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Sample records for carnations

  1. Microsatellite genotyping of carnation varieties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smulders, M.J.M.; Noordijk, Y.; Rus-Kortekaas, W.; Bredemeijer, G.M.M.; Vosman, B.

    2003-01-01

    A set of 11 sequence-tagged microsatellite markers for carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) was developed using a DNA library enriched for microsatellites. Supplemented with three markers derived from sequence database entries, these were used to genotype carnation varieties using a semi-automated fluo

  2. Carnation (Dianthus caryophylus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nontaswatsri, Chalermsri; Fukai, Seiichi

    2006-01-01

    Carnation is a valuable crop for the cut flower industry and demand for new and improved varieties is growing. However, genetic transformation of carnations is currently limited because of a lack of efficient routine technique. In this chapter, we present an easy and effective protocol for gene transfer to carnation node explants and subsequent adventitious shoot regeneration. For high-adventitious shoot regeneration, node explants from first to third node of 5- to 8-cm long shoots were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium, containing 1.0 mg/Lthidiazuron (TDZ), 0.1 mg/L alpha-napthalenoacetic acid (NAA), 20 g/L sucrose, and 2 g/L Gellan gum for 10 d. Then the explants were cut into 8 radial segments and subcultured onto MS medium, containing 1.0 mg/L BA, 0.1 mg/L NAA, 20 g/L sucrose and 2 g/L Gellan Gum. For effective genetic transformation, 3- to 5-d precultured node explants were submerged in an Agrobacerium suspension for 10 min, then cocultivated on filter paper soaked with water and 50 microM acetosyringone (AS). After cocultivation, the explants were cut into eight radial segments and subcultured onto selection medium until transformed shoots regenerated from the explants.

  3. Carnation%康乃馨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘中飞

    2007-01-01

    @@ Carnations were first discovered in the Far East. These flowers are widely mentioned throughout Roman mythology(神话) and appear in the natural history records of the Roman writer Pliny, back in 50 B.C.

  4. Identification of Carnation varieties using microsatellite markers

    OpenAIRE

    Arens, P.F.P.; Esselink, G.; Noordijk, Y.; Kodde, L.P.; Hof, L.; Wietsma, W.A.; Vosman, B.

    2009-01-01

    As in many ornamentals, also in carnation the number of varieties in common knowledge is large and identification throughout the chain from breeder to consumer using plant material from different stages and organs may be needed. Results in this study on the use of microsatellite markers from Dianthus caryophyllus L. for the characterization of carnation varieties as well as the construction and evaluation of a molecular database show that these markers show potential for identification purposes

  5. Growth and cation accumulation in spray carnations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spithorst, L.S.

    1980-01-01

    Spray carnations (Dianthus caryophyllus ‘Exquisite’), planted as potted cuttings in December, had a maximum dry-matter production in summer of 22 g m−2 day−1, calculated for the net surface area completely covered by the crop. This value is fairly similar to the maxima established for outdoor crops

  6. Leadership Metaphors: Cycles of Carnations and Reincarnations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Rita L.

    1998-01-01

    Identifies and explains the metaphors of carnation and reincarnation that provide a visual portrayal of sharing, teaching, and practicing leadership for art educators. Highlights other metaphors in which women holding leadership roles are discussed. Conveys the importance of community and mentors in the creation of leaders. (CMK)

  7. Genetic transformation of carnation (Dianthus caryophylus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nontaswatsri, Chalermsri; Fukai, Seiichi

    2010-01-01

    This chapter describes a rapid and efficient protocol for explant preparation and genetic transformation of carnation. Node explants from greenhouse-grown plants and leaf explants from in vitro plants are infected with Agrobacterium tumefaciens AGL0 harboring pKT3 plasmid, consisting of GUS and NPTII genes. Explant preparation is an important factor to obtain the transformed plants. The GUS-staining area was located only on the cut end of explants and only explants with a cut end close to the connecting area between node and leaf, produced transformed shoots. The cocultivation medium is also an important factor for the successful genetic transformation of carnation node and leaf explants. High genetic transformation efficiency of node and leaf explants cocultured with Agrobacterium tumefaciens was achieved when the explants were cocultivated on a filter paper soaked with water or water and acetosyringone mixture (AS).

  8. Rooting of carnation cuttings: The auxin signal

    OpenAIRE

    Acosta, Manuel; Oliveros-Valenzuela, M Rocío; Nicolás, Carlos; Sánchez-Bravo, José

    2009-01-01

    The rooting of stem cuttings is a common vegetative propagation practice in many ornamental species. Among other signals, auxin polarly transported through the stem plays a key role in the formation and growth of adventitious roots. Unlike in other plant species, auxin from mature leaves plays a decisive role in the rooting of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus. L) cuttings. The gene DcAUX1, which codifies an auxin influx carrier involved in polar auxin transport, has now been cloned and charac...

  9. Callus and cell suspension cultures of carnation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engvild, Kjeld Christensen

    1972-01-01

    Callus cultures of carnation, Dianthus caryophyllus L. ev. G. J. Sim, were grown on a synthetic medium of half strength Murashige and Skoog salts, 3 % sucrose, 100 mg/l of myo-inositol, 0.5 mg/l each of thiamin, HCl, pyridoxin, HCl and nicotinic acid and 10 g/l agar. Optimal concentrations of gro......, but all attempts to induce formation of shoots or em-bryoids gave negative results....

  10. Sequence analysis of the genome of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, Masafumi; Kosugi, Shunichi; Hirakawa, Hideki; Ohmiya, Akemi; Tanase, Koji; Harada, Taro; Kishimoto, Kyutaro; Nakayama, Masayoshi; Ichimura, Kazuo; Onozaki, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Hiroyasu; Sasaki, Nobuhiro; Miyahara, Taira; Nishizaki, Yuzo; Ozeki, Yoshihiro; Nakamura, Noriko; Suzuki, Takamasa; Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Sato, Shusei; Shirasawa, Kenta; Isobe, Sachiko; Miyamura, Yoshinori; Watanabe, Akiko; Nakayama, Shinobu; Kishida, Yoshie; Kohara, Mitsuyo; Tabata, Satoshi

    2014-06-01

    The whole-genome sequence of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) cv. 'Francesco' was determined using a combination of different new-generation multiplex sequencing platforms. The total length of the non-redundant sequences was 568,887,315 bp, consisting of 45,088 scaffolds, which covered 91% of the 622 Mb carnation genome estimated by k-mer analysis. The N50 values of contigs and scaffolds were 16,644 bp and 60,737 bp, respectively, and the longest scaffold was 1,287,144 bp. The average GC content of the contig sequences was 36%. A total of 1050, 13, 92 and 143 genes for tRNAs, rRNAs, snoRNA and miRNA, respectively, were identified in the assembled genomic sequences. For protein-encoding genes, 43 266 complete and partial gene structures excluding those in transposable elements were deduced. Gene coverage was ∼ 98%, as deduced from the coverage of the core eukaryotic genes. Intensive characterization of the assigned carnation genes and comparison with those of other plant species revealed characteristic features of the carnation genome. The results of this study will serve as a valuable resource for fundamental and applied research of carnation, especially for breeding new carnation varieties. Further information on the genomic sequences is available at http://carnation.kazusa.or.jp.

  11. Respiration rate of gamma irradiation carnation cut flowers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, Olivia Kimiko; Wiendl, Frederico Maximiliano [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Todoriki, Setsuko; Nakahara, Kazuhiko; Haysahi, Toru [National Food Research Inst., Ibaraki (Japan)

    1996-07-01

    The present paper presents the CO{sub 2} production of the carnation cut flowers gamma-irradiated with a single dose of 750 Gy. The cut flowers were soaked in preservative solutions, containing germicides or germicides plus 2% sucrose. The irradiation did not change the CO{sub 2} production and did not cause any visible flower damage. The sucrose exogenous supply extended the vase-life of both irradiated and non-irradiated carnations. These results indicated that Nora carnation cut flower can be irradiated with 750 Gy without commercial viability loss and that it is possible to use the radiation to disinfect this fresh product. (author)

  12. Screening of Carnation Cultivars for Resistance to Meloidogyne incognita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, M R; Kim, J Y; Song, C; Ko, J Y; Na, S Y; Yiem, M S

    1996-12-01

    A total of 33 carnation cultivars cultured in Korea were screened for resistance to the southern root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita. Carnations were tested by either inoculating with 5,000 eggs or by transplanting into a mixture of bedding medium and soil infested with an average of 435 second-stage juveniles/300 cm(3) soil. Cultivars, Desio, Castelaro, Kappa, Rara, Izu Pink, Target, and Antalia were highly resistant to M. incognita. Twelve cultivars were moderately resistant, and the remaining 14 cultivars were susceptible. These results were similar to those obtained when the cultivars were subjected to field populations of the condition on a carnation farm.

  13. Screening of Carnation Cultivars for Resistance to Meloidogyne incognita

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, M. R.; Kim, J. Y.; Song, C.; Ko, J.Y.; Na, S. Y.; Yiem, M. S.

    1996-01-01

    A total of 33 carnation cultivars cultured in Korea were screened for resistance to the southern root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita. Carnations were tested by either inoculating with 5,000 eggs or by transplanting into a mixture of bedding medium and soil infested with an average of 435 second-stage juveniles/300 cm³ soil. Cultivars, Desio, Castelaro, Kappa, Rara, Izu Pink, Target, and Antalia were highly resistant to M. incognita. Twelve cultivars were moderately resistant, and the re...

  14. Evaluation of ploidy level and endoreduplication in carnation (Dianthus spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agulló-Antón, María Ángeles; Olmos, Enrique; Pérez-Pérez, José Manuel; Acosta, Manuel

    2013-03-01

    Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) is one of the fifth most important ornamental species worldwide. Many desirable plant characteristics, such as big size, adaptation under stress, and intra or interspecific hybridization capability, are dependent on plant ploidy level. We optimized a quick flow cytometry method for DNA content determination in wild and cultivated carnation samples that allowed a systematic evaluation of ploidy levels in Dianthus species. The DNA content of different carnation cultivars and wild Dianthus species was determined using internal reference standards. The precise characterization of ploidy, endoreduplication and C-value of D. caryophyllus 'Master' makes it a suitable standard cultivar for ploidy level determination in other carnation cultivars. Mixoploidy was rigorously characterized in different regions of several organs from D. caryophyllus 'Master', which combined with a detailed morphological description suggested some distinctive developmental traits of this species. Both the number of endoreduplication cycles and the proportion of endopolyploid cells were highly variable in the petals among the cultivars studied, differently to the values found in leaves. Our results suggest a positive correlation between ploidy, cell size and petal size in cultivated carnation, which should be considered in breeding programs aimed to obtain new varieties with large flowers.

  15. Production of Virus-free Carnation Plants through Heat Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Mangal

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of exposure of carnation plants infected with carnation, latent virus (CLV to two temperature regimes (35 + 2 "C and 40 +2 "C for different periods (1 to 4 weeks revealed thatthe exposure to different temperatures for different periods has a negative correlation with the survival of plants. Whereas only 33.33 per cent plants survived after 4 weeks at 35 + 2 "C, the plants when exposed to 40+ 2 "C for the same period could not tolerate the heat shock. However, only those plants which were exposed to 35 + 2 "C for 4 weeks and those exposed to 40 + 2 "C for 3 weeks were free from CLV. However, because of better survival rate, the higher temperature regime of 40 + 2 "C is recommended for production of virus-tested carnation plants.

  16. A PIXE study of vitrification of carnation in vitro culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, H. Y.; Lin, E. K.; Wang, C. W.; Yu, Y. C.; Chang, C. H.; Yang, Y. C.; Chang, C. Y.

    1996-04-01

    PIXE (Proton Induced X-ray Emission) is a well-known method for elemental analyses of specimens in applied studies. In this paper, we report results of an application of PIXE in trace-element analysis of normal and vitrified carnations in vitro culture. Experiments were performed to study the vitrification in connection with the trace elements in carnation tissues. About two hundred PIXE spectra were obtained from seventy samples with an irradiation of 3 MeV protons from the NEC 9SDH-2 Pelletron tandem accelerator. From the PIXE analysis we determined the trace element composition of normal and vitrified carnations. Our results indicate that there is a significant change of K, Ca, Fe and Zn contents in the vitrification process.

  17. In vitro propagation of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Jose L; Olmos, Enrique; Piqueras, Abel

    2010-01-01

    Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) is one of the most popular ornamental plants worldwide and also among the most studied ones, mainly in cut flower postharvest physiology. Several protocols for the in vitro propagation of this species including nodal segment culture, somatic embryogenesis, and adventitious shoot induction are described in this chapter. The presence of hyperhydricity as an abnormality during micropropagation of carnation plants has also been the object of research for many years and different strategies to overcome this problem are also included in this study.

  18. Validation of a carnation-specific gene, ANS, used as an endogenous reference gene in qualitative and real-time quantitative PCR for carnations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hong; Jiang, Lingxi; Tao, Shiru; Lin, Heyan; Wang, Jinbin; Tan, Furong; Zhao, Kai; Wu, Xiao; Li, Peng; Pan, Aihu; Jia, Junwei; Tang, Xueming

    2011-01-01

    The validation of the anthocyanin synthase (ANS) gene as a carnation endogenous reference gene applicable both in classical and real-time PCR methods is a prerequisite for the development of PCR assays for genetically modified (GM) carnation detection. This is important due to the fact that GM carnation lines, developed by Florigene Pty Ltd, have been approved for commercialization. In this study, both methods were tested on 14 different carnation cultivars, and identical amplification products were obtained with all of them. No amplification products were observed with samples from 14 other plant species, which demonstrated that the system was specific to carnation. The results of Southern blot analysis confirmed that the ANS gene had a low copy number in the 10 tested carnation varieties. In qualitative and real-time PCR assays, the LOD values of 0.05 and 0.005 ng carnation DNA, respectively, were validated. Moreover, the real-time PCR system was validated with high PCR efficiency and linearity. Thus, the ANS gene had species specificity, low heterogeneity, and low copy number among the tested cultivars. These results provide evidence that the gene can be used as an endogenous reference gene of carnation, as well as in qualitative and quantitative PCR systems.

  19. Identification of heat-responsive genes in carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) by RNA-seq

    OpenAIRE

    Xueli eWan; Qiao eZhou; Yuanyuan eWang; Wenen eWang; Manzhu eBao; Junwei eZhang

    2015-01-01

    Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) is an important flower crop, having substantial commercial value as a cut-flower due to the long vase-life and wide array of flower colors and forms. Standard carnation varieties perform well under cool climates but are very susceptible to high temperatures which adversely affect the yield and the quality of the cut-flowers. Despite several studies of carnation contributing to the number of expressed sequence tags (ESTs), transcriptomic information of this...

  20. Carnation mottle virus, an important viral agent infecting carnation cut-flower crops in Mahallat of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, M; Koohi Habibi, M; Mosahebi, G; Dizadji, A

    2009-01-01

    One of the most important cut-flower crops grown worldwide on commercial scale is Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.). It's the main production of Mahallat where is one of the most important ornamental plants production centers of Iran. Infection of carnation with pathogens Like viral agents causes economic losses in carnation cut-flower crop. One of the viral agents of this flower is Carnation mottle virus (CarMV) which is the type member of genus Carmovirus and belongs to the Tombusviridae family. It is naturally transmitted by grafting and contacting between plants. Although its infection lead to mild symptims, it weakens the plant to infection by other pathogens. The carnation greenhouses of Mahallat were visited during 2008 January to April and 100 samples with mild mosaic symptom were collected and tested by DAS-ELISA using CarMV specific polyclonal antibody. The results showed that 75% of samples wrere infected with this virus. Mechanical inocubation of Chenopodium quinoa, C. amaranticolor and Spinacea oleracea with extracted crude sap of CarMV infected carnation Leaves in phosphate buffer (pH, 7) resulted in appearance of chlorotic and necrotic local lesions on inoculated leaves 4-7 days after incubation. The virus was partially purified using C. amaranticolor locally symptomatic leaves. Total soluble proteins were extracted from healthy and CarMV infected C. amaranticolor plants and beside partially purified preparation electrophoresed through 15% poly acrylamide get according to SDS-PAGE standard procedure. Protein bands were electroblotted onto nitrocelluse membrane and incubated with CarMV polyclonal during western immunoblot analysis according to standard method. The result revealed a distinc protein band with Mr of 35.5 kDa in total protein preparation of infected plant and viral partial pure preparation, without any reaction in those of healthy plant. RT-PCR carried out using total RNA extracted from infected plant by Rneasy Plant Mini Kit (Qiagen

  1. CALLUS INDUCTION FROM 15 CARNATION (DIANTHUS CARYOPHYLLUS L.) CULTIVARS

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A.

    2014-01-01

    Plant growth regulators (PGRs) were used to induce callus in 15 carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.; Caryophyllaceae) cultivars: Orange Sherbert, Avalanche, Magenta, La France, Stripe Red, Marie, Concerto PVP, Snap, Lucky Pierot, Cinnamon Tea, White Love, Siberia, Magesta, Spark Bruno, and Honono no Estejo. Seeds were initially sown on autoclaved moistened filter paper and internodes of surface-sterilized seedlings were used as explants. Most callus was induced in the presence of 0.5 mg/L α-n...

  2. Complete Genome Sequence of a Carnation Mottle Virus Infecting Hop Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Jo, Yeonhwa; Choi, Hoseong; Cho, Won Kyong

    2015-01-01

    The Carnation mottle virus (CarMV) is a single positive-strand RNA virus belonging to the genus Carmovirus. The major natural host for CarMV is the carnation. In this study, using transcriptome data, we provide for the first time a nearly complete genome sequence of CarMV infecting hop plants.

  3. Characterization of two carnation petal prolyl 4 hydroxylases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlad, Florina; Tiainen, Päivi; Owen, Carolyn; Spano, Thodhoraq; Daher, Firas Bou; Oualid, Fatiha; Senol, Namik Ozer; Vlad, Daniela; Myllyharju, Johanna; Kalaitzis, Panagiotis

    2010-10-01

    Prolyl 4-hydroxylases (P4Hs) catalyze the proline hydroxylation, a major post-translational modification, of hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins. Two carnation petal P4H cDNAs, (Dianthus caryophyllus prolyl 4-hydroxylase) DcP4H1 and DcP4H2, were identified and characterized at the gene expression and biochemical level in order to investigate their role in flower senescence. Both mRNAs showed similar patterns of expression with stable transcript abundance during senescence progression and differential tissue-specific expression with DcP4H1 and DcP4H2 strongly expressed in ovaries and stems, respectively. Recombinant DcP4H1 and DcP4H2 proteins were produced and their catalytic properties were determined. Pyridine 2,4-dicarboxylate (PDCA) was identified as a potent inhibitor of the in vitro enzyme activity of both P4Hs and used to determine whether inhibition of proline hydroxylation in petals is involved in senescence progression of cut carnation flowers. PDCA suppressed the climacteric ethylene production indicating a strong correlation between the inhibition of DcP4H1 and DcP4H2 activity in vitro by PDCA and the suppression of climacteric ethylene production in cut carnation flowers.

  4. Quantification of major flavonoids in carnation tissues (Dianthus caryophyllus) as a tool for cultivar discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeotti, Francesco; Barile, Elisa; Lanzotti, Virginia; Dolci, Marcello; Curir, Paolo

    2008-01-01

    One flavone-C-glycoside and two flavonol-O-glycosides were recognized and isolated as the main flavonoidal components in nine different carnation cultivars, and their chemical structures have been determined by spectroscopic methods, including UV detection, MS and NMR. The distribution of these three compounds in flowers, leaves, stems, young sprouts, and roots of each cultivar was evaluated by a simple HPLC-UV method: the graphic representation of their content in the different tissues allows to identify and characterize unambiguously each considered carnation cultivar. The presented method could be an easy, inexpensive and reliable tool for carnation cultivar discrimination.

  5. Carnation, Lily, Lily, Rose and the process of painting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Hellen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available “One Object” is a British Art Studies series that uses an object from a collection as a starting point for collaborative research. Rebecca Hellen and Elaine Kilmurray have co-authored this essay based on their recent analysis of Carnation, Lily, Lily, Rose (1885–86 by John Singer Sargent This “One Object” article on John Singer Sargent’s Carnation, Lily, Lily, Rose (1885–86 brings together recent technical examination of the painting with the “patchwork” of moments, ideas, and themes that inform the history of its making. A variety of observations were recorded by artists and writers who were staying in or visiting Broadway in Worcestershire when Sargent was making his “big picture” there over the late summers and early autumns of 1885 and 1886. By connecting the research carried out in the conservation studio with research from the archive, we present new information about Sargent’s working methods. In considering technical information in tandem with Sargent’s preparatory work, this article explores the evolution of one of Sargent’s best-known paintings.

  6. Quantitative Analysis of Adventitious Root Growth Phenotypes in Carnation Stem Cuttings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birlanga, Virginia; Villanova, Joan; Cano, Antonio; Cano, Emilio A; Acosta, Manuel; Pérez-Pérez, José Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Carnation is one of the most important species on the worldwide market of cut flowers. Commercial carnation cultivars are vegetatively propagated from terminal stem cuttings that undergo a rooting and acclimation process. For some of the new cultivars that are being developed by ornamental breeders, poor adventitious root (AR) formation limits its commercial scaling-up, due to a significant increase in the production costs. We have initiated a genetical-genomics approach to determine the molecular basis of the differences found between carnation cultivars during adventitious rooting. The detailed characterization of AR formation in several carnation cultivars differing in their rooting losses has been performed (i) during commercial production at a breeders' rooting station and (ii) on a defined media in a controlled environment. Our study reveals the phenotypic signatures that distinguishes the bad-rooting cultivars and provides the appropriate set-up for the molecular identification of the genes involved in AR development in this species.

  7. Quantitative Analysis of Adventitious Root Growth Phenotypes in Carnation Stem Cuttings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Birlanga

    Full Text Available Carnation is one of the most important species on the worldwide market of cut flowers. Commercial carnation cultivars are vegetatively propagated from terminal stem cuttings that undergo a rooting and acclimation process. For some of the new cultivars that are being developed by ornamental breeders, poor adventitious root (AR formation limits its commercial scaling-up, due to a significant increase in the production costs. We have initiated a genetical-genomics approach to determine the molecular basis of the differences found between carnation cultivars during adventitious rooting. The detailed characterization of AR formation in several carnation cultivars differing in their rooting losses has been performed (i during commercial production at a breeders' rooting station and (ii on a defined media in a controlled environment. Our study reveals the phenotypic signatures that distinguishes the bad-rooting cultivars and provides the appropriate set-up for the molecular identification of the genes involved in AR development in this species.

  8. Study of enzymatic activity and proline change in potted mini carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) flowers under ethylene stress

    OpenAIRE

    M Karimi

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the role of ethylene stress, ethylene inhibitors and action treatments on longevity of potted-carnation flowers. For this purpose, first, potted-carnation flowers were pretreated with different concentrations of amino-oxyacetic acid (AOA), benzyladenine (BA) and 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP). Then, ethephon (as stress treatment) was sprayed on the pretreated flowers. Results showed that the lowest longevity of carnation flowers (5 and 6 days, respectively) ...

  9. Identification of heat-responsive genes in carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. by RNA-seq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueli eWan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. is an important flower crop, having substantial commercial value as a cut-flower due to the long vase-life and wide array of flower colours and forms. Standard carnation varieties perform well under cool climates but are very susceptible to high temperatures which adversely affect the yield and the quality of the cut-flowers. Despite several studies of carnation contributing to the number of expressed sequence tags (ESTs, transcriptomic information of this species remains very limited, particularly regarding abiotic stress-related genes. Here, transcriptome analysis was performed to generate expression profiles of heat stress (HS-responsive genes in carnation. We sequenced a cDNA library constructed with mixed RNA from carnation leaves subjected to 42oC HS (0, 0.5, 1 and 2 h and 46oC HS (0.5, 1 and 2 h, and obtained 45,604,882 high quality paired-end reads. After de novo assembly and quantitative assessment, 99,255 contigs were generated with an average length of 1053bp. We then obtained functional annotations by aligning contigs with public protein databases including NR, SwissProt, KEGG and COG. Using the above carnation transcriptome as the reference, we compared the effects of high temperature treatments (42oC: duration 0.5, 2 or 12h delivered to aseptic carnation seedlings, relative to untreated controls, using the FPKM metric. Overall, 11,471 genes were identified which showed a significant response to one or more of the three HS treatment times. In addition, based on GO and metabolic pathway enrichment analyses, a series of candidate genes involved in thermo-tolerance responses were selected and characterized. This study represents the first expression profiling analysis of D. caryophyllus under heat stress treatments. Numerous genes were found to be induced in response to HS, the study of which may advance our understanding of heat response of carnation.

  10. Identification of heat-responsive genes in carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) by RNA-seq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xue Li; Zhou, Qiao; Wang, Yuan Yuan; Wang, Wen En; Bao, Man Zhu; Zhang, Jun Wei

    2015-01-01

    Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) is an important flower crop, having substantial commercial value as a cut-flower due to the long vase-life and wide array of flower colors and forms. Standard carnation varieties perform well under cool climates but are very susceptible to high temperatures which adversely affect the yield and the quality of the cut-flowers. Despite several studies of carnation contributing to the number of expressed sequence tags (ESTs), transcriptomic information of this species remains very limited, particularly regarding abiotic stress-related genes. Here, transcriptome analysis was performed to generate expression profiles of heat stress (HS)-responsive genes in carnation. We sequenced a cDNA library constructed with mixed RNA from carnation leaves subjected to 42°C HS (0, 0.5, 1, and 2 h) and 46°C HS (0.5, 1, and 2 h), and obtained 45,604,882 high quality paired-end reads. After de novo assembly and quantitative assessment 99,255 contigs were generated with an average length of 1053 bp. We then obtained functional annotations by aligning contigs with public protein databases including NR, SwissProt, KEGG, and COG. Using the above carnation transcriptome as the reference, we compared the effects of high temperature treatments (42°C: duration 0.5, 2, or 12 h) delivered to aseptic carnation seedlings, relative to untreated controls, using the FPKM metric. Overall, 11,471 genes were identified which showed a significant response to one or more of the three HS treatment times. In addition, based on GO and metabolic pathway enrichment analyses, a series of candidate genes involved in thermo-tolerance responses were selected and characterized. This study represents the first expression profiling analysis of D. caryophyllus under heat stress treatments. Numerous genes were found to be induced in response to HS, the study of which may advance our understanding of heat response of carnation.

  11. The Occurrence of Hyperhydricity on Several Carnations (Dianthus carryophyllus L.) Cultivars during Low Temperature Storage

    OpenAIRE

    KURNIAWAN BUDIARTO

    2009-01-01

    The incident of hyperhydricity was a common problem in propagated carnation (Dianthus carryophyllus L.) during in vitro culture. Due to its possible relations with the decrease in phenotypic performance of plantlets, the observation on the occurrence of hyperhydricity was conducted on several in vitro conserved carnation cultivars. The research was conducted from July 2007 to August 2008 at The Indonesian Ornamental Crops Research Institute, Cianjur, West Java. A complete factorial experiment...

  12. Discrimination of carnation pistils in neutron tomographic images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsushima, U. [University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa (Japan); Lehmann, E.H.; Vontobel, P. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Kawamitsu, Y.; Nishizawa, T. [Yamagata University, Tsuruoka (Japan)

    2005-07-01

    Discrimination of plant organs and tissues from neutron tomographic image of a carnation flower is important to compare before and after changes in water distribution in each organ. A discriminative image processing that based on geographical characteristics of flower organs was used to try to create an image of a pistil in a flower. The styles in the pistil were clearly. On the other hand, the discriminated isosurface of the ovary was rugged with several spikes because the coalesced petals were recognized as parts of the ovary. Therefore, to correct the rugged surface, open filtering and closed filtering were attempted. The filtering processes showed strong dilation and erosion effects respectively. Combined open and closed filtering were applied to complement each other. The process removed coalesced petals and had fewer side effects.

  13. CALLUS INDUCTION FROM 15 CARNATION (DIANTHUS CARYOPHYLLUS L. CULTIVARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime A. TEIXEIRA DA SILVA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Plant growth regulators (PGRs were used to induce callus in 15 carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.; Caryophyllaceae cultivars: Orange Sherbert, Avalanche, Magenta, La France, Stripe Red, Marie, Concerto PVP, Snap, Lucky Pierot, Cinnamon Tea, White Love, Siberia, Magesta, Spark Bruno, and Honono no Estejo. Seeds were initially sown on autoclaved moistened filter paper and internodes of surface-sterilized seedlings were used as explants. Most callus was induced in the presence of 0.5 mg/L α-naphthaleneacetic acid used together with 1 mg/L 6-benzyladenine or 1 mg/L 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid on basal Murashige and Skoog medium. Callus is not a desirable method to clonally propagate important germplasm but can serve as one possible way of deriving periclinal mutants as a result of somaclonal variation.

  14. Transcriptome analysis of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. based on next-generation sequencing technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanase Koji

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L., in the family Caryophyllaceae, can be found in a wide range of colors and is a model system for studies of flower senescence. In addition, it is one of the most important flowers in the global floriculture industry. However, few genomics resources, such as sequences and markers are available for carnation or other members of the Caryophyllaceae. To increase our understanding of the genetic control of important characters in carnation, we generated an expressed sequence tag (EST database for a carnation cultivar important in horticulture by high-throughput sequencing using 454 pyrosequencing technology. Results We constructed a normalized cDNA library and a 3’-UTR library of carnation, obtaining a total of 1,162,126 high-quality reads. These reads were assembled into 300,740 unigenes consisting of 37,844 contigs and 262,896 singlets. The contigs were searched against an Arabidopsis sequence database, and 61.8% (23,380 of them had at least one BLASTX hit. These contigs were also annotated with Gene Ontology (GO and were found to cover a broad range of GO categories. Furthermore, we identified 17,362 potential simple sequence repeats (SSRs in 14,291 of the unigenes. We focused on gene discovery in the areas of flower color and ethylene biosynthesis. Transcripts were identified for almost every gene involved in flower chlorophyll and carotenoid metabolism and in anthocyanin biosynthesis. Transcripts were also identified for every step in the ethylene biosynthesis pathway. Conclusions We present the first large-scale sequence data set for carnation, generated using next-generation sequencing technology. The large EST database generated from these sequences is an informative resource for identifying genes involved in various biological processes in carnation and provides an EST resource for understanding the genetic diversity of this plant.

  15. Identification of Carnation Mottle Viruson Carnation in Kunming%昆明香石竹斑驳病毒鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡红; 孔宝华; 吴建宇; 陈海如; 段永嘉

    2001-01-01

    从表现为叶斑驳、花碎色症状的香石竹病株上获得一病毒分离物,经电镜负染观察,该病毒为直径是28~33nm的球状粒子,病毒提取液经紫外光测定呈典型核蛋白吸收曲线,OD260/OD280=1.70;血清学反应与CarMV抗血清出现明显的沉淀线.由此,可基本认为该病毒分离物为香石竹斑驳病毒(Carnation mottle virus, CarMV).

  16. Detection of 1-O-malylglucose: pelargonidin 3-O-glucose-6''-O-malyltransferase activity in carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Yutaka; Tera, Masayuki; Sasaki, Nobuhiro; Okamura, Masachika; Umemoto, Naoyuki; Momose, Masaki; Kawahara, Nobuo; Kamakura, Hiroyuki; Goda, Yukihiro; Nagasawa, Kazuo; Ozeki, Yoshihiro

    2008-09-05

    Carnations have anthocyanins acylated with malate. Although anthocyanin acyltransferases have been reported in several plant species, anthocyanin malyltransferase (AMalT) activity in carnation has not been identified. Here, an acyl donor substance of AMalT, 1-O-beta-D-malylglucose, was extracted and partially purified from the petals of carnation. This was synthesized chemically to analyze AMalT activity in a crude extract from carnation. Changes in the AMalT activity showed close correlation to the accumulation of pelargonidin 3-malylglucoside (Pel 3-malGlc) during the development of red petals of carnation, but neither AMalT activity nor Pel 3-malGlc accumulation was detectable in roots, stems and leaves.

  17. Role of the gynoecium in natural senescence of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibuya, K; Yoshioka, T; Hashiba, T; Satoh, S

    2000-12-01

    Although the role of the gynoecium in natural senescence of the carnation flower has long been suggested, it has remained a matter of dispute because petal senescence in the cut carnation flower was not delayed by the removal of gynoecium. In this study, the gynoecium was snapped off by hand, in contrast to previous investigations where removal was achieved by forceps or scissors. The removal of the gynoecium by hand prevented the onset of ethylene production and prolonged the vase life of the flower, demonstrating a decisive role of the gynoecium in controlling natural senescence of the carnation flower. Abscisic acid (ABA) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), which induced ethylene production and accelerated petal senescence in carnation flowers, did not stimulate ethylene production in the flowers with gynoecia removed (-Gyn flowers). Application of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC), the ethylene precursor, induced substantial ethylene production and petal wilting in the flowers with gynoecia left intact, but was less effective at stimulating ethylene production in the -Gyn flowers and negligible petal in-rolling was observed. Exogenous ethylene induced autocatalytic production of the gas and petal wilting in the -Gyn flowers. These results indicated that ethylene generated in the gynoecium triggers the onset of ethylene production in the petals of carnation during natural senescence.

  18. Kaempferol glycosides in the flowers of carnation and their contribution to the creamy white flower color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwashina, Tsukasa; Yamaguchi, Masa-atsu; Nakayama, Masayoshi; Onozaki, Takashi; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Kawanobu, Shuji; Onoe, Hiroshi; Okamura, Masachika

    2010-12-01

    Three flavonol glycosides were isolated from the flowers of carnation cultivars 'White Wink' and 'Honey Moon'. They were identified from their UV, MS, 1H and 13C NMR spectra as kaempferol 3-O-neohesperidoside, kaempferol 3-O-sophoroside and kaempferol 3-O-glucosyl-(1 --> 2)-[rhamnosyl-(1 --> 6)-glucoside]. Referring to previous reports, flavonols occurring in carnation flowers are characterized as kaempferol 3-O-glucosides with additional sugars binding at the 2 and/or 6-positions of the glucose. The kaempferol glycoside contents of a nearly pure white flower and some creamy white flower lines were compared. Although the major glycoside was different in each line, the total kaempferol contents of the creamy white lines were from 5.9 to 20.9 times higher than the pure white line. Thus, in carnations, kaempferol glycosides surely contribute to the creamy tone of white flowers.

  19. Composting of spent mushroom compost, carnation wastes, chicken and cattle manures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulcu, Recep; Sönmez, Ilker; Yaldiz, Osman; Kaplan, Mustafa

    2008-11-01

    This study has purposed to determine the optimum mixture ratio of used mushroom compost, chicken manure, cattle manure and carnation waste for composting. For this purpose, these materials have been mixed in seven various ratios (R1-R7) and composted in the experimental composting reactors. The highest dry material losses and temperature values have been obtained by the R4 which contains 50% carnation waste, 25% chicken manure and 25% spent mushroom compost. Beside R4, mixtures of R2, R5 and R6 have also provided high process temperature and dry material loss values. The lowest dry material loss and temperature values have been obtained in the R7 which contains only carnation wastes. In the study, it has also seen that FAS (free air space) parameter is effective on the process and must be in the interval of 24-32%.

  20. Psidium guajava and Piper betle Leaf Extracts Prolong Vase Life of Cut Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) Flowers

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, M M; Ahmad, S. H.; K. S. Lgu

    2012-01-01

    The effect of leaf extracts of Psidium guajava and Piper betle on prolonging vase life of cut carnation flowers was studied. “Carola” and “Pallas Orange” carnation flowers, at bud stage, were pulsed 24 hours with a floral preservative. Then, flowers were placed in a vase solution containing sprite and a “germicide” (leaf extracts of P. guajava and P. betle, 8-HQC, or a copper coin). Flowers treated with 8-HQC, copper coin, and leaf extracts had longer vase life, larger flower diameter, and hi...

  1. "Cyclamen Red" colors based on a macrocyclic anthocyanin in carnation flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonnet, J F; Fenet, B

    2000-01-01

    The "cyclamen" red (or pink) colors in carnation flowers-cultivars Red Rox and eight others-are based on the presence of a new macrocyclic anthocyanin, pelargonidin 3,5-di-O-beta-glucoside(6' ', 6' "-malyl diester) identified by spectroscopic methods. The instability of the bridging malyl group with sugars in acidic medium readily causes the formation of the opened ring form, 3-O-(6' '-O-malylglucoside)-5-O-glucoside. The issue of cyclamen colors based in carnations on this original acylated pelargonidin derivative simulating those based on simpler cyanidin glycosides in Rosa cultivars is discussed using CIELAB colorimetric coordinates.

  2. Response of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) cultivars to different postharvest preservatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adugna, Biniam; Belew, Derbew; Kassa, Negussie

    2013-10-01

    Experiments were conducted to assess the effect of selected pulsing solutions on the days to flower bud shrinkage, leaf wilting and petal edge drying occurrence of carnation cultivars (Green-Go and Galy). The pulsing solutions used for this investigation were Silver Thiosulfate (STS) (0.2, 0.6, 1 mM) and also ethanol (6, 8, 10%), both received equal amount of sucrose (10%). Besides, to simulate the actual practice of the farm (0.4 mM Silver Thiosulfate (STS) plus 0.3 mM T.O.G) was used as a standard control. Senescence symptoms such as flower bud shrinkage, petal edge drying and leaf wilting were monitored. The results obtained showed that 1 mM STS plus 25 g sucrose achieved rapid petal edge drying for Green-Go cultivar. On the other hand, positive effects were also observed in days to flower bud shrinkage extended by 6 mM Silver Thiosulfate (STS) plus 25 g sucrose and being in par with 8% ethanol plus 25 g sucrose for Green-Go cultivar. Subsequently, the standard control, 0.6 mM Silver Thiosulfate (STS) plus 25 g sucrose and 8% ethanol plus 25 g sucrose attended comparable increment on the days to leaf wilting occurrences.

  3. Crystal structure of the petal death protein from carnation flower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teplyakov, Alexey; Liu, Sijiu; Lu, Zhibing; Howard, Andrew; Dunaway-Mariano, Debra; Herzberg, Osnat

    2005-12-20

    Expression of the PSR132 protein from Dianthus caryophyllus (carnation, clover pink) is induced in response to ethylene production associated with petal senescence, and thus the protein is named petal death protein (PDP). Recent work has established that despite the annotation of PDP in sequence databases as carboxyphosphoenolpyruvate mutase, the enzyme is actually a C-C bond cleaving lyase exhibiting a broad substrate profile. The crystal structure of PDP has been determined at 2.7 A resolution, revealing a dimer-of-dimers oligomeric association. Consistent with sequence homology, the overall alpha/beta barrel fold of PDP is the same as that of other isocitrate lyase/PEP mutase superfamily members, including a swapped eighth helix within a dimer. Moreover, Mg(2+) binds in the active site of PDP with a coordination pattern similar to that seen in other superfamily members. A compound, covalently bound to the catalytic residue, Cys144, was interpreted as a thiohemiacetal adduct resulting from the reaction of glutaraldehyde used to cross-link the crystals. The Cys144-carrying flexible loop that gates access to the active site is in the closed conformation. Models of bound substrates and comparison with the closed conformation of isocitrate lyase and 2-methylisocitrate lyase revealed the structural basis for the broad substrate profile of PDP.

  4. Ethylene biosynthesis genes are differentially expressed during carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) flower senescence.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Have, A.; Woltering, E.J.

    1997-01-01

    Ethylene production and expression patterns of an 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) oxidase (CARAO1) and of two ACC synthase (EC 4.4.1.14) genes (CARACC3 and CARAS1) were studied in floral organs of cut carnation flowers (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) cv. White Sim. During the vase life and af

  5. A quantitative framework for flower phenotyping in cultivated carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borja Chacón

    Full Text Available Most important breeding goals in ornamental crops are plant appearance and flower characteristics where selection is visually performed on direct offspring of crossings. We developed an image analysis toolbox for the acquisition of flower and petal images from cultivated carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. that was validated by a detailed analysis of flower and petal size and shape in 78 commercial cultivars of D. caryophyllus, including 55 standard, 22 spray and 1 pot carnation cultivars. Correlation analyses allowed us to reduce the number of parameters accounting for the observed variation in flower and petal morphology. Convexity was used as a descriptor for the level of serration in flowers and petals. We used a landmark-based approach that allowed us to identify eight main principal components (PCs accounting for most of the variance observed in petal shape. The effect and the strength of these PCs in standard and spray carnation cultivars are consistent with shared underlying mechanisms involved in the morphological diversification of petals in both subpopulations. Our results also indicate that neighbor-joining trees built with morphological data might infer certain phylogenetic relationships among carnation cultivars. Based on estimated broad-sense heritability values for some flower and petal features, different genetic determinants shall modulate the responses of flower and petal morphology to environmental cues in this species. We believe our image analysis toolbox could allow capturing flower variation in other species of high ornamental value.

  6. A quantitative framework for flower phenotyping in cultivated carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacón, Borja; Ballester, Roberto; Birlanga, Virginia; Rolland-Lagan, Anne-Gaëlle; Pérez-Pérez, José Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Most important breeding goals in ornamental crops are plant appearance and flower characteristics where selection is visually performed on direct offspring of crossings. We developed an image analysis toolbox for the acquisition of flower and petal images from cultivated carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) that was validated by a detailed analysis of flower and petal size and shape in 78 commercial cultivars of D. caryophyllus, including 55 standard, 22 spray and 1 pot carnation cultivars. Correlation analyses allowed us to reduce the number of parameters accounting for the observed variation in flower and petal morphology. Convexity was used as a descriptor for the level of serration in flowers and petals. We used a landmark-based approach that allowed us to identify eight main principal components (PCs) accounting for most of the variance observed in petal shape. The effect and the strength of these PCs in standard and spray carnation cultivars are consistent with shared underlying mechanisms involved in the morphological diversification of petals in both subpopulations. Our results also indicate that neighbor-joining trees built with morphological data might infer certain phylogenetic relationships among carnation cultivars. Based on estimated broad-sense heritability values for some flower and petal features, different genetic determinants shall modulate the responses of flower and petal morphology to environmental cues in this species. We believe our image analysis toolbox could allow capturing flower variation in other species of high ornamental value.

  7. High Yield Cultivation Technology of Carnation%香石竹丰产种植技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李会芳; 邹存静

    2013-01-01

    文章通过对香石竹的栽培生产以及特征,对香石竹在栽培生产中涉及到的土壤、定植、扦插繁殖、组织培养等一系列问题进行了分析,尤其是对香石竹病虫害中枯萎病危害、叶斑病危害、灰霉病危害、病毒病危害、桃蚜危害进行了全面的分析阐述,已达到对香石竹更好的栽培。%Based on the cultivation production and characteristics of carnation, the article analyzes the soil, fixed value, cutting propagation, tissue culture and a series of problems involved in the carnation cultivation and production, especially expounded the blight diseases, leaf spot diseases, grey mold diseases, virus disease, insect pests damage, grey mould diseases, virus disease, black peach aphid diseases of carnation, so as to reach the better cultivation of carnation.

  8. Effect of sucrose in a holding solution on some processes associated with ageing of cut carnations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Łukaszewska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Vase-life of cut carnations and their response to a preservative (8-HQS+S depended on the sucrose and reducing sugar content in the petals at the time of harvest. The reducing sugar level decreased in the wilted flowers kept in water and increased above the initial level in the carnations given sucrose in a holding solution. This increase in reducing sugars was small or 2-3 fold in the flowers with high and low initial sugar levels, respectively. Changes in the endogenous sucrose levels in the petals were less pronounced but a trend (i.e. increase-decrease was also dependent on the initial sucrose level. Considerable sucrose accumulation was found in the leaves of plants placed in the solution of 5% sucrose plus 200 ppm 8-HQS. Use of an exogenous sugar in a holding solution prevented an increase in free amino acids in carnation petals, a symptom for flower ageing. Carnations placed in a preservative solution had a had anthocyanin content then the control flowers. Lower activities of acid phosphatases and RNases were found in the flowers placed in the solutions tested as compared to those kept in water.

  9. The role of N-lauroylethanolamine in the regulation of senescence of cut carnations (Dianthus caryophyllus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yun; Guo, Wei-ming; Chen, Su-mei; Han, Liang; Li, Zheng-ming

    2007-08-01

    N-acylethanolamines (NAEs) are a group of lipid mediators that play important roles in mammals, but not much is known about their precise function in plants. In this work, we analyzed the possible involvement of N-lauroylethanolamine [NAE(12:0)] in the regulation of cut-flower senescence. In cut carnation flowers of cv. Red Barbara, the pulse treatment with 5 microM NAE(12:0) slowed senescence by delaying the onset of initial wilting. Ion leakage, which is a reliable indicator of membrane integrity, was postponed in NAE(12:0)-treated flowers. The lipid peroxidation increased in carnation petals with time, in parallel to the development in activity of lipoxygenase and superoxide anion production rate, and these increases were both delayed by NAE(12:0) supplementation. The activities of four enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase and ascorbate peroxidase) that are implicated in antioxidant defense were also upregulated in the cut carnations that had been treated with NAE(12:0). These data indicate that NAE(12:0)-induced delays in cut-carnation senescence involve the protection of the integrity of membranes via suppressing oxidative damage and enhancing antioxidant defense. We propose that the stage from the end of blooming to the onset of wilting is a critical period for NAE(12:0) action.

  10. The Occurrence of Hyperhydricity on Several Carnations (Dianthus carryophyllus L. Cultivars during Low Temperature Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KURNIAWAN BUDIARTO

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The incident of hyperhydricity was a common problem in propagated carnation (Dianthus carryophyllus L. during in vitro culture. Due to its possible relations with the decrease in phenotypic performance of plantlets, the observation on the occurrence of hyperhydricity was conducted on several in vitro conserved carnation cultivars. The research was conducted from July 2007 to August 2008 at The Indonesian Ornamental Crops Research Institute, Cianjur, West Java. A complete factorial experiment with 24 replications was designed to accomplish the combination of two factors. The first factor was six commercial carnation cultivars, namely light pink candy, malaga, opera, white candy, liberty and pink maladi, while the seconds dealt with type of conservation media, i.e. ½MS+DMSO 3%, ½MS+DMSO 3%+3% sucrose and control (½MS+3% sucrose. The results showed that the percentage of hyperhydric plantlet and plantlet viability after in vitro conservation were varied among carnation cultivars. Single treatment of sucrose had the least capacity in inducing plantlet resistance to low temperature conditions during in vitro conservation. Supplemental DMSO postponed the occurrence of hyperhydricity and with the existence of sucrose, higher plantlet viability were achieved.

  11. Characterization of electrogenic bromosulfophthalein transport in carnation petal microsomes and its inhibition by antibodies against bilitranslocase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passamonti, Sabina; Cocolo, Alessandra; Braidot, Enrico; Petrussa, Elisa; Peresson, Carlo; Medic, Nevenka; Macri, Francesco; Vianello, Angelo

    2005-07-01

    Bilitranslocase is a rat liver plasma membrane carrier, displaying a high-affinity binding site for bilirubin. It is competitively inhibited by grape anthocyanins, including aglycones and their mono- and di-glycosylated derivatives. In plant cells, anthocyanins are synthesized in the cytoplasm and then translocated into the central vacuole, by mechanisms yet to be fully characterized. The aim of this work was to determine whether a homologue of rat liver bilitranslocase is expressed in carnation petals, where it might play a role in the membrane transport of anthocyanins. The bromosulfophthalein-based assay of rat liver bilitranslocase transport activity was implemented in subcellular membrane fractions, leading to the identification of a bromosulfophthalein carrier (K(M) = 5.3 microm), which is competitively inhibited by cyanidine 3-glucoside (Ki = 51.6 microm) and mainly noncompetitively by cyanidin (Ki = 88.3 microm). Two antisequence antibodies against bilitranslocase inhibited this carrier. In analogy to liver bilitranslocase, one antibody identified a bilirubin-binding site (Kd = 1.7 nm) in the carnation carrier. The other antibody identified a high-affinity binding site for cyanidine 3-glucoside (Kd = 1.7 microm) on the carnation carrier only, and a high-affinity bilirubin-binding site (Kd = 0.33 nm) on the liver carrier only. Immunoblots showed a putative homologue of rat liver bilitranslocase in both plasma membrane and tonoplast fractions, isolated from carnation petals. Furthermore, only epidermal cells were immunolabeled in petal sections examined by microscopy. In conclusion, carnation petals express a homologue of rat liver bilitranslocase, with a putative function in the membrane transport of secondary metabolites.

  12. Kaempferide triglycoside: a possible factor of resistance of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curir, P; Dolci, M; Lanzotti, V; Taglialatela-Scafati, O

    2001-04-01

    A kaempferide triglycoside has been found as a constitutive component in an uninfected carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) of the cultivar Novada. The chemical structure has been determined mainly by the use of spectroscopic methods, including 2D NMR experiments. It showed a strong activity in restricting fungal parasite development, which could contribute to the known ability of carnation cv. Novada to resist to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi infection.

  13. Expression of genes responsible for ethylene production and wilting are differently regulated in carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) petals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosugi; Shibuya; Tsuruno; Iwazaki; Mochizuki; Yoshioka; Hashiba; Satoh

    2000-09-01

    Carnation petals exhibit autocatalytic ethylene production and wilting during senescence. The autocatalytic ethylene production is caused by the expression of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) synthase and ACC oxidase genes, whereas the wilting of petals is related to the expression of the cysteine proteinase (CPase) gene. So far, it has been believed that the ethylene production and wilting are regulated in concert in senescing carnation petals, since the two events occurred closely in parallel with time. In the present study, we investigated the expression of these genes in petals of a transgenic carnation harboring a sense ACC oxidase transgene and in petals of carnation flowers treated with 1,1-dimethyl-4-(phenylsulfonyl)semicarbazide (DPSS). In petals of the transgenic carnation flowers, treatment with exogenous ethylene caused accumulation of the transcript for CPase and in-rolling (wilting), whereas it caused no or little accumulation of the transcripts for ACC oxidase and ACC synthase and negligible ethylene production. In petals of the flowers treated with DPSS, the transcripts for ACC synthase and ACC oxidase were accumulated, but no significant change in the level of the transcript for CPase was observed. These results suggest that the expression of ACC synthase and ACC oxidase genes, which leads to ethylene production, is differentially regulated from the expression of CPase, which leads to wilting, in carnation petals.

  14. A novel glucosylation reaction on anthocyanins catalyzed by acyl-glucose-dependent glucosyltransferase in the petals of carnation and delphinium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuba, Yuki; Sasaki, Nobuhiro; Tera, Masayuki; Okamura, Masachika; Abe, Yutaka; Okamoto, Emi; Nakamura, Haruka; Funabashi, Hisakage; Takatsu, Makoto; Saito, Mikako; Matsuoka, Hideaki; Nagasawa, Kazuo; Ozeki, Yoshihiro

    2010-10-01

    Glucosylation of anthocyanin in carnations (Dianthus caryophyllus) and delphiniums (Delphinium grandiflorum) involves novel sugar donors, aromatic acyl-glucoses, in a reaction catalyzed by the enzymes acyl-glucose-dependent anthocyanin 5(7)-O-glucosyltransferase (AA5GT and AA7GT). The AA5GT enzyme was purified from carnation petals, and cDNAs encoding carnation Dc AA5GT and the delphinium homolog Dg AA7GT were isolated. Recombinant Dc AA5GT and Dg AA7GT proteins showed AA5GT and AA7GT activities in vitro. Although expression of Dc AA5GT in developing carnation petals was highest at early stages, AA5GT activity and anthocyanin accumulation continued to increase during later stages. Neither Dc AA5GT expression nor AA5GT activity was observed in the petals of mutant carnations; these petals accumulated anthocyanin lacking the glucosyl moiety at the 5 position. Transient expression of Dc AA5GT in petal cells of mutant carnations is expected to result in the transfer of a glucose moiety to the 5 position of anthocyanin. The amino acid sequences of Dc AA5GT and Dg AA7GT showed high similarity to glycoside hydrolase family 1 proteins, which typically act as β-glycosidases. A phylogenetic analysis of the amino acid sequences suggested that other plant species are likely to have similar acyl-glucose-dependent glucosyltransferases.

  15. Psidium guajava and Piper betle Leaf Extracts Prolong Vase Life of Cut Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus Flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Rahman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of leaf extracts of Psidium guajava and Piper betle on prolonging vase life of cut carnation flowers was studied. “Carola” and “Pallas Orange” carnation flowers, at bud stage, were pulsed 24 hours with a floral preservative. Then, flowers were placed in a vase solution containing sprite and a “germicide” (leaf extracts of P. guajava and P. betle, 8-HQC, or a copper coin. Flowers treated with 8-HQC, copper coin, and leaf extracts had longer vase life, larger flower diameter, and higher rate of water uptake compared to control (tap water. The leaf extracts of P. guajava and P. betle showed highest antibacterial and antifungal activities compared to the other treatments. Both showed similar effects on flower quality as the synthetic germicide, 8-HQC. Therefore, these extracts are likely natural germicides to prolong vase life of cut flowers.

  16. Psidium guajava and Piper betle leaf extracts prolong vase life of cut carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M M; Ahmad, S H; Lgu, K S

    2012-01-01

    The effect of leaf extracts of Psidium guajava and Piper betle on prolonging vase life of cut carnation flowers was studied. "Carola" and "Pallas Orange" carnation flowers, at bud stage, were pulsed 24 hours with a floral preservative. Then, flowers were placed in a vase solution containing sprite and a "germicide" (leaf extracts of P. guajava and P. betle, 8-HQC, or a copper coin). Flowers treated with 8-HQC, copper coin, and leaf extracts had longer vase life, larger flower diameter, and higher rate of water uptake compared to control (tap water). The leaf extracts of P. guajava and P. betle showed highest antibacterial and antifungal activities compared to the other treatments. Both showed similar effects on flower quality as the synthetic germicide, 8-HQC. Therefore, these extracts are likely natural germicides to prolong vase life of cut flowers.

  17. A role for the deep orange and carnation eye color genes in lysosomal delivery in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevrioukov, E A; He, J P; Moghrabi, N; Sunio, A; Krämer, H

    1999-10-01

    Deep orange and carnation are two of the classic eye color genes in Drosophila. Here, we demonstrate that Deep orange is part of a protein complex that localizes to endosomal compartments. A second component of this complex is Carnation, a homolog of Sec1p-like regulators of membrane fusion. Because complete loss of deep orange function is lethal, the role of this complex in intracellular trafficking was analyzed in deep orange mutant clones. Retinal cells devoid of deep orange function completely lacked pigmentation and exhibited exaggerated multivesicular structures. Furthermore, a defect in endocytic trafficking was visualized in developing photoreceptor cells. These results provide direct evidence that eye color mutations of the granule group also disrupt vesicular trafficking to lysosomes.

  18. Differential expression of genes identified by suppression subtractive hybridization in petals of opening carnation flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Taro; Torii, Yuka; Morita, Shigeto; Masumura, Takehiro; Satoh, Shigeru

    2010-05-01

    Flower opening is an event accompanied by morphological changes in petals which include elongation, expansion, and outward-curving. Petal cell growth is a fundamental process that underlies such phenomena, but its molecular mechanism remains largely unknown. Suppression subtractive hybridization was performed between petals during the early elongation period (stage 1) and during the opening period (stage 5) in carnation flowers and a pair of subtraction libraries abundant in differentially expressed genes was constructed at each stage. 393 cDNA clones picked up by differential screening out of 1728 clones were sequenced and 235 different cDNA fragments were identified, among which 211 did not match any known nucleotide sequence of carnation genes in the databases. BLASTX search of nucleotide sequences revealed that putative functions of the translational products can be classified into several categories including transcription, signalling, cell wall modification, lipid metabolism, and transport. Open reading frames of 15 selected genes were successfully determined by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). Time-course analysis of these genes by real-time RT-PCR showed that transcript levels of several genes correlatively fluctuate in petals of opening carnation flowers, suggesting an association with the morphological changes by elongation or curving. Based on the results, it is suggested that the growth of carnation petals is controlled by co-ordinated gene expression during the progress of flower opening. In addition, the possible roles of some key genes in the initiation of cell growth, the construction of the cell wall and cuticle, and transport across membranes were discussed.

  19. VARIABILITY OF TRAITS OF GROWTH - IN VIVO AND IN VITRO - ON GREENHOUSE CARNATION

    OpenAIRE

    Radu E. SESTRAS; Marin ARDELEAN; Constantin BOTEZ; Doru PAMFIL; Elena TAMAS; Chen QIN; Vasile GHIDRA; Lenuta CHIS

    2004-01-01

    Several traits of growth on greenhouse carnation were analysed at seven varieties, growing both in vivo and in vitro. In vitro culture, proliferation and root formation were more intense in Pink Sol, Caribe and Tanga than in Pink Sim, Obor and Domingo cultivars. The highest intervarietal variability, under in vivo conditions, was recorded for the number of flowers per plant and number of petals per flower, while in vitro all analysed characters showed an extremely large span of...

  20. deep-orange and carnation define distinct stages in late endosomal biogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Sriram, V.; Krishnan, K. S.; Mayor, Satyajit

    2003-01-01

    Endosomal degradation is severely impaired in primary hemocytes from larvae of eye color mutants of Drosophila. Using high resolution imaging and immunofluorescence microscopy in these cells, products of eye color genes, deep-orange (dor) and carnation (car), are localized to large multivesicular Rab7-positive late endosomes containing Golgi-derived enzymes. These structures mature into small sized Dor-negative, Car-positive structures, which subsequently fuse to form tubular lysosomes. Defec...

  1. 昆明地区香石竹病毒病及综合防治研究%Studies on Carnation Virus Disease and Integrated Management in Kunming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡红; 孔宝华; 刘进元; 陈海如

    2001-01-01

    简要综述了昆明地区香石竹病毒病的研究进展。经鉴定,确认昆明地区香石竹上存在的病毒有:香石竹斑驳病毒(CarMV)、香石竹脉斑驳病毒(CarVMV)、香石竹潜隐病毒(CarLV)、香石竹蚀环病毒(CarERV)、香石竹坏死斑点病毒(CarNFV)。其中,CarMV是昆明地区香石竹上的优势病毒。同时,本文还提出了香石竹病毒病的综合防治策略,以供生产上运用。%This paper briefly summarized the research progress of carnation virus disease in Kunming. By identified procedure, we affirmed there are carnation mottle virus,carnation vein mottle virus,carnation latent virus,carnation etched ring virus and carnation necrotic fleck virus in Kunming area. Among these viruses, carnation mottle virus is the superior virus. Meanwhile, this paper also put forward the strategy of carnation virus disease's integrated management in order to supply in the producing.

  2. Determination of extra and intracellular content from some lytic enzymes related with carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. root cell wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sixta Tulia Martínez Peralta

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The presence of some enzymes related to cell wall (polygalacturonase, the pectate lyase, protease and xylanase in carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. roots as well as the activity levels were determined. These levels were analyzed in different cellular places: the intercellular fluid that is part of apoplast, the symplast, and the total level (apoplast and symplast in carnation roots. Two methods were tested to extract the intercellular fluid. To obtain the intracellular content (symplast and total extract (apoplast+symplast, three methods were tested, using as extracting solution  i phosphate buffer, ii phosphate buffer + PVPP,  iii before the extraction with phosphate buffer, the carnation roots were washed with acetone.  The results showed the effect of different extracting solutions in the enzymatic activities and in the protein content. A new only one step method is proposed to extract the four enzymes and make the comparative analysis of enzymatic activity.

