acaricide had the lowest yield and value. These results indicated the usefulness of host plant resistance complemented by biorational control agents, such as C. carnea and neem oil, that these are suitable components in an IPM programme for managing the spider mite in endemic areas.

  6. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KEYWORDS: cladistics, antlions, Myrmeleontidae, Egypt. INTRODUCTION. The Myrmeleontidae represents the largest of the twelve families of the order Neuroptera, with about 2000 species described worldwide (Mansell 1985). The supergeneric classification of the family is largely unresolved (Stange 1970; Aspock et al.

  7. Characterization of the Helicoverpa assulta nucleopolyhedrovirus ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madhu

    The Baculoviridae are a diverse family of virus pathogens, which are infectious for arthropods, particularly insects of the order Lepidoptera. Baculovirus infections have been reported in over 600 insect species of the orders. Hymenoptera, Diptera, Coleoptera, Neuroptera, Trichoptera, and Thysanura, as well as in the ...

  8. Caracterização morfológica de espécies de Hemerobius Linnaeus, 1758 (Neuroptera, Hemerobiidae associadas a cultivos de café (Coffea arabica L., milho (Zea mays L. e erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Rogéria Inês Rosa

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The predators were collected in mate crop in Cascavel and São Mateus do Sul, Paraná, Brazil and some other additional specimens in coffee and maize crops in Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil. Illustrations obtained by SEM are given by the first time to the principal structures. Three species of Hemerobius were identified: H. bolivari Banks, 1910; H. domingensis Banks, 1941 and H. gaitoi Monserrat, 1996. H. domingensis is recorded for the first time to Brazil.

  9. The jellyfish and its polyp: a comparative study of gene expression monitored by the protein patterns using two-dimensional gels with double-label autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bally, Andreas; Schmid, Volker

    1988-01-01

    The life cycle of Podocoryne carnea (Coelenterata. Anthomedusae) shows several distinct stages which differ considerably in terms of their ecology, morphology, cellular composition and ultra structure. Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and a new method of double-label autoradiography, we show here for the first time for metagenic hydrozoans that only minor differences in gene expression exist between the various life cycle stages. Our results demonstrate the high resolution power of these techniques and show that the different life stages of P. carnea remain rather similar on the protein level (author)

  10. The end of a myth – Bt(Cry1Ab) maize does not harm green lacewings

    Science.gov (United States)

    A concern with Bt-transgenic insect-resistant plants is their potential to harm non-target organisms. Early studies reported that Cry1Ab-producing Bt maize and purified Cry1Ab harmed larvae of the green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea. Although these effects could not be confirmed in subsequent studies...

  11. Accuracy of a prey-specific DNA assay and a generic prey-immunomarking assay for detecting predation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1. Predator gut examinations are useful for detecting arthropod predation events. Here, the accuracy and reproducibility of two different types of gut assays are tested on various predator species that consumed an immature lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens), that was externally labelled with ra...

  12. Taimeleiud Cornwalli reisilt / Jaan Mettik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mettik, Jaan

    2014-01-01

    Inglismaa edelatipu leebes kliimas kasvavad hästi paljud kaunid lõunapoolkera taimed: lembeliilia, Bunge saatusepuu, Inglise kuisma, Brasiilia gunnera, romneia, turdlehine ebapaanaks, süüria hibisk, puiskestvik, hark-võrelehik, teravakarvaline dasüliirion, Ochagavia carnea

  13. PARASITES AND PREDATORS OF THE MAIN PEST OF STONE-FRUIT CROPS IN THE SHEKI-ZAKATALY ZONE OF AZERBAIJAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. M. Mamedov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Researches made by us have shown that 31 species of vermin and 13 species of predators play significant role in regulation of the quantity of 11 most harmful insects which inhabit in fruit tree gardens of Sheki-Zakatala region of Azerbaijan. In general 44 species of entomophages which are related to the order of hymenopterans, neuropteras, coleopteras and dipteras. Their host significance in regulation of the quantity of hosts was identified.

  14. The evolutionary convergence of mid-Mesozoic lacewings and Cenozoic butterflies

    OpenAIRE

    Labandeira, Conrad C.; Yang, Qiang; Santiago-Blay, Jorge A.; Hotton, Carol L.; Monteiro, Ant?nia; Wang, Yong-Jie; Goreva, Yulia; Shih, ChungKun; Siljestr?m, Sandra; Rose, Tim R.; Dilcher, David L.; Ren, Dong

    2016-01-01

    Mid-Mesozoic kalligrammatid lacewings (Neuroptera) entered the fossil record 165 million years ago (Ma) and disappeared 45 Ma later. Extant papilionoid butterflies (Lepidoptera) probably originated 80?70 Ma, long after kalligrammatids became extinct. Although poor preservation of kalligrammatid fossils previously prevented their detailed morphological and ecological characterization, we examine new, well-preserved, kalligrammatid fossils from Middle Jurassic and Early Cretaceous sites in nort...

  15. The jellyfish and its polyp: a comparative study of gene expression monitored by the protein patterns, using two-dimensional gels with double-label autoradiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bally, A; Schmid, V

    1988-03-01

    The life cycle of Podocoryne carnea (Coelenterata, Anthomedusae) shows several distinct stages which differ considerably in terms of their ecology, morphology, cellular composition, and ultrastructure. Previously these stages had even been described as separate species. Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and a new method of double-label autoradiography, we show here for the first time for metagenic hydrozoans that only minor differences in gene expression exist between the various life cycle stages. Our results demonstrate the high resolution power of these techniques and show that the different life stages of P. carnea remain rather similar on the protein level. Most of the prominent spots of the two-dimensional gel protein patterns are common to all stages studied. These data show that the hydrozoan life cycle and development are regulated by only minor distinctions in gene expression which possibly explains the great morphogenetic repertoire of these animals described in many studies.

  16. The end of a myth – Bt (Cry1Ab maize does not harm green lacewings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joerg eRomeis

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A concern with Bt-transgenic insect-resistant plants is their potential to harm non-target organisms. Early studies reported that Cry1Ab-producing Bt maize and purified Cry1Ab harmed larvae of the green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea. Although these effects could not be confirmed in subsequent studies, some authors still refer to them as evidence that Bt maize harms beneficial species. We provide a comprehensive review of the studies evaluating the effects of Bt (Cry1Ab maize on C. carnea. The evidence indicates that this important predator is not affected by Bt maize or by the produced Cry1Ab protein. We discuss how conceptual models can assist environmental risk assessments, and we emphasize the importance of robust and reproducible studies.

  17. The end of a myth-Bt (Cry1Ab) maize does not harm green lacewings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeis, Jörg; Meissle, Michael; Naranjo, Steven E; Li, Yunhe; Bigler, Franz

    2014-01-01

    A concern with Bt-transgenic insect-resistant plants is their potential to harm non-target organisms. Early studies reported that Cry1Ab-producing Bt maize and purified Cry1Ab harmed larvae of the green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea. Although these effects could not be confirmed in subsequent studies, some authors still refer to them as evidence that Bt maize harms beneficial species. We provide a comprehensive review of the studies evaluating the effects of Bt (Cry1Ab) maize on C. carnea. The evidence indicates that this important predator is not affected by Bt maize or by the produced Cry1Ab protein. We discuss how conceptual models can assist environmental risk assessments, and we emphasize the importance of robust and reproducible studies.

  18. The end of a myth—Bt (Cry1Ab) maize does not harm green lacewings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeis, Jörg; Meissle, Michael; Naranjo, Steven E.; Li, Yunhe; Bigler, Franz

    2014-01-01

    A concern with Bt-transgenic insect-resistant plants is their potential to harm non-target organisms. Early studies reported that Cry1Ab-producing Bt maize and purified Cry1Ab harmed larvae of the green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea. Although these effects could not be confirmed in subsequent studies, some authors still refer to them as evidence that Bt maize harms beneficial species. We provide a comprehensive review of the studies evaluating the effects of Bt (Cry1Ab) maize on C. carnea. The evidence indicates that this important predator is not affected by Bt maize or by the produced Cry1Ab protein. We discuss how conceptual models can assist environmental risk assessments, and we emphasize the importance of robust and reproducible studies. PMID:25161661

  19. Dust accumulation and leaf pigment content in vegetation near the national highway at Sambalpur, Orissa, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prusty, B A K; Mishra, P C; Azeez, P A

    2005-02-01

    An investigation on the seasonal variation in dust accumulation on leaves and leaf pigment content of six plant species of mixed habits was carried out at the side of the National Highway (NH 6) at Sambalpur, Orissa, India. The plants selected for study were Pongamia pinnata, Tabernaemontana divaricata, Ipomea carnea, Ficus relogiosa, Ficus benghalensis, and Quisqualis indica. The observed trend of dust accumulation was in the order T. divaricata>I. carnea>P. pinnata>F. religiosa>F. benghalensis>Q. indica. One-way analysis of variance showed significant difference in dust accumulation among plant species (F1 = 4.674, P < 0.01) and between seasons (F2 = 9.240, P < 0.01). It was seen that dust load increases with increasing number of vehicles using the highway (major emission source). The result shows significant correlation (negative) between dust load and pigment content in summer and rainy season.

  20. gyrB analysis as a tool for identifying Nocardia species and exploring their phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Gema; Valdezate, Sylvia; Garrido, Noelia; Medina-Pascual, María J; Villalón, Pilar; Sáez-Nieto, Juan A

    2015-03-01

    gyrB is used to improve the identification of the Nocardia species N. brasiliensis, N. higoensis, N. ignorata, N. otitidiscaviarum, N. paucivorans, N. pneumoniae, N. puris, N. takedensis, N. veterana, and N. vinacea, but it does not improve the identification of another 12 Nocardia studied species. gyrB provides typing and phylogenetic markers for N. carnea, N. transvalensis, N. brasiliensis, and N. otitidiscaviarum. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  1. [New additions to the marine algae of Mochima National Park, Sucre, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Soraida; Brito, Leonor; Lemus, Andrés

    2003-06-01

    The marine algal flora from the eastern coast of Mochima National Park, Sucre, Venezuela was studied with a total of 51 taxa identified, including eight new additions of red algae which are Erythrotrichia carnea (Dillwyn) J. Agardh, Sahlingia subintegra (Rosenvinge) Kornmann, Liagora ceranoides Lamouroux, Asparagopsis taxiformis (Delile) Trevisan, Dasya corymbifera J. Agardh, Chondria dasyphylla (Woodward) C. Agardh, Herposiphonia secunda f. tenella (C. Agardh) M.J. Wynne and Polysiphonia subtilissima Montagne. Morphological and anatomical aspects of the specimens are described and illustrated.

  2. Indigenous Aphid Predators Show High Levels of Preadaptation to a Novel Prey, Melanaphis sacchari (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colares, Felipe; Michaud, J P; Bain, Clint L; Torres, Jorge B

    2015-12-01

    The performance of four aphid predators, Hippodamia convergens Guerin-Meneville, Coleomegilla maculata DeGeer, Chrysoperla carnea Stephens and Orius insidiosus Say was compared on three prey species: Schizaphis graminum Rondani, Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner), and Ephestia kuehniella Zeller eggs. Species predatory in both life stages (all except Ch. carnea) were reared on E. kuehniella eggs and switched to aphid prey for assessment of reproduction. Differences were greater between the E. kuehniella and aphid diets than between the two aphid species. Juvenile survival was high for all predators on all prey, except for O. insidiosus, which had survival on E. kuehniella > S. graminum > M. sacchari. The fastest development of Ch. carnea and O. insidiosus was obtained on E. kuehniella, whereas H. convergens developed fastest on S. graminum, and C. maculata did not differ among diets. S. graminum also yielded the largest H. convergens adults, whereas the largest adults of other predators were obtained on E. kuehniella. Female fecundity and egg viability were similarly high on both aphid diets for H. convergens and C. maculata, whereas, on E. kuehniella, 50% of the former entered reproductive diapause and the latter species had reduced fecundity. Reproductive success of Ch. carnea was S. graminum = M. sacchari > E. kuehniella, but it was similar among treatments for O. insidiosus, although female infertility ranged from 25 to 37.5%. We concluded that all the predators studied are preadapted to utilize sugarcane aphid as prey and have excellent potential to provide sustainable biological control of this newly invasive pest. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Molecular phylogenetic study in genus Hydra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaida, Hitomi; Shimizu, Hiroshi; Fujisawa, Toshitaka; Tachida, Hidenori; Kobayakawa, Yoshitaka

    2010-11-15

    Among 8000-9000 species of Cnidaria, only several dozens of species of Hydrozoa have been found in the fresh water. Hydra is such a fresh water polyp and has been used as a good material for research in developmental biology, regeneration and pattern formation. Although the genus Hydra has only a few ten species, its distribution is cosmopolitan. The phylogenetic relationship between hydra species is fascinating from the aspect of evolutionary biology and biogeography. However, only a few molecular phylogenetic studies have been reported on hydra. Therefore, we conducted a molecular phylogenetic study of the genus Hydra based on mitochondrial and nuclear nucleotide sequences using a hydra collection that has been kept in the National Institute of Genetics (NIG) of Japan. The results support the idea that four species groups comprise the genus Hydra. Within the viridissima group (green hydra) and braueri group, genetic distances between strains were relatively large. In contrast, genetic distances between strains among the vulgaris and oligactis groups were small irrespective of their geographic distribution. The vulgaris group strains were classified at least (as far as our investigated samples) into three sub-groups, vulgaris sub-group, carnea sub-group, and H. sp. (K5 and K6) sub-group. All of the vulgaris sub-group and H. sp. (K5 and K6) sub-group strains were collected in Eurasia. The carnea sub-group strains in NIG collection were all collected in North America. A few newly collected samples in Japan, however, suggested belonging to the carnea sub-group according to the molecular phylogenic analysis. This suggests a trans-Pacific distribution of the carnea sub-group hydra. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Influence of intraguild predation among generalist insect predators on the suppression of an herbivore population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenheim, Jay A; Wilhoit, Lawrence R; Armer, Christine A

    1993-12-01

    We evaluated the influence of intraguild predation among generalist insect predators on the suppression of an herbivore, the aphid Aphis gossypii, to test the appropriateness of the simple three trophic level model proposed by Hairston, Smith, and Slobodkin (1960). We manipulated components of the predator community, including three hemipteran predators and larvae of the predatory green lacewing Chrysoperla carnea, in field enclosure/exclosure experiments to address four questions: (1) Do generalist hemipteran predators feed on C. carnea? (2) Does intraguild predation (IGP) represent a substantial source of mortality for C. carnea? (3) Do predator species act in an independent, additive manner, or do significant interactions occur? (4) Can the experimental addition of some predators result in increased densities of aphids through a trophic cascade effect? Direct observations of predation in the field demonstrated that several generalist predators consume C. carnea and other carnivorous arthropods. Severely reduced survivorship of lacewing larvae in the presence of other predators showed that IGP was a major source of mortality. Decreased survival of lacewing larvae was primarily a result of predation rather than competition. IGP created significant interactions between the influences of lacewings and either Zelus renardii or Nabis predators on aphid population suppression. Despite the fact that the trophic web was too complex to delineate distinct trophic levels within the predatory arthropod community, some trophic links were sufficiently strong to produce cascades from higher-order carnivores to the level of herbivore population dynamics: experimental addition of either Z. renardii or Nabis predators generated sufficient lacewing larval mortality in one experiment to release aphid populations from regulation by lacewing predators. We conclude that intraguild predation in this system is wide-spread and has potentially important influences on the population

  5. Side effects of kaolin on natural enemies found on olive crops.

    OpenAIRE

    Bengochea Budia, Paloma

    2010-01-01

    Protected barriers of kaolin, a natural clay mineral, were tested against olive pests in the last few years with good results on Bactrocera oleae, the most serious pest of olive groves. Good control of the carpophagous generation of Prays oleae, as well as a minor presence of Saissetia oleae, were also reported. Adults of Psyttalia concolor (parasitoid of B. oleae), Chrysoperla carnea (oophagous predator of P. oleae), Chilocorus nigritus (predator of diaspidid scales) used in this work...

  6. Day length constrains the time budget of aphid predators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joschinski, Jens; Kiess, Tim; Krauss, Jochen

    2017-07-20

    Phenology shifts and range expansions cause organisms to experience novel day length - temperature correlations. Depending on the temporal niche, organisms may benefit or suffer from changes in day length, thus potentially affecting phenological adaptation. We assessed the impact of day length changes on larvae of Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) and Episyrphus balteatus (De Geer), both of which prey on aphids. Larvae of E. balteatus are night-active, whereas those of C. carnea appear to be crepuscular. We subjected both species in climate chambers to day lengths of 16 : 8 L : D and, to circumvent diapause responses, 20 : 4 L : D. We recorded development times and predation rates of both species. E. balteatus grew 13% faster in the 16 : 8 L : D treatment and preyed on significantly more aphids. In contrast, C. carnea grew 13% faster in the 20 : 4 L : D treatment and higher predation rates in 20 : 4 L : D were marginally significant. Our results show that day length affects development and predation, but that the direction depends on species. Such differences in the use of day length may alter the efficiency of biocontrol agents in a changing climate. © 2017 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  7. Direct effects of snowdrop lectin (GNA) on larvae of three aphid predators and fate of GNA after ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogervorst, Petra A M; Ferry, Natalie; Gatehouse, Angharad M R; Wäckers, Felix L; Romeis, Jörg

    2006-06-01

    Plants genetically modified to express Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA) have been found to confer partial resistance to homopteran pests. Laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate direct effects of GNA on larvae of three species of aphid predators that differ in their feeding and digestive physiology, i.e. Chrysoperla carnea, Adalia bipunctata and Coccinella septempunctata. Longevity of all three predator species was directly affected by GNA, when they were fed a sucrose solution containing 1% GNA. However, a difference in sensitivity towards GNA was observed when comparing the first and last larval stage of the three species. In vitro studies revealed that gut enzymes from none of the three species were able to break down GNA. In vivo feed-chase studies demonstrated accumulation of GNA in the larvae. After the larvae had been transferred to a diet devoid of GNA, the protein stayed present in the body of C. carnea, but decreased over time in both ladybirds. Binding studies showed that GNA binds to glycoproteins that can be found in the guts of larvae of all three predator species. Immunoassay by Western blotting of haemolymph samples only occasionally showed the presence of GNA. Fluorescence microscopy confirmed GNA accumulation in the midgut of C. carnea larvae. Implications of these findings for non-target risk assessment of GNA-transgenic crops are discussed.

  8. Effects of plant gross morphology on predator searching behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Paula G; Cuddington, Kim

    2012-06-01

    Plant morphology influences insect predators' abilities to capture prey and control pest populations. Several mechanisms for this effect of plants on predator foraging have been proposed. In particular, it is often claimed that increased complexity of plant structures may increase search time and reduce foraging success. Using time-lapse photography we recorded search paths, and compared the total path lengths, percentages of plants searched, and path tortuosity of adult multicolored Asian lady beetles (Harmonia axyridis Pallas) and green lacewing larvae (Chrysoperla carnea Stephens) foraging for pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris) on pea near-isolines (Pisum sativum L.) that differed in shape. We found that H. axyridis searched leafy morphologies less thoroughly than those with more branches, while C. carnea larvae search paths did not differ on any of the pea morphologies. In addition, the ability of H. axyridis to attach to plants and maneuver was increased on morphologies with many branches and edges, while C. carnea was able to attach to all morphologies. Both species, however, had significantly reduced predation success on inverted leaf surfaces. We conclude that undersides of leaves, far from the leaf margin, may serve as partial prey refugia. In addition, we find increased plant branching or an increase in other morphological features which provide predator attachment points may promote foraging success.

