Guideline for radiation transport simulation with the Monte Carlo method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Today, the photon and neutron transport calculations with the Monte Carlo method have been progressed with advanced Monte Carlo codes and high-speed computers. Monte Carlo simulation is rather suitable expression than the calculation. Once Monte Carlo codes become more friendly and performance of computer progresses, most of the shielding problems will be solved by using the Monte Carlo codes and high-speed computers. As those codes prepare the standard input data for some problems, the essential techniques for solving the Monte Carlo method and variance reduction techniques of the Monte Carlo calculation might lose the interests to the general Monte Carlo users. In this paper, essential techniques of the Monte Carlo method and the variance reduction techniques, such as importance sampling method, selection of estimator, and biasing technique, are described to afford a better understanding of the Monte Carlo method and Monte Carlo code. (author)
Rare event simulation using Monte Carlo methods
Rubino, Gerardo
2009-01-01
In a probabilistic model, a rare event is an event with a very small probability of occurrence. The forecasting of rare events is a formidable task but is important in many areas. For instance a catastrophic failure in a transport system or in a nuclear power plant, the failure of an information processing system in a bank, or in the communication network of a group of banks, leading to financial losses. Being able to evaluate the probability of rare events is therefore a critical issue. Monte Carlo Methods, the simulation of corresponding models, are used to analyze rare events. This book sets out to present the mathematical tools available for the efficient simulation of rare events. Importance sampling and splitting are presented along with an exposition of how to apply these tools to a variety of fields ranging from performance and dependability evaluation of complex systems, typically in computer science or in telecommunications, to chemical reaction analysis in biology or particle transport in physics. ...
Stochastic simulation and Monte-Carlo methods; Simulation stochastique et methodes de Monte-Carlo
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Graham, C. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Ecole Polytechnique, 91 - Palaiseau (France); Talay, D. [Institut National de Recherche en Informatique et en Automatique (INRIA), 78 - Le Chesnay (France); Ecole Polytechnique, 91 - Palaiseau (France)
2011-07-01
This book presents some numerical probabilistic methods of simulation with their convergence speed. It combines mathematical precision and numerical developments, each proposed method belonging to a precise theoretical context developed in a rigorous and self-sufficient manner. After some recalls about the big numbers law and the basics of probabilistic simulation, the authors introduce the martingales and their main properties. Then, they develop a chapter on non-asymptotic estimations of Monte-Carlo method errors. This chapter gives a recall of the central limit theorem and precises its convergence speed. It introduces the Log-Sobolev and concentration inequalities, about which the study has greatly developed during the last years. This chapter ends with some variance reduction techniques. In order to demonstrate in a rigorous way the simulation results of stochastic processes, the authors introduce the basic notions of probabilities and of stochastic calculus, in particular the essential basics of Ito calculus, adapted to each numerical method proposed. They successively study the construction and important properties of the Poisson process, of the jump and deterministic Markov processes (linked to transport equations), and of the solutions of stochastic differential equations. Numerical methods are then developed and the convergence speed results of algorithms are rigorously demonstrated. In passing, the authors describe the probabilistic interpretation basics of the parabolic partial derivative equations. Non-trivial applications to real applied problems are also developed. (J.S.)
Simulation and the Monte Carlo Method, Student Solutions Manual
Rubinstein, Reuven Y
2012-01-01
This accessible new edition explores the major topics in Monte Carlo simulation Simulation and the Monte Carlo Method, Second Edition reflects the latest developments in the field and presents a fully updated and comprehensive account of the major topics that have emerged in Monte Carlo simulation since the publication of the classic First Edition over twenty-five years ago. While maintaining its accessible and intuitive approach, this revised edition features a wealth of up-to-date information that facilitates a deeper understanding of problem solving across a wide array of subject areas, suc
A new lattice Monte Carlo method for simulating dielectric inhomogeneity
Duan, Xiaozheng; Wang, Zhen-Gang; Nakamura, Issei
We present a new lattice Monte Carlo method for simulating systems involving dielectric contrast between different species by modifying an algorithm originally proposed by Maggs et al. The original algorithm is known to generate attractive interactions between particles that have different dielectric constant than the solvent. Here we show that such attractive force is spurious, arising from incorrectly biased statistical weight caused by the particle motion during the Monte Carlo moves. We propose a new, simple algorithm to resolve this erroneous sampling. We demonstrate the application of our algorithm by simulating an uncharged polymer in a solvent with different dielectric constant. Further, we show that the electrostatic fields in ionic crystals obtained from our simulations with a relatively small simulation box correspond well with results from the analytical solution. Thus, our Monte Carlo method avoids the need for the Ewald summation in conventional simulation methods for charged systems. This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (21474112 and 21404103). We are grateful to Computing Center of Jilin Province for essential support.
Non-analogue Monte Carlo method, application to neutron simulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
With most of the traditional and contemporary techniques, it is still impossible to solve the transport equation if one takes into account a fully detailed geometry and if one studies precisely the interactions between particles and matters. Nowadays, only the Monte Carlo method offers such possibilities. However with significant attenuation, the natural simulation remains inefficient: it becomes necessary to use biasing techniques where the solution of the adjoint transport equation is essential. The Monte Carlo code Tripoli has been using such techniques successfully for a long time with different approximate adjoint solutions: these methods require from the user to find out some parameters. If this parameters are not optimal or nearly optimal, the biases simulations may bring about small figures of merit. This paper presents a description of the most important biasing techniques of the Monte Carlo code Tripoli ; then we show how to calculate the importance function for general geometry with multigroup cases. We present a completely automatic biasing technique where the parameters of the biased simulation are deduced from the solution of the adjoint transport equation calculated by collision probabilities. In this study we shall estimate the importance function through collision probabilities method and we shall evaluate its possibilities thanks to a Monte Carlo calculation. We compare different biased simulations with the importance function calculated by collision probabilities for one-group and multigroup problems. We have run simulations with new biasing method for one-group transport problems with isotropic shocks and for multigroup problems with anisotropic shocks. The results show that for the one-group and homogeneous geometry transport problems the method is quite optimal without splitting and russian roulette technique but for the multigroup and heterogeneous X-Y geometry ones the figures of merit are higher if we add splitting and russian roulette
Research on Monte Carlo simulation method of industry CT system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
There are a series of radiation physical problems in the design and production of industry CT system (ICTS), including limit quality index analysis; the effect of scattering, efficiency of detectors and crosstalk to the system. Usually the Monte Carlo (MC) Method is applied to resolve these problems. Most of them are of little probability, so direct simulation is very difficult, and existing MC methods and programs can't meet the needs. To resolve these difficulties, particle flux point auto-important sampling (PFPAIS) is given on the basis of auto-important sampling. Then, on the basis of PFPAIS, a particular ICTS simulation method: MCCT is realized. Compared with existing MC methods, MCCT is proved to be able to simulate the ICTS more exactly and effectively. Furthermore, the effects of all kinds of disturbances of ICTS are simulated and analyzed by MCCT. To some extent, MCCT can guide the research of the radiation physical problems in ICTS. (author)
Guideline of Monte Carlo calculation. Neutron/gamma ray transport simulation by Monte Carlo method
2002-01-01
This report condenses basic theories and advanced applications of neutron/gamma ray transport calculations in many fields of nuclear energy research. Chapters 1 through 5 treat historical progress of Monte Carlo methods, general issues of variance reduction technique, cross section libraries used in continuous energy Monte Carlo codes. In chapter 6, the following issues are discussed: fusion benchmark experiments, design of ITER, experiment analyses of fast critical assembly, core analyses of JMTR, simulation of pulsed neutron experiment, core analyses of HTTR, duct streaming calculations, bulk shielding calculations, neutron/gamma ray transport calculations of the Hiroshima atomic bomb. Chapters 8 and 9 treat function enhancements of MCNP and MVP codes, and a parallel processing of Monte Carlo calculation, respectively. An important references are attached at the end of this report.
'Odontologic dosimetric card' experiments and simulations using Monte Carlo methods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The techniques for data processing, combined with the development of fast and more powerful computers, makes the Monte Carlo methods one of the most widely used tools in the radiation transport simulation. For applications in diagnostic radiology, this method generally uses anthropomorphic phantoms to evaluate the absorbed dose to patients during exposure. In this paper, some Monte Carlo techniques were used to simulation of a testing device designed for intra-oral X-ray equipment performance evaluation called Odontologic Dosimetric Card (CDO of 'Cartao Dosimetrico Odontologico' in Portuguese) for different thermoluminescent detectors. This paper used two computational models of exposition RXD/EGS4 and CDO/EGS4. In the first model, the simulation results are compared with experimental data obtained in the similar conditions. The second model, it presents the same characteristics of the testing device studied (CDO). For the irradiations, the X-ray spectra were generated by the IPEM report number 78, spectrum processor. The attenuated spectrum was obtained for IEC 61267 qualities and various additional filters for a Pantak 320 X-ray industrial equipment. The results obtained for the study of the copper filters used in the determination of the kVp were compared with experimental data, validating the model proposed for the characterization of the CDO. The results shower of the CDO will be utilized in quality assurance programs in order to guarantee that the equipment fulfill the requirements of the Norm SVS No. 453/98 MS (Brazil) 'Directives of Radiation Protection in Medical and Dental Radiodiagnostic'. We conclude that the EGS4 is a suitable code Monte Carlo to simulate thermoluminescent dosimeters and experimental procedures employed in the routine of the quality control laboratory in diagnostic radiology. (author)
Methods for variance reduction in Monte Carlo simulations
Bixler, Joel N.; Hokr, Brett H.; Winblad, Aidan; Elpers, Gabriel; Zollars, Byron; Thomas, Robert J.
2016-03-01
Monte Carlo simulations are widely considered to be the gold standard for studying the propagation of light in turbid media. However, due to the probabilistic nature of these simulations, large numbers of photons are often required in order to generate relevant results. Here, we present methods for reduction in the variance of dose distribution in a computational volume. Dose distribution is computed via tracing of a large number of rays, and tracking the absorption and scattering of the rays within discrete voxels that comprise the volume. Variance reduction is shown here using quasi-random sampling, interaction forcing for weakly scattering media, and dose smoothing via bi-lateral filtering. These methods, along with the corresponding performance enhancements are detailed here.
A new DNB design method using the system moment method combined with Monte Carlo simulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A new statistical method of core thermal design for pressurized water reactors is presented. It not only quantifies the DNBR parameter uncertainty by the system moment method, but also combines the DNBR parameter with correlation uncertainty using Monte Carlo technique. The randomizing function for Monte Carlo simulation was expressed in a form of reciprocal-multiplication of DNBR parameter and correlation uncertainty factors. The results of comparisons with the conventional methods show that the DNBR limit calculated by this method is in good agreement with that by the SCU method with less computational effort and it is considered applicable to the current DNB design
Hybrid Monte-Carlo method for simulating neutron and photon radiography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present a Hybrid Monte-Carlo method (HMCM) for simulating neutron and photon radiographs. HMCM utilizes the combination of a Monte-Carlo particle simulation for calculating incident film radiation and a statistical post-processing routine to simulate film noise. Since the method relies on MCNP for transport calculations, it is easily generalized to most non-destructive evaluation (NDE) simulations. We verify the method's accuracy through ASTM International's E592-99 publication, Standard Guide to Obtainable (E)quivalent Penetrameter Sensitivity for Radiography of Steel Plates [1]. Potential uses for the method include characterizing alternative radiological sources and simulating NDE radiographs
Hybrid Monte-Carlo method for simulating neutron and photon radiography
Wang, Han; Tang, Vincent
2013-11-01
We present a Hybrid Monte-Carlo method (HMCM) for simulating neutron and photon radiographs. HMCM utilizes the combination of a Monte-Carlo particle simulation for calculating incident film radiation and a statistical post-processing routine to simulate film noise. Since the method relies on MCNP for transport calculations, it is easily generalized to most non-destructive evaluation (NDE) simulations. We verify the method's accuracy through ASTM International's E592-99 publication, Standard Guide to Obtainable Equivalent Penetrameter Sensitivity for Radiography of Steel Plates [1]. Potential uses for the method include characterizing alternative radiological sources and simulating NDE radiographs.
Simulating rotationally inelastic collisions using a Direct Simulation Monte Carlo method
Schullian, O; Vaeck, N; van der Avoird, A; Heazlewood, B R; Rennick, C J; Softley, T P
2015-01-01
A new approach to simulating rotational cooling using a direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method is described and applied to the rotational cooling of ammonia seeded into a helium supersonic jet. The method makes use of ab initio rotational state changing cross sections calculated as a function of collision energy. Each particle in the DSMC simulations is labelled with a vector of rotational populations that evolves with time. Transfer of energy into translation is calculated from the mean energy transfer for this population at the specified collision energy. The simulations are compared with a continuum model for the on-axis density, temperature and velocity; rotational temperature as a function of distance from the nozzle is in accord with expectations from experimental measurements. The method could be applied to other types of gas mixture dynamics under non-uniform conditions, such as buffer gas cooling of NH$_3$ by He.
Study of the quantitative analysis approach of maintenance by the Monte Carlo simulation method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This study is examination of the quantitative valuation by Monte Carlo simulation method of maintenance activities of a nuclear power plant. Therefore, the concept of the quantitative valuation of maintenance that examination was advanced in the Japan Society of Maintenology and International Institute of Universality (IUU) was arranged. Basis examination for quantitative valuation of maintenance was carried out at simple feed water system, by Monte Carlo simulation method. (author)
External individual monitoring: experiments and simulations using Monte Carlo Method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this work, we have evaluated the possibility of applying the Monte Carlo simulation technique in photon dosimetry of external individual monitoring. The GEANT4 toolkit was employed to simulate experiments with radiation monitors containing TLD-100 and CaF2:NaCl thermoluminescent detectors. As a first step, X ray spectra were generated impinging electrons on a tungsten target. Then, the produced photon beam was filtered in a beryllium window and additional filters to obtain the radiation with desired qualities. This procedure, used to simulate radiation fields produced by a X ray tube, was validated by comparing characteristics such as half value layer, which was also experimentally measured, mean photon energy and the spectral resolution of simulated spectra with that of reference spectra established by international standards. In the construction of thermoluminescent dosimeter, two approaches for improvements have. been introduced. The first one was the inclusion of 6% of air in the composition of the CaF2:NaCl detector due to the difference between measured and calculated values of its density. Also, comparison between simulated and experimental results showed that the self-attenuation of emitted light in the readout process of the fluorite dosimeter must be taken into account. Then, in the second approach, the light attenuation coefficient of CaF2:NaCl compound estimated by simulation to be 2,20(25) mm-1 was introduced. Conversion coefficients Cp from air kerma to personal dose equivalent were calculated using a slab water phantom with polymethyl-metacrilate (PMMA) walls, for reference narrow and wide X ray spectrum series [ISO 4037-1], and also for the wide spectra implanted and used in routine at Laboratorio de Dosimetria. Simulations of backscattered radiations by PMMA slab water phantom and slab phantom of ICRU tissue-equivalent material produced very similar results. Therefore, the PMMA slab water phantom that can be easily constructed with low price can
MONTE CARLO METHOD AND APPLICATION IN @RISK SIMULATION SYSTEM
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gabriela Ižaríková
2015-12-01
Full Text Available The article is an example of using the software simulation @Risk designed for simulation in Microsoft Excel spread sheet, demonstrated the possibility of its usage in order to show a universal method of solving problems. The simulation is experimenting with computer models based on the real production process in order to optimize the production processes or the system. The simulation model allows performing a number of experiments, analysing them, evaluating, optimizing and afterwards applying the results to the real system. A simulation model in general is presenting modelling system by using mathematical formulations and logical relations. In the model is possible to distinguish controlled inputs (for instance investment costs and random outputs (for instance demand, which are by using a model transformed into outputs (for instance mean value of profit. In case of a simulation experiment at the beginning are chosen controlled inputs and random (stochastic outputs are generated randomly. Simulations belong into quantitative tools, which can be used as a support for a decision making.
The factorization method for Monte Carlo simulations of systems with a complex with
Ambjørn, J.; Anagnostopoulos, K. N.; Nishimura, J.; Verbaarschot, J. J. M.
2004-03-01
We propose a method for Monte Carlo simulations of systems with a complex action. The method has the advantages of being in principle applicable to any such system and provides a solution to the overlap problem. In some cases, like in the IKKT matrix model, a finite size scaling extrapolation can provide results for systems whose size would make it prohibitive to simulate directly.
Simulating Compton scattering using Monte Carlo method: COSMOC library
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Adámek, K.; Bursa, Michal
Opava: Silesian University, 2014 - (Stuchlík, Z.), s. 1-10. (Publications of the Institute of Physics. 7). ISBN 9788075101266. ISSN 2336-5668. [RAGtime /14.-16./. Opava (CZ), 18.09. 2012 -22.09. 2012 ] Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : Monte Carlo * Compton scattering * C++ Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics
A Method for Estimating Annual Energy Production Using Monte Carlo Wind Speed Simulation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Birgir Hrafnkelsson
2016-04-01
Full Text Available A novel Monte Carlo (MC approach is proposed for the simulation of wind speed samples to assess the wind energy production potential of a site. The Monte Carlo approach is based on historical wind speed data and reserves the effect of autocorrelation and seasonality in wind speed observations. No distributional assumptions are made, and this approach is relatively simple in comparison to simulation methods that aim at including the autocorrelation and seasonal effects. Annual energy production (AEP is simulated by transforming the simulated wind speed values via the power curve of the wind turbine at the site. The proposed Monte Carlo approach is generic and is applicable for all sites provided that a sufficient amount of wind speed data and information on the power curve are available. The simulated AEP values based on the Monte Carlo approach are compared to both actual AEP and to simulated AEP values based on a modified Weibull approach for wind speed simulation using data from the Burfell site in Iceland. The comparison reveals that the simulated AEP values based on the proposed Monte Carlo approach have a distribution that is in close agreement with actual AEP from two test wind turbines at the Burfell site, while the simulated AEP of the Weibull approach is such that the P50 and the scale are substantially lower and the P90 is higher. Thus, the Weibull approach yields AEP that is not in line with the actual variability in AEP, while the Monte Carlo approach gives a realistic estimate of the distribution of AEP.
Particle behavior simulation in thermophoresis phenomena by direct simulation Monte Carlo method
Wada, Takao
2014-07-01
A particle motion considering thermophoretic force is simulated by using direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method. Thermophoresis phenomena, which occur for a particle size of 1 μm, are treated in this paper. The problem of thermophoresis simulation is computation time which is proportional to the collision frequency. Note that the time step interval becomes much small for the simulation considering the motion of large size particle. Thermophoretic forces calculated by DSMC method were reported, but the particle motion was not computed because of the small time step interval. In this paper, the molecule-particle collision model, which computes the collision between a particle and multi molecules in a collision event, is considered. The momentum transfer to the particle is computed with a collision weight factor, where the collision weight factor means the number of molecules colliding with a particle in a collision event. The large time step interval is adopted by considering the collision weight factor. Furthermore, the large time step interval is about million times longer than the conventional time step interval of the DSMC method when a particle size is 1 μm. Therefore, the computation time becomes about one-millionth. We simulate the graphite particle motion considering thermophoretic force by DSMC-Neutrals (Particle-PLUS neutral module) with above the collision weight factor, where DSMC-Neutrals is commercial software adopting DSMC method. The size and the shape of the particle are 1 μm and a sphere, respectively. The particle-particle collision is ignored. We compute the thermophoretic forces in Ar and H2 gases of a pressure range from 0.1 to 100 mTorr. The results agree well with Gallis' analytical results. Note that Gallis' analytical result for continuum limit is the same as Waldmann's result.
New methods for the Monte Carlo simulation of neutron noise experiments in Ads
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper presents two improvements to speed up the Monte-Carlo simulation of neutron noise experiments. The first one is to separate the actual Monte Carlo transport calculation from the digital signal processing routines, while the second is to introduce non-analogue techniques to improve the efficiency of the Monte Carlo calculation. For the latter method, adaptations to the theory of neutron noise experiments were made to account for the distortion of the higher-moments of the calculated neutron noise. Calculations were performed to test the feasibility of the above outlined scheme and to demonstrate the advantages of the application of the track length estimator. It is shown that the modifications improve the efficiency of these calculations to a high extent, which turns the Monte Carlo method into a powerful tool for the development and design of on-line reactivity measurement systems for ADS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present a new, nondestructive, method for determining chemical potentials in Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics simulations. The method estimates a value for the chemical potential such that one has a balance between fictitious successful creation and destruction trials in which the Monte Carlo method is used to determine success or failure of the creation/destruction attempts; we thus call the method a detailed balance method. The method allows one to obtain estimates of the chemical potential for a given species in any closed ensemble simulation; the closed ensemble is paired with a ''natural'' open ensemble for the purpose of obtaining creation and destruction probabilities. We present results for the Lennard-Jones system and also for an embedded atom model of liquid palladium, and compare to previous results in the literature for these two systems. We are able to obtain an accurate estimate of the chemical potential for the Lennard-Jones system at higher densities than reported in the literature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Highlights: • The subdivision combines both advantages of uniform and non-uniform schemes. • The grid models were proved to be more efficient than traditional CSG models. • Monte Carlo simulation performance was enhanced by Optimal Spatial Subdivision. • Efficiency gains were obtained for realistic whole reactor core models. - Abstract: Geometry navigation is one of the key aspects of dominating Monte Carlo particle transport simulation performance for large-scale whole reactor models. In such cases, spatial subdivision is an easily-established and high-potential method to improve the run-time performance. In this study, a dedicated method, named Optimal Spatial Subdivision, is proposed for generating numerically optimal spatial grid models, which are demonstrated to be more efficient for geometry navigation than traditional Constructive Solid Geometry (CSG) models. The method uses a recursive subdivision algorithm to subdivide a CSG model into non-overlapping grids, which are labeled as totally or partially occupied, or not occupied at all, by CSG objects. The most important point is that, at each stage of subdivision, a conception of quality factor based on a cost estimation function is derived to evaluate the qualities of the subdivision schemes. Only the scheme with optimal quality factor will be chosen as the final subdivision strategy for generating the grid model. Eventually, the model built with the optimal quality factor will be efficient for Monte Carlo particle transport simulation. The method has been implemented and integrated into the Super Monte Carlo program SuperMC developed by FDS Team. Testing cases were used to highlight the performance gains that could be achieved. Results showed that Monte Carlo simulation runtime could be reduced significantly when using the new method, even as cases reached whole reactor core model sizes
Research of Monte Carlo method used in simulation of different maintenance processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The paper introduces two kinds of Monte Carlo methods used in equipment life process simulation under the least maintenance: condition: method of producing the interval of lifetime, method of time scale conversion. The paper also analyzes the characteristics and the using scope of the two methods. By using the conception of service age reduction factor, the model of equipment's life process under incomplete maintenance condition is established, and also the life process simulation method applicable to this situation is invented. (authors)
Application of Macro Response Monte Carlo method for electron spectrum simulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
During the past years several variance reduction techniques for Monte Carlo electron transport have been developed in order to reduce the electron computation time transport for absorbed dose distribution. We have implemented the Macro Response Monte Carlo (MRMC) method to evaluate the electron spectrum which can be used as a phase space input for others simulation programs. Such technique uses probability distributions for electron histories previously simulated in spheres (called kugels). These probabilities are used to sample the primary electron final state, as well as the creation secondary electrons and photons. We have compared the MRMC electron spectra simulated in homogeneous phantom against the Geant4 spectra. The results showed an agreement better than 6% in the spectra peak energies and that MRMC code is up to 12 time faster than Geant4 simulations
Reliability Assessment of Active Distribution System Using Monte Carlo Simulation Method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shaoyun Ge
2014-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper we have treated the reliability assessment problem of low and high DG penetration level of active distribution system using the Monte Carlo simulation method. The problem is formulated as a two-case program, the program of low penetration simulation and the program of high penetration simulation. The load shedding strategy and the simulation process were introduced in detail during each FMEA process. Results indicate that the integration of DG can improve the reliability of the system if the system was operated actively.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
GHAREHPETIAN, G. B.
2009-06-01
Full Text Available The analysis of the risk of partial and total blackouts has a crucial role to determine safe limits in power system design, operation and upgrade. Due to huge cost of blackouts, it is very important to improve risk assessment methods. In this paper, Monte Carlo simulation (MCS was used to analyze the risk and Gaussian Mixture Method (GMM has been used to estimate the probability density function (PDF of the load curtailment, in order to improve the power system risk assessment method. In this improved method, PDF and a suggested index have been used to analyze the risk of loss of load. The effect of considering the number of generation units of power plants in the risk analysis has been studied too. The improved risk assessment method has been applied to IEEE 118 bus and the network of Khorasan Regional Electric Company (KREC and the PDF of the load curtailment has been determined for both systems. The effect of various network loadings, transmission unavailability, transmission capacity and generation unavailability conditions on blackout risk has been investigated too.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Datema, C.P. E-mail: c.datema@iri.tudelft.nl; Bom, V.R.; Eijk, C.W.E. van
2002-08-01
Experiments were carried out to investigate the possible use of neutron backscattering for the detection of landmines buried in the soil. Several landmines, buried in a sand-pit, were positively identified. A series of Monte Carlo simulations were performed to study the complexity of the neutron backscattering process and to optimize the geometry of a future prototype. The results of these simulations indicate that this method shows great potential for the detection of non-metallic landmines (with a plastic casing), for which so far no reliable method has been found.
Direct simulation Monte Carlo calculation of rarefied gas drag using an immersed boundary method
Jin, W.; Kleijn, C. R.; van Ommen, J. R.
2016-06-01
For simulating rarefied gas flows around a moving body, an immersed boundary method is presented here in conjunction with the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method in order to allow the movement of a three dimensional immersed body on top of a fixed background grid. The simulated DSMC particles are reflected exactly at the landing points on the surface of the moving immersed body, while the effective cell volumes are taken into account for calculating the collisions between molecules. The effective cell volumes are computed by utilizing the Lagrangian intersecting points between the immersed boundary and the fixed background grid with a simple polyhedra regeneration algorithm. This method has been implemented in OpenFOAM and validated by computing the drag forces exerted on steady and moving spheres and comparing the results to that from conventional body-fitted mesh DSMC simulations and to analytical approximations.
Coherent-wave Monte Carlo method for simulating light propagation in tissue
Kraszewski, Maciej; Pluciński, Jerzy
2016-03-01
Simulating propagation and scattering of coherent light in turbid media, such as biological tissues, is a complex problem. Numerical methods for solving Helmholtz or wave equation (e.g. finite-difference or finite-element methods) require large amount of computer memory and long computation time. This makes them impractical for simulating laser beam propagation into deep layers of tissue. Other group of methods, based on radiative transfer equation, allows to simulate only propagation of light averaged over the ensemble of turbid medium realizations. This makes them unuseful for simulating phenomena connected to coherence properties of light. We propose a new method for simulating propagation of coherent light (e.g. laser beam) in biological tissue, that we called Coherent-Wave Monte Carlo method. This method is based on direct computation of optical interaction between scatterers inside the random medium, what allows to reduce amount of memory and computation time required for simulation. We present the theoretical basis of the proposed method and its comparison with finite-difference methods for simulating light propagation in scattering media in Rayleigh approximation regime.
Application of direct simulation Monte Carlo method for analysis of AVLIS evaporation process
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The computation code of the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method was developed in order to analyze the atomic vapor evaporation in atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS). The atomic excitation temperatures of gadolinium atom were calculated for the model with five low lying states. Calculation results were compared with the experiments obtained by laser absorption spectroscopy. Two types of DSMC simulations which were different in inelastic collision procedure were carried out. It was concluded that the energy transfer was forbidden unless the total energy of the colliding atoms exceeds a threshold value. (author)
Comparing Subspace Methods for Closed Loop Subspace System Identification by Monte Carlo Simulations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
David Di Ruscio
2009-10-01
Full Text Available A novel promising bootstrap subspace system identification algorithm for both open and closed loop systems is presented. An outline of the SSARX algorithm by Jansson (2003 is given and a modified SSARX algorithm is presented. Some methods which are consistent for closed loop subspace system identification presented in the literature are discussed and compared to a recently published subspace algorithm which works for both open as well as for closed loop data, i.e., the DSR_e algorithm as well as the bootstrap method. Experimental comparisons are performed by Monte Carlo simulations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reliability assessments based on probabilistic fracture mechanics can give insight into the effects of changes in design parameters, operational conditions and maintenance schemes. Although they are often not capable of providing absolute reliability values, these methods at least allow the ranking of different solutions among alternatives. Due to the variety of possible solutions for design, operation and maintenance problems numerous probabilistic reliability assessments have to be carried out. This is a laborous task especially for crack containing welds of nuclear pipes subjected to fatigue. The objective of this paper is to compare the Monte Carlo simulation method and a newly developed approximative approach using the Markov process ansatz for this task
Monte Carlo simulation methods of determining red bone marrow dose from external radiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Objective: To provide evidence for a more reasonable method of determining red bone marrow dose by analyzing and comparing existing simulation methods. Methods: By utilizing Monte Carlo simulation software MCNPX, the absorbed doses of red hone marrow of Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI) adult female voxel phantom were calculated through 4 different methods: direct energy deposition.dose response function (DRF), King-Spiers factor method and mass-energy absorption coefficient (MEAC). The radiation sources were defined as infinite plate.sources with the energy ranging from 20 keV to 10 MeV, and 23 sources with different energies were simulated in total. The source was placed right next to the front of the RPI model to achieve a homogeneous anteroposterior radiation scenario. The results of different simulated photon energy sources through different methods were compared. Results: When the photon energy was lower than 100 key, the direct energy deposition method gave the highest result while the MEAC and King-Spiers factor methods showed more reasonable results. When the photon energy was higher than 150 keV taking into account of the higher absorption ability of red bone marrow at higher photon energy, the result of the King-Spiers factor method was larger than those of other methods. Conclusions: The King-Spiers factor method might be the most reasonable method to estimate the red bone marrow dose from external radiation. (authors)
Implementation of unsteady sampling procedures for the parallel direct simulation Monte Carlo method
Cave, H. M.; Tseng, K.-C.; Wu, J.-S.; Jermy, M. C.; Huang, J.-C.; Krumdieck, S. P.
2008-06-01
An unsteady sampling routine for a general parallel direct simulation Monte Carlo method called PDSC is introduced, allowing the simulation of time-dependent flow problems in the near continuum range. A post-processing procedure called DSMC rapid ensemble averaging method (DREAM) is developed to improve the statistical scatter in the results while minimising both memory and simulation time. This method builds an ensemble average of repeated runs over small number of sampling intervals prior to the sampling point of interest by restarting the flow using either a Maxwellian distribution based on macroscopic properties for near equilibrium flows (DREAM-I) or output instantaneous particle data obtained by the original unsteady sampling of PDSC for strongly non-equilibrium flows (DREAM-II). The method is validated by simulating shock tube flow and the development of simple Couette flow. Unsteady PDSC is found to accurately predict the flow field in both cases with significantly reduced run-times over single processor code and DREAM greatly reduces the statistical scatter in the results while maintaining accurate particle velocity distributions. Simulations are then conducted of two applications involving the interaction of shocks over wedges. The results of these simulations are compared to experimental data and simulations from the literature where there these are available. In general, it was found that 10 ensembled runs of DREAM processing could reduce the statistical uncertainty in the raw PDSC data by 2.5-3.3 times, based on the limited number of cases in the present study.
Numerical simulation of C/O spectroscopy in logging by Monte-Carlo method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Numerical simulation of ratio of C/O spectroscopy in logging by Monte-Carlo method is made in this paper. Agree well with the measured spectra, the simulated spectra can meet the requirement of logging practice. Vari- ous kinds of C/O ratios affected by different formation oil saturations,borehole oil fractions, casing sizes and concrete ring thicknesses are investigated. In order to achieve accurate results of processing the spectra, this paper presents a new method for unfolding the C/O inelastic gamma spectroscopy, and analysis for the spectra using the method, The result agrees with the fact. These rules and method can be used as calibrating tools and logging interpretation. (authors)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Computed tomography (CT) is one of the most used techniques in medical diagnosis, and its use has become one of the main sources of exposure of the population to ionising radiation. This work concentrates on the paediatric patients, since children exhibit higher radiosensitivity than adults. Nowadays, patient doses are estimated through two standard CT dose index (CTDI) phantoms as a reference to calculate CTDI volume (CTDIvol) values. This study aims at improving the knowledge about the radiation exposure to children and to better assess the accuracy of the CTDIvol method. The effectiveness of the CTDIvol method for patient dose estimation was then investigated through a sensitive study, taking into account the doses obtained by three methods: CTDIvol measured, CTDIvol values simulated with Monte Carlo (MC) code MCNPX and the recent proposed method Size-Specific Dose Estimate (SSDE). In order to assess organ doses, MC simulations were executed with paediatric voxel phantoms. (authors)
Research on Reliability Modelling Method of Machining Center Based on Monte Carlo Simulation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chuanhai Chen
2013-03-01
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to get the reliability of series system and analyze the reliability of machining center. So a modified method of reliability modelling based on Monte Carlo simulation for series system is proposed. The reliability function, which is built by the classical statistics method based on the assumption that machine tools were repaired as good as new, may be biased in the real case. The reliability functions of subsystems are established respectively and then the reliability model is built according to the reliability block diagram. Then the fitting reliability function of machine tools is established using the failure data of sample generated by Monte Carlo simulation, whose inverse reliability function is solved by the linearization technique based on radial basis function. Finally, an example of the machining center is presented using the proposed method to show its potential application. The analysis results show that the proposed method can provide an accurate reliability model compared with the conventional method.
A Monte Carlo simulation based inverse propagation method for stochastic model updating
Bao, Nuo; Wang, Chunjie
2015-08-01
This paper presents an efficient stochastic model updating method based on statistical theory. Significant parameters have been selected implementing the F-test evaluation and design of experiments, and then the incomplete fourth-order polynomial response surface model (RSM) has been developed. Exploiting of the RSM combined with Monte Carlo simulation (MCS), reduces the calculation amount and the rapid random sampling becomes possible. The inverse uncertainty propagation is given by the equally weighted sum of mean and covariance matrix objective functions. The mean and covariance of parameters are estimated synchronously by minimizing the weighted objective function through hybrid of particle-swarm and Nelder-Mead simplex optimization method, thus the better correlation between simulation and test is achieved. Numerical examples of a three degree-of-freedom mass-spring system under different conditions and GARTEUR assembly structure validated the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method.
On-the-fly nuclear data processing methods for Monte Carlo simulations of fast spectrum systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Walsh, Jon [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2015-08-31
The presentation summarizes work performed over summer 2015 related to Monte Carlo simulations. A flexible probability table interpolation scheme has been implemented and tested with results comparing favorably to the continuous phase-space on-the-fly approach.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Monte Carlo codes GEANT 4 and MUSIC have been used to calculate background components of low-level HPGe gamma-ray spectrometers operating in a shallow underground laboratory. The simulated background gamma-ray spectra have been comparable with spectra measured at the Ogoya underground laboratory operating at the depth of 270 m w.e. (water equivalent). The Monte Carlo simulations have proved to be useful approach in estimation of background characteristics of HPGe spectrometers before their construction. (author)
Kadoura, Ahmad
2011-06-06
Lennard‐Jones (L‐J) and Buckingham exponential‐6 (exp‐6) potential models were used to produce isotherms for methane at temperatures below and above critical one. Molecular simulation approach, particularly Monte Carlo simulations, were employed to create these isotherms working with both canonical and Gibbs ensembles. Experiments in canonical ensemble with each model were conducted to estimate pressures at a range of temperatures above methane critical temperature. Results were collected and compared to experimental data existing in literature; both models showed an elegant agreement with the experimental data. In parallel, experiments below critical temperature were run in Gibbs ensemble using L‐J model only. Upon comparing results with experimental ones, a good fit was obtained with small deviations. The work was further developed by adding some statistical studies in order to achieve better understanding and interpretation to the estimated quantities by the simulation. Methane phase diagrams were successfully reproduced by an efficient molecular simulation technique with different potential models. This relatively simple demonstration shows how powerful molecular simulation methods could be, hence further applications on more complicated systems are considered. Prediction of phase behavior of elemental sulfur in sour natural gases has been an interesting and challenging field in oil and gas industry. Determination of elemental sulfur solubility conditions helps avoiding all kinds of problems caused by its dissolution in gas production and transportation processes. For this purpose, further enhancement to the methods used is to be considered in order to successfully simulate elemental sulfur phase behavior in sour natural gases mixtures.
Wind Turbine Placement Optimization by means of the Monte Carlo Simulation Method
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S. Brusca
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper defines a new procedure for optimising wind farm turbine placement by means of Monte Carlo simulation method. To verify the algorithm’s accuracy, an experimental wind farm was tested in a wind tunnel. On the basis of experimental measurements, the error on wind farm power output was less than 4%. The optimization maximises the energy production criterion; wind turbines’ ground positions were used as independent variables. Moreover, the mathematical model takes into account annual wind intensities and directions and wind turbine interaction. The optimization of a wind farm on a real site was carried out using measured wind data, dominant wind direction, and intensity data as inputs to run the Monte Carlo simulations. There were 30 turbines in the wind park, each rated at 20 kW. This choice was based on wind farm economics. The site was proportionally divided into 100 square cells, taking into account a minimum windward and crosswind distance between the turbines. The results highlight that the dominant wind intensity factor tends to overestimate the annual energy production by about 8%. Thus, the proposed method leads to a more precise annual energy evaluation and to a more optimal placement of the wind turbines.
Simulation of the self-powered detectors sensibility using the Monte Carlo method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This work presents a Monte Carlo simulation of Cobalt self-powered detectors, determining the detectors sensitivities to the neutron field. Several detectors, which results are published, were simulated in order to check the performance of this simulation. Furthermore, the sensitivity variation with the geometric parameters and with the irradiation time in the reactor was evaluated. (author)
Simulation of nuclear material identification system based on Monte Carlo sampling method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Background: Caused by the danger of radioactivity, nuclear material identification is sometimes a difficult problem. Purpose: In order to reflect the particle transport processes in nuclear fission and present the effectiveness of the signatures of Nuclear Materials Identification System (NMIS), based on physical principles and experimental statistical data. Methods: We established a Monte Carlo simulation model of nuclear material identification system and then acquired three channels of time domain pulse signal. Results: Auto-Correlation Functions (AC), Cross-Correlation Functions (CC), Auto Power Spectral Densities (APSD) and Cross Power Spectral Densities (CPSD) between channels can obtain several signatures, which can show some characters of nuclear material. Conclusions: The simulation results indicate that the way can help to further study the features of the system. (authors)
Self-optimizing Monte Carlo method for nuclear well logging simulation
Liu, Lianyan
1997-09-01
In order to increase the efficiency of Monte Carlo simulation for nuclear well logging problems, a new method has been developed for variance reduction. With this method, an importance map is generated in the regular Monte Carlo calculation as a by-product, and the importance map is later used to conduct the splitting and Russian roulette for particle population control. By adopting a spatial mesh system, which is independent of physical geometrical configuration, the method allows superior user-friendliness. This new method is incorporated into the general purpose Monte Carlo code MCNP4A through a patch file. Two nuclear well logging problems, a neutron porosity tool and a gamma-ray lithology density tool are used to test the performance of this new method. The calculations are sped up over analog simulation by 120 and 2600 times, for the neutron porosity tool and for the gamma-ray lithology density log, respectively. The new method enjoys better performance by a factor of 4~6 times than that of MCNP's cell-based weight window, as per the converged figure-of-merits. An indirect comparison indicates that the new method also outperforms the AVATAR process for gamma-ray density tool problems. Even though it takes quite some time to generate a reasonable importance map from an analog run, a good initial map can create significant CPU time savings. This makes the method especially suitable for nuclear well logging problems, since one or several reference importance maps are usually available for a given tool. Study shows that the spatial mesh sizes should be chosen according to the mean-free-path. The overhead of the importance map generator is 6% and 14% for neutron and gamma-ray cases. The learning ability towards a correct importance map is also demonstrated. Although false-learning may happen, physical judgement can help diagnose with contributon maps. Calibration and analysis are performed for the neutron tool and the gamma-ray tool. Due to the fact that a very
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Matsumiya, T. [Nippon Steel Corporation, Tokyo (Japan)
1996-08-20
The Monte Carlo method was used to simulate an equilibrium diagram, and structural formation of transformation and recrystallization. In simulating the Cu-A equilibrium diagram, the calculation was performed by laying 24 face centered cubic lattices including four lattice points in all of the three directions, and using a simulation cell consisting of lattice points of a total of 24{sup 3}{times}4 points. Although this method has a possibility to discover existence of an unknown phase as a result of the calculation, problems were found left in handling of lattice mitigation, and in simulation of phase diagrams over phases with different crystal structures. In simulation of the transformation and recrystallization, discussions were given on correspondence of 1MCS to time when the lattice point size is increased, and on handling of nucleus formation. As a result, it was estimated that in three-dimensional grain growth, the average grain size is proportional to 1/3 power of the MCS number, and the real time against 1MCS is proportional to three power of the lattice point size. 11 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.
Samejima, Masaki; Akiyoshi, Masanori; Mitsukuni, Koshichiro; Komoda, Norihisa
We propose a business scenario evaluation method using qualitative and quantitative hybrid model. In order to evaluate business factors with qualitative causal relations, we introduce statistical values based on propagation and combination of effects of business factors by Monte Carlo simulation. In propagating an effect, we divide a range of each factor by landmarks and decide an effect to a destination node based on the divided ranges. In combining effects, we decide an effect of each arc using contribution degree and sum all effects. Through applied results to practical models, it is confirmed that there are no differences between results obtained by quantitative relations and results obtained by the proposed method at the risk rate of 5%.
Gamma ray energy loss spectra simulation in NaI detectors with the Monte Carlo method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
With the aim of studying and applying the Monte Carlo method, a computer code was developed to calculate the pulse height spectra and detector efficiencies for gamma rays incident on NaI (Tl) crystals. The basic detector processes in NaI (Tl) detectors are given together with an outline of Monte Carlo methods and a general review of relevant published works. A detailed description of the application of Monte Carlo methods to ν-ray detection in NaI (Tl) detectors is given. Comparisons are made with published, calculated and experimental, data. (Author)
Dunn, William L
2012-01-01
Exploring Monte Carlo Methods is a basic text that describes the numerical methods that have come to be known as "Monte Carlo." The book treats the subject generically through the first eight chapters and, thus, should be of use to anyone who wants to learn to use Monte Carlo. The next two chapters focus on applications in nuclear engineering, which are illustrative of uses in other fields. Five appendices are included, which provide useful information on probability distributions, general-purpose Monte Carlo codes for radiation transport, and other matters. The famous "Buffon's needle proble
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A method of modelling the dynamic motion of multileaf collimators (MLCs) for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) was developed and implemented into the Monte Carlo simulation. The simulation of the dynamic MLCs (DMLCs) was based on randomizing leaf positions during a simulation so that the number of particle histories being simulated for each possible leaf position was proportional to the monitor units delivered to that position. This approach was incorporated into an EGS4 Monte Carlo program, and was evaluated in simulating the DMLCs for Varian accelerators (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA, USA). The MU index of each segment, which was specified in the DMLC-control data, was used to compute the cumulative probability distribution function (CPDF) for the leaf positions. This CPDF was then used to sample the leaf positions during a real-time simulation, which allowed for either the step-shoot or sweeping-leaf motion in the beam delivery. Dose intensity maps for IMRT fields were computed using the above Monte Carlo method, with its accuracy verified by film measurements. The DMLC simulation improved the operational efficiency by eliminating the need to simulate multiple segments individually. More importantly, the dynamic motion of the leaves could be simulated more faithfully by using the above leaf-position sampling technique in the Monte Carlo simulation. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ertekin Öztekin Öztekin
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Design of the distance of bolts to each other and design of the distance of bolts to the edge of connection plates are made based on minimum and maximum boundary values proposed by structural codes. In this study, reliabilities of those distances were investigated. For this purpose, loading types, bolt types and plate thicknesses were taken as variable parameters. Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS method was used in the reliability computations performed for all combination of those parameters. At the end of study, all reliability index values for all those distances were presented in graphics and tables. Results obtained from this study compared with the values proposed by some structural codes and finally some evaluations were made about those comparisons. Finally, It was emphasized in the end of study that, it would be incorrect of the usage of the same bolt distances in the both traditional designs and the higher reliability level designs.
Simulation of Watts Bar initial startup tests with continuous energy Monte Carlo methods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors is developing a collection of methods and software products known as VERA, the Virtual Environment for Reactor Applications. One component of the testing and validation plan for VERA is comparison of neutronics results to a set of continuous energy Monte Carlo solutions for a range of pressurized water reactor geometries using the SCALE component KENO-VI developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Recent improvements in data, methods, and parallelism have enabled KENO, previously utilized predominately as a criticality safety code, to demonstrate excellent capability and performance for reactor physics applications. The highly detailed and rigorous KENO solutions provide a reliable numeric reference for VERA neutronics and also demonstrate the most accurate predictions achievable by modeling and simulations tools for comparison to operating plant data. This paper demonstrates the performance of KENO-VI for the Watts Bar Unit 1 Cycle 1 zero power physics tests, including reactor criticality, control rod worths, and isothermal temperature coefficients. (author)
Multi-level Monte Carlo Methods for Efficient Simulation of Coulomb Collisions
Ricketson, Lee
2013-10-01
We discuss the use of multi-level Monte Carlo (MLMC) schemes--originally introduced by Giles for financial applications--for the efficient simulation of Coulomb collisions in the Fokker-Planck limit. The scheme is based on a Langevin treatment of collisions, and reduces the computational cost of achieving a RMS error scaling as ɛ from O (ɛ-3) --for standard Langevin methods and binary collision algorithms--to the theoretically optimal scaling O (ɛ-2) for the Milstein discretization, and to O (ɛ-2 (logɛ)2) with the simpler Euler-Maruyama discretization. In practice, this speeds up simulation by factors up to 100. We summarize standard MLMC schemes, describe some tricks for achieving the optimal scaling, present results from a test problem, and discuss the method's range of applicability. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. DOE by the University of California, Los Angeles, under grant DE-FG02-05ER25710, and by LLNL under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.
Simulation of Watts Bar Unit 1 Initial Startup Tests with Continuous Energy Monte Carlo Methods
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Godfrey, Andrew T [ORNL; Gehin, Jess C [ORNL; Bekar, Kursat B [ORNL; Celik, Cihangir [ORNL
2014-01-01
The Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors* is developing a collection of methods and software products known as VERA, the Virtual Environment for Reactor Applications. One component of the testing and validation plan for VERA is comparison of neutronics results to a set of continuous energy Monte Carlo solutions for a range of pressurized water reactor geometries using the SCALE component KENO-VI developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Recent improvements in data, methods, and parallelism have enabled KENO, previously utilized predominately as a criticality safety code, to demonstrate excellent capability and performance for reactor physics applications. The highly detailed and rigorous KENO solutions provide a reliable nu-meric reference for VERAneutronics and also demonstrate the most accurate predictions achievable by modeling and simulations tools for comparison to operating plant data. This paper demonstrates the performance of KENO-VI for the Watts Bar Unit 1 Cycle 1 zero power physics tests, including reactor criticality, control rod worths, and isothermal temperature coefficients.
Multiple-scaling methods for Monte Carlo simulations of radiative transfer in cloudy atmosphere
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Two multiple-scaling methods for Monte Carlo simulations were derived from integral radiative transfer equation for calculating radiance in cloudy atmosphere accurately and rapidly. The first one is to truncate sharp forward peaks of phase functions for each order of scattering adaptively. The truncated functions for forward peaks are approximated as quadratic functions; only one prescribed parameter is used to set maximum truncation fraction for various phase functions. The second one is to increase extinction coefficients in optically thin regions for each order scattering adaptively, which could enhance the collision chance adaptively in the regions where samples are rare. Several one-dimensional and three-dimensional cloud fields were selected to validate the methods. The numerical results demonstrate that the bias errors were below 0.2% for almost all directions except for glory direction (less than 0.4%) and the higher numerical efficiency could be achieved when quadratic functions were used. The second method could decrease radiance noise to 0.60% for cumulus and accelerate convergence in optically thin regions. In general, the main advantage of the proposed methods is that we could modify the atmospheric optical quantities adaptively for each order of scattering and sample important contribution according to the specific atmospheric conditions.
Analysis of the Tandem Calibration Method for Kerma Area Product Meters Via Monte Carlo Simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The IAEA recommends that uncertainties of dosimetric measurements in diagnostic radiology for risk assessment and quality assurance should be less than 7% on the confidence level of 95%. This accuracy is difficult to achieve with kerma area product (KAP) meters currently used in clinics. The reasons range from the high energy dependence of KAP meters to the wide variety of configurations in which KAP meters are used and calibrated. The tandem calibration method introduced by Poeyry, Komppa and Kosunen in 2005 has the potential to make the calibration procedure simpler and more accurate compared to the traditional beam-area method. In this method, two positions of the reference KAP meter are of interest: (a) a position close to the field KAP meter and (b) a position 20 cm above the couch. In the close position, the distance between the two KAP meters should be at least 30 cm to reduce the effect of back scatter. For the other position, which is recommended for the beam-area calibration method, the distance of 70 cm between the KAP meters was used in this study. The aim of this work was to complement existing experimental data comparing the two configurations with Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. In a geometry consisting of a simplified model of the VacuTec 70157 type KAP meter, the MCNP code was used to simulate the kerma area product, PKA, for the two (close and distant) reference planes. It was found that PKA values for the tube voltage of 40 kV were about 2.5% lower for the distant plane than for the close one. For higher tube voltages, the difference was smaller. The difference was mainly caused by attenuation of the X ray beam in air. Since the problem with high uncertainties in PKA measurements is also caused by the current design of X ray machines, possible solutions are discussed. (author)
Mean field simulation for Monte Carlo integration
Del Moral, Pierre
2013-01-01
In the last three decades, there has been a dramatic increase in the use of interacting particle methods as a powerful tool in real-world applications of Monte Carlo simulation in computational physics, population biology, computer sciences, and statistical machine learning. Ideally suited to parallel and distributed computation, these advanced particle algorithms include nonlinear interacting jump diffusions; quantum, diffusion, and resampled Monte Carlo methods; Feynman-Kac particle models; genetic and evolutionary algorithms; sequential Monte Carlo methods; adaptive and interacting Marko
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Jun; GUO Fan
2015-01-01
Tooth modification technique is widely used in gear industry to improve the meshing performance of gearings. However, few of the present studies on tooth modification considers the influence of inevitable random errors on gear modification effects. In order to investigate the uncertainties of tooth modification amount variations on system’s dynamic behaviors of a helical planetary gears, an analytical dynamic model including tooth modification parameters is proposed to carry out a deterministic analysis on the dynamics of a helical planetary gear. The dynamic meshing forces as well as the dynamic transmission errors of the sun-planet 1 gear pair with and without tooth modifications are computed and compared to show the effectiveness of tooth modifications on gear dynamics enhancement. By using response surface method, a fitted regression model for the dynamic transmission error(DTE) fluctuations is established to quantify the relationship between modification amounts and DTE fluctuations. By shifting the inevitable random errors arousing from manufacturing and installing process to tooth modification amount variations, a statistical tooth modification model is developed and a methodology combining Monte Carlo simulation and response surface method is presented for uncertainty analysis of tooth modifications. The uncertainly analysis reveals that the system’s dynamic behaviors do not obey the normal distribution rule even though the design variables are normally distributed. In addition, a deterministic modification amount will not definitely achieve an optimal result for both static and dynamic transmission error fluctuation reduction simultaneously.
