Monte Carlo Radiative Transfer
Whitney, Barbara A
2011-01-01
I outline methods for calculating the solution of Monte Carlo Radiative Transfer (MCRT) in scattering, absorption and emission processes of dust and gas, including polarization. I provide a bibliography of relevant papers on methods with astrophysical applications.
Composite biasing in Monte Carlo radiative transfer
Baes, Maarten; Lunttila, Tuomas; Bianchi, Simone; Camps, Peter; Juvela, Mika; Kuiper, Rolf
2016-01-01
Biasing or importance sampling is a powerful technique in Monte Carlo radiative transfer, and can be applied in different forms to increase the accuracy and efficiency of simulations. One of the drawbacks of the use of biasing is the potential introduction of large weight factors. We discuss a general strategy, composite biasing, to suppress the appearance of large weight factors. We use this composite biasing approach for two different problems faced by current state-of-the-art Monte Carlo radiative transfer codes: the generation of photon packages from multiple components, and the penetration of radiation through high optical depth barriers. In both cases, the implementation of the relevant algorithms is trivial and does not interfere with any other optimisation techniques. Through simple test models, we demonstrate the general applicability, accuracy and efficiency of the composite biasing approach. In particular, for the penetration of high optical depths, the gain in efficiency is spectacular for the spe...
Discrete diffusion Monte Carlo for frequency-dependent radiative transfer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Densmore, Jeffrey D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kelly, Thompson G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Urbatish, Todd J [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2010-11-17
Discrete Diffusion Monte Carlo (DDMC) is a technique for increasing the efficiency of Implicit Monte Carlo radiative-transfer simulations. In this paper, we develop an extension of DDMC for frequency-dependent radiative transfer. We base our new DDMC method on a frequency-integrated diffusion equation for frequencies below a specified threshold. Above this threshold we employ standard Monte Carlo. With a frequency-dependent test problem, we confirm the increased efficiency of our new DDMC technique.
A study of Monte Carlo radiative transfer through fractal clouds
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gautier, C.; Lavallec, D.; O`Hirok, W.; Ricchiazzi, P. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)] [and others
1996-04-01
An understanding of radiation transport (RT) through clouds is fundamental to studies of the earth`s radiation budget and climate dynamics. The transmission through horizontally homogeneous clouds has been studied thoroughly using accurate, discreet ordinates radiative transfer models. However, the applicability of these results to general problems of global radiation budget is limited by the plane parallel assumption and the fact that real clouds fields show variability, both vertically and horizontally, on all size scales. To understand how radiation interacts with realistic clouds, we have used a Monte Carlo radiative transfer model to compute the details of the photon-cloud interaction on synthetic cloud fields. Synthetic cloud fields, generated by a cascade model, reproduce the scaling behavior, as well as the cloud variability observed and estimated from cloud satellite data.
Radiative heat transfer by the Monte Carlo method
Hartnett †, James P; Cho, Young I; Greene, George A; Taniguchi, Hiroshi; Yang, Wen-Jei; Kudo, Kazuhiko
1995-01-01
This book presents the basic principles and applications of radiative heat transfer used in energy, space, and geo-environmental engineering, and can serve as a reference book for engineers and scientists in researchand development. A PC disk containing software for numerical analyses by the Monte Carlo method is included to provide hands-on practice in analyzing actual radiative heat transfer problems.Advances in Heat Transfer is designed to fill the information gap between regularly scheduled journals and university level textbooks by providing in-depth review articles over a broader scope than journals or texts usually allow.Key Features* Offers solution methods for integro-differential formulation to help avoid difficulties* Includes a computer disk for numerical analyses by PC* Discusses energy absorption by gas and scattering effects by particles* Treats non-gray radiative gases* Provides example problems for direct applications in energy, space, and geo-environmental engineering
Efficient Monte Carlo methods for continuum radiative transfer
Juvela, M
2005-01-01
We discuss the efficiency of Monte Carlo methods in solving continuum radiative transfer problems. The sampling of the radiation field and convergence of dust temperature calculations in the case of optically thick clouds are both studied. For spherically symmetric clouds we find that the computational cost of Monte Carlo simulations can be reduced, in some cases by orders of magnitude, with simple importance weighting schemes. This is particularly true for models consisting of cells of different sizes for which the run times would otherwise be determined by the size of the smallest cell. We present a new idea of extending importance weighting to scattered photons. This is found to be useful in calculations of scattered flux and could be important for three-dimensional models when observed intensity is needed only for one general direction of observations. Convergence of dust temperature calculations is studied for models with optical depths 10-10000. We examine acceleration methods where radiative interactio...
Radiative Transfer in Prestellar Cores: A Monte Carlo Approach
Stamatellos, D.; Whitworth, A. P.
2003-01-01
We use our Monte Carlo radiative transfer code to study non-embedded prestellar cores and cores that are embedded at the centre of a molecular cloud. Our study indicates that the temperature inside embedded cores is lower than in isolated non-embedded cores, and generally less than 12 K, even when the cores are surrounded by an ambient cloud of small visual extinction (Av~5). Our study shows that the best wavelength region to observe embedded cores is between 400 and 500 microns, where the co...
3D Monte Carlo radiation transfer modelling of photodynamic therapy
Campbell, C. Louise; Christison, Craig; Brown, C. Tom A.; Wood, Kenneth; Valentine, Ronan M.; Moseley, Harry
2015-06-01
The effects of ageing and skin type on Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) for different treatment methods have been theoretically investigated. A multilayered Monte Carlo Radiation Transfer model is presented where both daylight activated PDT and conventional PDT are compared. It was found that light penetrates deeper through older skin with a lighter complexion, which translates into a deeper effective treatment depth. The effect of ageing was found to be larger for darker skin types. The investigation further strengthens the usage of daylight as a potential light source for PDT where effective treatment depths of about 2 mm can be achieved.
SPAMCART: a code for smoothed particle Monte Carlo radiative transfer
Lomax, O
2016-01-01
We present a code for generating synthetic SEDs and intensity maps from Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics simulation snapshots. The code is based on the Lucy (1999) Monte Carlo Radiative Transfer method, i.e. it follows discrete luminosity packets, emitted from external and/or embedded sources, as they propagate through a density field, and then uses their trajectories to compute the radiative equilibrium temperature of the ambient dust. The density is not mapped onto a grid, and therefore the calculation is performed at exactly the same resolution as the hydrodynamics. We present two example calculations using this method. First, we demonstrate that the code strictly adheres to Kirchhoff's law of radiation. Second, we present synthetic intensity maps and spectra of an embedded protostellar multiple system. The algorithm uses data structures that are already constructed for other purposes in modern particle codes. It is therefore relatively simple to implement.
SKIRT: the design of a suite of input models for Monte Carlo radiative transfer simulations
Baes, Maarten
2015-01-01
The Monte Carlo method is the most popular technique to perform radiative transfer simulations in a general 3D geometry. The algorithms behind and acceleration techniques for Monte Carlo radiative transfer are discussed extensively in the literature, and many different Monte Carlo codes are publicly available. On the contrary, the design of a suite of components that can be used for the distribution of sources and sinks in radiative transfer codes has received very little attention. The availability of such models, with different degrees of complexity, has many benefits. For example, they can serve as toy models to test new physical ingredients, or as parameterised models for inverse radiative transfer fitting. For 3D Monte Carlo codes, this requires algorithms to efficiently generate random positions from 3D density distributions. We describe the design of a flexible suite of components for the Monte Carlo radiative transfer code SKIRT. The design is based on a combination of basic building blocks (which can...
Monte Carlo method for polarized radiative transfer in gradient-index media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Light transfer in gradient-index media generally follows curved ray trajectories, which will cause light beam to converge or diverge during transfer and induce the rotation of polarization ellipse even when the medium is transparent. Furthermore, the combined process of scattering and transfer along curved ray path makes the problem more complex. In this paper, a Monte Carlo method is presented to simulate polarized radiative transfer in gradient-index media that only support planar ray trajectories. The ray equation is solved to the second order to address the effect induced by curved ray trajectories. Three types of test cases are presented to verify the performance of the method, which include transparent medium, Mie scattering medium with assumed gradient index distribution, and Rayleigh scattering with realistic atmosphere refractive index profile. It is demonstrated that the atmospheric refraction has significant effect for long distance polarized light transfer. - Highlights: • A Monte Carlo method for polarized radiative transfer in gradient index media. • Effect of curved ray paths on polarized radiative transfer is considered. • Importance of atmospheric refraction for polarized light transfer is demonstrated
Development of a Monte-Carlo Radiative Transfer Code for the Juno/JIRAM Limb Measurements
Sindoni, G.; Adriani, A.; Mayorov, B.; Aoki, S.; Grassi, D.; Moriconi, M.; Oliva, F.
2013-09-01
The Juno/JIRAM instrument will acquire limb spectra of the Jupiter atmosphere in the infrared spectral range. The analysis of these spectra requires a radiative transfer code that takes into account the multiple scattering by particles in a spherical-shell atmosphere. Therefore, we are developing a code based on the Monte-Carlo approach to simulate the JIRAM observations. The validation of the code was performed by comparison with DISORT-based codes.
Radiative equilibrium in Monte Carlo radiative transfer using frequency distribution adjustment
Baes, M; Davies, J I; Whitworth, A P; Sabatini, S; Roberts, S; Linder, S M; Evans, R; Baes, Maarten; Stamatellos, Dimitris; Davies, Jonathan I.; Whitworth, Anthony P.; Sabatini, Sabina; Roberts, Sarah; Linder, Suzanne M.; Evans, Rhodri
2005-01-01
The Monte Carlo method is a powerful tool for performing radiative equilibrium calculations, even in complex geometries. The main drawback of the standard Monte Carlo radiative equilibrium methods is that they require iteration, which makes them numerically very demanding. Bjorkman & Wood recently proposed a frequency distribution adjustment scheme, which allows radiative equilibrium Monte Carlo calculations to be performed without iteration, by choosing the frequency of each re-emitted photon such that it corrects for the incorrect spectrum of the previously re-emitted photons. Although the method appears to yield correct results, we argue that its theoretical basis is not completely transparent, and that it is not completely clear whether this technique is an exact rigorous method, or whether it is just a good and convenient approximation. We critically study the general problem of how an already sampled distribution can be adjusted to a new distribution by adding data points sampled from an adjustment ...
GPU-based Monte Carlo dust radiative transfer scheme applied to AGN
Heymann, Frank
2012-01-01
A three dimensional parallel Monte Carlo (MC) dust radiative transfer code is presented. To overcome the huge computing time requirements of MC treatments, the computational power of vectorized hardware is used, utilizing either multi-core computer power or graphics processing units. The approach is a self-consistent way to solve the radiative transfer equation in arbitrary dust configurations. The code calculates the equilibrium temperatures of two populations of large grains and stochastic heated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Anisotropic scattering is treated applying the Heney-Greenstein phase function. The spectral energy distribution (SED) of the object is derived at low spatial resolution by a photon counting procedure and at high spatial resolution by a vectorized ray-tracer. The latter allows computation of high signal-to-noise images of the objects at any frequencies and arbitrary viewing angles. We test the robustness of our approach against other radiative transfer codes. The SED and dust...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Villafan-Vidales, H.I.; Arancibia-Bulnes, C.A.; Dehesa-Carrasco, U. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Privada Xochicalco s/n, Col. Centro, A.P. 34, Temixco, Morelos 62580 (Mexico); Romero-Paredes, H. [Departamento de Ingenieria de Procesos e Hidraulica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco No.186, Col. Vicentina, A.P. 55-534, Mexico D.F 09340 (Mexico)
2009-01-15
Radiative heat transfer in a solar thermochemical reactor for the thermal reduction of cerium oxide is simulated with the Monte Carlo method. The directional characteristics and the power distribution of the concentrated solar radiation that enters the cavity is obtained by carrying out a Monte Carlo ray tracing of a paraboloidal concentrator. It is considered that the reactor contains a gas/particle suspension directly exposed to concentrated solar radiation. The suspension is treated as a non-isothermal, non-gray, absorbing, emitting, and anisotropically scattering medium. The transport coefficients of the particles are obtained from Mie-scattering theory by using the optical properties of cerium oxide. From the simulations, the aperture radius and the particle concentration were optimized to match the characteristics of the considered concentrator. (author)
High-resolution and Monte Carlo additions to the SASKTRAN radiative transfer model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. J. Zawada
2015-06-01
Full Text Available The Optical Spectrograph and InfraRed Imaging System (OSIRIS instrument on board the Odin spacecraft has been measuring limb-scattered radiance since 2001. The vertical radiance profiles measured as the instrument nods are inverted, with the aid of the SASKTRAN radiative transfer model, to obtain vertical profiles of trace atmospheric constituents. Here we describe two newly developed modes of the SASKTRAN radiative transfer model: a high-spatial-resolution mode and a Monte Carlo mode. The high-spatial-resolution mode is a successive-orders model capable of modelling the multiply scattered radiance when the atmosphere is not spherically symmetric; the Monte Carlo mode is intended for use as a highly accurate reference model. It is shown that the two models agree in a wide variety of solar conditions to within 0.2 %. As an example case for both models, Odin–OSIRIS scans were simulated with the Monte Carlo model and retrieved using the high-resolution model. A systematic bias of up to 4 % in retrieved ozone number density between scans where the instrument is scanning up or scanning down was identified. The bias is largest when the sun is near the horizon and the solar scattering angle is far from 90°. It was found that calculating the multiply scattered diffuse field at five discrete solar zenith angles is sufficient to eliminate the bias for typical Odin–OSIRIS geometries.
Reverse Monte Carlo ray-tracing for radiative heat transfer in combustion systems
Sun, Xiaojing
Radiative heat transfer is a dominant heat transfer phenomenon in high temperature systems. With the rapid development of massive supercomputers, the Monte-Carlo ray tracing (MCRT) method starts to see its applications in combustion systems. This research is to find out if Monte-Carlo ray tracing can offer more accurate and efficient calculations than the discrete ordinates method (DOM). Monte-Carlo ray tracing method is a statistical method that traces the history of a bundle of rays. It is known as solving radiative heat transfer with almost no approximation. It can handle nonisotropic scattering and nongray gas mixtures with relative ease compared to conventional methods, such as DOM and spherical harmonics method, etc. There are two schemes in Monte-Carlo ray tracing method: forward and backward/reverse. Case studies and the governing equations demonstrate the advantages of reverse Monte-Carlo ray tracing (RMCRT) method. The RMCRT can be easily implemented for domain decomposition parallelism. In this dissertation, different efficiency improvements techniques for RMCRT are introduced and implemented. They are the random number generator, stratified sampling, ray-surface intersection calculation, Russian roulette, and important sampling. There are two major modules in solving the radiative heat transfer problems: the RMCRT RTE solver and the optical property models. RMCRT is first fully verified in gray, scattering, absorbing and emitting media with black/nonblack, diffuse/nondiffuse bounded surface problems. Sensitivity analysis is carried out with regard to the ray numbers, the mesh resolutions of the computational domain, optical thickness of the media and effects of variance reduction techniques (stratified sampling, Russian roulette). Results are compared with either analytical solutions or benchmark results. The efficiency (the product of error and computation time) of RMCRT has been compared to DOM and suggest great potential for RMCRT's application
Lazzati, Davide
2016-01-01
We present MCRaT, a Monte Carlo Radiation Transfer code for self-consistently computing the light curves and spectra of the photospheric emission from relativistic, unmagnetized jets. We apply MCRaT to a relativistic hydrodynamic simulation of a long duration gamma-ray burst jet, and present the resulting light-curves and time-dependent spectra for observers at various angles from the jet axis. We compare our results to observational results and find that photospheric emission is a viable model to explain the prompt phase of long-duration gamma-ray bursts at the peak frequency and above, but faces challenges in reproducing the flat spectrum below the peak frequency. We finally discuss possible limitations of these results both in terms of the hydrodynamics and the radiation transfer and how these limitations could affect the conclusions that we present.
An algorithm for Monte-Carlo time-dependent radiation transfer
Harries, Tim J.
2011-01-01
A new Monte-Carlo algorithm for calculating time-dependent radiative-transfer under the assumption of LTE is presented. Unlike flux-limited diffusion the method is polychromatic, includes scattering, and is able to treat the optically thick and free-streaming regimes simultaneously. The algorithm is tested on a variety of 1-d and 2-d problems, and good agreement with benchmark solutions is found. The method is used to calculate the time-varying spectral energy distribution from a circumstella...
Radiative transfer and spectroscopic databases: A line-sampling Monte Carlo approach
Galtier, Mathieu; Blanco, Stéphane; Dauchet, Jérémi; El Hafi, Mouna; Eymet, Vincent; Fournier, Richard; Roger, Maxime; Spiesser, Christophe; Terrée, Guillaume
2016-03-01
Dealing with molecular-state transitions for radiative transfer purposes involves two successive steps that both reach the complexity level at which physicists start thinking about statistical approaches: (1) constructing line-shaped absorption spectra as the result of very numerous state-transitions, (2) integrating over optical-path domains. For the first time, we show here how these steps can be addressed simultaneously using the null-collision concept. This opens the door to the design of Monte Carlo codes directly estimating radiative transfer observables from spectroscopic databases. The intermediate step of producing accurate high-resolution absorption spectra is no longer required. A Monte Carlo algorithm is proposed and applied to six one-dimensional test cases. It allows the computation of spectrally integrated intensities (over 25 cm-1 bands or the full IR range) in a few seconds, regardless of the retained database and line model. But free parameters need to be selected and they impact the convergence. A first possible selection is provided in full detail. We observe that this selection is highly satisfactory for quite distinct atmospheric and combustion configurations, but a more systematic exploration is still in progress.
Monte-Carlo Radiative Transfer Model of the Diffuse Galactic Light
Seon, Kwang-Il
2015-02-01
Monte-Carlo radiative models of the diffuse Galactic light (DGL) in our Galaxy are calcu-lated using the dust radiative transfer code MoCafe, which is three-dimensional and takes full account of multiple scattering. The code is recently updated to use a fast voxel traversal algorithm, which has dramatically increased the computing speed. The radiative transfer models are calculated with the gen-erally accepted dust scale-height of 0.1 kpc. The stellar scale-heights are assumed to be 0.1 or 0.35 kpc, appropriate for far-ultraviolet (FUV) and optical wavelengths, respectively. The face-on optical depth, measured perpendicular to the Galactic plane, is also varied from 0.2 to 0.6, suitable to the optical to FUV wavelengths, respectively. We find that the DGL at high Galactic latitudes is mostly due to backward or large-angle scattering of starlight originating from the local stars within a radial distance of r latitude DGL at the FUV wavelength band would be mostly caused by the stars located at a distance of r . 0.5 kpc and the optical DGL near the Galactic plane mainly originates from stars within a distance range of 1 . r . 2 kpc. We also calculate the radiative transfer models in a clumpy two-phase medium. The clumpy two-phase models provide lower intensities at high Galactic latitudes compared to the uniform density models, because of the lower effective optical depth in clumpy media. However, no significant difference in the intensity at the Galactic plane is found.
An algorithm for Monte-Carlo time-dependent radiation transfer
Harries, Tim J
2011-01-01
A new Monte-Carlo algorithm for calculating time-dependent radiative-transfer under the assumption of LTE is presented. Unlike flux-limited diffusion the method is polychromatic, includes scattering, and is able to treat the optically thick and free-streaming regimes simultaneously. The algorithm is tested on a variety of 1-d and 2-d problems, and good agreement with benchmark solutions is found. The method is used to calculate the time-varying spectral energy distribution from a circumstellar disc illuminated by a protostar whose accretion luminosity is varying. It is shown that the time lag between the optical variability and the infrared variability results from a combination of the photon travel time and the thermal response in the disc, and that the lag is an approximately linear function of wavelength.
An Efficient Monte Carlo Method for Modeling Radiative Transfer in Protoplanetary Disks
Kim, Stacy
2011-01-01
Monte Carlo methods have been shown to be effective and versatile in modeling radiative transfer processes to calculate model temperature profiles for protoplanetary disks. Temperatures profiles are important for connecting physical structure to observation and for understanding the conditions for planet formation and migration. However, certain areas of the disk such as the optically thick disk interior are under-sampled, or are of particular interest such as the snow line (where water vapor condenses into ice) and the area surrounding a protoplanet. To improve the sampling, photon packets can be preferentially scattered and reemitted toward the preferred locations at the cost of weighting packet energies to conserve the average energy flux. Here I report on the weighting schemes developed, how they can be applied to various models, and how they affect simulation mechanics and results. We find that improvements in sampling do not always imply similar improvements in temperature accuracies and calculation speeds.
MOCRA: a Monte Carlo code for the simulation of radiative transfer in the atmosphere.
Premuda, Margherita; Palazzi, Elisa; Ravegnani, Fabrizio; Bortoli, Daniele; Masieri, Samuele; Giovanelli, Giorgio
2012-03-26
This paper describes the radiative transfer model (RTM) MOCRA (MOnte Carlo Radiance Analysis), developed in the frame of DOAS (Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy) to correctly interpret remote sensing measurements of trace gas amounts in the atmosphere through the calculation of the Air Mass Factor. Besides the DOAS-related quantities, the MOCRA code yields: 1- the atmospheric transmittance in the vertical and sun directions, 2- the direct and global irradiance, 3- the single- and multiple- scattered radiance for a detector with assigned position, line of sight and field of view. Sample calculations of the main radiometric quantities calculated with MOCRA are presented and compared with the output of another RTM (MODTRAN4). A further comparison is presented between the NO2 slant column densities (SCDs) measured with DOAS at Evora (Portugal) and the ones simulated with MOCRA. Both comparisons (MOCRA-MODTRAN4 and MOCRA-observations) gave more than satisfactory results, and overall make MOCRA a versatile tool for atmospheric radiative transfer simulations and interpretation of remote sensing measurements. PMID:22453470
GPU-BASED MONTE CARLO DUST RADIATIVE TRANSFER SCHEME APPLIED TO ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A three-dimensional parallel Monte Carlo (MC) dust radiative transfer code is presented. To overcome the huge computing-time requirements of MC treatments, the computational power of vectorized hardware is used, utilizing either multi-core computer power or graphics processing units. The approach is a self-consistent way to solve the radiative transfer equation in arbitrary dust configurations. The code calculates the equilibrium temperatures of two populations of large grains and stochastic heated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Anisotropic scattering is treated applying the Heney-Greenstein phase function. The spectral energy distribution (SED) of the object is derived at low spatial resolution by a photon counting procedure and at high spatial resolution by a vectorized ray tracer. The latter allows computation of high signal-to-noise images of the objects at any frequencies and arbitrary viewing angles. We test the robustness of our approach against other radiative transfer codes. The SED and dust temperatures of one- and two-dimensional benchmarks are reproduced at high precision. The parallelization capability of various MC algorithms is analyzed and included in our treatment. We utilize the Lucy algorithm for the optical thin case where the Poisson noise is high, the iteration-free Bjorkman and Wood method to reduce the calculation time, and the Fleck and Canfield diffusion approximation for extreme optical thick cells. The code is applied to model the appearance of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at optical and infrared wavelengths. The AGN torus is clumpy and includes fluffy composite grains of various sizes made up of silicates and carbon. The dependence of the SED on the number of clumps in the torus and the viewing angle is studied. The appearance of the 10 μm silicate features in absorption or emission is discussed. The SED of the radio-loud quasar 3C 249.1 is fit by the AGN model and a cirrus component to account for the far-infrared emission.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Robert Pincus
2009-06-01
Full Text Available Large-eddy simulation (LES refers to a class of calculations in which the large energy-rich eddies are simulated directly and are insensitive to errors in the modeling of sub-grid scale processes. Flows represented by LES are often driven by radiative heating and therefore require the calculation of radiative transfer along with the fluid-dynamical simulation. Current methods for detailed radiation calculations, even those using simple one-dimensional radiative transfer, are far too expensive for routine use, while popular shortcuts are either of limited applicability or run the risk of introducing errors on time and space scales that might affect the overall simulation. A new approximate method is described that relies on Monte Carlo sampling of the spectral integration in the heating rate calculation and is applicable to any problem. The error introduced when using this method is substantial for individual samples (single columns at single times but is uncorrelated in time and space and so does not bias the statistics of scales that are well resolved by the LES. The method is evaluated through simulation of two test problems; these behave as expected. A scaling analysis shows that the errors introduced by the method diminish as flow features become well resolved. Errors introduced by the approximation increase with decreasing spatial scale but the spurious energy introduced by the approximation is less than the energy expected in the unperturbed flow, i.e. the energy associated with the spectral cascade from the large scale, even on the grid scale.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A new Monte Carlo atmospheric radiative transfer model is presented which is designed to support the interpretation of UV/vis/near-IR spectroscopic measurements of scattered Sun light in the atmosphere. The integro differential equation describing the underlying transport process and its formal solution are discussed. A stochastic approach to solve the differential equation, the Monte Carlo method, is deduced and its application to the formal solution is demonstrated. It is shown how model photon trajectories of the resulting ray tracing algorithm are used to estimate functionals of the radiation field such as radiances, actinic fluxes and light path integrals. In addition, Jacobians of the former quantities with respect to optical parameters of the atmosphere are analyzed. Model output quantities are validated against measurements, by self-consistency tests and through inter comparisons with other radiative transfer models.
Multiple-scaling methods for Monte Carlo simulations of radiative transfer in cloudy atmosphere
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Two multiple-scaling methods for Monte Carlo simulations were derived from integral radiative transfer equation for calculating radiance in cloudy atmosphere accurately and rapidly. The first one is to truncate sharp forward peaks of phase functions for each order of scattering adaptively. The truncated functions for forward peaks are approximated as quadratic functions; only one prescribed parameter is used to set maximum truncation fraction for various phase functions. The second one is to increase extinction coefficients in optically thin regions for each order scattering adaptively, which could enhance the collision chance adaptively in the regions where samples are rare. Several one-dimensional and three-dimensional cloud fields were selected to validate the methods. The numerical results demonstrate that the bias errors were below 0.2% for almost all directions except for glory direction (less than 0.4%) and the higher numerical efficiency could be achieved when quadratic functions were used. The second method could decrease radiance noise to 0.60% for cumulus and accelerate convergence in optically thin regions. In general, the main advantage of the proposed methods is that we could modify the atmospheric optical quantities adaptively for each order of scattering and sample important contribution according to the specific atmospheric conditions.
Jin, Shengye; Tamura, Masayuki
2013-10-01
Monte Carlo Ray Tracing (MCRT) method is a versatile application for simulating radiative transfer regime of the Solar - Atmosphere - Landscape system. Moreover, it can be used to compute the radiation distribution over a complex landscape configuration, as an example like a forest area. Due to its robustness to the complexity of the 3-D scene altering, MCRT method is also employed for simulating canopy radiative transfer regime as the validation source of other radiative transfer models. In MCRT modeling within vegetation, one basic step is the canopy scene set up. 3-D scanning application was used for representing canopy structure as accurately as possible, but it is time consuming. Botanical growth function can be used to model the single tree growth, but cannot be used to express the impaction among trees. L-System is also a functional controlled tree growth simulation model, but it costs large computing memory. Additionally, it only models the current tree patterns rather than tree growth during we simulate the radiative transfer regime. Therefore, it is much more constructive to use regular solid pattern like ellipsoidal, cone, cylinder etc. to indicate single canopy. Considering the allelopathy phenomenon in some open forest optical images, each tree in its own `domain' repels other trees. According to this assumption a stochastic circle packing algorithm is developed to generate the 3-D canopy scene in this study. The canopy coverage (%) and the tree amount (N) of the 3-D scene are declared at first, similar to the random open forest image. Accordingly, we randomly generate each canopy radius (rc). Then we set the circle central coordinate on XY-plane as well as to keep circles separate from each other by the circle packing algorithm. To model the individual tree, we employ the Ishikawa's tree growth regressive model to set the tree parameters including DBH (dt), tree height (H). However, the relationship between canopy height (Hc) and trunk height (Ht) is
Kovtanyuk, Andrey E.
2012-01-01
Radiative-conductive heat transfer in a medium bounded by two reflecting and radiating plane surfaces is considered. This process is described by a nonlinear system of two differential equations: an equation of the radiative heat transfer and an equation of the conductive heat exchange. The problem is characterized by anisotropic scattering of the medium and by specularly and diffusely reflecting boundaries. For the computation of solutions of this problem, two approaches based on iterative techniques are considered. First, a recursive algorithm based on some modification of the Monte Carlo method is proposed. Second, the diffusion approximation of the radiative transfer equation is utilized. Numerical comparisons of the approaches proposed are given in the case of isotropic scattering. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
De Geyter, Gert; Fritz, Jacopo; Camps, Peter
2012-01-01
We present FitSKIRT, a method to efficiently fit radiative transfer models to UV/optical images of dusty galaxies. These images have the advantage that they have better spatial resolution compared to FIR/submm data. FitSKIRT uses the GAlib genetic algorithm library to optimize the output of the SKIRT Monte Carlo radiative transfer code. Genetic algorithms prove to be a valuable tool in handling the multi- dimensional search space as well as the noise induced by the random nature of the Monte Carlo radiative transfer code. FitSKIRT is tested on artificial images of a simulated edge-on spiral galaxy, where we gradually increase the number of fitted parameters. We find that we can recover all model parameters, even if all 11 model parameters are left unconstrained. Finally, we apply the FitSKIRT code to a V-band image of the edge-on spiral galaxy NGC4013. This galaxy has been modeled previously by other authors using different combinations of radiative transfer codes and optimization methods. Given the different...
Harries, Tim J
2015-01-01
We present a set of new numerical methods that are relevant to calculating radiation pressure terms in hydrodynamics calculations, with a particular focus on massive star formation. The radiation force is determined from a Monte Carlo estimator and enables a complete treatment of the detailed microphysics, including polychromatic radiation and anisotropic scattering, in both the free-streaming and optically-thick limits. Since the new method is computationally demanding we have developed two new methods that speed up the algorithm. The first is a photon packet splitting algorithm that enables efficient treatment of the Monte Carlo process in very optically thick regions. The second is a parallelisation method that distributes the Monte Carlo workload over many instances of the hydrodynamic domain, resulting in excellent scaling of the radiation step. We also describe the implementation of a sink particle method that enables us to follow the accretion onto, and the growth of, the protostars. We detail the resu...
Harries, Tim J.
2015-01-01
We present a set of new numerical methods that are relevant to calculating radiation pressure terms in hydrodynamics calculations, with a particular focus on massive star formation. The radiation force is determined from a Monte Carlo estimator and enables a complete treatment of the detailed microphysics, including polychromatic radiation and anisotropic scattering, in both the free-streaming and optically-thick limits. Since the new method is computationally demanding we have developed two ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
F. Spada
2006-02-01
Full Text Available A new multiple-scattering Monte Carlo 3-D radiative transfer model named McSCIA (Monte Carlo for SCIAmachy is presented. The backward technique is used to efficiently simulate narrow field of view instruments. The McSCIA algorithm has been formulated as a function of the Earth's radius, and can thus perform simulations for both plane-parallel and spherical atmospheres. The latter geometry is essential for the interpretation of limb satellite measurements, as performed by SCIAMACHY on board of ESA's Envisat. The model can simulate UV-vis-NIR radiation.
First the ray-tracing algorithm is presented in detail, and then successfully validated against literature references, both in plane-parallel and in spherical geometry. A simple 1-D model is used to explain two different ways of treating absorption. One method uses the single scattering albedo while the other uses the equivalence theorem. The equivalence theorem is based on a separation of absorption and scattering. It is shown that both methods give, in a statistical way, identical results for a wide variety of scenarios. Both absorption methods are included in McSCIA, and it is shown that also for a 3-D case both formulations give identical results. McSCIA limb profiles for atmospheres with and without absorption compare well with the one of the state of the art Monte Carlo radiative transfer model MCC++.
A simplification of the photon statistics may lead to very fast calculations of absorption features in the atmosphere. However, these simplifications potentially introduce biases in the results. McSCIA does not use simplifications and is therefore a relatively slow implementation of the equivalence theorem. For the first time, however, the validity of the equivalence theorem is demonstrated in a spherical 3-D radiative transfer model.
Harries, Tim J.
2015-04-01
We present a set of new numerical methods that are relevant to calculating radiation pressure terms in hydrodynamics calculations, with a particular focus on massive star formation. The radiation force is determined from a Monte Carlo estimator and enables a complete treatment of the detailed microphysics, including polychromatic radiation and anisotropic scattering, in both the free-streaming and optically thick limits. Since the new method is computationally demanding we have developed two new methods that speed up the algorithm. The first is a photon packet splitting algorithm that enables efficient treatment of the Monte Carlo process in very optically thick regions. The second is a parallelization method that distributes the Monte Carlo workload over many instances of the hydrodynamic domain, resulting in excellent scaling of the radiation step. We also describe the implementation of a sink particle method that enables us to follow the accretion on to, and the growth of, the protostars. We detail the results of extensive testing and benchmarking of the new algorithms.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
F. Spada
2006-01-01
Full Text Available A new multiple-scattering Monte Carlo 3-D radiative transfer model named McSCIA (Monte Carlo for SCIAmachy is presented. The backward technique is used to efficiently simulate narrow field of view instruments. The McSCIA algorithm has been formulated as a function of the Earth's radius, and can thus perform simulations for both plane-parallel and spherical atmospheres. The latter geometry is essential for the interpretation of limb satellite measurements, as performed by SCIAMACHY on board of ESA's Envisat. The model can simulate UV-vis-NIR radiation. First the ray-tracing algorithm is presented in detail, and then successfully validated against literature references, both in plane-parallel and in spherical geometry. A simple 1-D model is used to explain two different ways of treating absorption. One method uses the single scattering albedo while the other uses the equivalence theorem. The equivalence theorem is based on a separation of absorption and scattering. It is shown that both methods give, in a statistical way, identical results for a wide variety of scenarios. Both absorption methods are included in McSCIA, and it is shown that also for a 3-D case both formulations give identical results. McSCIA limb profiles for atmospheres with and without absorption compare well with the one of the state of the art Monte Carlo radiative transfer model MCC++. A simplification of the photon statistics may lead to very fast calculations of absorption features in the atmosphere. However, these simplifications potentially introduce biases in the results. McSCIA does not use simplifications and is therefore a relatively slow implementation of the equivalence theorem.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present a moment-based acceleration algorithm applied to Monte Carlo simulation of thermal radiative-transfer problems. Our acceleration algorithm employs a continuum system of moments to accelerate convergence of stiff absorption–emission physics. The combination of energy-conserving tallies and the use of an asymptotic approximation in optically thick regions remedy the difficulties of local energy conservation and mitigation of statistical noise in such regions. We demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of the developed method. We also compare directly to the standard linearization-based method of Fleck and Cummings [1]. A factor of 40 reduction in total computational time is achieved with the new algorithm for an equivalent (or more accurate) solution as compared with the Fleck–Cummings algorithm
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pukite, Janis [Max- Planck-Institut fuer Chemie, Mainz (Germany); Institute of Atomic Physics and Spectroscopy, University of Latvia (Latvia); Kuehl, Sven; Wagner, Thomas [Max- Planck-Institut fuer Chemie, Mainz (Germany); Deutschmann, Tim; Platt, Ulrich [Institut fuer Umweltphysik, University of Heidelberg (Germany)
2007-07-01
A two step method for the retrieval of stratospheric trace gases (NO{sub 2}, BrO, OClO) from SCIAMACHY limb observations in the UV/VIS spectral region is presented: First, DOAS is applied on the spectra, yielding slant column densities (SCDs) of the respective trace gases. Second, the SCDs are converted into vertical concentration profiles applying radiative transfer modeling. The Monte Carlo method benefits from conceptual simplicity and allows realizing the concept of full spherical geometry of the atmosphere and also its 3D properties, which are important for a realistic description of the limb geometry. The implementation of a 3D box air mass factor concept allows accounting for horizontal gradients of trace gases. An important point is the effect of horizontal gradients on the profile inversion. This is of special interest in Polar Regions, where the Sun elevation is typically low and photochemistry can highly vary along the long absorption paths. We investigate the influence of horizontal gradients by applying 3-dimensional radiative transfer modelling.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
T. Deutschmann
2009-04-01
Full Text Available We present a new technique for the quantitative simulation of the "Ring effect" for scattered light observations from various platforms and under different atmospheric situations. The method is based on radiative transfer calculations at only one wavelength λ_{0} in the wavelength range under consideration, and is thus computationally fast. The strength of the Ring effect is calculated from statistical properties of the photon paths for a given situation, which makes Monte Carlo radiative transfer models in particular appropriate. We quantify the Ring effect by the so called rotational Raman scattering probability, the probability that an observed photon has undergone a rotational Raman scattering event. The Raman scattering probability is independent from the spectral resolution of the instrument and can easily be converted into various definitions used to characterise the strength of the Ring effect. We compare the results of our method to the results of previous studies and in general good quantitative agreement is found. In addition to the simulation of the Ring effect, we developed a detailed retrieval strategy for the analysis of the Ring effect based on DOAS retrievals, which allows the precise determination of the strength of the Ring effect for a specific wavelength while using the spectral information within a larger spectral interval around the selected wavelength. Using our technique, we simulated synthetic satellite observation of an atmospheric scenario with a finite cloud illuminated from different sun positions. The strength of the Ring effect depends systematically on the measurement geometry, and is strongest if the satellite points to the side of the cloud which lies in the shadow of the sun.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Radiative transfer is a complex phenomenon in which radiation field interacts with material. This thermal radiative transfer phenomenon is composed of two equations which are the balance equation of photons and the material energy balance equation. The two equations involve non-linearity due to the temperature and that makes the radiative transfer equation more difficult to solve. During the last several years, there have been many efforts to solve the non-linear radiative transfer problems by Monte Carlo method. Among them, it is known that Semi-Analog Monte Carlo (SMC) method developed by Ahrens and Larsen is accurate regard-less of the time step size in low temperature region. But their works are limited to one-dimensional, low temperature problems. In this thesis, we suggest some method to remove their limitations in the SMC method and apply to the more realistic problems. An initially cold problem was solved over entire temperature region by using piecewise linear interpolation of the heat capacity, while heat capacity is still fitted as a cubic curve within the lowest temperature region. If we assume the heat capacity to be linear in each temperature region, the non-linearity still remains in the radiative transfer equations. We then introduce the first-order Taylor expansion to linearize the non-linear radiative transfer equations. During the linearization procedure, absorption-reemission phenomena may be described by a conventional reemission time sampling scheme which is similar to the repetitive sampling scheme in particle transport Monte Carlo method. But this scheme causes significant stochastic errors, which necessitates many histories. Thus, we present a new reemission time sampling scheme which reduces stochastic errors by storing the information of absorption times. The results of the comparison of the two schemes show that the new scheme has less stochastic errors. Therefore, the improved SMC method is able to solve more realistic problems with
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper proposes the Monte-Carlo Integral method for the direct exchange area calculation in the zone method for the first time. This method is simple and able to handle the complex geometry zone problem and the self-zone radiation problem. The Monte-Carlo Integral method is adjusted to improve the efficiency, so that an acceptable accuracy within a reasonable computation time could be achieved. The zone method with the adjusted Monte-Carlo Integral method is used for the modeling and simulation of the radiation transfer in the industrial furnace. The simulation result is compared with the industrial data and show great accordance. It also shows the high temperature flue gas heats the furnace wall, which reflects the radiant heat to the reactor tubes. The highest temperature of flue gas and the side wall appears in nearly one third of the furnace height from the bottom, which corresponds with the industrial measuring data. The simulation result indicates that the zone method is comprehensive and easy to implement for radiative phenomenon in the furnace. - Highlights: • The Monte Carlo Integral method for evaluating direct exchange areas. • Adjustment from the MCI method to the AMCI method for efficiency. • Examination of the performance of the MCI and AMCI methods. • Development of the 3D zone model with the AMCI method. • The simulation results show good accordance with the industrial data
Whitmore, Alexander Jason
Concentrating solar power systems are currently the predominant solar power technology for generating electricity at the utility scale. The central receiver system, which is a concentrating solar power system, uses a field of mirrors to concentrate solar radiation onto a receiver where a working fluid is heated to drive a turbine. Current central receiver systems operate on a Rankine cycle, which has a large demand for cooling water. This demand for water presents a challenge for the current central receiver systems as the ideal locations for solar power plants have arid climates. An alternative to the current receiver technology is the small particle receiver. The small particle receiver has the potential to produce working fluid temperatures suitable for use in a Brayton cycle which can be more efficient when pressurized to 0.5 MPa. Using a fused quartz window allows solar energy into the receiver while maintaining a pressurized small particle receiver. In this thesis, a detailed numerical investigation for a spectral, three dimensional, cylindrical glass window for a small particle receiver was performed. The window is 1.7 meters in diameter and 0.0254 meters thick. There are three Monte Carlo Ray Trace codes used within this research. The first MCRT code, MIRVAL, was developed by Sandia National Laboratory and modified by a fellow San Diego State University colleague Murat Mecit. This code produces the solar rays on the exterior surface of the window. The second MCRT code was developed by Steve Ruther and Pablo Del Campo. This code models the small particle receiver, which creates the infrared spectral direction flux on the interior surface of the window used in this work. The third MCRT, developed for this work, is used to model radiation heat transfer within the window itself and is coupled to an energy equation solver to produce a temperature distribution. The MCRT program provides a source term to the energy equation. This in turn, produces a new
Thermal radiation heat transfer
Howell, John R; Siegel, Robert
2016-01-01
Further expanding on the changes made to the fifth edition, Thermal Radiation Heat Transfer, 6th Edition continues to highlight the relevance of thermal radiative transfer and focus on concepts that develop the radiative transfer equation (RTE). The book explains the fundamentals of radiative transfer, introduces the energy and radiative transfer equations, covers a variety of approaches used to gauge radiative heat exchange between different surfaces and structures, and provides solution techniques for solving the RTE.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A method for estimation of forest parameters, species, tree shape, distance between canopies by means of Monte-Carlo based radiative transfer model with forestry surface model is proposed. The model is verified through experiments with the miniature model of forest, tree array of relatively small size of trees. Two types of miniature trees, ellipse-looking and cone-looking canopy are examined in the experiments. It is found that the proposed model and experimental results show a coincidence so that the proposed method is validated. It is also found that estimation of tree shape, trunk tree distance as well as distinction between deciduous or coniferous trees can be done with the proposed model. Furthermore, influences due to multiple reflections between trees and interaction between trees and under-laying grass are clarified with the proposed method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A polarized atmospheric radiative transfer model for the computation of radiative transfer inside three-dimensional inhomogeneous mediums is described. This code is based on Monte Carlo methods and takes into account the polarization state of the light. Specificities introduced by such consideration are presented. After validation of the model by comparisons with adding-doubling computations, examples of reflectances simulated from a synthetic inhomogeneous cirrus cloud are analyzed and compared with reflectances obtained with the classical assumption of a plane parallel homogeneous cloud (1D approximation). As polarized reflectance is known to saturate for optical thickness of about 3, one could think that they should be less sensitive to 3D effects than total reflectances. However, at high spatial resolution (80 m), values of polarized reflectances much higher than the ones predicted by the 1D theory can be reached. The study of the reflectances of a step cloud shows that these large values are the results of illumination and shadowing effects similar to those often observed on total reflectances. In addition, we show that for larger spatial resolution (10 km), the so-called plane-parallel bias leads to a non-negligible overestimation of the polarized reflectances of about 7-8%.
Monte Carlo techniques in radiation therapy
Verhaegen, Frank
2013-01-01
Modern cancer treatment relies on Monte Carlo simulations to help radiotherapists and clinical physicists better understand and compute radiation dose from imaging devices as well as exploit four-dimensional imaging data. With Monte Carlo-based treatment planning tools now available from commercial vendors, a complete transition to Monte Carlo-based dose calculation methods in radiotherapy could likely take place in the next decade. Monte Carlo Techniques in Radiation Therapy explores the use of Monte Carlo methods for modeling various features of internal and external radiation sources, including light ion beams. The book-the first of its kind-addresses applications of the Monte Carlo particle transport simulation technique in radiation therapy, mainly focusing on external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy. It presents the mathematical and technical aspects of the methods in particle transport simulations. The book also discusses the modeling of medical linacs and other irradiation devices; issues specific...
Wollaeger, Ryan; van Rossum, Daniel; Graziani, Carlo; Couch, Sean; Jordan, George; Lamb, Donald; Moses, Gregory
2013-10-01
We apply Implicit Monte Carlo (IMC) and Discrete Diffusion Monte Carlo (DDMC) to Nomoto's W7 model of Type Ia Supernovae (SNe Ia). IMC is a stochastic method for solving the nonlinear radiation transport equations. DDMC is a stochastic radiation diffusion method that is generally used to accelerate IMC for Monte Carlo (MC) particle histories in optically thick regions of space. The hybrid IMC-DDMC method has recently been extended to account for multifrequency and velocity effects. SNe Ia are thermonuclear explosions of white dwarf stars that produce characteristic light curves and spectra sourced by radioactive decay of 56Ni. We exhibit the advantages of the hybrid MC approach relative to pure IMC for the W7 model. These results shed light on the viability of IMC-DDMC in more sophisticated, multi-dimensional simulations of SNe Ia. This work was supported in part by the University of Chicago and the National Science Foundation under grant AST-0909132.
Thermal radiation heat transfer
Howell, John R; Mengüç, M Pinar
2011-01-01
Providing a comprehensive overview of the radiative behavior and properties of materials, the fifth edition of this classic textbook describes the physics of radiative heat transfer, development of relevant analysis methods, and associated mathematical and numerical techniques. Retaining the salient features and fundamental coverage that have made it popular, Thermal Radiation Heat Transfer, Fifth Edition has been carefully streamlined to omit superfluous material, yet enhanced to update information with extensive references. Includes four new chapters on Inverse Methods, Electromagnetic Theory, Scattering and Absorption by Particles, and Near-Field Radiative Transfer Keeping pace with significant developments, this book begins by addressing the radiative properties of blackbody and opaque materials, and how they are predicted using electromagnetic theory and obtained through measurements. It discusses radiative exchange in enclosures without any radiating medium between the surfaces-and where heat conduction...
Modest, Michael F
2013-01-01
The third edition of Radiative Heat Transfer describes the basic physics of radiation heat transfer. The book provides models, methodologies, and calculations essential in solving research problems in a variety of industries, including solar and nuclear energy, nanotechnology, biomedical, and environmental. Every chapter of Radiative Heat Transfer offers uncluttered nomenclature, numerous worked examples, and a large number of problems-many based on real world situations-making it ideal for classroom use as well as for self-study. The book's 24 chapters cover the four major areas in the field: surface properties; surface transport; properties of participating media; and transfer through participating media. Within each chapter, all analytical methods are developed in substantial detail, and a number of examples show how the developed relations may be applied to practical problems. It is an extensive solution manual for adopting instructors. Features: most complete text in the field of radiative heat transfer;...
Atmospheric Radiative Transfer
Perliski, Lori
Because radiative transfer cuts across many scientific disciplines with applications including remote sensing, climate, atmospheric chemistry, and photobiology, there is a need for comprehensive books on this subject that can appeal to a wide readership. While Atmospheric Radiative Transfer takes strides toward filling this niche by addressing a broad range of topics, it is dry reading and suffers from lack of detail. The book was based on a graduate-level course taught at the University of Sciences and Technologies in Lille, France, and indeed, the text reads much like an expanded outline perhaps derived from lecture notes.Part one deals with general radiative transfer, and part two covers Earth's radiation budget, the climate system, and remote sensing techniques. The radiative transfer equation and solutions for absorbing and scattering atmospheres are discussed as are the details of absorption, such as energy levels, line strengths, line intensities, equivalent widths, and weak- and strong-line limits.
Parallel processing Monte Carlo radiation transport codes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Issues related to distributed-memory multiprocessing as applied to Monte Carlo radiation transport are discussed. Measurements of communication overhead are presented for the radiation transport code MCNP which employs the communication software package PVM, and average efficiency curves are provided for a homogeneous virtual machine
Sunrise: Polychromatic Dust Radiative Transfer in Arbitrary Geometries
Jonsson, Patrik
2006-01-01
This paper describes Sunrise, a parallel, free Monte-Carlo code for the calculation of radiation transfer through astronomical dust. Sunrise uses an adaptive-mesh refinement grid to describe arbitrary geometries of emitting and absorbing/scattering media, with spatial dynamical range exceeding 10^4, and it can efficiently generate images of the emerging radiation at arbitrary points in space. In addition to the monochromatic radiative transfer typically used by Monte-Carlo codes, Sunrise is c...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kuczyński Paweł
2014-06-01
Full Text Available The paper deals with a solution of radiation heat transfer problems in enclosures filled with nonparticipating medium using ray tracing on hierarchical ortho-Cartesian meshes. The idea behind the approach is that radiative heat transfer problems can be solved on much coarser grids than their counterparts from computational fluid dynamics (CFD. The resulting code is designed as an add-on to OpenFOAM, an open-source CFD program. Ortho-Cartesian mesh involving boundary elements is created based upon CFD mesh. Parametric non-uniform rational basis spline (NURBS surfaces are used to define boundaries of the enclosure, allowing for dealing with domains of complex shapes. Algorithm for determining random, uniformly distributed locations of rays leaving NURBS surfaces is described. The paper presents results of test cases assuming gray diffusive walls. In the current version of the model the radiation is not absorbed within gases. However, the ultimate aim of the work is to upgrade the functionality of the model, to problems in absorbing, emitting and scattering medium projecting iteratively the results of radiative analysis on CFD mesh and CFD solution on radiative mesh.
Monte Carlo applications to radiation shielding problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Monte Carlo methods are a class of computational algorithms that rely on repeated random sampling of physical and mathematical systems to compute their results. However, basic concepts of MC are both simple and straightforward and can be learned by using a personal computer. Uses of Monte Carlo methods require large amounts of random numbers, and it was their use that spurred the development of pseudorandom number generators, which were far quicker to use than the tables of random numbers which had been previously used for statistical sampling. In Monte Carlo simulation of radiation transport, the history (track) of a particle is viewed as a random sequence of free flights that end with an interaction event where the particle changes its direction of movement, loses energy and, occasionally, produces secondary particles. The Monte Carlo simulation of a given experimental arrangement (e.g., an electron beam, coming from an accelerator and impinging on a water phantom) consists of the numerical generation of random histories. To simulate these histories we need an interaction model, i.e., a set of differential cross sections (DCS) for the relevant interaction mechanisms. The DCSs determine the probability distribution functions (pdf) of the random variables that characterize a track; 1) free path between successive interaction events, 2) type of interaction taking place and 3) energy loss and angular deflection in a particular event (and initial state of emitted secondary particles, if any). Once these pdfs are known, random histories can be generated by using appropriate sampling methods. If the number of generated histories is large enough, quantitative information on the transport process may be obtained by simply averaging over the simulated histories. The Monte Carlo method yields the same information as the solution of the Boltzmann transport equation, with the same interaction model, but is easier to implement. In particular, the simulation of radiation
Monte Carlo method in radiation transport problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In neutral radiation transport problems (neutrons, photons), two values are important: the flux in the phase space and the density of particles. To solve the problem with Monte Carlo method leads to, among other things, build a statistical process (called the play) and to provide a numerical value to a variable x (this attribution is called score). Sampling techniques are presented. Play biasing necessity is proved. A biased simulation is made. At last, the current developments (rewriting of programs for instance) are presented due to several reasons: two of them are the vectorial calculation apparition and the photon and neutron transport in vacancy media
General Relativistic Radiative Transfer
Knop, S; Baron, E
2006-01-01
We present a general method to calculate radiative transfer including scattering in the continuum as well as in lines in spherically symmetric systems that are influenced by the effects of general relativity (GR). We utilize a comoving wavelength ansatz that allows to resolve spectral lines throughout the atmosphere. The used numerical solution is an operator splitting (OS) technique that uses a characteristic formal solution. The bending of photon paths and the wavelength shifts due to the effects of GR are fully taken into account, as is the treatment of image generation in a curved spacetime. We describe the algorithm we use and demonstrate the effects of GR on the radiative transport of a two level atom line in a neutron star like atmosphere for various combinations of continuous and line scattering coefficients. In addition, we present grey continuum models and discuss the effects of different scattering albedos on the emergent spectra and the determination of effective temperatures and radii of neutron ...
The MCNPX Monte Carlo Radiation Transport Code
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
MCNPX (Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended) is a general-purpose Monte Carlo radiation transport code with three-dimensional geometry and continuous-energy transport of 34 particles and light ions. It contains flexible source and tally options, interactive graphics, and support for both sequential and multi-processing computer platforms. MCNPX is based on MCNP4c and has been upgraded to most MCNP5 capabilities. MCNP is a highly stable code tracking neutrons, photons and electrons, and using evaluated nuclear data libraries for low-energy interaction probabilities. MCNPX has extended this base to a comprehensive set of particles and light ions, with heavy ion transport in development. Models have been included to calculate interaction probabilities when libraries are not available. Recent additions focus on the time evolution of residual nuclei decay, allowing calculation of transmutation and delayed particle emission. MCNPX is now a code of great dynamic range, and the excellent neutronics capabilities allow new opportunities to simulate devices of interest to experimental particle physics, particularly calorimetry. This paper describes the capabilities of the current MCNPX version 2.6.C, and also discusses ongoing code development
THE MCNPX MONTE CARLO RADIATION TRANSPORT CODE
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
WATERS, LAURIE S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; MCKINNEY, GREGG W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; DURKEE, JOE W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; FENSIN, MICHAEL L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; JAMES, MICHAEL R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; JOHNS, RUSSELL C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; PELOWITZ, DENISE B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2007-01-10
MCNPX (Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended) is a general-purpose Monte Carlo radiation transport code with three-dimensional geometry and continuous-energy transport of 34 particles and light ions. It contains flexible source and tally options, interactive graphics, and support for both sequential and multi-processing computer platforms. MCNPX is based on MCNP4B, and has been upgraded to most MCNP5 capabilities. MCNP is a highly stable code tracking neutrons, photons and electrons, and using evaluated nuclear data libraries for low-energy interaction probabilities. MCNPX has extended this base to a comprehensive set of particles and light ions, with heavy ion transport in development. Models have been included to calculate interaction probabilities when libraries are not available. Recent additions focus on the time evolution of residual nuclei decay, allowing calculation of transmutation and delayed particle emission. MCNPX is now a code of great dynamic range, and the excellent neutronics capabilities allow new opportunities to simulate devices of interest to experimental particle physics; particularly calorimetry. This paper describes the capabilities of the current MCNPX version 2.6.C, and also discusses ongoing code development.
Study on radiation transfer in human skin for cosmetics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In order to design cosmetics producing the optical properties that are required for a beautiful skin, the radiation transfer in the skin has been numerically investigated by the Monte Carlo method and the effects of skin texture and cosmetics on the radiation transfer have been empirically investigated using an artificial skin. The numerical analysis showed that the total internal reflection suppresses large portion of radiation going out through the skin surface Additionally, the experimental study revealed that skin texture and cosmetics not only diffusely reflect the incoming radiation, but also lead the internally reflected radiation to the outside of the skin
Study on radiation transfer in human skin for cosmetics
Yamada, Jun; Kawamura, Ayumu; Miura, Yoshimasa; Takata, Sadaki; Ogawa, Katsuki
2005-06-01
In order to design cosmetics producing the optical properties that are required for a beautiful skin, the radiation transfer in the skin has been numerically investigated by the Monte Carlo method and the effects of skin texture and cosmetics on the radiation transfer have been empirically investigated using an artificial skin. The numerical analysis showed that the total internal reflection suppresses large portion of radiation going out through the skin surface Additionally, the experimental study revealed that skin texture and cosmetics not only diffusely reflect the incoming radiation, but also lead the internally reflected radiation to the outside of the skin.
Problems in radiation shielding calculations with Monte Carlo methods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Monte Carlo method is a very useful tool for solving a large class of radiation transport problem. In contrast with deterministic method, geometric complexity is a much less significant problem for Monte Carlo calculations. However, the accuracy of Monte Carlo calculations is of course, limited by statistical error of the quantities to be estimated. In this report, we point out some typical problems to solve a large shielding system including radiation streaming. The Monte Carlo coupling technique was developed to settle such a shielding problem accurately. However, the variance of the Monte Carlo results using the coupling technique of which detectors were located outside the radiation streaming, was still not enough. So as to bring on more accurate results for the detectors located outside the streaming and also for a multi-legged-duct streaming problem, a practicable way of ''Prism Scattering technique'' is proposed in the study. (author)
Radiative transfer in solar prominences
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Heinzel, Petr
Cham: Springer, 2015, s. 103-130. ( Astrophysics adn Space Science Library. 415). ISBN 9783319104157 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : NLTE * radiative-transfer theory * model Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics
Essentials of radiation heat transfer
Balaji
2014-01-01
Essentials of Radiation Heat Transfer is a textbook presenting the essential, fundamental information required to gain an understanding of radiation heat transfer and equips the reader with enough knowledge to be able to tackle more challenging problems. All concepts are reinforced by carefully chosen and fully worked examples, and exercise problems are provided at the end of every chapter. In a significant departure from other books on this subject, this book completely dispenses with the network method to solve problems of radiation heat transfer in surfaces. It instead presents the powerful radiosity-irradiation method and shows how this technique can be used to solve problems of radiation in enclosures made of one to any number of surfaces. The network method is not easily scalable. Secondly, the book introduces atmospheric radiation, which is now being considered as a potentially important area, in which engineers can contribute to the technology of remote sensing and atmospheric sciences in general, b...
Benchmark solutions in radiation transfer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Some simple analytical solutions are given to the radiation transfer equation in a homogeneous, static collisionless medium. We examine the propagation in a slab, then the passage through and the contact between two plates and finally the transfer in a sphere
A new hybrid method--combined heat flux method with Monte-Carlo method to analyze thermal radiation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2006-01-01
A new hybrid method, Monte-Carlo-Heat-Flux (MCHF) method, was presented to analyze the radiative heat transfer of participating medium in a three-dimensional rectangular enclosure using combined the Monte-Carlo method with the heat flux method. Its accuracy and reliability was proved by comparing the computational results with exact results from classical "Zone Method".
Engineering calculations in radiative heat transfer
Gray, W A; Hopkins, D W
1974-01-01
Engineering Calculations in Radiative Heat Transfer is a six-chapter book that first explains the basic principles of thermal radiation and direct radiative transfer. Total exchange of radiation within an enclosure containing an absorbing or non-absorbing medium is then described. Subsequent chapters detail the radiative heat transfer applications and measurement of radiation and temperature.
Polarization imaging of multiply-scattered radiation based on integral-vector Monte Carlo method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A new integral-vector Monte Carlo method (IVMCM) is developed to analyze the transfer of polarized radiation in 3D multiple scattering particle-laden media. The method is based on a 'successive order of scattering series' expression of the integral formulation of the vector radiative transfer equation (VRTE) for application of efficient statistical tools to improve convergence of Monte Carlo calculations of integrals. After validation against reference results in plane-parallel layer backscattering configurations, the model is applied to a cubic container filled with uniformly distributed monodispersed particles and irradiated by a monochromatic narrow collimated beam. 2D lateral images of effective Mueller matrix elements are calculated in the case of spherical and fractal aggregate particles. Detailed analysis of multiple scattering regimes, which are very similar for unpolarized radiation transfer, allows identifying the sensitivity of polarization imaging to size and morphology.