  9. Aphid Sex Pheromone Compounds Interfere with Attraction of Common Green Lacewings to Floral Bait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koczor, Sándor; Szentkirályi, Ferenc; Pickett, John A; Birkett, Michael A; Tóth, Miklós

    2015-06-01

    Common green lacewings (Chrysoperla carnea complex) form a group of generalist predators important for biological control. Several reports show attraction of these insects to plant volatiles, and a highly attractive ternary compound floral bait has been developed. With aphids being a preferred prey of larvae, one might expect these lacewings to be attracted to aphid semiochemicals, for instance, to aphid sex pheromones, as found for several other green lacewing species. However, in a previous study, we found that traps containing aphid sex pheromone compounds (1R,4aS,7S,7aR)-nepetalactol (NEPOH), (4aS,7S,7aR)-nepetalactone (NEPONE), and a ternary floral bait attracted fewer individuals than those containing the ternary floral bait alone. In the present study, possible causes for this effect of NEPOH and NEPONE on trap capture were studied. We established that C. carnea complex catches in traps with a ternary floral lure were not influenced by the presence of Chrysopa formosa individuals in traps (attracted by NEPOH and NEPONE) or by synthetic skatole (a characteristic component of Chrysopa defense secretion). A direct negative effect of NEPOH and NEPONE on attraction of C. carnea complex was found, suggesting active avoidance of these aphid sex pheromone components. This finding is surprising as the larvae of these lacewings prey preferentially on aphids. Possible mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are discussed.

  10. Insetos predadores em copas de Citrus deliciosa (Rutaceae) sob manejo orgânico no sul do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Morais, Rosana Matos de; Barcellos, Aline; Redaelli, Luiza Rodrigues

    2006-01-01

    A fauna de insetos predadores em copas de Citrus deliciosa Tenore var. Montenegrina, em Montenegro, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, foi avaliada quanto à sua composição, abundância e diversidade, entre março de 2004 e março de 2005. Foram coletados, no total, 658 insetos predadores, representados por 51 espécies de dez famílias e cinco ordens, Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, Neuroptera, Thysanoptera e Hemiptera. As espécies mais abundantes foram Camponotus sp. 1 (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) (16,87%) e Cocci...

  11. Insetos predadores em copas de Citrus deliciosa (Rutaceae sob manejo orgânico no sul do Brasil Predatory insects in canopies of Citrus deliciosa (Rutaceae under organic management in southern Brazil

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    Rosana M. de Morais

    Full Text Available A fauna de insetos predadores em copas de Citrus deliciosa Tenore var. Montenegrina, em Montenegro, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, foi avaliada quanto à sua composição, abundância e diversidade, entre março de 2004 e março de 2005. Foram coletados, no total, 658 insetos predadores, representados por 51 espécies de dez famílias e cinco ordens, Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, Neuroptera, Thysanoptera e Hemiptera. As espécies mais abundantes foram Camponotus sp. 1 (Hymenoptera, Formicidae (16,87% e Coccidophilus sp. (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae (11,85%. A maior abundância, riqueza e eqüitabilidade de insetos predadores foi registrada na primavera, embora não tenha sido constatada diferença significativa entre as estações.The composition, abundance and diversity of predatory insects occurring on canopies of Citrus sinensis Tenore var. Montenegrina, in Montenegro, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, were studied from March 2004 to March 2005. A total of 658 predaceous insects were collected, representing 51 species from ten families and five orders, Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, Neuroptera, Thysanoptera and Hemiptera. The most abundant species were Camponotus sp. 1 (Hymenoptera, Formicidae (16.87% and Coccidophilus sp. (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae (11.85%. The highest abundance, richness and evenness of predatory insects were recorded in spring, although no significant difference among seasons has been found.

  12. Efficacy of larvicidal botanical extracts against Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahuman, A A; Bagavan, A; Kamaraj, C; Saravanan, E; Zahir, A A; Elango, G

    2009-06-01

    The present study explored the effects of crude leaf acetone, chloroform, hot water, methanol, petroleum ether (60-80 degrees C), and water extracts of Calotropis procera (Ait) R. Br., Canna indica L., Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn., Ipomoea carnea Jacq. spp. fistulosa Choisy, and Sarcostemma brevistigma Wight that were selected for investigating larvicidal potential against second and fourth instar larvae of the laboratory-reared mosquito species, Culex quinquefasciatus Say, in which the major lymphatic filariasis was used. All plant extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects after 24 h of exposure at 1,000 ppm; however, the highest larval mortality was found in leaf acetone, chloroform, methanol, and petroleum ether of C. indica (LC(50) = 29.62, 59.18, 40.77, and 44.38 ppm; LC(90) = 148.55, 267.87, 165.00, and 171.91 ppm) against second instar larvae (LC(50) = 121.88, 118.25, 69.76, and 56.31 ppm; LC(90) = 624.35, 573.93, 304.27, and 248.24 ppm) and against fourth instar larvae and acetone, hot water, methanol, and petroleum ether extracts of I. carnea (LC(50) = 61.17, 41.07, 41.82, and 39.32 ppm; LC(90) = 252.91, 142.67, 423.76, and 176.39 ppm) against second instar larvae (LC(50) = 145.37, 58.00, 163.81, and 41.75 ppm; LC(90) = 573.30, 181.10, 627.38, and 162.63 ppm) and against fourth instar larvae of C. quinquefasciatus, respectively. These results suggest that the acetone, methanol extracts of C. indica and hot water, petroleum ether extracts of I. carnea have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of the major lymphatic filariasis vector, C. quinquefasciatus.

  13. Avaliação de extratos vegetais no controle de mosca-branca, Bemisia tabaci biótipo B em abóbora Evaluation of plant extracts in the control of whitefly Bemisia tabaci biotype B in squash

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    Bruno Marcus Freire Vieira Lima

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A abóbora (Cucurbita moschata Duch. é uma cultura de importância para a agricultura familiar da região Nordeste do Brasil. No entanto, a ocorrência do prateamento das folhas da aboboreira ocasionado pela mosca-branca, Bemisia tabaci biótipo B limita sua produção, causando prejuízos aos agricultores. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência de extratos vegetais sobre o nível populacional de ninfas de mosca-branca em abóbora cv. Jacarezinho. O experimento foi instalado em campo experimental, em blocos casualizados, constituído de seis tratamentos e três repetições. As aplicações dos extratos vegetais foram feitas com intervalo de sete dias, fazendo-se uso de substâncias extraídas das seguintes plantas: canudo (Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa, mamona (Ricinus communis L., tinguí (Mascagnia rigida Griseb, cardo-santo (Argemone mexicana L., e o óleo comercial Natuneem®. Todos os extratos vegetais obtiveram eficiência no controle de ninfas B. tabaci, sendo o R. communis (75,49%, M. rigida (73,99%, I. carnea (72,24%, óleo de nim (70,4% e A. mexicana (69,16%.The squash (Cucurbita moschata Duch. is an important crop for family farmers in the northeast of Brazil. However, the occurrence of leaf silvering caused by the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci biotype B, limits production, causing losses to farmers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of plant extracts on the population levels of whitefly nymphs on the squash cv. Jacarezinho. The experiment was conducted at an experimental field, in a randomized block design consisting of six treatments and three replications. Applications of plant extracts were made at an interval of seven days, making use of substances extracted from the following plants: Ipomoea carnea subsp. Fistulosa, castor bean (Ricinus communis L., Tingui (Mascagnia rigida Griseb, cardo-santo (Argemone mexicana L., and the commercial oil product Natuneem ®. All of the plant extracts were

  14. Laboratory studies of the effects of reduced prey choice caused by Bt plants on a predatory insect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, T H; Clark, A J; Clark, S J; Poppy, G M; Stewart, C N; Denholm, I

    2005-06-01

    Crops transformed to express Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins can cause close to 100% mortality of certain target pest species. This study assessed the effect of target pest reduction on the predatory insect Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) in the presence of alternative prey. Numbers of lacewings recovered from Bt oilseed rape (cultivar Oscar, event O52) did not differ significantly from numbers of lacewings recovered from conventional oilseed rape in cage experiments with the target pest Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus) and the non-target pest Myzus persicae (Sulzer) when aphid densities were high. However, significantly fewer lacewings were recovered from Bt plants as aphid densities were lowered. Lacewing weights were not affected by plant type.

  15. Entomopoxvirus of cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hbn.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, K

    2002-07-01

    Occurrence of an Entomopoxvirus (EPV) from a lepidopteran insect viz;. cotton bollworm, H. armigera (HaEPV) along with gross pathological symptoms is reported for the first time in India. Histopathological study revealed that the fat body being the most favoured site of infection followed by haemocytes and gut epithelium. HaEPV was found to be not cross infective to six of the agricultural lepidopteran insect pests except for the potato black cutworm, Agrotis segetum registering 100% mortality showing typical symptom. Further, safety of HaEPV was shown against beneficial insect like mulberry silkworm, Bombyx mori and an useful insect general predator, Chrysoperla carnea.

  16. Taxonomic Evaluation of Fifteen Species of Ipomoea L. (Convolvulaceae from South-Western Nigeria using Foliar Micromorphological Characters

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    Abayomi Ezekiel FOLORUNSO

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Foliar micromorphological study was carried out on I. triloba, I. eriocarpa, I. alba, I. hederifolia, I. muricata, I. intrapilosa, I. asarifolia, I. batatas, I. aquatica, I. mauritiana, I. carnea, I.involucrata, I. nil, I. heterotricha and I. obscura to determine the patterns of variation in their epidermal characteristics and search for useful and stable anatomical characters for the identification of the species. Leaf epidermal features that provided useful specific distinctions are cell shape, anticlinal wall pattern, stomata shape, stomata type, trichome, cuticular striations, crystal, granular periclinal wall, stomata size, stomata index, scale and tannin. The characters revealed interrelationships among the Ipomoea species and also suggest their monophyly.

  17. Bottom-up effects on herbivore-induced plant defences: a case study based on compositional patterns of rhizosphere microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benítez, Emilio; Paredes, Daniel; Rodríguez, Estefanía; Aldana, Diana; González, Mónica; Nogales, Rogelio; Campos, Mercedes; Moreno, Beatriz

    2017-07-24

    Below-ground soil microorganisms can modulate above-ground plant-insect interactions. It still needs to be determined whether this is a direct effect of single species or an indirect effect of shifts in soil microbial community assemblages. Evaluation of the soil microbiome as a whole is critical for understanding multi-trophic interactions, including those mediated by volatiles involving plants, herbivorous insects, predators/parasitoids and microorganisms. We implemented a regulated system comprising Nerium oleander plants grown in soil initially containing a sterile/non sterile inoculum, herbivore Aphis nerii and predator Chrysoperla carnea. After aphid attack, plants emitted a characteristic blend of volatiles derived from two biosynthetic classes: fatty acid catabolites and aromatic-derived products. Three aliphatic compounds were mainly detected in plants grown in the inoculated microbial soil, a blend which was preferentially chosen by C. carnea adult females. The contrasting effect of the initial inocula was attributed to the different microbial consortia developed in each treatment. We argue that differences in the relative abundance of the active microbial communities in the rhizosphere correlate with those in the emission of selected volatile compounds by attacked plants. The mechanisms involved in how the functional soil microbiome modulates inducible indirect defence of plants are discussed.

  18. Effect of methyl salicylate-based lures on beneficial and pest arthropods in strawberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jana C

    2010-04-01

    Methyl salicylate (MeSA) is a common herbivore-induced plant volatile that, when applied to crops, has the potential to enhance natural enemy abundance and pest control. The impacts of MeSA in strawberry were unknown and examined in the spring and midsummer period. Strawberry plots contained no lures (control) or two 30-d MeSA lures (Predalure) in the center: one lure 0.61 m aboveground over a sticky trap, and one lure on a plant near the ground. Arthropod abundance was monitored at the point source, 5 m and 10 m away from lures over 31 d with white sticky traps, pitfall traps, and leaf inspection. Twenty-seven and nine comparisons were made among beneficial and pest arthropods, respectively. Overall positive responses were found among Chrysopidae in July-August 2008 and Orius tristicolor (White) in May-June 2009 to MeSA based on sticky traps. Chrysopidae showed attraction to the point source, but not at 5 m and 10 m. Ground-dwelling predators collected in pitfall traps such as Araneae, the carabid beetles, Pterostichus melanarius (Illiger), and Nebria brevicollis (Fabricius) did not respond. Increased abundance of six natural enemy groups appeared on various dates between 3 and 24 d after placement of lures in the field based on leaf inspection and sticky traps. Conversely, fewer Coccinellidae were captured on sticky traps on days 0-3, and fewer natural enemies were observed on leaves on day 28 in MeSA plots. MeSA did not increase nor decrease pest abundance.

  19. The mitochondrial genome of the ascalaphid owlfly Libelloides macaronius and comparative evolutionary mitochondriomics of neuropterid insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The insect order Neuroptera encompasses more than 5,700 described species. To date, only three neuropteran mitochondrial genomes have been fully and one partly sequenced. Current knowledge on neuropteran mitochondrial genomes is limited, and new data are strongly required. In the present work, the mitochondrial genome of the ascalaphid owlfly Libelloides macaronius is described and compared with the known neuropterid mitochondrial genomes: Megaloptera, Neuroptera and Raphidioptera. These analyses are further extended to other endopterygotan orders. Results The mitochondrial genome of L. macaronius is a circular molecule 15,890 bp long. It includes the entire set of 37 genes usually present in animal mitochondrial genomes. The gene order of this newly sequenced genome is unique among Neuroptera and differs from the ancestral type of insects in the translocation of trnC. The L. macaronius genome shows the lowest A+T content (74.50%) among known neuropterid genomes. Protein-coding genes possess the typical mitochondrial start codons, except for cox1, which has an unusual ACG. Comparisons among endopterygotan mitochondrial genomes showed that A+T content and AT/GC-skews exhibit a broad range of variation among 84 analyzed taxa. Comparative analyses showed that neuropterid mitochondrial protein-coding genes experienced complex evolutionary histories, involving features ranging from codon usage to rate of substitution, that make them potential markers for population genetics/phylogenetics studies at different taxonomic ranks. The 22 tRNAs show variable substitution patterns in Neuropterida, with higher sequence conservation in genes located on the α strand. Inferred secondary structures for neuropterid rrnS and rrnL genes largely agree with those known for other insects. For the first time, a model is provided for domain I of an insect rrnL. The control region in Neuropterida, as in other insects, is fast-evolving genomic region, characterized by AT

  20. Natural history of G ynaikothrips uzeli (Thysanoptera, Phlaeothripidae in galls of Ficus benjamina (Rosales, Moraceae

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    André Luiz S. Mascarenhas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Galls induced by thrips are simple structures when compared to those of other groups of arthropods, and little is known regarding many of their aspects. This study aimed to investigate aspects of the natural history of Gynaikothrips uzeli Zimmermann, 1900 in galls of Ficus benjamina L., 1753 using seasonal sampling (summer and winter. Twenty trees were sampled and divided into quadrants. From each of them, five galls were collected, forming a total of 400 galls per collection. Thrips showed greater abundance at higher temperatures (25.7°C and no precipitation. Sex ratio was biased towards females (0.022 males per female, pointing to an inbred mating structure. Arthropod fauna associated with galls was more abundant (N=798 in winter, and it included representatives of the orders Hemiptera, Hymenoptera, Araneae, Coleoptera, Neuroptera, Psocoptera, Thysanoptera, Diptera and Blattodea.

  1. INSECTS INCLUDED IN THE RED BOOK OF MOLDOVA: LIMITATION FACTORS AND PROTECTION MEASURES

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    Asea M. Timuş

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the analysis of insect species in Moldova with a rarity status: vulnerable, critically endangered and endangered, officially included in the "Red Book of the Republic of Moldova", in two editions: 37 species in the 2nd edition (2001 and 80 species in the 3rd edition (2015. The 80 insects of the 3rd edition of the "Red Book of the Republic of Moldova" belong to 8 orders (Odonatoptera, Mantodea, Orthoptera, Coleoptera, Neuroptera, Lepidoptera, Hymenoptera, Diptera. These species are classified according to the rarity status: vulnerable (VU – 33 species, critically endangered (CR – 39 species and endangered (EN – 8 species. The third edition also contains 35 species not included in the previous editions, which for the first time obtained a rarity status: VU – 16 species, CR – 17 and EN – 2 (2 species of the order Odonatoptera, 1 of Mantodea, 1 of Orthoptera, 10 of Coleoptera, 18 of Lepidoptera, and 3 of Hymenoptera.

  2. 18S rDNA sequences and the holometabolous insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmean, D; Kimsey, L S; Berbee, M L

    1992-12-01

    The Holometabola (insects with complete metamorphosis: beetles, wasps, flies, fleas, butterflies, lacewings, and others) is a monophyletic group that includes the majority of the world's animal species. Holometabolous orders are well defined by morphological characters, but relationships among orders are unclear. In a search for a region of DNA that will clarify the interordinal relationships we sequenced approximately 1080 nucleotides of the 5' end of the 18S ribosomal RNA gene from representatives of 14 families of insects in the orders Hymenoptera (sawflies and wasps), Neuroptera (lacewing and antlion), Siphonaptera (flea), and Mecoptera (scorpionfly). We aligned the sequences with the published sequences of insects from the orders Coleoptera (beetle) and Diptera (mosquito and Drosophila), and the outgroups aphid, shrimp, and spider. Unlike the other insects examined in this study, the neuropterans have A-T rich insertions or expansion regions: one in the antlion was approximately 260 bp long. The dipteran 18S rDNA evolved rapidly, with over 3 times as many substitutions among the aligned sequences, and 2-3 times more unalignable nucleotides than other Holometabola, in violation of an insect-wide molecular clock. When we excluded the long-branched taxa (Diptera, shrimp, and spider) from the analysis, the most parsimonious (minimum-length) trees placed the beetle basal to other holometabolous orders, and supported a morphologically monophyletic clade including the fleas+scorpionflies (96% bootstrap support). However, most interordinal relationships were not significantly supported when tested by maximum likelihood or bootstrapping and were sensitive to the taxa included in the analysis. The most parsimonious and maximum-likelihood trees both separated the Coleoptera and Neuroptera, but this separation was not statistically significant.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. An annotated list of aquatic insects of Fort Sill, Oklahoma, excluding diptera with notes on several new state records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuellig, R.E.; Kondratieff, B.C.; Schmidt, J.P.; Durfee, R.S.; Ruiter, D.E.; Prather, I.E.

    2006-01-01

    Qualitative collections of aquatic insects were made at Fort Sill, Lawton, Oklahoma, between 2002 and 2004. Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera, Odonata, Coleoptera, aquatic Heteroptera, Neuroptera, and Megaloptera were targeted. Additional records are included from a survey that took place in 1999. More than 11,000 specimens from more than 290 collections were examined. Based on the current understanding of aquatic insect systematics, 276 taxa distributed over 8 orders, 46 families, and 141 genera were identified. Twenty-three of the 276 taxa, Plauditus texanus Wiersema, Tricorythodes allectus (Needham), Palmacorixa nana walleyi Hungerford, Climacia chapini Partin and Gurney, Oxyethira forcipata Mosely, Oxyethira janella Denning, Triaenodes helo Milne, Ylodes frontalis (Banks), Acilius fraternus Harris, Coptotomus loticus Hilsenhoff, Coptotomus venustus (Say), Desmopachria dispersa Crotch, Graphoderus liberus (Say), Hydrovatus pustulatus (Melsheimer), Hygrotus acaroides (LeConte), Liodessus flavicollis (LeConte), Uvarus texanus (Sharp), Gyrinus woodruffi Fall, Haliplus fasciatus Aube, Haliplus lewisii Crotch, Haliplus tortilipenis Brigham & Sanderson, Chaetarthria bicolor Sharp, Epimetopus costatus complex, and Hydrochus simplex LeConte are reported from Oklahoma for the first time. The three most diverse orders included Coleoptera (86 species), Odonata (67 species) and Trichoptera (59 species), and the remaining taxa were distributed among Heteroptera, (30 species), Ephemeroptera (21 species), Plecoptera (6 species), Megaloptera (4 species), and Neuroptera (3 species). Based on previous published records, many of the species collected during this study were expected to be found at Fort Sill; however, 276 taxa of aquatic insects identified from such a small geographic area is noteworthy, especially when considering local climatic conditions and the relatively small size of Fort Sill (38,300 ha). Despite agricultural practices in Oklahoma, the dust bowl days

  4. The effect of insecticide applications to melon crop on melon aphid and its natural enemies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerra, J.; Gonzalez, J.E.; Ceballos, J.; Checa, B.