Monte-Carlo method simulation of the Bremsstrahlung mirror reflection experiment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Full text: To detect gamma-ray mirror reflection on macroscopic smooth surface a search experiment at microtron MT-22S with 330 meter flying distance is in progress. Measured slip angles (i.e. angles between incident ray and reflector surface) don't exceed tens of micro-radian. Under such angles an effect of the reflection could be easily veiled due to negative background conditions. That is why the process needed to be simulated by Monte-Carlo method as accurate as possible and corresponding computer program was developed. A first operating mode of the MT-22S generates 13 MeV electrons that are incident on a Bremsstrahlung target. So energies of gamma-rays were simulated to be in the range of 0.01†12.5 MeV and be distributed by known Shift formula. When any gamma-quantum was incident on the reflector it resulted in following two cases. If its slip angle was more than the critical one, gamma-quantum was to be absorbed by the reflector and the program started to simulate next event. In the other case the program replaced incident gamma-quantum trajectory parameters by the reflected ones. The gamma-quantum trajectory behind the reflector was traced till its detector. Any gamma-quantum that got the detector was to be registered. As any simulated gamma-quantum was of random energy the critical slip angle of every simulated event was evaluated by the following formula: αcrit = eh/E √ZNAρ/πAm. Table values of the absorption coefficients were used for random simulation of gamma-quanta absorption in the air. And it was assumed that any gamma-quantum interaction with air resulted in its disappearance. Dependence of different flying distances (120 and 330 m), gap heights (10, 20 and 50 μ) of the gap collimator and inclinations (20 and 40 μrad) of the reflector's plane on detected gamma-quanta energy distribution and vertical angle one was studied with a help of the developed program
Verification of Burned Core Modeling Method for Monte Carlo Simulation of HANARO
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The reactor core has been managed well by the HANARO core management system called HANAFMS. The heterogeneity of the irradiation device and core made the neutronic analysis difficult and sometimes doubtable. To overcome the deficiency, MCNP was utilized in neutron transport calculation of the HANARO. For the most part, a MCNP model with the assumption that all fuels are filled with fresh fuel assembly showed acceptable analysis results for a design of experimental devices and facilities. However, it sometimes revealed insufficient results in the design, which requires good accuracy like neutron transmutation doping (NTD), because it didn't consider the flux variation induced by depletion of the fuel. In this study, a depleted-core modeling method previously proposed was applied to build burned core model of HANARO and verified through a comparison of the calculated result from the depleted-core model and that from an experiment. The modeling method to establish a depleted-core model for the Monte Carlo simulation was verified by comparing the neutron flux distribution obtained by the zirconium activation method and the reaction rate of 30Si(n, γ) 31Si obtained by a resistivity measurement method. As a result, the reaction rate of 30Si(n, γ) 31Si also agreed well with about 3% difference. It was therefore concluded that the modeling method and resulting depleted-core model developed in this study can be a very reliable tool for the design of the planned experimental facility and a prediction of its performance in HANARO
Verification of Burned Core Modeling Method for Monte Carlo Simulation of HANARO
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cho, Dongkeun; Kim, Myongseop [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2014-05-15
The reactor core has been managed well by the HANARO core management system called HANAFMS. The heterogeneity of the irradiation device and core made the neutronic analysis difficult and sometimes doubtable. To overcome the deficiency, MCNP was utilized in neutron transport calculation of the HANARO. For the most part, a MCNP model with the assumption that all fuels are filled with fresh fuel assembly showed acceptable analysis results for a design of experimental devices and facilities. However, it sometimes revealed insufficient results in the design, which requires good accuracy like neutron transmutation doping (NTD), because it didn't consider the flux variation induced by depletion of the fuel. In this study, a depleted-core modeling method previously proposed was applied to build burned core model of HANARO and verified through a comparison of the calculated result from the depleted-core model and that from an experiment. The modeling method to establish a depleted-core model for the Monte Carlo simulation was verified by comparing the neutron flux distribution obtained by the zirconium activation method and the reaction rate of {sup 30}Si(n, γ) {sup 31}Si obtained by a resistivity measurement method. As a result, the reaction rate of {sup 30}Si(n, γ) {sup 31}Si also agreed well with about 3% difference. It was therefore concluded that the modeling method and resulting depleted-core model developed in this study can be a very reliable tool for the design of the planned experimental facility and a prediction of its performance in HANARO.
Stochastic method for accommodation of equilibrating basins in kinetic Monte Carlo simulations
Van Siclen, Clinton DeW.
2008-01-01
A computationally simple way to accommodate 'basins' of trapping sites in standard kinetic Monte Carlo simulations is presented. By assuming the system is effectively equilibrated in the basin, the residence time (time spent in the basin before escape) and the probabilities for transition to states outside the basin may be calculated. This is demonstrated for point defect diffusion over a periodic grid of sites containing a complex basin.
Optimization of Monte Carlo simulations
Bryskhe, Henrik
2009-01-01
This thesis considers several different techniques for optimizing Monte Carlo simulations. The Monte Carlo system used is Penelope but most of the techniques are applicable to other systems. The two mayor techniques are the usage of the graphics card to do geometry calculations, and raytracing. Using graphics card provides a very efficient way to do fast ray and triangle intersections. Raytracing provides an approximation of Monte Carlo simulation but is much faster to perform. A program was ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A zero-variance (ZV) Monte Carlo transport method is a theoretical construct that, if it could be implemented on a practical computer, would produce the exact result after any number of histories. Unfortunately, ZV methods are impractical; to implement them, one must have complete knowledge of a certain adjoint flux, and acquiring this knowledge is an infinitely greater task than solving the original criticality or source-detector problem. (In fact, the adjoint flux itself yields the desired result, with no need of a Monte Carlo simulation) Nevertheless, ZV methods are of practical interest because it is possible to approximate them in ways that yield efficient variance-reduction schemes. Such implementations must be done carefully. For example, one must not change the mean of the final answer) The goal of variance reduction is to estimate the true mean with greater efficiency. In this paper, we describe new ZV methods for Monte Carlo criticality and source-detector problems. These methods have the same requirements (and disadvantages) as described earlier. However, their implementation is very different. Thus, the concept of approximating them to obtain practical variance-reduction schemes opens new possibilities. In previous ZV methods, (a) a single characteristic parameter (the k-eigenvalue or a detector response) of a forward transport problem is sought; (b) the exact solution of an adjoint problem must be known for all points in phase-space; and (c) a non-analog process, defined in terms of the adjoint solution, transports forward Monte Carlo particles from the source to the detector (in criticality problems, from the fission region, where a generation n fission neutron is born, back to the fission region, where generation n+1 fission neutrons are born). In the non-analog transport process, Monte Carlo particles (a) are born in the source region with weight equal to the desired characteristic parameter, (b) move through the system by an altered transport
A variance-reduced electrothermal Monte Carlo method for semiconductor device simulation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Muscato, Orazio; Di Stefano, Vincenza [Univ. degli Studi di Catania (Italy). Dipt. di Matematica e Informatica; Wagner, Wolfgang [Weierstrass-Institut fuer Angewandte Analysis und Stochastik (WIAS) Leibniz-Institut im Forschungsverbund Berlin e.V., Berlin (Germany)
2012-11-01
This paper is concerned with electron transport and heat generation in semiconductor devices. An improved version of the electrothermal Monte Carlo method is presented. This modification has better approximation properties due to reduced statistical fluctuations. The corresponding transport equations are provided and results of numerical experiments are presented.
Jin, Shengye; Tamura, Masayuki
2013-10-01
Monte Carlo Ray Tracing (MCRT) method is a versatile application for simulating radiative transfer regime of the Solar - Atmosphere - Landscape system. Moreover, it can be used to compute the radiation distribution over a complex landscape configuration, as an example like a forest area. Due to its robustness to the complexity of the 3-D scene altering, MCRT method is also employed for simulating canopy radiative transfer regime as the validation source of other radiative transfer models. In MCRT modeling within vegetation, one basic step is the canopy scene set up. 3-D scanning application was used for representing canopy structure as accurately as possible, but it is time consuming. Botanical growth function can be used to model the single tree growth, but cannot be used to express the impaction among trees. L-System is also a functional controlled tree growth simulation model, but it costs large computing memory. Additionally, it only models the current tree patterns rather than tree growth during we simulate the radiative transfer regime. Therefore, it is much more constructive to use regular solid pattern like ellipsoidal, cone, cylinder etc. to indicate single canopy. Considering the allelopathy phenomenon in some open forest optical images, each tree in its own `domain' repels other trees. According to this assumption a stochastic circle packing algorithm is developed to generate the 3-D canopy scene in this study. The canopy coverage (%) and the tree amount (N) of the 3-D scene are declared at first, similar to the random open forest image. Accordingly, we randomly generate each canopy radius (rc). Then we set the circle central coordinate on XY-plane as well as to keep circles separate from each other by the circle packing algorithm. To model the individual tree, we employ the Ishikawa's tree growth regressive model to set the tree parameters including DBH (dt), tree height (H). However, the relationship between canopy height (Hc) and trunk height (Ht) is
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The TH-PPL CT teaching instrument, developed to Tsinghua University, adopts a 137Cs standard radiation source, which is shielded by one lead canister. This paper simulates and analyses the irradiation rate around the lead canister by a method, which combines Monte Carlo and practical measurement. The simulative result validates the correctness of this method. ICRU sphere's sediment energy is simulated, when the ICRU sphere is 50 mm far away from the lead canister. The personal dose will be calculated from the previous step, the results approve that the lead canister's protection is safe and Monte Carlo can be used in radioprotection analysis and optimum design of lead canister to shield radiation source. (authors)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jimin Liang
2010-01-01
Full Text Available During the past decade, Monte Carlo method has obtained wide applications in optical imaging to simulate photon transport process inside tissues. However, this method has not been effectively extended to the simulation of free-space photon transport at present. In this paper, a uniform framework for noncontact optical imaging is proposed based on Monte Carlo method, which consists of the simulation of photon transport both in tissues and in free space. Specifically, the simplification theory of lens system is utilized to model the camera lens equipped in the optical imaging system, and Monte Carlo method is employed to describe the energy transformation from the tissue surface to the CCD camera. Also, the focusing effect of camera lens is considered to establish the relationship of corresponding points between tissue surface and CCD camera. Furthermore, a parallel version of the framework is realized, making the simulation much more convenient and effective. The feasibility of the uniform framework and the effectiveness of the parallel version are demonstrated with a cylindrical phantom based on real experimental results.
Efendiev, Yalchin R.
2013-08-21
In this paper, we propose multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) methods that use ensemble level mixed multiscale methods in the simulations of multiphase flow and transport. The contribution of this paper is twofold: (1) a design of ensemble level mixed multiscale finite element methods and (2) a novel use of mixed multiscale finite element methods within multilevel Monte Carlo techniques to speed up the computations. The main idea of ensemble level multiscale methods is to construct local multiscale basis functions that can be used for any member of the ensemble. In this paper, we consider two ensemble level mixed multiscale finite element methods: (1) the no-local-solve-online ensemble level method (NLSO); and (2) the local-solve-online ensemble level method (LSO). The first approach was proposed in Aarnes and Efendiev (SIAM J. Sci. Comput. 30(5):2319-2339, 2008) while the second approach is new. Both mixed multiscale methods use a number of snapshots of the permeability media in generating multiscale basis functions. As a result, in the off-line stage, we construct multiple basis functions for each coarse region where basis functions correspond to different realizations. In the no-local-solve-online ensemble level method, one uses the whole set of precomputed basis functions to approximate the solution for an arbitrary realization. In the local-solve-online ensemble level method, one uses the precomputed functions to construct a multiscale basis for a particular realization. With this basis, the solution corresponding to this particular realization is approximated in LSO mixed multiscale finite element method (MsFEM). In both approaches, the accuracy of the method is related to the number of snapshots computed based on different realizations that one uses to precompute a multiscale basis. In this paper, ensemble level multiscale methods are used in multilevel Monte Carlo methods (Giles 2008a, Oper.Res. 56(3):607-617, b). In multilevel Monte Carlo methods, more accurate
Response of thermoluminescent dosimeters to photons simulated with the Monte Carlo method
Moralles, M.; Guimarães, C. C.; Okuno, E.
2005-06-01
Personal monitors composed of thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) made of natural fluorite (CaF 2:NaCl) and lithium fluoride (Harshaw TLD-100) were exposed to gamma and X rays of different qualities. The GEANT4 radiation transport Monte Carlo toolkit was employed to calculate the energy depth deposition profile in the TLDs. X-ray spectra of the ISO/4037-1 narrow-spectrum series, with peak voltage (kVp) values in the range 20-300 kV, were obtained by simulating a X-ray Philips MG-450 tube associated with the recommended filters. A realistic photon distribution of a 60Co radiotherapy source was taken from results of Monte Carlo simulations found in the literature. Comparison between simulated and experimental results revealed that the attenuation of emitted light in the readout process of the fluorite dosimeter must be taken into account, while this effect is negligible for lithium fluoride. Differences between results obtained by heating the dosimeter from the irradiated side and from the opposite side allowed the determination of the light attenuation coefficient for CaF 2:NaCl (mass proportion 60:40) as 2.2 mm -1.
Monte Carlo simulation for soot dynamics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhou Kun
2012-01-01
Full Text Available A new Monte Carlo method termed Comb-like frame Monte Carlo is developed to simulate the soot dynamics. Detailed stochastic error analysis is provided. Comb-like frame Monte Carlo is coupled with the gas phase solver Chemkin II to simulate soot formation in a 1-D premixed burner stabilized flame. The simulated soot number density, volume fraction, and particle size distribution all agree well with the measurement available in literature. The origin of the bimodal distribution of particle size distribution is revealed with quantitative proof.
Monte carlo simulation for soot dynamics
Zhou, Kun
2012-01-01
A new Monte Carlo method termed Comb-like frame Monte Carlo is developed to simulate the soot dynamics. Detailed stochastic error analysis is provided. Comb-like frame Monte Carlo is coupled with the gas phase solver Chemkin II to simulate soot formation in a 1-D premixed burner stabilized flame. The simulated soot number density, volume fraction, and particle size distribution all agree well with the measurement available in literature. The origin of the bimodal distribution of particle size distribution is revealed with quantitative proof.
Simulation of clinical X-ray tube using the Monte Carlo Method - PENELOPE code
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Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer among women. The main strategy to increase the long-term survival of patients with this disease is the early detection of the tumor, and mammography is the most appropriate method for this purpose. Despite the reduction of cancer deaths, there is a big concern about the damage caused by the ionizing radiation to the breast tissue. To evaluate these measures it was modeled a mammography equipment, and obtained the depth spectra using the Monte Carlo method - PENELOPE code. The average energies of the spectra in depth and the half value layer of the mammography output spectrum. (author)
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GEANT4 is a Monte Carlo particle physics toolkit that simulates elementary particles moving through matter. GEANT4 allows a population of neutrons to be tracked in a multiplying medium as the population and the medium evolve. However, the population must be artificially stabilized so that it neither explodes nor vanishes. We present a stabilization method where the simulation is divided into short time intervals and the population is renormalized at the end of each interval. This method was used with a simple sphere of U235 to calculate the effective neutron multiplication factor (keff) from the continuous evolution of the neutron population. (author)
Monte Carlo simulation of granular fluids
Montanero, J. M.
2003-01-01
An overview of recent work on Monte Carlo simulations of a granular binary mixture is presented. The results are obtained numerically solving the Enskog equation for inelastic hard-spheres by means of an extension of the well-known direct Monte Carlo simulation (DSMC) method. The homogeneous cooling state and the stationary state reached using the Gaussian thermostat are considered. The temperature ratio, the fourth velocity moments and the velocity distribution functions are obtained for bot...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lillhoek, J E [Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, Stockholm (Sweden); Grindborg, J-E [Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, Stockholm (Sweden); Lindborg, L [Department of Medical Radiation Physics, Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University (Sweden); Gudowska, I [Department of Medical Radiation Physics, Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University (Sweden); Carlsson, G Alm [Department of Radiation Physics, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linkoeping University (Sweden); Soederberg, J [Department of Radiation Physics, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linkoeping University (Sweden); Kopec, M [Department of Theoretical and Computational Physics, AGH University of Science and Technology, Krakow (Poland); Medin, J [Department of Radiation Oncology, Copenhagen University Hospital (Denmark)
2007-08-21
Nanodosimetric single-event distributions or their mean values may contribute to a better understanding of how radiation induced biological damages are produced. They may also provide means for radiation quality characterization in therapy beams. Experimental nanodosimetry is however technically challenging and Monte Carlo simulations are valuable as a complementary tool for such investigations. The dose-mean lineal energy was determined in a therapeutic p(65)+Be neutron beam and in a {sup 60}Co {gamma} beam using low-pressure gas detectors and the variance-covariance method. The neutron beam was simulated using the condensed history Monte Carlo codes MCNPX and SHIELD-HIT. The dose-mean lineal energy was calculated using the simulated dose and fluence spectra together with published data from track-structure simulations. A comparison between simulated and measured results revealed some systematic differences and different dependencies on the simulated object size. The results show that both experimental and theoretical approaches are needed for an accurate dosimetry in the nanometer region. In line with previously reported results, the dose-mean lineal energy determined at 10 nm was shown to be related to clinical RBE values in the neutron beam and in a simulated 175 MeV proton beam as well.
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Nanodosimetric single-event distributions or their mean values may contribute to a better understanding of how radiation induced biological damages are produced. They may also provide means for radiation quality characterization in therapy beams. Experimental nanodosimetry is however technically challenging and Monte Carlo simulations are valuable as a complementary tool for such investigations. The dose-mean lineal energy was determined in a therapeutic p(65)+Be neutron beam and in a 60Co γ beam using low-pressure gas detectors and the variance-covariance method. The neutron beam was simulated using the condensed history Monte Carlo codes MCNPX and SHIELD-HIT. The dose-mean lineal energy was calculated using the simulated dose and fluence spectra together with published data from track-structure simulations. A comparison between simulated and measured results revealed some systematic differences and different dependencies on the simulated object size. The results show that both experimental and theoretical approaches are needed for an accurate dosimetry in the nanometer region. In line with previously reported results, the dose-mean lineal energy determined at 10 nm was shown to be related to clinical RBE values in the neutron beam and in a simulated 175 MeV proton beam as well
Lillhök, J. E.; Grindborg, J.-E.; Lindborg, L.; Gudowska, I.; Alm Carlsson, G.; Söderberg, J.; Kopeć, M.; Medin, J.
2007-08-01
Nanodosimetric single-event distributions or their mean values may contribute to a better understanding of how radiation induced biological damages are produced. They may also provide means for radiation quality characterization in therapy beams. Experimental nanodosimetry is however technically challenging and Monte Carlo simulations are valuable as a complementary tool for such investigations. The dose-mean lineal energy was determined in a therapeutic p(65)+Be neutron beam and in a 60Co γ beam using low-pressure gas detectors and the variance-covariance method. The neutron beam was simulated using the condensed history Monte Carlo codes MCNPX and SHIELD-HIT. The dose-mean lineal energy was calculated using the simulated dose and fluence spectra together with published data from track-structure simulations. A comparison between simulated and measured results revealed some systematic differences and different dependencies on the simulated object size. The results show that both experimental and theoretical approaches are needed for an accurate dosimetry in the nanometer region. In line with previously reported results, the dose-mean lineal energy determined at 10 nm was shown to be related to clinical RBE values in the neutron beam and in a simulated 175 MeV proton beam as well.
Simulation of Cone Beam CT System Based on Monte Carlo Method
Wang, Yu; Cao, Ruifen; Hu, Liqin; Li, Bingbing
2014-01-01
Adaptive Radiation Therapy (ART) was developed based on Image-guided Radiation Therapy (IGRT) and it is the trend of photon radiation therapy. To get a better use of Cone Beam CT (CBCT) images for ART, the CBCT system model was established based on Monte Carlo program and validated against the measurement. The BEAMnrc program was adopted to the KV x-ray tube. Both IOURCE-13 and ISOURCE-24 were chosen to simulate the path of beam particles. The measured Percentage Depth Dose (PDD) and lateral dose profiles under 1cm water were compared with the dose calculated by DOSXYZnrc program. The calculated PDD was better than 1% within the depth of 10cm. More than 85% points of calculated lateral dose profiles was within 2%. The correct CBCT system model helps to improve CBCT image quality for dose verification in ART and assess the CBCT image concomitant dose risk.
Hart, Vern P; Doyle, Timothy E
2013-09-01
A Monte Carlo method was derived from the optical scattering properties of spheroidal particles and used for modeling diffuse photon migration in biological tissue. The spheroidal scattering solution used a separation of variables approach and numerical calculation of the light intensity as a function of the scattering angle. A Monte Carlo algorithm was then developed which utilized the scattering solution to determine successive photon trajectories in a three-dimensional simulation of optical diffusion and resultant scattering intensities in virtual tissue. Monte Carlo simulations using isotropic randomization, Henyey-Greenstein phase functions, and spherical Mie scattering were additionally developed and used for comparison to the spheroidal method. Intensity profiles extracted from diffusion simulations showed that the four models differed significantly. The depth of scattering extinction varied widely among the four models, with the isotropic, spherical, spheroidal, and phase function models displaying total extinction at depths of 3.62, 2.83, 3.28, and 1.95 cm, respectively. The results suggest that advanced scattering simulations could be used as a diagnostic tool by distinguishing specific cellular structures in the diffused signal. For example, simulations could be used to detect large concentrations of deformed cell nuclei indicative of early stage cancer. The presented technique is proposed to be a more physical description of photon migration than existing phase function methods. This is attributed to the spheroidal structure of highly scattering mitochondria and elongation of the cell nucleus, which occurs in the initial phases of certain cancers. The potential applications of the model and its importance to diffusive imaging techniques are discussed. PMID:24085080
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This analysis is part of the report on ' Implementation of geometry module of 05R code in another Monte Carlo code', chapter 6.0: establishment of future activity related to geometry in Monte Carlo method. The introduction points out some problems in solving complex three-dimensional models which induce the need for developing more efficient geometry modules in Monte Carlo calculations. Second part include formulation of the problem and geometry module. Two fundamental questions to be solved are defined: (1) for a given point, it is necessary to determine material region or boundary where it belongs, and (2) for a given direction, all cross section points with material regions should be determined. Third part deals with possible connection with Monte Carlo calculations for computer simulation of geometry objects. R-function theory enables creation of geometry module base on the same logic (complex regions are constructed by elementary regions sets operations) as well as construction geometry codes. R-functions can efficiently replace functions of three-value logic in all significant models. They are even more appropriate for application since three-value logic is not typical for digital computers which operate in two-value logic. This shows that there is a need for work in this field. It is shown that there is a possibility to develop interactive code for computer modeling of geometry objects in parallel with development of geometry module
Using neutron source distinguish mustard gas bomb from the others with Monte Carlo simulation method
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After Japan was defeated, the chemical weapon that left in China injured people constantly. It made very grave lost to the Chinese because of people's innocent to it. In these accidents, mustard gas bomb is the most. It is more difficult to distinguish mustard gas bomb from other normal bomb in out because it embedded in the earth for long time; leakage, eroding and rust appearance looked very serious. So the untouched measure method, neutron source inducing γ spectrum, showed very important. The Monte Carlo method was used in this paper to compute the γ spectrum when using neutron source irradiate mustard gas bomb. The characteristic radial of Cl, S, Fe and the other elements can picked up clearly. The result play some referenced role in analyzing γ spectrum. (authors)
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In subcritical systems driven by an external neutron source, the experimental methods based on pulsed neutron source (PNS) and statistical techniques play an important role for reactivity measurement. Simulation of these methods is very time-consumed procedure. For simulations in Monte-Carlo programs several improvements for neutronic calculations have been made. This paper introduces a new method for simulating PNS and statistical measurements. In this method all events occurred in the detector during simulation are stored in a file using PTRAC feature in the MCNP. After that with a special code (or post-processing) PNS and statistical methods can be simulated. Additionally different shapes of neutron pulses and its lengths as well as dead time of detectors can be included into the simulation. The methods described above have been tested on the sub-critical assembly Yalina-Thermal, located in the Joint Institute for Power and Nuclear Research SOSNY in Minsk (Belarus). A good agreement between experiment and simulation was shown. (authors)
Proton Upset Monte Carlo Simulation
O'Neill, Patrick M.; Kouba, Coy K.; Foster, Charles C.
2009-01-01
The Proton Upset Monte Carlo Simulation (PROPSET) program calculates the frequency of on-orbit upsets in computer chips (for given orbits such as Low Earth Orbit, Lunar Orbit, and the like) from proton bombardment based on the results of heavy ion testing alone. The software simulates the bombardment of modern microelectronic components (computer chips) with high-energy (.200 MeV) protons. The nuclear interaction of the proton with the silicon of the chip is modeled and nuclear fragments from this interaction are tracked using Monte Carlo techniques to produce statistically accurate predictions.
Monte Carlo simulation of the microcanonical ensemble
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We consider simulating statistical systems with a random walk on a constant energy surface. This combines features of deterministic molecular dynamics techniques and conventional Monte Carlo simulations. For discrete systems the method can be programmed to run an order of magnitude faster than other approaches. It does not require high quality random numbers and may also be useful for nonequilibrium studies. 10 references
A Monte Carlo simulation of photomultiplier resolution
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A Monte Carlo simulation of dynode statistics has been used to generate multiphotoelectron distributions to compare with actual photomultiplier resolution results. In place of Poission of Polya statistics, in this novel approach, the basis for the simulation is an experimentally determined single electron response. The relevance of this method to the study of intrinsic line widths of scintillators is discussed
Testing planetary transit detection methods with grid-based Monte-Carlo simulations.
Bonomo, A. S.; Lanza, A. F.
The detection of extrasolar planets by means of the transit method is a rapidly growing field of modern astrophysics. The periodic light dips produced by the passage of a planet in front of its parent star can be used to reveal the presence of the planet itself, to measure its orbital period and relative radius, as well as to perform studies on the outer layers of the planet by analysing the light of the star passing through the planet's atmosphere. We have developed a new method to detect transits of Earth-sized planets in front of solar-like stars that allows us to reduce the impact of stellar microvariability on transit detection. A large Monte Carlo numerical experiment has been designed to test the performance of our approach in comparison with other transit detection methods for stars of different magnitudes and planets of different radius and orbital period, as will be observed by the space experiments CoRoT and Kepler. The large computational load of this experiment has been managed by means of the Grid infrastructure of the COMETA consortium.
Gimelshein, S. F.; Gimelshein, N. E.; Levin, D. A.; Ivanov, M. S.; Wysong, I. J.
2004-07-01
The conventional chemical reaction models of the direct simulation Monte Carlo method developed with the assumption of continuous rotational or vibrational modes that are shown to exhibit systematic errors when used with discrete energy modes. A reaction model is proposed that is consistent with the use of discrete energy distributions of rotational and vibrational modes, and is equally applicable to diatomic and polyatomic systems. The sensitivity of the model to variations of different reaction rate parameters is examined. The revised chemical reaction model is then applied to the modeling of hypersonic flows over spacecraft in the Martian and Earth atmospheres.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oramas Polo, I.
2014-07-01
This paper presents the simulation of the gamma camera Park Isocam II by Monte Carlo code SIMIND. This simulation allows detailed assessment of the functioning of the gamma camera. The parameters evaluated by means of the simulation are: the intrinsic uniformity with different window amplitudes, the system uniformity, the extrinsic spatial resolution, the maximum rate of counts, the intrinsic sensitivity, the system sensitivity, the energy resolution and the pixel size. The results of the simulation are compared and evaluated against the specifications of the manufacturer of the gamma camera and taking into account the National Protocol for Quality Control of Nuclear Medicine Instruments of the Cuban Medical Equipment Control Center. The simulation reported here demonstrates the validity of the SIMIND Monte Carlo code to evaluate the performance of the gamma camera Park Isocam II and as result a computational model of the camera has been obtained. (Author)
Monte Carlo simulation of granular fluids
Montanero, J M
2003-01-01
An overview of recent work on Monte Carlo simulations of a granular binary mixture is presented. The results are obtained numerically solving the Enskog equation for inelastic hard-spheres by means of an extension of the well-known direct Monte Carlo simulation (DSMC) method. The homogeneous cooling state and the stationary state reached using the Gaussian thermostat are considered. The temperature ratio, the fourth velocity moments and the velocity distribution functions are obtained for both cases. The shear viscosity characterizing the momentum transport in the thermostatted case is calculated as well. The simulation results are compared with analytical predictions showing an excellent agreement.
A GPU-based Large-scale Monte Carlo Simulation Method for Systems with Long-range Interactions
Liang, Yihao; Li, Yaohang
2016-01-01
In this work we present an efficient implementation of Canonical Monte Carlo simulation for Coulomb many body systems on graphics processing units (GPU). Our method takes advantage of the GPU Single Instruction, Multiple Data (SIMD) architectures. It adopts the sequential updating scheme of Metropolis algorithm, and makes no approximation in the computation of energy. It reaches a remarkable 440-fold speedup, compared with the serial implementation on CPU. We use this method to simulate primitive model electrolytes. We measure very precisely all ion-ion pair correlation functions at high concentrations, and extract renormalized Debye length, renormalized valences of constituent ions, and renormalized dielectric constants. These results demonstrate unequivocally physics beyond the classical Poisson-Boltzmann theory.
Mondal, Nagendra Nath
2010-01-01
The results of Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) studies of Most likely position (MLP) and position vector (PV) methods in TOFPET system are presented. MCS based on GEANT3.21 is carried out where the geometry of a real TOFPET system is considered. Results not only manifest resolving powers (RP) of PV and MLP methods ~114% and ~36% but also exhibit shifting of reconstructed images from the original positions ~3% and ~63% respectively. Position conversion factors play a crucial role to reinstate the image position in the PV method and stipulate excellent images. A PV is a position reconstruction method of positron-electron annihilation points developed afresh without iteration and that makes its beauty by saving huge computational time and radiation dose of the patient.
Simulated Annealing using Hybrid Monte Carlo
Salazar, Rafael; Toral, Raúl
1997-01-01
We propose a variant of the simulated annealing method for optimization in the multivariate analysis of differentiable functions. The method uses global actualizations via the hybrid Monte Carlo algorithm in their generalized version for the proposal of new configurations. We show how this choice can improve upon the performance of simulated annealing methods (mainly when the number of variables is large) by allowing a more effective searching scheme and a faster annealing schedule.
Monte Carlo simulation and numerical integration
Geweke, John F.
1995-01-01
This is a survey of simulation methods in economics, with a specific focus on integration problems. It describes acceptance methods, importance sampling procedures, and Markov chain Monte Carlo methods for simulation from univariate and multivariate distributions and their application to the approximation of integrals. The exposition gives emphasis to combinations of different approaches and assessment of the accuracy of numerical approximations to integrals and expectations. The survey illus...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The final objective of any ionization chamber is the measurement of the energy amount or radiation dose absorbed by the gas into the chamber. The final value depends on the composition of the gas, its density and temperature, the ionization chamber geometry, and type and intensity of the radiation. We describe a Monte Carlo simulation method, which allows one to compute the dose absorbed by the gas for a X-ray beam. Verification of model has been carried out by simulating the attenuation of standard X-ray radiation through the half value layers established in the ISO 4037 report, while assuming a Weibull type energy distribution for the incident photons. (Author) 6 refs
Improved Direct Simulation Monte Carlo method for solving modern problems of rarefied gases dynamics
Maltsev, Roman V
2012-01-01
First of all, this paper presents some improvements of DSMC method in the form of new schemes and approaches, that, for a wide class of problems, increase performance and reduce the demands on computer resources. The most important improvement is the scheme of temporal factors, allowing the use of different time step for different sorts of particles, thus reducing the complexity and/or resource usage in simulation of stationary problems with very different collisional cross-sections between components of a mixture. Other improvements include the similarity parameter for efficient estimation of the number of simulational particles required for 1D, 2D and 3D computations, the new scheme for solving axisymmetric problems, an approach to detect and reject repetitive collisions. Also, some advice on technical optimization of algorithm for modern computers is offered.
Tubman, Norm; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon; Ceperley, David
2016-01-01
Simulating nonadiabatic effects with many-body wave function approaches is an open field with many challenges. Recent interest has been driven by new algorithmic developments and improved theoretical understanding of properties unique to electron-ion wave functions. Fixed-node diffusion Monte Caro is one technique that has shown promising results for simulating electron-ion systems. In particular, we focus on the CH molecule for which previous results suggested a relatively significant contribution to the energy from nonadiabatic effects. We propose a new wave function ansatz for diatomic systems which involves interpolating the determinant coefficients calculated from configuration interaction methods. We find this to be an improvement beyond previous wave function forms that have been considered. The calculated nonadiabatic contribution to the energy in the CH molecule is reduced compared to our previous results, but still remains the largest among the molecules under consideration.
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We present a moment-based acceleration algorithm applied to Monte Carlo simulation of thermal radiative-transfer problems. Our acceleration algorithm employs a continuum system of moments to accelerate convergence of stiff absorption–emission physics. The combination of energy-conserving tallies and the use of an asymptotic approximation in optically thick regions remedy the difficulties of local energy conservation and mitigation of statistical noise in such regions. We demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of the developed method. We also compare directly to the standard linearization-based method of Fleck and Cummings [1]. A factor of 40 reduction in total computational time is achieved with the new algorithm for an equivalent (or more accurate) solution as compared with the Fleck–Cummings algorithm
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The variance reduction method can be classified to three technical categories that are source, collision, and transport biasing. All of the variance reduction techniques require specific parameters to control the transport probability. One of well-known methods to determine the optimized transport probability is called as the Consistent Adjoint Driven Importance Sampling (CADIS) method. The CADIS method uses adjoint function to reduce the error of the response. This method can give high variance reduction efficiency on the single response in any problem. However, the CADIS method cannot properly reduce individual relative error for the cases, which have more than two responses. In this study, a multi-response CADIS method was derived by considering each position of the responses. Using the multi-response CADIS method, a radiation transport problem was estimated by applying it into the source angular biasing. The results were compared with those of the CADIS approach and the analog MC method. In this study, a multi-response CADIS method was proposed for minimizing relative errors in various tally regions. To reduce all relative errors for various responses, a weight decision equation was derived. For the verification of the proposed method, a shielding problem was set and the MC simulations were pursued. The results with the proposed method were compared with those estimated by CADIS and analog MC methods. The analysis shows that the relative error of each tally region can be successfully and efficiently reduced for overall regions than the other methods. It can be utilized for accurate calculation of various radiation transport problems, as well as to save the calculation time. Therefore, it is expected that the proposed method can contribute the improvement of expandability in Monte Carlo simulation
Modulated pulse bathymetric lidar Monte Carlo simulation
Luo, Tao; Wang, Yabo; Wang, Rong; Du, Peng; Min, Xia
2015-10-01
A typical modulated pulse bathymetric lidar system is investigated by simulation using a modulated pulse lidar simulation system. In the simulation, the return signal is generated by Monte Carlo method with modulated pulse propagation model and processed by mathematical tools like cross-correlation and digital filter. Computer simulation results incorporating the modulation detection scheme reveal a significant suppression of the water backscattering signal and corresponding target contrast enhancement. More simulation experiments are performed with various modulation and reception variables to investigate the effect of them on the bathymetric system performance.
Monte Carlo Methods in Physics
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Method of Monte Carlo integration is reviewed briefly and some of its applications in physics are explained. A numerical experiment on random generators used in the monte Carlo techniques is carried out to show the behavior of the randomness of various methods in generating them. To account for the weight function involved in the Monte Carlo, the metropolis method is used. From the results of the experiment, one can see that there is no regular patterns of the numbers generated, showing that the program generators are reasonably good, while the experimental results, shows a statistical distribution obeying statistical distribution law. Further some applications of the Monte Carlo methods in physics are given. The choice of physical problems are such that the models have available solutions either in exact or approximate values, in which comparisons can be mode, with the calculations using the Monte Carlo method. Comparison show that for the models to be considered, good agreement have been obtained
Akihiko Takahashi; Nakahiro Yoshida
2005-01-01
We shall propose a new computational scheme with the asymptotic method to achieve variance reduction of Monte Carlo simulation for numerical analysis especially in finance. We not only provide general scheme of our method, but also show its effectiveness through numerical examples such as computing optimal portfolio and pricing an average option. Finally, we show mathematical validity of our method.
Weht, R; Estrin, D A; Chakravarty, C; Weht, Ruben O.; Kohanoff, Jorge; Estrin, Dario A.; Chakravarty, Charusita
1998-01-01
A novel method for simulating the statistical mechanics of molecular systems in which both nuclear and electronic degrees of freedom are treated quantum mechanically is presented. The scheme combines a path integral description of the nuclear variables with a first-principles adiabatic description of the electronic structure. The electronic problem is solved for the ground state within a density functional approach, with the electronic orbitals expanded in a localized (Gaussian) basis set. The discretized path integral is computed by a Metropolis Monte Carlo sampling technique on the normal modes of the isomorphic ring-polymer. An effective short-time action correct to order small Lithium clusters, namely Li$_4$ and Li$_5^+$. Structural and electronic properties computed within this fully quantum-mechanical scheme are presented and compared to those obtained within the classical nuclei approximation. Quantum delocalization effects are significant but tunneling turns out to be irrelevant at low temperatures.
Autocorrelations in hybrid Monte Carlo simulations
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Simulations of QCD suffer from severe critical slowing down towards the continuum limit. This problem is known to be prominent in the topological charge, however, all observables are affected to various degree by these slow modes in the Monte Carlo evolution. We investigate the slowing down in high statistics simulations and propose a new error analysis method, which gives a realistic estimate of the contribution of the slow modes to the errors. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
There are many problems related to multi-step Monte Carlo (MC) calculation. Surface Source Reading (SSR) and Surface Source Writing (SSW) options in MCNP, MC depletion calculation, accelerator shielding analysis using secondary particle source term calculation, and residual particle transport calculation caused by activation are the examples of the simulations. In these problems, the average values estimated from the MC result in the previous step are used as sources of MC simulation in the next step. Hence, the uncertainties of the results in previous step are usually not considered for calculating that of next step MC simulation even though they are propagated as the stepwise progression. In this study, a new method using the forward-adjoint calculation and the union tally is proposed for the estimation of real uncertainty. For the activation benchmark problems the responses and real uncertainties were estimated by using the proposed method. And, the results were compared with those estimated by the brute force technique and the adjoint-based approach. The result shows that the proposed approach gives an accurate result comparing with the reference results
Experience with the Monte Carlo Method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Monte Carlo simulation of radiation transport provides a powerful research and design tool that resembles in many aspects laboratory experiments. Moreover, Monte Carlo simulations can provide an insight not attainable in the laboratory. However, the Monte Carlo method has its limitations, which if not taken into account can result in misleading conclusions. This paper will present the experience of this author, over almost three decades, in the use of the Monte Carlo method for a variety of applications. Examples will be shown on how the method was used to explore new ideas, as a parametric study and design optimization tool, and to analyze experimental data. The consequences of not accounting in detail for detector response and the scattering of radiation by surrounding structures are two of the examples that will be presented to demonstrate the pitfall of condensed
A method to perform multi-scale Monte Carlo simulations in the clinical setting
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In order to model the track structure of clinical mega-voltage photon beams in a reasonable time, it is necessary to use a multiscale approach incorporating a track-structure algorithm for the regions of interest and a condensed history algorithm for the rest of the geometry. This paper introduces a multi-scale Monte Carlo system, which is used to hand off particle trajectory information between the two algorithms. Since condensed history algorithms ignore electrons with energy below a fixed threshold and those electrons are important to the track structure on the micrometre scale, it is necessary to hand over all charged particles to the track-structure algorithm only in a volume that extends beyond the scoring volume. Additionally, the system is validated against experimental results for radio-isotope gamma spectra. (authors)
Ródenas, J; Burgos, M C; Zarza, I; Gallardo, S
2005-01-01
Simulation of detector calibration using the Monte Carlo method is very convenient. The computational calibration procedure using the MCNP code was validated by comparing results of the simulation with laboratory measurements. The standard source used for this validation was a disc-shaped filter where fission and activation products were deposited. Some discrepancies between the MCNP results and laboratory measurements were attributed to the point source model adopted. In this paper, the standard source has been simulated using both point and surface source models. Results from both models are compared with each other as well as with experimental measurements. Two variables, namely, the collimator diameter and detector-source distance have been considered in the comparison analysis. The disc model is seen to be a better model as expected. However, the point source model is good for large collimator diameter and also when the distance from detector to source increases, although for smaller sizes of the collimator and lower distances a surface source model is necessary. PMID:16604596
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rodenas, J.; Pascual, A.; Zarza, I.; Serradell, V.; Ortiz, J.; Ballesteros, L.
2001-07-01
One of the most powerful tools used for environmental radioactivity measurements is a gamma spectrometer, which usually includes a hp ge detector. The detector should be calibrated in efficiency for each considered geometry. Simulation of the calibration procedure with a validated computer program becomes an important auxiliary tool for an environmental radioactivity laboratory being that it permits one to optimise calibration procedures and reduce the amount of radioactive wastes produced. The Monte Carlo method is applied to simulate the detection process and obtain spectrum peaks for each modelled geometry. An accurate detector model should be developed in order to obtain a good accuracy in the output of the calibration simulation. an important parameter in the detector model is the thickness of any absorber layer surrounding the Ge crystal, particularly the inactive Ge layer. In this paper, a sensitivity analysis on the inactive Ge layer thickness is performed using MCNP 4B code. Results are compared with experimental measured efficiency. A sensitivity analysis is also performed on the aluminium cap thickness. (Author) 5 refs.
Coded aperture optimization using Monte Carlo simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Coded apertures using Uniformly Redundant Arrays (URA) have been unsuccessfully evaluated for two-dimensional and three-dimensional imaging in Nuclear Medicine. The images reconstructed from coded projections contain artifacts and suffer from poor spatial resolution in the longitudinal direction. We introduce a Maximum-Likelihood Expectation-Maximization (MLEM) algorithm for three-dimensional coded aperture imaging which uses a projection matrix calculated by Monte Carlo simulations. The aim of the algorithm is to reduce artifacts and improve the three-dimensional spatial resolution in the reconstructed images. Firstly, we present the validation of GATE (Geant4 Application for Emission Tomography) for Monte Carlo simulations of a coded mask installed on a clinical gamma camera. The coded mask modelling was validated by comparison between experimental and simulated data in terms of energy spectra, sensitivity and spatial resolution. In the second part of the study, we use the validated model to calculate the projection matrix with Monte Carlo simulations. A three-dimensional thyroid phantom study was performed to compare the performance of the three-dimensional MLEM reconstruction with conventional correlation method. The results indicate that the artifacts are reduced and three-dimensional spatial resolution is improved with the Monte Carlo-based MLEM reconstruction.
Adaptive Multilevel Monte Carlo Simulation
Hoel, H
2011-08-23
This work generalizes a multilevel forward Euler Monte Carlo method introduced in Michael B. Giles. (Michael Giles. Oper. Res. 56(3):607–617, 2008.) for the approximation of expected values depending on the solution to an Itô stochastic differential equation. The work (Michael Giles. Oper. Res. 56(3):607– 617, 2008.) proposed and analyzed a forward Euler multilevelMonte Carlo method based on a hierarchy of uniform time discretizations and control variates to reduce the computational effort required by a standard, single level, Forward Euler Monte Carlo method. This work introduces an adaptive hierarchy of non uniform time discretizations, generated by an adaptive algorithmintroduced in (AnnaDzougoutov et al. Raùl Tempone. Adaptive Monte Carlo algorithms for stopped diffusion. In Multiscale methods in science and engineering, volume 44 of Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. Eng., pages 59–88. Springer, Berlin, 2005; Kyoung-Sook Moon et al. Stoch. Anal. Appl. 23(3):511–558, 2005; Kyoung-Sook Moon et al. An adaptive algorithm for ordinary, stochastic and partial differential equations. In Recent advances in adaptive computation, volume 383 of Contemp. Math., pages 325–343. Amer. Math. Soc., Providence, RI, 2005.). This form of the adaptive algorithm generates stochastic, path dependent, time steps and is based on a posteriori error expansions first developed in (Anders Szepessy et al. Comm. Pure Appl. Math. 54(10):1169– 1214, 2001). Our numerical results for a stopped diffusion problem, exhibit savings in the computational cost to achieve an accuracy of ϑ(TOL),from(TOL−3), from using a single level version of the adaptive algorithm to ϑ(((TOL−1)log(TOL))2).
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Aim, Karel; Lísal, Martin
2002. s. 1. [European Conference on Applied Thermodynamics ESAT 2002 /19./. 06.09.2002-10.09.2002, Santorini] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921 Keywords : Simulation * Phase equilibria Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry
Harries, Tim J
2015-01-01
We present a set of new numerical methods that are relevant to calculating radiation pressure terms in hydrodynamics calculations, with a particular focus on massive star formation. The radiation force is determined from a Monte Carlo estimator and enables a complete treatment of the detailed microphysics, including polychromatic radiation and anisotropic scattering, in both the free-streaming and optically-thick limits. Since the new method is computationally demanding we have developed two new methods that speed up the algorithm. The first is a photon packet splitting algorithm that enables efficient treatment of the Monte Carlo process in very optically thick regions. The second is a parallelisation method that distributes the Monte Carlo workload over many instances of the hydrodynamic domain, resulting in excellent scaling of the radiation step. We also describe the implementation of a sink particle method that enables us to follow the accretion onto, and the growth of, the protostars. We detail the resu...
Simulation of neutron transport process, photons and charged particles within the Monte Carlo method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Description is given to the program system BRAND designed for the accurate solution of non-stationary transport equation of neutrons, photons and charged particles in the conditions of real three-dimensional geometry. An extensive set of local and non-local estimates provides an opportunity of calculating a great set of linear functionals normally being of interest in the calculation of reactors, radiation protection and experiment simulation. The process of particle interaction with substance is simulated on the basis of individual non-group data on each isotope of the composition. 24 refs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Coarse Mesh Finite Difference Method (CMFD) has been widely used to accelerate the convergence of deterministic methods. It was shown that the CMFD acceleration technique is very effective for fission source convergence. It was expected that CMFD is also effective on active cycle by reducing inter-cycle correlation. However it turns out CMFD also has inter-cycle correlation. In order to reduce the inter-cycle correlation, well known technique superhistory method was adopted. In this paper, the tally performance of CMFD with superhistory method was studied with 1D homogeneous problem. The effect of CMFD with superhistory method on the MC was studied. It was shown that the inter-cycle correlation was reduced dramatically with CMFD and superhistory method. The magnitude of RMS real STD increases as the number of generations for superhistory increases. And the magnitude decreases with CMFD
Carsey, Thomas M.; Harden, Jeffrey J.
2015-01-01
Graduate students in political science come to the discipline interested in exploring important political questions, such as "What causes war?" or "What policies promote economic growth?" However, they typically do not arrive prepared to address those questions using quantitative methods. Graduate methods instructors must…
Quantum Monte Carlo Simulations : Algorithms, Limitations and Applications
Raedt, H. De
1992-01-01
A survey is given of Quantum Monte Carlo methods currently used to simulate quantum lattice models. The formalisms employed to construct the simulation algorithms are sketched. The origin of fundamental (minus sign) problems which limit the applicability of the Quantum Monte Carlo approach is shown
Restricted Collision List method for faster Direct Simulation Monte-Carlo (DSMC) collisions
Macrossan, Michael N.
2016-08-01
The 'Restricted Collision List' (RCL) method for speeding up the calculation of DSMC Variable Soft Sphere collisions, with Borgnakke-Larsen (BL) energy exchange, is presented. The method cuts down considerably on the number of random collision parameters which must be calculated (deflection and azimuthal angles, and the BL energy exchange factors). A relatively short list of these parameters is generated and the parameters required in any cell are selected from this list. The list is regenerated at intervals approximately equal to the smallest mean collision time in the flow, and the chance of any particle re-using the same collision parameters in two successive collisions is negligible. The results using this method are indistinguishable from those obtained with standard DSMC. The CPU time saving depends on how much of a DSMC calculation is devoted to collisions and how much is devoted to other tasks, such as moving particles and calculating particle interactions with flow boundaries. For 1-dimensional calculations of flow in a tube, the new method saves 20% of the CPU time per collision for VSS scattering with no energy exchange. With RCL applied to rotational energy exchange, the CPU saving can be greater; for small values of the rotational collision number, for which most collisions involve some rotational energy exchange, the CPU may be reduced by 50% or more.
