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Sample records for carnations

  1. Callus and cell suspension cultures of carnation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engvild, Kjeld Christensen

    1972-01-01

    Callus cultures of carnation, Dianthus caryophyllus L. ev. G. J. Sim, were grown on a synthetic medium of half strength Murashige and Skoog salts, 3 % sucrose, 100 mg/l of myo-inositol, 0.5 mg/l each of thiamin, HCl, pyridoxin, HCl and nicotinic acid and 10 g/l agar. Optimal concentrations of....... Cell suspension cultures worked best in media containing 2,4-D in which they had a doubling time of about 2 days. Filtered suspensions were successfully plated on agar in petri dishes, but division was never observed in single cells. The cultures initiated roots at higher concentrations of IAA or NAA...

  2. Nucleotide sequence and genome organization of carnation mottle virus RNA.

    OpenAIRE

    Guilley, H; Carrington, J C; Balàzs, E; Jonard, G; Richards, K; Morris, T J

    1985-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of carnation mottle genomic RNA (4003 nucleotides) is presented. The sequence was determined for cloned cDNA copies of viral RNA containing over 99% of the sequence and was completed by direct sequence analysis of RNA and cDNA transcripts. The sequence contains two long open reading frames which together can account for observed translation products. One translation product would arise by suppression of an amber termination codon and the sequence raises the po...

  3. Radiobiological research on carnation chimerae Dianthus Caryophyllus L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radiobiological study of periclinal carnation chimerae is carried out by subjecting whole plants and cuttings at different physiological stages to cobalt 60 gamma radiation under different dose and dose rate conditions. The effects of these treatments are observed during cultivation of the treated plants and by microscopic examination of irradiated meristem sections. The destruction of meristem cells in proportions varying with the irradiation conditions leads to structural changes in the chimerae; the more frequent change is the formation of genetically homogeneous stalks from different genotypes existing in the irradiated plant. Treatment by ionizing radiations is thus a practical means of detecting periclinical chimerae which, as in the case of carnations, are very common in plants grown by vegetative propagation. However since more than two independent meristem cell groups are usually present it is not possible by this method alone to define the distribution of the differentent genotypes in these groups; additional genetic studies or cell labelling such as chlorophyll or genoma mutations are then necessary

  4. Researches on the resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi in carnation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trials have been undertaken in order to discover in carnation with sexual reproduction some resistances to Fusarium equivalent to which are known previously in certain sorts of carnations with asexual propagation, like Heidi. Only the resistance of horticultural species has been studied. It is a polygenic type and open to improvement by selection or cross between resistant parents, specially Heidi x mignardise, some products of which may be used as 'miniature' varieties. To plan the improvement of american carnations by interspecific cross with these resistant parents is possible. But on account of foreseeable difficulties to preserve the floral characteristics of these varieties an attempt was made to induce resistance characters by exposing american carnations to the γ rays of 60Co

  5. Chemical control of the cyst nematode, heterodera trifolii in miniature carnation

    OpenAIRE

    Marroquin, Alicia; Arbelaez, Germán

    2011-01-01

    One of the diseases recently registered on carnation in Colombia is the cystnematode caused by Heterodera trifolii. An increase of the vascular wilt was observed in some farms affected by the two pathogens. A trial was carried out in a commercial greenhouse with miniature carnation of the variety Red Baron. The fumigants DD memethylisothiocianate, Dazomet and Methamsodium applied to the soil before planting were used alone and in combination with three non fumigant nematicides Aldicarb, Carbo...

  6. Latent Dirichlet Allocation Model for Raga Identification of Carnatic Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeswari Sridhar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In this study the Raga of South Indian Carnatic music is determined by constructing a model. Raga is a pre-determined arrangement of notes, which is characterized by an Arohana and Avarohana, which is the ascending and descending arrangement of notes and Raga lakshana. Approach: In this study a Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA model is constructed to identify the Raga of South Indian Carnatic music. LDA is an unsupervised statistical approach which is being used for document classification to determine the underlying topics in a given document. The construction of LDA is based on the assumption that the notes of a given music piece can be mapped to the words in a topic and the topics in a document can be mapped to the Raga. The identification of notes is very difficult due to the narrow range of frequency and the characteristics of Carnatic music. This inclined us in moving to a probabilistic approach for the identification of Raga. In this study we identify the notes of a given signal and using these notes and Raga lakshana, a probabilistic model in terms of LDA's parameters ∝ and θ are computed and constructed for every Raga by initially assuming a value which is constant for every Raga. This value of ∝ is cultured after determining θ for a given Raga. The θ of a given Raga is computed using the characteristic phrases which is a sequence of notes and is unique for a given Raga. During the Raga identification phase, the value of ∝ and θ are computed and is matched with the constructed LDA model to identify the given Raga. Results: Using this model, the Raga identification of Parent Ragas had a lower error rate than that of Child Raga. For parent Raga an average identification rate of 75% was achieved. Conclusion/Recommendations: The accuracy of the algorithm can be improved by using more features of Raga lakshana. After identifying the Raga, it can be used as features to be used by a Music Information Retrieval

  7. Discrimination of carnation pistils in neutron tomographic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Discrimination of plant organs and tissues from neutron tomographic image of a carnation flower is important to compare before and after changes in water distribution in each organ. A discriminative image processing that based on geographical characteristics of flower organs was used to try to create an image of a pistil in a flower. The styles in the pistil were clearly. On the other hand, the discriminated isosurface of the ovary was rugged with several spikes because the coalesced petals were recognized as parts of the ovary. Therefore, to correct the rugged surface, open filtering and closed filtering were attempted. The filtering processes showed strong dilation and erosion effects respectively. Combined open and closed filtering were applied to complement each other. The process removed coalesced petals and had fewer side effects

  8. Transcriptome analysis of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. based on next-generation sequencing technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanase Koji

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L., in the family Caryophyllaceae, can be found in a wide range of colors and is a model system for studies of flower senescence. In addition, it is one of the most important flowers in the global floriculture industry. However, few genomics resources, such as sequences and markers are available for carnation or other members of the Caryophyllaceae. To increase our understanding of the genetic control of important characters in carnation, we generated an expressed sequence tag (EST database for a carnation cultivar important in horticulture by high-throughput sequencing using 454 pyrosequencing technology. Results We constructed a normalized cDNA library and a 3’-UTR library of carnation, obtaining a total of 1,162,126 high-quality reads. These reads were assembled into 300,740 unigenes consisting of 37,844 contigs and 262,896 singlets. The contigs were searched against an Arabidopsis sequence database, and 61.8% (23,380 of them had at least one BLASTX hit. These contigs were also annotated with Gene Ontology (GO and were found to cover a broad range of GO categories. Furthermore, we identified 17,362 potential simple sequence repeats (SSRs in 14,291 of the unigenes. We focused on gene discovery in the areas of flower color and ethylene biosynthesis. Transcripts were identified for almost every gene involved in flower chlorophyll and carotenoid metabolism and in anthocyanin biosynthesis. Transcripts were also identified for every step in the ethylene biosynthesis pathway. Conclusions We present the first large-scale sequence data set for carnation, generated using next-generation sequencing technology. The large EST database generated from these sequences is an informative resource for identifying genes involved in various biological processes in carnation and provides an EST resource for understanding the genetic diversity of this plant.

  9. The Occurrence of Hyperhydricity on Several Carnations (Dianthus carryophyllus L. Cultivars during Low Temperature Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KURNIAWAN BUDIARTO

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The incident of hyperhydricity was a common problem in propagated carnation (Dianthus carryophyllus L. during in vitro culture. Due to its possible relations with the decrease in phenotypic performance of plantlets, the observation on the occurrence of hyperhydricity was conducted on several in vitro conserved carnation cultivars. The research was conducted from July 2007 to August 2008 at The Indonesian Ornamental Crops Research Institute, Cianjur, West Java. A complete factorial experiment with 24 replications was designed to accomplish the combination of two factors. The first factor was six commercial carnation cultivars, namely light pink candy, malaga, opera, white candy, liberty and pink maladi, while the seconds dealt with type of conservation media, i.e. ½MS+DMSO 3%, ½MS+DMSO 3%+3% sucrose and control (½MS+3% sucrose. The results showed that the percentage of hyperhydric plantlet and plantlet viability after in vitro conservation were varied among carnation cultivars. Single treatment of sucrose had the least capacity in inducing plantlet resistance to low temperature conditions during in vitro conservation. Supplemental DMSO postponed the occurrence of hyperhydricity and with the existence of sucrose, higher plantlet viability were achieved.

  10. Heterologous expression of the Arabidopsis etr1-1 allele inhibits the senescence of carnation flowers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bovy, A.G.; Angenent, G.C.; Dons, H.J.M.; Altvorst, van A.

    1999-01-01

    The Arabidopsis thaliana etr1-1 allele, capable of conferring ethylene insensitivity in a heterologous host, was introduced into transgenic carnation plants. This gene was expressed under control of either its own promoter, the constitutive CaMV 35S promoter or the flower-specific petunia FBP1 promo

  11. Experience-dependent learning of auditory temporal resolution: evidence from Carnatic-trained musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Srikanta K; Panda, Manasa R

    2014-01-22

    Musical training and experience greatly enhance the cortical and subcortical processing of sounds, which may translate to superior auditory perceptual acuity. Auditory temporal resolution is a fundamental perceptual aspect that is critical for speech understanding in noise in listeners with normal hearing, auditory disorders, cochlear implants, and language disorders, yet very few studies have focused on music-induced learning of temporal resolution. This report demonstrates that Carnatic musical training and experience have a significant impact on temporal resolution assayed by gap detection thresholds. This experience-dependent learning in Carnatic-trained musicians exhibits the universal aspects of human perception and plasticity. The present work adds the perceptual component to a growing body of neurophysiological and imaging studies that suggest plasticity of the peripheral auditory system at the level of the brainstem. The present work may be intriguing to researchers and clinicians alike interested in devising cross-cultural training regimens to alleviate listening-in-noise difficulties. PMID:24264076

  12. Isolation and characterisation of the carnation floral-specific MADS box gene, CMB2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudinette; Stevenson; Savin

    2000-06-29

    The cDNA clone KD81, was isolated from a carnation petal cDNA library based on its strong differential expression in petals compared with leaves. The deduced amino acid sequence of KD81 indicated high homology with members of the MADS box family of transcription factors. Identified within the deduced amino acid sequence are two conserved domains; an N-terminal, MADS box and a central, K box. The gene encoding KD81 was termed Carnation MADS Box gene 2 (CMB2). Expression of CMB2 is floral-specific and in petal, transcripts were persistent from the initial stages of development through flower opening. Transcripts were not detected in vegetative tissues. The CMB2 protein is most homologous to TDR6 from tomato, the product of the petal and stamen identity gene DEFICIENS (DEFA), and several DEFA homologues including SLM3, STDEF, PMADS1 and APETALA3. Southern blot analysis indicated that CMB2 is present as a single copy within the carnation genome. Characterisation of a genomic clone encoding CMB2, revealed the molecular structure of CMB2 to be consistent with that reported for other plant MADS box genes. Analysis of the CMB2 promoter sequence revealed the presence of two putative cis-acting elements known as serum response elements (SREs). These elements are proposed as the target for MADS box domain binding and may be involved in the regulation/autoregulation of gene expression. CMB2 represents the first reported isolation of a MADS box gene from carnation. PMID:10814815

  13. Exposure to pesticides : pt 1 The cultivation of carnations in greenhouses

    OpenAIRE

    Brouwer, R.; Brouwer, D. H.; Mik, G.; Hemmen, J.J. van

    1991-01-01

    On 18 farms for carnation culture in greenhouses in The Netherlands respiratory exposure and dermal exposure of hands and forearms to chlorothalonil, thiophanatemethyl, thiram and zineb during application and following crop activities have been measured. Farms have been selected by a 'worst case' strategy with regard to dermal exposure to pesticides during cutting of the flowers. For 95 workers the average dermal exposure during cutting was 10.6 mg/h and during sorting or bundling of these fl...

  14. Chemical control of the fairy ring spot of carnation caused by heterosporium echinulatum

    OpenAIRE

    Peñaranda, Luis Alfonso; Torres, Hernán Jose; Arbeláez, Germán

    2011-01-01

    The fairy ring spot caused by Heterosporium echinulatum- is one of the most limiting diseases of miniature carnation inColombia. An experiment was carried out in 1989 to evaluate the control of diseases with the application of four fungicides with the very susceptible variety Sam'Pride in a cornmercialgreenhouse. Two protectant fungicides Dichlofluanid and Propineb an two svstemic fungicides Penconazol and Triforinewere applied weekly eigth times. A lower number of lesions were obtained with ...

  15. In vitro conservation of the cultivation of spanish carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. from mineral salts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudmila Jiménez-Mariña

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of the salts concentration described by Murashige and Skoog (MS in short term in vitro conservation of nodal segments of Spanish Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.. The investigation was developed in the Center of Vegetable Biotechnology Studies (CEBVEG, in the period 2012- 2013. The treatments consisted on the addition of MS salts (100; 75; 50; 25% and a control (100% + growing regulators in medium culture. Decreasing until 25% of salts concentration in culture medium reduced the growing speed, being able to conserve for six months under these conditions A survival and recovery of 91,3% was obtained.

  16. Event-specific qualitative and quantitative PCR detection of the GMO carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) variety Moonlite based upon the 5'-transgene integration sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, P; Jia, J W; Jiang, L X; Zhu, H; Bai, L; Wang, J B; Tang, X M; Pan, A H

    2012-01-01

    To ensure the implementation of genetically modified organism (GMO)-labeling regulations, an event-specific detection method was developed based on the junction sequence of an exogenous integrant in the transgenic carnation variety Moonlite. The 5'-transgene integration sequence was isolated by thermal asymmetric interlaced PCR. Based upon the 5'-transgene integration sequence, the event-specific primers and TaqMan probe were designed to amplify the fragments, which spanned the exogenous DNA and carnation genomic DNA. Qualitative and quantitative PCR assays were developed employing the designed primers and probe. The detection limit of the qualitative PCR assay was 0.05% for Moonlite in 100 ng total carnation genomic DNA, corresponding to about 79 copies of the carnation haploid genome; the limit of detection and quantification of the quantitative PCR assay were estimated to be 38 and 190 copies of haploid carnation genomic DNA, respectively. Carnation samples with different contents of genetically modified components were quantified and the bias between the observed and true values of three samples were lower than the acceptance criterion (GMO detection method. These results indicated that these event-specific methods would be useful for the identification and quantification of the GMO carnation Moonlite. PMID:22614281

  17. Early steps of adventitious rooting: morphology, hormonal profiling and carbohydrate turnover in carnation stem cuttings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agulló-Antón, María Ángeles; Ferrández-Ayela, Almudena; Fernández-García, Nieves; Nicolás, Carlos; Albacete, Alfonso; Pérez-Alfocea, Francisco; Sánchez-Bravo, José; Pérez-Pérez, José Manuel; Acosta, Manuel

    2014-03-01

    The rooting of stem cuttings is a common vegetative propagation practice in many ornamental species. A detailed analysis of the morphological changes occurring in the basal region of cultivated carnation cuttings during the early stages of adventitious rooting was carried out and the physiological modifications induced by exogenous auxin application were studied. To this end, the endogenous concentrations of five major classes of plant hormones [auxin, cytokinin (CK), abscisic acid, salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid] and the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid were analyzed at the base of stem cuttings and at different stages of adventitious root formation. We found that the stimulus triggering the initiation of adventitious root formation occurred during the first hours after their excision from the donor plant, due to the breakdown of the vascular continuum that induces auxin accumulation near the wounding. Although this stimulus was independent of exogenously applied auxin, it was observed that the auxin treatment accelerated cell division in the cambium and increased the sucrolytic activities at the base of the stem, both of which contributed to the establishment of the new root primordia at the stem base. Further, several genes involved in auxin transport were upregulated in the stem base either with or without auxin application, while endogenous CK and SA concentrations were specially affected by exogenous auxin application. Taken together our results indicate significant crosstalk between auxin levels, stress hormone homeostasis and sugar availability in the base of the stem cuttings in carnation during the initial steps of adventitious rooting. PMID:24117983

  18. Subcellular localization of secondary lipid metabolites including fragrance volatiles in carnation petals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulse-chase labeling of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. cv Improved White Sim) petals with [14C]acetate has provided evidence for a hydrophobic subcompartment of lipid-protein particles within the cytosol that resemble oil bodies, are formed by blebbing from membranes, and are enriched in lipid metabolites (including fragrance volatiles) derived from membrane fatty acids. Fractionation of the petals during pulse-chase labeling revealed that radiolabeled fatty acids appear first in microsomal membranes and subsequently in cytosolic lipid-protein particles, indicating that the particles originate from membranes. This interpretation is supported by the finding that the cytosolic lipid-protein particles contain phospholipid as well as the same fatty acids found in microsomal membranes. Radiolabeled polar lipid metabolites (methanol/ water-soluble) were detectable in both in situ lipid-protein particles isolated from the cytosol and those generated in vitro from isolated radiolabeled microsomal membranes. The lipid-protein particles were also enriched in hexanal, trans-2-hexenal, 1-hexanol, 3-hexen-1-ol, and 2-hexanol, volatiles of carnation flower fragrance that are derived from membrane fatty acids through the lipoxygenase pathway. Therefore, secondary lipid metabolites, including components of fragrance, appear to be formed within membranes of petal tissue and are subsequently released from the membrane bilayers into the cytosol by blebbing of lipid-protein particles

  19. RESEARCH INTO THE INFLUENCE OF PHYTOHORMONES UPON THE GROWTH "IN VITRO" AT SEVERAL VARIETIES OF GREENHOUSE CARNATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Diana CRISTEAN

    2005-01-01

    After using treatments with seven phytohormones on four varieties of greenhouse carnations (Caribe, Red Corso, Nelson, Francesca) it was discovered that AIA and GA3 hormones stimulated the growth in height of the plantlets; GA3, AIA and NAA promoted the growth of the internodes, but the highest medium number of internodes per plantlet was registered after using treatments with NAA and AIA hormones. The concentration level of phytohormones used in the experiment also influenced the stimulating...