    1999-01-01

    Melons are an important export crop for Panama and are cultivated on more than 1000 ha of land. Long growing season, extending well into January, allows several generations and build up of heavy populations of an important insect pest, Aphis gossypii, the melon aphid. Growers find it difficult to cultivate melons without several applications of insecticides. Although the insecticide applications control the aphids, they may also have adverse effects on the natural enemies of the aphid, in particular the two predatory insects Cycloneda sanguinea and Chrysoperla carnea. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the impact of insecticide applications on these insects and on the yield of melons, and to estimate residues of the applied insecticides in soil. The insecticides were applied as four different type of treatments to melon crop. The treatments were (i) three periodic applications of endosulfan (Thiodan 35EC), each at 0.52 kg a.i./ha, (ii) three applications of fenitrothion (Sumithion 50WP), each at 0.35 kg a.i./ha, (iii) two applications of fenitrothion and one of endosulfan, and (iv) grower's treatment, which included applications of six different insecticides. The effect of the insecticide applications was evaluated by estimating numbers of each of the three type of insects before and within 72 hours after the applications and estimating yield of melons. All insecticide treatments reduced the populations of Aphis gossypii, but they also reduced the numbers of the benificial insects. Endosulfan was somewhat less toxic to C. carnea than the other insecticides were, since greater number of C. carnea were recorded from the plots treated with endosulfan than the other treated plots. The best yield of melons was recorded in the plots which were sprayed with fenitrothion, followed by the plots sprayed with endosulfan. and then those with grower's insecticides. Soon after the application of endosulfan the residue in the soil was 0.2 mg/kg, but it declined to less

  5. Evaluación de estrategias de control biológico de Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks y Phyllocoptruta oleivora (Ashmead en naranja Valencia

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    Karol Imbachi L

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El daño ocasionado por los ácaros Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks y Phyllocoptruta oleivora (Ashmead en el cultivo de naranja Valencia (Citrus sinensis L. es reconocido tanto por el impacto económico como por el daño externo de los frutos. En este trabajo se evaluó el efecto de agentes biológicos para el control de estas plagas en un cultivo comercial de naranja Valencia en el municipio de Caicedonia, Valle del Cauca, Colombia. Se usó un diseño de bloques completos al azar para evaluar los tratamientos siguientes: (1 liberación de especies de Phytoseiidae nativos (Neoseiulus anonymus, Neoseiulus californicus, Iphiseiodes zuluagai y Amblyseius herbicolus en poblaciones de 500 individuos/árbol; (2 liberación de larvas de Chrysoperla carnea (100 larvas/árbol; (3 aplicación localizada de cipermetrina 2 cm³/lt como tratamiento de exclusión de agentes benéficos; y (4 testigo consistente en el tratamiento utilizado por los agricultores (aplicación localizada de abamectina, 1.5 cm³/lt. Las liberaciones de las especies benéficas y las aplicaciones de los tratamientos se realizaron sobre racimos florales y frutos marcados en el tercio medio de cada árbol. Las evaluaciones de daños se realizaron cada semana hasta la cosecha. Los tratamientos de liberación de Phytoseiidae, liberación de larvas de C. carnea y aplicación de abamectina presentaron el menor daño de P. latus; el tratamiento de exclusión de benéficos demostró la importancia de los agentes controladores naturales sobre la plaga. En el manejo de P. oleivora, los tratamientos de liberación de larvas de C. carnea y aplicación de abamectina presentaron los mejores resultados con el menor daño en frutos. La población de P. oleivora ocasionó daños significativos en el tratamiento de liberación de ácaros Phytoseiidae y exclusión de benéficos.

  6. Analysis of vegetation dynamics and phytodiversity from three dry deciduous forests of Doon Valley, Western Himalaya, India

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    Gautam Mandal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to analyze the vegetation dynamics and plant diversity from the dry deciduous forests of Doon Valley. Species richness, regeneration, and change in community composition of these forests were studied and change was noticed with Shorea robusta as the main dominant species, and Mallotus philippensis, Syzygium cumini, and Ehretia laevis as codominant tree species in all communities. The highest species richness and diversity rates were found to be increased with the decrease in tree density and basal area. The high Importance Value Index recorded in Thano (>150 indicates that the S. robusta forest is progressing toward the culmination stage, whereas the lower IVI values (100 and 150 in the other two sites (Selaqui – Jhajra and Asarori signify the heavy disturbance of these sites and further establishment of alien invasive species such as Cassia tora, Cassia occidentalis, Lantana camara, Urena lobata, Ipomoea carnea, Sida acuta, and Solanum torvum.

  7. STUDY ON POLLEN VIABILITY AS BIOINDICATOR OF AIR QUALITY

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    Florentina ŞTEFLEA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to estimate the relationship between pollen viability and atmospheric pollution (in polluted and non-polluted conditions. The study was carried out in the city of Timisoara. Two areas, with different intensity of road traffic (very high and absent but all characterized by the presence of the same plant species, were selected. The pollen of herbaceous spontaneous species, arboreal species and a shrub species was used (Robinia pseudacacia, Aesculus x carnea, Catalpa bignonioides, Albizzia julibrissin, Rosa canina, Sambucus nigra, Malva neglecta, Ranunculus acer, Trifolium repens, Cichorium intybus. The pollen of these species was treated with TTC (2, 3, 5 Tryphenil-Tetrazolium-Chloride staining solution and viability was then estimated by light microscopy. The results of the mean pollen viability percentage of the examined species are reported. Pollen viability of herbaceous plants is significantly different between the two environments.

  8. Bioaccumulation assessment via an adapted multi-species soil system (MS.3) and its application using cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Elena; González-Núñez, Manuel; Carbonell, Gregoria; Fernández, Carlos; Tarazona, José V

    2009-05-01

    This paper presents an experimental design for quantifying the transfer of chemicals at low trophic levels of terrestrial ecosystems. The soil microcosms, MS.3(foodchain) (food chain multi-specie soil system) covered the transfer from soil to earthworms (Eisenia fetida) and from soil to plant (Triticum aestivum), then to phytophagus (Rhopalosiphum padi) and finally predator (Chrysoperla carnea) species. Cadmium was used as model pollutant. Cadmium accumulation in foliar invertebrates was related to the species biology. A significant transfer of this metal through the minimized food chain was found for all species, but not a biomagnification in the predator species. Results pointed out the relevance of foliar invertebrates and their trophic relationships as additional exposure routes for assessing secondary poisoning in predators. Hence, MS.3(foodchain), could be applied for terrestrial environmental risk assessment when potential bioaccumulation could be expected.

  9. Effects of plant gross morphology on predator consumption rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Paula G; Cuddington, Kim

    2012-06-01

    We find that spatial structure, and in particular, differences in gross plant morphology, can alter the consumption rates of generalist insect predators. We compared Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis Pallas, and green lacewing larvae, Chrysoperla carnea Stephens, consumption rates of pea aphids, Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris, in homogeneous environments (petri dishes) and heterogeneous environments (whole plants). Spatial complexity is often described as reducing predator success, and we did find that predators consumed significantly more aphids on leaf tissue in petri dishes than on whole plants with the same surface area. However, subtle differences in plant morphology may have more unexpected effects. A comparison of consumption rates on four different isogenic pea morphs (Pisum sativum L.) controlled for surface area indicated that both lady beetles and lacewings were more successful on morphologies that were highly branched. We speculate that predators move more easily over highly branched plants because there are more edges to grasp.

  10. The influence of natural enemies on wing induction in Aphis fabae and Megoura viciae (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunert, G; Schmoock-Ortlepp, K; Reissmann, U; Creutzburg, S; Weisser, W W

    2008-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that the aphid species, Aphis fabae Scopoli and Megoura viciae Buckton, do not produce winged offspring in the presence of natural enemies, in contrast to results for the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris)) and the cotton aphid (Aphis gossypii Glover); but these studies did not involve exposing aphids directly to natural enemies. We exposed colonies of both A. fabae and M. viciae to foraging lacewing (Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens)) larvae and found that the predators did not induce winged morphs among offspring compared to unexposed controls. Colonies of A. fabae responded to an increase in aphid density with increasing winged morph production, while such response was not found for M. viciae. We suggest that different aphid species differ in their susceptibility to natural enemy attack, as well as in their sensitivity to contact.

  11. Cryptocephaline Egg Case Provides Incomplete Protection from Generalist Predators (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae

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    Matthias Schöller

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The egg case of Cryptocephalus rufipes (Goeze is described and illustrated. In laboratory trials, eggs of field-collected C. rufipes were observed for larval emergence (untreated control or exposed to two species of generalist predators, Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens or Xylocoris flavipes (Reuter in no-choice experiments. The behaviour of the predators upon contact with the C. rufipes eggs was observed. The number of hatching larvae was counted and compared. In the presence of each of the two species of predators, larval emergence was significantly reduced. Eggs that were not protected by an egg case were completely consumed by the predators. C. rufipes eggs were therefore incompletely protected from the studied generalist predators. This is the first study showing experimentally the protective function of cryptocephaline egg case.

  12. Inquérito epidemiológico sobre plantas tóxicas das mesoregiões Central e Oeste do Rio Grande do Norte

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    Severino Antonio Geraldo Neto

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um estudo para determinar as plantas tóxicas incriminadas como de interesse zootécnico em 35 municípios das mesorregiões Central e Oeste do estado do Rio Grande do Norte (RN. Foram entrevistados 180 produtores, 20 médicos veterinários, 12 técnicos agrícolas e 5 agrônomos. Os dados obtidos nas entrevistas foram compilados e analisados com auxílio do programa Epi Info versão 6.04. As plantas tóxicas relatadas pelos entrevistados como causadoras de diversos surtos foram Ipomoea asarifolia, Aspidosperma pyrifolium, Indigofera suffruticosa, Manihot carthaginensis subsp. glaziovii, Amorimia septentrionalis, Tephrosia cinerea, Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil, Marsdenia megalantha, Anacardium occidentale, Cnidoscolus quercifolius, Crotalaria retusa, Froelichia humboldtiana, Ipomoea carnea, Leucaena leucocephala, Manihot esculenta, Mimosa tenuiflora, Nerium oleander, Prosopis juliflora, Ricinus communis, Sorghum bicolor, Sorghum halepense e Urochloa (Brachiaria decumbens.

  13. Soil microbial abundances and enzyme activities in different rhizospheres in an integrated vertical flow constructed wetland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ge, Ying; Jiang, Yueping; Jiang, Qinsu; Min, Hang; Fan, Haitian; Zeng, Qiang; Chang, Jie [College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China); Zhang, Chongbang [School of Life Sciences, Taizhou University, Linhai (China); Yue, Chunlei [Zhejiang Forestry Academy, Hangzhou (China)

    2011-03-15

    Rhizosphere microorganism is an important bio-component for wastewater treatment in constructed wetlands (CWs). Microbial abundance and enzyme activities in the rhizospheres of nine plant species were investigated in an integrated vertical-flow CW. The abundance of denitrifiers, as well as urease, acid, and alkaline phosphatase activities were positively correlated to plant root biomass. The abundance of bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, ammonifiers, denitrifiers, and phosphorus decomposers, related to nutrient removal efficiencies in CWs, greatly varied among rhizospheres of different plant species (p < 0.05). Significant differences in rhizosphere enzyme activity among plant species were also observed (p < 0.05), with the exception of catalase activity. The principal component analysis using the data of microbial abundance and enzyme activity showed that Miscanthus floridulus, Acorus calamus, and Reineckia carnea were candidates to be used in CWs to effectively remove nitrogen and phosphorus from wastewater. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. Descripción de las especies del género Ipomoea presentes en el area de riego del río Dulce, Santiago del Estero, Argentina Description of the species of the genus Ipomoea in the irrigated area of Río Dulce, Santiago del Estero, Argentina

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    E. del V. Carrizo

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue relevar y diferenciar especies del género Ipomoea presentes en diferentes fases de desarrollo, en el área de riego del Río Dulce, Santiago del Estero, Argentina. Para ello fueron herborizados y fotografiados diversos ejemplares encontrados en la región. En el laboratorio, después del trabajo de identificación, fueron descritas las diversas fases de desarrollo de la planta: semilla, plántula y estado adulto, creándose códigos de identificación para cada fase. Se registraron ocho especies del género Ipomoea, I. alba; I. amnicola; I. cairica; I. carnea; I. grandifolia; I. nil; I. purpurea e I. quamoclit, algunas de las cuales se cultivan como ornamentales, otras aparecen como ruderales y algunas son malezas en cultivos de la región.The objective of this research was to describe and differentiate the stages of species of the genus Ipomoea in the irrigated area of Rio Dulce - Santiago del Estero - Argentina, under different growth stages. Species prototypes from the area were mounted in a herbarium, photographed and then identified with detailed descriptions of the seed, seedling and mature stages. A classification key was constructed to identify them under different growth stages. Eight species in the genus Ipomoea: (I. alba, I. amnicola, I. cairica, I. carnea, I. grandifolia, I. nil, I. purpurea and I. quamoclit were registered, some cultivated as ornamental, while others appear naturally or as crop weeds in the region.

  15. Transgenic insecticidal crops and natural enemies: a detailed review of laboratory studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lövei, Gabor L; Andow, David A; Arpaia, Salvatore

    2009-04-01

    This review uses a data-driven, quantitative method to summarize the published, peer-reviewed literature about the impact of genetically modified (GM) plants on arthropod natural enemies in laboratory experiments. The method is similar to meta-analysis, and, in contrast to a simple author-vote counting method used by several earlier reviews, gives an objective, data-driven summary of existing knowledge about these effects. Significantly more non-neutral responses were observed than expected at random in 75% of the comparisons of natural enemy groups and response classes. These observations indicate that Cry toxins and proteinase inhibitors often have non-neutral effects on natural enemies. This synthesis identifies a continued bias toward studies on a few predator species, especially the green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea Stephens, which may be more sensitive to GM insecticidal plants (16.8% of the quantified parameter responses were significantly negative) than predators in general (10.9% significantly negative effects without C. carnea). Parasitoids were more susceptible than predators to the effects of both Cry toxins and proteinase inhibitors, with fewer positive effects (18.0%, significant and nonsignificant positive effects combined) than negative ones (66.1%, significant and nonsignificant negative effects combined). GM plants can have a positive effect on natural enemies (4.8% of responses were significantly positive), although significant negative (21.2%) effects were more common. Although there are data on 48 natural enemy species, the database is still far from adequate to predict the effect of a Bt toxin or proteinase inhibitor on natural enemies.

  16. Influência de sistemas de produção sobre a ocorrência de inimigos naturais de afídeos em pomares de pessegueiros em Araucária-PR Influence of systems of production on the occurrence of natural enemies of aphids on orchards of peach trees in Araucaria-PR

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    Joselia Maria Schuber

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A pressão da sociedade tem forçado a adoção de sistemas de produção de frutas mais sustentáveis e de menor impacto ambiental. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a influência dos sistemas de produção de Boas Práticas Agrícolas (BPA e Convencional (PC sobre a diversidade de inimigos naturais de afídeos presentes em seis pomares de pessegueiros no município de Araucária-PR, de julho de 2005 a setembro de 2006. O levantamento do número de inimigos naturais foi realizado por meio de cinco métodos de amostragens: visual em plantas de pessegueiros e em plantas invasoras; armadilhas Möericke; funil e adesivas. No sistema BPA, foram coletados mais espécimes de inimigos naturais (53%, em relação aos pomares PCs (46%, havendo a ocorrência, em ambos, de predadores das famílias Syrphidae, Coccinellidae e Chrysopidae e parasitóides da ordem Hymenoptera. Do total de inimigos naturais coletados, verificou-se a ocorrência de maior quantidade de predadores de afídeos.The pressure of the society has forced the adoption of more sustainable fruit production systems and with less environmental impact. The objective of this work was to verify the influence of production systems of Good Agricultural Practices (GAP and Conventional Production (CP, about the diversity of natural enemies of aphids present on six orchards of peach trees in the city of Araucaria, PR, from July 2005 to September 2006. The evaluation of the number of natural enemies of aphid's species was made by means of five sampling methods: visual in plants of peach trees; visual in invading plants; yellow water traps of Möericke type; funnel and adhesive traps. In the system GPA, more specimens of natural enemies had been collected (53% in relation to orchards CP (46%, having the occurrence, in both orchards, of predators of the Syrphidae, Coccinellidae and Chrysopidae family and parasitoids of Hymenoptera order. Concerning the total of collected natural enemies, it was

  17. Capacidad reguladora de Chrysoperla externa (Hagen sobre mosca blanca Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood en tomate bajo invernadero

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    Mayerly Alejandra Castro-Lopez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Trialeurodes vaporariorum Westwood (Hemíptera: Aleyrodidae es uno de los principales limitantes del cultivo de tomate Solanum lycopersicum, por generar problemas directos e indirectos en este sistema de producción; para el manejo de este insecto (mosca blanca se acude a excesivas aplicaciones de productos de síntesis química, sin obtener los mejores resultados. Este estudio consistió en evaluar, en condiciones de invernadero, la capacidad reguladora de Chrysoperla externa Hagen (Neuróptera: Chrysopidae sobre la mosca blanca presente en tomate. En plantas infestadas con individuos de T. vaporariorum se adicionó C. externa en niveles poblacionales de 80, 160 y 240 individuos en estado larval por planta, y se contó con un testigo sin depredador. Se empleó un diseño completamente al azar en condiciones de invernadero (temperatura promedio de 20 ºC y humedad relativa del 60 %. Se observaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre las densidades del depredador, con infestaciones de 35, 52 y 53 % de T. vaporariorum (tras cuatro semanas, correspondientes a las liberaciones de 240, 160 y 80 individuos por planta, respectivamente. Se observó que las plantas del testigo presentaron menor altura y número de ramas, respecto de los tratamientos en los cuales había presencia del depredador C. externa.

  18. THE DISTRIBUTION OF RICKETTSIA IN THE TISSUES OF INSECTS AND ARACHNIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowdry, E V

    1923-03-31

    In the absence of a satisfactory definition of Rickettsia the observations herein recorded were arbitrarily limited to bacterium-like organisms which are intracellular and Gram-negative. Rickettsia of this type were found in the following species: Amblyomma americana, Amblyomma hebraeum, Boophilus decoloratus, Atomus sp., Casinaria infesta, Chrysopa oculata, Ctenocephalus canis, Dermacentor variabilis, Lepisma saccharina, Lucoppia curviseta, Margaropus annulatus, Margaropus annulatus australis, Ornithodoros turicata, Pulex irritans, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Rhipicephalus evertsi, and Salticus scenicus. Since intracellular, Gram-negative Rickettsia have been recorded in the literature as existing in Cimex lectularius, Dermacentor venustus, Melophagus ovinus, and Pediculus humanus, the occasional occurrence of such bodies must be conceded in the following groups not closely related phylogenetically: Attidae, Trombidiidae, Argasidae, lxodidae, Cinura, Acanthiidae, Pediculidae, Hippoboscidae, Chrysopidae, Pulicidae, and Ichneumonidae. The species which harbor Rickettsia differ widely in diet and habitat. One such species is insectivorous throughout life, two are insectivorous in larval stages, becoming vegetarian in the adult condition, one is chiefly vegetarian but partakes of some animal products, and two are usually entirely vegetarian; while the remainder subsist wholly upon a diet of mammalian blood. Rickettsia are associated, in only a few cases, with diseases in mammals. The evidence at hand does not lead beyond the conclusion that the Rickettsia mentioned above are true Gram-negative microorganisms, easily distinguishable from mitochondria and all other cytoplasmic and nuclear granulations, rather completely adapted to an intracellular existence, exhibiting in some cases a remarkable degree of host specificity, and often inherited through the eggs.