Adjoint Monte Carlo simulation of fixed-energy secondary radiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fixed energy secondary generation for adjoint Monte Carlo methods constitutes certain difficulties because of zero probability of reaching fixed value from continuous distribution. This paper proposes a possible approach to adjoint Monte Carlo simulation with fixed energy secondary radiation which does not contain any simplifying restriction. This approach uses the introduced before generalized particle concept developed for description of mixed-type radiation transport and allows adjoint Monte Carlo simulation of such processes. It treats particle type as additional discrete coordinate and always considers only one particle even for the interactions with many particles outgoing from the collision. The adjoint fixed energy secondary radiation simulation is performed as local energy estimator through the intermediate state with fixed energy. The proposed algorithm is tested on the example of coupled gamma/electron/positron transport with generation of annihilation radiation. Forward and adjoint simulation according to generalized particle concept show statistically similar results. (orig.)
A Monte Carlo solution to skyshine radiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A Monte Carlo method was used to calculate the skyshine doses from 2-ft exposure cell ceiling of an accelerator. Modifications were made to the Monte Carlo program MORSE code to perform this analysis. Adjoint mode calculations provided optimum Russian roulette and splitting parameters which were later used in the forward mode calculations. Russian roulette and splitting were used at the collision sites and at boundary crossings. Exponential transform was used for particle pathlength stretching. The TIGER code was used to generate the anisotropic source term and P5 Legendre expansion was used to compute the cross sections. Where negative fluxes occured at detector locations due to large angle scatterings, a macroscopic cross section data bank was used to make Klein-Nishina and pair production flux estimates. With the above modifications, sixty detectors at locations ranging from 10 to 300 ft from the cell wall showed good statistical responses (5 to 10% fsd)
Tracklength biassing in Monte Carlo radiation transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tracklength stretching is employed in deep penetration Monte Carlo studies for variance reduction. Incorporating a dependence of the biassing on the angular disposition of the track improves the procedure. Linear and exponential forms for this dependence are investigated here, using Spanier's self-learning technique. Suitable biassing parameters are worked out for representative shield systems, for use in practical simulations. Of the two, we find that the exponential scheme performs better. (orig.)
Radiative Transfer on Mesoscopic Spatial Scales
Gardner, Adam Ronald
Accurate predictions of light transport produced by illumination of turbid media such as biological tissues, cloudy atmospheres, terrestrial surfaces, and soft matter is essential in many applications including remote sensing, functional optical imaging, realistic image synthesis, and materials characterization. The inability to model light transport on mesoscopic scales limits the spatial resolution and information content that can be extracted from optical measurements. While effective approaches exist to model light transport in singly- and diffusely-scattering regimes, modeling light propagation over the mesoscopic spatial scales remains an important challenge. Radiative transfer on these scales must account for the complete 5-dimensional spatial and angular distributions of the radiant field. Here, we present novel stochastic and analytic methods to analyze and predict light propagation in turbid media generated by collimated illumination on mesoscopic scales. We also consider coupled transport problems, resulting from illumination and detection, to facilitate measurement design and inverse problems. Specifically, we introduce a coupled Forward-Adjoint Monte Carlo (cFAMC) method that leverages generalized optical reciprocity to enable the computation of spatially-resolved distributions of light interrogation for specific source-detector pairs. cFAMC can aid the design of optical diagnostic measurements by tailoring the light field to interrogate specific sub-volumes of interest. We use cFAMC to examine the effects of angular resolution on the resulting interrogation distributions and analyze a diagnostically-relevant compact fiber probe design for the detection of epithelial precancer. While Monte Carlo simulation is considered a gold standard method to solve the equation of radiative transfer (ERT), it is computationally expensive. Thus, methods to obtain ERT solutions at lower computational cost are valuable. We introduce a general analytical framework to
Sunrise: Polychromatic Dust Radiative Transfer in Arbitrary Geometries
Jonsson, P
2006-01-01
This paper describes Sunrise, a parallel, free Monte-Carlo code for the calculation of radiation transfer through astronomical dust. Sunrise uses an adaptive-mesh refinement grid to describe arbitrary geometries of emitting and absorbing/scattering media, with spatial dynamical range exceeding 10^4, and it can efficiently generate images of the emerging radiation at arbitrary points in space. In addition to the monochromatic radiative transfer typically used by Monte-Carlo codes, Sunrise is capable of propagating a range of wavelengths simultaneously. This ``polychromatic'' algorithm gives significant improvements in efficiency and accuracy when spectral features are calculated. Sunrise is used to study the effects of dust in hydrodynamic simulations of interacting galaxies, and the procedure for this is described. The code is tested against previously published results.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A Computer program MCVIEW calculates the radiation view factor between surfaces for three dimensional geometries. MCVIEW was developed to calculate view factors for input data to heat transfer analysis programs TRUMP, HEATING-5, HEATING-6 and so on. In the paper, brief illustration of calculation method using Monte Carlo for view factor is presented. The second section presents comparisons between view factors of other methods such as area integration, line integration and cross string and Monte Carlo methods, concerning with calculation error and computer execution time. The third section provides a user's input guide for MCVIEW. (author)
Morse Monte Carlo Radiation Transport Code System
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Emmett, M.B.
1975-02-01
The report contains sections containing descriptions of the MORSE and PICTURE codes, input descriptions, sample problems, deviations of the physical equations and explanations of the various error messages. The MORSE code is a multipurpose neutron and gamma-ray transport Monte Carlo code. Time dependence for both shielding and criticality problems is provided. General three-dimensional geometry may be used with an albedo option available at any material surface. The PICTURE code provide aid in preparing correct input data for the combinatorial geometry package CG. It provides a printed view of arbitrary two-dimensional slices through the geometry. By inspecting these pictures one may determine if the geometry specified by the input cards is indeed the desired geometry. 23 refs. (WRF)
MORSE Monte Carlo radiation transport code system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This report is an addendum to the MORSE report, ORNL-4972, originally published in 1975. This addendum contains descriptions of several modifications to the MORSE Monte Carlo Code, replacement pages containing corrections, Part II of the report which was previously unpublished, and a new Table of Contents. The modifications include a Klein Nishina estimator for gamma rays. Use of such an estimator required changing the cross section routines to process pair production and Compton scattering cross sections directly from ENDF tapes and writing a new version of subroutine RELCOL. Another modification is the use of free form input for the SAMBO analysis data. This required changing subroutines SCORIN and adding new subroutine RFRE. References are updated, and errors in the original report have been corrected
Monte Carlo Radiation Analysis of a Spacecraft Radioisotope Power System
Wallace, M.
1994-01-01
A Monte Carlo statistical computer analysis was used to create neutron and photon radiation predictions for the General Purpose Heat Source Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (GPHS RTG). The GPHS RTG is being used on several NASA planetary missions. Analytical results were validated using measured health physics data.
A residual Monte Carlo method for discrete thermal radiative diffusion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Residual Monte Carlo methods reduce statistical error at a rate of exp(-bN), where b is a positive constant and N is the number of particle histories. Contrast this convergence rate with 1/√N, which is the rate of statistical error reduction for conventional Monte Carlo methods. Thus, residual Monte Carlo methods hold great promise for increased efficiency relative to conventional Monte Carlo methods. Previous research has shown that the application of residual Monte Carlo methods to the solution of continuum equations, such as the radiation transport equation, is problematic for all but the simplest of cases. However, the residual method readily applies to discrete systems as long as those systems are monotone, i.e., they produce positive solutions given positive sources. We develop a residual Monte Carlo method for solving a discrete 1D non-linear thermal radiative equilibrium diffusion equation, and we compare its performance with that of the discrete conventional Monte Carlo method upon which it is based. We find that the residual method provides efficiency gains of many orders of magnitude. Part of the residual gain is due to the fact that we begin each timestep with an initial guess equal to the solution from the previous timestep. Moreover, fully consistent non-linear solutions can be obtained in a reasonable amount of time because of the effective lack of statistical noise. We conclude that the residual approach has great potential and that further research into such methods should be pursued for more general discrete and continuum systems
Applications of the Monte Carlo radiation transport toolkit at LLNL
Sale, Kenneth E.; Bergstrom, Paul M., Jr.; Buck, Richard M.; Cullen, Dermot; Fujino, D.; Hartmann-Siantar, Christine
1999-09-01
Modern Monte Carlo radiation transport codes can be applied to model most applications of radiation, from optical to TeV photons, from thermal neutrons to heavy ions. Simulations can include any desired level of detail in three-dimensional geometries using the right level of detail in the reaction physics. The technology areas to which we have applied these codes include medical applications, defense, safety and security programs, nuclear safeguards and industrial and research system design and control. The main reason such applications are interesting is that by using these tools substantial savings of time and effort (i.e. money) can be realized. In addition it is possible to separate out and investigate computationally effects which can not be isolated and studied in experiments. In model calculations, just as in real life, one must take care in order to get the correct answer to the right question. Advancing computing technology allows extensions of Monte Carlo applications in two directions. First, as computers become more powerful more problems can be accurately modeled. Second, as computing power becomes cheaper Monte Carlo methods become accessible more widely. An overview of the set of Monte Carlo radiation transport tools in use a LLNL will be presented along with a few examples of applications and future directions.
Implict Monte Carlo Radiation Transport Simulations of Four Test Problems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gentile, N
2007-08-01
Radiation transport codes, like almost all codes, are difficult to develop and debug. It is helpful to have small, easy to run test problems with known answers to use in development and debugging. It is also prudent to re-run test problems periodically during development to ensure that previous code capabilities have not been lost. We describe four radiation transport test problems with analytic or approximate analytic answers. These test problems are suitable for use in debugging and testing radiation transport codes. We also give results of simulations of these test problems performed with an Implicit Monte Carlo photonics code.
Baräo, Fernando; Nakagawa, Masayuki; Távora, Luis; Vaz, Pedro
2001-01-01
This book focusses on the state of the art of Monte Carlo methods in radiation physics and particle transport simulation and applications, the latter involving in particular, the use and development of electron--gamma, neutron--gamma and hadronic codes. Besides the basic theory and the methods employed, special attention is paid to algorithm development for modeling, and the analysis of experiments and measurements in a variety of fields ranging from particle to medical physics.
SPHRAY: A Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics Ray Tracer for Radiative Transfer
Altay, Gabriel; Rupert A. C. Croft(Bruce and Astrid McWilliams Center for Cosmology, Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Ave, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA); Pelupessy, Inti
2008-01-01
We introduce SPHRAY, a Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) ray tracer designed to solve the 3D, time dependent, radiative transfer (RT) equations for arbitrary density fields. The SPH nature of SPHRAY makes the incorporation of separate hydrodynamics and gravity solvers very natural. SPHRAY relies on a Monte Carlo (MC) ray tracing scheme that does not interpolate the SPH particles onto a grid but instead integrates directly through the SPH kernels. Given initial conditions and a description...
Monte Carlo analysis of radiative transport in oceanographic lidar measurements
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cupini, E.; Ferro, G. [ENEA, Divisione Fisica Applicata, Centro Ricerche Ezio Clementel, Bologna (Italy); Ferrari, N. [Bologna Univ., Bologna (Italy). Dipt. Ingegneria Energetica, Nucleare e del Controllo Ambientale
2001-07-01
The analysis of oceanographic lidar systems measurements is often carried out with semi-empirical methods, since there is only a rough understanding of the effects of many environmental variables. The development of techniques for interpreting the accuracy of lidar measurements is needed to evaluate the effects of various environmental situations, as well as of different experimental geometric configurations and boundary conditions. A Monte Carlo simulation model represents a tool that is particularly well suited for answering these important questions. The PREMAR-2F Monte Carlo code has been developed taking into account the main molecular and non-molecular components of the marine environment. The laser radiation interaction processes of diffusion, re-emission, refraction and absorption are treated. In particular are considered: the Rayleigh elastic scattering, produced by atoms and molecules with small dimensions with respect to the laser emission wavelength (i.e. water molecules), the Mie elastic scattering, arising from atoms or molecules with dimensions comparable to the laser wavelength (hydrosols), the Raman inelastic scattering, typical of water, the absorption of water, inorganic (sediments) and organic (phytoplankton and CDOM) hydrosols, the fluorescence re-emission of chlorophyll and yellow substances. PREMAR-2F is an extension of a code for the simulation of the radiative transport in atmospheric environments (PREMAR-2). The approach followed in PREMAR-2 was to combine conventional Monte Carlo techniques with analytical estimates of the probability of the receiver to have a contribution from photons coming back after an interaction in the field of view of the lidar fluorosensor collecting apparatus. This offers an effective mean for modelling a lidar system with realistic geometric constraints. The retrieved semianalytic Monte Carlo radiative transfer model has been developed in the frame of the Italian Research Program for Antarctica (PNRA) and it is
Stochastic Radiative transfer and real cloudiness
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Evans, F. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)
1995-09-01
Plane-parallel radiative transfer modeling of clouds in GCMs is thought to be an inadequate representation of the effects of real cloudiness. A promising new approach for studying the effects of cloud horizontal inhomogeneity is stochastic radiative transfer, which computes the radiative effects of ensembles of cloud structures described by probability distributions. This approach is appropriate because cloud information is inherently statistical, and it is the mean radiative effect of complex 3D cloud structure that is desired. 2 refs., 1 fig.
Benchmark results in vector atmospheric radiative transfer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper seven vector radiative transfer codes are inter-compared for the case of underlying black surface. They include three techniques based on the discrete ordinate method (DOM), two Monte-Carlo methods, the successive orders scattering method, and a modified doubling-adding technique. It was found that all codes give very similar results. Therefore, we were able to produce benchmark results for the Stokes parameters both for reflected and transmitted light in the cases of molecular, aerosol and cloudy multiply scattering media. It was assumed that the single scattering albedo is equal to one. Benchmark results have been provided by several studies before, including Coulson et al., Garcia and Siewert, Wauben and Hovenier, and Natraj et al. among others. However, the case of the elongated phase functions such as for a cloud and with a high angular resolution is presented here for the first time. Also in difference with other studies, we make inter-comparisons using several codes for the same input dataset, which enables us to quantify the corresponding errors more accurately.
Discrete angle biasing in Monte Carlo radiation transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
An angular biasing procedure is presented for use in Monte Carlo radiation transport with discretized scattering angle data. As in more general studies, the method is shown to reduce statistical weight fluctuations when it is combined with the exponential transformation. This discrete data application has a simple analytic form which is problem independent. The results from a sample problem illustrate the variance reduction and efficiency characteristics of the combined biasing procedures, and a large neutron and gamma ray integral experiment is also calculated. A proposal is given for the possible code generation of the biasing parameter p and the preferential direction /ovr/Omega//0 used in the combined biasing schemes
Multiple compton scattering effect on the spectrum of X-ray radiation. Monte-Carlo computations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Computation of the X-ray radiation spectrum forming at multiple scattering of low-frequency photons on relativistic electrons is carried out. A spherical cloud of relativistic plasma with optical depth on Thomson scattering tau and a given temperature of Maxwellian electrons kTsub(e) is considered. There is a point source of low frequency radiation in the centre of the cloud with a Planckian spectrum. Monte-Carlo computations and analytical estimates show that in the case of small optical depth tau < 1, the radiation escaping from the cloud has a power-law spectrum Isub(ν) approximately νsup(-α) where α is the spectral index. In the case of an optically thick cloud, the escaping radiation spectrum tends to the Wien equilibrium shape. The energy loss rate of the cloud is computed. The transfer of hard radiation from a central point source through a plasma cloud with kTsub(e) approximately 3 keV is considered. Monte-Carlo techniques for computing such problems are decribed
Monte Carlo simulation of transition radiation and δ electrons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper employs Monte Carlo simulations of the performance of a transition radiation detector (TRD). The program has been written for the TRD in the ZEUS spectrometer, which separates electrons from hadrons in the momentum range between 1 GeV/c and 30 GeV/c. Both, total charge method and cluster counting method were simulated taking into account various experimental parameters. In particular, it was found that the cluster counting method relies on a quantitative understanding of the background originating from the production of δ-electrons by charged particles. The results of the Monte Carlo calculations are in agreement with experimental data obtained with prototypes within a systematic uncertainty of 20%. We applied our Monte Carlo program to studies in order to find an optimum layout for the TRD within available space in the ZEUS spectrometer. In this context, the performance of TRD layouts with different geometries and materials has been evaluated comprehensively. The geometry found by optimization promises an improvement on hadron suppression by a factor of about two for both methods compared with present results from test measurements. Applying algorithms for a detailed analysis of the energy and space distributions of the clusters in the TRD, hadrons in the momentum range from 1 to 30 GeV/c can be suppressed to a level of less than 2%. This method of cluster analysing improves the suppression of hadrons by a factor of about two compared to the total charge method. (orig.)
SPHRAY: A Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics Ray Tracer for Radiative Transfer
Altay, Gabriel; Pelupessy, Inti
2008-01-01
We introduce SPHRAY, a Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) ray tracer designed to solve the 3D, time dependent, radiative transfer (RT) equations for arbitrary density fields. The SPH nature of SPHRAY makes the incorporation of separate hydrodynamics and gravity solvers very natural. SPHRAY relies on a Monte Carlo (MC) ray tracing scheme that does not interpolate the SPH particles onto a grid but instead integrates directly through the SPH kernels. Given initial conditions and a description of the sources of ionizing radiation, the code will calculate the non-equilibrium ionization state (HI, HII, HeI, HeII, HeIII, e) and temperature (internal energy/entropy) of each SPH particle. The sources of radiation can include point like objects, diffuse recombination radiation, and a background field from outside the computational volume. The MC ray tracing implementation allows for the quick introduction of new physics and is parallelization friendly. A quick Axis Aligned Bounding Box (AABB) test taken from compute...
Numerical methods in multidimensional radiative transfer
Meinköhn, Erik
2008-01-01
Offers an overview of the numerical modelling of radiation fields in multidimensional geometries. This book covers advances and problems in the mathematical treatment of the radiative transfer equation, a partial integro-differential equation of high dimension that describes the propagation of the radiation in various fields.
One-dimensional transient radiative transfer by lattice Boltzmann method.
Zhang, Yong; Yi, Hongliang; Tan, Heping
2013-10-21
The lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is extended to solve transient radiative transfer in one-dimensional slab containing scattering media subjected to a collimated short laser irradiation. By using a fully implicit backward differencing scheme to discretize the transient term in the radiative transfer equation, a new type of lattice structure is devised. The accuracy and computational efficiency of this algorithm are examined firstly. Afterwards, effects of the medium properties such as the extinction coefficient, the scattering albedo and the anisotropy factor, and the shapes of laser pulse on time-resolved signals of transmittance and reflectance are investigated. Results of the present method are found to compare very well with the data from the literature. For an oblique incidence, the LBM results in this paper are compared with those by Monte Carlo method generated by ourselves. In addition, transient radiative transfer in a two-Layer inhomogeneous media subjected to a short square pulse irradiation is investigated. At last, the LBM is further extended to study the transient radiative transfer in homogeneous medium with a refractive index discontinuity irradiated by the short pulse laser. Several trends on the time-resolved signals different from those for refractive index of 1 (i.e. refractive-index-matched boundary) are observed and analysed. PMID:24150298
Guideline for radiation transport simulation with the Monte Carlo method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Today, the photon and neutron transport calculations with the Monte Carlo method have been progressed with advanced Monte Carlo codes and high-speed computers. Monte Carlo simulation is rather suitable expression than the calculation. Once Monte Carlo codes become more friendly and performance of computer progresses, most of the shielding problems will be solved by using the Monte Carlo codes and high-speed computers. As those codes prepare the standard input data for some problems, the essential techniques for solving the Monte Carlo method and variance reduction techniques of the Monte Carlo calculation might lose the interests to the general Monte Carlo users. In this paper, essential techniques of the Monte Carlo method and the variance reduction techniques, such as importance sampling method, selection of estimator, and biasing technique, are described to afford a better understanding of the Monte Carlo method and Monte Carlo code. (author)
Application of Monte Carlo methods in tomotherapy and radiation biophysics
Hsiao, Ya-Yun
Helical tomotherapy is an attractive treatment for cancer therapy because highly conformal dose distributions can be achieved while the on-board megavoltage CT provides simultaneous images for accurate patient positioning. The convolution/superposition (C/S) dose calculation methods typically used for Tomotherapy treatment planning may overestimate skin (superficial) doses by 3-13%. Although more accurate than C/S methods, Monte Carlo (MC) simulations are too slow for routine clinical treatment planning. However, the computational requirements of MC can be reduced by developing a source model for the parts of the accelerator that do not change from patient to patient. This source model then becomes the starting point for additional simulations of the penetration of radiation through patient. In the first section of this dissertation, a source model for a helical tomotherapy is constructed by condensing information from MC simulations into series of analytical formulas. The MC calculated percentage depth dose and beam profiles computed using the source model agree within 2% of measurements for a wide range of field sizes, which suggests that the proposed source model provides an adequate representation of the tomotherapy head for dose calculations. Monte Carlo methods are a versatile technique for simulating many physical, chemical and biological processes. In the second major of this thesis, a new methodology is developed to simulate of the induction of DNA damage by low-energy photons. First, the PENELOPE Monte Carlo radiation transport code is used to estimate the spectrum of initial electrons produced by photons. The initial spectrum of electrons are then combined with DNA damage yields for monoenergetic electrons from the fast Monte Carlo damage simulation (MCDS) developed earlier by Semenenko and Stewart (Purdue University). Single- and double-strand break yields predicted by the proposed methodology are in good agreement (1%) with the results of published
Hubber, D A; Dale, J
2015-01-01
Ionising feedback from massive stars dramatically affects the interstellar medium local to star forming regions. Numerical simulations are now starting to include enough complexity to produce morphologies and gas properties that are not too dissimilar from observations. The comparison between the density fields produced by hydrodynamical simulations and observations at given wavelengths relies however on photoionisation/chemistry and radiative transfer calculations. We present here an implementation of Monte Carlo radiation transport through a Voronoi tessellation in the photoionisation and dust radiative transfer code MOCASSIN. We show for the first time a synthetic spectrum and synthetic emission line maps of an hydrodynamical simulation of a molecular cloud affected by massive stellar feedback. We show that the approach on which previous work is based, which remapped hydrodynamical density fields onto Cartesian grids before performing radiative transfer/photoionisation calculations, results in significant ...
Ma, C. Y.; Zhao, J. M.; Liu, L. H.; Zhang, L.; Li, X. C.; Jiang, B. C.
2016-03-01
Inverse identification of radiative properties of participating media is usually time consuming. In this paper, a GPU accelerated inverse identification model is presented to obtain the radiative properties of particle suspensions. The sample medium is placed in a cuvette and a narrow light beam is irradiated normally from the side. The forward three-dimensional radiative transfer problem is solved using a massive parallel Monte Carlo method implemented on graphics processing unit (GPU), and particle swarm optimization algorithm is applied to inversely identify the radiative properties of particle suspensions based on the measured bidirectional scattering distribution function (BSDF). The GPU-accelerated Monte Carlo simulation significantly reduces the solution time of the radiative transfer simulation and hence greatly accelerates the inverse identification process. Hundreds of speedup is achieved as compared to the CPU implementation. It is demonstrated using both simulated BSDF and experimentally measured BSDF of microalgae suspensions that the radiative properties of particle suspensions can be effectively identified based on the GPU-accelerated algorithm with three-dimensional radiative transfer modelling.
Light scattering reviews 8 radiative transfer and light scattering
Kokhanovsky, Alexander A
2013-01-01
Light scattering review (vol 8) is aimed at the presentation of recent advances in radiative transfer and light scattering optics. The topics to be covered include: scattering of light by irregularly shaped particles suspended in atmosphere (dust, ice crystals), light scattering by particles much larger as compared the wavelength of incident radiation, atmospheric radiative forcing, astrophysical radiative transfer, radiative transfer and optical imaging in biological media, radiative transfer of polarized light, numerical aspects of radiative transfer.
Acceleration of a Monte Carlo radiation transport code
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Execution time for the Integrated TIGER Series (ITS) Monte Carlo radiation transport code has been reduced by careful re-coding of computationally intensive subroutines. Three test cases for the TIGER (1-D slab geometry), CYLTRAN (2-D cylindrical geometry), and ACCEPT (3-D arbitrary geometry) codes were identified and used to benchmark and profile program execution. Based upon these results, sixteen top time-consuming subroutines were examined and nine of them modified to accelerate computations with equivalent numerical output to the original. The results obtained via this study indicate that speedup factors of 1.90 for the TIGER code, 1.67 for the CYLTRAN code, and 1.11 for the ACCEPT code are achievable. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics
Radiative Transfer Modeling of Lyman Alpha Emitters. I. Statistics of Spectra and Luminosity
Zheng, Zheng; Cen, Renyue; Trac, Hy; Miralda-Escude, Jordi
2009-01-01
We combine a cosmological reionization simulation with box size of 100Mpc/h on a side and a Monte Carlo Lyman-alpha (Lya) radiative transfer code to model Lyman Alpha Emitters (LAEs) at z~5.7. The model introduces Lya radiative transfer as the single factor for transforming the intrinsic Lya emission properties into the observed ones. Spatial diffusion of Lya photons from radiative transfer results in extended Lya emission and only the central part with high surface brightness can be observed...
Françoise Benz
2006-01-01
2005-2006 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES 27, 28, 29 June 11:00-12:00 - TH Conference Room, bldg. 4 The use of Monte Carlo radiation transport codes in radiation physics and dosimetry F. Salvat Gavalda,Univ. de Barcelona, A. FERRARI, CERN-AB, M. SILARI, CERN-SC Lecture 1. Transport and interaction of electromagnetic radiation F. Salvat Gavalda,Univ. de Barcelona Interaction models and simulation schemes implemented in modern Monte Carlo codes for the simulation of coupled electron-photon transport will be briefly reviewed. Different schemes for simulating electron transport will be discussed. Condensed algorithms, which rely on multiple-scattering theories, are comparatively fast, but less accurate than mixed algorithms, in which hard interactions (with energy loss or angular deflection larger than certain cut-off values) are simulated individually. The reliability, and limitations, of electron-interaction models and multiple-scattering theories will be analyzed. Benchmark comparisons of simu...
Radiation cure of detonation transfer explosive
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The radiation cured detonation transfer plastic bonded explosive (PBX) provides the potential for achieving improvements in processability, storability, cure reproducibility, physical strength, and reliability of performance over the Navy's present injectable detonation transfer communications explosive. The composition and properties of the radiation cured system will be presented. Radiation cure of energetic materials is a relatively new process. It combines the advantages of an indefinitely long pot-life and storage life for the material mix with a very rapid cure. Neither of these features is available with conventional catalyzed thermal cure reactions. (Auth.)
Line radiative transfer and statistical equilibrium*
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kamp Inga
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Atomic and molecular line emission from protoplanetary disks contains key information of their detailed physical and chemical structures. To unravel those structures, we need to understand line radiative transfer in dusty media and the statistical equilibrium, especially of molecules. I describe here the basic principles of statistical equilibrium and illustrate them through the two-level atom. In a second part, the fundamentals of line radiative transfer are introduced along with the various broadening mechanisms. I explain general solution methods with their drawbacks and also specific difficulties encountered in solving the line radiative transfer equation in disks (e.g. velocity gradients. I am closing with a few special cases of line emission from disks: Radiative pumping, masers and resonance scattering.
Preliminary results of a three-dimensional radiative transfer model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
O`Hirok, W. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)
1995-09-01
Clouds act as the primary modulator of the Earth`s radiation at the top of the atmosphere, within the atmospheric column, and at the Earth`s surface. They interact with both shortwave and longwave radiation, but it is primarily in the case of shortwave where most of the uncertainty lies because of the difficulties in treating scattered solar radiation. To understand cloud-radiative interactions, radiative transfer models portray clouds as plane-parallel homogeneous entities to ease the computational physics. Unfortunately, clouds are far from being homogeneous, and large differences between measurement and theory point to a stronger need to understand and model cloud macrophysical properties. In an attempt to better comprehend the role of cloud morphology on the 3-dimensional radiation field, a Monte Carlo model has been developed. This model can simulate broadband shortwave radiation fluxes while incorporating all of the major atmospheric constituents. The model is used to investigate the cloud absorption anomaly where cloud absorption measurements exceed theoretical estimates and to examine the efficacy of ERBE measurements and cloud field experiments. 3 figs.
A Monte Carlo study of charge transfer in DNA
Jakobsson, Mattias; Stafström, Sven
2008-01-01
A model describing charge (hole) transport in DNA has been developed. The individual charge transfer steps in the transport process are described by Marcus theory modified to account for electron delocalization over adjacent identical nucleobases. Such a modification, as well as introducing a distance dependence in the reorganization energy, is necessary in order to reach an agreement with the observed transfer rates in well defined model systems to DNA. Using previously published results as ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The description of the equations in the fluid frame has been done recently. A simplification of the collision term is obtained, but the streaming term now has to include angular deviation and the Doppler shift. We choose the latter description which is more convenient for our purpose. We introduce some notations and recall some facts about stochastic kernels and the Monte-Carlo method. We show how to apply the Monte-Carlo method to a transport equation with an arbitrary streaming term; in particular we show that the track length estimator is unbiased. We review some properties of the radiation hydrodynamics equations, and show how energy conservation is obtained. Then, we apply the Monte-Carlo method explained in section 2 to the particular case of the transfer equation in the fluid frame. Finally, we describe a physical example and give some numerical results
International symposium on radiative heat transfer: Book of abstracts
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The international symposium on radiative heat transfer was held on 14-18 August 1995 Turkey. The specialists discussed radiation transfer in materials processing and manufacturing, solution of radiative heat transfer equation, transient radiation problem and radiation-turbulence interactions, raditive properties of gases, atmospheric and stellar radiative transfer , radiative transfer and its applications, optical and radiative properties of soot particles, inverse radiation problems, partticles, fibres,thermophoresis and waves and modelling of comprehensive systems at the meeting. Almost 79 papers were presented in the meeting
Radiative Transfer in 3D Numerical Simulations
Stein, R; Stein, Robert; Nordlund, Aake
2002-01-01
We simulate convection near the solar surface, where the continuum optical depth is of order unity. Hence, to determine the radiative heating and cooling in the energy conservation equation, we must solve the radiative transfer equation (instead of using the diffusion or optically thin cooling approximations). A method efficient enough to calculate the radiation for thousands of time steps is needed. We assume LTE and a non-gray opacity grouped into 4 bins according to strength. We perform a formal solution of the Feautrier equation along a vertical and four straight, slanted, rays (at four azimuthal angles which are rotated 15 deg. every time step). We present details of our method. We also give some results: comparing simulated and observed line profiles for the Sun, showing the importance of 3D transfer for the structure of the mean atmosphere and the eigenfrequencies of p-modes, illustrating Stokes profiles for micropores, and analyzing the effect of radiation on p-mode asymmetries.
Radiative transfer in the cloudy atmosphere
Mayer B.
2009-01-01
Radiative transfer in clouds is a challenging task, due to their high spatial and temporal variability which is unrivaled by any other atmospheric species. Clouds are among the main modulators of radiation along its path through the Earth’s atmosphere. The cloud feedback is the largest source of uncertainty in current climate model predictions. Cloud observation from satellites, on a global scale, with appropriate temporal and spatial sampling is therefore one of the top aims of current Earth...
Non-analog Monte Carlo estimators for radiation momentum deposition
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Densmore, Jeffery D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hykes, Joshua M [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2008-01-01
The standard method for calculating radiation momentum deposition in Monte Carlo simulations is the analog estimator, which tallies the change in a particle's momentum at each interaction with the matter. Unfortunately, the analog estimator can suffer from large amounts of statistical error. In this paper, we present three new non-analog techniques for estimating momentum deposition. Specifically, we use absorption, collision, and track-length estimators to evaluate a simple integral expression for momentum deposition that does not contain terms that can cause large amounts of statistical error in the analog scheme. We compare our new non-analog estimators to the analog estimator with a set of test problems that encompass a wide range of material properties and both isotropic and anisotropic scattering. In nearly all cases, the new non-analog estimators outperform the analog estimator. The track-length estimator consistently yields the highest performance gains, improving upon the analog-estimator figure of merit by factors of up to two orders of magnitude.
Radiation-induced hydrogen transfer in metals
Tyurin, Yu I.; Vlasov, V. A.; Dolgov, A. S.
2015-11-01
The paper presents processes of hydrogen (deuterium) diffusion and release from hydrogen-saturated condensed matters in atomic, molecular and ionized states under the influence of the electron beam and X-ray radiation in the pre-threshold region. The dependence is described between the hydrogen isotope release intensity and the current density and the electron beam energy affecting sample, hydrogen concentration in the material volume and time of radiation exposure to the sample. The energy distribution of the emitted positive ions of hydrogen isotopes is investigated herein. Mechanisms of radiation-induced hydrogen transfer in condensed matters are suggested.
Multigrid Method for Polarized Radiative Transfer
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Štěpán, Jiří
San Francisco: Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 2006 - (Casini, R.; Lites, B.), s. 148-154. (ASP Conference Series. 358). ISBN 978-1-58381-292-1. [Solar Polarization Workshop /4./. Boulder (US), 19.09.2005-23.09.2005] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : polarization * radiative transfer * sun Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics
Monte Carlo simulation of radiation streaming from a radioactive material shipping cask
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Simulated detection of gamma radiation streaming from a radioactive material shipping cask have been performed with the Monte Carlo codes MCNP4A and MORSE-SGC/S. Despite inherent difficulties in simulating deep penetration of radiation and streaming, the simulations have yielded results that agree within one order of magnitude with the radiation survey data, with reasonable statistics. These simulations have also provided insight into modeling radiation detection, notably on location and orientation of the radiation detector with respect to photon streaming paths, and on techniques used to reduce variance in the Monte Carlo calculations. 13 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The present report summarizes the activities concerned with numerical dosimetry as carried out at the Radiation Protection Institute of ENEA (Italian Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment) on photon dosimetric quantities. The first part is concerned with MCNP Monte Carlo calculation of field parameters and operational quantities for the ICRU sphere with reference photon beams for the design of personal dosemeters. The second part is related with studies on the ADAM anthropomorphic phantom using the SABRINA and MCNP codes. The results of other Monte Carlo studies carried out on electron conversion factors for various tissue equivalent slab phantoms are about to be published in other ENEA reports. The report has been produced in the framework of the EURADOS WG4 (numerical dosimetry) activities within a collaboration between the ENEA Environmental Department and ENEA Energy Department
Computing Radiative Transfer in a 3D Medium
Von Allmen, Paul; Lee, Seungwon
2012-01-01
A package of software computes the time-dependent propagation of a narrow laser beam in an arbitrary three- dimensional (3D) medium with absorption and scattering, using the transient-discrete-ordinates method and a direct integration method. Unlike prior software that utilizes a Monte Carlo method, this software enables simulation at very small signal-to-noise ratios. The ability to simulate propagation of a narrow laser beam in a 3D medium is an improvement over other discrete-ordinate software. Unlike other direct-integration software, this software is not limited to simulation of propagation of thermal radiation with broad angular spread in three dimensions or of a laser pulse with narrow angular spread in two dimensions. Uses for this software include (1) computing scattering of a pulsed laser beam on a material having given elastic scattering and absorption profiles, and (2) evaluating concepts for laser-based instruments for sensing oceanic turbulence and related measurements of oceanic mixed-layer depths. With suitable augmentation, this software could be used to compute radiative transfer in ultrasound imaging in biological tissues, radiative transfer in the upper Earth crust for oil exploration, and propagation of laser pulses in telecommunication applications.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The general purpose code BALTORO was written for coupling the three-dimensional Monte-Carlo /MC/ with the one-dimensional Discrete Ordinates /DO/ radiation transport calculations. The quantity of a radiation-induced /neutrons or gamma-rays/ nuclear effect or the score from a radiation-yielding nuclear effect can be analysed in this way. (author)
A review of Monte Carlo techniques used in various fields of radiation protection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Monte Carlo methods and their utilization in radiation protection are overviewed. Basic principles and the most frequently used sampling methods are described. Examples range from the simulation of the random walk of photons and neutrons to neutron spectrum unfolding. (author)
Application of Monte Carlo method in determination of secondary characteristic X radiation in XFA
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Secondary characteristic radiation is excited by primary radiation from the X-ray tube and by secondary radiation of other elements so that excitations of several orders result. The Monte Carlo method was used to consider all these possibilities and the resulting flux of characteristic radiation was simulated for samples of silicate raw materials. A comparison of the results of these computations with experiments allows to determine the effect of sample preparation on the characteristic radiation flux. (M.D.)
CRASH3: cosmological radiative transfer through metals
Graziani, L; Ciardi, B
2012-01-01
Here we introduce CRASH3, the latest release of the 3D radiative transfer code CRASH. In its current implementation CRASH3 integrates into the reference algorithm the code Cloudy to evaluate the ionisation states of metals, self-consistently with the radiative transfer through H and He. The feedback of the heavy elements on the calculation of the gas temperature is also taken into account, making of CRASH3 the first 3D code for cosmological applications which treats self-consistently the radiative transfer through an inhomogeneous distribution of metal enriched gas with an arbitrary number of point sources and/or a background radiation. The code has been tested in idealized configurations, as well as in a more realistic case of multiple sources embedded in a polluted cosmic web. Through these validation tests the new method has been proven to be numerically stable and convergent. We have studied the dependence of the results on a number of physical quantities such as the source characteristics (spectral range...
Combination of Monte Carlo and transfer matrix methods to study 2D and 3D percolation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Saleur, H.; Derrida, B.
1985-07-01
In this paper we develop a method which combines the transfer matrix and the Monte Carlo methods to study the problem of site percolation in 2 and 3 dimensions. We use this method to calculate the properties of strips (2D) and bars (3D). Using a finite size scaling analysis, we obtain estimates of the threshold and of the exponents wich confirm values already known. We discuss the advantages and the limitations of our method by comparing it with usual Monte Carlo calculations.
RRTM: A rapid radiative transfer model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mlawer, E.J.; Taubman, S.J.; Clough, S.A. [Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)
1996-04-01
A rapid radiative transfer model (RRTM) for the calculation of longwave clear-sky fluxes and cooling rates has been developed. The model, which uses the correlated-k method, is both accurate and computationally fast. The foundation for RRTM is the line-by-line radiative transfer model (LBLRTM) from which the relevant k-distributions are obtained. LBLRTM, which has been extensively validated against spectral observations e.g., the high-resolution sounder and the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer, is used to validate the flux and cooling rate results from RRTM. Validations of RRTM`s results have been performed for the tropical, midlatitude summer, and midlatitude winter atmospheres, as well as for the four Intercomparison of Radiation Codes in Climate Models (ICRCCM) cases from the Spectral Radiance Experiment (SPECTRE). Details of some of these validations are presented below. RRTM has the identical atmospheric input module as LBLRTM, facilitating intercomparisons with LBLRTM and application of the model at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Cloud and Radiation Testbed sites.
Integral form of the radiation transfer equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The integral form of the radiation transfer equation is given in a non-scattering medium for which the source and absorption terms are known explicitly. The problem is solved for an one-dimensional, inhomogeneous, non stationary, non isotropic configuration, in cartesian and spherical coordinates for arbitrary initial and boundary conditions. The same problem is solved for a boundary condition that is given on a moving surface, then the three-dimensional problem is examined in cartesian coordinates
Radiative Transfer in Accretion-Disk Winds
Fukue, Jun
2007-01-01
Radiative transfer equation in an accretion disk wind is examined analytically and numerically under the plane-parallel approximation in the subrelativistic regime of $(v/c)^1$, where $v$ is the wind vertical velocity. Emergent intensity is analytically obtained for the case of a large optical depth, where the flow speed and the source function are almost constant. The usual limb-darkening effect, which depends on the direction cosine at the zero-optical depth surface, does not appear, since ...
Introductory Tools for Radiative Transfer Models
Feldman, D.; Kuai, L.; Natraj, V.; Yung, Y.
2006-12-01
Satellite data are currently so voluminous that, despite their unprecedented quality and potential for scientific application, only a small fraction is analyzed due to two factors: researchers' computational constraints and a relatively small number of researchers actively utilizing the data. Ultimately it is hoped that the terabytes of unanalyzed data being archived can receive scientific scrutiny but this will require a popularization of the methods associated with the analysis. Since a large portion of complexity is associated with the proper implementation of the radiative transfer model, it is reasonable and appropriate to make the model as accessible as possible to general audiences. Unfortunately, the algorithmic and conceptual details that are necessary for state-of-the-art analysis also tend to frustrate the accessibility for those new to remote sensing. Several efforts have been made to have web- based radiative transfer calculations, and these are useful for limited calculations, but analysis of more than a few spectra requires the utilization of home- or server-based computing resources. We present a system that is designed to allow for easier access to radiative transfer models with implementation on a home computing platform in the hopes that this system can be utilized in and expanded upon in advanced high school and introductory college settings. This learning-by-doing process is aided through the use of several powerful tools. The first is a wikipedia-style introduction to the salient features of radiative transfer that references the seminal works in the field and refers to more complicated calculations and algorithms sparingly5. The second feature is a technical forum, commonly referred to as a tiki-wiki, that addresses technical and conceptual questions through public postings, private messages, and a ranked searching routine. Together, these tools may be able to facilitate greater interest in the field of remote sensing.
Enhancing radiative energy transfer through thermal extraction
Tan, Yixuan; Liu, Baoan; Shen, Sheng; Yu, Zongfu
2016-06-01
Thermal radiation plays an increasingly important role in many emerging energy technologies, such as thermophotovoltaics, passive radiative cooling and wearable cooling clothes [1]. One of the fundamental constraints in thermal radiation is the Stefan-Boltzmann law, which limits the maximum power of far-field radiation to P0 = σT4S, where σ is the Boltzmann constant, S and T are the area and the temperature of the emitter, respectively (Fig. 1a). In order to overcome this limit, it has been shown that near-field radiations could have an energy density that is orders of magnitude greater than the Stefan-Boltzmann law [2-7]. Unfortunately, such near-field radiation transfer is spatially confined and cannot carry radiative heat to the far field. Recently, a new concept of thermal extraction was proposed [8] to enhance far-field thermal emission, which, conceptually, operates on a principle similar to oil immersion lenses and light extraction in light-emitting diodes using solid immersion lens to increase light output [62].Thermal extraction allows a blackbody to radiate more energy to the far field than the apparent limit of the Stefan-Boltzmann law without breaking the second law of thermodynamics. Thermal extraction works by using a specially designed thermal extractor to convert and guide the near-field energy to the far field, as shown in Fig. 1b. The same blackbody as shown in Fig. 1a is placed closely below the thermal extractor with a spacing smaller than the thermal wavelength. The near-field coupling transfers radiative energy with a density greater than σT4. The thermal extractor, made from transparent and high-index or structured materials, does not emit or absorb any radiation. It transforms the near-field energy and sends it toward the far field. As a result, the total amount of far-field radiative heat dissipated by the same blackbody is greatly enhanced above SσT4, where S is the area of the emitter. This paper will review the progress in thermal
ARTS, the atmospheric radiative transfer simulator, version 2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The second version of the atmospheric radiative transfer simulator, ARTS, is introduced. This is a general software package for long wavelength radiative transfer simulations, with a focus on passive microwave observations. The core part provides a workspace environment, in line with script languages. New for this version is an agenda mechanism that gives a high degree of modularity. The framework is intended to be as general as possible: the polarisation state can be fully described, the model atmosphere can be one- (1D), two- (2D) or three-dimensional (3D), a full description of geoid and surface is possible, observation geometries from the ground, from satellite, and from aeroplane or balloon are handled, and surface reflection can be treated in simple or complex manners. Remote sensing applications are supported by a comprehensive and efficient treatment of sensor characteristics. Jacobians can be calculated for the most important atmospheric variables in non-scattering conditions. Finally, the most prominent feature is the rigorous treatment of scattering that has been implemented in two modules: a discrete ordinate iterative approach mainly used for 1D atmospheres, and a Monte Carlo approach which is the preferred algorithm for 3D atmospheres. ARTS is freely available, and maintained as an open-source project.
SLA (Second-law analysis) of transient radiative transfer processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper concerns a SLA (second-law analysis) of transient radiative heat transfer in an absorbing, emitting and scattering medium. Based on Planck's definition of radiative entropy, transient radiative entropy transfer equation and local radiative entropy generation in semitransparent media with uniform refractive index are derived. Transient radiative exergy transfer equation and local radiative exergy destruction are also derived based on Candau's definition of radiative exergy. The analytical results are consistent with the Gouy-Stodola theorem of classical thermodynamics. As an application concerning transient radiative transfer, exergy destruction of diffuse pulse radiation in a semitransparent slab is studied. The transient radiative transfer equation is solved using the discontinuous finite element based discrete ordinates equation. Transient radiative exergy destruction is calculated by a post-processing procedure.
Discrete vs. continuum-scale simulation of radiative transfer in semitransparent two-phase media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The mathematical formulation of the continuum approach to radiative transfer modeling in two-phase semi-transparent media is numerically validated by comparing radiative fluxes computed by (i) direct, discrete-scale and (ii) continuum-scale approaches. The analysis is based on geometrical optics. The discrete-scale approach uses the Monte Carlo ray-tracing applied directly to real 3D geometry measured by computed tomography. The continuum-scale approach is based on a set of continuum-scale radiative transfer equations and associated radiative properties, and employs the Monte Carlo ray-tracing for computations of radiative fluxes and for computations of the radiative properties. The model two-phase media are reticulate porous ceramics and a particle packed bed, each composed of semitransparent solid and fluid phases. The results obtained by the two approaches are in good agreement within the limits of statistical uncertainty. The continuum-scale approach leads to a reduction in computational time by approximately one order of magnitude, and is therefore suited to treat radiative transfer problems in two-phase media in a wide range of engineering applications.
An energy transfer method for 4D Monte Carlo dose calculation
Siebers, Jeffrey V; Zhong, Hualiang
2008-01-01
This article presents a new method for four-dimensional Monte Carlo dose calculations which properly addresses dose mapping for deforming anatomy. The method, called the energy transfer method (ETM), separates the particle transport and particle scoring geometries: Particle transport takes place in the typical rectilinear coordinate system of the source image, while energy deposition scoring takes place in a desired reference image via use of deformable image registration. Dose is the energy ...
A Residual Monte Carlo Method for Spatially Discrete, Angularly Continuous Radiation Transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Residual Monte Carlo provides exponential convergence of statistical error with respect to the number of particle histories. In the past, residual Monte Carlo has been applied to a variety of angularly discrete radiation-transport problems. Here, we apply residual Monte Carlo to spatially discrete, angularly continuous transport. By maintaining angular continuity, our method avoids the deficiencies of angular discretizations, such as ray effects. For planar geometry and step differencing, we use the corresponding integral transport equation to calculate an angularly independent residual from the scalar flux in each stage of residual Monte Carlo. We then demonstrate that the resulting residual Monte Carlo method does indeed converge exponentially to within machine precision of the exact step differenced solution.
Accurate radiative transfer calculations for layered media.
Selden, Adrian C
2016-07-01
Simple yet accurate results for radiative transfer in layered media with discontinuous refractive index are obtained by the method of K-integrals. These are certain weighted integrals applied to the angular intensity distribution at the refracting boundaries. The radiative intensity is expressed as the sum of the asymptotic angular intensity distribution valid in the depth of the scattering medium and a transient term valid near the boundary. Integrated boundary equations are obtained, yielding simple linear equations for the intensity coefficients, enabling the angular emission intensity and the diffuse reflectance (albedo) and transmittance of the scattering layer to be calculated without solving the radiative transfer equation directly. Examples are given of half-space, slab, interface, and double-layer calculations, and extensions to multilayer systems are indicated. The K-integral method is orders of magnitude more accurate than diffusion theory and can be applied to layered scattering media with a wide range of scattering albedos, with potential applications to biomedical and ocean optics. PMID:27409700
Validation of the community radiative transfer model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
To validate the Community Radiative Transfer Model (CRTM) developed by the U.S. Joint Center for Satellite Data Assimilation (JCSDA), the discrete ordinate radiative transfer (DISORT) model and the line-by-line radiative transfer model (LBLRTM) are combined in order to provide a reference benchmark. Compared with the benchmark, the CRTM appears quite accurate for both clear sky and ice cloud radiance simulations with RMS errors below 0.2 K, except for clouds with small ice particles. In a computer CPU run time comparison, the CRTM is faster than DISORT by approximately two orders of magnitude. Using the operational MODIS cloud products and the European Center for Medium-range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF) atmospheric profiles as an input, the CRTM is employed to simulate the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) radiances. The CRTM simulations are shown to be in reasonably close agreement with the AIRS measurements (the discrepancies are within 2 K in terms of brightness temperature difference). Furthermore, the impact of uncertainties in the input cloud properties and atmospheric profiles on the CRTM simulations has been assessed. The CRTM-based brightness temperatures (BTs) at the top of the atmosphere (TOA), for both thin (τ30) clouds, are highly sensitive to uncertainties in atmospheric temperature and cloud top pressure. However, for an optically thick cloud, the CRTM-based BTs are not sensitive to the uncertainties of cloud optical thickness, effective particle size, and atmospheric humidity profiles. On the contrary, the uncertainties of the CRTM-based TOA BTs resulting from effective particle size and optical thickness are not negligible in an optically thin cloud.
The use of Monte Carlo radiation transport codes in radiation physics and dosimetry
CERN. Geneva; Ferrari, Alfredo; Silari, Marco
2006-01-01
Transport and interaction of electromagnetic radiation Interaction models and simulation schemes implemented in modern Monte Carlo codes for the simulation of coupled electron-photon transport will be briefly reviewed. In these codes, photon transport is simulated by using the detailed scheme, i.e., interaction by interaction. Detailed simulation is easy to implement, and the reliability of the results is only limited by the accuracy of the adopted cross sections. Simulations of electron and positron transport are more difficult, because these particles undergo a large number of interactions in the course of their slowing down. Different schemes for simulating electron transport will be discussed. Condensed algorithms, which rely on multiple-scattering theories, are comparatively fast, but less accurate than mixed algorithms, in which hard interactions (with energy loss or angular deflection larger than certain cut-off values) are simulated individually. The reliability, and limitations, of electron-interacti...
Computation of scattering kernels in radiative transfer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This note proposes rapidly convergent computational formulae for evaluating scattering kernels from radiative transfer theory. The approach used here does not rely on Legendre expansions, but rather uses exponentially convergent numerical integration rules. The relation between the domain of analyticity of a given phase function and the speed of convergence is studied in detail. - Highlights: • We propose the trapezoidal rule for the computation of scattering kernels. • The convergence rate is related to the analyticity of the phase function. • This provides a unified rapidly convergent computational approach
Nonlinear response matrix methods for radiative transfer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A nonlinear response matrix formalism is presented for the solution of time-dependent radiative transfer problems. The essential feature of the method is that within each computational cell the temperature is calculated in response to the incoming photons from all frequency groups. Thus the updating of the temperature distribution is placed within the iterative solution of the spaceangle transport problem, instead of being placed outside of it. The method is formulated for both grey and multifrequency problems and applied in slab geometry. The method is compared to the more conventional source iteration technique. 7 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs
3D Lyman-alpha radiation transfer. I. Understanding Lyman-alpha line profile morphologies
Verhamme, Anne; Schaerer, Daniel; Maselli, Antonella
2006-01-01
Using a Monte Carlo technique, we have developed a 3D lyman-alpha radiation transfer code allowing for prescribed arbitrary hydrogen density, ionisation, temperature structures, and dust distribution, and arbitrary velocity fields and UV photon sources. We have examined the lyman-alpha line profiles predicted for several simple geometrical configurations and their dependence on the main input parameters. Overall, we find line profiles reaching from doubly peaked symmetric emission to symmetri...
Modeling radiation from the atmosphere of Io with Monte Carlo methods
Gratiy, Sergey
Conflicting observations regarding the dominance of either sublimation or volcanism as the source of the atmosphere on Io and disparate reports on the extent of its spatial distribution and the absolute column abundance invite the development of detailed computational models capable of improving our understanding of Io's unique atmospheric structure and origin. To validate a global numerical model of Io's atmosphere against astronomical observations requires a 3-D spherical-shell radiative transfer (RT) code to simulate disk-resolved images and disk-integrated spectra from the ultraviolet to the infrared spectral region. In addition, comparison of simulated and astronomical observations provides important information to improve existing atmospheric models. In order to achieve this goal, a new 3-D spherical-shell forward/backward photon Monte Carlo code capable of simulating radiation from absorbing/emitting and scattering atmospheres with an underlying emitting and reflecting surface was developed. A new implementation of calculating atmospheric brightness in scattered sunlight is presented utilizing the notion of an "effective emission source" function. This allows for the accumulation of the scattered contribution along the entire path of a ray and the calculation of the atmospheric radiation when both scattered sunlight and thermal emission contribute to the observed radiation---which was not possible in previous models. A "polychromatic" algorithm was developed for application with the backward Monte Carlo method and was implemented in the code. It allows one to calculate radiative intensity at several wavelengths simultaneously, even when the scattering properties of the atmosphere are a function of wavelength. The application of the "polychromatic" method improves the computational efficiency because it reduces the number of photon bundles traced during the simulation. A 3-D gas dynamics model of Io's atmosphere, including both sublimation and volcanic
A Radiative Transfer Simulation of Water Rotational Excitation in Comets
Zakharov, V.; Biver, N.; Bockelee-Morvan, D.; Crovisier, J.; Lecacheux, A.
2005-08-01
In order to interpret comet observations of the 557 GHz water line performed with the Odin satellite (e.g., Lecacheux et al. 2003, A&A, 402, 55), we have developed a numerical model for the simulation of optically thick water rotational emission in cometary coma. For the treatment of radiative transfer, we have elaborated a Monte Carlo code based on the accelerated lambda iteration algorithm presented in Hogerheijde and van der Tak (2000, A&A, 362, 697). The model assumes a spherically symmetric density distribution with constant expansion velocity. It includes the seven lowest rotational levels of ortho-water, which are the primarily populated levels in the rotationally cold gas of the coma. Collisions with water and electrons, and infrared pumping, are taken into account. The model is similar to that presented by Bensch and Bergin (2004, ApJ, 615, 531). We compared the results obtained with this new model with those obtained by the model of Bockelee-Morvan (1987, A&A, 181, 169). Bockelee-Morvan used the escape probability formalism to treat radiation trapping, which is in principle only valid for large velocity gradients. Surprisingly, the results of both models differ only by a few percent, showing that the escape probability formalism can be used with good confidence to treat rotational excitation in cometary atmospheres. This model will allow us to prepare future observations by the ESA Herschel Space Observatory. V.Zakharov acknowledges financial support from CNES.
A hybrid transport-diffusion model for radiative transfer in absorbing and scattering media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A new multi-scale hybrid transport-diffusion model for radiative transfer is proposed in order to improve the efficiency of the calculations close to the diffusive regime, in absorbing and strongly scattering media. In this model, the radiative intensity is decomposed into a macroscopic component calculated by the diffusion equation, and a mesoscopic component. The transport equation for the mesoscopic component allows to correct the estimation of the diffusion equation, and then to obtain the solution of the linear radiative transfer equation. In this work, results are presented for stationary and transient radiative transfer cases, in examples which concern solar concentrated and optical tomography applications. The Monte Carlo and the discrete-ordinate methods are used to solve the mesoscopic equation. It is shown that the multi-scale model allows to improve the efficiency of the calculations when the medium is close to the diffusive regime. The proposed model is a good alternative for radiative transfer at the intermediate regime where the macroscopic diffusion equation is not accurate enough and the radiative transfer equation requires too much computational effort
Cost effective distributed computing for Monte Carlo radiation dosimetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Full text: An inexpensive computing facility has been established for performing repetitive Monte Carlo simulations with the BEAM and EGS4/EGSnrc codes of linear accelerator beams, for calculating effective dose from diagnostic imaging procedures and of ion chambers and phantoms used for the Australian high energy absorbed dose standards. The facility currently consists of 3 dual-processor 450 MHz processor PCs linked by a high speed LAN. The 3 PCs can be accessed either locally from a single keyboard/monitor/mouse combination using a SwitchView controller or remotely via a computer network from PCs with suitable communications software (e.g. Telnet, Kermit etc). All 3 PCs are identically configured to have the Red Hat Linux 6.0 operating system. A Fortran compiler and the BEAM and EGS4/EGSnrc codes are available on the 3 PCs. The preparation of sequences of jobs utilising the Monte Carlo codes is simplified using load-distributing software (enFuzion 6.0 marketed by TurboLinux Inc, formerly Cluster from Active Tools) which efficiently distributes the computing load amongst all 6 processors. We describe 3 applications of the system - (a) energy spectra from radiotherapy sources, (b) mean mass-energy absorption coefficients and stopping powers for absolute absorbed dose standards and (c) dosimetry for diagnostic procedures; (a) and (b) are based on the transport codes BEAM and FLURZnrc while (c) is a Fortran/EGS code developed at ARPANSA. Efficiency gains ranged from 3 for (c) to close to the theoretical maximum of 6 for (a) and (b), with the gain depending on the amount of 'bookkeeping' to begin each task and the time taken to complete a single task. We have found the use of a load-balancing batch processing system with many PCs to be an economical way of achieving greater productivity for Monte Carlo calculations or of any computer intensive task requiring many runs with different parameters. Copyright (2000) Australasian College of Physical Scientists and
Radiation Transport for Explosive Outflows: A Multigroup Hybrid Monte Carlo Method
Wollaeger, Ryan T; Graziani, Carlo; Couch, Sean M; Jordan, George C; Lamb, Donald Q; Moses, Gregory A
2013-01-01
We explore the application of Implicit Monte Carlo (IMC) and Discrete Diffusion Monte Carlo (DDMC) to radiation transport in strong fluid outflows with structured opacity. The IMC method of Fleck & Cummings is a stochastic computational technique for nonlinear radiation transport. IMC is partially implicit in time and may suffer in efficiency when tracking Monte Carlo particles through optically thick materials. The DDMC method of Densmore accelerates an IMC computation where the domain is diffusive. Recently, Abdikamalov extended IMC and DDMC to multigroup, velocity-dependent neutrino transport with the intent of modeling neutrino dynamics in core-collapse supernovae. Densmore has also formulated a multifrequency extension to the originally grey DDMC method. In this article we rigorously formulate IMC and DDMC over a high-velocity Lagrangian grid for possible application to photon transport in the post-explosion phase of Type Ia supernovae. The method described is suitable for a large variety of non-mono...
