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Sample records for carlo dose verification

  1. Monte Carlo systems used for treatment planning and dose verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brualla, Lorenzo [Universitaetsklinikum Essen, NCTeam, Strahlenklinik, Essen (Germany); Rodriguez, Miguel [Centro Medico Paitilla, Balboa (Panama); Lallena, Antonio M. [Universidad de Granada, Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Granada (Spain)

    2017-04-15

    General-purpose radiation transport Monte Carlo codes have been used for estimation of the absorbed dose distribution in external photon and electron beam radiotherapy patients since several decades. Results obtained with these codes are usually more accurate than those provided by treatment planning systems based on non-stochastic methods. Traditionally, absorbed dose computations based on general-purpose Monte Carlo codes have been used only for research, owing to the difficulties associated with setting up a simulation and the long computation time required. To take advantage of radiation transport Monte Carlo codes applied to routine clinical practice, researchers and private companies have developed treatment planning and dose verification systems that are partly or fully based on fast Monte Carlo algorithms. This review presents a comprehensive list of the currently existing Monte Carlo systems that can be used to calculate or verify an external photon and electron beam radiotherapy treatment plan. Particular attention is given to those systems that are distributed, either freely or commercially, and that do not require programming tasks from the end user. These systems are compared in terms of features and the simulation time required to compute a set of benchmark calculations. (orig.) [German] Seit mehreren Jahrzehnten werden allgemein anwendbare Monte-Carlo-Codes zur Simulation des Strahlungstransports benutzt, um die Verteilung der absorbierten Dosis in der perkutanen Strahlentherapie mit Photonen und Elektronen zu evaluieren. Die damit erzielten Ergebnisse sind meist akkurater als solche, die mit nichtstochastischen Methoden herkoemmlicher Bestrahlungsplanungssysteme erzielt werden koennen. Wegen des damit verbundenen Arbeitsaufwands und der langen Dauer der Berechnungen wurden Monte-Carlo-Simulationen von Dosisverteilungen in der konventionellen Strahlentherapie in der Vergangenheit im Wesentlichen in der Forschung eingesetzt. Im Bemuehen, Monte-Carlo

  2. Application of a Monte Carlo linac model in routine verifications of dose calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linares Rosales, H. M.; Alfonso Laguardia, R.; Lara Mas, E.; Popescu, T.

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of some parameters of interest in Radiotherapy Medical Physics based on an experimentally validated Monte Carlo model of an Elekta Precise lineal accelerator, was performed for 6 and 15 Mv photon beams. The simulations were performed using the EGSnrc code. As reference for simulations, the optimal beam parameters values (energy and FWHM) previously obtained were used. Deposited dose calculations in water phantoms were done, on typical complex geometries commonly are used in acceptance and quality control tests, such as irregular and asymmetric fields. Parameters such as MLC scatter, maximum opening or closing position, and the separation between them were analyzed from calculations in water. Similarly simulations were performed on phantoms obtained from CT studies of real patients, making comparisons of the dose distribution calculated with EGSnrc and the dose distribution obtained from the computerized treatment planning systems (TPS) used in routine clinical plans. All the results showed a great agreement with measurements, finding all of them within tolerance limits. These results allowed the possibility of using the developed model as a robust verification tool for validating calculations in very complex situation, where the accuracy of the available TPS could be questionable. (Author)

  3. [Verification of the VEF photon beam model for dose calculations by the Voxel-Monte-Carlo-Algorithm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriesen, Stephan; Fippel, Matthias

    2005-01-01

    The VEF linac head model (VEF, virtual energy fluence) was developed at the University of Tübingen to determine the primary fluence for calculations of dose distributions in patients by the Voxel-Monte-Carlo-Algorithm (XVMC). This analytical model can be fitted to any therapy accelerator head by measuring only a few basic dose data; therefore, time-consuming Monte-Carlo simulations of the linac head become unnecessary. The aim of the present study was the verification of the VEF model by means of water-phantom measurements, as well as the comparison of this system with a common analytical linac head model of a commercial planning system (TMS, formerly HELAX or MDS Nordion, respectively). The results show that both the VEF and the TMS models can very well simulate the primary fluence. However, the VEF model proved superior in the simulations of scattered radiation and in the calculations of strongly irregular MLC fields. Thus, an accurate and clinically practicable tool for the determination of the primary fluence for Monte-Carlo-Simulations with photons was established, especially for the use in IMRT planning.