  19. Búsqueda de enemigos naturales nativos de Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande(thysanoptera: thripidae, sobre Dendranthema grandijlorum en el municipio de Piendamo, cauca.

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    Castro V. Ulises

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available En la empresa "Flores del Cauca" en el municipio de Piendamó a 1S00 m.s.n.m. con temperatura promedia de 18° C y HR de SO ± 5%, se hizo una búsqueda de enemigos naturales nativos de F. occidentalis (Thysanóptera: Thripidae sobre eras experimentales de Dendranthema grandiflorum libres de control químico. La búsqueda se extendió a los hospedantes alternos del tisanóptero en áreas aledañas al cultivo. Semanalmente se cosechaban plantas de crisantemo, se llevaban al laboratorio para la recolección de thrips y sus enemigos naturales nativos. En el laboratorio se realizaron bioensayos para probar la acción depredadora de algunos de los enemigos de F. occídentalis que fueron encontrados en crisantemo. Se encontraron los siguientes enemigos naturales nativos: El hemíptero Orius sp. (Anthocoridae. los ácaros Amblyseius herbjcolus. Euseius naindaimei y Thyplodromalus peregrinus (Phytoseiidae, larvas de Chrysopidae; los thrips leptothirs sp. y Haplotrips gowdeyi (Phlaeothripidae, un ácaro de la familia Ascidae; difereflles especies de arañas; larvas de la familia Coccinellidae y adultos de F. occidentalis infectados por hongos no identificados.

  20. Escaping compound eye ancestry: the evolution of single-chamber eyes in holometabolous larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschbeck, Elke K

    2014-08-15

    Stemmata, the eyes of holometabolous insect larvae, have gained little attention, even though they exhibit remarkably different optical solutions, ranging from compound eyes with upright images, to sophisticated single-chamber eyes with inverted images. Such optical differences raise the question of how major transitions may have occurred. Stemmata evolved from compound eye ancestry, and optical differences are apparent even in some of the simplest systems that share strong cellular homology with adult ommatidia. The transition to sophisticated single-chamber eyes occurred many times independently, and in at least two different ways: through the fusion of many ommatidia [as in the sawfly (Hymenoptera)], and through the expansion of single ommatidia [as in tiger beetles (Coleoptera), antlions (Neuroptera) and dobsonflies (Megaloptera)]. Although ommatidia-like units frequently have multiple photoreceptor layers (tiers), sophisticated image-forming stemmata tend to only have one photoreceptor tier, presumably a consequence of the lens only being able to efficiently focus light on to one photoreceptor layer. An interesting exception is found in some diving beetles [Dytiscidae (Coleoptera)], in which two retinas receive sharp images from a bifocal lens. Taken together, stemmata represent a great model system to study an impressive set of optical solutions that evolved from a relatively simple ancestral organization. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  1. Bionomics of Pollinia pollini (Costa (Hemiptera: Asterolecanidae in Egypt

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    Noha Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pollinia pollini (Costa (Hemiptera: Asterolecanidae is considered as one of the most important pest infesting olive trees in Egypt. The aim of this work is to study the survey of host plants, geographical distribution and natural enemies as well as the dynamic of P. pollini on olive trees in Egypt. The obtained results indicated that P. pollini infested only olive trees in two Governorates. These are Alexandria and Fayoum Governorates. No parasitoid species were collected and recorded in the present work. Three species of predators were recorded that attacked P. pollini in Egypt. These are the coccinellids, Coccinella undecimpunctata L., Scymnus seriacus Mars. and the Neuroptera species, Chrysoperlla carnae Steph. Also the present study included the dynamics of P. pollini and its predators on olive trees in Alexandria Governorate during 2010 and 2011. Statistical analysis of the effect of weather factors on the population of P. pollini during the 2 years under consideration was discussed. It was concluded that maximum, minimum temperatures and % relative humidity are significant on the population of P. pollini. The trend over both years indicated the occurrence of two generations per year for P. pollini on olive trees in Alexandria.

  2. A morphological and life history comparison between desert populations of a sit-and-pursue antlion, in reference to a co-occurring pit-building antlion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, Inon; Filin, Ido; Subach, Aziz; Ovadia, Ofer

    2009-10-01

    Although most antlion species do not construct pits, the vast majority of studies on antlions focused on pit-building species. We report here on a transplant experiment aiming to test for morphological and life history differences between two desert populations of a sit-and-pursue antlion species, Lopezus fedtschenkoi (Neuroptera: Myrmeleontidae), originating from habitats, which mainly differ in plant cover and productivity. We raised the antlion larvae in environmental chambers simulating either hyper-arid or Mediterranean climate. We found significant differences in the morphology and life history of L. fedtschenkoi larvae between the two populations. For example, the larvae originating from the more productive habitat pupated faster and had a higher growth rate. In agreement with the temperature-size rule, antlions reached higher final mass in the colder Mediterranean climate and exhibited a higher growth rate, but there was no difference in their developmental time. Observed differences in morphology between populations as well as those triggered by climate growing conditions could be explained by differences in size allometry. We also provide a quantitative description of the allometric growth axis, based on 12 morphological traits. Comparing the responses of L. fedtschenkoi with those observed in a co-occurring pit-building antlion indicated that there were neither shape differences that are independent of size nor was there a difference in the plasticity level between the two species.

  3. Rates and patterns of molecular evolution in freshwater versus terrestrial insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitterboeck, T Fatima; Fu, Jinzhong; Adamowicz, Sarah J

    2016-11-01

    Insect lineages have crossed between terrestrial and aquatic habitats many times, for both immature and adult life stages. We explore patterns in molecular evolutionary rates between 42 sister pairs of related terrestrial and freshwater insect clades using publicly available protein-coding DNA sequence data from the orders Coleoptera, Diptera, Lepidoptera, Hemiptera, Mecoptera, Trichoptera, and Neuroptera. We furthermore test for habitat-associated convergent molecular evolution in the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene in general and at a particular amino acid site previously reported to exhibit habitat-linked convergence within an aquatic beetle group. While ratios of nonsynonymous-to-synonymous substitutions across available loci were higher in terrestrial than freshwater-associated taxa in 26 of 42 lineage pairs, a stronger trend was observed (20 of 31, p binomial = 0.15, p Wilcoxon = 0.017) when examining only terrestrial-aquatic pairs including fully aquatic taxa. We did not observe any widespread changes at particular amino acid sites in COI associated with habitat shifts, although there may be general differences in selection regime linked to habitat.

  4. Methodological considerations in discriminating olive-orchard management type using olive-canopy arthropod fauna at the level of order

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jerez-Valle, C.; García-López, P.A.; Campos, M.; Pascual, F.

    2015-07-01

    The cultivation of the olive tree (Olea europaea L.) has great importance in the entire Mediterranean basin, so that the implementation of organic practices in their management directly affects the sustainability of the agricultural system. Bioindication with arthropods can help to detect the different agricultural practices. In this work, we analyse the most appropriate methodology for discriminating between management using arthropods at the taxonomic level of order, with the novelty of taking into account the weather conditions to select the sampling dates. Between 12 and 15 sampling stations (depending on the year) were selected from olive orchards belonging to organic, conventional non-tillage, and strict conventional management, being sampled by beating the canopy fortnightly in the spring-summer period of 2007, 2008 and 2009. Organic management was more abundant and richer than the rest for the three years. Most groups with significant differences in terms of relative abundance were more abundant in organic orchard, except Neuroptera. Finally, different discriminant methods were evaluated (Linear Discriminant Analysis, Multiple Discriminant Analysis, and Support Vector Machine) with several different data sets. The discriminant analysis with interannual variability reached 97.9% accuracy in differentiating between organic and non-organic management using the LDA method, considering the taxa with significant differences from the abundance, excluding pests, and using samples with more uniform and stable weather patterns (late summer. (Author)

  5. ESTRUCTURA NUMÉRICA DE LA ENTOMOFAUNA ACUÁTICA EN OCHO QUEBRADAS DEL DEPARTAMENTO DEL QUINDÍO-COLOMBIA

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    JOHN JADER RIVERA-USME

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio de la entomofauna acuática de ocho quebradas del departamento del Quindío, Colombia en La Tebaida y Calarcá. Entre agosto y diciembre de 2004 se colectaron 1917 especimenes distribuidos así: Trichoptera con 524 (la familia más abundante fue Hydropsychidae con 425, Coleoptera 421 (Elmidae con 396 individuos, Heteroptera 391, Odonata 216, seguido por Ephemeroptera, Diptera y Neuroptera. Los índices ecológicos empleados fueron la diversidad de Shannon-Wiener, la riqueza total y la equidad de Pielou, los cuales arrojaron valores altos; la similitud de Jaccard para las quebradas La Tebaida y Calarcá fue de 0,66 evidenciando pocas variaciones en la entomofauna acuática. Mediante el análisis de las variables físicas y químicas se determinó que estas quebradas presentan un buen nivel de conservación.

  6. Attractive toxic sugar baits: control of mosquitoes with the low-risk active ingredient dinotefuran and potential impacts on nontarget organisms in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khallaayoune, Khalid; Qualls, Whitney A; Revay, Edita E; Allan, Sandra A; Arheart, Kristopher L; Kravchenko, Vasiliy D; Xue, Rui-De; Schlein, Yosef; Beier, John C; Müller, Günter C

    2013-10-01

    We evaluated the efficacy of attractive toxic sugar baits (ATSB) in the laboratory and field with the low-risk active ingredient dinotefuran against mosquito populations. Preliminary laboratory assays indicated that dinotefuran in solution with the sugar baits was ingested and resulted in high mortality of female Culex quinquefasciatus Say and Aedes aegypti Linnaeus. Field studies demonstrated >70% reduction of mosquito populations at 3 wk post-ATSB application. Nontarget feeding of seven insect orders-Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, Diptera, Hemiptera, Orthoptera, and Neuroptera-was evaluated in the field after application of attractive sugar baits (ASB) on vegetation by dissecting the guts and searching for food dye with a dissecting microscope. Nontargets were found stained with ASB 0.9% of the time when the application was applied on green nonflowering vegetation. Only two families were significantly impacted by the ASB application: Culicidae (mosquitoes) and Chironomidae (nonbiting midges) of the order Diptera. Pollinators of the other insect orders were not significantly impacted. No mortality was observed in the laboratory studies with predatory nontargets, wolf spiders or ground beetles, after feeding for 3 d on mosquitoes engorged on ATSB applied to vegetation. Overall, this novel control strategy had little impact on nontarget organisms, including pollinators and beneficial insects, and was effective at controlling mosquito populations, further supporting the development of ATSB for commercial use.

  7. Species abundance and potential biological control services in shade vs. sun coffee in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkhataria, Rena R.; Collazo, Jaime A.; Groom, Martha J.

    2012-01-01

    Birds, lizards and insects were surveyed in three sun and three shade coffee plantations in Puerto Rico to provide a comprehensive comparison of biodiversity between plantations types and to identify potential interrelationships (e.g., biological or natural control services) between members of each taxon and coffee pests. Abundance of avian species, including insectivorous species, was significantly higher in shade coffee. Anolis cristatellus and A. stratulus were significantly more abundant in sun plantations whereas A. gundlachi and A. evermanni were detected more frequently in shade plantations. Insects in the orders Coleoptera, Diptera, Hemiptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, Neuroptera, and Psocoptera were significantly more abundant in shade coffee, while orthopterans were more abundant in sun. The coffee leaf miner (Leucoptera coffeela) and the flatid planthopper (Petrusa epilepsis) did not differ significantly between plantation types, nor did the abundance of the wasp complex that parasitizes the coffee leaf miner. These findings confirmed that shade plantations harbor a wide array of elements of biodiversity; but sun plantations may also harbor many elements of biodiversity, and in some cases, in higher abundance than in shade plantations.

  8. Short communication. Incidence of the OLIPE mass-trapping on olive non-target arthropods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porcel, M.; Ruano, F.; Sanllorente, O.; Caballero, J. A.; Campos, M.

    2009-07-01

    Due to the widespread of mass-trapping systems for Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin) (Diptera: Tephritidae) control in organic olive cropping, an assessment of the impact on arthropods of the olive agroecosystem was undertaken for the OLIPE trap type. The sampling was carried out in Los Pedroches valley (Cordoba, southern Spain) in three different organic orchard sites. Six OLIPE traps baited with diammonium phosphate were collected from each site (18 in total) from July to November 2002 every 15 days on average. Additionally, in the latest sampling dates, half the traps were reinforced with pheromone to assess its impact on non-target arthropods. From an average of 43.0 catches per trap (cpt) of non-target arthropods during the whole sampling period, the highest number of captures corresponds to the Order Diptera (that represents a 68.5%), followed distantly by the family Formicidae (12.9%) and the Order Lepidoptera (10.4%). Besides the impact on ant populations, other beneficial groups were recorded such as parasitoids (Other Hymenoptera: 2.6%) and predators (Araneae: 1.0%; Neuroptera s.l.: 0.4%). Concerning the temporal distribution of catches, total captures peaked on July and had a slight increase at the beginning of autumn. No significant differences were observed between traps with and without pheromone. The results evidence that a considerable amount of non-specific captures could be prevented by improving the temporal planning of the mass-trapping system. (Author) 25 refs.

  9. PHENOTYPIC PLASTICITY IN CHRYSOPERLA: GENETIC VARIATION IN THE SENSORY MECHANISM AND IN CORRELATED REPRODUCTIVE TRAITS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauber, Catherine A; Tauber, Maurice J

    1992-12-01

    A genetically variable sensory mechanism provides phenotypic plasticity in the seasonal cycle of the Chrysoperla carnea species-complex of green lacewings. The mechanism functions as a switch during the pupal and early imaginal stages to determine aestival reproduction versus aestival dormancy, and it has two major components: (1) response to photoperiod and (2) response to a stimulus(i) associated with the prey of the larvae. Ultimately, the switch is based on the response to photoperiod-an all-or-nothing trait whose variation (long-day reproduction versus a short-day/long-day requirement for reproduction) is determined by alleles at two unlinked autosomal loci. In eastern North America, variation in this component of the switch differentiates two reproductively isolated "species" that are sympatric throughout the region: Chrysoperla carnea, in which both loci are homozygous for the dominant alleles that determine long-day, spring and summer reproduction and thus multivoltinism, and C. downesi, which has a very high incidence of the recessive alleles for the short-day/long-day requirement, and thus univoltine spring breeding. In contrast, geographical populations in western North America harbor variable amounts of within-and among-family genetic variation for the photoperiodic responses and also for the switch's second component-adult responsiveness to the prey of the larvae. The geographic pattern of genetic variation in the two components of the switch indicates that it is a highly integrated adaptation to environmental heterogeneity. Expression of among-family variation in the prey component of the switch is highly dependent on photoperiodic conditions and genotype (it requires a constant long daylength and the recessive short-day/long-day genotype). Thus, we infer that responsiveness to prey evolved as a modifier of the photoperiodic trait. The switch has a significant negative effect on a major determinant of fitness; it lengthens the preoviposition period in

  10. Revisión y bionomía del género Syncirsodes Butler 1882 (Lepidoptera: Geometridae Revision and bionomy of the genus Syncirsodes Butler 1882 (Lepidoptera: Geometridae

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    PATRICIA A. BOCAZ

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available El género Syncirsodes Butler 1882, es redefinido y las especies son taxonómicamente revisadas y redescritas. Las especies que conforman el género son las siguientes: S. primata (Walker 1862, S. subornata (Walker 1863, S. straminea (Butler 1882, S. distictaria (Mabille 1885 y S. hyadesi (Mabille 1885. El ejemplar alotipo de la especie A. primata Walker (1862 corresponde a la hembra de S. distictaria. Las especies deustata Felder & Rogenhofer (1875 y arenosa, carnea, cinerea, squamosa y turbida descritas por Butler (1882 son los sinónimos junior de S. primata Walker (1862. La ausencia de la armadura genital del material tipo y la falta de otros ejemplares nos hace mantener como válida la especie S. subornata. El género se distribuye principalmente en la región Andina, solo S. subornata se encuentra en la provincia Pampa. Se describen además los estados inmaduros y la bionomía de S. distictaria y S. primata. Se entregan claves, dibujos de la genitalia, la distribución y fotografías de las diferentes especiesThe genus Syncirsodes Butler 1882 is redefined and its species are taxonomically revised and described. The species are as follows: S. distictaria (Mabille 1885, S. primata (Walker 1862, S. hyadesi (Mabille 1885, S. straminea (Butler 1882 and S. subornata (Walker 1863. The specimen allotype of A. primata Walker (1862 corresponds to the female of S. distictaria. The species deustata Felder & Rogenhofer (1875 and arenosa, carnea, cinerea, squamosa and turbida described by Butler (1882 are junior synonyms of S. primata Walker (1862. The absence of the genitalia of the type and the lack of other specimens make us maintain to S. subornata as a valid species. The genus is distributed mainly in the Andean region, only S. subornata is in the Pampa province. Immature stages and bionomy of S. distictaria and S. primata are described, and an identification key, data on the distribution as well illustrations of the adult moths are provided

  11. Multicenter Study in Taiwan of the In Vitro Activities of Nemonoxacin, Tigecycline, Doripenem, and Other Antimicrobial Agents against Clinical Isolates of Various Nocardia Species▿

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    Lai, Chih-Cheng; Liu, Wei-Lun; Ko, Wen-Chien; Chen, Yen-Hsu; Tan, Hon-Ren; Huang, Yu-Tsung; Hsueh, Po-Ren

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the in vitro activities of nemonoxacin (a novel nonfluorinated quinolone), doripenem, tigecycline, and 16 other antimicrobial agents against Nocardia species. The MICs of the 19 agents against 151 clinical isolates of Nocardia species were determined by the broth microdilution method. The isolates were identified to the species level using 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis. The results showed that N. brasiliensis (n = 60; 40%) was the most common species, followed by N. cyriacigeorgica (n = 24; 16%), N. farcinica (n = 12; 8%), N. beijingensis (n = 9), N. otitidiscaviarum (n = 8), N. nova (n = 8), N. asiatica (n = 7), N. puris (n = 6), N. flavorosea (n = 5), N. abscessus (n = 3), N. carnea (2), and one each of N. alba, N. asteroides complex, N. rhamnosiphila, N. elegans, N. jinanensis, N. takedensis, and N. transvalensis. The MIC90s of the tested quinolones against the N. brasiliensis isolates were in the order nemonoxacin = gemifloxacin Nocardia isolates. Among the four tested carbapenems, imipenem had the lowest MIC90s. All of the clinical isolates of N. beijingensis, N. otitidiscaviarum, N. nova, and N. puris and more than half of the N. brasiliensis and N. cyriacigeorgica isolates were resistant to at least one antimicrobial agent. The results of this in vitro study suggest that nemonoxacin, linezolid, and tigecycline are promising treatment options for nocardiosis. Further investigation of their clinical role is warranted. PMID:21343461

  12. Multicenter study in Taiwan of the in vitro activities of nemonoxacin, tigecycline, doripenem, and other antimicrobial agents against clinical isolates of various Nocardia species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chih-Cheng; Liu, Wei-Lun; Ko, Wen-Chien; Chen, Yen-Hsu; Tan, Hon-Ren; Huang, Yu-Tsung; Hsueh, Po-Ren

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the in vitro activities of nemonoxacin (a novel nonfluorinated quinolone), doripenem, tigecycline, and 16 other antimicrobial agents against Nocardia species. The MICs of the 19 agents against 151 clinical isolates of Nocardia species were determined by the broth microdilution method. The isolates were identified to the species level using 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis. The results showed that N. brasiliensis (n=60; 40%) was the most common species, followed by N. cyriacigeorgica (n=24; 16%), N. farcinica (n=12; 8%), N. beijingensis (n=9), N. otitidiscaviarum (n=8), N. nova (n=8), N. asiatica (n=7), N. puris (n=6), N. flavorosea (n=5), N. abscessus (n=3), N. carnea (2), and one each of N. alba, N. asteroides complex, N. rhamnosiphila, N. elegans, N. jinanensis, N. takedensis, and N. transvalensis. The MIC90s of the tested quinolones against the N. brasiliensis isolates were in the order nemonoxacin=gemifloxacinNocardia isolates. Among the four tested carbapenems, imipenem had the lowest MIC90s. All of the clinical isolates of N. beijingensis, N. otitidiscaviarum, N. nova, and N. puris and more than half of the N. brasiliensis and N. cyriacigeorgica isolates were resistant to at least one antimicrobial agent. The results of this in vitro study suggest that nemonoxacin, linezolid, and tigecycline are promising treatment options for nocardiosis. Further investigation of their clinical role is warranted.