  3. Antimicrobial activities of rhizobacterial strains of Pseudomonas and Bacillus strains isolated from rhizosphere soil of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus cv. Sunrise).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sapna; Kaur, Mohinder

    2010-06-01

    Under the present study, an attempt was made to characterize rhizobacteria i.e. Pseudomonas and Bacillus species isolated from rhizosphere of carnation to evaluate their growth promoting effect on carnation so as to select and develop more efficient indigenous plant growth promoting and disease suppressing bioagents of specific soil type and specific plant type. Maximum strains of Pseudomonas and Bacillus sp. showed significant antimicrobial activities against most of the microorganisms tested. On the basis of in vitro antagonistic activities, the best strains were selected and used in field trial to study the influence of these strains on the growth of carnation. Results have shown marked effect on growth parameters and disease incidence has also been reduced significantly.

  4. Expression of flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase and acetolactate synthase genes in transgenic carnation: assessing the safety of a nonfood plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Stephen F; Senior, Michael; Nakamura, Noriko; Tsuda, Shinzo; Tanaka, Yoshikazu

    2013-12-04

    For 16 years, genetically modified flowers of carnation ( Dianthus caryophyllus ) have been sold to the floristry industry. The transgenic carnation carries a herbicide tolerance gene (a mutant gene encoding acetolactate synthase (ALS)) and has been modified to produce delphinidin-based anthocyanins in flowers, which conventionally bred carnation cannot produce. The modified flower color has been achieved by introduction of a gene encoding flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H). Transgenic carnation flowers are produced in South America and are primarily distributed to North America, Europe, and Japan. Although a nonfood crop, the release of the genetically modified carnation varieties required an environmental risk impact assessment and an assessment of the potential for any increased risk of harm to human or animal health compared to conventionally bred carnation. The results of the health safety assessment and the experimental studies that accompanied them are described in this review. The conclusion from the assessments has been that the release of genetically modified carnation varieties which express F3'5'H and ALS genes and which accumulate delphinidin-based anthocyanins do not pose an increased risk of harm to human or animal health.

  5. Event-specific qualitative and quantitative PCR detection of the GMO carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) variety Moonlite based upon the 5'-transgene integration sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, P; Jia, J W; Jiang, L X; Zhu, H; Bai, L; Wang, J B; Tang, X M; Pan, A H

    2012-04-27

    To ensure the implementation of genetically modified organism (GMO)-labeling regulations, an event-specific detection method was developed based on the junction sequence of an exogenous integrant in the transgenic carnation variety Moonlite. The 5'-transgene integration sequence was isolated by thermal asymmetric interlaced PCR. Based upon the 5'-transgene integration sequence, the event-specific primers and TaqMan probe were designed to amplify the fragments, which spanned the exogenous DNA and carnation genomic DNA. Qualitative and quantitative PCR assays were developed employing the designed primers and probe. The detection limit of the qualitative PCR assay was 0.05% for Moonlite in 100 ng total carnation genomic DNA, corresponding to about 79 copies of the carnation haploid genome; the limit of detection and quantification of the quantitative PCR assay were estimated to be 38 and 190 copies of haploid carnation genomic DNA, respectively. Carnation samples with different contents of genetically modified components were quantified and the bias between the observed and true values of three samples were lower than the acceptance criterion (GMO detection method. These results indicated that these event-specific methods would be useful for the identification and quantification of the GMO carnation Moonlite.

  6. Endoglycanase-Catalyzed Degradation of Hemicelluloses during Development of Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) Petals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vetten, N C; Huber, D J; Gross, K C

    1991-03-01

    Large molecular-size hemicelluloses, including xyloglucan, decreased in quantity during development of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. cv White Sim) petals, along with a relative increase in polymers with an average size of 10 kilodaltons. An enzyme extract from senescing petal tissue depolymerized the large molecular-size hemicelluloses in a pattern similar to that occurring in vivo during petal development. The products generated in vitro were composed of polymeric and monomeric components, the latter consisting primarily of xylose, galactose, and glucose. The 10 kilodalton hemicelluloses were resistant to in vitro enzymic hydrolysis. Glycosyl-linkage composition of the large molecular-size polymers provided evidence for the presence of xyloglucan with smaller amounts of arabinoxylan and arabinan. The 10 kilodalton polymers were enriched in mannosyl and 4-linked glucosyl residues, presumably derived from glucomannan. During petal development or enzymic hydrolysis, no change was observed in the relative glycosyl-linkage composition of the large molecular-size hemicelluloses. The in vitro activity of carnation petal enzymes active toward native hemicelluloses increased threefold at the onset of senescence and declined slightly thereafter. Gel chromatography revealed 23 and 12 kilodalton proteins with hemicellulase activity. The enzymes hydrolyzed the large molecular-size hemicelluloses extensively and without formation of monomers. Endoxylanase activity was detected in the partially purified enzyme preparation. Xyloglucan was depolymerized in the absence of cellulase activity, suggesting the presence of a xyloglucan-specific glucanase. These data indicate that the hemicellulose molecular-size changes observed during development of carnation petals are due, in part, to the enzymic depolymerization of large molecular-size hemicelluloses.

  7. [Prolonging the vase life of carnation "Mabel" through integrating repeated ACC oxidase genes into its genome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yi-Xun; Bao, Man-Zhu

    2004-10-01

    Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) is one of the most important cut flowers. The cultivar "Mabel" of carnation was transformed with direct repeat gene of ACC oxidase, the key enzyme in ethylene synthesis, driven by the CaMV35S promoter mediated by Agrobacterium tumefacien. Hygromycin phosphotransferase (HPT) gene was used as selection marker. Leaf explants were pre-cultured on shoot-inducing medium for 2 d, then immersed in Agrobacterium suspension for 8-12 min. Co-cultivation was carried out on the medium (MS+BA 1.0 mg/L+NAA 0.3 mg/L +Acetosyringone 100 micromol/L, pH 5.8-6.0) for 3 d. After that transformants were obtained by transferring explants to selection medium supplemented with 5 mg/L hygromycin (Hyg) and 400 mg/L cefotaxime (Cef). Southern blotting detection showed that a foreign gene was integrated into the carnation genome and 3 transgenic lines (T257, T299 and T273 line) obtained. Addition of acetosyringone and the time of co-culture were the main factors that influenced transformation frequency. After being transplanted to soil, transgenic plants were grew normally in greenhouse. Ethylene production of cut flower of transgenic T257 line was 95% lower than that of the control, and that of T299 line was reduced by 90% than that of the control, while that of transgenic T273 line has no of significantly different from control. Vase life of transgenic T257 line was 5 d longer than that of the control line at 25 degrees C.

  8. Excision of transposable elements from the chalcone isomerase and dihydroflavonol 4-reductase genes may contribute to the variegation of the yellow-flowered carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Yoshio; Higeta, Daisuke; Suzuki, Akane; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Ozeki, Yoshihiro

    2002-05-01

    In the "Rhapsody" cultivar of the carnation, which bears white flowers variegated with red flecks and sectors, a transposable element, dTdic1, belonging to the Ac/Ds superfamily, was found within the dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR) gene. The red flecks and sectors of "Rhapsody" may be attributable to a reversion to DFR activity after the excision of dTdic1. The yellow color of the carnation petals is attributed to the synthesis and accumulation of chalcone 2'-glucoside. In several of the carnation cultivars that bear yellow flowers variegated with white flecks and sectors, both the chalcone isomerase (CHI) and DFR genes are disrupted by dTdic1.

  9. Repressed ethylene production in the gynoecium of long-lasting flowers of the carnation 'White Candle': role of the gynoecium in carnation flower senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nukui, Hideki; Kudo, Sakiko; Yamashita, Atsushi; Satoh, Shigeru

    2004-03-01

    Ethylene production and expression of ethylene biosynthetic genes was investigated in senescing flowers of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) cultivars 'White Candle (WC)' and 'Light Pink Barbara (LPB)', with long and short vase-lives, respectively. Ethylene production from the gynoecium and petals of senescing 'WC' flowers was below the limit of detection, in agreement with the repressed ethylene production from the whole flowers. However, exogenous ethylene treatment caused the accumulation of transcripts for DC-ACS1 and DC-ACO1 genes in both the gynoecium and petals, resulting in ethylene production from the flowers. Moreover, application of ABA or IAA, which are known to exhibit their action through the induction of ethylene synthesis in the gynoecium, to 'WC' flowers from their cut stem-end induced ethylene production and wilting in the flowers. These findings suggested that, in 'WC' flowers the mechanism of ethylene biosynthesis, i.e. the induction of expression of genes for ethylene biosynthesis and the action of resulting enzymes, was not defective, but that its function was repressed during natural senescence. Transcripts of DC-ACO1, DC-ACS3, and DC-ACS1 were present in the gynoecium of senescing 'LPB' flowers. In the gynoecium of senescing 'WC' flowers, however, the DC-ACO1 transcript was present, but the DC-ACS1 transcript was absent and the DC-ACS3 transcript was detected only in a small amount; the latter two were associated with the low rate of ethylene production in the gynoecium of 'WC' flowers. These findings indicated that the repressed ethylene production in 'WC' flowers during natural senescence is caused by the repressed ethylene production in the gynoecium, giving further support for the role of the gynoecium in regulating petal senescence in carnation flowers.

  10. Recovering vitrified carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) shoots using Bacto-Peptone and its subfractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, S; Hagimori, M; Iwai, S

    1993-05-01

    Vitrified shoots regenerated from carnation petals (Dianthus caryophyllus L. cv. Scania) were recovered by culturing them in a medium containing 3.0 g/l Bacto-Peptone. Wax structures not found on vitrified shoots developed on the abaxial surface of leaves of recovered shoots and on those of normal leaves. Recovered shoots were rooted and successfully acclimatized while vitrified shoots could not survive the acclimatization process. The Bacto-Peptone solution was fractionated and the efficiency of each fraction for the recovery of vitrification was examined. Only basic, non high molecular fractions whose molecular weight was less than 10,000 were effective.

  11. In vitro conservation of the cultivation of spanish carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. from mineral salts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudmila Jiménez-Mariña

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of the salts concentration described by Murashige and Skoog (MS in short term in vitro conservation of nodal segments of Spanish Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.. The investigation was developed in the Center of Vegetable Biotechnology Studies (CEBVEG, in the period 2012- 2013. The treatments consisted on the addition of MS salts (100; 75; 50; 25% and a control (100% + growing regulators in medium culture. Decreasing until 25% of salts concentration in culture medium reduced the growing speed, being able to conserve for six months under these conditions A survival and recovery of 91,3% was obtained.

  12. Hydrologic response of soils to precipitation at Carnation Creek, British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fannin, R. J.; Jaakkola, J.; Wilkinson, J. M. T.; Hetherington, E. D.

    2000-02-01

    The extreme hydrologic response of gravelly, sandy soils in the Carnation Creek watershed is examined from observations at 12 standpipe piezometers. The nearly continuous piezometric data are reported as a time series of monthly maximum readings. Ten locations of measurement appear to exhibit an upper limit to the pore water pressure head that is independent of rainfall intensity and duration. Two locations exhibit artesian pressures that appear directly influenced by rainfall characteristics and may last for several hours. We found the impact of individual storms to be highly variable. The spatial variation in hydrologic response is attributed to the influence of preferential flow paths in the soil matrix.

  13. Effect of exogenously applied chemicals on keeping qualities of cut carnations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Łukaszewska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Use of holding solutions containing sucrose (5% and an antisepUc (AgNO3 30 ppm, 8-HQS 200 ppm increased the vase-life and the flower diameter of cut carnation as compared to flowers placed in water. Similar effect of the solution of glucose (5% plus 8-HQS (300 ppm and CCC (300 ppm was observed. However, flowers did not benefit from the use of Flovit. Improvement in flower keeping qualities as influenced by the solutions used in the experiments was due to better plant tissue hydratation and dry matter accumulation.

  14. A new bacterial disease of carnation in Portugal caused by Burkholderia andropogonis

    OpenAIRE

    Madalena Eloy; Leonor Cruz

    2008-01-01

    The occurrence of a leaf spot disease of carnation caused by Burkholderia andropogonis is recorded for the first time in Portugal. Symptoms consisted of ‘eyespot’ lesions on all aerial plant parts, often bordered by water-soaked halos on the leaves. As the disease progressed lesions became dark brown and affected areas dried out. Phenotypic studies and Polymerase Chain Reaction using specific primers Pf/Pr targeted to 16S rDNA of B. andropogonis were used to identify the pathogen. Pathogenici...

  15. A novel urea amperometric biosensor based on secretion of carnation petal cells modified on a graphite-epoxy composite electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Chunyan; Zhu, Yongchun; Gao, Hongyan; Dong, Yue; Lu, Jie

    2011-02-21

    A new kind of biosensor for the detection of urea with a high selectivity, sensitivity and wide detection range was designed based on the secretion of carnation petals cells paste covered over a graphite-epoxy composite basic electrode surface. The carnation petal paste from mashed fresh carnation petals was tightly fixed on the basic electrode surface with Teflon thin film to keep it in contact with the electrode surface. Urea in aqueous solution was detected by differential pulse voltammetry based on the oxidation peak current at 0.316 V (vs. SCE) of the secreted species of carnation petal cells during the mashing process, which interacts with urea molecules and results in the decrease of the oxidation peak current. The oxidation peak current decreases linearly with the logarithm of urea concentration in the range of 1.3 × 10(-16)-4.57 × 10(-8) M and 3.4 × 10(-7)-1.3 × 10(-1) M with a detection limit of 7.5 × 10(-16) M. The biosensor was characterized by electrochemistry and fluorescent spectrometry, and applied to the determination of urea in waste water from a river around Shenyang Normal University campus with a recovery of 104.5% (RSD is 5.00%). The presence of larger amounts of ammonium ion and nitrate ion up to the molar ratio of 10(4) do not interfere with the urea detection.

  16. Changes in chemical composition related to fungal infection and induced resistance in carnation and radish investigated by pyrolysis mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steijl, Harko; Niemann, G.J.; Boon, J.J.

    2002-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens WCR 417r induces systemic resistance in radish roots challenged by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. raphani and, incidentally, in carnation stems challenged by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi. The induced systemic resistance is not associated with accumulation of pathogenesis-rela

  17. Regulation of Senescence in Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) by Ethylene: Mode of Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayak, S; Vaadia, Y; Dilley, D R

    1977-04-01

    Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) flowers were exposed to 2 mul/l ethylene and examined at intervals to determine the time course of wilting, decrease in water uptake, and increase in ionic leakage in response to ethylene. A rapid decrease in water uptake was observed about 4 hours after initiating treatment with ethylene. This was followed by wilting (in-rolling of petals) about 2 hours later. Carbon dioxide inhibited the decline in water uptake and wilting and this is typical of most ethylene-induced responses. Ethylene did not affect closure of stomates. Ethylene enhanced ionic leakage, as measured by efflux of (36)Cl from the vacuole. This was judged to coincide with the decrease in water uptake. Gassing flowers with propylene initiated autocatalytic ethylene production within 2.4 hours. Since the increase in ethylene production by carnations preceded the increase in ionic leakage and the decline in water uptake by several hours, it is apparent that the change in ionic leakage does not lead to the initial increase in ethylene production as reported (Hanson and Kende 1975 Plant Physiol 55:663-669) in morning glory but may explain the autocatalytic phase of ethylene production.

  18. Controlling hyperhydration of carnations (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) grown in a mist reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correll, M J; Wu, Y; Weathers, P J

    Carnations (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) grown in vitro often develop physiological abnormalities such as hyperhydration. The amount of hyperhydration and growth was compared between carnations grown in mist reactors and conventional semisolid micropropagation systems (vented or unvented GA7 culture boxes). Plants grown in the mist reactor with long misting times (10 min h(-1)) produced more dry mass than those grown with <10 min h(-1); however, more misting also produced more hyperhydrated plants (70% hyperhydration). Control of hyperhydration in the mist reactor involved either reducing the overall nutrient mist supply or altering the mist supply throughout the culturing period. Stepped decreases in the mist supply throughout the 3-week period or an overall decrease in the duration of misting reduced hyperhydration to 13% and 5%, respectively. However, for both misting regimes, the biomass of normal (healthy) plants (fresh and dry weights) was limited. Further analysis suggested that, although normal plant biomass increased with longer mist exposure, hyperhydration levels also increased while the water content, based on percent dry weight, approached that of hyperhydrated plants. Sufficient normal plant development (fresh weight, leaf and shoot numbers, height, and rooting) with < 50% hyperhydration was obtained by weekly, stepped increases in the nutrient mist supply.

  19. Characterization of an ethylene-regulated flower senescence-related gene from carnation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghothama, K G; Lawton, K A; Goldsbrough, P B; Woodson, W R

    1991-07-01

    The programmed senescence of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) petals requires active gene expression and is associated with the expression of several senescence-related mRNAs. Expression of the mRNA represented by the cDNA clone pSR12 has previously been shown to be transcriptionally activated by ethylene specifically in senescing flowers. We report in this paper the structural analysis of this cDNA and its corresponding gene. One cloned genomic DNA fragment, SR12-B, contained the entire transcription unit in 17 exons, interrupted by 16 introns. A second gene, SR12-A, was highly homologous to SR12-B with several nucleotide substitutions and a 489 bp deletion in the 5' flanking DNA sequence. The SR12 transcript has an open reading frame of 2193 bp sufficient to encode a protein of 82.8 kDa. No significant homology at the DNA or protein levels was found with other known genes. We have identified a DNA-binding factor which specifically interacts with two upstream fragments (-149 to -337 and -688 to -1055) of SR12-B. Both fragments apparently compete for the same binding factor. The DNA-binding activity was present in nuclear extracts from both presenescent and senescing carnation petals. The upstream DNA fragments that bind this factor have sequence homology with promoter sequences of other ethylene-regulated genes.

  20. Ethylene production associated with petal senescence in carnation flowers is induced irrespective of the gynoecium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichimura, Kazuo; Niki, Tomoko

    2014-11-15

    To clarify whether climacteric-like increases in ethylene production of senescing petals are also induced in the absence of the gynoecium in cut carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus cv. Barbara) flowers, we compared ethylene production and expression of ethylene-biosynthesis genes in detached petals and in petals, which remained on flowers (attached petals). No significant difference in longevity was observed between the attached and detached petals when held in distilled water, and both showed the inward rolling typical of senescing flowers. Treatment with silver thiosulfate complex (STS), an ethylene inhibitor, similarly delayed senescence of attached and detached petals. Climacteric-like increases in ethylene production of petals and gynoecium started on the same day, with similar bursts in attached and detached petals. Transcript levels of DcACS1 and DcACO1 were very low at harvest and increased similarly during senescence in both petal groups. Removal of the gynoecium did not significantly delay wilting of attached petals. In flowers with the gynoecium removed, the petals produced most of the ethylene while production by the other floral organs was very low, suggesting that wound-induced ethylene is not the reason for the ineffectiveness of gynoecium-removal in inhibiting flower senescence. These results indicate that ethylene biosynthesis is induced in carnation petals irrespective of the gynoecium.

  1. Extracellular chitinases of fluorescent pseudomonads antifungal to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi causing carnation wilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajit, Naosekpam Singh; Verma, Rajni; Shanmugam, V

    2006-04-01

    Vascular wilt of carnation caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi (Prill. & Delacr.) W. C. Synder & H.N. Hans inflicts substantial yield and quality loss to the crop. Mycolytic enzymes such as chitinases are antifungal and contribute significantly to the antagonistic activity of fluorescent pseudomonads belonging to plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria. Fluorescent pseudomonads antagonistic to the vascular wilt pathogen were studied for their ability to grow and produce chitinases on different substrates. Bacterial cells grown on chitin-containing media showed enhanced growth and enzyme production with increased anti-fungal activity against the pathogen. Furthermore, the cell-free bacterial culture filtrate from chitin-containing media also significantly inhibited the mycelial growth. Both the strains and their cell-free culture filtrate from chitin-amended media showed the formation of lytic zones on chitin agar, indicating chitinolytic ability. Extracellular proteins of highly antagonistic bacterial strain were isolated from cell-free extracts of media amended with chitin and fungal cell wall. These cell-free conditioned media contained one to seven polypeptides. Western blot analysis revealed two isoforms of chitinase with molecular masses of 43 and 18.5 kDa. Further plate assay for mycelial growth inhibition showed the 43-kDa protein to be antifungal. The foregoing studies clearly established the significance of chitinases in the antagonism of fluorescent pseudomonads, showing avenues for possible exploitation in carnation wilt management.

  2. Early steps of adventitious rooting: morphology, hormonal profiling and carbohydrate turnover in carnation stem cuttings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agulló-Antón, María Ángeles; Ferrández-Ayela, Almudena; Fernández-García, Nieves; Nicolás, Carlos; Albacete, Alfonso; Pérez-Alfocea, Francisco; Sánchez-Bravo, José; Pérez-Pérez, José Manuel; Acosta, Manuel

    2014-03-01

    The rooting of stem cuttings is a common vegetative propagation practice in many ornamental species. A detailed analysis of the morphological changes occurring in the basal region of cultivated carnation cuttings during the early stages of adventitious rooting was carried out and the physiological modifications induced by exogenous auxin application were studied. To this end, the endogenous concentrations of five major classes of plant hormones [auxin, cytokinin (CK), abscisic acid, salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid] and the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid were analyzed at the base of stem cuttings and at different stages of adventitious root formation. We found that the stimulus triggering the initiation of adventitious root formation occurred during the first hours after their excision from the donor plant, due to the breakdown of the vascular continuum that induces auxin accumulation near the wounding. Although this stimulus was independent of exogenously applied auxin, it was observed that the auxin treatment accelerated cell division in the cambium and increased the sucrolytic activities at the base of the stem, both of which contributed to the establishment of the new root primordia at the stem base. Further, several genes involved in auxin transport were upregulated in the stem base either with or without auxin application, while endogenous CK and SA concentrations were specially affected by exogenous auxin application. Taken together our results indicate significant crosstalk between auxin levels, stress hormone homeostasis and sugar availability in the base of the stem cuttings in carnation during the initial steps of adventitious rooting.

  3. Identification and quantification of genetically modified Moonshade carnation lines using conventional and TaqMan real-time polymerase chain reaction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Jia, Junwei; Bai, Lan; Pan, Aihu; Tang, Xueming

    2013-07-01

    Genetically modified carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) Moonshade was approved for planting and commercialization in several countries from 2004. Developing methods for analyzing Moonshade is necessary for implementing genetically modified organism labeling regulations. In this study, the 5'-transgene integration sequence was isolated using thermal asymmetric interlaced (TAIL)-PCR. Based upon the 5'-transgene integration sequence, conventional and TaqMan real-time PCR assays were established. The relative limit of detection for the conventional PCR assay was 0.05 % for Moonshade using 100 ng total carnation genomic DNA, corresponding to approximately 79 copies of the carnation haploid genome, and the limits of detection and quantification of the TaqMan real-time PCR assay were estimated to be 51 and 254 copies of haploid carnation genomic DNA, respectively. These results are useful for identifying and quantifying Moonshade and its derivatives.

  4. Plant regeneration from stem and petal of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, G; Wardley-Richardson, T; Lu, C Y

    1991-11-01

    Plants were regenerated via adventitious shoot initiation from petal explants of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) cultivars Crowley Sim, Ember Rose, Orchid Beauty, Red Sim, White Sim and from stem segments of Crowley Sim, Red Sim, White Sim. Differences in cultivar response were observed, with White Sim being the most responsive for both explant types. Plants were also regenerated from receptacles of this cultivar. The effect of different cytokinins on regeneration from petal and stem explants of cultivar White Sim was compared. Thidiazuron was more effective than 6-benzylaminopurine or kinetin. In stem explants, morphogenic capacity was determined by the developmental stage of the explant. Highest percentage of shoot formation was observed in the youngest stem segments, on all the cytokinins tested. Stem-derived plants grew faster than petal or receptacle-derived plants and produced normal, flowering plants eight to ten months after culture.

  5. Dianthins, ribosome-damaging proteins with anti-viral properties from Dianthus caryophyllus L. (carnation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirpe, F; Williams, D G; Onyon, L J; Legg, R F; Stevens, W A

    1981-05-01

    1. Dianthin 30 and dianthin 32, two proteins isolated from the leaves of Diathus caryophyllus (carnation), were purified to homogeneity by chromatography on CM-cellulose. 2. The mol.wt. of dianthin 30 is 29 500 and that of dianthin 32 is 31 700. Both dianthins are glycoproteins containing mannose. 3. Dianthins inhibit protein synthesis in a lysate of rabbit reticulocytes, with an ID50 (concentration giving 50% inhibition) of 9.15 ng/ml (dianthin 30) and 3.6 ng/ml (dianthin 32). They act by damaging ribosomes in a less-than-equimolar ratio. Protein synthesis by intact cells is partially inhibited by dianthins at a concentration of 100 microgram/ml. 4. Dianthins mixed with tobacco-mosaic virus strongly decrease the number of local lesions on leaves of Nicotiana glutinosa.

  6. A preliminary study of CT imaging of water in a carnation flower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakanishi, T.M. [Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1, Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113 (Japan); Furukawa, J. [Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1, Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113 (Japan); Matsubayashi, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki-ken 319-11 (Japan)

    1999-11-03

    We present the trial to determine the water deletion part in a carnation flower tissue while drying by neutron computer tomography (CT). The flower part was fixed on a rotating disk and thermal neutrons were irradiated for 4 s per projection. The total neutron dose was 6.0x10{sup 8} n/cm{sup 2} per projection. The neutrons penetrating the sample were converted to photons by a fluorescence converter. The photon image was guided to a cooled CCD camera using two mirrors. The sample was rotated, stepwise, every 1 deg. , up to 180 deg. , i.e. 180 images were obtained for the CT construction. Horizontal CT images of several slices of the flower were taken before and after the drying treatment. Vertical CT images of the flower were also constructed based on horizontal CT images. It was found that the water around the ovule was selectively removed by the drying treatment.

  7. A preliminary study of CT imaging of water in a carnation flower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, T. M.; Furukawa, J.; Matsubayashi, M.

    1999-11-01

    We present the trial to determine the water deletion part in a carnation flower tissue while drying by neutron computer tomography (CT). The flower part was fixed on a rotating disk and thermal neutrons were irradiated for 4 s per projection. The total neutron dose was 6.0×10 8 n/cm 2 per projection. The neutrons penetrating the sample were converted to photons by a fluorescence converter. The photon image was guided to a cooled CCD camera using two mirrors. The sample was rotated, stepwise, every 1°, up to 180°, i.e. 180 images were obtained for the CT construction. Horizontal CT images of several slices of the flower were taken before and after the drying treatment. Vertical CT images of the flower were also constructed based on horizontal CT images. It was found that the water around the ovule was selectively removed by the drying treatment.

  8. Induction of Embryogenic Callus and Plant Regeneration in Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Karami

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, efficient plant regeneration through somatic embryogenesis is achieved in four cultivars of carnation (Nelson, Sagres, Spirit and Impulse. Embryogenic calli were induced on petal explants only, all the calli established on leaf, sepal, receptacle and style explants were not embryogenic. Embryogenic calli were obtained on Morashige and Skoog basal medium (1962 containing sucrose 9%, 2.0 mg L-1 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D, 0.2 mg L-1 6-benzyladenine (BA. After transfer of embryogenic calli to growth regulator free MS medium or medium containing low amount of 2, 4-D (0.2-0.4 mm L-1 resulted in successful somatic embryogenesis. A high frequency (80-85% of Somatic embryo germination and development into normal plantlets was observed on half-strength MS medium supplement with 3% sucrose without growth regulator. About 95% of somatic embryo-derived plantlets were acclimatized in the greenhouse conditions.

  9. Sucrose prevents up-regulation of senescence-associated genes in carnation petals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeberichts, Frank A; van Doorn, Wouter G; Vorst, Oscar; Hall, Robert D; van Wordragen, Monique F

    2007-01-01

    cDNA microarrays were used to characterize senescence-associated gene expression in petals of cut carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) flowers, sampled from anthesis to the first senescence symptoms. The population of PCR fragments spotted on these microarrays was enriched for flower-specific and senescence-specific genes, using subtractive hybridization. About 90% of the transcripts showed a large increase in quantity, approximately 25% transiently, and about 65% throughout the 7 d experiment. Treatment with silver thiosulphate (STS), which blocks the ethylene receptor and prevented the normal senescence symptoms, prevented the up-regulation of almost all of these genes. Sucrose treatment also considerably delayed visible senescence. Its effect on gene expression was very similar to that of STS, suggesting that soluble sugars act as a repressor of ethylene signal transduction. Two fragments that encoded a carnation EIN3-like (EIL) protein were isolated, some of which are key transcription factors that control ethylene response genes. One of these (Dc-EIL3) was up-regulated during senescence. Its up-regulation was delayed by STS and prevented by sucrose. Sucrose, therefore, seems to repress ethylene signalling, in part, by preventing up-regulation of Dc-EIL3. Some other transcription factors displayed an early increase in transcript abundance: a MYB-like DNA binding protein, a MYC protein, a MADS-box factor, and a zinc finger protein. Genes suggesting a role in senescence of hormones other than ethylene encoded an Aux/IAA protein, which regulate transcription of auxin-induced genes, and a cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase, which degrades cytokinin. Taken together, the results suggest a master switch during senescence, controlling the co-ordinated up-regulation of numerous ethylene response genes. Dc-EIL3 might be (part of) this master switch.

  10. Analysis of gene expression during the transition to climacteric phase in carnation flowers (Dianthus caryophyllus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    In, Byung-Chun; Binder, Brad M; Falbel, Tanya G; Patterson, Sara E

    2013-11-01

    It has been generally thought that in ethylene-sensitive plants such as carnations, senescence proceeds irreversibly once the tissues have entered the climacteric phase. While pre-climacteric petal tissues have a lower sensitivity to ethylene, these tissues are converted to the climacteric phase at a critical point during flower development. In this study, it is demonstrated that the senescence process initiated by exogenous ethylene is reversible in carnation petals. Petals treated with ethylene for 12h showed sustained inrolling and senescence, while petals treated with ethylene for 10h showed inrolling followed by recovery from inrolling. Reverse transcription-PCR analysis revealed differential expression of genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis and ethylene signalling between 10h and 12h ethylene treatment. Ethylene treatment at or beyond 12h (threshold time) decreased the mRNA levels of the receptor genes (DcETR1, DcERS1, and DcERS2) and DcCTR genes, and increased the ethylene biosynthesis genes DcACS1 and DcACO1. In contrast, ethylene treatment under the threshold time caused a transient decrease in the receptor genes and DcCTR genes, and a transient increase in DcACS1 and DcACO1. Sustained DcACS1 accumulation is correlated with decreases in DcCTR genes and increase in DcEIL3 and indicates that tissues have entered the climacteric phase and that senescence proceeds irreversibly. Inhibition of ACS (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase) prior to 12h ethylene exposure was not able to prevent reduction in transcripts of DcCTR genes, yet suppressed transcript of DcACS1 and DcACO1. This leads to the recovery from inrolling of the petals, indicating that DcACS1 may act as a signalling molecule in senescence of flowers.

  11. Regulation of Senescence in Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus): Effect of Abscisic Acid and Carbon Dioxide on Ethylene Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayak, S; Dilley, D R

    1976-11-01

    Abscisic acid hastened senescence of carnation flowers and this was preceded by stimulation of accelerated ethylene production. Carbon dioxide delayed the onset of autocatalytic ethylene production in flowers regardless of treatment with abscisic acid. Flowers exhibited a low and transient climacteric of ethylene production without wilting while in 4% carbon dioxide and underwent accelerated ethylene production culminating in wilting when removed from carbon dioxide. Hypobaric ventilation, which lowers ethylene to hyponormal levels within tissues, extended flower longevity and largely negated enhancement of senescence by abscisic acid. Supplementing hypobarically ventilated flowers with ethylene hastened senescence irrespective of abscisic acid treatment. Collectively, the data indicate that abscisic acid hastens senescence of carnations largely as a result of advancing the onset of autocatalytic ethylene production.

  12. Carnation-88c光子治疗仪在西藏地区治疗痤疮的疗效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗珍

    2014-01-01

    目的:为探讨寻常痤疮的病因及发病机制、治疗方法以及现阶段临床使用carnation-88c光子治疗仪治疗痤疮的疗效;方法:通过应用carnation-88c光子治疗仪治疗痤疮患者并对其中156例患者进行分类、分组治疗及自身对照。结果:光疗可杀灭痤疮丙酸杆菌,抑制炎症,减少痤疮形成,修复受损皮肤,消退印记,对痤疮疤痕也有一定疗效。

  13. Is a cysteine proteinase inhibitor involved in the regulation of petal wilting in senescing carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) flowers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawara, Hiroaki; Shibuya, Kenichi; Yoshioka, Toshihito; Hashiba, Teruyoshi; Satoh, Shigeru

    2002-03-01

    Senescence of carnation petals is accompanied by autocatalytic ethylene production and wilting of the petals; the former is caused by the expression of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) synthase and ACC oxidase genes and the latter is related to the expression of a cysteine proteinase (CPase) gene. CPase is probably responsible for the degradation of proteins, leading to the decomposition of cell components and resultant cell death during the senescence of petals. The carnation plant also has a gene for the CPase inhibitor (DC-CPIn) that is expressed abundantly in petals at the full opening stage of flowers. In the present study, DC-CPIn cDNA was cloned and expressed in E. coli. The recombinant DC-CPIn protein completely inhibited the activities of a proteinase (CPase) extracted from carnation petals and papain. Northern blot analysis showed that the mRNA for CPase (DC-CP1) accumulated in large amounts, whereas that for DC-CPIn disappeared, corresponding to the onset of petal wilting in flowers undergoing natural senescence and exogenous ethylene-induced senescence. Based on these findings, a role of DC-CPIn in the regulation of petal wilting is suggested; DC-CPIn acts as a suppressor of petal wilting, which probably functions to fine-tune petal wilting in contrast to coarse tuning, the up-regulation of CPase activity by gene expression.

  14. Study on local cooling culture technology of carnation; Kaneshon no kyokusho reibo saibai gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakayashiki, Y. [Chugoku Electric Power Co. Inc., Hiroshima (Japan)

    1996-10-25

    Production of high-quality carnation cut flowers is difficult due to growth of weak flower stems in the district along the coast of the Inland Sea of Japan higher in average summer air temperature. The growth promotion effect of carnation by night local cooling was thus tested using midnight electric power. The glass greenhouse of 0.9m wide, 13m long and 0.25m deep was used as culture bed, and in night cooling by spot cooler, the culture bed was covered with PVC curtain for forming a small space. As the test result, high-quality spray carnation flowers with hard flower stem could be reaped from late August by combination of night local cooling and reflective film covering, and extremely high yielding of 92% was also achieved for the second flowers. The running cost of local cooling was estimated to be nearly 18yen/root in 6-ridge/3-root culture, while the facility cost to be nearly 27yen/root. This culture method was estimated to be profitable by adopting high culture density and 3 harvests for a year. 3 refs., 17 figs., 7 tabs.

  15. The role of silver nano-particles and silver thiosulfate on the longevity of cut carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemabadi, Davood

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of silver nano-particles (SNP) and silver thiosulfate (STS) in extending the vase life of cut carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. cv. 'Tempo') flowers. Pulse treatments of SNP @ 0, 5, 10 and 15 mg l(-1) and STS @ 0, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 mM were administered to carnation flowers for 24 hr. The longest vase life (16.1 days) was observed in flowers treated with 15 mg l(-1) of SNP + 0.2 mM STS. The least chlorophyll was destroyed in flowers treated with 15 mg I(-1) of SNP + 0.3 mM STS. Our findings showed that the 15 mg l(-1) SNP treatment inhibited bacterial growth in the preservative solution. The control flowers bloomed faster than the treated flowers. The maximum peroxidase activity and the minimum lipid peroxidation were obtained in cut flowers that were treated with 15 mg l(-1) of SNP and 0.3 mM STS. Overall, results of the study revealed that SNP and STS treatment extended the longevity of cut carnation 'Tempo' flowers by reducing oxidative stress, improving anti-oxidant system, reducing bacterial populations and delaying flowering.

  16. An active hAT transposable element causing bud mutation of carnation by insertion into the flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momose, Masaki; Nakayama, Masayoshi; Itoh, Yoshio; Umemoto, Naoyuki; Toguri, Toshihiro; Ozeki, Yoshihiro

    2013-04-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying spontaneous bud mutations, which provide an important breeding tool in carnation, are poorly understood. Here we describe a new active hAT type transposable element, designated Tdic101, the movement of which caused a bud mutation in carnation that led to a change of flower color from purple to deep pink. The color change was attributed to Tdic101 insertion into the second intron of F3'H, the gene for flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase responsible for purple pigment production. Regions on the deep pink flowers of the mutant can revert to purple, a visible phenotype of, as we show, excision of the transposable element. Sequence analysis revealed that Tdic101 has the characteristics of an autonomous element encoding a transposase. A related, but non-autonomous element dTdic102 was found to move in the genome of the bud mutant as well. Its mobilization might be the result of transposase activities provided by other elements such as Tdic101. In carnation, therefore, the movement of transposable elements plays an important role in the emergence of a bud mutation.

  17. Study of enzymatic activity and proline change in potted mini carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. flowers under ethylene stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Karimi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to evaluate the role of ethylene stress, ethylene inhibitors and action treatments on longevity of potted-carnation flowers. For this purpose, first, potted-carnation flowers were pretreated with different concentrations of amino-oxyacetic acid (AOA, benzyladenine (BA and 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP. Then, ethephon (as stress treatment was sprayed on the pretreated flowers. Results showed that the lowest longevity of carnation flowers (5 and 6 days, respectively in both studied cultivars (‘Silver pink’ and ‘Lilac on purple’ was related to 30 mg/L ethephon. Maximum flower longevity (11.5 days was related to ‘Lilac on purple’ cultivar. The 0.6 µL/L of 1-MCP treatment, in both cultivars, was the most effective treatment in inhibition of ethephon on reduction of flowers longevity. Also, the lowest amount of ethylene production and the highest enzyme activity was observed when the flowers were pretreated by 0.6 µL/L of 1-MCP before the stress is applied. The highest proline accumulation was related to 30 mg/L ethephon treatment. Maximum α-amylase activity occurred in 30 mg/L ethephon, 10 and 20 mg/L BA and 50 mg/L AOA pretreatments.

  18. 香石竹表型多样性分析及利用%Analyses and utilization of the phenotypic diversity of carnation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡瑞; 包满珠; 吴晓庆; 谭华山; 傅小鹏

    2015-01-01

    以23个香石竹品种为材料,从物候期和表型性状两个方面对香石竹表型多样性进行研究,旨在为香石竹的资源利用和遗传改良提供可靠依据。结果表明:标准型香石竹品种与射散型香石竹品种之间差异较大;标准型香石竹品种间差异较大,射散型香石竹品种间差异较小。标准型香石竹生长速度普遍比射散型香石竹快,生长最快的标准型香石竹品种 SW (Dianthus caryophyllus ‘Snow White’)定植后163 d 即达到了盛花期,生长最快的射散型香石竹品种 SB (D .caryophyllus ‘Samba’)在定植195 d 后才达到盛花期;多样性分析发现,花朵数和分枝数变异系数较高,分别高达135.14%和56.27%,株高的变异系数则仅为14.30%;聚类分析发现,当遗传距离为6.1时,可将23个香石竹品种分为两大组,与表型性状相符。标准型香石竹适宜作为先期开花的品种进行促成栽培,射散型香石竹可作为后期开花的品种进行抑制栽培。%The phenological phase and morphological indicators of 23 carnation cultivars were inves-tigated to provide reliable bases for the resource utilization and genetic improvement of carnation.The results showed that there were large differences between standard carnations and spray carnations.The differences among standard carnation cultivars were large while the differences among spray carnation cultivars were relatively small.The growing speeds of standard carnations usually were faster than those of spray carnations.Dianthus caryophyllus ‘Snow White’which grew fastest among standard carnations came into its full-flower stage 1 63 days after planting.While D .caryophyllus ‘Samba’which grew fas-test among spray carnations came into full-flower stage 1 95 days later after planting.Among all of the phenotypic traits,flower number and branch number had the greatest variation degree,with the variation coefficient of 135.14% and 56

  19. Inhibition by 1-aminocyclobutane-1-carboxylate of the activity of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase obtained from senescing petals of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosugi, Y; Oyamada, N; Satoh, S; Yoshioka, T; Onodera, E; Yamada, Y

    1997-03-01

    We partially purified 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) oxidase from senescing petals of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. cv. Nora) flowers and investigated its general characteristics, and, in particular, the inhibition of its activity by ACC analogs. The enzyme had an optimum pH at 7-7.5 and required Fe2+, ascorbate and NaHCO3 for its maximal activity. The Km for ACC was calculated as 111-125 microM in the presence of NaHCO3. Its M(r) was estimated to be 35 and 36 kDa by gel-filtration chromatography on HPLC and SDS-PAGE, respectively, indicating that the enzyme exists in a monomeric form. These properties were in agreement with those reported previously with ACC oxidases from different plant tissues including senescing carnation petals. Among six ACC analogs tested, 1-aminocyclobutane-1-carboxylate (ACBC) inhibited most severely the activity of ACC oxidase from carnation petals. ACBC acted as a competitive inhibitor with the Ki of 20-30 microM. The comparison between the Km for ACC and the Ki for ACBC indicated that ACBC had an affinity which was ca. 5-fold higher than that of ACC. Whereas ACC inactivated carnation ACC oxidase in a time-dependent manner during incubation, ACBC did not cause the inactivation of the enzyme. Preliminary experiments showed that ACBC and its N-substituted derivatives delayed the onset of senescence in cut carnation flowers.

  20. 香石竹斑驳病毒的鉴定和RT-PCR检测%Identification and detection of carnation mottle virus on carnation by RT-PCR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔宝华; 蔡红; 刘进元; 陈海如; 常胜军; 李文君; 段永嘉

    2002-01-01

    从表现为叶斑驳、花碎色症状的香石竹病株上获得一病毒分离物,电镜负染观察到直径为28~33 nm的球状粒子.病毒提取液经紫外光测定呈典型核蛋白吸收曲线,OD260/ OD280=1.70;血清学反应与CarMV抗血清出现明显的沉淀线.通过以上实验结果,确定该病毒分离物为香石竹斑驳病毒(carnation mottle virus, CarMV).根据该病毒的RNA序列设计引物,对病健材料进行了RT-PCR检测,结果从感病材料中扩增出大约600 bp的特异片段,而健康植物无此扩增带.将PCR产物连接pGEM-T-easy载体,转化大肠杆菌JM109,得到了含目的片段的重组子,经双脱氧序列分析,与Guilley报道的序列对应部分的核苷酸序列基本一致(其同源性达96%),最低检出病毒核酸含量为5 ng,表明应用RT-PCR检测香石竹斑驳病毒是可行的.

  1. Study on effect of different anticorrosion agent to carnation cuttage%不同防腐剂对香石竹扦插生根防腐初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林卫东; 蔡金红; 白春荣; 黄云秀

    2001-01-01

    This article discussed preventing carnation rottenness, enhancing survival of carnation cutrage and cutting cost of carnation production. We carried out contrastive experiments with carnation cuttage which applied five bactericides added rootone ABT(artificial synthesis auxin) and studied on effect of bactericide to antisepsis of cuttage rootage. Our results showed it's very effective to antisepsis and rootage which added 600-fold chlorthalonil 75 % wettable powder to rootone, and it can also enhance survival of carnation cuttage. This study provided indispensable biological evidence for carnation production which is the main breed of Yunnan province.%文章对防止香石竹在扦插过程中根茎部位的腐烂,提高香石竹扦插成活率,降低香石竹切花的生产成本,采用常见五种杀菌剂分别加入生根粉ABT(人工合成生长素)中进行香石竹扦插生根防腐的对比试验,研究杀菌剂对扦插生根的防腐作用。结果显示,600倍百菌清75%可湿性粉剂加入生根粉中,防腐和生根效果明显,具有提高香石竹扦插成活的作用。此研究为云南省花卉主栽品种香石竹的生产提供了必要的生物学依据。

  2. Optimization in energy consumption of carnation production using data envelopment analysis (DEA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shabani, Zeinab; Rafiee, Shahin; Mobli, Hossein [University of Tehran, Department of Agricultural Machinery Engineering, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khanalipur, Eisa [Islamic Azad University of Karaj, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-12-15

    In this study a data envelopment analysis was used to evaluate the technical and scale efficiencies of greenhouses regarding to energy use in carnation production Mahallat, Iran. The purpose of this study was to identify efficient and inefficient units and wasteful use of energy by the latter. In addition, we established the optimum level of energy from different inputs. Finally, the effect of energy use optimization on energy productivity and ratio was investigated. The results revealed that 35 % (7 farmers) and 55 % (11 farmers) out of farmers which considered for the analysis, were recognized as the technically and pure technically efficient farmers, respectively. Most greenhouses have wasteful use in diesel fuel and fertilizer consumption. The results represented that the average values of technical, pure technical and scale efficiency scores were 0.69, 0.82 and 0.813, accordingly. The results of ESTR calculations showed that if farmers 4, 6 and 13 operated efficiently, they would save energy consumption about 90 % without affecting the yield level. (orig.)

  3. Fungitoxic phenols from carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) effective against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curir, Paolo; Dolci, Marcello; Dolci, Paola; Lanzotti, Virginia; De Cooman, Luc

    2003-01-01

    The phenol compositions of two cultivars of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) namely "Gloriana" and "Roland", which are partially and highly resistant, respectively, to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi have been investigated with the aim of determining if endogenous phenols could have an anti-fungal effect against the pathogen. Analyses were performed on healthy and F. oxysporum-inoculated in vitro tissues, and on in vivo plants. Two benzoic acid derivatives, protocatechuic acid (3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid) and vanillic acid (4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoic acid), were found within healthy and inoculated tissues of both cultivars, together with the flavonol glycoside peltatoside (3-[6-O-(alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl] quercetin). These molecules proved to be only slightly inhibitory towards the pathogen. 2,6-Dimethoxybenzoic acid was detected in small amounts only in the inoculated cultivar "Gloriana", while the highly resistant cultivar "Roland" showed the presence of the flavone datiscetin (3,5,7,2'-tetrahydroxyflavone). The latter compound exhibited an appreciable fungitoxic activity towards F. oxysporum f. sp. dianthi.

  4. Pollination crisis in the butterfly-pollinated wild carnation Dianthus carthusianorum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Daniel; Werdenberg, Niels; Erhardt, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    Knowledge of pollination services provided by flower visitors is a prerequisite for understanding (co)evolutionary processes between plants and their pollinators, for evaluating the degree of specialization in the pollination system, and for assessing threats from a potential pollination crisis. This study examined pollination efficiency and visitation frequency of pollinators--key traits of pollinator-mediated fecundity--in a natural population of the wild carnation Dianthus carthusianorum. The five lepidopteran pollinator species observed differed in pollination efficiency and visitation frequency. Pollinator importance, the product of pollination efficiency and visitation frequency, was determined by the pollinator's visitation frequency. Pollination of D. carthusianorum depended essentially on only two of the five recorded pollinator species. Seed set was pollen-limited and followed a saturating dose-response function with a threshold of c. 50 deposited pollen grains for fruit development. Our results confirm that D. carthusianorum is specialized to lepidopteran pollinators, but is not particularly adapted to the two main pollinator species identified. The local persistence of D. carthusianorum is likely to be at risk as its reproduction depends essentially on only two of the locally abundant, but generally vulnerable, butterfly species.

  5. Uncoating Mechanism of Carnation Mottle Virus Revealed by Cryo-EM Single Particle Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chun-Yan; Zhang, Qin-Fen; Gao, Yuan-Zhu; Xie, Li; Li, Hong-Mei; Hong, Jian; Zhang, Chuan-Xi

    2015-01-01

    Genome uncoating is a prerequisite for the successful infection of plant viruses in host plants. Thus far, little is known about the genome uncoating of the Carnation mottle virus (CarMV). Here, we obtained two reconstructions of CarMV at pH7 in the presence (Ca-pH7) and absence (EDTA-pH7) of calcium ions by Cryo-EM single particle analysis, which achieved 6.4 Å and 8 Å resolutions respectively. Our results showed that chelation of the calcium ions under EDTA-pH7 resulted in reduced interaction between the subunits near the center of the asymmetric unit but not overall size change of the viral particles, which indicated that the role of the calcium ions in CarMV was not predominantly for the structural preservation. Part of the genomic RNA closest to the capsid was found to be located near the center of the asymmetric unit, which might result from the interaction between genomic RNA and Lys194 residues. Together with the electrostatic potential analysis on the inner surface of the asymmetric unit, the reduced interaction near the center of the asymmetric unit under EDTA-pH7 suggested that the genome release of CarMV might be realized through the center of the asymmetric unit.

  6. deep-orange and carnation define distinct stages in late endosomal biogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriram, V; Krishnan, K S; Mayor, Satyajit

    2003-05-12

    Endosomal degradation is severely impaired in primary hemocytes from larvae of eye color mutants of Drosophila. Using high resolution imaging and immunofluorescence microscopy in these cells, products of eye color genes, deep-orange (dor) and carnation (car), are localized to large multivesicular Rab7-positive late endosomes containing Golgi-derived enzymes. These structures mature into small sized Dor-negative, Car-positive structures, which subsequently fuse to form tubular lysosomes. Defective endosomal degradation in mutant alleles of dor results from a failure of Golgi-derived vesicles to fuse with morphologically arrested Rab7-positive large sized endosomes, which are, however, normally acidified and mature with wild-type kinetics. This locates the site of Dor function to fusion of Golgi-derived vesicles with the large Rab7-positive endocytic compartments. In contrast, endosomal degradation is not considerably affected in car1 mutant; fusion of Golgi-derived vesicles and maturation of large sized endosomes is normal. However, removal of Dor from small sized Car-positive endosomes is slowed, and subsequent fusion with tubular lysosomes is abolished. Overexpression of Dor in car1 mutant aggravates this defect, implicating Car in the removal of Dor from endosomes. This suggests that, in addition to an independent role in fusion with tubular lysosomes, the Sec1p homologue, Car, regulates Dor function.

  7. Occurrence of paracrystalloids and their particles in resistant and susceptible carnation plants infected with Fusarium oxysporum f.sp dianthi race 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouellette, G.B.; Rioux, D.; Simard, M.; Baayen, R.P.

    2004-01-01

    Uncommon, opaque particles (of approximately 20-22 nm, referred to as OP), aggregating into paracrystalloids occurred only next to colonized cells in carnation plants of either a susceptible or resistant cultivar (cv.) infected with Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. dianthi. In the susceptible plant, those s

  8. Cloning, characterization, and expression of xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase and expansin genes associated with petal growth and development during carnation flower opening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Taro; Torii, Yuka; Morita, Shigeto; Onodera, Reiko; Hara, Yoshinao; Yokoyama, Ryusuke; Nishitani, Kazuhiko; Satoh, Shigeru

    2011-01-01

    Growth of petal cells is a basis for expansion and morphogenesis (outward bending) of petals during opening of carnation flowers (Dianthus caryophyllus L.). Petal growth progressed through elongation in the early stage, expansion with outward bending in the middle stage, and expansion of the whole area in the late stage of flower opening. In the present study, four cDNAs encoding xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase (XTH) (DcXTH1-DcXTH4) and three cDNAs encoding expansin (DcEXPA1-DcEXPA3) were cloned from petals of opening carnation flowers and characterized. Real-time reverse transcription-PCR analyses showed that transcript levels of XTH and expansin genes accumulated differently in floral and vegetative tissues of carnation plants with opening flowers, indicating regulated expression of these genes. DcXTH2 and DcXTH3 transcripts were detected in large quantities in petals as compared with other tissues. DcEXPA1 and DcEXPA2 transcripts were markedly accumulated in petals of opening flowers. The action of XTH in growing petal tissues was confirmed by in situ staining of xyloglucan endotransglucosylase (XET) activity using a rhodamine-labelled xyloglucan nonasaccharide as a substrate. Based on the present findings, it is suggested that two XTH genes (DcXTH2 and DcXTH3) and two expansin genes (DcEXPA1 and DcEXPA2) are associated with petal growth and development during carnation flower opening.

  9. Effect of Ethanol and Essential Oils on Extending Vase-life of Carnation Cut Flower (Dianthus caryophyllus cv. �Yellow Candy�

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan BAYAT

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of ethanol and essential oils of three medicinal plants namely Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L., Summer savory (Satureja hortensis L. and Ajwain (Carum copticum L. on extending carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus vase-life. For this purpose three individual trials were conducted using a completely randomized block design with three replications. In the first trial, the effect of 4% ethanol (v/v as a continuous or pulse treatment was determined. The results showed that although both application methods increased vase-life and marketability of carnation, it was statistically non significant. In the second trial, the effects of selected essential oils at the concentration of 100, 150 and 200 ppm were investigated. All essential oils prolonged carnation vase-life. Summer savory essential oil (100 ppm showed the highest effect (increasing 4.4 days in comparison to the control. In the third trial, the interaction between ethanol and the essential oils was studied. Results showed there is no significant difference between application of essential oils alone and in combination with ethanol. The highest fresh weight was observed in cut flowers treated with Summer savory essential oil at 100 ppm after 6 days which was double compared to the control. According to the results of this research it is concluded that essential oils, (natural, safe and biodegradable compounds as novel alternative materials are suitable for prolongation of carnation vase-life.

  10. Ethylene biosynthetic genes are differentially expressed during carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) flower senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Have, A; Woltering, E J

    1997-05-01

    Ethylene production and expression patterns of an 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) oxidase (CARAO1) and of two ACC synthase (EC 4.4.1.14) genes (CARACC3 and CARAS1) were studied in floral organs of cut carnation flowers (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) cv. White Sim. During the vase life and after treatment of fresh flowers with ethylene, production of ethylene and expression of ethylene biosynthetic genes first started in the ovary followed by the styles and the petals. ACC oxidase was expressed in all the floral organs whereas, during the vase life, tissue-specific expression of the two ACC synthase genes was observed. After treatment with a high ethylene concentration, tissue specificity of the two ACC synthase genes was lost and only a temporal difference in expression remained. In styles, poor correlation between ethylene production and ACC synthase (CARAS1) gene expression was observed suggesting that either activity is regulated at the translational level or that the CARAS1 gene product requires an additional factor for activity. Isolated petals showed no increase in ethylene production and expression of ethylene biosynthetic genes when excised from the flower before the increase in petal ethylene production (before day 7); showed rapid cessation of ethylene production and gene expression when excised during the early phase of petal ethylene production (day 7) and showed a pattern of ethylene production and gene expression similar to the pattern observed in the attached petals when isolated at day 8. The interorgan regulation of gene expression and ethylene as a signal molecule in flower senescence are discussed.

  11. Characterization and translational regulation of the arginine decarboxylase gene in carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, K S; Lee, S H; Hwang, S B; Park, K Y

    2000-10-01

    Arginine decarboxylase (ADC; EC 4.1.1.9) is a key enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis in plants. We characterized a carnation genomic clone, gDcADC8, in which the deduced polypeptide of ADC was 725 amino acids with a molecular mass of 77.7 kDa. The unusually long 5'-UTR that contained a short upstream open reading frame (uORF) of seven amino acids (MQKSLHI) was predicted to form an extensive secondary structure (free energy of approximately -117 kcal mol-1) using the Zuker m-fold algorithm. The result that an ADC antibody detected two bands of 45 and 33 kDa in a petal extract suggested the full length of the 78 kDa polypeptide precursor converted into two polypeptides in the processing reaction. To investigate the role of the transcript leader in translation, in vitro transcription/translation reactions with various constructs of deletion and mutation were performed using wheat germ extract. The ADC transcript leader affected positively downstream translation in both wheatgerm extract and primary transformant overexpressing ADC gene. It was demonstrated that heptapeptide (8.6 kDa) encoded by the ADC uORF was synthesized in vitro. Both uORF peptide, and the synthetic heptapeptide MQKSLHI of the uORF, repressed the translation of downstream ORF. Mutation of the uORF ATG codon alleviated the inhibitory effect. ORF translation was not affected by either a frame-shift mutation in uORF or a random peptide. To our knowledge, this is the first report to provide evidence that a uORF may inhibit the translation of a downstream ORF, not only in cis but also in trans, and that the leader sequence of the ADC gene is important for efficient translation.

  12. Ethylene-regulated expression of a carnation cysteine proteinase during flower petal senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M L; Larsen, P B; Woodson, W R

    1995-06-01

    The senescence of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) flower petals is regulated by the phytohormone ethylene and is associated with considerable catabolic activity including the loss of protein. In this paper we present the molecular cloning of a cysteine proteinase and show that its expression is regulated by ethylene and associated with petal senescence. A 1600 bp cDNA was amplified by polymerase chain reaction using a 5'-specific primer and 3'-nonspecific primer designed to amplify a 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase cDNA from reverse-transcribed stylar RNA. The nucleotide sequence of the cloned product (pDCCP1) was found to share significant homology to several cysteine proteinases rather than ACC synthase. A single open reading frame of 428 amino acids was shown to share significant homology with other plant cysteine proteinases including greater than 70% identity with a cysteine proteinase from Arabidopsis thaliana. Amino acids in the active site of cysteine proteinases were conserved in the pDCCP1 peptide. RNA gel blot analysis revealed that the expression of pDCCP1 increased substantially with the onset of ethylene production and senescence of petals. Increased pDCCP1 expression was also associated with ethylene production in other senescing floral organs including ovaries and styles. The pDCCP1 transcript accumulated in petals treated with exogenous ethylene within 3 h and treatment of flowers with 2,5-norbornadiene, an inhibitor of ethylene action, prevented the increase in pDCCP1 expression in petals. The temporal and spatial patterns of pDCCP1 expression suggests a role for cysteine proteinase in the loss of protein during floral senescence.

  13. A test of phenotypic selection on petal form in the wild carnation, Dianthus inoxianus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, J; Balao, F

    2015-11-01

    Floral phenotypes are considered a product of pollinator-mediated selection, which also has the side effect of decreasing floral variation within species. Correlates of flower visibility and function were studied in a carnation species (Dianthus inoxianus), which has crepuscular anthesis and scent-based pollination by the hawkmoth Hyles livornica. We also assessed constancy of flower form in nature and in cultivation and, using fruit set as an estimate of plant relative fitness, tested whether the main pollinator exerted phenotypic selection on floral traits. Petal claw, which is roughly equivalent to the average depth at which an insect's proboscis must be inserted to reach nectar, was remarkably constant among wild plants (coefficient of variation 8%). In contrast, the area of the visible part of the petal, and the intensity of a coloured dot pattern on the petal was very variable (respectively CV = 34% and 102%). Cultivation in a common environment revealed significant variation among genotypes as regards petal area, degree of laciniation and extension of the dot pattern, but not petal claw length, which remained steady. Petal area, shape and colour did not affect relative fitness during the year of study, but plants with intermediate petal claws (i.e. floral tubes) set significantly more fruit. Results are compatible with low response of the main pollinator to variation in visual traits (petal area, laciniation, colour) and high responsiveness to variation in other aspects (tube length). Inconsistent phenotypic selection by pollinators may add to other causes of floral variation in the genus Dianthus, the causes of which are discussed.

  14. Channel changes at Carnation Creek: The results from 38 years of annual surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, D.; Zimmermann, A.

    2008-12-01

    In 1971 the Canadian Department of Fisheries and Oceans and the British Columbia Ministry of Forests established a detailed fish forestry interactions study at Carnation Creek, on the west coast of Vancouver Island, to evaluate the impact of logging on the aquatic ecology of the watershed. As part of this study, a longitudinally distributed series of 8 study areas were established, each comprised of 18 to 36 cross-sections separated by about 3 meters. The cross-sections have been re-surveyed annually to determine bed and bank topography. The cross-sections were initially laid out with a plane table approach and at the time cross-sections were seen to be the most efficient means of characterizing the morphology of the study sites. Here we present the first major analyses of the temporal changes in both the channel geomorphology at the study areas and the most approprate monitoring techniques. The data will be presented through slideshows that illustrate the DEM's and the evolution of the bed over time. The data illustrate that large cycles of aggradation and degradation are common at some of the study areas while being substantially reduced or absent at others. The key factor controlling the behavior of the channel being the presence of wood and log jams. The basic channel shape, indexed by the width to depth ratio, was found to be very resilient and return to a near constant value after disturbances. In addition, the width to depth ratio is nearly identical for all study sites, despite differences in the size of the channel at the different sites. The data also reveal that as the channel changed over time the stream course arranged itself oblique to the cross-section suggesting that cross-sections may not be the best means of monitor channel change over extended periods of time.