  20. Procedures for expressing natural or induced variability in carnation (Dianthus Caryophyllus L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutagenesis (gamma rays) and in vitro organogenesis are used separately or both to diversify carnation varieties by revealing and creating variability. As regards to in vivo mutagenesis, an important diversification of the flower colour is obtained by applying a 60 Gray dose to two hundred rooted cuttings. The organogenesis ability has been tested among different types of explants. The petal of young floral bud shows the best caulogenesis capacities. The organogenesis region is located at the petal base. Histological studies reveal that neoformations are originated from epidermic and sub-epidermic cellular layers. The morphogenetic evolution of neoformations depends on growth factors imbalance. Isolated neoformations can grow in a vegetative way (vitrous plantlets) or in a reproductive one (petaloid structures). Modifications of the petal and neoformations culture conditions induce a normal development by preventing and suppressing vitrification. Histological studies show strong anatomic differences between vitrous and petaloid forms when compared to the normal ones. A method combining in vitro organogenesis and mutagenesis has been investigated. To avoid chimera, petals are irradiated the second day of culture (differentiated cells). A 20 or 40 Gray dose can be applied

  1. Optimization in energy consumption of carnation production using data envelopment analysis (DEA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shabani, Zeinab; Rafiee, Shahin; Mobli, Hossein [University of Tehran, Department of Agricultural Machinery Engineering, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khanalipur, Eisa [Islamic Azad University of Karaj, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-12-15

    In this study a data envelopment analysis was used to evaluate the technical and scale efficiencies of greenhouses regarding to energy use in carnation production Mahallat, Iran. The purpose of this study was to identify efficient and inefficient units and wasteful use of energy by the latter. In addition, we established the optimum level of energy from different inputs. Finally, the effect of energy use optimization on energy productivity and ratio was investigated. The results revealed that 35 % (7 farmers) and 55 % (11 farmers) out of farmers which considered for the analysis, were recognized as the technically and pure technically efficient farmers, respectively. Most greenhouses have wasteful use in diesel fuel and fertilizer consumption. The results represented that the average values of technical, pure technical and scale efficiency scores were 0.69, 0.82 and 0.813, accordingly. The results of ESTR calculations showed that if farmers 4, 6 and 13 operated efficiently, they would save energy consumption about 90 % without affecting the yield level. (orig.)

  2. Positive Interaction Of Ethanol With Malic Acid In Postharvest Physiology Of Cut Spray Carnation ‘White Natila’

    OpenAIRE

    Begri Fatemeh; Hadavi Ebrahim; Nabigol Amrollah

    2014-01-01

    In this study, succinic acid (0, 1 and 2 mM), malic acid (0, 1 and 2 mM), ethanol (0, 2 and 4% v/v), and their mixtures were applied as preservative solutions for cut flowers of spread carnation cv. ‘White Natila’ and their effect on the longevity, the amount of absorbed solution, malondialdehyde and chlorophyll content, cell membrane stability, fresh, and dry weight and on a visual quality was determined. A similarity in the effect of malic acid and succinic acid on dry weight and fresh weig...

  3. A test of phenotypic selection on petal form in the wild carnation, Dianthus inoxianus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, J; Balao, F

    2015-11-01

    Floral phenotypes are considered a product of pollinator-mediated selection, which also has the side effect of decreasing floral variation within species. Correlates of flower visibility and function were studied in a carnation species (Dianthus inoxianus), which has crepuscular anthesis and scent-based pollination by the hawkmoth Hyles livornica. We also assessed constancy of flower form in nature and in cultivation and, using fruit set as an estimate of plant relative fitness, tested whether the main pollinator exerted phenotypic selection on floral traits. Petal claw, which is roughly equivalent to the average depth at which an insect's proboscis must be inserted to reach nectar, was remarkably constant among wild plants (coefficient of variation 8%). In contrast, the area of the visible part of the petal, and the intensity of a coloured dot pattern on the petal was very variable (respectively CV = 34% and 102%). Cultivation in a common environment revealed significant variation among genotypes as regards petal area, degree of laciniation and extension of the dot pattern, but not petal claw length, which remained steady. Petal area, shape and colour did not affect relative fitness during the year of study, but plants with intermediate petal claws (i.e. floral tubes) set significantly more fruit. Results are compatible with low response of the main pollinator to variation in visual traits (petal area, laciniation, colour) and high responsiveness to variation in other aspects (tube length). Inconsistent phenotypic selection by pollinators may add to other causes of floral variation in the genus Dianthus, the causes of which are discussed. PMID:26152531

  4. Effect of Ethanol and Essential Oils on Extending Vase-life of Carnation Cut Flower (Dianthus caryophyllus cv. �Yellow Candy�

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan BAYAT

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of ethanol and essential oils of three medicinal plants namely Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L., Summer savory (Satureja hortensis L. and Ajwain (Carum copticum L. on extending carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus vase-life. For this purpose three individual trials were conducted using a completely randomized block design with three replications. In the first trial, the effect of 4% ethanol (v/v as a continuous or pulse treatment was determined. The results showed that although both application methods increased vase-life and marketability of carnation, it was statistically non significant. In the second trial, the effects of selected essential oils at the concentration of 100, 150 and 200 ppm were investigated. All essential oils prolonged carnation vase-life. Summer savory essential oil (100 ppm showed the highest effect (increasing 4.4 days in comparison to the control. In the third trial, the interaction between ethanol and the essential oils was studied. Results showed there is no significant difference between application of essential oils alone and in combination with ethanol. The highest fresh weight was observed in cut flowers treated with Summer savory essential oil at 100 ppm after 6 days which was double compared to the control. According to the results of this research it is concluded that essential oils, (natural, safe and biodegradable compounds as novel alternative materials are suitable for prolongation of carnation vase-life.

  5. Artificial Neural Network approach to develop unique Classification and Raga identification tools for Pattern Recognition in Carnatic Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srimani, P. K.; Parimala, Y. G.

    2011-12-01

    A unique approach has been developed to study patterns in ragas of Carnatic Classical music based on artificial neural networks. Ragas in Carnatic music which have found their roots in the Vedic period, have grown on a Scientific foundation over thousands of years. However owing to its vastness and complexities it has always been a challenge for scientists and musicologists to give an all encompassing perspective both qualitatively and quantitatively. Cognition, comprehension and perception of ragas in Indian classical music have always been the subject of intensive research, highly intriguing and many facets of these are hitherto not unravelled. This paper is an attempt to view the melakartha ragas with a cognitive perspective using artificial neural network based approach which has given raise to very interesting results. The 72 ragas of the melakartha system were defined through the combination of frequencies occurring in each of them. The data sets were trained using several neural networks. 100% accurate pattern recognition and classification was obtained using linear regression, TLRN, MLP and RBF networks. Performance of the different network topologies, by varying various network parameters, were compared. Linear regression was found to be the best performing network.

  6. Positive Interaction Of Ethanol With Malic Acid In Postharvest Physiology Of Cut Spray Carnation ‘White Natila’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Begri Fatemeh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, succinic acid (0, 1 and 2 mM, malic acid (0, 1 and 2 mM, ethanol (0, 2 and 4% v/v, and their mixtures were applied as preservative solutions for cut flowers of spread carnation cv. ‘White Natila’ and their effect on the longevity, the amount of absorbed solution, malondialdehyde and chlorophyll content, cell membrane stability, fresh, and dry weight and on a visual quality was determined. A similarity in the effect of malic acid and succinic acid on dry weight and fresh weight loss were found. Ethanol positively affected most of the studied traits, including the vase life and fresh weight loss. The preservative solution containing 1 mM of malic acid and 4% ethanol resulted in the longest average vase life - 11.1 days compared to 8.9 days in the control. Malic acid showed a significant positive synergism with ethanol that makes it reasonable to combine them in preservative solutions intended to extend the vase life of cut spray carnation.

  7. Effect of pseudobactin 358 production by Pseudomonas putida WCS358 on suppression of fusarium wilt of carnations by nonpathogenic Fusarium oxysporum Fo47.

    OpenAIRE

    Lemanceau, P.; Bakker, P A; de Kogel, W.J.; Alabouvette, C.; Schippers, B.

    1992-01-01

    Nonpathogenic Fusarium oxysporum Fo47b10 combined with Pseudomonas putida WCS358 efficiently suppressed fusarium wilt of carnations grown in soilless culture. This suppression was significantly higher than that obtained by inoculation of either antagonistic microorganism alone. The increased suppression obtained by Fo47b10 combined with WCS358 only occurred when Fo47b10 was introduced at a density high enough (at least 10 times higher than that of the pathogen) to be efficient on its own. P. ...

  8. Techniques on Cultivation and Management of Carnation in Greenhouse Liupanshan Area%六盘山区康乃馨温室栽培管理技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨浩

    2012-01-01

    介绍了康乃馨温室栽培管理技术,包括品种选择、定植前准备工作、定植技术、种植后田间管理技术、常见病虫害防治、采收技术。%Cultivation and management techniques of carnation in greenhouse were intruduced, including variety selection, preparation work, planting, field management after planting, common diseases and pests prevent, harvesting techniques.

  9. Scientific Opinion on objections of a Member State to a notification (Reference C/NL/13/01) for the placing on the market of the genetically modified carnation SHD-27531-4 with a modified colour, for import of cut flowers for ornamental use, under Part C of Directive 2001/18/EC from Suntory Holdings Limited

    OpenAIRE

    Arpaia, Salvatore; Birch, Andrew Nicholas Edmund; Chesson, Andrew; du Jardin, Patrick; Gathmann, Achim; Gropp, Jürgen; Lieve, Herman; Hoen-Sorteberg, Hilde-Gunn; Jones, Huw; Kiss, József; Kleter, Gijs; Løvik, Martinus; Messéan, Antoine; Naegeli, Hanspeter; Nielsen, Kaare Magne

    2014-01-01

    The European Commission asked the Scientific Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA GMO Panel) to address the objections of Cyprus to the placing on the market of the genetically modified (GM) carnation SHD-27531-4. The GM carnation cut flowers, with a modified petal colour, are intended to be imported and distributed in the European Union for ornamental use only. The EFSA GMO Panel responded to the objections of Cyprus, taking into account the lim...

  10. Scientific Opinion on a notification (reference C/NL/09/02) for the placing on the market of the genetically modified carnation IFD-26407-2 with a modified colour, for import of cut flowers for ornamental use, under Part C of Directive 2001/18/EC from Florigene

    OpenAIRE

    Arpaia, Salvatore; Birch, Andrew Nicholas Edmund; Chesson, Andrew; du Jardin, Patrick; Gathmann, Achim; Gropp, Jürgen; Lieve, Herman; Hoen-Sorteberg, Hilde-Gunn; Jones, Huw; Kiss, József; Kleter, Gijs; Løvik, Martinus; Messéan, Antoine; Naegeli, Hanspeter; Nielsen, Kaare Magne

    2014-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) carnation IFD-26407-2 was developed to express anthocyanins in the petals conferring a mauve colour to the flowers. The GM carnation is intended to be imported in the European Union as cut flower for ornamental use only. Based on the molecular characterisation data, the Scientific Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA GMO Panel) confirms the stability of the newly introduced trait and the absence of disruption of known en...

  11. Scientific Opinion on a notification (reference C/NL/09/01) for the placing on the market of the genetically modified carnation IFD-25958-3 with a modified colour, for import of cut flowers for ornamental use, under Part C of Directive 2001/18/EC from Florigene

    OpenAIRE

    Arpaia, Salvatore; Birch, Andrew Nicholas Edmund; Chesson, Andrew; Jardin, Patrick du; Gathmann, Achim; Gropp, Jürgen; Herman, Lieve; Hoen-Sorteberg, Hilde-Gunn; Jones, Huw; Kiss, Józef; Gijs, Kleter; Lovik, Martinus; Messéan, Antoine; Naegeli, Hanspeter; Nielsen, Kåre Magne

    2014-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) carnation IFD-25958-3 was developed to express anthocyanins in the petals conferring a mauve colour to the flowers. The GM carnation is intended to be imported in the European Union as cut flower for ornamental use only. Based on the molecular characterisation data, the Scientific Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA GMO Panel) confirms the stability of the newly introduced trait and the absence of disruption of known en...

  12. Scientific Opinion on a notification (reference C/NL/09/02) for the placing on the market of the genetically modified carnation IFD-26407-2 with a modified colour, for import of cut flowers for ornamental use, under Part C of Directive 2001/18/EC from Florigene

    OpenAIRE

    Arpaia, Salvatore; Birch, Nicholas; Chesson, Andrew; du Jardin, Patrick; Gathmann, Achim; Gropp, Jürgen; Herman, Lieve; Hoen-Sorteberg, Hilde-Gunn; Jones, Huw; Kiss, József; Kleter, Gijs; Løvik, Martinus; Messean, Antoine; Naegeli, Hanspeter; Nielsen, Kåre Magne

    2015-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) carnation IFD-26407-2 was developed to express anthocyanins in the petals conferring a mauve colour to the flowers. The GM carnation is intended to be imported in the European Union as cut flower for ornamental use only. Based on the molecular characterisation data, the Scientific Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA GMO Panel) confirms the stability of the newly introduced trait and the absence of disruption...

  13. A leader intron and 115-bp promoter region necessary for expression of the carnation S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase gene in the pollen of transgenic tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Jin; Lee, Sun Hi; Park, Ky Young

    2004-12-17

    The expression of CSDC9 encoding S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (SAMDC) is developmentally and spatially regulated in carnation. To examine the regulation of the SAMDC gene, we analyzed the spatial expression of CSDC9 with a 5'-flanking beta-glucuronidase fusion in transgenic tobacco plants. GUS was strongly expressed in flower, pollen, stem and vein of cotyledons. Expression in both anther and stigma was under developmental control; analysis of a series of mutants with deletions of the 5'-flanking region demonstrated differential activation in petal, anther, stigma and pollen grains. All the major cis-regulatory elements required for pollen-specific transcription were located in the upstream region between -273 and -158. This region contains four putative elements related to gibberellin induction (pyrimidine boxes, TTTTTTCC and CCTTTT) and pollen-specific expression (GTGA and AGAAA). In addition, the first 5'-leader intron was necessary for tissue-specific expression. PMID:15589825

  14. An ethylene-responsive enhancer element is involved in the senescence-related expression of the carnation glutathione-S-transferase (GST1) gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itzhaki, H; Maxson, J M; Woodson, W R

    1994-09-13

    The increased production of ethylene during carnation petal senescence regulates the transcription of the GST1 gene encoding a subunit of glutathione-S-transferase. We have investigated the molecular basis for this ethylene-responsive transcription by examining the cis elements and trans-acting factors involved in the expression of the GST1 gene. Transient expression assays following delivery of GST1 5' flanking DNA fused to a beta-glucuronidase receptor gene were used to functionally define sequences responsible for ethylene-responsive expression. Deletion analysis of the 5' flanking sequences of GST1 identified a single positive regulatory element of 197 bp between -667 and -470 necessary for ethylene-responsive expression. The sequences within this ethylene-responsive region were further localized to 126 bp between -596 and -470. The ethylene-responsive element (ERE) within this region conferred ethylene-regulated expression upon a minimal cauliflower mosaic virus-35S TATA-box promoter in an orientation-independent manner. Gel electrophoresis mobility-shift assays and DNase I footprinting were used to identify proteins that bind to sequences within the ERE. Nuclear proteins from carnation petals were shown to specifically interact with the 126-bp ERE and the presence and binding of these proteins were independent of ethylene or petal senescence. DNase I footprinting defined DNA sequences between -510 and -488 within the ERE specifically protected by bound protein. An 8-bp sequence (ATTTCAAA) within the protected region shares significant homology with promoter sequences required for ethylene responsiveness from the tomato fruit-ripening E4 gene. PMID:8090746

  15. Part C notification (reference C/NL/13/01) from Suntory Holdings Limited for the import, distribution and retailing of carnation SHD-27531-4 cut flowers with modified petal colour for ornamental use

    OpenAIRE

    Birch, Andrew Nicholas; Casacuberta, Josep; De Schrijver, Adinda; Gathmann, Achim; Gralak, Mikolaj Antoni; Guerche, Philippe; Jones, Huw; Manachini, Barbara; Messéan, Antoine; Naegeli, Hanspeter; Ebbesen Nielsen, Elsa; Fabien Nogué, Fabien; Robaglia, Christophe; Rostoks, Nils; Sweet, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    The Scientific Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA GMO Panel) has evaluated the overall safety of genetically modified (GM) carnation SHD-27531-4 cut flowers to be imported into the European Union (EU) for ornamental use. The genetic modification results in the flowers having purple petals. The stability of the new colour trait was observed over multiple vegetative generations. The purple colour of the petals comes from the altered expression le...

  16. Chemical control of the fairy ring spot of carnation caused by Heterosporium echinulatum Control químico de la mancha foliar anillada del clavel causada por Heterosporium echinuletum

    OpenAIRE

    Peñaranda Luis Alfonso; Torres Hernán Jose; Arbeláez Germán

    1991-01-01

    The fairy ring spot caused by Heterosporium echinulatum- is one of the most limiting diseases of miniature carnation in
    Colombia. An experiment was carried out in 1989 to evaluate the control of diseases with the application of four fungicides with the very susceptible variety Sam'Pride in a cornmercial
    greenhouse. Two protectant fungicides Dichlofluanid and Propineb an two svstemic fungicides Penconazol and Triforine
    were applied weekly eigth times. A lower n...

  17. Controle da vitrificação do cravo (Dianthus caryophyllus L. in vitro Control of carnation vitrification (Dianthus caryophyllus L. in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.R.F. Cuzzuol

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Baixos níveis de benziladenina (BAP, baixo potencial de água no meio e baixa umidade condicionada por tampas de algodão foram capazes de inibir a vitrificação de cravo (Dianthus caryophyllus L. cultivado In vitro, mas essas condições implicaram no baixo desenvolvimento das plantas e da taxa de propagação. Elevados níveis de NH4NO3 demonstraram serem altamente promotores da vitrifícação assinalada pelo alto conteúdo de proteína, enquanto relação inversa foi constatada para altos níveis de CaCl2, aos quais seguiu-se aumento na atividade da peroxidase. Os resultados permitiram estabelecer um protocolo para controle da vitrificação do cravo, constituído de 4,0 g/1 de "Gelrite", 0,5 mg/1 de ácido naftalenoacético (ANA, 0,05 mg/1 de BAP, doses normais das soluções salinas do meio MS e vedação do tipo tampas de algodão para cultivo de ápices meristemáticos. Para a fase de multiplicação, este protocolo deve ser alterado para 0,5 mg/1 de BAP, 10,3 mM de NH4NO3 e 12,0 mM de CaCl2.Low levels of benzyl adenine (BAP, low water potential of the growth medium and low humidity due to cotton covers, inhibited vitrification of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. in vitro. However, under these conditions, a low development of plants and a decrease in the multiplication ratio, were observed. High levels of amonium nitrate enhanced vitrification with an increase in the total soluble protein content. An inverse correlation was observed in the presence of high levels of calcium chloride. The latter was correlated to an increase in peroxidase activity. The results allowed the establishment of a protocol to control vitrification during carnation meristein growth, as follows: "Gelrite", 4 g/1; naphtalene acetic acid, 0.5 mg/l; BAP, 0.05 mg/l; normal dosis of MS salts; cotton covers. For in vitro multiplication the protocol should be altered to BAP, 0.5 mg/1; amoniuin nitrate 10.3 mM; calcium chloride 12.0 mM.