Channon, H A; Hamilton, A J; D'Souza, D N; Dunshea, F R
2016-06-01
Monte Carlo simulation was investigated as a potential methodology to estimate sensory tenderness, flavour and juiciness scores of pork following the implementation of key pathway interventions known to influence eating quality. Correction factors were established using mean data from published studies investigating key production, processing and cooking parameters. Probability distributions of correction factors were developed for single pathway parameters only, due to lack of interaction data. Except for moisture infusion, ageing period, aitchbone hanging and cooking pork to an internal temperature of >74°C, only small shifts in the mean of the probability distributions of correction factors were observed for the majority of pathway parameters investigated in this study. Output distributions of sensory scores, generated from Monte Carlo simulations of input distributions of correction factors and for individual pigs, indicated that this methodology may be useful in estimating both the shift and variability in pork eating traits when different pathway interventions are applied. PMID:26869282
Monte Carlo simulation in the reaction rate's calculation with neutron-activation method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
With MCNP/4B code, the influence of cut-off energy, flux tallies, nuclear databases and perturbation on the reaction rate's calculation with neutron-activation method are analysed. When the effective reaction threshold is chosen as the cut-off energy, calculation time is considerably reduced and yet the results are not changed. Comparing calculations with cell tallies (F4) with those performed with detector tallies (F5), the counting efficiency of cell tallies is higher and the results are slightly higher, but still credible. With different nuclear databases, calculated results can be different. The perturbation among the detectors doesn't effect on the calculated results. (authors)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Proton therapy facilities are shielded to limit the amount of secondary radiation to which patients, occupational workers and members of the general public are exposed. The most commonly applied shielding design methods for proton therapy facilities comprise semi-empirical and analytical methods to estimate the neutron dose equivalent. This study compares the results of these methods with a detailed simulation of a proton therapy facility by using the Monte Carlo technique. A comparison of neutron dose equivalent values predicted by the various methods reveals the superior accuracy of the Monte Carlo predictions in locations where the calculations converge. However, the reliability of the overall shielding design increases if simulation results, for which solutions have not converged, e.g. owing to too few particle histories, can be excluded, and deterministic models are being used at these locations. Criteria to accept or reject Monte Carlo calculations in such complex structures are not well understood. An optimum rejection criterion would allow all converging solutions of Monte Carlo simulation to be taken into account, and reject all solutions with uncertainties larger than the design safety margins. In this study, the optimum rejection criterion of 10% was found. The mean ratio was 26, 62% of all receptor locations showed a ratio between 0.9 and 10, and 92% were between 1 and 100. (authors)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Quantitative analysis for food products and natural samples, to determine the activity of each radionuclide, can be made by using a high-purity germanium (HPGe) gamma-ray spectrometer system. The analysis procedure is, in general, based upon the guidelines established by the Nuclear Safety Division of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology in Japan (JP MEXT). In the case of gamma-ray spectrum analysis for large volume samples, re-entrant (marinelli) containers are commonly used. The effect of photon attenuation in a large-volume sample, so-called “self-absorption”, should be corrected for precise determination of the activity. As for marinelli containers, two accurate geometries are shown in the JP MEXT guidelines for 700 milliliter and 2 liter volumes. In the document, the functions to obtain the self-absorption coefficients for these specific shapes are also shown. Therefore, self-absorption corrections have been carried out only for these two containers with practical media. However, to measure radioactivity for samples in containers of volumes other than those described in the guidelines, the self-absorption correction functions must be obtained by measuring at least two standard multinuclide volume sources, which consist of different media or different linear attenuation coefficients. In this work, we developed a method to obtain these functions over a wide range of linear attenuation coefficients for self-absorption in various shapes of marinelli containers using a Monte Carlo simulation. This method was applied to a 1-liter marinelli container, which is widely used for the above quantitative analysis, although its self-absorption correction function has not yet been established. The validity of this method was experimentally checked through an analysis of natural samples with known activity levels. (author)
Harries, Tim J.
2015-01-01
We present a set of new numerical methods that are relevant to calculating radiation pressure terms in hydrodynamics calculations, with a particular focus on massive star formation. The radiation force is determined from a Monte Carlo estimator and enables a complete treatment of the detailed microphysics, including polychromatic radiation and anisotropic scattering, in both the free-streaming and optically-thick limits. Since the new method is computationally demanding we have developed two ...
Harries, Tim J.
2015-04-01
We present a set of new numerical methods that are relevant to calculating radiation pressure terms in hydrodynamics calculations, with a particular focus on massive star formation. The radiation force is determined from a Monte Carlo estimator and enables a complete treatment of the detailed microphysics, including polychromatic radiation and anisotropic scattering, in both the free-streaming and optically thick limits. Since the new method is computationally demanding we have developed two new methods that speed up the algorithm. The first is a photon packet splitting algorithm that enables efficient treatment of the Monte Carlo process in very optically thick regions. The second is a parallelization method that distributes the Monte Carlo workload over many instances of the hydrodynamic domain, resulting in excellent scaling of the radiation step. We also describe the implementation of a sink particle method that enables us to follow the accretion on to, and the growth of, the protostars. We detail the results of extensive testing and benchmarking of the new algorithms.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present a single-particle Lennard–Jones (L-J) model for CO2 and N2. Simplified L-J models for other small polyatomic molecules can be obtained following the methodology described herein. The phase-coexistence diagrams of single-component systems computed using the proposed single-particle models for CO2 and N2 agree well with experimental data over a wide range of temperatures. These diagrams are computed using the Markov Chain Monte Carlo method based on the Gibbs-NVT ensemble. This good agreement validates the proposed simplified models. That is, with properly selected parameters, the single-particle models have similar accuracy in predicting gas-phase properties as more complex, state-of-the-art molecular models. To further test these single-particle models, three binary mixtures of CH4, CO2 and N2 are studied using a Gibbs-NPT ensemble. These results are compared against experimental data over a wide range of pressures. The single-particle model has similar accuracy in the gas phase as traditional models although its deviation in the liquid phase is greater. Since the single-particle model reduces the particle number and avoids the time-consuming Ewald summation used to evaluate Coulomb interactions, the proposed model improves the computational efficiency significantly, particularly in the case of high liquid density where the acceptance rate of the particle-swap trial move increases. We compare, at constant temperature and pressure, the Gibbs-NPT and Gibbs-NVT ensembles to analyze their performance differences and results consistency. As theoretically predicted, the agreement between the simulations implies that Gibbs-NVT can be used to validate Gibbs-NPT predictions when experimental data is not available
Li, Jun
2013-09-01
We present a single-particle Lennard-Jones (L-J) model for CO2 and N2. Simplified L-J models for other small polyatomic molecules can be obtained following the methodology described herein. The phase-coexistence diagrams of single-component systems computed using the proposed single-particle models for CO2 and N2 agree well with experimental data over a wide range of temperatures. These diagrams are computed using the Markov Chain Monte Carlo method based on the Gibbs-NVT ensemble. This good agreement validates the proposed simplified models. That is, with properly selected parameters, the single-particle models have similar accuracy in predicting gas-phase properties as more complex, state-of-the-art molecular models. To further test these single-particle models, three binary mixtures of CH4, CO2 and N2 are studied using a Gibbs-NPT ensemble. These results are compared against experimental data over a wide range of pressures. The single-particle model has similar accuracy in the gas phase as traditional models although its deviation in the liquid phase is greater. Since the single-particle model reduces the particle number and avoids the time-consuming Ewald summation used to evaluate Coulomb interactions, the proposed model improves the computational efficiency significantly, particularly in the case of high liquid density where the acceptance rate of the particle-swap trial move increases. We compare, at constant temperature and pressure, the Gibbs-NPT and Gibbs-NVT ensembles to analyze their performance differences and results consistency. As theoretically predicted, the agreement between the simulations implies that Gibbs-NVT can be used to validate Gibbs-NPT predictions when experimental data is not available. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.
Silva, H; Cardoso, J; Oliveira, C
2011-03-01
An ionisation chamber that directly measures the quantity personal dose equivalent, H(p)(10), is used as a secondary standard in some metrology laboratories. An ionisation chamber of this type was first developed by Ankerhold. Using the Monte-Carlo simulation, the dose in the sensitive volume as a function of the IC dimensions and the effects of the several components of the ionising chamber have been investigated. Based on these results, a new ionising chamber, lighter than the previous ones, is constructed and experimentally tested. PMID:21208934
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guimaraes, Carla da Costa
2005-07-01
In this work, we have evaluated the possibility of applying the Monte Carlo simulation technique in photon dosimetry of external individual monitoring. The GEANT4 toolkit was employed to simulate experiments with radiation monitors containing TLD-100 and CaF{sub 2}:NaCl thermoluminescent detectors. As a first step, X ray spectra were generated impinging electrons on a tungsten target. Then, the produced photon beam was filtered in a beryllium window and additional filters to obtain the radiation with desired qualities. This procedure, used to simulate radiation fields produced by a X ray tube, was validated by comparing characteristics such as half value layer, which was also experimentally measured, mean photon energy and the spectral resolution of simulated spectra with that of reference spectra established by international standards. In the construction of thermoluminescent dosimeter, two approaches for improvements have. been introduced. The first one was the inclusion of 6% of air in the composition of the CaF{sub 2}:NaCl detector due to the difference between measured and calculated values of its density. Also, comparison between simulated and experimental results showed that the self-attenuation of emitted light in the readout process of the fluorite dosimeter must be taken into account. Then, in the second approach, the light attenuation coefficient of CaF{sub 2}:NaCl compound estimated by simulation to be 2,20(25) mm{sup -1} was introduced. Conversion coefficients C{sub p} from air kerma to personal dose equivalent were calculated using a slab water phantom with polymethyl-metacrilate (PMMA) walls, for reference narrow and wide X ray spectrum series [ISO 4037-1], and also for the wide spectra implanted and used in routine at Laboratorio de Dosimetria. Simulations of backscattered radiations by PMMA slab water phantom and slab phantom of ICRU tissue-equivalent material produced very similar results. Therefore, the PMMA slab water phantom that can be easily
Monte-Carlo simulations: FLUKA vs. MCNPX
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Oden, M.; Krása, Antonín; Majerle, Mitja; Svoboda, Ondřej; Wagner, Vladimír
Melville : AMER INST PHYSICS, 2007 - (Granja, C.; Leroy, C.; Štekl, I.), s. 219-221 ISBN 978-0-7354-0472-4. ISSN 0094-243X. - (AIP Conference Proceedings. 958). [4th International Summer School on Nuclear Physics Methods and Accelerators in Biology and Medicine . Praha (CZ), 08.07.2007-19.07.2007] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC07050 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : neutron production * spallation reaction * Monte-Carlo simulation Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear , Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders
The Moment Guided Monte Carlo Method
Degond, Pierre; Dimarco, Giacomo; Pareschi, Lorenzo
2009-01-01
In this work we propose a new approach for the numerical simulation of kinetic equations through Monte Carlo schemes. We introduce a new technique which permits to reduce the variance of particle methods through a matching with a set of suitable macroscopic moment equations. In order to guarantee that the moment equations provide the correct solutions, they are coupled to the kinetic equation through a non equilibrium term. The basic idea, on which the method relies, consists in guiding the p...
Moura, Alfredo de; Esteves, António
2013-01-01
This paper describes the simulation of the phenomenon of nucleation of the precipitate Al3Sc in an Aluminum Scandium alloy using the kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) method and the density-based clustering with noise (DBSCAN) method to filter the simulation data. To conduct this task, kMC and DBSCAN algorithms were implemented in C language. The study covers a range of temperatures, concentrations, and dimensions, going from 573K to 873K, 0.25% to 5%, and 50x50x50 to 100x100x100. The Al3Sc precipita...
Shell model Monte Carlo methods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We review quantum Monte Carlo methods for dealing with large shell model problems. These methods reduce the imaginary-time many-body evolution operator to a coherent superposition of one-body evolutions in fluctuating one-body fields; resultant path integral is evaluated stochastically. We first discuss the motivation, formalism, and implementation of such Shell Model Monte Carlo methods. There then follows a sampler of results and insights obtained from a number of applications. These include the ground state and thermal properties of pf-shell nuclei, thermal behavior of γ-soft nuclei, and calculation of double beta-decay matrix elements. Finally, prospects for further progress in such calculations are discussed. 87 refs
Atomistic Monte Carlo simulation of lipid membranes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wüstner, Daniel; Sklenar, Heinz
2014-01-01
molecule, as assessed by calculation of molecular energies and entropies. We also show transition from a crystalline-like to a fluid DPPC bilayer by the CBC local-move MC method, as indicated by the electron density profile, head group orientation, area per lipid, and whole-lipid displacements. We discuss......Biological membranes are complex assemblies of many different molecules of which analysis demands a variety of experimental and computational approaches. In this article, we explain challenges and advantages of atomistic Monte Carlo (MC) simulation of lipid membranes. We provide an introduction...... into the various move sets that are implemented in current MC methods for efficient conformational sampling of lipids and other molecules. In the second part, we demonstrate for a concrete example, how an atomistic local-move set can be implemented for MC simulations of phospholipid monomers and...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A two-dimensional fluid-Monte Carlo hybrid model is used to simulate a capacitively-coupled parallel-plate rf discharge. The 2-D model assumes azimuthal symmetry and accounts for a ground shield about the electrodes as well as grounded chamber walls. The hybrid model consists of a Monte Carlo method for generating rates and a fluid model for transporting electrons and ions. In the fluid model, the electrons are transported using the continuity equation; and the electric fields are solved self-consistently using Poisson's equation. The Monte Carlo model transports electrons using the fluid-generated periodic electric field. The ionization rates are then obtained using the electron energy distribution function. An averaging method is used to speed the solution by transporting the ions in a time-averaged electric field with a corrected ambipolar-type diffusion. The simulation switches between the conventional and the averaging fluid model. Typically, the simulation runs from 10's to 100's of averaging fluid cycles before reentering the conventional fluid model for 10's of cycles. Speed increases of a factor of 100 are possible
Monte Carlo simulation in statistical physics an introduction
Binder, Kurt
1992-01-01
The Monte Carlo method is a computer simulation method which uses random numbers to simulate statistical fluctuations The method is used to model complex systems with many degrees of freedom Probability distributions for these systems are generated numerically and the method then yields numerically exact information on the models Such simulations may be used tosee how well a model system approximates a real one or to see how valid the assumptions are in an analyical theory A short and systematic theoretical introduction to the method forms the first part of this book The second part is a practical guide with plenty of examples and exercises for the student Problems treated by simple sampling (random and self-avoiding walks, percolation clusters, etc) are included, along with such topics as finite-size effects and guidelines for the analysis of Monte Carlo simulations The two parts together provide an excellent introduction to the theory and practice of Monte Carlo simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Methods for Monte Carlo procedure in radiation measurement by SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography) and 3-D PET (3-dimensional positron emission tomography) are described together with its application to develop and optimize the scattering correction method in 201Tl-SPECT. In the medical technology, the Monte Carlo simulation makes it possible to quantify the behavior of a photon like scattering and absorption, and which can be performed by the use of EGS4 simulation code consisting from Step A - E. With the method, data collection procedures of the diagnostic equipments for nuclear medicine and application to develop the transmission radiation source for SPECT are described. Precision of the scattering correction method is also evaluated in the SPECT by the Monte Carlo simulation. The simulation is a useful tool for evaluating the behavior of radiation in the human body which can not be actually measured. (K.H.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This study settles on a contribution to the elaboration of slow protons transport simulation. Atomic inner shell ionization is studied in the Plane Wave Born Approximations and in the Binary Encounter Approximation. BRINKMAN-KRAMER's theory and DMITRIEV's theory are used to study charge exchange phenomena. Protons slowing down is studied with the BRICE's stopping power, with the VAVILOV and SYMON's energy straggling distributions and with the MOLIERE, KEIL and MEYER's angular deflexion distributions. Transport simulation is made with Monte Carlo Method; K electrons motion is also taken into account
Extending canonical Monte Carlo methods
Velazquez, L.; Curilef, S.
2010-02-01
In this paper, we discuss the implications of a recently obtained equilibrium fluctuation-dissipation relation for the extension of the available Monte Carlo methods on the basis of the consideration of the Gibbs canonical ensemble to account for the existence of an anomalous regime with negative heat capacities C < 0. The resulting framework appears to be a suitable generalization of the methodology associated with the so-called dynamical ensemble, which is applied to the extension of two well-known Monte Carlo methods: the Metropolis importance sampling and the Swendsen-Wang cluster algorithm. These Monte Carlo algorithms are employed to study the anomalous thermodynamic behavior of the Potts models with many spin states q defined on a d-dimensional hypercubic lattice with periodic boundary conditions, which successfully reduce the exponential divergence of the decorrelation time τ with increase of the system size N to a weak power-law divergence \\tau \\propto N^{\\alpha } with α≈0.2 for the particular case of the 2D ten-state Potts model.
Quantum Monte Carlo methods algorithms for lattice models
Gubernatis, James; Werner, Philipp
2016-01-01
Featuring detailed explanations of the major algorithms used in quantum Monte Carlo simulations, this is the first textbook of its kind to provide a pedagogical overview of the field and its applications. The book provides a comprehensive introduction to the Monte Carlo method, its use, and its foundations, and examines algorithms for the simulation of quantum many-body lattice problems at finite and zero temperature. These algorithms include continuous-time loop and cluster algorithms for quantum spins, determinant methods for simulating fermions, power methods for computing ground and excited states, and the variational Monte Carlo method. Also discussed are continuous-time algorithms for quantum impurity models and their use within dynamical mean-field theory, along with algorithms for analytically continuing imaginary-time quantum Monte Carlo data. The parallelization of Monte Carlo simulations is also addressed. This is an essential resource for graduate students, teachers, and researchers interested in ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The mass attenuation coefficients, μ/ρ, the linear attenuation coefficients, μ and the mean free path, MFP of normal and heavy concretes; ordinary, hematite-serpentine, ilmenite-limonite, basalt-magnetite, ilmenite, steel-scrap and steel-magnetite have been investigated using Geant4 Monte Carlo method at photon energies 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 MeV. The mass attenuation coefficients, the linear attenuation coefficient and the mean free path for the concretes were found dependent upon chemical compositions, density and the photon energy. The linear attenuation coefficient values for the selected concretes increase with the density and decrease with the energy. The mean free path thickness for the all the concretes decrease with increase in iron content and increase with increase the photon energy. The Geant4 Monte Carlo simulation method results have been compared with experimental and theoretical XCOM data, and showed a very good agreement. Our investigation validates the utilization of the Geant4 Monte Carlo simulation method for high energy photon interactions. (author)
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Hao Wang; Guo-quan Liu; Xiang-ge Qin
2009-01-01
Three-dimensional normal grain growth was appropriately simulated using a Potts model Monte Carlo algorithm.The quasi-stationary grain size distribution obtained from simulation agreed well with the experimental result of pure iron.The Weibull function with a parameter β=2.77 and the Yu-Liu function with a parameter v =2.71 fit the quasi-stationary grain size distribution well.The grain volume distribution is a function that decreased exponentially with increasing grain volume.The distribution of boundary area of grains has a peak at S/=0.5,where S is the boundary area of a grain and is the mean boundary area of all grains in the system.The lognormal function fits the face number distribution well and the peak of the face number distribution is f=10.The mean radius of f=faced grains is not proportional to the face number,but appears to be related by a curve convex upward.In the 2D cross-section,both the perimeter law and the Aboav-Weaire law are observed to hold.
Monte Carlo and detector simulation in OOP
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Object-Oriented Programming techniques are explored with an eye towards applications in High Energy Physics codes. Two prototype examples are given: MCOOP (a particle Monte Carlo generator) and GISMO (a detector simulation/analysis package). The OOP programmer does no explicit or detailed memory management nor other bookkeeping chores; hence, the writing, modification, and extension of the code is considerably simplified. Inheritance can be used to simplify the class definitions as well as the instance variables and action methods of each class; thus the work required to add new classes, parameters, or new methods is minimal. The software industry is moving rapidly to OOP since it has been proven to improve programmer productivity, and promises even more for the future by providing truly reusable software. The High Energy Physics community clearly needs to follow this trend
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
KIT is developing large-scale customized cryogenic pumps with charcoal-coated panels working at 4.5K for the ITER project. An important aspect in the design is the heat load to the cryogenic supply system. In this paper, the feasibilities of different approaches to thermal heat radiation calculations are discussed by studying a simple geometry. Then, the Monte Carlo Ray Trace (MCRT) method is used to calculate thermal radiation heat loads to the cryopanel circuit, the thermal shield circuit, and the valve head when the cryopump is run in the stand-by, pumping, and regeneration modes. The MCRT calculations were performed with out newly developed Monte Carlo simulation program ProVac3D. (author)
Kovtanyuk, Andrey E.
2012-01-01
Radiative-conductive heat transfer in a medium bounded by two reflecting and radiating plane surfaces is considered. This process is described by a nonlinear system of two differential equations: an equation of the radiative heat transfer and an equation of the conductive heat exchange. The problem is characterized by anisotropic scattering of the medium and by specularly and diffusely reflecting boundaries. For the computation of solutions of this problem, two approaches based on iterative techniques are considered. First, a recursive algorithm based on some modification of the Monte Carlo method is proposed. Second, the diffusion approximation of the radiative transfer equation is utilized. Numerical comparisons of the approaches proposed are given in the case of isotropic scattering. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Monte Carlo simulation techniques : The development of a general framework
Nilsson, Emma
2009-01-01
Algorithmica Research AB develops software application for the financial markets. One of their products is Quantlab that is a tool for quantitative analyses. An effective method to value several financial instruments is Monte Carlo simulation. Since it is a common method Algorithmica is interesting in investigating if it is possible to create a Monte Carlo framework. A requirement from Algorithmica is that the framework is general and this is the main problem to solve. It is difficult to gene...
Self-consistent electro-thermal simulations of AlGaN/GaN diodes by means of Monte Carlo method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this contribution we present the results from the simulation of an AlGaN/GaN heterostructure diode by means of a Monte Carlo tool where thermal effects have been included. Two techniques are investigated: (i) a thermal resistance method (TRM), and (ii) an advanced electro-thermal model (ETM) including the solution of the steady-state heat diffusion equation. Initially, a systematic study at constant temperature is performed in order to calibrate the electronic model. Once this task is performed, the electro-thermal methods are coupled with the Monte Carlo electronic simulations. For the TRM, several values of thermal resistances are employed, and for the ETM method, the dependence on the thermal-conductivity, thickness and die length is analyzed. It is found that the TRM with well-calibrated values of thermal resistances provides a similar behavior to ETM simulations under the hypothesis of constant thermal conductivity. Our results are validated with experimental measurements finding the best agreement when the ETM is used with a temperature-dependent thermal conductivity. (paper)
Whitmore, Alexander Jason
temperature field for the MCRT program; together the equations are solved iteratively. These iterations repeat until convergence is reached for a steady state temperature field. The energy equation was solved using a finite volume method. The window's thermal conductivity is modeled as a function of temperature. This thermal model is used to investigate the effects of different materials, receiver geometries, interior convection coefficients and exterior convection coefficients. To prevent devitrification and the ultimate failure of the window, the window needs to stay below the devitrification temperature of the material. In addition, the temperature gradients within the window need to be kept to a minimum to prevent thermal stresses. A San Diego State University colleague E-Fann Saung uses these temperature maps to insure that the mounting of the window does not produce thermal stresses which can cause cracking in the brittle fused quartz. The simulations in this thesis show that window temperatures are below the devitrification temperature of the window when there are cooling jets on both surfaces of the window. Natural convection on the exterior window surface was explored and it does not provide adequate cooling; therefore forced convection is required. Due to the low thermal conductivity of the window, the edge mounting thermal boundary condition has little effect on the maximum temperature of the window. The simulations also showed that the solar input flux absorbed less than 1% of the incoming radiation while the window absorbed closer to 20% of the infrared radiation emitted by the receiver. The main source of absorbed power in the window is located directly on the interior surface of the window where the infrared radiation is absorbed. The geometry of the receiver has a large impact on the amount of emitted power which reached the interior surface of the window, and using a conical shaped receiver dramatically reduced the receiver's infrared flux on the window. The
Combinatorial nuclear level density by a Monte Carlo method
Cerf, N.
1993-01-01
We present a new combinatorial method for the calculation of the nuclear level density. It is based on a Monte Carlo technique, in order to avoid a direct counting procedure which is generally impracticable for high-A nuclei. The Monte Carlo simulation, making use of the Metropolis sampling scheme, allows a computationally fast estimate of the level density for many fermion systems in large shell model spaces. We emphasize the advantages of this Monte Carlo approach, particularly concerning t...
Parallel Monte Carlo simulation of aerosol dynamics
Zhou, K.
2014-01-01
A highly efficient Monte Carlo (MC) algorithm is developed for the numerical simulation of aerosol dynamics, that is, nucleation, surface growth, and coagulation. Nucleation and surface growth are handled with deterministic means, while coagulation is simulated with a stochastic method (Marcus-Lushnikov stochastic process). Operator splitting techniques are used to synthesize the deterministic and stochastic parts in the algorithm. The algorithm is parallelized using the Message Passing Interface (MPI). The parallel computing efficiency is investigated through numerical examples. Near 60% parallel efficiency is achieved for the maximum testing case with 3.7 million MC particles running on 93 parallel computing nodes. The algorithm is verified through simulating various testing cases and comparing the simulation results with available analytical and/or other numerical solutions. Generally, it is found that only small number (hundreds or thousands) of MC particles is necessary to accurately predict the aerosol particle number density, volume fraction, and so forth, that is, low order moments of the Particle Size Distribution (PSD) function. Accurately predicting the high order moments of the PSD needs to dramatically increase the number of MC particles. 2014 Kun Zhou et al.
Monte Carlo simulations of Higgs-boson production at the LHC with the KrkNLO method
Jadach, S; Placzek, W; Sapeta, S; Siodmok, A; Skrzypek, M
2016-01-01
We present numerical tests and predictions of the KrkNLO method for matching of NLO QCD corrections to hard processes with LO parton shower Monte Carlo generators. This method was described in detail in our previous publications, where its advantages over other approaches, such as MCatNLO and POWHEG, were pointed out. Here we concentrate on presenting some numerical results (cross sections and distributions) for $Z/\\gamma^*$ (Drell-Yan) and Higgs-boson production processes at the LHC. The Drell--Yan process is used mainly to validate the KrkNLO implementation in the Herwig 7 program with respect to the previous implementation in Sherpa. We also show predictions for this process with the new, complete, MC-scheme parton distribution functions and compare them with our previously published results. Then, we present the first results of the KrkNLO method for the Higgs production in gluon--gluon fusion at the LHC and compare them with the predictions of other programs, such as MCFM, MCatNLO, POWHEG and HNNLO, as w...
The Moment Guided Monte Carlo Method
Degond, Pierre; Pareschi, Lorenzo
2009-01-01
In this work we propose a new approach for the numerical simulation of kinetic equations through Monte Carlo schemes. We introduce a new technique which permits to reduce the variance of particle methods through a matching with a set of suitable macroscopic moment equations. In order to guarantee that the moment equations provide the correct solutions, they are coupled to the kinetic equation through a non equilibrium term. The basic idea, on which the method relies, consists in guiding the particle positions and velocities through moment equations so that the concurrent solution of the moment and kinetic models furnishes the same macroscopic quantities.
Research of Monte Carlo Simulation in Commercial Bank Risk Management
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
BeimingXiao
2004-01-01
Simulation method is an important-tool in financial risk management. It can simulate financial variable or economic wriable and deal with non-linear or non-nominal issue. This paper analyzes the usage of "Monte Carlo" approach in commercial bank risk management.
Monte Carlo simulations for plasma physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Okamoto, M.; Murakami, S.; Nakajima, N.; Wang, W.X. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan)
2000-07-01
Plasma behaviours are very complicated and the analyses are generally difficult. However, when the collisional processes play an important role in the plasma behaviour, the Monte Carlo method is often employed as a useful tool. For examples, in neutral particle injection heating (NBI heating), electron or ion cyclotron heating, and alpha heating, Coulomb collisions slow down high energetic particles and pitch angle scatter them. These processes are often studied by the Monte Carlo technique and good agreements can be obtained with the experimental results. Recently, Monte Carlo Method has been developed to study fast particle transports associated with heating and generating the radial electric field. Further it is applied to investigating the neoclassical transport in the plasma with steep gradients of density and temperatures which is beyong the conventional neoclassical theory. In this report, we briefly summarize the researches done by the present authors utilizing the Monte Carlo method. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The ant colony method is used to control the application of variance reduction techniques to the simulation of clinical electron linear accelerators of use in cancer therapy. In particular, splitting and Russian roulette, two standard variance reduction methods, are considered. The approach can be applied to any accelerator in a straightforward way and permits, in addition, to investigate the 'hot' regions of the accelerator, an information which is basic to develop a source model for this therapy tool
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grau Carles, A.; Garcia Gomez-Tejedor, G.
2001-07-01
The final objective of any ionization chamber is the measurement of the energy amount or radiation dose absorbed by the gas into the chamber. The final value depends on the composition of the gas, its density and temperature, the ionization chamber geometry, and type and intensity of the radiation. We describe a Monte Carlo simulation method, which allows one to compute the dose absorbed by the gas for a X-ray beam. Verification of model has been carried out by simulating the attenuation of standard X-ray radiation through the half value layers established in the ISO 4037 report, while assuming a Weibull type energy distribution for the incident photons. (Author) 6 refs.
Monte Carlo Simulation for Particle Detectors
Pia, Maria Grazia
2012-01-01
Monte Carlo simulation is an essential component of experimental particle physics in all the phases of its life-cycle: the investigation of the physics reach of detector concepts, the design of facilities and detectors, the development and optimization of data reconstruction software, the data analysis for the production of physics results. This note briefly outlines some research topics related to Monte Carlo simulation, that are relevant to future experimental perspectives in particle physics. The focus is on physics aspects: conceptual progress beyond current particle transport schemes, the incorporation of materials science knowledge relevant to novel detection technologies, functionality to model radiation damage, the capability for multi-scale simulation, quantitative validation and uncertainty quantification to determine the predictive power of simulation. The R&D on simulation for future detectors would profit from cooperation within various components of the particle physics community, and synerg...
Monte Carlo Simulation Of Emission Tomography And Other Medical Imaging Techniques
Harrison, Robert L.
2010-01-01
An introduction to Monte Carlo simulation of emission tomography. This paper reviews the history and principles of Monte Carlo simulation, then applies these principles to emission tomography using the public domain simulation package SimSET (a Simulation System for Emission Tomography) as an example. Finally, the paper discusses how the methods are modified for X-ray computed tomography and radiotherapy simulations.
Monte Carlo Simulation Program from the World Petroleum Assessment 2000, DDS-60 (Emc2.xls).
U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Monte Carlo programs described in chapter MC, Monte Carlo Simulation Method. Emc2.xls was the program used to calculate the estimates of undiscovered resources for...
Monte Carlo Simulation Program from the World Petroleum Assessment 2000, DDS-60 (Emc2.xls)
U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Monte Carlo programs described in chapter MC, Monte Carlo Simulation Method. Emc2.xls was the program used to calculate the estimates of undiscovered resources for...
Mont Carlo Simulation Program from the World Petroleum Assessment 2000, DDS-60 (emcee.xls).xml
U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Monte Carlo programs described in chapter MC, Monte Carlo Simulation Method. Emc2.xls was the program used to calculate the estimates of undiscovered resources for...
Mont Carlo Simulation Program from the World Petroleum Assessment 2000, DDS-60 (emcee.xls)
U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Monte Carlo programs described in chapter MC, Monte Carlo Simulation Method. Emc2.xls was the program used to calculate the estimates of undiscovered resources for...
Fast Lattice Monte Carlo Simulations of Polymers
Wang, Qiang; Zhang, Pengfei
2014-03-01
The recently proposed fast lattice Monte Carlo (FLMC) simulations (with multiple occupancy of lattice sites (MOLS) and Kronecker δ-function interactions) give much faster/better sampling of configuration space than both off-lattice molecular simulations (with pair-potential calculations) and conventional lattice Monte Carlo simulations (with self- and mutual-avoiding walk and nearest-neighbor interactions) of polymers.[1] Quantitative coarse-graining of polymeric systems can also be performed using lattice models with MOLS.[2] Here we use several model systems, including polymer melts, solutions, blends, as well as confined and/or grafted polymers, to demonstrate the great advantages of FLMC simulations in the study of equilibrium properties of polymers.
Adjoint Monte Carlo simulation of fixed-energy secondary radiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fixed energy secondary generation for adjoint Monte Carlo methods constitutes certain difficulties because of zero probability of reaching fixed value from continuous distribution. This paper proposes a possible approach to adjoint Monte Carlo simulation with fixed energy secondary radiation which does not contain any simplifying restriction. This approach uses the introduced before generalized particle concept developed for description of mixed-type radiation transport and allows adjoint Monte Carlo simulation of such processes. It treats particle type as additional discrete coordinate and always considers only one particle even for the interactions with many particles outgoing from the collision. The adjoint fixed energy secondary radiation simulation is performed as local energy estimator through the intermediate state with fixed energy. The proposed algorithm is tested on the example of coupled gamma/electron/positron transport with generation of annihilation radiation. Forward and adjoint simulation according to generalized particle concept show statistically similar results. (orig.)
Monte Carlo method in radiation transport problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In neutral radiation transport problems (neutrons, photons), two values are important: the flux in the phase space and the density of particles. To solve the problem with Monte Carlo method leads to, among other things, build a statistical process (called the play) and to provide a numerical value to a variable x (this attribution is called score). Sampling techniques are presented. Play biasing necessity is proved. A biased simulation is made. At last, the current developments (rewriting of programs for instance) are presented due to several reasons: two of them are the vectorial calculation apparition and the photon and neutron transport in vacancy media
MONTE-CARLO SIMULATION OF ROAD TRANSPORT EMISSION
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Adam Torok
2015-09-01
Full Text Available There are microscopic, mezoscopic and macroscopic models in road traffic analysis and forecasting. From microscopic models one can calculate the macroscopic data by aggregation. The following paper describes the disaggregation method of macroscopic state, which could lead to microscopic properties of traffic. In order to ensure the transform between macroscopic and microscopic states Monte-Carlo simulation was used. MS Excel macro environment was built to run Monte-Carlo simulation. With this method the macroscopic data can be disaggregated to macroscopic data and as a byproduct mezoscopic, regional data can be gained. These mezoscopic data can be used further on regional environmental or transport policy assessment.
Monte Carlo Simulations of Star Clusters
Giersz, M
2000-01-01
A revision of Stod\\'o{\\l}kiewicz's Monte Carlo code is used to simulate evolution of large star clusters. The survey on the evolution of multi-mass N-body systems influenced by the tidal field of a parent galaxy and by stellar evolution is discussed. For the first time, the simulation on the "star-by-star" bases of evolution of 1,000,000 body star cluster is presented. \\
Topological zero modes in Monte Carlo simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present an improvement of global Metropolis updating steps, the instanton hits, used in a hybrid Monte Carlo simulation of the two-flavor Schwinger model with staggered fermions. These hits are designed to change the topological sector of the gauge field. In order to match these hits to an unquenched simulation with pseudofermions, the approximate zero mode structure of the lattice Dirac operator has to be considered explicitly. (orig.)
Monte Carlo simulation code modernization
CERN. Geneva
2015-01-01
The continual development of sophisticated transport simulation algorithms allows increasingly accurate description of the effect of the passage of particles through matter. This modelling capability finds applications in a large spectrum of fields from medicine to astrophysics, and of course HEP. These new capabilities however come at the cost of a greater computational intensity of the new models, which has the effect of increasing the demands of computing resources. This is particularly true for HEP, where the demand for more simulation are driven by the need of both more accuracy and more precision, i.e. better models and more events. Usually HEP has relied on the "Moore's law" evolution, but since almost ten years the increase in clock speed has withered and computing capacity comes in the form of hardware architectures of many-core or accelerated processors. To harness these opportunities we need to adapt our code to concurrent programming models taking advantages of both SIMD and SIMT architectures. Th...
Monte Carlo Simulation in Statistical Physics An Introduction
Binder, Kurt
2010-01-01
Monte Carlo Simulation in Statistical Physics deals with the computer simulation of many-body systems in condensed-matter physics and related fields of physics, chemistry and beyond, to traffic flows, stock market fluctuations, etc.). Using random numbers generated by a computer, probability distributions are calculated, allowing the estimation of the thermodynamic properties of various systems. This book describes the theoretical background to several variants of these Monte Carlo methods and gives a systematic presentation from which newcomers can learn to perform such simulations and to analyze their results. The fifth edition covers Classical as well as Quantum Monte Carlo methods. Furthermore a new chapter on the sampling of free-energy landscapes has been added. To help students in their work a special web server has been installed to host programs and discussion groups (http://wwwcp.tphys.uni-heidelberg.de). Prof. Binder was awarded the Berni J. Alder CECAM Award for Computational Physics 2001 as well ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Recent developments in neutron generator technology suggest that compact instruments with high neutron yield can be used for NAA and PGNAA in combination with high count rate spectrometers. For laboratories far away from Research Reactors (RRs), such devices could serve as an alternative for training students in radioanalytical and nuclear Chemistry and certain specialized applications. As Neutron activation analysis is a well established technique with a long history of documented applications it could be made available to countries where no research reactors or other neutron irradiation facilities exist by using the proposed approach. Prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) is a versatile analytical tool with many applications unique to the technique. As PGNAA is generally performed at RRs external neutron guides with relatively low N flux, the proposed instrument has a potential to supplement existing PGNAA facilities far away from RRs. Neutron generators, particularly the DD-NGs, are a cost effective, easy to operate and particularly safe alternative to other neutron sources, e.g. isotopic neutron sources like Cf-252 or Am/Be. The idea to combine new developments in DD-NG with moderator/shielding and detectors for fast gamma counting emerged from a recent IAEA Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on New Developments in PGNAA, and an IAEA technical meeting on Neutron Generators for Activation Analysis Purposesis currently under preparation. We report on the design and optimization of a Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) and a Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) chamber associated with a D-D neutron generator. The nominal yield of the generator is about 1010 fast neutrons per seconds (E=2.5MeV). MCNP-Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport simulation code and analytical equation, are used to optimize the setup with respect to thermal flux and radiation protection. Many moderators such as Graphite (G), Polyethylene (Poly), Heavy water (HW), Light water
Sun, Shuyu
2013-06-01
This paper introduces an efficient technique to generate new molecular simulation Markov chains for different temperature and density conditions, which allow for rapid extrapolation of canonical ensemble averages at a range of temperatures and densities different from the original conditions where a single simulation is conducted. Obtained information from the original simulation are reweighted and even reconstructed in order to extrapolate our knowledge to the new conditions. Our technique allows not only the extrapolation to a new temperature or density, but also the double extrapolation to both new temperature and density. The method was implemented for Lennard-Jones fluid with structureless particles in single-gas phase region. Extrapolation behaviors as functions of extrapolation ranges were studied. Limits of extrapolation ranges showed a remarkable capability especially along isochors where only reweighting is required. Various factors that could affect the limits of extrapolation ranges were investigated and compared. In particular, these limits were shown to be sensitive to the number of particles used and starting point where the simulation was originally conducted.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Lísal, Martin; Smith, W. R.
National Technical University of Athens, 2002, s. 161-162. [European Seminar on Applied Thermodynamics ESAT 2002 /19./. Santorini (GR), 06.09.2002-10.09.2002] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921 Keywords : Monte Carlo * readting systems Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry
Computing Functionals of Multidimensional Diffusions via Monte Carlo Methods
Jan Baldeaux; Eckhard Platen
2012-01-01
We discuss suitable classes of diffusion processes, for which functionals relevant to finance can be computed via Monte Carlo methods. In particular, we construct exact simulation schemes for processes from this class. However, should the finance problem under consideration require e.g. continuous monitoring of the processes, the simulation algorithm can easily be embedded in a multilevel Monte Carlo scheme. We choose to introduce the finance problems under the benchmark approach, and find th...
Two Approaches to Accelerated Monte Carlo Simulation of Coulomb Collisions
Ricketson, Lee
2014-01-01
In plasma physics, the direct simulation of inter-particle Coulomb collisions is often necessary to capture the relevant physics, but presents a computational bottleneck because of the complexity of the process. In this thesis, we derive, test and discuss two methods for accelerating the simulation of collisions in plasmas in certain scenarios. The first is a hybrid fluid-Monte Carlo scheme that reduces the number of collisions that must be simulated. Coupling between the fluid and particl...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Jørgen Juncher
2015-01-01
For non-linear systems the estimation of fatigue damage under stochastic loadings can be rather time-consuming. Usually Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) is applied, but the coefficient-of-variation (COV) can be large if only a small set of simulations can be done due to otherwise excessive CPU time. ...
Monte Carlo simulation of photon migration path in turbid media
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2008-01-01
A new method of Monte Carlo simulation is developed to simulate the photon migration path in a scattering medium after an ultrashort-pulse laser beam comes into the medium.The most probable trajectory of photons at an instant can be obtained with this method.How the photon migration paths are affected by the optical parameters of the scattering medium is analyzed.It is also concluded that the absorption coefficient has no effect on the most probable trajectory of photons.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mahsa Noori Asl
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Compton-scattered photons included within the photopeak pulse-height window result in the degradation of SPECT images both qualitatively and quantitatively. The purpose of this study is to evaluate and compare six scatter correction methods based on setting the energy windows in 99m Tc spectrum. SIMIND Monte Carlo simulation is used to generate the projection images from a cold-sphere hot-background phantom. For evaluation of different scatter correction methods, three assessment criteria including image contrast, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR and relative noise of the background (RNB are considered. Except for the dual-photopeak window (DPW method, the image contrast of the five cold spheres is improved in the range of 2.7-26%. Among methods considered, two methods show a nonuniform correction performance. The RNB for all of the scatter correction methods is ranged from minimum 0.03 for DPW method to maximum 0.0727 for the three energy window (TEW method using trapezoidal approximation. The TEW method using triangular approximation because of ease of implementation, good improvement of the image contrast and the SNR for the five cold spheres, and the low noise level is proposed as most appropriate correction method.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In conventional PET systems,the parallax error degrades image resolution and causes image distortion. To remedy this, a PET ring diameter has to be much larger than the required size of field of view (FOV), and therefore the cost goes up. Measurement of depth-of-interaction (DOI) information is effective to reduce the parallax error and improve the image quality. This study is aimed at developing a practical method to incorporate DOI information in PET sonogram generation and image reconstruction processes and evaluate its efficacy through Monte Carlo simulation. An animal PET system with 30-mm long LSO crystals and 2-mm DOI measurement accuracy was simulated and list-mode PET data were collected. A sonogram generation method was proposed to bin each coincidence event to the correct LOR location according to both incident crystal indices and DOI positions of the two annihilation photons. The sonograms were reconstructed with an iterative OSMAPEM (ordered subset maximum a posteriori expectation maximization) algorithm. Two phantoms (a rod source phantom and a Derenzo phantom) were simulated, and the benefits of DOI were investigated in terms of reconstructed source diameter (FWHM) and source positioning accuracy. The results demonstrate that the proposed method works well to incorporate DOI information in data processing, which not only overcomes the image distortion problem but also significantly improves image resolution and resolution uniformity and results in satisfactory image quality. (authors)
Monte Carlo Simulation Optimizing Design of Grid Ionization Chamber
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHENG; Yu-lai; WANG; Qiang; YANG; Lu
2013-01-01
The grid ionization chamber detector is often used for measuring charged particles.Based on Monte Carlo simulation method,the energy loss distribution and electron ion pairs of alpha particle with different energy have been calculated to determine suitable filling gas in the ionization chamber filled with
Simulating Strongly Correlated Electron Systems with Hybrid Monte Carlo
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIU Chuan
2000-01-01
Using the path integral representation, the Hubbard and the periodic Anderson model on D-dimensional cubic lattice are transformed into field theories of fermions in D + 1 dimensions. These theories at half-filling possess a positive definite real symmetry fermion matrix and can be simulated using the hybrid Monte Carlo method.
Replica Exchange for Reactive Monte Carlo Simulations
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Turner, C.H.; Brennan, J.K.; Lísal, Martin
2007-01-01
Roč. 111, č. 43 (2007), s. 15706-15715. ISSN 1932-7447 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/05/0725; GA AV ČR 1ET400720409; GA AV ČR 1ET400720507 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : monte carlo * simulation * reactive system Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry
Archimedes, the Free Monte Carlo simulator
Sellier, Jean Michel D.
2012-01-01
Archimedes is the GNU package for Monte Carlo simulations of electron transport in semiconductor devices. The first release appeared in 2004 and since then it has been improved with many new features like quantum corrections, magnetic fields, new materials, GUI, etc. This document represents the first attempt to have a complete manual. Many of the Physics models implemented are described and a detailed description is presented to make the user able to write his/her own input deck. Please, fee...
Monte Carlo Simulation of Critical Casimir Forces
Vasilyev, Oleg A.
2015-03-01
In the vicinity of the second order phase transition point long-range critical fluctuations of the order parameter appear. The second order phase transition in a critical binary mixture in the vicinity of the demixing point belongs to the universality class of the Ising model. The superfluid transition in liquid He belongs to the universality class of the XY model. The confinement of long-range fluctuations causes critical Casimir forces acting on confining surfaces or particles immersed in the critical substance. Last decade critical Casimir forces in binary mixtures and liquid helium were studied experimentally. The critical Casimir force in a film of a given thickness scales as a universal scaling function of the ratio of the film thickness to the bulk correlation length divided over the cube of the film thickness. Using Monte Carlo simulations we can compute critical Casimir forces and their scaling functions for lattice Ising and XY models which correspond to experimental results for the binary mixture and liquid helium, respectively. This chapter provides the description of numerical methods for computation of critical Casimir interactions for lattice models for plane-plane, plane-particle, and particle-particle geometries.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This study presents the validity and ability of an aggregate mean free path cluster–cluster aggregation (AMP-CCA) model, which is a direct Monte Carlo simulation, to predict the aggregate morphology with diameters form about 15–200 nm by comparing the particle size distributions (PSDs) with the results of the previous stochastic approach. The PSDs calculated by the AMP-CCA model with the calculated aggregate as a coalesced spherical particle are in reasonable agreement with the results of the previous stochastic model regardless of the initial number concentration of particles. The shape analysis using two methods, perimeter fractal dimension and the shape categories, has demonstrated that the aggregate structures become complex with increasing the initial number concentration of particles. The AMP-CCA model provides a useful tool to calculate the aggregate morphology and PSD with reasonable accuracy
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2008-01-01
A matrix stripping method for the conversion of in-situ gamma ray spectrum, obtained with portable Ge detector, to photon flux energy distribution is proposed. The detector response is fully described by its stripping matrix and full absorption efficiency curve. A charge collection efficiency function is introduced in the simulation to take into account the existence of a transition zone of increasing charge collection after the inactive Ge layer. Good agreement is obtained between simulated and experimental full absorption efficiencies. The characteristic stripping matrix is determined by Monte Carlo simulation for different incident photon energies using the Geant4 toolkit system. The photon flux energy distribution is deduced by stripping the measured spectrum of the partial absorption and cosmic ray events and then applying the full absorption efficiency curve. The stripping method is applied to a measured in-situ spectrum. The value of the absorbed dose rate in air deduced from the corresponding flux energy distribution agrees well with the value measured directly in-situ.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ortiz Lora, A.; Miras del Rio, H.; Terron Leon, J. A.
2013-07-01
Following the recommendations of the IAEA, and as a further check, they have been Monte Carlo simulation of each one of the plates that are arranged at the Hospital. The objective of the work is the verification of the certificates of calibration and intends to establish criteria of action for its acceptance. (Author)
Kinetic Monte Carlo simulation of dislocation dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A kinetic Monte Carlo simulation of dislocation motion is introduced. The dislocations are assumed to be composed of pure edge and screw segments confined to a fixed lattice. The stress and temperature dependence of the dislocation velocity is studied, and finite-size effects are discussed. It is argued that surfaces and boundaries may play a significant role in the velocity of dislocations. The simulated dislocations are shown to display kinetic roughening according to the exponents predicted by the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang equation. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society
Monte Carlo Simulation of Quantum Computation
Cerf, N. J.; Koonin, S. E.
1997-01-01
The many-body dynamics of a quantum computer can be reduced to the time evolution of non-interacting quantum bits in auxiliary fields by use of the Hubbard-Stratonovich representation of two-bit quantum gates in terms of one-bit gates. This makes it possible to perform the stochastic simulation of a quantum algorithm, based on the Monte Carlo evaluation of an integral of dimension polynomial in the number of quantum bits. As an example, the simulation of the quantum circuit for the Fast Fouri...
Monte Carlo methods for the self-avoiding walk
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Janse van Rensburg, E J [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, York University, Toronto, ON M3J 1P3 (Canada)], E-mail: rensburg@yorku.ca
2009-08-14
The numerical simulation of self-avoiding walks remains a significant component in the study of random objects in lattices. In this review, I give a comprehensive overview of the current state of Monte Carlo simulations of models of self-avoiding walks. The self-avoiding walk model is revisited, and the motivations for Monte Carlo simulations of this model are discussed. Efficient sampling of self-avoiding walks remains an elusive objective, but significant progress has been made over the last three decades. The model still poses challenging numerical questions however, and I review specific Monte Carlo methods for improved sampling including general Monte Carlo techniques such as Metropolis sampling, umbrella sampling and multiple Markov Chain sampling. In addition, specific static and dynamic algorithms for walks are presented, and I give an overview of recent innovations in this field, including algorithms such as flatPERM, flatGARM and flatGAS. (topical review)
Monte Carlo methods for the self-avoiding walk
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The numerical simulation of self-avoiding walks remains a significant component in the study of random objects in lattices. In this review, I give a comprehensive overview of the current state of Monte Carlo simulations of models of self-avoiding walks. The self-avoiding walk model is revisited, and the motivations for Monte Carlo simulations of this model are discussed. Efficient sampling of self-avoiding walks remains an elusive objective, but significant progress has been made over the last three decades. The model still poses challenging numerical questions however, and I review specific Monte Carlo methods for improved sampling including general Monte Carlo techniques such as Metropolis sampling, umbrella sampling and multiple Markov Chain sampling. In addition, specific static and dynamic algorithms for walks are presented, and I give an overview of recent innovations in this field, including algorithms such as flatPERM, flatGARM and flatGAS. (topical review)
Baräo, Fernando; Nakagawa, Masayuki; Távora, Luis; Vaz, Pedro
2001-01-01
This book focusses on the state of the art of Monte Carlo methods in radiation physics and particle transport simulation and applications, the latter involving in particular, the use and development of electron--gamma, neutron--gamma and hadronic codes. Besides the basic theory and the methods employed, special attention is paid to algorithm development for modeling, and the analysis of experiments and measurements in a variety of fields ranging from particle to medical physics.
Multipurpose Monte Carlo simulator for photon transport in turbid media
Guerra, Pedro; Aguirre, Juan; Ortuño, Juan E.; María J Ledesma-Carbayo; Vaquero, Juan José; Desco, Manuel; Santos, Andrés
2009-01-01
Monte Carlo methods provide a flexible and rigorous solution to the problem of light transport in turbid media, which enable approaching complex geometries for a closed analytical solution is not feasible. The simulator implements local rules of propagation in the form of probability density functions that depend on the local optical properties of the tissue. This work presents a flexible simulator that can be applied in multiple applications related to optical tomography. In particular...