  4. Verification of the VEF photon beam model for dose calculations by the voxel-Monte-Carlo-algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kriesen, S.; Fippel, M.

    2005-01-01

    The VEF linac head model (VEF, virtual energy fluence) was developed at the University of Tuebingen to determine the primary fluence for calculations of dose distributions in patients by the Voxel-Monte-Carlo-Algorithm (XVMC). This analytical model can be fitted to any therapy accelerator head by measuring only a few basic dose data; therefore, time-consuming Monte-Carlo simulations of the linac head become unnecessary. The aim of the present study was the verification of the VEF model by means of water-phantom measurements, as well as the comparison of this system with a common analytical linac head model of a commercial planning system (TMS, formerly HELAX or MDS Nordion, respectively). The results show that both the VEF and the TMS models can very well simulate the primary fluence. However, the VEF model proved superior in the simulations of scattered radiation and in the calculations of strongly irregular MLC fields. Thus, an accurate and clinically practicable tool for the determination of the primary fluence for Monte-Carlo-Simulations with photons was established, especially for the use in IMRT planning. (orig.)

  5. Verification of organ doses calculated by a dose monitoring software tool based on Monte Carlo Simulation in thoracic CT protocols.

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    Guberina, Nika; Suntharalingam, Saravanabavaan; Naßenstein, Kai; Forsting, Michael; Theysohn, Jens; Wetter, Axel; Ringelstein, Adrian

    2018-03-01

    Background The importance of monitoring of the radiation dose received by the human body during computed tomography (CT) examinations is not negligible. Several dose-monitoring software tools emerged in order to monitor and control dose distribution during CT examinations. Some software tools incorporate Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) and allow calculation of effective dose and organ dose apart from standard dose descriptors. Purpose To verify the results of a dose-monitoring software tool based on MCS in assessment of effective and organ doses in thoracic CT protocols. Material and Methods Phantom measurements were performed with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD LiF:Mg,Ti) using two different thoracic CT protocols of the clinical routine: (I) standard CT thorax (CTT); and (II) CTT with high-pitch mode, P = 3.2. Radiation doses estimated with MCS and measured with TLDs were compared. Results Inter-modality comparison showed an excellent correlation between MCS-simulated and TLD-measured doses ((I) after localizer correction r = 0.81; (II) r = 0.87). The following effective and organ doses were determined: (I) (a) effective dose = MCS 1.2 mSv, TLD 1.3 mSv; (b) thyroid gland = MCS 2.8 mGy, TLD 2.5 mGy; (c) thymus = MCS 3.1 mGy, TLD 2.5 mGy; (d) bone marrow = MCS 0.8 mGy, TLD 0.9 mGy; (e) breast = MCS 2.5 mGy, TLD 2.2 mGy; (f) lung = MCS 2.8 mGy, TLD 2.7 mGy; (II) (a) effective dose = MCS 0.6 mSv, TLD 0.7 mSv; (b) thyroid gland = MCS 1.4 mGy, TLD 1.8 mGy; (c) thymus = MCS 1.4 mGy, TLD 1.8 mGy; (d) bone marrow = MCS 0.4 mGy, TLD 0.5 mGy; (e) breast = MCS 1.1 mGy, TLD 1.1 mGy; (f) lung = MCS 1.2 mGy, TLD 1.3 mGy. Conclusion Overall, in thoracic CT protocols, organ doses simulated by the dose-monitoring software tool were coherent to those measured by TLDs. Despite some challenges, the dose-monitoring software was capable of an accurate dose calculation.

  6. Experimental verification of lung dose with radiochromic film: comparison with Monte Carlo simulations and commercially available treatment planning systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paelinck, L.; Reynaert, N.; Thierens, H.; DeNeve, W.; DeWagter, C.