  18. Evaluación de nuevos genotipos de clavel ( Dianthus caryophyllus L. obtenidos mediante hibridación varietal Phenotypic evaluation of new carnation hybrids (Dianthus caryophyllus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuellar Sonia

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available

    En Colombia la floricultura representa un renglón importante de las exportaciones, lo que hace fundamental el desarrollo de estudios básicos tendientes a la producción de variedades de clavel adaptadas a las condiciones nacionales. En el análisis de germinación y desarrollo de 10 cruzamientos entre variedades comerciales de clavel se encontró: que las sernillas híbridas de clavel no presentan problemas de viabilidad, que es posible obtener en las progenies plantas de desarrollo y floración más precoz que el de sus progenitores. De la misma forma se puede obtener mejoramiento en la producción de esquejes. En cuanto a las características de la flor se evaluaron parámetros importantes para la comercialización del clavel encontrándose que: es posible obtener mejoramiento en longitud y fortaleza del tallo, diámetro de la flor y número de pétalos, aunque es necesario hacer seguimiento a generaciones posteriores del cultivo para estar seguros de que las características deseadas se mantienen. Parámetros importantes en la comercialización de la flor como la forma de la corola, la forma y la coloración de las hojas, mostraron depender del ambiente (condiciones del cultivo más que de las características genéticas.

    The flower production in Colombia is important for the country exports. Therefore research in flower breeding, especially carnation is essential. Analyzing germination and development of 1a crosses between commercial cultivars we found what hybrid seeds do not have viability problems, and offspring plants with flowering and development most precocious than their parents were found. In same way, is possible to improve cuttings production. Flower features are important parameters for carnation commercialization. Stem length, stem strength, flower diameter and petal number can be improved, but is important to follow the next generations to make sure of the best characters are stable. Other parameters commercially

  19. Study of SNP on Preservation of Carnation Cut Flowers%SNP对康乃馨切花保鲜的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余细红; 曾海燕; 杨柳青

    2012-01-01

    [目的]探讨SNP对康乃馨切花的保鲜作用。[方法]以硝普钠(SNP)为一氧化氮供体,研究浓度为5、50、100、1 000μmol/L时的SNP对康乃馨切花保鲜寿命的影响。[结果]SNP浓度为100μmol/L时对康乃馨切花的影响最大,可明显延缓弯茎出现、增加切花鲜重及维持较高含糖量,延长切花瓶插寿命。[结论]一定浓度的SNP处理康乃馨切花可延长切花瓶插寿命,提高观赏价值。%[Objective] The article discussed the effects of SNP treatment on the cut flower.[Method] 5、50、100、1 000 μmol/L SNP(sodium nitroprusside treatment,NO releaser) on the cut flower were examined.[Result] The concentration of 100 μmol/L SNP could delay the stem bended,increase fresh weight and vase life of cut carnation flower,maintain the activities of solubility sugar.[conclusion] SNP could prolong vase life,improve the quality of appearance.

  20. Fabrication of the carnation-like CCN-CuS p-n heterojunctions with enhanced photocatalytic performance under visible light irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qizhao; Shi, Yanbiao; Pu, Lili; Ta, Yuting; He, Jijuan; Zhang, Shuling; Zhong, Junbo; Li, Jianzhang; Su, Bitao

    2016-03-01

    Carnation-like CuS nanoflowers were prepared by a mildly hydrothermal method without any surfactants or templates and further evolved into CCN-CuS p-n heterojunctions. And the as-prepared samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), photoluminescence (PL) and the photocurrent response. The results show that the appropriate load content of CCN is conducive to form well-morphology CCN-CuS heterojunctions. And the formation of CCN-CuS p-n heterojunctions is both beneficial to achieve higher charge separation efficiency and promote its photocatalytic performance to RhB dye without the existence of H2O2, which is commonly used as the sources of hydroxyl radicals to assist photocatalytic process. Besides, the as-synthesized 5CCN-CuS NFs show good stability and no obvious inactivation occurred after five degradation cycles runs.

  1. Effects of cut flower shape and content of sugars in flower organs on the longevity of vase life in standard type carnation [Dianthus] and relationships between the longevity and temperature and solar radiation during the growing period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We obtained carnation cut flowers 'Fransisco' from a greenhouse on the first Monday every month in February to June, and investigated the relationship between vase life and content of sugars in the cut flowers. Correlations between the longevity of vase life and temperatures in the greenhouse and amount of solar radiation during the growing period were also investigated. 1. Fresh weight and stem diameter of the cut flowers were highest in February and March, and decreased from April to June. Mean vase life was shortest in March (4.5 days) and longest in May (5.9 days). 2. Fructose and glucose contents in petals were highest in May (10.0 mg and 6.5 mg ¥ 100 mg-1 DW) and lowest in March (6.0 mg and 4.8 mg ¥ 100 mg-1 DW). 3. The vase life of carnation was highly correlated with day-time or night-time mean temperatures in 20 days to harvest, and it was estimated that the optimum growing temperature for long vase life of the cut flower was around 22°C in day-time and 14°C in night-time. (author)

  2. Evaluation of two systerns of soil desinfection and its interaction with sorne rnicronutrient formulations on the incidence of Fusarium oxysporum in two carnation varieties Evaluación de dos sistemas de desinfección del suelo y su interacción con algunas formulaciones de microelementos sobre la incidencia de Fusarium oxysporum en dos variedades de clavel

    OpenAIRE

    Orozco de Amézquita Martha; Chaparro de Barrera Angela; Arbeláez Germán; Garcés de Granados Emira; Ospina Juan

    1993-01-01

    A research was done in a commercial greenhouse in order to evaluate two soil treatments before planting and foliar application of Zinc, Cooper, Manganese, Boron and Molybdenum in the control of vascular wilt of Carnation caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. dianthi. A greater reduction ofthe fungus population in the seil and disease incidence was observed with
    the soil treatment with Dazomet + steam. The application of micronutrients to the foliage of the plants did not produce a sig...

  3. Callus and cell suspension cultures of carnation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engvild, Kjeld Christensen

    1972-01-01

    . Cell suspension cultures worked best in media containing 2,4-D in which they had a doubling time of about 2 days. Filtered suspensions were successfully plated on agar in petri dishes, but division was never observed in single cells. The cultures initiated roots at higher concentrations of IAA or NAA...

  4. Polyphenoloxidase and β-1,3-Glucanase Differential Induction in Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus Infected by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi race 2 Inducción diferencial de polifenoloxidasa y β -1,3-glucanasa en clavel (Dianthus caryophyllus durante la infección por fusarium oxysporum f. Sp. Dianthi raza 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardila Harold

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the changes on the dynamics of polyphenoloxidase (PFO and β-1,3- glucanase (Glu enzymes in carnation steems, which had been previously inoculatedwith the pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi race 2 (Fod. We established the experimental conditions in order to obtain the extract of the enzymes from the carnation steems with the aim to evaluate their enzymatic activity. The best results for PFO were obtained when acetone powder formation, before the extraction with phosphate buffer pH 6,5 aditionated with 3% PVPP, was used, and for Glu, phosphate buffer pH 6.5. The PFO activity quantification was done using catecol at pH 7.0, 37 ºC and measuring the products on 420 nm and, for Glu activity using "laminarina digitata" at 37 ºC and pH 5.5. Then, carnation's cutting from a highly tolerant variety (Carolina and a susceptible (Uconn to Fod race 2, were inoculated with the pathogen, then submitted to the enzymes analysis at different post-inoculation time-lapses. For the susceptible variety, the PFO activity was not affected, whereas in the highly illness
    resistant variety, there was an important inducement 12 h and 24 h post-inoculation, meaning that this enzyme could be playing a significant rol in the defense response, in metabolisms related with the lignification and synthesis of phenolic precursors. Alternatively, the Glu enzyme showed activity inducement in both varieties which seems to comprise a fraction of a non-specific response, uncorrelated with the active defense mechanisms of the carnation against this pathogen.Se evaluó el cambio en el comportamiento de las enzimas polifenoloxidasa (PFO y b-1,3-glucanasa (Glu en tallos de plantas de clavel inoculadas con el patógeno Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi (Fod raza 2, con el fin de determinar su posible participación en la respuesta defensiva y en la resistencia de la planta al  marchitamiento vascular. Se evaluaron parámetros para la extracción y determinaci

  5. INDUCCIÓN DIFERENCIAL DE POLIFENOLOXIDASA Y beta-1,3-GLUCANASA EN CLAVEL (Dianthus caryophyllus DURANTE LA INFECCIÓN POR Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi RAZA 2 Polyphenoloxidase and beta-1,3-Glucanase Differential Induction in Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus Infectedby Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi race 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BLANCA LIGIA HIGUERA

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el cambio en el comportamiento de las enzimas polifenoloxidasa (PFO y beta-1,3-glucanasa (Glu en tallos de plantas de clavel inoculadas con el patógeno Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi (Fod raza 2, con el fin de determinar su posible participación en la respuesta defensiva y en la resistencia de la planta al marchitamiento vascular. Se evaluaron parámetros para la extracción y determinación de actividad de dichas enzimas. Las condiciones que proporcionaron los mejores resultados de extracción fueron: obtención de polvos de acetona previa al tratamiento con buffer de fosfatos pH 6,5 con 3% de PVPP para PFO y con buffer de fosfatos pH 6,5 para Glu. La cuantificación de PFO se llevó a cabo usando catecol a pH 7,0 y 37 ºC y midiendo los productos de reacción a 420 nm, y la de Glu usando laminarina digitata a 37 ºC y pH 5,5. Una vez establecidos los métodos, esquejes de clavel de una variedad altamente tolerante (Carolina y de una susceptible (Uconn fueron inoculados con el patógeno y sometidos al análisis de las enzimas a diferentes tiempos post-inoculación. Mientras que en la variedad susceptible la actividad PFO no se vio afectada, en la tolerante se presentó una importante y significativa inducción de esta enzima a las 12 h y 24 h, indicando que puede desempeñar un papel clave en la defensa de la planta, en fenómenos metabólicos probablemente relacionados con lignificación y síntesis de fenólicos. La enzima Glu presentó inducción en ambas variedades, aunque a diferentes tiempos, lo cual hace parte de una respuesta metabólica inespecífica, no relacionada con mecanismos de defensa activa del clavel contra el patógeno causal del marchitamiento vascular.We evaluated the changes on the dynamics of polyphenoloxidase (PFO and beta-1,3-glucanase (Glu enzymes in carnation steems, which had been previously inoculated with the pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi race 2 (Fod. We established the experimental

  6. Isolation and Characterization of a Polyphenoloxidase Related with Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus Resistence to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi raza 2 Aislamiento y caracterización de una polifenoloxidasa relacionada con la tolerancia del clavel (Dianthus caryophyllus a Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi raza 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roquesa Mayorga Viana

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenoloxidase (PPO was isolated and purified from stems of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L after the inoculation with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi race 2 (FOD2 of a tolerant variety. Purification was performed using column chromatography of ionic exchange, hydrophobic interaction and molecular exclusion. With these successive steps, a factor of 314 fold purification was achieved. The SDS-PAGE analysis
    showed one band of 40 kDa. The purified enzyme was partially characterized using cathecol as substrate and determined the optimal temperature as 45ºC and 7.5 as optimal pH. The enzyme showed a Michaelis-Menten kinetic with Km of 249 mM and Vmax 322 U/min. The IP was 5.0 indicating the acidic character of this protein. Using the purified enzyme and its reaction products, in vitro fungitoxic assays were realized
    indicating an important inhibitory activity against FOD2 of 57% at 24 hours. Then, it is possible to postulate that this enzyme is activated as a part of the defense mechanismsin this interaction model.Se purificó y caracterizó bioquímicamente la enzima polifenoloxidasa (PFO inducida en tallos de clavel (Dianthus caryophyllus L de variedad tolerante por inoculación con
    el patógeno Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi raza 2 (FOD2, causante del marchitamiento vascular. La purificación se logró a través de procesos sucesivos de cromatografía en columna de intercambio iónico, de interacción hidrofóbica y de exclusión
    molecular. A través de éstos se logró un factor de purificación de 314 veces con respecto al extracto inicial. La proteína purificada mostró actividad PFO y una única banda en SDS-PAGE correspondiente a 40 kDa. Usando catecol como sustrato, se determinó su temperatura óptima en 45 ºC y su pH óptimo en 7,5. La enzima presentó una cinética tipo Michaelis-Menten con un valor Km de 249 mM y Vmáx 322 U/min. El punto isoeléctrico (PI= 5,0 permitió establecer que se trata de una

  7. Radiobiological researches on Dianthus caryophyllus L. carnation chimeras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research thesis reports a radiobiological study of Dianthus periclinal chimeras performed by submitting plants and plant cuttings at different physiological stages to cobalt-60 gamma irradiation under different dose conditions and rates. The effects of these treatments are studied while growing the so-processed plants and by microscopic examination of sections of irradiated meristems

  8. The Rainbow Flag and the Green Carnation: Grindr in The Gay Village

    OpenAIRE

    Crooks, Roderic N.

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses autoethnography to examine locative media — specifically, the location–based social network app Grindr — in the context of spatial practices. Because of the way it integrates the physical location of a user in the construction of a digital space, its curious political and logistical challenge to previously defined spatial arrangements such as gay villages, and the negotiation over interpersonal relations its use entails, Grindr poses a unique case to examine questions around s...

  9. Carnations and the Floriculture Industry: Documenting the Cultivation and Marketing of Flowers in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shu; Meyer, Linda M.

    2008-01-01

    The Records of the Colorado Flower Growers Association (CFGA) is an archival collection documenting the association prior to its 1979 name change. The CFGA was founded in 1928 to support the production and marketing of greenhouse flowers grown commercially in the state. In 1979, the organization changed its name to the Colorado Greenhouse Growers…

  10. Optimization and antioxidant properties of phytosynthesized silver nanoparticles using Dianthus caryophyllus L. (carnation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachna, Saharan, Baljeet Singh; Yadav, M. S.; Sharma, Nisha

    2016-05-01

    In the recent years, silver nanoparticles have been the focus of Nanobiotechnology due to their unique interdisciplinary applications in the field of biomedicals, material diagnostics, optics and chemistry. A wide set of physical and chemical methods have been devised for providing the effective and efficient synthesis procedure of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) but are somehow expensive and involve toxic substances. There is a critical need to develop reliable and eco-friendly process for synthesizing silver nanoparticles. In the present investigation, a simple and cost-effective green approach has been utilized for the production of stable silver nanoparticles by employing Dianthus caryophyllus flower extract. Different optimization conditions were checked for extract capped AgNPs and characterized by UV-Visible spectrophotometer. The optimum 0.02 dilution of extract found efficient to reduce 4 mM silver ions in the ratio 60:40 at pH 9. The antioxidant potential of the resultant AgNPs was observed using Hydrogen peroxide assay. There was an increasing trend of antioxidant property with increasing concentration. This potential of these photosynthesized AgNPs makes them reliable for good cause of society, mainly in therapeutic and biomedical applications.

  11. Effect of Gibberellic Acid, Kinetin and Indole 3-Acetic Acid on Seed Germination Performance of Dianthus caryophyllus (Carnation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajib Roychowdhury

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was undertaken with an objective to investigate the effect of various concentrations of plant growth regulators, i.e., Gibberellic acid (GA3, Kinetin and Indole 3-acetic acid (IAA on seed germination of Dianthus caryophyllus. Dianthus seeds were soaked in different concentrations (0 ppm or control, 10 ppm, 20 ppm, 30 ppm and 40 ppm of each of GA3, Kinetin and IAA for 24 h at room temperature (25±2oC. Three replicates of each treatment with ten seeds per replicate were arranged for precise physiological analysis. Significant variation was found in all aspects after analysis of variance (ANOVA of each mean value. After two weeks of seed soaking, it was noted that germination percentages were significantly accelerated by lower concentrations (10 and 20 ppm of used hormones. Amongst the three potential growth regulators, 20 ppm was found most effective because it showed highest germination percentage for GA3 (87.46%, Kinetin (78.92% and IAA (75.35%. A great deal of information relating to seed germination practices shows that these plant growth regulators were efficient in overcoming dormancy leading to rapid seed germination. GA3 was selected as best hormone in this study, which showed highest seed germination (87.46%. These results could be useful in large scale cultivation of Dianthus caryophyllus plants to improve its floricultural impact worldwide.

  12. Control químico del Nematodo quiste Heterodera trifolii en clavel miniatura Chemical control of the cyst nematode, Heterodera trifolii in miniature carnation

    OpenAIRE

    Marroquin Alicia; Arbelaez Germán

    1991-01-01

    Una de las enfermedades en el cultivo del clavel recientemente registradas en Colombia es el nemátodo quiste, Heterodera trifolii. Un aumento del marchitamiento vascular ocasionado por Fusarium oxysporumof. sp. dianthi se ha observado en algunas fincas afectadas por los dos patógenos. La investigación se realizó para evaluar el efecto de varios productos químicos en el control del nemátodo, en un invernadero comercial con clavel miniatura de la variedad Red Baron. Los fumigantes DD-metilisoti...

  13. 蚓粪复合基质对康乃馨育苗及其生长的影响%Effects of Vermicompost-formulated Substrate on Seedling Growth of Carnation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈玲玲; 吴晶; 钱晓晴

    2011-01-01

    以蚓粪、椰糠、泥炭、珍珠岩、蛭石为原料,按不同比例混合,研究其对康乃馨出苗率、株高、茎粗、叶长、叶片数、分支数、地上部干重、地下部干重、根冠比、壮苗指数等生长指标的影响,筛选出最佳基质配方.结果表明:椰糠和蚯蚓粪明显地促进康乃馨的生长发育,以60%蚓粪+10%椰糠+30%混合矿物(珍珠岩:蛭石=1∶1)处理综合效果最理想,最有利于康乃馨形成壮苗.所得到的复合基质的容重、总孔隙度、毛管持水量、通气孔隙度和pH均符合育苗基质的要求.

  14. Synthesis of Methyl Diantilis, a Commercially Important Fragrance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, William H.; Connell, Katelyn B.

    2006-01-01

    Synthetic sequences in the undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory illustrate important synthetic strategies, reagents, or experimental techniques, oftentimes resulting in the synthesis of commercially important compounds. A fragrance with a 'spicy, carnation, sweet, vanilla', named after carnations (Dianthus caryophllus), Methyl Diantillis is…

  15. A minimal cost micropropagation protocol for Dianthus caryophyllus L.-- a commercially significant venture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Manu

    2016-03-01

    In tissue culture, high production cost of the products restricts their reach. Though tissue culture is a major strength in floriculture it is marred by pricing issues. Hence, we developed a complete regeneration low cost micropropagation protocol for an economically important floriculture crop, carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.). Successful regeneration of carnation from nodal explants on cost-efficient medium indicates that psyllium husk, sugar and RO water can effectively replace the conventional medium comprising agar, sucrose and distilled water. The protocol can contribute to increased carnation production at comparatively reduced cost, and there by encourage wide scale adoption by the common growers. PMID:27145634

  16. Using a fading procedure to increase fluid consumption in a child with feeding problems.

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, M R; Piazza, C C; Kelly, L.; Ochsner, C A; Santana, C M

    2001-01-01

    Stimulus fading was combined with differential reinforcement and extinction to increase intake of a calorie-dense fluid by a 6-year-old child with feeding problems. The fading procedure consisted of adding Carnation Instant Breakfast and then milk to water (a fluid the child would drink).