  13. Clinical and microbiological characteristics of infections caused by various Nocardia species in Taiwan: a multicenter study from 1998 to 2010.

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    Liu, W L; Lai, C C; Ko, W C; Chen, Y H; Tang, H J; Huang, Y L; Huang, Y T; Hsueh, P R

    2011-11-01

    This multicenter study in Taiwan investigated the clinical presentations of various Nocardia species infections based on 16S rRNA sequence analysis. Patients with nocardiosis in four large medical centers from 1998 to 2010 were included. A total of 100 preserved nonduplicate isolates causing human infection were identified as Nocardia species. Sequencing analysis of 16S rRNA confirmed that 35 of 36 N. asteroides isolates identified by conventional tests were non-asteroides Nocardia species, and that two of 50 N. brasiliensis isolates had also been initially misidentified. N. brasiliensis (50%) was the most common pathogen, followed by N. cyriacigeorgica (18%). In addition, several rare pathogens were identified, including N. asiatica, N. rhamnosiphila, N. abscessus, N. transvalensis, N. elegans, and N. carnea. Primary cutaneous infection was the most common presentation, noted in 55 (55%) patients, while pulmonary infection presented in 26 (26%) patients. The crude mortality rate was 6.7% (6/89), and was lowest for primary cutaneous infection (2.2%) and highest for disseminated disease and pulmonary infection (16.7%). In conclusion, N. brasiliensis and N. cyriacigeorgica were the most common pathogens causing nocardiosis in Taiwan. Molecular methods for identifying Nocardia to the species level are mandatory for better understanding the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of patients with nocardiosis.

  14. Incidence of Nocardia species in raw milk collected from different localities of Assiut City of Egypt

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    Nahed Mohamad Wahba

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to isolate and enumerate Nocardiae from the examined raw milk samples. 240 random milk samples were collected from cows, buffaloes, sheep and goats from different localities in Assiut city- Egypt. The incidences of Nocardia spp. were 47.8, 43.3, 53.3 and 66.7% with average counts of 3.8 x104, 4.5x104, 1.4x104 and 7.6x103/CFUmL of the examined samples, respectively. Pathogenicity of the isolates was also studied. N. otitidiscavarium and N. brasiliensis caused sudden death of rats while, N. farcinica and N. carnea strains were non pathogenic. Other species caused several lesions. It was concluded from the study that, Nocardia species are existed in retailed and fresh milk of different farm animals. Most of the isolated strains were highly pathogenic to rats. Consequently, preventive measures should be taken to protect consumers from being infected. [Vet. World 2011; 4(5.000: 201-204

  15. Subendocardial hemorrhages in a case of extrapercardial cardiac tamponade: A possible mechanism of appearance

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    Nikolić Slobodan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Subendocardial hemorrhages are grossly visible bleedings in the inner surface of the left ventricle, the interventricular septum, and the opposing papillary muscles and adjacent columnae carneae of the free wall of the ventricle. These are commonly seen in sudden profound hypotension either from severe blood loss from “shock” in the widest sense and, even more often, in combination with brain injuries. Case Outline. We present a case of a 38-year-old man, injured as a car driver in a frontal collision, who died c. 45 minutes after the accident. The autopsy revealed severe chest trauma, including multiple right-sided direct rib fractures with the torn parietal pleura and right-sided pneumothorax, several right lung ruptures, and a rupture of one of the lobar bronchi with pneumomediastinum, and prominent subcutaneous emphysema of the trunk, shoulders, neck and face. The patchy subendocardial hemorrhage of the left ventricle was observed. The cause of death is attributed to severe blunt force chest trauma. Conclusion. We postulate pneumomediastinum leading to extrapericardial tamponade as the underlying mechanism of this subendocardial hemorrhage. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 45005

  16. Floral diversity of Baanganga Wetland, Uttarakhand, India.

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    Babu, M. M.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Baanganga wetland, a 45 km long channel originates near Bishenpur and flows in Idrishpur-Chakheri forestblock of Haridwar district in Uttarakhand, India represents riverine ecosystem. The study area harbors many islands,varying in shape and size, which remains underwater during the rainy season and provide a good habitat to various planttaxa, birds (resident as well as migratory and animals mainly Swamp deer (Cervus duvauceli duvauceli, a criticallyendangered species and Hog deer (Axis procinus. To asses the status and distribution of flora, trips were conducted inthe intensive study area. The plants were classified based on their habit and their presence was visually observed. Atotal of 178 plant species were recorded, of which 40 species (hydrophytes were found in aquatic habitat, 122 specieson moist shores and 117 species in upland habitat. Phragmites karka, Polygonum barbatum, Ipomoea carnea, and Typhaelephantina were the most common species in all the habitats. The majority of plants (40 are from Indian orientalregion. The moist shore and upland habitats had maximum similarity (64 % followed by aquatic and moist shore (26% habitats. The status of flora and management of Baanganga wetland ecosystem has been discussed in the paper.

  17. Phytodiversity on fly ash deposits: evaluation of naturally colonized species for sustainable phytorestoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Vimal Chandra; Prakash, Prem; Bajpai, Omesh; Kumar, Akhilesh; Singh, Nandita

    2015-02-01

    Proliferation of fly ash (FA) deposits and its toxicity have become a global concern, which contaminate the ecosystems of our Earth. In this regard, identification of potential plant species for FA deposits' restoration is the main concern. Keeping this view in mind, the present study was conducted to identify potential plant species naturally growing on FA deposits for the restoration purposes. Six intensive surveys were made during 2010-2014 to collect naturally growing plant species during different seasons from two FA deposits in Unchahar of Raebareli district, Uttar Pradesh, India. The plant species having potential for FA deposits' restoration were identified on the basis of their ecological importance, dominance at the study sites and socio-economic importance for rural livelihoods. Typha latifolia L., Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers., Saccharum spontaneum L., Saccharum bengalense Retz. (syn. Saccharum munja), Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC., Ipomoea carnea Jacq. and Acacia nelotica L. are identified as potential plant species for FA deposits' restoration. Furthermore, the characteristics of naturally colonized species can be used for the phytorestoration during a revegetation plan of new FA deposits for multiple benefits.

  18. Parasitoids and Predators of Armored Scales in Some Orchards in Serbia

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    Draga Graora

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Five parasitoid and five predator species were registered on four armored scale species in apple, pear, peach and plum orchards at 16 sites in Serbia. The armored scales found were: Diaspidiotus perniciosus (Comstock, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targioni-Tozzetti, Epidiaspis leperii (Signoret and Lepidosaphes ulmi (L..The parasitoid species detected were: Encarsia (=Prospaltella perniciosi (Tow., Encarsia (=Prospaltella berlesei (How., Aphytis proclia (Wal., Aphytis mytilaspidis (Le Baron and Coccobius testaceus (Masi, all of the Aphelinidae family. The most important endoparasitoids were: Encarsia perniciosi on D. perniciosus, Encarsiaberlesei on P. pentagona and Coccobius testaceus on L. ulmi. Only one ectoparasitoid species, Aphytis mytilaspidis, was found on E. leperii, while Aphytis proclia was found as an ectoparasitoid on D. perniciosus, P. pentagona and L. ulmi. The predator species detected were: Chilocorus renipustulatus (Scriba, Chilocorus bipustulatus(L., Cybocephalus fodori Endrody – Younga, Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens and Deraeocoris ruber (L.. Cybocephalus fodori was for the first time found as a predator on E. leperii in Serbia.

  19. Investigation on effect of Populus alba stands distance on density of pests and their natural enemies population under poplar/alfalfa agroforestry system.

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    Khabir, Z H; Sadeghi, S E; Hanifeh, S; Eivazi, A

    2009-01-15

    This study was carried out in order to distinguish the effect of agroforestry system (combination of agriculture and forestry) on pests and natural enemy's population in poplar research station. Wood is one of the first substances that naturally was used for a long period of time. Forage is an important production of natural resources too. Some factors such as proper lands deficit, lack of economy, pest and disease attacks and faced production of these materials with serious challenges. Agroforestry is a method for decrease of the mentioned problems. The stands of poplar had have planted by complete randomized design with 4 treatments (stand distance) of poplar/alfalfa include 3x4, 3x6.7, 3x8, 3x10 m and 2 control treatments, alfalfa and poplar. The results showed that Chaitophorus populeti had the highest density in poplar and 3x10 m treatments. Monosteira unicostata is another insect pest that had most density in 3x10 m treatment. And alfalfa had high density of Chrysoperla carnea. The density of Coccinella septempunctata, were almost equal in all treatments.

  20. Transfer of Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab proteins from genetically engineered Bt cotton to herbivores and predators.

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    Meissle, Michael; Romeis, Jörg

    2017-04-04

    With the cultivation of Bt cotton, the produced insecticidal Cry proteins are ingested by herbivores and potentially transferred along the food chain to natural enemies, such as predators. In laboratory experiments with Bollgard II cotton, concentrations of Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab were measured in Lepidoptera larvae (Spodoptera littoralis, Heliothis virescens), plant bugs (Euschistus heros), aphids (Aphis gossypii), whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci), thrips (Thrips tabaci, Frankliniella occidentalis), and spider mites (Tetranychus urticae). Tritrophic experiments were conducted with caterpillars of S. littoralis as prey and larvae of ladybird beetles (Harmonia axyridis, Adalia bipunctata) and lacewings (Chrysoperla carnea) as predators. Immunological measurements (ELISA) indicated that herbivores feeding on Bt cotton contained 5%-50% of the Bt protein concentrations in leaves except whiteflies and aphids, which contained no or only traces of Bt protein, and spider mites, which contained 7 times more Cry1Ac than leaves. Similarly, predators contained 1%-30% of the Cry protein concentration in prey. For the nontarget risk assessment, this indicates that Bt protein concentrations decrease considerably from one trophic level to the next in the food web, except for spider mites that contain Bt protein concentrations higher than those measured in the leaves. Exposure of phloem sucking hemipterans is negligible. © 2017 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  1. Fear of predation alters clone-specific performance in phloem-feeding prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khudr, Mouhammad Shadi; Buzhdygan, Oksana Y; Petermann, Jana S; Wurst, Susanne

    2017-08-09

    Fear of predation has been shown to affect prey fitness and behaviour, however, to date little is known about the underlying genetics of responses to predator-associated risk. In an effort to fill this gap we exposed four naïve clones of green peach aphid (Myzus persicae), maintained on the model crop Brassica oleracea, to different types of cues from aphid lion (Chrysoperla carnea). The respective predation risks, we termed Fear Factors, were either lethal (consumption by predator), or non-lethal (non-consumptive predator-associated cues: plant-tethered predator cadavers and homogenised shoot-sprayed or soil-infused blends of predator remains). Our results show that the non-lethal risk cues differentially impeded prey reproductive success that varied by clone, suggesting genotype-specific response to fear of predation. Furthermore, whether plants were perceived as being safe or risky influenced prey responses as avoidance behaviour in prey depended on clone type. Our findings highlight that intra-specific genetic variation underlies prey responses to consumptive and non-consumptive effects of predation. This allows selection to act on anti-predator responses to fear of predation that may ramify and influence higher trophic levels in model agroecosystems.

  2. Biological control of citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Risso) using coccinellid predator, Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Muls.

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    Afifi, Amal I; El Arnaouty, Said A; Attia, Angel R; Abd Alla, Asmaa El-Metwally

    2010-03-01

    The coccinellid predator, Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) was used to control the citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Risso) (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) on the croton ornamental shrubs, Codiaeum variegatum L. at Giza governorate, Egypt. Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant, 50 adults/Croton shrub, were released once on October 27, 2008 in the open field. Obtained results indicated that percentages of reduction among the egg masses, nymphs and adults of P. citri, one month after releasing the predator reached to 41.5, 42.3 and 57.5%, respectively. Two months later, the corresponding rates were 80.6, 86.5 and 91.5%. Finally, after three months of releasing the predator, reduction rates reached to 100% for all stages of the pest. The associated natural enemies in the field were consisted of three predaceous insects and one parasitic species. The insect predators secured were the hemerobiid predator, Sympherobius amicus Navas; the coccinellid predator, Scymnus syriacus (Mars.) and the chrysopid predator, Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens). The parasitic species was the encyrtid, Coccidoxenoides peregrinus (Timberlake). The aforementioned natural enemies were found feeding on the citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri infesting croton shrubs. In the second season, 2009 there is no mealybug, P. citri individuals were found on the croton shrubs.

  3. Ostrinia nubilalis parasitism and the field abundance of non-target insects in transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis corn (Zea mays).

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    Bourguet, Denis; Chaufaux, Josette; Micoud, Annie; Delos, Marc; Naibo, Bernard; Bombarde, Fany; Marque, Gilles; Eychenne, Nathalie; Pagliari, Carine

    2002-10-01

    In this study, we evaluated in field trials the effects on non-target species, of transgenic corn producing the Cry1Ab toxin of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). In 1998, we collected Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner) larvae from transgenic Bt corn (Novartis Hybrid 176) and non-Bt corn at four geographical sites. We found a significant variation in parasitism by the tachinids Lydella thompsoni (Herting) and Pseudoperichaeta nigrolineata (Walker) among sites, and more parasitism in non-Bt than in Bt fields. The Bt effect did not vary significantly among fields. In 1999, we performed a field experiment at two sites, comparing the temporal abundance of non-target arthropods in Bt corn (Monsanto Hybrid MON810) and non-Bt corn. The non-target insects studied included the aphids Metopolophium dirhodum (Walker), Rhopalosiphum padi (L.) and Sitobion avenae (F.), the bug Orius insidiosus (Say), the syrphid Syrphus corollae (Meigen), the ladybird Coccinella septempunctata (L.), the lacewing Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens), thrips and hymenopteran parasitoids. For all species but one, the number of individuals varied greatly over the season but did not differ between the types of corn. The only exception was thrips which, at one site, was significantly more abundant in Bt corn than in non-Bt corn. However this difference did not remain significant when we took the multiple tests into account. Implications for pest resistance management, population dynamics and risk assessment are discussed.

  4. Oviposition responses to patch quality in the larch ladybird Aphidecta obliterata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae): effects of aphid density, and con- and heterospecific tracks.

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    Oliver, T H; Timms, J E L; Taylor, A; Leather, S R

    2006-02-01

    The effects and persistence of oviposition-deterring semiochemical cues from conspecific and heterospecific larval tracks on the oviposition rate of Aphidecta obliterata (Linnaeus) females were investigated. In addition, the effects of varying aphid prey density were considered and also whether any resulting response originated from differential nutritional status of females and/or due to aphid odour stimuli. The existence of oviposition responses to conspecific egg chemicals was also considered. Gravid A. obliterata females were deterred from oviposition by conspecific larval tracks and the effect was density dependent. Females actively avoided searching in these contaminated areas. Tracks induced a significant effect on oviposition for up to three days. Heterospecific tracks of the coccinellid Adalia bipunctata (Fabricius) or the chrysopid Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) did not induce any oviposition response in A. obliterata females. Increasing aphid density induced increased oviposition rate in A. obliterata females. Nutritional status of females was an important factor in the relationship between aphid density and oviposition rate, but aphid associated cues (odours) were not. There was an inhibitory effect of extracts of conspecific egg-surface chemicals on oviposition by A. obliterata females. In the field, cannibalism, competition and limited food availability represent the major threats to egg and larval survival. Patch quality assessment mechanisms enable females to lay eggs at sites where offspring survival is maximized. Oviposition-deterring semiochemicals tend to promote more even distribution of predators over prey patches.

  5. Sequencing and structural homology modeling of the ecdysone receptor in two chrysopids used in biological control of pest insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zotti, Moises João; Christiaens, Olivier; Rougé, Pierre; Grutzmacher, Anderson Dionei; Zimmer, Paulo Dejalma; Smagghe, Guy

    2012-04-01

    In insects, the process of molting and metamorphosis are mainly regulated by a steroidal hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) and its analogs (ecdysteroids) that specifically bind to the ecdysone receptor ligand-binding domain (EcR-LBD). Currently, several synthetic non-steroidal ecdysone agonists, including tebufenozide, are commercially available as insecticides. Tebufenozide exerts its activity by binding to the 20E-binding site and thus activating EcR permanently. It appears that subtle differences in the architecture among LBDs may underpin the differential binding affinity of tebufenozide across taxonomic orders. In brief, first we demonstrated the harmlessness of tebufenozide towards Chrysoperla externa (Ce). Then, a molecular analysis of EcR-LBD of two neuropteran insects Chrysoperla carnea and Ce was presented. Finally, we constructed a chrysopid in silico homology model docked ponasterone A (PonA) and tebufenozide into the binding pocket and analyzed the amino acids indentified as critical for binding to PonA and tebufenozide. Due to a restrict extent in the cavity at the bottom of the ecdysone-binding pocket a steric clash occurred upon docking of tebufenozide. The absence of harm biological effect and the docking results suggest that tebufenozide is prevented of any deleterious effects on chrysopids.

  6. Stacked Bt maize and arthropod predators: exposure to insecticidal Cry proteins and potential hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svobodová, Zdeňka; Shu, Yinghua; Skoková Habuštová, Oxana; Romeis, Jörg; Meissle, Michael

    2017-07-26

    Genetically engineered (GE) crops with stacked insecticidal traits expose arthropods to multiple Cry proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). One concern is that the different Cry proteins may interact and lead to unexpected adverse effects on non-target species. Bi- and tri-trophic experiments with SmartStax maize, herbivorous spider mites ( Tetranychus urticae ), aphids ( Rhopalosiphum padi ), predatory spiders ( Phylloneta impressa ), ladybeetles ( Harmonia axyridis ) and lacewings ( Chrysoperla carnea ) were conducted. Cry1A.105, Cry1F, Cry3Bb1 and Cry34Ab1 moved in a similar pattern through the arthropod food chain. By contrast, Cry2Ab2 had highest concentrations in maize leaves, but lowest in pollen, and lowest acquisition rates by herbivores and predators. While spider mites contained Cry protein concentrations exceeding the values in leaves (except Cry2Ab2), aphids contained only traces of some Cry protein. Predators contained lower concentrations than their food. Among the different predators, ladybeetle larvae showed higher concentrations than lacewing larvae and juvenile spiders. Acute effects of SmartStax maize on predator survival, development and weight were not observed. The study thus provides evidence that the different Cry proteins do not interact in a way that poses a risk to the investigated non-target species under controlled laboratory conditions. © 2017 The Author(s).