Monte Carlo calculation of the radiation field at aircraft altitudes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Energy spectra of secondary cosmic rays are calculated for aircraft altitudes and a discrete set of solar modulation parameters and rigidity cut-off values covering all possible conditions. The calculations are based on the Monte Carlo code FLUKA and on the most recent information on the interstellar cosmic ray flux including a detailed model of solar modulation. Results are compared to a large variety of experimental data obtained on the ground and aboard aircraft and balloons, such as neutron, proton, and muon spectra and yields of charged particles. Furthermore, particle fluence is converted into ambient dose equivalent and effective dose and the dependence of these quantities on height above sea level, solar modulation, and geographical location is studied. Finally, calculated dose equivalent is compared to results of comprehensive measurements performed aboard aircraft. (author)
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
胡帅; 高太长; 刘磊; 易红亮; 贲勋
2015-01-01
非球形气溶胶是影响辐射传输的重要因素。系统给出了矢量辐射传输Monte Carlo模型,并验证了其准确度；考虑入射光偏振态,讨论了不同方向漫射光Stokes矢量对气溶胶形状的敏感性；分析了气溶胶形状、入射光偏振状态对光波退偏振度、透过率及反射率的影响。模拟仿真结果表明,对于不同偏振态的入射光,不同方向的Stokes矢量对气溶胶形状变化的灵敏程度并不一致,而在天顶角0◦方向区域, Q, U及V 分量对形状的灵敏程度普遍不高；气溶胶形状对反射漫射光退偏程度的影响强于透射漫射光,入射光偏振态不同,漫射光退偏程度也存在较大差异。气溶胶形状对光波整体透过率与反射率影响显著,且该影响随传播距离增大而增大；入射光偏振态对透过率与反射率影响相对较小,与自然光相比,水平偏振光透过率略偏小,反射率略偏大,垂直偏振光反之,圆偏振光与自然光的模拟结果相当。%The shape of atmospheric aerosol is an important factor that influences radiation transfer. In this paper, a vector radiation transfer model based on Monte Carlo method is systematically introduced, and its accuracy is validated against the published results. And the sensitivity of Stokes vectors of transmitted and reflected light to aerosol shape is discussed when polarized light incidents. In addition, the influence of the particle shape on the depolarization ratio, transmission rate and the reflection rate is analyzed for incident light with different polarization states. Simulation results show that for the incident light in different polarization states, the sensitivity of the Stokes vectors of the diffuse light to different aerosol shapes is not the same in different viewing directions, and the Q, U , V elements of Stokes vector are all insensitive to the change of particle shape near the direction of the zenith angle 0◦. It is evident that the aerosol
Monte Carlo simulations of the radiation environment for the CMS Experiment
Mallows, Sophie
2015-01-01
Monte Carlo radiation transport codes are used by the CMS Beam Radiation Instrumentation and Luminosity (BRIL) project to estimate the radiation levels due to proton-proton collisions and machine induced background. Results are used by the CMS collaboration for various applications: comparison with detector hit rates, pile-up studies, predictions of radiation damage based on various models (Dose, NIEL, DPA), shielding design, estimations of residual dose environment. Simulation parameters, and the maintenance of the input files are summarised, and key results are presented. Furthermore, an overview of additional programs developed by the BRIL project to meet the specific needs of CMS community is given.
Monte Carlo simulations of the radiation environment for the CMS experiment
Mallows, S.; Azhgirey, I.; Bayshev, I.; Bergstrom, I.; Cooijmans, T.; Dabrowski, A.; Glöggler, L.; Guthoff, M.; Kurochkin, I.; Vincke, H.; Tajeda, S.
2016-07-01
Monte Carlo radiation transport codes are used by the CMS Beam Radiation Instrumentation and Luminosity (BRIL) project to estimate the radiation levels due to proton-proton collisions and machine induced background. Results are used by the CMS collaboration for various applications: comparison with detector hit rates, pile-up studies, predictions of radiation damage based on various models (Dose, NIEL, DPA), shielding design, estimations of residual dose environment. Simulation parameters, and the maintenance of the input files are summarized, and key results are presented. Furthermore, an overview of additional programs developed by the BRIL project to meet the specific needs of CMS community is given.
Plasma effects in high frequency radiative transfer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper is intended as a survey of collective plasma processes which can affect the transfer of high frequency radiation in a hot dense plasma. We are rapidly approaching an era when this subject will become important in the laboratory. For pedagogical reasons we have chosen to examine plasma processes by relating them to a particular reference plasma which will consist of fully ionized carbon at a temperature kT=1 KeV (1070K) and an electron density N = 3 x 1023cm-3, (which corresponds to a mass density rho = 1 gm/cm3 and an ion density N/sub i/ = 5 x 1022 cm-3). We will consider the transport in such a plasma of photons ranging from 1 eV to 1 KeV in energy. Such photons will probably be frequently used as diagnostic probes of hot dense laboratory plasmas
Percolation conductivity of penrose tiling by transfer-matrix Monte Carlo
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A generalization of Derrida and Vannimenus transfer-matrix Monte Carlo for calculations of percolation conductivity of Penrose Tiling was applied. The strips used were 104 long and widths varied between 3 and 19. The results show that in spite of differences for strip widths 3-7 the percolative conductivity of Penrose tiling is very close to that of square lattice. The estimation of the percolation transport exponent once more confirms the universality conjecture for 0-1 distribution of resistors. (author). 15 refs, 3 figs
Percolation conductivity of Penrose tiling by the transfer-matrix Monte Carlo method
Babalievski, Filip V.
1992-03-01
A generalization of the Derrida and Vannimenus transfer-matrix Monte Carlo method has been applied to calculations of the percolation conductivity in a Penrose tiling. Strips with a length~10 4 and widths from 3 to 19 have been used. Disregarding the differences for smaller strip widths (up to 7), the results show that the percolative conductivity of a Penrose tiling has a value very close to that of a square lattice. The estimate for the percolation transport exponent once more confirms the universality conjecture for the 0-1 distribution of resistors.
Percolation conductivity of Penrose tiling by transfer-matrix Monte Carlo
Babalievski, F. V.
1991-09-01
A generalization of Derrida and Vannimenus transfer-matrix Monte Carlo for calculations of percolation conductivity of Penrose Tiling was applied. The strips used were 10(exp 4) long and widths varied between 3 and 19. The results show that in spite of differences for strip widths 3-7 the percolative conductivity of Penrose tiling is very close to that of square lattice. The estimation of the percolation transport exponent once more confirms the universality conjecture for 0-1 distribution of resistors.
Simulation of solar radiative transfer in cumulus clouds
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zuev, V.E.; Titov, G.A. [Institute of Atmospheric Optics, Tomsk (Russian Federation)
1996-04-01
This work presents a 3-D model of radiative transfer which is used to study the relationship between the spatial distribution of cumulus clouds and fluxes (albedo and transmittance) of visible solar radiation.
A comparison between the Monte Carlo radiation transport codes MCNP and MCBEND
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sawamura, Hidenori; Nishimura, Kazuya [Computer Software Development Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)
2001-01-01
In Japan, almost of all radiation analysts are using the MCNP code and MVP code on there studies. But these codes have not had automatic variance reduction. MCBEND code made by UKAEA have automatic variance reduction. And, MCBEND code is user friendly more than other Monte Carlo Radiation Transport Codes. Our company was first introduced MCBEND code in Japan. Therefore, we compared with MCBEND code and MCNP code about functions and production capacity. (author)
Radiative corrections and Monte Carlo generators for physics at flavor factories
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Montagna Guido
2016-01-01
Full Text Available I review the state of the art of precision calculations and related Monte Carlo generators used in physics at flavor factories. The review describes the tools relevant for the measurement of the hadron production cross section (via radiative return, energy scan and in γγ scattering, luminosity monitoring, searches for new physics and physics of the τ lepton.
Local dose enhancement in radiation therapy: Monte Carlo simulation study
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The development of nanotechnology has boosted the use of nanoparticles in radiation therapy in order to achieve greater therapeutic ratio between tumor and healthy tissues. Gold has been shown to be most suitable to this task due to the high biocompatibility and high atomic number, which contributes to a better in vivo distribution and for the local energy deposition. As a result, this study proposes to study, nanoparticle in the tumor cell. At a range of 11 nm from the nanoparticle surface, results have shown an absorbed dose 141 times higher for the medium with the gold nanoparticle compared to the water for an incident energy spectrum with maximum photon energy of 50 keV. It was also noted that when only scattered radiation is interacting with the gold nanoparticles, the dose was 134 times higher compared to enhanced local dose that remained significant even for scattered radiation. (author)
Radiative Transfer Modeling of Lyman Alpha Emitters: I. Statistics of Spectra and Luminosity
Zheng, Zheng; Trac, Hy; Miralda-Escude, Jordi
2009-01-01
We combine a cosmological reionization simulation with box size of 100Mpc/h on a side and a Monte Carlo Lyman-alpha (Lya) radiative transfer code to model Lyman Alpha Emitters (LAEs) at z~5.7. The model introduces Lya radiative transfer as the single factor for transforming the intrinsic Lya emission properties into the observed ones. Spatial diffusion of Lya photons from radiative transfer results in extended Lya emission and only the central part with high surface brightness can be observed. Because of radiative transfer, the appearance of LAEs depends on density and velocity structures in circumgalactic and intergalactic media as well as the viewing angle, which leads to a broad distribution of apparent (observed) Lya luminosity for a given intrinsic Lya luminosity. Radiative transfer also causes frequency diffusion of Lya photons. The resultant Lya line is asymmetric with a red tail. The peak of the Lya line shifts towards longer wavelength and the shift is anti-correlated with the apparent to intrinsic L...
Analytical approach for solving the radiative transfer equation in two-dimensional layered media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This study presents an analytical approach for obtaining Green's function of the two-dimensional radiative transfer equation to the boundary-value problem of a layered medium. A conventional Fourier transform and a modified Fourier series which is defined in a rotated reference frame are applied to derive an analytical solution of the radiance in the transformed space. The Monte Carlo method was used for a successful validation of the derived solutions. - Highlights: ► Analytical solution of the radiative transfer equation for two-dimensional layered media. ► The required numerical part for evaluation of the derived solution is reduced to a minimum. ► The presented method is transferable to the three-dimensional layered medium.
Testing Quasar Unification: Radiative Transfer in Clumpy Winds
Matthews, James H; Long, Knox S; Sim, Stuart A; Higginbottom, Nick; Mangham, Sam W
2016-01-01
Various unification schemes interpret the complex phenomenology of quasars and luminous active galactic nuclei (AGN) in terms of a simple picture involving a central black hole, an accretion disc and an associated outflow. Here, we continue our tests of this paradigm by comparing quasar spectra to synthetic spectra of biconical disc wind models, produced with our state-of-the-art Monte Carlo radiative transfer code. Previously, we have shown that we could produce synthetic spectra resembling those of observed broad absorption line (BAL) quasars, but only if the X-ray luminosity was limited to $10^{43}$ erg s$^{-1}$. Here, we introduce a simple treatment of clumping, and find that a filling factor of $\\sim0.01$ moderates the ionization state sufficiently for BAL features to form in the rest-frame UV at more realistic X-ray luminosities. Our fiducial model shows good agreement with AGN X-ray properties and the wind produces strong line emission in, e.g., Ly \\alpha\\ and CIV 1550\\AA\\ at low inclinations. At high ...
Ultraviolet Radiative Transfer Modeling of Nearby Galaxies with Extraplanar Dusts
Shinn, Jong-Ho
2015-01-01
In order to examine their relation to the host galaxy, the extraplanar dust of six nearby galaxies are modeled, employing a three dimensional Monte Carlo radiative transfer code. The targets are from the highly-inclined galaxies that show dust-scattered ultraviolet halos, and the archival Galaxy Evolution Explorer FUV band images were fitted with the model. The observed images are in general well reproduced by two dust layers and one light-source layer, whose vertical and radial distributions have exponential profiles. We obtained several important physical parameters, such as star formation rate (SFR_UV), face-on optical depth, and scale-heights. Three galaxies (NGC 891, NGC 3628, and UGC 11794) show clear evidence for the existence of extraplanar dust layer. However, it is found that the rest three targets (IC 5249, NGC 24, and NGC 4173) do not necessarily need a thick dust disk to model the ultraviolet (UV) halo, because its contribution is too small and the UV halo may be caused by the wing part of the GA...
Overview and applications of the Monte Carlo radiation transport kit at LLNL
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Modern Monte Carlo radiation transport codes can be applied to model most applications of radiation, from optical to TeV photons, from thermal neutrons to heavy ions. Simulations can include any desired level of detail in three-dimensional geometries using the right level of detail in the reaction physics. The technology areas to which we have applied these codes include medical applications, defense, safety and security programs, nuclear safeguards and industrial and research system design and control. The main reason such applications are interesting is that by using these tools substantial savings of time and effort (i.e. money) can be realized. In addition it is possible to separate out and investigate computationally effects which can not be isolated and studied in experiments. In model calculations, just as in real life, one must take care in order to get the correct answer to the right question. Advancing computing technology allows extensions of Monte Carlo applications in two directions. First, as computers become more powerful more problems can be accurately modeled. Second, as computing power becomes cheaper Monte Carlo methods become accessible more widely. An overview of the set of Monte Carlo radiation transport tools in use a LLNL will be presented along with a few examples of applications and future directions
Advantages of Analytical Transformations in Monte Carlo Methods for Radiation Transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Monte Carlo methods for radiation transport typically attempt to solve an integral by directly sampling analog or weighted particles, which are treated as physical entities. Improvements to the methods involve better sampling, probability games or physical intuition about the problem. We show that significant improvements can be achieved by recasting the equations with an analytical transform to solve for new, non-physical entities or fields. This paper looks at one such transform, the difference formulation for thermal photon transport, showing a significant advantage for Monte Carlo solution of the equations for time dependent transport. Other related areas are discussed that may also realize significant benefits from similar analytical transformations
PEREGRINE: An all-particle Monte Carlo code for radiation therapy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The goal of radiation therapy is to deliver a lethal dose to the tumor while minimizing the dose to normal tissues. To carry out this task, it is critical to calculate correctly the distribution of dose delivered. Monte Carlo transport methods have the potential to provide more accurate prediction of dose distributions than currently-used methods. PEREGRINE is a new Monte Carlo transport code developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for the specific purpose of modeling the effects of radiation therapy. PEREGRINE transports neutrons, photons, electrons, positrons, and heavy charged-particles, including protons, deuterons, tritons, helium-3, and alpha particles. This paper describes the PEREGRINE transport code and some preliminary results for clinically relevant materials and radiation sources
EGS-Ray, a program for the visualization of Monte-Carlo calculations in the radiation physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A Windows program is introduced which allows a relatively easy and interactive access to Monte Carlo techniques in clinical radiation physics. Furthermore, this serves as a visualization tool of the methodology and the results of Monte Carlo simulations. The program requires only little effort to formulate and calculate a Monte Carlo problem. The Monte Carlo module of the program is based on the well-known EGS4/PRESTA code. The didactic features of the program are presented using several examples common to the routine of the clinical radiation physicist. (orig.)
Monte Carlo studies for radiation protection of LCLS-II XTOD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The design of LCLS-II X-ray Transport and Diagnostic (XTOD) system does not have the shielding wall separating electron dump line from Front End Enclosure (FEE), therefore any forward radiation may directly challenge the end wall. A series of radiation protection features are designed to protect users behind the end wall from the mixed radiation environment including FEL, spontaneous radiation, Bremsstrahlung and possible electron beam in accident. Detailed Monte Carlo studies are implemented for various beamline configurations, considering both normal operation and accidental electron beam loss, and the crucial requirement on the end wall is benchmarked by using both FLUKA and MARS. The leakage of Bremsstrahlung and spontaneous radiation along photon beam pipes into the experimental hall are also studied. It is found that a local safety collimator after the first mirror can help reduce the thickness and cost of the end wall, and a proper collimator system can sufficiently limit radiation leakage through photon beam pipes. (authors)
Polar firn layering in radiative transfer models
Linow, Stefanie; Hoerhold, Maria
2016-04-01
For many applications in the geosciences, remote sensing is the only feasible method of obtaining data from large areas with limited accessibility. This is especially true for the cryosphere, where light conditions and cloud coverage additionally limit the use of optical sensors. Here, instruments operating at microwave frequencies become important, for instance in polar snow parameters / SWE (snow water equivalent) mapping. However, the interaction between snow and microwave radiation is a complex process and still not fully understood. RT (radiative transfer) models to simulate snow-microwave interaction are available, but they require a number of input parameters such as microstructure and density, which are partly ill-constrained. The layering of snow and firn introduces an additional degree of complexity, as all snow parameters show a strong variability with depth. Many studies on RT modeling of polar firn deal with layer variability by using statistical properties derived from previous measurements, such as the standard deviations of density and microstructure, to configure model input. Here, the variability of microstructure parameters, such as density and particle size, are usually assumed to be independent of each other. However, in the case of the firn pack of the polar ice sheets, we observe that microstructure evolution depends on environmental parameters, such as temperature and snow deposition. Accordingly, density and microstructure evolve together within the snow and firn. Based on CT (computer tomography) microstructure measurements of antarctic firn, we can show that: first, the variability of density and effective grain size are linked and can thus be implemented in the RT models as a coupled set of parameters. Second, the magnitude of layering is captured by the measured standard deviation. Based on high-resolution density measurements of an Antarctic firn core, we study the effect of firn layering at different microwave wavelengths. By means of
Monte Carlo simulation for radiation monitoring in nuclear power plant environs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We are currently building expertise and knowledge base in Monte Carlo techniques for radiation transport modelling and detector simulation utilizing Geant4 and MCNP tool-kits. In this paper, we present preliminary results obtained in the simulation of flux monitoring of an Am-Be neutron source, and the NaI(Tl) scintillation detector response modelling for rapid determination of environmental radionuclides. Monte Carlo techniques: MCNP-5 was used to simulate the Am-Be neutron source and Geant4 was used to simulate the scintillation detector response and the neutron flux monitoring applicable by gamma-ray spectroscopy, and prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) respectively. Preliminary results show that Monte Carlo simulation techniques are promising. Consequently we can now develop and optimize PGNAA using the Am-Be facility in order to achieve better sensitivity and lower detection limits. The presentation slides have been added to the article
Ge(Li) intrinsic efficiency calculation using Monte Carlo simulation for γ radiation transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
To solve a radiation transport problem by using Monte Carlo simulation method, the evolution of a large number of radiations must be simulated and also the analysis of their history must be done. The evolution of a radiation starts by the radiation emission, followed by the radiation unperturbed propagation in the medium between the successive interactions and then the radiation parameters modification in the points where interactions occur. The goal of this paper consists in the calculation of the total detection efficiency and the intrinsic efficiency for a coaxial Ge(Li) detector, using Monte Carlo method in order to simulate the γ radiation transport. A Ge(Li) detector with 106 cm3 active volume and γ photons with energies in 50 keV - 2 MeV range, emitted by a point source situated on the detector axis, were considered. Each γ photon evolution is simulated by an analogue process step-by-step until the photon escapes from the detector or is completely absorbed in the active volume of the detector. (author)
Development of a space radiation Monte Carlo computer simulation based on the FLUKA and ROOT codes
Pinsky, L; Ferrari, A; Sala, P; Carminati, F; Brun, R
2001-01-01
This NASA funded project is proceeding to develop a Monte Carlo-based computer simulation of the radiation environment in space. With actual funding only initially in place at the end of May 2000, the study is still in the early stage of development. The general tasks have been identified and personnel have been selected. The code to be assembled will be based upon two major existing software packages. The radiation transport simulation will be accomplished by updating the FLUKA Monte Carlo program, and the user interface will employ the ROOT software being developed at CERN. The end-product will be a Monte Carlo-based code which will complement the existing analytic codes such as BRYNTRN/HZETRN presently used by NASA to evaluate the effects of radiation shielding in space. The planned code will possess the ability to evaluate the radiation environment for spacecraft and habitats in Earth orbit, in interplanetary space, on the lunar surface, or on a planetary surface such as Mars. Furthermore, it will be usef...
Application of ray tracing in radiation heat transfer
Baumeister, Joseph F.
1993-01-01
This collection of presentation figures displays the capabilities of ray tracing for radiation propagation calculations as compared to an analytical approach. The goal is to introduce the terminology and solution process used in ray tracing, and provide insight into radiation heat transfer principles and analysis tools. A thermal analysis working environment is introduced that solves demanding radiation heat transfer problems based on ray tracing. This information may serve as a reference for designing and building ones own analysis environment.
Hubber, D. A.; Ercolano, B.; Dale, J.
2016-02-01
Ionizing feedback from massive stars dramatically affects the interstellar medium local to star-forming regions. Numerical simulations are now starting to include enough complexity to produce morphologies and gas properties that are not too dissimilar from observations. The comparison between the density fields produced by hydrodynamical simulations and observations at given wavelengths relies however on photoionization/chemistry and radiative transfer calculations. We present here an implementation of Monte Carlo radiation transport through a Voronoi tessellation in the photoionization and dust radiative transfer code MOCASSIN. We show for the first time a synthetic spectrum and synthetic emission line maps of a hydrodynamical simulation of a molecular cloud affected by massive stellar feedback. We show that the approach on which previous work is based, which remapped hydrodynamical density fields on to Cartesian grids before performing radiative transfer/photoionization calculations, results in significant errors in the temperature and ionization structure of the region. Furthermore, we describe the mathematical process of tracing photon energy packets through a Voronoi tessellation, including optimizations, treating problematic cases and boundary conditions. We perform various benchmarks using both the original version of MOCASSIN and the modified version using the Voronoi tessellation. We show that for uniform grids, or equivalently a cubic lattice of cell generating points, the new Voronoi version gives the same results as the original Cartesian grid version of MOCASSIN for all benchmarks. For non-uniform initial conditions, such as using snapshots from smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations, we show that the Voronoi version performs better than the Cartesian grid version, resulting in much better resolution in dense regions.
Juste, Belén; Miró, R.; Abella, V.; Santos, A.; Verdú, Gumersindo
2015-11-01
Radiation therapy treatment planning based on Monte Carlo simulation provide a very accurate dose calculation compared to deterministic systems. Nowadays, Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET) dosimeters are increasingly utilized in radiation therapy to verify the received dose by patients. In the present work, we have used the MCNP6 (Monte Carlo N-Particle transport code) to simulate the irradiation of an anthropomorphic phantom (RANDO) with a medical linear accelerator. The detailed model of the Elekta Precise multileaf collimator using a 6 MeV photon beam was designed and validated by means of different beam sizes and shapes in previous works. To include in the simulation the RANDO phantom geometry a set of Computer Tomography images of the phantom was obtained and formatted. The slices are input in PLUNC software, which performs the segmentation by defining anatomical structures and a Matlab algorithm writes the phantom information in MCNP6 input deck format. The simulation was verified and therefore the phantom model and irradiation was validated throughout the comparison of High-Sensitivity MOSFET dosimeter (Best medical Canada) measurements in different points inside the phantom with simulation results. On-line Wireless MOSFET provide dose estimation in the extremely thin sensitive volume, so a meticulous and accurate validation has been performed. The comparison show good agreement between the MOSFET measurements and the Monte Carlo calculations, confirming the validity of the developed procedure to include patients CT in simulations and approving the use of Monte Carlo simulations as an accurate therapy treatment plan.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A general Monte Carlo-discrete ordinates radiation transport coupling procedure has been created to study effects of the radiation environment in Hiroshima and Nagasaki due to the bombing of these two cities. The forward two-dimensional, free-field, air-over-ground flux is coupled with an adjoint Monte Carlo calculation. The size, orientation, or translation of the Monte Carlo geometry is unrestricted. The radiation effects calculated are the dose in the interior of a large concrete building in Nagasaki and the activation production of 60Co and 32P in Hiroshima
Monte Carlo simulation of gas-filled radiation detectors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A new simulation code has been developed that allows the response of gas-filled proportional counters to be calculated. The code is an electron transport code that simulates the elastic and inelastic scattering processes that occur as a result of electron-impact collisions with the gas atoms. The simulation concentrates on the avalanche development after the primary ionising particle has freed electrons in the gas volume, by tracking electrons until they reach the anode of the counter. The dynamics of the ions that accumulate in the gas volume are also considered. A major motivation for this work is the general renewed interest in proportional counters over the last decade, since the advent of micro-pattern detectors such as the micro-strip and the micro-gap detector. It is argued that the low relative cost, intrinsic amplification and environmental stability of these detectors gives them considerable advantages over other types of radiation detectors. The code has been benchmarked against experimental data. The manner in which the variation in the avalanche statistics affects the energy resolution properties of the detector is examined for single wire counters, micro-strip and micro-gap counters. The stability of micro-gap detectors when subjected to high rates of irradiation is also examined. It is envisaged that these detectors will be used in the future as part of a multiphase flow tomography device for imaging the flow of oil/water/natural gas mixtures that have been pumped through pipes from the seabed. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper discusses the implementation, capabilities, and validation of Shift, a massively parallel Monte Carlo radiation transport package developed and maintained at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It has been developed to scale well from laptop to small computing clusters to advanced supercomputers. Special features of Shift include hybrid capabilities for variance reduction such as CADIS and FW-CADIS, and advanced parallel decomposition and tally methods optimized for scalability on supercomputing architectures. Shift has been validated and verified against various reactor physics benchmarks and compares well to other state-of-the-art Monte Carlo radiation transport codes such as MCNP5, CE KENO-VI, and OpenMC. Some specific benchmarks used for verification and validation include the CASL VERA criticality test suite and several Westinghouse AP1000® problems. These benchmark and scaling studies show promising results
Monte Carlo Calculations Applied to NRU Reactor and Radiation Physics Analyses
G.B. Wilkin; Nguyen, T. S.
2012-01-01
The statistical MCNP (Monte Carlo N-Particle) code has been satisfactorily used for reactor and radiation physics calculations to support NRU operation and analysis. MCNP enables 3D modeling of the reactor and its components in great detail, the transport calculation of photons (in addition to neutrons), and the capability to model all locations in space, which are beyond the capabilities of the deterministic neutronics methods used for NRU. While the simple single-cell model is efficient for...
Boxberg, Fredrik; Tulkki, Jukka; Yusa, Go; Sakaki, Hiroyuki
2006-01-01
We have developed a theoretical model to analyze the anomalous cooling of radiative quantum dot (QD) excitons by THz radiation reported by Yusa et al [Proc. 24th ICPS, 1083 (1998)]. We have made three-dimensional (3D) modeling of the strain and the piezoelectric field and calculated the 3D density of states of strain induced quantum dots. On the basis of this analysis we have developed a spin dependent Monte Carlo model, which describes the carrier dynamics in QD's when the intraband relaxati...
GLERL Radiation Transfer Through Freshwater Ice
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Radiation transmittance (ratio of transmitted to incident radiation) through clear ice, refrozen slush ice and brash ice, from ice surface to ice-water interface in...
Bayesian Atmospheric Radiative Transfer (BART) Code and Application to WASP-43b
Blecic, Jasmina; Harrington, Joseph; Cubillos, Patricio; Bowman, Oliver; Rojo, Patricio; Stemm, Madison; Lust, Nathaniel B.; Challener, Ryan; Foster, Austin James; Foster, Andrew S.; Blumenthal, Sarah D.; Bruce, Dylan
2016-01-01
We present a new open-source Bayesian radiative-transfer framework, Bayesian Atmospheric Radiative Transfer (BART, https://github.com/exosports/BART), and its application to WASP-43b. BART initializes a model for the atmospheric retrieval calculation, generates thousands of theoretical model spectra using parametrized pressure and temperature profiles and line-by-line radiative-transfer calculation, and employs a statistical package to compare the models with the observations. It consists of three self-sufficient modules available to the community under the reproducible-research license, the Thermochemical Equilibrium Abundances module (TEA, https://github.com/dzesmin/TEA, Blecic et al. 2015}, the radiative-transfer module (Transit, https://github.com/exosports/transit), and the Multi-core Markov-chain Monte Carlo statistical module (MCcubed, https://github.com/pcubillos/MCcubed, Cubillos et al. 2015). We applied BART on all available WASP-43b secondary eclipse data from the space- and ground-based observations constraining the temperature-pressure profile and molecular abundances of the dayside atmosphere of WASP-43b. This work was supported by NASA Planetary Atmospheres grant NNX12AI69G and NASA Astrophysics Data Analysis Program grant NNX13AF38G. JB holds a NASA Earth and Space Science Fellowship.
Advances in Studies of Cloud Overlap and Its Radiative Transfer in Climate Models
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张华; 荆现文
2016-01-01
The latest advances in studies on the treatment of cloud overlap and its radiative transfer in global climate models are summarized. Developments with respect to this internationally challenging problem are described from aspects such as the design of cloud overlap assumptions, the realization of cloud overlap assumptions within climate models, and the data and methods used to obtain consistent observations of cloud overlap structure and radiative transfer in overlapping clouds. To date, there has been an appreciable level of achievement in studies on cloud overlap in climate models, demonstrated by the development of scientific assumptions (e.g., e-folding overlap) to describe cloud overlap, the invention and broad application of the fast radiative transfer method for overlapped clouds (Monte Carlo Independent Column Approximation), and the emergence of continuous 3D cloud satellite observation (e.g., CloudSat/CALIPSO) and cloud-resolving models, which provide numerous data valuable for the exact description of cloud overlap structure in climate models. However, present treatments of cloud overlap and its radiative transfer process are far from complete, and there remain many unsettled problems that need to be explored in the future.
Radiative transfer in atmosphere-sea ice-ocean system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jin, Z.; Stamnes, K.; Weeks, W.F. [Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States); Tsay, S.C. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States)
1996-04-01
Radiative energy is critical in controlling the heat and mass balance of sea ice, which significantly affects the polar climate. In the polar oceans, light transmission through the atmosphere and sea ice is essential to the growth of plankton and algae and, consequently, to the microbial community both in the ice and in the ocean. Therefore, the study of radiative transfer in the polar atmosphere, sea ice, and ocean system is of particular importance. Lacking a properly coupled radiative transfer model for the atmosphere-sea ice-ocean system, a consistent study of the radiative transfer in the polar atmosphere, snow, sea ice, and ocean system has not been undertaken before. The radiative transfer processes in the atmosphere and in the ice and ocean have been treated separately. Because the radiation processes in the atmosphere, sea ice, and ocean depend on each other, this separate treatment is inconsistent. To study the radiative interaction between the atmosphere, clouds, snow, sea ice, and ocean, a radiative transfer model with consistent treatment of radiation in the coupled system is needed and is under development.
Submandibular salivary gland transfer prevents radiation-induced xerostomia
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Background: Xerostomia is a significant morbidity of radiation therapy in the management of head and neck cancers. We hypothesized that the surgical transfer of one submandibular salivary gland to submental space, outside the proposed radiation field, prior to starting radiation treatment, would prevent xerostomia. Methods: We are conducting a prospective clinical trial where the submandibular gland is transferred as part of the surgical intervention. The patients are followed clinically, with salivary flow studies and University of Washington quality of life questionnaire. Results: We report early results of 16 patients who have undergone this procedure. Seven patients have finished and 2 patients are currently undergoing radiation treatment. In 2 patients, no postoperative radiation treatment was indicated. Two patients are waiting to start radiation treatment and 2 patients refused treatment after surgery. The surgical transfer was abandoned in 1 patient. All of the transferred salivary glands were positioned outside the proposed radiation fields and were functional. The patients did not complain of any xerostomia and developed only minimal oral mucositis. There were no surgical complications. Conclusions: Surgical transfer of a submandibular salivary gland to the submental space (outside the radiation field) preserves its function and prevents the development of radiation-induced xerostomia
Radiative transfer in disc galaxies $-$ V. The accuracy of the KB approximation
Lee, Dukhang; Seon, Kwang-Il; Camps, Peter; Verstocken, Sam; Han, Wonyong
2016-01-01
We investigate the accuracy of an approximate radiative transfer technique that was first proposed by Kylafis & Bahcall (hereafter the KB approximation) and has been popular in modelling dusty late-type galaxies. We compare realistic galaxy models calculated with the KB approximation with those of a three-dimensional Monte Carlo radiative transfer code SKIRT. The SKIRT code fully takes into account of the contribution of multiple scattering whereas the KB approximation calculates only single scattered intensity and multiple scattering components are approximated. We find that the KB approximation gives fairly accurate results if optically thin, face-on galaxies are considered. However, for highly inclined ($i \\gtrsim 85^{\\circ}$) and/or optically thick (central face-on optical depth $\\gtrsim1$) galaxy models, the approximation can give rise to substantial errors, sometimes, up to $\\gtrsim 40\\%$. Moreover, it is also found that the KB approximation is not always physical, sometimes producing infinite inten...
FTREE. Single-history Monte Carlo analysis for radiation detection and measurement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This work introduces FTREE, which describes radiation cascades following impingement of a source particle on matter. The ensuing radiation field is characterised interaction by interaction, accounting for each generation of secondaries recursively. Each progeny is uniquely differentiated and catalogued into a family tree; the kinship is identified without ambiguity. This mode of observation, analysis and presentation goes beyond present-day detector technologies, beyond conventional Monte Carlo simulations and beyond standard pedagogy. It is able to observe rare events far out in the Gaussian tail which would have been lost in averaging-events less probable, but no less correct in physics. (author)
Tominaga, Nozomu; Blinnikov, Sergei I
2015-01-01
We develop a time-dependent multi-group multidimensional relativistic radiative transfer code, which is required to numerically investigate radiation from relativistic fluids involved in, e.g., gamma-ray bursts and active galactic nuclei. The code is based on the spherical harmonic discrete ordinate method (SHDOM) that evaluates a source function including anisotropic scattering in spherical harmonics and implicitly solves the static radiative transfer equation with a ray tracing in discrete ordinates. We implement treatments of time dependence, multi-frequency bins, Lorentz transformation, and elastic Thomson and inelastic Compton scattering to the publicly available SHDOM code. Our code adopts a mixed frame approach; the source function is evaluated in the comoving frame whereas the radiative transfer equation is solved in the laboratory frame. This implementation is validated with various test problems and comparisons with results of a relativistic Monte Carlo code. These validations confirm that the code ...
A Monte Carlo transport code study of the space radiation environment using FLUKA and ROOT
Wilson, T; Carminati, F; Brun, R; Ferrari, A; Sala, P; Empl, A; MacGibbon, J
2001-01-01
We report on the progress of a current study aimed at developing a state-of-the-art Monte-Carlo computer simulation of the space radiation environment using advanced computer software techniques recently available at CERN, the European Laboratory for Particle Physics in Geneva, Switzerland. By taking the next-generation computer software appearing at CERN and adapting it to known problems in the implementation of space exploration strategies, this research is identifying changes necessary to bring these two advanced technologies together. The radiation transport tool being developed is tailored to the problem of taking measured space radiation fluxes impinging on the geometry of any particular spacecraft or planetary habitat and simulating the evolution of that flux through an accurate model of the spacecraft material. The simulation uses the latest known results in low-energy and high-energy physics. The output is a prediction of the detailed nature of the radiation environment experienced in space as well a...
A Generalized Layered Radiative Transfer Model in the Vegetation Canopy
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2006-01-01
In this paper, a generalized layered model for radiation transfer in canopy with high vertical resolution is developed. Differing from the two-stream approximate radiation transfer model commonly used in the land surface models, the generalized model takes into account the effect of complicated canopy morphology and inhomogeneous optical properties of leaves on radiation transfer within the canopy. In the model, the total leaf area index (LAI) of the canopy is divided into many layers. At a given layer, the influences of diffuse radiation angle distributions and leaf angle distributions on radiation transfer within the canopy are considered. The derivation of equations serving the model are described in detail, and these can deal with various diffuse radiation transfers in quite broad categories of canopy with quite inhomogeneous vertical structures and uneven leaves with substantially different optical properties of adaxial and abaxial faces of the leaves. The model is used to simulate the radiation transfer for canopies with horizontal leaves to validate the generalized model. Results from the model are compared with those from the two-stream scheme, and differences between these two models are discussed.
Radiative transfer during the reflooding step of a LOCA
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Within the evaluation of the heat transfer downstream a quench front during the reflood phase of a Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) in a nuclear power plant, a numerical study has been conducted on radiative transfer through a vapor–droplet medium. The non-grey behavior of the medium is obvious since it can be optically thin or thick depending on the wavelength. A six wide bands model has been tested, providing a satisfactory accuracy for the description of the radiative properties. Once the radiative properties of the medium computed, they have been introduced in a model solving the radiative heat transfer based on the Improved Differential Approximation. The fluxes and the flux divergence have been computed on a geometry characteristic of the reactor core showing that radiative transfer plays a relevant role, quite as important as convective heat transfer. -- Highlights: ► Radiation during a Loss of Coolant Accident in a nuclear reactor is studied. ► Radiative transfer is involved in a high temperature vapor–droplet mixing. ► RTE is solved in a 3D configuration using an IDA-T4 method. ► Flux and flux divergence are computed in various situations. ► The effects of quadrature and spectral resolution are discussed
Radiative transfer model for remote sensing of suspended sediments in water
Ghovanlou, A. H.; Gupta, J. N.; Henderson, R. G.; Poole, L.
1978-01-01
A Monte Carlo simulation model of radiative transfer in turbid water is discussed. The model can be used to calculate characteristics of the backscattered signal from an illuminated body of water as a function of the turbidity level and spectral properties of the suspended particulates. The dependence of remote sensing applications on the concentration and spectral properties of sediments in the environmental waters is considered in terms of the model. Attention is directed to the effects of various inputs for the volume-scattering function on backscattered radiance from natural waters. The wavelength dependence of single scattering albedo is investigated.
Li, Changping
2014-11-10
In this report, we propose a fast numerical solution for the steady state radiative transfer equation in order to calculate the path loss due to light absorption and scattering in various type of underwater channels. In the proposed scheme, we apply a direct non-uniform method to discretize the angular space and an upwind type finite difference method to discretize the spatial space. A Gauss-Seidel iterative method is then applied to solve the fully discretized system of linear equations. The accuracy and efficiency of the proposed scheme is validated by Monte Carlo simulations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
To establish a theoretical framework for generalizing Monte Carlo transport algorithms by adding external electromagnetic fields to the Boltzmann radiation transport equation in a rigorous and consistent fashion. Using first principles, the Boltzmann radiation transport equation is modified by adding a term describing the variation of the particle distribution due to the Lorentz force. The implications of this new equation are evaluated by investigating the validity of Fano’s theorem. Additionally, Lewis’ approach to multiple scattering theory in infinite homogeneous media is redefined to account for the presence of external electromagnetic fields. The equation is modified and yields a description consistent with the deterministic laws of motion as well as probabilistic methods of solution. The time-independent Boltzmann radiation transport equation is generalized to account for the electromagnetic forces in an additional operator similar to the interaction term. Fano’s and Lewis’ approaches are stated in this new equation. Fano’s theorem is found not to apply in the presence of electromagnetic fields. Lewis’ theory for electron multiple scattering and moments, accounting for the coupling between the Lorentz force and multiple elastic scattering, is found. However, further investigation is required to develop useful algorithms for Monte Carlo and deterministic transport methods. To test the accuracy of Monte Carlo transport algorithms in the presence of electromagnetic fields, the Fano cavity test, as currently defined, cannot be applied. Therefore, new tests must be designed for this specific application. A multiple scattering theory that accurately couples the Lorentz force with elastic scattering could improve Monte Carlo efficiency. The present study proposes a new theoretical framework to develop such algorithms. (paper)
Bouchard, Hugo; Bielajew, Alex
2015-07-01
To establish a theoretical framework for generalizing Monte Carlo transport algorithms by adding external electromagnetic fields to the Boltzmann radiation transport equation in a rigorous and consistent fashion. Using first principles, the Boltzmann radiation transport equation is modified by adding a term describing the variation of the particle distribution due to the Lorentz force. The implications of this new equation are evaluated by investigating the validity of Fano’s theorem. Additionally, Lewis’ approach to multiple scattering theory in infinite homogeneous media is redefined to account for the presence of external electromagnetic fields. The equation is modified and yields a description consistent with the deterministic laws of motion as well as probabilistic methods of solution. The time-independent Boltzmann radiation transport equation is generalized to account for the electromagnetic forces in an additional operator similar to the interaction term. Fano’s and Lewis’ approaches are stated in this new equation. Fano’s theorem is found not to apply in the presence of electromagnetic fields. Lewis’ theory for electron multiple scattering and moments, accounting for the coupling between the Lorentz force and multiple elastic scattering, is found. However, further investigation is required to develop useful algorithms for Monte Carlo and deterministic transport methods. To test the accuracy of Monte Carlo transport algorithms in the presence of electromagnetic fields, the Fano cavity test, as currently defined, cannot be applied. Therefore, new tests must be designed for this specific application. A multiple scattering theory that accurately couples the Lorentz force with elastic scattering could improve Monte Carlo efficiency. The present study proposes a new theoretical framework to develop such algorithms.
Testing quasar unification: radiative transfer in clumpy winds
Matthews, J. H.; Knigge, C.; Long, K. S.; Sim, S. A.; Higginbottom, N.; Mangham, S. W.
2016-05-01
Various unification schemes interpret the complex phenomenology of quasars and luminous active galactic nuclei (AGN) in terms of a simple picture involving a central black hole, an accretion disc and an associated outflow. Here, we continue our tests of this paradigm by comparing quasar spectra to synthetic spectra of biconical disc wind models, produced with our state-of-the-art Monte Carlo radiative transfer code. Previously, we have shown that we could produce synthetic spectra resembling those of observed broad absorption line (BAL) quasars, but only if the X-ray luminosity was limited to 1043 erg s-1. Here, we introduce a simple treatment of clumping, and find that a filling factor of ˜0.01 moderates the ionization state sufficiently for BAL features to form in the rest-frame UV at more realistic X-ray luminosities. Our fiducial model shows good agreement with AGN X-ray properties and the wind produces strong line emission in, e.g., Lyα and C IV 1550 Å at low inclinations. At high inclinations, the spectra possess prominent LoBAL features. Despite these successes, we cannot reproduce all emission lines seen in quasar spectra with the correct equivalent-width ratios, and we find an angular dependence of emission line equivalent width despite the similarities in the observed emission line properties of BAL and non-BAL quasars. Overall, our work suggests that biconical winds can reproduce much of the qualitative behaviour expected from a unified model, but we cannot yet provide quantitative matches with quasar properties at all viewing angles. Whether disc winds can successfully unify quasars is therefore still an open question.
Ultraviolet Radiative Transfer Modeling of Nearby Galaxies with Extraplanar Dusts
Shinn, Jong-Ho; Seon, Kwang-Il
2015-12-01
In order to examine their relation to the host galaxy, the extraplanar dusts of six nearby galaxies are modeled, employing a three-dimensional Monte Carlo radiative transfer code. The targets are from the highly inclined galaxies that show dust-scattered ultraviolet halos, and the archival Galaxy Evolution Explorer FUV band images were fitted with the model. The observed images are generally well-reproduced by two dust layers and one light source layer, whose vertical and radial distributions have exponential profiles. We obtained several important physical parameters, such as star formation rate (SFRUV), face-on optical depth, and scale-heights. Three galaxies (NGC 891, NGC 3628, and UGC 11794) show clear evidence for the existence of an extraplanar dust layer. However, it is found that the remaining three targets (IC 5249, NGC 24, and NGC 4173) do not necessarily need a thick dust disk to model the ultraviolet (UV) halo, because its contribution is too small and the UV halo may be caused by the wing part of the GALEX point spread function. This indicates that the galaxy samples reported to have UV halos may be contaminated by galaxies with negligible extraplanar (halo) dust. The galaxies showing evidence of an extraplanar dust layer fall within a narrow range on the scatter plots between physical parameters such as SFRUV and extraplanar dust mass. Several mechanisms that could possibly produce the extraplanar dust are discussed. We also found a hint that the extraplanar dust scale-height might not be much different from the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission characteristic height.
Zhang, Yong; Yi, Hong-Liang; Tan, He-Ping
2013-05-01
This paper develops a numerical solution to the radiative heat transfer problem coupled with conduction in an absorbing, emitting and isotropically scattering medium with the irregular geometries using the natural element method (NEM). The walls of the enclosures, having temperature and mixed boundary conditions, are considered to be opaque, diffuse as well as gray. The NEM as a meshless method is a new numerical scheme in the field of computational mechanics. Different from most of other meshless methods such as element-free Galerkin method or those based on radial basis functions, the shape functions used in NEM are constructed by the natural neighbor interpolations, which are strictly interpolant and the essential boundary conditions can be imposed directly. The natural element solutions in dealing with the coupled heat transfer problem for the mixed boundary conditions have been validated by comparison with those from Monte Carlo method (MCM) generated by the authors. For the validation of the NEM solution to radiative heat transfer in the semicircular medium with an inner circle, the results by NEM have been compared with those reported in the literatures. For pure radiative transfer, the upwind scheme is employed to overcome the oscillatory behavior of the solutions in some conditions. The steady state and transient heat transfer problem combined with radiation and conduction in the semicircular enclosure with an inner circle are studied. Effects of various parameters such as the extinction coefficient, the scattering albedo, the conduction-radiation parameter and the boundary emissivity are analyzed on the radiative and conductive heat fluxes and transient temperature distributions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The most dental imaging is performed by means a imaging system consisting of a film/screen combination. Fluorescent intensifying screens for X-ray films are used in order to reduce the radiation dose. They produce visible light which increases the efficiency of the film. In addition, the primary radiation can be scattered elastically (Rayleigh scattering) and inelastically (Compton scattering) which will degrade the image resolution. Scattered radiation produced in Gd2O2S:Tb intensifying screens was simulated by using a Monte Carlo radiation transport code - the EGS4. The magnitude of scattered radiation striking the film is typically quantified using the scatter to primary radiation and the scatter fraction. The angular distribution of the intensity of the scattered radiation (sum of both the scattering effects) was simulated, showing that the ratio of secondary-to-primary radiation incident on the X-ray film is about 5.67% and 3.28 % and the scatter function is about 5.27% and 3.18% for the front and back screen, respectively, over the range from 0 to π rad. (author)
grtrans: Polarized general relativistic radiative transfer via ray tracing
Dexter, Jason
2016-05-01
grtrans calculates ray tracing radiative transfer in the Kerr metric, including the full treatment of polarised radiative transfer and parallel transport along geodesics, for comparing theoretical models of black hole accretion flows and jets with observations. The code is written in Fortran 90 and parallelizes with OpenMP; the full code and several components have Python interfaces. grtrans includes Geokerr (ascl:1011.015) and requires cfitsio (ascl:1010.001) and pyfits (ascl:1207.009).
Using hybrid implicit Monte Carlo diffusion to simulate gray radiation hydrodynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cleveland, Mathew A., E-mail: cleveland7@llnl.gov; Gentile, Nick
2015-06-15
This work describes how to couple a hybrid Implicit Monte Carlo Diffusion (HIMCD) method with a Lagrangian hydrodynamics code to evaluate the coupled radiation hydrodynamics equations. This HIMCD method dynamically applies Implicit Monte Carlo Diffusion (IMD) [1] to regions of a problem that are opaque and diffusive while applying standard Implicit Monte Carlo (IMC) [2] to regions where the diffusion approximation is invalid. We show that this method significantly improves the computational efficiency as compared to a standard IMC/Hydrodynamics solver, when optically thick diffusive material is present, while maintaining accuracy. Two test cases are used to demonstrate the accuracy and performance of HIMCD as compared to IMC and IMD. The first is the Lowrie semi-analytic diffusive shock [3]. The second is a simple test case where the source radiation streams through optically thin material and heats a thick diffusive region of material causing it to rapidly expand. We found that HIMCD proves to be accurate, robust, and computationally efficient for these test problems.
Using hybrid implicit Monte Carlo diffusion to simulate gray radiation hydrodynamics
Cleveland, Mathew A.; Gentile, Nick
2015-06-01
This work describes how to couple a hybrid Implicit Monte Carlo Diffusion (HIMCD) method with a Lagrangian hydrodynamics code to evaluate the coupled radiation hydrodynamics equations. This HIMCD method dynamically applies Implicit Monte Carlo Diffusion (IMD) [1] to regions of a problem that are opaque and diffusive while applying standard Implicit Monte Carlo (IMC) [2] to regions where the diffusion approximation is invalid. We show that this method significantly improves the computational efficiency as compared to a standard IMC/Hydrodynamics solver, when optically thick diffusive material is present, while maintaining accuracy. Two test cases are used to demonstrate the accuracy and performance of HIMCD as compared to IMC and IMD. The first is the Lowrie semi-analytic diffusive shock [3]. The second is a simple test case where the source radiation streams through optically thin material and heats a thick diffusive region of material causing it to rapidly expand. We found that HIMCD proves to be accurate, robust, and computationally efficient for these test problems.
Using hybrid implicit Monte Carlo diffusion to simulate gray radiation hydrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This work describes how to couple a hybrid Implicit Monte Carlo Diffusion (HIMCD) method with a Lagrangian hydrodynamics code to evaluate the coupled radiation hydrodynamics equations. This HIMCD method dynamically applies Implicit Monte Carlo Diffusion (IMD) [1] to regions of a problem that are opaque and diffusive while applying standard Implicit Monte Carlo (IMC) [2] to regions where the diffusion approximation is invalid. We show that this method significantly improves the computational efficiency as compared to a standard IMC/Hydrodynamics solver, when optically thick diffusive material is present, while maintaining accuracy. Two test cases are used to demonstrate the accuracy and performance of HIMCD as compared to IMC and IMD. The first is the Lowrie semi-analytic diffusive shock [3]. The second is a simple test case where the source radiation streams through optically thin material and heats a thick diffusive region of material causing it to rapidly expand. We found that HIMCD proves to be accurate, robust, and computationally efficient for these test problems
Minimizing the cost of splitting in Monte Carlo radiation transport simulation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Juzaitis, R.J.
1980-10-01
A deterministic analysis of the computational cost associated with geometric splitting/Russian roulette in Monte Carlo radiation transport calculations is presented. Appropriate integro-differential equations are developed for the first and second moments of the Monte Carlo tally as well as time per particle history, given that splitting with Russian roulette takes place at one (or several) internal surfaces of the geometry. The equations are solved using a standard S/sub n/ (discrete ordinates) solution technique, allowing for the prediction of computer cost (formulated as the product of sample variance and time per particle history, sigma/sup 2//sub s/tau p) associated with a given set of splitting parameters. Optimum splitting surface locations and splitting ratios are determined. Benefits of such an analysis are particularly noteworthy for transport problems in which splitting is apt to be extensively employed (e.g., deep penetration calculations).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A numerical study for effective implementation of the antithetic variates technique with geometric splitting/Russian roulette in Monte Carlo radiation transport calculations is presented. The study is based on the theory of Monte Carlo errors where a set of coupled integral equations are solved for the first and second moments of the score and for the expected number of flights per particle history. Numerical results are obtained for particle transmission through an infinite homogeneous slab shield composed of an isotropically scattering medium. Two types of antithetic transformations are considered. The results indicate that the antithetic transformations always lead to reduction in variance and increase in efficiency provided optimal antithetic parameters are chosen. A substantial gain in efficiency is obtained by incorporating antithetic transformations in rule of thumb splitting. The advantage gained for thick slabs (∼20 mfp) with low scattering probability (0.1-0.5) is attractively large . (author). 27 refs., 9 tabs
Pandya, Tara M.; Johnson, Seth R.; Evans, Thomas M.; Davidson, Gregory G.; Hamilton, Steven P.; Godfrey, Andrew T.
2016-03-01
This work discusses the implementation, capabilities, and validation of Shift, a massively parallel Monte Carlo radiation transport package authored at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Shift has been developed to scale well from laptops to small computing clusters to advanced supercomputers and includes features such as support for multiple geometry and physics engines, hybrid capabilities for variance reduction methods such as the Consistent Adjoint-Driven Importance Sampling methodology, advanced parallel decompositions, and tally methods optimized for scalability on supercomputing architectures. The scaling studies presented in this paper demonstrate good weak and strong scaling behavior for the implemented algorithms. Shift has also been validated and verified against various reactor physics benchmarks, including the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors' Virtual Environment for Reactor Analysis criticality test suite and several Westinghouse AP1000® problems presented in this paper. These benchmark results compare well to those from other contemporary Monte Carlo codes such as MCNP5 and KENO.
Minimizing the cost of splitting in Monte Carlo radiation transport simulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A deterministic analysis of the computational cost associated with geometric splitting/Russian roulette in Monte Carlo radiation transport calculations is presented. Appropriate integro-differential equations are developed for the first and second moments of the Monte Carlo tally as well as time per particle history, given that splitting with Russian roulette takes place at one (or several) internal surfaces of the geometry. The equations are solved using a standard S/sub n/ (discrete ordinates) solution technique, allowing for the prediction of computer cost (formulated as the product of sample variance and time per particle history, sigma2/sub s/tau p) associated with a given set of splitting parameters. Optimum splitting surface locations and splitting ratios are determined. Benefits of such an analysis are particularly noteworthy for transport problems in which splitting is apt to be extensively employed
An object-oriented implementation of a parallel Monte Carlo code for radiation transport
Santos, Pedro Duarte; Lani, Andrea
2016-05-01
This paper describes the main features of a state-of-the-art Monte Carlo solver for radiation transport which has been implemented within COOLFluiD, a world-class open source object-oriented platform for scientific simulations. The Monte Carlo code makes use of efficient ray tracing algorithms (for 2D, axisymmetric and 3D arbitrary unstructured meshes) which are described in detail. The solver accuracy is first verified in testcases for which analytical solutions are available, then validated for a space re-entry flight experiment (i.e. FIRE II) for which comparisons against both experiments and reference numerical solutions are provided. Through the flexible design of the physical models, ray tracing and parallelization strategy (fully reusing the mesh decomposition inherited by the fluid simulator), the implementation was made efficient and reusable.
General Relativistic Radiative Transfer: Applications to Black-Hole Systems
Wu, Kinwah; Fuerst, Steven V.; Mizuno, Yosuke; Nishikawa, Ken-Ichi; Branduardi-Raymont, Graziella; Lee, Khee-Gan
2007-01-01
We present general relativistic radiation transfer formulations which include opacity effects due to absorption, emission and scattering explicitly. We consider a moment expansions for the transfer in the presence of scattering. The formulation is applied to calculation emissions from accretion and outflows in black-hole systems. Cases with thin accretion disks and accretion tori are considered. Effects, such as emission anisotropy, non-stationary flows and geometrical self-occultation are investigated. Polarisation transfer in curved space-time is discussed qualitatively.
Surface-Phonon Polariton Contribution to Nanoscale Radiative Heat Transfer.
Rousseau, Emmanuel; Laroche, Marine; Greffet, Jean-Jacques
2009-01-01
Heat transfer between two plates of polar materials at nanoscale distance is known to be enhanced by several orders of magnitude as compared with its far-field value. In this article, we show that nanoscale heat transfer is dominated by the coupling between surface phonon-polaritons located on each interface. Furthermore, we derive an asymptotic closed-form expression of the radiative heat transfer between two polar materials in the near-field regime. We study the temperature dependence of th...
Monte-Carlo studies of radiation damage in the first wall caused by fusion neutron
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Monte-Carlo Neutron Transport Program and Neutron Radiation Damage Program are presented for studying radiation damage in the First Wall. The programs are used to static multi-component amorphous target. With the average wall load 1 MW/m2, the following calculating results for EHR first wall (type 316 stainless steel) have been performed by using designed neutron spectrums at EHR first wall: the PKA energy spectrums (30 eV to 1 MeV), average displacement per atom rate (20.6 dpa/a) and average helium and hydrogen production rates (247.18 appm/a and 721.15 appm/a). It shows that Hybrid Reactor's radiation damage is more serious than pure Fusion reactor's by comparison of above results and EHP's calculated results in the same wall load. the cross-section data from MC (87) n library is used in the calculation
Monte Carlo simulations of ultra high vacuum and synchrotron radiation for particle accelerators
AUTHOR|(CDS)2082330; Leonid, Rivkin
With preparation of Hi-Lumi LHC fully underway, and the FCC machines under study, accelerators will reach unprecedented energies and along with it very large amount of synchrotron radiation (SR). This will desorb photoelectrons and molecules from accelerator walls, which contribute to electron cloud buildup and increase the residual pressure - both effects reducing the beam lifetime. In current accelerators these two effects are among the principal limiting factors, therefore precise calculation of synchrotron radiation and pressure properties are very important, desirably in the early design phase. This PhD project shows the modernization and a major upgrade of two codes, Molflow and Synrad, originally written by R. Kersevan in the 1990s, which are based on the test-particle Monte Carlo method and allow ultra-high vacuum and synchrotron radiation calculations. The new versions contain new physics, and are built as an all-in-one package - available to the public. Existing vacuum calculation methods are overvi...
Radiation curable compositions useful as transfer coatings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The invention is on a method for applying a coating to a thin porous substrate and reducing absorption of the coating into the substrate by applying a radiation-curable composition to a carrying web; the radiation-curable coating composition having a crosslink density of 0.02 to about 1.0 determined by calculation of the gram moles of branch points per 100 grams of uncured coating, and a glass transition temperature of the radiation cured coating within the approximate range of -80 degrees to +100 degrees C. The carrying web being of a nature such that the coating composition, when cured, will not adhere to its surface
A combination of Monte Carlo and transfer matrix methods to study 2D and 3D percolation
Saleur, H.; Derrida, B.
1985-01-01
In this paper we develop a method which combines the transfer matrix and the Monte Carlo methods to study the problem of site percolation in 2 and 3 dimensions. We use this method to calculate the properties of strips (2D) and bars (3D). Using a finite size scaling analysis, we obtain estimates of the threshold and of the exponents which confirm values already known. We discuss the advantages and the limitations of our method by comparing it with usual Monte Carlo calculations.
A combination of Monte Carlo and transfer matrix methods to study 2D and 3D percolation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper we develop a method which combines the transfer matrix and the Monte Carlo methods to study the problem of site percolation in 2 and 3 dimensions. We use this method to calculate the properties of strips (2D) and bars (3D). Using a finite size scaling analysis, we obtain estimates of the threshold and of the exponents wich confirm values already known. We discuss the advantages and the limitations of our method by comparing it with usual Monte Carlo calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
At the ENEA (Ente Nazionale per le Nuove Technologie l'Energia e l'Ambiente) Institute of Bologna (Italy) many years of various activities have been carried out in the field of experimental dosimetry and radiation protection. As far as the external radiation monitoring is concerned, these activities dealt with the design, development and type test of photon personal dosemeters as well as routine reading and control of dosemeters, calibration activities etc. As far as the internal dosimetry activities are concerned a whole body counter (WBC) has been built and used many years both for research activities and for routine assessment of internal doses. The WBC has been extensively used in the recent years, especially after the Chernobyl accident, to assess doses from intake of radioactive nuclides for Italian workers employed in Russia as well as normal population mainly living in the north-eastern Italian areas. In recent years, the necessity of improving the general dose assessment capabilities and to provide accurate field parameters and operational quantities, according to the international recommendations, outlined the importance of coupling experimental work with Monte Carlo radiation transport modelling. The present paper summarizes some studies carried out with Monte Carlo in the framework of the ENEA contribution to the activities of the EURADOS Working Group 4; they are concerned with computations of field parameters and operational quantities for the ICRU sphere with reference photon beams and modelling and calculations for photon internal and external dose assessment with the ADAM anthropomorphic phantom
Review of the Monte Carlo and deterministic codes in radiation protection and dosimetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Modelling a physical system can be carried out either stochastically or deterministically. An example of the former method is the Monte Carlo technique, in which statistically approximate methods are applied to exact models. No transport equation is solved as individual particles are simulated and some specific aspect (tally) of their average behaviour is recorded. The average behaviour of the physical system is then inferred using the central limit theorem. In contrast, deterministic codes use mathematically exact methods that are applied to approximate models to solve the transport equation for the average particle behaviour. The physical system is subdivided in boxes in the phase-space system and particles are followed from one box to the next. The smaller the boxes the better the approximations become. Although the Monte Carlo method has been used for centuries, its more recent manifestation has really emerged from the Manhattan project of the Word War II. Its invention is thought to be mainly due to Metropolis, Ulah (through his interest in poker), Fermi, von Neuman and Richtmeyer. Over the last 20 years or so, the Monte Carlo technique has become a powerful tool in radiation transport. This is due to users taking full advantage of richer cross section data, more powerful computers and Monte Carlo techniques for radiation transport, with high quality physics and better known source spectra. This method is a common sense approach to radiation transport and its success and popularity is quite often also due to necessity, because measurements are not always possible or affordable. In the Monte Carlo method, which is inherently realistic because nature is statistical, a more detailed physics is made possible by isolation of events while rather elaborate geometries can be modelled. Provided that the physics is correct, a simulation is exactly analogous to an experimenter counting particles. In contrast to the deterministic approach, however, a disadvantage of the
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brooks III, E D; Szoke, A; Peterson, J L
2005-11-15
We describe a Monte Carlo solution for time dependent photon transport, in the difference formulation with the material in local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE), that is piecewise linear in its treatment of the material state variable. Our method employs a Galerkin solution for the material energy equation while using Symbolic Implicit Monte Carlo (SIMC) to solve the transport equation. In constructing the scheme, one has the freedom to choose between expanding the material temperature, or the equivalent black body radiation energy density at the material temperature, in terms of finite element basis functions. The former provides a linear treatment of the material energy while the latter provides a linear treatment of the radiative coupling between zones. Subject to the conditional use of a lumped material energy in the vicinity of strong gradients, possible with a linear treatment of the material energy, our approach provides a robust solution for time dependent transport of thermally emitted radiation that can address a wide range of problems. It produces accurate results in the diffusion limit.