  17. A petunia homeodomain-leucine zipper protein, PhHD-Zip, plays an important role in flower senescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flower senescence is mediated in part by changes of plant hormones, such as ethylene, cytokinin and abscisic acid (ABA). Ethylene is known to control flower senescence in many species, especially ethylene sensitive flowers, like petunia, carnation and rose. During flower senescence in petunia and ot...

  18. Revolution and Cinema: the Portuguese example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Rodovalho

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Forty years after the Carnation Revolution, the international conference Revolution and Cinema: the Portuguese examplegathered more than thirty scholars and filmmakers aiming to re-think the “cinematic representation of the political event from 1974 to today.” This text proposes a report of the three-day colloquium.

  19. Expression of defender against apoptotic death (DAD-1) in iris and dianthus petals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kop, van der D.A.M.; Ruys, G.; Dees, D.; Schoot, van der C.; Boer, de A.D.; Doorn, van W.G.

    2003-01-01

    The gene defender against apoptotic death (DAD-1) prevents programmed cell death in animal cells. We investigated the expression pattern of DAD-1 in petals of iris (Iris x hollandica cv. Blue Magic) and carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus cv. Etarro). DAD-1 expression in Iris petals was strongly reduce

  20. Empleo de especies agrícolas y del cultivo de tejidos vegetales en la agricultura urbana de la provincia de Granma, Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Silva Pupo, Juan José; Espinosa Reyes, Ángel; Borges García, Misterbino; Orlando S. González Paneque; Fajardo Rosabal, Lilien; Pérez Pérez, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    In the Urban Agriculture National Program, different species of plants and animals are used for foods production, as well as, the use of are the fertilization of the cultivations. The use biotechnological and traditional methods it has allowed the propagation of yam, curcuma, carnation and mulberry.

  1. Comparison Of Modified Dual Ternary Indexing And Multi-Key Hashing Algorithms For Music Information Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeswari Sridhar

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work we have compared two indexing algorithms that have been used to index and retrieve Carnatic music songs. We have compared a modified algorithm of the Dual ternary indexing algorithm for music indexing and retrieval with the multi-key hashing indexing algorithm proposed by us. The modification in the dual ternary algorithm was essential to handle variable length query phrase and to accommodate features specific to Carnatic music. The dual ternary indexing algorithm is adapted for Carnatic music by segmenting using the segmentation technique for Carnatic music. The dual ternary algorithm is compared with the multi-key hashing algorithm designed by us for indexing and retrieval in which features like MFCC, spectral flux, melody string and spectral centroid are used as features for indexing data into a hash table. The way in which collision resolution was handled by this hash table is different than the normal hash table approaches. It was observed that multi-key hashing based retrieval had a lesser time complexity than dual-ternary based indexing The algorithms were also compared for their precision and recall in which multi-key hashing had a better recall than modified dual ternary indexing for the sample data considered.

  2. Comparison Of Modified Dual Ternary Indexing And Multi-Key Hashing Algorithms For Music Information Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeswari Sridhar

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work we have compared two indexing algorithms that have been used to index and retrieveCarnatic music songs. We have compared a modified algorithm of the Dual ternary indexing algorithmfor music indexing and retrieval with the multi-key hashing indexing algorithm proposed by us. Themodification in the dual ternary algorithm was essential to handle variable length query phrase and toaccommodate features specific to Carnatic music. The dual ternary indexing algorithm is adapted forCarnatic music by segmenting using the segmentation technique for Carnatic music. The dual ternaryalgorithm is compared with the multi-key hashing algorithm designed by us for indexing and retrieval inwhich features like MFCC, spectral flux, melody string and spectral centroid are used as features forindexing data into a hash table. The way in which collision resolution was handled by this hash table isdifferent than the normal hash table approaches. It was observed that multi-key hashing based retrievalhad a lesser time complexity than dual-ternary based indexing The algorithms were also compared fortheir precision and recall in which multi-key hashing had a better recall than modified dual ternaryindexing for the sample data considered.

  3. First occurrence of Ochlerotatus japonicus in the state of Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roppo, Monica R; Lilja, Jack L; Maloney, Francis A; Sames, William J

    2004-03-01

    This is a report on the 1st occurrence of Ochlerotatus japonicus in the state of Washington. In August through November 2001, immature stages were found near the King County communities of Carnation (2 sites), Black Diamond, Kent, and Issaquah and were reared to the adult stage for identification and preservation. PMID:15088708

  4. Ethylene-induced senescence-related gene expression requires protein synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have investigated the effects of inhibiting protein synthesis on the ethylene-induced expression of 3 carnation senescence-related genes, pSR5, pSR8, and pSR12. Treatment of preclimacteric carnation petal discs with 1μg/ml of cycloheximide, a cytoplasmic protein synthesis inhibitor, for 3h inhibited protein synthesis by >80% as quantitated by the incorporation of [35S]methionine into protein. Pre-treatment of petal discs with cycloheximide prevented ethylene-induced SR transcript accumulation. Cycloheximide treatment of petal discs held in air did not result in increased levels of SR mRNA. These results indicate that ethylene does not interact with pre-formed factors but rather that the activation of SR gene expression by ethylene is mediated by labile protein factor(s) synthesized on cytoplasmic ribosomes. Experiments are currently underway to determine if cycloheximide exerts its effect at the transcriptional or post-transcriptional level

  5. Exploitation de la variabilité somaclonale pour la recherche d'oeillet (Dianthus caryophyllus L. tolérant à la salinité

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haouala, F.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Exploitation of Somaclonal Variability for Research of Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. Tolerant to Salinity. Callogenesis in carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. 'Légion d'Honneur' is possible from internodes in a medium containing 0.1 mg.l-1 NAA and 0.1 mg.l-1 TDZ. Regeneration from callus needs 2 mg.l-1 BA. Shoots rooting is obtained on a medium containing 0.5 mg.l-1 IBA. Callus growth is reduced and regeneration rate is very affected in presence of NaCl 100 mM. Shoot rooting is better without NaCl. Regenerated plants present somaclonal variation and those obtained under salt stress have a better relative tolerance to salinity than plants regenerated without salt.

  6. Atividade anti-helmíntica de plantas em frangos de corte naturalmente infectados com Ascaridia galli Anthelminthic activity of plants in broiler chickens naturally infected with Ascaridia galli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M. Fernandes

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The anthelminthic activity of four plants - Allium sativum (garlic, Punica granatum (pomegranate, Tynnanthus labiatus (liana-carnation and Cocus nucifera (coconut with the activity of mebendazole - was compared. Seventy Hubbard chickens, naturally infected with Ascarídia galli, divided in 5 groups of 10 chichens plus a control group (not treated, n=20 were used in the experiment. The vegetable matter was used in the forms of aqueous extract, juice and triturated, administered by probe or incorporated to the diet, in the doses of 2, 3 and 10g/kg/day, for three days. A non parametric test was used to evaluate the anthelminthic effect of the plants. The eliminations of A. galli for the garlic, pomegranate, liana-carnation, coconut and mebendazole were: 9.7; 6.6, 16.7; 19.0 and 99.0%, respectively. The results showed that those plants do not have anthelminthic activity.

  7. Research on mutation generation in higher plants with heavy ions at NIRS-HIMAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion beams have much higher linear energy transfer and relative biological effectiveness than those of gamma rays. In this study, the influence of heavy ion beam irradiation at National Institute of Radiological Sciences-Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (NIRS-HIMAC) on the growth, survival and mutagenesis in carnation, chrysanthemum and petunia was examined. The relations between three plant species and median growth doses of three kinds of ion beams, 500 Mev/u argon, 400 Mev/u neon and 290 Mev/u carbon, have been clarified. This is useful for the optimum use of the NIRS-HIMAC ion beams in plant breeding. Efficient induction of mutants with desired characteristics has great impact on both basic and applied research. Preliminary research to examine the effect of material pre-treatment was conducted in chrysanthemum var. 'Ferris Aura. 'The frequency of flower color-mutants in plant group regenerated from tissues irradiated after pigment-induction was higher than in the group with non-pigment induction. This result suggested the pigment-induction specifically increases the efficiency to obtain flower color mutants. Carnations have several pigments and the pigment color changes by glucose addition to the pigment molecule. New acylglucose-dependent glucosyltransferase, vanillyl-glucose: anthocyanin 5-O-glucosyltransferase (VA5GT), that is discovered by Matsuba et. al played a vital role to change red pigment into dark pink in carnation. The red mutant obtained by the irradiation of HIMAC ion beams on carnation var. 'Komachi' lacks this enzyme. (author)

  8. Atividade anti-helmíntica de plantas em frangos de corte naturalmente infectados com Ascaridia galli Anthelminthic activity of plants in broiler chickens naturally infected with Ascaridia galli

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, R. M.; M.L.A. Rodrigues; H.R. Borba; M.Z.L.C.M. Fernandes; A. Amorim

    2005-01-01

    The anthelminthic activity of four plants - Allium sativum (garlic), Punica granatum (pomegranate), Tynnanthus labiatus (liana-carnation) and Cocus nucifera (coconut) with the activity of mebendazole - was compared. Seventy Hubbard chickens, naturally infected with Ascarídia galli, divided in 5 groups of 10 chichens plus a control group (not treated, n=20) were used in the experiment. The vegetable matter was used in the forms of aqueous extract, juice and triturated, administered by probe or...

  9. Influence of extremely low energy radiation on artificial tissue: Effects on image quality and superficial dose

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Akhras, M.-Ali H.; Aljarrah, K.; A Al-omari; H M Al-Khateeb; Albiss, B. A.; Azez, K.; Makhadmeh, G.

    2008-01-01

    The design and slicing technique of artificial soft tissue are presented. Artificial soft tissue has optical penetration properties similar to biological tissues. The soft tissues are made of agar dissolved in water as a transparent tissue (control) incorporated with scatter materials such as polystyrene microspheres and absorbers such as artificial dairy substitute, coffee mate (Carnation Co.). The radiation's interaction with 20 and 40 keV X-ray, and visible light (400–800 nm) with differen...

  10. Population dynamic of Zelleria oleastrella (Mill.) (Yponomeutidae) and Cacoecimorpha pronubana (Hübn.) (Tortricidae) (Lepidoptera) in olive groves

    OpenAIRE

    KAÇAR, Gülay

    2015-01-01

    Two lepidopteran species have recently been recorded as feeding on olives in Turkey. Zelleria oleastrella (Mill.) (Yponomeutidae) is a monophagous pest that feeds on olive. Cacoecimorpha pronubana (Hübn.) (Tortricidae) that is known as Carnation tortrix is polyphagous pest. This study was conducted to determine larva population dynamic of two lepidopteran pests in olive groves in Adana, Hatay, Mersin and Osmaniye provinces in 2009-2010. For this goal, their larvae were determined by counting ...

  11. Influence of gamma irradiation on GeS nanostructured solar converter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text : In recent years the scientists of North Cardin state of the United States have made a nanostrucutre similar to the flower of carnation from GeS layered crystals. From these nanostructures it is possible to make solar panels and batteries. The interest in layered semiconductor crystals is increasing rapidly. This is because the crystals are obtained by relatively easy technological method and its surface does not need extra gloss

  12. Pathogenicity of eight formae speciales of Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht. in relation to different plants species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Wagner

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Eight formae speciales of Fusarium oxysporum were isolated from plants of aster, flax, bean, pea, tomato, carnation, yellow lupine and pine, showing visible symptoms of wilting. Plants of the eight species were inoculated with each of the studied formae speciales of F. oxysporum, F. oxysporum f. sp. lupini could be reisolated only from lupine, while the others were pathogenic for the hosts and showed ability to colonize another plants.

  13. Pathogenicity of eight formae speciales of Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht. in relation to different plants species

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Wagner

    2014-01-01

    Eight formae speciales of Fusarium oxysporum were isolated from plants of aster, flax, bean, pea, tomato, carnation, yellow lupine and pine, showing visible symptoms of wilting. Plants of the eight species were inoculated with each of the studied formae speciales of F. oxysporum, F. oxysporum f. sp. lupini could be reisolated only from lupine, while the others were pathogenic for the hosts and showed ability to colonize another plants.

  14. Electrophoretic karyotype variation among pathotypes of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. dianthi

    OpenAIRE

    Migheli, Quirico; Berio, T.; Gullino, Maria Lodovica; Garibaldi, Angelo

    1995-01-01

    Karyotype analysis by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was applied to characterize isolates of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. dianthi, the causal agent of Fusarium wilt on carnation. Eleven distinct chromosomal DNA patterns were detected among 38 pathogenic isolates, and the total genome size was estimated to range from 23·7 to 36·4 Mb. Except for isolates belonging to pathotypes 2 and 4, all members of the same pathotype shared overlapping electrophoretic karyotypes. Karyotypes of isolates assigne...

  15. USE OF AGRICULTURAL WASTES FOR BIOMASS PRODUCTION OF THE PLANT GROWTH PROMOTER ACTINOBACTERIA, Streptomyces sp. MCR26

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Ávila-Cortes

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of agricultural wastes for plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR biomass production has not been widely explored. This study focuses on the development a culture medium for PGPR Streptomyces sp. MCR26, evaluating the influence of carnation harvest waste, yeast extract and ammonium sulfate on biomass production, as well as, the effect of biomass produced in the designed culture medium on the maintenance of PGPR MCR26 traits. The experiments were conducted by a full factorial design, varying nutritional sources concentrations, with duplicate experiments at the central point. Yeast extract and carnation harvest waste were the most influential factors, showing a positive effect on biomass production. The statistical model predicted optimal conditions for maximal biomass production at 20.0 g/L carnation harvest waste and 4.0 g/L yeast extract. Shake flask validation experiments resulted in 8.087 g/L of MCR26 biomass, 80.6% higher compared to carboxymetil cellulose (CMC broth. MCR26 biomass produced on designed culture medium enhanced hydroxamate production, and maintained phosphatases and indole-3-acetic acid synthesis. In addition, white clover inoculated plants presented higher shoot biomass accumulation compared to control treatment; nevertheless, there were no effects on seed germination. These results demonstrated that the designed culture medium effectively induced Streptomyces sp. MCR26 biomass production and maintained its plant growth promotion traits.

  16. Gm crops: between biological risk and environmental and economic benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transgenic crops were the result of the application of recombinant DNA technology in agriculture. These crops were developed by transfer of foreign genes (transgenes) from any biological origin (animal, plant, microbial, viral) to the genome of cultivated species of plants. The crops genetically modified (GM) have been used in the world since 1996; up to December 2010 they counted to a billion hectares planted throughout the period. In just the past year 2010 148 million hectares were planted, grown by 15.4 million farmers in 29 countries. GM crops that are used in global agriculture are mainly soybean, cotton, corn and canola, which express transgenes derived from bacteria, and confer resistance to lepidopteron insects (ILR) or herbicide tolerance (HT; glyphosate and glufosinate ammonium). the first transgenic varieties containing only a single transgene, or simple event, while the current varieties express several transgenes, or stacked, conferring resistance to different species of Lepidoptera and coleopteran insects and tolerance to two different herbicides. In 2010 were planted in Colombia, 18.874 hectares of GM cotton, 16.793 hectares of GM corn, and 4 hectares of GM carnations and GM roses. GM corn and GM cotton were planted in Sucre, Cesar, Cordoba, Huila and Tolima. GM corn was planted in Antioquia, Valle del Cauca, Meta, Cundinamarca and Santander. Carnations and roses were planted in Cundinamarca. GM maize and GM cotton expressing ILR and HT features, as simple events or stacked. In the case of GM carnation and GM roses, these genotypes that express the color blue. Academia has tried to organize the debate on the adoption of GM crops around the analysis of biological risks and environmental vs environmental and economic benefits. Biological hazards are defined by the possible negative effects on human consumers or negative effects on the environment. The environmental benefits are related to reduce use of agrochemicals (insecticides and herbicides

  17. Scientific Opinion on the risk to plant health posed by Phialophora cinerescens (Wollenweber van Beyma for the EU territory, with the identification and evaluation of risk reduction options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Plant Health (PLH

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Panel on Plant Health conducted a pest risk assessment for Phialophora cinerescens (Wollenweber van Beyma (the causal agent of Phialophora carnation wilt for the EU territory, identified risk management options and evaluated their effectiveness. The risk assessment was conducted taking into account current EU legislation. The Panel also provided an opinion on the effectiveness of the present EU requirements against this organism, listed in Council Directive 2000/29/EC. Four pathways for entry were identified. Plants for propagation (rooted and unrooted cuttings of host plants were considered as a major pathway. Entry via this pathway was rated as unlikely because of the effective disease prevention techniques for cuttings now in place in places of production. P. cinerescens has been found in most Member States but with few occurrences or restricted distribution. In some Member States the pest was eradicated. Owing to current cultural practices and control measures, establishment in areas in which the pest was not previously present is considered very unlikely. For the same reasons, the probability of infection of crops is strongly reduced and hence the probability of spread to areas where the pest was not previously present is very unlikely. Similarly, the impact on carnation is at the moment minimal and unlikely to increase in the future. Risk reduction options to reduce the probability of entry and spread and mitigate the impact were evaluated; those addressing the phytosanitary status of the propagation material were considered to be the most effective and feasible (e.g., the officially accepted carnation certification system for source planting material, including the current regulations laid down in Council Directive 2000/29/EC. If the current regulation were removed, a certification system could be just as effective as the existing regulation, provided it included practically all the prescriptions of the present regulation.

  18. 凝聚巾帼智慧力量 建设和谐富裕凤城

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    Yinchuan, capital of Northwest China's Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, is one of China's important commercial cities. The city is inhabited by more than 800,000 Hui and Han women and children. Over the past several years, the Yinchuan Women's Federation has taken the lead in establishing women's organizations, such as "Carnation Home" (an organization that provides financial aid, psychological counseling and free physical checkups to single mothers), mutual-aid groups to benefit left-behind women (whose husbands have left home to work elsewhere),

  19. [The element determination of six samples of petal powders by using XRF spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Yan; Ma, Mi-Xia; Nie, Zuo-Ren

    2012-07-01

    Elements and contents in three kinds of petal powders of white and red rose, carnation, and butterfly orchis were determined by using XRF technic, and the data for every group were compared and analysed. The results indicated that all powders contain no toxic elements determined but have lots of normal elements and trace elements, such as Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, Ni, Si, Sr, and Rb. The same sort of powder had approximately equivalent elements but their contents are different, and the element content of the white sort. was higher than the red one. PMID:23016365

  20. 芥川龍之介の植物世界 : 感応する植物・植物への変容

    OpenAIRE

    西川, 正二

    2012-01-01

    Ryunosuke Akutagwa loved plants. He loved to have flowers in his room, such as carnations or hyacinths in a vase or Christmas roses in a pot. He not only made haiku and waka about various flowers but also referred to a variety of plants in his letters, travel writings, and other works. His unrequited love was always expressed by flowers in waka. In the Kuzumaki Archive there are numerous fragments of writings classified as "Plants notes" or "Plant myths notes" which show his interest in plant...