  7. Application of ecohydraulic bank protection model to improve river bank stability and biotic community in Surabaya River

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    Daru Setyo Rini

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Ecohydraulic river bank protection design was developed as ECO-RIPRAP model and has been applied along 100 meter length to restore accelerated erosion sites in Surabaya River at Wringinanom and Klubuk. The model combined re-profiled and re-vegetated bank with rock toe reinforcement and addition of log groynes at 10 meter length interval. Various native plant species were planted on bank slopes, including water plants Ipomoea aquatica and Pistia stratiotes, grasses and shrubs Ipomoea carnea, Pluchea indica, Saccharum spontaneum, Arundo donax, and native tree species Ficus glomerata, Bambusa arundinacea, Dendrocalamus asper, Bambusa vulgaris, Ficus benjamina, Dillenia indica, Psidium guajava, Arthocarpus camansi, Arthocarpus elasticus, Hibiscus mutabilis, Nauclea sp., Inocarpus edulis, and Syzygium polyanthum. The river bank morphology after ECO-RIPRAP application showed alteration from erosion to sedimentation due to rock toe enforcement, log groynes protection, and increase of plant cover on littoral banks that decreased near bank velocity. The macro-invertebrate community shown increase of taxa richness, EPT richness, %EPT and %Atyidae, but decrease of %Chironomidae at restored sites. The fish community shown increase of taxa richness, increase of abundance by 54.2%, increase of Pangasius micronemus abundance by 25.6%, and increase of Hemibragus nemurus abundance by 6.3 % at restored reach. Rare fish species thrive back at restored area, namely Oxyeleotris marmorata, Mastacembelus unicolor and Hampala macrolepidota.

  8. Inner ventricular structures and valves of the heart in white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdoğan, Serkan; Lima, Martin; Pérez, William

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we describe the internal structures of both ventricles and the valvular apparatus of the heart of the white rhino. In the right of the heart, three papillary muscles were found in septal and marginal walls and m. papillaris magnus was the biggest. There was only one m. papillaris parvus in the right ventricle. The right atrioventricular valve was tricuspid, and the parietal cusp was longest. In the left of the heart, two papillary muscles were found on the septal wall and the subauricular was the biggest. The left atrioventricular valve was bicuspid and the parietal cusp was longest. There were no nodules in the valves of the pulmonary trunk and aorta, and the semilunar valves had many fibrous folds and transparent parts. Within the cardiac skeleton there was a cartilago cordis which occupied a small part of the right fibrous trigone. While the right ventricle included only one septomarginal trabecula, there were many trabeculae in the left ventricle. In both ventricles, the endocardium was thin and the subendocardial network was visible, also their continuation with the septomarginal trabeculae. We also found many trabeculae carneae in the dorsal part of the ventricles.

  9. The effect of predators and hymenopterous parasites on population fluctuations of alfalfa aphids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassoulian, Gh Reza

    2005-01-01

    Among alfalfa pests in Iran three aphid species, green alfalfa aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris spotted alfalfa aphid Therioaphis trifolii forma maculata Buckton and blue alfalfa aphid, Acyrthosiphon kondoi Shinji are important pests. The green alfalfa aphid can be observed all along the growing season particularly from late May to mid June at Karaj climate conditions. During this period, the mean monthly maximum temperature and relative humidity were about 28 degrees C and 60-65% respectively. This aphid overwinters as nymph and viviparous female. Sexual forms and eggs could not be seen under field conditions. Spotted alfalfa aphid, Therioaphis trifolii fonna maculata is the most prevalent aphid in summer time, when the mean monthly maximum temperature and relative humidity are about 33-34 degrees C and 44-58% respectively. Sexual individuals have been observed in the laboratory but not in the field. Among predators (Coccinella septempunctata, Adonia variegata, Syrphus cinctus, S. corolae, S. grassulariae, Chrysoperla carnea and Nabis capsiformis) one coccinellid species, C. septempunctata, had greatest impact on fluctuations of population. Among hymenopterous parasitoids two species have been collected from alfalfa field they were Aphidius ervi and Praon palitans. These parasitoids destroyed a good percent of aphids and statistically proved to lower aphid populations significantly.

  10. Selection of native species from Caatinga (dry forest to recovery of mesquite invaded areas

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    Juliano Ricardo Fabricante

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the sociability of indigenous species from Caatinga with exotic invasive Prosopis sp. (mesquite to be used in recovery projects of invaded areas. Twenty plots of 100 m² were installed, where  all woody species presenting height ≥ 15.0 cm had the number of individuals recorded. To evaluate the association of native species with mesquite we used the association index. In order to study the correlation of Prosopis sp. with other taxa, we used Pearson coefficient and the categorization performance of native species was calculate by arithmetic mean of the rate of association sum and Pearson coefficient. We sampled 28 species associated with mesquite, 14 of which presented the inclusion criteria of presenting at least 5 individuals and were present in at least two sample plots. The species with the best performance was Lantana camara (0.62 - very good, followed by Herissantia crispa (0.41 - good, Cynophalla hastata (0.32 - average, Ipomoea carnea and Celtis iguanaea (0.27 - average and Mimosa pseudosepiaria (0.2 - average. Considering the obtained results and the ecological attributes of species, it is concluded that the species listed in this study are the most suitable to be planted in areas invaded by Prosopis sp.

  11. Compatibility of organic farming treatments against Monosteira unicostata with non-target arthropod fauna of almond trees canopy

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    Ismael Sánchez-Ramos

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Field trials had shown that 1-2 applications of kaolin and potassium salts of fatty acids combined with thyme essential oil (PSTEO reduced the abundance of the lace bug Monosteira unicostata (Mulsant & Rey (Hemiptera: Tingidae, an important pest of almond trees in the Mediterranean region. These products could be useful for the control of this pest in organic production of almonds, but higher number of applications could be necessary. However, the possible detrimental effects on the almond orchard ecosystem should be evaluated. In the present work, the effects observed on the non-target arthropod fauna of the almond trees canopy in those field assays are shown. First, a comprehensive report of the non-target arthropod fauna of the almond tree is provided. Regarding natural enemies, most of the predatory arthropods captured were spiders belonging to different families like Salticidae, Thomisidae, Philodromidae, Theridiidae, Araneidae or Oxyopidae. Other predatory families that appeared in significant numbers were Chrysopidae, Anthocoridae, Aeolothripidae, Coccinellidae, Phytoseiidae, Erythraeidae or Forficulidae. Among parasitoids, the most abundant families were Eulophidae, Scelionidae and Dryinidae. Kaolin reduced the abundance of natural enemies and other non-target arthropods as well as their diversity and number of species. On the contrary, PSTEO only produced a slight reduction in the number of natural enemies, whereas no effect was found on the diversity and species richness. These effects were observed despite the reduced number of applications, so greater effect is expected if its frequency is increased in order to achieve an efficient control of M. unicostata.

  12. Diversidade de pulgões e de seus parasitóides e predadores na cultura da alfafa

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    MENDES SIMONE

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a diversidade de pulgões, seus predadores e parasitóides, e a influência de fatores climáticos nas suas populações. Foram realizadas coletas semanais no período de abril/1995 a março/1996, no campo de alfafa da Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA, em Lavras, MG. As espécies de pulgões coletadas foram Therioaphis trifolii (Monel f. maculata, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris, A. kondoi Shinji e Aphis craccivora Kock, presentes na cultura durante todo o período de estudo, com picos populacionais em novembro/1995, julho/1995, dezembro/1995 e abril/1996, respectivamente. Foram amostrados insetos predadores das famílias Coccinellidae, Syrphidae, Anthocoridae, Geocoridae e Chrysopidae, tendo as duas últimas ocorrência esporádica. Espécies da família Coccinellidae ocorreram durante todo o período amostral, apresentando o pico populacional no final de dezembro/1995, com precipitação de 20 mm e temperatura de 22,6ºC. A família Syrphidae alcançou maiores números em abril, à precipitação de 53 mm e temperatura de 21ºC. A família Anthocoridae não se manteve por todo o período amostral, porém um pico populacional ocorreu no final de dezembro nas mesmas condições que aquele apresentado pela família Coccinellidae. Os parasitóides da família Aphididae alcançaram pico em junho/1995, à temperatura de 16ºC.

  13. The role of ecological infrastructure on beneficial arthropods in vineyards

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    Gabrijela Kuštera

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Weeds and non-cultivated plants have a great impact on abundance and diversity of beneficial arthropods in agriculture. The main aim of this work was to study the influence of the ecological infrastructure (meadows and weedy margins on the arthropod composition in vineyard surrounding landscape. Research was carried out from May to October during three years. Sampling took place in the ecological infrastructure of three differently managed vineyards (organic, integrated and extensive. Three zones were chosen in each vineyard (3 m, 10 m, and 30 m from the edge of the vineyard. Samples were taken using a standardised sweep net method. In total, we captured 6032 spiders and 1309 insects belonging to 4 orders and 10 families. Arthropod fauna was numerically dominated by Aranea (82.1%; among insects, Coleoptera was the most abundant taxonomic group (10.6%; Neuroptera showed the lowest value (0.88%. Significant differences were found between sites and zones. Organic vineyard showed the highest abundance of arthropods (92.41% were spiders and in the integrated vineyard there was a 23% of insects. Both the highest abundance of arthropods and the highest Shannon Index value (2.46 was found 3 m away from the edge of the vineyard. Results showed that spiders were the dominant arthropods and ladybugs the dominant insects. Weedy strips near the edge of the vineyard contained a high number of insects and spiders. Our results support the importance of weedy margins in enhancing the population of arthropods as well as in biodiversity promotion. Well-managed field margins could play important role in biological control of vineyard pests.

  14. Future rainfall variations reduce abundances of aboveground arthropods in model agroecosystems with different soil types

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    Johann G. Zaller

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Climate change scenarios for Central Europe predict less frequent but heavier rainfalls and longer drought periods during the growing season. This is expected to alter arthropods in agroecosystems that are important as biocontrol agents, herbivores or food for predators (e.g. farmland birds. In a lysimeter facility (totally 18 3-m2-plots, we experimentally tested the effects of long-term past vs. prognosticated future rainfall variations (15% increased rainfall per event, 25% more dry days according to regionalized climate change models from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC on aboveground arthropods in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cultivated at three different soil types (calcaric phaeozem, calcic chernozem and gleyic phaeozem. Soil types were established 17 years and rainfall treatments one month before arthropod sampling; treatments were fully crossed and replicated three times. Aboveground arthropods were assessed by suction sampling, their mean abundances (± SD differed between April, May and June with 20 ± 3 m-2, 90 ± 35 m-2 and 289 ± 93 individuals m-2, respectively. Averaged across sampling dates, future rainfall reduced the abundance of spiders (Araneae, -47%, cicadas and leafhoppers (Auchenorrhyncha, -39%, beetles (Coleoptera, -52%, ground beetles (Carabidae, -41%, leaf beetles (Chrysomelidae, -64%, spring tails (Collembola, -58%, flies (Diptera, -73% and lacewings (Neuroptera, -73% but increased the abundance of snails (Gastropoda, +69%. Across sampling dates, soil types had no effects on arthropod abundances. Arthropod diversity was neither affected by rainfall nor soil types. Arthropod abundance was positively correlated with weed biomass for almost all taxa; abundance of Hemiptera and of total arthropods was positively correlated with weed density. These detrimental effects of future rainfall varieties on arthropod taxa in wheat fields can potentially alter arthropod-associated agroecosystem services.

  15. The role of ecological infrastructure on beneficial arthropods in vineyards

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    Franin, K.; Barić, B.; Kuštera, G.

    2016-11-01

    Weeds and non-cultivated plants have a great impact on abundance and diversity of beneficial arthropods in agriculture. The main aim of this work was to study the influence of the ecological infrastructure (meadows and weedy margins) on the arthropod composition in vineyard surrounding landscape. Research was carried out from May to October during three years. Sampling took place in the ecological infrastructure of three differently managed vineyards (organic, integrated and extensive). Three zones were chosen in each vineyard (3 m, 10 m, and 30 m from the edge of the vineyard). Samples were taken using a standardised sweep net method. In total, we captured 6032 spiders and 1309 insects belonging to 4 orders and 10 families. Arthropod fauna was numerically dominated by Aranea (82.1%); among insects, Coleoptera was the most abundant taxonomic group (10.6%); Neuroptera showed the lowest value (0.88%). Significant differences were found between sites and zones. Organic vineyard showed the highest abundance of arthropods (92.41% were spiders) and in the integrated vineyard there was a 23% of insects. Both the highest abundance of arthropods and the highest Shannon Index value (2.46) was found 3 m away from the edge of the vineyard. Results showed that spiders were the dominant arthropods and ladybugs the dominant insects. Weedy strips near the edge of the vineyard contained a high number of insects and spiders. Our results support the importance of weedy margins in enhancing the population of arthropods as well as in biodiversity promotion. Well-managed field margins could play important role in biological control of vineyard pests. (Author)

  16. Variaţia compoziţiei chimice a cărnii de iepure de casă în funcţie de vârstă

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    MARDARI Tatiana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available According to its chemical composition, rabbit meat is superior to beef, mutton and pork, as it is relatively low in fat and contains more protein. This paper presents the results of a study on the variation of chemical composition of rabbit meat slaughtered at the age of 2, 4 and 7 months. The initial humidity of the meat is on average 68.28 %, while the hygroscopic humidity in the rabbits slaughtered at the age of 2 months constitutes 3.17 % and it is at the highest level (compared to 2.95 % at the age of 7 months. The dry matter constitutes on average 26.46 % and the organic one - 25.46 %. The highest values of these indices were recorded at the age of 7 months- 31.76 % (dry matter and 31.03 % (organic matter. The highest quality of rabbit meat could be obtained from the age of 2 to 4 months when the ratio between water and dry matter constitutes 3.31/1 and 3,09/1.3.31/1 respectively. Rezumat. După compoziţia chimică, carnea de iepure este superioară cărnii de vită, precum şi celei de oaie sau de porc, conţine puţină grăsime şi relativ mai multă proteină. În acest articol sunt prezentate rezultatele unui studiu privind variaţia compoziţiei chimice a cărnii de iepuri sacrificaţi la vârsta de 2, 4 şi 7 luni. Umiditatea iniţială din carne constituie, în medie, 68,28 %, umiditatea higroscopică la iepurii sacrificaţi la 2 luni constituie 3,17 % şi este la cel mai înalt nivel (faţă de 2,95 % la 7 luni de viaţă. Substanţa uscată constituie, în medie, 26,46 %, iar cea organică – 25,46 %, cele mai înalte valori ale acestor indici înregistrându-se la vârsta de 7 luni – 31,76 % (substanţa uscată şi 31,03 % (substanţa organică. Carnea de iepure este de cea mai bună calitate la vârsta de la 2 la 4 luni, când raportul dintre apă şi substanţa uscată constituie 3,31/1 şi respectiv 3,09/1.

  17. Intoxicação por plantas que contêm swainsonina no Brasil Poisoning by swainsonine-containing plants in Brazil

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    Carlos Alberto de Oliveira Júnior

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, as plantas que contêm swainsonina compõem um grupo muito importante de plantas tóxicas, incluindo Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa, Ipomoea riedelii, Ipomoea sericophyla, Ipomoea verbascoidea, Turbina cordata e Sida carpinifolia, que causam armazenamento de oligossacarídeos em caprinos e, com menor frequência, em bovinos, equinos, ovinos e cervídeos. Uma característica das plantas que contêm swainsonina é que os animais que iniciam a ingerir essas plantas desenvolvem o hábito de ingeri-las compulsivamente e, por facilitação social, induzem a outros animais da mesma espécie a ingeri-las. Os animais intoxicados apresentam pêlos arrepiados, perda de peso e sinais nervosos associados, principalmente, a lesões cerebelares e do tronco encefálico. Infertilidade, abortos, nascimento de animais fracos e maior susceptibilidade aos parasitas gastrintestinais são descritas tanto em casos agudos quanto em animais que deixaram de ingerir a planta e permanecem com sinais, mesmo que discretos. Atrofia cerebelar pode ser observada macroscopicamente em animais cronicamente afetados. As alterações histológicas caracterizam-se por vacuolização de neurônios, células epiteliais do pâncreas e dos túbulos renais, células foliculares da tireoide, hepatócitos e macrófagos de órgãos linfóides. Para o controle da intoxicação, os animais devem ser retirados imediatamente do local onde ocorre a planta. A única medida profilática consiste em evitar a ingestão da planta, eliminando a mesma das áreas infectadas ou mediante aversão alimentar condicionada.Swainsonine-containing plants comprise a very important group of toxic plants in Brazil, including Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa, Ipomoea riedelii, Ipomoea sericophyla, Ipomoea verbascoidea, Turbina cordata and Sida carpinifolia, which cause a glycoprotein storage disease in goats, and with less frequency in cattle, horses, sheep, and deer. A characteristic of swainsonine

  18. Doenças do sistema nervoso central em caprinos e ovinos no semi-árido Diseases of the central nervous system in goats and sheep of the semiarid

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    Karla M.R. Guedes

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento das doenças dos animais domésticos, nas diferentes regiões do Brasil é importante para determinar formas eficientes de profilaxia e controle. Este trabalho tem como objetivo descrever a epidemiologia, sinais clínicos e patologia das enfermidades do sistema nervoso central (SNC de caprinos e ovinos, que ocorreram de janeiro de 2000 a maio de 2006 no semi-árido, principalmente do estado da Paraíba. Durante o período, 365 casos ou surtos foram diagnosticados em caprinos e 270 em ovinos. Desses, 63 (9,92% eram doenças do SNC, sendo 34 (9,31% em caprinos e 29 (10,7% em ovinos. As principais enfermidades foram abscessos (19,04%, tétano (15,9%, raiva (9,52% intoxicação por Ipomoea asarifolia (7,93%, listeriose (6,34%, trauma (6,34%, polioencefalomalacia (4,77%, toxemia da prenhez (3,17%, ataxia enzoótica (3,17% e meningite (3,17%. Outras doenças diagnosticadas numa única oportunidade (1,59% foram intoxicações por Crotalaria retusa, Ipomoea carnea, Ipomoea sericophylla e Prosopis juliflora, otite com encefalite, malformação, linfossarcoma linfoblástico, meduloblastoma e necrose simétrica focal. Em 6,34% dos casos o diagnóstico foi inconclusivo.The knowledge of the diseases of domestic animals in the different Brazilian regions is important to determine measures for their control and prevention. The objective of this paper is to report the epidemiology, clinical signs and pathology of the diseases of the central nervous system (CNS of goats and sheep in the Brazilian semiarid, mainly in the state of Paraíba, diagnosed at the Veterinary Hospital of the Federal University of Campina Grande, from January 2000 to May 2006. During the period, 365 cases or outbreaks were diagnosed in goats and 270 in sheep. From these, 63 (9.92% were of diseases of the CNS, being 34 (9.31% in goats and 29 (10.7% in sheep. The main diseases were abscesses (19.04%, tetanus (15.9%, rabies (9.52% poisoning by Ipomoea asarifolia (7

  19. Plant species composition alters the sign and strength of an emergent multi-predator effect by modifying predator foraging behaviour.