Monte Carlo methods for particle transport
Haghighat, Alireza
2015-01-01
The Monte Carlo method has become the de facto standard in radiation transport. Although powerful, if not understood and used appropriately, the method can give misleading results. Monte Carlo Methods for Particle Transport teaches appropriate use of the Monte Carlo method, explaining the method's fundamental concepts as well as its limitations. Concise yet comprehensive, this well-organized text: * Introduces the particle importance equation and its use for variance reduction * Describes general and particle-transport-specific variance reduction techniques * Presents particle transport eigenvalue issues and methodologies to address these issues * Explores advanced formulations based on the author's research activities * Discusses parallel processing concepts and factors affecting parallel performance Featuring illustrative examples, mathematical derivations, computer algorithms, and homework problems, Monte Carlo Methods for Particle Transport provides nuclear engineers and scientists with a practical guide ...
Use of Monte Carlo Methods in brachytherapy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Monte Carlo method has become a fundamental tool for brachytherapy dosimetry mainly because no difficulties associated with experimental dosimetry. In brachytherapy the main handicap of experimental dosimetry is the high dose gradient near the present sources making small uncertainties in the positioning of the detectors lead to large uncertainties in the dose. This presentation will review mainly the procedure for calculating dose distributions around a fountain using the Monte Carlo method showing the difficulties inherent in these calculations. In addition we will briefly review other applications of the method of Monte Carlo in brachytherapy dosimetry, as its use in advanced calculation algorithms, calculating barriers or obtaining dose applicators around. (Author)
The impact of Monte Carlo simulation. A scientometric analysis of scholarly literature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A scientometric analysis of Monte Carlo simulation and Monte Carlo codes has been performed over a set of representative scholarly journals related to radiation physics. The results of this study are reported and discussed. They document and quantitatively appraise the role of Monte Carlo methods and codes in scientific research and engineering applications. (author)
To, Gary; Mahfouz, Mohamed R
2013-11-01
In recent years, wireless positioning and tracking devices based on semiconductor micro electro-mechanical system (MEMS) sensors have successfully integrated into the consumer electronics market. Information from the sensors is processed by an attitude estimation program. Many of these algorithms were developed primarily for aeronautical applications. The parameters affecting the accuracy and stability of the system vary with the intended application. The performance of these algorithms occasionally destabilize during human motion tracking activities, which does not satisfy the reliability and high accuracy demand in biomedical application. A previous study accessed the feasibility of using semiconductor based inertial measurement units (IMUs) for human motion tracking. IMU hardware has been redesigned and an attitude estimation algorithm using sequential Monte Carlo (SMC) methods, or particle filter, for quaternions was developed. The method presented in this paper uses von Mises-Fisher and a nonuniform simulation to provide density estimation of the rotation group SO(3). Synthetic signal simulation, robotics applications, and human applications have been investigated. PMID:23674420
Roé-Vellvé, N.; Pino, F.; Falcon, C.; Cot, A.; Gispert, J. D.; Marin, C.; Pavía, J.; Ros, D.
2014-08-01
SPECT studies with 123I-ioflupane facilitate the diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease (PD). The effect on quantification of image degradations has been extensively evaluated in human studies but their impact on studies of experimental PD models is still unclear. The aim of this work was to assess the effect of compensating for the degrading phenomena on the quantification of small animal SPECT studies using 123I-ioflupane. This assessment enabled us to evaluate the feasibility of quantitatively detecting small pathological changes using different reconstruction methods and levels of compensation for the image degrading phenomena. Monte Carlo simulated studies of a rat phantom were reconstructed and quantified. Compensations for point spread function (PSF), scattering, attenuation and partial volume effect were progressively included in the quantification protocol. A linear relationship was found between calculated and simulated specific uptake ratio (SUR) in all cases. In order to significantly distinguish disease stages, noise-reduction during the reconstruction process was the most relevant factor, followed by PSF compensation. The smallest detectable SUR interval was determined by biological variability rather than by image degradations or coregistration errors. The quantification methods that gave the best results allowed us to distinguish PD stages with SUR values that are as close as 0.5 using groups of six rats to represent each stage.
Accelerated GPU based SPECT Monte Carlo simulations.
Garcia, Marie-Paule; Bert, Julien; Benoit, Didier; Bardiès, Manuel; Visvikis, Dimitris
2016-06-01
Monte Carlo (MC) modelling is widely used in the field of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) as it is a reliable technique to simulate very high quality scans. This technique provides very accurate modelling of the radiation transport and particle interactions in a heterogeneous medium. Various MC codes exist for nuclear medicine imaging simulations. Recently, new strategies exploiting the computing capabilities of graphical processing units (GPU) have been proposed. This work aims at evaluating the accuracy of such GPU implementation strategies in comparison to standard MC codes in the context of SPECT imaging. GATE was considered the reference MC toolkit and used to evaluate the performance of newly developed GPU Geant4-based Monte Carlo simulation (GGEMS) modules for SPECT imaging. Radioisotopes with different photon energies were used with these various CPU and GPU Geant4-based MC codes in order to assess the best strategy for each configuration. Three different isotopes were considered: (99m) Tc, (111)In and (131)I, using a low energy high resolution (LEHR) collimator, a medium energy general purpose (MEGP) collimator and a high energy general purpose (HEGP) collimator respectively. Point source, uniform source, cylindrical phantom and anthropomorphic phantom acquisitions were simulated using a model of the GE infinia II 3/8" gamma camera. Both simulation platforms yielded a similar system sensitivity and image statistical quality for the various combinations. The overall acceleration factor between GATE and GGEMS platform derived from the same cylindrical phantom acquisition was between 18 and 27 for the different radioisotopes. Besides, a full MC simulation using an anthropomorphic phantom showed the full potential of the GGEMS platform, with a resulting acceleration factor up to 71. The good agreement with reference codes and the acceleration factors obtained support the use of GPU implementation strategies for improving computational
Accelerated GPU based SPECT Monte Carlo simulations
Garcia, Marie-Paule; Bert, Julien; Benoit, Didier; Bardiès, Manuel; Visvikis, Dimitris
2016-06-01
Monte Carlo (MC) modelling is widely used in the field of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) as it is a reliable technique to simulate very high quality scans. This technique provides very accurate modelling of the radiation transport and particle interactions in a heterogeneous medium. Various MC codes exist for nuclear medicine imaging simulations. Recently, new strategies exploiting the computing capabilities of graphical processing units (GPU) have been proposed. This work aims at evaluating the accuracy of such GPU implementation strategies in comparison to standard MC codes in the context of SPECT imaging. GATE was considered the reference MC toolkit and used to evaluate the performance of newly developed GPU Geant4-based Monte Carlo simulation (GGEMS) modules for SPECT imaging. Radioisotopes with different photon energies were used with these various CPU and GPU Geant4-based MC codes in order to assess the best strategy for each configuration. Three different isotopes were considered: 99m Tc, 111In and 131I, using a low energy high resolution (LEHR) collimator, a medium energy general purpose (MEGP) collimator and a high energy general purpose (HEGP) collimator respectively. Point source, uniform source, cylindrical phantom and anthropomorphic phantom acquisitions were simulated using a model of the GE infinia II 3/8" gamma camera. Both simulation platforms yielded a similar system sensitivity and image statistical quality for the various combinations. The overall acceleration factor between GATE and GGEMS platform derived from the same cylindrical phantom acquisition was between 18 and 27 for the different radioisotopes. Besides, a full MC simulation using an anthropomorphic phantom showed the full potential of the GGEMS platform, with a resulting acceleration factor up to 71. The good agreement with reference codes and the acceleration factors obtained support the use of GPU implementation strategies for improving computational efficiency
Meaningful timescales from Monte Carlo simulations of molecular systems
Costa, Liborio I
2016-01-01
A new Markov Chain Monte Carlo method for simulating the dynamics of molecular systems with atomistic detail is introduced. In contrast to traditional Kinetic Monte Carlo approaches, where the state of the system is associated with minima in the energy landscape, in the proposed method, the state of the system is associated with the set of paths traveled by the atoms and the transition probabilities for an atom to be displaced are proportional to the corresponding velocities. In this way, the number of possible state-to-state transitions is reduced to a discrete set, and a direct link between the Monte Carlo time step and true physical time is naturally established. The resulting rejection-free algorithm is validated against event-driven molecular dynamics: the equilibrium and non-equilibrium dynamics of hard disks converge to the exact results with decreasing displacement size.
Monte Carlo simulation with the Gate software using grid computing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Monte Carlo simulations are widely used in emission tomography, for protocol optimization, design of processing or data analysis methods, tomographic reconstruction, or tomograph design optimization. Monte Carlo simulations needing many replicates to obtain good statistical results can be easily executed in parallel using the 'Multiple Replications In Parallel' approach. However, several precautions have to be taken in the generation of the parallel streams of pseudo-random numbers. In this paper, we present the distribution of Monte Carlo simulations performed with the GATE software using local clusters and grid computing. We obtained very convincing results with this large medical application, thanks to the EGEE Grid (Enabling Grid for E-science), achieving in one week computations that could have taken more than 3 years of processing on a single computer. This work has been achieved thanks to a generic object-oriented toolbox called DistMe which we designed to automate this kind of parallelization for Monte Carlo simulations. This toolbox, written in Java is freely available on SourceForge and helped to ensure a rigorous distribution of pseudo-random number streams. It is based on the use of a documented XML format for random numbers generators statuses. (authors)
Monte Carlo Simulation of an American Option
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gikiri Thuo
2007-04-01
Full Text Available We implement gradient estimation techniques for sensitivity analysis of option pricing which can be efficiently employed in Monte Carlo simulation. Using these techniques we can simultaneously obtain an estimate of the option value together with the estimates of sensitivities of the option value to various parameters of the model. After deriving the gradient estimates we incorporate them in an iterative stochastic approximation algorithm for pricing an option with early exercise features. We illustrate the procedure using an example of an American call option with a single dividend that is analytically tractable. In particular we incorporate estimates for the gradient with respect to the early exercise threshold level.
Monte Carlo simulation of block copolymer brushes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We studied a simplified model of a polymer brush formed by linear chains, which were restricted to a simple cubic lattice. The chain macromolecules consisted of a sequence of two kinds of segment, arranged in a specific sequence. The chains were grafted to an impenetrable surface, i.e. they were terminally attached to the surface at one end. The number of chains was varied from low to high grafting density. The model system was studied under different solvent quality, from good to poor solvent. The properties of this model system were studied by means of Monte Carlo simulations. The sampling algorithm was based on local changes of the chain's conformations
Monte Carlo simulation for Kaonic deuterium studies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Full text: The SIDDHARTA experiment at the DAFNE collider measured the shift and with of the ground level in kaonic hydrogen caused by the strong interaction between the kaons and protons. The measurement of the X-ray transitions to the 1s level in kaonic deuterium will allow, together with the available results from kaonic hydrogen, to extract the isospin- dependent antikaon-nucleon scattering lengths. I will present the Monte Carlo simulation of the SIDDHARTA-2 setup, in the framework of GEANT4. The program is used to optimize the critical parameters of the setup in order to perform the kaonic deuterium measurement. (author)
Monte Carlo simulations for heavy ion dosimetry
Geithner, Oksana
2006-01-01
Water-to-air stopping power ratio ( ) calculations for the ionization chamber dosimetry of clinically relevant ion beams with initial energies from 50 to 450 MeV/u have been performed using the Monte Carlo technique. To simulate the transport of a particle in water the computer code SHIELD-HIT v2 was used which is a substantially modified version of its predecessor SHIELD-HIT v1. The code was partially rewritten, replacing formerly used single precision variables with double precision variabl...
Archimedes, the Free Monte Carlo simulator
Sellier, Jean Michel D
2012-01-01
Archimedes is the GNU package for Monte Carlo simulations of electron transport in semiconductor devices. The first release appeared in 2004 and since then it has been improved with many new features like quantum corrections, magnetic fields, new materials, GUI, etc. This document represents the first attempt to have a complete manual. Many of the Physics models implemented are described and a detailed description is presented to make the user able to write his/her own input deck. Please, feel free to contact the author if you want to contribute to the project.
Monte Carlo Methods for Tempo Tracking and Rhythm Quantization
Cemgil, A T; 10.1613/jair.1121
2011-01-01
We present a probabilistic generative model for timing deviations in expressive music performance. The structure of the proposed model is equivalent to a switching state space model. The switch variables correspond to discrete note locations as in a musical score. The continuous hidden variables denote the tempo. We formulate two well known music recognition problems, namely tempo tracking and automatic transcription (rhythm quantization) as filtering and maximum a posteriori (MAP) state estimation tasks. Exact computation of posterior features such as the MAP state is intractable in this model class, so we introduce Monte Carlo methods for integration and optimization. We compare Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods (such as Gibbs sampling, simulated annealing and iterative improvement) and sequential Monte Carlo methods (particle filters). Our simulation results suggest better results with sequential methods. The methods can be applied in both online and batch scenarios such as tempo tracking and transcr...
Calculating Variable Annuity Liability 'Greeks' Using Monte Carlo Simulation
Cathcart, Mark J.; Steven Morrison; McNeil, Alexander J.
2011-01-01
Hedging methods to mitigate the exposure of variable annuity products to market risks require the calculation of market risk sensitivities (or "Greeks"). The complex, path-dependent nature of these products means these sensitivities typically must be estimated by Monte Carlo simulation. Standard market practice is to measure such sensitivities using a "bump and revalue" method. As well as requiring multiple valuations, such approaches can be unreliable for higher order Greeks, e.g., gamma. In...
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Smith, W.; Lísal, Martin
2002-01-01
Roč. 66, č. 1 (2002), s. 011104-1 - 011104-1. ISSN 1063-651X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/02/0805 Grant ostatní: NSERC(CA) OGP1041 Keywords : MC * simulation * reaction Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.397, year: 2002
A hybrid Monte Carlo and response matrix Monte Carlo method in criticality calculation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Full core calculations are very useful and important in reactor physics analysis, especially in computing the full core power distributions, optimizing the refueling strategies and analyzing the depletion of fuels. To reduce the computing time and accelerate the convergence, a method named Response Matrix Monte Carlo (RMMC) method based on analog Monte Carlo simulation was used to calculate the fixed source neutron transport problems in repeated structures. To make more accurate calculations, we put forward the RMMC method based on non-analog Monte Carlo simulation and investigate the way to use RMMC method in criticality calculations. Then a new hybrid RMMC and MC (RMMC+MC) method is put forward to solve the criticality problems with combined repeated and flexible geometries. This new RMMC+MC method, having the advantages of both MC method and RMMC method, can not only increase the efficiency of calculations, also simulate more complex geometries rather than repeated structures. Several 1-D numerical problems are constructed to test the new RMMC and RMMC+MC method. The results show that RMMC method and RMMC+MC method can efficiently reduce the computing time and variations in the calculations. Finally, the future research directions are mentioned and discussed at the end of this paper to make RMMC method and RMMC+MC method more powerful. (authors)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rodenas, J. E-mail: jrodenas@iqn.upv.es; Pascual, A.; Zarza, I.; Serradell, V.; Ortiz, J.; Ballesteros, L
2003-01-11
Germanium crystals have a dead layer that causes a decrease in efficiency, since the layer is not useful for detection, but strongly attenuates photons. The thickness of this inactive layer is not well known due to the existence of a transition zone where photons are increasingly absorbed. Therefore, using data provided by manufacturers in the detector simulation model, some strong discrepancies appear between calculated and measured efficiencies. The Monte Carlo method is applied to simulate the calibration of a HP Ge detector in order to determine the total inactive germanium layer thickness and the active volume that are needed in order to obtain the minimum discrepancy between estimated and experimental efficiency. Calculations and measurements were performed for all of the radionuclides included in a standard calibration gamma cocktail solution. A Marinelli beaker was considered for this analysis, as it is one of the most commonly used sample container for environmental radioactivity measurements. Results indicated that a good agreement between calculated and measured efficiencies is obtained using a value for the inactive germanium layer thickness equal to approximately twice the value provided by the detector manufacturer. For all energy peaks included in the calibration, the best agreement with experimental efficiency was found using a combination of a small thickness of the inactive germanium layer and a small detection active volume.
Ródenas, J.; Pascual, A.; Zarza, I.; Serradell, V.; Ortiz, J.; Ballesteros, L.
2003-01-01
Germanium crystals have a dead layer that causes a decrease in efficiency, since the layer is not useful for detection, but strongly attenuates photons. The thickness of this inactive layer is not well known due to the existence of a transition zone where photons are increasingly absorbed. Therefore, using data provided by manufacturers in the detector simulation model, some strong discrepancies appear between calculated and measured efficiencies. The Monte Carlo method is applied to simulate the calibration of a HP Ge detector in order to determine the total inactive germanium layer thickness and the active volume that are needed in order to obtain the minimum discrepancy between estimated and experimental efficiency. Calculations and measurements were performed for all of the radionuclides included in a standard calibration gamma cocktail solution. A Marinelli beaker was considered for this analysis, as it is one of the most commonly used sample container for environmental radioactivity measurements. Results indicated that a good agreement between calculated and measured efficiencies is obtained using a value for the inactive germanium layer thickness equal to approximately twice the value provided by the detector manufacturer. For all energy peaks included in the calibration, the best agreement with experimental efficiency was found using a combination of a small thickness of the inactive germanium layer and a small detection active volume.
Accelerated Monte Carlo Methods for Coulomb Collisions
Rosin, Mark; Ricketson, Lee; Dimits, Andris; Caflisch, Russel; Cohen, Bruce
2014-03-01
We present a new highly efficient multi-level Monte Carlo (MLMC) simulation algorithm for Coulomb collisions in a plasma. The scheme, initially developed and used successfully for applications in financial mathematics, is applied here to kinetic plasmas for the first time. The method is based on a Langevin treatment of the Landau-Fokker-Planck equation and has a rich history derived from the works of Einstein and Chandrasekhar. The MLMC scheme successfully reduces the computational cost of achieving an RMS error ɛ in the numerical solution to collisional plasma problems from (ɛ-3) - for the standard state-of-the-art Langevin and binary collision algorithms - to a theoretically optimal (ɛ-2) scaling, when used in conjunction with an underlying Milstein discretization to the Langevin equation. In the test case presented here, the method accelerates simulations by factors of up to 100. We summarize the scheme, present some tricks for improving its efficiency yet further, and discuss the method's range of applicability. Work performed for US DOE by LLNL under contract DE-AC52- 07NA27344 and by UCLA under grant DE-FG02-05ER25710.
Kuklin, A I; Bogdzel, A A; Gordeliy, V I; Islamov, A H; Konovalov, V Yu; Rogov, A D; Florek, M
2002-01-01
The method and results of the measurements of absolute spectra and fluxes of thermal neutrons at small angle spectrometer YuMO at the fourth channel of the IBR-2 reactor with a comblike water moderator are presented. The experiments were carried out at different parameters of the YuMO instrument, which changes in collimation, exposition and time window width as well as with placement of cadmium screen. The spectra and fluxes were simulated by the Monte-Carlo method for different collimator sizes. Besides, neutron spectra and absolute fluxes at the neutron channel were calculated. The spectra of the scattered neutrons, which form neutron and gamma background at the spectrometer, were given. For the first time the radiation doses in the sample place were determined. The experimental data obtained in this work can be used for experiment planning, for the calculations of scattering cross-section and background, and also for optimization and modernization of the YuMO instrument. The used methods have commom charac...
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Lísal, Martin; Smith, W. R.; Nezbeda, Ivo
2001-01-01
Roč. 181, 1-2 (2001), s. 127-146. ISSN 0378-3812 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/98/1446; GA AV ČR IAA4072712 Grant ostatní: NSERC(Ca) OGP1041 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921 Keywords : computer simulations * mixtures * water Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.217, year: 2001
Probabilistic fire simulator - Monte Carlo simulation tool for fire scenarios
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Risk analysis tool is developed for computing of the distributions of fire model output variables. The tool, called Probabilistic Fire Simulator, combines Monte Carlo simulation and CFAST two-zone fire model. In this work, it is used to calculate failure probability of redundant cables and fire detector activation times in a cable tunnel fire. Sensitivity of the output variables to the input variables is calculated in terms of the rank order correlations. (orig.)
Monte Carlo simulations on a 9-node PC cluster
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Monte Carlo simulation methods are frequently used in the fields of medical physics, dosimetry and metrology of ionising radiation. Nevertheless, the main drawback of this technique is to be computationally slow, because the statistical uncertainty of the result improves only as the square root of the computational time. We present a method, which allows to reduce by a factor 10 to 20 the used effective running time. In practice, the aim was to reduce the calculation time in the LNHB metrological applications from several weeks to a few days. This approach includes the use of a PC-cluster, under Linux operating system and PVM parallel library (version 3.4). The Monte Carlo codes EGS4, MCNP and PENELOPE have been implemented on this platform and for the two last ones adapted for running under the PVM environment. The maximum observed speedup is ranging from a factor 13 to 18 according to the codes and the problems to be simulated. (orig.)
Image reconstruction using Monte Carlo simulation and artificial neural networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
PET data sets are subject to two types of distortions during acquisition: the imperfect response of the scanner and attenuation and scattering in the active distribution. In addition, the reconstruction of voxel images from the line projections composing a data set can introduce artifacts. Monte Carlo simulation provides a means for modeling the distortions and artificial neural networks a method for correcting for them as well as minimizing artifacts. (author) figs., tab., refs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Different models have been developed considering some features of the attenuating geometry. An ideal bare Marinelli model has been compared with the actual plastic model. Concerning the detector, a bare detector model has been improved including an Aluminium absorber layer and a dead layer of inactive Germanium. Calculation results of the Monte Carlo simulation have been compared with experimental measurements carried out in laboratory for various radionuclides from a calibration gamma cocktail solution with energies ranging in a wide interval. (orig.)
Monte Carlo simulation of transition radiation and δ electrons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper employs Monte Carlo simulations of the performance of a transition radiation detector (TRD). The program has been written for the TRD in the ZEUS spectrometer, which separates electrons from hadrons in the momentum range between 1 GeV/c and 30 GeV/c. Both, total charge method and cluster counting method were simulated taking into account various experimental parameters. In particular, it was found that the cluster counting method relies on a quantitative understanding of the background originating from the production of δ-electrons by charged particles. The results of the Monte Carlo calculations are in agreement with experimental data obtained with prototypes within a systematic uncertainty of 20%. We applied our Monte Carlo program to studies in order to find an optimum layout for the TRD within available space in the ZEUS spectrometer. In this context, the performance of TRD layouts with different geometries and materials has been evaluated comprehensively. The geometry found by optimization promises an improvement on hadron suppression by a factor of about two for both methods compared with present results from test measurements. Applying algorithms for a detailed analysis of the energy and space distributions of the clusters in the TRD, hadrons in the momentum range from 1 to 30 GeV/c can be suppressed to a level of less than 2%. This method of cluster analysing improves the suppression of hadrons by a factor of about two compared to the total charge method. (orig.)
Computing Functionals of Multidimensional Diffusions via Monte Carlo Methods
Baldeaux, Jan
2012-01-01
We discuss suitable classes of diffusion processes, for which functionals relevant to finance can be computed via Monte Carlo methods. In particular, we construct exact simulation schemes for processes from this class. However, should the finance problem under consideration require e.g. continuous monitoring of the processes, the simulation algorithm can easily be embedded in a multilevel Monte Carlo scheme. We choose to introduce the finance problems under the benchmark approach, and find that this approach allows us to exploit conveniently the analytical tractability of these diffusion processes.
Monte Carlo simulations of neoclassical transport in toroidal plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
FORTEC-3D code, which solves the drift-kinetic equation for torus plasmas and radial electric field using the δf Monte Carlo method, has developed to study the variety of issues relating to neoclassical transport phenomena in magnetic confinement plasmas. Here the numerical techniques used in FORTEC-3D are reviewed, and resent progress in the simulation method to simulate GAM oscillation is also explained. A band-limited white noise term is introduced in the equation of time evolution of radial electric field to excite GAM oscillation, which enables us to analyze GAM frequency using FORTEC-3D even in the case the collisionless GAM damping is fast. (author)
PRIMO: A graphical environment for the Monte Carlo simulation of Varian and Elekta linacs
Rodriguez, Manuel Jairo; Sempau Roma, Josep; Brualla, Lorenzo
2013-01-01
Background: The accurate Monte Carlo simulation of a linac requires a detailed description of its geometry and the application of elaborate variance-reduction techniques for radiation transport. Both tasks entail a substantial coding effort and demand advanced knowledge of the intricacies of the Monte Carlo system being used. Methods: PRIMO, a new Monte Carlo system that allows the effortless simulation of most Varian and Elekta linacs, including their multileaf collimators and electron appli...
Monte Carlo Simulations of the Photospheric Process
Santana, Rodolfo; Hernandez, Roberto A; Kumar, Pawan
2015-01-01
We present a Monte Carlo (MC) code we wrote to simulate the photospheric process and to study the photospheric spectrum above the peak energy. Our simulations were performed with a photon to electron ratio $N_{\\gamma}/N_{e} = 10^{5}$, as determined by observations of the GRB prompt emission. We searched an exhaustive parameter space to determine if the photospheric process can match the observed high-energy spectrum of the prompt emission. If we do not consider electron re-heating, we determined that the best conditions to produce the observed high-energy spectrum are low photon temperatures and high optical depths. However, for these simulations, the spectrum peaks at an energy below 300 keV by a factor $\\sim 10$. For the cases we consider with higher photon temperatures and lower optical depths, we demonstrate that additional energy in the electrons is required to produce a power-law spectrum above the peak-energy. By considering electron re-heating near the photosphere, the spectrum for these simulations h...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this work we investigate the formation of Ge clusters on stepped Si substrate at elevated temperatures (≤ 300 °C) with the help of the kinetic Monte-Carlo (kMC) method. The modeling was performed for the case of low surface coverage in order to examine the process of Ge cluster growth at early stages. The temperature dependence of the development of Ge structures was explored and the transition from the growth in the middle of the steps to the growth at step edges was traced. Modeling shows that the formation of Ge clusters at the step edges begins at temperatures higher than 60 °C, whereas at temperatures below 60 °C clusters grow at the middle of the steps, and at 300 °C all Ge atoms are gathered at the bottom of the Si step edges. Results of the kMC simulations were compared to experiments and analytical evaluations. A cluster formation diagram linking deposition rate, terrace width, and transition temperature between different cluster formation modes is presented. - Highlights: • Modeling of the development of Ge structures at stepped Si substrate was performed. • It was shown that morphology of Ge clusters depends on the temperature. • The temperature ranges for each type of morphology were found. • A predictive cluster formation diagram is provided
Fast Monte Carlo-assisted simulation of cloudy Earth backgrounds
Adler-Golden, Steven; Richtsmeier, Steven C.; Berk, Alexander; Duff, James W.
2012-11-01
A calculation method has been developed for rapidly synthesizing radiometrically accurate ultraviolet through longwavelengthinfrared spectral imagery of the Earth for arbitrary locations and cloud fields. The method combines cloudfree surface reflectance imagery with cloud radiance images calculated from a first-principles 3-D radiation transport model. The MCScene Monte Carlo code [1-4] is used to build a cloud image library; a data fusion method is incorporated to speed convergence. The surface and cloud images are combined with an upper atmospheric description with the aid of solar and thermal radiation transport equations that account for atmospheric inhomogeneity. The method enables a wide variety of sensor and sun locations, cloud fields, and surfaces to be combined on-the-fly, and provides hyperspectral wavelength resolution with minimal computational effort. The simulations agree very well with much more time-consuming direct Monte Carlo calculations of the same scene.
Monte Carlo simulation for simultaneous particle coagulation and deposition
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHAO; Haibo; ZHENG; Chuguang
2006-01-01
The process of dynamic evolution in dispersed systems due to simultaneous particle coagulation and deposition is described mathematically by general dynamic equation (GDE). Monte Carlo (MC) method is an important approach of numerical solutions of GDE. However, constant-volume MC method exhibits the contradictory of low computation cost and high computation precision owing to the fluctuation of the number of simulation particles; constant-number MC method can hardly be applied to engineering application and general scientific quantitative analysis due to the continual contraction or expansion of computation domain. In addition, the two MC methods depend closely on the "subsystem" hypothesis, which constraints their expansibility and the scope of application. A new multi-Monte Carlo (MMC) method is promoted to take account of GDE for simultaneous particle coagulation and deposition. MMC method introduces the concept of "weighted fictitious particle" and is based on the "time-driven" technique. Furthermore MMC method maintains synchronously the computational domain and the total number of fictitious particles, which results in the latent expansibility of simulation for boundary condition, the space evolution of particle size distribution and even particle dynamics. The simulation results of MMC method for two special cases in which analytical solutions exist agree with analytical solutions well, which proves that MMC method has high and stable computational precision and low computation cost because of the constant and limited number of fictitious particles. Lastly the source of numerical error and the relative error of MMC method are analyzed, respectively.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Full text: Among various methods of hydrogen determination in materials [1] the nuclear recoil determination method (ERD) is the only way allowing one to analyze simultaneously the contents of all hydrogen isotopes. Using monochromatic fast neutrons for this purpose (method NERD) one carry out the analysis of thick specimens without their destruction and irrespective of their condition (gas, liquid, solid) [2]. The depth profiles of the hydrogen isotopes concentration are obtained from the energy spectra of the recoiled hydrogen nuclei. In this work some ways of improving the depth profile resolution and increasing sensitivity of the NERD method are analyzed. The operational experience with the NERD spectrometer, based on the neutron generator NG-150 at the INP AS RUz, has shown that the analytical characteristics of the method can be essentially improved. At existing NERD installation their worsening is mainly defined by the following reasons: - the background (n,p), (n,d), (n,t) reactions in the material (matrix) of the analyzed specimen and detectors could not be separated from the hydrogen recoiled ions. This circumstance restricts the definition limit of the method. - the geometry of measurement strongly affects on the depth resolution of the hydrogen profile as well as on the duration of measurement. These factors would preferably be known beforehand. We develop the procedure of simulation of energy spectra of hydrogen recoils as well as the charged particles from the reactions (n, p), (n, d) and (n, t) for specimens of various structure. Spectra are formed by the Monte Carlo method taking into account all features of the real procedure of analysis, such as the energy spectrum of the neutrons generated via the reactions d + T→n + α or d + D→n+3He in thick TiT target, geometry of measurement, losses of energy of the charged particles, the energy and angular straggling of the charged particles in the sample material, the energy resolution of the used
蒙特卡罗模拟光通过大气后的时间分布%Simulation of transmitted light through atmosphere by Monte Carlo method
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
吴真; 贺俊芳; 吴登科; 吕百达
2011-01-01
Different turbid media have different optical parameters such as absorption coefficient, scattering coefficient, anisotropic factor and refractive index.Monte Carlo method was used to simulate the influence of optical parameters on the transmitted photons for light transmitted through different atmospheres.The result shows that the temporal distribution of transmitted light has two peaks corresponding to ballistic photons and diffuse photons, respectively.Every optical parameter affects both the number and time range of ballistic photons, snake photons and diffuse photons.From the angle of statistical simulation, it is explained why atmosphere imaging is difficult when the refractive index of atmosphere is large.%采用蒙特卡罗方法模拟了光通过光学特性参数不同的大气后透射光时间分布.分析了大气的散射系数、吸收系数、不对称因子及折射率对透射光时间分布的影响.结果表明:透射光时间分布曲线存在两个峰,分别对应子弹光与漫射光.各光学参数界定了子弹光、蛇形光、漫射光的大小和时间范围,并从统计模拟的角度解释了折射率大的大气中难以成像的因为.
Application of Monte Carlo Simulations to Improve Basketball Shooting Strategy
Min, Byeong June
2016-01-01
The underlying physics of basketball shooting seems to be a straightforward example of the Newtonian mechanics that can easily be traced by numerical methods. However, a human basketball player does not make use of all the possible basketball trajectories. Instead, a basketball player will build up a database of successful shots and select the trajectory that has the greatest tolerance to small variations of the real world. We simulate the basketball player's shooting training as a Monte Carlo sequence to build optimal shooting strategies, such as the launch speed and angle of the basketball, and whether to take a direct shot or a bank shot, as a function of the player's court positions and height. The phase space volume that belongs to the successful launch velocities generated by Monte Carlo simulations are then used as the criterion to optimize a shooting strategy that incorporates not only mechanical, but human factors as well.
Atomistic Kinetic Monte Carlo Simulations of Polycrystalline Copper Electrodeposition
Treeratanaphitak, Tanyakarn; Abukhdeir, Nasser Mohieddin
2014-01-01
A high-fidelity kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulation method (T. Treeratanaphitak, M. Pritzker, N. M. Abukhdeir, Electrochim. Acta 121 (2014) 407--414) using the semi-empirical multi-body embedded-atom method (EAM) potential has been extended to model polycrystalline metal electrodeposition. The presented KMC-EAM method enables true three-dimensional atomistic simulations of electrodeposition over experimentally relevant timescales. Simulations using KMC-EAM are performed over a range of overpotentials to predict the effect on deposit texture evolution. Results show strong agreement with past experimental results both with respect to deposition rates on various copper surfaces and roughness-time power law behaviour. It is found that roughness scales with time $\\propto t^\\beta$ where $\\beta=0.62 \\pm 0.12$, which is in good agreement with past experimental results. Furthermore, the simulations provide insights into sub-surface deposit morphologies which are not directly accessible from experimental measurements.
The derivation of Particle Monte Carlo methods for plasma modeling from transport equations
Longo, Savino
2008-01-01
We analyze here in some detail, the derivation of the Particle and Monte Carlo methods of plasma simulation, such as Particle in Cell (PIC), Monte Carlo (MC) and Particle in Cell / Monte Carlo (PIC/MC) from formal manipulation of transport equations.
Introduction to Monte Carlo methods: sampling techniques and random numbers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Monte Carlo method describes a very broad area of science, in which many processes, physical systems and phenomena that are statistical in nature and are difficult to solve analytically are simulated by statistical methods employing random numbers. The general idea of Monte Carlo analysis is to create a model, which is similar as possible to the real physical system of interest, and to create interactions within that system based on known probabilities of occurrence, with random sampling of the probability density functions. As the number of individual events (called histories) is increased, the quality of the reported average behavior of the system improves, meaning that the statistical uncertainty decreases. Assuming that the behavior of physical system can be described by probability density functions, then the Monte Carlo simulation can proceed by sampling from these probability density functions, which necessitates a fast and effective way to generate random numbers uniformly distributed on the interval (0,1). Particles are generated within the source region and are transported by sampling from probability density functions through the scattering media until they are absorbed or escaped the volume of interest. The outcomes of these random samplings or trials, must be accumulated or tallied in an appropriate manner to produce the desired result, but the essential characteristic of Monte Carlo is the use of random sampling techniques to arrive at a solution of the physical problem. The major components of Monte Carlo methods for random sampling for a given event are described in the paper
Multi-Level Monte Carlo Simulations with Importance Sampling
Przemyslaw S. Stilger and Ser-Huang Poon
2013-01-01
We present an application of importance sampling to multi-asset options under the Heston and the Bates models as well as to the Heston-Hull-White and the Heston-Cox-Ingersoll-Ross models. Moreover, we provide an efficient importance sampling scheme in a Multi-Level Monte Carlo simulation. In all cases, we explain how the Greeks can be computed in the different simulation schemes using the Likelihood Ratio Method, and how combining it with importance sampling leads to a significant variance re...
Monte Carlo simulations of single polymer force-extension relations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present Monte Carlo simulations for studying the statistical mechanics of arbitrarily long single molecules under stretching. In many cases in which the thermodynamic limit is not satisfied, different statistical ensembles yield different macroscopic force-displacement curves. In this work we provide a description of the Monte Carlo simulations and discuss in details the assumptions adopted.
Accelerating particle-in-cell simulations using multilevel Monte Carlo
Ricketson, Lee
2015-11-01
Particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations have been an important tool in understanding plasmas since the dawn of the digital computer. Much more recently, the multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) method has accelerated particle-based simulations of a variety of systems described by stochastic differential equations (SDEs), from financial portfolios to porous media flow. The fundamental idea of MLMC is to perform correlated particle simulations using a hierarchy of different time steps, and to use these correlations for variance reduction on the fine-step result. This framework is directly applicable to the Langevin formulation of Coulomb collisions, as demonstrated in previous work, but in order to apply to PIC simulations of realistic scenarios, MLMC must be generalized to incorporate self-consistent evolution of the electromagnetic fields. We present such a generalization, with rigorous results concerning its accuracy and efficiency. We present examples of the method in the collisionless, electrostatic context, and discuss applications and extensions for the future.
Monte Carlo simulations for focusing elliptical guides
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Valicu, Roxana [FRM2 Garching, Muenchen (Germany); Boeni, Peter [E20, TU Muenchen (Germany)
2009-07-01
The aim of the Monte Carlo simulations using McStas Programme was to improve the focusing of the neutron beam existing at PGAA (FRM II) by prolongation of the existing elliptic guide (coated now with supermirrors with m=3) with a new part. First we have tried with an initial length of the additional guide of 7,5cm and coatings for the neutron guide of supermirrors with m=4,5 and 6. The gain (calculated by dividing the intensity in the focal point after adding the guide by the intensity at the focal point with the initial guide) obtained for this coatings indicated that a coating with m=5 would be appropriate for a first trial. The next step was to vary the length of the additional guide for this m value and therefore choosing the appropriate length for the maximal gain. With the m value and the length of the guide fixed we have introduced an aperture 1 cm before the focal point and we have varied the radius of this aperture in order to obtain a focused beam. We have observed a dramatic decrease in the size of the beam in the focal point after introducing this aperture. The simulation results, the gains obtained and the evolution of the beam size will be presented.
Monte Carlo simulation framework for TMT
Vogiatzis, Konstantinos; Angeli, George Z.
2008-07-01
This presentation describes a strategy for assessing the performance of the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). A Monte Carlo Simulation Framework has been developed to combine optical modeling with Computational Fluid Dynamics simulations (CFD), Finite Element Analysis (FEA) and controls to model the overall performance of TMT. The framework consists of a two year record of observed environmental parameters such as atmospheric seeing, site wind speed and direction, ambient temperature and local sunset and sunrise times, along with telescope azimuth and elevation with a given sampling rate. The modeled optical, dynamic and thermal seeing aberrations are available in a matrix form for distinct values within the range of influencing parameters. These parameters are either part of the framework parameter set or can be derived from them at each time-step. As time advances, the aberrations are interpolated and combined based on the current value of their parameters. Different scenarios can be generated based on operating parameters such as venting strategy, optical calibration frequency and heat source control. Performance probability distributions are obtained and provide design guidance. The sensitivity of the system to design, operating and environmental parameters can be assessed in order to maximize the % of time the system meets the performance specifications.
Monte Carlo methods beyond detailed balance
Schram, Raoul D.; Barkema, Gerard T.
2015-01-01
Monte Carlo algorithms are nearly always based on the concept of detailed balance and ergodicity. In this paper we focus on algorithms that do not satisfy detailed balance. We introduce a general method for designing non-detailed balance algorithms, starting from a conventional algorithm satisfying
Extending canonical Monte Carlo methods: II
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We have previously presented a methodology for extending canonical Monte Carlo methods inspired by a suitable extension of the canonical fluctuation relation C = β2(δE2) compatible with negative heat capacities, C α, as is shown in the particular case of the 2D seven-state Potts model where the exponent α = 0.14–0.18
Introduction to the Monte Carlo methods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Codes illustrating the use of Monte Carlo methods in high energy physics such as the inverse transformation method, the ejection method, the particle propagation through the nucleus, the particle interaction with the nucleus, etc. are presented. A set of useful algorithms of random number generators is given (the binomial distribution, the Poisson distribution, β-distribution, γ-distribution and normal distribution). 5 figs., 1 tab
Monte Carlo simulation for statistical decay of compound nucleus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We perform Monte Carlo simulations for particle and γ-ray emissions from a compound nucleus based on the Hauser-Feshbach statistical theory; the Monte Carlo Hauser-Feshbach (MCHF) method. The MCHF calculation, which gives us correlated information between emitted particles and γ-rays, will be a powerful tool in many applications, because we are able to probe nuclear reactions in more microscopic way. For example, the MCHF code can be used as an event generator in a radiation transport code. Having the correlated neutron and γ-ray emission process in the transport calculations, energy conservation is satisfied automatically event-by-event. In addition, the correlations amongst particles and γ-ray can be a signature of a particular nuclear reaction occurred in a nuclear system. We have been developing the MCHF code, CGM, which solves the Hauser-Feshbach equation with the Monte Carlo method. The code includes all the common models that emerge in a standard Hauser-Feshbach code, namely the particle transmission generator, the level density module, interface to the discrete level database, and so on. The code allows to emit multiple neutrons, as long as the excitation energy of the compound nucleus is larger than the neutron separation energy. The γ-ray competition is always included at each compound decay stage, and the angular momentum conservation holds too. In this paper, we discuss our technique to calculate the particle and γ-ray correlations in the statistical model framework, and some simulation examples are shown
Moura, Alfredo de
2012-01-01
Precipitate structures play a fundamental function in the material science due to the capacity of representing strong obstacles for dislocations movements within the material. This master thesis focuses on the elaboration and application of mechanical statistics knowledge, namely the kinetic Monte Carlo method, on the study and prediction of the phenomenon of precipitation in an aluminum alloy. The alloy under analysis is the aluminum scandium alloy. This thesis tackles subjects such as...
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The infrared vibrational absorption spectra of (SF6)2 and (SiF4)2 dimers were studied in argon and nitrogen matrices. The model takes into account the interactions of local dipole moments of a dimer with matrix particles in the approximation of dipole-induced dipole and dipole-quadrupole interactions with the help of the Monte Carlo method. The calculated spectra sufficiently well reproduce the main characteristics of the experimental spectra. (authors)
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To perform Monte Carlo simulation must also assign to each voxel a material, whose effective sections shall be used for the transport of particles. The allocation is made on the basis of the mass density of each voxel and is not two-way, that several different materials may apply to a same density composition. So the assignment is not fixed and depends on the user. Our study focuses on the allocation of materials from the mass densities, and its impact on clinical dosimetry. (Author)
Monte Carlo Methods for Rough Free Energy Landscapes: Population Annealing and Parallel Tempering
Machta, Jon; Ellis, Richard S.
2011-01-01
Parallel tempering and population annealing are both effective methods for simulating equilibrium systems with rough free energy landscapes. Parallel tempering, also known as replica exchange Monte Carlo, is a Markov chain Monte Carlo method while population annealing is a sequential Monte Carlo method. Both methods overcome the exponential slowing associated with high free energy barriers. The convergence properties and efficiency of the two methods are compared. For large systems, populatio...
On Monte Carlo Simulation and Analysis of Electricity Markets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This dissertation is about how Monte Carlo simulation can be used to analyse electricity markets. There are a wide range of applications for simulation; for example, players in the electricity market can use simulation to decide whether or not an investment can be expected to be profitable, and authorities can by means of simulation find out which consequences a certain market design can be expected to have on electricity prices, environmental impact, etc. In the first part of the dissertation, the focus is which electricity market models are suitable for Monte Carlo simulation. The starting point is a definition of an ideal electricity market. Such an electricity market is partly practical from a mathematical point of view (it is simple to formulate and does not require too complex calculations) and partly it is a representation of the best possible resource utilisation. The definition of the ideal electricity market is followed by analysis how the reality differs from the ideal model, what consequences the differences have on the rules of the electricity market and the strategies of the players, as well as how non-ideal properties can be included in a mathematical model. Particularly, questions about environmental impact, forecast uncertainty and grid costs are studied. The second part of the dissertation treats the Monte Carlo technique itself. To reduce the number of samples necessary to obtain accurate results, variance reduction techniques can be used. Here, six different variance reduction techniques are studied and possible applications are pointed out. The conclusions of these studies are turned into a method for efficient simulation of basic electricity markets. The method is applied to some test systems and the results show that the chosen variance reduction techniques can produce equal or better results using 99% fewer samples compared to when the same system is simulated without any variance reduction technique. More complex electricity market models
The Monte Carlo method the method of statistical trials
Shreider, YuA
1966-01-01
The Monte Carlo Method: The Method of Statistical Trials is a systematic account of the fundamental concepts and techniques of the Monte Carlo method, together with its range of applications. Some of these applications include the computation of definite integrals, neutron physics, and in the investigation of servicing processes. This volume is comprised of seven chapters and begins with an overview of the basic features of the Monte Carlo method and typical examples of its application to simple problems in computational mathematics. The next chapter examines the computation of multi-dimensio
The MCLIB library: Monte Carlo simulation of neutron scattering instruments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Monte Carlo is a method to integrate over a large number of variables. Random numbers are used to select a value for each variable, and the integrand is evaluated. The process is repeated a large number of times and the resulting values are averaged. For a neutron transport problem, first select a neutron from the source distribution, and project it through the instrument using either deterministic or probabilistic algorithms to describe its interaction whenever it hits something, and then (if it hits the detector) tally it in a histogram representing where and when it was detected. This is intended to simulate the process of running an actual experiment (but it is much slower). This report describes the philosophy and structure of MCLIB, a Fortran library of Monte Carlo subroutines which has been developed for design of neutron scattering instruments. A pair of programs (LQDGEOM and MC RUN) which use the library are shown as an example
Monte carlo simulation for designing an explosive-inspection system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In order to optimize the design of γ-ray detectors and data analysis of the system for inspection of explosive with associated alpha particle technique, Monte Carlo code EGSnrc was used to simulated detection efficiency and response function of inorganic scintillator detector for γ-rays, aimed at choosing the right type detector. Pulse height spectra of γ-rays of φ5' x 8' NaI(Tl) from graphite, water, ammonium nitrate and simulated explosive induced by 14 MeV neutron were simulated. The calculated results were analyzed and compared with experiments results, demonstrating that simulation method is reliable and it can be used to obtain the database of response function for explosive inspection. (authors)
Monte Carlo simulations for heavy ion dosimetry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Geithner, O.
2006-07-26
Water-to-air stopping power ratio (s{sub w,air}) calculations for the ionization chamber dosimetry of clinically relevant ion beams with initial energies from 50 to 450 MeV/u have been performed using the Monte Carlo technique. To simulate the transport of a particle in water the computer code SHIELD-HIT v2 was used which is a substantially modified version of its predecessor SHIELD-HIT v1. The code was partially rewritten, replacing formerly used single precision variables with double precision variables. The lowest particle transport specific energy was decreased from 1 MeV/u down to 10 keV/u by modifying the Bethe- Bloch formula, thus widening its range for medical dosimetry applications. Optional MSTAR and ICRU-73 stopping power data were included. The fragmentation model was verified using all available experimental data and some parameters were adjusted. The present code version shows excellent agreement with experimental data. Additional to the calculations of stopping power ratios, s{sub w,air}, the influence of fragments and I-values on s{sub w,air} for carbon ion beams was investigated. The value of s{sub w,air} deviates as much as 2.3% at the Bragg peak from the recommended by TRS-398 constant value of 1.130 for an energy of 50 MeV/u. (orig.)
Monte Carlo simulations for heavy ion dosimetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Water-to-air stopping power ratio (sw,air) calculations for the ionization chamber dosimetry of clinically relevant ion beams with initial energies from 50 to 450 MeV/u have been performed using the Monte Carlo technique. To simulate the transport of a particle in water the computer code SHIELD-HIT v2 was used which is a substantially modified version of its predecessor SHIELD-HIT v1. The code was partially rewritten, replacing formerly used single precision variables with double precision variables. The lowest particle transport specific energy was decreased from 1 MeV/u down to 10 keV/u by modifying the Bethe- Bloch formula, thus widening its range for medical dosimetry applications. Optional MSTAR and ICRU-73 stopping power data were included. The fragmentation model was verified using all available experimental data and some parameters were adjusted. The present code version shows excellent agreement with experimental data. Additional to the calculations of stopping power ratios, sw,air, the influence of fragments and I-values on sw,air for carbon ion beams was investigated. The value of sw,air deviates as much as 2.3% at the Bragg peak from the recommended by TRS-398 constant value of 1.130 for an energy of 50 MeV/u. (orig.)
Review of neutron noise analysis theory by Monte Carlo simulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Some debates on the theory of neutron noise analysis for reactor kinetic parameter measurement were found before 1970 but a report firmly clearing these debates has not been found, and a question was raised when neutron noise experiments for the TRIGA and HANARO reactors in Korea were performed. In order to clarify this question, the neutron noise experiment is simulated by the Monte Carlo method. This simulation confirms that the widely used equation is approximately valid and that the confusion was caused from the explanation on the derivation of the equation. Rossi-α technique is one of the representative methods of noise analyses for the reactor kinetic parameter measurement, but different opinions were raised for the chain reaction related term in the equation. The equation originally derived at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has been widely accepted. However, the others were supported by strict mathematics and experiments as well, and the reason of discrepancy has not been clarified. Since it is the problem of basic concept before the effect of neutron energy or geometry is included, the Monte Carlo simulation for the simplest reactor model could clarify it. For this purpose, the experiment measuring the neutron noise is simulated, and it results that the original equation is approximately valid. However, it is judged that the explanation on the equation by the authors derived it for the first time is not so correct, but Orndoff who made the first experiment by the Ross-α technique explained it rather correctly
Monte-Carlo Simulations of Star Clusters; 1, First Results
Giersz, M
1998-01-01
A revision of Stodolkiewicz's Monte-Carlo code is used to simulate evolution of star clusters. The new method treats each superstar as a single star and follows the evolution and motion of all individual stellar objects. The first calculations for isolated, equal-mass N-body systems with three-body energy generation according to Spitzer's formulae show good agreement with direct N-body calculations for N=2000, 4096 and 10000 particles. The density, velocity, mass distributions, energy generation, number of binaries etc. follow the N-body results. Only the number of escapers is slightly too high compared to N-body results and there is no level off anisotropy for advanced post-collapse evolution of Monte-Carlo models as is seen in N-body simulations for N 10000 gravothermal oscillations are clearly visible. The calculations of N=2000, 4096, 10000, 32000 and 100000 models take about 2, 6, 20, 130 and 2500 hours, respectively. The Monte-Carlo code is at least 10^5 times faster than the N-body one for N=32768 wit...