  1. Effectiveness of electron irradiation as a quarantine treatment of cut flowers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of electron beams on spider mite (Tetranychus urticae) and flour beetle (Tribolium freemani) were slightly smaller than those of gamma-rays. 'Soft-electrons' (low-energy electrons) at an energy of 170 keV inactivated eggs, larvae, pupae, and adults of the flour beetle. Electron beams at doses up to 400 Gy killed or sterilized all the pests for cut flowers tested; spider mite (Tetranychus urticae), mealybug (Pseudococcus comstocki), leaf miner (Liriomyza trifolii), thrips (Thrips palmi, Thrips tabaci), cutworm (Spodoptera litura), and aphid (Myzus persicae). Carnation, alstromeria, gladiolus, tulip, statice, stock, dendrobium, prairie gentian, oncidium, campanula, gloriosa, fern, gypsophila, freesia, lobelia, triteleia, and gerbera were resistant to radiation, while chrysanthemum, rose, lily, calla, antherium, sweet pea, and iris were sensitive. Radiation-induced deterioration of chrysanthemum could be prevented by post-irradiation treatment with commercial preservative solutions or sugar solutions. (author)

  2. Effects of air flow directions on composting process temperature profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, chicken manure mixed with carnation wastes was composted by using three different air flow directions: R1-sucking (downward), R2-blowing (upward) and R3-mixed. The aim was to find out the most appropriate air flow direction type for composting to provide more homogenous temperature distribution in the reactors. The efficiency of each aeration method was evaluated by monitoring the evolution of parameters such as temperature, moisture content, CO2 and O2 ratio in the material and dry material losses. Aeration of the reactors was managed by radial fans. The results showed that R3 resulted in a more homogenous temperature distribution and high dry material loss throughout the composting process. The most heterogeneous temperature distribution and the lowest dry material loss were obtained in R2

  3. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U16403-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e) E. coli malP gene fragment for glycoge... 57 5e-12 AJ549329_1( AJ549329 |pid:none) Carnation...ycogen phosphorylase; EC=2.4.1... 417 e-146 CP000051_259( CP000051 |pid:none) Chlamydia trachomatis A/HAR-13...0826_4626( CP000826 |pid:none) Serratia proteamaculans 568, co... 395 e-136 CP000857_3490( CP000857 |pid:none) Salmon...e) Desulfatibacillum alkenivorans ... 375 e-124 CP001213_63( CP001213 |pid:none) Bifidobacterium anima...abase: 8402 Lambda K H 1.37 0.711 1.31 Gapped Lambda K H 1.37 0.711 1.31 Matrix: blastn matrix:1 -3 Gap Penalti

  4. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis caused by decorative plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamminpää, A; Estlander, T; Jolanki, R; Kanerva, L

    1996-05-01

    12 cases of occupational allergic contact dermatitis caused by decorative plants were diagnosed in a 14-year period. The patients were middle-aged, and their average exposure time was 13 years. The plant families and plants causing occupational contact dermatitis were Compositae (5 patients; chrysanthemum, elecampane, gerbera, feverfew), Alstroemeriaceae (5 patients, Alstroemeria), Liliaceae (4 patients; tulip, hyacinth), Amaryllidaceae (2 patients; narcissus) and Caryophyllaceae (2 patients; carnation, cauzeflower). The known chemical allergens causing dermatitis were tuliposide-A and sesquiterpene lactones, such as alantolactones and parthenolide, in the Liliaceae and Compositae families. 7 of the 12 patients were able to continue their work; 5 were not because of severe relapses of skin symptoms. The plant allergen and extract series currently available are of great help in the diagnosis. PMID:8807225

  5. The structure of melon necrotic spot virus determined at 2.8 Å resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structure of melon necrotic spot virus is reported. The structure of melon necrotic spot virus (MNSV) was determined at 2.8 Å resolution. Although MNSV is classified into the genus Carmovirus of the family Tombusviridae, the three-dimensional structure of MNSV showed a higher degree of similarity to tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV), which belongs to the genus Tombusvirus, than to carnation mottle virus (CMtV), turnip crinkle virus (TCV) or cowpea mottle virus (CPMtV) from the genus Carmovirus. Thus, the classification of the family Tombusviridae at the genus level conflicts with the patterns of similarity among coat-protein structures. MNSV is one of the viruses belonging to the genera Tombusvirus or Carmovirus that are naturally transmitted in the soil by zoospores of fungal vectors. The X-ray structure of MNSV provides us with a representative structure of viruses transmitted by fungi

  6. KSC-04PD-0133

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. A wreath and other floral arrangements rest beneath the Astronaut Memorial Mirror at the KSC Visitor Complex following a memorial service held for the crew of Columbia on the anniversary of the tragic accident that took their lives Feb. 1, 2003. In the foreground are a portion of the roses and carnations left by visitors who attended the memorial. The service included comments by Center Director Jim Kennedy, Deputy Director Woodrow Whitlow Jr., Executive Director of Florida Space Authority Winston Scott, and Dr. Stephen Feldman, president of the Astronaut Memorial Foundation, who placed the wreath at the mirror. The black granite mirror honors astronauts, whose names are carved in the surface, who have given their lives for space exploration.

  7. Development of an apparatus for obtaining CT scanning images using very cold neutron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron radiography, widely used for non-destructive testing, is characteristically sensitive to the concentration of H atoms. But conventional two-dimensional absorption images, integrated along beam direction, can not provide the detection of local density change within the sample. This results in development of a new CT system which consists of a collimator, a goniometer for setting the sample, a fluorescent converter and a cooled CCD camera. In this report is described the apparatus VCN (very cold neutron) developed at KUR for neutron radiography with high contrast imaging with some results obtained. Among them are presented here water content measurement of vacuum cooled cut flowers (carnation) and water distribution in cement (concrete) sample. (S. Ohno)

  8. Curiosité, science et interaction pédagogique: la mission française jésuite et la mission piétiste de Halle en Inde du sud au XVIIIe siècle

    OpenAIRE

    Colas, Gérard

    2014-01-01

    Cette contribution compare l’attitude de curiosité dans deux missions chrétiennes qui œuvrèrent en Inde du Sud à partir du début du XVIIIe siècle : la mission jésuite française du Carnate et celle piétiste et allemande-danoise de Tranquebar. Les deux missions visaient à convertir, mais aussi à rassembler et communiquer une documentation « scientifique » à la métropole, comme en témoignent, respectivement, les Lettres édifiantes et curieuses et les Hallische Berichte.Les missionnaires du Carna...

  9. Scientific Opinion on the risk to plant health posed by Burkholderia caryophylli for the EU territory with the identification and evaluation of risk reduction options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Plant Health (PLH

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The EFSA Panel on Plant Health conducted a pest risk assessment for Burkholderia caryophylli for the EU territory under the scenario of current EU legislation and identified and evaluated risk reduction options. B. caryophylli is absent from the EU territory. The host range of B. caryophylli includes the genus Dianthus and three other incidental, minor, hosts (statice, lisianthus and gypsophila. Seven entry pathways were identified, with carnation cuttings and cut flowers being the most frequently traded. All pathways were considered unlikely as the pathogen is rarely associated with the pathways at origin mostly because of the high phytosanitary quality of the plant propagation material. The establishment is unlikely because outdoors the environmental conditions are not favourable to the pathogen and alternative hosts are not present, whereas in protected crops the cultural practices are very effective to keep the crop free from this bacterium. Only very short-distance spread within a crop is likely, and spread between different crops is unlikely. Risk reduction options addressing the sanitary status of the propagation material have the best effectiveness and feasibility. Effective control measures are based on healthy propagation materials (cuttings and hygiene practices. With the existing certification scheme of carnation plant propagation material, the probability of spread through infected cuttings is largely reduced. The high effectiveness of current measures is ensured by the absence of B. caryophylli in the EU, as in recent decades no findings of B. caryophylli have been reported.B. caryophylli is reported to be present in some third countries in Asia, where it still causes high crop losses. If the current regulation were to be removed, major consequences or changes in the potential impact of B. caryophylli are expected if no voluntary certification scheme were applied, together with good sanitation standards, along the crop

  10. A petal-specific InMYB1 promoter from Japanese morning glory: a useful tool for molecular breeding of floricultural crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Mirai; Morimoto, Reina; Hirose, Mana; Morita, Yasumasa; Hoshino, Atsushi; Iida, Shigeru; Oshima, Yoshimi; Mitsuda, Nobutaka; Ohme-Takagi, Masaru; Shiratake, Katsuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Production of novel transgenic floricultural crops with altered petal properties requires transgenes that confer a useful trait and petal-specific promoters. Several promoters have been shown to control transgenes in petals. However, all suffer from inherent drawbacks such as low petal specificity and restricted activity during the flowering stage. In addition, the promoters were not examined for their ability to confer petal-specific expression in a wide range of plant species. Here, we report the promoter of InMYB1 from Japanese morning glory as a novel petal-specific promoter for molecular breeding of floricultural crops. First, we produced stable InMYB1_1kb::GUS transgenic Arabidopsis and Eustoma plants and characterized spatial and temporal expression patterns under the control of the InMYB1 promoter by histochemical β-glucuronidase (GUS) staining. GUS staining patterns were observed only in petals. This result showed that the InMYB1 promoter functions as a petal-specific promoter. Second, we transiently introduced the InMYB1_1 kb::GUS construct into Eustoma, chrysanthemum, carnation, Japanese gentian, stock, rose, dendrobium and lily petals by particle bombardment. GUS staining spots were observed in Eustoma, chrysanthemum, carnation, Japanese gentian and stock. These results showed that the InMYB1 promoter functions in most dicots. Third, to show the InMYB1 promoter utility in molecular breeding, a MIXTA-like gene function was suppressed or enhanced under the control of InMYB1 promoter in Arabidopsis. The transgenic plant showed a conspicuous morphological change only in the form of wrinkled petals. Based on these results, the InMYB1 promoter can be used as a petal-specific promoter in molecular breeding of floricultural crops. PMID:25923400

  11. Mass-spectrometric determination of O2 and CO 2 gas exchange in illuminated higher-plant cells : Evidence for light-inhibition of substrate decarboxylations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avelange, M H; Thiéry, J M; Sarrey, F; Gans, P; Rébeillé, F

    1991-01-01

    In order to estimate photosynthetic and respiratory rates in illuminated photoautotrophic cells of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.), simultaneous measurements of CO2 and O2 gas exchange were performed using (18)O2, (13)CO2 and a mass-spectrometry technique. This method allowed the determination, and thus the comparison, of unidirectional fluxes of O2 and CO2. In optimum photosynthetic conditions (i.e. in the presence of high light and a saturating level of CO2), the rate of CO2 influx represented 75±5% of the rate of gross O2 evolution. After a dark-to-light transition, the rate of CO2 efflux was inhibited by 50% whereas the O2-uptake rate was little affected. The effect of a recycling of respiratory CO2 through photosynthesis on the exchange of CO2 gas was investigated using a mathematical model. The confliction of the experimental data with the simulated gas-exchange rates strongly supported the view that CO2 recycling was a minor event in these cells and could not be responsible for the observed inhibition of CO2 efflux. On the basis of this assumption it was concluded that illumination of carnation cells resulted in a decrease of substrate decarboxylations, and that CO2 efflux and O2 uptake were not as tightly coupled in the light as in the dark. Furthermore, it could be calculated from the rate of gross photosynthesis that the chloroplastic electron-transport chain produced enough ATP in the light to account for the measured CO2-uptake rate without involving cyclic transfer of electrons around PS I or mitochondrial supplementation. PMID:24193614

  12. Colombian experience in applying rules concerning agricultural biosecurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Silva C.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Genetic engineering has made possible the creation of Genetic Modified Organisms (GMOs, or transgenic crops. The growth around the world of transgenic crops areas for commercial purposes, such as soybean, maize, canola and cotton is being amazing: from 1.7 million hectares in 1996 to 52.6 million in 2001. Historically, not many technologies have reached, in such a short period of time, such a higher adoption. The use of these technologies, nevertheless their well-known benefits, has brought some worries related with biosafety. In Colombia the Colombian Institute for Agriculture and Cattle (ICA, its Spanish acronym in order to introduce GMOs to the country and prevent or minimize the potential risk for agriculture generated by this kind of organisms, has established two instruments: the Agreement 013/98, creating the National Technical Biosafety Committee (CTN, its Spanish acronym, intersectorial adviser organism; and the Resolution 3492/98, establishing procedures for introduction, production, reléase and marketing of GMOs for agricultural purposes. Under this regulations, ICA has approved five different requests involving eight events with GMOs: carnation for commercial multiplicación purposes; cotton and rice for evaluation genotype in field at a small scale; cassava, brachiaria, stylozantes, coffee and sugar cane for research in genetic improvement throughout genetic engineering techniques in confined handling. Based on the accomplished experience, the future will make improve the legal and institutional instruments, as well as technical and scientific capacity of the country in biosafety. 

  13. Research on mutation generation in higher plants with heavy ions at NIRS-HIMAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The plant serves medical treatment such as medicine, food, and horticultural-therapy, etc. We have researched the features of Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) ion beams on the biological effect in various plant species, and the frequency and the spectrum of the plant mutation induced by the irradiation of HIMAC high energetic ion beams. In the present study we have used carbon 290 MONOΦ10 and argon 500 MONOΦ10 ion beams at HIMAC biological irradiation room. We investigated the characteristics of the selected mutants of carnation cultivar 'Komachi' and confirmed their feasibility. We examined the variation of aroma ingredients among mutants of 'Komachi' that have same flower color and type, and discovered that some of the mutants increased the amount of aroma by 30-40% as compared with the parent. The result shows the possibility of ingredient breeding by the HIMAC ion beams. Using carbon 290 MONOΦ10 and argon MONOΦ10 ion beams, we investigated the influence of irradiation on the growth of adventitious buds induced from tuber disks of potato. In 500 MeV/u Ar ion beam irradiation, the bud growth became slow at 1 Gy, and the amount of growth was reduced by half at 2-3 Gy. In 290 MeV/u C ion beam irradiation, the bud growth became slow at 3 Gy, and the amount of growth was reduced by half at 6-7 Gy. (author)

  14. Establishment of Ion Beam Technology for Breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have begun to investigate the characteristics of ion beams for inducing mutation from a molecular to a phenotypic level. Mutation induction rates were investigated using known visible Arabidopsis mutant phenotypes, such as glabra (gl) and transparent testa (tt). These observations indicated that mutation frequencies induced by carbon ions were twenty-fold higher than those induced by electrons. Molecular analyses showed that half of the mutants induced by ion beams possessed large DNA alterations, while the rest had point-like mutations. The common feature of mutations induced by ion beams is the deletion of several bases. It is possible that ion beams induce a limited number of large and irreparable DNA lesions, resulting in the production of null mutations that show a new mutant phenotype. Novel mutants, such as those that are UV-B resistant, have serrated petals and sepals, or lack anthocyanins, have been induced by 220 MeV carbon ions in Arabidopsis. The mutated genes were found to encode novel and key proteins for each process. In chrysanthemum and carnation, several kinds of flower-color and flower-form mutants that have never been produced by Gamma-rays or X-rays were induced by carbon ions. These observations indicate that the characteristics of mutations induced by ion beams are high frequency and broad spectrum, and produce novel mutants. Many breeding programmes are using mutants induced by ion beams and successfully producing useful new crop varieties. (author)

  15. Establishment of ion beam breeding technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have first begun to investigate the characteristics of ion beams for inducing mutation from at molecular level to phenotypic level. Mutation induction rates were investigated using visible known Arabidopsis mutant phenotypes such as glabra(gl) and transparent testa(tt), indicating that mutation frequencies induced by carbon ions were 17-fold higher than those by electrons. Molecular analysis showed that half of mutants induced by ion beams possessed large DNA alterations, while the rest had point-like mutations. Both mutations induced by ion beams have common feature that deletion of several bases are predominantly induced. It is plausible that ion beams induce limited number of large and irreparable DNA damage, resulting in effectively producing null mutation that shows new mutant phenotype. On the other hands, novel mutants such as UV-B resistant, serrated petals and sepals, anthocyaninless, etc. have been induced by 220 MeV carbon ions in Arabidopsis. Those genes were also found to encode novel and key proteins for each mechanism. In chrysanthemum and carnation, several kinds of flower-color and flower-form mutants that have never produced by gamma rays or X rays were also induced by carbon ions. It is, therefore, indicated that the characteristics of ion beams for the mutation induction are high mutation frequency, broad mutation spectrum, and producing novel mutants. From these basic researches, recently a lot of practical studies on mutation breeding are being actively carried out and successfully producing useful new varieties. (author)

  16. Studies on biological effects of ion beams on lethality, molecular nature of mutation, mutation rate, and spectrum of mutation phenotype for mutation breeding in higher plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, heavy ions or ion beams have been used to generate new mutants or varieties, especially in higher plants. It has been found that ion beams show high relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of growth inhibition, lethality, and so on, but the characteristics of ion beams on mutation have not been clearly elucidated. To understand the effect of ion beams on mutation induction, mutation rates were investigated using visible known Arabidopsis mutant phenotypes, indicating that mutation frequencies induced by carbon ions were 20-fold higher than by electrons. In chrysanthemum and carnation, flower-color and flower-form mutants, which are hardly produced by gamma rays or X rays, were induced by ion beams. Novel mutants and their responsible genes, such as UV-B resistant, serrated petals and sepals, anthocyaninless, etc. were induced by ion beams. These results indicated that the characteristics of ion beams for mutation induction are high mutation frequency and broad mutation spectrum and therefore, efficient induction of novel mutants. On the other hand, PCR and sequencing analyses showed that half of all mutants induced by ion beams possessed large DNA alterations, while the rest had point-like mutations. Both mutations induced by ion beams had a common feature that deletion of several bases were predominantly induced. It is plausible that ion beams induce a limited amount of large and irreparable DNA damage, resulting in production of a null mutation that shows a new mutant phenotype. (author)

  17. Recent Progress of Flower Colour Modification by Biotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Chandler

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Genetically-modified, colour-altered varieties of the important cut-flower crop carnation have now been commercially available for nearly ten years. In this review we describe the manipulation of the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway that has lead to the development of these varieties and how similar manipulations have been successfully applied to both pot plants and another cut-flower species, the rose. From this experience it is clear that down- and up-regulation of the flavonoid and anthocyanin pathway is both possible and predictable. The major commercial benefit of the application of this technology has so far been the development of novel flower colours through the development of transgenic varieties that produce, uniquely for the target species, anthocyanins derived from delphinidin. These anthocyanins are ubiquitous in nature, and occur in both ornamental plants and common food plants. Through the extensive regulatory approval processes that must occur for the commercialization of genetically modified organisms, we have accumulated considerable experimental and trial data to show the accumulation of delphinidin based anthocyanins in the transgenic plants poses no environmental or health risk.