Calculation of radiation dose to the lens of the eye using Monte Carlo simulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The radiation dose to the lens of the eye of patients undergoing diagnostic and interventional radiological procedures of the lacrimal drainage system has been calculated using a Monte Carlo technique. The technique has also been suggested for the retrospective estimation of the lens dose; when applied to individual patients, good correlation is obtained. In such study, data is required for image acquisition frame numbers and fluoro on-time, mean exposure values for these parameters, and the ratio of lens-to-air dose (viz. the head factor, HF) derived for a standard adult head
Applying graphics processor units to Monte Carlo dose calculation in radiation therapy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bakhtiari M
2010-01-01
Full Text Available We investigate the potential in using of using a graphics processor unit (GPU for Monte-Carlo (MC-based radiation dose calculations. The percent depth dose (PDD of photons in a medium with known absorption and scattering coefficients is computed using a MC simulation running on both a standard CPU and a GPU. We demonstrate that the GPU′s capability for massive parallel processing provides a significant acceleration in the MC calculation, and offers a significant advantage for distributed stochastic simulations on a single computer. Harnessing this potential of GPUs will help in the early adoption of MC for routine planning in a clinical environment.
An energy transfer method for 4D Monte Carlo dose calculation.
Siebers, Jeffrey V; Zhong, Hualiang
2008-09-01
This article presents a new method for four-dimensional Monte Carlo dose calculations which properly addresses dose mapping for deforming anatomy. The method, called the energy transfer method (ETM), separates the particle transport and particle scoring geometries: Particle transport takes place in the typical rectilinear coordinate system of the source image, while energy deposition scoring takes place in a desired reference image via use of deformable image registration. Dose is the energy deposited per unit mass in the reference image. ETM has been implemented into DOSXYZnrc and compared with a conventional dose interpolation method (DIM) on deformable phantoms. For voxels whose contents merge in the deforming phantom, the doses calculated by ETM are exactly the same as an analytical solution, contrasting to the DIM which has an average 1.1% dose discrepancy in the beam direction with a maximum error of 24.9% found in the penumbra of a 6 MV beam. The DIM error observed persists even if voxel subdivision is used. The ETM is computationally efficient and will be useful for 4D dose addition and benchmarking alternative 4D dose addition algorithms. PMID:18841862
Comparison of linear energy transfer scoring techniques in Monte Carlo simulations of proton beams
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Monte Carlo (MC) simulations are commonly used to study linear energy transfer (LET) distributions in therapeutic proton beams. Various techniques have been used to score LET in MC simulations. The goal of this work was to compare LET distributions obtained using different LET scoring techniques and examine the sensitivity of these distributions to changes in commonly adjusted simulation parameters. We used three different techniques to score average proton LET in TOPAS, which is a MC platform based on the Geant4 simulation toolkit. We determined the sensitivity of each scoring technique to variations in the range production thresholds for secondary electrons and protons. We also compared the depth-LET distributions that we acquired using each technique in a simple monoenergetic proton beam and in a more clinically relevant modulated proton therapy beam. Distributions of both fluence-averaged LET (LETΦ) and dose-averaged LET (LETD) were studied. We found that LETD values varied more between different scoring techniques than the LETΦ values did, and different LET scoring techniques showed different sensitivities to changes in simulation parameters. (note)
Light-Cone Effect of Radiation Fields in Cosmological Radiative Transfer Simulations
Ahn, Kyungjin
2015-01-01
We present a novel method to implement time-delayed propagation of radiation fields in cosmological radiative transfer simulations. Time-delayed propagation of radiation fields requires construction of retarded-time fields by tracking the location and lifetime of radiation sources along the corresponding light-cones. Cosmological radiative transfer simulations have, until now, ignored this "light-cone effect" or implemented ray-tracing methods that are computationally demanding. We show that radiative transfer calculation of the time-delayed fields can be easily achieved in numerical simulations when periodic boundary conditions are used, by calculating the time-discretized retarded-time Green's function using the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) method and convolving it with the source distribution. We also present a direct application of this method to the long-range radiation field of Lyman-Werner band photons, which is important in the high-redshift astrophysics with first stars.
Development of a space radiation Monte Carlo computer simulation based on the FLUKA and ROOT codes.
Pinsky, L S; Wilson, T L; Ferrari, A; Sala, P; Carminati, F; Brun, R
2001-01-01
This NASA funded project is proceeding to develop a Monte Carlo-based computer simulation of the radiation environment in space. With actual funding only initially in place at the end of May 2000, the study is still in the early stage of development. The general tasks have been identified and personnel have been selected. The code to be assembled will be based upon two major existing software packages. The radiation transport simulation will be accomplished by updating the FLUKA Monte Carlo program, and the user interface will employ the ROOT software being developed at CERN. The end-product will be a Monte Carlo-based code which will complement the existing analytic codes such as BRYNTRN/HZETRN presently used by NASA to evaluate the effects of radiation shielding in space. The planned code will possess the ability to evaluate the radiation environment for spacecraft and habitats in Earth orbit, in interplanetary space, on the lunar surface, or on a planetary surface such as Mars. Furthermore, it will be useful in the design and analysis of experiments such as ACCESS (Advanced Cosmic-ray Composition Experiment for Space Station), which is an Office of Space Science payload currently under evaluation for deployment on the International Space Station (ISS). FLUKA will be significantly improved and tailored for use in simulating space radiation in four ways. First, the additional physics not presently within the code that is necessary to simulate the problems of interest, namely the heavy ion inelastic processes, will be incorporated. Second, the internal geometry package will be replaced with one that will substantially increase the calculation speed as well as simplify the data input task. Third, default incident flux packages that include all of the different space radiation sources of interest will be included. Finally, the user interface and internal data structure will be melded together with ROOT, the object-oriented data analysis infrastructure system. Beyond
Peterson, L. E.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Wilson, J. W. (Principal Investigator)
1999-01-01
Estimating uncertainty in lifetime cancer risk for human exposure to space radiation is a unique challenge. Conventional risk assessment with low-linear-energy-transfer (LET)-based risk from Japanese atomic bomb survivor studies may be inappropriate for relativistic protons and nuclei in space due to track structure effects. This paper develops a Monte Carlo mixture model (MCMM) for transferring additive, National Institutes of Health multiplicative, and multiplicative excess cancer incidence risks based on Japanese atomic bomb survivor data to determine excess incidence risk for various US astronaut exposure profiles. The MCMM serves as an anchor point for future risk projection methods involving biophysical models of DNA damage from space radiation. Lifetime incidence risks of radiation-induced cancer for the MCMM based on low-LET Japanese data for nonleukemia (all cancers except leukemia) were 2.77 (90% confidence limit, 0.75-11.34) for males exposed to 1 Sv at age 45 and 2.20 (90% confidence limit, 0.59-10.12) for males exposed at age 55. For females, mixture model risks for nonleukemia exposed separately to 1 Sv at ages of 45 and 55 were 2.98 (90% confidence limit, 0.90-11.70) and 2.44 (90% confidence limit, 0.70-10.30), respectively. Risks for high-LET 200 MeV protons (LET=0.45 keV/micrometer), 1 MeV alpha-particles (LET=100 keV/micrometer), and 600 MeV iron particles (LET=180 keV/micrometer) were scored on a per particle basis by determining the particle fluence required for an average of one particle per cell nucleus of area 100 micrometer(2). Lifetime risk per proton was 2.68x10(-2)% (90% confidence limit, 0.79x10(-3)%-0. 514x10(-2)%). For alpha-particles, lifetime risk was 14.2% (90% confidence limit, 2.5%-31.2%). Conversely, lifetime risk per iron particle was 23.7% (90% confidence limit, 4.5%-53.0%). Uncertainty in the DDREF for high-LET particles may be less than that for low-LET radiation because typically there is very little dose-rate dependence
User's Manual: Routines for Radiative Heat Transfer and Thermometry
Risch, Timothy K.
2016-01-01
Determining the intensity and spectral distribution of radiation emanating from a heated surface has applications in many areas of science and engineering. Areas of research in which the quantification of spectral radiation is used routinely include thermal radiation heat transfer, infrared signature analysis, and radiation thermometry. In the analysis of radiation, it is helpful to be able to predict the radiative intensity and the spectral distribution of the emitted energy. Presented in this report is a set of routines written in Microsoft Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) (Microsoft Corporation, Redmond, Washington) and incorporating functions specific to Microsoft Excel (Microsoft Corporation, Redmond, Washington) that are useful for predicting the radiative behavior of heated surfaces. These routines include functions for calculating quantities of primary importance to engineers and scientists. In addition, the routines also provide the capability to use such information to determine surface temperatures from spectral intensities and for calculating the sensitivity of the surface temperature measurements to unknowns in the input parameters.
Some fundamental considerations of the equation of radiative transfer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The radiation transfer of the vector electromagnetic field was first formulated by Chandrasekhar while deriving the polarization characteristics of a sunlit sky. There are two subtle problems underlying this treatment. The first concerns the crucial identification of a Stokes parameter with the specific intensity of radiation. While both depend on position in 3-D space, the latter has, intrinsic to it, an additional angular dependence defining the flow of the radiation field. How can this inadequacy be remedied without damaging the results obtained heretofore from Chandrasekhar's formalism. The second problem arises from the fact that the radiative transfer equation describes the transport of an incoherent radiation field through space. This, however, seems to contradict the results of the Van Cittert-Zernike-Wolf theorem which implies that an incoherent field develops coherence as it passes through free space implying, of course, that the radiative transfer equation must involve not incoherent but partially coherent fields. The vector transfer equation of the direct beam (Beer's law) is derived from first principles. The analysis of this equation provides a satisfactory resolution of these two problems. The result also shows that the Beer's law will have to be modified to a matrix law to accommodate systems that are not spherically symmetric. 13 references
ART^2 : Coupling Lyman-alpha Line and Multi-wavelength Continuum Radiative Transfer
Yajima, Hidenobu; Zhu, Qirong; Abel, Tom
2011-01-01
Narrow-band Lya line and broad-band continuum have played important roles in the discovery of high-redshift galaxies in recent years. Hence, it is crucial to study the radiative transfer of both Lya and continuum photons in the context of galaxy formation and evolution in order to understand the nature of distant galaxies. Here, we present a three-dimensional Monte Carlo radiative transfer code, All-wavelength Radiative Transfer with Adaptive Refinement Tree (ART^2), which couples Lya line and multi-wavelength continuum, for the study of panchromatic properties of galaxies and interstellar medium. This code is based on the original version of Li et al., and features three essential modules: continuum emission from X-ray to radio, Lya emission from both recombination and collisional excitation, and ionization of neutral hydrogen. The coupling of these three modules, together with an adaptive refinement grid, enables a self-consistent and accurate calculation of the Lya properties. As an example, we apply ART^2...
Radiation transport in random disperse media implemented in the Monte Carlo code PRIZMA
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The paper describes PRIZMA capabilities for modeling radiation transport in random disperse media by the Monte Carlo method. It proposes a method for simulating radiation transport in binary media with variable volume fractions. The method models the medium consequently from one grain crossed by a particle trajectory to another. Like in the Limited Chord Length Sampling (LCLS) method, particles in grains are tracked in the actual grain geometry, but unlike LCLS, the medium is modeled using only Matrix Chord Length Sampling (MCLS) from the exponential distribution and it is not necessary to know the grain chord length distribution. This helped us extend the method to media with randomly oriented, arbitrarily shaped convex grains. Other extensions include multicomponent media - grains of several sorts, and polydisperse media - grains of different sizes
Monte Carlo calculations applied to NRU reactor and radiation physics analyses
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nguyen, T.S.; Wilkin, G.B., E-mail: nguyens@aecl.ca [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)
2012-12-15
The statistical MCNP (Monte Carlo N-Particle) code has been satisfactorily used for reactor and radiation physics calculations to support NRU operation and analysis. MCNP enables 3D modeling of the reactor and its components in great detail, the transport calculation of photons (in addition to neutrons), and the capability to model all locations in space, which are beyond the capabilities of the deterministic neutronics methods used for NRU. While the simple single-cell model is efficient for local analysis in any site of NRU, the complex full-reactor model is required for calculations of the core physics and beyond-the-core radiation. By supplementing, adjusting or benchmarking the results from the existing NRU codes, the MCNP calculations provide greater confidence that NRU remains within the licence envelope. (author)
Monte Carlo calculations applied to NRU reactor and radiation physics analyses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The statistical MCNP (Monte Carlo N-Particle) code has been satisfactorily used for reactor and radiation physics calculations to support NRU operation and analysis. MCNP enables 3D modeling of the reactor and its components in great detail, the transport calculation of photons (in addition to neutrons), and the capability to model all locations in space, which are beyond the capabilities of the deterministic neutronics methods used for NRU. While the simple single-cell model is efficient for local analysis in any site of NRU, the complex full-reactor model is required for calculations of the core physics and beyond-the-core radiation. By supplementing, adjusting or benchmarking the results from the existing NRU codes, the MCNP calculations provide greater confidence that NRU remains within the licence envelope. (author)
Vectorization and parallelization of Monte-Carlo programs for calculation of radiation transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The versatile MCNP-3B Monte-Carlo code written in FORTRAN77, for simulation of the radiation transport of neutral particles, has been subjected to vectorization and parallelization of essential parts, without touching its versatility. Vectorization is not dependent on a specific computer. Several sample tasks have been selected in order to test the vectorized MCNP-3B code in comparison to the scalar MNCP-3B code. The samples are a representative example of the 3-D calculations to be performed for simulation of radiation transport in neutron and reactor physics. (1) 4πneutron detector. (2) High-energy calorimeter. (3) PROTEUS benchmark (conversion rates and neutron multiplication factors for the HCLWR (High Conversion Light Water Reactor)). (orig./HP)
An EGS4 Monte Carlo user code for radiation therapy planning
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
An EGS4 Monte Carlo user code (the UCRTP code) with voxel geometry has been developed as a prototype of the dose calculation engine for radiation therapy planning. A series of dose calculations for photon beam irradiation to a simplified heterogenous voxel phantom of a lung cancer patient has shown that significant build-up in lung tumor and build-down in surrounding normal lung tissue region exist due to the heterogeneity of the media and small field size. Most of the heterogeneity correction algorithms employed by the current commercial treatment planning systems are not satisfactory enough to account for the build-up/down. Since the commercial systems may significantly underestimate the dose in normal lung tissues, sufficient verification and quality assurance of the radiation therapy planning is needed especially in the lung cancer treatment. (author)
Event-by-event Monte Carlo simulation of radiation transport in vapor and liquid water
Papamichael, Georgios Ioannis
A Monte-Carlo Simulation is presented for Radiation Transport in water. This process is of utmost importance, having applications in oncology and therapy of cancer, in protecting people and the environment, waste management, radiation chemistry and on some solid-state detectors. It's also a phenomenon of interest in microelectronics on satellites in orbit that are subject to the solar radiation and in space-craft design for deep-space missions receiving background radiation. The interaction of charged particles with the medium is primarily due to their electromagnetic field. Three types of interaction events are considered: Elastic scattering, impact excitation and impact ionization. Secondary particles (electrons) can be generated by ionization. At each stage, along with the primary particle we explicitly follow all secondary electrons (and subsequent generations). Theoretical, semi-empirical and experimental formulae with suitable corrections have been used in each case to model the cross sections governing the quantum mechanical process of interactions, thus determining stochastically the energy and direction of outgoing particles following an event. Monte-Carlo sampling techniques have been applied to accurate probability distribution functions describing the primary particle track and all secondary particle-medium interaction. A simple account of the simulation code and a critical exposition of its underlying assumptions (often missing in the relevant literature) are also presented with reference to the model cross sections. Model predictions are in good agreement with existing computational data and experimental results. By relying heavily on a theoretical formulation, instead of merely fitting data, it is hoped that the model will be of value in a wider range of applications. Possible future directions that are the object of further research are pointed out.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Contrast-enhanced stereotactic synchrotron radiation therapy (SSRT) is an innovative technique based on localized dose-enhancement effects obtained by reinforced photoelectric absorption in the tumor. Medium energy monochromatic X-rays (50 - 100 keV) are used for irradiating tumors previously loaded with a high-Z element. Clinical trials of SSRT are being prepared at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), an iodinated contrast agent will be used. In order to compute the energy deposited in the patient (dose), a dedicated treatment planning system (TPS) has been developed for the clinical trials, based on the ISOgray TPS. This work focuses on the SSRT specific modifications of the TPS, especially to the PENELOPE-based Monte Carlo dose engine. The TPS uses a dedicated Monte Carlo simulation of medium energy polarized photons to compute the deposited energy in the patient. Simulations are performed considering the synchrotron source, the modeled beamline geometry and finally the patient. Specific materials were also implemented in the voxelized geometry of the patient, to consider iodine concentrations in the tumor. The computation process has been optimized and parallelized. Finally a specific computation of absolute doses and associated irradiation times (instead of monitor units) was implemented. The dedicated TPS was validated with depth dose curves, dose profiles and absolute dose measurements performed at the ESRF in a water tank and solid water phantoms with or without bone slabs. (author)
A Simplified Scheme of the Generalized Layered Radiative Transfer Model
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2007-01-01
In this paper, firstly, a simplified version (SGRTM) of the generalized layered radiative transfer model (GRTM) within the canopy, developed by us, is presented. It reduces the information requirement of inputted sky diffuse radiation, as well as of canopy morphology, and in turn saves computer resources. Results from the SGRTM agree perfectly with those of the GRTM. Secondly, by applying the linear superposition principle of the optics and by using the basic solutions of the GRTM for radiative transfer within the canopy under the condition of assumed zero soil reflectance, two sets of explicit analytical solutions of radiative transfer within the canopy with any soil reflectance magnitude are derived: one for incident diffuse, and the other for direct beam radiation. The explicit analytical solutions need two sets of basic solutions of canopy reflectance and transmittance under zero soil reflectance, run by the model for both diffuse and direct beam radiation. One set of basic solutions is the canopy reflectance αf (written as α1 for direct beam radiation) and transmittance βf (written as β1 for direction beam radiation) with zero soil reflectance for the downward radiation from above the canopy (i.e. sky), and the other set is the canopy reflectance (αb) and transmittanceβb for the upward radiation from below the canopy (i.e., ground). Under the condition of the same plant architecture in the vertical layers, and the same leaf adaxial and abaxial optical properties in the canopies for the uniform diffuse radiation, the explicit solutions need only one set of basic solutions, because under this condition the two basic solutions are equal, i.e., αf = αb and βf = βb. Using the explicit analytical solutions, the fractions of any kind of incident solar radiation reflected from (defined as surface albedo, or canopy reflectance),transmitted through (defined as canopy transmittance), and absorbed by (defined as canopy absorptance)the canopy and other properties
Role of radiative transfer in spectral line shapes from plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Radiative transfer has a part in plasma basic properties as in spectroscopic results wanted for diagnostic purposes. Here, we review the main problems encountered in radiative transfer calculations: symmetry of the medium, frequency redistribution inside the line profiles, coupling with excitation and ionization, effect of density and temperature steep gradients. We discuss the meaning of the various approximations used for solving these problems and the limits of their applications, especially in the case of hot dense plasmas. From experimental results obtained with laser-produced plasmas, we show that radiative transfer calculation may account for line broadening, profile asymmetry, line splitting, when plasma features like density and temperature inhomogeneity and hydrodynamical ion expansion are introduced
Cubillos, Patricio; Harrington, Joseph; Blecic, Jasmina; Stemm, Madison M.; Lust, Nate B.; Foster, Andrew S.; Rojo, Patricio M.; Loredo, Thomas J.
2014-11-01
Multi-wavelength secondary-eclipse and transit depths probe the thermo-chemical properties of exoplanets. In recent years, several research groups have developed retrieval codes to analyze the existing data and study the prospects of future facilities. However, the scientific community has limited access to these packages. Here we premiere the open-source Bayesian Atmospheric Radiative Transfer (BART) code. We discuss the key aspects of the radiative-transfer algorithm and the statistical package. The radiation code includes line databases for all HITRAN molecules, high-temperature H2O, TiO, and VO, and includes a preprocessor for adding additional line databases without recompiling the radiation code. Collision-induced absorption lines are available for H2-H2 and H2-He. The parameterized thermal and molecular abundance profiles can be modified arbitrarily without recompilation. The generated spectra are integrated over arbitrary bandpasses for comparison to data. BART's statistical package, Multi-core Markov-chain Monte Carlo (MC3), is a general-purpose MCMC module. MC3 implements the Differental-evolution Markov-chain Monte Carlo algorithm (ter Braak 2006, 2009). MC3 converges 20-400 times faster than the usual Metropolis-Hastings MCMC algorithm, and in addition uses the Message Passing Interface (MPI) to parallelize the MCMC chains. We apply the BART retrieval code to the HD 209458b data set to estimate the planet's temperature profile and molecular abundances. This work was supported by NASA Planetary Atmospheres grant NNX12AI69G and NASA Astrophysics Data Analysis Program grant NNX13AF38G. JB holds a NASA Earth and Space Science Fellowship.
Barlakas, Vasileios; Macke, Andreas; Wendisch, Manfred
2016-07-01
Non-spherical particles in the atmosphere absorb and scatter solar radiation. They change the polarization state of solar radiation depending on their shape, size, chemical composition and orientation. To quantify polarization effects, a new three-dimensional (3D) vector radiative transfer model, SPARTA (Solver for Polarized Atmospheric Radiative Transfer Applications) is introduced and validated against benchmark results. SPARTA employs the statistical forward Monte Carlo technique for efficient column-response pixel-based radiance calculations including polarization for 3D inhomogeneous cloudless and cloudy atmospheres. A sensitivity study has been carried out and exemplarily results are presented for two lidar-based mineral dust fields. The scattering and absorption properties of the dust particles have been computed for spheroids and irregular shaped particles. Polarized radiance fields in two-dimensional (2D) and one-dimensional (1D) inhomogeneous Saharan dust fields have been calculated at 532 nm wavelength. The domain-averaged results of the normalized reflected radiance are almost identical for the 1D and 2D modes. In the areas with large spatial gradient in optical thickness with expected significant horizontal photon transport, the radiance fields of the 2D mode differ by about ±12% for the first Stokes component (radiance, I) and ±8% for the second Stokes component (linear polarization, Q) from the fields of the 1D mode.
Sun, Wenjun; Jiang, Song; Xu, Kun; Li, Shu
2015-12-01
This paper presents an extension of previous work (Sun et al., 2015 [22]) of the unified gas kinetic scheme (UGKS) for the gray radiative transfer equations to the frequency-dependent (multi-group) radiative transfer system. Different from the gray radiative transfer equations, where the optical opacity is only a function of local material temperature, the simulation of frequency-dependent radiative transfer is associated with additional difficulties from the frequency-dependent opacity. For the multiple frequency radiation, the opacity depends on both the spatial location and the frequency. For example, the opacity is typically a decreasing function of frequency. At the same spatial region the transport physics can be optically thick for the low frequency photons, and optically thin for high frequency ones. Therefore, the optical thickness is not a simple function of space location. In this paper, the UGKS for frequency-dependent radiative system is developed. The UGKS is a finite volume method and the transport physics is modeled according to the ratio of the cell size to the photon's frequency-dependent mean free path. When the cell size is much larger than the photon's mean free path, a diffusion solution for such a frequency radiation will be obtained. On the other hand, when the cell size is much smaller than the photon's mean free path, a free transport mechanism will be recovered. In the regime between the above two limits, with the variation of the ratio between the local cell size and photon's mean free path, the UGKS provides a smooth transition in the physical and frequency space to capture the corresponding transport physics accurately. The seemingly straightforward extension of the UGKS from the gray to multiple frequency radiation system is due to its intrinsic consistent multiple scale transport modeling, but it still involves lots of work to properly discretize the multiple groups in order to design an asymptotic preserving (AP) scheme in all
A 3D radiative transfer framework: III. periodic boundary conditions
Hauschildt, Peter H.; Baron, E.
2008-01-01
We present a general method to solve radiative transfer problems including scattering in the continuum as well as in lines in 3D configurations with periodic boundary conditions. he scattering problem for line transfer is solved via means of an operator splitting (OS) technique. The formal solution is based on a full characteristics method. The approximate $\\Lambda$ operator is constructed considering nearest neighbors exactly. The code is parallelized over both wavelength and solid angle usi...
Radiative heat transfer between nanoparticles enhanced by intermediate particle
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Yanhong; Wu, Jingzhi, E-mail: jzwu@live.nuc.edu.cn [Science and Technology on Electronic Test and Measurement Laboratory, North University of China, Taiyuan 030051, Shanxi (China)
2016-02-15
Radiative heat transfer between two polar nanostructures at different temperatures can be enhanced by resonant tunneling of surface polaritons. Here we show that the heat transfer between two nanoparticles is strongly varied by the interactions with a third nanoparticle. By controlling the size of the third particle, the time scale of thermalization toward the thermal bath temperature can be modified over 5 orders of magnitude. This effect provides control of temperature distribution in nanoparticle aggregation and facilitates thermal management at nanoscale.
Radiative Transfer Effects during Photoheating of the Intergalactic Medium
Abel, T; Abel, Tom; Haehnelt, Martin G.
1999-01-01
The thermal history of the intergalactic medium (IGM) after reionization is to a large extent determined by photoheating. Here we demonstrate that calculations of the photoheating rate which neglect radiative transfer effects substantially underestimate the energy input during and after reionization. The neglect of radiative transfer effects results in temperatures of the IGM which are too low by a factor of two after HeII reionization. We briefly discuss implications for the absorption properties of the IGM and the distribution of baryons in shallow potential wells.
Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere Radiative Transfer Model in Microwave Region
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
JIA Yuanyuan; LI Zhaoliang
2008-01-01
The radiative transfer is one of the significant theories that describe the processes of scattering,emission,and absorption of electromagnetic radiant intensity through scattering medium.It is the basis of the study on the quantitative remote sensing.In this paper,the radiative characteristics of soil,vegetation,and atmosphere were described respectively.The numerical solution of radiative transfer was accomplished by Successive Orders of Scattering (SOS).A radiative transfer model for simulating microwave brightness temperature over land surfaces was constructed,designed,and implemented.Analyzing the database generated from soil-vegetation-atmosphere radiative transfer model under Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) configuration showed that the atmospheric effects on microwave brightness temperature should not be neglected,particularly for higher frequency,and can be parameterized.At the same time,the relationship between the emissivities of the different channels was developed.The study results will promote the development of algorithm to retrieve geophysical parameters from microwave remotely sensed data.
study of some problems in radiative transfer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The problem of particle transfer in finite plane parallel medium is reduced to a problem of semi-infinite medium by means of the embedding technique. This technique is used to calculate the energy albedo, sputtering coefficients and leakage currents for different scattering kernels in the slowing down region. in chapter (4) we construct an asymptotic solution for inhomogeneous layers on the basis of the corresponding solutions for homogeneous sub-layer. A functional relations which gives the reflection and transmission coefficients for the whole slab in terms of the corresponding one of the sub - layers are obtained. The concepts of the invariant embedding is used to calculate the albedo for each sub-layers. Numerical results are given for different slowing down kernel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Experimentally measured carbon line emissions and total radiated power distributions from the DIII-D divertor and Scrape-Off Layer (SOL) are compared to those calculated with the Monte Carlo Impurity (MCI) model. A UEDGE background plasma is used in MCI with the Roth and Garcia-Rosales (RG-R) chemical sputtering model and/or one of six physical sputtering models. While results from these simulations do not reproduce all of the features seen in the experimentally measured radiation patterns, the total radiated power calculated in MCI is in relatively good agreement with that measured by the DIII-D bolometric system when the Smith78 physical sputtering model is coupled to RG-R chemical sputtering in an unaltered UEDGE plasma. Alternatively, MCI simulations done with UEDGE background ion temperatures along the divertor target plates adjusted to better match those measured in the experiment resulted in three physical sputtering models which when coupled to the RG-R model gave a total radiated power that was within 10% of measured value
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The internal radiation dose calculations based on Chinese models is important in nuclear medicine. Most of the existing models are based on the physical and anatomical data of Caucasian, whose anatomical structure and physiological parameters are quite different from the Chinese, may lead significant effect on internal radiation. Therefore, it is necessary to establish the model based on the Chinese ethnic characteristics, and applied to radiation dosimetry calculation. In this study, a voxel model was established based on the high resolution Visible Chinese Human (VCH). The transport procedure of photon and electron was simulated using the MCNPX Monte Carlo code. Absorbed fraction (AF) and specific absorbed fraction (SAF) were calculated and S-factors and mean absorbed doses for organs with 99mTc located in liver were also obtained. In comparison with those of VIP-Man and MIRD models, discrepancies were found to be correlated with the racial and anatomical differences in organ mass and inter-organ distance. The internal dosimetry data based on other models that were used to apply to Chinese adult population are replaced with Chinese specific data. The obtained results provide a reference for nuclear medicine, such as dose verification after surgery and potential radiation evaluation for radionuclides in preclinical research, etc. (authors)
Radiation Transport for Explosive Outflows: A Multigroup Hybrid Monte Carlo Method
Wollaeger, Ryan T.; van Rossum, Daniel R.; Graziani, Carlo; Couch, Sean M.; Jordan, George C., IV; Lamb, Donald Q.; Moses, Gregory A.
2013-12-01
We explore Implicit Monte Carlo (IMC) and discrete diffusion Monte Carlo (DDMC) for radiation transport in high-velocity outflows with structured opacity. The IMC method is a stochastic computational technique for nonlinear radiation transport. IMC is partially implicit in time and may suffer in efficiency when tracking MC particles through optically thick materials. DDMC accelerates IMC in diffusive domains. Abdikamalov extended IMC and DDMC to multigroup, velocity-dependent transport with the intent of modeling neutrino dynamics in core-collapse supernovae. Densmore has also formulated a multifrequency extension to the originally gray DDMC method. We rigorously formulate IMC and DDMC over a high-velocity Lagrangian grid for possible application to photon transport in the post-explosion phase of Type Ia supernovae. This formulation includes an analysis that yields an additional factor in the standard IMC-to-DDMC spatial interface condition. To our knowledge the new boundary condition is distinct from others presented in prior DDMC literature. The method is suitable for a variety of opacity distributions and may be applied to semi-relativistic radiation transport in simple fluids and geometries. Additionally, we test the code, called SuperNu, using an analytic solution having static material, as well as with a manufactured solution for moving material with structured opacities. Finally, we demonstrate with a simple source and 10 group logarithmic wavelength grid that IMC-DDMC performs better than pure IMC in terms of accuracy and speed when there are large disparities between the magnitudes of opacities in adjacent groups. We also present and test our implementation of the new boundary condition.
Radiative transfer calculated from a Markov chain formalism
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The theory of Markov chains is used to formulate the radiative transport problem in a general way by modeling the successive interactions of a photon as a stochastic process. Under the minimal requirement that the stochastic process is a Markov chain, the determination of the diffuse reflection of transmission from a scattering atmosphere is equivalent to the solution of a system of linear equations. This treatment is mathematically equivalent to and thus has many of the advantages of, Monte Carlo methods, but can be considerably more rapid than Monte Carlo algorithms for numerical calculations in particular applications. We have verified the speed and accuracy of this formalism for the stand problem of finding the intensity of scattered light from a homogeneous plane-parallel atmosphere with an arbitrary phase function for scattering. Accurate results over a wide range of parameters were obtained with computation times comparable to those of a standard ''doubling'' routine. The generality of this formalism thus allows fast, direct solutions to problems that were previously soluble only by Monte Carlo methods. Some comparisons are made with respect to integral equation methods
Radiative transfer calculated from a Markov chain formalism
Esposito, L. W.; House, L. L.
1978-01-01
The theory of Markov chains is used to formulate the radiative transport problem in a general way by modeling the successive interactions of a photon as a stochastic process. Under the minimal requirement that the stochastic process is a Markov chain, the determination of the diffuse reflection or transmission from a scattering atmosphere is equivalent to the solution of a system of linear equations. This treatment is mathematically equivalent to, and thus has many of the advantages of, Monte Carlo methods, but can be considerably more rapid than Monte Carlo algorithms for numerical calculations in particular applications. We have verified the speed and accuracy of this formalism for the standard problem of finding the intensity of scattered light from a homogeneous plane-parallel atmosphere with an arbitrary phase function for scattering. Accurate results over a wide range of parameters were obtained with computation times comparable to those of a standard 'doubling' routine. The generality of this formalism thus allows fast, direct solutions to problems that were previously soluble only by Monte Carlo methods. Some comparisons are made with respect to integral equation methods.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lim, Chang Hwy; Park, Jong Won; Lee, Junghee [Korea Research Institute of Ships and Ocean Engineering, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Myung Kook; Kim, Jongyul; Lee, Suhyun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2015-10-15
A plastic scintillator in the RPM is suited for the γ-ray detection of various-range energy and is the cost effective radiation detection material. In order to well inspect emitted radiation from the container cargo, the radiation detection area of a plastic scintillator should be larger than other general purpose radiation detector. However, the large size plastic scintillator affects the light collection efficiency at the photo-sensitive sensor due to the long light transport distance and light collisions in a plastic scintillator. Therefore, the improvement of light collection efficiency in a RPM is one of the major issues for the high performance RPM development. We calculated the change of the number of collected light according to changing of the attachment position and number of PMT. To calculate the number of collected light, the DETECT2000 and MCNP6 Monte Carlo simulation software tool was used. Response signal performance of RPM system is affected by the position of the incident radiation. If the distance between the radiation source and a PMT is long, the number of loss signal is larger. Generally, PMTs for signal detection in RPM system has been attached on one side of plastic scintillator. In contrast, RPM model in the study have 2 PMTs, which attached at the two side of plastic scintillator. We estimated difference between results using the old method and our method. According to results, uniformity of response signal was better than method using one side. If additive simulation and experiment is performed, it will be possible to develop the improved RPM system. In the future, we will perform additive simulation about many difference RPM model.
Radiation processing in Japan: R and D for technology transfer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (TRCRE, JAERI) has led the radiation processing in Japan. A number of achievements in TRCRE have been transferred to the private sector and commercialized. To promote the industrialization by using 240 patens belonging to TRCRE, an open seminar has been monthly held to elucidate the interesting results to the private companies. In one year, 70 companies gave us the technical consultation. In the radiation processing, graftpolymerization can synthesize a metal adsorbent which is a promising material for industrialization. Recovery of uranium from seawater and removal of cadmium from scallop processing were shown as examples for ongoing R and D. (author)
Fractional integration and radiative transfer in a multifractal atmosphere
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Naud, C.; Schertzer, D. [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France); Lovejoy, S. [McGill Univ., Montreal (Canada)
1996-04-01
Recently, Cess et al. (1995) and Ramathan et al. (1995) cited observations which exhibit an anomalous absorption of cloudy skies in comparison with the value predicted by usual models and which thus introduce large uncertainties for climatic change assessments. These observation raise questions concerning the way general circulation models have been tuned for decades, relying on classical methods, of both radiative transfer and dynamical modeling. The observations also tend to demonstrate that homogeneous models are simply not relevant in relating the highly variable properties of clouds and radiation fields. However smoothed, the intensity of cloud`s multi-scattered radiation fields reflect this extreme variability.
Debris disk radiative transfer simulation tool (DDS)
Wolf, S.; Hillenbrand, L. A.
2005-10-01
A WWW interface for the simulation of spectral energy distributions of optically thin dust configurations with an embedded radiative source is presented. The density distribution, radiative source, and dust parameters can be selected either from an internal database or defined by the user. This tool is optimized for studying circumstellar debris disks where large grains (a ≫1 μm) are expected to determine the far-infrared through millimeter dust reemission spectral energy distribution. The tool is available at http://aida28.mpia-hd.mpg.de/~swolf/dds. Catalogue identifier:ADVV Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADVV Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions:none Computers:PC with Intel(R) XEON(TM) 2.80 GHz processor Operating systems or monitors under which the program has been tested:SUSE Linux 9.1 Programming language used:Fortran 90 (for the main program; furthermore Perl, CGI and HTML) Memory required to execute with typical data:108 words No. of bits in a word:8 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.:44 636 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 4 806 280 Distribution format:tar.gz Nature of the physical problem:Simulation of scattered light and thermal reemission in arbitrary optically dust distributions with spherical, homogeneous grains where the dust parameters (optical properties, sublimation temperature, grain size) and SED of the illuminating/heating radiative source can be arbitrarily defined (example application: [S. Wolf, L.A. Hillenbrand, Astrophys. J. 596 (2003) 603]). The program is optimized for studying circumstellar debris disks where large grains (i.e. with large size parameters) are expected to determine the far-infrared through millimeter dust reemission spectral energy distribution. Method of solution:Calculation of the dust temperature distribution and dust reemission and scattering spectrum in the
Radiation doses in volume-of-interest breast computed tomography—A Monte Carlo simulation study
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lai, Chao-Jen, E-mail: cjlai3711@gmail.com; Zhong, Yuncheng; Yi, Ying; Wang, Tianpeng; Shaw, Chris C. [Department of Imaging Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030-4009 (United States)
2015-06-15
Purpose: Cone beam breast computed tomography (breast CT) with true three-dimensional, nearly isotropic spatial resolution has been developed and investigated over the past decade to overcome the problem of lesions overlapping with breast anatomical structures on two-dimensional mammographic images. However, the ability of breast CT to detect small objects, such as tissue structure edges and small calcifications, is limited. To resolve this problem, the authors proposed and developed a volume-of-interest (VOI) breast CT technique to image a small VOI using a higher radiation dose to improve that region’s visibility. In this study, the authors performed Monte Carlo simulations to estimate average breast dose and average glandular dose (AGD) for the VOI breast CT technique. Methods: Electron–Gamma-Shower system code-based Monte Carlo codes were used to simulate breast CT. The Monte Carlo codes estimated were validated using physical measurements of air kerma ratios and point doses in phantoms with an ion chamber and optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters. The validated full cone x-ray source was then collimated to simulate half cone beam x-rays to image digital pendant-geometry, hemi-ellipsoidal, homogeneous breast phantoms and to estimate breast doses with full field scans. 13-cm in diameter, 10-cm long hemi-ellipsoidal homogeneous phantoms were used to simulate median breasts. Breast compositions of 25% and 50% volumetric glandular fractions (VGFs) were used to investigate the influence on breast dose. The simulated half cone beam x-rays were then collimated to a narrow x-ray beam with an area of 2.5 × 2.5 cm{sup 2} field of view at the isocenter plane and to perform VOI field scans. The Monte Carlo results for the full field scans and the VOI field scans were then used to estimate the AGD for the VOI breast CT technique. Results: The ratios of air kerma ratios and dose measurement results from the Monte Carlo simulation to those from the physical
Radiative Transfer on Perturbations in Protoplanetary Disks
Jang-Condell, H; Jang-Condell, Hannah; Sasselov, Dimitar D.
2003-01-01
We present a method for calculating the radiative tranfer on a protoplanetary disk perturbed by a protoplanet. We apply this method to determine the effect on the temperature structure within the photosphere of a passive circumstellar disk in the vicinity of a small protoplanet of up to 20 Earth masses. The gravitational potential of a protoplanet induces a compression of the disk material near it, resulting in a decrement in the density at the disk's surface. Thus, an isodensity contour at the height of the photosphere takes on the shape of a well. When such a well is illuminated by stellar irradiation at grazing incidence, it results in cooling in a shadowed region and heating in an exposed region. For typical stellar and disk parameters relevant to the epoch of planet formation, we find that the temperature variation due to a protoplanet at 1 AU separation from its parent star is about 4% (5 K) for a planet of 1 Earth mass, about 14% (19 K) for planet of 10 Earth masses, and about 18% (25 K) for planet of ...
Radiative transfer simulations of magnetar flare beaming
van Putten, T; Baring, M G; Wijers, R A M J
2016-01-01
Magnetar giant flares show oscillatory modulations in the tails of their light curves, which can only be explained via some form of beaming. The fireball model for magnetar bursts has been used successfully to fit the phase-averaged light curves of the tails of giant flares, but so far no attempts have been made to fit the pulsations. We present a relatively simple numerical model to simulate beaming of magnetar flare emission. In our simulations, radiation escapes from the base of a fireball trapped in a dipolar magnetic field, and is scattered through the optically thick magnetosphere of the magnetar until it escapes. Beaming is provided by the presence of a relativistic outflow, as well as by the geometry of the system. We find that a simple picture for the relativistic outflow is enough to create the pulse fraction and sharp peaks observed in pulse profiles of magnetar flares, while without a relativistic outflow the beaming is insufficient to explain giant flare rotational modulations.
Transfer line magnets for agricultural radiation processing facility at CAT
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A linear accelerator based electron beam radiation processing facility for agricultural and medical products is being established at CAT, Indore. Electron beam from LINAC will be used to irradiate the different food products. For such purposes, a transfer-line consisting of focusing quadrupoles, steering, scanning and normalizing magnets were designed. Design aspects of these magnets are discussed in this paper. (author)
Radiative transfer in plane inhomogeneous media with exponentially varying albedo
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Accurate numerical results for the exit distributions and the global reflection and transmission coefficients relevant to radiative transfer in a stratified medium with exponentially varying albedo are obtained and compared to previous results. The semi-analytical solution of the linear transport equation is rigorously performed on the basis of a simple projectional method. (author)
A Physically Motivated Closure Scheme for Radiative Transfer
Chan, Chi-kwan
2009-01-01
Radiative transfer and radiation hydrodynamics use the relativistic Boltzmann equation to describe the kinetics of photons. The six-dimensional time-dependent transfer equation is difficult to solve unless the problem is in equilibrium or highly symmetric. When the radiation field is smooth, it is natural to take angular moments of the transfer equation to reduce the degrees of freedom. However, low-order moment equations contain terms that depend on higher-order moments. To close the system of moment equations, approximations are made to truncate this hierarchy. Popular closures used in astrophysics include flux limited diffusion and the M_1 closure, which are rather ad hoc and do not necessarily to capture the correct physics. In this paper, we propose a new closure scheme for radiative transfer. We start from a different perspective and highlight the consistency of a fully relativistic formalism. By employing the fact that photons do not self-interact, we conclude that a physical closure should be linear i...
Intra-operative radiation therapy optimization using the Monte Carlo method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The problem addressed with reference to the treatment head optimization has been the choice of the proper design of the head of a new 12 MeV linear accelerator in order to have the required dose uniformity on the target volume while keeping the dose rate sufficiently high and the photon production and the beam impact with the head walls within acceptable limits. The second part of the optimization work, concerning the TPS, is based on the rationale that the TPSs generally used in radiotherapy use semi-empirical algorithms whose accuracy can be inadequate particularly when irregular surfaces and/or inhomogeneities, such as air cavities or bone, are present. The Monte Carlo method, on the contrary, is capable of accurately calculating the dose distribution under almost all circumstances. Furthermore it offers the advantage of allowing to start the simulation of the radiation transport in the patient from the beam data obtained with the transport through the specific treatment head used. Therefore the Monte Carlo simulations, which at present are not yet widely used for routine treatment planning due to the required computing time, can be employed as a benchmark and as an optimization tool for conventional TPSs. (orig.)
Intra-operative radiation therapy optimization using the Monte Carlo method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rosetti, M. [ENEA, Bologna (Italy); Benassi, M.; Bufacchi, A.; D' Andrea, M. [Ist. Regina Elena, Rome (Italy); Bruzzaniti, V. [ENEA, S. Maria di Galeria (Rome) (Italy)
2001-07-01
The problem addressed with reference to the treatment head optimization has been the choice of the proper design of the head of a new 12 MeV linear accelerator in order to have the required dose uniformity on the target volume while keeping the dose rate sufficiently high and the photon production and the beam impact with the head walls within acceptable limits. The second part of the optimization work, concerning the TPS, is based on the rationale that the TPSs generally used in radiotherapy use semi-empirical algorithms whose accuracy can be inadequate particularly when irregular surfaces and/or inhomogeneities, such as air cavities or bone, are present. The Monte Carlo method, on the contrary, is capable of accurately calculating the dose distribution under almost all circumstances. Furthermore it offers the advantage of allowing to start the simulation of the radiation transport in the patient from the beam data obtained with the transport through the specific treatment head used. Therefore the Monte Carlo simulations, which at present are not yet widely used for routine treatment planning due to the required computing time, can be employed as a benchmark and as an optimization tool for conventional TPSs. (orig.)
Modelling radiative heat transfer inside a basin type solar still
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Radiative heat transfer inside a basin type solar still has been investigated using two models with (model 1) and without (model 2) taking into account optical view factors. The coefficient of radiative heat exchange (hr,w-gc) between the water and cover surfaces of a practical solar still was computed using the two models. Simulation results show that model 1 yields lower values of hr,w-gc and the root mean square error than model 2. It is therefore concluded that the accuracy of modelling the performance of a basin-type solar still can be improved by incorporating view factors. - Highlights: • Radiative heat transfer in a basin type solar still has been investigated. • Two models with and without view factors were used. • The model with view factors exhibits a lower magnitude of root mean square error. • View factors affect the accuracy of modelling the performance of the solar still
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) is a new experimental oncological modality, intended for the treatment of inoperable brain tumours, particularly in difficult cases where conventional radiation therapy can cause irreversible damage. MRT consists of an array of highly collimated, quasi-parallel x-ray microbeams aimed at the tumour tissue, delivering high dose within the beam path and low doses in regions between the beams. For reasons still not fully understood, healthy tissue exposed to the microbeam array is able to regenerate while tumour volumes are significantly reduced. Low energy Monte Carlo radiative transport simulations provide new insight into understanding the underlying mechanisms of MRT. In particular, predicting the ionisation cluster distribution, which is a significant cause of lethal damage to cells, would provide insight into the biological responses. Geant4-DNA was used to model an x-ray microbeam of width 20 μm in liquid water. Secondary electrons, predominately responsible for ionisation clustering, were tracked to predict damage to cells within and adjacent to the beams. We find that higher energy beams (100 keV) produce less secondary electrons in the regions outside the beam than low energy beams (30-50 keV)
Monte-Carlo studies of radiation damage by fusion neutron in the first wall
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper, a Monte Carlo Neutron Transport Program NTGM and Neutron Radiation Damage Program NRDGM are presented for studying radiation damage of the First Wall. The programs are used to static multicomponent amorphous target. With the average wall load 1MW/m2 the PKA energy spectrums (30ev to 1MeV), average displacement per atom rate (16. 8 dpa/a), average helium and hydrogen production rates (204 appm/a and 623 appm)a) have been calculated for first wall (type 316 stainless steel) using designed neutron spectrums at EHR (Experimental Tokamak Fusion Fission Hybrid Reactor) first wall. It is showed that Hybrid Reactor's radiation damage more serious than pure Fusion Reactor's by comparison of above results and EHP's calculated results on the same wall load. The code can be used to calculate engineering materials including any numbers of element's kind. The calculation mode can be applied to light elements for dpa dose. The calculation results will be given in this paper
Monte Carlo simulation methods of determining red bone marrow dose from external radiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Objective: To provide evidence for a more reasonable method of determining red bone marrow dose by analyzing and comparing existing simulation methods. Methods: By utilizing Monte Carlo simulation software MCNPX, the absorbed doses of red hone marrow of Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI) adult female voxel phantom were calculated through 4 different methods: direct energy deposition.dose response function (DRF), King-Spiers factor method and mass-energy absorption coefficient (MEAC). The radiation sources were defined as infinite plate.sources with the energy ranging from 20 keV to 10 MeV, and 23 sources with different energies were simulated in total. The source was placed right next to the front of the RPI model to achieve a homogeneous anteroposterior radiation scenario. The results of different simulated photon energy sources through different methods were compared. Results: When the photon energy was lower than 100 key, the direct energy deposition method gave the highest result while the MEAC and King-Spiers factor methods showed more reasonable results. When the photon energy was higher than 150 keV taking into account of the higher absorption ability of red bone marrow at higher photon energy, the result of the King-Spiers factor method was larger than those of other methods. Conclusions: The King-Spiers factor method might be the most reasonable method to estimate the red bone marrow dose from external radiation. (authors)
Accelerating execution of the integrated TIGER series Monte Carlo radiation transport codes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Execution of the integrated TIGER series (ITS) of coupled electron/photon Monte Carlo radiation transport codes has been accelerated by modifying the FORTRAN source code for more efficient computation. Each member code of ITS was benchmarked and profiled with a specific test case that directed the acceleration effort toward the most computationally intensive subroutines. Techniques for accelerating these subroutines included replacing linear search algorithms with binary versions, replacing the pseudo-random number generator, reducing program memory allocation, and proofing the input files for geometrical redundancies. All techniques produced identical or statistically similar results to the original code. Final benchmark timing of the accelerated code resulted in speed-up factors of 2.00 for TIGER (the one-dimensional slab geometry code), 1.74 for CYLTRAN (the two-dimensional cylindrical geometry code), and 1.90 for ACCEPT (the arbitrary three-dimensional geometry code)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The objective of this study was to establish the biological effects on occupational workers. In this study, have made a bibliographic review of the changes on skin of 217 professionals; between 21 and 70 years radiologists, X-ray technicians, radioisotope workers, nurses and others, which were exposed to ionizing radiation, in the departments of Diagnosis and Treatment of the Hospital Carlos Andrade Marin of the Quito city. From this universe 133 workers were excluded of the analysis. From the totality of lesions produced on the skin; the depilation constituted 40.18%, hyper pigmentation 19.34%, hypo pigmentation 9 %, capillary fragility 13.39%, erythema 13.39%, alopecia 5.37%. From the totality of lesions produced in blood: the leukopenia constituted 20.23% between all workers. The percentage method was used for statical calculation. A bibliographic update is done and the most relevant clinical aspects are reviewed. (The author)
Uncertainties in personal dosimetry for external radiation: A Monte Carlo approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper explores the possibilities of numerical methods for uncertainty analysis of personal dosimetry systems. Using a numerical method based on Monte Carlo sampling the probability density function (PDF) of the dose measured using a personal dosemeter can be calculated using type-test measurements. From this PDF the combined standard uncertainty in the measurements with the dosemeter and the confidence interval can be calculated. The method calculates the output PDF directly from the PDFs of the inputs of the system such as the spectral distribution of the radiation and distributions of detector parameters like sensitivity and zero signal. The method can be used not only in its own right but also for validating other methods because it is not limited by restrictions that apply to using the Law of Propagation of Uncertainty and the Central Limit Theorem. The use of the method is demonstrated using the type-test data of the NRG-TLD. (authors)
Investigation of radiation damage in structural material of APEX reactor by using Monte Carlo method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Highlights: ► In this study was calculated effects of the radiation damage on the selected fluid rates and thicknesses of liquid second wall. ► MCNPX-2.5.0 Monte Carlo code was used for three-dimensional calculations. ► The heavy metal was found as appropriate 10% ThF4 for DPA and 10% UO2 for gas production. ► DPA in the structural material was calculated as appropriate for 40–50 cm thickness of the liquid second wall. - Abstract: In this study, ThF4, UF4 and UO2 heavy metals were used with ratios of 2% and 10% while Flibe (Li2BeF4) molten salt mixture and 100% Flibe were used as fluids in the liquid first wall, liquid second wall and shield zones of the APEX. The steel wall that is used as a structural material is 4 cm in thickness and calculations for each 0.5 cm thick zone of the steel wall were performed. In this study, the total changes caused by radiation damage in the steel used as a structural material for 20 cm, 30 cm, 40 cm and 50 cm thicknesses of liquid second wall, for each 0.5 cm thick zones of the steel wall and for the selected fluid rates were investigated for 30 full power years (FPY). The neutron wall load is assumed to be 10 MW/m2. Three-dimensional nucleonic calculations were performed using MCNPX-2.5.0 Monte Carlo code and ENDF/B-VI nuclear data library
Radiative transfer through terrestrial atmosphere and ocean: Software package SCIATRAN
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
SCIATRAN is a comprehensive software package for the modeling of radiative transfer processes in the terrestrial atmosphere and ocean in the spectral range from the ultraviolet to the thermal infrared (0.18–40μm) including multiple scattering processes, polarization, thermal emission and ocean–atmosphere coupling. The software is capable of modeling spectral and angular distributions of the intensity or the Stokes vector of the transmitted, scattered, reflected, and emitted radiation assuming either a plane-parallel or a spherical atmosphere. Simulations are done either in the scalar or in the vector mode (i.e. accounting for the polarization) for observations by space-, air-, ship- and balloon-borne, ground-based, and underwater instruments in various viewing geometries (nadir, off-nadir, limb, occultation, zenith-sky, off-axis). All significant radiative transfer processes are accounted for. These are, e.g. the Rayleigh scattering, scattering by aerosol and cloud particles, absorption by gaseous components, and bidirectional reflection by an underlying surface including Fresnel reflection from a flat or roughened ocean surface. The software package contains several radiative transfer solvers including finite difference and discrete-ordinate techniques, an extensive database, and a specific module for solving inverse problems. In contrast to many other radiative transfer codes, SCIATRAN incorporates an efficient approach to calculate the so-called Jacobians, i.e. derivatives of the intensity with respect to various atmospheric and surface parameters. In this paper we discuss numerical methods used in SCIATRAN to solve the scalar and vector radiative transfer equation, describe databases of atmospheric, oceanic, and surface parameters incorporated in SCIATRAN, and demonstrate how to solve some selected radiative transfer problems using the SCIATRAN package. During the last decades, a lot of studies have been published demonstrating that SCIATRAN is a valuable
Near-field radiative heat transfer in mesoporous alumina
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The thermal conductivity of mesoporous material has aroused the great interest of scholars due to its wide applications such as insulation, catalyst, etc. Mesoporous alumina substrate consists of uniformly distributed, unconnected cylindrical pores. Near-field radiative heat transfer cannot be ignored, when the diameters of the pores are less than the characteristic wavelength of thermal radiation. In this paper, near-field radiation across a cylindrical pore is simulated by employing the fluctuation dissipation theorem and Green function. Such factors as the diameter of the pore, and the temperature of the material are further analyzed. The research results show that the radiative heat transfer on a mesoscale is 2∼4 orders higher than on a macroscale. The heat flux and equivalent thermal conductivity of radiation across a cylindrical pore decrease exponentially with pore diameter increasing, while increase with temperature increasing. The calculated equivalent thermal conductivity of radiation is further developed to modify the thermal conductivity of the mesoporous alumina. The combined thermal conductivity of the mesoporous alumina is obtained by using porosity weighted dilute medium and compared with the measurement. The combined thermal conductivity of mesoporous silica decreases gradually with pore diameter increasing, while increases smoothly with temperature increasing, which is in good agreement with the experimental data. The larger the porosity, the more significant the near-field effect is, which cannot be ignored. (paper)
Safety verification of radiation shielding and heat transfer for a model for dry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Highlights: • New type of dry spent fuel storage was designed. • MC method and FEM were used to verify the reliability of new storage. • Radiation shield and heat transfer both meet IAEA standards: 2 mSv/h, 0.1 mSv/h and 190 °C, 85 °C. • Provided possibilities for future implementation of this type of dry storage. - Abstract: The goal of this research is to develop a type of dry spent fuel storage called CHN-24 container, which could contain an equivalent load of 45 GWD/MTU of spent fuel after 10 years cooling. Basically, radiation shielding performance and safe removal of decay heat, which play important roles in the safety performance, were checked and validated using the Monte Carlo method and finite element analysis to establish the radiation dose rate calculation model and three-dimensional heat transfer model for the CHN-24 container. The dose rates at the surface of the container and at a distance of 1 m from the surface were 0.42 mSv/h and 0.06 mSv/h, respectively. These conform to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) radioactive material transportation safety standards 2 mSv/h and 0.1 mSv/h. The results shows that the CHN-24 container maintains its structural and material integrity under the condition of normal thermal steady-state heat transfer as well as in case of extreme fire as evinced by transient-state analysis. The temperature inside and on the surface of the container were 150.91 °C and 80 °C under normal storage conditions, which indicated that the design also conform to IAEA heat transfer safety standards of 190 °C and 85 °C
Safety verification of radiation shielding and heat transfer for a model for dry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yu, Haiyan, E-mail: yuhaiyan@nuaa.edu.cn [Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Nuclear Energy Equipment Materials Engineering, Nanjing 210016 (China); Tang, Xiaobin, E-mail: tangxiaobin@nuaa.edu.cn [Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Nuclear Energy Equipment Materials Engineering, Nanjing 210016 (China); Wang, Peng, E-mail: wp739130046@nuaa.edu.cn [Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Nuclear Energy Equipment Materials Engineering, Nanjing 210016 (China); Chen, Feida, E-mail: fdchen@nuaa.edu.cn [Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Nuclear Energy Equipment Materials Engineering, Nanjing 210016 (China); Chai, Hao, E-mail: chaihao@nuaa.edu.cn [Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Nuclear Energy Equipment Materials Engineering, Nanjing 210016 (China); Chen, Da, E-mail: chenda@nuaa.edu.cn [Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Nuclear Energy Equipment Materials Engineering, Nanjing 210016 (China)
2015-09-15
Highlights: • New type of dry spent fuel storage was designed. • MC method and FEM were used to verify the reliability of new storage. • Radiation shield and heat transfer both meet IAEA standards: 2 mSv/h, 0.1 mSv/h and 190 °C, 85 °C. • Provided possibilities for future implementation of this type of dry storage. - Abstract: The goal of this research is to develop a type of dry spent fuel storage called CHN-24 container, which could contain an equivalent load of 45 GWD/MTU of spent fuel after 10 years cooling. Basically, radiation shielding performance and safe removal of decay heat, which play important roles in the safety performance, were checked and validated using the Monte Carlo method and finite element analysis to establish the radiation dose rate calculation model and three-dimensional heat transfer model for the CHN-24 container. The dose rates at the surface of the container and at a distance of 1 m from the surface were 0.42 mSv/h and 0.06 mSv/h, respectively. These conform to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) radioactive material transportation safety standards 2 mSv/h and 0.1 mSv/h. The results shows that the CHN-24 container maintains its structural and material integrity under the condition of normal thermal steady-state heat transfer as well as in case of extreme fire as evinced by transient-state analysis. The temperature inside and on the surface of the container were 150.91 °C and 80 °C under normal storage conditions, which indicated that the design also conform to IAEA heat transfer safety standards of 190 °C and 85 °C.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Light transport in graded index media follows a curved trajectory determined by Fermat's principle. Besides the effect of variation of the refractive index on the transport of radiative intensity, the curved ray trajectory will induce geometrical effects on the transport of polarization ellipse. This paper presents a complete derivation of vector radiative transfer equation for polarized radiation transport in absorption, emission and scattering graded index media. The derivation is based on the analysis of the conserved quantities for polarized light transport along curved trajectory and a novel approach. The obtained transfer equation can be considered as a generalization of the classic vector radiative transfer equation that is only valid for uniform refractive index media. Several variant forms of the transport equation are also presented, which include the form for Stokes parameters defined with a fixed reference and the Eulerian forms in the ray coordinate and in several common orthogonal coordinate systems.