  15. Short-term effects of carbon dioxide on carnation callus cell respiration. [Dianthus Caryophyllus L. ; Elodea canadensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palet, A.; Ribas-Carbo, M.; Argiles, J.M.; Azcon-Bieto, J. (Univ. de Barcelona (Spain))

    1991-06-01

    The addition of potassium bicarbonate to the electrode cuvette immediately stimulated the rate of dark O{sub 2} uptake of photomixotrophic and heterotrophic carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) callus, of Elodea canadensis (Minchx) leaves, and of other plant tissues. This phenomenon occurred at pH values lower than 7.2 to 7.8, and the stimulation depended on the concentration of gaseous CO{sub 2} in the solution. These stimulatory responses lasted several minutes and then decreased, but additional bicarbonate or gaseous CO{sub 2} again stimulated respiration, suggesting a reversible effect. Carbonic anhydrase in the solution increased the stimulatory effect of potassium bicarbonate. The CO{sub 2}/bicarbonate dependent stimulation of respiration did not occur in animal tissues such as rat diaphragm and isolated hepatocytes, and was inhibited by salicylhydroxamic acid in carnation callus cells and E. canadensis leaves. This suggested that the alternative oxidase was engaged during the stimulation in plant tissues. The cytochrome pathway was severely inhibited by CO{sub 2}/bicarbonate either in the absence or in the presence of the uncoupler carbonylcyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone. The activity of cytochrome c oxidase of callus tissue homogenates was also inhibited by CO{sub 2}/bicarbonate. The results suggested that high carbon dioxide levels (mainly free CO{sub 2}) partially inhibited the cytochrome pathway (apparently at the oxidase level), and this block in electron transport elicited a large transient engagement of the alternative oxidase when present uninhibited.

  16. Enzymatic conversion of dihydroflavonols to flavan-3,4-diols using flower extracts of Dianthus caryophyllus L. (carnation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stich, K; Eidenberger, T; Wurst, F; Forkmann, G

    1992-04-01

    Flavonoid analysis and supplementation experiments with dihydroflavonols and leucocyanidin on two cyanic, two acyanic and one white/red-variegated flowering strain of Dianthus caryophyllus (carnation) showed that in the acyanic strains recessive alleles (aa) of the gene A interrupt the anthocyanin pathway between dihydroflavonols and leucoanthocyanidins. The instability in the variegated strain involves the same step and is obviously caused by the multiple allele a (var) . In confirmation of these results, dihydroflavonol 4-reductase activity could be demonstrated in enzyme extracts from cyanic flowers and cyanic parts of variegated flowers but not in preparations from acyanic flowers or acyanic parts. The enzyme catalyzes the stereospecific reduction of (+)dihydrokaempferol to (+)-3,4-leucopelargonidin with NADPH as cofactor. A pH optimum around 7.0 and a temperature optimum at 30° C was determined, but the reduction reaction also proceeded at low temperatures. (+)Dihydroquercetin and (+)dihydromyricetin were also reduced to the respective flavan-3,4-cis-diols by the enzyme preparations from carnation flowers, and were even better substrates than dihydrokaempferol.

  17. 康乃馨液剂干燥技术研究%Study on the Drying Technology of Carnation Liquor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑶佳; 夏晶晖

    2011-01-01

    [目的]研究化学液剂对康乃馨花朵干燥的效果.[方法]液剂分别设6个处理,测定花朵失水率、重量变化、感观分值等指标,通过DPS数据处理系统计算分析.[结果]50%甘油+6%柠檬酸+2%亚硫酸钠为最佳处理配方,24 h为最佳浸泡时间.[结论]甘油或甘油配方溶液为液相替代剂,花材经其浸泡干燥,花形与花色得到较好的保护.%[ Objective ] The aim was to research the effect of chemical liquid on drying carnation flowers. [ Method ] There was 6 treatments for liquor to determine the flowers' water loss rate, weight changes and sense score, etc. by means of the analysis of DPS data processing system.[ Result] F (50% glycerin + 6% citric acid + 2% sodium sulfite ) was the best treatment formulation, the best soak time was 24 h. [ Conclusion]The color and shape of the carnation flowers could keep well, which were immersed in glycerin or glycerin formula solution for liquidsubstitute.

  18. Reducing properties, energy efficiency and carbohydrate metabolism in hyperhydric and normal carnation shoots cultured in vitro: a hypoxia stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saher, Shady; Fernández-García, Nieves; Piqueras, Abel; Hellín, Eladio; Olmos, Enrique

    2005-06-01

    Hyperhydricity is considered as a physiological disorder that can be induced by different stressing conditions. In the present work we have studied the metabolic and energetic states of hyperhydric carnation shoots. We have evaluated the hypothesis that hypoxia stress is the main factor affecting the metabolism of hyperhydric leaves. Our results indicate a low level of ATP in hyperhydric tissues, but only slight modifications in pyridine nucleotide contents. Concurrently, the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH; EC 1.1.1.49) activity in hyperhydric leaves was increased but glucokinase (GK; EC 2.7.1.2) activity was unchanged. We have observed that the metabolism of pyruvate was altered in hyperhydric tissues by the induction of pyruvate synthesis via NADP-dependent malic enzyme (EC 1.1.1.40). The enzymes of the fermentative metabolism pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC; EC 4.1.1.1) and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH; EC 1.1.1.1) were highly increased in hyperhydric leaves. Sucrose metabolism was modified in hyperhydric leaves with a high increase in the activity of both synthesis and catabolic enzymes. The analysis of the sucrose, glucose and fructose contents indicated that all of these sugars were accumulated in hyperhydric leaves. However, the pinitol content was drastically decreased in hyperhydric leaves. We consider that these results suggest that hyperhydric leaves of carnation have adapted to hypoxia stress conditions by the induction of the oxidative pentose phosphate and fermentative pathways.

  19. Positive Interaction Of Ethanol With Malic Acid In Postharvest Physiology Of Cut Spray Carnation ‘White Natila’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Begri Fatemeh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, succinic acid (0, 1 and 2 mM, malic acid (0, 1 and 2 mM, ethanol (0, 2 and 4% v/v, and their mixtures were applied as preservative solutions for cut flowers of spread carnation cv. ‘White Natila’ and their effect on the longevity, the amount of absorbed solution, malondialdehyde and chlorophyll content, cell membrane stability, fresh, and dry weight and on a visual quality was determined. A similarity in the effect of malic acid and succinic acid on dry weight and fresh weight loss were found. Ethanol positively affected most of the studied traits, including the vase life and fresh weight loss. The preservative solution containing 1 mM of malic acid and 4% ethanol resulted in the longest average vase life - 11.1 days compared to 8.9 days in the control. Malic acid showed a significant positive synergism with ethanol that makes it reasonable to combine them in preservative solutions intended to extend the vase life of cut spray carnation.

  20. Study of Bud Stage Forcing Technique of Carnation%香石竹蕾期催花技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜跃丽; 武淑媛; 叶桦

    2009-01-01

    [Objective]The research aimed to study the bud stage forcing technique of carnation.[Method]The effects of different varieties, harvesting stage, sucrose, AgNO3 ,8-HQC on the forcing of carnation at bud stage were studied with orthogonal design method.[Result]The experimental results showed that, the impact of harvesting phase of carnation cut flowers were the length of the main factors.Sucrose, AgNO3 ,8-HQC affected forcing significantly. The best combination of forcing was Phnom Penh pink + petal protruding calyx 0.5-1.0 cm +12% sucrose +15 mg/kg AgNO3 +250 mg/kg 8-HQC. The effects of various factors affecting forcing was as follows: harvesting stage> AgNO3> 8-HQC> sucrose> varieties. The best combination of vase was: Green Yanfu people + petals protruding calyx 0.5-1.0cm +9% sucrose +20 mg/kg AgNO3 +150 mg/kg 8-HQC.[Conclusion]The forcing effects on Green Yanfu people was better judging from overall effects.%[目的]研究香石竹的蕾期催花技术.[方法]采用正交设计方法,考察品种、采收阶段、蔗糖、AgNO3、8-HQC对香石竹蕾期催花和瓶插时间的影响.[结果]试验表明:采收阶段是影响香石竹切花时间长短的主要因素,蔗糖、AgNO3、8-HQC对催花均有明显的影响.通过比较得出催花最佳组合为:金边粉+花瓣伸出花萼0.5~1.0cm+12%蔗糖+15 mg/kg AgNO3+250 mg/kg 8-HQC.各因素影响催花效果的顺序依次为:采收阶段>AgNO3>8-HQC>蔗糖>品种.通过瓶插试验得出催花后最佳瓶插组合为:绿芙人+花瓣伸出花萼0.5~1.0 cm+9%蔗糖+20 mg/kg AgNO3+150 mg/kg 8-HQC.[结论]从整体效果来看,绿芙人催花效果较好.

  1. Levels and immunolocalization of endogenous cytokinins in thidiazuron-induced shoot organogenesis in carnation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova, Eva; Valdés, Ana Elisa; Fernández, Belén; Moysset, Lluïsa; Trillas, Maria Isabel

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated the capacity of the plant growth regulator thidiazuron (TDZ), a substituted phenylurea with high cytokinin-like activity, to promote organogenesis in petals and leaves of several carnation cultivars (Dianthus spp.), combined with 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). The involvement of the endogenous auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and purine-type cytokinins was also studied. Shoot differentiation was found to depend on the explant, cultivar and balance of growth regulators. TDZ alone (0.5 and 5.0 micromol/L) as well as synergistically with NAA (0.5 and 5.0 micromol/L) promoted shoot organogenesis in petals, and was more active than N6-benzyladenine. In petals of the White Sim cultivar, TDZ induced cell proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner and, on day 7 of culture, the proportion of meristematic regions in those petals allowed the prediction of shoot regeneration capacity after 30 days of culture. Immunolocalization of CK ribosides, N6-(delta2-isopentenyl)adenosine, zeatin riboside (ZR) and dihydrozeatin riboside (DHZR), in organogenic petals showed them to be highly concentrated in the tips of bud primordia and in the regions with proliferation capacity. All of them may play a role in cell proliferation, and possibly in differentiation, during the organogenic process. After seven days of culture of White Sim petals, NAA may account for the changes found in the levels of IAA and DHZR, whereas TDZ may be responsible for the remarkable increases in N6-(delta2-isopentenyl)adenine (iP) and ZR. ZR is induced by low TDZ concentrations (0.0-0.005 micromol/L), whereas iP, that correlates with massive cell proliferation and the onset of shoot differentiation, is associated with high TDZ levels (0.5 micromol/L). In addition to the changes observed in quantification and in situ localization of endogenous phytohormones during TDZ-induced shoot organogenesis, we propose that TDZ also promotes growth directly, through its own biological activity. To our

  2. A new bacterial disease of carnation in Portugal caused by Burkholderia andropogonis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madalena Eloy

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of a leaf spot disease of carnation caused by Burkholderia andropogonis is recorded for the first time in Portugal. Symptoms consisted of ‘eyespot’ lesions on all aerial plant parts, often bordered by water-soaked halos on the leaves. As the disease progressed lesions became dark brown and affected areas dried out. Phenotypic studies and Polymerase Chain Reaction using specific primers Pf/Pr targeted to 16S rDNA of B. andropogonis were used to identify the pathogen. Pathogenicity tests on china pink plants, re-isolation of the pathogen from inoculated plants and further PCR testing confirmed the identification of the bacterium. Infected plants came from an open air nursery and the whole production was destroyed to avoid dissemination of the pathogen.A ocorrência da mancha bacteriana do craveiro causada por Burkholderia andropogonis é pela primeira vez assinalada em Portugal. Os sintomas observados consistiam em manchas em forma de olho-de-perdiz em todos os órgãos aéreos das plantas afectadas, frequentemente circundadas por halos hidrópicos nas folhas. À medida que a doença progredia, as lesões adquiriam uma coloração castanha escura, acabando os órgãos afectados por secar. A identificação do agente causal da doença baseou-se no estudo dos seus caracteres fenotípicos e na Reacção em Cadeia da Polimerase (PCR, utilizando os iniciadores específicos Pf/Pr dirigidos à região 16S rDNA de B. andropogonis. A identificação foi confirmada por ensaios de patogenicidade em cravinas, reisolamento do agente causal da doença a partir das plantas inoculadas e novos ensaios PCR. As plantas infectadas provinham de um viveiro ao ar livre e toda a produção foi destruída a fim de evitar a disseminação do patogéneo.

  3. A rationale for the shift in colour towards blue in transgenic carnation flowers expressing the flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Yuko; Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Kusumi, Takaaki; Iwashita, Takashi; Nomoto, Kyosuke

    2003-05-01

    Recently marketed genetically modified violet carnations cv. Moondust and Moonshadow (Dianthus caryophyllus) produce a delphinidin type anthocyanin that native carnations cannot produce and this was achieved by heterologous flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase gene expression. Since wild type carnations lack a flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase gene, they cannot produce delphinidin, and instead accumulate pelargonidin or cyanidin type anthocyanins, such as pelargonidin or cyanidin 3,5-diglucoside-6"-O-4, 6"'-O-1-cyclic-malyl diester. On the other hand, the anthocyanins in the transgenic flowers were revealed to be delphinidin 3,5-diglucoside-6"-O-4, 6"'-O-1-cyclic-malyl diester (main pigment), delphinidin 3,5-diglucoside-6"-malyl ester, and delphinidin 3,5-diglucoside-6",6"'- dimalyl ester. These are delphinidin derivatives analogous to the natural carnation anthocyanins. This observation indicates that carnation anthocyanin biosynthetic enzymes are versatile enough to modify delphinidin. Additionally, the petals contained flavonol and flavone glycosides. Three of them were identified by spectroscopic methods to be kaempferol 3-(6"'-rhamnosyl-2"'-glucosyl-glucoside), kaempferol 3-(6"'-rhamnosyl-2"'-(6-malyl-glucosyl)-glucoside), and apigenin 6-C-glucosyl-7-O-glucoside-6"'-malyl ester. Among these flavonoids, the apigenin derivative exhibited the strongest co-pigment effect. When two equivalents of the apigenin derivative were added to 1 mM of the main pigment (delphinidin 3,5-diglucoside-6"-O-4,6"'-O-1-cyclic-malyl diester) dissolved in pH 5.0 buffer solution, the lambda(max) shifted to a wavelength 28 nm longer. The vacuolar pH of the Moonshadow flower was estimated to be around 5.5 by measuring the pH of petal. We conclude that the following reasons account for the bluish hue of the transgenic carnation flowers: (1). accumulation of the delphinidin type anthocyanins as a result of flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase gene expression, (2). the presence of the flavone derivative strong co

  4. Cell enlargement and sugar accumulation in the gynaecium of the glasshouse carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) induced by ethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, R

    1976-01-01

    Histological examination of the ovary walls from ethylene-treated cut flowering stems of the carnation showed that the cells had enlarged and this appeared to account for the increased growth of the ovary which follows ethylene treatment of this flower. Sugar analyses of the flower parts indicated that growth of the ovary was accompanied by an increase in the ratio of sucrose to reducing sugars in the petals and ovary, and a net increase in sugars in the ovary. A sugar, tentatively identified as xylose, increased in the petals after ethylene treatment. Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium contents of the ovary also increased after the ethylene treatment. The results, consistent with the hypothesis that sucrose is translocated in response to ethylene, are discussed in relation to previous work relating to the involvement of ethylene in flower senescence.

  5. RESEARCH INTO THE INFLUENCE OF PHYTOHORMONES UPON THE GROWTH "IN VITRO" AT SEVERAL VARIETIES OF GREENHOUSE CARNATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana CRISTEAN

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available After using treatments with seven phytohormones on four varieties of greenhouse carnations (Caribe, Red Corso, Nelson, Francesca it was discovered that AIA and GA3 hormones stimulated the growth in height of the plantlets; GA3, AIA and NAA promoted the growth of the internodes, but the highest medium number of internodes per plantlet was registered after using treatments with NAA and AIA hormones. The concentration level of phytohormones used in the experiment also influenced the stimulating effects of these hormones over the characteristics that we watched closely. Treatments with BAP and KIN had the weakest influence, determining only a slight growth in height of the Caribe plantlets and almost not at all at other varieties.

  6. Protein extraction and gel-based separation methods to analyze responses to pathogens in carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardila, Harold Duban; Fernández, Raquel González; Higuera, Blanca Ligia; Redondo, Inmaculada; Martínez, Sixta Tulia

    2014-01-01

    We are currently using a 2-DE-based proteomics approach to study plant responses to pathogenic fungi by using the carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L)-Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi pathosystem. It is clear that the protocols for the first stages of a standard proteomics workflow must be optimized to each biological system and objectives of the research. The optimization procedure for the extraction and separation of proteins by 1-DE and 2-DE in the indicated system is reported. This strategy can be extrapolated to other plant-pathogen interaction systems in order to perform an evaluation of the changes in the host protein profile caused by the pathogen and to identify proteins which, at early stages, are involved or implicated in the plant defense response.

  7. Comparison of mRNA levels of three ethylene receptors in senescing flowers of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibuya, Kenichi; Nagata, Masayasu; Tanikawa, Natsu; Yoshioka, Toshihito; Hashiba, Teruyoshi; Satoh, Shigeru

    2002-03-01

    Three ethylene receptor genes, DC-ERS1, DC-ERS2 and DC-ETR1, were previously identified in carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.). Here, the presence of mRNAs for respective genes in flower tissues and their changes during flower senescence are investigated by Northern blot analysis. DC-ERS2 and DC-ETR1 mRNAs were present in considerable amounts in petals, ovaries and styles of the flower at the full-opening stage. In the petals the level of DC-ERS2 mRNA showed a decreasing trend toward the late stage of flower senescence, whereas it increased slightly in ovaries and was unchanged in styles throughout the senescence period. However, DC-ETR1 mRNA showed no or little changes in any of the tissues during senescence. Exogenously applied ethylene did not affect the levels of DC-ERS2 and DC-ETR1 mRNAs in petals. Ethylene production in the flowers was blocked by treatment with 1,1-dimethyl-4-(phenylsulphonyl)semicarbazide (DPSS), but the mRNA levels for DC-ERS2 and DC-ETR1 decreased in the petals. DC-ERS1 mRNA was not detected in any cases. These results indicate that DC-ERS2 and DC-ETR1 are ethylene receptor genes responsible for ethylene perception and that their expression is regulated in a tissue-specific manner and independently of ethylene in carnation flowers during senescence.

  8. EFFECT OF PERMEABLE VESSEL CLOSURE AND GELLING AGENT ON REDUCTION OF HYPERHYDRICITY IN IN VITRO CULTURE OF CARNATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Winarto

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Hyperhydricity, an abnormal morphological appearance and physiologicalfunction, is an important problem in carnation tissue culture. The problem causes premature flowering, high occurrence of abnormal shoots, difficulty in transferring hyperhydric plantlets to soil, and low survival rate of plantlets. High relative humidity and the water potential are considered as the key factors involved in the abnormality. Furthermore, permeable culture vessel and gelling agent were assured to be high potential treatment to eliminate it. Objective of this research was to reduce  hyperhydricity in regenerants of carnation using different permeable vessel closures and gelling agents and to assess the multiplication and  acclimatization abilities of recovered shoots. Experiment was arranged in randomized complete block design with four replications. First factor was different types of closure, i.e. cotton wool, plastic wrap, parafilm and aluminium foil, while second one was gelling agents, i.e. bacto agar, phytagel, swallow agar, and Type 900 agar. The recovered shoots were then multiplied, rooted, and acclimatized. The results showed that hyperhydricity was successfully reduced by applying permeable closure (cotton wool and plastic wrap in combination with Type 900 agar. The combination of plastic wrap and Type 900 agar was the most appropriate treatment in reducing hyperhydricity and producing good quality shoots. The treatment reduced the problem down to 23% of total condition of hyperhydricity (100% and increased leaf chlorophyll content from 0.0883 to 0.1288 mg mg-1. The plastic wrap was easily applied and cheaper material compared to cotton wool. The recovered shoots were able to produce 1-3 healthy axillary shoots and easily rooted on half-strength MS. The recovered plantlets were simply acclimatized with survival rate up to 100% on kossas peat + soil (1:1, v/v and flowered 4-5 months after acclimatization with decreasing in number and size of flower.

  9. Effects of PP333 on Growth and Physiology of Carnation%PP333对香石竹生长及生理的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马智宏; 贾瑞智; 关军锋

    2000-01-01

    以香石竹幼苗为试材,进行叶面喷施PP333试验,结果表明,与对照相比叶面喷施PP333使植株生长速率下降,叶片过氧化物酶活性显著提高,在香石竹幼苗生长后期植株体的叶绿素、可溶性蛋白质含量及超氧物歧化酶活性升高。%The carnation seedlings were used in this experiment. The determinafion results showed that in contrast to control, the fo liar spraying PP333 decreased growth rate, increased significantly peroxidase activity of leaves at all stage, and increased content of chlorophyll and protein, as well as the activity of superoxide dismatuse in carnation leaves only at late growth stage.

  10. 香石竹种质离体保存研究进展%Research Progress on in vitro Conservation of Carnation(Dianthus caryophyllus L.)Germplasm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓宁; 陈晓玲; 卢新雄; 徐有明; 张金梅; 辛霞; 张志娥

    2012-01-01

    香石竹是世界四大切花之一,具有重要的观赏价值.其种质资源主要依靠田间种质圃和离体库进行保存.离体保存包括试管苗保存和超低温保存,这两种方法作为田间种质圃保存的补充可以分别对种质资源进行短中期和长期保存.本文对香石竹离体保存的相关研究进行了概括总结,旨在为香石竹种质资源的保存提供参考.%Carnation is one of the world's four cut flowers with important ornamental value. Its germplasm resources are mainly conserved in field genebanlcs and in vitro genebanks, which including tissue culture and cryopreser-vation. As complementary to conservation in field genebanks,ire vitro genebanks can conserve the germplasms in short, medium and long-term. In this paper,the related researches in the carnation germplasms in vitro conservation were studied summarily, aims at providing references to carnation germplasm conservation.

  11. 香石竹斑驳病毒(CarMV)的研究进展%Research Progress of Carnation mottle Virus(CarMV)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佟爱仔; 孔宝华; 陈海如

    2011-01-01

    Carnation mottle virus (CarMV) is a very important virus infecting carnation, CarMV severely affect the yield and quality of the fresh carnation and affect the economic value and import and export trade. A large amount of studies has been reported till now, in order to study CarMV systematically, in this paper the research progress of CarMV was proposed from aspects of etiology, serology, molecular biology, occurrence, detection and prevention and cure methods of CarMV disease.%香石竹斑驳病毒(CarMV)是侵染香石竹的主要病毒之一,严重影响香石竹切花产量与品质,影响其经济价值和进出口贸易.目前对香石竹斑驳病毒已有大量研究,为系统了解该病毒,笔者从CarMV的病原学、血清学和分子生物学,CarMV病害发生与检测及CarMV防治方法等方面综述了CarMV的研究现状.

  12. Characterization and heterologous expression of hydroxycinnamoyl/benzoyl-CoA:anthranilate N-hydroxycinnamoyl/benzoyltransferase from elicited cell cultures of carnation, Dianthus caryophyllus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Q; Reinhard, K; Schiltz, E; Matern, U

    1997-12-01

    Benzoyl-CoA:anthranilate N-benzoyltransferase catalyzes the first committed reaction of phytoalexin biosynthesis in carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.), and the product N-benzoylanthranilate is the precursor of several sets of dianthramides. The transferase activity is constitutively expressed in suspension-cultured carnation cells and can be rapidly induced by the addition of yeast extract. The enzyme was purified to homogeneity from yeast-induced carnation cells and shown to consist of a single polypeptide chain of 53 kDa. Roughly 20% of the sequence was identified by micro-sequencing of tryptic peptides, and some of these sequences differed in a few amino acid residues only suggesting the presence of isoenzymes. A specific 0.8 kb cDNA probe was generated by RT-PCR, employing degenerated oligonucleotide primers complementary to two of the tryptic peptides and using poly(A)+ RNA from elicited carnation cells. Five distinct benzoyltransferase clones were isolated from a cDNA library, and three cDNAs, pchcbt1-3, were sequenced and shown to encode full-size N-benzoyltransferases. The translated peptide sequences revealed more than 95% identity among these three clones. The additional two clones harbored insert sequences mostly homologous with pchcbt 1 but differing in the 3'-flanking regions due to variable usage of poly(A) addition sites. The identity of the clones was confirmed by matching the translated polypeptides with the tryptic enzyme sequences as well as by the activity of the benzoyltransferase expressed in Escherichia coli. Therefore, carnation encodes a small family of anthranilate N-benzoyltransferase genes. In vitro, the benzoyltransferases exhibited narrow substrate specificity for anthranilate but accepted a variety of aromatic acyl-CoAs. Catalytic rates with cinnamoyl- or 4-coumaroyl-CoA exceeded those observed with benzoyl-CoA, although the corresponding dianthramides did not accumulate in vivo. Thus the cDNAs described represent also the first

  13. 银川市兴庆区切花康乃馨氮肥单因子肥效试验%Test of Nitrogenous Fertilizer Single Factor Applying Efficiency on Cut Carnation of Xingqing District in Yinchuan City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卜燕燕

    2016-01-01

    在银川市兴庆区开展了切花康乃馨氮肥单因子肥效试验。结果表明:纯N施用量为660~780 kg/hm2时,切花康乃馨长势茂盛、成花商品花枝多、质量好、市场价格高、产量高,建议在兴庆区推广。%Test of nitrogenous fertilizer single factor applying efficiency on cut carnation was conducted in Xingqing District in Yinchuan City. The results showed that when pure nitrogen reached 660~780 kg/hm2, the cut carnation was luxuriant, and the flower production had more branches, good quality, high price and high yield. This paper proposed the extension of this kind of carnation.

  14. Isozymes of Superoxide Dismutase in Mitochondria and Peroxisomes Isolated from Petals of Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) during Senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droillard, M J; Paulin, A

    1990-11-01

    The balance between reactions involving free radicals and processes which ameliorate their effect plays an important role in the regulation of plant senescence. In this study a method was developed to isolate peroxisomes and mitochondria from carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. cv Ember) petals. Based on electron microscopy and marker enzyme levels, the proportion of peroxisomes to mitochondria increases during senescence. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) content of these fractions was examined. Mitochondria and peroxisomes were shown to contain two electrophoretically distinct SODs, a manganese-, and an ironcontaining SOD. The Mn- and Fe-SOD were found to have relative molecular weights of 75,000 and 48,000 and isoelectric points of 4.85 and 5.00, respectively. The presence of a Fe-SOD in mitochondria and peroxisomes is unique because this enzyme is usually located in chloroplasts. The activity of these two isoenzymes decreased during senescence in mitochondria but remained high in peroxisomes from senescent tissue. It is suggested that peroxisomes play a particular role in the process of senescence.

  15. Chalcone synthesis and hydroxylation of flavonoids in 3'-position with enzyme preparations from flowers of Dianthus caryophyllus L. (carnation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spribille, R; Forkmann, G

    1982-07-01

    Chalcone synthase activity was demonstrated in enzyme preparations from flowers of defined genotypes of Dianthus caryophyllus L. (carnation). In the absence of chalcone isomerase activity, which could be completely excluded by genetic methods, the first product formed from malonyl-CoA and 4-coumaroyl-CoA proved to be naringenin chalcone, followed by formation of naringenin as a result of chemical cyclization. In the presence of chalcone isomerase activity, however, naringenin was the only product of the synthase reaction. In vitro, both 4-coumaryl-CoA and caffeoyl-CoA were found to be used as substrates for the condensation reaction with respective pH optima of 8.0 and 7.0. The results of chemogenetic and enzymatic studies, however, showed that in vivo only 4-coumaroyl-CoA serves as substrate for the formation of the flavonoid skeleton. In confirmation of these results, an NADPH-dependent microsomal 3'-hydroxylase activity could be demonstrated, catalyzing hydroxylation of naringenin and dihydrokaempferol in 3'-position. Furthermore, a strict correlation was found between 3'-hydroxylase activity and the gene r which is known to control the formation of 3', 4'-hydroxylated flavonoid compounds.

  16. The influence of log jam development on channel morphology in an intermediate sized coastal stream, Carnation Creek, B.C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzi, D. S.; Sidle, R. C.; Hogan, D. L.

    2006-12-01

    Large wood (LW) is an important functional and structural component of forest stream ecosystems, regulating sediment storage and transport, consequently determining channel morphology, and as an important foundation for aquatic habitat. LW occurs as either individual pieces or in accumulations (log jams). Where individual pieces of LW affect the stream at a small scale, several bankfull widths, jams influence the stream on a much larger scale. The spatial extent of jam related effects on channel morphology vary, dependent upon the life stage of the jam. Temporal changes in jams have received relatively little attention in the literature. The development stage of a jam is associated with upstream channel aggradation and downstream degradation; this process reverses during a jam's deterioration phase. Carnation Creek, an 11 km2 watershed located on the west coast of Vancouver Island, provided a rare opportunity to examine both the spatial and temporal impacts of log jams on channel morphology. An understanding of these relationships will be developed through the analysis of changes in channel variables, such as channel dimensions, pattern, hydraulic characteristics, and morphology. These characteristics will be extracted from annual cross sectional surveys taken during 1971 - 1998.

  17. Carnation-like MnO2 modified activated carbon air cathode improve power generation in microbial fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Li, Kexun; Liu, Xianhua

    2014-10-01

    Highly active and low-cost electrocatalysts are of great importance for large-scale commercial applications of microbial fuel cells (MFCs). In this work, we prepared an activated carbon (AC) air cathode containing electrodeposited γ-MnO2 using a potentiostatic method. The results indicated that carnation-like MnO2 crystals were bound to the surface of the AC air cathode after a deposition time of 10 min, which greatly improved the performance of the cathode. BET analysis results demonstrated that the electrodeposition of MnO2 decreased the micropore surface area of the cathode but increased the mesopore surface area. When compared with a bare AC air cathode, the electrodeposited MnO2 cathode exhibited higher catalytic activity for oxygen reduction reaction. The maximum power density of the MFC equipped with the electrodeposited MnO2 AC air cathode was 1554 mW m-2, which is 1.5 times higher than the control cathode.

  18. Chemical composition of the essential oil from carnation coniferous (Dianthus acicularis Fisch. ex Ledeb) growing wild in Northern Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirillov, Vitaliy; Stikhareva, Tamara; Suleimen, Yerlan; Serafimovich, Mariya; Kabanova, Svetlana; Mukanov, Bolat

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate volatile compounds from the aerial parts of Dianthus acicularis of the genus Dianthus of the family Caryophyllaceae grown wild in Northern Kazakhstan for the first time. D. acicularis is a typical Trans-Volga-Kazakhstani endemic. D. acicularis has high resistance to the bacterial wilt, a serious disease caused by Burkholderia caryophylli. The qualitative and quantitative compositions of the specimens of the essential oils were analysed by the method of GC-MS. The main constituents of D. acicularis essential oil were methyl ketones - 2-pentadecanone (26.9-32.2%) and 2-tridecanone (4.7-17.7%), identified for the first time in the Dianthus genus. The methyl ketone activity provides protection of the plants from herbivores and fungal pathogens. One can suppose that the presence of 2-pentadecanone and 2-tridecanone in the essential oil of carnation coniferous provides its resistance to different insects and pathogens, including the resistance to the bacterial wilt.

  19. Carnation 88光动力治疗仪治疗皮肤溃疡的临床效果与护理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚亚春; 敖薪; 张应喜

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨Carnation 88光动力治疗仪治疗皮肤溃疡的临床效果.方法 将皮肤溃疡的102例患者,随机分为实验组和对照组,实验组51例使用Carnation 88光动力治疗仪对皮肤溃疡部位局部照射,15min/次,1~2次/d,照射前用生理盐水清洗创面,照射结束后用生理盐水喷洒照射部位,治疗10 d为一个疗程,并观察临床疗效;对照组51例使用3%硼酸溶液250ml加庆大霉素24 U加地塞米松5 mg,湿敷患处,15~20 min/次,2~3次/d.结果 治疗10d后,实验组有效率为98.04%,,对照组有效率为78.43%,实验组效果明显优于对照组.结论 Carnation 88光动力治疗仪治疗皮肤溃疡,其方法操作简单、无损伤,无反弹,无副作用,是一种安全、有效的治疗方法,值得临床推广.

  20. [Integration of different T-DNA structures of ACC oxidase gene into carnation genome extended cut flower vase-life differently].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yi-Xun; Bao, Man-Zhu

    2004-09-01

    The cultivar 'Master' of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) was transformed with four T-DNA structures containing sense, antisense, sense direct repeat and antisense direct repeat gene of ACC oxidase mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Southern blotting detection showed that foreign gene was integrated into the carnation genome and 14 transgenic lines were obtained. The transgenic plants were transplanted to soil and grew normally in greenhouse. Of the 12 transgenic lines screened, the cut flower vase life of 8 transgenic lines is up to 11 days and the longest one is 12.8 days while the vase life of the control is 5.8 days under 25 degrees C. The vase life of 2 lines out of 3 with single sense ACO gene is same as that of the control, while the vase life of 3 lines out of 4 with single antisense ACO gene is prolonged. The vase life of cut flowers of 5 lines with direct repeat ACO genes is all prolonged by about 6 days, while the vase life of 3 out of 7 lines with single ACO gene is same as that of the control. During the senescence of cut flowers, the ethylene production of the most of the transgenic lines decreased significantly, and the production of ethylene is not detectable in lines T456, T556 and T575. The results of the research demonstrate that antisense foreign gene inhibits expression of endogenesis gene more significantly than sense one. Both sense direct repeat and antisense direct repeat foreign genes can suppress endogenous gene expression more significantly comparing to single foreign genes. The transgenic lines obtained from this research are useful to minimize carnation cut flower transportation and storage expenses.

  1. 康乃馨热风干燥特性研究%Research on hot-air drying characteristics of carnation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张亚晶; 杨薇

    2012-01-01

    选取康乃馨为研究对象,以热风温度、风速、装载量为试验因素进行单因素试验,分析各个因素对干燥特性的影响.结果表明,3个因素对康乃馨的干燥特性影响均显著,温度越高,风速越大,装载量越少,康乃馨达到安全水分所用的时间就越短.采用3种常用的干燥模型单项扩散模型、指数模型、Page模型对试验数据进行线性回归分析和模型的拟合,得出Page模型适合描述康乃馨的干燥进程,并建立康乃馨的干燥模型.通过试验验证,Page模型的预测值与实测值的最大误差仅为6.7%,很好地描述了康乃馨的干燥进程.%Hot-air temperature, wind velocity and loading weight were taken as experimental factors to study the drying characteristics of carnation. Experimental results showed that all of the three factors significantly influence the drying characteristics of carnation. It was favorable to strengthen the drying process by increasing drying temperature and wind velocity. But the increase of loading weight could reduce drying rate. The experimental datum was simulated with different mathematical models. The results also showed that Page model was fitted to the hot-air drying curves of carnation. The change regulation of hot-air drying of carnation could be described and predicted very well by Page model according to the comparison of experimental and calculated values.

  2. Transcriptional regulation of three EIN3-like genes of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. cv. Improved White Sim) during flower development and upon wounding, pollination, and ethylene exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iordachescu, Mihaela; Verlinden, Sven

    2005-08-01

    Using a combination of approaches, three EIN3-like (EIL) genes DC-EIL1/2 (AY728191), DC-EIL3 (AY728192), and DC-EIL4 (AY728193) were isolated from carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) petals. DC-EIL1/2 deduced amino acid sequence shares 98% identity with the previously cloned and characterized carnation DC-EIL1 (AF261654), 62% identity with DC-EIL3, and 60% identity with DC-EIL4. DC-EIL3 deduced amino acid sequence shares 100% identity with a previously cloned carnation gene fragment, Dc106 (CF259543), 61% identity with Dianthus caryophyllus DC-EIL1 (AF261654), and 59% identity with DC-EIL4. DC-EIL4 shared 60% identity with DC-EIL1 (AF261654). Expression analyses performed on vegetative and flower tissues (petals, ovaries, and styles) during growth and development and senescence (natural and ethylene-induced) indicated that the mRNA accumulation of the DC-EIL family of genes in carnation is regulated developmentally and by ethylene. DC-EIL3 mRNA showed significant accumulation upon ethylene exposure, during flower development, and upon pollination in petals and styles. Interestingly, decreasing levels of DC-EIL3 mRNA were found in wounded leaves and ovaries of senescing flowers whenever ethylene levels increased. Flowers treated with sucrose showed a 2 d delay in the accumulation of DC-EIL3 transcripts when compared with control flowers. These observations suggest an important role for DC-EIL3 during growth and development. Changes in DC-EIL1/2 and DC-EIL4 mRNA levels during flower development, and upon ethylene exposure and pollination were very similar. mRNA levels of the DC-EILs in styles of pollinated flowers showed a positive correlation with ethylene production after pollination. The cloning and characterization of the EIN3-like genes in the present study showed their transcriptional regulation not previously observed for EILs.

  3. Carnation-33光子治疗仪联合康复新液治疗皮肤溃疡疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨钰鑫; 贾叙锋; 陈晓炜

    2010-01-01

    @@ 本科自2009年2月起,应用Carnation-33光子治疗仪(深圳市普门科技有限公司生产),对46例多种原因所致皮肤溃疡患者进行局部照射并联合康复新液(湖南中南科伦药业有限公司)治疗,取得了较好疗效.报告如下.

  4. Techniques on Cultivation and Management of Carnation in Greenhouse Liupanshan Area%六盘山区康乃馨温室栽培管理技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨浩

    2012-01-01

    介绍了康乃馨温室栽培管理技术,包括品种选择、定植前准备工作、定植技术、种植后田间管理技术、常见病虫害防治、采收技术。%Cultivation and management techniques of carnation in greenhouse were intruduced, including variety selection, preparation work, planting, field management after planting, common diseases and pests prevent, harvesting techniques.

  5. Reverted glutathione S-transferase-like genes that influence flower color intensity of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) originated from excision of a transposable element

    OpenAIRE

    Momose, Masaki; Itoh, Yoshio; Umemoto, Naoyuki; Nakayama, Masayoshi; Ozeki, Yoshihiro

    2013-01-01

    A glutathione S-transferase-like gene, DcGSTF2, is responsible for carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) flower color intensity. Two defective genes, DcGSTF2mu with a nonsense mutation and DcGSTF2-dTac1 containing a transposable element dTac1, have been characterized in detail in this report. dTac1 is an active element that produces reverted functional genes by excision of the element. A pale-pink cultivar ‘Daisy’ carries both defective genes, whereas a spontaneous deep-colored mutant ‘Daisy-V...

  6. Peculiar ultrastructural characteristics of fungal cells and of other elements apposed to and in vessel walls in plants of a susceptible carnation cultivar, infected with Fusarium oxysporum f.sp dianthi race 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouellette, G.B.; Baayen, R.P.; Rioux, D.; Simard, M.

    2004-01-01

    Uncommon, opaque particles (of approximately 20-22 nm, referred to as OP), aggregating into paracrystalloids occurred only next to colonized cells in carnation plants of either a susceptible or resistant cultivar (cv.) infected with Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. dianthi. In the susceptible plant, those s

  7. Cloning of a DNA-binding protein that interacts with the ethylene-responsive enhancer element of the carnation GST1 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxson, J M; Woodson, W R

    1996-07-01

    Ethylene transcriptionally activates a glutathione S-transferase gene (GST1) at the onset of the senescence program in carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) flower petals. A 126 bp region of the GST1 promoter sequence has been identified as an ethylene-responsive enhancer element (ERE). In this paper, we demonstrate the ability of nuclear proteins from senescing petals to recognize a 22 bp sequence within the ERE (ERE oligonucleotide). Mutation of the ERE oligonucleotide sequence significantly alters the strength of this nuclear protein-DNA association. The wild-type ERE oligonucleotide sequence was used to isolate a cDNA clone encoding a sequence-specific DNA binding protein. Nucleotide sequencing and deduced amino acid sequence analysis of this cDNA predicted a 32 kDa protein which we have designated carnation ethylene-responsive element-binding protein-1 (CEBP-1). The mRNA expression pattern of CEBP-1 suggests that it is not transcriptionally regulated by ethylene. The amino acid sequence homology of CEBP-1 with other plant nucleic acid binding proteins indicates a conserved nucleic acid binding domain. Within this domain are two highly conserved RNA-binding motifs, RNP-1 and RNP-2. An acidic region and a putative nuclear localization signal are also identified.

  8. Purification and properties of a new S-adenosyl-L-methionine:flavonoid 4'-O-methyltransferase from carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curir, Paolo; Lanzotti, Virginia; Dolci, Marcello; Dolci, Paola; Pasini, Carlo; Tollin, Gordon

    2003-08-01

    A new enzyme, S-adenosyl-l-methionine:flavonoid 4'-O-methyltransferase (EC 2.1.1.-) (F 4'-OMT), has been purified 1 399-fold from the tissues of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L). The enzyme, with a molecular mass of 43-45 kDa and a pI of 4.15, specifically methylates the hydroxy substituent in 4'-position of the flavones, flavanones and isoflavones in the presence of S-adenosyl-l-methionine. A high affinity for the flavone kaempferol was observed (Km = 1.7 micro m; Vmax = 95.2 micro mol.min-1.mg-1), while other 4'-hydroxylated flavonoids proved likewise to be suitable substrates. Enzyme activity had no apparent Mg++ requirement but was inhibited by SH-group reagents. The optimum pH value for F 4'-OMT activity was found to be around neutrality. Kinetic analysis of the enzyme bi-substrate reaction indicates a Ping-Pong mechanism and excludes the formation of a ternary complex. The F 4'-OMT activity was increased, in both in vitro and in vivo carnation tissues, by the inoculation with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi. The enzyme did not display activity towards hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives, some of which are involved, as methylated monolignols, in lignin biosynthesis; the role of this enzyme could be therefore mainly defensive, rather than structural, although its precise function still needs to be ascertained.

  9. 超声波与生姜提取液对康乃馨保鲜的研究%On Ultrasonic and Ginger Extract on Preservation of Carnation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏晶晖

    2015-01-01

    This article through ultrasonic (UW) ,preservative (PS) and ultrasonic and ginger extract (UPS) composite pretreatment on carnation “master” (Master) cut flower vase preservative effect has been studied .The results show that UPS treatment effectively delays the fresh weight of flower ,changes in water balance value decline rate ,prolongs the blossom time ,increases the protein content and CAT con-tent ,reduces M AD content ,and delays the senescence of cut carnation ;and what's more ,it has the characteris-tics of environmental protection ,low cost ,and has a certain market potential and development prospects .%通过超声波(U W )、保鲜剂(PS )及超声波与生姜提取液(U PS )复合预处理对康乃馨品种“玛斯特”切花瓶插保鲜效果进行研究。结果表明:U PS处理有效推迟了切花鲜质量变化和水分平衡值的下降速度,延长了开花时间,增加了蛋白质和过氧化氢酶(CAT)质量摩尔浓度,降低了丙二醛(MAD)质量摩尔浓度,延缓了康乃馨切花的衰老。

  10. Adaptability of Introduced Carnations in Haikou%康乃馨在海口引种适应性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖雪娟

    2011-01-01

    The adaptability of 4 carnation varieties introduced from Holland was studied in Haikou district with the typical tropical climate conditions of high temperature,high moisture and little difference of day and night temperatures,and with improved soil of laterite substrate.The formula and method for soil improvement,cultivation specifications and planting management technique were especially studied and determined.The results showed that production of carnation cut flowers was possible in off-season in Haikou district.%在海口地区典型的热带高温、高湿、昼夜温差小的气候条件,以砖红壤为基质的改良土壤环境下,应用从荷兰直接引进的4个康乃馨品种作为栽培试种对象,开展切花生产适应性的研究。重点对土壤改良的配方和方法、栽培操作规程及种植管理技术进行研究确定。结果表明,海口地区能够进行反季节康乃馨的切花生产。

  11. Fabrication of the carnation-like CCN-CuS p–n heterojunctions with enhanced photocatalytic performance under visible light irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Qizhao, E-mail: wangqizhao@163.com [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070 (China); Shi, Yanbiao; Pu, Lili; Ta, Yuting; He, Jijuan; Zhang, Shuling [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070 (China); Zhong, Junbo; Li, Jianzhang [Laboratory of Green Chemistry of Sichuan Institutes of Higher Education Institutes of Sichuan, College of Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Engineering, Sichuan University of Science and Engineering, Zigong 643000 (China); Su, Bitao [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070 (China)

    2016-03-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Carnation-like CuS NFs are prepared without assistance of surfactants or templates. • The 5CCN-CuS shows good activity without usage of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} providing hydroxyl radicals. • The CCN-CuS p-n heterojunctions formed with the variation of CCN loaded content. • The 5CCN-CuS photocatalyst presented good photocatalysis stability. - Abstract: Carnation-like CuS nanoflowers were prepared by a mildly hydrothermal method without any surfactants or templates and further evolved into CCN-CuS p–n heterojunctions. And the as-prepared samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV–vis absorption spectroscopy, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET), photoluminescence (PL) and the photocurrent response. The results show that the appropriate load content of CCN is conducive to form well-morphology CCN-CuS heterojunctions. And the formation of CCN-CuS p–n heterojunctions is both beneficial to achieve higher charge separation efficiency and promote its photocatalytic performance to RhB dye without the existence of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, which is commonly used as the sources of hydroxyl radicals to assist photocatalytic process. Besides, the as-synthesized 5CCN-CuS NFs show good stability and no obvious inactivation occurred after five degradation cycles runs.

  12. Resistance to freezing in liquid nitrogen of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. var Eolo) apical and axillary shoot tips excised from different aged in vitro plantlets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dereuddre, J; Fabre, J; Bassaglia, C

    1988-05-01

    The ability of shoot tips from carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L., var. Eolo) cultured in vitro to develop resistance to freezing in liquid nitrogen depends on the physiological state of the cell material and the pretreatment conditions. Regrowth rates close to 100% have been obtained with apical shoot tips isolated from 2 month-old stems, precultured on medium supplemented with sucrose (0.75M) and treated with dimethylsulfoxide (5% or more). Resistance of axillary shoot tips decreased progressively as a funtion of their distance from the apical shoot tip. During the development of the stem from axillary buds (obtained by cutting), progressive increases in the regrowth rate of frozen apices were noted, from 30% before cutting (axillary buds) to 98% after 3 weeks of culture.

  13. Transcriptional regulation of two RTE-like genes of carnation during flower senescence and upon ethylene exposure, wounding treatment and sucrose supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Y; Wang, H; Liu, J; Fu, Z; Wang, J; Liu, J

    2011-09-01

    RTE1 (REVERSION-TO-ETHYLENE SENSITIVITY1) was identified as a positive regulator of ETR1 (ethylene resistant1) function in Arabidopsis; RTEs are a small gene family. Ethylene plays a crucial role in the senescence of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) flowers. Two cDNA clones encoding putative RTE-like protein (DCRTE1 and DCRTH1) were obtained from total RNA isolated from senescing carnation petals using RT-PCR and RACE techniques. The predicted proteins of DCRTE1 and DCRTH1 consist of 228 and 233 amino acids, respectively. Interestingly, the deduced DCRTE1 protein, like most other RTEs, includes two putative transmembrane domains, while the deduced DCRTH1 protein includes five putative transmembrane domains, according to the TMHMM database. Northern blots showed that the level of DCRTE1 mRNA in petals first decreased then increased remarkably after ethylene production started, and DCRTE1 expression showed an increasing trend in ovaries during natural flower senescence. The amount of DCRTH1 transcripts increased gradually in both petals and ovaries during natural senescence. Exogenous ethylene increased transcript abundance of DCRTE1 and DCRTH1 to various degrees in both petals and ovaries. STS treatment decreased the level of DCRTH1 mRNA in petals and ovaries compared with the control. DCRTE1 and DCRTH1 showed a rapid increase and then a decrease in mRNA accumulation in leaves after wounding. These results suggest that both DCRTE1 and DCRTH1 could play important roles in flower senescence-related signalling. Sucrose treatment did not remarkably affect the amount of DCRTE1 and DCRTH1 mRNAs.

  14. Structure of the acyl-glucose-dependent anthocyanin 5-O-glucosyltransferase gene in carnations and its disruption by transposable elements in some varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishizaki, Yuzo; Matsuba, Yuki; Okamoto, Emi; Okamura, Masachika; Ozeki, Yoshihiro; Sasaki, Nobuhiro

    2011-12-01

    The pink, red and crimson petal colors of carnations (Dianthus caryophyllus) are produced by anthocyanins. The anthocyanins, pelargonidin and cyanidin can be modified by two glucoses at the 3 and 5 positions, and by a single malic acid. Petal color variation can result from failure of such modification, for example, the lack of a glucose at the 5 position is responsible for the color variants of some commercial varieties. With respect to this variation, modification by 5-O-glucosyltransferase plays the most important role in glucosylation at the 5 position. Recently, we identified a novel acyl-glucose-dependent anthocyanin 5-O-glucosyltransferase (AA5GT), that uses acyl-glucoses, but not UDP-glucose, as the glucose donor. Although we showed that loss of AA5GT expression was responsible for loss of glucosylation at the 5 position of anthocyanin in some varieties, the cause of this repression of AA5GT expression could not be determined. Here, we have succeeded in isolating the AA5GT gene and found that it consists of 12 exons and 11 introns. In carnation varieties lacking a glucose at the 5 position, we identified the insertion of two different retrotransposons, Ty1dic1 and Retdic1, into AA5GT. Ty1dic1, which belongs to the class I long terminal repeat (LTR)-retrotransposons of Ty1/copia families, was inserted into exon 10. Retdic1, which includes a long interspersed nuclear element (LINE)-like sequence, was inserted into intron 5. Thus, insertion of either Ty1dic1 or Retdic1 can disrupt AA5GT and result in the lack of glucosylation at the 5 position in anthocyanins.

  15. Reverted glutathione S-transferase-like genes that influence flower color intensity of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) originated from excision of a transposable element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momose, Masaki; Itoh, Yoshio; Umemoto, Naoyuki; Nakayama, Masayoshi; Ozeki, Yoshihiro

    2013-12-01

    A glutathione S-transferase-like gene, DcGSTF2, is responsible for carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) flower color intensity. Two defective genes, DcGSTF2mu with a nonsense mutation and DcGSTF2-dTac1 containing a transposable element dTac1, have been characterized in detail in this report. dTac1 is an active element that produces reverted functional genes by excision of the element. A pale-pink cultivar 'Daisy' carries both defective genes, whereas a spontaneous deep-colored mutant 'Daisy-VPR' lost the element from DcGSTF2-dTac1. This finding confirmed that dTac1 is active and that the resulting reverted gene, DcGSTF2rev1, missing the element is responsible for this color change. Crosses between the pale-colored cultivar '06-LA' and a deep-colored cultivar 'Spectrum' produced segregating progeny. Only the deep-colored progeny had DcGSTF2rev2 derived from the 'Spectrum' parent, whereas progeny with pale-colored flowers had defective forms from both parents, DcGSTF2mu and DcGSTF2-dTac1. Thus, DcGSTF2rev2 had functional activity and likely originated from excision of dTac1 since there was a footprint sequence at the vacated site of the dTac1 insertion. Characterizing the DcGSTF2 genes in several cultivars revealed that the two functional genes, DcGSTF2rev1 and DcGSTF2rev2, have been used for some time in carnation breeding with the latter in use for more than half a century.

  16. New isolates of carnation Italian ringspot virus differ from the original one by having replication-associated proteins with a typical tombusvirus-like N-terminus and by inducing peroxisome- rather than mitochondrion-derived multivesicular bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Renate; Lesemann, Dietrich-Eckhardt; Pfeilstetter, Ernst

    2009-01-01

    Five new isolates of carnation Italian ringspot virus (CIRV) from cherry trees, Gypsophila and surface water differ from the original carnation isolate (CIRV-car) and also from Pelargonium necrotic spot virus (PelNSV) by having an ORF 1/ORF1-RT with a typical tombusvirus-like 5'end and by inducing the formation of peroxisome- rather than mitochondrion-derived multivesicular bodies (MVBs). This supports with natural isolates earlier conclusions reached by others with artificially produced hybrid viruses that the 5'end of ORF 1 determines from which organelle the MBVs will be derived. CIRV-car might have resulted from a natural recombination event with genome elements of a PelNSV-like virus.

  17. Wpływ detergentów, humianu i ściółek na plonowanie goździków w uprawie hydroponicznej [Influence of detergents humate and seedbed materials on yield of carnations in hydroponic culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Gumińska

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Addition of the detergent (DBSS + ASS either .single or every eight weeks to the nutrient solution stimulates carnation development. Detergent addition every fourth week caused decreasing of flower diameter. The addition of humates to the nutrient solution did not interact significantly with detergents. Among three material combinations used in the seedbed: peat with coke-slag, peat with brown coal and sponge with coke-slag – the first proved the best.

  18. 外源乙烯对香石竹切花开放的影响%Effects of Exogenous Ethylene on Carnation(Dianthus caryophyllus L.) During the Blossoming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄虹心

    2012-01-01

    [目的]为了探手简便安全的方法使香石竹(Dianthus caryophyllus L.)切花在短时间内盛开,以减短存货期并随时满足用花需求.[方法]采用乙烯利溶液喷撒花枝、将乙烯利加入瓶插液以及将乙烯利放在花枝旁边3组处理方法.[结果]适宜的乙烯浓度(环境中乙烯浓度为8.65×10-6 mol/L左右)可促使香石竹切花提前4~5d盛开,观赏期达7d,处理的花枝花色正常,最大花径和花枝重有所提高.但是高浓度乙烯、乙烯利溶液喷撒花枝和将乙烯利加入瓶插液均对香石竹产生明显伤害,造成花瓣变色、坏死,花朵不能完全开展.[结论]超过浓度阀值的外源乙烯能使香石竹切花迅速开放,在花枝旁边放置适量乙烯利溶液可有效地促进花朵盛开.%[ Objective ] The purpose was to find out the safe method that made the fresh cut carnation bloom, to shorten the stock turnover and filled the requirements at any time. [ Method] 3 methods were chose, including spraying ethephon on the carnation, injecting the ethephon into vase solution and laying up the ethephon near by the flower. [ Result] The suitable ethylene concentration (8.65 × 10-6 mol/L in the environment ) promoted the fresh cut carnation bloom 4-5 days ahead of time, florescence extended by 7 days, it retained the flower color and increased the max diameter and the weight. But the high ethylene concentration or wrong treatment damaged the carnation, it caused petal color changing and necrosis, even withered the flower. [Conclusion] The ethylene that exceeds the threshold can promote the fresh cut carnation bloom quickly, and the effective treatment is laying up the ethephon near by the flower.

  19. Effects of different culture conditions on Subculture of carnation plantlets cultured in vitro%不同培养条件对香石竹组培苗玻璃化现象的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉园; 杜清叶

    2015-01-01

    Vitrification is the main obstacle in subculture of carnation plantlets in vitro,which were induced from shoot tips. In order to study the influence of different culture conditions on the carnation somaclone vitrification, with robust carnation somaclone as material, taking MS as the basic culture medium, the effects of different concentrations of 6-BA, sugar and agar and active carbon added on prevention of carnation plantlets vitrification phenomenon were tested. The results showed that low concentration of 6-BA and properly increasing the concentration of sugar and agar, in which somaclone multiplication coefficient is higher and the vitrification rate is low. Therefore, medium with MS+sucrose 30.0 g+agar 8.0 g+6-BA 0.5mg/L+NAA 0.01mg/L+activated carbon 4 g/L can effectively prevent carnation vitrification in tissue culture.%香石竹茎尖试管苗继代培养玻璃化现象是香石竹脱毒试管苗生产的一个主要障碍.为探讨不同培养条件对香石竹组培苗玻璃化的影响,以香石竹健壮组培苗为材料,以MS为基本培养基,研究了不同浓度6-BA、蔗糖和琼脂以及添加活性炭对防止香石竹组培苗玻璃化现象的作用.结果表明,降低6-BA的浓度,适当提高蔗糖和琼脂的浓度,组培苗增殖系数较高,玻璃化率低.其中,MS+蔗糖30.0 g+琼脂8.0 g+6-BA 0.5 mg/L+ NAA 0.01 mg/L+活性炭4 g/L的培养基可以有效降低香石竹组织培养中的玻璃化现象.

  20. Evaluación de nuevos genotipos de clavel ( Dianthus caryophyllus L. obtenidos mediante hibridación varietal Phenotypic evaluation of new carnation hybrids (Dianthus caryophyllus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuellar Sonia

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available

    En Colombia la floricultura representa un renglón importante de las exportaciones, lo que hace fundamental el desarrollo de estudios básicos tendientes a la producción de variedades de clavel adaptadas a las condiciones nacionales. En el análisis de germinación y desarrollo de 10 cruzamientos entre variedades comerciales de clavel se encontró: que las sernillas híbridas de clavel no presentan problemas de viabilidad, que es posible obtener en las progenies plantas de desarrollo y floración más precoz que el de sus progenitores. De la misma forma se puede obtener mejoramiento en la producción de esquejes. En cuanto a las características de la flor se evaluaron parámetros importantes para la comercialización del clavel encontrándose que: es posible obtener mejoramiento en longitud y fortaleza del tallo, diámetro de la flor y número de pétalos, aunque es necesario hacer seguimiento a generaciones posteriores del cultivo para estar seguros de que las características deseadas se mantienen. Parámetros importantes en la comercialización de la flor como la forma de la corola, la forma y la coloración de las hojas, mostraron depender del ambiente (condiciones del cultivo más que de las características genéticas.

    The flower production in Colombia is important for the country exports. Therefore research in flower breeding, especially carnation is essential. Analyzing germination and development of 1a crosses between commercial cultivars we found what hybrid seeds do not have viability problems, and offspring plants with flowering and development most precocious than their parents were found. In same way, is possible to improve cuttings production. Flower features are important parameters for carnation commercialization. Stem length, stem strength, flower diameter and petal number can be improved, but is important to follow the next generations to make sure of the best characters are stable. Other parameters commercially

  1. Controle da vitrificação do cravo (Dianthus caryophyllus L. in vitro Control of carnation vitrification (Dianthus caryophyllus L. in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.R.F. Cuzzuol

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Baixos níveis de benziladenina (BAP, baixo potencial de água no meio e baixa umidade condicionada por tampas de algodão foram capazes de inibir a vitrificação de cravo (Dianthus caryophyllus L. cultivado In vitro, mas essas condições implicaram no baixo desenvolvimento das plantas e da taxa de propagação. Elevados níveis de NH4NO3 demonstraram serem altamente promotores da vitrifícação assinalada pelo alto conteúdo de proteína, enquanto relação inversa foi constatada para altos níveis de CaCl2, aos quais seguiu-se aumento na atividade da peroxidase. Os resultados permitiram estabelecer um protocolo para controle da vitrificação do cravo, constituído de 4,0 g/1 de "Gelrite", 0,5 mg/1 de ácido naftalenoacético (ANA, 0,05 mg/1 de BAP, doses normais das soluções salinas do meio MS e vedação do tipo tampas de algodão para cultivo de ápices meristemáticos. Para a fase de multiplicação, este protocolo deve ser alterado para 0,5 mg/1 de BAP, 10,3 mM de NH4NO3 e 12,0 mM de CaCl2.Low levels of benzyl adenine (BAP, low water potential of the growth medium and low humidity due to cotton covers, inhibited vitrification of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. in vitro. However, under these conditions, a low development of plants and a decrease in the multiplication ratio, were observed. High levels of amonium nitrate enhanced vitrification with an increase in the total soluble protein content. An inverse correlation was observed in the presence of high levels of calcium chloride. The latter was correlated to an increase in peroxidase activity. The results allowed the establishment of a protocol to control vitrification during carnation meristein growth, as follows: "Gelrite", 4 g/1; naphtalene acetic acid, 0.5 mg/l; BAP, 0.05 mg/l; normal dosis of MS salts; cotton covers. For in vitro multiplication the protocol should be altered to BAP, 0.5 mg/1; amoniuin nitrate 10.3 mM; calcium chloride 12.0 mM.