    2005-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the absorbed dose in and around lung tissue by performing radiochromic film measurements, Monte Carlo simulations and calculations with superposition convolution algorithms. We considered a layered polystyrene phantom of 12 × 12 × 12 cm3 containing a central cavity of 6 × 6 × 6 cm3 filled with Gammex RMI lung-equivalent material. Two field configurations were investigated, a small 1 × 10 cm2 field and a larger 10 × 10 cm2 field. First, we performed Monte Carlo simulations to investigate the influence of radiochromic film itself on the measured dose distribution when the film intersects a lung-equivalent region and is oriented parallel to the central beam axis. To that end, the film and the lung-equivalent materials were modelled in detail, taking into account their specific composition. Next, measurements were performed with the film oriented both parallel and perpendicular to the central beam axis to verify the results of our Monte Carlo simulations. Finally, we digitized the phantom in two commercially available treatment planning systems, Helax-TMS version 6.1A and Pinnacle version 6.2b, and calculated the absorbed dose in the phantom with their incorporated superposition convolution algorithms to compare with the Monte Carlo simulations. Comparing Monte Carlo simulations with measurements reveals that radiochromic film is a reliable dosimeter in and around lung-equivalent regions when the film is positioned perpendicular to the central beam axis. Radiochromic film is also able to predict the absorbed dose accurately when the film is positioned parallel to the central beam axis through the lung-equivalent region. However, attention must be paid when the film is not positioned along the central beam axis, in which case the film gradually attenuates the beam and decreases the dose measured behind the cavity. This underdosage disappears by offsetting the film a few centimetres. We find deviations of about 3.6% between

  7. MO-FG-BRA-01: 4D Monte Carlo Simulations for Verification of Dose Delivered to a Moving Anatomy

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    Gholampourkashi, S; Cygler, J E. [Carleton University Ottawa, ON (Canada); The Ottawa Hospital Cancer Centre, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Belec, J; Vujicic, M [The Ottawa Hospital Cancer Centre, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Heath, Emily [Carleton University Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To validate 4D Monte Carlo (MC) simulations of dose delivery by an Elekta Agility linear accelerator to a moving phantom. Methods: Monte Carlo simulations were performed using the 4DdefDOSXYZnrc/EGSnrc user code which samples a new geometry for each incident particle and calculates the dose in a continuously moving anatomy. A Quasar respiratory motion phantom with a lung insert containing a 3 cm diameter tumor was used for dose measurements on an Elekta Agility linac with the phantom in stationary and moving states. Dose to the center of tumor was measured using calibrated EBT3 film and the RADPOS 4D dosimetry system. A VMAT plan covering the tumor was created on the static CT scan of the phantom using Monaco V.5.10.02. A validated BEAMnrc model of our Elekta Agility linac was used for Monte Carlo simulations on stationary and moving anatomies. To compare the planned and delivered doses, linac log files recorded during measurements were used for the simulations. For 4D simulations, deformation vectors that modeled the rigid translation of the lung insert were generated as input to the 4DdefDOSXYZnrc code as well as the phantom motion trace recorded with RADPOS during the measurements. Results: Monte Carlo simulations and film measurements were found to agree within 2mm/2% for 97.7% of points in the film in the static phantom and 95.5% in the moving phantom. Dose values based on film and RADPOS measurements are within 2% of each other and within 2σ of experimental uncertainties with respect to simulations. Conclusion: Our 4D Monte Carlo simulation using the defDOSXYZnrc code accurately calculates dose delivered to a moving anatomy. Future work will focus on more investigation of VMAT delivery on a moving phantom to improve the agreement between simulation and measurements, as well as establishing the accuracy of our method in a deforming anatomy. This work was supported by the Ontario Consortium of Adaptive Interventions in Radiation Oncology (OCAIRO

  8. Experimental verification of EGSnrc Monte Carlo calculated depth doses within a realistic parallel magnetic field in a polystyrene phantom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghila, Andrei; Steciw, Stephen; Fallone, B Gino; Rathee, Satyapal

    2017-09-01

    Integrating a linac with a magnetic resonance imager (MRI) will revolutionize the accuracy of external beam radiation treatments. Irradiating in the presence of a strong magnetic field, however, will modify the dose distribution. These dose modifications have been investigated previously, mainly using Monte Carlo simulations. The purpose of this work is to experimentally verify the use of the EGSnrc Monte Carlo (MC) package for calculating percent depth doses (PDDs) in a homogeneous phantom, in the presence of a realistic parallel magnetic field. Two cylindrical electromagnets were used to produce a 0.207 T magnetic field parallel to the central axis of a 6 MV photon beam from a clinical linac. The magnetic field was measured at discrete points along orthogonal axes, and these measurements were used to validate a full 3D magnetic field map generated using COMSOL Multiphysics. Using a small parallel plate ion chamber, the depth dose was measured in a polystyrene phantom placed inside the electromagnet bore at two separate locations: phantom top surface coinciding with top of bore, and phantom top surface coinciding with center of bore. BEAMnrc MC was used to model the linac head which was benchmarked against the linac's commissioning measurements. The depth dose in polystyrene was simulated using DOSXYZnrc MC. For the magnetic field case, the DOSXYZnrc code was slightly modified to implement the previously calculated 3D magnetic field map to be used in the standard electromagnetic macros. The calculated magnetic field matched the measurements within 2% of the maximum central field (0.207 T) with most points within the experimental uncertainty (1.5%). For the MC linac head model, over 93% of all simulated points passed the 2%, 2 mm γ acceptance criterion, when comparing measured and simulated lateral beam and depth dose profiles. The parallel magnetic field caused a surface dose increase, compared to the no magnetic field case, due to the Lorentz force confining