Lattice Monte Carlo simulations of polymer melts
Hsu, Hsiao-Ping
2014-12-01
We use Monte Carlo simulations to study polymer melts consisting of fully flexible and moderately stiff chains in the bond fluctuation model at a volume fraction 0.5. In order to reduce the local density fluctuations, we test a pre-packing process for the preparation of the initial configurations of the polymer melts, before the excluded volume interaction is switched on completely. This process leads to a significantly faster decrease of the number of overlapping monomers on the lattice. This is useful for simulating very large systems, where the statistical properties of the model with a marginally incomplete elimination of excluded volume violations are the same as those of the model with strictly excluded volume. We find that the internal mean square end-to-end distance for moderately stiff chains in a melt can be very well described by a freely rotating chain model with a precise estimate of the bond-bond orientational correlation between two successive bond vectors in equilibrium. The plot of the probability distributions of the reduced end-to-end distance of chains of different stiffness also shows that the data collapse is excellent and described very well by the Gaussian distribution for ideal chains. However, while our results confirm the systematic deviations between Gaussian statistics for the chain structure factor Sc(q) [minimum in the Kratky-plot] found by Wittmer et al. [EPL 77, 56003 (2007)] for fully flexible chains in a melt, we show that for the available chain length these deviations are no longer visible, when the chain stiffness is included. The mean square bond length and the compressibility estimated from collective structure factors depend slightly on the stiffness of the chains.
Monte Carlo Simulation for Statistical Decay of Compound Nucleus
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Chadwick M.B.
2012-02-01
Full Text Available We perform Monte Carlo simulations for neutron and γ-ray emissions from a compound nucleus based on the Hauser-Feshbach statistical theory. This Monte Carlo Hauser-Feshbach (MCHF method calculation, which gives us correlated information between emitted particles and γ-rays. It will be a powerful tool in many applications, as nuclear reactions can be probed in a more microscopic way. We have been developing the MCHF code, CGM, which solves the Hauser-Feshbach theory with the Monte Carlo method. The code includes all the standard models that used in a standard Hauser-Feshbach code, namely the particle transmission generator, the level density module, interface to the discrete level database, and so on. CGM can emit multiple neutrons, as long as the excitation energy of the compound nucleus is larger than the neutron separation energy. The γ-ray competition is always included at each compound decay stage, and the angular momentum and parity are conserved. Some calculations for a fission fragment 140Xe are shown as examples of the MCHF method, and the correlation between the neutron and γ-ray is discussed.
Validation of Compton Scattering Monte Carlo Simulation Models
Weidenspointner, Georg; Hauf, Steffen; Hoff, Gabriela; Kuster, Markus; Pia, Maria Grazia; Saracco, Paolo
2014-01-01
Several models for the Monte Carlo simulation of Compton scattering on electrons are quantitatively evaluated with respect to a large collection of experimental data retrieved from the literature. Some of these models are currently implemented in general purpose Monte Carlo systems; some have been implemented and evaluated for possible use in Monte Carlo particle transport for the first time in this study. Here we present first and preliminary results concerning total and differential Compton scattering cross sections.
Identification of Logical Errors through Monte-Carlo Simulation
Emmett, Hilary L
2010-01-01
The primary focus of Monte Carlo simulation is to identify and quantify risk related to uncertainty and variability in spreadsheet model inputs. The stress of Monte Carlo simulation often reveals logical errors in the underlying spreadsheet model that might be overlooked during day-to-day use or traditional "what-if" testing. This secondary benefit of simulation requires a trained eye to recognize warning signs of poor model construction.
A comparison of Monte Carlo and cellular automata approaches for semiconductor device simulation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zandler, G.; Di Carlo, A.; Kometer, K.; Lugli, P.; Vogl, P.; Gornik, E. (Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany))
1993-02-01
The authors present a detailed comparison of Monte Carlo and cellular automata approaches as applied to the study of nonequilibrium transport and semiconductor device simulation. They show that the novel cellular automata (CA) technique enjoys all benefits of the more traditional Monte Carlo (MC) method, while at the same time allowing considerably higher performances.
Optical coherence tomography: Monte Carlo simulation and improvement by optical amplification
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tycho, Andreas
2002-01-01
An advanced novel Monte Carlo simulation model of the detection process of an optical coherence tomography (OCT) system is presented. For the first time it is shown analytically that the applicability of the incoherent Monte Carlo approach to model the heterodyne detection process of an OCT system...... distribution of the light from the sample and the reference beam. To adequately estimate the intensity distributions, a novel method of modeling a focused Gaussian beam using Monte Carlo simulation is developed. This method is then combined with the derived expression for the OCT signal into a new Monte Carlo...... flexibility of Monte Carlo simulations, this new model is demonstrated to be excellent as a numerical phantom, i.e., as a substitute for otherwise difficult experiments. Finally, a new model of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of an OCT system with optical amplification of the light reflected from the sample...
Modeling and Computer Simulation: Molecular Dynamics and Kinetic Monte Carlo
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wirth, B.D.; Caturla, M.J.; Diaz de la Rubia, T.
2000-10-10
Recent years have witnessed tremendous advances in the realistic multiscale simulation of complex physical phenomena, such as irradiation and aging effects of materials, made possible by the enormous progress achieved in computational physics for calculating reliable, yet tractable interatomic potentials and the vast improvements in computational power and parallel computing. As a result, computational materials science is emerging as an important complement to theory and experiment to provide fundamental materials science insight. This article describes the atomistic modeling techniques of molecular dynamics (MD) and kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC), and an example of their application to radiation damage production and accumulation in metals. It is important to note at the outset that the primary objective of atomistic computer simulation should be obtaining physical insight into atomic-level processes. Classical molecular dynamics is a powerful method for obtaining insight about the dynamics of physical processes that occur on relatively short time scales. Current computational capability allows treatment of atomic systems containing as many as 10{sup 9} atoms for times on the order of 100 ns (10{sup -7}s). The main limitation of classical MD simulation is the relatively short times accessible. Kinetic Monte Carlo provides the ability to reach macroscopic times by modeling diffusional processes and time-scales rather than individual atomic vibrations. Coupling MD and KMC has developed into a powerful, multiscale tool for the simulation of radiation damage in metals.
New Dynamic Monte Carlo Renormalization Group Method
Lacasse, Martin-D.; Vinals, Jorge; Grant, Martin
1992-01-01
The dynamical critical exponent of the two-dimensional spin-flip Ising model is evaluated by a Monte Carlo renormalization group method involving a transformation in time. The results agree very well with a finite-size scaling analysis performed on the same data. The value of $z = 2.13 \\pm 0.01$ is obtained, which is consistent with most recent estimates.
Monte Carlo methods for preference learning
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Viappiani, P.
2012-01-01
Utility elicitation is an important component of many applications, such as decision support systems and recommender systems. Such systems query the users about their preferences and give recommendations based on the system’s belief about the utility function. Critical to these applications is th...... is the acquisition of prior distribution about the utility parameters and the possibility of real time Bayesian inference. In this paper we consider Monte Carlo methods for these problems....
Monte Carlo simulations and dosimetric studies of an irradiation facility
Belchior, A.; Botelho, M. L.; Vaz, P.
2007-09-01
There is an increasing utilization of ionizing radiation for industrial applications. Additionally, the radiation technology offers a variety of advantages in areas, such as sterilization and food preservation. For these applications, dosimetric tests are of crucial importance in order to assess the dose distribution throughout the sample being irradiated. The use of Monte Carlo methods and computational tools in support of the assessment of the dose distributions in irradiation facilities can prove to be economically effective, representing savings in the utilization of dosemeters, among other benefits. One of the purposes of this study is the development of a Monte Carlo simulation, using a state-of-the-art computational tool—MCNPX—in order to determine the dose distribution inside an irradiation facility of Cobalt 60. This irradiation facility is currently in operation at the ITN campus and will feature an automation and robotics component, which will allow its remote utilization by an external user, under REEQ/996/BIO/2005 project. The detailed geometrical description of the irradiation facility has been implemented in MCNPX, which features an accurate and full simulation of the electron-photon processes involved. The validation of the simulation results obtained was performed by chemical dosimetry methods, namely a Fricke solution. The Fricke dosimeter is a standard dosimeter and is widely used in radiation processing for calibration purposes.
Resolution and intensity in neutron spectrometry determined by Monte Carlo simulation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dietrich, O.W.
1968-01-01
The Monte Carlo simulation technique was applied to the propagation of Bragg-reflected neutrons in mosaic single crystals. The method proved to be very useful for the determination of resolution and intensity in neutron spectrometers.......The Monte Carlo simulation technique was applied to the propagation of Bragg-reflected neutrons in mosaic single crystals. The method proved to be very useful for the determination of resolution and intensity in neutron spectrometers....
Fluid Simulations with Localized Boltzmann Upscaling by Direct Simulation Monte-Carlo
Degond, Pierre; Dimarco, Giacomo
2010-01-01
In the present work, we present a novel numerical algorithm to couple the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo method (DSMC) for the solution of the Boltzmann equation with a finite volume like method for the solution of the Euler equations. Recently we presented in [14],[16],[17] different methodologies which permit to solve fluid dynamics problems with localized regions of departure from thermodynamical equilibrium. The methods rely on the introduction of buffer zones which realize a smooth transi...
A Comparison of Advanced Monte Carlo Methods for Open Systems: CFCMC vs CBMC
A. Torres-Knoop; S.P. Balaji; T.J.H. Vlugt; D. Dubbeldam
2014-01-01
Two state-of-the-art simulation methods for computing adsorption properties in porous materials like zeolites and metal-organic frameworks are compared: the configurational bias Monte Carlo (CBMC) method and the recently proposed continuous fractional component Monte Carlo (CFCMC) method. We show th
Monte Carlo simulation experiments on box-type radon dosimeter
Jamil, Khalid; Kamran, Muhammad; Illahi, Ahsan; Manzoor, Shahid
2014-11-01
Epidemiological studies show that inhalation of radon gas (222Rn) may be carcinogenic especially to mine workers, people living in closed indoor energy conserved environments and underground dwellers. It is, therefore, of paramount importance to measure the 222Rn concentrations (Bq/m3) in indoors environments. For this purpose, box-type passive radon dosimeters employing ion track detector like CR-39 are widely used. Fraction of the number of radon alphas emitted in the volume of the box type dosimeter resulting in latent track formation on CR-39 is the latent track registration efficiency. Latent track registration efficiency is ultimately required to evaluate the radon concentration which consequently determines the effective dose and the radiological hazards. In this research, Monte Carlo simulation experiments were carried out to study the alpha latent track registration efficiency for box type radon dosimeter as a function of dosimeter's dimensions and range of alpha particles in air. Two different self developed Monte Carlo simulation techniques were employed namely: (a) Surface ratio (SURA) method and (b) Ray hitting (RAHI) method. Monte Carlo simulation experiments revealed that there are two types of efficiencies i.e. intrinsic efficiency (ηint) and alpha hit efficiency (ηhit). The ηint depends upon only on the dimensions of the dosimeter and ηhit depends both upon dimensions of the dosimeter and range of the alpha particles. The total latent track registration efficiency is the product of both intrinsic and hit efficiencies. It has been concluded that if diagonal length of box type dosimeter is kept smaller than the range of alpha particle then hit efficiency is achieved as 100%. Nevertheless the intrinsic efficiency keeps playing its role. The Monte Carlo simulation experimental results have been found helpful to understand the intricate track registration mechanisms in the box type dosimeter. This paper explains that how radon concentration from the
Monte Carlo simulation experiments on box-type radon dosimeter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jamil, Khalid, E-mail: kjamil@comsats.edu.pk; Kamran, Muhammad; Illahi, Ahsan; Manzoor, Shahid
2014-11-11
Epidemiological studies show that inhalation of radon gas ({sup 222}Rn) may be carcinogenic especially to mine workers, people living in closed indoor energy conserved environments and underground dwellers. It is, therefore, of paramount importance to measure the {sup 222}Rn concentrations (Bq/m{sup 3}) in indoors environments. For this purpose, box-type passive radon dosimeters employing ion track detector like CR-39 are widely used. Fraction of the number of radon alphas emitted in the volume of the box type dosimeter resulting in latent track formation on CR-39 is the latent track registration efficiency. Latent track registration efficiency is ultimately required to evaluate the radon concentration which consequently determines the effective dose and the radiological hazards. In this research, Monte Carlo simulation experiments were carried out to study the alpha latent track registration efficiency for box type radon dosimeter as a function of dosimeter’s dimensions and range of alpha particles in air. Two different self developed Monte Carlo simulation techniques were employed namely: (a) Surface ratio (SURA) method and (b) Ray hitting (RAHI) method. Monte Carlo simulation experiments revealed that there are two types of efficiencies i.e. intrinsic efficiency (η{sub int}) and alpha hit efficiency (η{sub hit}). The η{sub int} depends upon only on the dimensions of the dosimeter and η{sub hit} depends both upon dimensions of the dosimeter and range of the alpha particles. The total latent track registration efficiency is the product of both intrinsic and hit efficiencies. It has been concluded that if diagonal length of box type dosimeter is kept smaller than the range of alpha particle then hit efficiency is achieved as 100%. Nevertheless the intrinsic efficiency keeps playing its role. The Monte Carlo simulation experimental results have been found helpful to understand the intricate track registration mechanisms in the box type dosimeter. This paper
Fast sequential Monte Carlo methods for counting and optimization
Rubinstein, Reuven Y; Vaisman, Radislav
2013-01-01
A comprehensive account of the theory and application of Monte Carlo methods Based on years of research in efficient Monte Carlo methods for estimation of rare-event probabilities, counting problems, and combinatorial optimization, Fast Sequential Monte Carlo Methods for Counting and Optimization is a complete illustration of fast sequential Monte Carlo techniques. The book provides an accessible overview of current work in the field of Monte Carlo methods, specifically sequential Monte Carlo techniques, for solving abstract counting and optimization problems. Written by authorities in the
Monte Carlo methods for applied scientists
Dimov, Ivan T
2007-01-01
The Monte Carlo method is inherently parallel and the extensive and rapid development in parallel computers, computational clusters and grids has resulted in renewed and increasing interest in this method. At the same time there has been an expansion in the application areas and the method is now widely used in many important areas of science including nuclear and semiconductor physics, statistical mechanics and heat and mass transfer. This book attempts to bridge the gap between theory and practice concentrating on modern algorithmic implementation on parallel architecture machines. Although
by means of FLUKA Monte Carlo method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ermis Elif Ebru
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Calculations of gamma-ray mass attenuation coefficients of various detector materials (crystals were carried out by means of FLUKA Monte Carlo (MC method at different gamma-ray energies. NaI, PVT, GSO, GaAs and CdWO4 detector materials were chosen in the calculations. Calculated coefficients were also compared with the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST values. Obtained results through this method were highly in accordance with those of the NIST values. It was concluded from the study that FLUKA MC method can be an alternative way to calculate the gamma-ray mass attenuation coefficients of the detector materials.
Monte Carlo simulation of the energy spectrum for CdZnTe Frisch grid detector
Xu, Zhaoli; Wang, Linjun; Min, Jiahua; Teng, Jianyong; Qin, Kaifeng; Hu, Dongni; Zhang, Jijun; Huang, Jian; Xia, Yiben
2009-07-01
In this paper, we use the Monte-Carlo method to study the reaction of the electron-hole pairs produced to randomicity and the statistics rule, according to the principal of the detector and the gamma ray track in the CdZnTe detector. The EGSnrc software based on Monte-Carlo method is used to simulate the process of carriers' transportation. The statistics rule greatly reflects the result in Monte Carlo simulation. Firstly, we use Ansys software to create a model of the object for Monte-Carlo simulation, which is the basis for our further Monte-Carlo research. During Ansys simulation, a columniform block is created, where the electrical and thermal properties of the materials for simulation use are established. Then, the charge collection efficiency through the statistical approach was calculated using the EGSnrc software. Furthermore, by considering the interaction mechanism of CdZnTe with gamma ray, several modules in the software are added into Monte Carlo simulation. Finally, the pulse height spectra with the response to gamma ray, are available from the simulation. The comparison between the simulation and the measurement result is indicated, which shows that the simulation experiment is reliable. The Frisch grid detector can get the responses more efficiently than other structure devices.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nourdine Massoum
2014-04-01
Full Text Available The field of microelectronics has made surprising advances in the last decade, mainly pushed by the enormous progress in semiconductor technology. Such a reduction of dimensions allows the fabrication of chips with more than one million components. In addition, it opens the way to new physical phenomena, which were not present in traditional structures. In this context, the Monte Carlo simulation has particular significance. This approach allowed conceiving applicable model for GaInP MESFET operating in the turn-one or pinch-off region, and valid for the short-channel and the long-channel GaInP MESFET, in which the two-dimensional potential distribution contributed by the depletion layer under the gate is obtained by conventional 1D approximation
CORPORATE VALUATION USING TWO-DIMENSIONAL MONTE CARLO SIMULATION
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Toth Reka
2010-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we have presented a corporate valuation model. The model combine several valuation methods in order to get more accurate results. To determine the corporate asset value we have used the Gordon-like two-stage asset valuation model based on the calculation of the free cash flow to the firm. We have used the free cash flow to the firm to determine the corporate market value, which was calculated with use of the Black-Scholes option pricing model in frame of the two-dimensional Monte Carlo simulation method. The combined model and the use of the two-dimensional simulation model provides a better opportunity for the corporate value estimation.
Public Infrastructure for Monte Carlo Simulation: publicMC@BATAN
Waskita, A A; Akbar, Z; Handoko, L T; 10.1063/1.3462759
2010-01-01
The first cluster-based public computing for Monte Carlo simulation in Indonesia is introduced. The system has been developed to enable public to perform Monte Carlo simulation on a parallel computer through an integrated and user friendly dynamic web interface. The beta version, so called publicMC@BATAN, has been released and implemented for internal users at the National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN). In this paper the concept and architecture of publicMC@BATAN are presented.
Reactor perturbation calculations by Monte Carlo methods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Whilst Monte Carlo methods are useful for reactor calculations involving complicated geometry, it is difficult to apply them to the calculation of perturbation worths because of the large amount of computing time needed to obtain good accuracy. Various ways of overcoming these difficulties are investigated in this report, with the problem of estimating absorbing control rod worths particularly in mind. As a basis for discussion a method of carrying out multigroup reactor calculations by Monte Carlo methods is described. Two methods of estimating a perturbation worth directly, without differencing two quantities of like magnitude, are examined closely but are passed over in favour of a third method based on a correlation technique. This correlation method is described, and demonstrated by a limited range of calculations for absorbing control rods in a fast reactor. In these calculations control rod worths of between 1% and 7% in reactivity are estimated to an accuracy better than 10% (3 standard errors) in about one hour's computing time on the English Electric KDF.9 digital computer. (author)
Monte Carlo simulation of neutron scattering instruments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A library of Monte Carlo subroutines has been developed for the purpose of design of neutron scattering instruments. Using small-angle scattering as an example, the philosophy and structure of the library are described and the programs are used to compare instruments at continuous wave (CW) and long-pulse spallation source (LPSS) neutron facilities. The Monte Carlo results give a count-rate gain of a factor between 2 and 4 using time-of-flight analysis. This is comparable to scaling arguments based on the ratio of wavelength bandwidth to resolution width
Optimization of Monte Carlo transport simulations in stochastic media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper presents an accurate and efficient approach to optimize radiation transport simulations in a stochastic medium of high heterogeneity, like the Very High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (VHTR) configurations packed with TRISO fuel particles. Based on a fast nearest neighbor search algorithm, a modified fast Random Sequential Addition (RSA) method is first developed to speed up the generation of the stochastic media systems packed with both mono-sized and poly-sized spheres. A fast neutron tracking method is then developed to optimize the next sphere boundary search in the radiation transport procedure. In order to investigate their accuracy and efficiency, the developed sphere packing and neutron tracking methods are implemented into an in-house continuous energy Monte Carlo code to solve an eigenvalue problem in VHTR unit cells. Comparison with the MCNP benchmark calculations for the same problem indicates that the new methods show considerably higher computational efficiency. (authors)
A Monte Carlo simulation of ion transport at finite temperatures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We have developed a Monte Carlo simulation for ion transport in hot background gases, which is an alternative way of solving the corresponding Boltzmann equation that determines the distribution function of ions. We consider the limit of low ion densities when the distribution function of the background gas remains unchanged due to collision with ions. Special attention has been paid to properly treating the thermal motion of the host gas particles and their influence on ions, which is very important at low electric fields, when the mean ion energy is comparable to the thermal energy of the host gas. We found the conditional probability distribution of gas velocities that correspond to an ion of specific velocity which collides with a gas particle. Also, we have derived exact analytical formulae for piecewise calculation of the collision frequency integrals. We address the cases when the background gas is monocomponent and when it is a mixture of different gases. The techniques described here are required for Monte Carlo simulations of ion transport and for hybrid models of non-equilibrium plasmas. The range of energies where it is necessary to apply the technique has been defined. The results we obtained are in excellent agreement with the existing ones obtained by complementary methods. Having verified our algorithm, we were able to produce calculations for Ar+ ions in Ar and propose them as a new benchmark for thermal effects. The developed method is widely applicable for solving the Boltzmann equation that appears in many different contexts in physics. (paper)
Monte Carlo molecular simulation of phase-coexistence for oil production and processing
Li, Jun
2011-01-01
The Gibbs-NVT ensemble Monte Carlo method is used to simulate the liquid-vapor coexistence diagram and the simulation results of methane agree well with the experimental data in a wide range of temperatures. For systems with two components, the Gibbs-NPT ensemble Monte Carlo method is employed in the simulation while the mole fraction of each component in each phase is modeled as a Leonard-Jones fluid. As the results of Monte Carlo simulations usually contain huge statistical error, the blocking method is used to estimate the variance of the simulation results. Additionally, in order to improve the simulation efficiency, the step sizes of different trial moves is adjusted automatically so that their acceptance probabilities can approach to the preset values.
Application of Monte Carlo simulation for three-dimensional flows
Scheurlen, M.; Noll, B.; Wittig, S.
1992-02-01
A Monte Carlo technique is outlined for the simulation of the transport of a joint scalar probability density function (PDF). The discretization of the partial differential equations is based on a finite volume approximation. The problem of frozen solutions is addressed if the number of stochastic elements is limited. Non-adiabatic boundary conditions are discussed if the energy equation is solved by a Monte Carlo simulation. The Monte Carlo simulation is compared with deterministic calculations and with an experiment in a three dimensional non-isothermal non-reacting jet mixing flow. The results of the simulation agree very well with the experiment and the deterministic calculations. However, the computer time and storage requirements for a three dimensional simulation of the transport of a single scalar PDF increases dramatically in comparison to deterministic calculations. The results also indicate the need for a simulation procedure that is free of numerical diffusion.
Benchmarking of proton transport in Super Monte Carlo simulation program
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Full text of the publication follows. The Monte Carlo (MC) method has been traditionally applied in nuclear design and analysis due to its capability of dealing with complicated geometries and multi-dimensional physics problems as well as obtaining accurate results. The Super Monte Carlo Simulation Program (SuperMC) is developed by FDS Team in China for fusion, fission, and other nuclear applications. The simulations of radiation transport, isotope burn-up, material activation, radiation dose, and biology damage could be performed using SuperMC. Complicated geometries and the whole physical process of various types of particles in broad energy scale can be well handled. Bi-directional automatic conversion between general CAD models and full-formed input files of SuperMC is supported by MCAM, which is a CAD/image-based automatic modeling program for neutronics and radiation transport simulation. Mixed visualization of dynamical 3D dataset and geometry model is supported by RVIS, which is a nuclear radiation virtual simulation and assessment system. Continuous-energy cross section data from hybrid evaluated nuclear data library HENDL are utilized to support simulation. Neutronic fixed source and critical design parameters calculates for reactors of complex geometry and material distribution based on the transport of neutron and photon have been achieved in our former version of SuperMC. Recently, the proton transport has also been integrated in SuperMC in the energy region up to 10 GeV. The physical processes considered for proton transport include electromagnetic processes and hadronic processes. The electromagnetic processes include ionization, multiple scattering, Bremsstrahlung, and pair production processes. Public evaluated data from HENDL are used in some electromagnetic processes. In hadronic physics, the Bertini intra-nuclear cascade model with excitons, preequilibrium model, nucleus explosion model, fission model, and evaporation model are incorporated to
MONTE CARLO SIMULATION APPLIED TO ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL ANALYSIS OF AN AGRIBUSINESS PROJECT
Danilo Simões; Lucas Raul Scherrer
2014-01-01
In practice, all management decisions involving an organization, regardless of size, have uncertainties which lead to different levels of risk. Monte Carlo simulation allows risk analysis by designing probabilistic models. From a deterministic model of economic viability indicators, commonly used for decision investment projects, it was developed a probabilistic model with Monte Carlo method simulations in order to carry out economic and financial analysis of an agroindustrial ...
Simulating Phase Equilibria using Wang-Landau-Transition Matrix Monte Carlo
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We will examine the strengths and weaknesses of the Wang-Landau and transition matrix Monte Carlo methods for simulating phase equilibria of continuous molecular systems alone and as a combined Wang-Landautransition matrix Monte Carlo algorithm. Although a combined Wang-Landau transition matrix Monte Carlo algorithm has been previously reported in the literature, the details of the method and a discussion of its performance for phase equilibria simulations has not been presented. The hybrid method combines the rapid initial estimate of the density of states from the Wang-Landau algorithm with the continual improvement in convergence of transition matrix Monte Carlo. The hybrid Wang-Landau-transition matrix (WL-TM) algorithm is found to be more efficient and has much better convergence properties than the Wang-Landau algorithm and is more robust than the transition matrix algorithm, enabling the simulations to reach relatively low reduced temperatures with ease
A Transport Condensed History Algorithm for Electron Monte Carlo Simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
An advanced multiple scattering algorithm for the Monte Carlo simulation of electron transport problems is developed. Unlike established multiple scattering algorithms, this new method, called transport condensed history (TCH), is a true transport process - it simulates a transport equation that approximates the exact Boltzmann transport process. In addition to having a larger mean free path and a more isotropic scattering operator than the Boltzmann equation, the approximate transport equation also preserves the zeroth- and first-order angular moments of the exact equation. These features enable TCH to accurately predict electron position as a function of energy (path length) and to move particles across material boundaries and interfaces with acceptable accuracy and efficiency. Numerical results and dose calculations are shown to reveal the advantages of TCH over conventional condensed history schemes
Monte Carlo simulation of electrical corona discharge in air
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Settaouti, A.; Settaouti, L. [Electrotechnic Department, University of Sciences and Technology, P.O. Box 1505, El-M' naouar, Oran (Algeria)
2011-01-15
Electrical discharges play a key role in technologies; there are many industrial applications where the corona discharge is used. Air as insulator is probably the best compromise solution for many applications. All of this reflects on the great importance of the evaluation of the corona performance characteristics. Numerical simulation of the corona discharge helps to better understand the involved phenomena and optimize the corona devices. This paper is aimed at calculating the corona discharge in negative point-plane air gaps. To describe the non-equilibrium behavior of the electronic avalanches and to simulate the development of corona discharge the method of Monte Carlo has been used. This model provides the spatial-temporal local field and particles charged densities variations as well as the ionization front velocity. (author)
Introduction to Monte-Carlo method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We recall first some well known facts about random variables and sampling. Then we define the Monte-Carlo method in the case where one wants to compute a given integral. Afterwards, we ship to discrete Markov chains for which we define random walks, and apply to finite difference approximations of diffusion equations. Finally we consider Markov chains with continuous state (but discrete time), transition probabilities and random walks, which are the main piece of this work. The applications are: diffusion and advection equations, and the linear transport equation with scattering
Study of Gamma spectra by Monte Carlo simulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The purpose of this paper is obtaining gamma ray spectra by means of a scintillation detector applying the Monte Carlo statistic simulation method using the EGS4 program. The Monte Carlo algorithm implies that the physical system is described by the probability density function which allows generating random figures and the result is taken as an average of numbers which were observed. The EGS4 program allows the simulation of the following physical processes: the photo-electrical effect, the Compton effect, the electron positron pairs generation and the Rayleigh diffusion. The gamma rays recorded by the detector are converted into electrical pulses and the gamma ray spectra are acquired and processed by means of the Nomad Plus portable spectrometer connected to a computer. As a gamma ray sources 137Cs and 60Co are used whose spectra drawn and used for study the interaction of the gamma radiations with the scintillation detector. The parameters which varied during the acquisition of the gamma ray spectra are the distance between source and detector and the measuring time. Due to the statistical processes in the detector, the peak looks like a Gauss distribution. The identification of the gamma quantum energy value is achieved by the experimental spectra peaks, thus gathering information about the position of the peak, the width and the area of the peak respectively. By means of the EGS4 program a simulation is run using these parameters and an 'ideal' spectrum is obtained, a spectrum which is not influenced by the statistical processes which take place inside the detector. Then, the convolution of the spectra is achieved by means of a normalised Gauss function. There is a close match between the experimental results and those simulated in the EGS4 program because the interactions which occurred during the simulation have a statistical behaviour close to the real one. (authors)
Monte Carlo simulations of landmine detection using neutron backscattering imaging
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Datema, Cor P. E-mail: c.datema@iri.tudelft.nl; Bom, Victor R.; Eijk, Carel W.E. van
2003-11-01
Neutron backscattering is a technique that has successfully been applied to the detection of non-metallic landmines. Most of the effort in this field has concentrated on single detectors that are scanned across the soil. Here, two new approaches are presented in which a two-dimensional image of the hydrogen distribution in the soil is made. The first method uses an array of position-sensitive {sup 3}He-tubes that is placed in close proximity of the soil. The second method is based on coded aperture imaging. Here, thermal neutrons from the soil are projected onto a detector which is typically placed one to several meters above the soil. Both methods use a pulsed D/D neutron source. The Monte Carlo simulation package GEANT 4 was used to investigate the performance of both imaging systems.
Monte Carlo methods for pricing ﬁnancial options
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
N Bolia; S Juneja
2005-04-01
Pricing ﬁnancial options is amongst the most important and challenging problems in the modern ﬁnancial industry. Except in the simplest cases, the prices of options do not have a simple closed form solution and efﬁcient computational methods are needed to determine them. Monte Carlo methods have increasingly become a popular computational tool to price complex ﬁnancial options, especially when the underlying space of assets has a large dimensionality, as the performance of other numerical methods typically suffer from the ‘curse of dimensionality’. However, even Monte-Carlo techniques can be quite slow as the problem-size increases, motivating research in variance reduction techniques to increase the efﬁciency of the simulations. In this paper, we review some of the popular variance reduction techniques and their application to pricing options. We particularly focus on the recent Monte-Carlo techniques proposed to tackle the difﬁcult problem of pricing American options. These include: regression-based methods, random tree methods and stochastic mesh methods. Further, we show how importance sampling, a popular variance reduction technique, may be combined with these methods to enhance their effectiveness. We also brieﬂy review the evolving options market in India.
Molecular dynamics, Langevin, and hybrid Monte Carlo simulations in multicanonical ensemble
Hansmann, Uwe H E; Eisenmenger, F; Hansmann, Ulrich H.E.; Okamoto, Yuko; Eisenmenger, Frank
1996-01-01
We demonstrate that the multicanonical approach is not restricted to Monte Carlo simulations, but can also be applied to simulation techniques such as molecular dynamics, Langevin, and hybrid Monte Carlo algorithms. The effectiveness of the methods are tested with an energy function for the protein folding problem. Simulations in the multicanonical ensemble by the three methods are performed for a penta peptide, Met-enkephalin. For each algorithm, it is shown that from only one simulation run one can not only find the global-minimum-energy conformation but also obtain probability distributions in canonical ensemble at any temperature, which allows the calculation of any thermodynamic quantity as a function of temperature.
Monte Carlo simulation of gas Cerenkov detectors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Theoretical study of selected gamma-ray and electron diagnostic necessitates coupling Cerenkov radiation to electron/photon cascades. A Cerenkov production model and its incorporation into a general geometry Monte Carlo coupled electron/photon transport code is discussed. A special optical photon ray-trace is implemented using bulk optical properties assigned to each Monte Carlo zone. Good agreement exists between experimental and calculated Cerenkov data in the case of a carbon-dioxide gas Cerenkov detector experiment. Cerenkov production and threshold data are presented for a typical carbon-dioxide gas detector that converts a 16.7 MeV photon source to Cerenkov light, which is collected by optics and detected by a photomultiplier
Efficient Monte Carlo methods for continuum radiative transfer
Juvela, M
2005-01-01
We discuss the efficiency of Monte Carlo methods in solving continuum radiative transfer problems. The sampling of the radiation field and convergence of dust temperature calculations in the case of optically thick clouds are both studied. For spherically symmetric clouds we find that the computational cost of Monte Carlo simulations can be reduced, in some cases by orders of magnitude, with simple importance weighting schemes. This is particularly true for models consisting of cells of different sizes for which the run times would otherwise be determined by the size of the smallest cell. We present a new idea of extending importance weighting to scattered photons. This is found to be useful in calculations of scattered flux and could be important for three-dimensional models when observed intensity is needed only for one general direction of observations. Convergence of dust temperature calculations is studied for models with optical depths 10-10000. We examine acceleration methods where radiative interactio...
Using Monte Carlo simulations to commission photon beam output factors: a feasibility study
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This study investigates the feasibility of using Monte Carlo methods to assist the commissioning of photon beam output factors from a medical accelerator. The Monte Carlo code, BEAMnrc, was used to model 6 MV and 18 MV photon beams from a Varian linear accelerator. When excellent agreements were obtained between the Monte Carlo simulated and measured dose distributions in a water phantom, the entire geometry including the accelerator head and the water phantom was simulated to calculate the relative output factors. Simulated output factors were compared with measured data, which consist of a typical commission dataset for the output factors. The measurements were done using an ionization chamber in a water phantom at a depth of 10 cm with a source detector distance of 100 cm. Square fields and rectangular fields with widths and lengths ranging from 4 cm to 40 cm were studied. The result shows a very good agreement (<1.5%) between the Monte Carlo calculated and the measured relative output factors for a typical commissioning dataset. The Monte Carlo calculated backscatter factors to the beam monitor chamber agree well with measured data in the literature. Monte Carlo simulations have also been shown to be able to accurately predict the collimator exchange effect and its component for rectangular fields. The information obtained is also useful to develop an algorithm for accurate beam modelling. This investigation indicates that Monte Carlo methods can be used to assist commissioning of output factors for photon beams
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A method based on a combination of the variance-reduction techniques of particle splitting and Russian roulette is presented. This method improves the efficiency of radiation transport through linear accelerator geometries simulated with the Monte Carlo method. The method named as ‘splitting-roulette’ was implemented on the Monte Carlo code PENELOPE and tested on an Elekta linac, although it is general enough to be implemented on any other general-purpose Monte Carlo radiation transport code and linac geometry. Splitting-roulette uses any of the following two modes of splitting: simple splitting and ‘selective splitting’. Selective splitting is a new splitting mode based on the angular distribution of bremsstrahlung photons implemented in the Monte Carlo code PENELOPE. Splitting-roulette improves the simulation efficiency of an Elekta SL25 linac by a factor of 45. (paper)
Li, Junli; Li, Chunyan; Qiu, Rui; Yan, Congchong; Xie, Wenzhang; Wu, Zhen; Zeng, Zhi; Tung, Chuanjong
2015-09-01
The method of Monte Carlo simulation is a powerful tool to investigate the details of radiation biological damage at the molecular level. In this paper, a Monte Carlo code called NASIC (Nanodosimetry Monte Carlo Simulation Code) was developed. It includes physical module, pre-chemical module, chemical module, geometric module and DNA damage module. The physical module can simulate physical tracks of low-energy electrons in the liquid water event-by-event. More than one set of inelastic cross sections were calculated by applying the dielectric function method of Emfietzoglou's optical-data treatments, with different optical data sets and dispersion models. In the pre-chemical module, the ionised and excited water molecules undergo dissociation processes. In the chemical module, the produced radiolytic chemical species diffuse and react. In the geometric module, an atomic model of 46 chromatin fibres in a spherical nucleus of human lymphocyte was established. In the DNA damage module, the direct damages induced by the energy depositions of the electrons and the indirect damages induced by the radiolytic chemical species were calculated. The parameters should be adjusted to make the simulation results be agreed with the experimental results. In this paper, the influence study of the inelastic cross sections and vibrational excitation reaction on the parameters and the DNA strand break yields were studied. Further work of NASIC is underway. PMID:25883312
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The method of Monte Carlo simulation is a powerful tool to investigate the details of radiation biological damage at the molecular level. In this paper, a Monte Carlo code called NASIC (Nanodosimetry Monte Carlo Simulation Code) was developed. It includes physical module, pre-chemical module, chemical module, geometric module and DNA damage module. The physical module can simulate physical tracks of low-energy electrons in the liquid water event-by-event. More than one set of inelastic cross sections were calculated by applying the dielectric function method of Emfietzoglou's optical-data treatments, with different optical data sets and dispersion models. In the pre-chemical module, the ionised and excited water molecules undergo dissociation processes. In the chemical module, the produced radiolytic chemical species diffuse and react. In the geometric module, an atomic model of 46 chromatin fibres in a spherical nucleus of human lymphocyte was established. In the DNA damage module, the direct damages induced by the energy depositions of the electrons and the indirect damages induced by the radiolytic chemical species were calculated. The parameters should be adjusted to make the simulation results be agreed with the experimental results. In this paper, the influence study of the inelastic cross sections and vibrational excitation reaction on the parameters and the DNA strand break yields were studied. Further work of NASIC is underway (authors)
Modelling laser light propagation in thermoplastics using Monte Carlo simulations
Parkinson, Alexander
Laser welding has great potential as a fast, non-contact joining method for thermoplastic parts. In the laser transmission welding of thermoplastics, light passes through a semi-transparent part to reach the weld interface. There, it is absorbed as heat, which causes melting and subsequent welding. The distribution and quantity of light reaching the interface are important for predicting the quality of a weld, but are experimentally difficult to estimate. A model for simulating the path of this laser light through these light-scattering plastic parts has been developed. The technique uses a Monte-Carlo approach to generate photon paths through the material, accounting for absorption, scattering and reflection between boundaries in the transparent polymer. It was assumed that any light escaping the bottom surface contributed to welding. The photon paths are then scaled according to the input beam profile in order to simulate non-Gaussian beam profiles. A method for determining the 3 independent optical parameters to accurately predict transmission and beam power distribution at the interface was established using experimental data for polycarbonate at 4 different glass fibre concentrations and polyamide-6 reinforced with 20% long glass fibres. Exit beam profiles and transmissions predicted by the simulation were found to be in generally good agreement (R2>0.90) with experimental measurements. The simulations allowed the prediction of transmission and power distributions at other thicknesses as well as information on reflection, energy absorption and power distributions at other thicknesses for these materials.
Monte Carlo simulations of hydrogen storage in carbon nanotubes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The storage capacities of porous materials made up of carbon nanotubes are estimated by Monte Carlo simulations for the specific case of hydrogen in the pressure domain from 0.1 to 20 MPa at temperatures of 293, 150 and 77 K. The use of these materials in devices for hydrogen storage is discussed on the basis of the simulation results. (author)
Monte Carlo simulation of virtual compton scattering at MAMI
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Monte Carlo simulation developed specially for the VCS experiments taking place at MAMI in fully described. This simulation can generate events according to the Bethe-Heitler + Born cross section behaviour and takes into account resolution deteriorating effects. It is used to determine solid angles for the various experimental settings. (authors)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The authors examined, based on first-principles calculation, the mechanism of mordenite as a species of zeolite to show high adsorption selectivity for Cs, with a focus on the pores as adsorption site. For increasing the adsorption selectivity for Cs, the following three conditions for mordenite were proposed: (1) to have many pores with a radius of about 3 Å, (2) relatively small ratio of Al and Si, and (3) uniform distribution of Al atoms around the pores to adsorb Cs. The superposition effect of the interaction obtained by embracing positive ions with all the pores was revealed to be important, which verified the importance of computational science. It was also successfully conducted to reproduce with Monte Carlo method the thermodynamic level data of ion exchange isotherms, which became engineering metrics after actual measurement. This method was able to reproduce the difference in properties shown by different zeolites, and also able to explain changes in the adsorption performance that depends on Al and Si ratio, which remained the findings from experience up to date, by utilizing the method to associate the result to microscopic factors. Based on these results, this paper discusses how far material development would be realized depending on the leadership of computational science, and what kinds of research and development would be required in the future. (A.O)
Analytical positron range modelling in heterogeneous media for PET Monte Carlo simulation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lehnert, Wencke; Meikle, Steven R [Discipline of Medical Radiation Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney, PO Box 170, Lidcombe NSW 1825 (Australia); Gregoire, Marie-Claude; Reilhac, Anthonin, E-mail: wlehnert@uni.sydney.edu.au [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights NSW 2234 (Australia)
2011-06-07
Monte Carlo simulation codes that model positron interactions along their tortuous path are expected to be accurate but are usually slow. A simpler and potentially faster approach is to model positron range from analytical annihilation density distributions. The aims of this paper were to efficiently implement and validate such a method, with the addition of medium heterogeneity representing a further challenge. The analytical positron range model was evaluated by comparing annihilation density distributions with those produced by the Monte Carlo simulator GATE and by quantitatively analysing the final reconstructed images of Monte Carlo simulated data. In addition, the influence of positronium formation on positron range and hence on the performance of Monte Carlo simulation was investigated. The results demonstrate that 1D annihilation density distributions for different isotope-media combinations can be fitted with Gaussian functions and hence be described by simple look-up-tables of fitting coefficients. Together with the method developed for simulating positron range in heterogeneous media, this allows for efficient modelling of positron range in Monte Carlo simulation. The level of agreement of the analytical model with GATE depends somewhat on the simulated scanner and the particular research task, but appears to be suitable for lower energy positron emitters, such as {sup 18}F or {sup 11}C. No reliable conclusion about the influence of positronium formation on positron range and simulation accuracy could be drawn.
Accuracy of Monte Carlo simulations compared to in-vivo MDCT dosimetry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bostani, Maryam, E-mail: mbostani@mednet.ucla.edu; McMillan, Kyle; Cagnon, Chris H.; McNitt-Gray, Michael F. [Departments of Biomedical Physics and Radiology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90024 (United States); Mueller, Jonathon W. [United States Air Force, Keesler Air Force Base, Biloxi, Mississippi 39534 (United States); Cody, Dianna D. [University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); DeMarco, John J. [Departments of Biomedical Physics and Radiation Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90024 (United States)
2015-02-15
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy of a Monte Carlo simulation-based method for estimating radiation dose from multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) by comparing simulated doses in ten patients to in-vivo dose measurements. Methods: MD Anderson Cancer Center Institutional Review Board approved the acquisition of in-vivo rectal dose measurements in a pilot study of ten patients undergoing virtual colonoscopy. The dose measurements were obtained by affixing TLD capsules to the inner lumen of rectal catheters. Voxelized patient models were generated from the MDCT images of the ten patients, and the dose to the TLD for all exposures was estimated using Monte Carlo based simulations. The Monte Carlo simulation results were compared to the in-vivo dose measurements to determine accuracy. Results: The calculated mean percent difference between TLD measurements and Monte Carlo simulations was −4.9% with standard deviation of 8.7% and a range of −22.7% to 5.7%. Conclusions: The results of this study demonstrate very good agreement between simulated and measured doses in-vivo. Taken together with previous validation efforts, this work demonstrates that the Monte Carlo simulation methods can provide accurate estimates of radiation dose in patients undergoing CT examinations.
Improving computational efficiency of Monte Carlo simulations with variance reduction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
CCFE perform Monte-Carlo transport simulations on large and complex tokamak models such as ITER. Such simulations are challenging since streaming and deep penetration effects are equally important. In order to make such simulations tractable, both variance reduction (VR) techniques and parallel computing are used. It has been found that the application of VR techniques in such models significantly reduces the efficiency of parallel computation due to 'long histories'. VR in MCNP can be accomplished using energy-dependent weight windows. The weight window represents an 'average behaviour' of particles, and large deviations in the arriving weight of a particle give rise to extreme amounts of splitting being performed and a long history. When running on parallel clusters, a long history can have a detrimental effect on the parallel efficiency - if one process is computing the long history, the other CPUs complete their batch of histories and wait idle. Furthermore some long histories have been found to be effectively intractable. To combat this effect, CCFE has developed an adaptation of MCNP which dynamically adjusts the WW where a large weight deviation is encountered. The method effectively 'de-optimises' the WW, reducing the VR performance but this is offset by a significant increase in parallel efficiency. Testing with a simple geometry has shown the method does not bias the result. This 'long history method' has enabled CCFE to significantly improve the performance of MCNP calculations for ITER on parallel clusters, and will be beneficial for any geometry combining streaming and deep penetration effects. (authors)
11th International Conference on Monte Carlo and Quasi-Monte Carlo Methods in Scientific Computing
Nuyens, Dirk
2016-01-01
This book presents the refereed proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Monte Carlo and Quasi-Monte Carlo Methods in Scientific Computing that was held at the University of Leuven (Belgium) in April 2014. These biennial conferences are major events for Monte Carlo and quasi-Monte Carlo researchers. The proceedings include articles based on invited lectures as well as carefully selected contributed papers on all theoretical aspects and applications of Monte Carlo and quasi-Monte Carlo methods. Offering information on the latest developments in these very active areas, this book is an excellent reference resource for theoreticians and practitioners interested in solving high-dimensional computational problems, arising, in particular, in finance, statistics and computer graphics.
Application of Monte Carlo methods in tomotherapy and radiation biophysics
Hsiao, Ya-Yun
Helical tomotherapy is an attractive treatment for cancer therapy because highly conformal dose distributions can be achieved while the on-board megavoltage CT provides simultaneous images for accurate patient positioning. The convolution/superposition (C/S) dose calculation methods typically used for Tomotherapy treatment planning may overestimate skin (superficial) doses by 3-13%. Although more accurate than C/S methods, Monte Carlo (MC) simulations are too slow for routine clinical treatment planning. However, the computational requirements of MC can be reduced by developing a source model for the parts of the accelerator that do not change from patient to patient. This source model then becomes the starting point for additional simulations of the penetration of radiation through patient. In the first section of this dissertation, a source model for a helical tomotherapy is constructed by condensing information from MC simulations into series of analytical formulas. The MC calculated percentage depth dose and beam profiles computed using the source model agree within 2% of measurements for a wide range of field sizes, which suggests that the proposed source model provides an adequate representation of the tomotherapy head for dose calculations. Monte Carlo methods are a versatile technique for simulating many physical, chemical and biological processes. In the second major of this thesis, a new methodology is developed to simulate of the induction of DNA damage by low-energy photons. First, the PENELOPE Monte Carlo radiation transport code is used to estimate the spectrum of initial electrons produced by photons. The initial spectrum of electrons are then combined with DNA damage yields for monoenergetic electrons from the fast Monte Carlo damage simulation (MCDS) developed earlier by Semenenko and Stewart (Purdue University). Single- and double-strand break yields predicted by the proposed methodology are in good agreement (1%) with the results of published
Modelling a gamma irradiation process using the Monte Carlo method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Soares, Gabriela A.; Pereira, Marcio T., E-mail: gas@cdtn.br, E-mail: mtp@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)
2011-07-01
In gamma irradiation service it is of great importance the evaluation of absorbed dose in order to guarantee the service quality. When physical structure and human resources are not available for performing dosimetry in each product irradiated, the appliance of mathematic models may be a solution. Through this, the prediction of the delivered dose in a specific product, irradiated in a specific position and during a certain period of time becomes possible, if validated with dosimetry tests. At the gamma irradiation facility of CDTN, equipped with a Cobalt-60 source, the Monte Carlo method was applied to perform simulations of products irradiations and the results were compared with Fricke dosimeters irradiated under the same conditions of the simulations. The first obtained results showed applicability of this method, with a linear relation between simulation and experimental results. (author)
Residual entropy of ice III from Monte Carlo simulation.
Kolafa, Jiří
2016-03-28
We calculated the residual entropy of ice III as a function of the occupation probabilities of hydrogen positions α and β assuming equal energies of all configurations. To do this, a discrete ice model with Bjerrum defect energy penalty and harmonic terms to constrain the occupation probabilities was simulated by the Metropolis Monte Carlo method for a range of temperatures and sizes followed by thermodynamic integration and extrapolation to N = ∞. Similarly as for other ices, the residual entropies are slightly higher than the mean-field (no-loop) approximation. However, the corrections caused by fluctuation of energies of ice samples calculated using molecular models of water are too large for accurate determination of the chemical potential and phase equilibria. PMID:27036463
The Monte Carlo simulation of the absorbed dose in quartz
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen Shaowen [School of Physics Science and Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510275 (China) and Electron Engineering Department, Dongguan University of Technology, Dongguan 523808 (China)], E-mail: siumon@163.com; Liu Xiaowei; Zhang Chunxiang; Tang Qiang [School of Physics Science and Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510275 (China)
2009-05-15
Regeneration irradiation is a necessary procedure in TL or OSL dating protocol. The accuracy of measuring the absorbed dose is one of the important factors in dating. Since a beta source is often used in the regeneration irradiation process, the size of the quartz sample, pressure of nitrogen gas and the material of the sample holder may cause significant uncertainties in delivering the absorbed dose. In this work, the effects of the size of the quartz sample, the pressure of nitrogen gas and the material of the sample holder are simulated using the Monte Carlo method, and the uncertainties are discussed in these cases. The results show that they need to be considered in the dating.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
罗正鸿; 詹晓力; 等
2003-01-01
Monte Carlo method is applied to investigate the kinetics of ammonia oxidative decomposition over the commercial propylene ammoxidation catalyst(Mo-Bi).The simulation is quite in agreement with experimetal results.Monte Carlo simulation proves that the process of ammonia oxidation decomposition is a two-step reaction.
Construction of the quantitative analysis environment using Monte Carlo simulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The thoracic phantom image was acquisitioned of the axial section to construct maps of the source and density with Monte Carlo (MC) simulation. The phantom was Heart/Liver Type HL (Kyoto Kagaku Co., Ltd.) single photon emission CT (SPECT)/CT machine was Symbia T6 (Siemence) with the collimator LMEGP (low-medium energy general purpose). Maps were constructed from CT images with an in-house software using Visual studio C Sharp (Microsoft). The code simulation of imaging nuclear detectors (SIMIND) was used for MC simulation, Prominence processor (Nihon Medi-Physics) for filter processing and image reconstruction, and the environment DELL Precision T7400 for all image processes. For the actual experiment, the phantom was given 15 MBq of 99mTc assuming the uptake 2% at the dose of 740 MBq in its myocardial portion and SPECT image was acquisitioned and reconstructed with Butter-worth filter and filter back projection method. CT images were similarly obtained in 0.3 mm thick slices, which were filed in one formatted with digital imaging and communication in medicine (DICOM), and then processed for application to SIMIND for mapping the source and density. Physical and mensuration factors were examined in ideal images by sequential exclusion and simulation of those factors as attenuation, scattering, spatial resolution deterioration and statistical fluctuation. Gamma energy spectrum, SPECT projection and reconstructed images given by the simulation were found to well agree with the actual data, and the precision of MC simulation was confirmed. Physical and mensuration factors were found to be evaluable individually, suggesting the usefulness of the simulation for assessing the precision of their correction. (T.T.)