Lolli, Simone; Madonna, Fabio; Rosoldi, Marco; Pappalardo, Gelsomina; Welton, Ellsworth J.
2016-04-01
The aerosol and cloud impact on climate change is evaluated in terms of enhancement or reduction of the radiative energy, or heat, available in the atmosphere and at the Earth's surface, from the surface (SFC) to the Top Of the Atmosphere (TOA) covering a spectral range from the UV (extraterrestrial shortwave solar radiation) to the far-IR (outgoing terrestrial longwave radiation). Systematic Lidar network measurements from permanent observational sites across the globe are available from the beginning of this current millennium. From the retrieved lidar atmospheric extinction profiles, inputted in the Fu-Liou-Gu (FLG) Radiative Transfer code, it is possible to evaluate the net radiative effect and heating rate of the different aerosol species and clouds. Nevertheless, the lidar instruments may use different techniques (elastic lidar, Raman lidar, multi-wavelength lidar, etc) that translate into uncertainty of the lidar extinction retrieval. The goal of this study is to assess, applying a MonteCarlo technique and the FLG Radiative Transfer model, the sensitivity in calculating the net radiative effect and heating rate of aerosols and clouds for the different lidar techniques, using both synthetic and real lidar data. This sensitivity study is the first step to implement an automatic algorithm to retrieve the net radiative forcing effect of aerosols and clouds from the long records of aerosol measurements available in the frame of EARLINET and MPLNET lidar networks.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This work concerns calculation of a neutron response, caused by a neutron field perturbed by materials surrounding the source or the detector. Solution of a problem is obtained using coupling of the Monte Carlo radiation transport computation for the perturbed region and the discrete ordinates transport computation for the unperturbed system. (author). 62 refs
Radiative heat transfer between two dielectric-filled metal gratings
Dai, J.; Dyakov, S. A.; Yan, M.
2016-04-01
Nanoscale surface corrugation is known to be able to drastically enhance radiative heat transfer between two metal plates. Here we numerically calculate the radiative heat transfer between two dielectric-filled metal gratings at dissimilar temperatures based on a scattering approach. It is demonstrated that, compared to unfilled metal gratings, the heat flux for a fixed geometry can be further enhanced, by up to 650% for the geometry separated by a vacuum gap of g =1 μ m and temperature values concerned in our study. The enhancement in radiative heat transfer is found to depend on refractive index of the filling dielectric, the specific grating temperatures, and naturally the gap size between the two gratings. The enhancement can be understood through examining the transmission factor spectra, especially the spectral locations of the spoof surface plasmon polariton modes. Of more practical importance, it's shown that the radiative heat flux can exceed that between two planar SiC plates with same thickness, separation, and temperature settings over a wide temperature range. This reaffirms that one can harness rich electromagnetic modal properties in nanostructured materials for efficient thermal management at nanoscale.
Use of radiation to transfer alien chromosome segments to wheat
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ionizing radiation can accomplish the transfer of genetic information from species so distantly related to wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em Thell.) that their chromosomes pair very little, if at all, with those of wheat, even in the absence of the homoeologous-pairing suppressor Ph1. In a successful transfer, the alien segment must almost always replace a homoeologous wheat segment, but radiation induces translocations largely at random; therefore automatic selection in favor of desirable translocations must be provided if the size of the project is to be kept within reasonable limits. Pollen selection will occur if seeds or plants monosomic for both an alien chromosome and one of its wheat homoeologues are irradiated. Making the plants also deficient for Ph1 may increase the number of suitable transfers. High-frequency occurrence of the desired alien character in M2 head-rows from plants grown from irradiated seed can identify favorable transfers with little cytological work. Irradiation of plants shortly before meiosis, using them to pollinate ditelosomics or double ditelosomics for the wheat arm or chromosome concerned, and cytologically examining offspring which have the alien character can not only identify the desirable transfers, but also reveal the lengths of the alien segments involved
3D Lyman-alpha radiation transfer. I. Understanding Lyman-alpha line profile morphologies
Verhamme, A; Maselli, A; Verhamme, Anne; Schaerer, Daniel; Maselli, Antonella
2006-01-01
Using a Monte Carlo technique, we have developed a 3D lyman-alpha radiation transfer code allowing for prescribed arbitrary hydrogen density, ionisation, temperature structures, and dust distribution, and arbitrary velocity fields and UV photon sources. We have examined the lyman-alpha line profiles predicted for several simple geometrical configurations and their dependence on the main input parameters. Overall, we find line profiles reaching from doubly peaked symmetric emission to symmetric Voigt (absorption) in static configurations with increasing dust content, and asymmetric red-(blue-) shifted emission lines with a blue (red) counterpart ranging from absorption to emission (with increasing line/continuum strength) in expanding (infalling) media. The following results are of interest for the interpretation of lya profiles from galaxies. 1/ Standard lya absorption line fitting of global spectra of galaxies may lead to an underestimate of the true hydrogen column density in certain geometrical conditions....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The hybrid matrix operator, Monte Carlo (HMOMC) method previously reported [Appl. Opt.47, 1063-1071 (2008)APOPAI0003-693510.1364/AO.47.001063] is improved by neglecting higher-order terms in the coupling of the matrix operators and by introducing a dual grid scheme. The computational efficiency for solving the vector radiative transfer equation in a full 3D coupled atmosphere-surface-ocean system is substantially improved, and, thus, large-scale simulations of the radiance distribution become feasible. The improved method is applied to the computation of the polarized radiance field under realistic surface waves simulated by the power spectral density method. To the authors' best knowledge, this is the first time that the polarized radiance field under a dynamic ocean surface and the underwater image of an object above such an ocean surface have been reported.
Reissl, Stefan; Wolf, Sebastian
2016-01-01
\\textbf{Aims}: We present POLARIS (\\textbf{POLA}rized \\textbf{R}ad\\textbf{I}ation \\textbf{S}imulator), a newly developed three-dimensional Monte-Carlo radiative transfer code. POLARIS was designed to calculate dust temperature, polarization maps, and spectral energy distributions. It is optimized to handle data that results from sophisticated magneto-hydrodynamic simulations. The main purpose of the code is to prepare and analyze multi-wavelength continuum polarization measurements in the context of magnetic field studies in the interstellar medium. An exemplary application is the investigation of the role of magnetic fields in star formation processes.\\\\ \\textbf{Methods}: We combine currently discussed state-of-the-art grain alignment theories with existing dust heating and polarization algorithms. We test the POLARIS code on multiple scales in complex astrophysical systems that are associated with different stages of star formation. POLARIS uses the full spectrum of dust polarization mechanisms to trace the...
Fire Intensity Data for Validation of the Radiative Transfer Equation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Blanchat, Thomas K. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jernigan, Dann A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2016-01-01
A set of experiments and test data are outlined in this report that provides radiation intensity data for the validation of models for the radiative transfer equation. The experiments were performed with lightly-sooting liquid hydrocarbon fuels that yielded fully turbulent fires 2 m diameter). In addition, supplemental measurements of air flow and temperature, fuel temperature and burn rate, and flame surface emissive power, wall heat, and flame height and width provide a complete set of boundary condition data needed for validation of models used in fire simulations.
Analytical Heat Transfer Modeling of a New Radiation Calorimeter
Ndong, Elysée Obame; Aitken, Frédéric
2016-01-01
This paper deals with an analytical modeling of heat transfers simulating a new radiation calorimeter operating in a temperature range from -50 {\\deg}C to 150 {\\deg}C. The aim of this modeling is the evaluation of the feasibility and performance of the calorimeter by assessing the measurement of power losses of some electrical devices by radiation, the influence of the geometry and materials. Finally a theoretical sensibility of the new apparatus is estimated at ~1 mW. From these results the calorimeter has been successfully implemented and patented.
Monte Carlo calculation of the energy response characteristics of a RadFET radiation detector
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Metal -Oxide Semiconductor Field-Effect-Transistor (MOSFET, RadFET) is frequently used as a sensor of ionizing radiation in nuclear-medicine, diagnostic-radiology, radiotherapy quality-assurance and in the nuclear and space industries. We focused our investigations on calculating the energy response of a p-type RadFET to low-energy photons in range from 12 keV to 2 MeV and on understanding the influence of uncertainties in the composition and geometry of the device in calculating the energy response function. All results were normalized to unit air kerma incident on the RadFET for incident photon energy of 1.1 MeV. The calculations of the energy response characteristics of a RadFET radiation detector were performed via Monte Carlo simulations using the MCNPX code and for a limited number of incident photon energies the FOTELP code was also used for the sake of comparison. The geometry of the RadFET was modeled as a simple stack of appropriate materials. Our goal was to obtain results with statistical uncertainties better than 1% (fulfilled in MCNPX calculations for all incident energies which resulted in simulations with 1 - 2x109 histories.
Monte Carlo simulation of the sequential probability ratio test for radiation monitoring
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A computer program simulates the Sequential Probability Ratio Test (SPRT) using Monte Carlo techniques. The program, SEQTEST, performs random-number sampling of either a Poisson or normal distribution to simulate radiation monitoring data. The results are in terms of the detection probabilities and the average time required for a trial. The computed SPRT results can be compared with tabulated single interval test (SIT) values to determine the better statistical test for particular monitoring applications. Use of the SPRT in a hand-and-foot alpha monitor shows that the SPRT provides better detection probabilities while generally requiring less counting time. Calculations are also performed for a monitor where the SPRT is not permitted to the take longer than the single interval test. Although the performance of the SPRT is degraded by this restriction, the detection probabilities are still similar to the SIT values, and average counting times are always less than 75% of the SIT time. Some optimal conditions for use of the SPRT are described. The SPRT should be the test of choice in many radiation monitoring situations. 6 references, 8 figures, 1 table
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dimitriadis, A; Gialousis, G; Karlatira, M; Karaiskos, P; Georgiou, E; Yakoumakis, E [Medical Physics Department, Medical School, University of Athens, 75 Mikras Asias Str., Goudi 11527, Athens (Greece); Makri, T; Papaodysseas, S, E-mail: anestisdim@yahoo.com [Radiological Imaging Department, Ag. Sofia Hospital, Lebadias and Thibon, Goudi 11527, Athens (Greece)
2011-01-21
Organ doses are important quantities in assessing the radiation risk. In the case of children, estimation of this risk is of particular concern due to their significant radiosensitivity and the greater health detriment. The purpose of this study is to estimate the organ doses to paediatric patients undergoing barium meal and micturating cystourethrography examinations by clinical measurements and Monte Carlo simulation. In clinical measurements, dose-area products (DAPs) were assessed during examination of 50 patients undergoing barium meal and 90 patients undergoing cystourethrography examinations, separated equally within three age categories: namely newborn, 1 year and 5 years old. Monte Carlo simulation of photon transport in male and female mathematical phantoms was applied using the MCNP5 code in order to estimate the equivalent organ doses. Regarding the micturating cystourethrography examinations, the organs receiving considerable amounts of radiation doses were the urinary bladder (1.87, 2.43 and 4.7 mSv, the first, second and third value in the parentheses corresponds to neonatal, 1 year old and 5 year old patients, respectively), the large intestines (1.54, 1.8, 3.1 mSv), the small intestines (1.34, 1.56, 2.78 mSv), the stomach (1.46, 1.02, 2.01 mSv) and the gall bladder (1.46, 1.66, 2.18 mSv), depending upon the age of the child. Organs receiving considerable amounts of radiation during barium meal examinations were the stomach (9.81, 9.92, 11.5 mSv), the gall bladder (3.05, 5.74, 7.15 mSv), the rib bones (9.82, 10.1, 11.1 mSv) and the pancreas (5.8, 5.93, 6.65 mSv), depending upon the age of the child. DAPs to organ/effective doses conversion factors were derived for each age and examination in order to be compared with other studies.
Radiation improves gene transfer into human ovarian carcinoma cells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Purpose/Objective: Poor gene transfer is the major stumbling block to successful gene therapy today. We hypothesized that ionizing radiation might activate cellular recombination, and so improve stable gene transfer. During studies to quantitate radiation activated recombination, we also found that both plasmid and adenoviral vector transduction could be increased by irradiation. The studies presented here describe the effects of irradiation on gene transduction efficiency (both transient and stable transduction) in several human ovarian carcinoma lines, as a prelude to in vivo animal studies. Materials and Methods: The effect of irradiation on stable gene transfer efficiency was determined in human ovarian carcinoma cell lines (SKOV3, CAOV3 and PA1). Either irradiated or unirradiated cells were transfected with pRSVZ plasmid (containing a LacZ expression cassette) in either the supercoiled and linearized (XmnI) forms and β-galactosidase expression followed with time. Transfection efficiency was measured by flow cytometry following FDG staining at 0, 48, and 96 hours after irradiation. FDG is converted to a fluorescent metabolite by LacZ, and thus reflects the transfection efficiency of the LacZ containing vector. Vector quantitation was also performed by southern hybridization. Stable transduction efficiency was measured 14 -35 days after irradiation. Optimization of the time of irradiation with respect to transfection was performed. Since cells demonstrated increased stable recombination for as long as 96 hours after irradiation, continuous low dose rate and multiple radiation fractions were also tested. These experiments were repeated using the Ad5CMVlacZ. Dividing cells were exposed to Ad5CMVlacZ at an MOI of 0.1,1,5,10 and 100 to determine optimum transfection concentration. Transduction efficiency was again measured at various intervals to determine the radiation dose and interval post transfection which provides the maximum increase in transfection
Rabacus: A Python Package for Analytic Cosmological Radiative Transfer Calculations
Altay, Gabriel
2015-01-01
We describe Rabacus, a Python package for calculating the transfer of hydrogen ionizing radiation in simplified geometries relevant to astronomy and cosmology. We present example solutions for three specific cases: 1) a semi-infinite slab gas distribution in a homogeneous isotropic background, 2) a spherically symmetric gas distribution with a point source at the center, and 3) a spherically symmetric gas distribution in a homogeneous isotropic background. All problems can accommodate arbitrary spectra and density profiles as input. The solutions include a treatment of both hydrogen and helium, a self-consistent calculation of equilibrium temperatures, and the transfer of recombination radiation. The core routines are written in Fortran 90 and then wrapped in Python leading to execution speeds thousands of times faster than equivalent routines written in pure Python. In addition, all variables have associated units for ease of analysis. The software is part of the Python Package Index and the source code is a...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sempau, J. [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya (Spain)
2002-07-01
Monte Carlo (MC) simulation is the most accurate technique currently available for solving problems related with the transport of radiation in complex geometries, such as those encountered in medical application. In this work we present a brief description of the basic features of the MC simulation of photons, electrons and positrons. Some of the most relevant applications of this technique in the field of medical physics are also discussed, namely, imaging in nuclear medicine, diagnostic radiology, calculations related with radiotherapy (i.e.,teletherapy, dose planning and brachytherapy) and microdosimetry. It is foreseen that this latter field will encompass the most challenging problems for the application of radiation physics to medicine during the 21 st century. (Author) 12 refs.
The influence of frequency-dependent radiative transfer on the structures of radiative shocks
Vaytet, N; Audit, E; Chabrier, G
2013-01-01
Radiative shocks are shocks in a gas where the radiative energy and flux coming from the very hot post-shock material are non-negligible in the shock's total energy budget, and are often large enough to heat the material ahead of the shock. Many simulations of radiative shocks, both in the contexts of astrophysics and laboratory experiments, use a grey treatment of radiative transfer coupled to the hydrodynamics. However, the opacities of the gas show large variations as a function of frequency and this needs to be taken into account if one wishes to reproduce the relevant physics. We have performed radiation hydrodynamics simulations of radiative shocks in Ar using multigroup (frequency dependent) radiative transfer with the HERACLES code. The opacities were taken from the ODALISC database. We show the influence of the number of frequency groups used on the dynamics and morphologies of subcritical and supercritical radiative shocks in Ar gas, and in particular on the extent of the radiative precursor. We fin...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The radiation detection efficiency of four scintillators employed, or designed to be employed, in positron emission imaging (PET) was evaluated as a function of the crystal thickness by applying Monte Carlo Methods. The scintillators studied were the LuSiO5 (LSO), LuAlO3 (LuAP), Gd2SiO5 (GSO) and the YAlO3 (YAP). Crystal thicknesses ranged from 0 to 50 mm. The study was performed via a previously generated photon transport Monte Carlo code. All photon track and energy histories were recorded and the energy transferred or absorbed in the scintillator medium was calculated together with the energy redistributed and retransported as secondary characteristic fluorescence radiation. Various parameters were calculated e.g. the fraction of the incident photon energy absorbed, transmitted or redistributed as fluorescence radiation, the scatter to primary ratio, the photon and energy distribution within each scintillator block etc. As being most significant, the fraction of the incident photon energy absorbed was found to increase with increasing crystal thickness tending to form a plateau above the 30 mm thickness. For LSO, LuAP, GSO and YAP scintillators, respectively, this fraction had the value of 44.8, 36.9 and 45.7% at the 10 mm thickness and 96.4, 93.2 and 96.9% at the 50 mm thickness. Within the plateau area approximately (57-59)% (59-63)% (52-63)% and (58-61)% of this fraction was due to scattered and reabsorbed radiation for the LSO, GSO, YAP and LuAP scintillators, respectively. In all cases, a negligible fraction (<0.1%) of the absorbed energy was found to escape the crystal as fluorescence radiation
Interpreting snowpack radiometry using currently existing microwave radiative transfer models
Kang, D. H.; Tan, S.; Kim, E. J.
2015-12-01
A radiative transfer model (RTM) to calculate a snow brightness temperature (Tb) is a critical element to retrieve terrestrial snow from microwave remote sensing observations. The RTM simulates the Tb based on a layered snow by solving a set of microwave radiative transfer formulas. Even with the same snow physical inputs used for the RTM, currently existing models such as Microwave Emission Model of Layered Snowpacks (MEMLS), Dense Media Radiative Transfer (DMRT-Tsang), and Helsinki University of Technology (HUT) models produce different Tb responses. To backwardly invert snow physical properties from the Tb, the differences from the RTMs are to be quantitatively explained. To this end, the paper evaluates the sources of perturbations in the RTMs, and reveals the equations where the variations are made among three models. Investigations are conducted by providing the same but gradual changes in snow physical inputs such as snow grain size, and snow density to the 3 RTMs. Simulations are done with the frequencies consistent with the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-E (AMSR-E) at 6.9, 10.7, 18.7, 23.8, 36.5, and 89.0 GHz. For realistic simulations, the 3 RTMs are simultaneously driven by the same snow physics model with the meteorological forcing datasets and are validated from the snow core samplings from the CLPX (Cold Land Processes Field Experiment) 2002-2003, and NoSREx (Nordic Snow Radar Experiment) 2009-2010.
Lattice Boltzmann method for one-dimensional vector radiative transfer.
Zhang, Yong; Yi, Hongliang; Tan, Heping
2016-02-01
A one-dimensional vector radiative transfer (VRT) model based on lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) that considers polarization using four Stokes parameters is developed. The angular space is discretized by the discrete-ordinates approach, and the spatial discretization is conducted by LBM. LBM has such attractive properties as simple calculation procedure, straightforward and efficient handing of boundary conditions, and capability of stable and accurate simulation. To validate the performance of LBM for vector radiative transfer, four various test problems are examined. The first case investigates the non-scattering thermal-emitting atmosphere with no external collimated solar. For the other three cases, the external collimated solar and three different scattering types are considered. Particularly, the LBM is extended to solve VRT in the atmospheric aerosol system where the scattering function contains singularities and the hemisphere space distributions for the Stokes vector are presented and discussed. The accuracy and computational efficiency of this algorithm are discussed. Numerical results show that the LBM is accurate, flexible and effective to solve one-dimensional polarized radiative transfer problems. PMID:26906779
A dynamic multi-scale model for transient radiative transfer calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A dynamic multi-scale model which couples the transient radiative transfer equation (RTE) and the diffusion equation (DE) is proposed and validated. It is based on a domain decomposition method where the system is divided into a mesoscopic subdomain, where the RTE is solved, and a macroscopic subdomain where the DE is solved. A buffer zone is introduced between the mesoscopic and the macroscopic subdomains, as proposed by Degond and Jin (2005 [1]), where a coupled system of two equations, one at the mesoscopic and the other at the macroscopic scale, is solved. The DE and the RTE are coupled through the equations inside the buffer zone, instead of being coupled through a geometric interface like in standard domain decomposition methods. One main advantage is that no boundary or interface conditions are needed for the DE. The model is compared to Monte Carlo, finite volume and P1 solutions in one dimensional stationary and transient test cases, and presents promising results in terms of trade-off between accuracy and computational requirements. -- Highlights: ► A dynamic multi-scale model for transient radiative transfer is developed. ► The model couple the RTE and the diffusion equation in a very robust way. ► The model is validated in a 1D test case of short-pulse laser application. ► A good trade-off between accuracy and computational requirement is obtained.
Light Penetration in Seawater Polluted by Dispersed Oil: Results of Radiative Transfer Modelling
Haule, K.; Darecki, M.; Toczek, H.
2015-11-01
The downwelling light in seawater is shaped by natural seawater constituents as well as by some external substances which can occur locally and temporally. In this study we focused on dispersed oil droplets which can be found in seawater after an oil spill or in the consequence of intensive shipping, oil extraction and transportation. We applied our modified radiative transfer model based on Monte Carlo code to evaluate the magnitude of potential influence of dispersed oil droplets on the downwelling irradiance and the depth of the euphotic zone. Our model was validated on the basis of in situ measurements for natural (unpolluted) seawater in the Southern Baltic Sea, resulting in less than 5% uncertainty. The optical properties of dispersed Petrobaltic crude oil were calculated on the basis of Mie theory and involved into radiative transfer model. We found that the changes in downwelling light caused by dispersed oil depend on several factors such as oil droplet concentration, size distribution, and the penetration depth (i.e. vertical range of oil droplets occurrence below sea surface). Petrobaltic oil droplets of submicron sizes and penetration depth of 5 m showed a potentially detectable reduction in the depth of the euphotic zone of 5.5% at the concentration of only 10 ppb. Micrometer-sized droplets needed 10 times higher concentration to give a similar effect. Our radiative transfer model provided data to analyse and discuss the influence of each factor separately. This study contributes to the understanding of the change in visible light penetration in seawater affected by dispersed oil.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Scheirer, R.
2001-07-01
A most profound knowledge about the radiative characteristics of clouds is required for the development of realistic atmospheric circulation models and cloud remote sensing algorithms. At present, cloud fields are treated extremely simplified in both application areas. Cloud radiative flux parameterizations in atmospheric circulation models as well as the correlation between radiance and cloud properties as required for remote sensing algorithm are usually based on the assumption of plane-parallel homogeneous (PPHOM) clouds. Compared to realistically 3D cloud fields, this simplification leads to large systematic errors. In order to quantify these errors a Monte Carlo radiative transfer model has been developed and applied to 3D cloud fields. The latter origin from the non-hydrostatic 3D atmospheric model GESIMA. Absorption and scattering properties of the cloud particles have been calculated by means of Mie-theory for spherical water droplets and a ray-tracing code for non-spherical ice, rain, and snow particles. Line by line calculations have been used to obtain the absorption properties of the relevant atmospheric gases. (orig.) [German] Die Erstellung realistischer Zirkulationsmodelle der Atmosphaere erfordert unter Anderem eine moeglichst genaue Kenntnis der Strahlungseigenschaften von Wolken. Auch fuer Ableitung und Korrektur von Fernerkundungsalgorithmen sind die Einfluesse der Wolken auf die zu messenden Strahldichten von grosser Bedeutung. In den beiden genannten Anwendungen werden Wolkenfelder zur Zeit nur in stark vereinfachter Weise beruecksichtigt. Parameterisierungen der Strahlungsfluesse bei bewoelkter Atmosphaere in atmosphaerischen Zirkulationsmodellen, sowie die Ableitung der Zusammenhaenge zwischen Strahldichten und optischen Wolkeneigenschaften basieren auf der Annahme von planparallelen und horizontal homogenen Wolken (PPHOM). Diese Approximation kann gegenueber der dreidimensionalen Strahlungstransportberechnung (3D) zu erheblichen Fehlern
A theoretical approach to room acoustic simulations based on a radiative transfer model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ruiz-Navarro, Juan-Miguel; Jacobsen, Finn; Escolano, José;
2010-01-01
A theoretical approach to room acoustic simulations based on a radiative transfer model is developed by adapting the classical radiative transfer theory from optics to acoustics. The proposed acoustic radiative transfer model expands classical geometrical room acoustic modeling algorithms by inco...
Radiative heat transfer in rocket thrust chambers and nozzles
Hammad, K. J.; Naraghi, M. H. N.
1989-01-01
Numerical models based on the discrete exchange factor (DEF) and the zonal methods for radiative analysis of rocket engines containing a radiatively participating medium have been developed. These models implement a new technique for calculating the direct exchange factors to account for possible blockage by the nozzle throat. Given the gas and surface temperature distributions, engine geometry, and radiative properties, the models compute the wall radiative heat fluxes at different axial positions. The results of sample calculations for a typical rocket engine (engine 700 at NASA), which uses RP-1 (a kerosene-type propellant), are presented for a wide range of surface and gas properties. It is found that the heat transfer by radiation can reach up to 50 percent of that due to convection. The maximum radiative heat flux is at the inner side of the engine, where the gas temperature is the highest. While the results of both models are in excellent agreement, the computation time of the DEF method is found to be much smaller.
Coefficients of an analytical aerosol forcing equation determined with a Monte-Carlo radiation model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Simple analytical equations for global-average direct aerosol radiative forcing are useful to quickly estimate aerosol forcing changes as function of key atmosphere, surface and aerosol parameters. The surface and atmosphere parameters in these analytical equations are the globally uniform atmospheric transmittance and surface albedo, and have so far been estimated from simplified observations under untested assumptions. In the present study, we take the state-of-the-art analytical equation and write the aerosol forcing as a linear function of the single scattering albedo (SSA) and replace the average upscatter fraction with the asymmetry parameter (ASY). Then we determine the surface and atmosphere parameter values of this equation using the output from the global MACR (Monte-Carlo Aerosol Cloud Radiation) model, as well as testing the validity of the equation. The MACR model incorporated spatio-temporally varying observations for surface albedo, cloud optical depth, water vapor, stratosphere column ozone, etc., instead of assuming as in the analytical equation that the atmosphere and surface parameters are globally uniform, and should thus be viewed as providing realistic radiation simulations. The modified analytical equation needs globally uniform aerosol parameters that consist of AOD (Aerosol Optical Depth), SSA, and ASY. The MACR model is run here with the same globally uniform aerosol parameters. The MACR model is also run without cloud to test the cloud effect. In both cloudy and cloud-free runs, the equation fits in the model output well whether SSA or ASY varies. This means the equation is an excellent approximation for the atmospheric radiation. On the other hand, the determined parameter values are somewhat realistic for the cloud-free runs but unrealistic for the cloudy runs. The global atmospheric transmittance, one of the determined parameters, is found to be around 0.74 in case of the cloud-free conditions and around 1.03 with cloud. The surface
The critical ingredients of SN Ia radiative-transfer modelling
Dessart, Luc; Blondin, Stephane; Khokhlov, Alexei
2013-01-01
We explore the physics of SN Ia light curves and spectra using the 1-D non-LTE time-dependent radiative-transfer code CMFGEN. Rather than adjusting ejecta properties to match observations, we select as input one "standard" 1-D Chandrasekhar-mass delayed-detonation hydrodynamical model, and then explore the sensitivity of radiation and gas properties of the ejecta on radiative-transfer modelling assumptions. The correct computation of SN Ia radiation is not exclusively a solution to an "opacity problem", characterized by the treatment of a large number of lines. We demonstrate that the key is to identify and treat important atomic processes consistently. This is not limited to treating line blanketing in full non-LTE. We show that including forbidden line transitions of metals, and in particular Co, is increasingly important for the temperature and ionization of the gas beyond maximum light. Non-thermal ionization and excitation also play a role, affecting the color evolution and the DM15 decline rate of our m...
A Radiation Transfer Solver for Athena using Short Characteristics
Davis, Shane W; Jiang, Yan-Fei
2012-01-01
We describe the implementation of a module for the Athena magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) code which solves the time-independent, multi-frequency radiative transfer (RT) equation on multidimensional Cartesian simulation domains, including scattering and non-LTE effects. The module is based on well-known and well-tested algorithms developed for modeling stellar atmospheres, including the method of short characteristics to solve the RT equation, accelerated Lambda iteration to handle scattering and non-LTE effects, and parallelization via domain decomposition. The module serves several purposes: it can be used to generate spectra and images, to compute a variable Eddington tensor (VET) for full radiation MHD simulations, and to calculate the heating and cooling source terms in the MHD equations in flows where radiation pressure is small compared with gas pressure. For the latter case, the module is combined with the standard MHD integrators using operator-splitting and we describe this approach in detail. Implementa...
Combined-mode heat transfer in radiatively participating media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper reports on an investigation of the computational considerations involved with the numerical solution of multi-dimensional, multi-mode heat transfer in a radiatively participating medium. Comparison of three different solution methods for solving the discretized nonlinear equations shows that none of the techniques is universally superior to the others, but that the best solution algorithm is highly dependent on the value of the radiation-conduction parameter. In addition, it was shown that the global error could be significantly reduced by placing only a few additional nodal points in high gradient regions. Furthermore, the inclusion of a linearly varying temperature dependent conductivity (wherein both conductive and radiative terms are nonlinear) was shown to have little effect on convergence
A study of the 3D radiative transfer effect in cloudy atmospheres
Okata, M.; Teruyuki, N.; Suzuki, K.
2015-12-01
Evaluation of the effect of clouds in the atmosphere is a significant problem in the Earth's radiation budget study with their large uncertainties of microphysics and the optical properties. In this situation, we still need more investigations of 3D cloud radiative transer problems using not only models but also satellite observational data.For this purpose, we have developed a 3D-Monte-Carlo radiative transfer code that is implemented with various functions compatible with the OpenCLASTR R-Star radiation code for radiance and flux computation, i.e. forward and backward tracing routines, non-linear k-distribution parameterization (Sekiguchi and Nakajima, 2008) for broad band solar flux calculation, and DM-method for flux and TMS-method for upward radiance (Nakajima and Tnaka 1998). We also developed a Minimum cloud Information Deviation Profiling Method (MIDPM) as a method for a construction of 3D cloud field with MODIS/AQUA and CPR/CloudSat data. We then selected a best-matched radar reflectivity factor profile from the library for each of off-nadir pixels of MODIS where CPR profile is not available, by minimizing the deviation between library MODIS parameters and those at the pixel. In this study, we have used three cloud microphysical parameters as key parameters for the MIDPM, i.e. effective particle radius, cloud optical thickness and top of cloud temperature, and estimated 3D cloud radiation budget. We examined the discrepancies between satellite observed and mode-simulated radiances and three cloud microphysical parameter's pattern for studying the effects of cloud optical and microphysical properties on the radiation budget of the cloud-laden atmospheres.
Venable, D. D.
1983-01-01
A semi-analytic Monte Carlo simulation methodology (SALMON) was discussed. This simulation technique is particularly well suited for addressing fundamental radiative transfer problems in oceanographic LIDAR (optical radar), and also provides a framework for investigating the effects of environmental factors on LIDAR system performance. The simulation model was extended for airborne laser fluorosensors to allow for inhomogeneities in the vertical distribution of constituents in clear sea water. Results of the simulations for linearly varying step concentrations of chlorophyll are presented. The SALMON technique was also employed to determine how the LIDAR signals from an inhomogeneous media differ from those from homogeneous media.
Misselt, K A; Clayton, G C; Wolff, M J
2000-01-01
In this paper and a companion paper we present the DIRTY model, a Monte Carlo radiative transfer code, self-consistently including dust heating and emission, and accounting for the effects of the transient heating of small grains. The code is completely general; the density structure of the dust, the number and type of heating sources, and their geometric configurations can be specified arbitrarily within the model space. Source photons are tracked through the scattering and absorbing medium using Monte Carlo techniques and the effects of multiple scattering are included. The dust scattering, absorbing, and emitting properties are calculated from realistic dust models derived by fitting observed extinction curves in Local Group galaxies including the Magellanic Clouds and the Milky Way. The dust temperature and the emitted dust spectrum are calculated self consistently from the absorbed energy including the effects of temperature fluctuations in small grains. Dust self-absorption is also accounted for, allowi...
Havemann, Stephan; Thelen, Jean-Claude; Taylor, Jonathan P.; Keil, Andreas
2009-03-01
The Havemann-Taylor Fast Radiative Transfer Code (HT-FRTC) has been developed for the simulation of highly spectrally resolved measurements from satellite based (i.e. Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI), Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS)) and airborne (i.e. Atmospheric Research Interferometer Evaluation System (ARIES)) instruments. The use of principle components enables the calculation of a complete spectrum in less than a second. The principal compoents are derived from a diverse training set of atmospheres and surfaces and contain their spectral characteristics in a highly compressed form. For any given atmosphere/surface, the HT-FRTC calculates the weightings (also called scores) of a few hundred principal components based on selected monochromatic radiative transfer calculations, which is far cheaper than thousands of channel radiance calculations. By intercomparison with line-by-line and other fast models the HT-FRTC has been shown to be accurate. The HT-FRTC has been successfully applied to simultaneous variational retrievals of atmospheric temperature and humidity profiles, surface temperature and surface emissivity over land. This is the subject of another presentation at this conference. The HT-FRTC has now also been extended to include an exact treatment of scattering by aerosols/clouds. The radiative transfer problem is solved using a discrete ordinate method (DISORT). Modelling results at high-spectral resolution for non-clear sky atmospheres obtained with the HT-FRTC are presented.
Direct transfer of solar radiation to high temperature applications
Rahou, Maryam; Andrews, John; Rosengarten, Gary
2013-12-01
This paper reviews the different methods of directly transferring solar radiation from concentrated solar collectors to medium to high temperature thermal absorbers, at temperatures ranging from 100 to 400°. These methods are divided into four main categories associated with the radiation transfer medium: optical fibres, photonic crystal fibres, metal waveguides and light guides. The reviewed methods are novel compared to most rooftop solar concentrators that have a receiver and a thermal storage unit coupled by heat transfer fluids. Bundled optical fibres have the capability of transferring concentrated solar energy across the full wavelength spectrum with the maximum optical efficiency. In this study two different types of optical bundle, including hard polymer cladding silica (HPCS) and polymer clad silica (PCS) fibres are introduced which offer a broad spectrum transmission range from 300 to 1700 nm, low levels of losses through attenuation and the best resistance to heating. These fibres are able to transmit about 94% of the solar radiation over a distance of 10 m. The main parameters that determine the overall efficiency of the system are the concentration ratio, the acceptance angle of the fibres, and the matching of the diameter of the focus spot of the concentrator and the internal diameter of the fibre. In order to maximize the coupling efficiency of the system, higher levels of concentration are required which can be achieved through lenses or other non-imaging concentrators. However, these additional components add to the cost and complexity of the system. To avoid this problem we use tapered bundles of optical fibres that enhance the coupling efficiency by increasing the acceptance angle and consequently the coupling efficiency of the system.
Coefficients of an analytical aerosol forcing equation determined with a Monte-Carlo radiation model
Hassan, Taufiq; Moosmüller, H.; Chung, Chul E.
2015-10-01
Simple analytical equations for global-average direct aerosol radiative forcing are useful to quickly estimate aerosol forcing changes as function of key atmosphere, surface and aerosol parameters. The surface and atmosphere parameters in these analytical equations are the globally uniform atmospheric transmittance and surface albedo, and have so far been estimated from simplified observations under untested assumptions. In the present study, we take the state-of-the-art analytical equation and write the aerosol forcing as a linear function of the single scattering albedo (SSA) and replace the average upscatter fraction with the asymmetry parameter (ASY). Then we determine the surface and atmosphere parameter values of this equation using the output from the global MACR (Monte-Carlo Aerosol Cloud Radiation) model, as well as testing the validity of the equation. The MACR model incorporated spatio-temporally varying observations for surface albedo, cloud optical depth, water vapor, stratosphere column ozone, etc., instead of assuming as in the analytical equation that the atmosphere and surface parameters are globally uniform, and should thus be viewed as providing realistic radiation simulations. The modified analytical equation needs globally uniform aerosol parameters that consist of AOD (Aerosol Optical Depth), SSA, and ASY. The MACR model is run here with the same globally uniform aerosol parameters. The MACR model is also run without cloud to test the cloud effect. In both cloudy and cloud-free runs, the equation fits in the model output well whether SSA or ASY varies. This means the equation is an excellent approximation for the atmospheric radiation. On the other hand, the determined parameter values are somewhat realistic for the cloud-free runs but unrealistic for the cloudy runs. The global atmospheric transmittance, one of the determined parameters, is found to be around 0.74 in case of the cloud-free conditions and around 1.03 with cloud. The surface
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A Monte Carlo code was developed for simulating the electron cascade in radiation detector materials. The electron differential scattering cross sections were derived from measured electron energy-loss and optical spectra, making the method applicable for a wide range of materials. The detector resolution in a simplified model system shows dependence on the bandgap, the plasmon strength and energy, and the valence band width. In principle, these parameters could be optimized to improve detector performance. The intrinsic energy resolution was calculated for three semiconductors: silicon (Si), gallium arsenide (GaAs), and zinc telluride (ZnTe). Setting the ionization thresholds for electrons and holes is identified as a critical issue, as this strongly affects both the average electron-hole pair energy w and the Fano factor F. Using an ionization threshold from impact ionization calculations as an effective bandgap yields pair energies that are well matched to measured values. Fano factors of 0.091 (Si), 0.100 (GaAs), and 0.075 (ZnTe) were calculated. The Fano factor calculated for silicon using this model was lower than some results from past simulations and experiments. This difference could be attributed to problems in simulating inter-band transitions and the scattering of low-energy electrons.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Narayan, Raman D.; Miranda, Ryan; Rez, Peter [Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-1504 (United States)
2012-03-15
A Monte Carlo code was developed for simulating the electron cascade in radiation detector materials. The electron differential scattering cross sections were derived from measured electron energy-loss and optical spectra, making the method applicable for a wide range of materials. The detector resolution in a simplified model system shows dependence on the bandgap, the plasmon strength and energy, and the valence band width. In principle, these parameters could be optimized to improve detector performance. The intrinsic energy resolution was calculated for three semiconductors: silicon (Si), gallium arsenide (GaAs), and zinc telluride (ZnTe). Setting the ionization thresholds for electrons and holes is identified as a critical issue, as this strongly affects both the average electron-hole pair energy w and the Fano factor F. Using an ionization threshold from impact ionization calculations as an effective bandgap yields pair energies that are well matched to measured values. Fano factors of 0.091 (Si), 0.100 (GaAs), and 0.075 (ZnTe) were calculated. The Fano factor calculated for silicon using this model was lower than some results from past simulations and experiments. This difference could be attributed to problems in simulating inter-band transitions and the scattering of low-energy electrons.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Background: Airborne γ-ray spectrometer has been used extensively over several decades for mineral exploration and geological mapping purposes to look for the peaks of potassium, uranium and thorium. And the low-energy ray is ignored. Purpose: In order to provide a basis for obtaining effective environmental radioactivity measurement results, Minimum detectable activity (MDA) values in monitoring ground radiation of the polycrystalline airborne γ-ray spectrometer need to be calculated. Methods: MDA is related with the detection efficiency. A Monte Carlo simulation was performed using the MCNP5 code for different radionuclides in the ground environment. Equivalent mass thickness was proposed to reduce variance, and the secondary source was used in the MCNP5 input. Results: The pulse height distributions of external detectors and internal detectors for 137Cs and 131I at different heights were obtained, which represent the counting rate decreased as the altitude increases. And the MDA of external detectors is better than that of internal detectors. Conclusion: The external detector is suggested to adopt in flight measurement for enhancing MDA. (authors)
Evaluation of the scattered radiation components produced in a gamma camera using Monte Carlo method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Polo, Ivon Oramas, E-mail: ivonoramas67@gmail.com [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Technologies, Higher Institute of Applied Science and Technology (InSTEC), La Habana (Cuba)
2014-07-01
Introduction: this paper presents a simulation for evaluation of the scattered radiation components produced in a gamma camera PARK using Monte Carlo code SIMIND. It simulates a whole body study with MDP (Methylene Diphosphonate) radiopharmaceutical based on Zubal anthropomorphic phantom, with some spinal lesions. Methods: the simulation was done by comparing 3 configurations for the detected photons. The corresponding energy spectra were obtained using Low Energy High Resolution collimator. The parameters related with the interactions and the fraction of events in the energy window, the simulated events of the spectrum and scatter events were calculated. Results: the simulation confirmed that the images without influence of scattering events have a higher number of valid recorded events and it improved the statistical quality of them. A comparison among different collimators was made. The parameters and detector energy spectrum were calculated for each simulation configuration with these collimators using {sup 99m}Tc. Conclusion: the simulation corroborated that LEHS collimator has higher sensitivity and HEHR collimator has lower sensitivity when they are used with low energy photons. (author)
Radiation field characterization of a BNCT research facility using Monte Carlo method - code MCNP-4B
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boron Neutron Capture Therapy - BNCT - is a selective cancer treatment and arises as an alternative therapy to treat cancer when usual techniques - surgery, chemotherapy or radiotherapy - show no satisfactory results. The main proposal of this work is to project a facility to BNCT studies. This facility relies on the use of an Am Be neutron source and on a set of moderators, filters and shielding which will provide the best neutron/gamma beam characteristic for these Becton studies, i.e., high intensity thermal and/or epithermal neutron fluxes and with the minimum feasible gamma rays and fast neutrons contaminants. A computational model of the experiment was used to obtain the radiation field in the sample irradiation position. The calculations have been performed with the MCNP 4B Monte Carlo Code and the results obtained can be regarded as satisfactory, i.e., a thermal neutron fluencyNT = 1,35x108 n/cm , a fast neutron dose of 5,86x10-10 Gy/NT and a gamma ray dose of 8,30x10-14 Gy/NT. (author)
Radiation field characterization of a BNCT research facility using Monte Carlo Method - Code MCNP-4B
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boron Neutron Capture Therapy - BNCT- is a selective cancer treatment and arises as an alternative therapy to treat cancer when usual techniques - surgery, chemotherapy or radiotherapy - show no satisfactory results. The main proposal of this work is to project a facility to BNCT studies. This facility relies on the use of an AmBe neutron source and on a set of moderators, filters and shielding which will provide the best neutron/gamma beam characteristic for these BNCT studies, i.e., high intensity thermal and/or epithermal neutron fluxes and with the minimum feasible gamma rays and fast neutrons contaminants. A computational model of the experiment was used to obtain the radiation field in the sample irradiation position. The calculations have been performed with the MCNP 4B Monte Carlo Code and the results obtained can be regarded as satisfactory, i.e., a thermal neutron fluency ΝΤ = 1,35x108 n/cm2, a fast neutron dose of 5,86x-10 Gy/ΝΤ and a gamma ray dose of 8,30x-14 Gy/ΝΤ. (author)
Temperature variance study in Monte-Carlo photon transport theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study different Monte-Carlo methods for solving radiative transfer problems, and particularly Fleck's Monte-Carlo method. We first give the different time-discretization schemes and the corresponding stability criteria. Then we write the temperature variance as a function of the variances of temperature and absorbed energy at the previous time step. Finally we obtain some stability criteria for the Monte-Carlo method in the stationary case
Radiative transfer in hot plasmas: a new numeric approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Radiative transfer is one of the main issues in inertial confinement fusion and in astrophysics. The basic equations governing the evolution of a radiative field and its coupling with a heat equation are well known, at least in the LTE approximation (Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium). However, the numerical techniques which have been developed so far are not fully satisfactory. The aim of this work has therefore been to suggest a few new ideas concerning simplicity and accuracy in the description as well as in the resolution of the equations coupling the radiative field with matter. Chapter 1 introduces the context of this work and stresses the importance of opacities in the study of the interaction between the radiation field and matter, whereas chapter 2 gives a rather complete general survey of the main physical models used until now to describe this interaction. An alternative formalism of this coupling is presented in chapter 3 where a new distribution function, based on the departure of the radiation field from thermodynamic equilibrium, is introduced. In the new resulting transport equation, the source term is now mainly determined by a time derivative and a spatial gradient of the temperature and on the other hand by a universal spectrum. This formalism includes thermal conduction in a natural way which is not the case with standard formalisms. Finally, chapter 4 presents results of the confrontation with literature data of our formalism and the numerical techniques developed, including an application to a non homogeneous medium. (author) figs., tabs., 57 refs
Analytical properties of the radiance in atmospheric radiative transfer theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
It is demonstrated mathematically strictly that state density functions, as the radiance (specific intensity), exist to describe certain state properties of transported photons on microscopic and the state of the radiation field on macroscopic scale, which have independent physical meanings. Analytical properties as boundedness, continuity, differentiability and integrability of these functions to describe the photon transport are discussed. It is shown that the density functions may be derived based on the assumption of photons as real particles of non-zero and finite size, independently of usual electrodynamics, and certain historically postulated functional relationships between them were proved, that is, these functions can be derived mathematically strictly and consistently within the framework of the theory of the phenomenological radiative transfer if one takes the theory seriously by really assuming photons as particles. In this sense these functions may be treated as fundamental physical quantities within the scope of this theory, if one considers the possibility of the existence of photons. -- Highlights: • Proof of existence of the radiance within the scope of the theory of atmospheric radiative transfer. • Proof of relations between the photon number and photon energy density function and the radiance. • Strictly mathematical derivation of the analytical properties of these state density functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A Monte Carlo method of multiple scattered coherent light with the information of shear wave propagation in scattering media is presented. The established Monte-Carlo algorithm is mainly relative to optical phase variations due to the acoustic-radiation-force shear-wave-induced displacements of light scatterers. Both the distributions and temporal behaviors of optical phase increments in probe locations are obtained. Consequently, shear wave speed is evaluated quantitatively. It is noted that the phase increments exactly track the propagations of shear waves induced by focus-ultrasound radiation force. In addition, attenuations of shear waves are demonstrated in simulation results. By using linear regression processing, the shear wave speed, which is set to 2.1 m/s in simulation, is estimated to be 2.18 m/s and 2.35 m/s at time sampling intervals of 0.2 ms and 0.5 ms, respectively
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) are promising heating agents in cancer photothermal therapy when under near infrared radiation, yet few efforts have been focused on the quantitative understanding of the photothermal energy conversion in biological systems. In this article, a mesoscopic study that takes into account SWNT morphologies (diameter and aspect ratio) and dispersions (orientation and concentration), as well as thermal boundary resistance, is performed by means of an off-lattice Monte Carlo simulation. Results indicate that SWNTs with orientation perpendicular to the laser, smaller diameter and better dispersion have higher heating efficiency in cancer photothermal therapy. Thermal boundary resistances greatly inhibit thermal energy transfer away from SWNTs, thereby affecting their heating efficiency. Through appropriate interfacial modification around SWNTs, compared to the surrounding healthy tissue, a higher temperature of the cancer cell can be achieved, resulting in more effective cancer photothermal therapy. These findings promise to bridge the gap between macroscopic and microscopic computational studies of cancer photothermal therapy. (papers)
Heat transfer in granular beds in radiative heat supply
Teplitskii, Yu. S.; Kovenskii, V. I.
2010-07-01
The basic regularities of stationary heat transfer throughout the space of an infiltrated granular bed in radiative heat supply in cocurrent-flow (solar collector 1) and counterflow (solar collector 2) regimes have been investigated within the framework of a two-temperature model. The boundary layer of the third kind for the skeleton of particles at exit from the bed has been formulated; this condition allows for the degree of turbulence of the heat-transfer-agent flow. A quasihomogeneity criterion making it possible to evaluate the thermal state of a two-phase system has been introduced. The approximation dependences for calculation of the active-portion length, the bed’s resistance, the solar-collector efficiency, and the average relative phase-temperature difference have been established.
Can we modify response to radiation therapy with gene transfer?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Several recent studies suggest that gene transfer can be combined with irradiation to increase anti-tumor efficacy. Among genes of particular interest to be used in this combined approach are those involved in the regulation of radiation-induced lethality (apoptosis, DNA repair). Some additional aspects appear to be relatively specific to these combinations, such as the type of vector to be used (anaerobic bacteria) or the type of promoter (radio-inducible promoters). The first results obtained in mice bearing human xenograft tumors, combining gene transfer and irradiation are encouraging, but no clinical study has been performed so far. Finally it should be pointed out, in this area as well as in cancer gene therapy in general, that progress in gene vectorization is mandatory to optimize gene distribution within the tumor. (authors)
Adaptable Radiative Transfer Innovations for Submillimeter Telescopes (ARTIST)
Padovani, Marco
2011-01-01
Submillimeter observations are a key for answering many of the big questions in modern-day astrophysics, such as how stars and planets form, how galaxies evolve, and how material cycles through stars and the interstellar medium. With the upcoming large submillimeter facilities ALMA and Herschel a new window will open to study these questions. ARTIST is a project funded in context of the European ASTRONET program with the aim of developing a next generation model suite for comprehensive multi-dimensional radiative transfer calculations of the dust and line emission, as well as their polarization, to help interpret observations with these groundbreaking facilities.
A multilevel method for conductive-radiative heat transfer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Banoczi, J.M.; Kelley, C.T. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)
1996-12-31
We present a fast multilevel algorithm for the solution of a system of nonlinear integro-differential equations that model steady-state combined radiative-conductive heat transfer. The equations can be formulated as a compact fixed point problem with a fixed point map that requires both a solution of the linear transport equation and the linear heat equation for its evaluation. We use fast transport solvers developed by the second author, to construct an efficient evaluation of the fixed point map and then apply the Atkinson-Brakhage, method, with Newton-GMRES as the coarse mesh solver, to the full nonlinear system.
Peregrinations through topics in light scattering and radiative transfer
Kattawar, George W.
2016-07-01
In this van de Hulst essay, I have taken the liberty to present a journey through some topics in light scattering and radiative transfer which I feel were major contributions to the field but the number of topics I would like to cover is far more numerous than I have the time or the space to present. I also wanted to share with the reader some heartwarming memories I have of my wonderful friend and truly distinguished colleague Hendrik Christoffel van de Hulst (affectionately known to his colleagues as "Henk") whom I consider to be one of the preeminent scientists of his era.
Three-Dimensional Radiation Transfer in Young Stellar Objects
Whitney, B A; Bjorkman, J E; Dong, R; Wolff, M J; Wood, K; Honor, J
2013-01-01
We have updated our publicly available dust radiative transfer code (HOCHUNK3D) to include new emission processes and various 3-D geometries appropriate for forming stars. The 3-D geometries include warps and spirals in disks, accretion hotspots on the central star, fractal clumping density enhancements, and misaligned inner disks. Additional axisymmetric (2-D) features include gaps in disks and envelopes, "puffed-up inner rims" in disks, multiple bipolar cavity walls, and iteration of disk vertical structure assuming hydrostatic equilibrium. We include the option for simple power-law envelope geometry, which combined with fractal clumping, and bipolar cavities, can be used to model evolved stars as well as protostars. We include non-thermal emission from PAHs and very small grains, and external illumination from the interstellar radiation field. The grid structure was modified to allow multiple dust species in each cell; based on this, a simple prescription is implemented to model dust stratification. We des...
A field test of a simple stochastic radiative transfer model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Byrne, N. [Science Applications International Corp., San Diego, CA (United States)
1995-09-01
The problem of determining the effect of clouds on the radiative energy balance of the globe is of well-recognized importance. One can in principle solve the problem for any given configuration of clouds using numerical techniques. This knowledge is not useful however, because of the amount of input data and computer resources required. Besides, we need only the average of the resulting solution over the grid scale of a general circulation model (GCM). Therefore, we are interested in estimating the average of the solutions of such fine-grained problems using only coarse grained data, a science or art called stochastic radiation transfer. Results of the described field test indicate that the stochastic description is a somewhat better fit to the data than is a fractional cloud cover model, but more data are needed. 1 ref., 3 figs.
Estimation of presampling modulation transfer function in synchrotron radiation microtomography
Mizutani, Ryuta; Takeuchi, Akihisa; Uesugi, Kentaro; Suzuki, Yoshio
2016-01-01
The spatial resolution achieved by recent synchrotron radiation microtomographs should be estimated from the modulation transfer function (MTF) on the micrometer scale. Step response functions of a synchrotron radiation microtomograph were determined by the slanted edge method by using high-precision surfaces of diamond crystal and ion-milled aluminum wire. Tilted reconstruction was introduced to enable any edge to be used as the slanted edge by defining the reconstruction pixel matrix in an arbitrary orientation. MTFs were estimated from the step response functions of the slanted edges. The obtained MTFs coincided with MTF values estimated from square-wave patterns milled on the aluminum surface. Although x-ray refraction influences should be taken into account to evaluate MTFs, any flat surfaces with nanometer roughness can be used to determine the spatial resolutions of microtomographs.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Our group has constructed the small animal radiation research platform (SARRP) for delivering focal, kilo-voltage radiation to targets in small animals under robotic control using cone-beam CT guidance. The present work was undertaken to support the SARRP's treatment planning capabilities. We have devised a comprehensive system for characterizing the radiation dosimetry in water for the SARRP and have developed a Monte Carlo dose engine with the intent of reproducing these measured results. We find that the SARRP provides sufficient therapeutic dose rates ranging from 102 to 228 cGy min-1 at 1 cm depth for the available set of high-precision beams ranging from 0.5 to 5 mm in size. In terms of depth-dose, the mean of the absolute percentage differences between the Monte Carlo calculations and measurement is 3.4% over the full range of sampled depths spanning 0.5-7.2 cm for the 3 and 5 mm beams. The measured and computed profiles for these beams agree well overall; of note, good agreement is observed in the profile tails. Especially for the smallest 0.5 and 1 mm beams, including a more realistic description of the effective x-ray source into the Monte Carlo model may be important.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
accident. Special attention is paid to deriving of exact analytical values of view factors and mean beam lengths (which are a good tool in radiative heat transfer concerning gas media) for a number of standard geometries. Generalized Hottel's method of strings is used for rods of finite lengths. Monte-Carlo method is used for validation of new model in application to standard geometries. The developed model is successfully applied for modeling of PARAMETER-SF1 and QUENCH-06 tests, which use the triangular and square rod assembly respectively. (author)
Radiative Transfer Code: Application to the calculation of PAR
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
D Emmanuel; D Phillippe; C Malik
2000-12-01
The production of carbon in the ocean, the so-called primary production, depends on various physico- biological parameters: the biomass and nutrient amounts in oceans, the salinity and temperature of the water and the light available in the water column. We focus on the visible spectrum of the solar radiation defined as the Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR). We developed a model (Chami et al. 1997) to simulate the behavior of the solar beam in the atmosphere and the ocean. We first describe the theoretical basis of the code and the method we used to solve the radiative transfer equation (RTE): the successive orders of scattering (SO). The second part deals with a sensitivity study of the PAR just above and below the sea surface for various atmospheric conditions. In a cloudy sky, we computed a ratio between vector fluxes just above the sea surface and spherical fluxes just beneath the sea surface. When the optical thickness of the cloud increases this ratio remains constant and around 1.29. This parameter is convenient to convert vector flux at the sea surface as retrieved from satellite to PAR. Subsequently, we show how solar radiation as vector flux rather than PAR leads to an underestimate of the primary production up to 40% for extreme cases.
Bahadori, Amir Alexander
Astronauts are exposed to a unique radiation environment in space. United States terrestrial radiation worker limits, derived from guidelines produced by scientific panels, do not apply to astronauts. Limits for astronauts have changed throughout the Space Age, eventually reaching the current National Aeronautics and Space Administration limit of 3% risk of exposure induced death, with an administrative stipulation that the risk be assured to the upper 95% confidence limit. Much effort has been spent on reducing the uncertainty associated with evaluating astronaut risk for radiogenic cancer mortality, while tools that affect the accuracy of the calculations have largely remained unchanged. In the present study, the impacts of using more realistic computational phantoms with size variability to represent astronauts with simplified deterministic radiation transport were evaluated. Next, the impacts of microgravity-induced body changes on space radiation dosimetry using the same transport method were investigated. Finally, dosimetry and risk calculations resulting from Monte Carlo radiation transport were compared with results obtained using simplified deterministic radiation transport. The results of the present study indicated that the use of phantoms that more accurately represent human anatomy can substantially improve space radiation dose estimates, most notably for exposures from solar particle events under light shielding conditions. Microgravity-induced changes were less important, but results showed that flexible phantoms could assist in optimizing astronaut body position for reducing exposures during solar particle events. Finally, little overall differences in risk calculations using simplified deterministic radiation transport and 3D Monte Carlo radiation transport were found; however, for the galactic cosmic ray ion spectra, compensating errors were observed for the constituent ions, thus exhibiting the need to perform evaluations on a particle
Numerical Radiative Transfer and the Hydrogen Reionization of the Universe
Petkova, M.
2011-03-01
One of the most interesting questions in cosmology is to understand how the Universe evolved from its nearly uniform and simple state briefly after the Big Bang to the complex state we see around us today. In particular, we would like to explain how galaxies have formed, and why they have the properties that we observe in the local Universe. Computer simulations play a highly important role in studying these questions, because they allow one to follow the dynamical equations of gravity and hydrodynamics well into the non-linear regime of the growth of cosmic structures. The current generation of simulation codes for cosmological structure formation calculates the self-gravity of dark matter and cosmic gas, and the fluid dynamics of the cosmic gas, but radiation processes are typically not taken into account, or only at the level of a spatially uniform, externally imposed background field. However, we know that the radiation field has been highly inhomogeneous during certain phases of the growth of structure, and may have in fact provided important feedback effects for galaxy formation. In particular, it is well established that the diffuse gas in the universe was nearly fully neutral after recombination at very high redshift, but today this gas is highly ionized. Sometime during the evolution, a transition to the ionized state must have occurred, a process we refer to as reionization. The UV radiation responsible for this reionization is now permeating the universe and may in part explain why small dwarf galaxies have so low luminosities. It is therefore clear that accurate and self-consistent studies of galaxy formation and of the dynamics of the reionization process should ideally be done with simulation codes that directly include a treatment of radiative transfer, and that account for all relevant source and sink terms of the radiation. We present a novel numerical implementation of radiative transfer in the cosmological smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH
Bouland, Olivier H.