  2. Clinical Observation of Zhishushi Lotion Combined with Carnation 33 Photon Therapeutic Apparatus for Perianal Eczema%痔舒适洗液联合Carnation 33光子治疗仪治疗肛周湿疹疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱焱林; 张冰凌; 吴先哲

    2015-01-01

    目的:观察痔舒适洗液坐浴联合Carnation 33光子治疗仪照射治疗肛周湿疹的临床疗效.方法:将40例患者随机分为2组各20例,治疗组采用痔舒适洗液联合Carnation 33光子治疗仪治疗,对照组采用痔舒适洗液联合卤米松乳膏治疗,治疗2周后2组均停用痔舒适洗液,余法继续治疗2周,观察2组临床疗效、2月复发率以及不良反应情况等.结果:治疗后治疗组瘙痒缓解、肛周病理改变消失时间较对照组缩短,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.01).痊愈率、总有效率治疗组分别为30.0%、85.0%;对照组分别为15.0%、70.0%,2组比较,差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05).随访2月,复发率治疗组为5.0%,对照组为30.0%,2组比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:痔舒适洗液联合光子治疗仪治疗肛周湿疹,疗效好,显效快,复发率低.

  3. Carnation-22光子照射疗法在尿道端端吻合术患者术后护理中的应用%Application of Carnation-22 photon therapeutic in postoperative nursing of patients with end-to-end anastomosis of urethra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈斌; 阮琦; 张丽

    2016-01-01

    Objective To observe the nursing effect of Carnation-22 photon therapeutic apparatus in patients with end-to-end anastomosis of urethra. Methods From October 2014 to October 2015, 200 patients with urethral stricture were randomly selected and divided into two groups after end-to-end anastomosis of urethra according to the admission order. 100 patients in the control group were given conventional nursing after operation. 100 patients in the observation group were given Carnation-22 photon therapeutic apparatus based on the routine nursing. The swelling and exudation of perineum incision, results of middle urine culture, patient comfort and satisfaction degree of patients were compared in two groups.Results Healing rate in the observation group (90.0%) was higher than that in the control group (76.0%);the positive rate of middle urine culture in the observation group (11.0%) was lower than that in the control group (23.0%);the ratio of patients with pain sense in the observation group (38.0%) was lower than that in the control group (78.0%); the percentage of patient degree >90 in the observation group (95.0%) was higher than that in the control group (78.0%)(P90分(95.0%)的百分率高于对照组(78.0%),差异有统计学意义( P<0.05)。结论尿道端端吻合术后患者应用光子治疗仪照射后,能促进伤口愈合,减少感染率,缩短住院时间,且无明显不良反应,患者依从性好。

  4. Comparative Studies on Cellular Behaviour of Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus Linn. cv. Grenadin Grown In Vivo and In Vitro for Early Detection of Somaclonal Variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamilah Syafawati Yaacob

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the cytological investigations on the meristematic root cells of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus Linn. grown in vivo and in vitro. Cellular parameters including the mitotic index (MI, chromosome count, ploidy level (nuclear DNA content, mean cell and nuclear areas, and cell doubling time (Cdt were determined from the 2 mm root tip segments of this species. The MI value decreased when cells were transferred from in vivo to in vitro conditions, perhaps due to early adaptations of the cells to the in vitro environment. The mean chromosome number was generally stable (2n=2x=30 throughout the 6-month culture period, indicating no occurrence of early somaclonal variation. Following the transfer to the in vitro environment, a significant increase was recorded for mean cell and nuclear areas, from 26.59 ± 0.09 μm2 to 35.66 ± 0.10 μm2 and 142.90 ± 0.59 μm2 to 165.05 ± 0.58 μm2, respectively. However, the mean cell and nuclear areas of in vitro grown D. caryophyllus were unstable and fluctuated throughout the tissue culture period, possibly due to organogenesis or rhizogenesis. Ploidy level analysis revealed that D. caryophyllus root cells contained high percentage of polyploid cells when grown in vivo and maintained high throughout the 6-month culture period.

  5. Molecular cloning of the flavanone 3β-hydroxylase gene (FHT) from carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) and analysis of stable and unstable FHT mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedio, J; Saedler, H; Forkmann, G

    1995-04-01

    Using a cDNA encoding the flavanone 3β-hydroxylase (FHT) from Dianthus caryophyllus (carnation) as a probe, we isolated the FHT gene from a genomic library. Sequence analysis revealed that the FHT gene consists of three exons and two introns. Two putative light-regulated elements were identified in the promoter region by sequence comparison. Southern blot analysis indicated that a single copy of the FHT gene is in the plant genome. Furthermore, a stable and an unstable FHT mutant of D. caryophyllus, both showing almost no FHT activity, were analyzed by Southern, Northern and Western blotting. It turned out that the FHT gene is present in both mutants, but no protein was detectable in the mutant flowers. FHT mRNA in amounts comparable to that found in the wildtype is present in flowers of the stable mutant, indicating a block in translation, but not in flowers of the unstable mutant, indicating a block in transcription. The translational block of the FHT mRNA of the stable mutant was demonstrated by in vitro translation of total flower mRNA followed by the specific measurement of FHT activity.

  6. Study of SNP on Preservation of Carnation Cut Flowers%SNP对康乃馨切花保鲜的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余细红; 曾海燕; 杨柳青

    2012-01-01

    [目的]探讨SNP对康乃馨切花的保鲜作用。[方法]以硝普钠(SNP)为一氧化氮供体,研究浓度为5、50、100、1 000μmol/L时的SNP对康乃馨切花保鲜寿命的影响。[结果]SNP浓度为100μmol/L时对康乃馨切花的影响最大,可明显延缓弯茎出现、增加切花鲜重及维持较高含糖量,延长切花瓶插寿命。[结论]一定浓度的SNP处理康乃馨切花可延长切花瓶插寿命,提高观赏价值。%[Objective] The article discussed the effects of SNP treatment on the cut flower.[Method] 5、50、100、1 000 μmol/L SNP(sodium nitroprusside treatment,NO releaser) on the cut flower were examined.[Result] The concentration of 100 μmol/L SNP could delay the stem bended,increase fresh weight and vase life of cut carnation flower,maintain the activities of solubility sugar.[conclusion] SNP could prolong vase life,improve the quality of appearance.

  7. Fabrication of the carnation-like CCN-CuS p-n heterojunctions with enhanced photocatalytic performance under visible light irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qizhao; Shi, Yanbiao; Pu, Lili; Ta, Yuting; He, Jijuan; Zhang, Shuling; Zhong, Junbo; Li, Jianzhang; Su, Bitao

    2016-03-01

    Carnation-like CuS nanoflowers were prepared by a mildly hydrothermal method without any surfactants or templates and further evolved into CCN-CuS p-n heterojunctions. And the as-prepared samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), photoluminescence (PL) and the photocurrent response. The results show that the appropriate load content of CCN is conducive to form well-morphology CCN-CuS heterojunctions. And the formation of CCN-CuS p-n heterojunctions is both beneficial to achieve higher charge separation efficiency and promote its photocatalytic performance to RhB dye without the existence of H2O2, which is commonly used as the sources of hydroxyl radicals to assist photocatalytic process. Besides, the as-synthesized 5CCN-CuS NFs show good stability and no obvious inactivation occurred after five degradation cycles runs.

  8. Observational Experiment on Carnation Varieties Introduced in Cold Region%寒地引种康乃馨品种观察试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘琳帅; 王力; 李响; 刘德福; 朱磊; 张俊杰; 齐国超

    2013-01-01

      In order to promote the development of fresh cut‐flower industry in cold region ,biological characteris‐tics ,growth period ,yield and other indexes of 31 carnation cultivars which belonging to 8 color tones at seed‐ling and flower stages were observed .The results indicated that four varieties including ‘Quiet ,Free ,Yunz‐iyun ,Master’were suitable for large area planting ,nine varieties including ‘Sunlight’ need to be further ob‐served ,while the other eighteen varieties were not suitable for planting in cold region .%  为了促进寒地鲜切花产业发展,引进8个色系,31个康乃馨品种进行观察试验,记录苗期花期评价、生物学特性、生长期、产量等生理性状。结果表明:鉴定出安静、自由、云紫云、马斯特4个品种适合大面积种植,阳光等9个品种有待进一步试验,其余18个品种不适合寒地种植。

  9. Comparative studies on cellular behaviour of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus Linn. cv. Grenadin) grown in vivo and in vitro for early detection of somaclonal variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaacob, Jamilah Syafawati; Taha, Rosna Mat; Khorasani Esmaeili, Arash

    2013-01-01

    The present study deals with the cytological investigations on the meristematic root cells of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus Linn.) grown in vivo and in vitro. Cellular parameters including the mitotic index (MI), chromosome count, ploidy level (nuclear DNA content), mean cell and nuclear areas, and cell doubling time (Cdt) were determined from the 2 mm root tip segments of this species. The MI value decreased when cells were transferred from in vivo to in vitro conditions, perhaps due to early adaptations of the cells to the in vitro environment. The mean chromosome number was generally stable (2n = 2x = 30) throughout the 6-month culture period, indicating no occurrence of early somaclonal variation. Following the transfer to the in vitro environment, a significant increase was recorded for mean cell and nuclear areas, from 26.59 ± 0.09  μm² to 35.66 ± 0.10  μm² and 142.90 ± 0.59  μm² to 165.05 ± 0.58  μm², respectively. However, the mean cell and nuclear areas of in vitro grown D. caryophyllus were unstable and fluctuated throughout the tissue culture period, possibly due to organogenesis or rhizogenesis. Ploidy level analysis revealed that D. caryophyllus root cells contained high percentage of polyploid cells when grown in vivo and maintained high throughout the 6-month culture period.

  10. Effect of Different Substrate Ratios on Growth of Seedling-adopted Carnation Maternal Plants%不同基质配比对香石竹采穗母本生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桂敏; 李宗鼎; 熊俊芬; 叶春华; 黎霞; 赵培飞

    2016-01-01

    为了研究不同基质配比对香石竹采穗母本采穗量和生长的影响,筛选出理想的基质配方,选取香石竹奥林匹克品种扦插苗为试验用苗,将椰糠、陶粒、草炭3种基质中的每两种按体积比1∶1、1∶1.5和1∶2分别进行配比,进行无土栽培基质试验研究。试验结果表明:香石竹奥林匹克采穗母本无土栽培基质配比以陶粒∶草炭=1∶1.5为最佳。%In order to study the effects of different substrate ratios on the adopted seedling quantity and growth of carnation maternal plants, and to screen out the optimum substrate formula , we used the cutting seedlings of carnation variety “Olympic” as the tested materials, and mixed any two of three different substrates ( coconut bran, ceramsite and turf) at the volume ratios of 1∶1, 1∶1.5, and 1∶2) to conduct soilless cultivation experiment.The result showed that the best substrate ratio was ceramsite∶turf=1∶1.5 for the soilless cultivation of seedling-adopted carnation maternal plants .

  11. Analysis of genomic DNA of DcACS1, a 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase gene, expressed in senescing petals of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) and its orthologous genes in D. superbus var. longicalycinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Taro; Murakoshi, Yuino; Torii, Yuka; Tanase, Koji; Onozaki, Takashi; Morita, Shigeto; Masumura, Takehiro; Satoh, Shigeru

    2011-04-01

    Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) flowers exhibit climacteric ethylene production followed by petal wilting, a senescence symptom. DcACS1, which encodes 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase (ACS), is a gene involved in this phenomenon. We determined the genomic DNA structure of DcACS1 by genomic PCR. In the genome of 'Light Pink Barbara', we found two distinct nucleotide sequences: one corresponding to the gene previously shown as DcACS1, designated here as DcACS1a, and the other novel one designated as DcACS1b. It was revealed that both DcACS1a and DcACS1b have five exons and four introns. These two genes had almost identical nucleotide sequences in exons, but not in some introns and 3'-UTR. Analysis of transcript accumulation revealed that DcACS1b is expressed in senescing petals as well as DcACS1a. Genomic PCR analysis of 32 carnation cultivars showed that most cultivars have only DcACS1a and some have both DcACS1a and DcACS1b. Moreover, we found two DcACS1 orthologous genes with different nucleotide sequences from D. superbus var. longicalycinus, and designated them as DsuACS1a and DsuACS1b. Petals of D. superbus var. longicalycinus produced ethylene in response to exogenous ethylene, accompanying accumulation of DsuACS1 transcripts. These data suggest that climacteric ethylene production in flowers was genetically established before the cultivation of carnation.

  12. 丁香、大黄中草药保鲜剂对康乃馨鲜切花保鲜效果的应用研究%Preservative effect of cloves and rhubarb formula on fresh cut carnation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童红梅

    2013-01-01

    以康乃馨鲜切花‘黄莺’‘凯旋’为试验材料,选用95%乙醇超声波提取丁香、大黄等10种市售中草药中的抑菌成分,通过对致病菌黑曲霉、灰绿青霉的抑菌试验筛选适宜康乃馨鲜切花‘黄莺’与‘凯旋’保鲜用的中草药配方。结果表明:中草药丁香、大黄的抑菌效果与对照多菌灵相当。以中草药丁香和大黄浸提液、蔗糖、氯化钙、水扬酸4种成分经正交试验筛选出了两种中草药保鲜剂,其中保鲜剂1号对康乃馨‘黄莺’保鲜效果好,而保鲜剂2号更适宜于康乃馨‘凯旋’的保鲜。两种保鲜剂均可延长康乃馨鲜切花寿命6~8 d,保鲜效果显著。%Taking 1 0 kinds of chinese herbal medicine 9 5% ethanol ultrasonic extracts as antibacterial ingredient,the chinese herbal medicine formula to Aspergillusniger and Peniciliumglaucus were screened on fresh cut carnation ‘Hongying’and ‘Kaixuan’.The cloves and rhubarb formula showed the same anti-bacterial effect as carbendazim.The 2 kinds of chinese herbal medicine preservative formula were screened by orthogonal test.No.1 preservative had better effect to ‘Huangying’carnation,while No.2 preservative was suitable to ‘Kaixuan’carnation.Both No.1 preservative and No.2 preservative could prolong life of fresh cut carnation 6 to 8 days and showed a good preservative effect.

  13. Influence of setting carnations service post on nurse patient relationship in ICU%重症监护病房设置康乃馨服务岗对护患关系的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓霞; 朱英; 王晓玲

    2014-01-01

    [目的]设立康乃馨服务岗,改善重症监护病房护患关系,提高护理质量。[方法]于2012年11月开始设立康乃馨服务岗,成立康乃馨小组,对重症监护室病人根据访谈提纲进行回访,针对影响护患关系的主要因素进行护理,比较设岗前后4个月的病人满意度及护患纠纷发生情况。[结果]设立康乃馨服务岗后病人满意度为98.33%,护患纠纷发生率0.83%,明显优于设立前(P<0.05)。[结论]重症监护病房设立康乃馨服务岗,可有效改善护患关系。%Obj ective:To establish the carnations service post,improve ICU nurse patient relationship and improve quality of care.Methods:Carna-tions service post was began to set up in November 2012 and carnation group was founded;ICU patients were visited based on interviews outline;nursing care was conducted aiming at main factors influencing nurse pa-tient relationship;patients’satisfaction and the occurrence of nursing dis-putes were compared in four months before and after setting post.Results:After the establishment of carnations service post,patients'satisfaction was 98.33%,and incidence of nursing disputes was 0.83%,which was signifi-cantly better than that before the establishment(P<0.05).Conclusion:Setting up carnations service post in ICU can effectively improve the nurse patient relationship.

  14. 桂林地区香石竹切花栽培及茬口安排技术%Cultivation and Crop Rotation Arrangement Technique of Carnation Cuting Flower for Guilin Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘春惠

    2011-01-01

    @@ 香石竹(Dianthus caryophyllus)俗称"康乃馨"(Carnation),是流行的鲜切花主要品种之一,与月季、菊花、唐菖蒲并称世界"四大切花".栽培技术直接影响香石竹切花产量和质量.以市场为导向,合理安排种植茬口、调控花期则能获得较大的经济效益.

  15. Effects of Pretreatment with Low Temperature Storage on Preservation of Cut Carnation%预处理结合低温贮藏对康乃馨切花保鲜效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小玲; 华智锐; 杨文文

    2012-01-01

    In order to investigate the best approach for preservation of carnation cut flowers,this paper researched post-harvest preservation effect of cut carnation with combination of low temperature storage,addition of sucrose,8-hydroxyquinoline,citric acid,and exogenous hormone 6-BA and 2, 4-D and other substances. The results showed that pretreatment with low-temperature storage of carnation cut flowers increased flower diameter, bud length, branch, fresh weight, and increased CAT activity in the petals. The preservation effect of 5% sucrose+100 mg/L 8-HQ + 200 mg/L CA+100 mg/L 6-BA combination formula with cold storage (2 weeks in 4 癈 refrigerator) was better than that of 5% sucrose+100 mg/L 8-HQ+200 mg/L CA+100 mg/L 2,4-D combined with cold storage method. This showed that pretreatment with low-temperature storage had a good preservation effect on cut flowers of carnations,and exogenous hormone 6-BA was better than 2,4-D.%为探讨康乃馨鲜切花最佳保鲜方法,在低温条件下,通过在保鲜液中添加蔗糖、8-羟基喹啉(8-HQ)、柠檬酸(CA)及外源激素6-BA和2,4-D等,研究康乃馨切花的采后保鲜效果.结果表明,2周4℃的低温保存结合预处理增加了康乃馨切花花径、花蕾长度、花枝鲜质量,提高了花瓣CAT活性,其中,5%蔗糖+100 mg/L 8-HQ+200 mg/L CA+100 mg/L 6-BA配方组合保鲜效果最佳.由此说明,在低温条件下,预处理对康乃馨切花的保鲜和延缓衰老有较好的作用,且添加外源激素6-BA比2,4-D作用更佳.

  16. Analysis of soil bacterial community composition by 16S rDNA clone library sampling from transgenic carnation%16S rDNA克隆文库法探索转基因香石竹对土壤细菌群落的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白蓝; 赵明文; 贾军伟; 李鹏; 王金斌; 潘爱虎

    2012-01-01

    [目的]通过研究转基因香石竹对土壤细菌群落的影响,为转基因香石竹的环境安全性评价提供依据.[方法]通过构建16S rDNA克隆文库,分析种植转基因和非转基因香石竹的土壤中细菌的群落结构组成.[结果]转基因和非转基因香石竹土壤中,共有的菌群有变形菌门(Proteobacteria)、浮霉菌门(Planctomycetes)、酸杆菌门(Acidobacteria),其中α-变形菌门、β-变形菌门、浮霉菌门为优势菌群;而在放线菌门(Actinobacteria)、疣微菌门(Verrucomicrobia)及未培养菌(Uncultured bacterium clone)等菌群存在部分差异.[结论]通过16S rDNA克隆文库方法揭示了转基因香石竹的土壤中细菌多样性十分丰富,其栽培对土壤细菌群落结构影响有限.%[Objective] We did this research to analyze the impact on the soil bacterial population of the transgenic carnation, which laid the foundation for the safety assessment of GM carnation. [Methods] Bacterial 16S rDNA gene clone libraries of GM and non-GM carnations were constructed, and the soil bacterial populations of these carnations were compared. [Resultsl The results showed Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Planctomycetes and Acidobacteria were shared with GM and non-GM carnation. Some differences were found in Actinobacteria, Verrucomicrobia and uncultured bacterium clone. [Conclusion] The results indicated that high bacterial diversity was found in these GM carnation soil bacterial libraries, and the cultivation of genetically modified carnation did not have a significant impact on the soil bacterial community structure.

  17. Overexpression of carnation S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase gene generates a broad-spectrum tolerance to abiotic stresses in transgenic tobacco plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wi, Soo Jin; Kim, Woo Taek; Park, Ky Young

    2006-10-01

    Polyamines (PAs), such as putrescine, spermidine, and spermine, are present in all living organism and implicate in a wide range of cellular physiological processes. We have used transgenic technology in an attempt to evaluate their potential for mitigating the adverse effects of several abiotic stresses in plants. Sense construct of full-length cDNA for S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (SAMDC), a key enzyme in PA biosynthesis, from carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) flower was introduced into tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Several transgenic lines overexpressing SAMDC gene under the control of cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter accumulated soluble total PAs by 2.2 (S16-S-4) to 3.1 (S16-S-1) times than wild-type plants. The transgenic tobacco did not show any difference in organ phenotype compared to the wild-type. The number and weight of seeds increased, and net photosynthetic rate also increased in transgenic plants. Stress-induced damage was attenuated in these transgenic plants, in the symptom of visible yellowing and chlorophyll degradation after all experienced stresses such as salt stress, cold stress, acidic stress, and abscisic acid treatment. H2O2-induced damage was attenuated by spermidine treatment. Transcripts for antioxidant enzymes (ascorbate peroxidase, manganase superoxide dismutase, and glutathione S-transferase) in transgenic plants and GUS activity transformed with SAMDC promoter::GUS fusion were induced more significantly by stress treatment, compared to control. These results that the transgenic plants with sense SAMDC cDNA are more tolerant to abiotic stresses than wild-type plants suggest that PAs may play an important role in contributing stress tolerance in plants.

  18. Isolation and characterization of a cDNA clone encoding an auxin influx carrier in carnation cuttings. Expression in different organs and cultivars and its relationship with cold storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveros-Valenzuela, María Del Rocío; Reyes, David; Sánchez-Bravo, José; Acosta, Manuel; Nicolás, Carlos

    2008-12-01

    Polar auxin transport (PAT) is necessary for the formation of adventitious roots in the base of leafy stem cuttings, as has been demonstrated in several studies in which the application of PAT inhibitors strongly inhibited the rooting of cuttings. However, unlike in the case of lateral roots, there is almost no information on the molecular mechanism that controls PAT in the formation of adventitious roots. A novel cDNA encoding an auxin influx carrier has been isolated and characterized from carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) cuttings. The full length of DcAUX1 was obtained and the deduced aminoacid sequence revealed a high degree of identity with the corresponding auxin carrier proteins from several species. The expression of this gene depended on the organ, the carnation cultivar and the length of time cuttings had been stored in a cold chamber. As a rule, expression was higher in stem than in leaves, in the basal than in the first internode and in mature than in young leaves irrespective of the cultivar and the duration of the storage. This pattern of expression agrees with the results of a previous study showing that auxin from mature leaves was essential for rooting, while exogenous auxin applied to mature leaves was polarly transported in the stem and accumulated in the basal internode (the rooting zone). Variations in the expression observed during storage (depending of the cultivar) might be related to the variation in PAT and rooting reported in previous studies.

  19. 香石竹斑驳病毒外壳蛋白基因的原核表达及抗血清制备%Prokaryotic Expression and Antiserum Preparation of the Coat Protein Gene of Carnation mottle virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓鹏; 王连春; 彭杰军; 姬盼; 李准; 孔宝华; 陈海如

    2013-01-01

    香石竹斑驳病毒(Carnation mottle virus,CarMV)是侵染香石竹的主要病毒.本研究从已鉴定的CarMV毒源植物中提取总RNA,克隆外壳蛋白(cp)基因后构建pET30a-CP重组质粒,并转入BL21 (DE3) pLysS进行原核表达.通过对诱导温度、初菌浓度、IPTG的浓度等表达条件进行优化,目的蛋白在37℃,IPTG终浓度为1.0 mmol/L的条件下,诱导表达6h后获得最高表达量.采用割胶的方法纯化cp蛋白,纯化后的目的蛋白免疫小鼠获得了特异性抗血清.经Western-blot检测,结果表明所制备的抗血清与诱导表达的重组蛋白及接种CarMV的香石竹样品均发生特异性结合.利用所制备抗血清对昆明地区的48个香石竹样品进行抽检,结果表明香石竹样品的带毒率为79.2%.本研究为大规模抗血清生产、检测应用和深入研究该病毒cp基因与寄主的互作奠定基础.%Carnation mottle virus (CarMV) is one of the important viruses infecting carnation. In this study, RNA was extracted from CarMV infected carnation, and coat protein (cp) gene was cloned into pET30a ( + ) and transformed into BL21 (DE3) pLysS. The optimal conditionsor the highest expres-sion of coat protein was expressing at 37℃ for 6 h and inducing with 1. 0 mmol/L IPTG. The expressed protein was purified with gradient SDS-PAGE and the antiserum against the protein was raised in Kun-ming mice. The result of Western-blot analysis confirmed that the antiserum reacted strongly and spe-cifically recombinant CarMV cp and CarMV infected samples. Forty-eight carnation samples in Kun-ming were tested with the antibody made in this experiment, of which 79. 2% of the samples were in-fected by CarMV. This study provides a good basis for massive CarMV cp antiserum preparation CarMV detection and interaction studies between CarMV and host plants.

  20. Effect of Epibrassinolide on Senescence of Cut Carnation (Dianthous caryophyllus L. ) Flowers%表油菜素内酯对香石竹切花衰老的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨芳; 陈严平

    2011-01-01

    [目的]探讨表油菜素内酯对香石竹切花瓶插期间某些生理指标的影响,为香石竹切花的保鲜提供参考.[方法]用3种浓度(0.05 mg/L、0.10 mg/L和1.00 mg/L)的表油菜素内酯处理香石竹切花,以清水处理为对照,研究表油菜素内酯对香石竹切花的花瓣含水量水分、游离脯氧酸含量、蛋白质含量、还原糖含量、SOD活性和质膜相对透性等生理特性的影响.[结果]表油菜素内酯有效缓解水分对香石竹切花的胁迫,促进切花体内水分平衡的改善和还原糖含量的增加,抑制花瓣溶质外渗和可溶性蛋白含量下降,并且延缓SOD酶活下降从而延缓切花衰老.但农度过高则无保鲜效果.[结论]3种处理中以0.10 mg/L表油菜素内酯的处理对香石竹切花的保鲜处理效果最佳.%[ Objective ] The study aimed to discuss the effect of epibrassinolide on some physiological indexes and provide the reference for fresh-keeping of cut carnation ( Dianthous caryophyllus L. ) flower. [ Method] With clear water as CK ,the cut carnation flowers were treated by different concentration of epibrassinolide (0.05,0. 10, 1.00 mg/L). We study the effect of epibrassinolide treatment on some physiological indexes such as water,contents of reducing sugar, soluble protein and proline, SOD activity and relative membrane permeability. [ Result] The epibrassinolide treatment could relieve the water stress and promote the water balance, improve the content of reducing sugar, inhibit the increased range of relative membrane permeability and the declined soluble protein content and SOD activity during the vase life. But if the concentration is too high, the treatment has little effect. [ Conclusion] Among 3 treatments, 0. 10 mg/L epibrassinolide treatment could get optimum fresh-keeping effect on cut carnation .

  1. Production of CarMV-Free Carnation Plants and Its Effects on Some Physiological Indicators%香石竹斑驳病毒(CarMV)脱除对几种生理指标的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽花; 吴学尉; 杨秀梅; 瞿素萍; 王继华; 莫锡君

    2012-01-01

    感染病毒的香石竹组培苗于(38.5±1)℃条件下热处理29 d后,切0.1~0.2 mm的茎尖生长点无菌培养成苗后,经DAS-Elisa检测获得脱除香石竹斑驳病毒(Carnation mottle virus,CarMV)的香石竹脱毒苗,取脱毒苗与非脱毒苗的叶片,测量叶绿素a、叶绿素b、类胡萝卜素、丙二醛(MDA)、干物质含量几种生理生化指标.结果表明,脱毒苗与非脱毒苗相比:(1)叶绿素和类胡萝卜素含量增加,具有较强的光合效率;(2)与抗性生理有关的MDA含量下降,衰老减缓;(3)光合物质的形成与积累增多,干物质含量增加.%The common tissue culture seedlings were cultured in heat-treatment conditions (38.5±1) °C for 29 d, then the stem-apexes were cut at 0.1-0.2 mm and cultured in sterile condition. Carnation mottle virus (CarMV)-free carnation plants were obtained which had been detected CarMV by DAS-Elisa. Leaves of CarMV-free seedlings and common seedlings were cut down and measured the contents of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, carotenoids, malondialdehyde (MDA) and dry-matter. The results showed that comparative study between CarMV-free seedlings and common seedlings: (1) chlorophyll and carotenoids content of CarMV-free seedlings increased, and the photosynthetic efficiency was high; (2) MDA content which relate to the physiological resistance of CarMV-free seedlings decreased, delaying aging; (3) formation and accumulation of photosynthates increased that could cause more dry-matter content.

  2. Localization of the Carnation Italian ringspot virus replication protein p36 to the mitochondrial outer membrane is mediated by an internal targeting signal and the TOM complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gidda Satinder K

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carnation Italian ringspot virus (CIRV is a positive-strand RNA virus that causes massive structural alterations of mitochondria in infected host cells, the most conspicuous being the formation of numerous internal vesicles/spherules that are derived from the mitochondrial outer membrane and serve as the sites for viral RNA replication. While the membrane-bound components of the CIRV replication complex, including a 36-kD RNA-binding protein (p36, are known to be essential for these changes in mitochondrial morphology and are relatively well characterized in terms of their roles in nascent viral RNA synthesis, how these proteins are specifically targeted and inserted into mitochondria is poorly defined. Results Here we report on the molecular signal responsible for sorting p36 to the mitochondrial outer membrane. Using a combination of gain-of-function assays with portions of p36 fused to reporter proteins and domain-swapping assays with p36 and another closely-related viral RNA-binding protein, p33, that sorts specifically to the peroxisomal boundary membrane, we show that the mitochondrial targeting information in p36 resides within its two transmembrane domains (TMDs and intervening hydrophilic loop sequence. Comprehensive mutational analysis of these regions in p36 revealed that the primary targeting determinants are the moderate hydrophobicity of both TMDs and the positively-charged face of an amphipathic helix within the intervening loop sequence. We show also using bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC that p36 interacts with certain components of the translocase complex in the mitochondrial outer membrane (TOM, but not with the sorting and assembly machinery (SAM. Conclusion Our results provide insight to how viruses, such as CIRV, exploit specific host-cell protein sorting pathways to facilitate their replication. The characterization of the targeting and insertion of p36 into the mitochondrial outer

  3. 香石竹斑驳病毒(CarMV)主要基因的分子变异分析%Molecular variation analysis of main genes of Carnation mottle virus (CarMV)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佟爱仔; 孔宝华; 陈海如; 王连春; 胡中会; 李晓鹏; 蔡红

    2012-01-01

    Carnation mottle virus (CarMV) is one of the important viruses infecting Carnation. In this study, three genes of p7, p9 and CP of CarMV were isolated from twelve different cultivars of Carnation by RT-PCR and their sequences of nucleotides and amino acids were analyzed. The results showed that the p7, p9 and CP genes had higher stability by sequence alignment. The identities of the nucleotide and the amino acid sequence of p7 gene were 98.10% and 97.81 % respectively. There were evident variations at the 11th and 14thof amino acid position of p7 gene. While the identities of the nucleotide and amino acid sequence of p9 gene were 98.80% and 99.13% respectively. There was clear variations at the 4 th amino acid position of p9 gene. How-ever, the identities of the nucleotide and amino acid sequence of CP gene were 97.58% and 98.43% respec-tively. There was correlative between the 164 th and 331th amino acid. Those variations of positions of CP were dispersive. The results also showed that the mutations of p7 and p9 were main located at N-terminal parts which exposed to interact with host. Those variations of positions of CarMV might relate to vial variation and interaction between the virus and host.%香石竹斑驳病毒(Carnation mottle virus,CarMV)是侵染香石竹的主要病毒之一.本试验从12个香石竹品种中获得CarMV分离物,通过RT-PCR扩增包含p7、p9、CP3个主要基因的片段,并对扩增产物进行克隆测序.通过序列比对发现CarMV的p7、p9、CP 3个基因有较高的稳定性,p7基因核苷酸序列相似性为98.10%,氨基酸序列相似性为97.81%,其中氨基酸的第11和14位存在显著差异;p9基因核苷酸序列的相似性为98.80%,氨基酸序列相似性为99.13%,氨基酸序列在第4位差异明显;CP基因核酸序列相似性为97.58%,氨基酸的相似性为98.43%,氨基酸序列的第164和331位的变异存在相关性,整个CP变异位点比较分散.证实p7和p9的变异位点

  4. 实时荧光RT-PCR方法检测香石竹环斑病毒%Detection of Carnation ringspot virus by real-time fluorescent reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔学慧; 陈舜胜; 于翠; 杨翠云

    2012-01-01

    本研究以香石竹环斑病毒(Carnation ringspot virus,CRSV)的5个分离物为研究对象,根据CRSV运动蛋白(MP)基因的保守序列设计一对特异性引物和TaqMan荧光探针,建立了检测CRSV的实时荧光RT-PCR(real-time fluorescem RTPCR)方法.该方法利用TaqMan探针水解产生的荧光信号实时监测目标基因的扩增,实现real-time fluorescent PCR扩增和检测同步进行.结果表明,本研究建立的实时荧光RT-PCR方法具有更快速、灵敏和特异的优点,与普通RT-PCR方法相比其灵敏度提高了100倍,适合于对进境种苗携带的CRSV的快速检测.%In this study, a pair of specific primers and a TaqMan probe were designed according to the conserved movement protein (MP) gene sequences of Carnation ringspot virus (CRSV), and a real-time fluorescent PCR method was applied for detection of CRSV. This method used the fluorescent signal generated from the hydrolysis of TaqMan probe to real-time monitor amplification of the target gene. It realized synchronization between real-time fluorescent RT-PCR amplification and detection. The results showed that the method was better than others in efficiency and specificity, and 100 times more sensitive than common RT-PCR. This method had potential to be applied in rapid detection of CRSV in incoming seedlings.

  5. Development of a Few of PCR Methods for Detecting Carnation Ringspot Virus%香石竹环斑病毒多种PCR检测方法的建立与评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔学慧; 陈舜胜; 于子翔; 于翠; 杨翠云

    2012-01-01

    以香石竹环斑病毒(Carnation ringspot virus,CRSV)的5个分离物为研究对象,分别建立了快速检测香石竹环斑病毒的多种PCR方法.结果表明,这些方法的灵敏度都比DAS-ELISA的灵敏度高,其中SYBR Green RT-PCR的灵敏度最高,可检测CRSVRNA的最低量是6.4pg.免疫磁珠RT-PCR (IMS-RT- PCR)和普通RT-PCR最低可从400 ng的带毒叶片中检出CRSV,而免疫捕获RT-PCR (IC-RT-PCR)最低灵敏度可从40 ng的带毒叶片中检出CRSV,是普通RT-PCR的10倍.%A few of PCR methods were established for the detecting 5 isolated strains of Carnation ringspot virus (CRSV). The results showed that the sensitivities of all the PCR methods were higher than those of DAS-ELISA,and among these methods, the SYBR Green RT-PCR was most sensitive with a minimum detectable limit of 6. 4 pg RNA of CRSV in sample. The minimum detectable quantity of sample for CRSV detection needed by IMS-RT-PCR and RT-PCR were 400 ng,but IC-RT-PCR only needed 40 ng of sample and the minimum sensitivity of IC-RT-PCR is the normal RT-PCR of 10 times.

  6. Distribution of microbes and their hereditary diversity in the rhizosphere of carnation in greenhouse%香石竹设施栽培根际土壤微生物区系的16S rRNA系统遗传多样性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高旭红; 何松涛; 官会林; 唐蜀昆; 李文均; 陈晓波

    2011-01-01

    [目的]针对香石竹设施栽培土传病害的生物防治技术研究,探讨其根际土壤微生物与枯萎病害的关联性.[方法]采集香石竹健康植株与枯萎病植株根际土壤,采用不同培养基进行分离、纯化,并对分离菌株提取基因组DNA,用其16S rRNA序列的通用引物进行PCR扩增,进行blast同源分析.[结果]从采集样品中分离出的菌株分布于细菌域(Bacteria)中的4个门(Phyla)共15个属(Genera),其中从健康植株组土壤中培养出 65株菌,分布于9个属,并以芽孢杆菌(Bacillus)、链霉菌(Streptomyces)及孢霉菌(Mortierella)为优势菌群;而枯萎病株组土样共培养出33株菌,分布于12个属,并且寡养单胞菌(Stenotrophomonas)、鞘氨醇杆菌(Sphingobacterium)、假单胞菌(Pseudomonas)、金黄杆菌(Chryseobacterium)、拟无枝菌酸菌(Amycolatopsis)及尖镰孢病原菌(Fusarium oxysporum)属的分离菌株仅从病株组土壤中分离到;分离菌株同源性在90%-98%的潜存新种(potential novel species)有13株.[结论]研究结果表明,根际土壤中真菌数与总菌数的百分比或Bacillus类群多样性的丰度,可作为评价区域香石竹种植土壤健康状况、栽培土壤演变及病害防治预测预报的参考指标.%[Objective]To investigate the relationship between microbial community and the blight diseases in rhizosphere of carnation for biological control.[Methods]Bacterial strains isolated from the rhizosphere of healthy and blight carnation plants in greenhouse were replicated by morphology and 16S rRNA gene similarity, and investigated by using phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence alignments.[Results]Isolates belonged to 4 phyla of bacteria, 65 isolates from the samples of healthy carnation plants belonged to 9 genera and Bacillus, Streptomyces, Mortierella were the dominant bacteria.However, 33 isolates from the samples of blight carnation plants belonged to 12 genera and Stenotrophomonas, Sphingobacterium

  7. Effects of Epibrassinolide on Active Oxygen Metabolism of Cut Carnation (Dianthous caryophyllus L. ) Flowers%表油菜素内酯对香石竹切花活性氧代谢的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨芳

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective ] The study aimed to discuss the effect of epibrassinolide on active oxygen metabolism and provide the reference for fresh-keeping of cut carnation (Dianthous caryophyllus L. ) flower. [ Method ] With clear water as CK, the cut flowers were treated by epibrassinolide and active oxygen scavengers (mannitol). We study the effect of two different treatments on some physiological indexes of active oxygen metabolism. [ Result] The results showed that the level of active oxygen metabolism during the senescence of cut carnation flower was high. The effects of epibrassinolide treatment were better than them of the mannitol treatment. It could inhibit the increased range of relative membrane permeability, MDA and H2O2 content, the rate of, promote the increasing SOD activity and CAT activity during the vase life.[ Conclusion ] The epibrassinolide treatment could inhibit the composition and accumulation of active oxygen, promote the ability of eliminating active oxygen so that it could prolong the vase life.%[目的]探讨表油莱素内酯对香石竹切花活性氧代谢的影响,为香石竹切花保鲜提供参考.[方法]用表油菜素内酯和活性氧清除剂甘露醇处理切花,以清水为对照,比较其对香石竹切花活性氧代谢的影响.[结果]与甘露醇相比,表油菜素内酯能有效地增大花径,提高超氧化物酶、过氧化氮酶活性,延缓O2-·产生速率,H2O2含量、MDA含量和膜相对透性上升的幅度.[结论]表油菜素内酯能有效缓解切花活性氧的产生与积累,提高活性氧清除能力,从而延长瓶播寿命.

  8. 缓释肥料对康乃馨产量、养分利用率影响及环保效应%Effects of Slow Release Fertilizer on the Yield and Nutrient Use Efficiency of Carnation and Its Environmental Protection Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜彩艳; 段宗颜; 胡万里; 陈拾华

    2011-01-01

    [目的]研究施用缓释肥料对康乃馨产量、经济效益养分利用率和环境污染的影响.[方法]以康乃馨(Dianthus caryophyllus)为研究对象,采用田间小区试验探讨了缓释肥料在康乃馨上的施用效果与环保效应.[结果]施用缓释肥料可改善康乃馨主要的农艺性状;与Conv-F相比,缓释肥处理增加康乃馨产量达8.67%~20.83%,经济效益增加10.55万元/hm2,产投比提高达74.29%;在等NPK比例和等养分量条件下,缓释肥处理增加康乃馨产量达2.11%,经济效益增加1.48万元/hm2,产投比提高达16.2%;施用缓释肥料有效提高了康乃馨当季养分利用率,其中Opt-F-0.7%的氮、磷和钾当季养分利用率较Conv-F处理分别提高了13.88、8.57和30.14个百分点.[结论]缓释肥不但显著减少肥料资源的浪费,提高肥料利用率,而且减少了肥料养分流失造成的污染,对保护生态环境的保护和促进农业的可持续发展具有重要的现实意义.%[Objective]The aim was to study the effects of slow release fertilizer on the yield, economic benefit and nutrient use efficiency of car nation and environmental pollution.[Method]Taking carnation ( Dianthus caryophyllus) as research object, the application effect and environmental protection effect of slowrelease fertilizer on carnation were discussed through field plot test.[Result]The main agronomic characters of carnation improved after the application of slow release fertilizer; compared with Conv-F treatment, the yield of carnation with slow release fertilizer increased by 18.67% -20.83%, and its economic benefit increased by 105 500 yuan/hm2, while the ratio of output to input improved by 74.29%; under the same NPK ratio and nutrient amount, the yield, economic benefit and ratio of output to input of carnation after the application of slow release fertilizer increased by 2.11%, 14 800 yuan and 16.2%, respectively; besides, the application of slow release fertilizer improved

  9. Dynamic Analysis of Carnation Rhizosphere Microbial Taxa Under Three States in Facility Cultivation%设施栽培下香石竹不同植株状态根际土壤微生物类群变化分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙世中; 官会林; 张云峰; 洪丽芳; 郭云周; 游春梅

    2011-01-01

    研究了云南香石竹不同生产基地的健康植株、始发病植株及枯死病植株的根际土壤微生物类群及其比值关系.结果表明:香石竹从健康向发病至枯死的变化过程.根际土壤细菌随着植株病害的加重而降低,而真菌、放线菌的变化则随着植株病害的加重而增加;根际土壤细菌与真菌比值(B/F)、细菌与放线菌比值(B/A)及好氧性细菌与厌氧性细菌的比值(Ae/An),可以作为评价香石竹栽培土壤健康状况及病害防治预报的参考指标.若B/F及B/A比值小于健康土壤数值,或Ae/An比值大于健康土壤数值,则预警该区域香石竹种植土壤存在发病的危险性.%Carnation rhizosphere microbial taxa and their ratios were conducted under the healthy, incident and dead states from facility cultivation base. The results showed that from healthy to incident and to dead states the total bacteria decreased while the total fungi and the total actinomycetes increased; The ratio of bactieria and fungi (B/F), ratio of bacteria and actiomycetes (B/A) and ratio of aerobes and anaerobes (Ae/An) could be used as the health index for carnation cultivation, disease prevention and control prediction; If rhizospbere B/F and B/A were lower than, or Ae/An higher than those of healthy carnation, the risk of wilt disease would occur to carnation.

  10. 香石竹斑驳病毒云南分离物全基因组序列测定和侵染性克隆构建%Sequence and construction of infectious cDNA clones of Carnation mottle virus isolate in Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王连春; 彭杰军; 郭维霞; 李晓鹏; 孔宝华; 陈海如

    2012-01-01

    香石竹斑驳病毒(Carnation mottle virus,CarMV)是危害香石竹的一种重要病毒,本研究通过构建农杆菌介导的CarMV侵染性克隆来进一步研究该病毒基因功能.首先获得CarMV云南分离物全长序列,与报道的上海分离物相似性达到94.78%;将CarMV全长cDNA基因序列构建到具有35S启动子的双元表达载体pCV-nGFP,通过农杆菌浸润到本氏烟中瞬时表达,本氏烟系统叶片RT-PCR能检测到CarMV.试验结果表明,本研究构建Car-MV侵染性克隆通过农杆菌介导可快速高效侵染植物,可以用于病毒基因功能研究;同时CarMV云南分离物全长序列测定结果表明其属于p164 K331组群.%Carnation mottle virus was a serious constraint to carnation. The objective of this study is to generate the Agrobacterium tumefacien-mediated infectious cDNA clones of Carnation mottle virus to study the gene function of the virus. Firstly, we got full cDNA sequences of CarMV from Yunnan Province, the nucleic acid similarity of which with Shanghai isolate was 94. 78%. The full-length cDNAs of CarMV were inserted into pCV-nGFP with a 35S promoter. They were then introduced into A. tumefacien, and infiltrated into Nicotiana benthami-ana . RT-PCR detection of systemic leaves of N. benthamiana showed that they were infected with CarMV. The result suggested that the Agrobacterium -mediated infection of N. benthamiana by the infectious cDNA clones of CarMV was successful and efficient, and it could be used to study the gene of virus. The full-length sequences of CarMV which isolated from Yunnan belonged to the group P164 K331.

  11. 干燥时间·介质及蔗糖浓度对康乃馨干花品质的影响%Effect of Drying Time and Medium as well as Sucrose Concentration on the Quality of Carnation Dried Flowers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玲玲; 夏晶晖

    2011-01-01

    [目的]研究介质等因素对康乃馨干燥的效果.[方法]采用2种不同介质即河沙、食盐包埋的干燥方法,测定康乃馨干燥后的失水率、重量变化、感观分值等指标.[结果]从河沙、食盐包埋干燥处理康乃馨花朵鲜重变化和方差分析来看,24 h是最佳烘烤时间.不同浓度蔗糖浸泡康乃馨干燥处理后失水率和感观评价得出,30%浓度蔗糖浸花朵后河沙包埋烘烤24 h的效果最好.[结论]30%浓度蔗糖溶液浸泡后,用河沙包埋烘烤24 h能够作为康乃馨干燥花制作的一种方法.%[ Objective ] The aim was to research the effect of medium on the drying of carnation. [ Method ] Drying methods of two different mediums, namely, salt and river sands, were adopted to determine the water loss rate, change of weight and sensory scores, etc. after the drying of carnation. [ Result ] From the change and variance analysis of carnation flowers fresh weight, it indicated the best baking time was 24 h. Through the water loss rate and sensory evaluation after soaking and drying treatment by different cane sugar concentration, it indicated that after soaking in 30% of sucrose solution, the best effect was baked in sand-burying treatment for 24 h. [ Conclusion ] After soaking in 30% of sucrose solution, a good method for the drying of carnation was baked in sand-burying treatment for 24 h.

  12. Principal Component Analysis of Soil Soluble Salt Contents of Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) Facilities Cultivation%香石竹设施栽培土壤可溶性盐分主成分分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    官会林; 孙世中; 郭云周; 杨泮川; 洪丽芳

    2011-01-01

    In order to understand soil salt damage prevention and control technique for carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) facilities cultivation, principal component analysis (PCA) of soil soluble salt contents was taken. The results showed that soil soluble salts could be divided into principal component 1 (SO42-, NO-3, Ca2+, Cl+, K+) and principal component 2 (CO2-3, HCO-3). SO2-4, NO-3 and Ca2+ in principal component 1 showed higher degree of cubic model plot fit (R2 =0.850 **), and showed different degrees of positive correlation with soil EC value. Soil EC value was significantly positively correlated (r = 0.99 ") with soil total salt content and was near linear relationship (linear model R2 = 0.976 **, R2 of cubic model = 0.984 **). Soil EC values could be used as an effective indicator to indicate soil salinization and the changes of soil soluble salts, especially SO2-4, NO-3" and Ca2+, thus salt damage prevention and treatment should focus on SO2-4, NO-3 and Ca2+. This study is of important in guiding the management and sustainable use of carnation facilities cultivation soil.%为探索香石竹设施栽培土壤盐害的防治方法与技术途径,对香石竹设施栽培土壤可溶性盐分进行了主成分分析.结果表明:土壤中可溶性盐分可分为主成分1(SO42-、NO-3、Ca2+、Cl-、K+)和主成分2 (CO32-、HCO3-)两个成分,主成分1中SO42-、NO3-、Ca2+与土壤EC值三次模型拟合度较高(R2>0.850**),并与土壤EC值呈不同强度的正相关性;土壤EC值与全盐量呈强正相关性(r=0.99**),并接近线性关系(线性模型R2=0.976**,三次模型R2=0.984**);土壤EC值可作为一个有效指标,反映土壤盐渍化及土壤可溶性盐分,特别是反映SO42-、NO-3、Ca2+的变动情况,盐害防治重点在于SO42-、NO3-、Ca2+.研究对指导香石竹设施栽培土壤管理与持续利用具有重要意义.

  13. Influence of different organic acids on the preservation effect of carnation cut flowers%不同有机酸对香石竹切花保鲜效果的影响试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘柳姣; 吴玉华; 黄虹心; 王彤

    2013-01-01

    Three preservative solutions of 2%sucrose+50 mg/L salicylic acid, 2%sucrose+50 mg/L sorbic acid+50 mg/L benzoic acid, 2%sucrose+100 mg/L sorbic acid were used for the fresh-keeping of fresh carnation cut flowers. The results showed that the three treatments can increase the flower fresh weight, promote the blossom, increase the leaf chlorophyll content and protein content of petals, prolong the life of the flowers, and enhance the ornamental value. The preservative solution containing 50 mg/L benzoic acid and 50 mg/L sorbic acid is better than that only containing salicylic acid or sorbic acid.%以2%蔗糖溶液为对照,在对照中分别加入50 mg/L水杨酸、50 mg/L苯甲酸+50 mg/L山梨酸和100 mg/L山梨酸的保鲜液保鲜香石竹鲜切花。结果表明,这3个处理都能增加花朵鲜重,促进花朵开放,增加叶片叶绿素和花瓣蛋白质含量,延长花朵寿命,提高观赏价值。含有50 mg/L苯甲酸+50 mg/L山梨酸保鲜液比单独使用水杨酸和山梨酸效果好。

  14. The application and effect of the carnation nursing service in general surgery ward%开展康乃馨护理服务岗在普外科病房的实施及效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秀芳; 吴丹

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨“康乃馨护理服务岗”在外科病房的应用及体会,旨在推广、延伸优质护理服务,为患者提供更好的护理服务,进而提高患者的满意度,改善紧张不和谐的医患关系,树立科室的服务品牌。方法2012年4月本科开展实施“康乃馨护理服务岗”活动,对2012年4月~2013年4月入住本科的900例患者提供康乃馨优质护理服务:迎来送往、人文关怀;嘘寒问暖、健康指导;及时疏导、充分“话聊”;即时反馈、查漏补缺;分析开展康乃馨护理服务岗前与实施后一年的服务效果。结果“康乃馨护理服务岗”实施后患者住院满意度高于实施前(实施后为98.35%,实施前为93.88%,χ2=23.782,P<0.01),护理质量均分高于实施前(实施后为98.37分,实施前为94.23分, t=3.715,P<0.05),最满意护士提名增多;不良事件发生率低于实施前(实施后为0.22%,实施前为1.33%,χ2=7.199,P<0.01)。结论开展“康乃馨护理服务岗”促进医患、护患、医护的合作,为患者营造了温馨、和谐、安全的就医环境,改善了患者就医体验,护理工作得到患者和家属的肯定,护理质量提高,科室服务品牌效应得以呈现。%Objective To discuss the application and experience of carnation nursing service to general surgery ward and provide better nursing servile for patients, and set up the department service brand. Methods From April 2012 to April 2013, 900 patients in our hospital accepted the carnation nursing service. And We compared the patients' satisfaction and the quality of service with these indi-cators before this service conducted, and the incidence of adverse event before and after it conclucted were also analyzed. Results Af-ter the service conducted, patients' satisfaction (after:98.35%,before:93.88%,χ2=23.782,P<0.01)and nursing quality score (after:98.37, before:94.23,t=3.715,P<0.05)in better than

  15. Crecimiento en clavel estándar cv. Nelson, en suelo y en sustratos Crescimento de cravo estandar cv. Nelson, em solo e em substratos Growth of standard carnation cv. Nelson, in soil and substrates

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    Adriana Del Pilar Baracaldo Argüello

    2010-01-01

    colheita. No SENA - Centro Multisetorial de Mosquera, plantas de cravo foram submetidas aos seguintes tratamentos: 100% de casca de arroz queimada; 65% casca de arroz queimada - 35% fibra de coco; 35% casca de arroz queimada - 65% fibra de coco, e solo. Em amostragens contínuas foram avaliadas as variáveis número de folhas, comprimento, diâmetro e número de nós do caule, e diâmetro e comprimento do botão floral e se ajustaram curvas de crescimento. Em plantas cultivadas em solo observou-se maior número de hastes. Nese tratamento também ocorreu maior número de nós e de folhas nas hastes florais, que no entanto, foram mais curtas. Além disso, notaram-se menor diâmetro de caule e menor comprimento e diâmetro do botão floral, características determinantes da qualidade. Portanto, a produção de hastes exportáveis do tipo "select" foi significativamente inferior no cultivo em solo, em comparação com os demais tratamentos.The production of carnation cut flowers in the Bogotá plateau has been important in the last decades, bringing them to second place in the total of Colombian cut flowers exports. Recently, due to pathogenic diseases, this crop is grown using soil-less techniques, particularly on organic substrates. For this reason, it is important to investigate the growth of carnation plants in such conditions. The aim of this research was to evaluate the growth of standard carnation cv. Nelson grown both in soil and substrates, in the second harvest peak of production. For that purpose, in the SENA - Multisectorial Center of the municipality of Mosquera, rooted cuttings were transplanted into the following substrates and mixes: 100% burnt rice husk; 65% burnt rice husk-35% coconut fiber; 35% burnt rice husk-65% coconut fiber and soil, reflecting the treatments to be analyzed. Through continuous sampling, the variables leaves number, length and diameter of flowering stem, nodes number, and length and diameter of floral bud were evaluated. The data were

  16. 昆明麝香石竹斑驳病毒分离物的鉴定与提纯及高效价抗血清的制备%Identification,purification and high efficiency antiserum preparation of carnation mottle virus in Kunming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李婷婷; 方琦; 丁铭; 苏晓霞; 张丽珍; 张仲凯

    2008-01-01

    对引起云南鲜切花麝香石竹植株叶斑驳、花朵变小的病毒分离物应用酶联免疫吸附测定(ELISA)和电子显微镜技术(IEM)检测,直径大约28 nm.经TAS-ELISA测定仅与CsrMV标准抗体反应为阳性.鉴定为麝香石竹斑驳病毒(Carnation mottle vi-rus,CarMV)的分离株.对病株检测筛选后进行分离纯化,将提纯后的CarMV制备兔抗血清获得高效价的抗体,间接ELISA测定为1:10240.

  17. Research on Application Effect of Controlled-Release Fertilizer and Traditional Fertilizer on Carnation in Yinchuan City%控释肥与常规化肥在银川市康乃馨上的应用效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卜燕燕

    2016-01-01

    The effects of controlled-release fertilizer and traditional fertilizer on carnation showed that the effect of controlled-release fertilizer was better than traditional fertilizer.Using controlled-release fertilizer could reduce the number of fertilizer,labor and the labor intensity,increase the ratio of outputs to inputs objectively.%选用控释肥和常规化肥种植康乃馨,结果表明:控释肥的效果优于常规化肥。控释肥减少了追肥、用工的次数,降低了劳动强度,客观上增大了产投比。

  18. Cloning and Characterization of Aquaporin Gene DcPIP2 in Cut Carnations%香石竹切花水孔蛋白基因DcPIP2的克隆及特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红梅; 丁岳炼; 黄新敏; 林燕飞; 邹洁云; 何生根

    2011-01-01

    A PIP(plasma membrane intrinsic protein)aquaporins(AQP)gene,designated as DcPIP2 (GenBank accession number GU989036),was cloned from carnation(Dianthus caryophyllus‘Master’) leaves by RT-PCR and RACE. The full cDNA sequence of DcPIP2 is 983 bp,containing an open reading frame(858 bp)and encoding a protein of 285 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 30.6 kD. The DcPIP2 genomic DNA(2 635 bp)(GenBank accession number JF706350),corresponding to the DcPIP2 cDNA,was further cloned,which contains three exons and two introns in its coding sequence. The sequence analysis showed that the homology of amino acid sequences between DcPIP2 and Gossypium hirsutum PIP2;3(ACB42440),Jatropha curcas AQP(ABM54183),and Hevea brasiliensis PIP2(ACV66986)was 89%,88% and 87%,respectively. The expression of DcPIP2 in different organs of cut carnation flowers was determined by real-time quantitative PCR,it was found that DcPIP2 gene wasexpressed in leaves,stem necks,petals,pistils,stamina and sepals. The highest expression level of DcPIP2 was detected in pistils,followed by petals,while moderate expression level was present in stamina and stem necks,and the lowest level was in leaves.%采用RT-PCR和RACE技术从香石竹(Dianthus caryophyllus L.)叶片中获得质膜内在蛋白(plasma membrane intrinsic protein,PIP)类水孔蛋白(aquaporins,AQP)基因的cDNA全长序列,命名为DcPIP2,GenBank登录号为GU989036。该cDNA全序列长983bp,包含有858bp的完整阅读框(ORF),编码285个氨基酸,分子量约为30.6kD。克隆相应的DcPIP2基因组全长序列得知,该基因长2635bp(GenBank登录号为JF706350),包含由3个外显子和2个内含子组成的编码区序列。同源性分析显示,DcPIP2氨基酸序列与陆地棉(Gossypium hirsutum)PIP2;3(ACB42440)、麻疯树(Jatropha curcas)AQP(ABM54183)和巴西橡胶树(Hevea brasiliensis)PIP2(ACV66986)氨

  19. Tratamento de matrizes de cravo (Dianthus caryophyllus L., Caryophyllaceae com nitrogênio e calogênese in vitro Nitrogen treatment of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus l., Caryophyllaceae and in vitro calogenesis

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    Telma Kazumi Hayashi

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Indução de calogênese eficiente e multiplicação celular rápida são pré-requisitos fundamentais em biotecnologia de plantas. Sucesso na calogênese é dependente dos componentes do meio de cultura e da qualidade dos explantes. Neste trabalho é relatada a influência do tratamento de matrizes de Dianthus caryophyllus L. com nitrogênio na indução de calogênese in vitro. Mudas de cravo cultivadas em vasos contendo areia foram tratadas com soluções nutritivas contendo 5 níveis de nitrogênio. Explantes folha, entrenós e nó foram coletados aos 30, 45 e 60 dias após início dos tratamentos e inoculados em meio de cultura contendo os sais básicos e vitaminas de Murashige & Skoog (1962, suplementado com 1 g L-1 de caseína hidrolizada, 2 mimol L-1 de cinetina e 3 mimol L-1 de 2,4-D para indução da calogênese. Ao longo dos 60 dias de tratamento com as soluções nutritivas, as matrizes de cravo não apresentaram sintomas visíveis de deficiência ou de excesso do nutriente nitrogênio. O tratamento com nitrogênio afetou a calogênese avaliada em massa de matéria fresca e seca. A produção da massa de matéria fresca de calos foi proporcional ao tratamento com nitrogênio até concentração de 267 mg L-1 para explantes folha por durante 30 dias. Tratamentos mais prolongados (45 e 60 dias afetaram negativamente a calogênese e foram inversamente proporcionais a concentração de nitrogênio na solução nutritiva.Efficient calogenesis induction and rapid cell multiplication are fundamental requirements in plant biotechnology. The success of calogenesis is dependent on the growth medium components and the quality of explants. This work is referred to the influence of Dianthus caryophyllus L. nitrogen treatment on calogenesis induction in vitro. Carnation cuts rooted in sand pots were treated with nutrient solutions containing 5 nitrogen levels. Leaves, internodes and node explants were collected and inoculated on callus induction

  20. Effect of acyclovir combined with narrow-band ultraviolet-B radiation and Carnation 33 NM-B in treating immunocompromised host with herpes zoster%阿昔洛韦联合高能红光和窄谱中波紫外线治疗免疫功能下降带状疱疹患者的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈胜平; 陈锦华; 陈向齐; 吴洁; 牛高祥

    2013-01-01

      Objective To compare the effect of acyclovir combined with narrow-band ultraviolet-B radiation (NB-UVB) and Carnation 33 NM-B with that of acyclovir in the treatment of herpes zoster in immunocompromised patients. Methods Sixty-four immunocompromised patients with herpes zoster were divided into two groups, test group and control group randomly. The test group was treated with acyclovir combined with NB-UVB and the Carnation 33 NM-B;while the control group was treated with acyclovir. The efficacy was observed 14 days after treatment and the follow-up had been carried out for more than 1 months. Results The effective rate was 90.63%in the test group versus 68.75%in the control group (P=0.011). The effect of test group on vesicular scab, subside, pain relief and pain complete remission time was superior to that of the control group (P0.05). Conclusion The treatment with acyclovir combined with NB-UVB and the Carnation 33 NM-B is superior to acyclovir in immunocompromised patients with herpes zoster.%  目的比较阿昔洛韦联合高能红光和窄谱中波紫外线与单用阿昔洛韦治疗免疫功能下降带状疱疹患者的疗效,寻求一种更好的治疗方法。方法64例免疫功能下降带状疱疹患者随机分为试验组和对照组。试验组采用阿昔洛韦静脉滴注联合高能红光照射支配皮损区域的神经根体表投射部位和窄谱中波紫外线照射皮损局部,对照组单独静脉滴注阿昔洛韦,疗程均为14 d,随访1个月。结果试验组有效率为90.63%,高于对照组(68.75%)(P=0.011);试验组开始结痂时间、结痂脱落时间、疼痛开始缓解时间、疼痛基本缓解时间均低于对照组(P<0.001)。两组患者止疱时间、后遗神经痛发生率比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论阿昔洛韦联合高能红光和窄谱中波紫外线治疗免疫功能下降并发带状疱疹患者的疗效优于单用阿昔洛韦者。

  1. Effect of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Management on Carnation Yield and N, P Content of Underground Water in Dianchi Watershed%氮磷减施对滇池周边香石竹产量、地下水氮磷含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付利波; 苏帆; 尹梅; 陈华; 陈检锋; 洪丽芳; 赵光顺; 王家得

    2013-01-01

    The reduction trial of N and P loss for carnation planting soil was conducted to study the effect of N and P management for 3 carnation varieties on yield, economic benefits, and N and P variation in plant, soil and underground water in Dianchi watershed, Jining county. The results showed that higher yield and lower electrical conductivity of soil and total N and total P and soluble P in underground water could be obtained by reducing the rate of nitrogen or phosphorus application on base of farmers practice. But the highest yield and the lowest emission amount of nitrogen or phosphorus can be obtained by the treatment with reducing 50 % nitrogen and phosphorus application (N 641 kg/ hm2, P2 O5 630 kg/hm2 and K2 O 1199 kg/hm2 , N: P2 O5: K2O = 1:1:1.87) in three varieties. Based on cultivars difference in yields, economic benefit, N efficiency and environmental benefit, Huoyan was the best, but Mast was the worst.%以滇池周边主要农业生产区晋宁县香石竹(Diarthus caryophyllus)3个主栽品种为研究对象,以氮、磷减施为目标,研究养分精准管理对植株、土壤和地下水氮、磷含量的影响,进行N、P高效利用的污染防控型品种筛选,提出环境友好型养分最佳用量和配比.结果表明,在钾用量不变的情况下,适当降低氮磷用量能增加香石竹产量,减少水环境污染,尤以氮磷用量同时降低50%处理,即N、P2O5 、K2O用量分别为641、630和1199 kg/hm2,施用比例为1∶1∶1.87时产量最高,经济效益最好,土壤电导率、地下水总氮、水溶性总磷、总磷含量最低;3个品种进行比较,火焰N、P利用率、污染防控效果最好,红色恋人其次,马斯特最差.