Monte Carlo simulation calculation method for taxi boarding area scale%出租车上客区规模的Monte Carlo仿真计算方法
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
黎冬平
2011-01-01
为确定出租车上客区的合理规模,分析其运行特征,同时存在乘客和出租车相互等待的情况,而不能采用停车场模型或排队论模型计算.采用Monte Carlo仿真方法,利用随机原理来拟合乘客与出租车的相互作用过程,给出了合理规模的确定流程.实例应用证明该方法具有很好的适用性;同时分析结果表明:(1)当出租车上客区泊位规模达到一定程度时,再增加并不能减少乘客等待时间;(2)高峰时段适当限制乘客的排队长度能够在较小比例的乘客损失下,极大地降低乘客的等待时间.%To determine the reasonable scale of the taxi boarding area, this paper analyzes the operating characteristics that the passengers and unoccupied taxies may waiting, which can not be calculated with parking model or queue theory model Therefore, it adopts the random data to fitting the interaction process between the passengers and taxis with Monte Carlo simulation.The numerical example validates the applicability of the mode and shows that: (1)the queue waiting time will not reduce after the berths of the taxi boarding areas reached the certain nember; (2)it can greatly reduce the average waiting time when queue length is restricted.
Suppression of the initial transient in Monte Carlo criticality simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Criticality Monte Carlo calculations aim at estimating the effective multiplication factor (k-effective) for a fissile system through iterations simulating neutrons propagation (making a Markov chain). Arbitrary initialization of the neutron population can deeply bias the k-effective estimation, defined as the mean of the k-effective computed at each iteration. A simplified model of this cycle k-effective sequence is built, based on characteristics of industrial criticality Monte Carlo calculations. Statistical tests, inspired by Brownian bridge properties, are designed to discriminate stationarity of the cycle k-effective sequence. The initial detected transient is, then, suppressed in order to improve the estimation of the system k-effective. The different versions of this methodology are detailed and compared, firstly on a plan of numerical tests fitted on criticality Monte Carlo calculations, and, secondly on real criticality calculations. Eventually, the best methodologies observed in these tests are selected and allow to improve industrial Monte Carlo criticality calculations. (author)
Simulate the progress of PGNAA with Monte Carlo
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A kind of model to simulate bulk coal PGNAA process was set up, and some problems in PGNAA experiments was solved using the MOCA -Monte Carlo software. Analysis of the relationship between the thermal neutron field and the source distance, and the relationship curve with MOCA was obtained, and can be used to design measurement object bucket; simulated bulk coal PGNAA process, and analyzed activated γ spectrum. Through simulating PGNAA process, provide a theoretical basis for a bulk coal PGNAA experiments. (authors)
Monte-Carlo Simulation for an Aerogel Cherenkov Counter
al, Ryuji Suda et
1997-01-01
We have developed a Monte-Carlo simulation code for an aerogel \\v Cerenkov Counter which is operated under a strong magnetic field such as 1.5T. This code consists of two parts: photon transportation inside aerogel tiles, and one-dimensional amplification in a fine-mesh photomultiplier tube. It simulates the output photoelectron yields as accurately as 5% with only a single free parameter. This code is applied to simulations for a B-Factory particle-identification system.
Monte Carlo simulation of electron slowing down in indium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Highlights: • Electron scattering in indium targets. • Modeling of elastic cross-sections. • Monte Carlo simulation of low energy electrons. - Abstract: In the current study, we aim at simulating via a detailed Monte Carlo code, the electron penetration in a semi-infinite indium medium for incident energies ranging from 0.5 to 5 keV. Electron range, backscattering coefficients, mean penetration depths as well as stopping profiles are then reported. The results may be seen as the first predictions for low-energy electron penetration in indium target
Monte Carlo simulation of electron slowing down in indium
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rouabah, Z.; Hannachi, M. [Materials and Electronic Systems Laboratory (LMSE), University of Bordj Bou Arreridj, Bordj Bou Arreridj (Algeria); Champion, C. [Université de Bordeaux 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Centre d’Etudes Nucléaires de Bordeaux-Gradignan, (CENBG), Gradignan (France); Bouarissa, N., E-mail: n_bouarissa@yahoo.fr [Laboratory of Materials Physics and its Applications, University of M' sila, 28000 M' sila (Algeria)
2015-07-15
Highlights: • Electron scattering in indium targets. • Modeling of elastic cross-sections. • Monte Carlo simulation of low energy electrons. - Abstract: In the current study, we aim at simulating via a detailed Monte Carlo code, the electron penetration in a semi-infinite indium medium for incident energies ranging from 0.5 to 5 keV. Electron range, backscattering coefficients, mean penetration depths as well as stopping profiles are then reported. The results may be seen as the first predictions for low-energy electron penetration in indium target.
Monte Carlo simulation of PET images for injection dose optimization
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Boldyš, Jiří; Dvořák, Jiří; Bělohlávek, O.; Skopalová, M.
London : Taylor and Francis, 2011 - (Manuel, J.; Tavares, R.; Jorge, N.), s. 1-6 ISBN 978-0-415-68395-1. [VipIMAGE 2011 - third ECCOMAS thematic conference on computational vision and medical image processing. Olhao, Algarve (PT), 12.10.2011-14.10.2011] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0572 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : positron emission tomography * Monte Carlo simulation * biological system modeling * image quality Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/ZOI/boldys-monte carlo simulation of pet images for injection dose optimization.pdf
Monte Carlo simulation of GM probe and NaI detector efficiency for surface activity measurements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper deals with the direct measurement of total (fixed plus removable) surface activity in the presence of interfering radiation fields. Two methods based on Monte Carlo simulations are used: one for a Geiger–Muller (GM) ionisation probe and the other for sodium iodide (NaI) detector with lead collimators; equations for the most general case and the geometry models for Monte Carlo simulation of both (GM and NaI) detectors are employed. Finally, an example of application is discussed. - Highlights: • Two methods for direct measurements of beta/gamma surface activity are proposed. • Monte Carlo simulated efficiency of detectors was validated and tested. • The calculated and measured efficiencies of detection systems were very similar. • The comparison between two different methods shows good agreement. • Methods can be used for rapid and accurate direct measurements of surface activity
SKIRT: the design of a suite of input models for Monte Carlo radiative transfer simulations
Baes, Maarten
2015-01-01
The Monte Carlo method is the most popular technique to perform radiative transfer simulations in a general 3D geometry. The algorithms behind and acceleration techniques for Monte Carlo radiative transfer are discussed extensively in the literature, and many different Monte Carlo codes are publicly available. On the contrary, the design of a suite of components that can be used for the distribution of sources and sinks in radiative transfer codes has received very little attention. The availability of such models, with different degrees of complexity, has many benefits. For example, they can serve as toy models to test new physical ingredients, or as parameterised models for inverse radiative transfer fitting. For 3D Monte Carlo codes, this requires algorithms to efficiently generate random positions from 3D density distributions. We describe the design of a flexible suite of components for the Monte Carlo radiative transfer code SKIRT. The design is based on a combination of basic building blocks (which can...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In the report, research results discussed in 1999 fiscal year at Nuclear Code Evaluation Committee of Nuclear Code Research Committee were summarized. Present status of Monte Carlo simulation on nuclear energy study was described. Especially, besides of criticality, shielding and core analyses, present status of applications to risk and radiation damage analyses, high energy transport and nuclear theory calculations of Monte Carlo Method was described. The 18 papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)
Iridium 192 dosimetric study by Monte-Carlo method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Monte-Carlo method was applied to a dosimetry of iridium192 in water and in air; an iridium-platinum alloy seed, enveloped by a platinum can, is used as source. The radioactive decay of this nuclide and the transport of emitted particles from the seed-source in the can and in the irradiated medium are simulated successively. The photons energy spectra outside the source, as well as dose distributions, are given. Phi(d) function is calculated and our results with various experimental values are compared
Radiotherapy Monte Carlo simulation using cloud computing technology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cloud computing allows for vast computational resources to be leveraged quickly and easily in bursts as and when required. Here we describe a technique that allows for Monte Carlo radiotherapy dose calculations to be performed using GEANT4 and executed in the cloud, with relative simulation cost and completion time evaluated as a function of machine count. As expected, simulation completion time decreases as 1/n for n parallel machines, and relative simulation cost is found to be optimal where n is a factor of the total simulation time in hours. Using the technique, we demonstrate the potential usefulness of cloud computing as a solution for rapid Monte Carlo simulation for radiotherapy dose calculation without the need for dedicated local computer hardware as a proof of principal.
Condensed history Monte Carlo methods for photon transport problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study methods for accelerating Monte Carlo simulations that retain most of the accuracy of conventional Monte Carlo algorithms. These methods - called Condensed History (CH) methods - have been very successfully used to model the transport of ionizing radiation in turbid systems. Our primary objective is to determine whether or not such methods might apply equally well to the transport of photons in biological tissue. In an attempt to unify the derivations, we invoke results obtained first by Lewis, Goudsmit and Saunderson and later improved by Larsen and Tolar. We outline how two of the most promising of the CH models - one based on satisfying certain similarity relations and the second making use of a scattering phase function that permits only discrete directional changes - can be developed using these approaches. The main idea is to exploit the connection between the space-angle moments of the radiance and the angular moments of the scattering phase function. We compare the results obtained when the two CH models studied are used to simulate an idealized tissue transport problem. The numerical results support our findings based on the theoretical derivations and suggest that CH models should play a useful role in modeling light-tissue interactions
Monte Carlo simulation for moment-independent sensitivity analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The moment-independent sensitivity analysis (SA) is one of the most popular SA techniques. It aims at measuring the contribution of input variable(s) to the probability density function (PDF) of model output. However, compared with the variance-based one, robust and efficient methods are less available for computing the moment-independent SA indices (also called delta indices). In this paper, the Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) methods for moment-independent SA are investigated. A double-loop MCS method, which has the advantages of high accuracy and easy programming, is firstly developed. Then, to reduce the computational cost, a single-loop MCS method is proposed. The later method has several advantages. First, only a set of samples is needed for computing all the indices, thus it can overcome the problem of “curse of dimensionality”. Second, it is suitable for problems with dependent inputs. Third, it is purely based on model output evaluation and density estimation, thus can be used for model with high order (>2) interactions. At last, several numerical examples are introduced to demonstrate the advantages of the proposed methods.
TH-E-18A-01: Developments in Monte Carlo Methods for Medical Imaging
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Badal, A [U.S. Food and Drug Administration (CDRH/OSEL), Silver Spring, MD (United States); Zbijewski, W [Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States); Bolch, W [University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Sechopoulos, I [Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States)
2014-06-15
Monte Carlo simulation methods are widely used in medical physics research and are starting to be implemented in clinical applications such as radiation therapy planning systems. Monte Carlo simulations offer the capability to accurately estimate quantities of interest that are challenging to measure experimentally while taking into account the realistic anatomy of an individual patient. Traditionally, practical application of Monte Carlo simulation codes in diagnostic imaging was limited by the need for large computational resources or long execution times. However, recent advancements in high-performance computing hardware, combined with a new generation of Monte Carlo simulation algorithms and novel postprocessing methods, are allowing for the computation of relevant imaging parameters of interest such as patient organ doses and scatter-to-primaryratios in radiographic projections in just a few seconds using affordable computational resources. Programmable Graphics Processing Units (GPUs), for example, provide a convenient, affordable platform for parallelized Monte Carlo executions that yield simulation times on the order of 10{sup 7} xray/ s. Even with GPU acceleration, however, Monte Carlo simulation times can be prohibitive for routine clinical practice. To reduce simulation times further, variance reduction techniques can be used to alter the probabilistic models underlying the x-ray tracking process, resulting in lower variance in the results without biasing the estimates. Other complementary strategies for further reductions in computation time are denoising of the Monte Carlo estimates and estimating (scoring) the quantity of interest at a sparse set of sampling locations (e.g. at a small number of detector pixels in a scatter simulation) followed by interpolation. Beyond reduction of the computational resources required for performing Monte Carlo simulations in medical imaging, the use of accurate representations of patient anatomy is crucial to the
An empirical formula based on Monte Carlo simulation for diffuse reflectance from turbid media
Gnanatheepam, Einstein; Aruna, Prakasa Rao; Ganesan, Singaravelu
2016-03-01
Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy has been widely used in diagnostic oncology and characterization of laser irradiated tissue. However, still accurate and simple analytical equation does not exist for estimation of diffuse reflectance from turbid media. In this work, a diffuse reflectance lookup table for a range of tissue optical properties was generated using Monte Carlo simulation. Based on the generated Monte Carlo lookup table, an empirical formula for diffuse reflectance was developed using surface fitting method. The variance between the Monte Carlo lookup table surface and the surface obtained from the proposed empirical formula is less than 1%. The proposed empirical formula may be used for modeling of diffuse reflectance from tissue.
Monte Carlo simulation of photon way in clinical laser therapy
Ionita, Iulian; Voitcu, Gabriel
2011-07-01
The multiple scattering of light can increase efficiency of laser therapy of inflammatory diseases enlarging the treated area. The light absorption is essential for treatment while scattering dominates. Multiple scattering effects must be introduced using the Monte Carlo method for modeling light transport in tissue and finally to calculate the optical parameters. Diffuse reflectance measurements were made on high concentrated live leukocyte suspensions in similar conditions as in-vivo measurements. The results were compared with the values determined by MC calculations, and the latter have been adjusted to match the specified values of diffuse reflectance. The principal idea of MC simulations applied to absorption and scattering phenomena is to follow the optical path of a photon through the turbid medium. The concentrated live cell solution is a compromise between homogeneous layer as in MC model and light-live cell interaction as in-vivo experiments. In this way MC simulation allow us to compute the absorption coefficient. The values of optical parameters, derived from simulation by best fitting of measured reflectance, were used to determine the effective cross section. Thus we can compute the absorbed radiation dose at cellular level.
Monte Carlo simulations of intensity profiles for energetic particle propagation
Tautz, R. C.; Bolte, J.; Shalchi, A.
2016-02-01
Aims: Numerical test-particle simulations are a reliable and frequently used tool for testing analytical transport theories and predicting mean-free paths. The comparison between solutions of the diffusion equation and the particle flux is used to critically judge the applicability of diffusion to the stochastic transport of energetic particles in magnetized turbulence. Methods: A Monte Carlo simulation code is extended to allow for the generation of intensity profiles and anisotropy-time profiles. Because of the relatively low number density of computational particles, a kernel function has to be used to describe the spatial extent of each particle. Results: The obtained intensity profiles are interpreted as solutions of the diffusion equation by inserting the diffusion coefficients that have been directly determined from the mean-square displacements. The comparison shows that the time dependence of the diffusion coefficients needs to be considered, in particular the initial ballistic phase and the often subdiffusive perpendicular coefficient. Conclusions: It is argued that the perpendicular component of the distribution function is essential if agreement between the diffusion solution and the simulated flux is to be obtained. In addition, time-dependent diffusion can provide a better description than the classic diffusion equation only after the initial ballistic phase.
Research on ionization and secondary reaction coupled Monte Carlo simulation and its application
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Coupled simulation of deuteron or triton ionization and secondary fusion reaction was studied with a Monte Carlo tool named RSMC (Reaction Sequence Monte Carlo). The detail history and condensed history methods were employed for ionization simulation. Fusion cross sections of deuteron and triton were adopted from ENDF or TENDL. The 'forced particle production' variance reduction technique was also employed to improve the simulation efficiency. As a validation, three types of examples were introduced, including neutron depth profiling, accelerator based mono-energy neutron source, and thermal-to-fusion neutron converter. (authors)
Extending canonical Monte Carlo methods: II
Velazquez, L.; Curilef, S.
2010-04-01
We have previously presented a methodology for extending canonical Monte Carlo methods inspired by a suitable extension of the canonical fluctuation relation C = β2langδE2rang compatible with negative heat capacities, C < 0. Now, we improve this methodology by including the finite size effects that reduce the precision of a direct determination of the microcanonical caloric curve β(E) = ∂S(E)/∂E, as well as by carrying out a better implementation of the MC schemes. We show that, despite the modifications considered, the extended canonical MC methods lead to an impressive overcoming of the so-called supercritical slowing down observed close to the region of the temperature driven first-order phase transition. In this case, the size dependence of the decorrelation time τ is reduced from an exponential growth to a weak power-law behavior, \\tau (N)\\propto N^{\\alpha } , as is shown in the particular case of the 2D seven-state Potts model where the exponent α = 0.14-0.18.
Monte Carlo simulation of magnetic nanostructured thin films
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Guan Zhi-Qiang; Yutaka Abe; Jiang Dong-Hua; Lin Hai; Yoshitake Yamazakia; Wu Chen-Xu
2004-01-01
@@ Using Monte Carlo simulation, we have compared the magnetic properties between nanostructured thin films and two-dimensional crystalline solids. The dependence of nanostructured properties on the interaction between particles that constitute the nanostructured thin films is also studied. The result shows that the parameters in the interaction potential have an important effect on the properties of nanostructured thin films at the transition temperatures.
Monte Carlo Simulations of Impact Ionization Feedback in MOSFET Structures
Bude, Jeff D.
1998-01-01
Although impact ionization feedback is recognized as an important current multiplication mechanism, its importance as a carrier heating mechanism has been largely overlooked. This work emphasizes the inclusion of impact ionization feedback in Monte Carlo device simulations, and its implications for carrier heating in sub-micron CMOS and EEPROM technologies.
Radio emission from cosmic ray air showers : Monte Carlo simulations
Huege, T.; Falcke, H.D.E.
2005-01-01
We present time-domain Monte Carlo simulations of radio emission from cosmic ray air showers in the scheme of coherent geosynchrotron radiation. Our model takes into account the important air shower characteristics such as the lateral and longitudinal particle distributions, the particle track lengt
Quantum Monte Carlo simulation with a black hole
Benić, Sanjin; Yamamoto, Arata
2016-05-01
We perform quantum Monte Carlo simulations in the background of a classical black hole. The lattice discretized path integral is numerically calculated in the Schwarzschild metric and in its approximated metric. We study spontaneous symmetry breaking of a real scalar field theory. We observe inhomogeneous symmetry breaking induced by an inhomogeneous gravitational field.
Microbial contamination in poultry chillers estimated by Monte Carlo simulations
The risk of microbial contamination during poultry processing may be reduced by the operating characteristics of the chiller. The performance of air chillers and immersion chillers were compared in terms of pre-chill and post-chill contamination using Monte Carlo simulations. Three parameters were u...
Use of Monte Carlo Methods in brachytherapy; Uso del metodo de Monte Carlo en braquiterapia
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Granero Cabanero, D.
2015-07-01
The Monte Carlo method has become a fundamental tool for brachytherapy dosimetry mainly because no difficulties associated with experimental dosimetry. In brachytherapy the main handicap of experimental dosimetry is the high dose gradient near the present sources making small uncertainties in the positioning of the detectors lead to large uncertainties in the dose. This presentation will review mainly the procedure for calculating dose distributions around a fountain using the Monte Carlo method showing the difficulties inherent in these calculations. In addition we will briefly review other applications of the method of Monte Carlo in brachytherapy dosimetry, as its use in advanced calculation algorithms, calculating barriers or obtaining dose applicators around. (Author)
Monte Carlo simulation of tomography techniques using the platform Gate
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Simulations play a key role in functional imaging, with applications ranging from scanner design, scatter correction, protocol optimisation. GATE (Geant4 for Application Tomography Emission) is a platform for Monte Carlo Simulation. It is based on Geant4 to generate and track particles, to model geometry and physics process. Explicit modelling of time includes detector motion, time of flight, tracer kinetics. Interfaces to voxellised models and image reconstruction packages improve the integration of GATE in the global modelling cycle. In this work Monte Carlo simulations are used to understand and optimise the gamma camera's performances. We study the effect of the distance between source and collimator, the diameter of the holes and the thick of the collimator on the spatial resolution, energy resolution and efficiency of the gamma camera. We also study the reduction of simulation's time and implement a model of left ventricle in GATE. (Author). 7 refs
Monte Carlo simulations of plutonium gamma-ray spectra
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Monte Carlo calculations were investigated as a means of simulating the gamma-ray spectra of Pu. These simulated spectra will be used to develop and evaluate gamma-ray analysis techniques for various nondestructive measurements. Simulated spectra of calculational standards can be used for code intercomparisons, to understand systematic biases and to estimate minimum detection levels of existing and proposed nondestructive analysis instruments. The capability to simulate gamma-ray spectra from HPGe detectors could significantly reduce the costs of preparing large numbers of real reference materials. MCNP was used for the Monte Carlo transport of the photons. Results from the MCNP calculations were folded in with a detector response function for a realistic spectrum. Plutonium spectrum peaks were produced with Lorentzian shapes, for the x-rays, and Gaussian distributions. The MGA code determined the Pu isotopes and specific power of this calculated spectrum and compared it to a similar analysis on a measured spectrum
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Smith, W.R.; Moučka, F.; Lísal, Martin
Saint Petersburg: Saint Petersburg State University, 2011 - (Gotlib, I.; Victorov, A.; Smirnova, N.), s. 27 ISBN 5-85263-061-6. [European Symposium on Applied Thermodynamics /25./. Saint Petersburg (RU), 24.06.2011-27.06.2011] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : general methodology * osmotic ensemble monte carlo * water molecules Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry
Method of tallying adjoint fluence and calculating kinetics parameters in Monte Carlo codes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A method of using iterated fission probability to estimate the adjoint fluence during particles simulation, and using it as the weighting function to calculate kinetics parameters βeff and A in Monte Carlo codes, was introduced in this paper. Implements of this method in continuous energy Monte Carlo code MCNP and multi-group Monte Carlo code MCMG are both elaborated. Verification results show that, with regardless additional computing cost, using this method, the adjoint fluence accounted by MCMG matches well with the result computed by ANISN, and the kinetics parameters calculated by MCNP agree very well with benchmarks. This method is proved to be reliable, and the function of calculating kinetics parameters in Monte Carlo codes is carried out effectively, which could be the basement for Monte Carlo codes' utility in the analysis of nuclear reactors' transient behavior. (authors)
Assessing Excel VBA Suitability for Monte Carlo Simulation
Botchkarev, Alexei
2015-01-01
Monte Carlo (MC) simulation includes a wide range of stochastic techniques used to quantitatively evaluate the behavior of complex systems or processes. Microsoft Excel spreadsheets with Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) software is, arguably, the most commonly employed general purpose tool for MC simulation. Despite the popularity of the Excel in many industries and educational institutions, it has been repeatedly criticized for its flaws and often described as questionable, if not complet...
Monte Carlo simulation of a two-dimensional magnetic foam
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A two-dimensional Ising-like model with spin 1 and long-range interactions is studied numerically through a Monte Carlo simulation. The goal of the simulation is to describe pattern formations and critical temperature of two-dimensional magnetic structures. Three sets of parameters are considered, that give rise to stripes, labyrinths or cellular domain structures. We determine for each configuration the transition ordering temperatures, the relaxation of the energy, the hysteresis cycle, and the average size of the domains
Monte Carlo simulation of virtual Compton scattering below pion threshold
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper describes the Monte Carlo simulation developed specifically for the Virtual Compton Scattering (VCS) experiments below pion threshold that have been performed at MAMI and JLab. This simulation generates events according to the (Bethe-Heitler + Born) cross-section behaviour and takes into account all relevant resolution-deteriorating effects. It determines the 'effective' solid angle for the various experimental settings which are used for the precise determination of the photon electroproduction absolute cross-section
Perspectives for Monte Carlo simulations on the CNN Universal Machine
Ercsey-Ravasz, M.; Roska, T.; Neda, Z.
2006-01-01
Possibilities for performing stochastic simulations on the analog and fully parallelized Cellular Neural Network Universal Machine (CNN-UM) are investigated. By using a chaotic cellular automaton perturbed with the natural noise of the CNN-UM chip, a realistic binary random number generator is built. As a specific example for Monte Carlo type simulations, we use this random number generator and a CNN template to study the classical site-percolation problem on the ACE16K chip. The study reveal...
Monte Carlo particle simulation and finite-element techniques for tandem mirror transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A description is given of numerical methods used in the study of axial transport in tandem mirrors owing to Coulomb collisions and rf diffusion. The methods are Monte Carlo particle simulations and direct solution to the Fokker-Planck equations by finite-element expansion. (author)
Components of Detector Response Function: Experiment and Monte Carlo Simulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Components of the response function of an HPGe (high-purity germanium) detector due to full or partial energy deposition by gamma- and X-rays were studied. Experimental response functions for 241Am, Ba and Tb were compared with those obtained from the Monte Carlo simulations. The role of physical mechanisms for each component was investigated by considering escape/absorption of photons, photoelectrons, Auger electrons, recoil electrons and X-rays of the detector material. A detailed comparison of the experimental Compton, photoelectron, detector X-ray escape components and full-energy peaks with those obtained from Monte Carlo program are presented
Genetic algorithms and Monte Carlo simulation for optimal plant design
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present an approach to the optimal plant design (choice of system layout and components) under conflicting safety and economic constraints, based upon the coupling of a Monte Carlo evaluation of plant operation with a Genetic Algorithms-maximization procedure. The Monte Carlo simulation model provides a flexible tool, which enables one to describe relevant aspects of plant design and operation, such as standby modes and deteriorating repairs, not easily captured by analytical models. The effects of deteriorating repairs are described by means of a modified Brown-Proschan model of imperfect repair which accounts for the possibility of an increased proneness to failure of a component after a repair. The transitions of a component from standby to active, and vice versa, are simulated using a multiplicative correlation model. The genetic algorithms procedure is demanded to optimize a profit function which accounts for the plant safety and economic performance and which is evaluated, for each possible design, by the above Monte Carlo simulation. In order to avoid an overwhelming use of computer time, for each potential solution proposed by the genetic algorithm, we perform only few hundreds Monte Carlo histories and, then, exploit the fact that during the genetic algorithm population evolution, the fit chromosomes appear repeatedly many times, so that the results for the solutions of interest (i.e. the best ones) attain statistical significance
Martini - Monte Carlo Simulation of Jet Evolution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present the Modular Algorithm for Relativistic Treatment of heavy IoN Interactions (MARTINI), an event generator for the hard and penetrating probes in high energy nucleus-nucleus collisions. The simulation consists of a time evolution model for the soft background, such as hydrodynamics, PYTHIA 8.1 to generate and hadronize the hard partons after the medium evolution, which is based on the McGill-AMY formalism and includes both radiative and elastic processes. MARTINI allows for the generation of full event configurations in the high pT region. We present results for the neutral pion and photon nuclear modification factor in Au + Au collisions at RHIC. (authors)
Mechanical properties of carbon nanostructures investigated by Monte Carlo simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Full text: Carbon nanostructures are a fascinating class of materials combining high stiffness with low weight and exceptional toughness that makes carbon a promising candidate for applications in structural mechanics. Understanding the mechanical behavior of carbon structures also on atomistic length scales is inevitable in describing the mechanical performance and stability of large, hierarchical structures like carbon onions and fibers. In the presented work ab initio calculations were used to extract classical potentials describing stretching, bending and torsion deformations of carbon bonds that were used in subsequent Monte Carlo simulations to perform computational mechanical tests on graphene, carbon nanotubes and fullerenes. These tests included the application of hydrostatic pressure, the application of a ring load and the deformation of a fullerene between two plates. We analyzed the elastic response, as well as the stability limits and post buckling behavior of the structures for different sizes. The simulation results were compared to the predictions of nite element methods to evaluate macroscopic parameters like elastic modulus or Poisson ratio of the investigated structures. In fullerenes special attention was paid to the influence of pentagons that are inherently present in these structures. It was observed that the pentagons deform less than the atomic bonds in hexagonal geometry. (author)
Direct Simulation Monte Carlo Investigation of Noncontinuum Couette Flow
Torczynski, J. R.; Gallis, M. A.
2009-11-01
The Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method of molecular gas dynamics is used to study noncontinuum effects in Couette flow. The walls have equal temperatures and equal accommodation coefficients but unequal tangential velocities. Simulations are performed for near-free-molecular to near-continuum gas pressures with accommodation coefficients of 0.25, 0.5, and 1. Ten gases are examined: argon, helium, nitrogen, sea-level air, and six Inverse-Power-Law (IPL) gases with viscosity temperature exponents of 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, 0.9, and 1.0, as represented by the Variable Soft Sphere (VSS) interaction. In all cases, the wall shear stress is proportional to the slip velocity. The momentum transfer coefficient relating these two quantities can be accurately correlated in terms of the Knudsen number based on the wall separation. The two dimensionless parameters in the correlation are similar for all gases examined. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.
Monte Carlo simulations of lattice models for single polymer systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hsu, Hsiao-Ping, E-mail: hsu@mpip-mainz.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Polymerforschung, Ackermannweg 10, D-55128 Mainz (Germany)
2014-10-28
Single linear polymer chains in dilute solutions under good solvent conditions are studied by Monte Carlo simulations with the pruned-enriched Rosenbluth method up to the chain length N∼O(10{sup 4}). Based on the standard simple cubic lattice model (SCLM) with fixed bond length and the bond fluctuation model (BFM) with bond lengths in a range between 2 and √(10), we investigate the conformations of polymer chains described by self-avoiding walks on the simple cubic lattice, and by random walks and non-reversible random walks in the absence of excluded volume interactions. In addition to flexible chains, we also extend our study to semiflexible chains for different stiffness controlled by a bending potential. The persistence lengths of chains extracted from the orientational correlations are estimated for all cases. We show that chains based on the BFM are more flexible than those based on the SCLM for a fixed bending energy. The microscopic differences between these two lattice models are discussed and the theoretical predictions of scaling laws given in the literature are checked and verified. Our simulations clarify that a different mapping ratio between the coarse-grained models and the atomistically realistic description of polymers is required in a coarse-graining approach due to the different crossovers to the asymptotic behavior.
Neutron transport calculations using Quasi-Monte Carlo methods
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Moskowitz, B.S.
1997-07-01
This paper examines the use of quasirandom sequences of points in place of pseudorandom points in Monte Carlo neutron transport calculations. For two simple demonstration problems, the root mean square error, computed over a set of repeated runs, is found to be significantly less when quasirandom sequences are used ({open_quotes}Quasi-Monte Carlo Method{close_quotes}) than when a standard Monte Carlo calculation is performed using only pseudorandom points.
Optimization of reconstruction algorithms using Monte Carlo simulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A method for optimizing reconstruction algorithms is presented that is based on how well a specified task can be performed using the reconstructed images. Task performance is numerically assessed by a Monte Carlo simulation of the complete imaging process including the generation of scenes appropriate to the desired application, subsequent data taking, reconstruction, and performance of the stated task based on the final image. The use of this method is demonstrated through the optimization of the Algebraic Reconstruction Technique (ART), which reconstructs images from their projections by a iterative procedure. The optimization is accomplished by varying the relaxation factor employed in the updating procedure. In some of the imaging situations studied, it is found that the optimization of constrained ART, in which a nonnegativity constraint is invoked, can vastly increase the detectability of objects. There is little improvement attained for unconstrained ART. The general method presented may be applied to the problem of designing neutron-diffraction spectrometers. 11 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs
A Monte Carlo simulation technique to determine the optimal portfolio
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hassan Ghodrati
2014-03-01
Full Text Available During the past few years, there have been several studies for portfolio management. One of the primary concerns on any stock market is to detect the risk associated with various assets. One of the recognized methods in order to measure, to forecast, and to manage the existing risk is associated with Value at Risk (VaR, which draws much attention by financial institutions in recent years. VaR is a method for recognizing and evaluating of risk, which uses the standard statistical techniques and the method has been used in other fields, increasingly. The present study has measured the value at risk of 26 companies from chemical industry in Tehran Stock Exchange over the period 2009-2011 using the simulation technique of Monte Carlo with 95% confidence level. The used variability in the present study has been the daily return resulted from the stock daily price change. Moreover, the weight of optimal investment has been determined using a hybrid model called Markowitz and Winker model in each determined stocks. The results showed that the maximum loss would not exceed from 1259432 Rials at 95% confidence level in future day.
Monte Carlo method for solving a parabolic problem
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tian Yi
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we present a numerical method based on random sampling for a parabolic problem. This method combines use of the Crank-Nicolson method and Monte Carlo method. In the numerical algorithm, we first discretize governing equations by Crank-Nicolson method, and obtain a large sparse system of linear algebraic equations, then use Monte Carlo method to solve the linear algebraic equations. To illustrate the usefulness of this technique, we apply it to some test problems.
Iterative acceleration methods for Monte Carlo and deterministic criticality calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
If you have ever given up on a nuclear criticality calculation and terminated it because it took so long to converge, you might find this thesis of interest. The author develops three methods for improving the fission source convergence in nuclear criticality calculations for physical systems with high dominance ratios for which convergence is slow. The Fission Matrix Acceleration Method and the Fission Diffusion Synthetic Acceleration (FDSA) Method are acceleration methods that speed fission source convergence for both Monte Carlo and deterministic methods. The third method is a hybrid Monte Carlo method that also converges for difficult problems where the unaccelerated Monte Carlo method fails. The author tested the feasibility of all three methods in a test bed consisting of idealized problems. He has successfully accelerated fission source convergence in both deterministic and Monte Carlo criticality calculations. By filtering statistical noise, he has incorporated deterministic attributes into the Monte Carlo calculations in order to speed their source convergence. He has used both the fission matrix and a diffusion approximation to perform unbiased accelerations. The Fission Matrix Acceleration method has been implemented in the production code MCNP and successfully applied to a real problem. When the unaccelerated calculations are unable to converge to the correct solution, they cannot be accelerated in an unbiased fashion. A Hybrid Monte Carlo method weds Monte Carlo and a modified diffusion calculation to overcome these deficiencies. The Hybrid method additionally possesses reduced statistical errors
Iterative acceleration methods for Monte Carlo and deterministic criticality calculations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Urbatsch, T.J.
1995-11-01
If you have ever given up on a nuclear criticality calculation and terminated it because it took so long to converge, you might find this thesis of interest. The author develops three methods for improving the fission source convergence in nuclear criticality calculations for physical systems with high dominance ratios for which convergence is slow. The Fission Matrix Acceleration Method and the Fission Diffusion Synthetic Acceleration (FDSA) Method are acceleration methods that speed fission source convergence for both Monte Carlo and deterministic methods. The third method is a hybrid Monte Carlo method that also converges for difficult problems where the unaccelerated Monte Carlo method fails. The author tested the feasibility of all three methods in a test bed consisting of idealized problems. He has successfully accelerated fission source convergence in both deterministic and Monte Carlo criticality calculations. By filtering statistical noise, he has incorporated deterministic attributes into the Monte Carlo calculations in order to speed their source convergence. He has used both the fission matrix and a diffusion approximation to perform unbiased accelerations. The Fission Matrix Acceleration method has been implemented in the production code MCNP and successfully applied to a real problem. When the unaccelerated calculations are unable to converge to the correct solution, they cannot be accelerated in an unbiased fashion. A Hybrid Monte Carlo method weds Monte Carlo and a modified diffusion calculation to overcome these deficiencies. The Hybrid method additionally possesses reduced statistical errors.
Monte Carlo simulations of neutron oil well logging tools
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Monte Carlo simulations of simple neutron oil well logging tools into typical geological formations are presented. The simulated tools consist of both 14 MeV pulsed and continuous Am-Be neutron sources with time gated and continuous gamma ray detectors respectively. The geological formation consists of pure limestone with 15% absolute porosity in a wide range of oil saturation. The particle transport was performed with the Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code System, MCNP-4B. Several gamma ray spectra were obtained at the detector position that allow to perform composition analysis of the formation. In particular, the ratio C/O was analyzed as an indicator of oil saturation. Further calculations are proposed to simulate actual detector responses in order to contribute to understand the relation between the detector response with the formation composition. (author)
Monte Carlo simulation of quantum Zeno effect in the brain
Georgiev, Danko
2014-01-01
Environmental decoherence appears to be the biggest obstacle for successful construction of quantum mind theories. Nevertheless, the quantum physicist Henry Stapp promoted the view that the mind could utilize quantum Zeno effect to influence brain dynamics and that the efficacy of such mental efforts would not be undermined by environmental decoherence of the brain. To address the physical plausibility of Stapp's claim, we modeled the brain using quantum tunneling of an electron in a multiple-well structure such as the voltage sensor in neuronal ion channels and performed Monte Carlo simulations of quantum Zeno effect exerted by the mind upon the brain in the presence or absence of environmental decoherence. The simulations unambiguously showed that the quantum Zeno effect breaks down for timescales greater than the brain decoherence time. To generalize the Monte Carlo simulation results for any n-level quantum system, we further analyzed the change of brain entropy due to the mind probing actions and proved ...
Monte Carlo Simulations of Neutron Oil well Logging Tools
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Monte Carlo simulations of simple neutron oil well logging tools into typical geological formations are presented.The simulated tools consist of both 14 MeV pulsed and continuous Am-Be neutron sources with time gated and continuous gamma ray detectors respectively.The geological formation consists of pure limestone with 15% absolute porosity in a wide range of oil saturation.The particle transport was performed with the Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code System, MCNP-4B.Several gamma ray spectra were obtained at the detector position that allow to perform composition analysis of the formation.In particular, the ratio C/O was analyzed as an indicator of oil saturation.Further calculations are proposed to simulate actual detector responses in order to contribute to understand the relation between the detector response with the formation composition
Monte Carlo Simulations of Neutron Oil well Logging Tools
Azcurra, M
2002-01-01
Monte Carlo simulations of simple neutron oil well logging tools into typical geological formations are presented.The simulated tools consist of both 14 MeV pulsed and continuous Am-Be neutron sources with time gated and continuous gamma ray detectors respectively.The geological formation consists of pure limestone with 15% absolute porosity in a wide range of oil saturation.The particle transport was performed with the Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code System, MCNP-4B.Several gamma ray spectra were obtained at the detector position that allow to perform composition analysis of the formation.In particular, the ratio C/O was analyzed as an indicator of oil saturation.Further calculations are proposed to simulate actual detector responses in order to contribute to understand the relation between the detector response with the formation composition
Confidence interval procedures for Monte Carlo transport simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The problem of obtaining valid confidence intervals based on estimates from sampled distributions using Monte Carlo particle transport simulation codes such as MCNP is examined. Such intervals can cover the true parameter of interest at a lower than nominal rate if the sampled distribution is extremely right-skewed by large tallies. Modifications to the standard theory of confidence intervals are discussed and compared with some existing heuristics, including batched means normality tests. Two new types of diagnostics are introduced to assess whether the conditions of central limit theorem-type results are satisfied: the relative variance of the variance determines whether the sample size is sufficiently large, and estimators of the slope of the right tail of the distribution are used to indicate the number of moments that exist. A simulation study is conducted to quantify the relationship between various diagnostics and coverage rates and to find sample-based quantities useful in indicating when intervals are expected to be valid. Simulated tally distributions are chosen to emulate behavior seen in difficult particle transport problems. Measures of variation in the sample variance s2 are found to be much more effective than existing methods in predicting when coverage will be near nominal rates. Batched means tests are found to be overly conservative in this regard. A simple but pathological MCNP problem is presented as an example of false convergence using existing heuristics. The new methods readily detect the false convergence and show that the results of the problem, which are a factor of 4 too small, should not be used. Recommendations are made for applying these techniques in practice, using the statistical output currently produced by MCNP
Dose calculation of 6 MV Truebeam using Monte Carlo method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The purpose of this work is to simulate 6 MV Varian Truebeam linac dosimeter characteristics using Monte Carlo method and to investigate the availability of phase space file and the accuracy of the simulation. With the phase space file at linac window supplied by Varian to be a source, the patient-dependent part was simulated. Dose distributions in a water phantom with a 10 cm × 10 cm field were calculated and compared with measured data for validation. Evident time reduction was obtained from 4-5 h which a whole simulation cost on the same computer to around 48 minutes. Good agreement between simulations and measurements in water was observed. Dose differences are less than 3% for depth doses in build-up region and also for dose profiles inside the 80% field size, and the effect in penumbra is good. It demonstrate that the simulation using existing phase space file as the EGSnrc source is efficient. Dose differences between calculated data and measured data could meet the requirements for dose calculation. (authors)
Frequency-domain deviational Monte Carlo method for linear oscillatory gas flows
Ladiges, Daniel R.; Sader, John E.
2015-10-01
Oscillatory non-continuum low Mach number gas flows are often generated by nanomechanical devices in ambient conditions. These flows can be simulated using a range of particle based Monte Carlo techniques, which in their original form operate exclusively in the time-domain. Recently, a frequency-domain weight-based Monte Carlo method was proposed [D. R. Ladiges and J. E. Sader, "Frequency-domain Monte Carlo method for linear oscillatory gas flows," J. Comput. Phys. 284, 351-366 (2015)] that exhibits superior statistical convergence when simulating oscillatory flows. This previous method used the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK) kinetic model and contains a "virtual-time" variable to maintain the inherent time-marching nature of existing Monte Carlo algorithms. Here, we propose an alternative frequency-domain deviational Monte Carlo method that facilitates the use of a wider range of molecular models and more efficient collision/relaxation operators. We demonstrate this method with oscillatory Couette flow and the flow generated by an oscillating sphere, utilizing both the BGK kinetic model and hard sphere particles. We also discuss how oscillatory motion of arbitrary time-dependence can be simulated using computationally efficient parallelization. As in the weight-based method, this deviational frequency-domain Monte Carlo method is shown to offer improved computational speed compared to the equivalent time-domain technique.
Monte Carlo Simulation of HERD Calorimeter
Xu, M; Dong, Y W; Lu, J G; Quan, Z; Wang, L; Wang, Z G; Wu, B B; Zhang, S N
2014-01-01
The High Energy cosmic-Radiation Detection (HERD) facility onboard China's Space Station is planned for operation starting around 2020 for about 10 years. It is designed as a next generation space facility focused on indirect dark matter search, precise cosmic ray spectrum and composition measurements up to the knee energy, and high energy gamma-ray monitoring and survey. The calorimeter plays an essential role in the main scientific objectives of HERD. A 3-D cubic calorimeter filled with high granularity crystals as active material is a very promising choice for the calorimeter. HERD is mainly composed of a 3-D calorimeter (CALO) surrounded by silicon trackers (TK) from all five sides except the bottom. CALO is made of 9261 cubes of LYSO crystals, corresponding to about 55 radiation lengths and 3 nuclear interaction lengths, respectively. Here the simulation results of the performance of CALO with GEANT4 and FLUKA are presented: 1) the total absorption CALO and its absorption depth for precise energy measure...
Nonlinear Condition Tolerancing Using Monte Carlo Simulation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
JOUILEL Naima
2016-05-01
Full Text Available To ensure accuracy and performance of the products, designers tend to hug the tolerances. While, manufacturers prefer to increase them in order to reduce costs and ensure competition. The analysis and synthesis of tolerances aim on studying their influence on conformity with functional requirements. This study may be conducted in the case of the most unfavorable configurations with the "worst case" method, or "in all cases" using the statistical approach. However, having a nonlinear condition make it difficult to analyse the influence of parameters on the functional condition. In this work, we are interested in the tolerance analysis of a mechanism presenting a nonlinear functional condition (slider crank mechanism. To do this we'll develop an approach of tolerances analysis combining the worst case and the statistical methods.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Apsara is a swimming pool type research reactor loaded with Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) fuel. The reactor is designed for a maximum power level of 1 MW and is normally operated up to 400 KW. The pool water serves as coolant, moderator and reflector besides providing shielding. In addition, graphite and beryllium oxide incased in aluminum boxes are used as in-core reflector. The core is mounted on a square grid of aluminum, 56x56x15 cm with 49 holes on a 7 x 7 square lattice (77 mm pitch), containing fuel elements, control elements, reflectors, irradiation tubes, neutron source and fission counter. This study served in validation of the experimental measurements conducted using GM counter based detector and diode based detectors. In addition, the comparison provided a confirmation of the accuracy of the radiation transport simulation techniques used for dose rate evaluation in case of complex source geometries and large shield materials present. The experimental measurements thus served in bench marking the simulation methods adopted for radiation transport used to arrive at reactor physics and radiological safety parameters of interest
In silico radiobiology: Have we reached the limit of Monte Carlo simulations?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Monte Carlo radiation transport models are increasingly being used to simulate biological damage. However, such radiation biophysics simulations require realistic molecular models for water, whereas existing Monte Carlo models are limited by their use of atomic cross-sections, which become inadequate for accurately modelling interactions of the very low-energy electrons that are responsible for biological damage. In this study, we borrow theoretical methods commonly employed in molecular dynamics simulations to model the molecular wavefunction of the water molecule as the first step towards deriving new molecular cross-sections. We calculate electron charge distributions for molecular water and find non-negligible differences between the vapor and liquid phases that can be attributed to intermolecular bonding in the condensed phase. We propose that a hybrid Monte Carlo – Molecular Dynamics (MC-MD) approach to modelling radiation biophysics will provide new insights into radiation damage and new opportunities to develop targeted molecular therapy strategies.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P.Orea
2003-01-01
Full Text Available We have performed Monte Carlo simulations in the canonical ensemble of a hard-sphere fluid adsorbed in microporous media. The pressure of the adsorbed fluid is calculated by using an original procedure that includes the calculations of the pressure tensor components during the simulation. In order to confirm the equivalence of bulk and adsorbed fluid pressures, we have exploited the mechanical condition of equilibrium and performed additional canonical Monte Carlo simulations in a super system "bulk fluid + adsorbed fluid". When the configuration of a model porous media permits each of its particles to be in contact with adsorbed fluid particles, we found that these pressures are equal. Unlike the grand canonical Monte Carlo method, the proposed calculation approach can be used efficiently to obtain adsorption isotherms over a wide range of fluid densities and porosities of adsorbent.
Monte Carlo methods in AB initio quantum chemistry quantum Monte Carlo for molecules
Lester, William A; Reynolds, PJ
1994-01-01
This book presents the basic theory and application of the Monte Carlo method to the electronic structure of atoms and molecules. It assumes no previous knowledge of the subject, only a knowledge of molecular quantum mechanics at the first-year graduate level. A working knowledge of traditional ab initio quantum chemistry is helpful, but not essential.Some distinguishing features of this book are: Clear exposition of the basic theory at a level to facilitate independent study. Discussion of the various versions of the theory: diffusion Monte Carlo, Green's function Monte Carlo, and release n
Monte Carlo simulation: tool for the calibration in analytical determination of radionuclides
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This work shows how is established the traceability of the analytical determinations using this calibration method. Highlights the advantages offered by Monte Carlo simulation for the application of corrections by differences in chemical composition, density and height of the samples analyzed. Likewise, the results obtained by the LVRA in two exercises organized by the International Agency for Atomic Energy (IAEA) are presented. In these exercises (an intercomparison and a proficiency test) all reported analytical results were obtained based on calibrations in efficiency by Monte Carlo simulation using the DETEFF program
Computed radiography simulation using the Monte Carlo code MCNPX
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Simulating x-ray images has been of great interest in recent years as it makes possible an analysis of how x-ray images are affected owing to relevant operating parameters. In this paper, a procedure for simulating computed radiographic images using the Monte Carlo code MCNPX is proposed. The sensitivity curve of the BaFBr image plate detector as well as the characteristic noise of a 16-bit computed radiography system were considered during the methodology's development. The results obtained confirm that the proposed procedure for simulating computed radiographic images is satisfactory, as it allows obtaining results comparable with experimental data. (author)
Monte Carlo simulation of a prototype photodetector used in radiotherapy
Kausch, C; Albers, D; Schmidt, R; Schreiber, B
2000-01-01
The imaging performance of prototype electronic portal imaging devices (EPID) has been investigated. Monte Carlo simulations have been applied to calculate the modulation transfer function (MTF( f )), the noise power spectrum (NPS( f )) and the detective quantum efficiency (DQE( f )) for different new type of EPIDs, which consist of a detector combination of metal or polyethylene (PE), a phosphor layer of Gd sub 2 O sub 2 S and a flat array of photodiodes. The simulated results agree well with measurements. Based on simulated results, possible optimization of these devices is discussed.
Monte Carlo simulation of primary recrystallization and annealing twinning
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The formation of annealing twins has been studied from the beginning of the 20th century and a variety of mechanisms have been suggested. Molecular dynamics simulations on the atomic scale have also been performed. This paper reports a microscale simulation of primary recrystallization and twinning of a nickel alloy based on the Monte Carlo approach. Different twin morphologies were simulated. A possible dependence of grain growth direction on twin formation during annealing was demonstrated. The formation of incoherent Σ3 and Σ9 boundaries is verified as the indirect outcome after coherent Σ3 formation
Modifications to the TRIM Monte Carlo simulation program
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Macrander, A. T.
1979-04-01
Extensive modifications were made to the TRIM (TRansport of Ions in Matter) Monte Carlo computer code which simulates the ion irradiation of amorphous solids. The original FORTRAN code was translated into BASIC for use on minicomputers with 32 K words of memory. Versions have been written to simulate very low-energy irradiations and the irradiation of binary alloys. Furthermore, a version was written which added the capability of following a lateral direction, in addition to the penetration depth of an ion. Subsequently, a version was written to simulate the production of collision cascades. Details of these modifications were discussed and examples of their use were given.
Some improvements of BES II TOF Monte Carlo simulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
BES II detector has been upgraded from 1995, the TOF time resolution is about 180 ps for Bhabha events, a big improvement compared with 330 ps of BES I. With the upgrade of the detector, the software including calibration, reconstruction and Monte Carlo (M.C.) simulation needs corresponding improvement, especially for M.C. simulation. Using 50 M J/ψ data taken in the last two years at BES II, the authors studied the TOF resolution carefully, and made some improvements for TOF MC simulation. After such an improvement, the authors compared the TOF resolutions between real data and M.C. data and found they agree with each other
Monte Carlo simulations of (e,2e) experiments on solids
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vos, M. [Flinders Univ. of South Australia, Adelaide, SA (Australia). Electronic Structure of Materials Centre; Bottema, M. [Flinders Univ. of South Australia, Adelaide, SA (Australia). Dept. of Mathematics and Statistics]|[Centre for Sensor Signal and Information Processing, Technology Park, SA (Australia)
1995-12-01
The aim of this work was to simulate the multiple scattering effects occuring in a real (e,2e) experiment for a free-electron solid. Realistic cross sections for elastic and inelastic scattering events were used for all electrons involved. The Monte Carlo simulation was successfully applied to investigate how multiple scattering parameters used affect the relation between the electronic structure of solid and actually measured intensity. Good agreement was found, on a semiquantitative level, between the simulation and the actual experiments. 24 refs., 1 tab., 10 figs.