2016-03-01
This article supplies an overview of issues related to the interpretation of surrogate measurement results for neutron-incident cross section predictions; difficulties that are somehow masked by the historical conversion route based on Weisskopf-Ewing approximation. Our proposal is to handle the various difficulties by using a more rigorous approach relying on Monte Carlo simulation of transfer reactions with extended R-matrix theory. The multiple deficiencies of the historical surrogate treatment are recalled but only one is examined in some details here; meaning the calculation of in-out-going channel Width Fluctuation Correction Factors (WFCF) which behavior witness partly the failure of Niels Bohr's compound nucleus theoretical landmark. Relevant WFCF calculations according to neutron-induced surrogate- and cross section-types as a function of neutron-induced fluctuating energy range [0 - 2.1 MeV] are presented and commented in the case of the 240Pu* and 241Pu* compound nucleus isotopes.
Minibeam radiation therapy for the management of osteosarcomas: A Monte Carlo study
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Purpose: Minibeam radiation therapy (MBRT) exploits the well-established tissue-sparing effect provided by the combination of submillimetric field sizes and a spatial fractionation of the dose. The aim of this work is to evaluate the feasibility and potential therapeutic gain of MBRT, in comparison with conventional radiotherapy, for osteosarcoma treatments. Methods: Monte Carlo simulations (PENELOPE/PENEASY code) were used as a method to study the dose distributions resulting from MBRT irradiations of a rat femur and a realistic human femur phantoms. As a figure of merit, peak and valley doses and peak-to-valley dose ratios (PVDR) were assessed. Conversion of absorbed dose to normalized total dose (NTD) was performed in the human case. Several field sizes and irradiation geometries were evaluated. Results: It is feasible to deliver a uniform dose distribution in the target while the healthy tissue benefits from a spatial fractionation of the dose. Very high PVDR values (⩾20) were achieved in the entrance beam path in the rat case. PVDR values ranged from 2 to 9 in the human phantom. NTD2.0 of 87 Gy might be reached in the tumor in the human femur while the healthy tissues might receive valley NTD2.0 lower than 20 Gy. The doses in the tumor and healthy tissues might be significantly higher and lower than the ones commonly delivered used in conventional radiotherapy. Conclusions: The obtained dose distributions indicate that a gain in normal tissue sparing might be expected. This would allow the use of higher (and potentially curative) doses in the tumor. Biological experiments are warranted
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper we present Monte Carlo studies of intensity modulated radiation therapy using laser-accelerated proton beams. Laser-accelerated protons coming out of a solid high-density target have broad energy and angular spectra leading to dose distributions that cannot be directly used for therapeutic applications. Through the introduction of a spectrometer-like particle selection system that delivers small pencil beams of protons with desired energy spectra it is feasible to use laser-accelerated protons for intensity modulated radiotherapy. The method presented in this paper is a three-dimensional modulation in which the proton energy spectrum and intensity of each individual beamlet are modulated to yield a homogeneous dose in both the longitudinal and lateral directions. As an evaluation of the efficacy of this method, it has been applied to two prostate cases using a variety of beam arrangements. We have performed a comparison study between intensity modulated photon plans and those for laser-accelerated protons. For identical beam arrangements and the same optimization parameters, proton plans exhibit superior coverage of the target and sparing of neighbouring critical structures. Dose-volume histogram analysis of the resulting dose distributions shows up to 50% reduction of dose to the critical structures. As the number of fields is decreased, the proton modality exhibits a better preservation of the optimization requirements on the target and critical structures. It is shown that for a two-beam arrangement (parallel-opposed) it is possible to achieve both superior target coverage with 5% dose inhomogeneity within the target and excellent sparing of surrounding tissue
Smekens, F.; Létang, J. M.; Noblet, C.; Chiavassa, S.; Delpon, G.; Freud, N.; Rit, S.; Sarrut, D.
2014-12-01
We propose the split exponential track length estimator (seTLE), a new kerma-based method combining the exponential variant of the TLE and a splitting strategy to speed up Monte Carlo (MC) dose computation for low energy photon beams. The splitting strategy is applied to both the primary and the secondary emitted photons, triggered by either the MC events generator for primaries or the photon interactions generator for secondaries. Split photons are replaced by virtual particles for fast dose calculation using the exponential TLE. Virtual particles are propagated by ray-tracing in voxelized volumes and by conventional MC navigation elsewhere. Hence, the contribution of volumes such as collimators, treatment couch and holding devices can be taken into account in the dose calculation. We evaluated and analysed the seTLE method for two realistic small animal radiotherapy treatment plans. The effect of the kerma approximation, i.e. the complete deactivation of electron transport, was investigated. The efficiency of seTLE against splitting multiplicities was also studied. A benchmark with analog MC and TLE was carried out in terms of dose convergence and efficiency. The results showed that the deactivation of electrons impacts the dose at the water/bone interface in high dose regions. The maximum and mean dose differences normalized to the dose at the isocenter were, respectively of 14% and 2% . Optimal splitting multiplicities were found to be around 300. In all situations, discrepancies in integral dose were below 0.5% and 99.8% of the voxels fulfilled a 1%/0.3 mm gamma index criterion. Efficiency gains of seTLE varied from 3.2 × 105 to 7.7 × 105 compared to analog MC and from 13 to 15 compared to conventional TLE. In conclusion, seTLE provides results similar to the TLE while increasing the efficiency by a factor between 13 and 15, which makes it particularly well-suited to typical small animal radiation therapy applications.
Cosmological Radiative Transfer Comparison Project II: The Radiation-Hydrodynamic Tests
Iliev, Ilian T; Mellema, Garrelt; Ahn, Kyungjin; Baek, Sunghye; Gnedin, Nickolay Y; Kravtsov, Andrey V; Norman, Michael; Raicevic, Milan; Reynolds, Daniel R; Sato, Daisuke; Shapiro, Paul R; Semelin, Benoit; Smidt, Joseph; Susa, Hajime; Theuns, Tom; Umemura, Masayuki
2009-01-01
The development of radiation hydrodynamical methods that are able to follow gas dynamics and radiative transfer self-consistently is key to the solution of many problems in numerical astrophysics. Such fluid flows are highly complex, rarely allowing even for approximate analytical solutions against which numerical codes can be tested. An alternative validation procedure is to compare different methods against each other on common problems, in order to assess the robustness of the results and establish a range of validity for the methods. Previously, we presented such a comparison for a set of pure radiative transfer tests (i.e. for fixed, non-evolving density fields). This is the second paper of the Cosmological Radiative Transfer (RT) Comparison Project, in which we compare 9 independent RT codes directly coupled to gasdynamics on 3 relatively simple astrophysical hydrodynamics problems: (5) the expansion of an H II region in a uniform medium; (6) an ionization front (I-front) in a 1/r^2 density profile with...
Radiative transfer model for contaminated slabs : experimental validations
Andrieu, François; Schmitt, Bernard; Douté, Sylvain; Brissaud, Olivier
2015-01-01
This article presents a set of spectro-goniometric measurements of different water ice samples and the comparison with an approximated radiative transfer model. The experiments were done using the spectro-radiogoniometer described in Brissaud et al. (2004). The radiative transfer model assumes an isotropization of the flux after the second interface and is fully described in Andrieu et al. (2015). Two kind of experiments were conducted. First, the specular spot was closely investigated, at high angular resolution, at the wavelength of $1.5\\,\\mbox{\\mu m}$, where ice behaves as a very absorbing media. Second, the bidirectional reflectance was sampled at various geometries, including low phase angles on 61 wavelengths ranging from $0.8\\,\\mbox{\\mu m}$ to $2.0\\,\\mbox{\\mu m}$. In order to validate the model, we made a qualitative test to demonstrate the relative isotropization of the flux. We also conducted quantitative assessments by using a bayesian inversion method in order to estimate the parameters (e.g. sampl...
Two mapping techniques for calculating radiative heat transfer with scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper reports that the problem of radiative heat transfer through a gray, emitting, absorbing, and scattering medium with uniform optical properties is reduced to one without scattering through two techniques. One uses scaling laws, and the other uses a self-consistent effective gas temperature. The scaling laws are derived via the P1 approximation to the radiative transfer equation and can be applied to multidimensional problems with nonisothermal media. The effective temperature method is presently restricted to isotropic scattering and isothermal media. Both methods are evaluated in the current study as a function of scattering albedo, wall emissivity, and optical thickness for two different geometries, and two sets of wall and gas temperatures. The effects of scattering anisotropy are also assessed for the P1 method. The numerical results show that for these cases the scaling method is reasonably accurate for optically thick media with a scattering albedo less than 0.8, and the effective temperature technique is reasonably accurate for optically thin media for all albedos
Rabacus: A Python package for analytic cosmological radiative transfer calculations
Altay, G.; Wise, J. H.
2015-04-01
We describe RABACUS, a Python package for calculating the transfer of hydrogen ionizing radiation in simplified geometries relevant to astronomy and cosmology. We present example solutions for three specific cases: (1) a semi-infinite slab gas distribution in a homogeneous isotropic background, (2) a spherically symmetric gas distribution with a point source at the center, and (3) a spherically symmetric gas distribution in a homogeneous isotropic background. All problems can accommodate arbitrary spectra and density profiles as input. The solutions include a treatment of both hydrogen and helium, a self-consistent calculation of equilibrium temperatures, and the transfer of recombination radiation. The core routines are written in Fortran 90 and then wrapped in Python leading to execution speeds thousands of times faster than equivalent routines written in pure Python. In addition, all variables have associated units for ease of analysis. The software is part of the Python Package Index and the source code is available on Bitbucket at
Time Dependent Radiative Transfer for Multi-Level Atoms using Accelerated Lambda Iteration
van Adelsberg, Matthew; Perna, Rosalba
2012-01-01
We present a general formalism for computing self-consistent, numerical solutions to the time-dependent radiative transfer equation in low velocity, multi-level ions undergoing radiative interactions. Recent studies of time-dependent radiative transfer have focused on radiation hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic effects without lines, or have solved time-independent equations for the radiation field simultaneously with time-dependent equations for the state of the medium. In this paper, we ...
A new, coupled transport-diffusion method for radiative transfer calculations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wollaber, A. B.; Warsa, J. S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, MS D409, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos NM, 87545 (United States)
2013-07-01
We derive and present a new frequency- and angle-integrated low-order system of equations designed to enhance the accuracy of a coupled, high-order (transport) solution of the thermal radiative transfer equations. In particular, our new low-order system is designed to use intensity-weighted opacities and anisotropic diffusion coefficients generated by a solution of the Implicit Monte Carlo (IMC) equations in order to predict the spatial dependence of the material temperature and radiation energies in the ensuing time cycle. The predicted temperature solution can then be exploited to generate appropriately time-centered opacities, specific heats, and Planck emission spectra for the upcoming IMC solution. Additionally, the relatively inexpensive solution of the low-order system can be iteratively solved to recommend an adaptive time step size before the IMC solution is computed. A test implementation has been implemented using existing software available from the Jayenne and Capsaicin projects at Los Alamos National Laboratory. We present initial results from a new driver code that has integrated these stochastic and deterministic software packages. (authors)
A new, coupled transport-diffusion method for radiative transfer calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We derive and present a new frequency- and angle-integrated low-order system of equations designed to enhance the accuracy of a coupled, high-order (transport) solution of the thermal radiative transfer equations. In particular, our new low-order system is designed to use intensity-weighted opacities and anisotropic diffusion coefficients generated by a solution of the Implicit Monte Carlo (IMC) equations in order to predict the spatial dependence of the material temperature and radiation energies in the ensuing time cycle. The predicted temperature solution can then be exploited to generate appropriately time-centered opacities, specific heats, and Planck emission spectra for the upcoming IMC solution. Additionally, the relatively inexpensive solution of the low-order system can be iteratively solved to recommend an adaptive time step size before the IMC solution is computed. A test implementation has been implemented using existing software available from the Jayenne and Capsaicin projects at Los Alamos National Laboratory. We present initial results from a new driver code that has integrated these stochastic and deterministic software packages. (authors)
A radiosity-based model to compute the radiation transfer of soil surface
Zhao, Feng; Li, Yuguang
2011-11-01
A good understanding of interactions of electromagnetic radiation with soil surface is important for a further improvement of remote sensing methods. In this paper, a radiosity-based analytical model for soil Directional Reflectance Factor's (DRF) distributions was developed and evaluated. The model was specifically dedicated to the study of radiation transfer for the soil surface under tillage practices. The soil was abstracted as two dimensional U-shaped or V-shaped geometric structures with periodic macroscopic variations. The roughness of the simulated surfaces was expressed as a ratio of the height to the width for the U and V-shaped structures. The assumption was made that the shadowing of soil surface, simulated by U or V-shaped grooves, has a greater influence on the soil reflectance distribution than the scattering properties of basic soil particles of silt and clay. Another assumption was that the soil is a perfectly diffuse reflector at a microscopic level, which is a prerequisite for the application of the radiosity method. This radiosity-based analytical model was evaluated by a forward Monte Carlo ray-tracing model under the same structural scenes and identical spectral parameters. The statistics of these two models' BRF fitting results for several soil structures under the same conditions showed the good agreements. By using the model, the physical mechanism of the soil bidirectional reflectance pattern was revealed.
Ge, Wenjun; Modest, Michael F.; Marquez, Ricardo
2015-05-01
The spherical harmonics (PN) method is a radiative transfer equation solver, which approximates the radiative intensity as a truncated series of spherical harmonics. For general 3-D configurations, N(N + 1) / 2 intensity coefficients must be solved from a system of coupled second-order elliptic PDEs. In 2-D axisymmetric applications, the number of equations and intensity coefficients reduces to (N + 1) 2 / 4 if the geometric relations of the intensity coefficients are taken into account. This paper presents the mathematical details for the transformation and its implementation on the OpenFOAM finite volume based CFD software platform. The transformation and implementation are applicable to any arbitrary axisymmetric geometry, but the examples to test the new formulation are based on a wedge grid, which is the most common axisymmetric geometry in CFD simulations, because OpenFOAM and most other platforms do not have true axisymmetric solvers. Two example problems for the new axisymmetric PN formulation are presented, and the results are verified with that of the general 3-D PN solver, a Photon Monte Carlo solver and exact solutions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A method of modelling the dynamic motion of multileaf collimators (MLCs) for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) was developed and implemented into the Monte Carlo simulation. The simulation of the dynamic MLCs (DMLCs) was based on randomizing leaf positions during a simulation so that the number of particle histories being simulated for each possible leaf position was proportional to the monitor units delivered to that position. This approach was incorporated into an EGS4 Monte Carlo program, and was evaluated in simulating the DMLCs for Varian accelerators (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA, USA). The MU index of each segment, which was specified in the DMLC-control data, was used to compute the cumulative probability distribution function (CPDF) for the leaf positions. This CPDF was then used to sample the leaf positions during a real-time simulation, which allowed for either the step-shoot or sweeping-leaf motion in the beam delivery. Dose intensity maps for IMRT fields were computed using the above Monte Carlo method, with its accuracy verified by film measurements. The DMLC simulation improved the operational efficiency by eliminating the need to simulate multiple segments individually. More importantly, the dynamic motion of the leaves could be simulated more faithfully by using the above leaf-position sampling technique in the Monte Carlo simulation. (author)
Primary processes in radiation chemistry. LET (Linear Energy Transfer) effect in water radiolysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The effect of ionizing radiations on aqueous solutions leads to water ionization and then to the formation of radical species and molecular products (e-aq, H., OH., H2O2, H2). It has been shown that the stopping power, characterized by the LET value (Linear Energy Transfer) becomes different when the nature of the ionizing radiations is different. Few data are nowadays available for high LET radiations such as protons and high energy heavy ions. These particles have been used to better understand the primary processes in radiation chemistry. The yield of a chemical dosimeter (the Fricke dosimeter) and those of the hydrogen peroxide have been determined for different LET. The effect of the dose rate on the Fricke dosimeter yield and on the H2O2 yield has been studied too. When the dose rate increases, an increase of the molecular products yield is observed. At very high dose rate, this yield decreases on account of the attack of the molecular products by radicals. The H2O2 yield in alkaline medium decreases when the pH reaches 12. This decrease can be explained by a slowing down of the H2O2 formation velocity in alkaline medium. Superoxide radical has also been studied in this work. A new detection method: the time-resolved chemiluminescence has been perfected for this radical. This technique is more sensitive than the absorption spectroscopy. Experiments with heavy ions have allowed to determine the O2.- yield directly in the irradiation cell. The experimental results have been compared with those obtained with a Monte Carlo simulation code. (O.M.)
Effects of ionizing radiation on DNA-mediated gene transfer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The process of DNA-mediated gene transfer is a powerful genetic tool that involves the cellular uptake, genomic integration and expression of exogenous DNA sequences. This process can also be used to examine the effects of radiation at the molecular level. There have been a few reported describing the enhancement of the gene transfer process by a number of DNA damaging agents. The agents tested included UV light, x-rays and accelerated argon particles. One hypothesis to explain this phenomenon is that these DNA damaging agents themselves, or subsequent DNA repair processes, introduce strand breaks into the cellular DNA of recipient cells. These DNA breaks then serve as possible sites of integration for the exogenous DNA sequences. The authors are continuing these studies by determining what effect neutrons have on the transfection of DNA. The gene transfer system we plan to employ involves the transfection of the chimeric plasmid pSV2-GPT into recipient hamster cell lines. This plasmid contains the Escherichia coli ecogpt gene, which codes for the enzyme xanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (XGPRT), along with simian virus 40 (SV40) sequences which allow for expression of the bacterial gene in mammalian cells
Hydrodynamic and hydromagnetic stability of black holes with radiative transfer
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Roger Blandford; Jonathan C Mckinney; Nadia Zakamska
2011-07-01
Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar (Chandra) was just eight years old when the ﬁrst astrophysical jet was discovered in M87. Since then, jets have been uncovered with a wide variety of sources including accretion disks orbiting stellar and massive black holes, neutron stars, isolated pulsars, -ray bursts, protostars and planetary nebulae. This talk will be primarily concerned with collimated hydromagnetic outﬂows associated with spinning, massive black holes in active galactic nuclei. Jets exhibit physical processes central to three of the major research themes in Chandrasekhar’s research career – radiative transfer, magnetohydrodynamics and black holes. Relativistic jets can be thought of as `exhausts’ from both the hole and its orbiting accretion disk, carrying away the energy liberated by the rotating spacetime and the accreting gas that is not radiated. However, no aspect of jet formation, propagation and radiation can be regarded as understood in detail. The combination of new -ray, radio and optical observations together with impressive advances in numerical simulation make this a good time to settle some long-standing debates.
EMMA: an AMR cosmological simulation code with radiative transfer
Aubert, Dominique; Ocvirk, Pierre
2015-01-01
EMMA is a cosmological simulation code aimed at investigating the reionization epoch. It handles simultaneously collisionless and gas dynamics, as well as radiative transfer physics using a moment-based description with the M1 approximation. Field quantities are stored and computed on an adaptive 3D mesh and the spatial resolution can be dynamically modified based on physically-motivated criteria. Physical processes can be coupled at all spatial and temporal scales. We also introduce a new and optional approximation to handle radiation : the light is transported at the resolution of the non-refined grid and only once the dynamics have been fully updated, whereas thermo-chemical processes are still tracked on the refined elements. Such an approximation reduces the overheads induced by the treatment of radiation physics. A suite of standard tests are presented and passed by EMMA, providing a validation for its future use in studies of the reionization epoch. The code is parallel and is able to use graphics proc...
Fomin, Boris; Falaleeva, Victoria
2016-07-01
A polarized high-resolution 1-D model has been presented for TIR (Thermal Infrared) remote sensing application. It is based on the original versions of MC (Monte Carlo) and LbL (Line-by-Line) algorithms, which have shown their effectiveness when modelling the thermal radiation atmospheric transfer, taking into account, the semi-transparent Ci-type and polar clouds scattering, as well as the direct consideration of the spectra of molecular absorption. This model may be useful in the planning of satellite experiments and in the validation of similar models, which use the "k-distribution" or other approximations, to account for gaseous absorption. The example simulations demonstrate that, the selective gas absorption does not only significantly affect the absorption and emission of radiation, but also, its polarization in the Ci-type clouds. As a result, the spectra of polarized radiation contain important information about the clouds, and a high-resolution polarized limb sounding in the TIR, seems to be a useful tool in obtaining information on cloud types and their vertical structures.
Maercker, Matthias; Olofsson, Hans; Bergman, Per; Ramstedt, Sofia
2008-01-01
Aims: By performing a detailed radiative transfer analysis, we determine fractional abundances of circumstellar H2O in the envelopes around six M-type asymptotic giant branch stars. The models are also used to predict H2O spectral line emission for the upcoming Herschel/HIFI mission. Methods: We use Infrared space observatory long wavelength spectrometer spectra to constrain the circumstellar fractional abundance distribution of ortho-H2O, using a non-local thermal equilibrium, and non-local, radiative transfer code based on the accelerated lambda iteration formalism. The mass-loss rates and kinetic temperature structures for the sample stars are determined through radiative transfer modelling of CO line emission based on the Monte-Carlo method. The density and temperature profiles of the circumstellar dust grains are determined through spectral energy distribution modelling using the publicly available code Dusty. Results: The determined ortho-H2O abundances lie between 1e-4 and 1.5e-3 relative to H2, with t...
Directional radiometry and radiative transfer: A new paradigm
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Measurements with directional radiometers and calculations based on the radiative transfer equation (RTE) have been at the very heart of weather and climate modeling and terrestrial remote sensing. The quantification of the energy budget of the Earth's climate system requires exquisite measurements and computations of the incoming and outgoing electromagnetic energy, while global characterization of climate system's components relies heavily on theoretical inversions of observational data obtained with various passive and active instruments. The same basic problems involving electromagnetic energy transport and its use for diagnostic and characterization purposes are encountered in numerous other areas of science, biomedicine, and engineering. Yet both the discipline of directional radiometry and the radiative transfer theory (RTT) have traditionally been based on phenomenological concepts many of which turn out to be profound misconceptions. Contrary to the widespread belief, a collimated radiometer does not, in general, measure the flow of electromagnetic energy along its optical axis, while the specific intensity does not quantify the amount of electromagnetic energy transported in a given direction. The recently developed microphysical approach to radiative transfer and directional radiometry is explicitly based on the Maxwell equations and clarifies the physical nature of measurements with collimated radiometers and the actual content of the RTE. It reveals that the specific intensity has no fundamental physical meaning besides being a mathematical solution of the RTE, while the RTE itself is nothing more than an intermediate auxiliary equation. Only under special circumstances detailed in this review can the solution of the RTE be used to compute the time-averaged local Poynting vector as well as be measured by a collimated radiometer. These firmly established facts make the combination of the RTE and a collimated radiometer useful in a well-defined range of
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Polarity effects in ionization chambers are caused by a radiation induced current, also known as Compton current, which arises as a charge imbalance due to charge deposition in electrodes of ionization chambers. We used a phantom-embedded extrapolation chamber (PEEC) for measurements of Compton current in megavoltage photon and electron beams. Electron contamination of photon beams and photon contamination of electron beams have a negligible effect on the measured Compton current. To allow for a theoretical understanding of the Compton current produced in the PEEC effect we carried out Monte Carlo calculations with a modified user code, the COMPTON/EGSnrc. The Monte Carlo calculated COMPTON currents agree well with measured data for both photon and electron beams; the calculated polarity correction factors, on the other hand, do not agree with measurement results. The conclusions reached for the PEEC can be extended to parallel-plate ionization chambers in general
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
It is noted that the analog Monte Carlo method has low calculation efficiency at deep penetration problems such as radiation shielding analysis. In order to increase the calculation efficiency, variance reduction techniques have been introduced and applied for the shielding calculation. To optimize the variance reduction technique, the hybrid Monte Carlo method was introduced. For the determination of the parameters using the hybrid Monte Carlo method, the adjoint flux should be calculated by the deterministic methods. In this study, the collision probability method is applied to calculate adjoint flux. The solution of integration transport equation in the collision probability method is modified to calculate the adjoint flux approximately even for complex and arbitrary geometries. For the calculation, C++ program is developed. By using the calculated adjoint flux, importance parameters of each cell in shielding material are determined and used for variance reduction of transport calculation. In order to evaluate calculation efficiency with the proposed method, shielding calculations are performed with MCNPX 2.7. In this study, a method to calculate the adjoint flux in using the Monte Carlo variance reduction was proposed to improve Monte Carlo calculation efficiency of thick shielding problem. The importance parameter for each cell of shielding material is determined by calculating adjoint flux with the modified collision probability method. In order to calculate adjoint flux with the proposed method, C++ program is developed. The results show that the proposed method can efficiently increase the FOM of transport calculation. It is expected that the proposed method can be utilize for the calculation efficiency in thick shielding calculation
Radiative transfer in cylindrical threads with incident radiation VI. A hydrogen plus helium system
Gouttebroze, Pierre
2009-01-01
Spectral lines of helium are commonly observed on the Sun. These observations contain important informations about physical conditions and He/H abundance variations within solar outer structures. The modeling of chromospheric and coronal loop-like structures visible in hydrogen and helium lines requires the use of appropriate diagnostic tools based on NLTE radiative tranfer in cylindrical geometry. We use iterative numerical methods to solve the equations of NLTE radiative transfer and statistical equilibrium of atomic level populations. These equations are solved alternatively for the hydrogen and helium atoms, using cylindrical coordinates and prescribed solar incident radiation. Electron density is determined by the ionization equilibria of both atoms. Two-dimension effects are included. The mechanisms of formation of the principal helium lines are analyzed and the sources of emission inside the cylinder are located. The variations of spectral line intensities with temperature, pressure, and helium abundan...
Li, Yongbao; Tian, Zhen; Shi, Feng; Song, Ting; Wu, Zhaoxia; Liu, Yaqiang; Jiang, Steve; Jia, Xun
2015-04-01
Intensity-modulated radiation treatment (IMRT) plan optimization needs beamlet dose distributions. Pencil-beam or superposition/convolution type algorithms are typically used because of their high computational speed. However, inaccurate beamlet dose distributions may mislead the optimization process and hinder the resulting plan quality. To solve this problem, the Monte Carlo (MC) simulation method has been used to compute all beamlet doses prior to the optimization step. The conventional approach samples the same number of particles from each beamlet. Yet this is not the optimal use of MC in this problem. In fact, there are beamlets that have very small intensities after solving the plan optimization problem. For those beamlets, it may be possible to use fewer particles in dose calculations to increase efficiency. Based on this idea, we have developed a new MC-based IMRT plan optimization framework that iteratively performs MC dose calculation and plan optimization. At each dose calculation step, the particle numbers for beamlets were adjusted based on the beamlet intensities obtained through solving the plan optimization problem in the last iteration step. We modified a GPU-based MC dose engine to allow simultaneous computations of a large number of beamlet doses. To test the accuracy of our modified dose engine, we compared the dose from a broad beam and the summed beamlet doses in this beam in an inhomogeneous phantom. Agreement within 1% for the maximum difference and 0.55% for the average difference was observed. We then validated the proposed MC-based optimization schemes in one lung IMRT case. It was found that the conventional scheme required 106 particles from each beamlet to achieve an optimization result that was 3% difference in fluence map and 1% difference in dose from the ground truth. In contrast, the proposed scheme achieved the same level of accuracy with on average 1.2 × 105 particles per beamlet. Correspondingly, the computation time
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We propose the split exponential track length estimator (seTLE), a new kerma-based method combining the exponential variant of the TLE and a splitting strategy to speed up Monte Carlo (MC) dose computation for low energy photon beams. The splitting strategy is applied to both the primary and the secondary emitted photons, triggered by either the MC events generator for primaries or the photon interactions generator for secondaries. Split photons are replaced by virtual particles for fast dose calculation using the exponential TLE. Virtual particles are propagated by ray-tracing in voxelized volumes and by conventional MC navigation elsewhere. Hence, the contribution of volumes such as collimators, treatment couch and holding devices can be taken into account in the dose calculation. We evaluated and analysed the seTLE method for two realistic small animal radiotherapy treatment plans. The effect of the kerma approximation, i.e. the complete deactivation of electron transport, was investigated. The efficiency of seTLE against splitting multiplicities was also studied. A benchmark with analog MC and TLE was carried out in terms of dose convergence and efficiency. The results showed that the deactivation of electrons impacts the dose at the water/bone interface in high dose regions. The maximum and mean dose differences normalized to the dose at the isocenter were, respectively of 14% and 2% . Optimal splitting multiplicities were found to be around 300. In all situations, discrepancies in integral dose were below 0.5% and 99.8% of the voxels fulfilled a 1%/0.3 mm gamma index criterion. Efficiency gains of seTLE varied from 3.2 × 105 to 7.7 × 105 compared to analog MC and from 13 to 15 compared to conventional TLE. In conclusion, seTLE provides results similar to the TLE while increasing the efficiency by a factor between 13 and 15, which makes it particularly well-suited to typical small animal radiation therapy applications. (paper)
Near field radiative heat transfer between two nonlocal dielectrics
Singer, F; Joulain, Karl
2015-01-01
We explore in the present work the near-field radiative heat transfer between two semi-infinite parallel nonlocal dielectric planes by means of fluctuational electrodynamics. We use atheory for the nonlocal dielectric permittivityfunction proposed byHalevi and Fuchs. This theory has the advantage to includedifferent models performed in the literature. According to this theory, the nonlocal dielectric function is described by a Lorenz-Drude like single oscillator model, in which the spatial dispersion effects are represented by an additional term depending on the square of the total wavevector k. The theory takes into account the scattering of the electromagneticexcitation at the surface of the dielectric material, which leads to the need of additional boundary conditions in order to solve Maxwell's equations and treat the electromagnetic transmission problem. The additional boundary conditions appear as additional surface scattering parameters in the expressions of the surface impedances. It is shown that the...
Radiation Transfer in the Cavity and Shell of Planetary Nebulae
Gray, M D; Zijlstra, A A
2012-01-01
We develop an approximate analytical solution for the transfer of line-averaged radiation in the hydrogen recombination lines for the ionized cavity and molecular shell of a spherically symmetric planetary nebula. The scattering problem is treated as a perturbation, using a mean intensity derived from a scattering-free solution. The analytical function was fitted to Halpha and Hbeta data from the planetary nebula NGC6537. The position of the maximum in the intensity profile produced consistent values for the radius of the cavity as a fraction of the radius of the dusty nebula: 0.21 for Halpha and 0.20 for Hbeta. Recovered optical depths were broadly consistent with observed optical extinction in the nebula, but the range of fit parameters in this case is evidence for a clumpy distribution of dust.
Absorption lookup tables in the radiative transfer model ARTS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We describe the lookup table approach that is used to store pre-calculated absorption data in the radiative transfer model ARTS. The table stores absorption cross sections as a function of frequency, pressure, temperature, and the water vapor volume mixing ratio, where the last dimension is only included for those gas species that require it. The table is used together with an extraction strategy, which uses polynomial interpolation, with recommended interpolation orders between five and seven. We also derived recommended default settings for grid spacings and interpolation orders, and verified that the approach gives very accurate results with these default settings. The tested instrument setups were for AMSU-B, HIRS, and Odin, three well-known satellite remote sensing instruments covering a wide range of frequencies and viewing geometries. Errors introduced by the lookup table were found to be always below a few millikelvin, in terms of the simulated brightness temperature.
Fluctuation theory for radiative transfer in random media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We consider the effect of small scale random fluctuations of the constitutive coefficients on boundary measurements of solutions to radiative transfer equations. As the correlation length of the random oscillations tends to zero, the transport solution is well approximated by a deterministic, averaged, solution. In this paper, we analyze the random fluctuations to the averaged solution, which may be interpreted as a central limit correction to homogenization. With the inverse transport problem in mind, we characterize the random structure of the singular components of the transport measurement operator. In regimes of moderate scattering, such components provide stable reconstructions of the constitutive parameters in the transport equation. We show that the random fluctuations strongly depend on the decorrelation properties of the random medium.
Radiative Transfer of HCN: Interpreting observations of hyperfine anomalies
Mullins, A M; Redman, M P; Wiles, B; Guegan, N; Barrett, J; Keto, E R
2016-01-01
Molecules with hyperfine splitting of their rotational line spectra are useful probes of optical depth, via the relative line strengths of their hyperfine components.The hyperfine splitting is particularly advantageous in interpreting the physical conditions of the emitting gas because with a second rotational transition, both gas density and temperature can be derived. For HCN however, the relative strengths of the hyperfine lines are anomalous. They appear in ratios which can vary significantly from source to source, and are inconsistent with local thermodynamic equilibrium. This is the HCN hyperfine anomaly, and it prevents the use of simple LTE models of HCN emission to derive reliable optical depths. In this paper we demonstrate how to model HCN hyperfine line emission, and derive accurate line ratios, spectral line shapes and optical depths. We show that by carrying out radiative transfer calculations over each hyperfine level individually, as opposed to summing them over each rotational level, the anom...
Casimir effect and radiative heat transfer between Chern Insulators
Rodriguez Lopez, Pablo; Grushin, Adolfo; Tse, Wang-Kong; Dalvit, Diego
2015-03-01
Chern Insulators are a class of two-dimensional topological materials. Their electronic properties are different from conventional materials, and lead to interesting new physics as quantum Hall effect in absence of an external magnetic field. Here we will review some of their special properties and, in particular, we will discuss the radiative heat transfer and the Casimir effect between two planar Chern Insulators sheets. Finally, we will see how to control the intensity and sign of this Casimir force and the requirements to observe a repulsive Casimir force in the lab with those materials. The research leading to these results has received funding from the People Programme (Marie Curie Actions) of the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under REA Grant Agreement No. 302005.
Radiative Transfer Theory Verified by Controlled Laboratory Experiments
Mishchenko, Michael I.; Goldstein, Dennis H.; Chowdhary, Jacek; Lompado, Arthur
2013-01-01
We report the results of high-accuracy controlled laboratory measurements of the Stokes reflection matrix for suspensions of submicrometer-sized latex particles in water and compare them with the results of a numerically exact computer solution of the vector radiative transfer equation (VRTE). The quantitative performance of the VRTE is monitored by increasing the volume packing density of the latex particles from 2 to 10. Our results indicate that the VRTE can be applied safely to random particulate media with packing densities up to 2. VRTE results for packing densities of the order of 5 should be taken with caution, whereas the polarized bidirectional reflectivity of suspensions with larger packing densities cannot be accurately predicted. We demonstrate that a simple modification of the phase matrix entering the VRTE based on the so-called static structure factor can be a promising remedy that deserves further examination.
Comparison of Space Radiation Calculations from Deterministic and Monte Carlo Transport Codes
Adams, J. H.; Lin, Z. W.; Nasser, A. F.; Randeniya, S.; Tripathi, r. K.; Watts, J. W.; Yepes, P.
2010-01-01
The presentation outline includes motivation, radiation transport codes being considered, space radiation cases being considered, results for slab geometry, results from spherical geometry, and summary. ///////// main physics in radiation transport codes hzetrn uprop fluka geant4, slab geometry, spe, gcr,
Time Dependent Radiative Transfer for Multi-Level Atoms using Accelerated Lambda Iteration
van Adelsberg, Matthew
2012-01-01
We present a general formalism for computing self-consistent, numerical solutions to the time-dependent radiative transfer equation in low velocity, multi-level ions undergoing radiative interactions. Recent studies of time-dependent radiative transfer have focused on radiation hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic effects without lines, or have solved time-independent equations for the radiation field simultaneously with time-dependent equations for the state of the medium. In this paper, we provide a fully time-dependent numerical solution to the radiative transfer and atomic rate equations for a medium irradiated by an external source of photons. We use Accelerated Lambda Iteration to achieve convergence of the radiation field and atomic states. We perform calculations for a three-level atomic model that illustrates important time-dependent effects. We demonstrate that our method provides an efficient, accurate solution to the time-dependent radiative transfer problem. Finally, we characterize astrophysical...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
numerical solution of the Radiative Transfer Equation in diffused part in the case of a mono-dimensional plane geometry. The directional discretizations of each layer are selected in such a way that the discrete directions of one of the layers correspond to those refracted of the close layer and this makes it possible to avoid the use of approximations related to non coincidence of the discrete directions of a layer with those refracted by the close layer. Directional quadratures are then established in an adaptive way in each layer and for each spectral frequency. The results obtained are validated by an approach of Monte Carlo type. The coupling of this model with a Low Reynolds number RANS model will be carried out. This will be done in order to study the convective heat transfers in natural convection for configurations of double facade integration under consideration within the framework of PRI CNRS. The comparison of this model is carried out for experimental configurations of vertical channel type uniformly heated in natural convection. The prospects for this stage are multiple and consist of analyzing the influence of the mode of flow on the thermal pulling of the hybrid components, the effects of the positioning of modules statement, the air gap between the two frontages and the boundary conditions thermal generated by the modules. Lastly, in order to supplement the energy balance of such components and more particularly that governs the thermal behavior of a photosensitive cell, the electric phenomenon of conversion is approached in adequacy with the level of modeling of the coupled thermal transfers radiation - conduction within a PV component. To carry this out, we can consider the local power of spectral radiation absorbed and converted into electric output. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ahad Ollah Ezzati
2014-08-01
Full Text Available Introduction In this study, we aimed to calculate dose enhancement factor (DEF for gold (Au and iron (Fe nanoparticles (NPs in brachytherapy and teletherapy, using Monte Carlo (MC method. Materials and Methods In this study, a new algorithm was introduced to calculate dose enhancement by AuNPs and FeNPs for Iridium-192 (Ir-192 brachytherapy and Cobalt-60 (Co-60 teletherapy sources, using the MC method. In this algorithm, the semi-random distribution of NPs was used instead of the regular distribution. Diameters were assumed to be 15, 30, and 100 nm in brachytherapy and 15 and 30 nm in teletherapy. Monte Carlo MCNP4C code was used for simulations, and NP density values were 0.107 mg/ml and 0.112 mg/ml in brachytherapy and teletherapy, respectively. Results AuNPs significantly enhanced the radiation dose in brachytherapy (approximately 60%, and 100 nm diameter NPs showed the most uniform dose distribution. AuNPs had an insignificant effect on teletherapy radiation field, with a dose enhancement ratio of 3% (about the calculation uncertainty or less. In addition, FeNPs had an insignificant effect on both brachytherapy and teletherapy radiation fields. FeNPs dose enhancement was 3% in brachytherapy and 6% (about the calculation uncertainty or less in teletherapy. Conclusion It can be concluded that AuNPs can significantly increase the absorbed dose in brachytherapy; however, FeNPs do not have a noticeable effect on the absorbed dose
Monte Carlo-based treatment planning system calculation engine for microbeam radiation therapy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Purpose: Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) is a synchrotron radiotherapy technique that explores the limits of the dose-volume effect. Preclinical studies have shown that MRT irradiations (arrays of 25-75-μm-wide microbeams spaced by 200-400 μm) are able to eradicate highly aggressive animal tumor models while healthy tissue is preserved. These promising results have provided the basis for the forthcoming clinical trials at the ID17 Biomedical Beamline of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF). The first step includes irradiation of pets (cats and dogs) as a milestone before treatment of human patients. Within this context, accurate dose calculations are required. The distinct features of both beam generation and irradiation geometry in MRT with respect to conventional techniques require the development of a specific MRT treatment planning system (TPS). In particular, a Monte Carlo (MC)-based calculation engine for the MRT TPS has been developed in this work. Experimental verification in heterogeneous phantoms and optimization of the computation time have also been performed. Methods: The penelope/penEasy MC code was used to compute dose distributions from a realistic beam source model. Experimental verification was carried out by means of radiochromic films placed within heterogeneous slab-phantoms. Once validation was completed, dose computations in a virtual model of a patient, reconstructed from computed tomography (CT) images, were performed. To this end, decoupling of the CT image voxel grid (a few cubic millimeter volume) to the dose bin grid, which has micrometer dimensions in the transversal direction of the microbeams, was performed. Optimization of the simulation parameters, the use of variance-reduction (VR) techniques, and other methods, such as the parallelization of the simulations, were applied in order to speed up the dose computation. Results: Good agreement between MC simulations and experimental results was achieved, even at the
Monte Carlo-based treatment planning system calculation engine for microbeam radiation therapy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Martinez-Rovira, I.; Sempau, J.; Prezado, Y. [Institut de Tecniques Energetiques, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Diagonal 647, Barcelona E-08028 (Spain) and ID17 Biomedical Beamline, European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), 6 rue Jules Horowitz B.P. 220, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Institut de Tecniques Energetiques, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Diagonal 647, Barcelona E-08028 (Spain); Laboratoire Imagerie et modelisation en neurobiologie et cancerologie, UMR8165, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Universites Paris 7 et Paris 11, Bat 440., 15 rue Georges Clemenceau, F-91406 Orsay Cedex (France)
2012-05-15
Purpose: Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) is a synchrotron radiotherapy technique that explores the limits of the dose-volume effect. Preclinical studies have shown that MRT irradiations (arrays of 25-75-{mu}m-wide microbeams spaced by 200-400 {mu}m) are able to eradicate highly aggressive animal tumor models while healthy tissue is preserved. These promising results have provided the basis for the forthcoming clinical trials at the ID17 Biomedical Beamline of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF). The first step includes irradiation of pets (cats and dogs) as a milestone before treatment of human patients. Within this context, accurate dose calculations are required. The distinct features of both beam generation and irradiation geometry in MRT with respect to conventional techniques require the development of a specific MRT treatment planning system (TPS). In particular, a Monte Carlo (MC)-based calculation engine for the MRT TPS has been developed in this work. Experimental verification in heterogeneous phantoms and optimization of the computation time have also been performed. Methods: The penelope/penEasy MC code was used to compute dose distributions from a realistic beam source model. Experimental verification was carried out by means of radiochromic films placed within heterogeneous slab-phantoms. Once validation was completed, dose computations in a virtual model of a patient, reconstructed from computed tomography (CT) images, were performed. To this end, decoupling of the CT image voxel grid (a few cubic millimeter volume) to the dose bin grid, which has micrometer dimensions in the transversal direction of the microbeams, was performed. Optimization of the simulation parameters, the use of variance-reduction (VR) techniques, and other methods, such as the parallelization of the simulations, were applied in order to speed up the dose computation. Results: Good agreement between MC simulations and experimental results was achieved, even at
''adding'' algorithm for the Markov chain formalism for radiation transfer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Markov chain radiative transfer method of Esposito and House has been shown to be both efficient and accurate for calculation of the diffuse reflection from a homogeneous scattering planetary atmosphere. The use of a new algorithm similar to the ''adding'' formula of Hansen and Travis extends the application of this formalism to an arbitrarily deep atmosphere. The basic idea for this algorithm is to consider a preceding calculation as a single state of a new Markov chain. Successive application of this procedure makes calculation possible for any optical depth without increasing the size of the linear system used. The time required for the algorithm is comparable to that for a doubling calculation for a homogeneous atmosphere, but for a non-homogeneous atmosphere the new method is considerably faster than the standard ''adding'' routine. As with he standard ''adding'' method, the information on the internal radiation field is lost during the calculation. This method retains the advantage of the earlier Markov chain method that the time required is relatively insensitive to the number of illumination angles or observation angles for which the diffuse reflection is calculated. A technical write-up giving fuller details of the algorithm and a sample code are available from the author
Relativistic radiative transfer and relativistic spherical shell flows
Fukue, Jun
2016-06-01
We examine a radiatively driven spherical flow from a central object, whose thickness is smaller than the radius of the central object, and a plane-parallel approximation can be used-a spherical shell flow. We first solve the relativistic radiative transfer equation iteratively, using a given velocity field, and obtain specific intensities as well as moment quantities. Using the obtained comoving flux, we then solve the relativistic hydrodynamical equation, and obtain a new velocity field. We repeat these double iteration processes until both the intensity and velocity profiles converge. We found that the flow speed v(τ) is roughly approximated as β ≡ v/c = βs(1 - τ/τb), where τ is the optical depth, τb the flow total optical depth, and c the speed of light. We further found that the flow terminal speed vs is roughly expressed as β _s ≡ v_s/c = (Γ hat{F}_0-1)τ_b/dot{m} , where Γ is the central luminosity normalized by the Eddington luminosity, hat{F}_0 the comoving flux normalized by the incident flux, and of the order of unity, and dot{m} the mass-loss rate normalized by the critical mass loss.
A P1 benchmark for time dependent thermal radiative transfer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present an analytic solution for time-dependent P1 (telegrapher's equation) radiative transfer. This solution will be useful for verifying spherical harmonics based transport codes and to providing in-sight into the properties of the Pn equations. The solution is for a uniform, isotropic and non-scattering medium that has a heat capacity proportional to the material temperature cubed (T3). We first derive the time-dependent Greens function for the P1 equations in planar geometry. This result is then used to generate a P1 solution to one of the Su-Olson problems. We also use the planar Greens function to generate the Greens function for a pulsed point source in an infinite medium. With this point source we have reduced the problem of solving the P1 equations in a uniform medium to quadrature. The solution for a pulsed line source is developed, again because of its utility for verifying Pn based thermal radiation transport codes. (authors)
Radiative transfer of HCN: interpreting observations of hyperfine anomalies
Mullins, A. M.; Loughnane, R. M.; Redman, M. P.; Wiles, B.; Guegan, N.; Barrett, J.; Keto, E. R.
2016-07-01
Molecules with hyperfine splitting of their rotational line spectra are useful probes of optical depth, via the relative line strengths of their hyperfine components. The hyperfine splitting is particularly advantageous in interpreting the physical conditions of the emitting gas because with a second rotational transition, both gas density and temperature can be derived. For HCN however, the relative strengths of the hyperfine lines are anomalous. They appear in ratios which can vary significantly from source to source, and are inconsistent with local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). This is the HCN hyperfine anomaly, and it prevents the use of simple LTE models of HCN emission to derive reliable optical depths. In this paper, we demonstrate how to model HCN hyperfine line emission, and derive accurate line ratios, spectral line shapes and optical depths. We show that by carrying out radiative transfer calculations over each hyperfine level individually, as opposed to summing them over each rotational level, the anomalous hyperfine emission emerges naturally. To do this requires not only accurate radiative rates between hyperfine states, but also accurate collisional rates. We investigate the effects of different sets of hyperfine collisional rates, derived via the proportional method and through direct recoupling calculations. Through an extensive parameter sweep over typical low-mass star-forming conditions, we show the HCN line ratios to be highly variable to optical depth. We also reproduce an observed effect whereby the red-blue asymmetry of the hyperfine lines (an infall signature) switches sense within a single rotational transition.
Martian Radiative Transfer Modeling Using the Optimal Spectral Sampling Method
Eluszkiewicz, J.; Cady-Pereira, K.; Uymin, G.; Moncet, J.-L.
2005-01-01
The large volume of existing and planned infrared observations of Mars have prompted the development of a new martian radiative transfer model that could be used in the retrievals of atmospheric and surface properties. The model is based on the Optimal Spectral Sampling (OSS) method [1]. The method is a fast and accurate monochromatic technique applicable to a wide range of remote sensing platforms (from microwave to UV) and was originally developed for the real-time processing of infrared and microwave data acquired by instruments aboard the satellites forming part of the next-generation global weather satellite system NPOESS (National Polarorbiting Operational Satellite System) [2]. As part of our on-going research related to the radiative properties of the martian polar caps, we have begun the development of a martian OSS model with the goal of using it to perform self-consistent atmospheric corrections necessary to retrieve caps emissivity from the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) spectra. While the caps will provide the initial focus area for applying the new model, it is hoped that the model will be of interest to the wider Mars remote sensing community.
Intercomparison of Shortwave Radiative Transfer Codes and Measurements
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Halthore, Rangasayi N.; Crisp, David; Schwartz, Stephen E.; Anderson, Gail; Berk, A.; Bonnel, B.; Boucher, Olivier; Chang, Fu-Lung; Chou, Ming-Dah; Clothiaux, Eugene E.; Dubuisson, P.; Fomin, Boris; Fouquart, Y.; Freidenreich, S.; Gautier, Catherine; Kato, Seiji; Laszlo, Istvan; Li, Zhanqing; Mather, Jim H.; Plana-Fattori, Artemio; Ramaswamy, V.; Ricchiazzi, P.; Shiren, Y.; Trishchenko, A.; Wiscombe, Warren J.
2005-06-03
Computation of components of shortwave (SW) or solar irradiance in the surface-atmospheric system forms the basis of intercomparison between 16 radiative transfer models of varying spectral resolution ranging from line-by-line models to broadband and general circulation models. In order of increasing complexity the components are: direct solar irradiance at the surface, diffuse irradiance at the surface, diffuse upward flux at the surface, and diffuse upward flux at the top of the atmosphere. These components allow computation of the atmospheric absorptance. Four cases are considered from pure molecular atmospheres to atmospheres with aerosols and atmosphere with a simple uniform cloud. The molecular and aerosol cases allow comparison of aerosol forcing calculation among models. A cloud-free case with measured atmospheric and aerosol properties and measured shortwave radiation components provides an absolute basis for evaluating the models. For the aerosol-free and cloud-free dry atmospheres, models agree to within 1% (root mean square deviation as a percentage of mean) in broadband direct solar irradiance at surface; the agreement is relatively poor at 5% for a humid atmosphere. A comparison of atmospheric absorptance, computed from components of SW radiation, shows that agreement among models is understandably much worse at 3% and 10% for dry and humid atmospheres, respectively. Inclusion of aerosols generally makes the agreement among models worse than when no aerosols are present, with some exceptions. Modeled diffuse surface irradiance is higher than measurements for all models for the same model inputs. Inclusion of an optically thick low-cloud in a tropical atmosphere, a stringent test for multiple scattering calculations, produces, in general, better agreement among models for a low solar zenith angle (SZA = 30?) than for a high SZA (75?). All models show about a 30% increase in broadband absorptance for 30? SZA relative to the clear-sky case and almost no
Measurement and Monte Carlo simulation of 6 MV X-rays for small radiation fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In order to obtain basic data for treatment plan in radiosurgery, we measured small fields of 6 MV X-rays and compared the measured data with our Monte Carlo simulations for the small fields. The small fields of 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 cm in diameter were used in this study. Percentage depth dose (PDD) and beam profiles of those fields were measured and calculated. A small semiconductor detector, water phantoms, and a remote control system were used for the measurement. Monte Carlo simulations were performed using the EGS4 code with the input data prepared for the energy distribution of 6MV X-rays, beam divergence, circular fields and the geometry of the water phantoms. In the case of PDD values, the calculated values were lower than the measured values for all fields and depths, with the differences being 0.3 to 5.7% at the depths of 2.0 to 20.0 cm and 0.0 to 8.9% at the surface regions. As a result of the analysis of beam profiles for all field sizes at a depth of 10cm in water phantom, the measured 90% dose widths were in good agreement with the calculated values, however, the calculated penumbra radii were 0.1cm shorter than measured values. The measured PDDs and beam profiles agreement with the Monte Carlo calculations approximately. However, it is different when it comes to calculations in the area of phantom surface and penumbra because the Monte Carlo calculations were performed under the simplified geometries. Therefore, we have to study how to include the actual geometries and more precise data for the field area in Monte Carlo calculations. The Monte Carlo calculations will be used as a useful tool for the very complicated conditions in measurement and verification
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A general adjoint Monte Carlo-forward discrete ordinates radiation transport calculational scheme has been created to study the effects of the radiation environment in Hiroshima and Nagasaki due to the bombing of these two cities. Various such studies for comparison with physical data have progressed since the end of World War II with advancements in computing machinery and computational methods. These efforts have intensified in the last several years with the U.S.-Japan joint reassessment of nuclear weapons dosimetry in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Three principal areas of investigation are: (1) to determine by experiment and calculation the neutron and gamma-ray energy and angular spectra and total yield of the two weapons; (2) using these weapons descriptions as source terms, to compute radiation effects at several locations in the two cities for comparison with experimental data collected at various times after the bombings and thus validate the source terms; and (3) to compute radiation fields at the known locations of fatalities and surviving individuals at the time of the bombings and thus establish an absolute cause-and-effect relationship between the radiation received and the resulting injuries to these individuals and any of their descendants as indicated by their medical records. It is in connection with the second and third items, the determination of the radiation effects and the dose received by individuals, that the current study is concerned
Žukauskaite, A; Plukiene, R; Plukis, A
2007-01-01
Particle accelerators and other high energy facilities produce penetrating ionizing radiation (neutrons and γ-rays) that must be shielded. The objective of this work was to model photon and neutron transport in various materials, usually used as shielding, such as concrete, iron or graphite. Monte Carlo method allows obtaining answers by simulating individual particles and recording some aspects of their average behavior. In this work several nuclear experiments were modeled: AVF 65 – γ-ray beams (1-10 MeV), HIMAC and ISIS-800 – high energy neutrons (20-800 MeV) transport in iron and concrete. The results were then compared with experimental data.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This study investigates the radiation shielding design of the treatment room for boron neutron capture therapy at Tsing Hua Open-pool Reactor using 'TORT-coupled MCNP' method. With this method, the computational efficiency is improved significantly by two to three orders of magnitude compared to the analog Monte Carlo MCNP calculation. This makes the calculation feasible using a single CPU in less than 1 day. Further optimization of the photon weight windows leads to additional 50-75% improvement in the overall computational efficiency
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A description is given of a method for calculating the penetration and energy deposition of gamma radiation, based on Monte Carlo techniques. The essential feature is the application of the exponential transformation to promote the transport of penetrating quanta and to balance the steep spatial variations of the source distributions which appear in secondary gamma emission problems. The estimated statistical errors in a number of sample problems, involving concrete shields with thicknesses up to 500 cm, are shown to be quite favorable, even at relatively short computing times. A practical reactor shielding problem is also shown and the predictions compared with measurements
Transient radiative heat transfer in an inhomogeneous participating medium with Fresnel’s surfaces
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2008-01-01
This paper studies the radiative heat transfer within an inhomogeneous and isot- ropically scattering medium with reflecting Fresnel’s surfaces. Thermal radiation transfers in a curve inside a medium with an inhomogeneous distribution of a re- fractive index. The inhomogenous medium is divided into n homogenous isother- mal sub-layers and in each sub-layer the radiation transfers in a straight line. By adopting a multilayer radiative transfer model and using a ray-tracing/nodal- ana- lyzing method, a radiative transfer model is built for the inhomogenous participat- ing medium. In the multilayer model, a criterion for refraction / total reflection at the interfaces between neighboring sub-layers is introduced, avoiding the integral singularity and reflection at physically inexistent interfaces (only the total reflection is considered). Transient thermal behavior is examined when the parameters of the radiative properties such as refractive indexes, extinction coefficients, and sin- gle-scattering albedoes vary continually along the thickness direction.
Radiative transfer equation modeling by streamline diffusion modified continuous Galerkin method
Long, Feixiao; Li, Fengyan; Intes, Xavier; Kotha, Shiva P.
2016-03-01
Optical tomography has a wide range of biomedical applications. Accurate prediction of photon transport in media is critical, as it directly affects the accuracy of the reconstructions. The radiative transfer equation (RTE) is the most accurate deterministic forward model, yet it has not been widely employed in practice due to the challenges in robust and efficient numerical implementations in high dimensions. Herein, we propose a method that combines the discrete ordinate method (DOM) with a streamline diffusion modified continuous Galerkin method to numerically solve RTE. Additionally, a phase function normalization technique was employed to dramatically reduce the instability of the DOM with fewer discrete angular points. To illustrate the accuracy and robustness of our method, the computed solutions to RTE were compared with Monte Carlo (MC) simulations when two types of sources (ideal pencil beam and Gaussian beam) and multiple optical properties were tested. Results show that with standard optical properties of human tissue, photon densities obtained using RTE are, on average, around 5% of those predicted by MC simulations in the entire/deeper region. These results suggest that this implementation of the finite element method-RTE is an accurate forward model for optical tomography in human tissues.
Radiative transfer equation modeling by streamline diffusion modified continuous Galerkin method.
Long, Feixiao; Li, Fengyan; Intes, Xavier; Kotha, Shiva P
2016-03-01
Optical tomography has a wide range of biomedical applications. Accurate prediction of photon transport in media is critical, as it directly affects the accuracy of the reconstructions. The radiative transfer equation (RTE) is the most accurate deterministic forward model, yet it has not been widely employed in practice due to the challenges in robust and efficient numerical implementations in high dimensions. Herein, we propose a method that combines the discrete ordinate method (DOM) with a streamline diffusion modified continuous Galerkin method to numerically solve RTE. Additionally, a phase function normalization technique was employed to dramatically reduce the instability of the DOM with fewer discrete angular points. To illustrate the accuracy and robustness of our method, the computed solutions to RTE were compared with Monte Carlo (MC) simulations when two types of sources (ideal pencil beam and Gaussian beam) and multiple optical properties were tested. Results show that with standard optical properties of human tissue, photon densities obtained using RTE are, on average, around 5% of those predicted by MC simulations in the entire/deeper region. These results suggest that this implementation of the finite element method-RTE is an accurate forward model for optical tomography in human tissues. PMID:26953662
Semelin, B; Baek, S
2007-01-01
During the epoch of reionization, Ly-alpha photons emitted by the first stars can couple the neutral hydrogen spin temperature to the kinetic gas temperature, providing the opportunity to observe the gas in emission or absorption in the 21-cm line. Given the bright foregrounds, it is of prime importance to determine precisely the fluctuations signature of the signal, to be able to extract it by its correlation power. LICORICE is a Monte-Carlo radiative transfer code, coupled to the dynamics via an adaptative Tree-SPH code. We present here the Ly-alpha part of the implementation, and validate it through three classical tests. Contrary to previous works, we do not assume that P_alpha, the number of scatterings of Ly-alpha photons per atom per second, is proportional to the Ly-alpha background flux, but take into account the scatterings in the Ly-alpha line wings. The latter have the effect to steepen the radial profile of P_alpha around each source, and re-inforce the contrast of the fluctuations. In the partic...
Diffuse fluorescence tomography based on the radiative transfer equation for small animal imaging
Wang, Yihan; Zhang, Limin; Zhao, Huijuan; Gao, Feng; Li, Jiao
2014-02-01
Diffuse florescence tomography (DFT) as a high-sensitivity optical molecular imaging tool, can be applied to in vivo visualize interior cellular and molecular events for small-animal disease model through quantitatively recovering biodistributions of specific molecular probes. In DFT, the radiative transfer equation (RTE) and its approximation, such as the diffuse equation (DE), have been used as the forward models. The RTE-based DFT methodology is more suitable for biological tissue having void-like regions and the near-source area as in the situations of small animal imaging. We present a RTE-based scheme for the steady state DFT, which combines the discrete solid angle method and the finite difference method to obtain numerical solutions of the 2D steady RTE, with the natural boundary condition and collimating light source model. The approach is validated using the forward data from the Monte Carlo simulation for its better performances in the spatial resolution and reconstruction fidelity compared to the DE-based scheme.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bouland Olivier H.
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This article supplies an overview of issues related to the interpretation of surrogate measurement results for neutron-incident cross section predictions; difficulties that are somehow masked by the historical conversion route based on Weisskopf-Ewing approximation. Our proposal is to handle the various difficulties by using a more rigorous approach relying on Monte Carlo simulation of transfer reactions with extended R-matrix theory. The multiple deficiencies of the historical surrogate treatment are recalled but only one is examined in some details here; meaning the calculation of in-out-going channel Width Fluctuation Correction Factors (WFCF which behavior witness partly the failure of Niels Bohr’s compound nucleus theoretical landmark. Relevant WFCF calculations according to neutron-induced surrogate- and cross section-types as a function of neutron-induced fluctuating energy range [0 - 2.1 MeV] are presented and commented in the case of the 240Pu* and 241Pu* compound nucleus isotopes.
Mishchenko, Michael I.; Dlugach, Janna M.; Yanovitsku, Edgard G.; Zakharova, Nadia T.