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    Andrew Wilby

    Full Text Available The prediction of pest-control functioning by multi-predator communities is hindered by the non-additive nature of species functioning. Such non-additivity, commonly termed an emergent multi-predator effect, is known to be affected by elements of the ecological context, such as the structure and composition of vegetation, in addition to the traits of the predators themselves. Here we report mesocosm experiments designed to test the influence of plant density and species composition (wheat monoculture or wheat and faba bean polyculture on the emergence of multi-predator effects between Adalia bipunctata and Chrysoperla carnea, in their suppression of populations of the aphid Metopolophium dirhodum. The mesocosm experiments were followed by a series of behavioural observations designed to identify how interactions among predators are modified by plant species composition and whether these effects are consistent with the observed influence of plant species composition on aphid population suppression. Although plant density was shown to have no influence on the multi-predator effect on aphid population growth, plant composition had a marked effect. In wheat monoculture, Adalia and Chrysoperla mixed treatments caused greater suppression of M. dirhodum populations than expected. However this positive emergent effect was reversed to a negative multi-predator effect in wheat and faba bean polyculture. The behavioural observations revealed that although dominant individuals did not respond to the presence of faba bean plants, the behaviour of sub-dominants was affected markedly, consistent with their foraging for extra-floral nectar produced by the faba bean. This interaction between plant composition and predator community composition on the foraging behaviour of sub-dominants is thought to underlie the observed effect of plant composition on the multi-predator effect. Thus, the emergence of multi-predator effects is shown to be strongly influenced by

  20. Shortcomings of of the commercial MALDI-TOF MS database and use of MLSA as an arbiter in the identification of Nocardia species

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    Gema eCarrasco

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Nocardia species are difficult to identify, a consequence of the ever increasing number of species known and their homogeneous genetic characteristics. 16S rRNA analysis has been the gold standard for identifying these organisms, but proteomic techniques such as matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF MS and housekeeping gene analysis, have also been explored. One hundred high (n=25, intermediate (n=20 and low (n=55 prevalence (for Spain Nocardia strains belonging to 30 species were identified via 16S rRNA and MALDI-TOF MS analysis. The manufacturer-provided database MALDI Biotyper library v4.0 (5.627 entries, Bruker Daltonik was employed. In the high prevalence group (N. farcinica, N. abscessus, N. cyriacigeorgica and N. nova, the 16S rRNA and MALDI-TOF MS methods provided the same identification for 76% of the strains examined. For the intermediate prevalence group (N. brasiliensis, N. carnea, N. otitidiscaviarum and N. transvalensis complex, this figure fell to 45%. In the low-prevalence group (22 species, these two methods were concordant only in six strains at the species level. Tetra-gene multi-locus sequencing analysis (MLSA involving the concatemer gyrB-16S rRNA-hsp65-secA1 was used to arbitrate between discrepant identifications (n=67. Overall, the MLSA confirmed the results provided at species level by 16S rRNA analysis in 34.3% of discrepancies, and those provided by MALDI-TOF MS in 13.4%. MALDI-TOF MS could be a strong candidate for the identification of Nocardia species, but only if its reference spectrum database improves, especially with respect to unusual, recently described species and species included in the described Nocardia complexes.

  1. Shortcomings of the Commercial MALDI-TOF MS Database and Use of MLSA as an Arbiter in the Identification of Nocardia Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Gema; de Dios Caballero, Juan; Garrido, Noelia; Valdezate, Sylvia; Cantón, Rafael; Sáez-Nieto, Juan A.

    2016-01-01

    Nocardia species are difficult to identify, a consequence of the ever increasing number of species known and their homogeneous genetic characteristics. 16S rRNA analysis has been the gold standard for identifying these organisms, but proteomic techniques such as matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF MS) and housekeeping gene analysis, have also been explored. One hundred high (n = 25), intermediate (n = 20), and low (n = 55) prevalence (for Spain) Nocardia strains belonging to 30 species were identified via 16S rRNA and MALDI-TOF MS analysis. The manufacturer-provided database MALDI Biotyper library v4.0 (5.627 entries, Bruker Daltonik) was employed. In the high prevalence group (Nocardia farcinica, N. abscessus, N. cyriacigeorgica and N. nova), the 16S rRNA and MALDI-TOF MS methods provided the same identification for 76% of the strains examined. For the intermediate prevalence group (N. brasiliensis, N. carnea, N. otitidiscaviarum and N. transvalensis complex), this figure fell to 45%. In the low-prevalence group (22 species), these two methods were concordant only in six strains at the species level. Tetra-gene multi-locus sequencing analysis (MLSA) involving the concatemer gyrB-16S rRNA-hsp65-secA1 was used to arbitrate between discrepant identifications (n = 67). Overall, the MLSA confirmed the results provided at species level by 16S rRNA analysis in 34.3% of discrepancies, and those provided by MALDI-TOF MS in 13.4%. MALDI-TOF MS could be a strong candidate for the identification of Nocardia species, but only if its reference spectrum database improves, especially with respect to unusual, recently described species and species included in the described Nocardia complexes. PMID:27148228

  2. Epidemiology and susceptibility to antimicrobial agents of the main Nocardia species in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdezate, Sylvia; Garrido, Noelia; Carrasco, Gema; Medina-Pascual, María J; Villalón, Pilar; Navarro, Ana M; Saéz-Nieto, Juan A

    2017-03-01

    The aims of this study were to explore the clinical distribution, by species, of the genus Nocardia and to assess the antimicrobial susceptibilities of the 10 most prevalent species identified in Spain. Over a 10 year period (2005-14), 1119 Nocardia strains were molecularly identified and subjected to the Etest. The distribution and resistance trends over the sub-periods 2005-09 and 2010-14 were also examined. Of the strains examined, 82.9% belonged to the following species: Nocardia cyriacigeorgica (25.3%), Nocardia nova (15.0%), Nocardia abscessus (12.7%), Nocardia farcinica (11.4%), Nocardia carnea (4.3%), Nocardia brasiliensis (3.5%), Nocardia otitidiscaviarum (3.1%), Nocardia flavorosea (2.6%), Nocardia rhamnosiphila (2.6%) and Nocardia transvalensis (2.4%). Their prevalence values were similar during 2005-09 and 2010-14, except for those of N. abscessus , N. farcinica and N. transvalensis , which fell significantly in the second sub-period ( P ≤  0.05). The major location of isolation was the respiratory tract (∼86%). Half (13/27) of all strains from the CNS were N. farcinica . Significant differences in MIC results were recorded for some species between the two sub-periods. According to the CLSI's breakpoints, low resistance rates (≤15%) were recorded for seven species with respect to cefotaxime, imipenem and tobramycin; five species showed similar rates with respect to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Linezolid and amikacin were the most frequently active agents. The accurate identification of the infecting species and the determination of its susceptibility to antimicrobial agents, given the large number of strains with atypical patterns, are crucial if patients with nocardiosis are to be successfully treated. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) Bioavailability Regulates Angiogenesis and Intestinal Stem and Progenitor Cell Proliferation during Postnatal Small Intestinal Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlieve, Christopher R; Mojica, Salvador Garcia; Holoyda, Kathleen A; Hou, Xiaogang; Fowler, Kathryn L; Grikscheit, Tracy C

    2016-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a highly conserved, master regulatory molecule required for endothelial cell proliferation, organization, migration and branching morphogenesis. Podocoryne carnea and drosophila, which lack endothelial cells and a vascular system, express VEGF homologs, indicating potential roles beyond angiogenesis and vasculogenesis. The role of VEGF in the development and homeostasis of the postnatal small intestine is unknown. We hypothesized regulating VEGF bioavailability in the postnatal small intestine would exhibit effects beyond the vasculature and influence epithelial cell stem/progenitor populations. VEGF mutant mice were created that overexpressed VEGF in the brush border of epithelium via the villin promotor following doxycycline treatment. To decrease VEGF bioavailability, sFlt-1 mutant mice were generated that overexpressed the soluble VEGF receptor sFlt-1 upon doxycycline administration in the intestinal epithelium. Mice were analyzed after 21 days of doxycycline administration. Increased VEGF expression was confirmed by RT-qPCR and ELISA in the intestine of the VEGF mutants compared to littermates. The VEGF mutant duodenum demonstrated increased angiogenesis and vascular leak as compared to littermate controls. The VEGF mutant duodenum revealed taller villi and increased Ki-67-positive cells in the transit-amplifying zone with reduced Lgr5 expression. The duodenum of sFlt-1 mutants revealed shorter villi and longer crypts with reduced proliferation in the transit-amplifying zone, reduced expression of Dll1, Bmp4 and VE-cadherin, and increased expression of Sox9 and EphB2. Manipulating VEGF bioavailability leads to profound effects on not only the intestinal vasculature, but epithelial stem and progenitor cells in the intestinal crypt. Elucidation of the crosstalk between VEGF signaling in the vasculature, mesenchyme and epithelial stem/progenitor cell populations may direct future cell therapies for intestinal

  4. Role of natural enemies, climatic factors and performance genotypes on regulating pests and establishment of canola in Egypt

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    Atef Mahmoud Mohamed Sayed

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Screening twenty available advance lines of canola plant based on population density of the recorded pests throughout 2011 and 2012 seasons at Ismailia Agricultural Research Station Farm, Egypt was studied. The cabbage aphids; Brevicoryne brassicae, thrips; Thrips tabaci, diamondback moth; Plutella xylostella, leafminer; Liriomyza sp., whitefly; Bemisia tabaci and two-spotted spider mite; Tetranychus urticae were surveyed pests in canola. Six predacious species related pests; Coccinella septempunctata, Coccinella undecimpunctata, Stethorus gilvifrons, Chrysoperla carnea, Syrphus corollae and Orius spp. Diaretiella rapae, Cotesia plutellae and Diadegma inslare were the most common parasitoids emerging from the collected samples. The analysis of variance revealed significant variation among dates of observations, lines and in their interaction for all surveyed pests and their natural enemies. The percentage of explained variance of abiotic factors (minimum–maximum temperatures and relative humidity and biotic factors (predators and parasitism percentages altogether in the population densities of B. brassica, T. tabaci, P. xylostella, Liriomyza sp., B. tabaci and T. urticae in the second season were the greater percentage values as 87.0%, 94.7%, 88.9%, 70.1%, 63.2%, and 68.3%, respectively, compared to the first season (60.4%, 89.6%, 47.7%, 31.1%, 45.5% and 69.8% respectively. Mean performance of agronomic characters, phenotype’s coefficient of variation (PCV, genotype’s coefficient of variation (GCV, environmental coefficient of variation (ECV, heritability (Hb and genetic advance (GS% for yield and its attributes in canola genotypes were also studied. These results could be involved in breeding programme cultivated to improve future integrated pest management programme of canola in Egypt.

  5. Soil-applied imidacloprid is translocated to nectar and kills nectar-feeding Anagyrus pseudococci (Girault) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krischik, Vera A; Landmark, Alyson L; Heimpel, George E

    2007-10-01

    Behavior was altered and survivorship was reduced when parasitoids, Anagyrus pseudococci (Girault) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), were fed flowers from buckwheat, Fagopyrum esculentum L. (Polygonaceae), treated with soil applications of imidacloprid (Marathon 1% G). Parasitoids at 1 d had significantly reduced survivorship of 38 +/- 6.7% on label rate and 17 +/- 4.2% on twice label rate compared with 98 +/- 1.2% on untreated flowers. Parasitoids trembled 88% on label rate and 94% on twice label rate compared with 0% on untreated flowers. Residue analysis on a composite sample of 425 flowers showed that imidacloprid concentration was 6.6 +/- 1.0 ppm (16 ppb/flower) in label rate, 12.3 +/- 2.7 ppm (29 ppb/flower) in twice label rate, and 0 ppb in untreated flowers. The hydroxy metabolite concentration was 1.1 ppm (2.4 ppb/flower) in label rate, 1.9 ppm (4.4 ppb/flower) in twice label rate, and 0 ppm in untreated flowers. The olefin metabolite concentration was 0.2 ppm (0.5 ppb/flower) in label rate, 0.5 ppm (1.1 ppb/flower) in twice label rate, and 0 ppm in untreated flowers. Soil-applied imidacloprid used at flowering may be translocated to nectar in higher concentration compared with the imidacloprid seed treatment Gaucho. Considerable research has studied effects of Gaucho-treated canola, sunflower, and maize on behavior and mortality of Apis mellifera L. In our laboratory, we showed that translocation of imidacloprid to flowers reduced survivorship and altered behavior of pink lady beetle, Coleomegilla maculata DeGeer (Smith and Krischik 1999) and green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea Stephens (Rogers et al. 2007).

  6. Aphids, predators and parasitoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhams, L J; Birkett, M A; Powell, W; Woodcock, C M

    1999-01-01

    A number of studies have demonstrated the role of herbivore-induced release of plant volatiles in mediating foraging behaviour of aphid parasitoids, particularly with the parasitoid Aphidius ervi, its aphid host Acyrthosiphon pisum and the aphid food plant Vicia faba. These studies have shown that feeding by the aphid alters the composition of volatiles released by the plant and that these compounds act as synomones for the foraging parasitoid. Of particular interest is the species-specificity of the herbivore-induced synomones associated with different aphids feeding on V. faba. Aphids employ various pheromones that mediate behaviour, particularly mating and alarm responses. These pheromones play important roles in reproduction and defence against predation and parasitism. Many species of aphids reproduce sexually on their primary hosts during the autumn and the sexual females produce a pheromone that attracts males. The sex pheromones for a number of aphid species have been identified and laboratory and field studies have shown that synthetic material can act as a kairomone in attracting predators and parasitoids. The aphid alarm pheromone is released from the cornicles of aphids when they are attacked by predators or parasitoids. The activity of the main alarm pheromone component, (E)-beta-farnesene, is inhibited by the related sesquiterpene hydrocarbon beta-caryophyllene, which is reported to attract the lacewing Chrysoperla carnea. In addition, electrophysiological studies have shown that the seven-spot ladybird, Coccinella septempunctata, possesses specific olfactory receptors for (E)-beta-farnesene and beta-caryophyllene. Laboratory studies show these compounds to have behavioural activity with C. septempunctata, suggesting that they may be involved in prey location.

  7. Male-produced pheromone of the green lacewing, Chrysopa nigricornis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing-He; Schneidmiller, Rodney G; Hoover, Doreen R; Young, Kevin; Welshons, Dewayne O; Margaryan, Armenak; Aldrich, Jeffrey R; Chauhan, Kamlesh R

    2006-10-01

    Gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) analysis showed that male antennae of the green lacewing, Chrysopa nigricornis Burmeister, the most common lacewing species in the U.S. Pacific Northwest, consistently responded to two compounds in thoracic extracts of conspecific males: 1-tridecene and (1R,2S,5R,8R)-iridodial. These compounds were not detected in extracts of the abdominal cuticle, and no other antennally active compounds were found in the abdominal samples. In field-trapping experiments, traps baited with iridodial significantly attracted large numbers of C. nigricornis males (both western and eastern forms) during summer and early fall, plus a few individuals of conspecific females only in early fall. Iridodial also attracted males of the goldeneyed lacewing, C. oculata Say, and, to a lesser extent, C. coloradensis Banks males. Methyl salicylate (MS), reported as an attractant for both sexes of C. nigricornis and C. oculata, was inactive by itself at the concentration tested in our study, but in a few instances slightly enhanced the responses of Chrysopa spp. to iridodial. However, MS alone and its binary blend with iridodial seemed to attract the hoverfly, Metasyrphus americanus (Weidemann). 2-Phenylethanol, a reported attractant for another lacewing, Chrysoperla plorabunda (Fitch) [=carnea (Say)], did not capture any lacewings. Our assays indicated that the lacewing pheromone, iridodial, loaded onto either rubber septa or as a binary blend with MS in polyethylene bags could last at least 5 wk in the field during the summer season. Based on this study, a new attractant system for green lacewings is being developed for both domestic and international markets.

  8. Methyl salicylate, a soybean aphid-induced plant volatile attractive to the predator Coccinella septempunctata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Junwei; Park, Kye-Chung

    2005-08-01

    Induced volatiles provide a signal to foraging predatory insects about the location of their prey. In Iowa, early in the growing season of soybean, Glycine max, many predacious seven-spotted lady beetles, Coccinella septempunctata, were observed on plants with heavy infestations of soybean aphid, Aphis glycines. We studied whether the attraction of this beetle is caused by the release of specific volatile compounds of soybean plants infested by aphids. Volatile compounds emitted by soybean plants infested by aphids were compared with those of undamaged, uninfested, and artificially damaged plants. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses revealed consistent differences in the profiles of volatile compounds between aphid-infested soybean plants and undamaged ones. Significantly more methyl salicylate was released from infested plants at both the V1 and V2 plant growth stages. However, release patterns of two other induced plant volatiles, (D)-limonene and (E,E)-alpha-farnesene, differed between the two plant growth stages. Gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection of volatile extracts from infested soybean plants showed that methyl salicylate elicited significant electrophysiological responses in C. septempunctata. In field tests, traps baited with methyl salicylate were highly attractive to adult C. septempunctata, whereas 2-phenylethanol was most attractive to the lacewing Chrysoperla carnea and syrphid flies. Another common lady beetle, the multicolored Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis, showed no preference for the compounds. These results indicate that C. septempunctata may use methyl salicylate as the olfactory cue for prey location. We also tested the attractiveness of some selected soybean volatiles to alate soybean aphids in the field, and results showed that traps baited with benzaldehyde caught significantly higher numbers of aphids.

  9. Implications of predator foraging on aphid pathogen dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, H E; Pell, J K; Clark, S J; Alderson, P G

    1998-05-01

    The foraging behavior of starved and nonstarved second and fourth instar Coccinella septempunctata larvae on dead Acyrthosiphon pisum aphids, either infected with the entomopathogenic fungus Erynia neoaphidis (sporulating) or uninfected, was examined. Larvae searched for longer and fed less when presented with infected rather than uninfected A. pisum. Although no sporulating infected aphids were completely consumed, both adult and larval ladybirds can still be considered as intraguild predators. In a further study, fourth instar larvae fed on dying infected, dead infected (not sporulating), and dead uninfected aphids for similar periods of time but again the infected aphids were seldom entirely consumed. Live uninfected aphids were fed upon for significantly longer than any other prey. Infected aphids which were damaged at an early stage of infection (0, 1, or 2 days after inoculation) did not sporulate, whereas damaged moribund aphids (3 days after inoculation) did subsequently sporulate. Damaged sporulating cadavers continued to sporulate. However, damage to moribund and sporulating infected aphids, both mechanical or due to C. septempunctata feeding, reduced the number of conidia subsequently produced. Larval feeding caused the most significant reduction. Under laboratory conditions, C. septempunctata foraging on infected aphids did, therefore, reduce the pathogen density. However, conidia produced from a damaged cadaver resulted in levels of transmission to healthy aphids comparable to that resulting from an intact cadaver. Furthermore, the presence of a foraging adult ladybird resulted in a significant increase in transmission of the fungus to healthy aphids. Preliminary studies to assess the potential of other aphid natural enemies as intraguild predators illustrated that adults of the generalist carabid, Pterostichus madidus, entirely consumed sporulating cadavers. Third instar lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea, and hoverfly, Episyrphus balteatus, larvae never

  10. Plant species composition alters the sign and strength of an emergent multi-predator effect by modifying predator foraging behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilby, Andrew; Anglin, Linda Anderson; Nesbit, Christopher M

    2013-01-01

    The prediction of pest-control functioning by multi-predator communities is hindered by the non-additive nature of species functioning. Such non-additivity, commonly termed an emergent multi-predator effect, is known to be affected by elements of the ecological context, such as the structure and composition of vegetation, in addition to the traits of the predators themselves. Here we report mesocosm experiments designed to test the influence of plant density and species composition (wheat monoculture or wheat and faba bean polyculture) on the emergence of multi-predator effects between Adalia bipunctata and Chrysoperla carnea, in their suppression of populations of the aphid Metopolophium dirhodum. The mesocosm experiments were followed by a series of behavioural observations designed to identify how interactions among predators are modified by plant species composition and whether these effects are consistent with the observed influence of plant species composition on aphid population suppression. Although plant density was shown to have no influence on the multi-predator effect on aphid population growth, plant composition had a marked effect. In wheat monoculture, Adalia and Chrysoperla mixed treatments caused greater suppression of M. dirhodum populations than expected. However this positive emergent effect was reversed to a negative multi-predator effect in wheat and faba bean polyculture. The behavioural observations revealed that although dominant individuals did not respond to the presence of faba bean plants, the behaviour of sub-dominants was affected markedly, consistent with their foraging for extra-floral nectar produced by the faba bean. This interaction between plant composition and predator community composition on the foraging behaviour of sub-dominants is thought to underlie the observed effect of plant composition on the multi-predator effect. Thus, the emergence of multi-predator effects is shown to be strongly influenced by plant species

  11. The interplay between density- and trait-mediated effects in predator-prey interactions: a case study in aphid wing polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunert, Grit; Weisser, Wolfgang W

    2003-04-01

    Natural enemies not only influence prey density but they can also cause the modification of traits in their victims. While such non-lethal effects can be very important for the dynamic and structure of prey populations, little is known about their interaction with the density-mediated effects of natural enemies. We investigated the relationship between predation rate, prey density and trait modification in two aphid-aphid predator interactions. Pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum, Harris) have been shown to produce winged dispersal morphs in response to the presence of ladybirds or parasitoid natural enemies. This trait modification influences the ability of aphids to disperse and to colonise new habitats, and hence has a bearing on the population dynamics of the prey. In two experiments we examined wing induction in pea aphids as a function of the rate of predation when hoverfly larvae (Episyrphus balteatus) and lacewing larvae (Chrysoperla carnea) were allowed to forage in pea aphid colonies. Both hoverfly and lacewing larvae caused a significant increase in the percentage of winged morphs among offspring compared to control treatments, emphasising that wing induction in the presence of natural enemies is a general response in pea aphids. The percentage of winged offspring was, however, dependent on the rate of predation, with a small effect of predation on aphid wing induction at very high and very low predation rates, and a strong response of aphids at medium predation rates. Aphid wing induction was influenced by the interplay between predation rate and the resultant prey density. Our results suggests that density-mediated and trait-mediated effects of natural enemies are closely connected to each other and jointly determine the effect of natural enemies on prey population dynamics.