  18. Collective Memories of Portuguese Colonial Action in Africa: Representations of the Colonial Past among Mozambicans and Portuguese Youths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Feijó

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Social representations of the colonization and decolonization processes among young people from a former European colonial power (Portugal and from an African ex-colony (Mozambique were investigated through surveys using open- and closed-ended questions about national history, focusing on the identity functions of collective memories. Hegemonic and contested representations were found of the most prominent events related to Portuguese colonization of Mozambique, arousing a range of collective emotions. A central place is occupied by memories of the Colonial War, which ended with the Carnation Revolution in Portugal and the subsequent independence of the Portuguese African colonies. Overall, the depiction of colonialism was more negative for Mozambican than for Portuguese participants. The violent effects of colonial action were very salient in Mozambican memories, which stressed the most oppressive aspects of the colonial period, associated with slave trade and brutal repression. On the Portuguese side, the idealization of the voyages of discovery persisted, obscuring the most violent effects of colonial expansion. However, collective memories of colonization of former colonizer and former colonized do not simply stand opposed. Both Mozambican and Portuguese participants reported ambivalent feelings towards the colonization process.

  19. The Role of Portugal in the International Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Antonio Fernández Sánchez

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available A year ago, Portugal celebrated the twenty-fifth anniversary of the so-called Revolution of the Carnations, which marked the beginning of an unstoppable process of democratization and the ensuing full incorporation of Portugal into the institutionalized international community. The Portugal’s opting for orderly decolonialization and full integration into the world of international law has twice brought it a non-permanent seat on the United Nations Security Council and also the Presidency of the UN General Assembly. In the area of security and defense, Portugal began an unprecedented change of course. Its traditional alliance with NATO has been strengthened by new strategic concepts and by its incorporation into new peacekeeping and international security programs in organizations such as the UN, the Western European Union, the OSCE, and even withinthe framework of the European Union where it participates quite actively in accordance with its level in relation to the other members. Also analyzed are the process of incorporation into Community institutions and its direct, precise participation in the evolution they have followed in recent years, with it now being fully integrated into all the areas of regional integration from the "eurozone” to the Schengen framework. The article also points out the gains this very rational choice has brought. Finally, the changes that have come about in bilateral relations with Spain are analyzed.

  20. Characterization of the organic fraction of earthworm humus and composts taken place starting from different substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to evaluate the quality and the humification degree of different composted materials, the organic fraction of earthworm humus obtained from kitchen and farm residues, coffee pulp, biodegradable garbage and roses residues and of composts from roses and carnation residues were characterized chemically. Thus, determination and analysis of the C/N ratio, as well as the fractionation of the organic matter and the purification and characterization of the humic acids by C, H, N, 0 elemental analysis, UV-VIS spectroscopy were done and different humification parameters were found. The fractionation of the organic matter showed a low content of extracted carbon with respect to the normal content found in the soil humus. The elemental analysis data of the humic acids from the composts and the earthworm humus did not reveal important differences between these materials, while the E4/E6 ratio provided more evident changes. The results showed that the C/N ratio is not an absolute indicative of the Maturity State of the studied materials. The best parameters to estimate the maturity degree of the composts and the earthworm humus turned out to be the polymerization ratio, the humification index and the extracted carbon/non extracted carbon ratio. Among the evaluated materials, the earthworm of roses residues showed the best conditions with respect to content and quality of the organic matter to be added to a soil

  1. Another sea, another self: a reading about the metaphorical nature of "Paisagem com mulher e mar ao fundo"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Marques de Oliveira

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The work Paisagem com mulher e mar ao fundo, by Teolinda Gersão, was published eight years after the Carnation Revolution and brought as the background decades of dictatorship in Portugal. Given this context, the moment when it was necessary to resignify and review the recent past in order to understand it, we intend to analyze in which ways the language can be the place where a new view emerges over the past of cruelty and suffering. In this work, we will see how the metaphor and metonymy can promote the resignification of the language. Like the landscape, the view over the sea - symbol of the portuguese culture, memory and history -, next to their surrounding elements, will be revisited and reviewed, under that context. The characters' "shattered" bodies will be the metaphor of a destroyed portuguese social body and wrecked cultural identity. The studies of Roland Barthes, Renato Cordeiro Gomes, Ângela Beatriz Faria, Denilson Lopes, Eduardo Lourenço, among others, will be the groundings for this work.

  2. Utilization of bio-resources through nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear technology such as gamma-ray, eb and ion beams is widely use for the utilization of bio-resources. Irradiation using gamma ray from 60Co and electron beam is commercially used for the sterilization and modification of materials. Polysaccharides such as chitosan, sodium alginate, carrageenan, cellulose, pectin were easily degraded by irradiation and induced various kinds of biological activities, i.e. anti-bacterial activity, elicitor activity, plant growth promotion, suppression of environmental stress on plants. Some carbohydrate derivatives, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), carboxymethyl-starch and carboxymethyl-chitin/chitosan, can be crosslinked under certain radiation condition and produced the biodegradable hydrogel for medical and agricultural uses. Ion beams have also been applied for mutation breeding for medical and agricultural use. Ion beams have also been applied for mutation breeding and the production of positron-emitting isotopes such as 11C, 13N, etc. It was succeeded to induce several kinds of flower-color and flower-form mutants in chrysanthemum and carnation by ion beams that have never produced by gamma-ray. The positron emitting tracer imaging system (PETIS) has been developed to obtain a dynamic image of plant transport in situ. (Author)

  3. 猪肉品质的评定及影响因素%The Evaluation of Pork Quality and its Influencing Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈艳珍

    2012-01-01

    Pork quality is a very complicated concept and system, which is influenced by many aspects,pork quality is evaluated by the degree of pH value, carnation, tenderness, water holding capacity, the content of infiltrated fat (IMF) and so on, is influenced by many factors,such as age, breed,sex,nutrition,feeding and management,the slaughter program and so on. This paper reviewed the research progress in and abroad from these aspects.%猪肉品质是一个综合性状,涉及许多方面,影响的因素很多.猪肉品质常用猪肉的pH、颜色、嫩度、风味物质、肌肉持水力,肌内脂肪含量等指标进行评定,影响的主要因素有年龄、品种、性别、营养、饲养管理、宰前状况、屠宰工艺等方面.作者对国内外的相关研究进行了综述.

  4. Educational utilization of outstanding spherulitic rhyolite occurred in Cheongsong, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Y. D.; Woo, H.

    2015-12-01

    Cheongsong is located in the central eastern area of South Korea. Unique spherulitic rhyolites occur in this region as dykes formed about 48 to 50 million years ago. Composed of quartz and feldspar these spherulitic rhyolites show various flowerlike shapes, such as chrysanthemum, dandelion, rose, carnation, sunflower, dahlia and so on, so they are called 'flower stones'. The spherulite indicates that it was undercooled caused by very fast cooling at a shallow depth near the surface and the variety of shapes resulted from the difference of crystallizing conditions. According to the condition, minerals start to crystallize homogeneously or heterogeneously and develop as rounded or fibrous shapes, representing beautiful patterns when combined. These spherulitic structures are very rare not only in Korea but also globally, being valuable for research and preservation because of their rarity, beauty and diversity. Cheongsong therefore applies to the UGG (UNESCO Global Geopark) in an attempt to popularize the flower stones and use them as education materials which can also be incorporated in other valuable sites. The exhibition center provides diverse types of flower stones in which visitors could learn about rhyolitic volcanism, crystallization and spherulite and can experience the process of changing a rough stone into a flower stone. A geotrail course has also been created, showing each type of flower stone on the outcrop and providing educational programs about geological mechanisms of the stones with a trained guide.

  5. CONTENT BASED INDEXING OF MUSIC OBJECTS USING APPROXIMATE SEQUENTIAL PATTERNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.M.Shashi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The music objects are classified into Monophonic and Polyphonic. In Monophonic there is only one track which is the main melody that leads the song. In Polyphonic objects, there are several tracks that accompany the main melody. Each track is a sequence of notes played simultaneously with other tracks. But, the main melody captures the essence of the music and plays vital role in MIR. The MIR involves representation of main melody as a sequence of notes played, extraction of repeating patterns from it and matching of query sequence with frequent repeating sequential patterns constituting the music object. Repeating patterns are subsequences of notes played time and again in a main melody with possible variations in the notes to a tolerable extent. Similarly, the query sequence meant for retrieving a music object may not contain the repeating patterns of the main melody in its exact form. Hence, extraction of approximate patterns is essential for a MIR system. This paper proposes a novel method of finding approximate repeating patterns for the purpose of MIR. The effectiveness of methodology is tested and found satisfactory on real world data namely ‘Raga Surabhi’ an Indian Carnatic Music portal.

  6. Gamma irradiation as a quarantine treatment against mite (Tetranychidae) on cut flowers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cut flower, an important export commodity of Malaysia in international trade, is often subjected to infestation by various pests such as mites, scales and thrips. The use of low ionising radiation has been suggested as an alternative to methyl bromide fumigation, the current pest disinfestation treatment for cut flower but which is being phased out due to environmental concerns. The criterion for efficacy of radiation as a quarantine treatment will be the inability of treated mites to reproduce at a new location rather than causing immediate mortality. Irradiating red spider mite Tetranychus piercie at a dose of 300 and 400 Gy produced sterile female adults from irradiated protonymph and deutonymph respectively. A lower dose of 200 Gy induced sterility in female adults developed from the less immature stages of irradiated egg and larva. Deteriorating effects caused by irradiation treatment were reflected in immatures by their reduced emergence rate/mortality in subsequent developmental stages. A dose of 240 Gy prevented reproduction in female adult of T piercie by inducing sterility while a much higher dose of 5 kGy is required to produce instant mortality. Based on the results obtained gamma irradiation of dose range 300-400 Gy may be applied as a quarantine treatment against Tetranychus piercie. However, this dose range is only suitable for chrysanthemum (in 4% sucrose solution) but not roses, carnations and orchids which showed phytotoxic symptoms at dose range of 100-300 Gy

  7. Nitrate metabolism in tobacco leaves overexpressing Arabidopsis nitrite reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Susie; Le Lay, Pascaline; Sanchez-Tamburrrino, Juan Pablo

    2015-12-01

    Primary nitrogen assimilation in plants includes the reduction of nitrite to ammonium in the chloroplasts by the enzyme nitrite reductase (NiR EC:1.7.7.1) or in the plastids of non-photosynthetic organs. Here we report on a study overexpressing the Arabidopsis thaliana NiR (AtNiR) gene in tobacco plants under the control of a constitutive promoter (CERV - Carnation Etched Ring Virus). The aim was to overexpress AtNiR in an attempt to alter the level of residual nitrite in the leaf which can act as precursor to the formation of nitrosamines. The impact of increasing the activity of AtNiR produced an increase in leaf protein and a stay-green phenotype in the primary transformed AtNiR population. Investigation of the T1 homozygous population demonstrated elevated nitrate reductase (NR) activity, reductions in leaf nitrite and nitrate and the amino acids proline, glutamine and glutamate. Chlorophyl content of the transgenic lines was increased, as evidenced by the stay-green phenotype. This reveals the importance of NiR in primary nitrogen assimilation and how modification of this key enzyme affects both the nitrogen and carbon metabolism of tobacco plants. PMID:26447683

  8. Radiation techniques in crop and plant breeding. Multiplying the benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    World food production is based on growing a wide variety of fruits, vegetables, and crops developed through advances in science. Plant breeders have produced multiple varieties that grow well in various types of soils and under diverse climates in different regions of the world. Conventionally, this is done by sexual hybridization. This involves transferring pollen from one parent plant to another to obtain hybrids. The subsequent generations of these hybrids are grown to select plants which combine the desired characters of the parents. However, another method exists by which the genetic make-up of a given plant variety can be changed without crossing with another variety. With this method, a variety retains all its original attributes but is upgraded in one or two changed characteristics. This method is based on radiation-induced genetic changes, and its referred to as ''induced mutations''. During the past thirty years, more than 1800 mutant varieties of plants have been released, many, of which were induced with radiation. Plant tissue and cell culture (also called in vitro culture) in combination with radiation is a powerful technique to induce mutations, particularly for the improvement of vegetatively propagated crops. These crops include cassava, garlic, potato, sweet potato, yams, sugarcane, ornamentals such as chrysanthemum, carnation, roses, tulips, daffodil, and many fruits (e.g. apple, banana, plantain, citrus, date palm, grape, papaya, passion fruit, and kiwi fruit). In some of these plants, either there is no seed set (e.g. banana) or the seed progeny produces plants which do not have the right combination of the desired characteristics. These techniques are also useful in the improvement of forest trees having a long lifespan before they produce fruit and seed. This article briefly reviews advances in plant breeding techniques, with a view towards improving the transfer of technologies to more countries

  9. Biological and molecular characterization of a novel carmovirus isolated from angelonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins, Scott; Hammond, John; Gera, Abed; Maroon-Lango, Clarissa J; Sobolev, Irena; Harness, Andrea; Zeidan, Mohammad; Spiegel, Sara

    2006-05-01

    ABSTRACT A new carmovirus was isolated from Angelonia plants (Angelonia angustifolia), with flower break and mild foliar symptoms, grown in the United States and Israel. The virus, for which the name Angelonia flower break virus (AnFBV) is proposed, has isometric particles, approximately 30 nm in diameter. The experimental host range was limited to Nicotiana species, Schizanthus pinnatus, Myosotis sylvatica, Phlox drummondii, and Digitalis purpurea. Virions were isolated from systemically infected N. benthamiana leaves, and directly from naturally infected Angelonia leaves, using typical carmovirus protocols. Koch's postulates were completed by mechanical inoculation of uninfected Angelonia seedlings with purified virions. Isometric particles were observed in leaf dips and virion preparations from both Angelonia and N. benthamiana, and in thin sections of Angelonia flower tissue by electron microscopy. In sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of dissociated purified virus preparations, a major protein component with a molecular mass of 38 kDa was observed. Virion preparations were used to produce virus-specific polyclonal antisera in both Israel and the United States. The antisera did not react with Pelargonium flower break virus (PFBV), Carnation mottle virus (CarMV), or Saguaro cactus virus (SgCV) by either enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay or immunoblotting. In reciprocal tests, antisera against PFBV, CarMV, and SgCV reacted only with the homologous viruses. The complete nucleotide sequence of a Florida isolate of AnFBV and the coat protein (CP) gene sequences of Israeli and Maryland isolates were determined. The genomic RNA is 3,964 nucleotides and contains four open reading frames arranged in a manner typical of carmoviruses. The AnFBV CP is most closely related to PFBV, whereas the AnFBV replicase is most closely related to PFBV, CarMV, and SgCV. Particle morphology, serological properties, genome organization, and phylogenetic analysis

  10. Achievements and perspectives in biochemistry concerning anthocyanin modification for blue flower coloration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Nobuhiro; Nakayama, Toru

    2015-01-01

    Genetic engineering of roses and other plants of floricultural importance to give them a truly blue petal color is arguably one of the holy grails of plant biotechnology. Toward this goal, bluish carnations and roses were previously engineered by establishing an exclusive accumulation of delphinidin (Dp)-type anthocyanins in their petals via the heterologous expression of a flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase gene. Very recently, purple-blue varieties of chrysanthemums were also genetically engineered via a similar biochemical strategy. Although the floral colors of these transgenic plants still lack a true blue color, the basis for the future molecular breeding of truly blue flowers is via the engineering of anthocyanin pathways. Anthocyanins with multiple aromatic acyl groups (often referred to as polyacylated anthocyanins) in the 3'- or 7-position tend to display a more stable blue color than non-acylated anthocyanins. The 7-polyacylation process during the biosynthesis of purple-blue anthocyanins in delphinium (Delphinium grandiflorum) was found to occur in vacuoles using acyl-glucose as both the glucosyl and acyl donor. Glucosyltransferases and acyltransferases involved in anthocyanin 7-polyacylation in delphinium are vacuolar acyl-glucose-dependent enzymes belonging to the glycoside hydrolase family 1 and serine carboxypeptidae-like protein family, respectively. The 7-polyacylation proceeds through the alternate glucosylation and p-hydroxybenzoylation catalyzed by these enzymes. p-Hydroxybenzoyl-glucose serves as the p-hydroxybenzoyl and glucosyl donor to produce anthocyanins modified with a p-hydroxybenzoyl-glucose concatemer at the 7-position. This novel finding has provided a potential breakthrough for the genetic engineering of truly blue flowers, where polyacylated Dp-type anthocyanins are accumulated exclusively in the petals. PMID:25015943

  11. Control of insect pests with electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of electron beams with an energy of 2.5 MeV on insect pests were slightly smaller than those of gamma-rays. Electron beams at 400 Gy inactivated all the pests for cut flowers tested; spider mite (Tetraychus urticae), mealybug (Pseudococcus comstocki), leaf miner (Liriomyza trifolii), thrips (Thrips palmi, and Thrips tabaci), cutworm (Spodoptera litura) and aphid (Myzus persicae). Carnation, alstromeria, gladiolus, tulip, statice, stock, dendrobium, prairie gentian, oncidium, campanula, gloriosa, fern, gypsophila, freesia, lobelia, triteleia and gerbera were tolerant to electron beams at 400-600 Gy, while chrysanthemum, rose, lily, calla, antherium, sweet pea and iris were intolerant. Radiation-induced deterioration of chrysanthemum could be prevented by post-irradiation treatment with commercial preservative solutions or sugar solutions. Soft-electrons at 60 keV effectively inactivated eggs, larvae and pupae of red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum) and Indian meal moth (Plodia interpunctella) and eggs of adzuki bean weevil (Callosobruchus chinensis) at a dose of 1 kGy. The adults of T. castaneum and P. interpunctella were inactivated by electron treatment at 5.0 kGy and 7.5 kGy, respectively. Adults of C. chinensis survived at 7.5 kGy, but were inactivated having lost ability to walk at 2.5 kGy. Soft-electrons at 60 keV could not completely inactivate the larvae of C. chinensis and smaller larvae (2nd instar) of maize weevil (Stiophilus zeamais) inside beans and grains, because the electrons with low penetration did not reach the larvae due to the shield of beans or grains. However, soft-electrons at 60 keV inactivated eggs, larger larvae (4th instar) and pupae of S. zeamais in rice grains, which indicated that S. zeamais was exposed to electrons even inside the grains. (author)