Monte Carlo simulations of (e,2e) experiments on solids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The aim of this work was to simulate the multiple scattering effects occuring in a real (e,2e) experiment for a free-electron solid. Realistic cross sections for elastic and inelastic scattering events were used for all electrons involved. The Monte Carlo simulation was successfully applied to investigate how multiple scattering parameters used affect the relation between the electronic structure of solid and actually measured intensity. Good agreement was found, on a semiquantitative level, between the simulation and the actual experiments. 24 refs., 1 tab., 10 figs
Monte Carlo simulation of the Neutrino-4 experiment
Serebrov, A. P.; Fomin, A. K.; Onegin, M. S.; Ivochkin, V. G.; Matrosov, L. N.
2015-12-01
Monte Carlo simulation of the two-section reactor antineutrino detector of the Neutrino-4 experiment is carried out. The scintillation-type detector is based on the inverse beta-decay reaction. The antineutrino is recorded by two successive signals from the positron and the neutron. The simulation of the detector sections and the active shielding is performed. As a result of the simulation, the distributions of photomultiplier signals from the positron and the neutron are obtained. The efficiency of the detector depending on the signal recording thresholds is calculated.
Monte Carlo simulation of the Neutrino-4 experiment
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Serebrov, A. P., E-mail: serebrov@pnpi.spb.ru; Fomin, A. K.; Onegin, M. S.; Ivochkin, V. G.; Matrosov, L. N. [National Research Center Kurchatov Institute, Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (Russian Federation)
2015-12-15
Monte Carlo simulation of the two-section reactor antineutrino detector of the Neutrino-4 experiment is carried out. The scintillation-type detector is based on the inverse beta-decay reaction. The antineutrino is recorded by two successive signals from the positron and the neutron. The simulation of the detector sections and the active shielding is performed. As a result of the simulation, the distributions of photomultiplier signals from the positron and the neutron are obtained. The efficiency of the detector depending on the signal recording thresholds is calculated.
Monte Carlo Simulation of Callisto's Exosphere
Vorburger, Audrey; Wurz, Peter; Galli, André; Mousis, Olivier; Barabash, Stas; Lammer, Helmut
2014-05-01
to the surface the sublimated particles dominate the day-side exosphere, however, their density profiles (with the exception of H and H2) decrease much more rapidly with altitude than those of the sputtered particles, thus, the latter particles start to dominate at altitudes above ~1000 km. Since the JUICE flybys are as low as 200 km above Callisto's surface, NIM is expected to register both the sublimated as well as sputtered particle populations. Our simulations show that NIM's sensitivity is high enough to allow the detection of particles sputtered from the icy as well as the mineral surfaces, and to distinguish between the different composition models.
A Monte Carlo Simulation of the Flow Network Reliability using Importance and Stratified Sampling
Bulteau, Stéphane; El Khadiri, Mohamed
1997-01-01
We consider the evaluation of the flow network reliability parameter. Because the exact evaluation of this parameter has exponential time complexity- , simulation methods are used to derive an estimate. In this paper, we use the state space decomposition methodology of Doulliez and Jamoulle for constructing a new simulation method which combines the importance and the stratified Monte Carlo principles. We show that the related estimator belongs to the variance-reduction family. By numerical c...
Chang, Qiang; Herbst, Eric
2012-01-01
For the first time, we report a unified microscopic-macroscopic Monte Carlo simulation of gas-grain chemistry in cold interstellar clouds in which both the gas-phase and the grain surface chemistry are simulated by a stochastic technique. The surface chemistry is simulated with a microscopic Monte Carlo method in which the chemistry occurs on an initially flat surface. The surface chemical network consists of 29 reactions initiated by the accreting species H, O, C, and CO. Four different mode...
Combining cellular automata and Monte Carlo algorithm to simulate three-dimensional grain growth
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Wei; CHEN Ju-hua; GUO Pei-quan; ZHAO Ping
2006-01-01
A 3-D simulation of grain growth was conducted by utilizing cellular automata (CA) and Monte Carlo (MC) algorithm. In the simulating procedure, the three-dimensional space is divided into a large number of 2-D isometric planes. Then, each of the planes is divided into identical square cells. Finally, the cellular automata and Monte Carlo algorithm are combined together to simulate the grain growth. Through an evolutionary simulation, the recrystallized microstructure, the grain growth rate and the grain size distribution are acceptably predicted. The simulation routine can be used to simulate the real physical-metallurgy processes and to predict quantitative dynamic information of the evolution of microstructure. Further more, the method is also useful for optimization of materials properties by controlling the microstructure evolution.
基于蒙特卡洛模拟的项目风险管理方法研究%Project Risk Management Methods Based on Monte Carlo Simulation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
方维
2012-01-01
工程项目的复杂性和波动性导致项目的不可预测性,因此风险管理显得愈发重要.本文关注风险管理中定量分析方法,为进一步风险应对提供数据.重点阐述蒙特卡洛模拟在定量分析中的运用.%The paper focuses on the quantitative risk analysis method, which quantizes the schedule risk in project risk management to support the Risk Response. The paper describes the application of the Monte Carlo simulation in quantitative analysis and develops the risk management system.
On the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Rajeeva L Karandikar
2006-04-01
Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) is a popular method used to generate samples from arbitrary distributions, which may be speciﬁed indirectly. In this article, we give an introduction to this method along with some examples.
Quasi-Monte Carlo methods for lattice systems. A first look
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We investigate the applicability of Quasi-Monte Carlo methods to Euclidean lattice systems for quantum mechanics in order to improve the asymptotic error behavior of observables for such theories. In most cases the error of an observable calculated by averaging over random observations generated from an ordinary Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation behaves like N-1/2, where N is the number of observations. By means of Quasi-Monte Carlo methods it is possible to improve this behavior for certain problems up to N-1. We adapted and applied this approach to simple systems like the quantum harmonic and anharmonic oscillator and verified an improved error scaling.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Matthew Ellis; Derek Gaston; Benoit Forget; Kord Smith
2011-07-01
In recent years the use of Monte Carlo methods for modeling reactors has become feasible due to the increasing availability of massively parallel computer systems. One of the primary challenges yet to be fully resolved, however, is the efficient and accurate inclusion of multiphysics feedback in Monte Carlo simulations. The research in this paper presents a preliminary coupling of the open source Monte Carlo code OpenMC with the open source Multiphysics Object-Oriented Simulation Environment (MOOSE). The coupling of OpenMC and MOOSE will be used to investigate efficient and accurate numerical methods needed to include multiphysics feedback in Monte Carlo codes. An investigation into the sensitivity of Doppler feedback to fuel temperature approximations using a two dimensional 17x17 PWR fuel assembly is presented in this paper. The results show a functioning multiphysics coupling between OpenMC and MOOSE. The coupling utilizes Functional Expansion Tallies to accurately and efficiently transfer pin power distributions tallied in OpenMC to unstructured finite element meshes used in MOOSE. The two dimensional PWR fuel assembly case also demonstrates that for a simplified model the pin-by-pin doppler feedback can be adequately replicated by scaling a representative pin based on pin relative powers.
Parallel operation of Monte Carlo simulations on a diverse network of computers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Monte Carlo simulation methods are frequently used to determine light propagation in tissue and x-ray propagation as well as for solving other non-medically related problems. Such techniques are computationally slow, with the signal to noise ratio improving only as the square root of computation time. We present a method for the design of a Monte Carlo program that is capable of running on up to 24 computers simultaneously, with there being very few restrictions on the computer types as long as they run on a common network. This parallel operation is useful when the run time is expected to be long. A mixture of PCs and Sun workstations have been successfully used. The program as described was designed for the simulation of light transport in tissue, but the technique of achieving simple simultaneous execution on a number of different computers could be used wherever Monte Carlo techniques are used. (author)
A Particle Population Control Method for Dynamic Monte Carlo
Sweezy, Jeremy; Nolen, Steve; Adams, Terry; Zukaitis, Anthony
2014-06-01
A general particle population control method has been derived from splitting and Russian Roulette for dynamic Monte Carlo particle transport. A well-known particle population control method, known as the particle population comb, has been shown to be a special case of this general method. This general method has been incorporated in Los Alamos National Laboratory's Monte Carlo Application Toolkit (MCATK) and examples of it's use are shown for both super-critical and sub-critical systems.
Medical Imaging Image Quality Assessment with Monte Carlo Methods
Michail, C. M.; Karpetas, G. E.; Fountos, G. P.; Kalyvas, N. I.; Martini, Niki; Koukou, Vaia; Valais, I. G.; Kandarakis, I. S.
2015-09-01
The aim of the present study was to assess image quality of PET scanners through a thin layer chromatography (TLC) plane source. The source was simulated using a previously validated Monte Carlo model. The model was developed by using the GATE MC package and reconstructed images obtained with the STIR software for tomographic image reconstruction, with cluster computing. The PET scanner simulated in this study was the GE DiscoveryST. A plane source consisted of a TLC plate, was simulated by a layer of silica gel on aluminum (Al) foil substrates, immersed in 18F-FDG bath solution (1MBq). Image quality was assessed in terms of the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF). MTF curves were estimated from transverse reconstructed images of the plane source. Images were reconstructed by the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE)-OSMAPOSL algorithm. OSMAPOSL reconstruction was assessed by using various subsets (3 to 21) and iterations (1 to 20), as well as by using various beta (hyper) parameter values. MTF values were found to increase up to the 12th iteration whereas remain almost constant thereafter. MTF improves by using lower beta values. The simulated PET evaluation method based on the TLC plane source can be also useful in research for the further development of PET and SPECT scanners though GATE simulations.
Towards integration of compositional risk analysis using Monte Carlo simulation and security testing
Viehmann, Johannes
2014-01-01
This short paper describes ongoing efforts to combine concepts of security risk analysis with security testing into a single process. Using risk analysis artefact composition and Monte Carlo simulation to calculate likelihood values, the method described here is intended to become applicable for complex large scale systems with dynamically changing probability values.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In a plant system consisting of complex equipments and components for a reprocessing facility, there might be grace time between an initiating event and a resultant serious accident, allowing operating personnel to take remedial actions, thus, terminating the ongoing accident sequence. A component Monte Carlo simulation computer program TITAN has been developed to analyze such a complex reliability model including the grace time without any difficulty to obtain an accident occurrence frequency. Firstly, basic methods for the component Monte Carlo simulation is introduced to obtain an accident occurrence frequency, and then, the basic performance such as precision, convergence, and parallelization of calculation, is shown through calculation of a prototype accident sequence model. As an example to illustrate applicability to a real scale plant model, a red oil explosion in a German reprocessing plant model is simulated to show that TITAN can give an accident occurrence frequency with relatively good accuracy. Moreover, results of uncertainty analyses by TITAN are rendered to show another performance, and a proposal is made for introducing of a new input-data format to adapt the component Monte Carlo simulation. The present paper describes the calculational method, performance, applicability to a real scale, and new proposal for the TITAN code. In the Appendixes, a conventional analytical method is shown to avoid complex and laborious calculation to obtain a strict solution of accident occurrence frequency, compared with Monte Carlo method. The user's manual and the list/structure of program are also contained in the Appendixes to facilitate TITAN computer program usage. (author)
Monte Carlo simulation of expected outcomes with the AcrySof® toric intraocular lens
Potvin Richard; Hill Warren
2008-01-01
Abstract Background To use a Monte Carlo simulation to predict postoperative results with the AcrySof® Toric lens, evaluating the likelihood of over- or under-correction using various toric lens selection criteria. Methods Keratometric data were obtained from a large patient population with preoperative corneal astigmatism
Conceptual design and Monte Carlo simulations of the AGATA array
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Farnea, E., E-mail: Enrico.Farnea@pd.infn.i [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, Padova (Italy); Recchia, F.; Bazzacco, D. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, Padova (Italy); Kroell, Th. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Darmstadt (Germany); Podolyak, Zs. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford (United Kingdom); Quintana, B. [Departamento de Fisica Fundamental, Universidad de Salamanca, Salamanca (Spain); Gadea, A. [Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, CSIC-Universidad de Valencia, Valencia (Spain)
2010-09-21
The aim of the Advanced GAmma Tracking Array (AGATA) project is the construction of an array based on the novel concepts of pulse shape analysis and {gamma}-ray tracking with highly segmented Ge semiconductor detectors. The conceptual design of AGATA and its performance evaluation under different experimental conditions has required the development of a suitable Monte Carlo code. In this article, the description of the code as well as simulation results relevant for AGATA, are presented.
Monte Carlo simulation of PET images for injection doseoptimization
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Boldyš, Jiří; Dvořák, Jiří; Skopalová, M.; Bělohlávek, O.
2013-01-01
Roč. 29, č. 9 (2013), s. 988-999. ISSN 2040-7939 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : positron emission tomography * Monte Carlo simulation * biological system modeling * image quality Subject RIV: FD - Oncology ; Hematology Impact factor: 1.542, year: 2013 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/ZOI/boldys-0397175.pdf
Modular Monte Carlo Simulation Including Secondary Electron Raytracing
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Gnieser, D.; Frase, C. G.; Bosse, H.; Konvalina, Ivo; Müllerová, Ilona
Brno: Institute of Scientific Instruments AS CR, v.v.i, 2008 - (Mika, F.), s. 31-32 ISBN 978-80-254-0905-3. [International Seminar on Recent Trends in Charged Particle Optics and Surface Physics Instrumentation /11./. Skalský dvůr (CZ), 14.07.2008-18.07.2008] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : Monte Carlo simulation * SEM Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering
Monte Carlo Simulations of Novel Scintillator Detectors and Dosimetry Calculations
Lo Meo, Sergio
2009-01-01
Monte Carlo (MC) simulation techniques are becoming very common in the Medical Physicists community. MC can be used for modeling Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) and for dosimetry calculations. 188Re, is a promising candidate for radiotherapeutic production and understanding the mechanisms of the radioresponse of tumor cells "in vitro" is of crucial importance as a first step before "in vivo" studies. The dosimetry of 188Re, used to target different lines of c...
Fluid Simulations with Localized Boltzmann Upscaling by Direct Simulation Monte-Carlo
Degond, Pierre
2010-01-01
In the present work, we present a novel numerical algorithm to couple the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo method (DSMC) for the solution of the Boltzmann equation with a finite volume like method for the solution of the Euler equations. Recently we presented in [14],[16],[17] different methodologies which permit to solve fluid dynamics problems with localized regions of departure from thermodynamical equilibrium. The methods rely on the introduction of buffer zones which realize a smooth transition between the kinetic and the fluid regions. In this paper we extend the idea of buffer zones and dynamic coupling to the case of the Monte Carlo methods. To facilitate the coupling and avoid the onset of spurious oscillations in the fluid regions which are consequences of the coupling with a stochastic numerical scheme, we use a new technique which permits to reduce the variance of the particle methods [11]. In addition, the use of this method permits to obtain estimations of the breakdowns of the fluid models less af...
Monte Carlo simulation of particle acceleration at astrophysical shocks
Campbell, Roy K.
1989-09-01
A Monte Carlo code was developed for the simulation of particle acceleration at astrophysical shocks. The code is implemented in Turbo Pascal on a PC. It is modularized and structured in such a way that modification and maintenance are relatively painless. Monte Carlo simulations of particle acceleration at shocks follow the trajectories of individual particles as they scatter repeatedly across the shock front, gaining energy with each crossing. The particles are assumed to scatter from magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence on both sides of the shock. A scattering law is used which is related to the assumed form of the turbulence, and the particle and shock parameters. High energy cosmic ray spectra derived from Monte Carlo simulations have observed power law behavior just as the spectra derived from analytic calculations based on a diffusion equation. This high energy behavior is not sensitive to the scattering law used. In contrast with Monte Carlo calculations diffusive calculations rely on the initial injection of supra-thermal particles into the shock environment. Monte Carlo simulations are the only known way to describe the extraction of particles directly from the thermal pool. This was the triumph of the Monte Carlo approach. The question of acceleration efficiency is an important one in the shock acceleration game. The efficiency of shock waves efficient to account for the observed flux of high energy galactic cosmic rays was examined. The efficiency of the acceleration process depends on the thermal particle pick-up and hence the low energy scattering in detail. One of the goals is the self-consistent derivation of the accelerated particle spectra and the MHD turbulence spectra. Presumably the upstream turbulence, which scatters the particles so they can be accelerated, is excited by the streaming accelerated particles and the needed downstream turbulence is convected from the upstream region. The present code is to be modified to include a better
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vincenza Di Stefano
2009-11-01
Full Text Available The Multicomb variance reduction technique has been introduced in the Direct Monte Carlo Simulation for submicrometric semiconductor devices. The method has been implemented in bulk silicon. The simulations show that the statistical variance of hot electrons is reduced with some computational cost. The method is efficient and easy to implement in existing device simulators.
Problems in radiation shielding calculations with Monte Carlo methods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Monte Carlo method is a very useful tool for solving a large class of radiation transport problem. In contrast with deterministic method, geometric complexity is a much less significant problem for Monte Carlo calculations. However, the accuracy of Monte Carlo calculations is of course, limited by statistical error of the quantities to be estimated. In this report, we point out some typical problems to solve a large shielding system including radiation streaming. The Monte Carlo coupling technique was developed to settle such a shielding problem accurately. However, the variance of the Monte Carlo results using the coupling technique of which detectors were located outside the radiation streaming, was still not enough. So as to bring on more accurate results for the detectors located outside the streaming and also for a multi-legged-duct streaming problem, a practicable way of ''Prism Scattering technique'' is proposed in the study. (author)
Rapid Monte Carlo simulation of detector DQE(f)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Purpose: Performance optimization of indirect x-ray detectors requires proper characterization of both ionizing (gamma) and optical photon transport in a heterogeneous medium. As the tool of choice for modeling detector physics, Monte Carlo methods have failed to gain traction as a design utility, due mostly to excessive simulation times and a lack of convenient simulation packages. The most important figure-of-merit in assessing detector performance is the detective quantum efficiency (DQE), for which most of the computational burden has traditionally been associated with the determination of the noise power spectrum (NPS) from an ensemble of flood images, each conventionally having 107 − 109 detected gamma photons. In this work, the authors show that the idealized conditions inherent in a numerical simulation allow for a dramatic reduction in the number of gamma and optical photons required to accurately predict the NPS. Methods: The authors derived an expression for the mean squared error (MSE) of a simulated NPS when computed using the International Electrotechnical Commission-recommended technique based on taking the 2D Fourier transform of flood images. It is shown that the MSE is inversely proportional to the number of flood images, and is independent of the input fluence provided that the input fluence is above a minimal value that avoids biasing the estimate. The authors then propose to further lower the input fluence so that each event creates a point-spread function rather than a flood field. The authors use this finding as the foundation for a novel algorithm in which the characteristic MTF(f), NPS(f), and DQE(f) curves are simultaneously generated from the results of a single run. The authors also investigate lowering the number of optical photons used in a scintillator simulation to further increase efficiency. Simulation results are compared with measurements performed on a Varian AS1000 portal imager, and with a previously published simulation
Monte Carlo Simulation of SATs in 2D
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
1996-01-01
In this paper we use Monte Carlo simulation method to deal with SATs on a square lattice and a triangular lattice in two dimensions in the T→∞ limit.Besides that,the SAT model has been generalized in the coordination number q→∞ limit.The characteristics of SATs in the two limits q=3 and q→∞ have been qualitatively discussed.The obtained results reveal that the SATs have intermediate behaviors between that of SAWs and RWs.The critical exponents of SATs have intermediate behaviors between that of SAWs and RWs.The critical exponents of SATs are monotonous functions of q.With different q,SATs correspondingly belong to different universality classes.For example,on a hexagonal lattice,SATs and SAWs belong to the same universality class;in the limiting situation q→∞,SATs and RWs belong to the same universality class;when q=4 or q=6,SATs and SAWs or RWs belong to the different universality class.
Monte Carlo simulation of inelastic neutrino scattering in DUMAND
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Detailed Monte Carlo calculations simulating the detection in the DUMAND 1-km3 optical detector of inelastic neutrino scattering by nucleons at 2 TeV and above show that the measurement of the y distribution is subject to systematic errors due to experimental errors and intrinsic fluctuations which produce errors in the energy determinations of hadronic cascade and muon; uncertainty in the exact amount of antineutrino fraction in the cosmic-ray neutrino flux. The nature of these errors is explored, and methods for removing them from the data developed. The remaining uncertainties are those in the evaluation of the errors in energy determination, and in the antineutrino contamination. It appears that these errors, not statistical ones, will eventually govern the accuracy of the y distributions obtained. Nonetheless, the effect of the boson propagator on the y distribution is so marked that no plausible scenario can be found in which the residual errors cast doubt on whether or not the propagator effect is present
Monte Carlo simulation of photon migration in a cloud computing environment with MapReduce.
Pratx, Guillem; Xing, Lei
2011-12-01
Monte Carlo simulation is considered the most reliable method for modeling photon migration in heterogeneous media. However, its widespread use is hindered by the high computational cost. The purpose of this work is to report on our implementation of a simple MapReduce method for performing fault-tolerant Monte Carlo computations in a massively-parallel cloud computing environment. We ported the MC321 Monte Carlo package to Hadoop, an open-source MapReduce framework. In this implementation, Map tasks compute photon histories in parallel while a Reduce task scores photon absorption. The distributed implementation was evaluated on a commercial compute cloud. The simulation time was found to be linearly dependent on the number of photons and inversely proportional to the number of nodes. For a cluster size of 240 nodes, the simulation of 100 billion photon histories took 22 min, a 1258 × speed-up compared to the single-threaded Monte Carlo program. The overall computational throughput was 85,178 photon histories per node per second, with a latency of 100 s. The distributed simulation produced the same output as the original implementation and was resilient to hardware failure: the correctness of the simulation was unaffected by the shutdown of 50% of the nodes. PMID:22191916
Monte Carlo simulation of the seed germination process
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paper presented a mathematical model of seed germination process based on the Monte Carlo method and theoretical premises resulted from the physiology of seed germination suggesting three consecutive stages: physical, biochemical and physiological. The model was experimentally verified by determination of germination characteristics for seeds of ground tomatoes, Promyk cultivar, within broad range of temperatures (from 15 to 30 deg C)
FOTELP - Monte Carlo simulation of photons, electrons and positrons transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper reports the development of the algorithm and computer program FOTELP for photons, electrons and positrons transport by the Monte Carlo analog method. This program can be used in numerical experiments on the computer for dosimetry, radiation protection and radiation therapy. (author)
Monte Carlo simulations in small animal PET imaging
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This work is based on the use of an implemented Positron Emission Tomography (PET) simulation system dedicated for small animal PET imaging. Geant4 Application for Tomographic Emission (GATE), a Monte Carlo simulation platform based on the Geant4 libraries, is well suited for modeling the microPET FOCUS system and to implement realistic phantoms, such as the MOBY phantom, and data maps from real examinations. The use of a microPET FOCUS simulation model with GATE has been validated for spatial resolution, counting rates performances, imaging contrast recovery and quantitative analysis. Results from realistic studies of the mouse body using -F and [18F]FDG imaging protocols are presented. These simulations include the injection of realistic doses into the animal and realistic time framing. The results have shown that it is possible to simulate small animal PET acquisitions under realistic conditions, and are expected to be useful to improve the quantitative analysis in PET mouse body studies
Monte Carlo simulations in small animal PET imaging
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Branco, Susana [Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciencias, Instituto de Biofisica e Engenharia Biomedica, Lisbon (Portugal)], E-mail: susana.silva@fc.ul.pt; Jan, Sebastien [Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, CEA/DSV/DRM, Orsay (France); Almeida, Pedro [Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciencias, Instituto de Biofisica e Engenharia Biomedica, Lisbon (Portugal)
2007-10-01
This work is based on the use of an implemented Positron Emission Tomography (PET) simulation system dedicated for small animal PET imaging. Geant4 Application for Tomographic Emission (GATE), a Monte Carlo simulation platform based on the Geant4 libraries, is well suited for modeling the microPET FOCUS system and to implement realistic phantoms, such as the MOBY phantom, and data maps from real examinations. The use of a microPET FOCUS simulation model with GATE has been validated for spatial resolution, counting rates performances, imaging contrast recovery and quantitative analysis. Results from realistic studies of the mouse body using {sup -}F and [{sup 18}F]FDG imaging protocols are presented. These simulations include the injection of realistic doses into the animal and realistic time framing. The results have shown that it is possible to simulate small animal PET acquisitions under realistic conditions, and are expected to be useful to improve the quantitative analysis in PET mouse body studies.
Yasuda, Shugo
2015-01-01
A Monte Carlo simulation for the chemotactic bacteria is developed on the basis of the kinetic modeling, i.e., the Boltzmann transport equation, and applied to the one-dimensional traveling population wave in a micro channel.In this method, the Monte Carlo method, which calculates the run-and-tumble motions of bacteria, is coupled with a finite volume method to solve the macroscopic transport of the chemical cues in the field. The simulation method can successfully reproduce the traveling population wave of bacteria which was observed experimentally. The microscopic dynamics of bacteria, e.g., the velocity autocorrelation function and velocity distribution function of bacteria, are also investigated. It is found that the bacteria which form the traveling population wave create quasi-periodic motions as well as a migratory movement along with the traveling population wave. Simulations are also performed with changing the sensitivity and modulation parameters in the response function of bacteria. It is found th...
Numerical thermalization in particle-in-cell simulations with Monte-Carlo collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Numerical thermalization in collisional one-dimensional (1D) electrostatic (ES) particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations was investigated. Two collision models, the pitch-angle scattering of electrons by the stationary ion background and large-angle collisions between the electrons and the neutral background, were included in the PIC simulation using Monte-Carlo methods. The numerical results show that the thermalization times in both models were considerably reduced by the additional Monte-Carlo collisions as demonstrated by comparisons with Turner's previous simulation results based on a head-on collision model [M. M. Turner, Phys. Plasmas 13, 033506 (2006)]. However, the breakdown of Dawson's scaling law in the collisional 1D ES PIC simulation is more complicated than that was observed by Turner, and the revised scaling law of the numerical thermalization time with numerical parameters are derived on the basis of the simulation results obtained in this study
Monte Carlo computer simulation of sedimentation of charged hard spherocylinders
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this article we present a NVT Monte Carlo computer simulation study of sedimentation of an electroneutral mixture of oppositely charged hard spherocylinders (CHSC) with aspect ratio L/σ = 5, where L and σ are the length and diameter of the cylinder and hemispherical caps, respectively, for each particle. This system is an extension of the restricted primitive model for spherical particles, where L/σ = 0, and it is assumed that the ions are immersed in an structureless solvent, i.e., a continuum with dielectric constant D. The system consisted of N = 2000 particles and the Wolf method was implemented to handle the coulombic interactions of the inhomogeneous system. Results are presented for different values of the strength ratio between the gravitational and electrostatic interactions, Γ = (mgσ)/(e2/Dσ), where m is the mass per particle, e is the electron's charge and g is the gravitational acceleration value. A semi-infinite simulation cell was used with dimensions Lx ≈ Ly and Lz = 5Lx, where Lx, Ly, and Lz are the box dimensions in Cartesian coordinates, and the gravitational force acts along the z-direction. Sedimentation effects were studied by looking at every layer formed by the CHSC along the gravitational field. By increasing Γ, particles tend to get more packed at each layer and to arrange in local domains with an orientational ordering along two perpendicular axis, a feature not observed in the uncharged system with the same hard-body geometry. This type of arrangement, known as tetratic phase, has been observed in two-dimensional systems of hard-rectangles and rounded hard-squares. In this way, the coupling of gravitational and electric interactions in the CHSC system induces the arrangement of particles in layers, with the formation of quasi-two dimensional tetratic phases near the surface
Monte Carlo computer simulation of sedimentation of charged hard spherocylinders.
Viveros-Méndez, P X; Gil-Villegas, Alejandro; Aranda-Espinoza, S
2014-07-28
In this article we present a NVT Monte Carlo computer simulation study of sedimentation of an electroneutral mixture of oppositely charged hard spherocylinders (CHSC) with aspect ratio L/σ = 5, where L and σ are the length and diameter of the cylinder and hemispherical caps, respectively, for each particle. This system is an extension of the restricted primitive model for spherical particles, where L/σ = 0, and it is assumed that the ions are immersed in an structureless solvent, i.e., a continuum with dielectric constant D. The system consisted of N = 2000 particles and the Wolf method was implemented to handle the coulombic interactions of the inhomogeneous system. Results are presented for different values of the strength ratio between the gravitational and electrostatic interactions, Γ = (mgσ)/(e(2)/Dσ), where m is the mass per particle, e is the electron's charge and g is the gravitational acceleration value. A semi-infinite simulation cell was used with dimensions Lx ≈ Ly and Lz = 5Lx, where Lx, Ly, and Lz are the box dimensions in Cartesian coordinates, and the gravitational force acts along the z-direction. Sedimentation effects were studied by looking at every layer formed by the CHSC along the gravitational field. By increasing Γ, particles tend to get more packed at each layer and to arrange in local domains with an orientational ordering along two perpendicular axis, a feature not observed in the uncharged system with the same hard-body geometry. This type of arrangement, known as tetratic phase, has been observed in two-dimensional systems of hard-rectangles and rounded hard-squares. In this way, the coupling of gravitational and electric interactions in the CHSC system induces the arrangement of particles in layers, with the formation of quasi-two dimensional tetratic phases near the surface. PMID:25084954
Detention Pond Sediment Accumulation Prediction using Monte Carlo Simulation
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Supiah Shamsudin
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Problem statement: A study in Malaysia had been carried out to predict the sediment accumulation in urban detention ponds. Suspended sediment is pollutant of primary concern to the river that results in adverse environmental effect. Detention pond becomes a practical approach to this problem. Suspended sediment that settled in stormwater detention pond, can bring effect to the detention pond functions. Questions were raised on how certain were the observed and predicted values of sediment depth and load accumulation estimations. Secondly the question was what the sediment accumulation be in the next 100 years. The uncertainties of sediments estimation vary greatly due to the hydrological variability and rainfall random nature obtain the relationship between flow discharge and suspended sediment rate using on-site data collection at UTM and Ledang Heights, Nusajaya. Predict accumulated sediment loads and depth from MUSLE over 10-100 years. Analyze the uncertainties of sediment loads and depth using Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS combining normal distribution. Obtain the maximum probability of occurrence of sediment loads and depth in the detention pond. Approach: Modified Universal Soil Loss Equation (MUSLE and Trap Efficiency (TE Method was applied to predict sediment accumulation. This uncertainty of sediment loads and depth was carried out using Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS Method. The water samples were collected for suspended solids data and other water quality parameters at Ledang Heights, Nusajaya, Johor and University Technology Malaysia (UTM, Johor. Sampling station were randomly selected at the inlet and outlet of the detention pond. The hydrological parameters such as flow and velocity were also collected. Results: The simulation results showed the maximum probability of occurrence value for observed sediment loads and sediment depth from Ledang Heights were 0.0062 tons (16.5% and 0.0005 mm (17.5% respectively. The maximum probability of
EURADOS action for determination of americium in skull measures in vivo and Monte Carlo simulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
From the Group of WG7 internal dosimetry of the EURADOS Organization (European Radiation Dosimetry group, e.V.) which It coordinates CIEMAT, international action for the vivo measurement of americium has been conducted in three mannequins type skull with detectors of Germanium by gamma spectrometry and simulation by Monte Carlo methods. Such action has been raised as two separate exercises, with the participation of institutions in Europe, America and Asia. Other actions similar precede this vivo intercomparison of measurement and modeling Monte Carlo1. The preliminary results and associated findings are presented in this work. The laboratory of the body radioactivity (CRC) of service counter of dosimetry staff internal (DPI) of the CIEMAT, it has been one of the participants in vivo measures exercise. On the other hand part, the Group of numerical dosimetry of CIEMAT is participant of the Monte Carlo2 simulation exercise. (Author)
Introduction to the simulation with MCNP Monte Carlo code and its applications in Medical Physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The simulation by Monte Carlo is tool which Medical Physics counts with it for the development of its research, the interest by this tool is growing, as we may observe in the main scientific journals for the years 1995-1997 where more than 27 % of the papers treat over Monte Carlo and/or its applications in the radiation transport.In the Peruvian Institute of Nuclear Energy we are implementing and making use of the MCNP4 and EGS4 codes. In this work are presented the general features of the Monte Carlo method and its more useful applications in Medical Physics. Likewise, it is made a simulation of the calculation of isodose curves in an interstitial treatment with Ir-192 wires in a mammary gland carcinoma. (Author)
Monte Carlo simulation of gamma ray shielding parameters of concretes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Highlights: • MCNP simulation of photon interaction parameters of concretes at 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 MeV. • Compared MCNP, experiment and XCOM photon cross-section database. • μ and TVL of the concretes were found dependent upon chemical composition, density and photon energy. • TVL values of the concretes decrease with increase Fe content and increase with increase in photon energy. - Abstract: The mass attenuation coefficients, linear attenuation coefficients and tenth value layer of seven types of concretes having density (2.3–5.11 g cm−3) have been simulated by Monte Carlo simulation techniques at photon energies 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 MeV. Numerical simulation results have been compared with experimental and XCOM photon cross section database and showed a good agreement. Linear attenuation coefficient and tenth value layer of the concretes were found chemical composition, density and photon energy dependent. The tenth value layer of the concretes decrease with increase iron content and increase with increase in photon energy. The linear attenuation coefficients values of the concretes increase with density and decrease with photon energy. Monte Carlo simulation, calculated and experimental results show that the ordinary concrete having lowest iron content (0.63%) have minimum linear attenuation coefficient
Interacting multiagent systems kinetic equations and Monte Carlo methods
Pareschi, Lorenzo
2014-01-01
The description of emerging collective phenomena and self-organization in systems composed of large numbers of individuals has gained increasing interest from various research communities in biology, ecology, robotics and control theory, as well as sociology and economics. Applied mathematics is concerned with the construction, analysis and interpretation of mathematical models that can shed light on significant problems of the natural sciences as well as our daily lives. To this set of problems belongs the description of the collective behaviours of complex systems composed by a large enough number of individuals. Examples of such systems are interacting agents in a financial market, potential voters during political elections, or groups of animals with a tendency to flock or herd. Among other possible approaches, this book provides a step-by-step introduction to the mathematical modelling based on a mesoscopic description and the construction of efficient simulation algorithms by Monte Carlo methods. The ar...
Monte Carlo Simulation of Linear Polymer Thermal Depolymerization under Isothermal and Dynamic Modes
Bystritskaya, Elena V.; Karpukhin, Oleg N.; Kutsenova, Alla V.
2011-01-01
Kinetics of linear polymer thermal depolymerization under isothermal and dynamic TGA modes was simulated by the Monte Carlo method. The simulation was carried out on model arrays having the same initial degree of polymerization = 1 0 0 and different width (polydispersity index, P D I = / = 1 ∼ 3 ) at three constant temperatures and five heating rates. Kinetics of the process in both modes is described by the Avrami equation, the exponent in which decreasing as the distribution wid...
A Paradox of Decreasing Entropy in Multiscale Monte Carlo Grain Growth Simulations
Esche, Sven K.; Michael Nosonovsky
2008-01-01
Grain growth in metals is driven by random thermal fluctuations and increases the orderliness of the system. This random process is usually simulated by the Monte Carlo (MC) method and Cellular Automata (CA). The increasing orderliness results in an entropy decrease, thus leading to a paradoxical apparent violation of the second law of thermodynamics. In this paper, it is shown that treating the system as a multiscale system resolves this paradox. MC/CA simulations usually take into considera...
Monte Carlo simulations of particle acceleration at oblique shocks
Baring, Matthew G.; Ellison, Donald C.; Jones, Frank C.
1994-02-01
The Fermi shock acceleration mechanism may be responsible for the production of high-energy cosmic rays in a wide variety of environments. Modeling of this phenomenon has largely focused on plane-parallel shocks, and one of the most promising techniques for its study is the Monte Carlo simulation of particle transport in shocked fluid flows. One of the principal problems in shock acceleration theory is the mechanism and efficiency of injection of particles from the thermal gas into the accelerated population. The Monte Carlo technique is ideally suited to addressing the injection problem directly, and previous applications of it to the quasi-parallel Earth bow shock led to very successful modeling of proton and heavy ion spectra, as well as other observed quantities. Recently this technique has been extended to oblique shock geometries, in which the upstream magnetic field makes a significant angle ThetaB1 to the shock normal. Spectral resutls from test particle Monte Carlo simulations of cosmic-ray acceleration at oblique, nonrelativistic shocks are presented. The results show that low Mach number shocks have injection efficiencies that are relatively insensitive to (though not independent of) the shock obliquity, but that there is a dramatic drop in efficiency for shocks of Mach number 30 or more as the obliquity increases above 15 deg. Cosmic-ray distributions just upstream of the shock reveal prominent bumps at energies below the thermal peak; these disappear far upstream but might be observable features close to astrophysical shocks.
Pattern Recognition for a Flight Dynamics Monte Carlo Simulation
Restrepo, Carolina; Hurtado, John E.
2011-01-01
The design, analysis, and verification and validation of a spacecraft relies heavily on Monte Carlo simulations. Modern computational techniques are able to generate large amounts of Monte Carlo data but flight dynamics engineers lack the time and resources to analyze it all. The growing amounts of data combined with the diminished available time of engineers motivates the need to automate the analysis process. Pattern recognition algorithms are an innovative way of analyzing flight dynamics data efficiently. They can search large data sets for specific patterns and highlight critical variables so analysts can focus their analysis efforts. This work combines a few tractable pattern recognition algorithms with basic flight dynamics concepts to build a practical analysis tool for Monte Carlo simulations. Current results show that this tool can quickly and automatically identify individual design parameters, and most importantly, specific combinations of parameters that should be avoided in order to prevent specific system failures. The current version uses a kernel density estimation algorithm and a sequential feature selection algorithm combined with a k-nearest neighbor classifier to find and rank important design parameters. This provides an increased level of confidence in the analysis and saves a significant amount of time.
MULTILEVEL MONTE CARLO (MLMC) SIMULATIONS: PERFORMANCE RESULTS FOR SPE10 (XY SLICES)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kalchev, Delyan [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Vassilevski, Panayot S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
2016-02-26
In this report we first describe a generic multilevel Monte Carlo method and then illustrate its superior performance over a traditional single-level Monte Carlo method for second order elliptic PDEs corresponding to two-dimensional layers in (x, y)-direction of the Tenth SPE Comparative Solution project (SPE 10) which gives high-contrast permeability coefficients. The SPE10 data set is used as a coarse level in the Monte Carlo method and the respective permeability coefficient k (provided in the SPE10 dataset) is used as a mean in the simulation. The actual coefficients are drawn based on a KL-expansion assuming that the log-mean is perturbed by a log-normal distributed samples.
Reactor physics analysis method based on Monte Carlo homogenization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Background: Many new concepts of nuclear energy systems with complicated geometric structures and diverse energy spectra have been put forward to meet the future demand of nuclear energy market. The traditional deterministic neutronics analysis method has been challenged in two aspects: one is the ability of generic geometry processing; the other is the multi-spectrum applicability of the multi-group cross section libraries. The Monte Carlo (MC) method predominates the suitability of geometry and spectrum, but faces the problems of long computation time and slow convergence. Purpose: This work aims to find a novel scheme to take the advantages of both methods drawn from the deterministic core analysis method and MC method. Methods: A new two-step core analysis scheme is proposed to combine the geometry modeling capability and continuous energy cross section libraries of MC method, as well as the higher computational efficiency of deterministic method. First of all, the MC simulations are performed for assembly, and the assembly homogenized multi-group cross sections are tallied at the same time. Then, the core diffusion calculations can be done with these multi-group cross sections. Results: The new scheme can achieve high efficiency while maintain acceptable precision. Conclusion: The new scheme can be used as an effective tool for the design and analysis of innovative nuclear energy systems, which has been verified by numeric tests. (authors)
Monte Carlo-based simulation of dynamic jaws tomotherapy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Purpose: Original TomoTherapy systems may involve a trade-off between conformity and treatment speed, the user being limited to three slice widths (1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 cm). This could be overcome by allowing the jaws to define arbitrary fields, including very small slice widths (<1 cm), which are challenging for a beam model. The aim of this work was to incorporate the dynamic jaws feature into a Monte Carlo (MC) model called TomoPen, based on the MC code PENELOPE, previously validated for the original TomoTherapy system. Methods: To keep the general structure of TomoPen and its efficiency, the simulation strategy introduces several techniques: (1) weight modifiers to account for any jaw settings using only the 5 cm phase-space file; (2) a simplified MC based model called FastStatic to compute the modifiers faster than pure MC; (3) actual simulation of dynamic jaws. Weight modifiers computed with both FastStatic and pure MC were compared. Dynamic jaws simulations were compared with the convolution/superposition (C/S) of TomoTherapy in the ''cheese'' phantom for a plan with two targets longitudinally separated by a gap of 3 cm. Optimization was performed in two modes: asymmetric jaws-constant couch speed (''running start stop,'' RSS) and symmetric jaws-variable couch speed (''symmetric running start stop,'' SRSS). Measurements with EDR2 films were also performed for RSS for the formal validation of TomoPen with dynamic jaws. Results: Weight modifiers computed with FastStatic were equivalent to pure MC within statistical uncertainties (0.5% for three standard deviations). Excellent agreement was achieved between TomoPen and C/S for both asymmetric jaw opening/constant couch speed and symmetric jaw opening/variable couch speed, with deviations well within 2%/2 mm. For RSS procedure, agreement between C/S and measurements was within 2%/2 mm for 95% of the points and 3%/3 mm for 98% of the points, where dose is greater than 30% of the prescription dose (gamma analysis
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Application of Monte Carlo method to build spectra library is useful to reduce experiment workload in Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA). The new Monte Carlo Code MOCA was used to simulate the response spectra of BGO detector for gamma rays from 137Cs, 60Co and neutron induced gamma rays from S and Ti. The results were compared with general code MCNP, show that the agreement of MOCA between simulation and experiment is better than MCNP. This research indicates that building spectra library by Monte Carlo method is feasible. (authors)
Monte Carlo simulation of positronium thermalization in gases
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marjanović Srđan D.
2010-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper we present the results of Monte Carlo simulations of positronium (Ps swarm thermalization in helium (He and water vapour. We have investigated the temporal evolution of energy and spatial parameters of the swarm and their sensitivity to the shape of the cross-section and the initial energy distribution. Positron anihilation spectroscopy (PAS and positron emission tomography (PET are techniques that depend on anihilation of positronium in materials and tissue. The results obtained point that the Monte Carlo technique shows good agreement with experimental results and is capable of accurately describing the behaviour of Ps particles including the energy, particle lifetime and the moment and location of the anihilation.
Monte Carlo methods and applications in nuclear physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Monte Carlo methods for studying few- and many-body quantum systems are introduced, with special emphasis given to their applications in nuclear physics. Variational and Green's function Monte Carlo methods are presented in some detail. The status of calculations of light nuclei is reviewed, including discussions of the three-nucleon-interaction, charge and magnetic form factors, the coulomb sum rule, and studies of low-energy radiative transitions. 58 refs., 12 figs
Number of iterations needed in Monte Carlo Simulation using reliability analysis for tunnel supports
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E. Bukaçi
2016-06-01
Full Text Available There are many methods in geotechnical engineering which could take advantage of Monte Carlo Simulation to establish probability of failure, since closed form solutions are almost impossible to use in most cases. The problem that arises with using Monte Carlo Simulation is the number of iterations needed for a particular simulation.This article will show why it’s important to calculate number of iterations needed for Monte Carlo Simulation used in reliability analysis for tunnel supports using convergence – confinement method. Number if iterations needed will be calculated with two methods. In the first method, the analyst has to accept a distribution function for the performance function. The other method suggested by this article is to calculate number of iterations based on the convergence of the factor the analyst is interested in the calculation. Reliability analysis will be performed for the diversion tunnel in Rrëshen, Albania, by using both methods mentioned and results will be confronted
Monte Carlo simulations of luminescence processes under quasi-equilibrium (QE) conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Previous researchers have carried out Monte Carlo simulations of thermoluminescence (TL) phenomena by considering the allowed transitions of charge carriers between the conduction band, electron traps and recombination centers. Such simulations have demonstrated successfully the effect of trap clustering on the kinetics of charge carriers in a solid, and showed that trap clustering can significantly change the observed luminescence properties. While such Monte Carlo simulations have been carried out for TL, there has been no such trap clustering studies for optically stimulated luminescence phenomena (OSL). This paper presents a simplified method of carrying out Monte Carlo simulations for TL and linearly modulated optically stimulated luminescence (LM-OSL) phenomena, based on the General One Trap (GOT) model, which is a special case of the one trap one recombination center model (OTOR) when quasi-equilibrium conditions (QE) hold. The simulated results show that the presence of small clusters consisting of a few traps in a solid can lead to multiple peaks in both the TL and LM-OSL signals. The effects of retrapping and degree of trap filling are simulated for such multi-peak luminescence signals, and insight is obtained into the mechanism producing these peaks. The method presented in this paper can be easily generalized for other types of luminescence solids in which the recombination probability varies with time. - Highlights: • A simplified Monte Carlo method for TL and OSL is presented. • Method is based on General One Trap model, and quasi-equilibrium conditions. • Small clusters of a few traps can lead to multiple peaks in TL and LM-OSL signals. • Effects of retrapping and degree of trap filling are simulated
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Budinský, R.; Vacek, V.; Lísal, Martin
222-223, - (2004), s. 213-220. ISSN 0378-3812 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4072301 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921 Keywords : refrigerant * simulation * phase equilibria Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.356, year: 2004
Application of biasing techniques to the contributon Monte Carlo method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Recently, a new Monte Carlo Method called the Contribution Monte Carlo Method was developed. The method is based on the theory of contributions, and uses a new receipe for estimating target responses by a volume integral over the contribution current. The analog features of the new method were discussed in previous publications. The application of some biasing methods to the new contribution scheme is examined here. A theoretical model is developed that enables an analytic prediction of the benefit to be expected when these biasing schemes are applied to both the contribution method and regular Monte Carlo. This model is verified by a variety of numerical experiments and is shown to yield satisfying results, especially for deep-penetration problems. Other considerations regarding the efficient use of the new method are also discussed, and remarks are made as to the application of other biasing methods. 14 figures, 1 tables
A residual Monte Carlo method for discrete thermal radiative diffusion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Residual Monte Carlo methods reduce statistical error at a rate of exp(-bN), where b is a positive constant and N is the number of particle histories. Contrast this convergence rate with 1/√N, which is the rate of statistical error reduction for conventional Monte Carlo methods. Thus, residual Monte Carlo methods hold great promise for increased efficiency relative to conventional Monte Carlo methods. Previous research has shown that the application of residual Monte Carlo methods to the solution of continuum equations, such as the radiation transport equation, is problematic for all but the simplest of cases. However, the residual method readily applies to discrete systems as long as those systems are monotone, i.e., they produce positive solutions given positive sources. We develop a residual Monte Carlo method for solving a discrete 1D non-linear thermal radiative equilibrium diffusion equation, and we compare its performance with that of the discrete conventional Monte Carlo method upon which it is based. We find that the residual method provides efficiency gains of many orders of magnitude. Part of the residual gain is due to the fact that we begin each timestep with an initial guess equal to the solution from the previous timestep. Moreover, fully consistent non-linear solutions can be obtained in a reasonable amount of time because of the effective lack of statistical noise. We conclude that the residual approach has great potential and that further research into such methods should be pursued for more general discrete and continuum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper we present an optimization approach based on the combination of a Genetic Algorithms maximization procedure with a Monte Carlo simulation. The approach is applied within the context of plant logistic management for what concerns the choice of maintenance and repair strategies. A stochastic model of plant operation is developed from the standpoint of its reliability/availability behavior, i.e. of the failure/repair/maintenance processes of its components. The model is evaluated by Monte Carlo simulation in terms of economic costs and revenues of operation. The flexibility of the Monte Carlo method allows us to include several practical aspects such as stand-by operation modes, deteriorating repairs, aging, sequences of periodic maintenances, number of repair teams available for different kinds of repair interventions (mechanical, electronic, hydraulic, etc.), components priority rankings. A genetic algorithm is then utilized to optimize the components maintenance periods and number of repair teams. The fitness function object of the optimization is a profit function which inherently accounts for the safety and economic performance of the plant and whose value is computed by the above Monte Carlo simulation model. For an efficient combination of Genetic Algorithms and Monte Carlo simulation, only few hundreds Monte Carlo histories are performed for each potential solution proposed by the genetic algorithm. Statistical significance of the results of the solutions of interest (i.e. the best ones) is then attained exploiting the fact that during the population evolution the fit chromosomes appear repeatedly many times. The proposed optimization approach is applied on two case studies of increasing complexity
Monte Carlo Molecular Simulation with Isobaric-Isothermal and Gibbs-NPT Ensembles
Du, Shouhong
2012-05-01
This thesis presents Monte Carlo methods for simulations of phase behaviors of Lennard-Jones fluids. The isobaric-isothermal (NPT) ensemble and Gibbs-NPT ensemble are introduced in detail. NPT ensemble is employed to determine the phase diagram of pure component. The reduced simulation results are verified by comparison with the equation of state by by Johnson et al. and results with L-J parameters of methane agree considerably with the experiment measurements. We adopt the blocking method for variance estimation and error analysis of the simulation results. The relationship between variance and number of Monte Carlo cycles, error propagation and Random Number Generator performance are also investigated. We review the Gibbs-NPT ensemble employed for phase equilibrium of binary mixture. The phase equilibrium is achieved by performing three types of trial move: particle displacement, volume rearrangement and particle transfer. The simulation models and the simulation details are introduced. The simulation results of phase coexistence for methane and ethane are reported with comparison of the experimental data. Good agreement is found for a wide range of pressures. The contribution of this thesis work lies in the study of the error analysis with respect to the Monte Carlo cycles and number of particles in some interesting aspects.