  2. Polyphenoloxidase and β-1,3-Glucanase Differential Induction in Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus Infected by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi race 2 Inducción diferencial de polifenoloxidasa y β -1,3-glucanasa en clavel (Dianthus caryophyllus durante la infección por fusarium oxysporum f. Sp. Dianthi raza 2

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    Ardila Harold

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the changes on the dynamics of polyphenoloxidase (PFO and β-1,3- glucanase (Glu enzymes in carnation steems, which had been previously inoculatedwith the pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi race 2 (Fod. We established the experimental conditions in order to obtain the extract of the enzymes from the carnation steems with the aim to evaluate their enzymatic activity. The best results for PFO were obtained when acetone powder formation, before the extraction with phosphate buffer pH 6,5 aditionated with 3% PVPP, was used, and for Glu, phosphate buffer pH 6.5. The PFO activity quantification was done using catecol at pH 7.0, 37 ºC and measuring the products on 420 nm and, for Glu activity using "laminarina digitata" at 37 ºC and pH 5.5. Then, carnation's cutting from a highly tolerant variety (Carolina and a susceptible (Uconn to Fod race 2, were inoculated with the pathogen, then submitted to the enzymes analysis at different post-inoculation time-lapses. For the susceptible variety, the PFO activity was not affected, whereas in the highly illness
    resistant variety, there was an important inducement 12 h and 24 h post-inoculation, meaning that this enzyme could be playing a significant rol in the defense response, in metabolisms related with the lignification and synthesis of phenolic precursors. Alternatively, the Glu enzyme showed activity inducement in both varieties which seems to comprise a fraction of a non-specific response, uncorrelated with the active defense mechanisms of the carnation against this pathogen.Se evaluó el cambio en el comportamiento de las enzimas polifenoloxidasa (PFO y b-1,3-glucanasa (Glu en tallos de plantas de clavel inoculadas con el patógeno Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi (Fod raza 2, con el fin de determinar su posible participación en la respuesta defensiva y en la resistencia de la planta al  marchitamiento vascular. Se evaluaron parámetros para la extracción y determinaci

  3. INDUCCIÓN DIFERENCIAL DE POLIFENOLOXIDASA Y beta-1,3-GLUCANASA EN CLAVEL (Dianthus caryophyllus DURANTE LA INFECCIÓN POR Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi RAZA 2 Polyphenoloxidase and beta-1,3-Glucanase Differential Induction in Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus Infectedby Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi race 2

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    BLANCA LIGIA HIGUERA

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el cambio en el comportamiento de las enzimas polifenoloxidasa (PFO y beta-1,3-glucanasa (Glu en tallos de plantas de clavel inoculadas con el patógeno Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi (Fod raza 2, con el fin de determinar su posible participación en la respuesta defensiva y en la resistencia de la planta al marchitamiento vascular. Se evaluaron parámetros para la extracción y determinación de actividad de dichas enzimas. Las condiciones que proporcionaron los mejores resultados de extracción fueron: obtención de polvos de acetona previa al tratamiento con buffer de fosfatos pH 6,5 con 3% de PVPP para PFO y con buffer de fosfatos pH 6,5 para Glu. La cuantificación de PFO se llevó a cabo usando catecol a pH 7,0 y 37 ºC y midiendo los productos de reacción a 420 nm, y la de Glu usando laminarina digitata a 37 ºC y pH 5,5. Una vez establecidos los métodos, esquejes de clavel de una variedad altamente tolerante (Carolina y de una susceptible (Uconn fueron inoculados con el patógeno y sometidos al análisis de las enzimas a diferentes tiempos post-inoculación. Mientras que en la variedad susceptible la actividad PFO no se vio afectada, en la tolerante se presentó una importante y significativa inducción de esta enzima a las 12 h y 24 h, indicando que puede desempeñar un papel clave en la defensa de la planta, en fenómenos metabólicos probablemente relacionados con lignificación y síntesis de fenólicos. La enzima Glu presentó inducción en ambas variedades, aunque a diferentes tiempos, lo cual hace parte de una respuesta metabólica inespecífica, no relacionada con mecanismos de defensa activa del clavel contra el patógeno causal del marchitamiento vascular.We evaluated the changes on the dynamics of polyphenoloxidase (PFO and beta-1,3-glucanase (Glu enzymes in carnation steems, which had been previously inoculated with the pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi race 2 (Fod. We established the experimental

  4. Cosecha temprana, apertura forzada y vida en el vaso de flores de cuatro variedades de clavel (Dianthus cariophyllus L., en invierno y en verano Early harvest, forced flower opening and vase life of four varieties of carnation (Dianthus cariophyllus L. in winter and summer

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    A. de. L. Avila

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la cosecha temprana y la apertura forzada de pimpollos con sacarosa, en invierno y en verano, en flores de 4 variedades de clavel (Moresco, Mabel, Nov y Golden Odino. Las flores fueron cosechadas en cinco estados de desarrollo, desde botón cerrado hasta flor abierta (estados 0 al 4, hidratadas en frío (2 ºC con una solución de tiosulfato de plata (0,1 M durante 24 horas y luego transfe ridas a una solución de ácido cítrico (500 mg l-1 y citrato de hydroxyquinoleina (60 mg l-1; la solución de apertura contenía, además, 100 g l-1 de sacarosa. Cuando se completó la apertura de la flor se evaluó tamaño, intensidad de color y vida en el vaso. El tamaño de la flor fue similar en invierno y verano en las varie dades Moresco, Golden Odino y Nov, sin embargo, en todas las variedades la vida en el vaso fue menor en verano. El agregado de sacarosa mejoró la aper tura, el tamaño de las flores e intensificó los colores en todas las variedades y estados de corte. La mayor calidad se logró combinando el agregado de saca rosa y la cosecha en estado 0 -1 en verano y 2 -3 en invierno.Early harvest and forced flower opening with sucrose addition in the preservative solution effects were evaluated during winter and summer, in Moresco, Mabel, Nov and Golden Odino carnation varieties. The flowers were harvested at five dif ferent stages of development: from tight flower buds to open flowers (state 0 to 4. Immediately, these were hydrated during 24 h using a silver thiosulfate solution (0,1 M at 2 ºC. Then, the flowers were treated with a preservative solution containing citric acid (500 mg l-1 and hydroxyquinoline citrate (60 mg l-1, with and without sucrose (100 g l-1. Petal color, vase life and flower size were evaluated when the full open flower stage was obtained. The flower size was similar during winter and summer in Moresco, Nov and Golden Odino, but the vase life was significantly reduced in the summer. The sucrose addition

  5. Isolation and Characterization of a Polyphenoloxidase Related with Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus Resistence to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi raza 2 Aislamiento y caracterización de una polifenoloxidasa relacionada con la tolerancia del clavel (Dianthus caryophyllus a Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi raza 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roquesa Mayorga Viana

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenoloxidase (PPO was isolated and purified from stems of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L after the inoculation with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi race 2 (FOD2 of a tolerant variety. Purification was performed using column chromatography of ionic exchange, hydrophobic interaction and molecular exclusion. With these successive steps, a factor of 314 fold purification was achieved. The SDS-PAGE analysis
    showed one band of 40 kDa. The purified enzyme was partially characterized using cathecol as substrate and determined the optimal temperature as 45ºC and 7.5 as optimal pH. The enzyme showed a Michaelis-Menten kinetic with Km of 249 mM and Vmax 322 U/min. The IP was 5.0 indicating the acidic character of this protein. Using the purified enzyme and its reaction products, in vitro fungitoxic assays were realized
    indicating an important inhibitory activity against FOD2 of 57% at 24 hours. Then, it is possible to postulate that this enzyme is activated as a part of the defense mechanismsin this interaction model.Se purificó y caracterizó bioquímicamente la enzima polifenoloxidasa (PFO inducida en tallos de clavel (Dianthus caryophyllus L de variedad tolerante por inoculación con
    el patógeno Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi raza 2 (FOD2, causante del marchitamiento vascular. La purificación se logró a través de procesos sucesivos de cromatografía en columna de intercambio iónico, de interacción hidrofóbica y de exclusión
    molecular. A través de éstos se logró un factor de purificación de 314 veces con respecto al extracto inicial. La proteína purificada mostró actividad PFO y una única banda en SDS-PAGE correspondiente a 40 kDa. Usando catecol como sustrato, se determinó su temperatura óptima en 45 ºC y su pH óptimo en 7,5. La enzima presentó una cinética tipo Michaelis-Menten con un valor Km de 249 mM y Vmáx 322 U/min. El punto isoeléctrico (PI= 5,0 permitió establecer que se trata de una

  6. AISLAMIENTO Y CARACTERIZACIÓN DE UNA POLIFENOLOXIDASA RELACIONADA CON LA TOLERANCIA DEL CLAVEL (Dianthus caryophyllus A Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi raza 2 Isolation and Characterization of a Polyphenoloxidase Related with Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus Resistence to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi raza 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIANA ROQUESA MAYORGA

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Se purificó y caracterizó bioquímicamente la enzima polifenoloxidasa (PFO inducida en tallos de clavel (Dianthus caryophyllus L de variedad tolerante por inoculación con el patógeno Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi raza 2 (FOD2, causante del marchitamiento vascular. La purificación se logró a través de procesos sucesivos de cromatografía en columna de intercambio iónico, de interacción hidrofóbica y de exclusión molecular. A través de éstos se logró un factor de purificación de 314 veces con respecto al extracto inicial. La proteína purificada mostró actividad PFO y una única banda en SDSPAGE correspondiente a 40 kDa. Usando catecol como sustrato, se determinó su temperatura óptima en 45 ºC y su pH óptimo en 7,5. La enzima presentó una cinética tipo MichaelisMenten con un valor Km de 249 mM y Vmáx 322 U/min. El punto isoeléctrico (PI= 5,0 permitió establecer que se trata de una proteína de tipo ácido. Con la enzima purificada se realizaron ensayos in vitro de actividad fungitóxica, usando sus productos de reacción enfrentados al hongo FOD2, encontrándose una actividad inhibitoria importante de cerca del 57% a las 24 horas, lo que permite postular su papel en los mecanismos de defensa del clavel contra este patógeno vascularPolyphenoloxidase (PPO was isolated and purified from stems of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L after the inoculation with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi race 2 (FOD2 of a tolerant variety. Purification was performed using column chromatography of ionic exchange, hydrophobic interaction and molecular exclusion. With these successive steps, a factor of 314 fold purification was achieved. The SDSPAGE analysis showed one band of 40 kDa. The purified enzyme was partially characterized using cathecol as substrate and determined the optimal temperature as 45ºC and 7.5 as optimal pH. The enzyme showed a MichaelisMenten kinetic with Km of 249 mM and Vmax 322 U/min. The IP was 5.0 indicating

  7. Sites of ethylene production in the pollinated and unpollinated senescing carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) inflorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, R

    1977-01-01

    Production of endogenous ethylene from the styles, ovary and petals of pollinated and unpollinated flowers of Dianthus caryophyllus L. was measured. The rate of ethylene production of cut, unpollinated flowers aged in water at 18°C was low until the onset of petal wilting, when a rapid surge of ethylene occurred in all tissues. The flower ethylene production was evolved mostly from the styles and petals. The bases of petals from unpollinated, senescing flowers evolved ethylene faster and sometimes earlier than the upper parts. Treatment of cut flowers with propylene, an ethylene analogue, accelerated wilting of flower petals and promoted endogenous ethylene production in all flower tissues. Pollination of intact flowers also promoted endogenous ethylene production and caused accelerated petal wilting within 2-3 days from pollination. Although the data are consistent with the hypothesis that ethylene forms a link between pollination of the style and petal wilting, in the unpollinated flower the style and petals can evolve a surge of ethylene independently of each other, about the time when the petals irreversibly wilt. The results are discussed in relation to the role of ethylene in flower senescence.

  8. Effects of Cobalt on Ethylene Production and Senescence of Carnation Flowers

    OpenAIRE

    Fujii, Nobukatsu; Watanabe, Masami; Watanabe, Yukio; Shimada, Noritsugu

    1993-01-01

    切り花カーネーションにおける, エチレン生成と老化に及ぼすコバルトの影響について検討した.切り花の切り口からEDTAコバルト溶液として処理したコバルトは, エチレン生成を阻害し, 老化を遅らせた.また, エチレン処理は, コバルトの効果を打ち消した.よって, コバルトは, エチレン生成のピークを遅らせることにより, 老化を遅らせたと考えられる.コバルトは, 切断花弁において, エチレン生成を阻害するが, エチレン前駆体である1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC)の含量には影響を及ぼさなかったことにより, ACCからエチレンへの変換を阻害するものと考えられた.コバルトは, SH反応試薬であるモノヨード酢酸と同様の傾向で花弁のエチレン生成を阻害した.このことよりコバルトは, 花弁のエチレン生成酵素のSH基と反応してエチレン生成を阻害する可能性があるものと思われた....

  9. Effects of Media on Overcoming Vitrification of Carnation in Apex Culture

    OpenAIRE

    松原, 幸子; 大森, 誉一; 小正富, 知美; 高田, 裕子; 深沢, 広祐

    1991-01-01

    スプレータイプのカーネーション“ナティラ”と“ピンクカジノ”を供試し,茎頂培養に適した培地の支持体を検討した.基本培地としてハイポネックス,NH4NO3,MgSO4・7H20,Na-EDTA,塩酸ピリドキシン,カイネチン,NAA,しょ糖を含む培地に,支持体として寒天0.6% ,gelrite0.2% またはペーパーブリッジを別々に添加した.茎頂は0.3~0.5mmの部分を切り出し,培地に植え付けた.3か月培養の結果,寒天培地上で最も高率に正常な植物が生長し,gelrite上では最も水浸状の,しかも多芽体が多かった.生体重と乾燥重の比較では,gelrite,寒天,ペーパーブリッジの順であったが,乾物率は寒天が最も高く,gelriteは低かった。...

  10. The Portuguese Literacy Campaigns after the Carnation Revolution (1974-1977)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Isabel Pereira; Amorim, José Pedro; Correia, José Alberto; Menezes, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a description of the major campaigns of adult literacy in the revolutionary period in Portugal, between the years 1974 and 1977. The campaigns aimed to address the problem of extremely low levels of formal education and high levels of adult illiteracy, and were organized by different movements, from the military to political…

  11. GERMINATION AND MULTIPLICATION OF CARNATION USING BAP AND KIN IN VITRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Restelatto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to establish a system of in vitro multiplication for the harpsichord, the seeds were sterilized in sodium hypochlorite and inoculated in MS. The induction of axillary buds used the BAP and Kinetin (KIN at concentrations of 0; 2,0 and 4,0 mg/L. Was added, 3% (w/v sucrose, 0,6 (w/v agar and the pH ± 5.8. 40 days after the inoculation of seeds, germination was evaluated. The best average germination occurred in T1 (0 min in hypochlorite and T3 (10 min in hypochlorite (9,0 and 8,75 treatments, respectively, differing T2 (5 min in hypochlorite (3,75. In the formation of axillary buds, treatment T1 (2,0 mg / L BAP presented (7,1 buds /explant. Have the treatment T3 (4,0 mg /L BAP presented (5,5 buds / explant, and T1 (zero BAP statistically had the lowest bud formation (3,73 buds / explant. For CIN, it was observed that the best response (5,6 and 5,1 buds/explants were in the T1 (0 CIN and T3 (4.0 mg /L KIN treatments whereas in T2 (2,0 mg /L CIN had the lowest bud formation (2,7 buds /explant . Thus, sodium hypochlorite was effective in decontaminating and BAP and KIN hormones were effective for inducing gems

  12. 康乃馨花艺赏析%Flower Design with Carnation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    绿意

    2002-01-01

    @@ 康乃馨,是普通的花,广泛用于婚礼、家庭花饰、日常花礼、配套,花艺及慰问花礼.康乃馨,也是尊贵的花,因为她是母亲的花,纪念母亲节少不了她.因着花卉园艺技术的发达,康乃馨的新品种层出不穷,花色花型变化迥异,给花艺设计应用带来巨大的空间.

  13. Carnations and the Floriculture Industry: Documenting the Cultivation and Marketing of Flowers in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shu; Meyer, Linda M.

    2008-01-01

    The Records of the Colorado Flower Growers Association (CFGA) is an archival collection documenting the association prior to its 1979 name change. The CFGA was founded in 1928 to support the production and marketing of greenhouse flowers grown commercially in the state. In 1979, the organization changed its name to the Colorado Greenhouse Growers…

  14. First Report of Carnation vein mottle virus Infecting Dianthus amurensis in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomato mottle mosaic virus (ToMMV), a tentative member in genus Tobamovirus, was first reported from a greenhouse tomato sample collected in Mexico in 2013 (1). In August 2013, foliar mottle, shrinking and necrosis were observed on pepper plants in several vegetable greenhouses of Lhasa, Tibet Auton...

  15. The Portuguese Literacy Campaigns After the Carnation Revolution (1974-1977

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Pereira Gomes

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a description of the major campaigns of adult literacy in the revolutionary period in Portugal, between the years 1974 and 1977. The campaigns aimed to address the problem of extremely low levels of formal education and high levels of adult illiteracy, and were organized by different movements, from the military to political youth organizations. In all cases, Paulo Freire’s theory and methods were an important reference to these initiatives of popular education even if, in some cases, these were clearly top-down approaches, while others advocated a bottom-up perspective. We will start by an analysis of the rationale of these movements based on documents produced at the period and a literature review. Then, retrospective interviews with two women participating in these campaigns are used to illustrate these experiences and their perceived impact on themselves and the adults involved. Not surprisingly, the impact of these literacy campaigns is perceived as significant both for the population, particularly older women, but mainly for the young literacy mediators who seem to have experienced this as a life-changing event. Even though this is a preliminary stage of the research, results suggest the significance of gender inequality and poverty as markers in the lived experience of these campaigns, and the high levels of hope and political mobilization of the young people involved, even with various degrees of ideological commitment. Cet article présente une description de grandes campagnes d'alphabétisation des adultes dans la période révolutionnaire au Portugal, entre les années 1974 et 1977. Les campagnes visaient à régler le problème des très faibles niveaux d'éducation formelle et des niveaux élevés d'analphabétisme des adultes et ont été organisées par différents mouvements, de l'armée à des organisations politiques de jeunesse. Dans tous les cas, la théorie et les méthodes de Paulo Freire ont été une référence importante pour ces initiatives d'éducation populaire même si, dans certains cas, ces approches ont été clairement de haut en bas, tandis que d'autres plaidé pour une perspective de bas en haut. Nous allons commencer par une analyse de la justification de ces mouvements fondés sur les documents produits à la période et une revue de la littérature. Ensuite, des entretiens rétrospectifs avec deux femmes participant à ces campagnes servent à illustrer ces expériences et leurs répercussions perçues sur eux-mêmes et les adultes impliqués. Sans surprise, l'impact de ces campagnes d'alphabétisation est perçue comme importante tant pour la population, les femmes âgées en particulier, mais surtout pour les jeunes médiateurs de l'alphabétisation qui semblent avoir fait de cette expérience comme un événement qui change la vie. Même s'il s'agit d'une étape préliminaire de la recherche, les résultats suggèrent l'importance des inégalités entre les sexes et la pauvreté comme marqueurs dans l'expérience vécue de ces campagnes et les niveaux élevés d'espoir et de mobilisation politique des jeunes impliqués, même avec divers degrés d'engagement idéologique.

  16. Optimization and antioxidant properties of phytosynthesized silver nanoparticles using Dianthus caryophyllus L. (carnation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachna, Saharan, Baljeet Singh; Yadav, M. S.; Sharma, Nisha

    2016-05-01

    In the recent years, silver nanoparticles have been the focus of Nanobiotechnology due to their unique interdisciplinary applications in the field of biomedicals, material diagnostics, optics and chemistry. A wide set of physical and chemical methods have been devised for providing the effective and efficient synthesis procedure of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) but are somehow expensive and involve toxic substances. There is a critical need to develop reliable and eco-friendly process for synthesizing silver nanoparticles. In the present investigation, a simple and cost-effective green approach has been utilized for the production of stable silver nanoparticles by employing Dianthus caryophyllus flower extract. Different optimization conditions were checked for extract capped AgNPs and characterized by UV-Visible spectrophotometer. The optimum 0.02 dilution of extract found efficient to reduce 4 mM silver ions in the ratio 60:40 at pH 9. The antioxidant potential of the resultant AgNPs was observed using Hydrogen peroxide assay. There was an increasing trend of antioxidant property with increasing concentration. This potential of these photosynthesized AgNPs makes them reliable for good cause of society, mainly in therapeutic and biomedical applications.

  17. Determination of the physiological races of fusarium oxysporum f.sp. dianthi on carnation in colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Arbelaez, Germán; Calderón, Olga Lucia

    2011-01-01

    Uno de los problemas más limitantes del cultivo del clavel en Colombia es el marchitamiento vascular ocasionado por el hongo Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. disnthi, El trabajo fue realizado con el objetivo de determinar la variabilidad morfológica, cultural, reproductiva y patológica de 121 aislamientos del hongo obtenidos de 61 fincas localizadas en la Sabana de Bogotá. Como patrones de comparación se utilizaron nueve aislamientos extranjeros de las razas 1, 2,4 y 8 del patógeno. Las pruebas de p...

  18. 康乃馨扦插繁殖中对生根剂的优选%Choosing the Better Method of Using Hormone Deal with Carnation Cuttings in Carnation's Asexual Propagation from Cutting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷福姣

    2008-01-01

    用ABT和IBA,NAA,B1不同的配比对康乃馨插穗进行5种不同的扦插生根处理,结果表明:6 g/kg IBA+2g/ kg NAA+0.5 g/kg B1配比的生根粉的效果最为理想,生根率达97%以上,成苗率达85%.

  19. Carnation 33光子治疗仪治疗带状疱疹疗效观察%The Clinical Observation on the Carnation 33 NM-B in the Treatment of Herpes Zoster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾叙锋; 傅麟炜; 杨钰鑫; 曾建中; 宁旭; 兰静

    2010-01-01

    目的:探讨光子治疗仪治疗带状疱疹的治疗效果.方法:选择经临床诊断为带状疱疹的住院病人243例随机分为对照组、氮-氖激光组(He-Ne)、红光组.He-Ne组和红光组在常规药物治疗的基础上外用光子治疗仪进行辅助治疗,对照组单纯采用常规药物泛昔洛韦进行治疗,观察各组的疗效.结果:对照组总有效率67%,He-Ne组92%,红光组90%,红光组和He-Ne组的治疗效果与对照组间差异有显著性意义(P<0.05).结论:两种物理疗法均提高了带状疱疹的治愈率,而且安全有效,以光子治疗仪操作简单,值得临床使用推广

  20. Effect of Gibberellic Acid, Kinetin and Indole 3-Acetic Acid on Seed Germination Performance of Dianthus caryophyllus (Carnation)

    OpenAIRE

    Rajib Roychowdhury; Anuj Mamgain; Sunanda Ray; Jagatpati Tah

    2012-01-01

    The experiment was undertaken with an objective to investigate the effect of various concentrations of plant growth regulators, i.e., Gibberellic acid (GA3), Kinetin and Indole 3-acetic acid (IAA) on seed germination of Dianthus caryophyllus. Dianthus seeds were soaked in different concentrations (0 ppm or control, 10 ppm, 20 ppm, 30 ppm and 40 ppm) of each of GA3, Kinetin and IAA for 24 h at room temperature (25±2oC). Three replicates of each treatment with ten seeds per replicate wer...

  1. Effect of Gibberellic Acid, Kinetin and Indole 3-Acetic Acid on Seed Germination Performance of Dianthus caryophyllus (Carnation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajib Roychowdhury

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was undertaken with an objective to investigate the effect of various concentrations of plant growth regulators, i.e., Gibberellic acid (GA3, Kinetin and Indole 3-acetic acid (IAA on seed germination of Dianthus caryophyllus. Dianthus seeds were soaked in different concentrations (0 ppm or control, 10 ppm, 20 ppm, 30 ppm and 40 ppm of each of GA3, Kinetin and IAA for 24 h at room temperature (25±2oC. Three replicates of each treatment with ten seeds per replicate were arranged for precise physiological analysis. Significant variation was found in all aspects after analysis of variance (ANOVA of each mean value. After two weeks of seed soaking, it was noted that germination percentages were significantly accelerated by lower concentrations (10 and 20 ppm of used hormones. Amongst the three potential growth regulators, 20 ppm was found most effective because it showed highest germination percentage for GA3 (87.46%, Kinetin (78.92% and IAA (75.35%. A great deal of information relating to seed germination practices shows that these plant growth regulators were efficient in overcoming dormancy leading to rapid seed germination. GA3 was selected as best hormone in this study, which showed highest seed germination (87.46%. These results could be useful in large scale cultivation of Dianthus caryophyllus plants to improve its floricultural impact worldwide.

  2. Effect of Gibberellic Acid, Kinetin and Indole 3-Acetic Acid on Seed Germination Performance of Dianthus caryophyllus (Carnation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajib Roychowdhury

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was undertaken with an objective to investigate the effect of various concentrations of plant growth regulators, i.e., Gibberellic acid (GA3, Kinetin and Indole 3-acetic acid (IAA on seed germination of Dianthus caryophyllus. Dianthus seeds were soaked in different concentrations (0 ppm or control, 10 ppm, 20 ppm, 30 ppm and 40 ppm of each of GA3, Kinetin and IAA for 24 h at room temperature (25±2oC. Three replicates of each treatment with ten seeds per replicate were arranged for precise physiological analysis. Significant variation was found in all aspects after analysis of variance (ANOVA of each mean value. After two weeks of seed soaking, it was noted that germination percentages were significantly accelerated by lower concentrations (10 and 20 ppm of used hormones. Amongst the three potential growth regulators, 20 ppm was found most effective because it showed highest germination percentage for GA3 (87.46%, Kinetin (78.92% and IAA (75.35%. A great deal of information relating to seed germination practices shows that these plant growth regulators were efficient in overcoming dormancy leading to rapid seed germination. GA3 was selected as best hormone in this study, which showed highest seed germination (87.46%. These results could be useful in large scale cultivation of Dianthus caryophyllus plants to improve its floricultural impact worldwide.

  3. 香石竹组培繁殖技术的研究%Research on tissue culture of Carnation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    续武梅

    2003-01-01

    为克服香石竹的玻璃苗现象以及降低组培苗生产成本,提高生根率,从材料来源、培养方法及培养条件等方面作了介绍,并通过试验研究与分析,提出了具体的组培技术措施.

  4. Irregularities in the development of male and female gametophytes in the greenhouse carnation (Dianthus caryophpllus L. cv. William Sim.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Zenkteler

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It was found that numerous teratological transformations of the pistils and stamens account for the complete or partial female and male sterility in D. caryaphyllus L. cv. William Sim. Moreover, the degeneration of generative organs was accompanied by irregularities in the development of macro-and microsporogenesis.

  5. Carnation 33光子治疗仪在肛周手术后的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹青艳

    2014-01-01

    目的观察光子治疗仪在肛瘘及肛周脓肿手术后改善切口疼痛和促进创面修复中的效果。方法随机将分本科室近1年(2013年01月~2014年01月)行肛周手术的100例患者(其中肠瘘68例,肛周脓肿32)分为两组,治疗组和对照组,各50例,治疗组于术后第2 d起伤口采用Carnation光子治疗仪照射,2次/d,持续10d,照射后换药;对照组换药2次/d;并于术后第1d、第7d、第10d统计两组切口创面渗液量、疼痛分级;计算两组切口愈合的时间。结果两组疼痛分级与创面渗液量在术后第1 d无明显差别(>0.05),在术后第7、10 d,治疗组疼痛分级低于对照组,创面渗液量少于对照组(<0.05)。治疗组平均愈合时间为(14.3依2.1) d,对照组平均愈合时间为(19.4依2.6)d。结论光子治疗仪能改善肛周手术后切口疼痛,促进切口愈合。

  6. 香石竹塑料大棚栽培技术%Cultivation Technology of Carnation in Plastic Greenhouse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秀美

    2001-01-01

    @@ 香石竹又名康乃馨,是常用的切花之一.因其花大、色艳、花期长而倍受广大消费者青睐.香石竹是一种累积性长日照植物,耐寒性弱,喜冬季温和,夏季凉爽的环境,忌高温高湿.为保证正常生产香石竹,我们利用大棚进行栽培,现将栽培技术总结如下.

  7. Deciphering the ecophysiological traits involved during water stress acclimation and recovery of the threatened wild carnation, Dianthus inoxianus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Jurado, Javier; Balao, Francisco; Mateos-Naranjo, Enrique

    2016-12-01

    Dianthus inoxianus is an endangered species endemic from a small littoral area in the SW Spain, with an unusual flowering season under the adverse conditions of dry Mediterranean summer. A greenhouse experiment was designed to assess the physiological traits involved in drought acclimation and recovery of 3-month-old plants. The evolution of plant water status, leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, photosynthetic pigments concentrations and a quantitative analysis of photosynthesis limitations were followed during water stress and re-watering. Our results indicated that the plant water status, Ψw and RWC, only decreased at the end of the drought period (18th day), together with the net photosynthetic rate, AN. Photosynthetic impair was mainly caused by diffusional limitations (SL and MCL) of CO2, as indicated the joint and marked decrease of gs, gm and Ci during drought period, while Vc,max did not vary. After rewatering, leaf water status recovered faster than photosynthetic one, reaching control values on day 1 after recovery, while AN, gm and Ci took 7 days. Additionally, gs showed the slowest recovery taking 15 days, but gs decrease was enough to keep Ψw and RWC at constant values throughout the experiment. Results suggest a high tolerance and recovery of D. inoxianus from severe drought periods. This drought tolerance was also reflected in the stability of its photochemical apparatus and pigments concentrations, as indicated the constant values of Fv/Fm, ФPSII and pigments concentrations through experimental period. However, prolonged drought events due to global climate change could negatively affect the physiological mechanisms of this species.

  8. Morphological architecture of foliar stomata in M2 Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. genotypes using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajib Roychowdhury*, Parveen Sultana and Jagatpati Tah

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Dianthus caryophyllus is an important floricultural crop in temperate climates and worldwide popular as cut-flowers for itsvariegated petal’s colour. The development of this cultivar with more desirable floral characteristics and higher productivity arealso very much important. Their identifications as well as taxonomy had been studied in the literatures using different laboratorymethods. Both morphological and/or genetical characteristics were considered in the reported studies. However, to the best of ourknowledge, there does not exist any study involving an image analysis based approach. For this, we undertook the mutationbreeding programme with selected chemical mutagens, viz. Colchicine (COL, Ethyl Methane Sulphonate (EMS and MaleicHydrazide (MH with different concentrations. These mutagens were applied on the young leaves of M2 plants of Dianthuscultivar. The results of the present study on peculiar morphological architectures of leaf stomata in Dianthus at differentconcentrations of three potent chemical mutagens were analyzed on the basis of their Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEMimages which is more informative than the classical approach. Number of stomata and its shape, aperture length and itsdimension, characteristics of guard cells in both dorsal and ventral surfaces of leaf also varied from treatment to treatment.

  9. Effect of Gibberellic Acid, Kinetin and Indole 3-Acetic Acid on Seed Germination Performance of Dianthus caryophyllus (Carnation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajib Roychowdhury

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was undertaken with an objective to investigate the effect of various concentrations of plant growth regulators, i.e., Gibberellic acid (GA3, Kinetin and Indole 3-acetic acid (IAA on seed germination of Dianthus caryophyllus. Dianthus seeds were soaked in different concentrations (0 ppm or control, 10 ppm, 20 ppm, 30 ppm and 40 ppm of each of GA3, Kinetin and IAA for 24 h at room temperature (25±2oC. Three replicates of each treatment with ten seeds per replicate were arranged for precise physiological analysis. Significant variation was found in all aspects after analysis of variance (ANOVA of each mean value. After two weeks of seed soaking, it was noted that germination percentages were significantly accelerated by lower concentrations (10 and 20 ppm of used hormones. Amongst the three potential growth regulators, 20 ppm was found most effective because it showed highest germination percentage for GA3 (87.46%, Kinetin (78.92% and IAA (75.35%. A great deal of information relating to seed germination practices shows that these plant growth regulators were efficient in overcoming dormancy leading to rapid seed germination. GA3 was selected as best hormone in this study, which showed highest seed germination (87.46%. These results could be useful in large scale cultivation of Dianthus caryophyllus plants to improve its floricultural impact worldwide.

  10. Main: ERELEE4 [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available t) of tomato (L.e.) E4 and carnation GST1 genes; GST1 is related to senescence; Found in the 5'-LTR region o...; tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum); carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus); Lycopersicon chilense; AWTTCAAA ...

  11. The Preservation Effect of Salicylic Acid on Cut Carnation%水杨酸对香石竹切花保鲜效应试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈翠果; 董立新; 赵美霞; 赵敏; 覃剑峰; 王艳路

    2010-01-01

    试验探讨了水杨酸(Salicylic acid,SA)对香石竹(Dianthus caryophyllus)切花瓶插寿命的影响,结果表明,3种保鲜剂组合处理均能不同程度地增加切花的鲜重和花径,改善体内的水分状况,延缓质膜的降解,延长瓶插的寿命.其中以保鲜剂组合2% S+200mg/L 8-HQ+50 mg/L Al2(SO4)3+20 mg/L SA的效果较好.

  12. 大花香石竹多倍体育种研究%Polyploid Breeding Studying of Standard Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫锡君; 桂敏; 瞿素萍; 熊丽; 杨明

    2005-01-01

    对102个大花香石竹品种的染色体倍性进行鉴定,二倍体、三倍体和四倍体品种分别占77%、6%和17%,当前生产上的主栽品种马斯特、达拉斯和卡曼(具有大花苞性状)都是二倍体品种,71%的四倍体品种为花边复色类型.初步认为部分香石竹四倍体栽培品种是远缘杂交的后代.通过用秋水仙碱处理香石竹品种马斯特的试管苗,获得两株四倍体植株,其花蕾直径增大,而节间变短.

  13. Keeping-Fresh Effects of Antistaling Agent on Cut Carnation Flowers%保鲜剂对香石竹切花保鲜效果的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王兴国; 张淑梅

    2003-01-01

    用含有蔗糖、KT、硝酸银、柠檬酸等组成两种保鲜剂(Ⅰ、Ⅱ)处理香石竹切花,结果表明保鲜剂Ⅰ使花朵吸水增强、鲜重增加、花径增大,显著延长了切花的瓶插寿命,保鲜剂Ⅱ不利于花朵开放.

  14. 康乃馨和月季天然红色素研究进展%Research Advances in Natural Red Pigment from Carnation and Rose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘健君; 林萍

    2010-01-01

    对康乃馨和月季的天然红色素的研究进行综合阐述,总结康乃馨和月季天然红色素的主要物理化学性质、提取工艺及精制方法,为天然食用色素中的红色素开发利用提供理论依据.

  15. On the Measures of Xinliang Forestry Carnation and Development%做好新疆林业保护和发展的措施探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅桂兰

    2010-01-01

    生态环境建设是国民经济和社会发展的基础,要实现社会经济可持续发展,必须有完备的生态体系作保障.在新疆,林业是新疆各族人民生存和发展的条件.林业具有生态、经济、社会三大效益,所以新疆林业的发展要把生态效益放在首位.

  16. The Study of Physical and Chemical Properties of Carnation Red Pigment%康乃馨红色素理化性质的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐清艳; 郑志勇; 俞洪云

    2002-01-01

    对康乃馨红色素的理化性质进行了详细的研究,结果表明,该色素水溶性好,耐热性好,而光照对色素有一定的降解作用.还原剂、盐、蔗糖、金属离子(除Fe3+外),对色素的色泽无不良影响,柠檬酸有增色效应.

  17. 昆明地区香石竹病毒病流行状况调查及脱病毒苗的制备%Studies on Prevalenting State of Carnation Viruses in Kunming D istrict and Methods of Producing Virus-Free Carnation Seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伊廷双; 胡虹

    2001-01-01

    对昆明地区3种不同生产模式下的香石竹(Dianthus caryophyllus L.)进行了调查,采集样本146号,利用酶联免疫法和电镜检测法对样本感染香石竹病毒的情况进行检测.结果表明昆明地区主要流行的香石竹病毒为香石竹斑驳病毒和香石竹坏死斑点病毒.以带香石竹斑驳病毒的香石竹品种"俏新郎”为实验材料,研究了直接剥茎尖法、高温处理结合剥茎尖法和病毒痤处理结合剥茎尖法3种方法在脱病毒效率和茎尖成苗率的差异.实验结果表明以加热处理结合剥茎尖法脱病毒效果最好,0.2 mm茎尖脱病毒率可达77.78%, 加5%病毒痤处理对脱病毒有一定的影响, 直接剥茎尖法脱病毒效果最差.

  18. Prepare and Evaluate an Organizational Relocation Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-04-01

    along the Snoqualmie River, includes Duvall, Carnation , Snoqualmie, and North Bend, is virtually non-existent. Most service in the Green River Valley has...Snoqualmie, Carnation , and Duvall are completely without electrical power, and it is estimated that a week will be required before any service can be...zTO * CARNATION ISLAND - /PUGETS $’ R BLLVJ A MNISH ORENTON JSSAfUAH’ 7 K! TSAP PENINSULA >SHON /4MAPLE VALLE’ *AUBURN0 LACK DIAMOND Figure 9. Nuclear

  19. In the Middle of the Fight: An Assessment of Medium-Armored Forces in Past Military Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    the nearly bloodless Carnation Revolution. This leftist coup reverberated throughout the country’s residual colonial possessions. In Angola, it... Carnation (1981), Protea (1981), Super (1982), Meebos (1982), Phoenix (1983), Askari (1983), Moduler (1987), Packer (1988), and Displace (1988). 74 In...C-130 gunships, 60 C-160 Transall airlifer, 218 Cambrai, 7 Carnation Revolution, 71 Casper, Colonel Lawrence E., 133–134 Casspir APC (South Africa

  20. Synthesis of Methyl Diantilis, a Commercially Important Fragrance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, William H.; Connell, Katelyn B.

    2006-01-01

    Synthetic sequences in the undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory illustrate important synthetic strategies, reagents, or experimental techniques, oftentimes resulting in the synthesis of commercially important compounds. A fragrance with a 'spicy, carnation, sweet, vanilla', named after carnations (Dianthus caryophllus), Methyl Diantillis is…

  1. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    hymn to the then bourgeois government. At its foot were red and white carnations . They were placed there by elderly women. A man in a black...few people know this fact." In the morning of November 19 we went back to the Liberty Monument. There were only a few carnations strewn here and

  2. Dicty_cDB: AFH636 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available map CIC11A04, complete sequence. 54 0.005 1 AW697837 |AW697837.1 EST0020 carnation flower specific cDNA lib...697825 |AW697825.1 EST0008 carnation flower specific cDNA library Dianthus caryophyllus cDNA clone HM008 5'

  3. Snohomish Estuary Wetlands Study. Volume IV. Delineation of Wetland Boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-08-01

    River FIG. 4 -G. 5 CARNATION [] Scale in Miles 0 5 1 FALL CITY SNOHOMISH ESTUARY WETLANDS STUDY 8AOUAH FIG. 6-/ 44 Isan A EVRT 12 1 land NO4Carnation on the Snoqualmie River (Tolt River confluence). I B. OBJECTIVES 8. The objectives of the overall Snohomish Estuary Wetlands

  4. Dicty_cDB: VHE835 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 009. 4. 4 Homology vs DNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value N AW697837 |AW697837.1 EST0020 carnation... flower specific cDNA library DianthusmRNA sequence. 54 0.004 1 AW697825 |AW697825.1 EST0008 carnation

  5. Barriers to Implementing Title III of the Job Training Partnership Act: Alameda County Employers' Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Edward J.

    The Carnation-ILWU (International Longshoremen's and Warehousemen's Union) Project attempted to find employment for a group of unskilled and semiskilled manufacturing workers displaced by the closing of the Carnation Company of Oakland, California. Although more than 2,000 employers were contacted in Alameda County in the year following the…

  6. JPRS Report East Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    summer, and autumn. JPRS-EER-90-079 7 June 1990 ECONOMIC 21 All that is available is flowers. A carnation sells for 1.30 aspects, this situation is...primarily of basic machine assets). piece, 40 stotinki each; cucumbers from state green- houses, 4.50 leva; carnations , one leva piece; a bouquet As

  7. Walking through the Revolution: A Spatial Reading of Literary Echoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, Ana Isabel; Alves, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an embryo of a literary guide on the Carnation Revolution to be explored for educational historical excursions other than leisure and tourism. We propose a historical trail through the centre of Lisbon, city of the Carnation Revolution, called "Walk through the Revolution." The trail aims to reinforce collective…

  8. Study on the extraction of red pigment from Carnation flower and its characteristics%康乃馨花红色素的提取和性质研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志刚; 杨清华; 樊亚东; 徐红; 郭引芳; 赵履静

    2001-01-01

    @@ 麝香石竹(Dianthus caryophyllus L.),通称康乃馨,又名香石竹、狮头石竹,为多年丛生草本植物,原产欧洲南部,在我国有广泛栽培.昆明近年来栽培了许多品种,其色泽艳丽多彩,花形优美,为常见观赏植物,更是重要的插花品种[1].每天在采收、销售、储藏过程中都会有大量的鲜残花废弃.为了有效利用各环节中产生的大量残花,变废为宝,本文对大红色康乃馨残花花瓣中的红色素作了提取试验,并对其理化性质进行了研究.

  9. The Influences of Sodium Phosphate Tribasic on the Preservation Effect of Cut Carnations Flower%磷酸钠对康乃馨切花保鲜效果的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马丽

    2015-01-01

    以康乃馨(Dianthus caryophyllus L.)为材料,初步研究了不同磷酸钠浓度对康乃馨切花的观赏寿命、花径、鲜重等外观形态指标及水分平衡、花青素含量、过氧化氢酶(CAT)活性等生理指标的影响.结果表明,含有0.2 g/L的磷酸钠保鲜液可有效延长康乃馨切花寿命,促进切花鲜重的增加与花径的增大,有利于保持水分平衡,抑制花青素的降解,保持CAT酶活性.

  10. A Regression Analysis of the Culture Performance and Vitrification in Vitro of Carnation Microcuttings%香石竹试管苗培养性状及与玻璃化发生关系分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖飞雄; 王代容; 徐维杰; 连芳青

    2005-01-01

    分析离体培养中香石竹(Dianthus caryophyllus)组织培养苗主梢对几个培养性状的影响,结果表明:主梢长度与新梢形成数、正常苗率呈二元回归关系,与生根率呈直线相关.玻璃化苗率与主梢长度、新梢形成数呈二元回归关系.主梢3~4 cm长的苗抽梢性能、正常苗率均较好,玻璃化苗率较低;在培养中控制这个主梢高度和1~2个新梢,可获较理想的培养结果.

  11. Comparison of Growth and Development Properties between De - Virus Seedlings and Virus - Infected Seedlings of Carnation%香石竹的脱病毒苗与带病毒苗生长发育特性比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伊廷双; 胡虹; 张石宝

    2001-01-01

    以香石竹(Dianthus caryophyllus L.)带病毒组培苗和扦插苗作为对照,研究香石竹脱病毒苗在苗期和花期的生长发育特性.实验结果表明,在苗期,香石竹脱病毒苗在株高、叶片数、分枝数、叶面积和根、茎、叶的干重等大多数营养生长发育指标明显优于对照.在花期,脱病毒苗在花苞和花朵直径,花枝高度和粗度等花质量指标明显优于对照,且脱掉病毒显著提高了花产量,缩短了生长发育期.

  12. Effect of Sodium Dichloroisocyanurate on Preservation of Cut Carnation (Dianthus caryphyllus L.)%二氯异氰脲酸钠处理对香石竹切花的保鲜效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘季平; 何生根; 吕培涛; 曹锦萍; 盛爱武; 张昭其

    2009-01-01

    就杀菌剂二氯异氰脲酸钠(sodium dichloroisocyanurate,DICA)处理对瓶插香石竹(Dianthus caryphyllus L.)切花的保鲜效应进行了初步探讨.结果表明:与对照(蒸馏水)相比,15.4和77.O mg·L-1 DICA处理可使香石竹切花的瓶插寿命分别延长6.0 d和6.8 d,但后者对观赏品质有不利影响;DICA处理有利于减缓切花茎基部水分导度下降,维持花枝的水分吸收和鲜样质量,尤以15.4 mg·L-1 DICA处理为佳;细菌计数试验和抑菌圈试验表明DICA处理可有效抑制瓶插液中微生物的生长.

  13. Effects of Different Preservatives on the Preservation of Cut Carnation Flower%不同保鲜剂对康乃馨切花保鲜效果的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐心诚

    2016-01-01

    以康乃馨(Dianthus cargophyllus)切花为试材,3%蔗糖、250 mg/L柠檬酸和50 mg/L 6-BA为基础保鲜液,分别添加150 mg/L 8-羟基喹啉(8-HQ)、15 g/L CaCl2和100 mg/L AgN03,以蒸馏水作对照,研究不同试剂组合对康乃馨切花的保鲜效果.结果表明,AgNO3处理能显著增加切花鲜重,维持切花水分平衡,并能有效维持切花鲜重,抑菌效果好,显著延长切花瓶插寿命,瓶插寿命可达19.7 d,是理想的保鲜液;其次为8-HQ处理,瓶插寿命为15.8d,比对照处理增加81.6%;而CaCl2处理不利于康乃馨切花保鲜.

  14. 保鲜剂对香石竹切花形态结构的影响%Effect of Preservatives on the Morphology and Anatomy of Carnation Cut Flowers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈健辉; 董玉萍

    2004-01-01

    以对水质较为敏感的香石竹(Dianthus caryophyllus L.)为材料,用糖、苯甲酸钠等配制保鲜剂,观察保鲜剂对香石竹形态结构的影响和细胞内淀粉粒的变化.结果表明:用保鲜剂处理过的切花,花朵增大,花色鲜艳,茎、叶、花瓣、子房壁、胚珠等组织细胞壁出现皱缩的时间延迟,细胞内含淀粉粒的时间也较长.苯甲酸钠的保鲜效果优于硝酸银.

  15. Cloning and Sequence Analysis of a cDNA Encoding ACC Oxidase from Carnation Flower%康乃馨ACC氧化酶cDNA的克隆及其序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张树珍; 杨本鹏; 刘飞虎

    2002-01-01

    以康乃馨(Dianthus caryophyllus L.)花瓣为材料,用改进的异硫氰酸胍一步法提取总RNA,根据已报道的康乃馨ACC氧化酶(1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase,ACO)基因的序列设计并合成一对引物,通过RT-PCR方法获得一约1.2kb特异片段,把该片段连接到PGEM -T easy vector上进行测序,其全长共1 156bp,编码区915 bp,共编码304个氨基酸残基.序列分析结果表明该序列与国外Savin Kw报道的康乃馨ACC氧化酶基因的cDNA序列完全相符.推断该基因在康乃馨种内可能是完全或高度保守的.

  16. Preservative Effect of Environment-Friendly Preservative Solution on Cut Carnation Flower%环保型保鲜液对香石竹切花瓶插的保鲜效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁菊红

    2013-01-01

    以蔗糖和8-羟基喹啉为保鲜液基本成分,研究不合银离子的瓶插保鲜液在分别添加6-苄氨基腺嘌呤(6-BA)、亚精胺(Spermidine,简称Spd)、维生素C和柠檬酸后对香石竹(Dianthus caryophyllus L.)切花的保鲜效果.结果表明,与去离子水对照相比,4种含有不同物质的保鲜液均能不同程度地增加香石竹切花的鲜重和花径,改善体内水分状况,延缓可溶性蛋白质的降解,降低丙二醛含量,延长瓶插寿命,其中以处理Ⅳ(30 g/L蔗糖+200 mg/L 8-羟基喹啉+30 mg/L 6-BA)效果最好,处理Ⅲ(30 g/L蔗糖+200mg/L 8-羟基喹啉+0.1 mmol/L Spd)次之,属于高效环保型保鲜剂.

  17. Effect of 1-MCP-β-CD on Vase Quality of Cut Carnation Flowers%1-MCP-β-环糊精对香石竹切花保鲜作用的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈均志; 王瑾; 邵超群

    2009-01-01

    对香石竹切花(Dianthus caryophyllus L.)用不同体积浓度的1-MCP-β-环糊精溶液处理不同的时间,观察其外观形态品质和生理生化指标,得知以50 mg/L的1-MCP-β-环糊精溶液在7 m3的密闭体系中处理8 h效果最佳.能极大提高香石竹切花的观赏价值,减少萎蔫程度,延缓开放,延迟香石竹切花叶片质膜相对透性下降,并对叶片叶绿素含量变化有一定的影响.

  18. Effects of Hydrogen-Rich Water Pretreatment on Vase Life of Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) Cut Flowers%富氢水预处理对香石竹切花瓶插寿命的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡敏; 杜红梅

    2015-01-01

    采后衰老是影响香石竹切花瓶插寿命及观赏价值的主要因素.试验以香石竹为试材,研究1%、10%、25%、50%、100%浓度的富氢水预处理对香石竹切花瓶插寿命的影响.结果表明,10%的富氢水可显著延长香石竹的瓶插寿命,减缓瓶插后期切花鲜重的下降和花瓣萎蔫的速度.分析10%的富氢水预处理对香石竹切花盛开率和萎蔫率的影响,发现富氢水预处理在香石竹切花保鲜上的作用可能主要在于延长香石竹的盛开期,从而减缓衰老进程.研究结果对富氢水在切花保鲜上的应用做了有益尝试,具有重要应用价值.

  19. Cloning and Preliminary Function Analysis of DcMAPK1 and DcMAPK2 in Carnation%香石竹DcMAPK1和DcMAPK2的克隆及功能初步分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马悦悦; 肖志娜; 汤娜; 刘娟旭; 余义勋

    2015-01-01

    分离了香石竹(Dianthus caryophyllus)两个促分裂原活化蛋白质激酶(mitogen-ac-tivated protein kinase,MAPK)基因cDNA全长,分别命名为DcMAPK1和DcMAPK2,其中DcMAPK1与拟南芥AtMAPK6高度同源.DcMAPK1在香石竹花瓣衰老过程表达增加,乙烯处理显著促进其表达,瞬时抑制DcMAPK1后切花瓶插寿命显著延长.而DcMAPK2在花瓣衰老过程中组成型表达,乙烯处理对其表达无显著影响,瞬时抑制DcMAPK2对切花瓶插寿命无显著影响.

  20. 克服香石竹组织培养中玻璃苗的研究%A study on decrease in vitrification shoots of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. ) in tissue culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵艳岭; 刘志强; 邢红华; 赵强; 华金荣

    2005-01-01

    香石竹试管苗玻璃化现象给试管苗的应用带来困难,采用强光照10000-20000 LX,在培养基中提高蔗糖和琼脂浓度,降低激素用量,对克服香石竹试管苗玻璃化有明显效果.青霉素对克服香石竹试管苗玻璃化无明显效果,但对生根有促进作用,其作用机制有待进一步研究.

  1. 能量对香石竹切花在瓶插期间呼吸电子途径的影响%Effect of Energy Supply on Respiratory Electron Transport Pathways during Vase Holding of Cut Carnation Flowers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋丽丽; 蒋跃明; 李长涛; 刘海; 尤艳莉; 易春; 徐志防

    2008-01-01

    采用外加0.1 mmol/L ATP或0.5 mmol/L二硝基苯酚(DNP)的方法,研究了香石竹(Dianthus caryophyllus L.)切花在25±1℃和80%~90%相对湿度下瓶插期间呼吸电子传递途径的变化情况.结果表明,香石竹切花在瓶插7 d时的呼吸速率达到高峰;ATP处理明显加快切花的呼吸速率,在瓶插7 d时呼吸速率高峰值较对照(未用ATP处理)升高1倍.细胞色素途径与总呼吸活性存在显著正相关.细胞色素途径占总呼吸的比重在切花瓶插4 d后上升,并且线粒体电子传递主要依靠细胞色素主路途径进行.经ATP处理后香石竹切花的交替呼吸途径的容量、实际运行活性和运行系数明显增加;交替呼吸途径占总呼吸活性比重在瓶插4 d后迅速上升,并且交替呼吸途径容量与总呼吸活性存在显著正相关.而DNP处理则降低交替呼吸途径容量.这说明外源ATP处理加强了香石竹切花在整个瓶插期间的呼吸作用,增加了呼吸速率的高峰值,提高了抗氰呼吸作用.

  2. Cloning of Carnation GA20-oxidase Gene and Construction of Plant RNAi Vector%香石竹GA20-oxidase基因的克隆及RNA干扰载体的构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金亮; 孙振元; 刘芸; 李天红

    2009-01-01

    根据已发表的菠菜、烟草等植物OA 20-oxidase基因序列在保守区设计简并引物,通过RT-PCR和RACE的方法克隆了Marster香石竹(Dianthus caryophyllus L.cv.Marster)GA 20-oxidase基因的全长cDNA(1 179 bp),命名为Dc200x.同源性分析表明该基因与其它作物上发表的GA 20-oxidase基因的氨基酸序列同源性为66%~75%.在此基础上选用香石竹GA20-oxidase基因同源性相对较高的400 bp DNA片段,构建了RNA干扰(RNAi)载体pART400.

  3. Physiological Effects of 6-BA and KT on Senescence of Cut Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) Flowers%6-苄基腺嘌呤和激动素对香石竹切花衰老的生理效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑翠萍; 吴迪; 李玲; 程聪; 罗红艺

    2008-01-01

    6-苄基腺嘌呤(6-BA)和激动素(KT)均能改善香石竹切花体内的水分平衡,增加切花的鲜重,增大花径,提高过氧化物酶(POD)活性,延缓可溶性蛋白质含量下降以及丙二醛(MDA)含量和O-2生成速率的增加,延长切花瓶插寿命2~3 d.

  4. 切花香石竹中乙烯的变化特点及保鲜%ON THE FEATURES OF THE ETHYLENE IN CHANGING AMONG THECUT-FLOWER CARNATIONS AND THEIR RETAINING OF FRESHNESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任辉

    1999-01-01

    乙烯的产生可促使切花衰老,乙烯对香石竹的影响决定其本身的浓度和作用时间.采切后,应先用预处液STS处理,经冷藏后,再配合使用瓶插液,才能使香石竹花开持久.

  5. Study on the Technology of Preservation of Cut Flowers of Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) with AgNO3 in the Vase%AgN03对切花康乃馨保鲜效果的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏晶晖

    2009-01-01

    以5%蔗糖+200mg/L的8-HQ为基本保鲜成分,添加不同浓度AgN03(分别为25,50,75,100mg/L)作为保鲜液,通过外部形态观察和生理指标测定,结果表明:处理D(5%,蔗糖+200 mg/L8 HQ+100 mg/LAgNO3)能明显缓解切花衰老,比对照延长瓶插寿命5 d.

  6. Identification and pathogenicity of Rhizoctonia solani causing damping-off of carnation in Yunnan%云南香石竹立枯病病原的鉴定及致病性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳琼; 杨根华; 孔宝华; 陈海如; 杨泮川

    2008-01-01

    香石竹(Dianthus caryophyllusL.)又名康乃馨(Carnation),原产于南欧,为石竹科石竹属宿根草本花卉。现在世界各地广泛栽培,被列为世界主要切花之一。近几年来,香石竹成为云南外销花卉的主创品牌,发展前景广阔。然而香石竹立枯病在香石竹产区普遍发生,严重影响了其切花的产量和品质。

  7. 秀珍菇提取液对香石竹切花的保鲜作用%Effect of Pleurotus geesteranus extract solution on the longevity of carnation cut flower

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翁祖英

    2007-01-01

    用乙醇浸提干燥、粉碎过的秀珍菇样品后,再用蒽酮比色法测定各浸提液的总糖含量.结果表明:用20%乙醇提取4 h,得到的秀珍菇浸提液总糖含量最高,再加水稀释成含0.5%秀珍菇浸提液的保鲜液对香石竹的保鲜效果最好.