1999-01-01
We describe a simple and highly efficient and accurate radiative transfer technique for computing bidirectional reflectance of a macroscopically flat scattering layer composed of nonabsorbing or weakly absorbing, arbitrarily shaped, randomly oriented and randomly distributed particles. The layer is assumed to be homogeneous and optically semi-infinite, and the bidirectional reflection function (BRF) is found by a simple iterative solution of the Ambartsumian's nonlinear integral equation. As an exact Solution of the radiative transfer equation, the reflection function thus obtained fully obeys the fundamental physical laws of energy conservation and reciprocity. Since this technique bypasses the computation of the internal radiation field, it is by far the fastest numerical approach available and can be used as an ideal input for Monte Carlo procedures calculating BRFs of scattering layers with macroscopically rough surfaces. Although the effects of packing density and coherent backscattering are currently neglected, they can also be incorporated. The FORTRAN implementation of the technique is available on the World Wide Web at http://ww,,v.giss.nasa.gov/-crmim/brf.html and can be applied to a wide range of remote sensing, engineering, and biophysical problems. We also examine the potential effect of ice crystal shape on the bidirectional reflectance of flat snow surfaces and the applicability of the Henyey-Greenstein phase function and the 6-Eddington approximation in calculations for soil surfaces.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hugtenburg, Richard P., E-mail: r.p.hugtenburg@swansea.ac.u [School of Medicine, Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Department of Medical Physics and Clinical Engineering, Abertawe Bro Morgannwg University, LHB, Swansea SA2 8QA (United Kingdom); Adegunloye, A.S.; Bradley, David A. [Department of Physics, Surrey University, Guildford (United Kingdom)
2010-07-21
Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) is currently being considered for the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme. A high degree of dosimetric accuracy (around 5%) is known to be required for a successful outcome in conventional radiation therapy, Modelling of MRT beams, measurements and treatments have been performed with Monte Carlo methods using the code EGS5, which features improved physics models for low energy scattering processes including linear polarisation. Polarisation of the X-ray source leads to distortions in beam profiles that exceed the usual clinical tolerances. Changes in the energy spectrum also effect the response of many dosimetry systems. Anatomical (CT) data has been used in the dose calculations and the manipulation of dose data with the open-source software treatment planning system, PlanUNC, is demonstrated, in order that the therapeutic effects of the different components, e.g. the microbeam and scattered photons, can examined separately in relation to relevant anatomy.
Xin, Q; P. Gong; Li, W.
2015-01-01
Modeling vegetation photosynthesis is essential for understanding carbon exchanges between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. The radiative transfer process within plant canopies is one of the key drivers that regulate canopy photosynthesis. Most vegetation cover consists of discrete plant crowns, of which the physical observation departs from the underlying assumption of a homogenous and uniform medium in classic radiative transfer theory. Here we a...
The importance of thermal radiation transfer in laminar diffusion flames at normal and microgravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The importance of radiation heat loss in laminar and turbulent diffusion flames at normal gravity has been relatively well recognized in recent years. There is currently lack of quantitative understanding on the importance of radiation heat loss in relatively small scale laminar diffusion flames at microgravity. The effects of radiation heat transfer and radiation absorption on the structure and soot formation characteristics of a coflow laminar ethylene/air diffusion flame at normal- and microgravity were numerically investigated. Numerical calculations were conducted using GRI-Mech 3.0 combustion chemistry without the NOx mechanism and complex thermal and transport properties, an acetylene based soot formation model, and a statistical narrow-band correlated-k non-grey gas radiation model. Radiation heat transfer and radiation absorption in the microgravity flame were found to be much more important than their counterparts at normal gravity. It is important to calculate thermal radiation transfer accurately in diffusion flame modelling under microgravity conditions.
Gao, Wanbao; Raeside, David E.
1997-12-01
Dose distributions that result from treating a patient with orthovoltage beams are best determined with a treatment planning system that uses the Monte Carlo method, and such systems are not readily available. In the present work, the Monte Carlo method was used to develop a computer code for determining absorbed dose distributions in orthovoltage radiation therapy. The code was used in planning treatment of a patient with a neuroendocrine carcinoma of the maxillary sinus. Two lateral high-energy photon beams supplemented by an anterior orthovoltage photon beam were utilized in the treatment plan. For the clinical case and radiation beams considered, a reasonably uniform dose distribution is achieved within the target volume, while the dose to the lens of each eye is 4 - 8% of the prescribed dose. Therefore, an orthovoltage photon beam, when properly filtered and optimally combined with megavoltage beams, can be effective in the treatment of cancers below the skin, providing that accurate treatment planning is carried out to establish with accuracy and precision the doses to critical structures.
THREE-DIMENSIONAL RADIATION TRANSFER IN YOUNG STELLAR OBJECTS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We have updated our publicly available dust radiative transfer code (HOCHUNK3D) to include new emission processes and various three-dimensional (3D) geometries appropriate for forming stars. The 3D geometries include warps and spirals in disks, accretion hotspots on the central star, fractal clumping density enhancements, and misaligned inner disks. Additional axisymmetric (2D) features include gaps in disks and envelopes, ''puffed-up inner rims'' in disks, multiple bipolar cavity walls, and iteration of disk vertical structure assuming hydrostatic equilibrium (HSEQ). We include the option for simple power-law envelope geometry, which, combined with fractal clumping and bipolar cavities, can be used to model evolved stars as well as protostars. We include non-thermal emission from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and very small grains, and external illumination from the interstellar radiation field. The grid structure was modified to allow multiple dust species in each cell; based on this, a simple prescription is implemented to model dust stratification. We describe these features in detail, and show example calculations of each. Some of the more interesting results include the following: (1) outflow cavities may be more clumpy than infalling envelopes. (2) PAH emission in high-mass stars may be a better indicator of evolutionary stage than the broadband spectral energy distribution slope; and related to this, (3) externally illuminated clumps and high-mass stars in optically thin clouds can masquerade as young stellar objects. (4) Our HSEQ models suggest that dust settling is likely ubiquitous in T Tauri disks, in agreement with previous observations
Radiative transfer in cylindrical threads with incident radiation. VII. Multi-thread models
Labrosse, N.; Rodger, A. S.
2016-03-01
Aims: Our aim is to improve on previous radiative transfer calculations in illuminated cylindrical threads to better understand the physical conditions in cool solar chromospheric and coronal structures commonly observed in hydrogen and helium lines. Methods: We solved the radiative transfer and statistical equilibrium equations in a two-dimensional cross-section of a cylindrical structure oriented horizontally and lying above the solar surface. The cylinder is filled with a mixture of hydrogen and helium and is illuminated at a given altitude from the solar disc. We constructed simple models made from a single thread or from an ensemble of several threads along the line of sight. This first use of two-dimensional, multi-thread fine structure modelling combining hydrogen and helium radiative transfer allowed us to compute synthetic emergent spectra from cylindrical structures and to study the effect of line-of-sight integration of an ensemble of threads under a range of physical conditions. We analysed the effects of variations in temperature distribution and in gas pressure. We considered the effect of multi-thread structures within a given field of view and the effect of peculiar velocities between the structures in a multi-thread model. We compared these new models to the single thread model and tested them with varying parameters. Results: The presence of a temperature gradient, with temperature increasing towards the edge of the cylindrical thread, reduces the relative importance of the incident radiation coming from the solar disc on the emergent intensities of most hydrogen and helium lines. We also find that when assuming randomly displaced threads in a given field of view, the integrated intensities of optically thick and thin transitions behave considerably differently. In optically thin lines, the emergent intensity increases proportionally with the number of threads, and the spatial variation of the intensity becomes increasingly homogeneous. Optically
Dai, Jin; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I; Yan, Min
2016-01-01
We demonstrate the possibility of ultrabroadband super-Planckian radiative heat transfer be- tween two metal plates patterned with tapered hyperbolic metamaterial arrays. It is shown that, by employing profile-patterned hyperbolic media, one can design photonic bands to populate a desired thermal radiation window, with a spectral density of modes much higher than what can be achieved with unstructured media. For nanometer-sized gaps between two plates, the modes occupy states both inside and outside the light cone, giving rise to ultrabroadband super-Planckian radiative heat transfer. Our study reveals that structured hyperbolic metamaterial offers unprecedented potential in achieving a controllable super-Planckian radiative heat transfer.
Jakub, F.; Mayer, B.
2015-10-01
The recently developed three-dimensional TenStream radiative transfer solver was integrated into the UCLA-LES cloud resolving model. This work documents the overall performance of the TenStream solver as well as the technical challenges migrating from 1-D schemes to 3-D schemes. In particular the employed Monte-Carlo-Spectral-Integration needed to be re-examined in conjunction with 3-D radiative transfer. Despite the fact that the spectral sampling has to be performed uniformly over the whole domain, we find that the Monte-Carlo-Spectral-Integration remains valid. To understand the performance characteristics of the coupled TenStream solver, we conducted weak- as well as strong-scaling experiments. In this context, we investigate two matrix-preconditioner (GAMG and block-jacobi ILU) and find that algebraic multigrid preconditioning performs well for complex scenes and highly parallelized simulations. The TenStream solver is tested for up to 4096 cores and shows a parallel scaling efficiency of 80-90 % on various supercomputers. Compared to the widely employed 1-D δ-Eddington two-stream solver, the computational costs for the radiative transfer solver alone increases by a factor of five to ten.
Jakub, Fabian; Mayer, Bernhard
2016-04-01
The recently developed 3-D TenStream radiative transfer solver was integrated into the University of California, Los Angeles large-eddy simulation (UCLA-LES) cloud-resolving model. This work documents the overall performance of the TenStream solver as well as the technical challenges of migrating from 1-D schemes to 3-D schemes. In particular the employed Monte Carlo spectral integration needed to be reexamined in conjunction with 3-D radiative transfer. Despite the fact that the spectral sampling has to be performed uniformly over the whole domain, we find that the Monte Carlo spectral integration remains valid. To understand the performance characteristics of the coupled TenStream solver, we conducted weak as well as strong-scaling experiments. In this context, we investigate two matrix preconditioner: geometric algebraic multigrid preconditioning (GAMG) and block Jacobi incomplete LU (ILU) factorization and find that algebraic multigrid preconditioning performs well for complex scenes and highly parallelized simulations. The TenStream solver is tested for up to 4096 cores and shows a parallel scaling efficiency of 80-90 % on various supercomputers. Compared to the widely employed 1-D delta-Eddington two-stream solver, the computational costs for the radiative transfer solver alone increases by a factor of 5-10.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
F. Jakub
2015-10-01
Full Text Available The recently developed three-dimensional TenStream radiative transfer solver was integrated into the UCLA–LES cloud resolving model. This work documents the overall performance of the TenStream solver as well as the technical challenges migrating from 1-D schemes to 3-D schemes. In particular the employed Monte-Carlo-Spectral-Integration needed to be re-examined in conjunction with 3-D radiative transfer. Despite the fact that the spectral sampling has to be performed uniformly over the whole domain, we find that the Monte-Carlo-Spectral-Integration remains valid. To understand the performance characteristics of the coupled TenStream solver, we conducted weak- as well as strong-scaling experiments. In this context, we investigate two matrix-preconditioner (GAMG and block-jacobi ILU and find that algebraic multigrid preconditioning performs well for complex scenes and highly parallelized simulations. The TenStream solver is tested for up to 4096 cores and shows a parallel scaling efficiency of 80–90 % on various supercomputers. Compared to the widely employed 1-D δ-Eddington two-stream solver, the computational costs for the radiative transfer solver alone increases by a factor of five to ten.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We briefly present our atomistic kinetic Monte Carlo approach to model the diffusion of point-defects in Fe-based alloys, and therefore to simulate diffusion induced mass transport and subsequent nano-structural and microchemical changes. This methodology has been hitherto successfully applied to the simulation of thermal annealing experiments. We here present our achievements in the generalization of this method to the simulation of neutron irradiation damage. (authors)
Monte Carlo modelling of radiation shielding of cpb-g type containers for pharmacological industry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The containers of the type CPB-G are used for the containing, manipulation and transportation in Radiopharmacology taken place in the Centre of Isotopes of Cuba (CENTIS) and one of the important magnitudes for its radiological validation is the dose rate in the surface of the container. For the obtaining of the dose rate was used the code MCNP-4b based on the Monte Carlo method. The obtained results were validated with data of experiments carried out in the CENTIS
MODTRAN4: radiative transfer modeling for remote sensing
Anderson, Gail P.; Berk, Alexander; Acharya, Prabhat K.; Matthew, Michael W.; Bernstein, Lawrence S.; Chetwynd, James H., Jr.; Dothe, H.; Adler-Golden, Steven M.; Ratkowski, Anthony J.; Felde, Gerald W.; Gardner, James A.; Hoke, Michael L.; Richtsmeier, Steven C.; Pukall, Brian; Mello, Jason B.; Jeong, Laila S.
1999-12-01
MODTRAN4, the newly released version of the U.S. Air Force atmospheric transmission, radiance and flux model is being developed jointly by the Air Force Research Laboratory/Space Vehicles Directorate and Spectral Sciences, Inc. It is expected to provide the accuracy required for analyzing spectral data for both atmospheric and surface characterization. These two quantities are the subject of satellite and aircraft campaigns currently being developed and pursued by, for instance: NASA (Earth Observing System), NPOESS (National Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellite System), and the European Space Agency (GOME--Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment). Accuracy improvements in MODTRAN relate primarily to two major developments: (1) the multiple scattering algorithms have been made compatible with the spectroscopy by adopting a corrected-k approach to describe the statistically expected transmittance properties for each spectral bin and atmospheric layer, and (2) radiative transfer calculations can be conducted with a Beer-Lambert formulation that improves the treatment of path inhomogeneities. Other code enhancements include the incorporation of solar azimuth dependence in the DISORT- based multiple scattering model, the introduction of surface BRDF (Bi-directional Radiance Distribution Functions) models and 15 cm-1 band model for improved computational speed.
Approximate models for broken clouds in stochastic radiative transfer theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper presents approximate models in stochastic radiative transfer theory. The independent column approximation and its modified version with a solar source computed in a full three-dimensional atmosphere are formulated in a stochastic framework and for arbitrary cloud statistics. The nth-order stochastic models describing the independent column approximations are equivalent to the nth-order stochastic models for the original radiance fields in which the gradient vectors are neglected. Fast approximate models are further derived on the basis of zeroth-order stochastic models and the independent column approximation. The so-called “internal mixing” models assume a combination of the optical properties of the cloud and the clear sky, while the “external mixing” models assume a combination of the radiances corresponding to completely overcast and clear skies. A consistent treatment of internal and external mixing models is provided, and a new parameterization of the closure coefficient in the effective thickness approximation is given. An efficient computation of the closure coefficient for internal mixing models, using a previously derived vector stochastic model as a reference, is also presented. Equipped with appropriate look-up tables for the closure coefficient, these models can easily be integrated into operational trace gas retrieval systems that exploit absorption features in the near-IR solar spectrum. - Highlights: • Independent column approximation in a stochastic setting. • Fast internal and external mixing models for total and diffuse radiances. • Efficient optimization of internal mixing models to match reference models
Chemistry and Radiative Transfer of Water in Cold, Dense Clouds
Keto, Eric; Caselli, Paola
2014-01-01
The Herschel Space Observatory's recent detections of water vapor in the cold, dense cloud L1544 allow a direct comparison between observations and chemical models for oxygen species in conditions just before star formation. We explain a chemical model for gas phase water, simplified for the limited number of reactions or processes that are active in extreme cold ($<$ 15 K). In this model, water is removed from the gas phase by freezing onto grains and by photodissociation. Water is formed as ice on the surface of dust grains from O and OH and released into the gas phase by photodesorption. The reactions are fast enough with respect to the slow dynamical evolution of L1544 that the gas phase water is in equilibrium for the local conditions thoughout the cloud. We explain the paradoxical radiative transfer of the H$_2$O ($1_{10}-1_{01}$) line. Despite discouragingly high optical depth caused by the large Einstein A coefficient, the subcritical excitation in the cold, rarefied H$_2$ causes the line brightnes...
Test plan for validation of the radiative transfer equation.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ricks, Allen Joseph; Grasser, Thomas W.; Kearney, Sean Patrick; Jernigan, Dann A.; Blanchat, Thomas K.
2010-09-01
As the capabilities of numerical simulations increase, decision makers are increasingly relying upon simulations rather than experiments to assess risks across a wide variety of accident scenarios including fires. There are still, however, many aspects of fires that are either not well understood or are difficult to treat from first principles due to the computational expense. For a simulation to be truly predictive and to provide decision makers with information which can be reliably used for risk assessment the remaining physical processes must be studied and suitable models developed for the effects of the physics. A set of experiments are outlined in this report which will provide soot volume fraction/temperature data and heat flux (intensity) data for the validation of models for the radiative transfer equation. In addition, a complete set of boundary condition measurements will be taken to allow full fire predictions for validation of the entire fire model. The experiments will be performed with a lightly-sooting liquid hydrocarbon fuel fire in the fully turbulent scale range (2 m diameter).
Radiation Transfer Model for Aerosol Events in the Earth Atmosphere
Mukai, Sonoyo; Yokomae, Takuma; Nakata, Makiko; Sano, Itaru
Recently large scale-forest fire, which damages the Earth environment as biomass burning and emission of carbonaceous particles, frequently occurs due to the unstable climate and/or global warming tendency. It is also known that the heavy soil dust is transported from the China continent to Japan on westerly winds, especially in spring. Furthermore the increasing emis-sions of anthropogenic particles associated with continuing economic growth scatter serious air pollutants. Thus atmospheric aerosols, especially in Asia, are very complex and heavy loading, which is called aerosol event. In the case of aerosol events, it is rather difficult to do the sun/sky photometry from the ground, however satellite observation is an effective for aerosol monitoring. Here the detection algorithms from space for such aerosol events as dust storm or biomass burn-ing are dealt with multispectral satellite data as ADEOS-2/GLI, Terra/Aqua/MODIS and/or GOSAT/CAI first. And then aerosol retrieval algorithms are examined based on new radiation transfer code for semi-infinite atmosphere model. The derived space-based results are validated with ground-based measurements and/or model simulations. Namely the space-or surface-based measurements, multiple scattering calculations and model simulations are synthesized together for aerosol retrieval in this work.
FORLI radiative transfer and retrieval code for IASI
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper lays down the theoretical bases and the methods used in the Fast Optimal Retrievals on Layers for IASI (FORLI) software, which is developed and maintained at the “Université Libre de Bruxelles” (ULB) with the support of the “Laboratoire Atmosphères, Milieux, Observations Spatiales” (LATMOS) to process radiance spectra from the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) in the perspective of local to global chemistry applications. The forward radiative transfer model (RTM) and the retrieval approaches are formulated and numerical approximations are described. The aim of FORLI is near-real-time provision of global scale concentrations of trace gases from IASI, either integrated over the altitude range of the atmosphere (total columns) or vertically resolved. To this end, FORLI uses precalculated table of absorbances. At the time of writing three gas-specific versions of this algorithm have been set up: FORLI-CO, FORLI-O3 and FORLI-HNO3. The performances of each are reviewed and illustrations of results and early validations are provided, making the link to recent scientific publications. In this paper we stress the challenges raised by near-real-time processing of IASI, shortly describe the processing chain set up at ULB and draw perspectives for future developments and applications.
A fast all-sky radiative transfer model and its implications for solar energy research
Xie, Y.; Sengupta, M.
2015-12-01
Radiative transfer models simulating broadband solar radiation, e.g. Rapid Radiation Transfer Model (RRTM) and its GCM applications, have been widely used by atmospheric scientists to model solar resource for various energy applications such as operational forecasting. Due to the complexity of solving the radiative transfer equation, simulating solar radiation under cloudy conditions can be extremely time consuming though many approximations, e.g. two-stream approach and delta-M truncation scheme, have been utilized. To provide a new option to approximate solar radiation, we developed a Fast All-sky Radiation Model for Solar applications (FARMS) using simulated cloud transmittance and reflectance from 16-stream RRTM model runs. The solar irradiances at the land surface were simulated by combining parameterized cloud properties with a fast clear-sky radiative transfer model. Using solar radiation measurements from the US Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) central facility in Oklahoma as a benchmark against the model simulations, we were able to demonstrate that the accuracy of FARMS was comparable to the two-stream approach. However, FARMS is much more efficient since it does not explicitly solve the radiative transfer equation for each individual cloud condition. We further explored the use of FARMS to promote solar resource assessment and forecasting research through the increased ability to accommodate higher spatial and temporal resolution calculations for the next generation of satellite and numerical weather prediction (NWP) models.
Radiative transfer in cylindrical threads with incident radiation VII. Multi-thread models
Labrosse, N
2016-01-01
We solved the radiative transfer and statistical equilibrium equations in a two-dimensional cross-section of a cylindrical structure oriented horizontally and lying above the solar surface. The cylinder is filled with a mixture of hydrogen and helium and is illuminated at a given altitude from the solar disc. We constructed simple models made from a single thread or from an ensemble of several threads along the line of sight. This first use of two-dimensional, multi-thread fine structure modelling combining hydrogen and helium radiative transfer allowed us to compute synthetic emergent spectra from cylindrical structures and to study the effect of line-of-sight integration of an ensemble of threads under a range of physical conditions. We analysed the effects of variations in temperature distribution and in gas pressure. We considered the effect of multi-thread structures within a given field of view and the effect of peculiar velocities between the structures in a multi-thread model. We compared these new mo...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
丁珏; 李家骅; 邱骁; 翁培奋
2016-01-01
During the burst reinforcement period of fog, air pollution and low visibility are very serious, which is closely related to the turbulence characteristics of the atmospheric boundary layer, the dynamics and scattering properties of suspended particles. Based on the particle population balance equation and Mie theory, a program is self-developed. The computed particle size distribution function and particle scattering property are consistent with the experimental and theoretical data, which verify the correctness of models and numerical method. Numerical study on the mechanism of droplet spectrum broadening, visibility reducing during the fog burst-enhanced phase is conducted, and the effects of turbulent transport and particle local aggregation on the coagulation of particles are discussed. Combining with particles scattering nature, the influence of particle turbulent dissipation rates on the radial relative velocity and the transmissivity of system in the fog development are analyzed numerically. Relation between the radial relative velocity, the transmissivity of system and the particle size are discussed. The computed results suggest that the radial relative velocity of particles increases slowly and then increases rapidly with the rise of turbulent dissipation rate. At 1 000 s, the turbulent dissipation rate is 1.0×10−2 m2/s3, and the dimensionless radial relative velocity of particle is 0.096 9. For 0.6 µm wavelength of visible light, the transmissivity of fog is 0.47. Furthermore, aerosols are coagulated with fog droplets in the development region of fog to decrease atmosphere visibility, which radiation properties are different from pure droplets.%爆发性增强的雾天，空气污染严重能见度低，这与大气边界层湍流性质、悬浮颗粒的动力学及散射性质密切相关.文中基于颗粒群平衡方程和Mie理论，采取加权蒙特卡洛方法，自行开发了Fortran程序.文中计算所得的颗粒尺度分布函数、
Radiative heat transfer in turbulent combustion systems theory and applications
Modest, Michael F
2016-01-01
This introduction reviews why combustion and radiation are important, as well as the technical challenges posed by radiation. Emphasis is on interactions among turbulence, chemistry and radiation (turbulence-chemistry-radiation interactions – TCRI) in Reynolds-averaged and large-eddy simulations. Subsequent chapters cover: chemically reacting turbulent flows; radiation properties, Reynolds transport equation (RTE) solution methods, and TCRI; radiation effects in laminar flames; TCRI in turbulent flames; and high-pressure combustion systems. This Brief presents integrated approach that includes radiation at the outset, rather than as an afterthought. It stands as the most recent developments in physical modeling, numerical algorithms, and applications collected in one monograph.
Badhwar, G D; O'Neill, P M
2001-07-11
There is considerable interest in developing silicon-based telescopes because of their compactness and low power requirements. Three such telescopes have been flown on board the Space Shuttle to measure the linear energy transfer spectra of trapped, galactic cosmic ray, and solar energetic particles. Dosimeters based on single silicon detectors have also been flown on the Mir orbital station. A comparison of the absorbed dose and radiation quality factors calculated from these telescopes with that estimated from measurements made with a tissue equivalent proportional counter show differences which need to be fully understood if these telescopes are to be used for astronaut radiation risk assessments. Instrument performance is complicated by a variety of factors. A Monte Carlo-based technique was developed to model the behavior of both single element detectors in a proton beam, and the performance of a two-element, wide-angle telescope, in the trapped belt proton field inside the Space Shuttle. The technique is based on: (1) radiation transport intranuclear-evaporation model that takes into account the charge and angular distribution of target fragments, (2) Landau-Vavilov distribution of energy deposition allowing for electron escape, (3) true detector geometry of the telescope, (4) coincidence and discriminator settings, (5) spacecraft shielding geometry, and (6) the external space radiation environment, including albedo protons. The value of such detailed modeling and its implications in astronaut risk assessment is addressed. PMID:11858255
Li, Changping
2015-07-22
In this letter, we propose a fast numerical solution for the steady state radiative transfer equation based on the approach in [1] in order to calculate the optical path loss of light propagation suffering from attenuation due to the absorption and scattering in various water types. We apply an optimal non-uniform method to discretize the angular space and an upwind type finite difference method to discretize the spatial space. A Gauss-Seidel iterative method is then applied to solve the fully discretized system of linear equations. Finally, we extend the resulting radiance in 2-dimensional to 3-dimensional by the azimuthal symmetric assumption to compute the received optical power under the given receiver aperture and field of view. The accuracy and efficiency of the proposed scheme are validated by uniform RTE solver and Monte Carlo simulations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A hybrid approach, combining deterministic and Monte Carlo (MC) calculations, is proposed to compute the distribution of dose deposited during stereotactic synchrotron radiation therapy treatment. The proposed approach divides the computation into two parts: (i) the dose deposited by primary radiation (coming directly from the incident x-ray beam) is calculated in a deterministic way using ray casting techniques and energy-absorption coefficient tables and (ii) the dose deposited by secondary radiation (Rayleigh and Compton scattering, fluorescence) is computed using a hybrid algorithm combining MC and deterministic calculations. In the MC part, a small number of particle histories are simulated. Every time a scattering or fluorescence event takes place, a splitting mechanism is applied, so that multiple secondary photons are generated with a reduced weight. The secondary events are further processed in a deterministic way, using ray casting techniques. The whole simulation, carried out within the framework of the Monte Carlo code Geant4, is shown to converge towards the same results as the full MC simulation. The speed of convergence is found to depend notably on the splitting multiplicity, which can easily be optimized. To assess the performance of the proposed algorithm, we compare it to state-of-the-art MC simulations, accelerated by the track length estimator technique (TLE), considering a clinically realistic test case. It is found that the hybrid approach is significantly faster than the MC/TLE method. The gain in speed in a test case was about 25 for a constant precision. Therefore, this method appears to be suitable for treatment planning applications.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Smekens, F; Freud, N; Letang, J M; Babot, D [CNDRI (Nondestructive Testing using Ionizing Radiations) Laboratory, INSA-Lyon, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Adam, J-F; Elleaume, H; Esteve, F [INSERM U-836, Equipe 6 ' Rayonnement Synchrotron et Recherche Medicale' , Institut des Neurosciences de Grenoble (France); Ferrero, C; Bravin, A [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France)], E-mail: francois.smekens@insa-lyon.fr
2009-08-07
A hybrid approach, combining deterministic and Monte Carlo (MC) calculations, is proposed to compute the distribution of dose deposited during stereotactic synchrotron radiation therapy treatment. The proposed approach divides the computation into two parts: (i) the dose deposited by primary radiation (coming directly from the incident x-ray beam) is calculated in a deterministic way using ray casting techniques and energy-absorption coefficient tables and (ii) the dose deposited by secondary radiation (Rayleigh and Compton scattering, fluorescence) is computed using a hybrid algorithm combining MC and deterministic calculations. In the MC part, a small number of particle histories are simulated. Every time a scattering or fluorescence event takes place, a splitting mechanism is applied, so that multiple secondary photons are generated with a reduced weight. The secondary events are further processed in a deterministic way, using ray casting techniques. The whole simulation, carried out within the framework of the Monte Carlo code Geant4, is shown to converge towards the same results as the full MC simulation. The speed of convergence is found to depend notably on the splitting multiplicity, which can easily be optimized. To assess the performance of the proposed algorithm, we compare it to state-of-the-art MC simulations, accelerated by the track length estimator technique (TLE), considering a clinically realistic test case. It is found that the hybrid approach is significantly faster than the MC/TLE method. The gain in speed in a test case was about 25 for a constant precision. Therefore, this method appears to be suitable for treatment planning applications.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ionization chambers are the most widely used instruments for dosimetry in radiotherapy. With the aim to test new configurations and materials using low-cost and easily-available components, verify the possibility of its application in the gamma radiation field of 60Co and fulfill the need of a chamber for scientific metrological purposes, in this paper the prototype of a plane-parallel ionization chamber has been designed and built, and its performance has been studied at the SSDL of KARAJ. The front wall and back wall of the chamber were made of graphite and Plexiglas respectively, as opposed to the one type of material in commercially available chambers. The collecting electrode has a diameter of 20 mm. The sensitive volume is 0.63 cm3. It was found that the Leakage current, the short-term stability and the polarity effect were within the international recommendations. The results were compared with those of a reference cylindrical chamber. The maximum difference observed in this comparison was 1.1%. The relative uncertainty was below 0.2%. Moreover, Monte Carlo simulation was undertaken using MCNP4C code and the relative difference of 1.9% was observed compared to the experiment. As a result the chamber presented a satisfactory performance in all evaluated tests in Gamma radiation field of 60Co. -- Highlights: • The prototype of a plane-parallel Ionization Chamber was designed. • Its performance was studied in Gamma radiation field of 60Co. • The response of the chamber was measured and compared with that of the cylindrical ionization chamber. • The chamber was simulated using the MCNP4C Monte Carlo code. • The Leakage current, the short-term stability and the polarity effect were within the international recommendations
SU-E-T-560: Monte Carlo Simulation of the Neutron Radiation Field Around a Medical 18 MV Linac
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Purpose: Today the majority of radiation therapy treatments are performed at medical electron linear accelerators (linacs). The accelerated electrons are used for the generation of bremsstrahlung photons. The use of higher electron respectively photon energies has some advantages over lower energies such as the longer dose build-up. However photons with energies higher than ∼7 MeV can additionally to the interaction with bound electrons undergo inelastic reactions with nuclei. These photonuclear reactions lead to the emission of fast neutrons which contaminate the primary photon field. The neutrons might penetrate through the collimators and deliver out-of-field dose to the patient. Furthermore the materials inside the linac head as well as the air inside the treatment room get activated which might deliver dose to the medical employees even when the linac is not in operation. A detailed knowledge of these effects is essential for adequate radiation protection of the employees and an optimal patient treatment. Methods: It is a common method to study the radiation fields of such linacs by means of Monte Carlo simulations. For the investigation of the effects caused by photonuclear reactions a typical linac in high energy mode (Varian Clinac 18 MV-X) as well as the surrounding bunker were modelled and simulated using the Monte Carlo code FLUKA which includes extensive nuclear reaction and neutron transport models additional to electron-photon transport as well as capabilities for a detailed study of effective dose distributions and activation yields. Results: Neutron spectra as well as neutron effective dose distributions within the bunker were obtained, reaching up to some mSv/Gy in the patient’s plane. The results are normalized per Gy in the depth dose maximum at 10×10 cm2 field size. Therefore an absolute interpretation is possible. Conclusion: The obtained data gives a better understanding of the photonuclear reaction caused effects
Polymers under ionizing radiation: the study of energy transfers to radiation induced defects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Radiation-induced defects created in polymers submitted to ionizing radiations, under inert atmosphere, present the same trend as a function of the dose. When the absorbed dose increases, their concentrations increase then level off. This behavior can be assigned to energy transfers from the polymer to the previously created macromolecular defects; the latter acting as energy sinks. During this thesis, we aimed to specify the influence of a given defect, namely the trans-vinylene, in the behavior of polyethylene under ionizing radiations. For this purpose, we proposed a new methodology based on the specific insertion, at various concentrations, of trans-vinylene groups in the polyethylene backbone through chemical synthesis. This enables to get rid of the variety of created defects on one hand and on the simultaneity of their creation on the other hand. Modified polyethylenes, containing solely trans-vinylene as odd groups, were irradiated under inert atmosphere, using either low LET beams (gamma, beta) or high LET beams (swift heavy ions). During irradiations, both macromolecular defects and H2 emission were quantified. According to experimental results, among all defects, the influence of the trans-vinylene on the behavior of polyethylene is predominant. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A Monte Carlo code (MORSE-SGC) from the Radiation Shielding Information Centre at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, USA, has been adapted and used to model radiation transport in the Auckland prompt gamma in vivo neutron activation analysis facility. Preliminary results are presented for the slow neutron flux in an anthropomorphic phantom which are in broad agreement with those obtained by measurement via activation foils. Since experimental optimization is not logistically feasible and since theoretical optimization of neutron activation facilities has not previously been attempted, it is hoped that the Monte Carlo calculations can be used to provide a basis for improved system design
HELIOS: A new open-source radiative transfer code
Malik, Matej; Grosheintz, Luc; Lukas Grimm, Simon; Mendonça, João; Kitzmann, Daniel; Heng, Kevin
2015-12-01
I present the new open-source code HELIOS, developed to accurately describe radiative transfer in a wide variety of irradiated atmospheres. We employ a one-dimensional multi-wavelength two-stream approach with scattering. Written in Cuda C++, HELIOS uses the GPU’s potential of massive parallelization and is able to compute the TP-profile of an atmosphere in radiative equilibrium and the subsequent emission spectrum in a few minutes on a single computer (for 60 layers and 1000 wavelength bins).The required molecular opacities are obtained with the recently published code HELIOS-K [1], which calculates the line shapes from an input line list and resamples the numerous line-by-line data into a manageable k-distribution format. Based on simple equilibrium chemistry theory [2] we combine the k-distribution functions of the molecules H2O, CO2, CO & CH4 to generate a k-table, which we then employ in HELIOS.I present our results of the following: (i) Various numerical tests, e.g. isothermal vs. non-isothermal treatment of layers. (ii) Comparison of iteratively determined TP-profiles with their analytical parametric prescriptions [3] and of the corresponding spectra. (iii) Benchmarks of TP-profiles & spectra for various elemental abundances. (iv) Benchmarks of averaged TP-profiles & spectra for the exoplanets GJ1214b, HD189733b & HD209458b. (v) Comparison with secondary eclipse data for HD189733b, XO-1b & Corot-2b.HELIOS is being developed, together with the dynamical core THOR and the chemistry solver VULCAN, in the group of Kevin Heng at the University of Bern as part of the Exoclimes Simulation Platform (ESP) [4], which is an open-source project aimed to provide community tools to model exoplanetary atmospheres.-----------------------------[1] Grimm & Heng 2015, ArXiv, 1503.03806[2] Heng, Lyons & Tsai, Arxiv, 1506.05501Heng & Lyons, ArXiv, 1507.01944[3] e.g. Heng, Mendonca & Lee, 2014, ApJS, 215, 4H[4] exoclime.net
Monte Carlo simulation of radiative processes in electron-positron scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Monte Carlo simulation of scattering processes has turned out to be one of the most successful methods of translating theoretical predictions into experimentally meaningful quantities. It is the purpose of this thesis to describe how this approach can be applied to higher-order QED corrections to several fundamental processes. In chapter II a very brief overview of the currently interesting phenomena in e+- scattering is given. It is argued that accurate information on higher-order QED corrections is very important and that the Monte Carlo approach is one of the most flexible and general methods to obtain this information. In chapter III the author describes various techniques which are useful in this context, and makes a few remarks on the numerical aspects of the proposed method. In the following three chapters he applies this to the processes e+e- → μ+μ-(γ) and e+e- → qanti q(sigma). In chapter IV he motivates his choice of these processes in view of their experimental and theoretical relevance. The formulae necessary for a computer simulation of all quantities of interest, up to order α3, is given. Chapters V and VI describe how this simulation can be performed using the techniques mentioned in chapter III. In chapter VII it is shown how additional dynamical quantities, namely the polarization of the incoming and outgoing particles, can be incorporated in our treatment, and the relevant formulae for the example processes mentioned above are given. Finally, in chapter VIII the author presents some examples of the comparison between theoretical predictions based on Monte Carlo simulations as outlined here, and the results from actual experiments. (Auth.)
Monte Carlo treatment of Lyman-alpha. II - Radiation in a spherical atmosphere
Modali, S. B.; Brandt, J. C.; Kastner, S. O.
1975-01-01
Intensity and state of polarization of solar L-alpha photons as they diffuse through an inhomogeneous, spherically symmetric, isothermal geocorona are theoretically determined. The fine structure of L-alpha and Doppler redistribution of frequencies are taken into account. The calculation use the Monte Carlo technique involving Stokes vectors. Comparison of the results with OGO-4 and OSO-4 observed intensities at an altitude of 650 km shows good agreement. Calculations of the polarization versus solar zenith angle show a residual polarization at large zenith angles which is mainly due to multiply scattered photons.
Monte Carlo treatment of Lyman-alpha radiation in a plane-parallel atmosphere.
Modali, S. B.; Brandt, J. C.; Kastner, S. O.
1972-01-01
A Monte Carlo technique involving Stokes vectors is used to obtain the state of polarization and intensity of solar Lyman-alpha photons as they diffuse through a plane-parallel homogeneous model of earth's hydrogen envelope. Fine structure of Lyman-alpha and Doppler redistribution of frequencies are taken into account. Comparison of the results with Heath's observed upper limit for polarization of 1.5 per cent implies an optical thickness tau greater than 7 and intensities of 8-10 kilorayleighs for a solar Lyman-alpha flux of 5.8 ergs per sq cm per sec.
Monte Carlo simulation of mixed neutron-gamma radiation fields and dosimetry devices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Guoqing
2011-12-22
Monte Carlo methods based on random sampling are widely used in different fields for the capability of solving problems with a large number of coupled degrees of freedom. In this work, Monte Carlos methods are successfully applied for the simulation of the mixed neutron-gamma field in an interim storage facility and neutron dosimeters of different types. Details are discussed in two parts: In the first part, the method of simulating an interim storage facility loaded with CASTORs is presented. The size of a CASTOR is rather large (several meters) and the CASTOR wall is very thick (tens of centimeters). Obtaining the results of dose rates outside a CASTOR with reasonable errors costs usually hours or even days. For the simulation of a large amount of CASTORs in an interim storage facility, it needs weeks or even months to finish a calculation. Variance reduction techniques were used to reduce the calculation time and to achieve reasonable relative errors. Source clones were applied to avoid unnecessary repeated calculations. In addition, the simulations were performed on a cluster system. With the calculation techniques discussed above, the efficiencies of calculations can be improved evidently. In the second part, the methods of simulating the response of neutron dosimeters are presented. An Alnor albedo dosimeter was modelled in MCNP, and it has been simulated in the facility to calculate the calibration factor to get the evaluated response to a Cf-252 source. The angular response of Makrofol detectors to fast neutrons has also been investigated. As a kind of SSNTD, Makrofol can detect fast neutrons by recording the neutron induced heavy charged recoils. To obtain the information of charged recoils, general-purpose Monte Carlo codes were used for transporting incident neutrons. The response of Makrofol to fast neutrons is dependent on several factors. Based on the parameters which affect the track revealing, the formation of visible tracks was determined. For
Monte Carlo simulation of mixed neutron-gamma radiation fields and dosimetry devices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Monte Carlo methods based on random sampling are widely used in different fields for the capability of solving problems with a large number of coupled degrees of freedom. In this work, Monte Carlos methods are successfully applied for the simulation of the mixed neutron-gamma field in an interim storage facility and neutron dosimeters of different types. Details are discussed in two parts: In the first part, the method of simulating an interim storage facility loaded with CASTORs is presented. The size of a CASTOR is rather large (several meters) and the CASTOR wall is very thick (tens of centimeters). Obtaining the results of dose rates outside a CASTOR with reasonable errors costs usually hours or even days. For the simulation of a large amount of CASTORs in an interim storage facility, it needs weeks or even months to finish a calculation. Variance reduction techniques were used to reduce the calculation time and to achieve reasonable relative errors. Source clones were applied to avoid unnecessary repeated calculations. In addition, the simulations were performed on a cluster system. With the calculation techniques discussed above, the efficiencies of calculations can be improved evidently. In the second part, the methods of simulating the response of neutron dosimeters are presented. An Alnor albedo dosimeter was modelled in MCNP, and it has been simulated in the facility to calculate the calibration factor to get the evaluated response to a Cf-252 source. The angular response of Makrofol detectors to fast neutrons has also been investigated. As a kind of SSNTD, Makrofol can detect fast neutrons by recording the neutron induced heavy charged recoils. To obtain the information of charged recoils, general-purpose Monte Carlo codes were used for transporting incident neutrons. The response of Makrofol to fast neutrons is dependent on several factors. Based on the parameters which affect the track revealing, the formation of visible tracks was determined. For
Heng, Kevin; Lee, Jaemin
2014-01-01
We present a comprehensive analytical study of radiative transfer using the method of moments and include the effects of non-isotropic scattering in the coherent limit. Within this unified formalism, we derive the governing equations and solutions describing two-stream radiative transfer (which approximates the passage of radiation as a pair of outgoing and incoming fluxes), flux-limited diffusion (which describes radiative transfer in the deep interior) and solutions for the temperature-pressure profiles. Generally, the problem is mathematically under-determined unless a set of closures (Eddington coefficients) is specified. We demonstrate that the hemispheric (or hemi-isotropic) closure naturally derives from the radiative transfer equation if energy conservation is obeyed, while the Eddington closure produces spurious enhancements of both reflected light and thermal emission. We further demonstrate that traditional non-isothermal treatments of each atmospheric layer lead to unphysical contributions to the ...
Xin, Q.; Gong, P.; Li, W.
2015-02-01
Modeling vegetation photosynthesis is essential for understanding carbon exchanges between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. The radiative transfer process within plant canopies is one of the key drivers that regulate canopy photosynthesis. Most vegetation cover consists of discrete plant crowns, of which the physical observation departs from the underlying assumption of a homogenous and uniform medium in classic radiative transfer theory. Here we advance the Geometric Optical Radiative Transfer (GORT) model to simulate photosynthesis activities for discontinuous plant canopies. We separate radiation absorption into two components that are absorbed by sunlit and shaded leaves, and derive analytical solutions by integrating over the canopy layer. To model leaf-level and canopy-level photosynthesis, leaf light absorption is then linked to the biochemical process of gas diffusion through leaf stomata. The canopy gap probability derived from GORT differs from classic radiative transfer theory, especially when the leaf area index is high, due to leaf clumping effects. Tree characteristics such as tree density, crown shape, and canopy length affect leaf clumping and regulate radiation interception. Modeled gross primary production (GPP) for two deciduous forest stands could explain more than 80% of the variance of flux tower measurements at both near hourly and daily time scales. We also demonstrate that the ambient CO2 concentration influences daytime vegetation photosynthesis, which needs to be considered in state-of-the-art biogeochemical models. The proposed model is complementary to classic radiative transfer theory and shows promise in modeling the radiative transfer process and photosynthetic activities over discontinuous forest canopies.
A Random Walk on WASP-12b with the Bayesian Atmospheric Radiative Transfer (BART) Code
Harrington, Joseph; Cubillos, Patricio; Blecic, Jasmina; Challener, Ryan; Rojo, Patricio; Lust, Nathaniel B.; Bowman, Oliver; Blumenthal, Sarah D.; Foster, Andrew S. D.; Foster, Austin James; Stemm, Madison; Bruce, Dylan
2016-01-01
We present the Bayesian Atmospheric Radiative Transfer (BART) code for atmospheric property retrievals from transit and eclipse spectra, and apply it to WASP-12b, a hot (~3000 K) exoplanet with a high eclipse signal-to-noise ratio. WASP-12b has been controversial. We (Madhusudhan et al. 2011, Nature) claimed it was the first planet with a high C/O abundance ratio. Line et al. (2014, ApJ) suggested a high CO2 abundance to explain the data. Stevenson et al. (2014, ApJ, atmospheric model by Madhusudhan) add additional data and reaffirm the original result, stating that C2H2 and HCN, not included in the Line et al. models, explain the data. We explore several modeling configurations and include Hubble, Spitzer, and ground-based eclipse data.BART consists of a differential-evolution Markov-Chain Monte Carlo sampler that drives a line-by-line radiative transfer code through the phase space of thermal- and abundance-profile parameters. BART is written in Python and C. Python modules generate atmospheric profiles from sets of MCMC parameters and integrate the resulting spectra over observational bandpasses, allowing high flexibility in modeling the planet without interacting with the fast, C portions that calculate the spectra. BART's shared memory and optimized opacity calculation allow it to run on a laptop, enabling classroom use. Runs can scale constant abundance profiles, profiles of thermochemical equilibrium abundances (TEA) calculated by the included TEA code, or arbitrary curves. Several thermal profile parameterizations are available. BART is an open-source, reproducible-research code. Users must release any code or data modifications if they publish results from it, and we encourage the community to use it and to participate in its development via http://github.com/ExOSPORTS/BART.This work was supported by NASA Planetary Atmospheres grant NNX12AI69G and NASA Astrophysics Data Analysis Program grant NNX13AF38G. J. Blecic holds a NASA Earth and Space Science
WASP-12b According to the Bayesian Atmospheric Radiative Transfer (BART) Code
Harrington, Joseph; Cubillos, Patricio E.; Blecic, Jasmina; Challener, Ryan C.; Rojo, Patricio M.; Lust, Nate B.; Bowman, M. Oliver; Blumenthal, Sarah D.; Foster, Andrew SD; Foster, A. J.
2015-11-01
We present the Bayesian Atmospheric Radiative Transfer (BART) code for atmospheric property retrievals from transit and eclipse spectra, and apply it to WASP-12b, a hot (~3000 K) exoplanet with a high eclipse signal-to-noise ratio. WASP-12b has been controversial. We (Madhusudhan et al. 2011, Nature) claimed it was the first planet with a high C/O abundance ratio. Line et al. (2014, ApJ) suggested a high CO2 abundance to explain the data. Stevenson et al. (2014, ApJ, atmospheric model by Madhusudhan) add additional data and reaffirm the original result, stating that C2H2 and HCN, not included in the Line et al. models, explain the data. We explore several modeling configurations and include Hubble, Spitzer, and ground-based eclipse data.BART consists of a differential-evolution Markov-Chain Monte Carlo sampler that drives a line-by-line radiative transfer code through the phase space of thermal- and abundance-profile parameters. BART is written in Python and C. Python modules generate atmospheric profiles from sets of MCMC parameters and integrate the resulting spectra over observational bandpasses, allowing high flexibility in modeling the planet without interacting with the fast, C portions that calculate the spectra. BART's shared memory and optimized opacity calculation allow it to run on a laptop, enabling classroom use. Runs can scale constant abundance profiles, profiles of thermochemical equilibrium abundances (TEA) calculated by the included TEA code, or arbitrary curves. Several thermal profile parameterizations are available. BART is an open-source, reproducible-research code. Users must release any code or data modifications if they publish results from it, and we encourage the community to use it and to participate in its development via http://github.com/ExOSPORTS/BART.This work was supported by NASA Planetary Atmospheres grant NNX12AI69G and NASA Astrophysics Data Analysis Program grant NNX13AF38G. J. Blecic holds a NASA Earth and Space Science
Srinivasan, P.; Priya, S.; Patel, Tarun; Gopalakrishnan, R. K.; Sharma, D. N.
2015-01-01
DD/DT fusion neutron generators are used as sources of 2.5 MeV/14.1 MeV neutrons in experimental laboratories for various applications. Detailed knowledge of the radiation dose rates around the neutron generators are essential for ensuring radiological protection of the personnel involved with the operation. This work describes the experimental and Monte Carlo studies carried out in the Purnima Neutron Generator facility of the Bhabha Atomic Research Center (BARC), Mumbai. Verification and validation of the shielding adequacy was carried out by measuring the neutron and gamma dose-rates at various locations inside and outside the neutron generator hall during different operational conditions both for 2.5-MeV and 14.1-MeV neutrons and comparing with theoretical simulations. The calculated and experimental dose rates were found to agree with a maximum deviation of 20% at certain locations. This study has served in benchmarking the Monte Carlo simulation methods adopted for shield design of such facilities. This has also helped in augmenting the existing shield thickness to reduce the neutron and associated gamma dose rates for radiological protection of personnel during operation of the generators at higher source neutron yields up to 1 × 1010 n/s.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
DD/DT fusion neutron generators are used as sources of 2.5 MeV/14.1 MeV neutrons in experimental laboratories for various applications. Detailed knowledge of the radiation dose rates around the neutron generators are essential for ensuring radiological protection of the personnel involved with the operation. This work describes the experimental and Monte Carlo studies carried out in the Purnima Neutron Generator facility of the Bhabha Atomic Research Center (BARC), Mumbai. Verification and validation of the shielding adequacy was carried out by measuring the neutron and gamma dose-rates at various locations inside and outside the neutron generator hall during different operational conditions both for 2.5-MeV and 14.1-MeV neutrons and comparing with theoretical simulations. The calculated and experimental dose rates were found to agree with a maximum deviation of 20% at certain locations. This study has served in benchmarking the Monte Carlo simulation methods adopted for shield design of such facilities. This has also helped in augmenting the existing shield thickness to reduce the neutron and associated gamma dose rates for radiological protection of personnel during operation of the generators at higher source neutron yields up to 1 × 1010 n/s
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The present work presents an overview of application of the Monte Carlo code, GEANT4, in the gamma irradiation processing field. In order to check the validity of such code, a successful calculation of expected dose rate and photon flux in the Tunisian gamma irradiation facility was carried out. In the same course of study, an ample set of comparison tests were done using the PMMA dosimeters and the GEANT4 version 8.2 code, for measurement and calculation purposes. Thus, the excellent agreement seen between data and calculations allow us to apply the GEANT4-based tool in order to optimize some process parameters, specific to the studied 60Co facility, and to systematically improve the dose uniformity within irradiated targets having different densities and volumes. Therefore, three irradiation processing procedures were studied let us to conclude that for a given carrier dimensions, more the product density is higher than a determined value, more a specific procedure will be performed. It is shown that Monte Carlo simulation improves the gamma irradiation process understanding. (Author)
Heat Transfer Issues in Thin-Film Thermal Radiation Detectors
Barry, Mamadou Yaya
1999-01-01
The Thermal Radiation Group at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University has been working closely with scientists and engineers at NASA's Langley Research Center to develop accurate analytical and numerical models suitable for designing next-generation thin-film thermal radiation detectors for earth radiation budget measurement applications. The current study provides an analytical model of the notional thermal radiation detector that takes into account thermal transport phenomena, ...
Investigation of spectral radiation heat transfer and NO{sub x} emission in a glass furnace
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Golchert, B.; Zhou, C. Q.; Chang, S. L.; Petrick, M.
2000-08-02
A comprehensive radiation heat transfer model and a reduced NOx kinetics model were coupled with a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code and then used to investigate the radiation heat transfer, pollutant formation and flow characteristics in a glass furnace. The radiation model solves the spectral radiative transport equation in the combustion space of emitting and absorbing media, i.e., CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, and soot and emission/reflection from the furnace crown. The advanced numerical scheme for calculating the radiation heat transfer is extremely effective in conserving energy between radiation emission and absorption. A parametric study was conducted to investigate the impact of operating conditions on the furnace performance with emphasis on the investigation into the formation of NOx.
Žukauskaitėa, A; Plukienė, R; Ridikas, D
2007-01-01
Particle accelerators and other high energy facilities produce penetrating ionizing radiation (neutrons and γ-rays) that must be shielded. The objective of this work was to model photon and neutron transport in various materials, usually used as shielding, such as concrete, iron or graphite. Monte Carlo method allows obtaining answers by simulating individual particles and recording some aspects of their average behavior. In this work several nuclear experiments were modeled: AVF 65 (AVF cyclotron of Research Center of Nuclear Physics, Osaka University, Japan) – γ-ray beams (1-10 MeV), HIMAC (heavy-ion synchrotron of the National Institute of Radiological Sciences in Chiba, Japan) and ISIS-800 (ISIS intensive spallation neutron source facility of the Rutherford Appleton laboratory, UK) – high energy neutron (20-800 MeV) transport in iron and concrete. The calculation results were then compared with experimental data.compared with experimental data.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sarrut, David, E-mail: david.sarrut@creatis.insa-lyon.fr [Université de Lyon, CREATIS, CNRS UMR5220, Inserm U1044, INSA-Lyon (France); Université Lyon 1 (France); Centre Léon Bérard (France); Bardiès, Manuel; Marcatili, Sara; Mauxion, Thibault [Inserm, UMR1037 CRCT, F-31000 Toulouse, France and Université Toulouse III-Paul Sabatier, UMR1037 CRCT, F-31000 Toulouse (France); Boussion, Nicolas [INSERM, UMR 1101, LaTIM, CHU Morvan, 29609 Brest (France); Freud, Nicolas; Létang, Jean-Michel [Université de Lyon, CREATIS, CNRS UMR5220, Inserm U1044, INSA-Lyon, Université Lyon 1, Centre Léon Bérard, 69008 Lyon (France); Jan, Sébastien [CEA/DSV/I2BM/SHFJ, Orsay 91401 (France); Loudos, George [Department of Medical Instruments Technology, Technological Educational Institute of Athens, Athens 12210 (Greece); Maigne, Lydia; Perrot, Yann [UMR 6533 CNRS/IN2P3, Université Blaise Pascal, 63171 Aubière (France); Papadimitroulas, Panagiotis [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Technological Educational Institute of Athens, 12210, Athens (Greece); Pietrzyk, Uwe [Institut für Neurowissenschaften und Medizin, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, 52425 Jülich, Germany and Fachbereich für Mathematik und Naturwissenschaften, Bergische Universität Wuppertal, 42097 Wuppertal (Germany); Robert, Charlotte [IMNC, UMR 8165 CNRS, Universités Paris 7 et Paris 11, Orsay 91406 (France); and others
2014-06-15
In this paper, the authors' review the applicability of the open-source GATE Monte Carlo simulation platform based on the GEANT4 toolkit for radiation therapy and dosimetry applications. The many applications of GATE for state-of-the-art radiotherapy simulations are described including external beam radiotherapy, brachytherapy, intraoperative radiotherapy, hadrontherapy, molecular radiotherapy, and in vivo dose monitoring. Investigations that have been performed using GEANT4 only are also mentioned to illustrate the potential of GATE. The very practical feature of GATE making it easy to model both a treatment and an imaging acquisition within the same frameworkis emphasized. The computational times associated with several applications are provided to illustrate the practical feasibility of the simulations using current computing facilities.
Stepanek, J; Laissue, J A; Lyubimova, N; Di Michiel, F; Slatkin, D N
2000-01-01
Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) is a currently experimental method of radiotherapy which is mediated by an array of parallel microbeams of synchrotron-wiggler-generated X-rays. Suitably selected, nominally supralethal doses of X-rays delivered to parallel microslices of tumor-bearing tissues in rats can be either palliative or curative while causing little or no serious damage to contiguous normal tissues. Although the pathogenesis of MRT-mediated tumor regression is not understood, as in all radiotherapy such understanding will be based ultimately on our understanding of the relationships among the following three factors: (1) microdosimetry, (2) damage to normal tissues, and (3) therapeutic efficacy. Although physical microdosimetry is feasible, published information on MRT microdosimetry to date is computational. This report describes Monte Carlo-based computational MRT microdosimetry using photon and/or electron scattering and photoionization cross-section data in the 1 e V through 100 GeV range distrib...
Sunil, C.; Tyagi, Mohit; Biju, K.; Shanbhag, A. A.; Bandyopadhyay, T.
2015-12-01
The scarcity and the high cost of 3He has spurred the use of various detectors for neutron monitoring. A new lithium yttrium borate scintillator developed in BARC has been studied for its use in a neutron rem counter. The scintillator is made of natural lithium and boron, and the yield of reaction products that will generate a signal in a real time detector has been studied by FLUKA Monte Carlo radiation transport code. A 2 cm lead introduced to enhance the gamma rejection shows no appreciable change in the shape of the fluence response or in the yield of reaction products. The fluence response when normalized at the average energy of an Am-Be neutron source shows promise of being used as rem counter.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The crucial problem for radiation shielding design at heavy ion accelerator facilities with beam energies of several GeV/n is the source term problem. Experimental data on double differential neutron yields from thick targets irradiated with high-energy uranium nuclei are lacking. At present there are not many Monte Carlo multipurpose codes that can work with primary high-energy uranium nuclei. These codes use different physical models for simulating nucleus-nucleus reactions. Therefore, verification of the codes with available experimental data is very important for selection of the most reliable code for practical tasks. This paper presents comparisons of the FLUKA, GEANT4 and SHIELD code simulations with experimental data on neutron production at 1 GeV/n 238U beam interaction with a thick Fe target
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Inst. for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety owns two facilities producing realistic mixed neutron-photon radiation fields, CANEL, an accelerator driven moderator modular device, and SIGMA, a graphite moderated americium-beryllium assembly. These fields are representative of some of those encountered at nuclear workplaces, and the corresponding facilities are designed and used for calibration of various instruments, such as survey meters, personal dosimeters or spectrometric devices. In the framework of the European project EVIDOS, irradiations of personal dosimeters were performed at CANEL and SIGMA. Monte Carlo calculations were performed to estimate the reference values of the personal dose equivalent at both facilities. The Hp(10) values were calculated for three different angular positions, 0 deg., 45 deg. and 75 deg., of an ICRU phantom located at the position of irradiation. (authors)
Use of the radiative transfer equation for active remote sensing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Remote sensing requires an interaction between the electromagnetic field and the matter whose properties are to be determined. We only saw two interactions between electromagnetic radiation and matter, namely absorption and emission, usefully regrouped into four classes of interaction processes: scattering, reflection, absorption, and emission. Remote sensing with artificial radiation sources requires the selection of measuring conditions so that natural radiation be always negligible compared to the artificial radiation. The radiation transport equations for all shortwave and longwave active method do not differ from one another so they can be treated together. (Author)
Ustinov, Y. A.
1978-01-01
The direct method for the solution of the spherical harmonics approximation to the equation of transfer of radiation is applied to the cases of (1) scattering of the solar radiation in the atmosphere with the Lambertian boundary and (2) thermal radiation transfer.