  12. Ornamental plants on sale to the public are a significant source of pesticide residues with implications for the health of pollinating insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentola, A; David, A; Abdul-Sada, A; Tapparo, A; Goulson, D; Hill, E M

    2017-09-01

    Garden centres frequently market nectar- and pollen-rich ornamental plants as "pollinator-friendly", however these plants are often treated with pesticides during their production. There is little information on the nature of pesticide residues present at the point of purchase and whether these plants may actually pose a threat to, rather than benefit, the health of pollinating insects. Using mass spectrometry analyses, this study screened leaves from 29 different 'bee-friendly' plants for 8 insecticides and 16 fungicides commonly used in ornamental production. Only two plants (a Narcissus and a Salvia variety) did not contain any pesticide and 23 plants contained more than one pesticide, with some species containing mixtures of 7 (Ageratum houstonianum) and 10 (Erica carnea) different agrochemicals. Neonicotinoid insecticides were detected in more than 70% of the analysed plants, and chlorpyrifos and pyrethroid insecticides were found in 10% and 7% of plants respectively. Boscalid, spiroxamine and DMI-fungicides were detected in 40% of plants. Pollen samples collected from 18 different plants contained a total of 13 different pesticides. Systemic compounds were detected in pollen samples at similar concentrations to those in leaves. However, some contact (chlorpyrifos) and localised penetrant pesticides (iprodione, pyroclastrobin and prochloraz) were also detected in pollen, likely arising from direct contamination during spraying. The neonicotinoids thiamethoxam, clothianidin and imidacloprid and the organophosphate chlorpyrifos were present in pollen at concentrations between 6.9 and 81 ng/g and at levels that overlap with those known to cause harm to bees. The net effect on pollinators of buying plants that are a rich source of forage for them but simultaneously risk exposing them to a cocktail of pesticides is not clear. Gardeners who wish to gain the benefits without the risks should seek uncontaminated plants by growing their own from seed, plant

  13. Conservation of predatory arthropods in cotton: role of action thresholds for Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranjo, S E; Ellsworth, P C; Chu, C C; Henneberry, T J

    2002-08-01

    Studies were conducted in 1994 and 1995 to examine the effects of a range of action thresholds for managing Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) Biotype B (= B. argentifolii Bellows & Perring) with insecticides in cotton on populations of arthropod predators in Imperial Valley, CA, and Maricopa, AZ. Application of insecticides significantly reduced population densities of spiders, Geocoris punctipes (Say), G. pallens (Stål), Orius tristicolor (White), Nabis alternatus Parshley, Zelus renardii Kolenati, Hippodamia convergens Guerin-Méneville, Spanogonicus albofasciatus (Reuter), Drapetis sp., and Chrysoperla carnea Stephens in one or both years and sites compared with untreated controls. Use of higher B. tabaci thresholds conserved some species and groups relative to lower thresholds. Stepwise regression analyses indicated that reductions in predator populations were generally influenced more strongly by the timing of the first insecticide application than by the total number of sprays necessary to maintain suppression of the pest below any given action threshold. A predation index, which weights the importance of each predator species based on their known frequency of predation on B. tabaci and another key pest, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders), was developed and analyzed. Patterns were similar to results based on changes in abundance alone, but the index generally revealed less severe effects of insecticides on overall predator function. The current action threshold for conventional insecticidal control of B. tabaci in Arizona and southern California is five adults per leaf. Results here suggest that predator conservation may be enhanced by raising the initial threshold to delay the first application or initially using more selective materials such as insect growth regulators.

  14. Comparative mitogenomics of Braconidae (Insecta: Hymenoptera) and the phylogenetic utility of mitochondrial genomes with special reference to Holometabolous insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    sister-group of Diptera. Neuropterida (Neuroptera + Megaloptera), and a sister-group relationship with (Diptera + Mecoptera) were supported across all analyses. Conclusions Our comparative studies indicate that mitochondrial genomes are a useful phylogenetic tool at the ordinal level within Holometabola, at the superfamily within Hymenoptera and at the subfamily level within Braconidae. Variation at all of these hierarchical levels suggests that the utility of mitochondrial genomes is likely to be a valuable tool for systematics in other groups of arthropods. PMID:20537196

  15. Thermal properties and fauna on the bark of trees in two different African ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolai, Volker

    1989-08-01

    The thermal properties of 26 African tree species in two different ecosystems were studied using thermocouples. In a subtropical moist forest were three bark types of trees: species with thin and smooth bark types with low values of insulation across the bark; species with a more structured bark type and medium insulation values; and species with deep-fissured or scaly bark types and high insulation values. Only these latter trees are able to survive openings in the subtropical forest and stand alone on edges of forest gaps. In the savanna all tree species showed adaptations in the structure of their bark in different forms: many tree species shade their trunks. Some have low bark insulation and these are known to be sensitive to fires. Some tree species show high bark insulation and do not shade their trunks. Tree species with white bark avoid overheating of their surface by reflection of the radiation. The arthropod community living exclusively on the bark was investigated for the first time on South African trees, on ten tree species. In the two different ecosystems this habitat is occupied by different arthropod groups. In the subtropical forest Acari, Araneae, Opiliones, Isopoda, Myriopoda, Blattodea, Psocoptera, Heteroptera, Coleoptera, Formicidae, and Nematocera (Diptera) are the main arthropod groups living exclusively on the bark of trees. In the savanna Pseudoscorpiones, Araneae, Collembola, Blattodea, Psocoptera, Coleoptera, Neuroptera, Termites, Formicidae, Hymenoptera and Brachycera (Diptera) are the main arthropod groups living exclusively on the bark of trees. Within one ecosystem on one bark type the dominant species are similar; richly structured bark types have a richer fauna. In the forest, bark arthropod diversity is related to the bark structure of the constituent trees, and the arthropod communities on the bark would reflect changes in the structure of the forest. Forests comprising tree species with different bark types would have a richer

  16. Importância econômica, epidemiologia e controle das intoxicações por plantas no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarice R.M. Pessoa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A importância econômica, epidemiologia e controle das intoxicações por plantas em animais domésticos no Brasil são revisadas. Com os dados dos laboratórios de diagnóstico de diferentes regiões do país, as perdas anuais por mortes de animais foram estimadas em 820.761 a 1.755.763 bovinos, 399.800 a 445.309 ovinos, 52.675 a 63.292 caprinos e 38.559 equinos. No Brasil, atualmente, o número de plantas tóxicas é de 131 espécies e 79 gêneros e aumenta permanentemente. No entanto, a maioria das perdas são causadas por poucas plantas, incluindo Palicourea marcgravii, Amorimia spp., Senecio spp., Pteridium aquilinum, Ateleia glazioviana e Cestrum laevigatum em bovinos, Brachiaria spp em bovinos e ovinos, Nierembergia veitchii, Mimosa tenuiflora e Ipomoea asarifolia em ovinos, plantas que contêm swainsonina (Ipomoea carnea, Turbina cordata e Sida carpinifolia em caprinos e Brachiaria humidicola e Crotalaria retusa em equinos. Os principais fatores epidemiológicos relacionados às intoxicações por plantas incluem palatabilidade, fome, sede, facilitação social, desconhecimento da planta, acesso a plantas tóxicas, dose tóxica, período de ingestão, variações de toxicidade e resistência/susceptibilidade dos animais às intoxicações. Quanto aos métodos de controle e profilaxia descrevem-se os resultados obtidos no Brasil com métodos recentemente desenvolvidos, incluindo controle biológico, aversão alimentar condicionada, utilização de variedades não tóxicas de forrageiras, utilização de animais resistentes às intoxicações e técnicas de indução de resistência.

  17. Effect of intercropping of maize, bean, cabbage and toxicants on the population levels of some insect pests and associated predators in sugar beet plantations

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    S.K.M. El-Fakharany

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were carried out at El-Riad district, Kafr El-Sheikh Governorate in two successive growing seasons (2009/10 and 2010/11 to study the effect of intercropping of faba bean, maize and cabbage with sugar beet on the population density of Empoasca spp. (nymphs and adults, Aphis spp. (nymphs and adults, Bemisia tabaci (adults, Pegomyia mixta (eggs and larvae, Cassida vittata (larvae, pupae and adults and predators in sugar beet plantations compared with the non-intercropped plants and the resulting yield. The toxicity of certain compounds: fenitrothion, super misrona, sour orange oil, acidless orange oil, and Bermectine in reducing the population density of P. mixta and C. vittata larvae infesting sugar beet was evaluated. The rate of infestation was higher in the sole sugar beet plants than in those intercropped with faba bean, maize and cabbage plants which caused reduction of sucking pests and P. mixta eggs in the two seasons. The intercropping of faba bean plants led to higher infestation rate of P. mixta larvae in the two seasons and C. vittata (larvae, pupae and adults in the first season. The intercropping with maize led to a higher population density of Chrysoperla carnea, Paederus alfierii and Scymnus spp. in the two seasons. Low population density of true spiders was observed in sole sugar beet (control when compared with faba bean, maize and cabbage plants intercropped in the two seasons. Concerning the obtained root yield, the intercropping with maize and cabbage plants reduced the resultant yield of sugar beet roots in the two seasons. Bermectine and fenitrothion were the most effective toxicants followed by super misrona and then, sour orange that induced the lowest reduction in P. mixta larvae. Also, fenitrothion and Bermectine were the most potent compounds in reducing the population density of C. vittata larvae followed by super misrona and then, plant oil extracts. Concerning the side effects of these compounds on

  18. Conservation of natural enemies in cotton: comparative selectivity of acetamiprid in the management of Bemisia tabaci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranjo, Steven E; Akey, David H

    2005-06-01

    The integrated control concept emphasizes the importance of both chemical and biological control for pest suppression in agricultural systems. A two-year field study was conducted to evaluate the selectivity of acetamiprid for the control of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) in cotton compared with a proven selective regime based on the insect growth regulators (IGRs) pyriproxyfen and buprofezin. Acetamiprid was highly effective in controlling all stages of B tabaci compared with an untreated control, and generally produced lower pest densities than the IGR regime. Univariate analyses indicated that nine of 17 taxa of arthropod predators were significantly depressed with the use of acetamiprid compared with an untreated control, including common species such as Geocoris punctipes (Say), Orius tristicolor (White), Chrysoperla carnea Stephens sensu lato, Collops vittatus (Say), Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Méneville, and Drapetis nr divergens. Compared with results from independent, concurrent studies using mixtures of broad-spectrum insecticides at the same research site, acetamiprid depressed populations of fewer predator taxa; but, for eight predator taxa significantly affected by both regimes, the average population reduction was roughly equal. In contrast, only four taxa were significantly reduced in the IGR regime compared with the untreated control and three of these were omnivores that function primarily as plant pests. Principal response curves analyses (a time-dependent, multivariate ordination method) confirmed these patterns of population change for the entire predator community. Predator:prey ratios generally increased with the use of both IGRs and acetamiprid compared with an untreated control, but ratios were consistently higher with IGRs. Parasitism by aphelinid parasitoids was unaffected or depressed slightly in all insecticide regimes compared with the control. Because of its high efficacy, acetamiprid may play an important role in later stages of B

  19. Intoxicações por plantas diagnosticadas em ruminantes e equinos e estimativa das perdas econômicas na Paraíba Plant poisonings diagnosed in ruminants and horses and estimation of the economical losses in Paraíba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tales S. Assis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um levantamento dos surtos de intoxicações por plantas em ruminantes e equinos diagnosticados no Laboratório de Patologia Veterinária (LPV, do Hospital Veterinário da Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Campus de Patos, Paraíba, no período de 2000-2007. Em bovinos 7,4% dos diagnósticos realizados pelo LPV foram intoxicações por plantas. Foram diagnosticadas intoxicações por Centhraterum brachylepis (um surto, Brachiaria spp. (um surto, Crotalaria retusa (dois surtos, Ipomoea batatas (um surto, Marsdenia sp. (um surto, gramíneas contendo nitratos e nitritos (um surto por Echinochloa polystachya e dois surtos por Pennisetum purpureum, Palicourea aeneofusca (um surto, Prosopis juliflora (três surtos, Nerium oleander (um surto e Mimosa tenuiflora (sete surtos. Na espécie ovina 13% dos diagnósticos foram intoxicações por plantas. Os surtos foram causados por Ipomoea asarifolia (quatro surtos, Brachiaria spp. (três surtos, Crotalaria retusa (dois surtos, Tephrosia cinerea (dois surtos, Panicum dichotomiflorum (um surto, Mascagnia rigida (um surto e malformações associadas à ingestão de Mimosa tenuiflora (20 surtos. Nos caprinos, 6,4% dos diagnósticos corresponderam à intoxicação por plantas. Sete surtos foram causados por Mimosa tenuiflora, um por Ipomoea asarifolia, um por Ipomoea carnea, um por Ipomoea riedelli, três por Prosopis juliflora, um por Arrabidaea corallina, dois por Aspidosperma pyrifolium, dois por Turbina cordata e um por Opuntia ficus-indica. Na espécie equina 14% das doenças diagnosticadas foram devidas a intoxicações por plantas, sendo 12 surtos por Crotalaria retusa e um por Turbina cordata. As perdas na Paraíba por plantas tóxicas são estimadas em 3.895 bovinos, 8.374 ovinos, 6.390 caprinos e 366 equinos, que representam uma perda econômica anual, por morte de animais, de R$ 2.733.097,00. São relatados alguns aspectos epidemiológicos, sinais clínicos e patologia de surtos de

  20. The phylogeny and relationships between the insect orders

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    Alvaro Wille

    2002-06-01

    dicho pueden reconocerse ottas dos líneas: los Panorthoptera, representados por Grylloblattodea, Saltatoria, y Phasmida; los Dietyoptera, representados por Blattaria, Mantodea e Isoptera (Cuadro 4. Aunque los comejenes (Isoptera superficialmente parecen estar muy lejanos de las cucarachas, un examen cuidadoso revelará una relación cercana entre los dos grupos (Cuadro 5. 9 La principal tendencia evolucionaria en los hemipteroideos es un desarrollo gradual de un aparato bucal chupador. 10 Dos líneas de evolución pueden ser reconocidas en el grupo neuropteroideo: los Panneuroptera incluyendo Neuroptera, Megaloptera, Raphidiodea, Coleoptera, Strepsiptera e Hymenoptera, y los Panmecoptera (= Panorpoidea incluyendo Mecoptera, Trichoptera, Lepidoptera, Diptera y Siphonap.tera. En ambos grupos hay una tendencia hacia el desarrollo de un aparato bucal chupador

  1. Biologia floral e da polinização de quatro espécies de Eugenia L. (Myrtaceae Floral and pollination biology of four species of Eugenia L. (Myrtaceae

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    André Luiz Gomes da Silva

    2007-03-01

    generalists. Pollen grains are the only floral resource (classified as pollen-flowers. The stigma is dry, minute and made up of delicate papillae. Anthesis is diurnal. The flowers last only one day and are visited by a wide range of insects, including Hymenoptera, Diptera, Coleoptera and Neuroptera, for a total of 29 species. Bees are the most common visitors, with Apis mellifera L., a species introduced by human activities, the most frequent and abundant. This bee is regarded as the true pollinator of the species studied here. Flowering is yearly and massive. E. uniflora blooms from August to October, and fruits from September to November. E. neonitida blooms from late August to early December, and fruits from October to the first week in January. E. punicifolia bloomed twice in 2003, first in June and July, with fruiting in August, and second, from September to October, fruiting in November and December. In 2004, it bloomed only in August with fruiting from October to December. E. rotundifolia bloomed in March, with fruiting from May to June.

  2. An assessment of arthropod prey resources at Nakula Natural Area Reserve, a potential site of reintroduction for Kiwikiu (Pseudonestor xanthophrys) and Maui `Alauahio (Parareomyza montana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banko, Paul C.; Peck, Robert W.; Cappadonna, Justin; Steele, Claire; Leonard, David L.; Mounce, Hanna L.; Becker, Dusti; Swinnerton, Kirsty

    2015-01-01

    ), which comprised 90% of all prey items for 50 adult birds and 98% of all prey for two nestlings. Caterpillars were also the most important prey for Maui ‘alauahio (43% for 104 adult birds) although spiders (Araneae, 16%), beetles (12%) and true bugs, planthoppers and psyllids (Hemiptera; 12%) were also important. Caterpillars were generally the most abundant type of arthropod in the foliage of koa and ‘ōhi‘a, although spiders, beetles and hemipterans were also common. Total arthropod biomass and caterpillar biomass at Nakula was as great, or greater, than that observed at Hanawi and Waikamoi per unit of foliage of both koa and ‘ōhi‘a. Spiders generally dominated the bark fauna on both koa and ‘ōhi‘a at all sites although isopods (Isopoda), millipedes (Myriapoda: Millipeda) and lacewings (Neuroptera) were also abundant at Waikamoi and Hanawi. Total arthropod biomass on bark, as well as the biomass of several individual taxa, was significantly lower at Nakula than the other sites. Our measurement of the density of beetle exit holes in dead koa branches found no difference between Nakula and Waikamoi. Finally, no difference existed in the abundance of arthropods (primarily caterpillars and moth pupae) within ‘ākala stems among sites. With the exception of bark surfaces, our results suggest that the arthropod prey base for birds on primary foraging substrates at Nakula is similar to that found at two sites within the current range of kiwikiu and Maui ‘alauahio. However, our results should be viewed with caution because they are limited to the scale of individual branch, tree, or ‘ākala stem. To complete the assessment, our results should be scaled up to the landscape level by determining the density of each substrate within each site. Key arthropod prey of kiwikiu and Maui ‘alauahio are available at Nakula and, as habitat restoration continues, food abundance should increase to the point at which populations of these birds can be supported.