  8. Gene and Construct-specific Qualitative PCR Detection of Transgenic Carnations%基因及构建特异性PCR方法检测转基因香石竹

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾军伟; 孙建萍; 白蓝; 李鹏; 潘爱虎

    2010-01-01

    以澳大利亚Florigene公司和日本Suntory公司研发的两种转基因香石竹Moonshade、Moonlite为研究对象,针对内参照基因ANS和外源基因F3'5'H、CHS启动子、D8ter,建立基因特异性定性PCR检测方法.此外,分别在外源MAC启动子和DFR基因上设计PCR引物,开展构建特异性PCR检测,定性PCR方法的检测灵敏度为0.5%.该方法的建立为转基因香石竹的进口检测、中国监管和环境安全评价提供了初步数据.

  9. A minimal cost micropropagation protocol for Dianthus caryophyllus L.-- a commercially significant venture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Manu

    2016-03-01

    In tissue culture, high production cost of the products restricts their reach. Though tissue culture is a major strength in floriculture it is marred by pricing issues. Hence, we developed a complete regeneration low cost micropropagation protocol for an economically important floriculture crop, carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.). Successful regeneration of carnation from nodal explants on cost-efficient medium indicates that psyllium husk, sugar and RO water can effectively replace the conventional medium comprising agar, sucrose and distilled water. The protocol can contribute to increased carnation production at comparatively reduced cost, and there by encourage wide scale adoption by the common growers.

  10. Mauna Kea III: Metabolic Effects of Dietary Carbohydrate Supplementation During Exercise at 4100 M Altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-05-01

    AidR, General Foods Corp., White Plains, N.Y. and Carnation Hot Cocoa Mix, Carnation , Los Angeles, CA). Each beverage serving was further stipplemented...beverages sweetened with aspartame (Sugar Free Kool- 3 AidR, General Foods Corp., White Plains, N.Y. and Carnaiton Sugar Free Hot Cocoa Mix, Carnation , Los...all Fruitcake .................... . ........ 1/4 1/2 3/4 all Maple nut cake ........... ... 1/4 1/2 3/4 all Orange nut cake ............... ........ 1

  11. Comparison Of Modified Dual Ternary Indexing And Multi-Key Hashing Algorithms For Music Information Retrieval

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    In this work we have compared two indexing algorithms that have been used to index and retrieve Carnatic music songs. We have compared a modified algorithm of the Dual ternary indexing algorithm for music indexing and retrieval with the multi-key hashing indexing algorithm proposed by us. The modification in the dual ternary algorithm was essential to handle variable length query phrase and to accommodate features specific to Carnatic music. The dual ternary indexing algorithm is ...

  12. Operational Guides for Frozen Products Prepared by the F. E. Warren Foil Pack Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-07-01

    gradually increase volume of sauce to 14 gal. *Trio is a registered trade name of the Carnation Corporation. Citation of trade names does not constitute an...use), NSN-8910-00-982-2779. d. Cheese, CheezTang, orange and white, Special Procurement, Kraft, Denver Food Service, Tel. No. (303)399-2224. e...TrioCheese Sauce Mix, Special Procurement, Carnation Food Service, Nobel Suppliers, Denver, CO. 2. Bakery a. Flour, wheat, general purpose, or bread flour

  13. The Illusion of Control: Great Powers Interacting with Tribal Societies and Weak Nation-states

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Carnatic region around Pondicherry. The Indian troops, led by French company officers, attacked and defeated the minimally defended British Company... Orange (Netherlands) became William III, King of England, Scotland and Ireland. Refer to Williamson Short History: The Old Colonial Empire Chapter VI...the French absence to extend their influence in the Carnatic region. Simultaneously, the British became the de facto rulers of Bengal. During the

  14. Scientific Opinion on the risk of Dickeya dianthicola for the EU territory with identification and evaluation of risk reduction options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Plant Health (PLH

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The EFSA Panel on Plant Health conducted a pest risk assessment for Dickeya dianthicola for the EU territory under the scenario of current EU plant health legislation and identified and evaluated risk reduction options. The probability of entry was considered low for carnation cuttings and mother plants because association of D. dianthicola with carnation is rare nowadays. Probability of entry was considered higher for other host plants for planting that are not subject to statutory control. However, this pathogen already occurs in these crops in the EU, and its transfer from them to carnation is unlikely. The probability of establishment is high in the open field but low in protected crops. The probability of spread is moderate in the open field but low in protected crops. Under current phytosanitary measures, but with voluntary certification and sanitation practices in place, consequences for carnation are minimal since no carnation crop losses have been reported in the last 25 years. The risk reduction options with best effectiveness and feasibility are those addressing the sanitary status of the propagation material. However, although the prevalence of D. dianthicola on carnation is low at present, current EU measures appear to have some potential weaknesses, particularly because of lack of details on the testing of mother plants. If the current regulation were to be removed, no major consequences or changes in the potential impact of D. dianthicola are expected provided the current general hygiene practices applied in the European voluntary certification schemes are maintained. If, on the other hand, the current legislation were removed and a voluntary certification scheme was not maintained, contamination of carnation crops by D. dianthicola is expected, with ensuing detrimental effects. Additional risk reduction options to reduce the probability of entry, establishment, spread and impact were identified. Uncertainties on the

  15. Cloning of a ACC Oxidase Gene from Carnation Flowers and Construction of It's Antisense Plant Expression Vectors%康乃馨ACC氧化酶cDNA的克隆及其反义植物表达载体的构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张树珍; 汤火龙; 杨本鹏; 刘飞虎

    2002-01-01

    以康乃馨(Dianthus caryophyllus L.)花瓣为材料,用改进的异硫氰酸胍一步法提取总RNA,根据已报道的康乃馨ACC氧化酶(1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase,ACO)基因的序列设计并合成一对引物,通过RT-PCR方法获得一约1.2kb特异片段,把该片段连接到pGEM(R)-T easy vector上进行测序,其全长共1156bp,编码区915 bp,共编码304个氨基酸残基.序列分析结果表明该序列与GenBank L35152中的康乃馨ACC氧化酶基因的cDNA序列完全相符,推断该基因在康乃馨种内可能是完全或高度保守的.随后将此片段反向插入植物表达载体pBI121的35S启动子和NOS终止子之间,构建了一反义植物表达载体pBO;又把花特异表达启动子PchsA插入pBI121的HindIII+Xbal位点构建中间载体pCHB,再把康乃馨ACC氧化酶基因反向插入中间载体pCHB的XbaI+Sst1位点构建成另一反义植物表达载体pCBO.

  16. N-月桂酰乙醇胺对香石竹开放和衰老进程中花瓣微粒体膜组分和功能的调节%Regulatory Role of N-lauroylethanolamine on Microsomal Membrane Composition and Function in Petals of Carnation During the Blossoming and Senescence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张云; 郭维明; 陈发棣; 韩亮; 李正名

    2007-01-01

    [目的]探讨N-月桂酰乙醇胺[N-lauroylethanolamine, NAE(12:0)]延缓香石竹切花衰老的作用机理.[方法]以5 μmol·L-1 NAE(12:0)对香石竹切花(Dianthus caryophyllus L.)'Red Barbara'进行瓶插处理,研究瓶插试验进程中NAE(12:0)对花瓣微粒体膜组分和功能的影响.[结果]香石竹切花开放和衰老进程伴随着花瓣微粒体膜磷脂含量、膜脂流动性、膜脂脂肪酸不饱和指数以及膜结合酶比活力的下降,外源NAE(12:0)处理能在切花盛开后期至初萎发生前明显滞缓香石竹花瓣微粒体膜上述指标的下降速率,同时降低作为膜衰老可靠指标的电导率的上升幅度.[结论]NAE(12:0)延缓香石竹切花衰老的作用机理与NAE(12:0)对花瓣微粒体膜磷脂降解以及膜脂脂肪酸组分的调节有关,由此延缓了花瓣微粒体膜脂流动性的下降速率,降低了膜渗漏的上升幅度,并维持了膜结合酶较高的比活力,从而推迟了切花初萎的发生.

  17. A direita radical em Portugal: da Revolução dos Cravos à era da internet = The radical right in Portugal: from the Carnation Revolution to the internet age = La derecha radical en Portugal: de la Revolución de los Claveles hasta la era de internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida, Fábio Chang de

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo busca revisitar o desenvolvimento da direita radical em Portugal, desde a queda do regime autoritário (1974 até a era da internet, com ênfase no período entre os anos de 1984 e 2012. A análise abordou dois eixos fundamentais: a criação de organizações culturais e políticas de direita radical e a organização de grupos violentos de conotação racista e xenofóbica

  18. Fabrication of a Silicon MOSFET Device with Bipolar Transistor Source,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    orange •" 0.426 Carnation pink ;’•• 0.443 0.465 Violet-red Red-violet «4 • B 0.476 Violet ,’A B 0.480...8217_/ light creamy grey or metallic.) ! 1 ft "•r 0.585 Light- orange or yellow to pink borderline ",- ’•" 0.600 Carnation pink ia 0.63Q Violet-red...Dull yellow-green 0.97 Yellow to "yellowish" 0.99 Orange 1.00 Carnation pink 1.02 Violet-red 1.05 Red-violet 1.06 Violet 1.07 Blue-violet

  19. Glucocorticoid Antagonism by Endotoxin: Biological Effects during Stress and Basis for Inhibition of Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-01

    nitrocellulose con- taining samples was saturated bW incubaticn in 15 ml of a 10% milk-Trin-saline (MTS) solution C10% Carnation instant nonfat drW milk, 10 mM...saturation of all binding sites in the wells, the plates were then incubated overnight at 40C with 200 ul of 0.5% Carnation nonfat drW milk in sensi...in the subsequent oxidation of OPD and formation of an orange - *~ yellow chromagen. The reaction was allowed to proceed at room temperature for 30

  20. Unilateral compatibility and genotypic difference in crossability in interspecific hybridization between Dianthus caryophyllus L. and Dianthus japonicus Thunb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimura, M; Kato, J; Mii, M; Morioka, K

    2003-05-01

    Reciprocal interspecific crosses were carried out between six lines of Dianthus caryophyllus L. and one line of Dianthus japonicus Thunb. Although no seed was set when D. japonicus was used as the seed parent, six seedlings were successfully obtained from 2,380 immature ovules by applying the embryo-rescue technique. However, they showed seed parent-like morphology and no evidence for the hybridity by flow cytometry and RAPD analyses. When six lines of D. caryophyllus were used as seed parents, a total of 192 seedlings were successfully obtained without using the embryo-rescue technique. Among these seedlings, 12 out of 25 progenies obtained from the carnation line '98sp1651' were confirmed to be the hybrids. The remaining 13 progenies of this line, and the total 167 progenies obtained from the other carnation lines, had carnation-like morphology without any evidence of hybridity by flow cytometry and RAPD analyses. The progenies confirmed as hybrids had intermediate characters of the parents with respect to leaf width and flower size, but they had a uniform flower color, reddish purple, which was different from that of either parent. Since the hybrids obtained in the present study have some profitable characters such as vigorous growth in summer time, upright robust stem, broad leaves and early flowering, they are expected to be used for the breeding of carnation which is suitable for growing under the Japanese climate.

  1. Dicty_cDB: SFI612 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 0.003 1 AW697837 |AW697837.1 EST0020 carnation flower specific cDNA library Diant...hus caryophyllus cDNA clone HM020 5' similar to hypothetical protein, mRNA sequence. 54 0.003 1 AW697825 |AW697825.1 EST0008 carnatio

  2. A petunia homeodomain-leucine zipper protein, PhHD-Zip, plays an important role in flower senescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flower senescence is mediated in part by changes of plant hormones, such as ethylene, cytokinin and abscisic acid (ABA). Ethylene is known to control flower senescence in many species, especially ethylene sensitive flowers, like petunia, carnation and rose. During flower senescence in petunia and ot...

  3. Comparison Of Modified Dual Ternary Indexing And Multi-Key Hashing Algorithms For Music Information Retrieval

    CERN Document Server

    Sridhar, Rajeswari; Karthiga, S; T, Geetha; 10.5121/ijaia.2010.1305

    2010-01-01

    In this work we have compared two indexing algorithms that have been used to index and retrieve Carnatic music songs. We have compared a modified algorithm of the Dual ternary indexing algorithm for music indexing and retrieval with the multi-key hashing indexing algorithm proposed by us. The modification in the dual ternary algorithm was essential to handle variable length query phrase and to accommodate features specific to Carnatic music. The dual ternary indexing algorithm is adapted for Carnatic music by segmenting using the segmentation technique for Carnatic music. The dual ternary algorithm is compared with the multi-key hashing algorithm designed by us for indexing and retrieval in which features like MFCC, spectral flux, melody string and spectral centroid are used as features for indexing data into a hash table. The way in which collision resolution was handled by this hash table is different than the normal hash table approaches. It was observed that multi-key hashing based retrieval had a lesser ...

  4. Avenanthramides: chemistry and biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avenanthramides are secondary metabolites produced in oat (and possibly in carnation) that function as phytoalexins (antimicrobial compounds) in the plant. They also possess potent anti-oxidant properties and have also shown several interesting nutraceutical properties in laboratory tests. This book...

  5. Comparison Of Modified Dual Ternary Indexing And Multi-Key Hashing Algorithms For Music Information Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeswari Sridhar

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work we have compared two indexing algorithms that have been used to index and retrieve Carnatic music songs. We have compared a modified algorithm of the Dual ternary indexing algorithm for music indexing and retrieval with the multi-key hashing indexing algorithm proposed by us. The modification in the dual ternary algorithm was essential to handle variable length query phrase and to accommodate features specific to Carnatic music. The dual ternary indexing algorithm is adapted for Carnatic music by segmenting using the segmentation technique for Carnatic music. The dual ternary algorithm is compared with the multi-key hashing algorithm designed by us for indexing and retrieval in which features like MFCC, spectral flux, melody string and spectral centroid are used as features for indexing data into a hash table. The way in which collision resolution was handled by this hash table is different than the normal hash table approaches. It was observed that multi-key hashing based retrieval had a lesser time complexity than dual-ternary based indexing The algorithms were also compared for their precision and recall in which multi-key hashing had a better recall than modified dual ternary indexing for the sample data considered.

  6. Comparison Of Modified Dual Ternary Indexing And Multi-Key Hashing Algorithms For Music Information Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeswari Sridhar

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work we have compared two indexing algorithms that have been used to index and retrieveCarnatic music songs. We have compared a modified algorithm of the Dual ternary indexing algorithmfor music indexing and retrieval with the multi-key hashing indexing algorithm proposed by us. Themodification in the dual ternary algorithm was essential to handle variable length query phrase and toaccommodate features specific to Carnatic music. The dual ternary indexing algorithm is adapted forCarnatic music by segmenting using the segmentation technique for Carnatic music. The dual ternaryalgorithm is compared with the multi-key hashing algorithm designed by us for indexing and retrieval inwhich features like MFCC, spectral flux, melody string and spectral centroid are used as features forindexing data into a hash table. The way in which collision resolution was handled by this hash table isdifferent than the normal hash table approaches. It was observed that multi-key hashing based retrievalhad a lesser time complexity than dual-ternary based indexing The algorithms were also compared fortheir precision and recall in which multi-key hashing had a better recall than modified dual ternaryindexing for the sample data considered.

  7. Mechanisms of PGPR-induced resistance against pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, L.C. van; Bakker, P.A.H.M.; Pieterse, C.M.J.

    1997-01-01

    Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria can suppress diseases through antagonism between the bacteria and soilborne pathogens, as well as by inducing a systemic resistance in the plant against both root and foliar pathogens. Specific Pseudomonas strains induce systemic resistance in carnation, cucumber

  8. Expression of defender against apoptotic death (DAD-1) in iris and dianthus petals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kop, van der D.A.M.; Ruys, G.; Dees, D.; Schoot, van der C.; Boer, de A.D.; Doorn, van W.G.

    2003-01-01

    The gene defender against apoptotic death (DAD-1) prevents programmed cell death in animal cells. We investigated the expression pattern of DAD-1 in petals of iris (Iris x hollandica cv. Blue Magic) and carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus cv. Etarro). DAD-1 expression in Iris petals was strongly reduce

  9. Air Force Research Initiation Program 1986 Technical Report Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    violet radiation), high speed, and extreme temperature the aircraft would encounter both on the ground or while in-service. Still other failures sight have...logical ring. 2. if a token destined for this site is received and if its INCARNATION is less than the greatest existing IN CARNATION , (a) remove this

  10. Induced Resistance to Ixodid Tick Infestation: Analysis and Isolation of Antigens

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    Sigma Chemical Co., St. Louis, MO) 30. 5% BLOTTO 500 ml Tris saline 25 g nonfat dry milk ( Carnation ) 31. 5% BLOTTO with Tween-20 500 ml Tris saline...gentian violet Bring volume to 100 ml with distilled water. Filter before use. 41. Trypan blue stain 0.2 g trypan blue 100 ml PBS 42. Growth medium

  11. Hypo-Fractionated Conformal Radiation Therapy to the Tumor Bed after Segmental Mastectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    at least 50 patients are available for carnation after 24 months from treatment (based on our original design, with a planned accrual )f 99...target volume (PTV) demonstrated; tumor bed in red vasn. PTV in blue, heart in pink , and lung in light green. PTV represents a 1.5-cm margin on tumor

  12. USSR Report; Translations From Kommunist No. 3, February 1983

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    sons of many peoples of our country. 77 Bowing at the common grave to lay a bouquet of red carnations on the sacred soil, I experienced a feeling of deep...cultural opposition. This stand, which brings back to memory the perse- cution of "red" and " pink " intellectuals, which was organized by the Commit- tee

  13. The History of Fort Leavenworth 1952-63

    Science.gov (United States)

    1964-01-01

    large baskets of pink and red carnation corsages, sped the flow of dollars for the cause. Maj Albert L. Kotzebue was master of ceremonies during the...October 1957. " Pinks and greens" and olive drab- shade 33, the long-familiar semidress and duty attire for Army officers, were placed in storage as

  14. Anthropogenic Factors Affecting the Status of Salmon Stocks in Pacific Northwest Watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    of chum O. keta and pink O. gorbusha just prior to, during, and after out-migration to the ocean and sea surface temperatures. However, they did...climate variation, and ocean conditions on salmonid populations of Carnation Creek, Vancouver Island, British Columbia. Pages 297-327 In E. E. Knudsen

  15. Development of a Synthetic Blood Substitute Utilizing Hemoglobin Vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-02-26

    without purification. Polystvrene microspheres (PSM! werL obtained from Duke Scientific. The artificial dairy substitute (ADS) was Coffeemate ( Carnation ...Measurements were made on tissue phantoms consisting of pink gelatin incorporating 1.61. 3.2%, and 7.7% (w/w) ADS. Figure 3 shows the results fcr

  16. The Development of the Theory and Doctrine of Operational Art in the American Army, 1920-1940

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-22

    34Participation with Allies, Blue, Pink, Red, Yellow VS. Orange , Carnation ," 21 Apr 1934, AWC file 405-e4. 80. . p. 17. 81. AWC Course 1937-38, B9 Walter...plans involving many scenarios. 19 Each enemy was color coded, for example, Japan- orange , Mexico-green, Soviet Union-pink, etc. In their plans they

  17. 77 FR 74859 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-18

    ... Keystone Heights City Hall, 555 South Lawrence Boulevard, Keystone Heights, FL 32656. Town of Orange Park Town Hall, Economic and Community Development Department, 2042 Park Avenue, Orange Park, FL 32073. Town... Rensselaer Street, Rensselaer, IN 47978. Town of DeMotte Town Hall, 112 Carnation Street SE., DeMotte,...

  18. Building a Better Strategic Analyst: A Critical Review of the U.S. Army’s All Source Analyst Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-15

    suggesting a familiar explanation. An example is two shipping manifests, one with lemons and oranges shipped from Venezuela to Florida and the other showing... carnations shipped from Delaware to Colombia. An analyst using abductive reasoning may ask why citrus fruit is being sent to the world’s primary

  19. Air Weather Service Support to the United States Army Tet and the Decade After

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-08-01

    Emdo API Scott API Virginia Gem’Jew Alke ltnl Provide or Provides or himods or Ftevides or Provde o oranges for anugu for eworgss for elsgsfor oerr’s...confessed that it was a rein- carnation , really, a realization among Army commanders reborn with each war but buried during peace- Cot Edwin E. Carnel time

  20. Species Profiles: Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (Pacific Northwest). Sea-Run Cutthroat Trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    and into Identification aids: Red or orange southeastern Alaska (Figures 2 and streak along the inner edge of lower 3). Rarely found more than 160 km...populations of Carnation Bozeman. 28 pp. Creek and other Barkley Sound streams--1974: data record and pro- Buckley, R.V. ]q66. Catch of the gress report

  1. Miscellaneous information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1977-01-01

    Carnatic Flora, S. India, is a project of the Rapinat Herbarium, St. Joseph’s College (RHT), Tiruchirapalli 620 002, India (see p. 2012). The area is between about 11°-12° N 78°- 80° E. Work is set up with a hope to make more materials available than Gamble & Fischer and Fyson could study and to imp

  2. Exploitation de la variabilité somaclonale pour la recherche d'oeillet (Dianthus caryophyllus L. tolérant à la salinité

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haouala, F.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Exploitation of Somaclonal Variability for Research of Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. Tolerant to Salinity. Callogenesis in carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. 'Légion d'Honneur' is possible from internodes in a medium containing 0.1 mg.l-1 NAA and 0.1 mg.l-1 TDZ. Regeneration from callus needs 2 mg.l-1 BA. Shoots rooting is obtained on a medium containing 0.5 mg.l-1 IBA. Callus growth is reduced and regeneration rate is very affected in presence of NaCl 100 mM. Shoot rooting is better without NaCl. Regenerated plants present somaclonal variation and those obtained under salt stress have a better relative tolerance to salinity than plants regenerated without salt.

  3. Atividade anti-helmíntica de plantas em frangos de corte naturalmente infectados com Ascaridia galli Anthelminthic activity of plants in broiler chickens naturally infected with Ascaridia galli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M. Fernandes

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The anthelminthic activity of four plants - Allium sativum (garlic, Punica granatum (pomegranate, Tynnanthus labiatus (liana-carnation and Cocus nucifera (coconut with the activity of mebendazole - was compared. Seventy Hubbard chickens, naturally infected with Ascarídia galli, divided in 5 groups of 10 chichens plus a control group (not treated, n=20 were used in the experiment. The vegetable matter was used in the forms of aqueous extract, juice and triturated, administered by probe or incorporated to the diet, in the doses of 2, 3 and 10g/kg/day, for three days. A non parametric test was used to evaluate the anthelminthic effect of the plants. The eliminations of A. galli for the garlic, pomegranate, liana-carnation, coconut and mebendazole were: 9.7; 6.6, 16.7; 19.0 and 99.0%, respectively. The results showed that those plants do not have anthelminthic activity.

  4. 香石竹斑驳病毒病的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓耕; 黄宇翔; 李章汀

    2004-01-01

    我国香石竹栽培发展很快,年产鲜切花达10亿枝以上,但是由于病毒病的影响,香石竹的产量、质量不断下降,引起不同程度的植株矮化,畸形、花叶、坏死、花朵变小、开裂、花碎色等症状。危害香石竹的病毒病种类有香石竹斑驳病毒(Carnation mottle virus,CarMV)、香石竹潜隐病毒(Carnation Latent virus CLV)、

  5. 香石竹枯萎病病原菌鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任琼丽

    2005-01-01

    香石竹(Dianthus caryophyllus L.),又名康乃馨(Carnation),为石竹科石竹属多年生草本植物。是世界最著名的传统鲜切花之一,因其花朵大、花形美、色鲜艳、品种多、瓶养保鲜期长而深受消费者青睐。

  6. Pathogenicity of eight formae speciales of Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht. in relation to different plants species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Wagner

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Eight formae speciales of Fusarium oxysporum were isolated from plants of aster, flax, bean, pea, tomato, carnation, yellow lupine and pine, showing visible symptoms of wilting. Plants of the eight species were inoculated with each of the studied formae speciales of F. oxysporum, F. oxysporum f. sp. lupini could be reisolated only from lupine, while the others were pathogenic for the hosts and showed ability to colonize another plants.

  7. Truth and revolution: features of the cynicism in the work by Almeida Faria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Ribeiro dos Santos

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We propose to investigate traces of cynicism in contemporary Portuguese novel. In the extent of Tetralogy Lusitana de Almeida Faria - composed of the novels A Paixão, Cortes, Lusitânia e Cavaleiro Andante - try to show how the author, while working with the theme of the Carnation Revolution, also presents a work of revolutionary dimension that posits a truth other and that, therefore, may be representative of a real cynic parresia, as proposed by Michel Foucault.

  8. Genetic diversity of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi in Southern Spain

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of races and prevalence of pathogenic populations of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi (Fod) were surveyed in an area in southern Spain. From 54 farms, 132 isolates were collected from wilted carnation plants. Isolates were characterized by RAPDPCR, DNA sequence analysis of the TEF1-α gene, and race-specific molecular markers. Selected isolates from RAPD groups were phenotypically evaluated by pathogenicity tests. Data analysis showed that Fod race 2 was the most frequent and pr...

  9. Genetic Diversity of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi in Southern Spain

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of races and prevalence of pathogenic populations of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi (Fod) were surveyed in an area in southern Spain. From 54 farms, 132 isolates were collected from wilted carnation plants. Isolates were characterized by RAPD-PCR, DNA sequence analysis of the TEF1-α gene, and race-specific molecular markers. Selected isolates from RAPD groups were phenotypically evaluated by pathogenicity tests. Data analysis showed that Fod race 2 was the most frequent and p...

  10. Micropropagation of some ornamental plants

    OpenAIRE

    Koleva Gudeva, Liljana; Spasenoski, Mirko

    2002-01-01

    Till now many horticulture plants have been successfully regenerated on in vitro conditions. Among them there are ornamental plants such as: Rosa-miniature pot roses; myrillocatus geometrizans-cacti, succulent plant; Echinopsis spachiana-cacti, succulent plant and Dianthus cariophyllus-carnation. Regeneration or micropropagation has been used for production of copies(clones) of the original unique plants(Hussery, 1986). Depending on the species, apical or axillar buds was used for micropro...

  11. Application of Two-spotted Spider Mite Tetranychus urticae for Plant-pest Interaction Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Cazaux, Marc; Navarro, Marie; Bruinsma, Kristie A; Zhurov, Vladimir; Negrave, Tara; Van Leeuwen, Thomas; Grbic, Vojislava; Grbic, Miodrag

    2014-01-01

    The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, is a ubiquitous polyphagous arthropod herbivore that feeds on a remarkably broad array of species, with more than 150 of economic value. It is a major pest of greenhouse crops, especially in Solanaceae and Cucurbitaceae (e.g., tomatoes, eggplants, peppers, cucumbers, zucchini) and greenhouse ornamentals (e.g., roses, chrysanthemum, carnations), annual field crops (such as maize, cotton, soybean, and sugar beet), and in perennial cultures (alfa...

  12. Wetlands Evaluation Technique (WET). Volume 1: Literature Review and Evaluation Rationale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-10-01

    detritus in Carnation Creek, British Geological Survey, Reston, VA. Columbia. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 42:139-146. Daniel, J. F. 1976. Estimating...marshes fauna of the pink shrimp (Penaeus as nurseries for fishes and crustaceans. duorarum Burkenroad) grounds in the Ph.D. dissertation, Louisiana State... Pink Investig. Rep. 77-90. US Geol. Surv., salmon. Biol. Rep. 82 (10.109). US Fish Doraville, GA. WildI. Serv., Fort Collins, CO. 36 p. Prince, H. H

  13. Toxic Hazards Research Unit Annual Report: 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-01

    Edama Score Nor.* 0 None 0 Very slight pink 1 V"rysliyht 1 Slight pink 2 Slight 2 Moderate red 3 Moderate 3 V"ryred 4 Maned 49 APPENDIX 4 SCALE FOR...SENSITIZATION CLASSIICATION Positive Responders ()Sensitization Potential ’ None None Very slight pink Very slight Slight pink Slight Moderate red...stainles-steel cages. Water and food (Purina Rabbit Chow #5320 and Carnation Rabbit Chow) were available ad libitum, and the rabbits were maintained on a

  14. Novel Cytochrome P45OlBl as a Mammary Cancer Risk Factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-07-01

    Transfor apparatus (Hoeffer Scientific, San Francisco, CA) at 250 mA for 2 h. The membranes were blocked with 5% Carnation nonfat dry milk in PBST (PBS...Jordan and John Pink (Northwestern University, University of Wisconsin Comprehensive Cancer Center)(23, 24). ICI 182,780 was obtained from Dr. Alan...responsiveness in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells is associated with ARNT expression. Fund. Appl. Toxicol, 36, 130. (23) Pink , J.J., Bilimoria

  15. Wetlands Research Program. Wetland Evaluation Technique (WET). Volume 1. Literature Review and Evaluation Rationale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-10-01

    US detritus in Carnation Creek, British Geological Survey, Reston, VA. Columbia. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 42:139-146. Daniel, J. F. 1976. Estimating...tidal marshes fauna of the pink shrimp (Penaeus as nurseries for fishes and crustaceans. duorarum Burkenroad) grounds in the Ph.D. dissertation...index models: Pink Investig. Rep. 77-90. US Geol. Surv., salmon. Biol. Rep. 82 (10.109). US Fish Doraville, GA. Wildl. Serv., Fort Collins, CO. 36 p

  16. Species Profiles: Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (Pacific Southwest). Coho Salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-08-01

    rays resulting in black 1931) but usually enter from October banding; orange tints on anal, to March, peaking in December and pectoral, and pelvic fins...Tdft (1954) developed the following orange -red, and demersal. Scott and fe.nity f.)r,nuli: Crossmdn (1973) reported egg diameters of 4.5-6.0 mm for...undercut bdnks, overhanging areas to overwinter. In Carnation "eqetation, glides, averaqe water Creek (Vancouver Island, B.C.) coho tenperat ires of 10 to

  17. Avaliação de novos híbridos de porta-enxertos para a laranjeira 'valência'

    OpenAIRE

    Simonetti, Lilian Massaro [UNESP

    2015-01-01

    The mandarin citrandarins 'Sunki' Poncirus trifoliata vs hp. Rubidoux are a new generation of rootstock for the citrus industry, which combine traits such as disease resistance, formation of small plants, high production efficiency and production of high quality fruit. The aim of this study was to evaluate citrus rootstock hybrids in competition with Lemon Tree Carnation, grafted with Valencia orange, aiming at initial evaluation of new varieties of rootstock for the citrus industry. We evalu...

  18. The Fulcrum of Necessity: Strategic Planning Before Pearl Harbor

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-01

    hostile coalition. Another study in 1934 projected Orange and Carnation (Manchukuo) provoking a war with Pink (Russia [sic]). Eventually Pink is...war plans in the early 1920s. These were the "color" plns in which colors were used to designate various potential enemies. For example, Orange (Japan...Army was more concerned with defending the U.S. against an invasion by, oddly enough, Red (the British Empire) or even a possible Red- Orange

  19. Acceptability of the Current and Proposed Items in the Meal, Ready-to-Eat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-05-01

    soldiers report bringing Protein Drinks to the field ( Carnation , GNC. Myoplex, Protein shake mix, Ripped Fuel, and Wazc Whey Protein). Table 9. Bring...34 like s lightly. >~ The Marshmallow Treat> Shortbread Cookie, Chocolate Sports Bar. Orange Pound Cake. and Graham Treat all have small n’s. (Any mean...Brittle Bar Pound Cake. Lemon fig bar Cheese & PB Crackers Candy [kef Jerky Pound Cake, Vanilla Pound Cake, Fudge l3rownic Pound Cake, Orange

  20. Identification of Bacterial Plant Pathogens Using Multilocus Polymerase Chain Reaction/Electrospray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    seedlings (sweet orange ) were inoculated with X. citri subsp. citri (also known as X. axonopodis pv. citri). Cabbage plants were inoculated with X...caryophylli PC113; ATCC25418 Carnation ; USA 1 Burkholderia gladioli pv. gladioli FC-368; PM107; ATCC10248 Gladiolus; USA 1 Clavibacter michiganensis...alfalfae pv. citrumelosis No call – Citrus inoculated with Xanthomonas alfalfae pv. citrumelosis No call – Healthy citrus (sweet orange ) No call

  1. The Annual Department of Defense Procurement Research Symposium (5th), held 17-19 Nov 76, Monterey, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-11-01

    for both Chapman College, Orange , California, and California State University at San Bernardino. Mr. Templeman has 14 years of procurement experience...Xerox . 906 SLi.y .457 Dairy products 60-70 Soaps. etc. 60-70 Borden 1.023 Procter & Gamble 1.612 National Oairy 948 Colgate 531 Carnation * 456 .-Lee...percent increase in the salaries of the policemen of Orange , California to every three percent decline in rape, robbery, burglary and auto theft (6

  2. Specific Inhibitors of Histone Demethylases: Novel Chemical Agents for Breast Cancer Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Index Award for Excellence in Chemistry, California Institute of Technology, 1999  Carnation Merit Award, California Institute of Technology, 1997-1998...water. The resulting solution was brought to a gentle reflux and heated for 90 min as an orange color developed. The solution was cooled to room...sub- sequently filtered to yield a clear red filtrate. Addition of an aqueous solution (5 mL) of 350 mg KPF6 (1.9 mmol) yielded red– orange

  3. South Atlantic Conflict of 1982: A Case Study in Military Cohesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    film stars sold over 400,000 carnations in the streets of Buenos Aires. In a frenzy of xenophobia, portenos contributed religious medals, wedding...remarkably well read and au courant regarding plays, films , art and literary trends. The average Argentine military officer is literate, cosmopolitan...interviews sound like a soundtrack from a Noel Coward play. This rough and ready biting humor is evident in McGowan and Hands book, Don’t Cry Tot Me

  4. Identification of genes associated with chlorophyll accumulation in flower petals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmiya, Akemi; Hirashima, Masumi; Yagi, Masafumi; Tanase, Koji; Yamamizo, Chihiro

    2014-01-01

    Plants have an ability to prevent chlorophyll accumulation, which would mask the bright flower color, in their petals. In contrast, leaves contain substantial amounts of chlorophyll, as it is essential for photosynthesis. The mechanisms of organ-specific chlorophyll accumulation are unknown. To identify factors that determine the chlorophyll content in petals, we compared the expression of genes related to chlorophyll metabolism in different stages of non-green (red and white) petals (very low chlorophyll content), pale-green petals (low chlorophyll content), and leaves (high chlorophyll content) of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.). The expression of many genes encoding chlorophyll biosynthesis enzymes, in particular Mg-chelatase, was lower in non-green petals than in leaves. Non-green petals also showed higher expression of genes involved in chlorophyll degradation, including STAY-GREEN gene and pheophytinase. These data suggest that the absence of chlorophylls in carnation petals may be caused by the low rate of chlorophyll biosynthesis and high rate of degradation. Similar results were obtained by the analysis of Arabidopsis microarray data. In carnation, most genes related to chlorophyll biosynthesis were expressed at similar levels in pale-green petals and leaves, whereas the expression of chlorophyll catabolic genes was higher in pale-green petals than in leaves. Therefore, we hypothesize that the difference in chlorophyll content between non-green and pale-green petals is due to different levels of chlorophyll biosynthesis. Our study provides a basis for future molecular and genetic studies on organ-specific chlorophyll accumulation.

  5. Wide variety of flower-color and -shape mutants regenerated from leaf cultures irradiated with ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamura, M. E-mail: okamuram@kirin.co.jp; Yasuno, N.; Ohtsuka, M.; Tanaka, A.; Shikazono, N.; Hase, Y

    2003-05-01

    The efficiency of ion-beam irradiation combined with tissue culture in obtaining floral mutants was investigated and compared with those of gamma rays and X-rays in carnation. Leaf segments of carnation plants in vitro were irradiated with the 220 MeV carbon ions, and cultured till the shoot regenerated. The carbon ion had the highest effect in reducing the regeneration frequency, and the RBE value with respect to gamma-rays was four. The higher mutation frequency and the wider mutation spectrum were obtained in plants irradiated with the carbon ions than low LET radiations. Three new carnation varieties developed by ion-beam irradiation were applied for the registration of the Japanese Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. The results indicate that ion beam irradiation could induce wide variety of flower-color and -shape mutants, and that the combined method of ion-beam irradiation with tissue culture is useful to obtain the commercial varieties in a short time.

  6. USE OF AGRICULTURAL WASTES FOR BIOMASS PRODUCTION OF THE PLANT GROWTH PROMOTER ACTINOBACTERIA, Streptomyces sp. MCR26

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Ávila-Cortes

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of agricultural wastes for plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR biomass production has not been widely explored. This study focuses on the development a culture medium for PGPR Streptomyces sp. MCR26, evaluating the influence of carnation harvest waste, yeast extract and ammonium sulfate on biomass production, as well as, the effect of biomass produced in the designed culture medium on the maintenance of PGPR MCR26 traits. The experiments were conducted by a full factorial design, varying nutritional sources concentrations, with duplicate experiments at the central point. Yeast extract and carnation harvest waste were the most influential factors, showing a positive effect on biomass production. The statistical model predicted optimal conditions for maximal biomass production at 20.0 g/L carnation harvest waste and 4.0 g/L yeast extract. Shake flask validation experiments resulted in 8.087 g/L of MCR26 biomass, 80.6% higher compared to carboxymetil cellulose (CMC broth. MCR26 biomass produced on designed culture medium enhanced hydroxamate production, and maintained phosphatases and indole-3-acetic acid synthesis. In addition, white clover inoculated plants presented higher shoot biomass accumulation compared to control treatment; nevertheless, there were no effects on seed germination. These results demonstrated that the designed culture medium effectively induced Streptomyces sp. MCR26 biomass production and maintained its plant growth promotion traits.

  7. Clinical application research on the use of the Photon Therapeutic Apparatus combined with Hops extract compound ointment in treatment for breast cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Yunzhu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To research Carnation-87C photon theraapeutic apparatus combine with compound hops extract ointment in the clinical effect of breast cancer patients after operation with unhealed incision of skin flap necrosis. Method: The experimental group is treated by the conventional therapy and Carnation-87C photon therapeutic apparatus combine with compound hops extract ointment, while the control group is treated by the conventional therapy only, such as regular dressing change. The other treatments for two groups of patients are the same. Through 4 weeks’ treatment, the growth of fresh granulation tissue and healing time were observed between two groups. Results: There were statistically significant differences (P<0.05 in the growth of fresh granulation tissue and healing time between two groups of patients with non-healing skin flap necrosis after the operation. Conclusion: The treatment with the Carnation-87C photon therapeutic apparatus combine with compound hops extract ointment for breast cancer patients after operation with unhealed incision of skin flap necrosis is easy to operate with good curative effect, and it is worth popularizing in clinical application.

  8. Scientific Opinion on the risk to plant health posed by Phialophora cinerescens (Wollenweber van Beyma for the EU territory, with the identification and evaluation of risk reduction options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Plant Health (PLH

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Panel on Plant Health conducted a pest risk assessment for Phialophora cinerescens (Wollenweber van Beyma (the causal agent of Phialophora carnation wilt for the EU territory, identified risk management options and evaluated their effectiveness. The risk assessment was conducted taking into account current EU legislation. The Panel also provided an opinion on the effectiveness of the present EU requirements against this organism, listed in Council Directive 2000/29/EC. Four pathways for entry were identified. Plants for propagation (rooted and unrooted cuttings of host plants were considered as a major pathway. Entry via this pathway was rated as unlikely because of the effective disease prevention techniques for cuttings now in place in places of production. P. cinerescens has been found in most Member States but with few occurrences or restricted distribution. In some Member States the pest was eradicated. Owing to current cultural practices and control measures, establishment in areas in which the pest was not previously present is considered very unlikely. For the same reasons, the probability of infection of crops is strongly reduced and hence the probability of spread to areas where the pest was not previously present is very unlikely. Similarly, the impact on carnation is at the moment minimal and unlikely to increase in the future. Risk reduction options to reduce the probability of entry and spread and mitigate the impact were evaluated; those addressing the phytosanitary status of the propagation material were considered to be the most effective and feasible (e.g., the officially accepted carnation certification system for source planting material, including the current regulations laid down in Council Directive 2000/29/EC. If the current regulation were removed, a certification system could be just as effective as the existing regulation, provided it included practically all the prescriptions of the present regulation.

  9. Identification of genes associated with chlorophyll accumulation in flower petals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akemi Ohmiya

    Full Text Available Plants have an ability to prevent chlorophyll accumulation, which would mask the bright flower color, in their petals. In contrast, leaves contain substantial amounts of chlorophyll, as it is essential for photosynthesis. The mechanisms of organ-specific chlorophyll accumulation are unknown. To identify factors that determine the chlorophyll content in petals, we compared the expression of genes related to chlorophyll metabolism in different stages of non-green (red and white petals (very low chlorophyll content, pale-green petals (low chlorophyll content, and leaves (high chlorophyll content of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.. The expression of many genes encoding chlorophyll biosynthesis enzymes, in particular Mg-chelatase, was lower in non-green petals than in leaves. Non-green petals also showed higher expression of genes involved in chlorophyll degradation, including STAY-GREEN gene and pheophytinase. These data suggest that the absence of chlorophylls in carnation petals may be caused by the low rate of chlorophyll biosynthesis and high rate of degradation. Similar results were obtained by the analysis of Arabidopsis microarray data. In carnation, most genes related to chlorophyll biosynthesis were expressed at similar levels in pale-green petals and leaves, whereas the expression of chlorophyll catabolic genes was higher in pale-green petals than in leaves. Therefore, we hypothesize that the difference in chlorophyll content between non-green and pale-green petals is due to different levels of chlorophyll biosynthesis. Our study provides a basis for future molecular and genetic studies on organ-specific chlorophyll accumulation.

  10. Nucleotide sequence of cDNA coding for dianthin 30, a ribosome inactivating protein from Dianthus caryophyllus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legname, G; Bellosta, P; Gromo, G; Modena, D; Keen, J N; Roberts, L M; Lord, J M

    1991-08-27

    Rabbit antibodies raised against dianthin 30, a ribosome inactivating protein from carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) leaves, were used to identify a full length dianthin precursor cDNA clone from a lambda gt11 expression library. N-terminal amino acid sequencing of purified dianthin 30 and dianthin 32 confirmed that the clone encoded dianthin 30. The cDNA was 1153 basepairs in length and encoded a precursor protein of 293 amino acid residues. The first 23 N-terminal amino acids of the precursor represented the signal sequence. The protein contained a carboxy-terminal region which, by analogy with barley lectin, may contain a vacuolar targeting signal.

  11. Use rockwool as a substrate for Peperomia obtusifolia, Streptocarpus hybridus and Spathiphyllum floribundum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Strojny

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted, in which the granulated rockwool 'Grodan', utilised rockwool 'Flormin', used before as slabs and remained after 2-year carnation culture (UR - shredded and steamed and two kinds of insulation rockwool of domestic production: from Gliwice (RG and from Nidzica (RN were used as a substrate or its ingredient for mentioned in title plants. Particular plant species expressed somewhat diversified reaction, but generally rockwool showed full usability as a substrate or its component. The best kind appeared to be UR. RG was good in the mix, where it was in 25% of the volume, but RN was unsuitable.

  12. Reduction of radiation injury of fresh agricultural products by saccharide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Toru; Todoroki, Setsuko [National Food Research Inst., Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1998-02-01

    To establish irradiation technologies as one of alternative technology of methyl bromide fumigation, radiation sensitivities for each kind of fresh agricultural products and reduction of radiation injury were investigated. Fresh vegetables and flowers such as cabbage, sprouts, asparagus, lettuce, chrysanthemum, carnation, rose, etc. were used and irradiated with 750 Gy {gamma}-ray. Flowers received radiation injury were soaked into various kinds of solutions for one night, then they were irradiated with 500 Gy {gamma}-ray. They showed different radiation sensitivities. Cruciferae plant showed radioresistance and Compositae plant radiosensitivity. A keeping quality agent for cut flowers indicated protection effect on radiation injury. (S.Y.)

  13. Kalman filter estimation model in flood forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Tahir

    Elementary precipitation and runoff estimation problems associated with hydrologic data collection networks are formulated in conjunction with the Kalman Filter Estimation Model. Examples involve the estimation of runoff using data from a single precipitation station and also from a number of precipitation stations. The formulations demonstrate the role of state-space, measurement, and estimation equations of the Kalman Filter Model in flood forecasting. To facilitate the formulation, the unit hydrograph concept and antecedent precipitation index is adopted in the estimation model. The methodology is then applied to estimate various flood events in the Carnation Creek of British Columbia.

  14. 凝聚巾帼智慧力量 建设和谐富裕凤城

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    Yinchuan, capital of Northwest China's Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, is one of China's important commercial cities. The city is inhabited by more than 800,000 Hui and Han women and children. Over the past several years, the Yinchuan Women's Federation has taken the lead in establishing women's organizations, such as "Carnation Home" (an organization that provides financial aid, psychological counseling and free physical checkups to single mothers), mutual-aid groups to benefit left-behind women (whose husbands have left home to work elsewhere),

  15. Contributo para a história da avaliação educacional em Portugal: os anos 70

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cândido M. Freitas Varela de

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty years ago, educational evaluation was almost unknown in Portugal. Today evaluation is subject to a major debate, and it would probably maintain that feature. This paper aims to point out several less known facts about the beginnings of educational evaluation in Portugal, as the first chapter of a Portuguese history of evaluation. The author assumes himself as an eyewitness and an actor in most of those facts. The paper covers the period between 1960 and 1980, stressing the influence of the international organizations and the turmoil of the Carnation revolution (the 25th April 1974.

  16. Volatile constituents of Dianthus rupicola Biv. from Sicily: activity against microorganisms affecting cellulosic objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casiglia, Simona; Bruno, Maurizio; Senatore, Felice

    2014-01-01

    Dianthus rupicola Biv. (cliffs carnation) is a camephytic, suffruticous, perennial plant growing up to 40 cm high. The plant is widespread in Sicily and neighbouring islands (Egadi, Lampedusa, Lipari) and in some areas of southern Italy. GC and GC-MS analyses of the essential oil distilled from the flowers showed the presence of 66 components. Its composition is characterised by the high content of thymol and carvacrol derivatives. A good antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus and Bacillussubtilis, both infesting cellulosic historical material, was shown, whereas the antioxidant capacity was determined to be quite poor.

  17. The Role of Neuropilin in Breast Cancer Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-01

    with 100% methanol and stained with 0.2% crystal violet in into 293T cells (3 X 10’ cells/100-mm plate) with LipofectAMINE (In- 2% ethanol. Invasion was...other Abs were used for the co-immuno- Tris buffer (pH 7.5) containing 0.15 m NaCl, 0.05% Tween 20 (TBS-T), and 5% Carnation dry milk. The membranes...and stained with 0.2% crystal violet in non-reducing sample buffer (biotinylated 03 and P 1 integrin 2% ethanol. Migration was quantified by counting

  18. Mutations in the Histone-like Nucleoid Structuring Regulatory Gene (hns) Decrease the Adherence of Shiga Toxin-producing Escherichia coli 091:H21 Strain B2F1 to Human Colonic Epithelial Cells and Increase the Production of Hemolysin

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-10-19

    long wave ultra- violet light (Chapman et aI., 1991; Zadik et al., 1993). Because 0157:H7 strains are negative for p-glucuronidase this test...by cross-linking with ultra violet (UV) light (Church and Gilbert, 1984). The blot was blocked at least 4 hours before addition of labeled probe (see...with a trans-blot SO semi-dry apparatus (Bio-Rad). The membranes were blocked with 5% nonfat dried milk ( Carnation Co., Los Angeles, CAl in Tris

  19. 芥川龍之介の植物世界 : 感応する植物・植物への変容

    OpenAIRE

    西川, 正二

    2012-01-01

    Ryunosuke Akutagwa loved plants. He loved to have flowers in his room, such as carnations or hyacinths in a vase or Christmas roses in a pot. He not only made haiku and waka about various flowers but also referred to a variety of plants in his letters, travel writings, and other works. His unrequited love was always expressed by flowers in waka. In the Kuzumaki Archive there are numerous fragments of writings classified as "Plants notes" or "Plant myths notes" which show his interest in plant...

  20. Cytochrome P450-mediated metabolic engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Renault, Hugues; Bassard, Jean-Étienne André; Hamberger, Björn Robert

    2014-01-01

    for the engineered bioproduction of such compounds. Two ground-breaking developments of commercial products driven by the engineering of P450s are the antimalarial drug precursor artemisinic acid and blue roses or carnations. Tedious optimizations were required to generate marketable products. Hurdles encountered...... in P450 engineering and their potential solutions are summarized here. Together with recent technical developments and novel approaches to metabolic engineering, the lessons from this pioneering work should considerably boost exploitation of the amazing P450 toolkit emerging from accelerated sequencing...

  1. Military and Private Sector Commodity Outlets: A Retail Price Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-02-01

    89 6. Del Monte Bananas, 1 lb. .34 .49 7. Sunkist Oranges , 1 lb. .37 .56 8. Minute Maid Frozen Lemon Juice, 6 fl. oz. .25 .41 9. Red Delicious Apples...continued Prices Iter Commissary Safeway 47. Marlboro Cigarettes, Carton 5.28 7.99 48. Carnation Evaporated Milk, Canned, 13 fl. oz. .46 .47 49. Gerber...1 lb. .90 1.29 80. Jimmy Dean Pork Sausage, 16 oz. 1.53 2.49 81. Minute Maid Frozen Orange Juice, 12 f!. oz. .97 .99 TOTAL $114.70 $152.23 1. Sale

  2. Dollar Summary of Prime Contract Awards by State, Place, and Contractor, FY84, Part 3, (Anderson, Indiana-Winona, Mississippi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    CARNATION COMPANY 197 197 MIDDLESBORO FUEL SUPPLY CORP 179 179 VAUGHN & MELTON DATA INC 123 123 TOTAL - MIDDLESBORO 302 179 123 MONTICELLO BLUEGRASS...49,697 489 15,531 33,425 92 11 NUTTING LAKE COMPUTER DEVICES INC 36 36 OPTICAL CABLE CORPORATION 28 TOTAL - NUTTING LAKE 64 36 ORANGE LEAVITT MACHINE...CO INC THE 50 50 ORANGE LEAVITT MACHINE CO INC THE 71 71 OTIS AIR FORCE BASE ALAR CORP 393 393 J B S INC 26 26 MODULAR COMPUTER SYSTEMS INC 85 85

  3. Walking Through the Revolution: A Spatial Reading of Literary Echoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Isabel Queiroz

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an embryo of a literary guide on the Carnation Revolution to be explored for educational historical excursions other than leisure and tourism. We propose a historical trail through the centre of Lisbon, city of the Carnation Revolution, called Walk through the Revolution. The trail aims to reinforce collective memory about the major events that occurred in the early moments leading to the coup. The trail is made up by nine places of rememberance, for which literary excerpts are suggested and which are supported by a digital research procedure. A set of seven fixed and observer-independent categories are used to analyse the literary contents of 23 literary works published up to 2013. These literary works refer to events that happened between the eve of April 25 and May 1, 1974. At the same time, literary descriptions are explored using a spatial approach in order to define the literary geography of the most iconic military actions and popular demonstrations that occurred in Lisbon and the surroundings. The literary geography and the cartography of the historical events are then compared. Data analysis and visualization benefit from the use of standardised and quantitative methods, including basic statistics and geographic information systems.

  4. Various shaped-ZnO nanocrystals via low temperature synthetic methods: Surfactant and pH dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hyeon Jin; Lee, Seulki; Choi, Hyun Chul; Choi, Myong Yong

    2013-07-01

    ZnO nanocrystals, rod-, carnation-, and flower-like structures, have been synthesized in a high yield through low-temperature synthetic methods. Well-aligned ZnO nanorods having hexagonal wurtzite structure were grown on the ZnO thin films assembled by a spin-coating method. The morphologies of ZnO seed films are affected by pHs of sol-gel solutions, resulting smaller sizes and homogeneous roughness at higher pHs and higher number of spin-coating times. The carnation-like structures, average size of about 2-3 μm, were assembled by tens of uniform ZnO nanosheet petals of ˜50 nm in thickness when a different volume ratio of the precursory solution was used. ZnO nanocrystals on the facets of the compact ZnO nanorods have grown to linear nanorods having an average diameter of ˜500 nm and length of ˜2 μm. Furthermore, a noticeable difference in the growth of ZnO nanocrystals in the presence of various surfactants, polyvinylpyrrolidone, polyvinylsulphonic acid, and polyethyleneimine, has been observed and discussed.

  5. Drosophila Vps16A is required for trafficking to lysosomes and biogenesis of pigment granules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulipparacharuvil, Suprabha; Akbar, Mohammed Ali; Ray, Sanchali; Sevrioukov, Evgueny A; Haberman, Adam S; Rohrer, Jack; Krämer, Helmut

    2005-08-15

    Mutations that disrupt trafficking to lysosomes and lysosome-related organelles cause multiple diseases, including Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome. The Drosophila eye is a model system for analyzing such mutations. The eye-color genes carnation and deep orange encode two subunits of the Vps-C protein complex required for endosomal trafficking and pigment-granule biogenesis. Here we demonstrate that dVps16A (CG8454) encodes another Vps-C subunit. Biochemical experiments revealed a specific interaction between the dVps16A C-terminus and the Sec1/Munc18 homolog Carnation but not its closest homolog, dVps33B. Instead, dVps33B interacted with a related protein, dVps16B (CG18112). Deep orange bound both Vps16 homologs. Like a deep orange null mutation, eye-specific RNAi-induced knockdown of dVps16A inhibited lysosomal delivery of internalized ligands and interfered with biogenesis of pigment granules. Ubiquitous knockdown of dVps16A was lethal. Together, these findings demonstrate that Drosophila Vps16A is essential for lysosomal trafficking. Furthermore, metazoans have two types of Vps-C complexes with non-redundant functions.

  6. Effect of inorganic salts on the senescence of Dianthus caryophyllus flowers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayak, S.; Kofranek, A.M.; Tirosh, T.

    1978-01-01

    Certain inorganic salts like KNO/sub 3/, KCl, K/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, Ca(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2/ and NH/sub 4/NO/sub 3/ extend longevity of cut carnation flowers. The effect of KNO/sub 3/ was studied in some detail. There is an osmotic adjustment in response to KNO/sub 3/ treatment. The osmotic concentration change occurred in the external as well as in the internal compartments. The osmotic concentration change in the external compartment is well correlated with extension of longevity. The effect of KNO/sub 3/ on the sensitivity to ethylene, and its significance in delaying senescence is discussed. 20 references, 3 figures, 2 tables.

  7. Patogeniczność wybranych form specjalnych Fusarium oxysporum względem goździków

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Werner

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The studies were carried out on the pathogenicity of 8 formae speciales of F. oxysporum towards Dianthus caryophyllus, D. barhatus, D. chinensis and D. caryophyllus x semperflorens. The wilting was neither observed on plants growing in soil infested with F. oxyspotum f. sp. lupini nor on plants inoculated with an isolate obtained from Pinus sylvestris. However these isolates were reisolated occasionally from D. barbatus, less frequently from D. chinensis and D. caryophyllus and never from D. caryophyllus semperflorens. Only F. oxysporum f. sp. dianthi and in less degree F. oxysporum f. sp. pisi caused always the wilting off all studied carnations, while the others were responsible for occasional wilting of some plants.

  8. Genetic control of chalcone isomerase activity in flowers of Dianthus caryophyllus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forkmann, G; Dangelmayr, B

    1980-06-01

    In flowers of Dianthus caryophyllus (carnation), the gene I is concerned with a discrete step in flavonoid biosynthesis, Genotypes with recessive (ii) alleles produce yellow flowers, which contain the chalcone isosalipurposide (naringenin-chalcone-2'-glucoside) as the major petal pigment, but in genotypes with wild-type alleles flavonols and anthocyanins can be formed and the flowers are white or red. Enzymatic measurements on petal extracts of four strains with different flower coloration revealed a clear correlation between accumulation of chalcone in recessive genotypes and deficiency of chalcone isomerase (E.C. 5.5.1.6) activity. From the chemogenetic and enzymological evidence it can be concluded that naringenin-chalcone is the first product of the synthesis of the flavonoid skeleton and that only the conversion of naringenin-chalcone to naringenin furnishes the substrate for the further reactions to flavonol and anthocyanin.

  9. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis caused by decorative plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamminpää, A; Estlander, T; Jolanki, R; Kanerva, L

    1996-05-01

    12 cases of occupational allergic contact dermatitis caused by decorative plants were diagnosed in a 14-year period. The patients were middle-aged, and their average exposure time was 13 years. The plant families and plants causing occupational contact dermatitis were Compositae (5 patients; chrysanthemum, elecampane, gerbera, feverfew), Alstroemeriaceae (5 patients, Alstroemeria), Liliaceae (4 patients; tulip, hyacinth), Amaryllidaceae (2 patients; narcissus) and Caryophyllaceae (2 patients; carnation, cauzeflower). The known chemical allergens causing dermatitis were tuliposide-A and sesquiterpene lactones, such as alantolactones and parthenolide, in the Liliaceae and Compositae families. 7 of the 12 patients were able to continue their work; 5 were not because of severe relapses of skin symptoms. The plant allergen and extract series currently available are of great help in the diagnosis.

  10. CONTEMPORARY USAGE OF TRADITIONAL TURKISH MOTIFS IN PRODUCT DESIGNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulay Gumuser

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to identify the traditional Turkish motifs and its relations among present industrial designs. Traditional Turkish motifs played a very important role in 16th century onwards. The arts of the Ottoman Empire were used because of their symbolic meanings and unique styles. When we examine these motifs we encounter; Tiger Stripe, Three Spot (Çintemani, Rumi, Hatayi, Penç, Cloud, Crescent, Star, Crown, Hyacinth, Tulip and Carnation motifs. Nowadays, Turkish designers have begun to use these traditional Turkish motifs in their designs so as to create differences and awareness in the world design. The examples of these industrial designs, using the Turkish motifs, have survived and have Ottoman heritage and historical value. In this study, the Turkish motifs will be examined along with their focus on contemporary Turkish industrial designs used today.

  11. 深圳普门光子治疗仪常见故障排查及维修

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范志英

    2016-01-01

    深圳普门 Carnation 光子治疗仪是目前市场占有率较高的一种光照射治疗类设备。主要应用于体表溃疡及体内损伤、炎症、疼痛进行治疗,见效快且无副作用[1]。根据设计模块结构,进行相应故障的诊断及维修,尽快排除或者明确故障,保障了此类光疗设备的临床稳定应用。

  12. Editoras políticas no Porto, anos 1960-1970 : da oposição à ditadura ao pós-25 de Abril

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flamarion Maués

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Some publishing houses in Portugal had a notable political role from the end of the 1960s to the late 1970s. They published books that clearly opposed Salazar’s regime, and after the Revolution of April 25th they kept publishing works that greatly contributed to the political debate in the country. At least 24 of these political publishing houses were located in the city of Oporto, although their distribution and influence could reach the whole of Portugal. In this paper I present a general outline of these publishing houses and analyze in detail some of them. To conclude, I indicate which publishing houses were more important in the Portuguese political process both before and after the Carnation Revolution, pointing out some specificity of Oporto political publishing features.