  12. Cloning and characterization of a bifunctional glycosyl hydrolase from an antagonistic Pseudomonas putida strain P3(4).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Naosekpam Ajit; Shanmugam, Veerubommu

    2012-06-01

    A fluorescent pseudomonad strain P3(4) showing chitinolysis on chitinase detection agar and antagonism against Fusarium oxysporum f.sp dianthi causing vascular wilt of carnation was isolated from pea rhizosphere soil. PCR primers specific for glycosyl hydrolase family 5 (GH5) of Pseudomonas putida isolate KT2440 amplified a 947 bp fragment of the GH5 gene from P3(4). Cloning of this gene into Escherichia coli M15 using an expression vector pQE-30UA and screening on chitin and chitosan detection agar identified one positive clone (Pchi(+) ). Sequence analysis of the cloned insert revealed an open reading frame of 947 nucleotides corresponding to a protein of 315 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 38.0 kDa. The deduced amino acid sequence of the open reading frame (gene product/GH) showed 83-84% homology to the GH5 of P. putida strains F1 and KT2440, respectively. The purified enzyme was homogenous, as examined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and was visualized as single fluorescent band in native gel assay with 4-methylumbelliferyl-N -acetyl-β;-D-glucosaminide and glycol chitosan, respectively. For hydrolysis of 4-nitrophenyl-N -acetyl-β;-D-glucosaminide (pNP-(GlcNAc) and colloidal chitosan, the enzyme had an optimal temperature of 40 °C, and was stable within the temperature range of 10 °C to 40 °C. The enzyme showed an optimal pH of 3.5, with maximum stabilities at 5.0 and 5.5 for hydrolysis of pNP-(GlcNAc) and colloidal chitosan, respectively. Fe(3+) and Cu(2+) stimulated chitinase and chitosanase activities by 74.2 and 51.4%, respectively. The purified GH displayed 70 and 45% inhibition of spore germination of the pathogenic fungi, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. dianthi and Alternaria solani, respectively. PMID:21953214

  13. Real-time polymerase chain reaction detection of cauliflower mosaic virus to complement the 35S screening assay for genetically modified organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cankar, Katarina; Ravnikar, Maja; Zel, Jana; Gruden, Kristina; Toplak, Natasa

    2005-01-01

    Labeling of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) is now in place in many countries, including the European Union, in order to guarantee the consumer's choice between GM and non-GM products. Screening of samples is performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of regulatory sequences frequently introduced into genetically modified plants. Primers for the 35S promoter from Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) are those most frequently used. In virus-infected plants or in samples contaminated with plant material carrying the virus, false-positive results can consequently occur. A system for real-time PCR using a TaqMan minor groove binder probe was designed that allows recognition of virus coat protein in the sample, thus allowing differentiation between transgenic and virus-infected samples. We measured the efficiency of PCR amplification, limits of detection and quantification, range of linearity, and repeatability of the assay in order to assess the applicability of the assay for routine analysis. The specificity of the detection system was tested on various virus isolates and plant species. All 8 CaMV isolates were successfully amplified using the designed system. No cross-reactivity was detected with DNA from 3 isolates of the closely related Carnation etched ring virus. Primers do not amplify plant DNA from available genetically modified maize and soybean lines or from different species of Brassicaceae or Solanaceae that are natural hosts for CaMV. We evaluated the assay for different food matrixes by spiking CaMV DNA into DNA from food samples and have successfully amplified CaMV from all samples. The assay was tested on rapeseed samples from routine GMO testing that were positive in the 35S screening assay, and the presence of the virus was confirmed. PMID:16001857

  14. Development of irradiation as a quarantine treatment of mites on cut foliage and ornamentals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cut flowers are an important export commodity of Malaysia in international trade, and are often subjected to infestation by various pests such as mites, scales, and thrips. The use of low ionizing radiation has been suggested as an alternative to methyl bromide fumigation, the current pest disinfestation treatment for cut flowers but which is being phased out due to environmental concerns. The criterion for efficacy of radiation as a quarantine treatment will be the inability of treated mites to reproduce at a new location rather than causing immediate mortality. Irradiating the red spider mite, Tetranychus piercie at a dose of 300 and 400 Gy produced sterile female adults from irradiated protonymphs and deutonymphs, respectively. A lower dose of 200 Gy induced sterility in female adults that developed from irradiated eggs and larvae. Deteriorating effects caused by irradiation treatment were reflected in immatures by their reduced emergence rate/mortality in subsequent developmental stages. A dose of 280 Gy prevented reproduction in female adults of Tetranychus piercie by inducing sterility, whereas a much higher dose of 5 kGy is required to produce acute mortality. A dose of 350 Gy was required to sterilize T. piercie deutonymphs. Based on the results obtained, gamma irradiation with dose in the range of 300-400 Gy may be applied as a quarantine treatment for Tetranychus piercie. Quality tests suggest this dose range is suitable for chrysanthemums (in 4% sucrose solution) but not roses, carnations, and orchids, which showed phytotoxic symptoms within the dose range of 100-400 Gy. (author)

  15. Visiones de la transición portuguesa desde el búnker franquista: La revista Fuerza Nueva y la revolución de los claveles (1974

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel González Sáez

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available La revolución de los claveles en abril de 1974 terminó en Portugal con la dictadura y los intentos aperturistas del gobierno de Marcelo Caetano abriendo un complejo y conflictivo proceso de democratización. En España, el impacto en la clase política y en la opinión pública fue inevitable dadas las similitudes con el régimen luso, los debates abiertos sobre el aperturismo y la creciente actividad de la oposición antifranquista. En este artículo se estudia la visión de la revolución portuguesa en el denominado búnker franquista durante el año 1974 a través del análisis de la revista Fuerza Nueva, publicación de notable influencia durante el tardofranquismo en las corrientes más inmovilistas del régimen.Palabras Clave: Transición española; Portugal; Revolución de los claveles; Fuerza Nueva.__________________ Abstract:In 1974 the carnation revolution overthrew the dictatorship and the reform efforts of the Marcelo Caetano’s goverment, opening a complex and conflictive process of democratization. In Spain, the impact on political class and public opinion was huge due to similarities between both regimes, the open debate about reformism and the increasing activity of the anti-Franco opposition. The article analizes the francoist bunker’s views in 1974 about the portuguese revolution through the study of Fuerza Nueva, a magazine of significant influence on the francoist regime’s inmobilism during the late francoist period. 

  16. Preliminary X-ray data analysis of crystalline hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus is a positive-sense monopartite single-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the Carmovirus genus of the Tombusviridae family. Authentic virus harvested from infected host kenaf leaves was purified and virus crystals were grown in multiple conditions. One of the crystals diffracted to 3.2 Å resolution and allowed the collection of a partial data set. Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus (HCRSV) is a positive-sense monopartite single-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the Carmovirus genus of the Tombusviridae family, which includes carnation mottle virus (CarMV). The HCRSV virion has a 30 nm diameter icosahedral capsid with T = 3 quasi-symmetry containing 180 copies of a 38 kDa coat protein (CP) and encapsidates a full-length 3.9 kb genomic RNA. Authentic virus was harvested from infected host kenaf leaves and was purified by saturated ammonium sulfate precipitation, sucrose density-gradient centrifugation and anion-exchange chromatography. Virus crystals were grown in multiple conditions; one of the crystals diffracted to 3.2 Å resolution and allowed the collection of a partial data set. The crystal belonged to space group R32, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 336.4, c = 798.5 Å. Packing considerations and rotation-function analysis determined that there were three particles per unit cell, all of which have the same orientation and fixed positions, and resulted in tenfold noncrystallography symmetry for real-space averaging. The crystals used for the structure determination of southern bean mosaic virus (SBMV) have nearly identical characteristics. Together, these findings will greatly aid the high-resolution structure determination of HCRSV

  17. Composting of wine industry wastes and their use as a substrate for growing soil less ornamental plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmona, E.; Moreno, M. T.; Aviles, M.; Ordovas, J.

    2012-11-01

    To study the process of composting of grape marc and test the resulting compost as a substrate for the cultivation of ornamental plants, six composting processes, with mixtures of dealcoholised grapevine marc and grape stalk (DM + GS) in a 1:1 ratio (v:v), were carried out in Seville (Spain) between 2000 and 2006. The duration of the composting ranged between 20 and 24 weeks in the Spring-Summer season. Weekly, temperature, pH, EC, N-NO{sub 3}{sup -} and N-NH{sub 4} +, were measured. The maximum temperatures reached values of 65-73 degree centigrade at a depth between 40 and 80 cm. The compost had a slightly alkaline pH, slightly salinity, high organic matter and total nitrogen contents. The final compost chemical composition in total elements showed values in the same range as those corresponding to plant material, except for Fe. The distribution in the size of the particles gives way to a total porous space that is close to the one considered as optimal in a substrate for soil less cropping. Pore size distribution showed a prevalence of big pores that produces unbalance in the water-air ratios, resulting in a material with a good aeration but with low water retention. The composts were tested as substrates for four ornamental species: geranium, petunia, carnation and gerbera. The results suggest that compost has no limiting characteristics for its use as a medium for the cultivation of ornamental plants in container, and can replace conventional substrates, such as peat and coconut fibre. (Author) 35 refs.

  18. Physicians, formula companies, and advertising. A historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, F R; Apple, R D

    1991-03-01

    The recent advent of new advertising campaigns for infant formulas aimed at the general public via television commercials, newspapers, free formula coupons, and lay periodicals has disrupted a comfortable symbiotic relationship between infant food manufacturers and the medical profession that has endured for more than 50 years. In the late 19th century, physicians were concerned about the advertising claims of these products and generally felt that indications and directions for their use should be the province of the physician. Between 1929 and 1932, the American Medical Association, through its Committee on Foods and "Seal of Acceptance," essentially required the entire formula industry to advertise only to the medical profession. Since 1932, the US formula industry has developed into a $1.6 billion market. In 1988, Nestlé (absent from the US infant formula industry since the 1940s) acquired the Carnation Company and launched an advertising campaign to the general public for its formula products. Bristol Myers/Mead Johnson, in cooperation with Gerber Products Company, quickly followed suit. These actions threaten to once again remove the realm of infant feeding from the exclusive supervision of the medical profession. The new multimedia public advertising campaigns may increase the cost of infant formula to the general public and have a negative impact on the incidence of breast-feeding. In addition, formula advertising campaigns will likely increase the danger of advertising hyperbole and affect the level of financial support by formula companies for scientific meetings, medical research, education, and social events at medical meetings. PMID:1781817

  19. CULTIVOS TRANSGÉNICOS:: ENTRE LOS RIESGOS BIOLÓGICOS Y LOS BENEFICIOS AMBIENTALES Y ECONÓMICOS Gm Crops:: Between Biological Risk and Environmental and Economics Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEJANDRO CHAPARRO GIRALDO

    sobre la adopción de los cultivos GM, alrededor del análisis ponderado de los riegos biológicos y beneficios ambientales y económicos. Los riesgos biológicos se definen por los posibles efectos negativos sobre consumidor humano o ambiente en que se liberan. Los beneficios ambientales tienen que ver con los efectos de la reducción en el uso de agroquímicos (insecticidas y herbicidas, y beneficios económicos con la reducción en las pérdidas debidas al ataque de insectos y a la competencia de malezas, así como a la reducción de costos de producción.The transgenic crops were the result of the application of recombinant DNA technology in agriculture. These crops were developed by transfer of foreign genes (transgenes from any biological origin (animal, plant, microbial, viral to the genome of cultivated species of plants. The crops genetically modified (GM have been used in the world since 1996; up to December 2010 they counted to a billion hectares planted throughout the period. In just the past year 2010 148 million hectares were planted, grown by 15.4 million farmers in 29 countries. GM crops that are used in global agriculture are mainly soybean, cotton, corn and canola, which express transgenes derived from bacteria, and confer resistance to lepidopteran insects (ILR or herbicide tolerance (HT; glyphosate and glufosinate ammonium. The first transgenic varieties containing only a single transgene, or simple event, while the current varieties express several transgenes, or stacked, confereing resistance to different species of Lepidoptera and Coleopteran insects and tolerance to two different herbicides. In 2010 were planted in Colombia, 18.874 hectares of GM cotton, 16.793 hectares of GM corn, and 4 hectares of GM carnations and GM roses. GM corn and GM cotton were planted in Sucre, Cesar, Cordoba, Huila and Tolima. GM corn was planted in Antioquia, Valle del Cauca, Meta, Cundinamarca and Santander. Carnations and roses were planted in Cundinamarca. GM maize

  20. Mutant breeding of ornamental trees for creating variations with high value using Proton Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, H. J.; Lim, J. H.; Woo, S. M.; Hwang, M. J.; Pyo, S. H.; Woo, J. S. [Phygen Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-04-15

    It is necessary to induce the improved strains of ornamental plants with more disease-resistant and useful for landscape or phytoremediation. Mutation breeding has played an important role in crop improvement, and more than 2,000 mutant cultivars have been released. For the induction of mutation, gamma rays and X-rays are widely used as a mutagen. Proton beam had higher energy than -ray and worked with localized strength, so that proton-beam radiation could be valuable tool to induce useful strains of ornamental plants. Proton ion beam irradiation was used to induce a useful mutant in rice, chrysanthemum, carnation, and so on in Japan. Also, proton ion beam was used to select a useful host strain, in polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), a member of biodegradable plastic, could be overproduced in Korea. Therefore, we surmise that the effects of proton beam is different from those of gamma rays and X-rays, and we expect proton beam to be a new mutagen. This research was conducted to investigate the proton-beam radiation sensitivity and seed germination rate of the various ornamental plants like as Albizia julibrissin, Ficus religiosa, Rhus chinensis, Sorbaria sorbilfolia and Spiraea chinensis, to survey the quantitative characteristics of proton beam induced strains. To induce the variants of ornamental plants, seeds were irradiated at the dose of 0{approx}2kGy of proton beam at room temperature. Proton beam energy level was 45 MeV and was irradiated at dose of 0{approx}2kGy by MC-50 Cyclotron. After irradiation, to assess the effects of proton beam on radiation sensitivity and morphological changes of the plants and the seed germination rate were analysed. By the proton beam radiation, the germination rate decreased at the higher dose. The other hand, the germination rate of Rhus chinensis increased the dose higher, so that it need to investigate the germination rate over 2kGy radiation. The effects of mutation induction by proton beam irradiation on seeds in Lagerstroemia

  1. Evaluation of various species demarcation criteria in attempts to classify ten new tombusvirus isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, R; Verhoeven, J Th J; Fribourg, C E; Pfeilstetter, E; Lesemann, D E

    2004-09-01

    The usefulness of various suggested species demarcation criteria was compared in attempts to determine the taxonomic status of ten new tombusvirus isolates. Five of them (Lim 1, 2, 3, 5 and 6) were obtained from different sources of commercially grown statice (Limonium sinuatum), two (Gyp 1 and 2) from different sources of commercially grown Gypsophila paniculata and three from water samples, i.e. from a small river (Schunter) in Northern Germany, from a brook (near Dossenheim) in Southern Germany and from the groundwater in a Limonium production glasshouse in the Netherlands (Lim 4). The immunoelectron microscopical decoration test allowed a quick preliminary assignment of various isolates to several known tombusviruses. A more precise analysis of the relationships was achieved by comparing the deduced amino acid sequences of the coat proteins. Sequence as well as serological data suggested that eight of the isolates should be classified as strains or variants of either Carnation Italian ringspot virus, Grapevine Algerian latent virus, Petunia asteroid mosaic virus or Sikte waterborne virus, respectively, whereas the 9th isolate (Lim 2) appears to represent a distinct new tombusvirus species. The case of the 10th isolate (Lim 5) illustrates the classification problems experienced when the properties of a virus place it close to the more or less arbitrary man-made borderline between virus species and virus strains. The coat protein gene sequences were also determined for some viruses for which these data had not yet been available, i.e. Neckar river virus, Sikte waterborne virus and Eggplant mottled crinkle virus. The sequences of the coat protein gene and also of ORF 1 of the latter virus proved to be almost identical to the corresponding genome regions of the recently described Pear latent virus, which for priority reasons should be renamed. Criteria which have been suggested in addition to serology and sequence comparisons for tombusvirus species demarcation, i

  2. Produção de flores cortadas no estado de Minas Gerais Production of cut flowers in the state o Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Correa Landgraf

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available As flores de corte são importantes produtos da floricultura brasileira, as características da produção mineira são, no entanto, desconhecidas. Objetivou-se realizar um estudo da produção de flores de corte no estado de Minas Gerais, aplicou-se um questionário aos produtores do Estado , no período de 2003 a 2005. As visitas foram feitas in loco e os produtores foram identificados por meio de visitas nas áreas produtivas e os questionários foram respondidos por eles próprios. Analisando-se as respostas contidas nos questionários, identificou-se que a produção de flores de corte no estado de Minas Gerais é uma atividade realizada por 188 produtores, numa área plantada de aproximadamente 290,6836 ha As principais espécies cultivadas no Estado são: rosa (151,5710, sempre-vivas (57,26 ha, copo-de-leite (16,0255 ha, cravo (12,6290 ha e helicônia (11,7600 ha. A produção é vendida para o todo o Brasil e também exportada para países da Europa, Ásia e América do Norte. Os principais produtos exportados são: rosas de corte, orquídeas de corte e sempre-vivas.Cut flowers are important products of Brazilian floriculture. The characteristics of Minas Gerais production are, nevertheless, unknown. So, with the purpose of performing a study of the cut flower production in the state of Minas Gerais, a questionnaire was applied to flower growers of Minas Gerais state, in the period of 2003 to 2005. The visits were paid in loco and the growers were identified by means of visits to the flower-growing areas and the questionnaires were answered by them. By analyzing the answers contained in the questionnaires, it was identified that the cut flower production in the state of Minas Gerais is a business accomplished by 188 growers in a planted area of about 290.6836 ha. The main species grown in the state are: rose (151.5710 ha, sempre-vivas (57.26 ha, cala lilly flowers (16.0255 ha, carnation (12.6290 ha and heliconia (11.7600 ha. The

  3. ENRAIZAMENTO DE CRAVO (Dianthus caryophyllus L. IN VITRO E EX VITRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.R.F CUZZUOL

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Plântulas de cravo (Dianthus caryophyllus micropropagadas durante várias gerações pelo período de um ano, foram enraizadas in vitro com AIA, ANA e AIB nas concentrações de 0,0; 0,25; 0,5 e 1,0 mg/l, em fatorial do tipo 3 x 4, com todos os tratamentos promovendo a formação de raízes, mas não diferindo do controle. Foi confrontado em condição autotrófica, o desempenho entre plântulas enraizadas in vitro na presença e ausência do regulador AIA 0,5 mg/l e plântulas enraizadas ex vitro, sem nenhuma diferença quanto ao comprimento da parte aérea. Para a variável produção de massa de matéria seca os melhores resultados foram proporcionados pelas plantas que passaram pela fase de enraizamento in vitro, tendo o sistema radicular efeito sinergístico no crescimento da parte aérea.Plantlets of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. micropropagated through several generations during one year, were observed with respect to rooting in vitro, in the presence of IAA , NAA and IBA, at the following concentrations: 0,0; 0,25; 0,5 and 1,0 mg/l. All treatments promoted root formation, however no differences were detected in comparison to control. As far as the lenght of the aerial part is concerned no difference was observed between in vitro rooting. in the presence or absence of IAA 0,5 mg/l, and ex vitro rooting. Plantlets which were rooted in vitro conditions showed higher production of fresh matter then those rooted ex vitro. The root system had a synergistic effect on the growth of the aerial part.