TH-E-18A-01: Developments in Monte Carlo Methods for Medical Imaging
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Monte Carlo simulation methods are widely used in medical physics research and are starting to be implemented in clinical applications such as radiation therapy planning systems. Monte Carlo simulations offer the capability to accurately estimate quantities of interest that are challenging to measure experimentally while taking into account the realistic anatomy of an individual patient. Traditionally, practical application of Monte Carlo simulation codes in diagnostic imaging was limited by the need for large computational resources or long execution times. However, recent advancements in high-performance computing hardware, combined with a new generation of Monte Carlo simulation algorithms and novel postprocessing methods, are allowing for the computation of relevant imaging parameters of interest such as patient organ doses and scatter-to-primaryratios in radiographic projections in just a few seconds using affordable computational resources. Programmable Graphics Processing Units (GPUs), for example, provide a convenient, affordable platform for parallelized Monte Carlo executions that yield simulation times on the order of 107 xray/ s. Even with GPU acceleration, however, Monte Carlo simulation times can be prohibitive for routine clinical practice. To reduce simulation times further, variance reduction techniques can be used to alter the probabilistic models underlying the x-ray tracking process, resulting in lower variance in the results without biasing the estimates. Other complementary strategies for further reductions in computation time are denoising of the Monte Carlo estimates and estimating (scoring) the quantity of interest at a sparse set of sampling locations (e.g. at a small number of detector pixels in a scatter simulation) followed by interpolation. Beyond reduction of the computational resources required for performing Monte Carlo simulations in medical imaging, the use of accurate representations of patient anatomy is crucial to the virtual
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gonzalez, Jorge A. Carrazana; Ferrera, Eduardo A. Capote; Gomez, Isis M. Fernandez; Castro, Gloria V. Rodriguez; Ricardo, Niury Martinez, E-mail: cphr@cphr.edu.cu [Centro de Proteccion e Higiene de las Radiaciones (CPHR), La Habana (Cuba)
2013-07-01
This work shows how is established the traceability of the analytical determinations using this calibration method. Highlights the advantages offered by Monte Carlo simulation for the application of corrections by differences in chemical composition, density and height of the samples analyzed. Likewise, the results obtained by the LVRA in two exercises organized by the International Agency for Atomic Energy (IAEA) are presented. In these exercises (an intercomparison and a proficiency test) all reported analytical results were obtained based on calibrations in efficiency by Monte Carlo simulation using the DETEFF program.
Fe-Al alloy surface tension and expansion coefficient of the Monte Carlo simulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Using the new modified analytical EAM and the Monte Carlo method, and constructing a new system and surface, the liquid surface tension was calculated. According to a given temperature alloy free energy minima, the coefficient of linear expansion of the Fe-Al alloy is simulated. The method and the results discussed, we give the mathematical relationship between the liquid surface tension and the temperature of the three kinds of Fe-Al alloy. The results of the simulation are in good agreement with existing experimental data in the low temperature zone, however, the result is a little lower than the experimental results in the high temperature zone. So the calculation result shows that the Monte Carlo method is very effective in the Fe-Al alloy and the method is right and reliable here. (authors)
Estimation of beryllium ground state energy by Monte Carlo simulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Quantum Monte Carlo method represent a powerful and broadly applicable computational tool for finding very accurate solution of the stationary Schrödinger equation for atoms, molecules, solids and a variety of model systems. Using variational Monte Carlo method we have calculated the ground state energy of the Beryllium atom. Our calculation are based on using a modified four parameters trial wave function which leads to good result comparing with the few parameters trial wave functions presented before. Based on random Numbers we can generate a large sample of electron locations to estimate the ground state energy of Beryllium. Our calculation gives good estimation for the ground state energy of the Beryllium atom comparing with the corresponding exact data
Estimation of beryllium ground state energy by Monte Carlo simulation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kabir, K. M. Ariful [Department of Physical Sciences, School of Engineering and Computer Science, Independent University, Bangladesh (IUB) Dhaka (Bangladesh); Halder, Amal [Department of Mathematics, University of Dhaka Dhaka (Bangladesh)
2015-05-15
Quantum Monte Carlo method represent a powerful and broadly applicable computational tool for finding very accurate solution of the stationary Schrödinger equation for atoms, molecules, solids and a variety of model systems. Using variational Monte Carlo method we have calculated the ground state energy of the Beryllium atom. Our calculation are based on using a modified four parameters trial wave function which leads to good result comparing with the few parameters trial wave functions presented before. Based on random Numbers we can generate a large sample of electron locations to estimate the ground state energy of Beryllium. Our calculation gives good estimation for the ground state energy of the Beryllium atom comparing with the corresponding exact data.
Monte Carlo simulations for design of the KFUPM PGNAA facility
Naqvi, A A; Maslehuddin, M; Kidwai, S
2003-01-01
Monte Carlo simulations were carried out to design a 2.8 MeV neutron-based prompt gamma ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) setup for elemental analysis of cement samples. The elemental analysis was carried out using prompt gamma rays produced through capture of thermal neutrons in sample nuclei. The basic design of the PGNAA setup consists of a cylindrical cement sample enclosed in a cylindrical high-density polyethylene moderator placed between a neutron source and a gamma ray detector. In these simulations the predominant geometrical parameters of the PGNAA setup were optimized, including moderator size, sample size and shielding of the detector. Using the results of the simulations, an experimental PGNAA setup was then fabricated at the 350 kV Accelerator Laboratory of this University. The design calculations were checked experimentally through thermal neutron flux measurements inside the PGNAA moderator. A test prompt gamma ray spectrum of the PGNAA setup was also acquired from a Portland cement samp...
Monte Carlo Simulation Tool Installation and Operation Guide
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aguayo Navarrete, Estanislao; Ankney, Austin S.; Berguson, Timothy J.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Orrell, John L.; Troy, Meredith D.; Wiseman, Clinton G.
2013-09-02
This document provides information on software and procedures for Monte Carlo simulations based on the Geant4 toolkit, the ROOT data analysis software and the CRY cosmic ray library. These tools have been chosen for its application to shield design and activation studies as part of the simulation task for the Majorana Collaboration. This document includes instructions for installation, operation and modification of the simulation code in a high cyber-security computing environment, such as the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory network. It is intended as a living document, and will be periodically updated. It is a starting point for information collection by an experimenter, and is not the definitive source. Users should consult with one of the authors for guidance on how to find the most current information for their needs.
Lanczos and Recursion Techniques for Multiscale Kinetic Monte Carlo Simulations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rudd, R E; Mason, D R; Sutton, A P
2006-03-13
We review an approach to the simulation of the class of microstructural and morphological evolution involving both relatively short-ranged chemical and interfacial interactions and long-ranged elastic interactions. The calculation of the anharmonic elastic energy is facilitated with Lanczos recursion. The elastic energy changes affect the rate of vacancy hopping, and hence the rate of microstructural evolution due to vacancy mediated diffusion. The elastically informed hopping rates are used to construct the event catalog for kinetic Monte Carlo simulation. The simulation is accelerated using a second order residence time algorithm. The effect of elasticity on the microstructural development has been assessed. This article is related to a talk given in honor of David Pettifor at the DGP60 Workshop in Oxford.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李军; 杨伟; 赵锁珠
2013-01-01
On account of there are some disadvantages of conventional multi criteria and decision-making evaluation method to deal with indefinite information, a integrated method which combines computer simulation and multi criteria and decision-making method is proposed, in this method, the measurements and distribution zones of survivability attributes are determinated. Firstly, the stochastic values of survivability attributes are created by Monte -Carlo simulation. Secondly, the integrated evaluation were carried by grey relation projection method and TOPSIS method. Thirdly, the final evaluation results of survivability were acquired by statistics analysis lastly. A simulation evaluation of five modern combat aircrafts was performed by the method, the integrated evaluation results and project order were given, which validated the availability and engineering practicability of the method in this paper. The method can also provide useful references for other project evaluation which needs to deal with indefinite information.%针对目前作战飞机生存力评价中多准则决策评价法处理不确定信息的不足,提出了一种将计算机仿真和多准则决策结合起来的综合评价法.该方法在确定飞机生存力指标的评价量度和分布区间的基础上,利用Monte-Carlo模拟生成生存力指标的随机值,然后采用灰色关联投影法和基于理想点决策法进行随机指标的综合评价,最后通过统计分析获得生存力的评价结果.利用上述方法对5型现役作战飞机的生存力进行了仿真评价,得出了各方案在大量模拟次数下的综合评价结果和方案排序,验证了此方法的有效性和工程实用性.此方法也为其他各类需要处理不确定信息的方案综合评价提供了参考.
Moura, Alfredo de; Esteves, António
2013-01-01
The present paper reports the precipitation process of Al3Sc structures in an aluminum scandium alloy, which has been simulated with a kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) method. The kMC implementation is based on the vacancy diffusion mechanism. To filter the raw data generated by the kMC simulation, the density-based clustering with noise (DBSCAN) method was employed. kMC and DBSCAN algorithms were implemented in the C language. The undertaken simulations were conducted in the SeARCH cluster at the U...
A Monte Carlo simulation of the packing and segregation of spheres in cylinders
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. R. A. ABREU
1999-12-01
Full Text Available In this work, the Monte Carlo method (MC was extended to simulate the packing and segregation of particles subjected to a gravitational field and confined inside rigid walls. The method was used in systems containing spheres inside cylinders. The calculation of void fraction profiles in both the axial and radial directions was formulated, and some results are presented. In agreement with experimental data, the simulations show that the packed beds present structural ordering near the cylindrical walls up to a distance of about 4 particle diameters. The simulations also indicate that the presence of the cylindrical wall does not seem to have a strong effect on the gravitational segregation phenomenon.
Comparison between Monte Carlo method and deterministic method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A fast critical assembly consists of a lattice of plates of sodium, plutonium or uranium, resulting in a high inhomogeneity. The inhomogeneity in the lattice should be evaluated carefully to determine the bias factor accurately. Deterministic procedures are generally used for the lattice calculation. To reduce the required calculation time, various one-dimensional lattice models have been developed previously to replace multi-dimensional models. In the present study, calculations are made for a two-dimensional model and results are compared with those obtained with one-dimensional models in terms of the average microscopic cross section of a lattice and diffusion coefficient. Inhomogeneity in a lattice affects the effective cross section and distribution of neutrons in the lattice. The background cross section determined by the method proposed by Tone is used here to calculate the effective cross section, and the neutron distribution is determined by the collision probability method. Several other methods have been proposed to calculate the effective cross section. The present study also applies the continuous energy Monte Carlo method to the calculation. A code based on this method is employed to evaluate several one-dimensional models. (Nogami, K.)
Monte Carlo simulation of quantum Zeno effect in the brain
Georgiev, Danko
2015-12-01
Environmental decoherence appears to be the biggest obstacle for successful construction of quantum mind theories. Nevertheless, the quantum physicist Henry Stapp promoted the view that the mind could utilize quantum Zeno effect to influence brain dynamics and that the efficacy of such mental efforts would not be undermined by environmental decoherence of the brain. To address the physical plausibility of Stapp's claim, we modeled the brain using quantum tunneling of an electron in a multiple-well structure such as the voltage sensor in neuronal ion channels and performed Monte Carlo simulations of quantum Zeno effect exerted by the mind upon the brain in the presence or absence of environmental decoherence. The simulations unambiguously showed that the quantum Zeno effect breaks down for timescales greater than the brain decoherence time. To generalize the Monte Carlo simulation results for any n-level quantum system, we further analyzed the change of brain entropy due to the mind probing actions and proved a theorem according to which local projections cannot decrease the von Neumann entropy of the unconditional brain density matrix. The latter theorem establishes that Stapp's model is physically implausible but leaves a door open for future development of quantum mind theories provided the brain has a decoherence-free subspace.
Computing Greeks with Multilevel Monte Carlo Methods using Importance Sampling
Euget, Thomas
2012-01-01
This paper presents a new efficient way to reduce the variance of an estimator of popular payoffs and greeks encounter in financial mathematics. The idea is to apply Importance Sampling with the Multilevel Monte Carlo recently introduced by M.B. Giles. So far, Importance Sampling was proved successful in combination with standard Monte Carlo method. We will show efficiency of our approach on the estimation of financial derivatives prices and then on the estimation of Greeks (i.e. sensitivitie...
A New Method for Parallel Monte Carlo Tree Search
Mirsoleimani, S. Ali; Plaat, Aske; Herik, Jaap van den; Vermaseren, Jos
2016-01-01
In recent years there has been much interest in the Monte Carlo tree search algorithm, a new, adaptive, randomized optimization algorithm. In fields as diverse as Artificial Intelligence, Operations Research, and High Energy Physics, research has established that Monte Carlo tree search can find good solutions without domain dependent heuristics. However, practice shows that reaching high performance on large parallel machines is not so successful as expected. This paper proposes a new method...
A review of Monte Carlo simulations of polymers with PERM
Hsu, Hsiao-Ping; Grassberger, Peter
2011-01-01
In this review, we describe applications of the pruned-enriched Rosenbluth method (PERM), a sequential Monte Carlo algorithm with resampling, to various problems in polymer physics. PERM produces samples according to any given prescribed weight distribution, by growing configurations step by step with controlled bias, and correcting "bad" configurations by "population control". The latter is implemented, in contrast to other population based algorithms like e.g. genetic algorithms, by depth-f...
Monte-Carlo Simulation on Neutron Instruments at CARR
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2001-01-01
The design of high resolution neutron powder diffractometer(HRPD) and two cold neutron guides(CNGs) to be built at China advanced research reactor(CARR) are studied by Monte-Carlo simulation technique.The HRPD instrument is desiged to have a minimum resolution of 0.2% and neutron fluence rate of greater than 106 cm-2 ·s-1 at sample position. The resolution curves, neutron fluence rate and effective neutron beam size at sample position are given. Differences in resolutions and intensity between the
Anisotropic flows from colour strings: Monte-Carlo simulations
Braun, M A; Vechernin, V V
2012-01-01
By direct Monte-Carlo simulations it is shown that the anisotropic flows can be successfully described in the colour string picture with fusion and percolation provided anisotropy of particle emission from the fused string is taken into account. Quenching of produced particles in the strong colour field of the string is the basic mechanism for this anisotropy. The concrete realization of this mechanism is borrowed from the QED. Due to dependence of this mechanism on the external field strength the found flows grow with energy, with values for $v_2$ at LHC energies greater by ~15% than at RHIC energies.
Proceedings of the first symposium on Monte Carlo simulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The first symposium on Monte Carlo simulation was held at Mitsubishi Research Institute, Otemachi, Tokyo, on 10th and 11st of September, 1998. This symposium was organized by Nuclear Code Research Committee at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. In the sessions, were presented orally 21 papers on code development, parallel calculation, reactor physics, burn-up, criticality, shielding safety, dose evaluation, nuclear fusion reactor, thermonuclear fusion plasma, nuclear transmutation, electromagnetic cascade, fuel cycle facility. Those presented papers are compiled in this proceedings. The 21 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)
Proceedings of the first symposium on Monte Carlo simulation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
2001-01-01
The first symposium on Monte Carlo simulation was held at Mitsubishi Research Institute, Otemachi, Tokyo, on 10th and 11st of September, 1998. This symposium was organized by Nuclear Code Research Committee at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. In the sessions, were presented orally 21 papers on code development, parallel calculation, reactor physics, burn-up, criticality, shielding safety, dose evaluation, nuclear fusion reactor, thermonuclear fusion plasma, nuclear transmutation, electromagnetic cascade, fuel cycle facility. Those presented papers are compiled in this proceedings. The 21 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)
Monte Carlo simulations of charge transport in heterogeneous organic semiconductors
Aung, Pyie Phyo; Khanal, Kiran; Luettmer-Strathmann, Jutta
2015-03-01
The efficiency of organic solar cells depends on the morphology and electronic properties of the active layer. Research teams have been experimenting with different conducting materials to achieve more efficient solar panels. In this work, we perform Monte Carlo simulations to study charge transport in heterogeneous materials. We have developed a coarse-grained lattice model of polymeric photovoltaics and use it to generate active layers with ordered and disordered regions. We determine carrier mobilities for a range of conditions to investigate the effect of the morphology on charge transport.
Implict Monte Carlo Radiation Transport Simulations of Four Test Problems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gentile, N
2007-08-01
Radiation transport codes, like almost all codes, are difficult to develop and debug. It is helpful to have small, easy to run test problems with known answers to use in development and debugging. It is also prudent to re-run test problems periodically during development to ensure that previous code capabilities have not been lost. We describe four radiation transport test problems with analytic or approximate analytic answers. These test problems are suitable for use in debugging and testing radiation transport codes. We also give results of simulations of these test problems performed with an Implicit Monte Carlo photonics code.
Monte Carlo simulation of the Tien-Shan effect
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Monte Carlo simulation of the Tien-Shan effect is carried out. Interaction between hadrons with the energy above 10 TeV and the nuclei of lead atoms with the cross sections ∼ 40% of inelastic interaction is shown to result in production of decaying (unstable) particles (Λc-baryon and D-meson), extracting the main share of interacting hadron energy. These particles production results in irregular energy dependence of the mean-free path for absorption of energy flux of hadron component of a wide atmosphere shower (Tien-Shan effect)
Monte Carlo simulation on backward steps of single kinesin molecule
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wang Hong; Zhang Yong; Dou Shuo-Xing; Wang Peng-Ye
2008-01-01
Kinesin is a stepping molecular motor travelling along the microtubule. It moves primarily in the plus end direction of the microtubule and occasionally in the minus-end, backward, direction. Recently, the backward steps of kinesin under different loads and temperatures start to attract interests, and the relations among them are revealed. This paper aims to theoretically understand these relations observed in experiments. After introducing a backward pathway into the previous model of the ATPase cycle of kinesin movement, the dependence of the backward movement on the load and the temperature is explored through Monte Carlo simulation. Our results agree well with previous experiments.
Polarization Properties of Ferroelectric Superlattice Studied by Monte Carlo Simulation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Guiwu LU; Hairui XIA; Pijun LIU
2001-01-01
The polarization property of a ferroelectric superlattice formed from two alternating materials was studied using Monte Carlo computer simulation. Our study has been developed in a framework of the transverse Ising model with nearest-neighbor interactions. Both the effect of the transverse field and interface coupling strength have been taken into consideration. In view of our results which is in good agreement with previous theoretical results, it is concluded that the Curie temperature of the superlattice increases with the increase of the interface coupling strength JAB.The remanent polarization and saturation coercive force of the superlattice are also presented.
New electron multiple scattering distributions for Monte Carlo transport simulation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chibani, Omar (Haut Commissariat a la Recherche (C.R.S.), 2 Boulevard Franz Fanon, Alger B.P. 1017, Alger-Gare (Algeria)); Patau, Jean Paul (Laboratoire de Biophysique et Biomathematiques, Faculte des Sciences Pharmaceutiques, Universite Paul Sabatier, 35 Chemin des Maraichers, 31062 Toulouse cedex (France))
1994-10-01
New forms of electron (positron) multiple scattering distributions are proposed. The first is intended for use in the conditions of validity of the Moliere theory. The second distribution takes place when the electron path is so short that only few elastic collisions occur. These distributions are adjustable formulas. The introduction of some parameters allows impositions of the correct value of the first moment. Only positive and analytic functions were used in constructing the present expressions. This makes sampling procedures easier. Systematic tests are presented and some Monte Carlo simulations, as benchmarks, are carried out. ((orig.))
Monte Carlo methods and models in finance and insurance
Korn, Ralf
2010-01-01
Offering a unique balance between applications and calculations, this book incorporates the application background of finance and insurance with the theory and applications of Monte Carlo methods. It presents recent methods and algorithms, including the multilevel Monte Carlo method, the statistical Romberg method, and the Heath-Platen estimator, as well as recent financial and actuarial models, such as the Cheyette and dynamic mortality models. The book enables readers to find the right algorithm for a desired application and illustrates complicated methods and algorithms with simple applicat
Quantum trajectory Monte Carlo method describing the coherent dynamics of highly charged ions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present a theoretical framework for studying dynamics of open quantum systems. Our formalism gives a systematic path from Hamiltonians constructed by first principles to a Monte Carlo algorithm. Our Monte Carlo calculation can treat the build-up and time evolution of coherences. We employ a reduced density matrix approach in which the total system is divided into a system of interest and its environment. An equation of motion for the reduced density matrix is written in the Lindblad form using an additional approximation to the Born-Markov approximation. The Lindblad form allows the solution of this multi-state problem in terms of Monte Carlo sampling of quantum trajectories. The Monte Carlo method is advantageous in terms of computer storage compared to direct solutions of the equation of motion. We apply our method to discuss coherence properties of the internal state of a Kr35+ ion subject to spontaneous radiative decay. Simulations exhibit clear signatures of coherent transitions
LISA data analysis using Markov chain Monte Carlo methods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) is expected to simultaneously detect many thousands of low-frequency gravitational wave signals. This presents a data analysis challenge that is very different to the one encountered in ground based gravitational wave astronomy. LISA data analysis requires the identification of individual signals from a data stream containing an unknown number of overlapping signals. Because of the signal overlaps, a global fit to all the signals has to be performed in order to avoid biasing the solution. However, performing such a global fit requires the exploration of an enormous parameter space with a dimension upwards of 50 000. Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods offer a very promising solution to the LISA data analysis problem. MCMC algorithms are able to efficiently explore large parameter spaces, simultaneously providing parameter estimates, error analysis, and even model selection. Here we present the first application of MCMC methods to simulated LISA data and demonstrate the great potential of the MCMC approach. Our implementation uses a generalized F-statistic to evaluate the likelihoods, and simulated annealing to speed convergence of the Markov chains. As a final step we supercool the chains to extract maximum likelihood estimates, and estimates of the Bayes factors for competing models. We find that the MCMC approach is able to correctly identify the number of signals present, extract the source parameters, and return error estimates consistent with Fisher information matrix predictions
Risk analysis and Monte Carlo simulation applied to the generation of drilling AFE estimates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper presents a method for developing an authorization-for-expenditure (AFE)-generating model and illustrates the technique with a specific offshore field development case study. The model combines Monte Carlo simulation and statistical analysis of historical drilling data to generate more accurate, risked, AFE estimates. In addition to the general method, two examples of making AFE time estimates for North Sea wells with the presented techniques are given
The use of Monte Carlo simulations for seismic hazard assessment in the U.K.
R. M. W. Musson
2000-01-01
The input required for a seismic hazard study using conventional Probabilistic Seismic Hazard assessment (PSHA) methods can also be used for probabilistic analysis of hazard using Monte Carlo simulation methods. This technique is very flexible, and seems to be under-represented in the literature. It is very easy to modify the form of the seismicity model used, for example, to introduce non-Poissonian behaviour, without extensive reprogramming. Uncertainty in input parameters can also be model...
Lattice Monte Carlo simulation of Galilei variant anomalous diffusion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The observation of an increasing number of anomalous diffusion phenomena motivates the study to reveal the actual reason for such stochastic processes. When it is difficult to get analytical solutions or necessary to track the trajectory of particles, lattice Monte Carlo (LMC) simulation has been shown to be particularly useful. To develop such an LMC simulation algorithm for the Galilei variant anomalous diffusion, we derive explicit solutions for the conditional and unconditional first passage time (FPT) distributions with double absorbing barriers. According to the theory of random walks on lattices and the FPT distributions, we propose an LMC simulation algorithm and prove that such LMC simulation can reproduce both the mean and the mean square displacement exactly in the long-time limit. However, the error introduced in the second moment of the displacement diverges according to a power law as the simulation time progresses. We give an explicit criterion for choosing a small enough lattice step to limit the error within the specified tolerance. We further validate the LMC simulation algorithm and confirm the theoretical error analysis through numerical simulations. The numerical results agree with our theoretical predictions very well
Lattice Monte Carlo simulation of Galilei variant anomalous diffusion
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guo, Gang, E-mail: hndzgg@aliyun.com [School of Information System and Management, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha, 410073 (China); Institute of Computer Science, University of Rostock, Albert Einstein Str. 22, Rostock, 18059 (Germany); Bittig, Arne, E-mail: arne.bittig@uni-rostock.de [Institute of Computer Science, University of Rostock, Albert Einstein Str. 22, Rostock, 18059 (Germany); Uhrmacher, Adelinde, E-mail: lin@informatik.uni-rostock.de [Institute of Computer Science, University of Rostock, Albert Einstein Str. 22, Rostock, 18059 (Germany)
2015-05-01
The observation of an increasing number of anomalous diffusion phenomena motivates the study to reveal the actual reason for such stochastic processes. When it is difficult to get analytical solutions or necessary to track the trajectory of particles, lattice Monte Carlo (LMC) simulation has been shown to be particularly useful. To develop such an LMC simulation algorithm for the Galilei variant anomalous diffusion, we derive explicit solutions for the conditional and unconditional first passage time (FPT) distributions with double absorbing barriers. According to the theory of random walks on lattices and the FPT distributions, we propose an LMC simulation algorithm and prove that such LMC simulation can reproduce both the mean and the mean square displacement exactly in the long-time limit. However, the error introduced in the second moment of the displacement diverges according to a power law as the simulation time progresses. We give an explicit criterion for choosing a small enough lattice step to limit the error within the specified tolerance. We further validate the LMC simulation algorithm and confirm the theoretical error analysis through numerical simulations. The numerical results agree with our theoretical predictions very well.
Exploring fluctuations and phase equilibria in fluid mixtures via Monte Carlo simulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Monte Carlo simulation provides a powerful tool for understanding and exploring thermodynamic phase equilibria in many-particle interacting systems. Among the most physically intuitive simulation methods is Gibbs ensemble Monte Carlo (GEMC), which allows direct computation of phase coexistence curves of model fluids by assigning each phase to its own simulation cell. When one or both of the phases can be modelled virtually via an analytic free energy function (Mehta and Kofke 1993 Mol. Phys. 79 39), the GEMC method takes on new pedagogical significance as an efficient means of analysing fluctuations and illuminating the statistical foundation of phase behaviour in finite systems. Here we extend this virtual GEMC method to binary fluid mixtures and demonstrate its implementation and instructional value with two applications: (1) a lattice model of simple mixtures and polymer blends and (2) a free-volume model of a complex mixture of colloids and polymers. We present algorithms for performing Monte Carlo trial moves in the virtual Gibbs ensemble, validate the method by computing fluid demixing phase diagrams, and analyse the dependence of fluctuations on system size. Our open-source simulation programs, coded in the platform-independent Java language, are suitable for use in classroom, tutorial, or computational laboratory settings. (paper)
Exploring fluctuations and phase equilibria in fluid mixtures via Monte Carlo simulation
Denton, Alan R.; Schmidt, Michael P.
2013-03-01
Monte Carlo simulation provides a powerful tool for understanding and exploring thermodynamic phase equilibria in many-particle interacting systems. Among the most physically intuitive simulation methods is Gibbs ensemble Monte Carlo (GEMC), which allows direct computation of phase coexistence curves of model fluids by assigning each phase to its own simulation cell. When one or both of the phases can be modelled virtually via an analytic free energy function (Mehta and Kofke 1993 Mol. Phys. 79 39), the GEMC method takes on new pedagogical significance as an efficient means of analysing fluctuations and illuminating the statistical foundation of phase behaviour in finite systems. Here we extend this virtual GEMC method to binary fluid mixtures and demonstrate its implementation and instructional value with two applications: (1) a lattice model of simple mixtures and polymer blends and (2) a free-volume model of a complex mixture of colloids and polymers. We present algorithms for performing Monte Carlo trial moves in the virtual Gibbs ensemble, validate the method by computing fluid demixing phase diagrams, and analyse the dependence of fluctuations on system size. Our open-source simulation programs, coded in the platform-independent Java language, are suitable for use in classroom, tutorial, or computational laboratory settings.
Monte Carlo method application to shielding calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
CANDU spent fuel discharged from the reactor core contains Pu, so it must be stressed in two directions: tracing for the fuel reactivity in order to prevent critical mass formation and personnel protection during the spent fuel manipulation. The basic tasks accomplished by the shielding calculations in a nuclear safety analysis consist in dose rates calculations in order to prevent any risks both for personnel protection and impact on the environment during the spent fuel manipulation, transport and storage. To perform photon dose rates calculations the Monte Carlo MORSE-SGC code incorporated in SAS4 sequence from SCALE system was used. The paper objective was to obtain the photon dose rates to the spent fuel transport cask wall, both in radial and axial directions. As source of radiation one spent CANDU fuel bundle was used. All the geometrical and material data related to the transport cask were considered according to the shipping cask type B model, whose prototype has been realized and tested in the Institute for Nuclear Research Pitesti. (authors)
A Monte Carlo algorithm for simulating fermions on Lefschetz thimbles
Alexandru, Andrei; Bedaque, Paulo
2016-01-01
A possible solution of the notorious sign problem preventing direct Monte Carlo calculations for systems with non-zero chemical potential is to deform the integration region in the complex plane to a Lefschetz thimble. We investigate this approach for a simple fermionic model. We introduce an easy to implement Monte Carlo algorithm to sample the dominant thimble. Our algorithm relies only on the integration of the gradient flow in the numerically stable direction, which gives it a distinct advantage over the other proposed algorithms. We demonstrate the stability and efficiency of the algorithm by applying it to an exactly solvable fermionic model and compare our results with the analytical ones. We report a very good agreement for a certain region in the parameter space where the dominant contribution comes from a single thimble, including a region where standard methods suffer from a severe sign problem. However, we find that there are also regions in the parameter space where the contribution from multiple...
Monte Carlo computer simulation of sedimentation of charged hard spherocylinders
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Viveros-Méndez, P. X., E-mail: xviveros@fisica.uaz.edu.mx; Aranda-Espinoza, S. [Unidad Académica de Física, Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas, Calzada Solidaridad esq. Paseo, La Bufa s/n, 98060 Zacatecas, Zacatecas, México (Mexico); Gil-Villegas, Alejandro [Departamento de Ingeniería Física, División de Ciencias e Ingenierías, Campus León, Universidad de Guanajuato, Loma del Bosque 103, Lomas del Campestre, 37150 León, Guanajuato, México (Mexico)
2014-07-28
In this article we present a NVT Monte Carlo computer simulation study of sedimentation of an electroneutral mixture of oppositely charged hard spherocylinders (CHSC) with aspect ratio L/σ = 5, where L and σ are the length and diameter of the cylinder and hemispherical caps, respectively, for each particle. This system is an extension of the restricted primitive model for spherical particles, where L/σ = 0, and it is assumed that the ions are immersed in an structureless solvent, i.e., a continuum with dielectric constant D. The system consisted of N = 2000 particles and the Wolf method was implemented to handle the coulombic interactions of the inhomogeneous system. Results are presented for different values of the strength ratio between the gravitational and electrostatic interactions, Γ = (mgσ)/(e{sup 2}/Dσ), where m is the mass per particle, e is the electron's charge and g is the gravitational acceleration value. A semi-infinite simulation cell was used with dimensions L{sub x} ≈ L{sub y} and L{sub z} = 5L{sub x}, where L{sub x}, L{sub y}, and L{sub z} are the box dimensions in Cartesian coordinates, and the gravitational force acts along the z-direction. Sedimentation effects were studied by looking at every layer formed by the CHSC along the gravitational field. By increasing Γ, particles tend to get more packed at each layer and to arrange in local domains with an orientational ordering along two perpendicular axis, a feature not observed in the uncharged system with the same hard-body geometry. This type of arrangement, known as tetratic phase, has been observed in two-dimensional systems of hard-rectangles and rounded hard-squares. In this way, the coupling of gravitational and electric interactions in the CHSC system induces the arrangement of particles in layers, with the formation of quasi-two dimensional tetratic phases near the surface.
Quantum Monte Carlo diagonalization method as a variational calculation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mizusaki, Takahiro; Otsuka, Takaharu [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Honma, Michio
1997-05-01
A stochastic method for performing large-scale shell model calculations is presented, which utilizes the auxiliary field Monte Carlo technique and diagonalization method. This method overcomes the limitation of the conventional shell model diagonalization and can extremely widen the feasibility of shell model calculations with realistic interactions for spectroscopic study of nuclear structure. (author)
Auxiliary-field quantum Monte Carlo methods in nuclei
Alhassid, Y
2016-01-01
Auxiliary-field quantum Monte Carlo methods enable the calculation of thermal and ground state properties of correlated quantum many-body systems in model spaces that are many orders of magnitude larger than those that can be treated by conventional diagonalization methods. We review recent developments and applications of these methods in nuclei using the framework of the configuration-interaction shell model.
PhyloSim - Monte Carlo simulation of sequence evolution in the R statistical computing environment
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Massingham Tim
2011-04-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Monte Carlo simulation of sequence evolution is routinely used to assess the performance of phylogenetic inference methods and sequence alignment algorithms. Progress in the field of molecular evolution fuels the need for more realistic and hence more complex simulations, adapted to particular situations, yet current software makes unreasonable assumptions such as homogeneous substitution dynamics or a uniform distribution of indels across the simulated sequences. This calls for an extensible simulation framework written in a high-level functional language, offering new functionality and making it easy to incorporate further complexity. Results PhyloSim is an extensible framework for the Monte Carlo simulation of sequence evolution, written in R, using the Gillespie algorithm to integrate the actions of many concurrent processes such as substitutions, insertions and deletions. Uniquely among sequence simulation tools, PhyloSim can simulate arbitrarily complex patterns of rate variation and multiple indel processes, and allows for the incorporation of selective constraints on indel events. User-defined complex patterns of mutation and selection can be easily integrated into simulations, allowing PhyloSim to be adapted to specific needs. Conclusions Close integration with R and the wide range of features implemented offer unmatched flexibility, making it possible to simulate sequence evolution under a wide range of realistic settings. We believe that PhyloSim will be useful to future studies involving simulated alignments.
Monte Carlo simulation of medical linear accelerator using primo code
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The use of monte Carlo simulation has become very important in the medical field and especially in calculation in radiotherapy. Various Monte Carlo codes were developed simulating interactions of particles and photons with matter. One of these codes is PRIMO that performs simulation of radiation transport from the primary electron source of a linac to estimate the absorbed dose in a water phantom or computerized tomography (CT). PRIMO is based on Penelope Monte Carlo code. Measurements of 6 MV photon beam PDD and profile were done for Elekta precise linear accelerator at Radiation and Isotopes Center Khartoum using computerized Blue water phantom and CC13 Ionization Chamber. accept Software was used to control the phantom to measure and verify dose distribution. Elektalinac from the list of available linacs in PRIMO was tuned to model Elekta precise linear accelerator. Beam parameter of 6.0 MeV initial electron energy, 0.20 MeV FWHM, and 0.20 cm focal spot FWHM were used, and an error of 4% between calculated and measured curves was found. The buildup region Z max was 1.40 cm and homogenous profile in cross line and in line were acquired. A number of studies were done to verily the model usability one of them is the effect of the number of histories on accuracy of the simulation and the resulted profile for the same beam parameters. The effect was noticeable and inaccuracies in the profile were reduced by increasing the number of histories. Another study was the effect of Side-step errors on the calculated dose which was compared with the measured dose for the same setting.It was in range of 2% for 5 cm shift, but it was higher in the calculated dose because of the small difference between the tuned model and measured dose curves. Future developments include simulating asymmetrical fields, calculating the dose distribution in computerized tomographic (CT) volume, studying the effect of beam modifiers on beam profile for both electron and photon beams.(Author)
Kunz, Lothar; Kuhn, Frank M.; Deutschmann, Olaf
2015-07-01
So far most kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) simulations of heterogeneously catalyzed gas phase reactions were limited to flat crystal surfaces. The newly developed program MoCKA (Monte Carlo Karlsruhe) combines graph-theoretical and lattice-based principles to be able to efficiently handle multiple lattices with a large number of sites, which account for different facets of the catalytic nanoparticle and the support material, and pursues a general approach, which is not restricted to a specific surface or reaction. The implementation uses the efficient variable step size method and applies a fast update algorithm for its process list. It is shown that the analysis of communication between facets and of (reverse) spillover effects is possible by rewinding the kMC simulation. Hence, this approach offers a wide range of new applications for kMC simulations in heterogeneous catalysis.
Sampling of transport coefficients in steady state Townsend Monte Carlo simulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper a complete and consistent set of equations for sampling of the data in steady state Townsend (SST) Monte Carlo simulations (MCS) is developed. Standard implementation of a Monte Carlo simulation code for time of flight (TOF) allows us to add SST sampling. Membrane's sampling has an advantage in obtaining spatial variation of properties with high spatial resolution but with a problem in poor statistics for low energy electrons that move perpendicular to the field axis. The box sampling overcomes this problem but suffers from a poorer statistics than membrane sampling. The results show the effect of non-conservative collisions in the difference between SST and TOF results. In addition the internal consistency between two methods of SST sampling is very good. The present paper also gives a complete set of equations for conversion between the two types of experiments TOF and SST. Our simulation provided us also with a way to test the conversion formulae and their convergence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
There are several methods of measuring radon concentrations but nuclear track detector cylindrical dosimeters are widely employed. In this investigation, the consequence of effective volumes of the dosimeters on the registration of alpha tracks in a CR-39 detector was studied. In a series of experiments an optimum radius for a CR-39-based open cylindrical radon dosimeter was found to be about 3 cm. Monte Carlo simulation techniques hav been employed to verify the experimental results. In this context, a computer code Monte Carlo simulation dosimetry (MOCSID) was developed. Monte Carlo simulation experiments gave the optimum radius of the dosimeters as 3.0 cm. The experimental results are in good agreement with those obtained by Monte Carlo design calculations. In addition to this, plate-out effects of radon progeny were also studied. It was observed that the contribution of radon progeny (218Po and 214Po) plated-out on the wall of the dosimeters increases with an increase of dosimeter radii and then decrease to 0 at a radius of about 3 cm if a point detector has been installed at the center of the dosimeter base. In the code MOCSID different types of random number generators were employed. The results of this research are very useful for designing an optimum size of radon dosimeters
Applying Monte Carlo Simulation to Launch Vehicle Design and Requirements Analysis
Hanson, J. M.; Beard, B. B.
2010-01-01
This Technical Publication (TP) is meant to address a number of topics related to the application of Monte Carlo simulation to launch vehicle design and requirements analysis. Although the focus is on a launch vehicle application, the methods may be applied to other complex systems as well. The TP is organized so that all the important topics are covered in the main text, and detailed derivations are in the appendices. The TP first introduces Monte Carlo simulation and the major topics to be discussed, including discussion of the input distributions for Monte Carlo runs, testing the simulation, how many runs are necessary for verification of requirements, what to do if results are desired for events that happen only rarely, and postprocessing, including analyzing any failed runs, examples of useful output products, and statistical information for generating desired results from the output data. Topics in the appendices include some tables for requirements verification, derivation of the number of runs required and generation of output probabilistic data with consumer risk included, derivation of launch vehicle models to include possible variations of assembled vehicles, minimization of a consumable to achieve a two-dimensional statistical result, recontact probability during staging, ensuring duplicated Monte Carlo random variations, and importance sampling.
Observations on variational and projector Monte Carlo methods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Variational Monte Carlo and various projector Monte Carlo (PMC) methods are presented in a unified manner. Similarities and differences between the methods and choices made in designing the methods are discussed. Both methods where the Monte Carlo walk is performed in a discrete space and methods where it is performed in a continuous space are considered. It is pointed out that the usual prescription for importance sampling may not be advantageous depending on the particular quantum Monte Carlo method used and the observables of interest, so alternate prescriptions are presented. The nature of the sign problem is discussed for various versions of PMC methods. A prescription for an exact PMC method in real space, i.e., a method that does not make a fixed-node or similar approximation and does not have a finite basis error, is presented. This method is likely to be practical for systems with a small number of electrons. Approximate PMC methods that are applicable to larger systems and go beyond the fixed-node approximation are also discussed
Treatment planning in radiosurgery: parallel Monte Carlo simulation software
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Scielzo, G. [Galliera Hospitals, Genova (Italy). Dept. of Hospital Physics; Grillo Ruggieri, F. [Galliera Hospitals, Genova (Italy) Dept. for Radiation Therapy; Modesti, M.; Felici, R. [Electronic Data System, Rome (Italy); Surridge, M. [University of South Hampton (United Kingdom). Parallel Apllication Centre
1995-12-01
The main objective of this research was to evaluate the possibility of direct Monte Carlo simulation for accurate dosimetry with short computation time. We made us of: graphics workstation, linear accelerator, water, PMMA and anthropomorphic phantoms, for validation purposes; ionometric, film and thermo-luminescent techniques, for dosimetry; treatment planning system for comparison. Benchmarking results suggest that short computing times can be obtained with use of the parallel version of EGS4 that was developed. Parallelism was obtained assigning simulation incident photons to separate processors, and the development of a parallel random number generator was necessary. Validation consisted in: phantom irradiation, comparison of predicted and measured values good agreement in PDD and dose profiles. Experiments on anthropomorphic phantoms (with inhomogeneities) were carried out, and these values are being compared with results obtained with the conventional treatment planning system.
Treatment planning in radiosurgery: parallel Monte Carlo simulation software
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The main objective of this research was to evaluate the possibility of direct Monte Carlo simulation for accurate dosimetry with short computation time. We made us of: graphics workstation, linear accelerator, water, PMMA and anthropomorphic phantoms, for validation purposes; ionometric, film and thermo-luminescent techniques, for dosimetry; treatment planning system for comparison. Benchmarking results suggest that short computing times can be obtained with use of the parallel version of EGS4 that was developed. Parallelism was obtained assigning simulation incident photons to separate processors, and the development of a parallel random number generator was necessary. Validation consisted in: phantom irradiation, comparison of predicted and measured values good agreement in PDD and dose profiles. Experiments on anthropomorphic phantoms (with inhomogeneities) were carried out, and these values are being compared with results obtained with the conventional treatment planning system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Uranium and thorium contents in different layers of an archaeological site have been determined by using CR-39 and LR-115 type II solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) and calculating the probabilities for α-particles emitted by the uranium and thorium series to reach and be registered on the SSNTD films. A new method has been developed based on calculating the self-absorption coefficient of the gamma-photons emitted by the uranium (238U), thorium (232Th) and their corresponding decay products as well as the potassium-40 (40K) isotope for evaluating the annual absorbed gamma dose rates in the considered material samples. Results obtained have been compared with data obtained by using the TL dosimetry and Bell's methods. Ceramic samples belonging to the studied archaeological site have been dated
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Misdaq, M.A.; Fahde, K.; Erramli, H. [Nuclear Physics and Techniques Laboratory, Faculty of Sciences Semlalia, B.P. S15, University Cadi Ayyad, Marrakech (Morocco); Mikdad, A. [National Institute of Archaeology and Patrimony, Rabat (Morocco); Rzama, A.; Yousif Charif, M.L. [National Centre of Radioprotection, Rabat (Morocco)
1998-10-01
Uranium and thorium contents in different layers of an archaeological site have been determined by using CR-39 and LR-115 type II solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) and calculating the probabilities for {alpha}-particles emitted by the uranium and thorium series to reach and be registered on the SSNTD films. A new method has been developed based on calculating the self-absorption coefficient of the gamma-photons emitted by the uranium ({sup 238}U), thorium ({sup 232}Th) and their corresponding decay products as well as the potassium-40 ({sup 40}K) isotope for evaluating the annual absorbed gamma dose rates in the considered material samples. Results obtained have been compared with data obtained by using the TL dosimetry and Bell's methods. Ceramic samples belonging to the studied archaeological site have been dated.
Misdaq, M A; Erramli, H; Mikdad, A; Rzama, A; Yousif-Charif, M L
1998-01-01
Uranium and thorium contents in different layers of an archaeological site have been determined by using CR-39 and LR-115 type II solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) and calculating the probabilities for alpha-particles emitted by the uranium and thorium series to reach and be registered on the SSNTD films. A new method has been developed based on calculating the self-absorption coefficient of the gamma-photons emitted by the uranium ( sup 2 sup 3 sup 8 U), thorium ( sup 2 sup 3 sup 2 Th) and their corresponding decay products as well as the potassium-40 ( sup 4 sup 0 K) isotope for evaluating the annual absorbed gamma dose rates in the considered material samples. Results obtained have been compared with data obtained by using the TL dosimetry and Bell's methods. Ceramic samples belonging to the studied archaeological site have been dated.
A Multivariate Time Series Method for Monte Carlo Reactor Analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A robust multivariate time series method has been established for the Monte Carlo calculation of neutron multiplication problems. The method is termed Coarse Mesh Projection Method (CMPM) and can be implemented using the coarse statistical bins for acquisition of nuclear fission source data. A novel aspect of CMPM is the combination of the general technical principle of projection pursuit in the signal processing discipline and the neutron multiplication eigenvalue problem in the nuclear engineering discipline. CMPM enables reactor physicists to accurately evaluate major eigenvalue separations of nuclear reactors with continuous energy Monte Carlo calculation. CMPM was incorporated in the MCNP Monte Carlo particle transport code of Los Alamos National Laboratory. The great advantage of CMPM over the traditional Fission Matrix method is demonstrated for the three space-dimensional modeling of the initial core of a pressurized water reactor
Virtual detector characterisation with Monte-Carlo simulations
Sukowski, F.; Yaneu Yaneu, J. F.; Salamon, M.; Ebert, S.; Uhlmann, N.
2009-08-01
In the field of X-ray imaging flat-panel detectors which convert X-rays into electrical signals, are widely used. For different applications, detectors differ in several specific parameters that can be used for characterizing the detector. At the Development Center X-ray Technology EZRT we studied the question how well these characteristics can be determined by only knowing the layer composition of a detector. In order to determine the required parameters, the Monte-Carlo (MC) simulation program ROSI [J. Giersch et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 509 (2003) 151] was used while taking into account all primary and secondary particle interactions as well as the focal spot size of the X-ray tube. For the study, the Hamamatsu C9311DK [Technical Datasheet Hamamatsu C9311DK flat panel sensor, Hamamatsu Photonics, ( www.hamamatsu.com)], a scintillator-based detector, and the Ajat DIC 100TL [Technical description of Ajat DIC 100TL, Ajat Oy Ltd., ( www.ajat.fi)], a direct converting semiconductor detector, were used. The layer compositions of the two detectors were implemented into the MC simulation program. The following characteristics were measured [N. Uhlmann et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 591 (2008) 46] and compared to simulation results: The basic spatial resolution (BSR), the modulation transfer function (MTF), the contrast sensitivity (CS) and the specific material thickness range (SMTR). To take scattering of optical photons into account DETECT2000 [C. Moisan et al., DETECT2000—A Program for Modeling Optical Properties of Scintillators, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Laval University, Quebec City, 2000], another Monte-Carlo simulation was used.
Neutronic analysis of the PULSTAR reactor using Monte Carlo simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Neutronic analysis of the PULSTAR nuclear reactor was performed in support of its utilization and power upgrade from 1-MWth to 2-MWth. The PULSTAR is an open pool research reactor that is currently fueled with UO2 enriched to 4% in U-235. Detailed models were constructed of its core using the MCNP6 Monte Carlo code and its standard nuclear data libraries. The models covered all eight variations of the core starting with the first critical core in 1972 to the current core that was configured in 2011. Three dimensional heterogeneous models were constructed that faithfully reflected the geometry of the core and its surroundings using the original as-built engineering drawings. The Monte Carlo simulations benefited extensively from measurements that were performed upon the loading of each core and its subsequent operation. This includes power distribution and peaking measurements, depletion measurements (reflecting a core's excess reactivity), and measurements of reactivity feedback coefficients. Furthermore, to support the PULSTAR's fuel needs, the simulations explored the utilization of locally existing inventory of fresh UO2 fuel that is enriched to 6% in U-235. The analysis shows reasonable agreement between the results of the MCNP6 simulations and the available measured data. In general, most discrepancies between simulations and measurements may be attributed to the limited knowledge of the exact conditions of the historical measurements and the procedures used to analyze the measured data. Nonetheless, the results indicate the ability of the constructed models to support safety analysis and licensing action in relation to the on-going upgrades of the PULSTAR reactor. (author)
Monte Carlo methods for the reliability analysis of Markov systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper presents Monte Carlo methods for the reliability analysis of Markov systems. Markov models are useful in treating dependencies between components. The present paper shows how the adjoint Monte Carlo method for the continuous time Markov process can be derived from the method for the discrete-time Markov process by a limiting process. The straightforward extensions to the treatment of mean unavailability (over a time interval) are given. System unavailabilities can also be estimated; this is done by making the system failed states absorbing, and not permitting repair from them. A forward Monte Carlo method is presented in which the weighting functions are related to the adjoint function. In particular, if the exact adjoint function is known then weighting factors can be constructed such that the exact answer can be obtained with a single Monte Carlo trial. Of course, if the exact adjoint function is known, there is no need to perform the Monte Carlo calculation. However, the formulation is useful since it gives insight into choices of the weight factors which will reduce the variance of the estimator
Neutron-induced semiconductor soft error simulation using the PHITS Monte Carlo simulator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We have performed a neutron-induced soft error simulation using the PHITS Monte Carlo simulator. We validated our technique by comparing the MBGR (Modified Burst Generation Rate) values estimated by our simulation and a well known MBGR table by Fujitsu Laboratories, Ltd. We also evaluated a neutron-induced soft error rate of a SRAM cell as a function of the critical charge as well as a representation using a generally used unit, FIT rate [error/109 hour/device]. (author)
Impact of Weather Conditions on the Construction of the Terminal - Monte Carlo Simulation
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Tatjana Stanivuk
2013-03-01
Full Text Available A simulation model is developed for the potential planned Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego terminals. The purpose is to identify reliability and availability of loading operations at the terminal. The harsh weather conditions, technical reliability and concurrent traffic affect LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas Carriers during approaching or loading. Probabilistic simulation method is created and Monte Carlo simulations are carried out for several cases, with varied production, number of jetties and terminal storage. The results indicate high importance of weather restrictions and are used to present a recommendation with two loading jetties and a larger volume of storage capacity.
Monte Carlo simulation for magnetic dynamic processes of micromagnetic clusters with local disorder
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Magnetic dynamic processes for micromagnetic clusters with local disorder of crystal structure were simulated by pseudo-non-equilibrial Monte Carlo method. The magnetic field dependence of magnetization showed a little dip at zero magnetic fields. The dip becomes larger as the number of dislocations increase. Simulated Barkhausen noise at the dip was stronger than ordinal-simulated Barkhausen noise around coercivity. The snapshot of spins shows a magnetic fluctuation around dislocations. The result suggests a possibility of a new measurement with high sensitivity, to detect the deformation of micromagnetic clusters
Monte Carlo Simulation on Coordinated Movement of Kinesin and Dynein Motors
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Hong; DOU Shuo-Xing; WANG Peng-Ye
2008-01-01
Kinesin and dynein are two important classes of molecular motors which are responsible for active organelle trafficking and cell division.They call work together to carry a cargo,moving along the microtubule in a coordinated way.We use Monte Carlo method to simulate the dynamics of this coordinated movement.Based on four essential assumptions,our simulations reproduce some features of the recent in vivo experiments.The fast moving speed of the cargo js simulated and the speed distribution is presented.