  13. Influence of PVP on the Morphologies of Bi2S3 Nanostructures Synthesized by Solvothermal Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anukorn Phuruangrat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Different morphologies of Bi2S3 nanostructures were synthesized by a 180°C and 12 h solvothermal reaction of solutions containing Bi(NO33·5H2O and thioacetamide (CH3CSNH2 in diethylene glycol (DEG as a solvent. The as-synthesized Bi2S3 products characterized by XRD, Raman spectroscopy, SEM, and TEM showed that they were well-crystallized orthorhombic Bi2S3 phase with morphologies of nanorod-like, sheaf-like, carnation-like, and microspherical, controlled by different contents of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP in the solutions. Based on the experimental results, a growth mechanism was also proposed and discussed.

  14. O ensino da História Medieval na Universidade do Porto (1963-1978 : Continuidades e ruturas entre o Estado Novo e a democracia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Faria

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the evolution of the teaching of medieval history at the University of Porto, from the time that the Faculty of Arts was (refounded until the 1978 curriculum reform. Using essentially the books of summaries and evaluation records produced between 1963 and 1978, the goal was identify and know: what disciplines were dedicated to the Middle Ages history; the way they were inserted in the curriculum; the subjects taught; how classes worked and how was made the evaluation; the evolution of Professors group. Finally, the transformations occurred between 1963 and 1978 were analysed taking into account the difficulties of a faculty giving the first steps and the political contexts after the Carnation Revolution, on 25 April, 1974.

  15. MAIN ABSTRACTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    From Altair to Cowboy —— The Four Spread Level of the Cowboy Legend Abstract:The first spread level of the legend is that the star which called Altair is closely related with the ancients' lives and is buried the declination for the later legends. The seconffspread level is that the Altair, the important landscape of the capital, had turned into stars' in- carnation in ancient portraits and got the male humanoid. Furthermore,Altair had been given emotions,got married with Vega,concacted with human beings and became the secular immortal,this is the third level. At last,Altair rooted in the-folk,got brother and sister-in-law, to be a cowboy and was called the Altair,this is the forth level. The cumulative progression finally lead to the Star. The circuitous and tor- tuous spread levels made the cowboy legend unceasing richly,and spread around through the ages.

  16. Water dynamics of vegetable using radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakanishi, Tomoko [Tokyo Univ. (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    Neutral ray is specifically adsorbed and scattered by hydrogen, which is construction element of water. We applied nondestructive visualization of water dynamics in vegetable using neutral ray. The neutron ray was produced by JRR-3M of JAERI. Water dynamics of epigeal part of vegetable, tree, seed, root and soil near root were observed. The distribution and behavior of water were seen by image. For examples, the dry process of cedar, water adsorption process of seed of broad beam, corn, morning glory, rice and wheat. The growing process of root in the soil was analyzed by CT images that constructed three-dimensional image. Water image of root-soil system made clear water dynamics of the optional site near root. The distribution of water in the cut carnation was observed before and after dry treatment. The change of distribution of water was observed. (S.Y.)

  17. Prins Bernhard: biografie van een publiek personage (discussiedossier over Bernhard. Een verborgen geschiedenis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Grever

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Prince Bernhard: Biography of a Public RoleIn her biography Bernhard. Een verborgen geschiedenis [Bernhard: A Hidden History], Annejet van der Zijl strives to write unaffectedly about a controversial character, and to set out a human portrayal of Bernhard. But has this undertaking succeeded? This dissertation certainly demythologises the jovial prince with the carnation, making for an exciting read – but do we really get to know any more about the prince as a ‘man’? A question all the more relevant as the biography pretty much gives up describing his life after 1945. By placing the emphasis on the revelations – and as Van der Zijl assumes that Bernhard must have changed little between 1945 and 2004 – the story of Bernhard’s life takes on a hermetic quality. Which in turn means this is not so much the story of a human prince, but of a public role.

  18. Possibility of micropropagation of dianthus giganteiformis subsp. Kladovanus (Degen SÓO by the method of proliferation of lateral shoots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Marija

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The micropropagation of kladovanus carnation (Dianthus giganteiformis subsp kladovanus was tested by the lateral shoot proliferation method. Micropropagation was performed on the medium with 1/2 MS mineral solution supplemented with 3% sucrose, 0.8% agar, 50 mg·L-1 mio-inositol, 0.025 mg·L-1 thiamin, 0.125 mg·L-1 nicotinic acid and 0.5 mg·L-1 glycine. The development of lateral shoots was induced on 6-benzyl-aminopurine (BAP and α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA. The best results were achieved on the medium with 1 mg·L-1 BAP and 0.1 mg·L-1 NAA. Rooting was successful on the medium without hormones, and the percentage of acclimatisation was 83%.

  19. Triterpene saponins from the aerial parts of Dianthus caryophyllus var. remontant Hort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olesia Gumnicka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Triterpene saponins from the aerial parts of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus var. remontant Hort. have been studied. Three gypsogenic acid glycosides including 3-O-glucopyranoside, 3,28-O-di-glucopyranoside and 3-O-glucopyranosy1,28-0-[glucopyranosyl(1→6glucopyranoside] have been identified by means of LSI mass spectrometry and 1H and 13C NMR. Inhibitory activities of isolated compounds against growth of the fungus Trichoderma viride and the growth of the roots of Lepidium sativum and D. caryophyllus seedlings were measured. None of the isolated compounds showed pronounced activity in T. viride test. Seedling root growth was affected severely at the presence of gypsogenic acid 3-O-glucopyranoside. Bidesmosidic form showed marginal stimulatory activity. The obtained data are discussed in relation to the activity of medicagenic acid 3-O-glucopyranoside, the compound differing just with 2-OH substitution from gypsogenic acid glycosides.

  20. Genetic engineering of novel flower colors in floricultural plants: recent advances via transgenic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishihara, Masahiro; Nakatsuka, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    Since the first successful genetic engineering of flower color in petunia, several new techniques have been developed and applied to modify flower color not only in model plants but also in floricultural plants. A typical example is the commercial violet-flowered carnation "Moondust series" developed by Suntry Ltd. and Florigene Ltd. More recently, blue-flowered roses have been successfully produced and are expected to be commercially available in the near future. In recent years, successful modification of flower color by sophisticated regulation of flower-pigment metabolic pathways has become possible. In this chapter, we review recent advances in flower color modification by genetic engineering, especially focusing on the methodology. We have included our own recent results on successful production of flower-color-modified transgenic plants in a model plant, tobacco and an ornamental plant, gentian. Based on these results, genetic engineering of flower color for improvement of floricultural plants is discussed.

  1. Genetic engineering of flavonoid pigments to modify flower color in floricultural plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishihara, Masahiro; Nakatsuka, Takashi

    2011-03-01

    Recent advances in genetic transformation techniques enable the production of desirable and novel flower colors in some important floricultural plants. Genetic engineering of novel flower colors is now a practical technology as typified by commercialization of a transgenic blue rose and blue carnation. Many researchers exploit knowledge of flavonoid biosynthesis effectively to obtain unique flower colors. So far, the main pigments targeted for flower color modification are anthocyanins that contribute to a variety of colors such as red, pink and blue, but recent studies have also utilized colorless or faint-colored compounds. For example, chalcones and aurones have been successfully engineered to produce yellow flowers, and flavones and flavonols used to change flower color hues. In this review, we summarize examples of successful flower color modification in floricultural plants focusing on recent advances in techniques.

  2. Scientific Opinion on the risk to plant health posed by Burkholderia caryophylli for the EU territory with the identification and evaluation of risk reduction options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Plant Health (PLH

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The EFSA Panel on Plant Health conducted a pest risk assessment for Burkholderia caryophylli for the EU territory under the scenario of current EU legislation and identified and evaluated risk reduction options. B. caryophylli is absent from the EU territory. The host range of B. caryophylli includes the genus Dianthus and three other incidental, minor, hosts (statice, lisianthus and gypsophila. Seven entry pathways were identified, with carnation cuttings and cut flowers being the most frequently traded. All pathways were considered unlikely as the pathogen is rarely associated with the pathways at origin mostly because of the high phytosanitary quality of the plant propagation material. The establishment is unlikely because outdoors the environmental conditions are not favourable to the pathogen and alternative hosts are not present, whereas in protected crops the cultural practices are very effective to keep the crop free from this bacterium. Only very short-distance spread within a crop is likely, and spread between different crops is unlikely. Risk reduction options addressing the sanitary status of the propagation material have the best effectiveness and feasibility. Effective control measures are based on healthy propagation materials (cuttings and hygiene practices. With the existing certification scheme of carnation plant propagation material, the probability of spread through infected cuttings is largely reduced. The high effectiveness of current measures is ensured by the absence of B. caryophylli in the EU, as in recent decades no findings of B. caryophylli have been reported.B. caryophylli is reported to be present in some third countries in Asia, where it still causes high crop losses. If the current regulation were to be removed, major consequences or changes in the potential impact of B. caryophylli are expected if no voluntary certification scheme were applied, together with good sanitation standards, along the crop

  3. A petal-specific InMYB1 promoter from Japanese morning glory: a useful tool for molecular breeding of floricultural crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Mirai; Morimoto, Reina; Hirose, Mana; Morita, Yasumasa; Hoshino, Atsushi; Iida, Shigeru; Oshima, Yoshimi; Mitsuda, Nobutaka; Ohme-Takagi, Masaru; Shiratake, Katsuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Production of novel transgenic floricultural crops with altered petal properties requires transgenes that confer a useful trait and petal-specific promoters. Several promoters have been shown to control transgenes in petals. However, all suffer from inherent drawbacks such as low petal specificity and restricted activity during the flowering stage. In addition, the promoters were not examined for their ability to confer petal-specific expression in a wide range of plant species. Here, we report the promoter of InMYB1 from Japanese morning glory as a novel petal-specific promoter for molecular breeding of floricultural crops. First, we produced stable InMYB1_1kb::GUS transgenic Arabidopsis and Eustoma plants and characterized spatial and temporal expression patterns under the control of the InMYB1 promoter by histochemical β-glucuronidase (GUS) staining. GUS staining patterns were observed only in petals. This result showed that the InMYB1 promoter functions as a petal-specific promoter. Second, we transiently introduced the InMYB1_1 kb::GUS construct into Eustoma, chrysanthemum, carnation, Japanese gentian, stock, rose, dendrobium and lily petals by particle bombardment. GUS staining spots were observed in Eustoma, chrysanthemum, carnation, Japanese gentian and stock. These results showed that the InMYB1 promoter functions in most dicots. Third, to show the InMYB1 promoter utility in molecular breeding, a MIXTA-like gene function was suppressed or enhanced under the control of InMYB1 promoter in Arabidopsis. The transgenic plant showed a conspicuous morphological change only in the form of wrinkled petals. Based on these results, the InMYB1 promoter can be used as a petal-specific promoter in molecular breeding of floricultural crops.

  4. Mass-spectrometric determination of O2 and CO 2 gas exchange in illuminated higher-plant cells : Evidence for light-inhibition of substrate decarboxylations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avelange, M H; Thiéry, J M; Sarrey, F; Gans, P; Rébeillé, F

    1991-01-01

    In order to estimate photosynthetic and respiratory rates in illuminated photoautotrophic cells of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.), simultaneous measurements of CO2 and O2 gas exchange were performed using (18)O2, (13)CO2 and a mass-spectrometry technique. This method allowed the determination, and thus the comparison, of unidirectional fluxes of O2 and CO2. In optimum photosynthetic conditions (i.e. in the presence of high light and a saturating level of CO2), the rate of CO2 influx represented 75±5% of the rate of gross O2 evolution. After a dark-to-light transition, the rate of CO2 efflux was inhibited by 50% whereas the O2-uptake rate was little affected. The effect of a recycling of respiratory CO2 through photosynthesis on the exchange of CO2 gas was investigated using a mathematical model. The confliction of the experimental data with the simulated gas-exchange rates strongly supported the view that CO2 recycling was a minor event in these cells and could not be responsible for the observed inhibition of CO2 efflux. On the basis of this assumption it was concluded that illumination of carnation cells resulted in a decrease of substrate decarboxylations, and that CO2 efflux and O2 uptake were not as tightly coupled in the light as in the dark. Furthermore, it could be calculated from the rate of gross photosynthesis that the chloroplastic electron-transport chain produced enough ATP in the light to account for the measured CO2-uptake rate without involving cyclic transfer of electrons around PS I or mitochondrial supplementation.

  5. BIOADSORPTION USING COMPOST: AN ALTERNATIVE FOR REMOVAL OF CHROMIUM (VI FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

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    Claudia Vargas,

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The removal of Cr(VI from aqueous solutions was studied using a compost generated from carnation flowers waste. The highest percentage of removal achieved (ca. 99 % was obtained at pH 2.0, using a 10 mg L-1 of Cr(VI solution, a dose of 10 g L-1 of compost, and with an equilibrium time of 3 hours. Under these conditions, the kinetics and adsorption isotherm were examined varying the initial Cr(VI concentration from 15 to 200 mg L-1. The maximum sorption capacity at equilibrium (Qm, from the Langmuir model, was found to be 6.25 mg g-1. The evaluation of Cr(VI removal at pH 2.0 showed a second order kinetics and showed that the process mechanism can be modeled by the “adsorption-coupled reduction” hypothesis. Also, the monitoring of Cr(VI and total Cr in aqueous solutions showed that Cr(VI and total Cr were removed from solution, and that part of the Cr(III was retained on the compost. According to the results, the removal of Cr(VI with the assayed compost can be explained by the following steps: (i adsorption of Cr(VI species onto compost, (ii Cr(VI reduction to Cr(III, and (iii adsorption of part of Cr(III on the compost. Thus, this study suggests that the carnation flower waste compost can be used as a remediation system for water contaminated with Cr(VI.

  6. Anthocyanic vacuolar inclusions--their nature and significance in flower colouration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, K R; Gould, K S; Winefield, C S; Mitchell, K A; Bloor, S J; Boase, M R

    2000-10-01

    The petals of a number of flowers are shown to contain similar intensely coloured intravacuolar bodies referred to herein as anthocyanic vacuolar inclusions (AVIs). The AVIs in a blue-grey carnation and in purple lisianthus have been studied in detail. AVIs occur predominantly in the adaxial epidermal cells and their presence is shown to have a major influence on flower colour by enhancing both intensity and blueness. The latter effect is especially dramatic in the carnation where the normally pink pelargonidin pigments produce a blue-grey colouration. In lisianthus, the presence of large AVIs produces marked colour intensification in the inner zone of the petal by concentrating anthocyanins above levels that would be possible in vacuolar solution. Electron microscopy studies on lisianthus epidermal tissue failed to detect a membrane boundary in AVI bodies. AVIs isolated from lisianthus cells are shown to have a protein matrix. Bound to this matrix are four cyanidin and delphinidin acylated 3,5-diglycosides (three, new to lisianthus), which are relatively minor anthocyanins in whole petal extracts where acylated delphinidin triglycosides predominate. Flavonol glycosides were not bound. A high level of anthocyanin structural specificity in this association is thus implied. The specificity and effectiveness of this anthocyanin "trapping" is confirmed by the presence in the surrounding vacuolar solution of only delphinidin triglycosides, accompanied by the full range of flavonol glycosides. "Trapped" anthocyanins are shown to differ from solution anthocyanins only in that they lack a terminal rhamnose on the 3-linked galactose. The results of this study define for the first time the substantial effect AVIs have on flower colour, and provide insights into their nature and their specificity as vacuolar anthocyanin traps.

  7. Flower colour and cytochromes P450.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Brugliera, Filippa

    2013-02-19

    Cytochromes P450 play important roles in biosynthesis of flavonoids and their coloured class of compounds, anthocyanins, both of which are major floral pigments. The number of hydroxyl groups on the B-ring of anthocyanidins (the chromophores and precursors of anthocyanins) impact the anthocyanin colour, the more the bluer. The hydroxylation pattern is determined by two cytochromes P450, flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H) and flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H) and thus they play a crucial role in the determination of flower colour. F3'H and F3'5'H mostly belong to CYP75B and CYP75A, respectively, except for the F3'5'Hs in Compositae that were derived from gene duplication of CYP75B and neofunctionalization. Roses and carnations lack blue/violet flower colours owing to the deficiency of F3'5'H and therefore lack the B-ring-trihydroxylated anthocyanins based upon delphinidin. Successful redirection of the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway to delphinidin was achieved by expressing F3'5'H coding regions resulting in carnations and roses with novel blue hues that have been commercialized. Suppression of F3'5'H and F3'H in delphinidin-producing plants reduced the number of hydroxyl groups on the anthocyanidin B-ring resulting in the production of monohydroxylated anthocyanins based on pelargonidin with a shift in flower colour to orange/red. Pelargonidin biosynthesis is enhanced by additional expression of a dihydroflavonol 4-reductase that can use the monohydroxylated dihydrokaempferol (the pelargonidin precursor). Flavone synthase II (FNSII)-catalysing flavone biosynthesis from flavanones is also a P450 (CYP93B) and contributes to flower colour, because flavones act as co-pigments to anthocyanins and can cause blueing and darkening of colour. However, transgenic plants expression of a FNSII gene yielded paler flowers owing to a reduction of anthocyanins because flavanones are precursors of anthocyanins and flavones.

  8. The effect of the photon therapeutic apparatus on type 2 diabetic peripheral neuropathy%光子治疗仪治疗2型糖尿病周围神经病变的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁潇; 刘智平; 程庆丰; 袁娟; 吴成云; 赵庆华; 李启富

    2014-01-01

    Objective To observe the clinical efficacy of the photon therapeutic apparatus on type 2 diabetic patients with periph-eral neuropathy .Methods While giving conventional nerve nourishing ,improving microcirculation treatment and nursing ,adjuvant therapy with Carnation-11 photon therapeutic apparatus was applied to one lower limb only of the 20 diabetes mellitus patients with peripheral neuropathy and compare the curative effects by paired observation of the two lower limbs .Results The evaluation score of peripheral neuropathy dropped obviously with ankle reflex and thumb vibration sensation improved greatly after 10 days of treat-ment and remained an unchanged follow -up test 30 days later ,which means the clinical therapeutic effect of the treated limb was significantly superior to the comparison limb .The difference of the curative effects is statistically significant ( P < 0 .05 ) . Conclusion Conventional therapy accompanied by adjuvant treatment of photon therapy can relieve the clinical symptoms and phys-ical signs of diabetic patients with peripheral neuropathy ,which could improve curative effect on diabetic peripheral neuropathy .%目的:研究光子治疗仪治疗2型糖尿病周围神经病变(DPN )的临床疗效。方法收集该院DPN患者20例,采用Carnation-11光子治疗仪对患者一侧足部进行辅助治疗,与另一侧足部进行自身对照观察,比较两侧足部的临床疗效。结果照射足部10 d后周围神经病变评分[包括神经缺陷评分(NDS),神经症状评分(NSS)]明显降低,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),30 d后再次随访仍维持在10 d水平。照射足部10 d后NDS中踝反射和大拇指振动觉改善明显,临床治疗效果明显优于对照足部,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论常规治疗结合光子治疗仪辅助照射治疗DPN ,可改善患者的临床症状及缓解部分体征,提高临床治疗效果。

  9. La biofumigación y el metam sodio como alternativas al uso de bromuro de metilo: Efecto sobre el control de malezas y las características químicas del suelo Biofumigation and methan Na as alternatives to methyl bromide use: Effect on the weed control and the chemical characteristics of the soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Pereyra

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El bromuro de metilo (BM como desinfectante de suelo está ampliamente generalizado; sin embargo, el planteo de alternativas que lo reemplacen es de vital importancia, dada las restricciones que pesan sobre este producto. Se evaluó el efecto del metam sodio (0,125 L/m² y la biofumigación (guano de pollo, 8 kg/m²; salvado de trigo 1,5 kg/m² y acícula de pino 30 dm³/m², como alternativas al tratamiento con bromuro de metilo (80 g/m², sobre el tipo y número de malezas y las características químicas del suelo en un cultivo de clavel. El tipo y número de malezas presentes y las características químicas del suelo, se evaluaron antes de los tratamientos y a los 30 días después de implantado el cultivo. Los resultados mostraron que todos los tratamientos fueron eficientes para controlar las malezas, en número y especies. Las biofumigaciones con guano de pollo y con salvado de trigo modificaron el contenido de materia orgánica y la conductividad eléctrica del suelo. El guano de pollo adicionalmente aumentó la capacidad de retención de agua y el contenido de nutrientes del suelo.The purpose of this research was to evaluate the effect of the methan sodium (0,125 l/m² and biofumigation (chicken manure, 8 kg/m²; wheat bran 1,5 kg/m² and pine needle 30 dm³/m² as alternative methods for methyl bromide on weed control and chemical characteristics of the soil in carnation crops. The type and number of the weeds and chemical soil characteristics were evaluated before the treatment and 30 days after the carnation crop was implanted. The results show that all the treatments were efficient for the control of weeds in number and species. Only biofumigation with chicken manure and wheat bran were effective to induce changes on the organic matter content and the electric conductivity of the soil. In addition, chicken manure improved the water retention capacity and the nutrients of the soil.

  10. Neural correlates of olfactory learning paradigms in an identified neuron in the honeybee brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauelshagen, J

    1993-02-01

    1. Sensitization and classical odor conditioning of the proboscis extension reflex were functionally analyzed by repeated intracellular recordings from a single identified neuron (PE1-neuron) in the central bee brain. This neuron belongs to the class of "extrinsic cells" arising from the pedunculus of the mushroom bodies and has extensive arborizations in the median and lateral protocerebrum. The recordings were performed on isolated bee heads. 2. Two different series of physiological experiments were carried out with the use of a similar temporal succession of stimuli as in previous behavioral experiments. In the first series, one group of animals was used for a single conditioning trial [conditioned stimulus (CS), carnation; unconditioned stimulus (US), sucrose solution to the antennae and proboscis), a second group was used for sensitization (sensitizing stimulus, sucrose solution to the antennae and/or proboscis), and the third group served as control (no sucrose stimulation). In the second series, a differential conditioning paradigm (paired odor CS+, carnation; unpaired odor CS-, orange blossom) was applied to test the associative nature of the conditioning effect. 3. The PE1-neuron showed a characteristic burstlike odor response before the training procedures. The treatments resulted in different spike-frequency modulations of this response, which were specific for the nonassociative and associative stimulus paradigms applied. During differential conditioning, there are dynamic up and down modulations of spike frequencies and of the DC potentials underlying the responses to the CS+. Overall, only transient changes in the minute range were observed. 4. The results of the sensitization procedures suggest two qualitatively different US pathways. The comparison between sensitization and one-trial conditioning shows differential effects of nonassociative and associative stimulus paradigms on the response behavior of the PE1-neuron. The results of the differential

  11. The biosynthesis of phytoalexins in Dianthus caryophyllus L. cell cultures: induction of benzoyl-CoA:anthranilate N-benzoyltransferase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhard, K; Matern, U

    1989-11-15

    It has been shown that cell cultures of Dianthus caryophyllus L. c.v. Eleganz accumulate N-benzoyl-4-methoxyanthranilic acid, previously identified as the phytoalexin methoxydianthramide B, in response to treatment either with a crude elicitor isolated from the cell walls of Phytophthora megasperma f.sp. glycinea or with a commercial yeast extract. Cell-free extracts from the induced cells efficiently catalyzed the N-benzoylation of anthranilate in the presence of benzoyl-CoA. The partially purified transferase was shown to be specific for anthranilate with almost no activity toward 4-hydroxyanthranilate, whereas acyl donors other than benzoyl-CoA such as salicyloyl-, cinnamoyl-, or 4-coumaroyl-CoA were also accepted. Elicitor treatment of the cells additionally induced an S-adenosyl-L-methionine:N-benzoyl-4-hydroxyanthranilate 4-O-methyltransferase activity. We propose, therefore, that methoxydianthramide B is derived from N-benzoylanthranilic acid via N-benzoyl-4-hydroxyanthranilic acid. Dark-grown cells contained little N-benzoyltransferase activity (approx 8 mu kat/kg), which increased roughly ninefold within 6 h following the addition of the elicitor. In addition, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity of the cells increased about twofold under these conditions to a maximum (approx 40 mu kat/kg) at 5 h. The rapid induction of both enzyme activities suggests that the shikimate pathway is of crucial importance in the disease resistance response of carnation cells.

  12. Production of tranilast [N-(3',4'-dimethoxycinnamoyl)-anthranilic acid] and its analogs in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eudes, Aymerick; Baidoo, Edward E K; Yang, Fan; Burd, Helcio; Hadi, Masood Z; Collins, F William; Keasling, Jay D; Loqué, Dominique

    2011-02-01

    Biological synthesis of therapeutic drugs beneficial for human health using microbes offers an alternative production strategy to the methods that are commonly employed such as direct extraction from source organisms or chemical synthesis. In this study, we evaluated the potential for yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) to be used as a catalyst for the synthesis of tranilast and various tranilast analogs (cinnamoyl anthranilates). Several studies have demonstrated that these phenolic amides have antioxidant properties and potential therapeutic benefits including antiinflammatory, antiproliferative, and antigenotoxic effects. The few cinnamoyl anthranilates naturally produced in plants such as oats and carnations result from the coupling of various hydroxycinnamoyl-CoAs to anthranilic acid. In order to achieve the microbial production of tranilast and several of its analogs, we engineered a yeast strain to co-express a 4-coumarate/CoA ligase (4CL, EC 6.2.1.12) from Arabidopsis thaliana and a hydroxycinnamoyl/benzoyl-CoA/anthranilate N-hydroxycinnamoyl/benzoyltransferase (HCBT, EC 2.3.1.144) from Dianthus caryophyllus. This modified yeast strain allowed us to produce tranilast and 26 different cinnamoyl anthranilate molecules within a few hours after exogenous supply of various combinations of cinnamic acids and anthranilate derivatives. Our data demonstrate the feasibility of rapidly producing a wide range of defined cinnamoyl anthranilates in yeast and underline a potential for the biological designed synthesis of naturally and non-naturally occurring molecules.

  13. Molecular characterization of flavanone 3 beta-hydroxylases. Consensus sequence, comparison with related enzymes and the role of conserved histidine residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britsch, L; Dedio, J; Saedler, H; Forkmann, G

    1993-10-15

    A heterologous cDNA probe from Petunia hybrida was used to isolate flavanone-3 beta-hydroxylase-encoding cDNA clones from carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus), china aster (Callistephus chinensis) and stock (Matthiola incana). The deduced protein sequences together with the known sequences of the enzyme from P. hybrida, barley (Hordeum vulgare) and snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus) enabled the determination of a consensus sequence which revealed an overall 84% similarity (53% identity) of flavanone 3 beta-hydroxylases from the different sources. Alignment with the sequences of other known enzymes of the same class and to related non-heme iron-(II) enzymes demonstrated the strict genetic conservation of 14 amino acids, in particular, of three histidines and an aspartic acid. The conservation of the histidine motifs provides strong support for the possible conservation of structurally similar iron-binding sites in these enzymes. The putative role of histidines as chelators of ferrous ions in the active site of flavanone 3 beta-hydroxylases was corroborated by diethyl-pyrocarbonate modification of the partially purified recombinant Petunia enzyme.

  14. Producción de un inoculante a base de rizobacterias promotoras del crecimiento vegetal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Contreras-Roa

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The plant growth promoting microorganisms are an alterative in the biofertilization of crops. However, their use a commercial level requires the development of an economic and effective competitive bioproduct compared with the tradicional fertilizers. For this reason, the aim of this work was to perform the kinetics study of two bacterial species Bacillus megaterium BSF5 and Sphingomonas paucimobilis BFS3, collected in the strain bank of the microbiology laboratory of the Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander, obtained from soil samples of rose and carnation from Flores Iscalá greenhouse, to produce a biological inoculant in order to be use in the same crops. A defined liquid culture medium and several air caudal (VVM were evaluated to determine de specific velocity of growth (µ and the cellular concentration in the maximum exponential phase. The obtained results were used to design an alternative culture media using cheap and available nutritional sources in the region such as molasses, urea and bone-meal. The cellular growth was evaluated in two sugar concentrations according with the quantity used in the preliminary evaluated culture media. It was determined that the use of molasses in 1ºBrix for Bacillus megaterium and 2ºBrix for Sphingomonas paucimobilis favors the biomass production and reduces the raw material costs compared with the result of the define culture medium.

  15. Effects of air pollution on plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidman, G.

    1965-01-01

    Weather, automobile exhaust, waste dumps and industrial activities are major factors in the creation of air pollution problems. The first indication of an air pollution problem is often the injury that appears on comparatively sensitive vegetation. Sulfur dioxide causes both acute and chronic plant injury. Plants especially sensitive to SO/sub 2/ are alfalfa, cosmos, sweet pea, bachelor's button, and blackberry. Fluoride causes characteristic injury on plants. Plants sensitive to fluoride injury are gladiolus, azalea, tulip, and young needles of pine. Ethylene damage to plants was initially noted in greenhouses using artificial gas for heating. Orchids and carnations are sensitive to ethylene. Ozone is highly reactive and causes typical spotting injury to the upper surface of leaves. PAN causes injury to vegetation, especially petunia and lettuce. Other pollutants also cause plant injury. Mercury vapor, chlorine gas, ammonia, H/sub 2/S, CO, and nitrogen oxides are minor hazards. Susceptibility of vegetation to air pollution depends on various things such as variety of plants, amount of moisture available to the plants, temperature, and amount of sunlight during the period of air pollution. 8 references.

  16. Remediation of nitrate-contaminated wastewater using denitrification biofilters with straws of ornamental flowers added as carbon source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Junjun; Ma, Luyao; Zhou, Yuanyang; Zhang, Shenghua; Wang, Weilu

    Straws of four ornamental flowers (carnation, rose, lily, and violet) were added into denitrification biofilters using gravel as matrix through vertically installed perforated polyvinylchloride pipes to provide organic carbon for the treatment of nitrate-contaminated wastewater operating in batch mode. Removal efficiencies of nitrate and phosphate, as well as temporal variations of nitrogen and carbon during batches 10 and 19, were investigated and assessed. Nitrate removal was efficiently enhanced by the addition of flower straws, but decreased gradually as the organic substances were consumed. Phosphate removal was also improved, although this very limited. High nitrate removal rates were achieved during the initial 12 h in the two batches each lasting for 3 days, along with the depletion of influent dissolved oxygen due to aerobic degradation of the organic compounds. NO2(-)-N of 0.01-2.83 mg/L and NH4(+)-N of 0.02-1.69 mg/L were formed and both positively correlated to the nitrate reduced. Inorganic carbon (IC) concentrations increased during the batches and varied conversely with the nitrate contents, and could be indicative of nitrate removal due to the highly significant positive correlation between NO3(-)-N removed and IC concentration (r(2) = 0.881, p nitrate-contaminated wastewater, although further optimization of carbon source addition is still required.

  17. The effect of short-term musical training on speech perception in noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandni Jain

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the effect of short-term musical training on speech perception in noise. In the present study speech perception in noise was measured pre- and post- short-term musical training. The musical training involved auditory perceptual training for raga identification of two Carnatic ragas. The training was given for eight sessions. A total of 18 normal hearing adults in the age range of 18-25 years participated in the study wherein group 1 consisted of ten individuals who underwent musical training and group 2 consisted of eight individuals who did not undergo any training. Results revealed that post training, speech perception in noise improved significantly in group 1, whereas group 2 did not show any changes in speech perception scores. Thus, short-term musical training shows an enhancement of speech perception in the presence of noise. However, generalization and long-term maintenance of these benefits needs to be evaluated.

  18. 香石竹斑驳病毒(CarMV)脱除对几种生理指标的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽花; 吴学尉; 杨秀梅; 瞿素萍; 王继华; 莫锡君

    2012-01-01

    感染病毒的香石竹组培苗于(38.5±1)℃条件下热处理29d后,切取0.1~0.2mm的茎尖生长点无菌培养成苗后,经DAS-Elisa检测获得脱除香石竹斑驳病毒(Carnation mottle virus,CarMV)的香石竹脱毒苗,取脱毒苗与非脱毒苗的叶片,测量叶绿素a、叶绿素b、类胡萝卜素、丙二醛(MDA)、干物质含量几种生理生化指标。结果表明,脱毒苗与非脱毒苗相比:(1)叶绿素和类胡萝卜素含量增加,具有较强的光合效率;(2)与抗性生理有关的MDA含量下降,衰老减缓;(3)光合物质的形成与积累增多,干物质含量增加。

  19. The Persistence of Potential Refugia Mapped from Gravel Tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haschenburger, J. K.

    2009-12-01

    Floods disturb aquatic habitats. On an event basis, flood characteristics control the spatial extent and depth of streambed disturbance for a given river and set limits to the amount of channel refugia for biota. The aim of this research is to quantify the area of potential refugia that persists over a long flood series and therefore affects many generations of aquatic populations. Field observations were collected in Carnation Creek, a small gravel-bed river located on the west coast of Vancouver Island, Canada. Streambed disturbance was documented by monitoring the three-dimensional positions of about 2500 magnetically tagged gravels over 277 floods. Tracer movement and burial observations were used to produce cellular maps of the frequency of bed disturbance within a GIS. The streambed exhibits different frequencies of disturbance as expected. The most active areas make up about 1% of the streambed and tend to be located near the channel thalweg. Undisturbed areas constitute more than 25% of the bed, and provide distinct areas of longer-term refugia that persist over the range of flood magnitudes observed. In addition to validating a key aspect of partial sediment transport, the results suggest that the natural variability of floods facilitates diverse aquatic communities by ensuring the availability of channel refugia over time.

  20. MEMORIES LEGACIES OF THE COLONIAL WAR: SOME CONCEPTUAL REFLECTIONS ON THE INTERGENERATIONAL TRANSMISSION OF TRAUMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Vecchi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article takes into account some dominant theories about the controver­sial concept of post- memory. Post- memory, in fact , as the possibility of an intergenerational transmission of memory, particularly traumatic, espe­cially for people belonging to the familiar sphere that didn’t live the expe­rience in question but maintain an emotional tie with the direct witnesses, provides the ability to critically review the fixation of memory processes in their tense relationship with the possibility of a contractualization of his­tory. The case associated with such a conceptualization is the Colonial War that Portugal fought in Africa for over a decade (1961-1974 and heavily conditioned both the ontology of the country after the Carnation Revolu­tion and the consciousness of the former combatants who lived traumatic experiences projecting the impossibility of their symbolization on family relationships. Besides, through the myth of Philomel, the article approaches part of the contemporary Portuguese cultural production of the second ge­neration, trying to vocalize the painful silences of their parents. 

  1. Cytological, molecular mechanisms and temperature stress regulating production of diploid male gametes in Dianthus caryophyllus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xuhong; Mo, Xijun; Gui, Min; Wu, Xuewei; Jiang, Yalian; Ma, Lulin; Shi, Ziming; Luo, Ying; Tang, Wenru

    2015-12-01

    In plant evolution, because of its key role in sexual polyploidization or whole genome duplication events, diploid gamete formation is considered as an important component in diversification and speciation. Environmental stress often triggers unreduced gamete production. However, the molecular, cellular mechanisms and adverse temperature regulating diplogamete production in carnation remain poorly understood. Here, we investigate the cytological basis for 2n male gamete formation and describe the isolation and characterization of the first gene, DcPS1 (Dianthus Caryophyllus Parallel Spindle 1). In addition, we analyze influence of temperature stress on diploid gamete formation and transcript levels of DcPS1. Cytological evidence indicated that 2n male gamete formation is attributable to abnormal spindle orientation at male meiosis II. DcPS1 protein is conserved throughout the plant kingdom and carries domains suggestive of a regulatory function. DcPS1 expression analysis show DcPS1 gene probably have a role in 2n pollen formation. Unreduced pollen formation in various cultivation was sensitive to high or low temperature which was probably regulated by the level of DcPS1 transcripts. In a broader perspective, these findings can have potential applications in fundamental polyploidization research and plant breeding programs.

  2. Grain Exchange Probabilities Within a Gravel Bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haschenburger, J.

    2008-12-01

    Sediment transfers in gravel-bed rivers involve the vertical exchange of sediments during floods. These exchanges regulate the virtual velocity of sediment and bed material texture. This study describes general tendencies in the vertical exchange of gravels within the substrate that result from multiple floods. Empirical observations come from Carnation Creek, a small gravel-bed river with large woody debris located on the west coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia. Frequent floods and the relatively limited armor layer facilitate streambed activity and relatively high bedload transport rates, typically under partial sediment transport conditions. Over 2000 magnetically tagged stones, ranging in size from 16 to 180 mm, were deployed on the bed surface between 1991 and 1992. These tracers have been recovered 10 times over 12 flood seasons to quantify their vertical position in the streambed. For analysis, the bed is divided into layers based on armor layer thickness. Once tracers are well mixed within the streambed, grains in the surface layer are most likely to be mixed into the subsurface, while subsurface grains are most likely to persist within the subsurface. Fractional exchange probabilities approach size independence when the most active depth of the substrate is considered. Overall these results highlight vertical mixing as an important process in the dispersion of gravels.

  3. Genetic Diversity of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi in Southern Spain

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    Raúl Castaño

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of races and prevalence of pathogenic populations of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi (Fod were surveyed in an area in southern Spain. From 54 farms, 132 isolates were collected from wilted carnation plants. Isolates were characterized by RAPD-PCR, DNA sequence analysis of the TEF1-α gene, and race-specific molecular markers. Selected isolates from RAPD groups were phenotypically evaluated by pathogenicity tests. Data analysis showed that Fod race 2 was the most frequent and prevalent race in the study area, followed by race 1/8. Moreover, phylogenetic analyses showed similar results, which were different to those of the race-specific PCR assays. It was concluded that (i seven isolates were not classified in groups where Fod testers were clustered; even they showed different results when race-specific markers were used, (ii ten isolates with retarded race 1 or race 8 specific band were characterized as F. proliferatum by TEF1-α gene sequencing and clustered into an outgroup, and (iii six isolates failed to generate an amplification signal using race-specific markers. Furthermore, three of them were grouped close to race 2 tester according to the phylogenetic analyses, showing the same differential pathogenicity as race 2. This may indicate a Fod race 2 subgroup in this region.

  4. Enrichment of Phosphatidylethanolamine in Viral Replication Compartments via Co-opting the Endosomal Rab5 Small GTPase by a Positive-Strand RNA Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kai; Nagy, Peter D.

    2016-01-01

    Positive-strand RNA viruses build extensive membranous replication compartments to support replication and protect the virus from antiviral responses by the host. These viruses require host factors and various lipids to form viral replication complexes (VRCs). The VRCs built by Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) are enriched with phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) through a previously unknown pathway. To unravel the mechanism of PE enrichment within the TBSV replication compartment, in this paper, the authors demonstrate that TBSV co-opts the guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-bound active form of the endosomal Rab5 small GTPase via direct interaction with the viral replication protein. Deletion of Rab5 orthologs in a yeast model host or expression of dominant negative mutants of plant Rab5 greatly decreases TBSV replication and prevents the redistribution of PE to the sites of viral replication. We also show that enrichment of PE in the viral replication compartment is assisted by actin filaments. Interestingly, the closely related Carnation Italian ringspot virus, which replicates on the boundary membrane of mitochondria, uses a similar strategy to the peroxisomal TBSV to hijack the Rab5-positive endosomes into the viral replication compartments. Altogether, usurping the GTP-Rab5–positive endosomes allows TBSV to build a PE-enriched viral replication compartment, which is needed to support peak-level replication. Thus, the Rab family of small GTPases includes critical host factors assisting VRC assembly and genesis of the viral replication compartment. PMID:27760128

  5. Preliminary X-ray Data Analysis of Crystalline Hibiscus Chlorotic Ringspot Virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, A.; Speir, J; Yuan, Y; Johnson, J; Wong, S

    2009-01-01

    Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus (HCRSV) is a positive-sense monopartite single-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the Carmovirus genus of the Tombusviridae family, which includes carnation mottle virus (CarMV). The HCRSV virion has a 30 nm diameter icosahedral capsid with T = 3 quasi-symmetry containing 180 copies of a 38 kDa coat protein (CP) and encapsidates a full-length 3.9 kb genomic RNA. Authentic virus was harvested from infected host kenaf leaves and was purified by saturated ammonium sulfate precipitation, sucrose density-gradient centrifugation and anion-exchange chromatography. Virus crystals were grown in multiple conditions; one of the crystals diffracted to 3Synchrotron .2 A resolution and allowed the collection of a partial data set. The crystal belonged to space group R32, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 336.4, c = 798.5 . Packing considerations and rotation-function analysis determined that there were three particles per unit cell, all of which have the same orientation and fixed positions, and resulted in tenfold noncrystallography symmetry for real-space averaging. The crystals used for the structure determination of southern bean mosaic virus (SBMV) have nearly identical characteristics. Together, these findings will greatly aid the high-resolution structure determination of HCRSV.

  6. Educational utilization of outstanding spherulitic rhyolite occurred in Cheongsong, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Y. D.; Woo, H.

    2015-12-01

    Cheongsong is located in the central eastern area of South Korea. Unique spherulitic rhyolites occur in this region as dykes formed about 48 to 50 million years ago. Composed of quartz and feldspar these spherulitic rhyolites show various flowerlike shapes, such as chrysanthemum, dandelion, rose, carnation, sunflower, dahlia and so on, so they are called 'flower stones'. The spherulite indicates that it was undercooled caused by very fast cooling at a shallow depth near the surface and the variety of shapes resulted from the difference of crystallizing conditions. According to the condition, minerals start to crystallize homogeneously or heterogeneously and develop as rounded or fibrous shapes, representing beautiful patterns when combined. These spherulitic structures are very rare not only in Korea but also globally, being valuable for research and preservation because of their rarity, beauty and diversity. Cheongsong therefore applies to the UGG (UNESCO Global Geopark) in an attempt to popularize the flower stones and use them as education materials which can also be incorporated in other valuable sites. The exhibition center provides diverse types of flower stones in which visitors could learn about rhyolitic volcanism, crystallization and spherulite and can experience the process of changing a rough stone into a flower stone. A geotrail course has also been created, showing each type of flower stone on the outcrop and providing educational programs about geological mechanisms of the stones with a trained guide.

  7. The Role of Acyl-Glucose in Anthocyanin Modifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuhiro Sasaki

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Higher plants can produce a wide variety of anthocyanin molecules through modification of the six common anthocyanin aglycons that they present. Thus, hydrophilic anthocyanin molecules can be formed and stabilized by glycosylation and acylation. Two types of glycosyltransferase (GT and acyltransferase (AT have been identified, namely cytoplasmic GT and AT and vacuolar GT and AT. Cytoplasmic GT and AT utilize UDP-sugar and acyl-CoA as donor molecules, respectively, whereas both vacuolar GT and AT use acyl-glucoses as donor molecules. In carnation plants, vacuolar GT uses aromatic acyl-glucoses as the glucose donor in vivo; independently, vacuolar AT uses malylglucose, an aliphatic acyl-glucose, as the acyl-donor. In delphinium and Arabidopsis, p-hydroxybenzoylglucose and sinapoylglucose are used in vivo as bi-functional donor molecules by vacuolar GT and AT, respectively. The evolution of these enzymes has allowed delphinium and Arabidopsis to utilize unique donor molecules for production of highly modified anthocyanins.

  8. Another sea, another self: a reading about the metaphorical nature of "Paisagem com mulher e mar ao fundo"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Marques de Oliveira

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The work Paisagem com mulher e mar ao fundo, by Teolinda Gersão, was published eight years after the Carnation Revolution and brought as the background decades of dictatorship in Portugal. Given this context, the moment when it was necessary to resignify and review the recent past in order to understand it, we intend to analyze in which ways the language can be the place where a new view emerges over the past of cruelty and suffering. In this work, we will see how the metaphor and metonymy can promote the resignification of the language. Like the landscape, the view over the sea - symbol of the portuguese culture, memory and history -, next to their surrounding elements, will be revisited and reviewed, under that context. The characters' "shattered" bodies will be the metaphor of a destroyed portuguese social body and wrecked cultural identity. The studies of Roland Barthes, Renato Cordeiro Gomes, Ângela Beatriz Faria, Denilson Lopes, Eduardo Lourenço, among others, will be the groundings for this work.

  9. The Dispersion and Burial of Well-Mixed Gravels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haschenburger, J. K.

    2012-12-01

    Over the last two decades, results from numerous tracing experiments have shed light on grain kinematics in gravel-bed channels, including the distance of grain displacement and the depth of vertical mixing. However, most of these studies report results for relatively short temporal and spatial scales, when the behavior of tagged gravels may not reflect the overall streambed dynamics. The purpose of this talk is to highlight the grain kinematics of well-mixed gravels. Field observations come from a tracing experiment operated for nearly 20 years in Carnation Creek, which is located on the west coast of Vancouver Island, Canada. The small gravel-bed river with pool-riffle-bar morphology and large woody debris experiences an average of 15 ± 5 floods per year, which facilitates frequent streambed activity and relatively high bed material transport rates typically under partial sediment transport conditions. The magnetically tagged gravels, which range in size from 16 to 180 mm, have been recovered more than 10 times over the study period. Evaluation of the spatial distribution of tagged gravels over time documents the complex evolution of streamwise dispersion. Once tracers are well mixed vertically, the displacement of mobile gravels is only partly influenced by the tracer starting position in the bed morphology and its depth of burial before a given flooding period.

  10. Os fins do tempo do fim: descolonização, negação, pertença

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Vecchi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Very few topics mobilize both the "Portuguese thought" -just to use a porous category of difficult definition- and the Portuguese decolonization in the mid-70s, after the Carnation Revolution. Multiple imaginations were elaborated from this event that fractured an expansion and a secular colonial theory. However, as Eduardo Lourenço fully shows (Do colonialismo como nosso impensado, 2014 the dereliction of the Atlantic history produces a multitude of ontological and symbolic specters and critical problems for the country called to articulate a new inscription outside of the Atlantic-Europe dialectics, exclusively turned to the European mythologies and destiny. The article deals especially with the conceptual plan of the Portuguese decolonization, in particular deepening the topic in terms of conceptual history, connected to two involved categories: negation and belonging. A reflection on the temporal tangle of decolonization in particular valorizes the messianic aspect of a "time of the end" leading to a reconsideration of the connection to an event that for some actors of the processes meant a "end of the time".

  11. Collective Memories of Portuguese Colonial Action in Africa: Representations of the Colonial Past among Mozambicans and Portuguese Youths

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    João Feijó

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Social representations of the colonization and decolonization processes among young people from a former European colonial power (Portugal and from an African ex-colony (Mozambique were investigated through surveys using open- and closed-ended questions about national history, focusing on the identity functions of collective memories. Hegemonic and contested representations were found of the most prominent events related to Portuguese colonization of Mozambique, arousing a range of collective emotions. A central place is occupied by memories of the Colonial War, which ended with the Carnation Revolution in Portugal and the subsequent independence of the Portuguese African colonies. Overall, the depiction of colonialism was more negative for Mozambican than for Portuguese participants. The violent effects of colonial action were very salient in Mozambican memories, which stressed the most oppressive aspects of the colonial period, associated with slave trade and brutal repression. On the Portuguese side, the idealization of the voyages of discovery persisted, obscuring the most violent effects of colonial expansion. However, collective memories of colonization of former colonizer and former colonized do not simply stand opposed. Both Mozambican and Portuguese participants reported ambivalent feelings towards the colonization process.

  12. Preparation of (Ga1−xZnx)(N1−xOx) Photocatalysts from the Reaction of NH3 with Ga2O3/ZnO and ZnGa2O4: In Situ Time-Resolved XRD and XAFS Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, H.; Wen , W; Wang, Q; Hanson, J; Muckerman, J; Fujita, E; Frenkel, A; Rodriguez, J

    2009-01-01

    Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus (HCRSV) is a positive-sense monopartite single-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the Carmovirus genus of the Tombusviridae family, which includes carnation mottle virus (CarMV). The HCRSV virion has a 30 nm diameter icosahedral capsid with T = 3 quasi-symmetry containing 180 copies of a 38 kDa coat protein (CP) and encapsidates a full-length 3.9 kb genomic RNA. Authentic virus was harvested from infected host kenaf leaves and was purified by saturated ammonium sulfate precipitation, sucrose density-gradient centrifugation and anion-exchange chromatography. Virus crystals were grown in multiple conditions; one of the crystals diffracted to 3.2 A resolution Ad allowed the collection of a partial data set. The crystal belonged to space group R32, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 336.4, c = 798.5 A. Packing considerations and rotation-function analysis determined that there were three particles per unit cell, all of which have the same orientation and fixed positions, and resulted in tenfold noncrystallography symmetry for real-space averaging. The crystals used for the structure determination of southern bean mosaic virus (SBMV) have nearly identical characteristics. Together, these findings will greatly aid the high-resolution structure determination of HCRSV.

  13. 光子治疗仪在肛周脓肿术后切口中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽红; 严艺

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨光子治疗仪治疗肛周脓肿术后创面的疗效.方法 将80例符合低位肛周脓肿的患者随机分为光子治疗组40例和对照组40例,光子治疗组于术后第2天采用Carnation 33型光子治疗仪照射,10d 1个疗程,照射后常规换药;对照组常规换药;于术后第1天、第5天、第10天评价切口疼痛程度、渗液量,比较两组切口愈合天数.结果 光子治疗组切口疼痛程度、渗液量、平均愈合时间明显优于对照组,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 光子治疗仪能明显减轻切口疼痛,减少渗液量,缩短切口愈合时间.

  14. Recent Progress of Flower Colour Modification by Biotechnology

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    Steve Chandler

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Genetically-modified, colour-altered varieties of the important cut-flower crop carnation have now been commercially available for nearly ten years. In this review we describe the manipulation of the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway that has lead to the development of these varieties and how similar manipulations have been successfully applied to both pot plants and another cut-flower species, the rose. From this experience it is clear that down- and up-regulation of the flavonoid and anthocyanin pathway is both possible and predictable. The major commercial benefit of the application of this technology has so far been the development of novel flower colours through the development of transgenic varieties that produce, uniquely for the target species, anthocyanins derived from delphinidin. These anthocyanins are ubiquitous in nature, and occur in both ornamental plants and common food plants. Through the extensive regulatory approval processes that must occur for the commercialization of genetically modified organisms, we have accumulated considerable experimental and trial data to show the accumulation of delphinidin based anthocyanins in the transgenic plants poses no environmental or health risk.

  15. Expression of a Dianthus flavonoid glucosyltransferase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for whole-cell biocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Sean R; Morgan, John A

    2009-07-15

    Glycosyltransferases are promising biocatalysts for the synthesis of small molecule glycosides. In this study, Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing a flavonoid glucosyltransferase (GT) from Dianthus caryophyllus (carnation) was investigated as a whole-cell biocatalyst. Two yeast expression systems were compared using the flavonoid naringenin as a model substrate. Under in vitro conditions, naringenin-7-O-glucoside was formed and a higher specific glucosyl transfer activity was found using a galactose inducible expression system compared to a constitutive expression system. However, S. cerevisiae expressing the GT constitutively was significantly more productive than the galactose inducible system under in vivo conditions. Interestingly, the glycosides were recovered directly from the culture broth and did not accumulate intracellularly. A previously uncharacterized naringenin glycoside formed using the D. caryophyllus GT was identified as naringenin-4'-O-glucoside. It was found that S. cerevisiae cells hydrolyze naringenin-7-O-glucoside during whole-cell biocatalysis, resulting in a low final glycoside titer. When phloretin was added as a substrate to the yeast strain expressing the GT constitutively, the natural product phlorizin was formed. This study demonstrates S. cerevisiae is a promising whole-cell biocatalyst host for the production of valuable glycosides.

  16. Tracing river gravels: Insights into dispersion from a long-term field experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haschenburger, J. K.

    2013-10-01

    Sediment dispersion is a fundamental component of the sediment transfer process in gravel-bed rivers. Modeling this process requires an understanding of the collective movement of mixed-size clasts. This study explores the temporal evolution of gravel dispersion to underscore the importance of field observation in informing modeling efforts. Magnetically tagged gravels deployed in Carnation Creek have been monitored repeatedly over 17 years. Four metrics used to describe the extent of dispersion document that the overall shape in the spatial distribution of grain location changes over time. The general trends mask the complexity of the dispersion process, expressed by channel sections where tracers are concentrated regardless of grain size. The distribution of total grain displacement responsible for dispersion evolves as tracers become well mixed. Results demonstrate that observations from the field are crucial to the understanding and modeling of sediment dispersion because they provide key insights into the dispersion process that must be known a priori for mathematical modeling and similar observations cannot be collected using laboratory flumes.

  17. The Role of Portugal in the International Context

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    Pablo Antonio Fernández Sánchez

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available A year ago, Portugal celebrated the twenty-fifth anniversary of the so-called Revolution of the Carnations, which marked the beginning of an unstoppable process of democratization and the ensuing full incorporation of Portugal into the institutionalized international community. The Portugal’s opting for orderly decolonialization and full integration into the world of international law has twice brought it a non-permanent seat on the United Nations Security Council and also the Presidency of the UN General Assembly. In the area of security and defense, Portugal began an unprecedented change of course. Its traditional alliance with NATO has been strengthened by new strategic concepts and by its incorporation into new peacekeeping and international security programs in organizations such as the UN, the Western European Union, the OSCE, and even withinthe framework of the European Union where it participates quite actively in accordance with its level in relation to the other members. Also analyzed are the process of incorporation into Community institutions and its direct, precise participation in the evolution they have followed in recent years, with it now being fully integrated into all the areas of regional integration from the "eurozone” to the Schengen framework. The article also points out the gains this very rational choice has brought. Finally, the changes that have come about in bilateral relations with Spain are analyzed.

  18. The life and viper of Dr Patrick Russell MD FRS (1727-1805): physician and naturalist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawgood, B J

    1994-11-01

    It is nearly two hundred years since the publication in 1796 of An Account of Indian Serpents collected on the Coast of Coromandel by Patrick Russell. Within the folio is a drawing and description of the venomous snake called Katuka Rekula Poda in the local Telugu language, whose venom was shown experimentally by Dr Russell to be nearly as lethal as that of Cobra de Capello. The snake is now known as Vipera russelli or Russell's viper. Dr Russell was representative of the naturalistic tendency of British medicine in the late 18th century. He was a keen observer and skilled doctor in clinical practice, particularly in Aleppo, Syria, during an outbreak of the plague, and indefatigable in his study of plant and animal life both in Aleppo and later in the Madras Province of India. As a physician as well as Naturalist to the East India Company in the Carnatic he was concerned with the problem of snakebite. His first aim was to find a means whereby the non-specialist could distinguish between poisonous and harmless snakes and so combat the terrible notion that all bites were mortal. His writing, encompassing social and natural histories and climaxed by a study of snakes, has left a rich legacy. Dr Patrick Russell was a man of the highest integrity and ability, a physician and naturalist par excellence.

  19. Skin contamination, airborne concentrations, and urinary metabolite excretion of propoxur during harvesting of flowers in greenhouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, R; van Maarleveld, K; Ravensberg, L; Meuling, W; de Kort, W; van Hemmen, J J

    1993-11-01

    In eight greenhouses used for carnation culture, workers engaged in harvesting (n = 16), were monitored for dermal and respiratory exposure and urinary excretion of propoxur. Dermal exposure of hands and forearms was estimated from dislodgable foliar residue, using a transfer factor (a measure of transfer of pesticides from leaves to the skin) and the total number of working hours. Total estimated dermal and respiratory exposure during harvesting ranged from 0.2 to 46 mg and from 3 to 278 micrograms, respectively. To study the relationship between external and internal exposure to propoxur, respiratory and dermal exposure levels were compared with the total amount of 2-isopropoxyphenol (IPP), the major metabolite of propoxur, excreted in urine in 24 hr. The Pearson correlation coefficient between dermal exposure and the total amount of excreted IPP was 0.95. A correlation coefficient of 0.84 was found between respiratory exposure and the amount of IPP excreted. The latter association was probably caused by the covariation of respiratory and dermal exposure levels (r = 0.85). Assuming negligible oral absorption, calculations indicated that dermal exposure could account for > 80% of the amount of excreted IPP. On the basis of the amount of IPP excreted, there was no reason to suspect increased health risks for workers from exposure to propoxur during harvesting.

  20. Colombian experience in applying rules concerning agricultural biosecurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Silva C.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Genetic engineering has made possible the creation of Genetic Modified Organisms (GMOs, or transgenic crops. The growth around the world of transgenic crops areas for commercial purposes, such as soybean, maize, canola and cotton is being amazing: from 1.7 million hectares in 1996 to 52.6 million in 2001. Historically, not many technologies have reached, in such a short period of time, such a higher adoption. The use of these technologies, nevertheless their well-known benefits, has brought some worries related with biosafety. In Colombia the Colombian Institute for Agriculture and Cattle (ICA, its Spanish acronym in order to introduce GMOs to the country and prevent or minimize the potential risk for agriculture generated by this kind of organisms, has established two instruments: the Agreement 013/98, creating the National Technical Biosafety Committee (CTN, its Spanish acronym, intersectorial adviser organism; and the Resolution 3492/98, establishing procedures for introduction, production, reléase and marketing of GMOs for agricultural purposes. Under this regulations, ICA has approved five different requests involving eight events with GMOs: carnation for commercial multiplicación purposes; cotton and rice for evaluation genotype in field at a small scale; cassava, brachiaria, stylozantes, coffee and sugar cane for research in genetic improvement throughout genetic engineering techniques in confined handling. Based on the accomplished experience, the future will make improve the legal and institutional instruments, as well as technical and scientific capacity of the country in biosafety. 

  1. The occurrence of root rot and crown rot of rice in Gilan and Zanjan provinces, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saremi, H; Okhovat, S M

    2004-01-01

    Root rot and crown rot of rice is one of the important fungal diseases of rice in Gilan and Zanjan provinces, Iran. During 1999--2002, samples of plant and soil around the roots of infected rice plants were collected and used to identify the causal agent. Root and crown parts were surface sterilized with sodium hypochlorite and then cultured on PDA (potato dextrose agar), PPA (pepton pentacholoritobenzene agar) and CLA (carnation leaf agar) media. Soil samples prepared in water agar were used to isolate the pathogen. The causal agent was identified as Fusarium moniliforme. Colonies were initially white but turned violet to grey late. Microconidia were arranged in chain and macroconidia were cylindrical and long with 3-5 septa. The disease was severe in Zanjan province particularly along Ghezel Ozan river where the infection ranged from 70-80%. Root and crown rot was more prevalent in areas where Champa and Gerdeh were being cultivated continuously. On the other hand, Sadri cultivars had relatively less infection. Persistent cultivation of rice and seed sowing method intensified disease development and caused significant economic losses.

  2. Wheat Fusarium head blight and identification of dominant species in Moghan area, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davari, M; Didar-Taleshmkaeil, R; Hajieghrari, B

    2006-01-01

    In order to identify of head blight agents in Moghan area and determine predominant species, totally 60 samples from affected wheat heads of Atila 4, Zagros, Goadloop, Izen green and Gasquine cultivars that cultivated during 2004-2005, were collected from randomly selected commercial wheat fields in Moghan. Twenty randomly selected kernels and glumes from each sample were surface sterilized and were planted on synthesized nutrient agar medium (SNA), potato dextrose agar (PDA) and Nash-Snyder medium (NA) plates. Culture plates were incubated at 22 to 25 C with a 12-h photoperiod provided by fluorescent and ultra violet lights. For the species identification, cultures were incubated for 5 to 15 days on PDA plates to induce sporulation under light and temperature previously described. Single conidial isolates were obtained by spreading a conidial suspension across a water agar culture plate and transferring a single germinated conidium to a new PDA culture plates. Single spore cultures were grown on Carnation leaf agar (CLA) for spore morphology assessment and on PDA for color assessment. All species were identified based on descriptions given in Burgess et. al. and Nelson et al. The results indicated that in addition Fusarium graminearum and F. culmorum were identified as wheat FHB agents in Moghan area and F. graminearum was dominant species in Moghan area. Also severe infection was determined in Atila 4 cultivar by F. graminearum.