  4. Whole-gene positive selection, elevated synonymous substitution rates, duplication, and indel evolution of the chloroplast clpP1 gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Erixon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Synonymous DNA substitution rates in the plant chloroplast genome are generally relatively slow and lineage dependent. Non-synonymous rates are usually even slower due to purifying selection acting on the genes. Positive selection is expected to speed up non-synonymous substitution rates, whereas synonymous rates are expected to be unaffected. Until recently, positive selection has seldom been observed in chloroplast genes, and large-scale structural rearrangements leading to gene duplications are hitherto supposed to be rare. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: We found high substitution rates in the exons of the plastid clpP1 gene in Oenothera (the Evening Primrose family and three separate lineages in the tribe Sileneae (Caryophyllaceae, the Carnation family. Introns have been lost in some of the lineages, but where present, the intron sequences have substitution rates similar to those found in other introns of their genomes. The elevated substitution rates of clpP1 are associated with statistically significant whole-gene positive selection in three branches of the phylogeny. In two of the lineages we found multiple copies of the gene. Neighboring genes present in the duplicated fragments do not show signs of elevated substitution rates or positive selection. Although non-synonymous substitutions account for most of the increase in substitution rates, synonymous rates are also markedly elevated in some lineages. Whereas plant clpP1 genes experiencing negative (purifying selection are characterized by having very conserved lengths, genes under positive selection often have large insertions of more or less repetitive amino acid sequence motifs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We found positive selection of the clpP1 gene in various plant lineages to correlated with repeated duplication of the clpP1 gene and surrounding regions, repetitive amino acid sequences, and increase in synonymous substitution rates. The present study sheds light on the

  5. Results of the FAO/IAEA program on 'Irradiation as a Quarantine Treatment of Mites, Nematodes and Insects other than Fruit Fly'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The FAO/IAEA Program on 'Irradiation as a Quarantine Treatment of Mites, Nematodes and Insects other than Fruit Fly' has been implemented in 1992, and lasted up to the end of 1997. The Coordination Research Program put emphasis on the following aspects of research: (1) Determine criteria, e.g. inability to reproduce, for accepting irradiation as a quarantine treatment against quarantine pests; (2) Determine the effete of irradiation on the most resistant stage of these quarantine pests at the time of treatment; (3) Evaluate the quality of agricultural commodities irradiated at 2-3 times the dose(s) required to meet quarantine requirements; (4) Develop method(s) for identifying insects/other pests which were subjected to irradiation at a dose required for quarantine purposes. The followings are the most important achievements of the CRP: Generic dose for sterilization of both males and females of spider mites (Tetranychidae) was determined to be 320 Gy. With regard to insects other than fruit flies, it appears that a minimum dose of 300 Gy would cause either no adult emergence or sterility of most species of insects studied. Radiation doses required to cause complete mortality to various infective stages of plant parasitic nematodes is higher than 6 kGy. The minimum dose required to prevent gall development and reproduction of these nematodes is largely over 2 kGy, which is too high for most fresh plant materials. Thus, irradiation should be considered as an alternative to methyl bromide fumigation to control nematodes in non-perishable materials. While many fresh fruits and vegetables could tolerate radiation doses required for quarantine purposes, the response of various types of cut-flowers to irradiation varied widely. Some cut-flowers and ornamentals such as ferns, phoenix leaf, narcissus, tulips, carnation or red ginger were tolerant to radiation up to 700 Gy and more, others such as chrysanthemum, rose, lily, anthurium, dendrobium, gerbera did not tolerate

  6. Mutant breeding of ornamental trees for creating variations with high value using Proton Beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is necessary to induce the improved strains of ornamental plants with more disease-resistant and useful for landscape or phytoremediation. Mutation breeding has played an important role in crop improvement, and more than 2,000 mutant cultivars have been released. For the induction of mutation, gamma rays and X-rays are widely used as a mutagen. Proton beam had higher energy than -ray and worked with localized strength, so that proton-beam radiation could be valuable tool to induce useful strains of ornamental plants. Proton ion beam irradiation was used to induce a useful mutant in rice, chrysanthemum, carnation, and so on in Japan. Also, proton ion beam was used to select a useful host strain, in polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), a member of biodegradable plastic, could be overproduced in Korea. Therefore, we surmise that the effects of proton beam is different from those of gamma rays and X-rays, and we expect proton beam to be a new mutagen. This research was conducted to investigate the proton-beam radiation sensitivity and seed germination rate of the various ornamental plants like as Albizia julibrissin, Ficus religiosa, Rhus chinensis, Sorbaria sorbilfolia and Spiraea chinensis, to survey the quantitative characteristics of proton beam induced strains. To induce the variants of ornamental plants, seeds were irradiated at the dose of 0∼2kGy of proton beam at room temperature. Proton beam energy level was 45 MeV and was irradiated at dose of 0∼2kGy by MC-50 Cyclotron. After irradiation, to assess the effects of proton beam on radiation sensitivity and morphological changes of the plants and the seed germination rate were analysed. By the proton beam radiation, the germination rate decreased at the higher dose. The other hand, the germination rate of Rhus chinensis increased the dose higher, so that it need to investigate the germination rate over 2kGy radiation. The effects of mutation induction by proton beam irradiation on seeds in Lagerstroemia indica were

  7. Presencia del elemento genético transponible dTdic1 en Dianthus caryophyllus con flores variegadas y no variegadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Rocío López Castro

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Título en inglés: Presence of the transposable genetic element  dTdic1 in Dianthus caryophyllus with  variegated and no variegated flowers Resumen: El objetivo de este trabajo era la búsqueda del  EGT (Elemento Genético Transponible dTdic1 que ha sido asociado con la variegación del color de las flores de clavel y su relación con dos genes que codifican para enzimas involucradas en la biosíntesis de antocianinas,  Chalcona isomerasa (CHI y Dihidroflavonol reductasa (DFR.  Su presencia y expresión se evaluó en siete genotipos con flores variegadas (líneas híbridas y en cuatro genotipos de flores no variegadas (una línea híbrida y tres cultivares comerciales.  Un alto número (indefinido de copias del elemento dTdic1 se detectó en todas las líneas variegadas y no variegadas.  En consecuencia, la sola presencia de este EGT no pudo asociarse directamente con la variegación de los pigmentos florales de flores de clavel.  Adicionalmente, dTdic1 se encontró interrumpiendo el gen CHI en cuatro genotipos variegados y uno no variegado. No se observó evidencia de inserción de dTdic1 en el gen DFR en ninguno de los genotipos. Palabras clave: Transposones; chalcona isomerasa; antocianinas Abstract: The objective of this work was to search for the EGT (Transposable Genetic Element dTdic1 that has been associated with color variegation of carnation flowers and its relationship with two genes that code for enzymes involved in the synthesis of anthocyanins, Chalcona isomerase (CHI and Dihidroflavonol reductase (DFR. Its presence and expression was evaluated in seven genotypes of variegated flowers and four no variegated flower genotypes (one hybrid line and three commercial cultivars. A high number of copies (undefined of copies of the dTdic1 element was detected in variegaated and no variegated lines. Therefore, the main presence of this EGT was not associated directly with variegation of floral pigments. Additionally, dTdic1 was

  8. EDXRF analysis of a baroque polychrome wooden sculpture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. In this work, a Baroque polychrome wooden sculpture, portraying the Virgin Mary, was analyzed using EDXRF technique. This sculpture belongs to the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro collection and was analyzed, by means of EDXRF and Computed Radiography, prior to perform its restoration. The scientific examination of artworks has gained increasing interest in the last years, allowing the characterization of materials and techniques employed by the artists, which can be extremely valuable to conservation and restoration treatments. The analysis can also reveal the presence of retouchings (concealed by past restorations), later added areas, changes of design, underpaintings, etc. X-Ray Fluorescence analysis is a widely used spectroscopic technique in archaeometry to investigate the composition of pigments (in manuscripts, paintings, ceramics and other artifacts), metal alloys, coins and statuary. It is a non-destructive technique that makes possible qualitative and quantitative multielemental analysis with good precision and accuracy. The EDXRF measurements were carried out with a portable system, developed by the Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory, consisting of an Oxford TF3005 X-ray tube, with W anode, and a Si-PIN XR-100CR detector from Amptek. The angle between the X-ray tube and the detector window is 60 deg, the source-sample and the detector-sample distances are 4 cm. The system is adapted to a tripod, which makes possible to reach higher regions during the analysis of paintings and statues. In order to identify the pigments used in the sculpture, were obtained several spectra, working at 25 kV and 100 μA, with an acquisition time of 500 s and a beam collimation of 2 mm. The spectra were processed and analyzed using the software QXAS-AXIL, from IAEA. The results revealed the presence of gypsum, used in the preparation layer. In the carnation regions, the artist used vermilion and lead white. In the dark-brown hairs of

  9. Optimization of the spray application technology in bay laurel (Laurus nobilis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuyttens, D; Braekman, P; Foque, D

    2009-01-01

    Bay laurel is an evergreen, commercially grown and expensive ornamental pot plant, which is susceptible to different pests like aphids, scale and lerp insects, thrips, caterpillars of codling moth and sooty moulds. Recently, caterpillars of the Mediterranean carnation leafroller (Cacoecimorpha pronubana) cause more and more problems. These pests can lead to important financial losses for the growers. During summer the individual pot plants are placed on a field-container in a fairly dense configuration. Crop protection is traditionally done by moving with a spray lance between the rows of pot plants and treating each individual plant from bottom to top. Good penetration is clearly an important advantages of this spray technique but it is very time-consuming, unhealthy and laborious. Some other growers use a 'spray platform' on a high-clearance tractor. Plants sprayed from this platform are exclusively approached from above resulting in an inferior spray deposition on the lower parts of the plants. To overcome the disadvantages of both available techniques, the potential of an automated tunnel sprayer was investigated. Five different nozzle types were evaluated under laboratory conditions i.e. hollow cone, standard flat fan, air inclusion flat fan, deflector flat fan and twin air inclusion flat fan at spray pressures varying from 3.0 to 7.0 bar depending on the type of nozzle. For each nozzle type, three nozzle sizes were included in the experiments which resulted in 15 different spray application techniques. All experiments were done at a speed of 2.5 km x h(-1). This resulted in three different application volumes: 2450, 4900 and 7300 l x ha(-1). After optimizing the nozzle configuration (distance and orientation) using water-sensitive paper, deposition tests with five different mineral chelates as tracer elements were performed. Filter papers were used as collectors at 20 different positions to measure spray deposition, distribution and penetration in the canopy

  10. Podredumbres basales de Gypsophila paniculata (Caryophyllaceae: Agentes causales y su patogenicidad potencial sobre Dianthus caryophyllus (Caryophyllaceae Basal rots of Gypsophila paniculata (Caryophyllaceae: Causal agents and its potential pathogenicity on Dianthus caryophyllus (Caryophyllaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia María Wolcan

    basal stem wounds with different strains of each fungus. Crown rot was incited by P. nicotianae causing fast decay of leaves and stems and wet soft rot of the crowns, and by R. solani causing slower decay and disintegrated crown tissues. Basal stem rot was incited by F. graminearum , which was described for the first time on G. paniculata and enter through wounded tissues. Under experimental conditions some strains of R. solani and F. graminearum isolated from gipsofila caused stem rot on carnation plants and only some strains of P. niconianae were weakly pathogenic.

  11. Red de mercadeo y rentabilidad de flor de corte en el Valle de Mexicali, Baja California, México Marketing network and profitability of cut flower for Mexicali Valley, Baja California, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blancka Yesenia Samaniego-Gámez

    2012-06-01

    during 2004 with more than 122 million pesos, considering flower seed and cut flower production. Most of cut flowers produced in state of Baja California Norte is for export market, by this reason local market means an opportunity for introducing quality products at market prices from national companies. Mexicali city, by being near USA and together with its population economic wealth thanks to profitability of cotton and orchards production in Mexicali Valley, is one or the main producer region in the country. By this reason and thanks to great amount of flower shops located in the region the aim of describing marketing network and profitability for cut flower in Mexicali Valley is proposed. Market study and diagnose to make FODA analysis were developed, defining strategies in order to seize economic potential. Actual distribution networks and marketing system consist in moving cut flowers from production centers, Córdoba, Veracruz and Coatepec de Harinas district, state of Mexico, up to Mexicali Valley, Baja California, keeping quality and optimum vase life for final customer, also proper planning for production chain due not covered demand along year it is required, the population has economical potential and tradition to give flowers guaranteeing good profitability. Roses (Rosa gigantea and R. chinensis L., asian lilies (Lilium spp., chrysanthemum [Dendranthema x grandiflorum (Ramat Kitamura c. v. Polaris White], carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus, gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii H. Bolux ex Hook F. and oriental lilies (Lilium spp. are species with more consumers' interest.

  12. 高能窄谱光子联合药物治疗外阴湿疹的临床研究%Clinical Research of High Energy Narrow Spectrum Photons Combined with Drug Therapy on the treatment of Vulva Eczema

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘珉名; 董玲; 邬英

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of High Energy Narrow Spectrum Photons Combined with Drug Therapy on the treatment of Vulva Eczema. Methods 86 patients with Vulva Eczema who came to the dermatological department of our hospital during January 2013 to June 2014 were involved and divided into two groups randomly. In the control group, patients were treated with conventional drugs,while in the experimental group, conventional drugs combined with Carnation Photons therapy. Clinical efficacy and adverse effect between two groups were evaluated after 3 weeks of treatment. Results The total effective rate in the experimental group and control group was 100%and 93.0%, respectively. The treatment effect in the experimental group was significantly better than that in the control group, and the difference was statistically significant (P <0.05). The average cure time in the experimental group and the control group were (10.2 ±3.6) days, (13.1 ±5.4) days. The cure time of the experimental group was significantly less than the control group,and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). No obvious adverse effect was observed in both groups. Conclusion The effect of High Energy Narrow Spectrum Photons Combined with Drug Therapy in the treatment of Vulva Eczema is satisfactory. And this treatment method is easy operated with less adverse effect, and worthy to be recommended in the clinical application.%目的:探讨高能窄谱光子联合药物治疗外阴湿疹的临床效果。方法选取2013年1月~2014年6月我院皮肤科门诊治疗的外阴湿疹患者86例,对照组患者采取常规药物治疗,实验组在对照组基础上加用Carnation光子治疗仪进行治疗。治疗三周后对两组患者的疗效和不良反应进行评价。结果实验组患者治疗总有效率为100.0%,对照组患者治疗总有效率为93.0%。实验组患者的治疗效果明显优于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。实

  13. Peak Flow Responses to Forest Harvesting and Roads in the Maritime Regions of the Pacific Northwest: A Preferential Hillslope Runoff Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alila, Y.; Schnorbus, M.

    2005-12-01

    The debate regarding peak flow responses to forest clearcutting and road building in the maritime regions of the Pacific Northwest has attracted much attention over the past several decades and its outcome is an important scientific and operational concern. Although there appears to be general consensus that small peak discharge events are increased following forest management activities, little conclusive evidence exists regarding the impact of forest management activities on large events. Statistical tests in traditional paired watershed studies have been used to accept or reject hypotheses regarding peak flow responses to clearcutting and roads but provided no insight into watershed processes and other factors leading to their outcome. Furthermore, statistical analyses of peak flow responses to forestry activities in traditional paired watershed studies are confounded by the many factors that may contribute to management effects on watershed hydrology as well as by issues such as shortness of streamflow records and climate variability. To this end, a new perspective is offered in the debate regarding peak flow responses to clearcutting and road building in the maritime regions of the Pacific Northwest by combining numerical modeling with high-quality hydro-meteorological data collected at the 10-km2 Carnation Creek on the west coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia (BC). In this approach we explicitly account for changes in evapotranspiration loss, forest road construction and, in particular, introduce the concept of the competing influences of matrix versus preferential hillslope runoff. For scenarios involving road construction, forest clearcutting (52% cut rate) and roads and clearcutting combined, peak discharge increases decrease with decreasing event frequency and statistically significant ( = 0.05) increases in peak flow are confined to events with a 1 year or lower return period. For a range of return periods from 0.17 to 20 years, the effect (i

  14. An Exploration on Historical Facts Related to Tibetan Areas in The Travelogue of Xu Xiaka

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MU Shihua

    2013-01-01

    Kkam in Yunnan .The situation of Mu Clan tusi marked a trend of the historical development , and the fight between the Naxi and Tibetans produced a chain -reaction, or even caused a panic for various inland political powers . Because earlier Han Chinese and Tibetan his-torical texts did not record these large -scale his-torical events that happened in the cross -border region of Yunnan , Sichuan and Tibet around 1639, nor did the local literature, such as mushi huanpu ( the Genealogy of the Mu Clan ) include the struggles between the Naxi and Tibetan for fea-ring of losing face from the failure in the fight , lat-er generations are unable to understand the truth of the region ’ s history .However , the author of The Travelogue of Xu Xiake just happened to be trave-ling in this area around this time , and so he recor-ded the historical events based upon his own obser- vations .In doing so , he left the later generations the truth of the local history .Hence, The Trave-logue of Xu Xiake has its own unique historical val-ue in that it restores the true historical situation of the cross-border region of Yunnan , Sichuan and Tibet.He especially recorded the historical culture in his travelogue related to the Tibetan border are-as, such as information about yaks , the tea-horse caravan route , the pilgrimage of Tibetans to Mt . Jizu, and Mt.Wutai Mountain, the system of rein-carnation of Living Buddhas , etc.All of this pro-vides additional information to the Han -Chinese literature written in the Ming dynasty , and even helps to correct some mistakes in the official histor-ical documents in which the information regarding some of the contents were incomplete or even wrong . The late Ming dynasty was an era filled with turbulence and transformation in feudal China . There were increasingly sharp contradictions not only on the political aspects , but also on class and ethnic aspects .However , Xu Xiake recorded the historical truth of various provincial regions and