Progress on radiative transfer modelling in optically thick divertor plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The physical model used in the photon transport module of the Monte-Carlo code EIRENE (http://www.eirene.de) is presented. A critical assessment of the spectral line broadening mechanisms (which give the shape of the photon-atom reaction rates) and of their relevance in a transport simulation is carried out (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)
Huang, Yong; Shi, Guo-Dong; Zhu, Ke-Yong
2016-06-01
This paper adopts the Runge-Kutta ray tracing method to obtain the ray-trajectory numerical solution in a two-dimensional gradient index medium. The emitting, absorbing and scattering processes are simulated by the Monte Carlo method. The temperature field and ray trajectory in the medium are obtained by the three methods, the Runge-Kutta ray tracing method, the ray tracing method with the cell model and the discrete curved ray tracing method with the linear refractive index cell model. Comparing the results of the three methods, it is found that the results by the Monte Carlo Runge-Kutta ray tracing method are of the highest accuracy. To improve the computational speed, the variable step-size Runge-Kutta ray tracing method is proposed, and the maximum relative error between the temperature field in the nonscattering medium by this method and the benchmark solution is less than 0.5%. The results also suggest that the Runge-Kutta ray tracing method would make the radiative transfer solution in the three-dimensional graded index media much easier.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HE XianQiang; PAN DeLu; BAI Yan; ZHU QianKun; GONG Fang
2007-01-01
A vector radiative transfer numerical model of the coupled ocean-atmosphere system is developed based on the matrix-operator method,which is named PCOART.Using the Fourier analysis,the vector radiative transfer equation (VRTE) is separated into a set of equations depending only on the observation zenith angle.Using the Gaussian-Quadrature method,VRTE is finally transferred into the matrix equation solved by the adding-doubling method.According to the reflective and refractive properties of the ocean-atmosphere interface,the vector radiative transfer numerical model of the ocean and atmosphere is coupled in PCOART.Compared with the exact Rayleigh scattering look-up tables of MODIS (Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer),it is shown that PCOART is an exactly numerical model,and the processing methods of the multi-scattering and polarization are correct.Also,validated with the standard problems of the radiative transfer in water,it is shown that PCOART can be used to calculate the underwater radiative transfer problems.Therefore,PCOART is a useful tool for exactly calculating the vector radiative transfer of the coupled ocean-atmosphere system,which can be used to study the polarization properties of the radiance in the whole ocean-atmosphere system and the remote sensing of the atmosphere and ocean.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2007-01-01
A vector radiative transfer numerical model of the coupled ocean-atmosphere system is developed based on the matrix-operator method, which is named PCOART. Using the Fourier analysis, the vector radiative transfer equation (VRTE) is separated into a set of equations depending only on the observa-tion zenith angle. Using the Gaussian-Quadrature method, VRTE is finally transferred into the matrix equation solved by the adding-doubling method. According to the reflective and refractive properties of the ocean-atmosphere interface, the vector radiative transfer numerical model of the ocean and at-mosphere is coupled in PCOART. Compared with the exact Rayleigh scattering look-up tables of MODIS (Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer), it is shown that PCOART is an exactly numerical model, and the processing methods of the multi-scattering and polarization are correct. Also, validated with the standard problems of the radiative transfer in water, it is shown that PCOART can be used to calculate the underwater radiative transfer problems. Therefore, PCOART is a useful tool for exactly calculating the vector radiative transfer of the coupled ocean-atmosphere system, which can be used to study the polarization properties of the radiance in the whole ocean-atmosphere system and the remote sensing of the atmosphere and ocean.
A passive and active microwave-vector radiative transfer (PAM-VRT) model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A passive and active microwave vector radiative transfer (PAM-VRT) package has been developed. This fast and accurate forward microwave model, with flexible and versatile input and output components, self-consistently and realistically simulates measurements/radiation of passive and active microwave sensors. The core PAM-VRT, microwave radiative transfer model, consists of five modules: gas absorption (two line-by-line databases and four fast models); hydrometeor property of water droplets and ice (spherical and nonspherical) particles; surface emissivity (from Community Radiative Transfer Model (CRTM)); vector radiative transfer of successive order of scattering (VSOS); and passive and active microwave simulation. The PAM-VRT package has been validated against other existing models, demonstrating good accuracy. The PAM-VRT not only can be used to simulate or assimilate measurements of existing microwave sensors, but also can be used to simulate observation results at some new microwave sensors. - Highlights: • A novel microwave vector radiative transfer model is developed. • It can simulate passive and active microwave radiative transfer simultaneously. • It can be applied to simulate measurements for different types of viewing geometry. • The accuracy of this model has been validated against other existing models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A plane parallel vector radiative transfer model is presented to simulate the effect of rotational Raman scattering on radiance and polarization properties of sunlight reflected by the Earth atmosphere in the ultraviolet and visible part of the solar spectrum. The model employs the radiative transfer perturbation theory, which treats inelastic rotational Raman scattering as a perturbation to elastic Rayleigh scattering. The approach provides a perturbation series expansion for a simulated radiation quantity, where each term describes the effect of one additional order of Raman scattering. The model is worked out in detail to first order. Here, the adjoint formulation of radiative transfer reduces significantly the numerical effort of computational applications. Numerical simulations are presented for the ultraviolet part of the solar spectrum and the effect of Raman scattering on the Stokes parameters I,Q and U of the reflected sunlight is studied. Furthermore, the accuracy of both the single scattering approximation and the scalar radiative transfer approach is considered for the simulation of Ring structures. The use of these approximation techniques is investigated for the simulation of Ring structures in polarization sensitive GOME measurements
Inverse treatment planning for radiation therapy based on fast Monte Carlo dose calculation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
An inverse treatment planning system based on fast Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculation is presented. It allows optimisation of intensity modulated dose distributions in 15 to 60 minutes on present day personal computers. If a multi-processor machine is available, parallel simulation of particle histories is also possible, leading to further calculation time reductions. The optimisation process is divided into two stages. The first stage results influence profiles based on pencil beam (PB) dose calculation. The second stage starts with MC verification and post-optimisation of the PB dose and fluence distributions. Because of the potential to accurately model beam modifiers, MC based inverse planning systems are able to optimise compensator thicknesses and leaf trajectories instead of intensity profiles only. The corresponding techniques, whose implementation is the subject for future work, are also presented here. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In some postmastectomy breast radiotherapy, patients are often irradiated with a temporary tissue expander. Most tissue expanders present a high density metallic disk inside which produce severe streaking artifacts in CT images and, as a consequence, is expected to affect the dose calculations . With the implementation of complex technique such as the IMRT technique, more rigorous verification is required in order to ensure the accurate determination of the absorbed dose before the treatment delivery. Monte Carlo (MC) algorithms have shown to be a reliable tool to provide improved dose accuracy in such situations. The aim of this work is to assess the accuracy of the dose calculation performed with a commercial TPS for breast IMRT radiotherapy in presence of metallic expanders (model McGhan Style 150). A MC method is used as gold standard for this evaluation. (Author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zarza-Moreno, M.; Calvo Ortega, J. F.; Jesus, A. P.; Casals Farran, J.
2013-07-01
In some postmastectomy breast radiotherapy, patients are often irradiated with a temporary tissue expander. Most tissue expanders present a high density metallic disk inside which produce severe streaking artifacts in CT images and, as a consequence, is expected to affect the dose calculations . With the implementation of complex technique such as the IMRT technique, more rigorous verification is required in order to ensure the accurate determination of the absorbed dose before the treatment delivery. Monte Carlo (MC) algorithms have shown to be a reliable tool to provide improved dose accuracy in such situations. The aim of this work is to assess the accuracy of the dose calculation performed with a commercial TPS for breast IMRT radiotherapy in presence of metallic expanders (model McGhan Style 150). A MC method is used as gold standard for this evaluation. (Author)
BBBREM - Monte Carlo simulation of radiative Bhabha scattering in the very forward direction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A fast and simple Monte Carlo program is presented that simulates single Bremsstrahlung in Bhabha scattering, e+e-→e+e-γ, without constraints on scattering angles. This allows the study of this process at arbitrarily small, or even vanishing, scattering angles. Experimental cuts can be imposed on an event-by-event basis, allowing for detailed studies of the process as a limitation to beam lifetimes, or a luminosity-measuring device, in e+e- storage rings. As an application, we show that the easy introduction of a cut-off parameter, corresponding to the characteristic distance between particles in the e± bunches, gives a reduced cross section that is in good agreement with observation. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This report provides absorbed dose rate and photon fluence rate distributions in rock salt around 30 testwise emplaced canisters containing high-level radioactive material (HAW project) and around a single canister containing radioactive material of a lower activity level (INHAW experiment). The site of this test emplacement was located in test galleries at the 800-m-level in the Asse salt mine. The data given were calculated using a Monte Carlo method simulating photon transport in complex geometries of differently composed materials. The aim of these calculations was to enable determination of the dose absorbed in any arbitrary sample of salt to be further examined in the future with sufficient reliability. The geometry of the test arrangement, the materials involved and the calculational method are characterised and the results are shortly described and some figures presenting selected results are shown. In the appendices, the results for emplacement of the highly radioactive canisters are given in tabular form. (orig.)
Application of the modified differential approximation for radiative transfer to arbitrary geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The first-order spherical harmonics method (or P1 approximation) has found prolific usage for approximate solution of the radiative transfer equation (RTE) in participating media. However, the accuracy of the P1 approximation deteriorates as the optical thickness of the medium is decreased. The modified differential approximation (MDA) was originally proposed to remove the shortcomings of the P1 approximation in optically thin situations. This article presents algorithms to apply the MDA to arbitrary geometry-in particular, geometry with obstructions, and inhomogeneous media. The wall-emitted component of the intensity was computed using a combined view-factor and ray-tracing approach. The Helmholtz equation, arising out of the medium-emitted component, was solved using an unstructured finite-volume procedure. The general procedure was validated for both two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) geometries against benchmark Monte Carlo results. The accuracy of MDA was found to be superior to the P1 approximation for all optical thicknesses. Its accuracy, when compared with the discrete ordinates method (both S6 and S8), was found to be clearly superior in optically thin situations, but problem dependent in optically intermediate and thick situations. For 3D geometries, calculation and storage of the view-factor matrix was found to be a major shortcoming of the MDA. In addition, for inhomogeneous media, calculation of optical distances requires a ray-tracing procedure, which was found to be a bottleneck from a computational efficiency standpoint. Several strategies to reduce both memory and computational time are discussed and demonstrated.
Mishchenko, Michael I.
2014-01-01
This Essay traces the centuries-long history of the phenomenological disciplines of directional radiometry and radiative transfer in turbid media, discusses their fundamental weaknesses, and outlines the convoluted process of their conversion into legitimate branches of physical optics.
Discontinuous Galerkin finite element methods for radiative transfer in spherical symmetry
Kitzmann, D; Patzer, A B C
2016-01-01
The discontinuous Galerkin finite element method (DG-FEM) is successfully applied to treat a broad variety of transport problems numerically. In this work, we use the full capacity of the DG-FEM to solve the radiative transfer equation in spherical symmetry. We present a discontinuous Galerkin method to directly solve the spherically-symmetric radiative transfer equation as a two-dimensional problem. The transport equation in spherical atmospheres is more complicated than in the plane-parallel case due to the appearance of an additional derivative with respect to the polar angle. The DG-FEM formalism allows for the exact integration of arbitrarily complex scattering phase functions, independent of the angular mesh resolution. We show that the discontinuous Galerkin method is able to describe accurately the radiative transfer in extended atmospheres and to capture discontinuities or complex scattering behaviour which might be present in the solution of certain radiative transfer tasks and can, therefore, cause...
A public code for general relativistic, polarised radiative transfer around spinning black holes
Dexter, Jason
2016-01-01
Ray tracing radiative transfer is a powerful method for comparing theoretical models of black hole accretion flows and jets with observations. We present a public code, grtrans, for carrying out such calculations in the Kerr metric, including the full treatment of polarised radiative transfer and parallel transport along geodesics. The code is written in Fortran 90 and efficiently parallelises with OpenMP, and the full code and several components have Python interfaces. We describe several tests which are used for verifiying the code, and we compare the results for polarised thin accretion disc and semi-analytic jet problems with those from the literature as examples of its use. Along the way, we provide accurate fitting functions for polarised synchrotron emission and transfer coefficients from thermal and power law distribution functions, and compare results from numerical integration and quadrature solutions of the polarised radiative transfer equations. We also show that all transfer coefficients can play...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Following Wilson's suggestion of electron acceleration by the electric fields in thunderclouds, a number of experiments were attempted to investigate whether or not energetic electrons and bremsstrahlung X-rays were generated by thunderstorm electric fields or lightning discharge processes. In recent years, enhanced radiation at high altitude has been detected in experiments using scintillation detectors on a jet and an artificial satellite, demonstrating that radiation is indeed associated with lightning activities. However there are few experimental reports of detection near the ground since Whitmire's investigation using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) in 1979. In winter, many thunderstorms occur on the west coast of Japan, and it has been suggested that gamma-ray dose may increase occasionally during winter thunderstorms. Recently, a gamma-ray dose enhancement which might be caused by the lightning activity was measured by TLDs and environmental radiation monitors around the site of the fast breeder reactor 'Monju', a nuclear power plant facing the Japan Sea. (author)
Widlowski, J. L.; Taberner, M.; Pinty, B.; Bruniquel-Pinel, V.; Disney, M. I.; Fernandes, R.; Gastellu-Etchegorry, J. P.; Gobron, N; Kuusk, A.; T. Lavergne; LeBlanc, S.; Lewis, P. E.; Martin, E.; Mõttus, M.; North, P.R.J.
2007-01-01
[1] The Radiation Transfer Model Intercomparison ( RAMI) initiative benchmarks canopy reflectance models under well-controlled experimental conditions. Launched for the first time in 1999, this triennial community exercise encourages the systematic evaluation of canopy reflectance models on a voluntary basis. The first phase of RAMI focused on documenting the spread among radiative transfer (RT) simulations over a small set of primarily 1-D canopies. The second phase expanded the scope to inc...
WIDLOWSKI Jean-Luc; Taberner, Malcolm; Pinty, Bernard; Bruniquel-Pinel, Véronique; Disney, Mathias; Fernandes, Richard; Gastellu-Etchegorry, Jean-Philippe; Gobron, Nadine; Kuusk, Andres; Lavergne, Thomas; Leblanc, Sylvain; Lewis, Philip; Martin, Eric; Mottus, Matti; Peter R. J. North
2007-01-01
The Radiation Transfer Model Intercomparison (RAMI) initiative benchmarks canopy reflectance models under well-controlled experimental conditions. Launched for the first time in 1999, this triennial community exercise encourages the systematic evaluation of canopy reflectance models on a voluntary basis. The first phase of RAMI focused on documenting the spread among radiative transfer (RT) simulations over a small set of primarily 1-D canopies. The second phase expanded the scope to include ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This Essay traces the centuries-long history of the phenomenological disciplines of directional radiometry and radiative transfer in turbid media, discusses their fundamental weaknesses, and outlines the convoluted process of their conversion into legitimate branches of physical optics. - Highlights: • History of phenomenological radiometry and radiative transfer is described. • Fundamental weaknesses of these disciplines are discussed. • The process of their conversion into legitimate branches of physical optics is summarized
LOFT center module radiation heat transfer for L2-3 and L2-4
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A simplified version of the MOXY/SCORE computer program is used to evaluate the potential influence of radiation heat transfer on the peak cladding temperature and the peak guide tube temperature during the higher power loss-of-coolant tests in LOFT. The results of this study indicate that radiation heat transfer influences peak cladding temperature and peak guide tube temperature by as much as -177 K and +285 K, respectively
A public code for general relativistic, polarised radiative transfer around spinning black holes
Dexter, Jason
2016-01-01
Ray tracing radiative transfer is a powerful method for comparing theoretical models of black hole accretion flows and jets with observations. We present a public code, grtrans, for carrying out such calculations in the Kerr metric, including the full treatment of polarised radiative transfer and parallel transport along geodesics. The code is written in Fortran 90 and efficiently parallelises with OpenMP, and the full code and several components have Python interfaces. We describe several te...
Four-stream Radiative Transfer Parameterization Scheme in a Land Surface Process Model
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHOU Wenyan; GUO Pinwen; LUO Yong; Kuo-Nan LIOU; Yu GU; Yongkang XUE
2009-01-01
Accurate estimates of albedos are required in climate modeling. Accurate and simple schemes for radiative transfer within canopy are required for these estimates, but severe limitations exist. This paper developed a four-stream solar radiative transfer model and coupled it with a land surface process model. The radiative model uses a four-stream approximation method as in the atmosphere to obtain analytic solutions of the basic equation of canopy radiative transfer. As an analytical model, the four-stream radiative transfer model can be easily applied efficiently to improve the parameterization of land surface radiation in climate models. Our four-stream solar radiative transfer model is based on a two-stream short wave radiative transfer model. It can simulate short wave solar radiative transfer within canopy according to the relevant theory in the atmosphere. Each parameter of the basic radiative transfer equation of canopy has special geometry and optical characters of leaves or canopy. The upward or downward radiative fluxes are related to the diffuse phase function, the G-function, leaf reflectivity and transmission, leaf area index, and the solar angle of the incident beam.The four-stream simulation is compared with that of the two-stream model. The four-stream model is proved successful through its consistent modeling of canopy albedo at any solar incident angle. In order to compare and find differences between the results predicted by the four-and two-stream models, a number of numerical experiments are performed through examining the effects of different leaf area indices, leaf angle distributions, optical properties of leaves, and ground surface conditions on the canopy albcdo. Parallel experiments show that the canopy albedos predicted by the two models differ significantly when the leaf angle distribution is spherical and vertical. The results also show that the difference is particularly great for different incident solar beams.One additional
Homogenization of some radiative heat transfer models: application to gas-cooled reactor cores
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In the context of homogenization theory we treat some heat transfer problems involving unusual (according to the homogenization) boundary conditions. These problems are defined in a solid periodic perforated domain where two scales (macroscopic and microscopic) are to be taken into account and describe heat transfer by conduction in the solid and by radiation on the wall of each hole. Two kinds of radiation are considered: radiation in an infinite medium (non-linear problem) and radiation in cavity with grey-diffuse walls (non-linear and non-local problem). The derived homogenized models are conduction problems with an effective conductivity which depend on the considered radiation. Thus we introduce a framework (homogenization and validation) based on mathematical justification using the two-scale convergence method and numerical validation by simulations using the computer code CAST3M. This study, performed for gas cooled reactors cores, can be extended to other perforated domains involving the considered heat transfer phenomena. (author)
A novel approach for accurate radiative transfer in cosmological hydrodynamic simulations
Petkova, Margarita
2010-01-01
We present a numerical implementation of radiative transfer based on an explicitly photon-conserving advection scheme, where radiative fluxes over the cell interfaces of a structured or unstructured mesh are calculated with a second-order reconstruction of the intensity field. The approach employs a direct discretisation of the radiative transfer equation in Boltzmann form with adjustable angular resolution that in principle works equally well in the optically thin and optically thick regimes. In our most general formulation of the scheme, the local radiation field is decomposed into a linear sum of directional bins of equal solid-angle, tessellating the unit sphere. Each of these "cone-fields" is transported independently, with constant intensity as a function of direction within the cone. Photons propagate at the speed of light (or optionally using a reduced speed of light approximation to allow larger timesteps), yielding a fully time-dependent solution of the radiative transfer equation that can naturally...
Radiation transfer in photobiological carbon dioxide fixation and fuel production by microalgae
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Solar radiation is the energy source driving the metabolic activity of microorganisms able to photobiologically fixate carbon dioxide and convert solar energy into biofuels. Thus, careful radiation transfer analysis must be conducted in order to design and operate efficient photobioreactors. This review paper first introduces light harvesting mechanisms used by microorganisms as well as photosynthesis and photobiological fuel production. It then provides a thorough and critical review of both experimental and modeling efforts focusing on radiation transfer in microalgae suspension. Experimental methods to determine the radiation characteristics of microalgae are presented. Methods for solving the radiation transfer equation in photobioreactors with or without bubbles are also discussed. Sample measurements and numerical solutions are provided. Finally, novel strategies for achieving optimum light delivery and maximizing sunlight utilization in photobioreactors are discussed including genetic engineering of microorganisms with truncated chlorophyll antenna.
Efficient Sequential Monte Carlo Sampling for Continuous Monitoring of a Radiation Situation
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Šmídl, Václav; Hofman, Radek
2014-01-01
Roč. 56, č. 4 (2014), s. 514-527. ISSN 0040-1706 R&D Projects: GA MV VG20102013018 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : radiation protection * atmospheric dispersion model * importance sampling Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information Impact factor: 1.814, year: 2014 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2014/AS/smidl-0433631.pdf
Charge-Transfer CMOS Image Sensors: Device and Radiation Aspects
Ramachandra Rao, P.
2009-01-01
The aim of this thesis was twofold: investigating the effect of ionizing radiation on 4-T CMOS image sensors and the possibility of realizing a CCD like sensor in standard 0.18-μm CMOS technology (for medical applications). Both the aims are complementary; borrowing and lending many aspects of radiation and device physics amongst each other.
Net-Exchange parameterization of infrared radiative transfers in Venus' atmosphere
Eymet, Vincent; Fournier, Richard; Dufresne, Jean-Louis; Lebonnois, Sébastien; Hourdin, Frédéric; Bullock, Mark A.
2009-01-01
Thermal radiation within Venus atmosphere is analyzed in close details. Prominent features are identified, which are then used to design a parameterization (a highly simplified and yet accurate enough model) to be used in General Circulation Models. The analysis is based on a net exchange formulation, using a set of gaseous and cloud optical data chosen among available referenced data. The accuracy of the proposed parameterization methodology is controlled against Monte Carlo simulations, ass...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The development of intensity-modulated radiotherapy treatments delivering large amounts of monitor units (MUs) recently raised concern about higher risks for secondary malignancies. In this study, optimised combinations of several variance reduction techniques (VRTs) have been implemented in order to achieve a high precision in Monte Carlo (MC) radiation transport simulations and the calculation of in- and out-of-field photon and neutron dose-equivalent distributions in an anthropomorphic phantom using MCNPX, v.2.7. The computer model included a Varian Clinac 2100C treatment head and a high-resolution head phantom. By means of the applied VRTs, a relative uncertainty for the photon dose-equivalent distribution of <1 % in-field and 15 % in average over the rest of the phantom could be obtained. Neutron dose equivalent, caused by photonuclear reactions in the linear accelerator components at photon energies of approximately >8 MeV, has been calculated. Relative uncertainty, calculated for each voxel, could be kept below 5 % in average over all voxels of the phantom. Thus, a very detailed neutron dose distribution could be obtained. The achieved precision now allows a far better estimation of both photon and especially neutron doses out-of-field, where neutrons can become the predominant component of secondary radiation. (authors)
Stratis, Andreas; Zhang, Guozhi; Jacobs, Reinhilde; Bogaerts, Ria; Bosmans, Hilde
2015-03-01
The aim of this work was to investigate the influence of backscatter radiation from the orbital bone and the intraorbital fat on the eye lens dose in the dental CBCT energy range. To this end we conducted three different yet interrelated studies; A preliminary simulation study was conducted to examine the impact of a bony layer situated underneath a soft tissue layer on the amount of backscatter radiation. We compared the Percentage Depth Dose (PDD) curves in soft tissue with and without the bone layer and we estimated the depth in tissue where the decrease in backscatter caused by the presence of the bone is noticeable. In a supplementary study, an eye voxel phantom was designed with the DOSxyznrc code. Simulations were performed exposing the phantom at different x-ray energies sequentially in air, in fat tissue and in realistic anatomy with the incident beam perpendicular to the phantom. Finally, a virtual head phantom was implemented into a validated hybrid Monte Carlo (MC) framework to simulate a large Field of View protocol of a real CBCT scanner and examine the influence of scattered dose to the eye lens during the whole rotation of the paired tube-detector system. The results indicated an increase in the dose to the lens due to the fatty tissue in the surrounding anatomy. There is a noticeable dose reduction close to the bone-tissue interface which weakens with increasing distance from the interface, such that the impact of the orbital bone in the eye lens dose becomes small.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
An electron-photon coupled Monte Carlo code ARCHER - Accelerated Radiation-transport Computations in Heterogeneous EnviRonments - is being developed at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute as a software test-bed for emerging heterogeneous high performance computers that utilize accelerators such as GPUs (Graphics Processing Units). This paper presents the preliminary code development and the testing involving radiation dose related problems. In particular, the paper discusses the electron transport simulations using the class-II condensed history method. The considered electron energy ranges from a few hundreds of keV to 30 MeV. As for photon part, photoelectric effect, Compton scattering and pair production were simulated. Voxelized geometry was supported. A serial CPU (Central Processing Unit)code was first written in C++. The code was then transplanted to the GPU using the CUDA C 5.0 standards. The hardware involved a desktop PC with an Intel Xeon X5660 CPU and six NVIDIA Tesla M2090 GPUs. The code was tested for a case of 20 MeV electron beam incident perpendicularly on a water-aluminum-water phantom. The depth and later dose profiles were found to agree with results obtained from well tested MC codes. Using six GPU cards, 6*106 electron histories were simulated within 2 seconds. In comparison, the same case running the EGSnrc and MCNPX codes required 1645 seconds and 9213 seconds, respectively. On-going work continues to test the code for different medical applications such as radiotherapy and brachytherapy. (authors)
Frankl, Matthias; Macián-Juan, Rafael
2016-03-01
The development of intensity-modulated radiotherapy treatments delivering large amounts of monitor units (MUs) recently raised concern about higher risks for secondary malignancies. In this study, optimised combinations of several variance reduction techniques (VRTs) have been implemented in order to achieve a high precision in Monte Carlo (MC) radiation transport simulations and the calculation of in- and out-of-field photon and neutron dose-equivalent distributions in an anthropomorphic phantom using MCNPX, v.2.7. The computer model included a Varian Clinac 2100C treatment head and a high-resolution head phantom. By means of the applied VRTs, a relative uncertainty for the photon dose-equivalent distribution of 8 MeV, has been calculated. Relative uncertainty, calculated for each voxel, could be kept below 5 % in average over all voxels of the phantom. Thus, a very detailed neutron dose distribution could be obtained. The achieved precision now allows a far better estimation of both photon and especially neutron doses out-of-field, where neutrons can become the predominant component of secondary radiation. PMID:26311702
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Existing data used to calculate the barrier transmission of scattered radiation from computed tomography (CT) are based on primary beam CT energy spectra. This study uses the EGSnrc Monte Carlo system and Epp user code to determine the energy spectra of CT scatter from four different primary CT beams passing through an ICRP 110 male reference phantom. Each scatter spectrum was used as a broad-beam x-ray source in transmission simulations through seventeen thicknesses of lead (0.00–3.50 mm). A fit of transmission data to lead thickness was performed to obtain α, β and γ parameters for each spectrum. The mean energy of the scatter spectra were up to 12.3 keV lower than that of the primary spectrum. For 120 kVp scatter beams the transmission through lead was at least 50% less than predicted by existing data for thicknesses of 1.5 mm and greater; at least 30% less transmission was seen for 140 kVp scatter beams. This work has shown that the mean energy and half-value layer of CT scatter spectra are lower than those of the corresponding primary beam. The transmission of CT scatter radiation through lead is lower than that calculated with currently available data. Using the data from this work will result in less lead shielding being required for CT scanner installations. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A relatively new technique for achieving the right dose to the right tissue, is intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). In this technique, a megavoltage x-ray beam is rotated around a patient, and the intensity and shape of the beam is modulated as a function of source position and patient anatomy. The relationship between beam-let intensity and patient dose can be expressed under a matrix form where the matrix Dij represents the dose delivered to voxel i by beam-let j per unit fluence. The Dij influence matrix is the key element that enables this approach. In this regard, sensitivity theory lends itself in a natural way to the process of computing beam weights for treatment planning. The solution of the adjoint form of the Boltzmann equation is an adjoint function that describes the importance of particles throughout the system in contributing to the detector response. In this case, adjoint methods can provide the sensitivity of the dose at a single point in the patient with respect to all points in the source field. The purpose of this study is to investigate the feasibility of using the adjoint method and Monte Carlo transport for radiation therapy treatment planning
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Radiation of experimental culture cells on plates with various wells can cause a risk of underdosage as a result of the existence of multiple air-water interfaces. The objective of our study was to quantify this error in culture plates with multiple wells. Radiation conditions were simulated with the GAMOS code, based on the GEANT4 code, and this was compared with a simulation performed with PENELOPE and measured data. We observed a slight underdosage of ∼4% on the most superficial half of the culture medium. We believe that this underdosage does not have a significant effect on the dose received by culture cells deposited in a monolayer and adhered to the base of the wells. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mazrou, Hakim, E-mail: mazrou_h@crna.d [Centre de Recherche Nucleaire d' Alger (CRNA), 02 Boulevard Frantz, Fanon, B.P. 399, Alger-RP 16000 (Algeria); Sidahmed, Tassadit [Centre de Recherche Nucleaire d' Alger (CRNA), 02 Boulevard Frantz, Fanon, B.P. 399, Alger-RP 16000 (Algeria); Allab, Malika [Faculte de Physique, Universite des Sciences et de la Technologie de Houari-Boumediene (USTHB), 16111, Alger (Algeria)
2010-10-15
An irradiation system has been acquired by the Nuclear Research Center of Algiers (CRNA) to provide neutron references for metrology and dosimetry purposes. It consists of an {sup 241}Am-Be radionuclide source of 185 GBq (5 Ci) activity inside a cylindrical steel-enveloped polyethylene container with radially positioned beam channel. Because of its composition, filled with hydrogenous material, which is not recommended by ISO standards, we expect large changes in the physical quantities of primary importance of the source compared to a free-field situation. Thus, the main goal of the present work is to fully characterize neutron field of such special delivered set-up. This was conducted by both extensive Monte-Carlo calculations and experimental measurements obtained by using BF{sub 3} and {sup 3}He based neutron area dosimeters. Effects of each component present in the bunker facility of the Algerian Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL) on the energy neutron spectrum have been investigated by simulating four irradiation configurations and comparison to the ISO spectrum has been performed. The ambient dose equivalent rate was determined based upon a correct estimate of the mean fluence to ambient dose equivalent conversion factors at different irradiations positions by means of a 3-D transport code MCNP5. Finally, according to practical requirements established for calibration purposes an optimal irradiation position has been suggested to the SSDL staff to perform, in appropriate manner, their routine calibrations.
Formal quality control for a proton Monte Carlo system in radiation therapy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
TOPAS (TOol for PArticle Simulation) is a Monte Carlo particle transport tool being released to a wide variety of proton therapy users worldwide. Because TOPAS provides unprecedented ease in 4D placement of geometry components, beam sources and scoring, including options to place geometry components, beam sources or scorers within each other, Quality Control (QC) for TOPAS is both critical and challenging. All simulation details (geometry, particle sources, scoring, physics settings, time-dependent motions, gating, etc.) are specified in the TOPAS Parameter Control System (which catches many user errors). QC includes Unit and End-to-End Testing. Each code unit is tested (each geometry component, particle source option, scoring option, etc.) and these unit testing procedures are shared with end users so they can reproduce tests. End-to-End testing of several full clinical setups is routinely performed. End-to-End testing presents a challenge since one cannot anticipate all the ways users will combine TOPAS flexible units for their specific project. Automated checking catches geometry overlaps and some other problematic setups, but one can never rule out the potential for problems when users combine units in new setups. QC is ultimately a partnership between the tool developer and the user. Key is that the developer be clear to the end user about what has been tested and what has not.
Radiation and Heat Transfer in the Atmosphere: A Comprehensive Approach on a Molecular Basis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hermann Harde
2013-01-01
Full Text Available We investigate the interaction of infrared active molecules in the atmosphere with their own thermal background radiation as well as with radiation from an external blackbody radiator. We show that the background radiation can be well understood only in terms of the spontaneous emission of the molecules. The radiation and heat transfer processes in the atmosphere are described by rate equations which are solved numerically for typical conditions as found in the troposphere and stratosphere, showing the conversion of heat to radiation and vice versa. Consideration of the interaction processes on a molecular scale allows to develop a comprehensive theoretical concept for the description of the radiation transfer in the atmosphere. A generalized form of the radiation transfer equation is presented, which covers both limiting cases of thin and dense atmospheres and allows a continuous transition from low to high densities, controlled by a density dependent parameter. Simulations of the up- and down-welling radiation and its interaction with the most prominent greenhouse gases water vapour, carbon dioxide, methane, and ozone in the atmosphere are presented. The radiative forcing at doubled CO2 concentration is found to be 30% smaller than the IPCC-value.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We apply the iteration of source function (IOSF) philosophy to the successive order of scattering method for solving the vector radiative transfer equation in the coupled atmosphere and ocean system. A major class of radiative transfer solvers only provides the radiation field at discrete viewing zenith angles. The radiation field at other angles is found by interpolation. The iteration of source matrix method integrates the product of the radiation field and source matrix at quadrature points to obtain the radiation field at arbitrary viewing angles. The resultant solution includes the radiation contributions from all scattering orders higher than one. The analytical single scattering solution is then added to find the total radiation field. The proposed scheme includes the benefits of both the IOSF interpolation and the analytical single scattering solution. Boundary conditions for a flat air–sea interface are fully considered. A test case of a coupled atmosphere and ocean system shows that this combined method improves the polarized radiation field greatly in comparison with the regular polynomial interpolation method. -- Highlights: ► The iteration of source matrix method is applied to vector radiative transfer. ► The Stokes parameters at arbitrary viewing angles are obtained. ► Special focus is on coupled atmosphere and ocean systems. ► The analytical single scattering solution is used to increase accuracy.
Comparison of Methods for Calculating Radiative Heat Transfer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schock, Alfred; Abbate, M J
2012-01-19
Various approximations for calculating radioactive heat transfer between parallel surfaces are evaluated. This is done by applying the approximations based on total emissivities to a special case of known spectral emissivities, for which exact heat transfer calculations are possible. Comparison of results indicates that the best approximation is obtained by basing the emissivity of the receiving surface primarily on the temperature of the emitter. A specific model is shown to give excellent agreement over a very wide range of values.
Time-dependent radiative transfer for multi-level atoms using accelerated Lambda iteration
van Adelsberg, Matthew; Perna, Rosalba
2013-02-01
We present a general formalism for computing self-consistent, numerical solutions to the time-dependent radiative transfer equation in low-velocity, multi-level ions undergoing radiative interactions. Recent studies of time-dependent radiative transfer have focused on radiation hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic effects without lines, or have solved time-independent equations for the radiation field simultaneously with time-dependent equations for the state of the medium. In this paper, we provide a fully time-dependent numerical solution to the radiative transfer and atomic rate equations for a medium irradiated by an external source of photons. We use accelerated Lambda iteration to achieve convergence of the radiation field and atomic states. We perform calculations for a three-level atomic model that illustrates important time-dependent effects. We demonstrate that our method provides an efficient, accurate solution to the time-dependent radiative transfer problem. Finally, we characterize astrophysical scenarios in which we expect our solutions to be important.
The photo transfer thermoluminescence in Ca S O4:Dy using laser radiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The photo transfer thermoluminescence (PTTL) in Ca SO4:Dy using laser and ultraviolet (UV) radiation is studied. The Ca S O4:Dy is extremely sensitive thermoluminescent material that has a dosimetric peak in 220 Celsius degrees and is successfully used in gamma radiation dosimetry
Effects of radiative transfer modelling on the dynamics of a propagating electrical discharge
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kahhali, Nicolas; Riviere, Philippe; Perrin, Marie-Yvonne; Soufiani, Anouar [Laboratoire EM2C, CNRS UPR 288, Ecole Centrale Paris, 92295 Chatenay-Malabry Cedex (France); Gonnet, Jean-Paul, E-mail: Anouar.Soufiani@em2c.ecp.f [Schneider Electric, Power Business, LV Arc Breaking-Modeling and Expertise Site 38 EQI Eybens, 38050 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)
2010-10-27
A radiative transfer methodology is developed for the modelling of coupled radiation, hydrodynamic and electromagnetic phenomena in unsteady air plasma flows. Absorption spectra are discretized according to the distribution functions of the absorption coefficients resulting from different types of radiative transitions, and this spectral model is combined with the differential P{sub 1} approximation which is shown to predict quite accurately radiative source terms. The study of a propagating electrical arc in a 2D channel shows that radiative transfer modelling significantly affects the shape of the plasma and its dynamics. In particular, when compared with the results from the net emission coefficient method, the arc velocity is found to increase due to radiation absorption in the arc boundaries.
A Monte Carlo Code for Relativistic Radiation Transport Around Kerr Black Holes
Schnittman, Jeremy David; Krolik, Julian H.
2013-01-01
We present a new code for radiation transport around Kerr black holes, including arbitrary emission and absorption mechanisms, as well as electron scattering and polarization. The code is particularly useful for analyzing accretion flows made up of optically thick disks and optically thin coronae. We give a detailed description of the methods employed in the code and also present results from a number of numerical tests to assess its accuracy and convergence.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
New experimental data are reported for water based nanofluids to enhance the heat transfer performance of a car radiator. ZnO nanoparticles have been added into base fluid in different volumetric concentrations (0.01%, 0.08%, 0.2% and 0.3%). The effect of these volumetric concentrations on the heat transfer performance for car radiator is determined experimentally. Fluid flow rate has been varied in a range of 7–11 LPM (liter per minute) (corresponding Reynolds number range was 17,500–27,600). Nanofluids showed heat transfer enhancement compared to the base fluid for all concentrations tested. The best heat transfer enhancement up to 46% was found compared to base fluid at 0.2% volumetric concentration. A further increase in volumetric concentration to 0.3% has shown a decrease in heat transfer enhancement compared to 0.2% volumetric concentration. Fluid inlet temperature was kept in a range of 45–55 °C. An increase in fluid inlet temperature from 45 °C to 55 °C showed increase in heat transfer rate up to 4%. - Highlights: • ZnO–water nanofluids were used for car radiator thermal enhancement. • Heat transfer enhancement up to 46% was achieved comparing pure water. • 0.2% vol. concentration of ZnO found to be optimum for heat transfer. • Heat transfer was found weakly dependant on the fluid inlet temperature
Realistic NLTE Radiative Transfer for Modeling Stellar Winds
Bennett, Philip D.
1999-01-01
This NASA grant supported the development of codes to solve the non-LTE multi-level spherical radiative transfer problem in the presence of velocity fields. Much of this work was done in collaboration with Graham Harper (CASA, University of Colorado). These codes were developed for application to the cool, low-velocity winds of evolved late-type stars. Particular emphasis was placed on modeling the wind of lambda Velorum (K4 lb), the brightest K supergiant in the sky, based on extensive observations of the ultraviolet spectrum with the HST/GHRS from GO program 5307. Several solution techniques were examined, including the Eddington factor Approach described in detail by Bennett & Harper (1997). An Eddington factor variant of Harper's S-MULTI code (Harper 1994) for stationary atmospheres was developed and implemented, although full convergence was not realized. The ratio of wind terminal velocity to turbulent velocity is large (approx. 0.3-0.5) in these cool star winds so this assumption of stationarity provides reasonable starting models. Final models, incorporating specified wind laws, were converged using the comoving CRD S-MULTI code. Details of the solution procedure were published by Bennett & Harper (1997). Our analysis of the wind of lambda Vel, based on wind absorption superimposed on chromospheric emission lines in the ultraviolet, can be found in Carpenter et al. (1999). In this paper, we compare observed wind absorption features to an exact CRD calculation in the comoving frame, and also to a much quicker, but approximate, method using the SEI (Sobolev with Exact Integration) code of Lamers, Cerruti-Sola, & Perinotto (1987). Carpenter et al. (1999) provide detailed comparisons of the exact CRD and approximate SEI results and discuss when SEI is adequate to use for computing wind line profiles. Unfortunately, the observational material is insufficient to unambiguously determine the wind acceleration law for lambda Vel. Relatively few unblended Fe II lines
Muñoz, García; Mills,; P, F
2014-01-01
Context. The interpretation of polarised radiation emerging from a planetary atmosphere must rely on solutions to the vector Radiative Transport Equation (vRTE). Monte Carlo integration of the vRTE is a valuable approach for its flexible treatment of complex viewing and/or illumination geometries and because it can intuitively incorporate elaborate physics. Aims. We present a novel Pre-Conditioned Backward Monte Carlo (PBMC) algorithm for solving the vRTE and apply it to planetary atmospheres irradiated from above. As classical BMC methods, our PBMC algorithm builds the solution by simulating the photon trajectories from the detector towards the radiation source, i.e. in the reverse order of the actual photon displacements. Methods. We show that the neglect of polarisation in the sampling of photon propagation directions in classical BMC algorithms leads to unstable and biased solutions for conservative, optically-thick, strongly-polarising media such as Rayleigh atmospheres. The numerical difficulty is avoid...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Monte Carlo calculations were used to investigate the efficiency of radiation protection equipment in reducing eye and whole body doses during fluoroscopically guided interventional procedures. Eye lens doses were determined considering different models of eyewear with various shapes, sizes and lead thickness. The origin of scattered radiation reaching the eyes was also assessed to explain the variation in the protection efficiency of the different eyewear models with exposure conditions. The work also investigates the variation of eye and whole body doses with ceiling-suspended shields of various shapes and positioning. For all simulations, a broad spectrum of configurations typical for most interventional procedures was considered. Calculations showed that ‘wrap around’ glasses are the most efficient eyewear models reducing, on average, the dose by 74% and 21% for the left and right eyes respectively. The air gap between the glasses and the eyes was found to be the primary source of scattered radiation reaching the eyes. The ceiling-suspended screens were more efficient when positioned close to the patient’s skin and to the x-ray field. With the use of such shields, the Hp(10) values recorded at the collar, chest and waist level and the Hp(3) values for both eyes were reduced on average by 47%, 37%, 20% and 56% respectively. Finally, simulations proved that beam quality and lead thickness have little influence on eye dose while beam projection, the position and head orientation of the operator as well as the distance between the image detector and the patient are key parameters affecting eye and whole body doses. (paper)
Atmospheric radiative transfer parametrization for solar energy yield calculations on buildings
Wagner, Jochen E
2015-01-01
In this paper the practical approach to evaluate the incoming solar radiation on buildings based on atmospheric composition and cloud cover is presented. The effects of absorption and scattering due to atmospheric composition is taken into account to calculate, using radiative transfer models, the net incoming solar radiation at surface level. A specific validation of the Alpine Region in Europe is presented with a special focus on the region of South Tyrol.
Greenhouse effects of aircraft emissions as calculated by a radiative transfer model
Fortuin, J.P.F.; Dorland, R.; Wauben, W. M. F.; Kelder, H.
1995-01-01
With a radiative transfer model, assessments are made of the radiative forcing in northern mid-latitudes due to aircraft emissions up to 1990. Considered are the direct climate effects from the major combustion products carbon dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, water vapor and sulphur dioxide, as well as the indirect effect of ozone production from NO_{x} emissions. Our study indicates a local radiative forcing at the tropopause which should be negative in summe...
Clemens Suter; Petr Tomeš; Anke Weidenkaff; Aldo Steinfeld
2010-01-01
A heat transfer model that couples radiation/conduction/convection heat transfer with electrical potential distribution is developed for a thermoelectric converter (TEC) subjected to concentrated solar radiation. The 4-leg TEC module consists of two pairs of p-type La1.98Sr0.02CuO4 and n-type CaMn0.98Nb0.02O3 legs that are sandwiched between two ceramic Al2O3 hot/cold plates and connected electrically in series and thermally in parallel. The governing equations for heat transfer and electrica...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
To evaluate the dosimetric differences between Superposition/Convolution (SC) and Monte Carlo (MC) calculated dose distributions for simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) prostate cancer intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) compared to experimental (film) measurements and the implications for clinical treatments. Twenty-two prostate patients treated with an in-house SIB-IMRT protocol were selected. SC-based plans used for treatment were re-evaluated with EGS4-based MC calculations for treatment verification. Accuracy was evaluated with-respect-to film-based dosimetry. Comparisons used gamma (γ)-index, distance-to-agreement (DTA), and superimposed dose distributions. The treatment plans were also compared based on dose-volume indices and 3-D γ index for targets and critical structures. Flat-phantom comparisons demonstrated that the MC algorithm predicted measurements better than the SC algorithm. The average PTVprostate D98 agreement between SC and MC was 1.2% ± 1.1. For rectum, the average differences in SC and MC calculated D50 ranged from -3.6% to 3.4%. For small bowel, there were up to 30.2% ± 40.7 (range: 0.2%, 115%) differences between SC and MC calculated average D50 index. For femurs, the differences in average D50 reached up to 8.6% ± 3.6 (range: 1.2%, 14.5%). For PTVprostate and PTVnodes, the average gamma scores were >95.0%. MC agrees better with film measurements than SC. Although, on average, SC-calculated doses agreed with MC calculations within the targets within 2%, there were deviations up to 5% for some patient's treatment plans. For some patients, the magnitude of such deviations might decrease the intended target dose levels that are required for the treatment protocol, placing the patients in different dose levels that do not satisfy the protocol dose requirements
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mary Yip
Full Text Available Detection of buried improvised explosive devices (IEDs is a delicate task, leading to a need to develop sensitive stand-off detection technology. The shape, composition and size of the IEDs can be expected to be revised over time in an effort to overcome increasingly sophisticated detection methods. As an example, for the most part, landmines are found through metal detection which has led to increasing use of non-ferrous materials such as wood or plastic containers for chemical based explosives being developed.Monte Carlo simulations have been undertaken considering three different commercially available detector materials (hyperpure-Ge (HPGe, lanthanum(III bromide (LaBr and thallium activated sodium iodide (NaI(Tl, applied at a stand-off distance of 50 cm from the surface and burial depths of 0, 5 and 10 cm, with sand as the obfuscating medium. Target materials representing medium density wood and mild steel have been considered. Each detector has been modelled as a 10 cm thick cylinder with a 20 cm diameter.It appears that HPGe represents the most promising detector for this application. Although it was not the highest density material studied, its excellent energy resolving capability leads to the highest quality spectra from which detection decisions can be inferred.The simulation work undertaken here suggests that a vehicle-born threat detection system could be envisaged using a single betatron and a series of detectors operating in parallel observing the space directly in front of the vehicle path. Furthermore, results show that non-ferrous materials such as wood can be effectively discerned in such remote-operated detection system, with the potential to apply a signature analysis template matching technique for real-time analysis of such data.
Sahoo, G. S.; Tripathy, S. P.; Molokanov, A. G.; Aleynikov, V. E.; Sharma, S. D.; Bandyopadhyay, T.
2016-05-01
In this work, we have used CR-39 detectors to estimate the LET (linear energy transfer) spectrum of secondary particles due to 171 MeV proton beam at different depths of water including the Bragg peak region. The measured LET spectra were compared with those obtained from FLUKA Monte Carlo simulation. The absorbed dose (DLET), dose equivalent (HLET) were estimated using the LET spectra. The values of DLET and HLET per incident proton fluence were found to increase with the increase in depth of water and were maximum at Bragg peak.
Numerical radiative transfer with state-of-the-art iterative methods made easy
Lambert, Julien; Paletou, Frédéric; Josselin, Eric; Glorian, Jean-Michel
2016-01-01
This article presents an on-line tool and its accompanying software resources for the numerical solution of basic radiation transfer out of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). State-of-the-art stationary iterative methods such as Accelerated Λ-iteration and Gauss-Seidel schemes, using a short characteristics-based formal solver are used. We also comment on typical numerical experiments associated to the basic non-LTE radiation problem. These resources are intended for the largest use and benefit, in support to more classical radiation transfer lectures usually given at the Master level.
Some speed-up strategies for solving inverse radiative transfer problems
Favennec, Y.; Le Hardy, D.; Dubot, F.; Rousseau, B.; Rousse, D. R.
2016-01-01
Inversion based on the radiative transfer equation (RTE) is generally highly CPU time consuming because the forward model itself is complicated to solve when the space dimension is greater than one, and because the inversion is based on a large number of forward model runs until convergence is reached. The goal of this paper is to set up some speed-up strategies specific of inversion when radiative transfer problems are dealt with. More specifically, the accurate identification of the volumetric radiative properties i.e. both the absorption and scattering coefficients is the objective of this study.
Chow, James C. L.; Jiang, Runqing
2012-06-01
This study examines variations of bone and mucosal doses with variable soft tissue and bone thicknesses, mimicking the oral or nasal cavity in skin radiation therapy. Monte Carlo simulations (EGSnrc-based codes) using the clinical kilovoltage (kVp) photon and megavoltage (MeV) electron beams, and the pencil-beam algorithm (Pinnacle3 treatment planning system) using the MeV electron beams were performed in dose calculations. Phase-space files for the 105 and 220 kVp beams (Gulmay D3225 x-ray machine), and the 4 and 6 MeV electron beams (Varian 21 EX linear accelerator) with a field size of 5 cm diameter were generated using the BEAMnrc code, and verified using measurements. Inhomogeneous phantoms containing uniform water, bone and air layers were irradiated by the kVp photon and MeV electron beams. Relative depth, bone and mucosal doses were calculated for the uniform water and bone layers which were varied in thickness in the ranges of 0.5-2 cm and 0.2-1 cm. A uniform water layer of bolus with thickness equal to the depth of maximum dose (dmax) of the electron beams (0.7 cm for 4 MeV and 1.5 cm for 6 MeV) was added on top of the phantom to ensure that the maximum dose was at the phantom surface. From our Monte Carlo results, the 4 and 6 MeV electron beams were found to produce insignificant bone and mucosal dose (<1%), when the uniform water layer at the phantom surface was thicker than 1.5 cm. When considering the 0.5 cm thin uniform water and bone layers, the 4 MeV electron beam deposited less bone and mucosal dose than the 6 MeV beam. Moreover, it was found that the 105 kVp beam produced more than twice the dose to bone than the 220 kVp beam when the uniform water thickness at the phantom surface was small (0.5 cm). However, the difference in bone dose enhancement between the 105 and 220 kVp beams became smaller when the thicknesses of the uniform water and bone layers in the phantom increased. Dose in the second bone layer interfacing with air was found to be
Transient radiative heat transfer in an inhomogeneous participating medium with Fresnel's surfaces
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YI HongLiang; TAN HePing
2008-01-01
This paper studies the radiative heat transfer within an inhomogeneous and isot-ropically scattering medium with reflecting Fresnel's surfaces. Thermal radiation transfers in a curve inside a medium with an inhomogeneous distribution of a re-fractive index. The inhomogenous medium is divided into n homogenous isother-mal sub-layers and in each sub-layer the radiation transfers in a straight line. By adopting a multilayer radiative transfer model and using a ray-tracing/nodal-ana-lyzing method, a radiative transfer model is built for the inhomogenous participat-ing medium. In the muItilayer model, a criterion for refraction / total reflection at the interfaces between neighboring sub-layers is introduced, avoiding the integral singularity and reflection at physically inexistent interfaces (only the total reflection is considered). Transient thermal behavior is examined when the parameters of the radiative properties such as refractive indexes, extinction coefficients, and sin-gle-scattering albedoes vary continually along the thickness direction.
A Consummate Radiative Transfer Package for Studying the Atmosphere and Oceans
Zhai, P.; Hu, Y.; Trepte, C. R.; Winker, D. M.
2015-12-01
We will present a radiative transfer package based on the successive order of scattering method. This code is capable to calculate the radiation field in turbid media, which can be either the atmosphere-land or atmosphere-ocean coupled systems. The outputs include all four Stokes parameters at arbitrary detector locations and viewing angles in the turbid medium. Both the elastic and inelastic scattering are implemented in the package. This radiative transfer tool has been used in various applications, for instance, generating an aerosol look-up table for atmospheric correction in ocean color remote sensing; retrieving water cloud size distribution using the polarized multi-angle measurements; simulating the OCO2 O2 A band radiance measurement, etc. Our radiative transfer package is a great tool to interpret and predict the measurements from the future polarimeters and multipolarization-state lidars for Earth observing missions.
A 3D radiative transfer framework: XI. multi-level NLTE
Hauschildt, Peter H
2014-01-01
Multi-level non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) radiation transfer calculations have become standard throughout the stellar atmospheres community and are applied to all types of stars as well as dynamical systems such as novae and supernovae. Even today spherically symmetric 1D calculations with full physics are computationally intensive. We show that full NLTE calculations can be done with fully 3 dimensional (3D) radiative transfer. With modern computational techniques and current massive parallel computational resources, full detailed solution of the multi-level NLTE problem coupled to the solution of the radiative transfer scattering problem can be solved without sacrificing the micro physics description. We extend the use of a rate operator developed to solve the coupled NLTE problem in spherically symmetric 1D systems. In order to spread memory among processors we have implemented the NLTE/3D module with a hierarchical domain decomposition method that distributes the NLTE levels, radiative rates,...
Atmospheric radiative transfer simulation for atmospheric correction of remote sensing data
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yunfei Bao; Shengbo Chen
2006-01-01
The radiance leaving the earth-atmosphere system which can be sensed by a satellite borne radiometer is the sum of radiation emission from the earth surface and each atmospheric level that are transmitted to the top of the atmosphere. The radiation emission from the earth surface and the radiance of each atmospheric level can be separated from the radiance at the top the atmospheric level measured by a satellite borne radiometer. However, it is very difficult to measure the atmospheric radiance, especially the synchronous measurement with the satellite. Thus some atmospheric radiative transfer models have been developed to provide many options for modeling atmospheric radiation transport, such as LOWTRAN, MODTRAN, 6S, FASCODE, LBLRTM, SHARC, and SAMM. Meanwhile, these models can support the detailed detector system design, the optimization and evaluation of satellite mission parameters, and the data processing procedures. As an example, the newly atmospheric radiative transfer models, MODTRAN will be compared with other models after the atmospheric radiative transfer is described. And the atmospheric radiative transfer simulation procedures and their applications to atmospheric transmittance, retrieval of atmospheric elements, and surface parameters, will also be presented.
A novel approach in electron beam radiation therapy of lips carcinoma: A Monte Carlo study
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shokrani, Parvaneh [Medical Physics and Medical Engineering Department, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan 81746-73461 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Baradaran-Ghahfarokhi, Milad [Medical Physics and Medical Engineering Department, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan 81746-73461, Iran and Medical Radiation Engineering Department, Faculty of Advanced Sciences and Technologies, Isfahan University, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zadeh, Maryam Khorami [Medical Physics Department, School of Medicine, Ahwaz Jundishapour University of Medical Sciences, Ahwaz 15794-61357 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2013-04-15
Purpose: Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is commonly treated by electron beam radiotherapy (EBRT) followed by a boost via brachytherapy. Considering the limitations associated with brachytherapy, in this study, a novel boosting technique in EBRT of lip carcinoma using an internal shield as an internal dose enhancer tool (IDET) was evaluated. An IDET is referred to a partially covered internal shield located behind the lip. It was intended to show that while the backscattered electrons are absorbed in the portion covered with a low atomic number material, they will enhance the target dose in the uncovered area. Methods: Monte-Carlo models of 6 and 8 MeV electron beams were developed using BEAMnrc code and were validated against experimental measurements. Using the developed models, dose distributions in a lip phantom were calculated and the effect of an IDET on target dose enhancement was evaluated. Typical lip thicknesses of 1.5 and 2.0 cm were considered. A 5 Multiplication-Sign 5 cm{sup 2} of lead covered by 0.5 cm of polystyrene was used as an internal shield, while a 4 Multiplication-Sign 4 cm{sup 2} uncovered area of the shield was used as the dose enhancer. Results: Using the IDET, the maximum dose enhancement as a percentage of dose at d{sub max} of the unshielded field was 157.6% and 136.1% for 6 and 8 MeV beams, respectively. The best outcome was achieved for lip thickness of 1.5 cm and target thickness of less than 0.8 cm. For lateral dose coverage of planning target volume, the 80% isodose curve at the lip-IDET interface showed a 1.2 cm expansion, compared to the unshielded field. Conclusions: This study showed that a boost concomitant EBRT of lip is possible by modifying an internal shield into an IDET. This boosting method is especially applicable to cases in which brachytherapy faces limitations, such as small thicknesses of lips and targets located at the buccal surface of the lip.
A novel approach in electron beam radiation therapy of lips carcinoma: A Monte Carlo study
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Purpose: Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is commonly treated by electron beam radiotherapy (EBRT) followed by a boost via brachytherapy. Considering the limitations associated with brachytherapy, in this study, a novel boosting technique in EBRT of lip carcinoma using an internal shield as an internal dose enhancer tool (IDET) was evaluated. An IDET is referred to a partially covered internal shield located behind the lip. It was intended to show that while the backscattered electrons are absorbed in the portion covered with a low atomic number material, they will enhance the target dose in the uncovered area. Methods: Monte-Carlo models of 6 and 8 MeV electron beams were developed using BEAMnrc code and were validated against experimental measurements. Using the developed models, dose distributions in a lip phantom were calculated and the effect of an IDET on target dose enhancement was evaluated. Typical lip thicknesses of 1.5 and 2.0 cm were considered. A 5 × 5 cm2 of lead covered by 0.5 cm of polystyrene was used as an internal shield, while a 4 × 4 cm2 uncovered area of the shield was used as the dose enhancer. Results: Using the IDET, the maximum dose enhancement as a percentage of dose at dmax of the unshielded field was 157.6% and 136.1% for 6 and 8 MeV beams, respectively. The best outcome was achieved for lip thickness of 1.5 cm and target thickness of less than 0.8 cm. For lateral dose coverage of planning target volume, the 80% isodose curve at the lip-IDET interface showed a 1.2 cm expansion, compared to the unshielded field. Conclusions: This study showed that a boost concomitant EBRT of lip is possible by modifying an internal shield into an IDET. This boosting method is especially applicable to cases in which brachytherapy faces limitations, such as small thicknesses of lips and targets located at the buccal surface of the lip.
Radiation heat transfer in SOFC materials and components
Damm, David L.; Fedorov, Andrei G.
Radiative transport within the electrode and electrolyte layers, as well as surface-to-surface radiation within the fuel and oxygen flow channels, has the potential to dramatically influence temperature fields and overall operating conditions of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). On a larger scale, radiation from the stack to the environment, including heat losses through insulation, must be accounted for in the plant design, and is of critical importance for effective thermal management of the high temperature stack. In this report, we discuss the current state-of-the-art and the challenges that remain in understanding, predicting, and quantifying the effects of radiation in SOFC materials and systems. These phenomena are of great interest and importance not only from a fundamental perspective but also from a systems design point of view. Last, but not the least in importance, the determination of radiative properties of the materials involved - either through experimental methods or predictive models - must be an ongoing effort as new materials are continuously being developed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper extends the DRESOR (Distribution of Ratios of Energy Scattered by the medium Or Reflected by the boundary surface) method to radiative transfer in a variable refractive index medium. In this method, the intensity is obtained from the source term along the curved integration paths determined only by the variable refractive index, and the DRESOR values are calculated by the Monte Carlo method in which the propagation of the energy bundles are affected by Snell's law. With given temperatures on the black boundaries of a one-dimensional medium, the temperature distribution inside the medium with a variable scattering property is calculated under the condition of radiative equilibrium. It is shown that the DRESOR method has a good accuracy in the cases studied. For an isotropic-scattering medium with the same optical thickness, the scattering albedo has no effect on the temperature distribution, which can be obtained from the general equations and can be seen as an extension of what exists for a constant refractive index; however, the different refractive index causes obvious changes in the temperatures inside the medium. The effect of anisotropic scattering on the temperature distribution cannot be ignored, although it is still weaker than the effect caused by variation in the refractive index.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
To test possible effects of the heterogeneous nature of the cell nucleus on simulation results of radiation-induced DNA damage, inhomogeneous targets have been implemented in the biophysical code PARTRAC. The geometry of the DNA and the histones was defined by spheres around the constituent atoms. Electron cross sections in liquid water were scaled according to the mass density of the different materials, whereas photon cross sections were derived from the sum of the cross sections for the constituent atoms. In the case of higher energy electrons the simulations show an increase of energy deposition in the DNA proportional to its high mass density. For photons with energies in the range of the carbon and the oxygen K-shell (0.28-0.53 keV), cross sections of DNA are larger than those of water, leading to an increased yield of strand breaks per average absorbed dose in the cell nucleus. (author)