  3. Identification of Fusarium species isolated from stored apple fruit in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sever, Zdravka; Ivić, Dario; Kos, Tomislav; Miličević, Tihomir

    2012-12-01

    Several species of the genus Fusarium can cause apple fruit to rot while stored. Since Fusarium taxonomy is very complex and has constantly been revised and updated over the last years, the aim of this study was to identify Fusarium species from rotten apples, based on combined morphological characteristics and molecular data. We identified 32 Fusarium isolates from rotten apple fruit of cultivars Golden Delicious, Jonagold, Idared, and Pink Lady, stored in Ultra Low Oxygen (ULO) conditions. Fusarium rot was detected in 9.4 % to 33.2 % of naturally infected apples, depending on the cultivar. The symptoms were similar in all four cultivars: a soft circular brown necrosis of different extent, with or without visible sporulation. Fusarium species were identified by the morphology of cultures grown on potato-dextrose agar (PDA) and carnation leaf agar (CLA). Twenty one isolates were identified as Fusarium avenaceum and confirmed as such with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using specific primer pair FA-ITSF and FA-ITSR. F. pseudograminearum,F. semitectum, F. crookwellense, and F. compactum were identified by morphological characteristics. F.avenaceum can produce several mycotoxins and its dominance in Fusarium rot points to the risk of mycotoxin contamination of apple fruit juices and other products for human consumption. Pathogenicity tests showed typical symptoms of Fusarium rot in most of the inoculated wounded apple fruits. In this respect Fusarium avenaceum, as the dominant cause of Fusarium rot in stored apple fruits is a typical wound parasite.

  4. Disruption of lysosome function promotes tumor growth and metastasis in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Congwu; Zhu, Huanhu; Han, Min; Zhuang, Yuan; Wu, Xiaohui; Xu, Tian

    2010-07-09

    Lysosome function is essential to many physiological processes. It has been suggested that deregulation of lysosome function could contribute to cancer. Through a genetic screen in Drosophila, we have discovered that mutations disrupting lysosomal degradation pathway components contribute to tumor development and progression. Loss-of-function mutations in the Class C vacuolar protein sorting (VPS) gene, deep orange (dor), dramatically promote tumor overgrowth and invasion of the Ras(V12) cells. Knocking down either of the two other components of the Class C VPS complex, carnation (car) and vps16A, also renders Ras(V12) cells capable for uncontrolled growth and metastatic behavior. Finally, chemical disruption of the lysosomal function by feeding animals with antimalarial drugs, chloroquine or monensin, leads to malignant tumor growth of the Ras(V12) cells. Taken together, our data provide evidence for a causative role of lysosome dysfunction in tumor growth and invasion and indicate that members of the Class C VPS complex behave as tumor suppressors.

  5. The light gene of Drosophila melanogaster encodes a homologue of VPS41, a yeast gene involved in cellular-protein trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, T S; Sinclair, D A; Fitzpatrick, K A; Singh, M; Devlin, R H; Honda, B M

    1998-04-01

    Mutations in a number of genes affect eye colour in Drosophila melanogaster; some of these "eye-colour" genes have been shown to be involved in various aspects of cellular transport processes. In addition, combinations of viable mutant alleles of some of these genes, such as carnation (car) combined with either light (lt) or deep-orange (dor) mutants, show lethal interactions. Recently, dor was shown to be homologous to the yeast gene PEP3 (VPS18), which is known to be involved in intracellular trafficking. We have undertaken to extend our earlier work on the lt gene, in order to examine in more detail its expression pattern and to characterize its gene product via sequencing of a cloned cDNA. The gene appears to be expressed at relatively high levels in all stages and tissues examined, and shows strong homology to VPS41, a gene involved in cellular-protein trafficking in yeast and higher eukaryotes. Further genetic experiments also point to a role for lt in transport processes: we describe lethal interactions between viable alleles of lt and dor, as well as phenotypic interactions (reductions in eye pigment) between allels of lt and another eye-colour gene, garnet (g), whose gene product has close homology to a subunit of the human adaptor complex, AP-3.

  6. Assessment of cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of benzaldehyde using different assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulker, Z; Alpsoy, L; Mihmanli, A

    2013-08-01

    Benzaldehyde (BA) occurs naturally in a number of plants, including cherry, fig and peach fruit and carnation flowers at therapeutic doses. In addition, it is used in cosmetics, personal care products and food as a preservative. In this study, we aimed to determine the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of different concentrations of BA on cultured human lymphocytes using lactate dehydrogenase assay, cell proliferation (water-soluble tetrazolium salts-1) assay and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) test (apoptotic test) as a group of cytotoxicity tests at 6th and 24th h on human lymphocyte cell culture. The cytotoxicity increased when cells were treated with 10, 25 and 50 μg/mL concentrations of BA (p < 0.05). Moreover, treatment of the cells with the same concentrations significantly decreased the cell number at the 6th and 24th hours (p < 0.05). TUNEL assay results also show that the concentration of BA at 10, 25 and 50 μg/mL caused DNA damage significantly (p < 0.05). According to our results, the toxic and genotoxic effects of BA have to be further evaluated before using in cosmetic and food products.

  7. Study on the Meat Production Performance and Meat Quality of Yangzhou Geese and Its Crossed Combinations%扬州鹅及其杂交配套组合肉用性能和肉品质的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢恺舟; 黄玉萍; 陈学森; 陈书琴; 戴国俊; 赵万里

    2012-01-01

    The slaughter performance, meat quality and chemical constitutes of 70-day-old Yangzhou geese and its four different crossed combinations (KxB, KxA, CxA and SxA)were measured.The results indicated that the percentage of dressed weight was above 87.10%, percentage of eviscerated yield was above 67.94%. The value of carnation was 0.58~-1.68, and all the carnation of breast muscle were ligter than leg muscle. The tenderness of leg muscle was better than breast muscle,and there was no significant difference between genders. The content of crude fat of breast muscle was significant higher than leg muscle of gander in the K xB group (P<0.05), the content of water of breast muscle was significant higher than leg muscle in SxA group and goose in AxA group (P<0.05), the content of crude protein was extensively significant lower than leg muscle of goose in AxA group (P<0.0l), there was no significant difference in the content of chemical constitutes between parts and between genders. Except for the content of IMP of breast muscle was significant higher than that of leg muscle from goose in CxA group (P<0.05=, the contents of IMP and the thiamine were no significant difference between two anatomical muscles in four groups.%以70日龄扬州鹅(A×A)及其4个杂交配套组合(K×B、K×A、C×A和S×A)鹅群体为试验素材,测定其屠宰性能、常规肉品质和化学指标.结果表明:5个鹅群体中,屠宰率、全净膛率都分别在87.10%、67.94%以上;肌肉肉色(OD值)为0.58~1.68,且胸肌肉色均较腿肌浅;嫩度在性别间差异不显著,但腿肌的嫩度比胸肌好;K×B群体公鹅胸肌粗脂肪、S×A群体及A×A群体母鹅胸肌的水分含量均显著高于腿肌(P<0.05),A×A群体母鹅胸肌蛋白含量极显著小于腿肌(P<0 01),S×A群体公鹅腿肌的粗脂肪含量在性别间差异显著(P<0.05),其他群体的常规化学成分含量在部位和性别间差异均不显著;除C×A群体母鹅胸肌中的肌苷酸

  8. Application of Two-spotted Spider Mite Tetranychus urticae for Plant-pest Interaction Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrave, Tara; Van Leeuwen, Thomas; Grbic, Vojislava; Grbic, Miodrag

    2014-01-01

    The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, is a ubiquitous polyphagous arthropod herbivore that feeds on a remarkably broad array of species, with more than 150 of economic value. It is a major pest of greenhouse crops, especially in Solanaceae and Cucurbitaceae (e.g., tomatoes, eggplants, peppers, cucumbers, zucchini) and greenhouse ornamentals (e.g., roses, chrysanthemum, carnations), annual field crops (such as maize, cotton, soybean, and sugar beet), and in perennial cultures (alfalfa, strawberries, grapes, citruses, and plums)1,2. In addition to the extreme polyphagy that makes it an important agricultural pest, T. urticae has a tendency to develop resistance to a wide array of insecticides and acaricides that are used for its control3-7. T. urticae is an excellent experimental organism, as it has a rapid life cycle (7 days at 27 °C) and can be easily maintained at high density in the laboratory. Methods to assay gene expression (including in situ hybridization and antibody staining) and to inactivate expression of spider mite endogenous genes using RNA interference have been developed8-10. Recently, the whole genome sequence of T. urticae has been reported, creating an opportunity to develop this pest herbivore as a model organism with equivalent genomic resources that already exist in some of its host plants (Arabidopsis thaliana and the tomato Solanum lycopersicum)11. Together, these model organisms could provide insights into molecular bases of plant-pest interactions. Here, an efficient method for quick and easy collection of a large number of adult female mites, their application on an experimental plant host, and the assessment of the plant damage due to spider mite feeding are described. The presented protocol enables fast and efficient collection of hundreds of individuals at any developmental stage (eggs, larvae, nymphs, adult males, and females) that can be used for subsequent experimental application. PMID:25046103

  9. Dispersion Rates of Gravel Sizes in a Natural Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haschenburger, J. K.

    2011-12-01

    Sediment transfers in gravel-bed rivers involve the three-dimensional dispersion of mixed size sediment. Few studies are available to inform on the streamwise rate of gravel dispersion in natural channels, especially over a longer time scale. This research uses a gravel tracing program to quantify both the mean and maximum rates of different size fractions over 17 flood seasons. Empirical observations were collected in Carnation Creek, a small gravel-bed river with large woody debris located on the west coast of Vancouver Island, Canada. An average of 15 ± 5 floods per year facilitates frequent streambed activity and relatively high bed material transport rates, typically under partial sediment transport conditions. About 2000 magnetically tagged stones, ranging in size from 16 to 180 mm, were deployed on the bed surface between 1991 and 1992. Streamwise dispersion rates were quantified for the eight size fractions as virtual velocities based on 11 tracer recoveries completed between 1991 and 2008. Maximum velocities were calculated using the 10 largest values for each fraction. During the study period 258 floods capable of moving bedload occurred, with two exceeding the estimated bankfull discharge. The hydrological forcing driving the dispersion process was quantified by expended flow energy. Fractional virtual velocities as a function of flow energy are fairly well described by power functions. In absolute terms, finer gravels have higher rates of dispersion than coarser gravels as expected. A slowdown in mean velocities over time occurs more quickly with finer gravels; function exponents range from -0.2 to -0.5. Maximum velocities adjusted more quickly than mean values, with function exponents spanning from -0.4 to -0.8. These grain size differences contribute to the streamwise sorting of bed material.

  10. Bamboo tea: reduction of taxonomic complexity and application of DNA diagnostics based on rbcL and matK sequence data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häser, Annette

    2016-01-01

    Background Names used in ingredient lists of food products are trivial and in their nature rarely precise. The most recent scientific interpretation of the term bamboo (Bambusoideae, Poaceae) comprises over 1,600 distinct species. In the European Union only few of these exotic species are well known sources for food ingredients (i.e., bamboo sprouts) and are thus not considered novel foods, which would require safety assessments before marketing of corresponding products. In contrast, the use of bamboo leaves and their taxonomic origin is mostly unclear. However, products containing bamboo leaves are currently marketed. Methods We analysed bamboo species and tea products containing bamboo leaves using anatomical leaf characters and DNA sequence data. To reduce taxonomic complexity associated with the term bamboo, we used a phylogenetic framework to trace the origin of DNA from commercially available bamboo leaves within the bambusoid subfamily. For authentication purposes, we introduced a simple PCR based test distinguishing genuine bamboo from other leaf components and assessed the diagnostic potential of rbcL and matK to resolve taxonomic entities within the bamboo subfamily and tribes. Results Based on anatomical and DNA data we were able to trace the taxonomic origin of bamboo leaves used in products to the genera Phyllostachys and Pseudosasa from the temperate “woody” bamboo tribe (Arundinarieae). Currently available rbcL and matK sequence data allow the character based diagnosis of 80% of represented bamboo genera. We detected adulteration by carnation in four of eight tea products and, after adapting our objectives, could trace the taxonomic origin of the adulterant to Dianthus chinensis (Caryophyllaceae), a well known traditional Chinese medicine with counter indications for pregnant women. PMID:27957401

  11. Rates of Gravel Dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haschenburger, J. K.

    2010-12-01

    Sediment transfers in gravel-bed rivers involve the three-dimensional dispersion of mixed size sediment. From a kinematics standpoint, few studies are available to inform on the streamwise and vertical rates of sediment dispersion in natural channels. This research uses a gravel tracing program to quantify dispersion rates over 19 flood seasons. Empirical observations come from Carnation Creek, a small gravel-bed river with large woody debris located on the west coast of Vancouver Island, Canada. Frequent floods and the relatively limited armor layer facilitate streambed activity and relatively high bedload transport rates, typically under partial sediment transport conditions. Over 2500 magnetically tagged stones, ranging in size from 16 to 180 mm, were deployed on the bed surface between 1989 and 1992 in four generations. To quantify gravel dispersion over distances up to 2.6 km, observations are taken from 11 recoveries. Over 280 floods capable of moving bedload occurred during this period, with five exceeding the estimated bankfull discharge. Streamwise dispersion is quantified by virtual velocity, while dispersion into the streambed is quantified by a vertical burial rate. The temporal trend in streamwise dispersion rates is described by a power function. Initial virtual velocities decline rapidly from around 1.4 m/hr to approach an asymptote value of about 0.2 m/hr. The rapid change corresponds to a significant increase in the proportion of buried tracers due to vertical mixing. Initial burial rates reflect the magnitude of the first flood after tracer deployment and range from 0.07 to 0.46 cm/hr depending on tracer generation. Burial rates converge to about 0.06 cm/hr after the fourth flood season and then gradually decline to about 0.01 cm/hr. Thus, the rate of streamwise dispersion exceeds that of vertical dispersion by three orders of magnitude when the movement of sediment routinely activated by floods is considered.

  12. Bamboo tea: reduction of taxonomic complexity and application of DNA diagnostics based on rbcL and matK sequence data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Horn

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Names used in ingredient lists of food products are trivial and in their nature rarely precise. The most recent scientific interpretation of the term bamboo (Bambusoideae, Poaceae comprises over 1,600 distinct species. In the European Union only few of these exotic species are well known sources for food ingredients (i.e., bamboo sprouts and are thus not considered novel foods, which would require safety assessments before marketing of corresponding products. In contrast, the use of bamboo leaves and their taxonomic origin is mostly unclear. However, products containing bamboo leaves are currently marketed. Methods We analysed bamboo species and tea products containing bamboo leaves using anatomical leaf characters and DNA sequence data. To reduce taxonomic complexity associated with the term bamboo, we used a phylogenetic framework to trace the origin of DNA from commercially available bamboo leaves within the bambusoid subfamily. For authentication purposes, we introduced a simple PCR based test distinguishing genuine bamboo from other leaf components and assessed the diagnostic potential of rbcL and matK to resolve taxonomic entities within the bamboo subfamily and tribes. Results Based on anatomical and DNA data we were able to trace the taxonomic origin of bamboo leaves used in products to the genera Phyllostachys and Pseudosasa from the temperate “woody” bamboo tribe (Arundinarieae. Currently available rbcL and matK sequence data allow the character based diagnosis of 80% of represented bamboo genera. We detected adulteration by carnation in four of eight tea products and, after adapting our objectives, could trace the taxonomic origin of the adulterant to Dianthus chinensis (Caryophyllaceae, a well known traditional Chinese medicine with counter indications for pregnant women.

  13. Composting of wine industry wastes and their use as a substrate for growing soil less ornamental plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmona, E.; Moreno, M. T.; Aviles, M.; Ordovas, J.

    2012-11-01

    To study the process of composting of grape marc and test the resulting compost as a substrate for the cultivation of ornamental plants, six composting processes, with mixtures of dealcoholised grapevine marc and grape stalk (DM + GS) in a 1:1 ratio (v:v), were carried out in Seville (Spain) between 2000 and 2006. The duration of the composting ranged between 20 and 24 weeks in the Spring-Summer season. Weekly, temperature, pH, EC, N-NO{sub 3}{sup -} and N-NH{sub 4} +, were measured. The maximum temperatures reached values of 65-73 degree centigrade at a depth between 40 and 80 cm. The compost had a slightly alkaline pH, slightly salinity, high organic matter and total nitrogen contents. The final compost chemical composition in total elements showed values in the same range as those corresponding to plant material, except for Fe. The distribution in the size of the particles gives way to a total porous space that is close to the one considered as optimal in a substrate for soil less cropping. Pore size distribution showed a prevalence of big pores that produces unbalance in the water-air ratios, resulting in a material with a good aeration but with low water retention. The composts were tested as substrates for four ornamental species: geranium, petunia, carnation and gerbera. The results suggest that compost has no limiting characteristics for its use as a medium for the cultivation of ornamental plants in container, and can replace conventional substrates, such as peat and coconut fibre. (Author) 35 refs.

  14. 香石竹的杂交育种

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙强; 戴咏梅; 常青; 施莉莉

    2004-01-01

    香石竹(Dianthus caryophyllus),又名康乃馨(Carnation),石竹科石竹属。花色娇艳,单朵花的花期较长,是当代重要的切花植物。香石竹原产于南欧、地中海北岸、法国到希腊一带,现在世界各地广泛栽培,主要产区在意大利、荷兰、波兰、以色列、哥伦比亚、美国等。随着香石竹商品化生产,出现了许多专门进行育种、繁育的公司。这些公司在品种类型上各有优势,每年都能推出一定数量的新品种,以增强市场竞争力,同时也给香石竹鲜花的持续发展注入了更强的活力。我国的香石竹育种工作起步较晚,国内市场流行的品种大都为引进的国外品种,目前上海市花卉育种中心经过多年的育种研发,已培育出几个有自主知识产权的香石竹品种。

  15. The University in Portugal during the transition to democracy and neoliberalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Reis Torgal

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The history of the University in Portugal lives a moment of great relevance in the transition to democracy in the decade 1970-1980. Under the Marcello Caetano government (1968-1974 –the continuation of the New State of Salazar, the «fascism of the professorship»– there were some internal reforms, state reform experiences (with the creation of new universities and schools of higher education and important struggles of students against the dictatorship; after the «Carnation Revolution» of April 25, there was also a poorly planned and not achieved attempt to draw a «political university» of Marxist influence, with the intention to accompany the extreme phase of the revolution. With the 1976 Constitution, based on a democratic nature of Occidental countries, and the first constitutional governments, higher education has been consolidated in our binary system, made by university and polytechnic. However, there is also evidence of the trend towards a neoliberal education system, announcing the foundation of many universities and particular institutes. In order to discuss this complex evolution, the article exceeds the decade of the 70s of the XX century, even to the current XXI century, characterized by the crisis of the  universits, which leads us to ask: Which University? How to reference this article Torgal, L. R. (2015. A Universidade em Portugal em período de transição para a democracia e para o neoliberalismo. Espacio, Tiempo y Educación, 2(2, 155-171. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.14516/ete.2015.002.002.008

  16. Bioavailability of ethanol is reduced in several commonly used liquid diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Fiebre, N C; de Fiebre, C M; Booker, T K; Nelson, S; Collins, A C

    1994-01-01

    Liquid diets are often used as a vehicle for chronically treating laboratory animals with ethanol. However, a recent report suggested that one or more components of these diets may bind ethanol which could result in a decrease in the bioavailability of ethanol. Consequently, we compared the blood ethanol concentration vs. time curves obtained following the intragastric (i.g.) administration of ethanol dissolved in water or in one of three liquid diets (Bioserv AIN-76, Sustacal, or Carnation Slender) using the long-sleep (LS) and short-sleep (SS) mouse lines. The initial rates of absorption were generally the same for the water-ethanol and diet-ethanol groups, but the diets generally produced lower peak levels and the areas under the ethanol concentration-time curves were less for all of the liquid diets than for the control, ethanol-water solution. In vitro dialysis experiments indicated that the Bioserv diet binds ethanol in a saturable manner. Therefore, it may be that the slower release of ethanol, which should occur as a result of binding, serves to increase the role of first pass metabolism in regulating ethanol concentrations following oral administration. Because the effects of the diets were seen even after pyrazole treatment, it may be that the lower blood ethanol levels arise because metabolism by gastric ADH, rather than hepatic ADH, is responsible for a major portion of ethanol metabolism as ethanol is slowly released by the diets. If so, the observation that the diet/water differences were uniformly greater in the LS mice may indicate that LS-SS differences in gastric ADH exist.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Application of two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae for plant-pest interaction studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazaux, Marc; Navarro, Marie; Bruinsma, Kristie A; Zhurov, Vladimir; Negrave, Tara; Van Leeuwen, Thomas; Grbic, Vojislava; Grbic, Miodrag

    2014-01-01

    The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, is a ubiquitous polyphagous arthropod herbivore that feeds on a remarkably broad array of species, with more than 150 of economic value. It is a major pest of greenhouse crops, especially in Solanaceae and Cucurbitaceae (e.g., tomatoes, eggplants, peppers, cucumbers, zucchini) and greenhouse ornamentals (e.g., roses, chrysanthemum, carnations), annual field crops (such as maize, cotton, soybean, and sugar beet), and in perennial cultures (alfalfa, strawberries, grapes, citruses, and plums)1,2. In addition to the extreme polyphagy that makes it an important agricultural pest, T. urticae has a tendency to develop resistance to a wide array of insecticides and acaricides that are used for its control3-7. T. urticae is an excellent experimental organism, as it has a rapid life cycle (7 days at 27 °C) and can be easily maintained at high density in the laboratory. Methods to assay gene expression (including in situ hybridization and antibody staining) and to inactivate expression of spider mite endogenous genes using RNA interference have been developed8-10. Recently, the whole genome sequence of T. urticae has been reported, creating an opportunity to develop this pest herbivore as a model organism with equivalent genomic resources that already exist in some of its host plants (Arabidopsis thaliana and the tomato Solanum lycopersicum)11. Together, these model organisms could provide insights into molecular bases of plant-pest interactions. Here, an efficient method for quick and easy collection of a large number of adult female mites, their application on an experimental plant host, and the assessment of the plant damage due to spider mite feeding are described. The presented protocol enables fast and efficient collection of hundreds of individuals at any developmental stage (eggs, larvae, nymphs, adult males, and females) that can be used for subsequent experimental application.

  18. Achievements and perspectives in biochemistry concerning anthocyanin modification for blue flower coloration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Nobuhiro; Nakayama, Toru

    2015-01-01

    Genetic engineering of roses and other plants of floricultural importance to give them a truly blue petal color is arguably one of the holy grails of plant biotechnology. Toward this goal, bluish carnations and roses were previously engineered by establishing an exclusive accumulation of delphinidin (Dp)-type anthocyanins in their petals via the heterologous expression of a flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase gene. Very recently, purple-blue varieties of chrysanthemums were also genetically engineered via a similar biochemical strategy. Although the floral colors of these transgenic plants still lack a true blue color, the basis for the future molecular breeding of truly blue flowers is via the engineering of anthocyanin pathways. Anthocyanins with multiple aromatic acyl groups (often referred to as polyacylated anthocyanins) in the 3'- or 7-position tend to display a more stable blue color than non-acylated anthocyanins. The 7-polyacylation process during the biosynthesis of purple-blue anthocyanins in delphinium (Delphinium grandiflorum) was found to occur in vacuoles using acyl-glucose as both the glucosyl and acyl donor. Glucosyltransferases and acyltransferases involved in anthocyanin 7-polyacylation in delphinium are vacuolar acyl-glucose-dependent enzymes belonging to the glycoside hydrolase family 1 and serine carboxypeptidae-like protein family, respectively. The 7-polyacylation proceeds through the alternate glucosylation and p-hydroxybenzoylation catalyzed by these enzymes. p-Hydroxybenzoyl-glucose serves as the p-hydroxybenzoyl and glucosyl donor to produce anthocyanins modified with a p-hydroxybenzoyl-glucose concatemer at the 7-position. This novel finding has provided a potential breakthrough for the genetic engineering of truly blue flowers, where polyacylated Dp-type anthocyanins are accumulated exclusively in the petals.

  19. Morphological and molecular analysis of Fusarium lateritium, the cause of gray necrosis of hazelnut fruit in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, S; Santori, A; Wajnberg, E; Castagnone-Sereno, P; Luongo, L; Belisario, A

    2011-06-01

    Fusarium lateritium is a globally distributed plant pathogen. It was recently reported as the causal agent of nut gray necrosis (NGN) on hazelnut. Isolate characterization within F. lateritium was undertaken to investigate how morphological and molecular diversity was associated with host and geographic origin. Morphological studies combined with inter-simple-sequence repeat (ISSR) analysis, and phylogenetic analyses using translation elongation factor 1α (TEF-1α), β-tubulin genes, and nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences were conducted to resolve relationships among 32 F. lateritium isolates from NGN-affected hazelnut fruit, and 14 from other substrates or 8 from other hosts than hazelnut. Colonies of F. lateritium from hazelnut showed dark grayish-olive differing from the orange-yellow color of all other isolates from other hosts. Generally, isolates from NGN-affected fruit failed to produce sporodochia on carnation leaf agar. The influence of host and substrate on the genetic structure of F. lateritium was supported by ISSR and analyzed with principal coordinates analysis. A relationship between hazelnut and genetic variation was inferred. Phylogenetic analysis of ITS provided limited resolution while TEF-1α and β-tubulin analyses allowed a clear separation between the European and non-European F. lateritium isolates retrieved from GenBank, regardless of host. Though morphological traits of F. lateritium isolates from hazelnut were generally uniform in defining a typical morphogroup, they were not yet phylogenetically defined. In contrast, the typology related to slimy deep orange cultures, due to spore mass, grouped clearly separated from the other F. lateritium isolates and revealed a congruence between morphology and phylogeny.

  20. Visiones de la transición portuguesa desde el búnker franquista: La revista Fuerza Nueva y la revolución de los claveles (1974

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel González Sáez

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available La revolución de los claveles en abril de 1974 terminó en Portugal con la dictadura y los intentos aperturistas del gobierno de Marcelo Caetano abriendo un complejo y conflictivo proceso de democratización. En España, el impacto en la clase política y en la opinión pública fue inevitable dadas las similitudes con el régimen luso, los debates abiertos sobre el aperturismo y la creciente actividad de la oposición antifranquista. En este artículo se estudia la visión de la revolución portuguesa en el denominado búnker franquista durante el año 1974 a través del análisis de la revista Fuerza Nueva, publicación de notable influencia durante el tardofranquismo en las corrientes más inmovilistas del régimen.Palabras Clave: Transición española; Portugal; Revolución de los claveles; Fuerza Nueva.__________________ Abstract:In 1974 the carnation revolution overthrew the dictatorship and the reform efforts of the Marcelo Caetano’s goverment, opening a complex and conflictive process of democratization. In Spain, the impact on political class and public opinion was huge due to similarities between both regimes, the open debate about reformism and the increasing activity of the anti-Franco opposition. The article analizes the francoist bunker’s views in 1974 about the portuguese revolution through the study of Fuerza Nueva, a magazine of significant influence on the francoist regime’s inmobilism during the late francoist period. 

  1. CULTIVOS TRANSGÉNICOS:: ENTRE LOS RIESGOS BIOLÓGICOS Y LOS BENEFICIOS AMBIENTALES Y ECONÓMICOS Gm Crops:: Between Biological Risk and Environmental and Economics Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEJANDRO CHAPARRO GIRALDO

    sobre la adopción de los cultivos GM, alrededor del análisis ponderado de los riegos biológicos y beneficios ambientales y económicos. Los riesgos biológicos se definen por los posibles efectos negativos sobre consumidor humano o ambiente en que se liberan. Los beneficios ambientales tienen que ver con los efectos de la reducción en el uso de agroquímicos (insecticidas y herbicidas, y beneficios económicos con la reducción en las pérdidas debidas al ataque de insectos y a la competencia de malezas, así como a la reducción de costos de producción.The transgenic crops were the result of the application of recombinant DNA technology in agriculture. These crops were developed by transfer of foreign genes (transgenes from any biological origin (animal, plant, microbial, viral to the genome of cultivated species of plants. The crops genetically modified (GM have been used in the world since 1996; up to December 2010 they counted to a billion hectares planted throughout the period. In just the past year 2010 148 million hectares were planted, grown by 15.4 million farmers in 29 countries. GM crops that are used in global agriculture are mainly soybean, cotton, corn and canola, which express transgenes derived from bacteria, and confer resistance to lepidopteran insects (ILR or herbicide tolerance (HT; glyphosate and glufosinate ammonium. The first transgenic varieties containing only a single transgene, or simple event, while the current varieties express several transgenes, or stacked, confereing resistance to different species of Lepidoptera and Coleopteran insects and tolerance to two different herbicides. In 2010 were planted in Colombia, 18.874 hectares of GM cotton, 16.793 hectares of GM corn, and 4 hectares of GM carnations and GM roses. GM corn and GM cotton were planted in Sucre, Cesar, Cordoba, Huila and Tolima. GM corn was planted in Antioquia, Valle del Cauca, Meta, Cundinamarca and Santander. Carnations and roses were planted in Cundinamarca. GM maize

  2. ENRAIZAMENTO DE CRAVO (Dianthus caryophyllus L. IN VITRO E EX VITRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.R.F CUZZUOL

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Plântulas de cravo (Dianthus caryophyllus micropropagadas durante várias gerações pelo período de um ano, foram enraizadas in vitro com AIA, ANA e AIB nas concentrações de 0,0; 0,25; 0,5 e 1,0 mg/l, em fatorial do tipo 3 x 4, com todos os tratamentos promovendo a formação de raízes, mas não diferindo do controle. Foi confrontado em condição autotrófica, o desempenho entre plântulas enraizadas in vitro na presença e ausência do regulador AIA 0,5 mg/l e plântulas enraizadas ex vitro, sem nenhuma diferença quanto ao comprimento da parte aérea. Para a variável produção de massa de matéria seca os melhores resultados foram proporcionados pelas plantas que passaram pela fase de enraizamento in vitro, tendo o sistema radicular efeito sinergístico no crescimento da parte aérea.Plantlets of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. micropropagated through several generations during one year, were observed with respect to rooting in vitro, in the presence of IAA , NAA and IBA, at the following concentrations: 0,0; 0,25; 0,5 and 1,0 mg/l. All treatments promoted root formation, however no differences were detected in comparison to control. As far as the lenght of the aerial part is concerned no difference was observed between in vitro rooting. in the presence or absence of IAA 0,5 mg/l, and ex vitro rooting. Plantlets which were rooted in vitro conditions showed higher production of fresh matter then those rooted ex vitro. The root system had a synergistic effect on the growth of the aerial part.

  3. Presencia del elemento genético transponible dTdic1 en Dianthus caryophyllus con flores variegadas y no variegadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Rocío López Castro

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Título en inglés: Presence of the transposable genetic element  dTdic1 in Dianthus caryophyllus with  variegated and no variegated flowers Resumen: El objetivo de este trabajo era la búsqueda del  EGT (Elemento Genético Transponible dTdic1 que ha sido asociado con la variegación del color de las flores de clavel y su relación con dos genes que codifican para enzimas involucradas en la biosíntesis de antocianinas,  Chalcona isomerasa (CHI y Dihidroflavonol reductasa (DFR.  Su presencia y expresión se evaluó en siete genotipos con flores variegadas (líneas híbridas y en cuatro genotipos de flores no variegadas (una línea híbrida y tres cultivares comerciales.  Un alto número (indefinido de copias del elemento dTdic1 se detectó en todas las líneas variegadas y no variegadas.  En consecuencia, la sola presencia de este EGT no pudo asociarse directamente con la variegación de los pigmentos florales de flores de clavel.  Adicionalmente, dTdic1 se encontró interrumpiendo el gen CHI en cuatro genotipos variegados y uno no variegado. No se observó evidencia de inserción de dTdic1 en el gen DFR en ninguno de los genotipos. Palabras clave: Transposones; chalcona isomerasa; antocianinas Abstract: The objective of this work was to search for the EGT (Transposable Genetic Element dTdic1 that has been associated with color variegation of carnation flowers and its relationship with two genes that code for enzymes involved in the synthesis of anthocyanins, Chalcona isomerase (CHI and Dihidroflavonol reductase (DFR. Its presence and expression was evaluated in seven genotypes of variegated flowers and four no variegated flower genotypes (one hybrid line and three commercial cultivars. A high number of copies (undefined of copies of the dTdic1 element was detected in variegaated and no variegated lines. Therefore, the main presence of this EGT was not associated directly with variegation of floral pigments. Additionally, dTdic1 was

  4. Recent trends on crop genetic improvement using mutation techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Siyong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-04-15

    The radiation breeding technology has been significantly achieved on creation of mutation genetic resources of plants for commercial cultivation and genomic study since 1920s. According to the FAO-IAEA Mutant Variety Database, more than 2600 varieties have been released in the world. Induction of mutations with radiation has been the most frequently used by sources of X-ray and gamma ray, but in recent Japanese scientist have been used the heavy ion beam as a new radiation sources. And China has been made remarkable outcomes in the mutant creation using new space breeding technology since 1990s. In Korea, more about 40 varieties have been developed by using the mutation breeding method since the mid-1960s. Most of the released mutant varieties in Korea were food and oil seed crops, especially for improving agronomic traits such as yield, lodging tolerance, maturity, and functional compounds. Currently the mutation breeding program in Korea has assigned more resources to develop high functional crops and ornamental plants. These functional and ornamental plants are ideal systems for a mutation breeding. A research program for the development of potential varieties of flowering and ornamental crops as rose, chrysanthemum, lily, carnation, orchids, and wild flowers was started with financial support from the Bio green 21 project of Korean government. The potential outcomes from the program will be new highly valued-added varieties which will provide greater money gains to Korean farmers and lots of valued mutants used for a gene isolation of interest and reverse genetics or functional genomic. Scientific interest in mutation breeding has drastically be ed focused to the field of functional genomic. Scientific interest in mutation breeding has drastically be ed focused to the field of functional genomic after a completion of genome sequencing of some model plant species. A direct approach of discovering the function of a novel gene is to use a mutant which has altered

  5. Mutant breeding of ornamental trees for creating variations with high value using Proton Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, H. J.; Lim, J. H.; Woo, S. M.; Hwang, M. J.; Pyo, S. H.; Woo, J. S. [Phygen Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-04-15

    It is necessary to induce the improved strains of ornamental plants with more disease-resistant and useful for landscape or phytoremediation. Mutation breeding has played an important role in crop improvement, and more than 2,000 mutant cultivars have been released. For the induction of mutation, gamma rays and X-rays are widely used as a mutagen. Proton beam had higher energy than -ray and worked with localized strength, so that proton-beam radiation could be valuable tool to induce useful strains of ornamental plants. Proton ion beam irradiation was used to induce a useful mutant in rice, chrysanthemum, carnation, and so on in Japan. Also, proton ion beam was used to select a useful host strain, in polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), a member of biodegradable plastic, could be overproduced in Korea. Therefore, we surmise that the effects of proton beam is different from those of gamma rays and X-rays, and we expect proton beam to be a new mutagen. This research was conducted to investigate the proton-beam radiation sensitivity and seed germination rate of the various ornamental plants like as Albizia julibrissin, Ficus religiosa, Rhus chinensis, Sorbaria sorbilfolia and Spiraea chinensis, to survey the quantitative characteristics of proton beam induced strains. To induce the variants of ornamental plants, seeds were irradiated at the dose of 0{approx}2kGy of proton beam at room temperature. Proton beam energy level was 45 MeV and was irradiated at dose of 0{approx}2kGy by MC-50 Cyclotron. After irradiation, to assess the effects of proton beam on radiation sensitivity and morphological changes of the plants and the seed germination rate were analysed. By the proton beam radiation, the germination rate decreased at the higher dose. The other hand, the germination rate of Rhus chinensis increased the dose higher, so that it need to investigate the germination rate over 2kGy radiation. The effects of mutation induction by proton beam irradiation on seeds in Lagerstroemia

  6. Whole-gene positive selection, elevated synonymous substitution rates, duplication, and indel evolution of the chloroplast clpP1 gene.

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    Per Erixon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Synonymous DNA substitution rates in the plant chloroplast genome are generally relatively slow and lineage dependent. Non-synonymous rates are usually even slower due to purifying selection acting on the genes. Positive selection is expected to speed up non-synonymous substitution rates, whereas synonymous rates are expected to be unaffected. Until recently, positive selection has seldom been observed in chloroplast genes, and large-scale structural rearrangements leading to gene duplications are hitherto supposed to be rare. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: We found high substitution rates in the exons of the plastid clpP1 gene in Oenothera (the Evening Primrose family and three separate lineages in the tribe Sileneae (Caryophyllaceae, the Carnation family. Introns have been lost in some of the lineages, but where present, the intron sequences have substitution rates similar to those found in other introns of their genomes. The elevated substitution rates of clpP1 are associated with statistically significant whole-gene positive selection in three branches of the phylogeny. In two of the lineages we found multiple copies of the gene. Neighboring genes present in the duplicated fragments do not show signs of elevated substitution rates or positive selection. Although non-synonymous substitutions account for most of the increase in substitution rates, synonymous rates are also markedly elevated in some lineages. Whereas plant clpP1 genes experiencing negative (purifying selection are characterized by having very conserved lengths, genes under positive selection often have large insertions of more or less repetitive amino acid sequence motifs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We found positive selection of the clpP1 gene in various plant lineages to correlated with repeated duplication of the clpP1 gene and surrounding regions, repetitive amino acid sequences, and increase in synonymous substitution rates. The present study sheds light on the

  7. Induced systemic resistance (ISR) in plants: mechanism of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Devendra K; Prakash, Anil; Johri, B N

    2007-12-01

    Plants possess a range of active defense apparatuses that can be actively expressed in response to biotic stresses (pathogens and parasites) of various scales (ranging from microscopic viruses to phytophagous insect). The timing of this defense response is critical and reflects on the difference between coping and succumbing to such biotic challenge of necrotizing pathogens/parasites. If defense mechanisms are triggered by a stimulus prior to infection by a plant pathogen, disease can be reduced. Induced resistance is a state of enhanced defensive capacity developed by a plant when appropriately stimulated. Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) and induced systemic resistance (ISR) are two forms of induced resistance wherein plant defenses are preconditioned by prior infection or treatment that results in resistance against subsequent challenge by a pathogen or parasite. Selected strains of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) suppress diseases by antagonism between the bacteria and soil-borne pathogens as well as by inducing a systemic resistance in plant against both root and foliar pathogens. Rhizobacteria mediated ISR resembles that of pathogen induced SAR in that both types of induced resistance render uninfected plant parts more resistant towards a broad spectrum of plant pathogens. Several rhizobacteria trigger the salicylic acid (SA)-dependent SAR pathway by producing SA at the root surface whereas other rhizobacteria trigger different signaling pathway independent of SA. The existence of SA-independent ISR pathway has been studied in Arabidopsis thaliana, which is dependent on jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene signaling. Specific Pseudomonas strains induce systemic resistance in viz., carnation, cucumber, radish, tobacco, and Arabidopsis, as evidenced by an enhanced defensive capacity upon challenge inoculation. Combination of ISR and SAR can increase protection against pathogens that are resisted through both pathways besides extended protection to a

  8. Produção de flores cortadas no estado de Minas Gerais Production of cut flowers in the state o Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Correa Landgraf

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available As flores de corte são importantes produtos da floricultura brasileira, as características da produção mineira são, no entanto, desconhecidas. Objetivou-se realizar um estudo da produção de flores de corte no estado de Minas Gerais, aplicou-se um questionário aos produtores do Estado , no período de 2003 a 2005. As visitas foram feitas in loco e os produtores foram identificados por meio de visitas nas áreas produtivas e os questionários foram respondidos por eles próprios. Analisando-se as respostas contidas nos questionários, identificou-se que a produção de flores de corte no estado de Minas Gerais é uma atividade realizada por 188 produtores, numa área plantada de aproximadamente 290,6836 ha As principais espécies cultivadas no Estado são: rosa (151,5710, sempre-vivas (57,26 ha, copo-de-leite (16,0255 ha, cravo (12,6290 ha e helicônia (11,7600 ha. A produção é vendida para o todo o Brasil e também exportada para países da Europa, Ásia e América do Norte. Os principais produtos exportados são: rosas de corte, orquídeas de corte e sempre-vivas.Cut flowers are important products of Brazilian floriculture. The characteristics of Minas Gerais production are, nevertheless, unknown. So, with the purpose of performing a study of the cut flower production in the state of Minas Gerais, a questionnaire was applied to flower growers of Minas Gerais state, in the period of 2003 to 2005. The visits were paid in loco and the growers were identified by means of visits to the flower-growing areas and the questionnaires were answered by them. By analyzing the answers contained in the questionnaires, it was identified that the cut flower production in the state of Minas Gerais is a business accomplished by 188 growers in a planted area of about 290.6836 ha. The main species grown in the state are: rose (151.5710 ha, sempre-vivas (57.26 ha, cala lilly flowers (16.0255 ha, carnation (12.6290 ha and heliconia (11.7600 ha. The

  9. 中国国土规划的研究进展%Research Progress of China' s Territorial Planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘力

    2012-01-01

    In order to resolve a series of growing environmental problems that appeared because of the mine tailings, the author paid attention on the feasibility of converting the mine tailings into farmland, and the mine tailings was produced by Benxi iron and steel (group) mining co., ltd. The results showed that lettuce in the ratio of 100% powder grew best under the circumstances; cabbage in 6 levels had no effects on growth; carnation grew best when the ratio was 50% soil+50% of the local pink; the growth of raincoat cabbage was well in the ratio of 80% local soil+20% powder. It was indicated that acidic tailings, with Benxi local soil was alkaline, doping was used to field, was feasible and effective. The conclusion was that it was the best effect that mixing the Benxi' s mine tailings and the local soil, meanwhile, fertilizing organic fertilizer into farmland.%为了研究近10年来中国国土规划实践与学术探索所取得的进展.综述了国内1999年以来的关于国土规划的相关学术研究文献.发现新一轮国土规划实践、GIS在国土规划中的应用、国外国土规划经验的介绍和比较等研究方向成果显著,推动了中国国土规划研究的发展.而国土规划基础理论、国土规划法律体系等研究方向仍是现有研究的薄弱环节,未来还需要加强国土规划与主体功能区规划等其他相关规划关系的研究,以及如何实现国土规划与其他规划成果的对接,使得国土规划成为规划体系的顶层设计.

  10. 模拟微重力对植物幼苗光合特性的影响%Effects of Simulated Microgravity on Characteristics of Photosynthesis in Plant Seedling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵琦; 李军; 刘敏

    2002-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of simulated microgravity on the characteristics of photosynthesis in some plant seedlings. Method Plant samples were treated on a 1 π clinostat rotated at 2 γ/min for 120 h.Then chlorophyll absorption and chlorophyll fast fluorescence induction kinetics were determined. Result After treatment on the clinostat:1)there were some increase in height and number of leaves per plant;2)the strawberry seedlings contained 47.5% less chlorophyll and the carnation seedlings contained 4.3% more;3)there was no change in position of the main absorption peaks of chlorophyll in both seedlings after the rotation, but their intensity was increased;4)there were significant increase in the parameters of fluorescence induction kinetics in the leaves of both seedlings: there was an increase in Fv/Fo, Fv/Fm and T1/2, except CA/Fo;5) there were some differences in excitation energy distribution between the two photosystems in the chloroplasts of control and treated samples. Conclusion Simulated microgravity does not have a significant effect on normal photosynthetic function in chloroplasts, so plant seedlings can grow up normally under microgravity.%目的研究模拟微重力对植物幼苗光合特性的影响.方法采用1π回转器模拟微重力并处理植物样品120 h.结果 1)株高和叶片数有所增加;2)草莓的叶绿素含量降低47.5%,香石竹叶绿素含量增加4.3%;3)回转后两种幼苗的叶绿素主要吸收峰位不变,而每个峰位吸收强度有所增加;4)两种幼苗的叶片快速荧光动力学参数,回转后除CA/Fo外,Fv/Fo, Fv/Fm和T1/2均有提高;5)对照和处理的叶绿体的两个光系统间的激发能分配有差异.结论微重力对叶绿体的正常光合功能没有显著影响,故植物幼苗在微重力条件下可以正常生长.

  11. 音乐演唱(奏)技术的再生成--信息化背景下音乐技术与身体关系思考%Regeneration of Music Singing(Play)Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张业茂

    2016-01-01

    作为“技术”之一的音乐技术,同样分可为生产、社会、精神技术。回望音乐“口头文化时期”及“文本时期”,作为音乐生产技术之一的音乐演唱(奏)技术的身体生成,及其与身体关系的发展脉络,可以发现,音乐演唱(奏)技术是身体器官的延展和功能的外化生成。随着信息时代的到来,音乐演唱(奏)技术与身体的关系在音乐教育领域,发生了突破性的变化。结合技术哲学与身体哲学,从“身心合一”主体视角出发,对音乐教育范畴的音乐演唱(奏)“技-身”关系展开探讨;着重审视信息化背景下,音乐生产技术———主要涉及演唱、奏技术,不包括作曲、录音、数码音乐制作技术———作为身体一部分的再生成及其特点。%Music technology,as one kind of technologies,also can be divided into production,society and spirit technology.Retrospec-ting the “oral culture period”and“text period”of music,the body generation of music singing (play)technology which is one type of music production technology,and its relationship with body development,we can find that music singing (play)technology is the in-carnation of the extension and function of body organs.With the coming of information age,music singing (play)technology and the physical relations in music education field,there is breakthrough of change.According to technology philosophy and body philosophy, from the subjective perspective of“the unity of body and mind”,the “technology-body”relationship of music singing (play)is dis-cussed in the field of music education;under the background of informationization,the regeneration and its characteristics of music pro-duction technology,mainly related to singing and play,not including composition,recording,digital music production technology,as one part of the body are specifically examined.

  12. Roof Greening Resistance Research and Analysis in Guiyang City%城市小区屋顶绿化抗逆性研究与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江钟

    2016-01-01

    通过贵阳小区屋顶绿化实验设计,对13种贵阳常见的屋顶绿化植物进行干旱和水淹的胁迫实验,对植物在不同胁迫下的生长状况进行了记录,同时测定了土壤含水量和叶绿素含量等指标的数据,并利用excel和spss软件对实验数据进行分析。实验结果表明,这13种植物的抗旱性的强弱顺序为:佛甲草>盆垂草>景天>紫藤>尖叶石竹>月季>合欢>黄馨>蔷薇>木香>红叶李>紫薇>菊花;耐涝性的强弱顺序为:盆垂草>佛甲草>紫藤>景天>尖叶石竹>紫薇>合欢>红叶李>黄馨>蔷薇>木香>月季>菊花。从实验结果可知,这13种植物的抗逆性存在较大的差异,其中佛甲草、盆垂草、景天的抗逆性最强;而菊花的抗逆性最弱。%By Guiyang area roof greening design of experiment, the 13 kinds of the common roof greening plants in Guiyang drought and flooding experiment, the stress on the growth of plants under different stress conditions for the record, at the same time measured the indexes of soil water content and chlorophyll content of data, and use the excel and SPSS software to analyze the experimental data. Experimental results show that the 13 kinds of plant drought resistance of the strength of the order:Buddha a grass>basin vertical grass>>view day wisteria>leaves China pink rose>>meadow>shin wong>>Rosa combination>gongxieli ziwei>>chrysanthemum;Basin of waterlogging resistance of the pecking order is: the vertical grass > fo a grass > wisteria > > view days leaves carnation ziwei > >meadow > gongxieli > shin wong > > Rosa combination > chrysanthemum > Chinese rose. From the experiment result shows that there are many differences between the 13 kinds of plant resistance, the Buddha a grass, grass, basin the strongest days of the resistance;And the resistance of chrysanthemum is the most weak.

  13. Red de mercadeo y rentabilidad de flor de corte en el Valle de Mexicali, Baja California, México Marketing network and profitability of cut flower for Mexicali Valley, Baja California, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blancka Yesenia Samaniego-Gámez

    2012-06-01

    during 2004 with more than 122 million pesos, considering flower seed and cut flower production. Most of cut flowers produced in state of Baja California Norte is for export market, by this reason local market means an opportunity for introducing quality products at market prices from national companies. Mexicali city, by being near USA and together with its population economic wealth thanks to profitability of cotton and orchards production in Mexicali Valley, is one or the main producer region in the country. By this reason and thanks to great amount of flower shops located in the region the aim of describing marketing network and profitability for cut flower in Mexicali Valley is proposed. Market study and diagnose to make FODA analysis were developed, defining strategies in order to seize economic potential. Actual distribution networks and marketing system consist in moving cut flowers from production centers, Córdoba, Veracruz and Coatepec de Harinas district, state of Mexico, up to Mexicali Valley, Baja California, keeping quality and optimum vase life for final customer, also proper planning for production chain due not covered demand along year it is required, the population has economical potential and tradition to give flowers guaranteeing good profitability. Roses (Rosa gigantea and R. chinensis L., asian lilies (Lilium spp., chrysanthemum [Dendranthema x grandiflorum (Ramat Kitamura c. v. Polaris White], carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus, gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii H. Bolux ex Hook F. and oriental lilies (Lilium spp. are species with more consumers' interest.

  14. Extratos vegetais em dietas para frangos de corte Plant extracts in diets for broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pricila Vetrano Rizzo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o fornecimento de misturas de extratos vegetais nas dietas de frangos de corte. Utilizaram-se 1.350 aves distribuídas em blocos casualizados, com seis repetições e cinco dietas, uma sem aditivos e outras quatro, cada uma contendo um dos aditivos: 10 ppm de avilamicina; 200 ppm de um produto contendo óleos essenciais de cravo, tomilho, canela e pimenta; 100 ppm de um produto comercial composto de óleos essenciais sintéticos de orégano e canela e óleo-resina de pimenta microencapsulados; 500 ppm de um produto comercial constituído de óleo de eucalipto, óleo essencial de canela-da-china, folhas de boldo-do-chile e sementes de feno-grego na fase inicial e 1.200 ppm nas fases de crescimento e final. Aos 21 e 42 dias, foram avaliadas as variáveis de desempenho e aos 44 dias de idade, as características de carcaça. Dos 27 aos 30 dias de idade, foi realizado o ensaio de metabolismo pelo método de coleta total de excretas e determinadas a energia metabolizável e a digestibilidade da proteína bruta das dietas. As dietas com misturas de extratos vegetais não tiveram efeito significativo sobre o desempenho se comparadas à dieta sem aditivo e à dieta com antibiótico. A ausência de desafio na criação e a utilização de dietas com ingredientes de alta digestibilidade podem ter contribuído para que as aves expressassem todo o seu potencial, tornando indetectável a melhora ocasionada pela inclusão de qualquer dos aditivos. Dietas contendo misturas de extratos vegetais promovem desempenho semelhante ao obtido com dietas contendo antibiótico.The trial was carried out to evaluate different blends of plants extracts in broilers diets. It was used 1,350 broilers distributed in a randomized block design with six replicates and five diets, one without additive and the four others, each containing one of the following additives: 10 ppm of avilamycin; 200 ppm of a product containing essential oils of carnation, thyme

  15. Comportamiento de Variables Químicas en un Sistema de Cultivo sin Suelo para Clavel en la Sabana de Bogotá / Behavior of Chemichal Variables in a Soilless Crop System for Carantion in the Bogota Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nohora Astrid Vélez Carvajal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. Para optimizar el manejo del fertirriego en loscultivos en sustrato es indispensable conocer la actividad de las variables químicas de la solución y de los sustratos. El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar el comportamiento de pH, CE, CIC y relación C:N de tres sustratos a base de cascarilla de arroz y fibra de coco; y pH y CE en los drenajes, en un sistema de cultivo con tres porcentajes de recirculación en diferentes estadios de desarrollo de plantas de clavel estándar cv. Delphi. Seutilizó un diseño experimental de bloques completos al azar con nueve tratamientos y tres repeticiones, en parcelas divididas. Se observó que el pH del lixiviado tiende a disminuir hacia el final y en los sustratos el valor de esta variable se mantuvo constante durante el periodo estudiado, aunque aumenta en la medida que se incrementa el porcentaje de cascarilla de arroz quemada (CAQ.La CE fue significativamente mayor cuando se recircula el 100% de los lixiviados y en los tratamientos con menor contenido de CAQ; mientras que en los sustratos, fue significativamente menor donde había mayor contenido de fibra de coco (FC. La CIC fue significativamente mayor en los sustratos con mayores porcentajes de FC; sin embargo, la relación C:N tendió a presentar valores mayores en el sustrato con mayor contenido de CAQ. / Summary. To optimize the management of fertigation in the soilless crops is essential to know the activity of chemical variables of the solution, and of the substrates. The aim of this study was to determine the behavior of pH, electrical conductivity (EC, cation exchange capacity (CEC and carbon nitrogen ratio (C:N in tree substrates base on burned rice husk and coconut fiber; and pH and CE in the drainage, in a soilless system to carnation crop cv. Delphi, with three recycling percentages and in different phenological developmental stages. The trial was carried out with three different substrates base on burned

  16. 高能窄谱光子联合药物治疗外阴湿疹的临床研究%Clinical Research of High Energy Narrow Spectrum Photons Combined with Drug Therapy on the treatment of Vulva Eczema

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘珉名; 董玲; 邬英

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of High Energy Narrow Spectrum Photons Combined with Drug Therapy on the treatment of Vulva Eczema. Methods 86 patients with Vulva Eczema who came to the dermatological department of our hospital during January 2013 to June 2014 were involved and divided into two groups randomly. In the control group, patients were treated with conventional drugs,while in the experimental group, conventional drugs combined with Carnation Photons therapy. Clinical efficacy and adverse effect between two groups were evaluated after 3 weeks of treatment. Results The total effective rate in the experimental group and control group was 100%and 93.0%, respectively. The treatment effect in the experimental group was significantly better than that in the control group, and the difference was statistically significant (P <0.05). The average cure time in the experimental group and the control group were (10.2 ±3.6) days, (13.1 ±5.4) days. The cure time of the experimental group was significantly less than the control group,and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). No obvious adverse effect was observed in both groups. Conclusion The effect of High Energy Narrow Spectrum Photons Combined with Drug Therapy in the treatment of Vulva Eczema is satisfactory. And this treatment method is easy operated with less adverse effect, and worthy to be recommended in the clinical application.%目的:探讨高能窄谱光子联合药物治疗外阴湿疹的临床效果。方法选取2013年1月~2014年6月我院皮肤科门诊治疗的外阴湿疹患者86例,对照组患者采取常规药物治疗,实验组在对照组基础上加用Carnation光子治疗仪进行治疗。治疗三周后对两组患者的疗效和不良反应进行评价。结果实验组患者治疗总有效率为100.0%,对照组患者治疗总有效率为93.0%。实验组患者的治疗效果明显优于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。实

  17. Podredumbres basales de Gypsophila paniculata (Caryophyllaceae: Agentes causales y su patogenicidad potencial sobre Dianthus caryophyllus (Caryophyllaceae Basal rots of Gypsophila paniculata (Caryophyllaceae: Causal agents and its potential pathogenicity on Dianthus caryophyllus (Caryophyllaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia María Wolcan

    basal stem wounds with different strains of each fungus. Crown rot was incited by P. nicotianae causing fast decay of leaves and stems and wet soft rot of the crowns, and by R. solani causing slower decay and disintegrated crown tissues. Basal stem rot was incited by F. graminearum , which was described for the first time on G. paniculata and enter through wounded tissues. Under experimental conditions some strains of R. solani and F. graminearum isolated from gipsofila caused stem rot on carnation plants and only some strains of P. niconianae were weakly pathogenic.

  18. The pathogen causing mango malformation in Jinsha River Dry-hot Valley, China%金沙江干热河谷地区芒果畸形病的病原菌

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨顺锦; 詹儒林; 柳凤; 赵艳龙; 常金梅; 何衍彪

    2011-01-01

    从金沙江干热河谷地区采集芒果畸形病组织,运用柯赫氏法则证实分离物MG6为该病的致病菌.菌株MG6在马铃薯蔗糖琼脂培养基(PSA)上菌丝白色,无色素产生,米饭培养基浅粉红色;在康乃馨叶片培养基(CLA)上以单瓶梗或复瓶梗假头状产孢,不产生链状孢子;小型分生孢子卵形或长椭圆形,具0-1个分隔,3.1-10.2×1.5-2.2μm;大型分生孢子呈镰刀形,通常3个分隔,18-38×1.8-2.4μm.EF-Iα测序结果在Fusarium数据库中进行同源性分析显示,菌株MG6与F.mangiferae的同源性最高,达99.68%.综合培养性状、形态学特征和EF-Iα序列分析,将菌株MG6鉴定为Fusarium mangiferae.%Mango tissue samples infected by malformation disease were collected from Jinsha River Dry-hot Valley and the fungal strains were isolated after surface sterilization. Isolate MG6 was confirmed to be the pathogen of this disease through Koch's rules.Based on morphological characteristics and EF-1α sequencing, isolate MG6 was identified as Fusarium mangiferae. The colony of the strain was white and pigment was not formed on Potato Sugar Agar (PSA). Pigmentation on rice medium was pink. On Carnation Leaf Agar (CLA) medium, microconidia formed false head on branched monophialides or polyphialidas, and conidia in chains were not observed. Microconidia are ovate to long-oval, 0-1-septate, 3.1-10.2× 1.5-2.2μm. Macroconidia are falculate, 3-5-septate,18-38× 1.8-2.4μm. Chlamydospores are absent. The EF-1α region of the pathogen was amplified and sequenced. A BLAST search through the Fusarium database (http://isolate.fusariumdb.org) showed that the identity of EF-1α sequence of isolate MG6 to that of Fusarium mangiferae NRRL 25226, the closest match was 99.68%, confirming the morphological identification of the isolate.

  19. An Exploration on Historical Facts Related to Tibetan Areas in The Travelogue of Xu Xiaka

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MU Shihua

    2013-01-01

    Kkam in Yunnan .The situation of Mu Clan tusi marked a trend of the historical development , and the fight between the Naxi and Tibetans produced a chain -reaction, or even caused a panic for various inland political powers . Because earlier Han Chinese and Tibetan his-torical texts did not record these large -scale his-torical events that happened in the cross -border region of Yunnan , Sichuan and Tibet around 1639, nor did the local literature, such as mushi huanpu ( the Genealogy of the Mu Clan ) include the struggles between the Naxi and Tibetan for fea-ring of losing face from the failure in the fight , lat-er generations are unable to understand the truth of the region ’ s history .However , the author of The Travelogue of Xu Xiake just happened to be trave-ling in this area around this time , and so he recor-ded the historical events based upon his own obser- vations .In doing so , he left the later generations the truth of the local history .Hence, The Trave-logue of Xu Xiake has its own unique historical val-ue in that it restores the true historical situation of the cross-border region of Yunnan , Sichuan and Tibet.He especially recorded the historical culture in his travelogue related to the Tibetan border are-as, such as information about yaks , the tea-horse caravan route , the pilgrimage of Tibetans to Mt . Jizu, and Mt.Wutai Mountain, the system of rein-carnation of Living Buddhas , etc.All of this pro-vides additional information to the Han -Chinese literature written in the Ming dynasty , and even helps to correct some mistakes in the official histor-ical documents in which the information regarding some of the contents were incomplete or even wrong . The late Ming dynasty was an era filled with turbulence and transformation in feudal China . There were increasingly sharp contradictions not only on the political aspects , but also on class and ethnic aspects .However , Xu Xiake recorded the historical truth of various provincial regions and