  9. SU-F-T-364: Monte Carlo-Dose Verification of Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy Plans Using AAPM TG-119 Test Patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onizuka, R; Araki, F; Ohno, T; Nakaguchi, Y

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the Monte Carlo (MC)-based dose verification for VMAT plans by a treatment planning system (TPS). Methods: The AAPM TG-119 test structure set was used for VMAT plans by the Pinnacle3 (convolution/superposition), using a Synergy radiation head of a 6 MV beam with the Agility MLC. The Synergy was simulated with the EGSnrc/BEAMnrc code, and VMAT dose distributions were calculated with the EGSnrc/DOSXYZnrc code by the same irradiation conditions as TPS. VMAT dose distributions of TPS and MC were compared with those of EBT3 film, by 2-D gamma analysis of ±3%/3 mm criteria with a threshold of 30% of prescribed doses. VMAT dose distributions between TPS and MC were also compared by DVHs and 3-D gamma analysis of ±3%/3 mm criteria with a threshold of 10%, and 3-D passing rates for PTVs and OARs were analyzed. Results: TPS dose distributions differed from those of film, especially for Head & neck. The dose difference between TPS and film results from calculation accuracy for complex motion of MLCs like tongue and groove effect. In contrast, MC dose distributions were in good agreement with those of film. This is because MC can model fully the MLC configuration and accurately reproduce the MLC motion between control points in VMAT plans. D95 of PTV for Prostate, Head & neck, C-shaped, and Multi Target was 97.2%, 98.1%, 101.6%, and 99.7% for TPS and 95.7%, 96.0%, 100.6%, and 99.1% for MC, respectively. Similarly, 3-D gamma passing rates of each PTV for TPS vs. MC were 100%, 89.5%, 99.7%, and 100%, respectively. 3-D passing rates of TPS reduced for complex VMAT fields like Head & neck because MLCs are not modeled completely for TPS. Conclusion: MC-calculated VMAT dose distributions is useful for the 3-D dose verification of VMAT plans by TPS.

  10. SU-F-T-364: Monte Carlo-Dose Verification of Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy Plans Using AAPM TG-119 Test Patterns

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    Onizuka, R [Graduate School of Health Sciences, Kumamoto University (Japan); Araki, F; Ohno, T [Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University (Japan); Nakaguchi, Y [Kumamoto University Hospital (Japan)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the Monte Carlo (MC)-based dose verification for VMAT plans by a treatment planning system (TPS). Methods: The AAPM TG-119 test structure set was used for VMAT plans by the Pinnacle3 (convolution/superposition), using a Synergy radiation head of a 6 MV beam with the Agility MLC. The Synergy was simulated with the EGSnrc/BEAMnrc code, and VMAT dose distributions were calculated with the EGSnrc/DOSXYZnrc code by the same irradiation conditions as TPS. VMAT dose distributions of TPS and MC were compared with those of EBT3 film, by 2-D gamma analysis of ±3%/3 mm criteria with a threshold of 30% of prescribed doses. VMAT dose distributions between TPS and MC were also compared by DVHs and 3-D gamma analysis of ±3%/3 mm criteria with a threshold of 10%, and 3-D passing rates for PTVs and OARs were analyzed. Results: TPS dose distributions differed from those of film, especially for Head & neck. The dose difference between TPS and film results from calculation accuracy for complex motion of MLCs like tongue and groove effect. In contrast, MC dose distributions were in good agreement with those of film. This is because MC can model fully the MLC configuration and accurately reproduce the MLC motion between control points in VMAT plans. D95 of PTV for Prostate, Head & neck, C-shaped, and Multi Target was 97.2%, 98.1%, 101.6%, and 99.7% for TPS and 95.7%, 96.0%, 100.6%, and 99.1% for MC, respectively. Similarly, 3-D gamma passing rates of each PTV for TPS vs. MC were 100%, 89.5%, 99.7%, and 100%, respectively. 3-D passing rates of TPS reduced for complex VMAT fields like Head & neck because MLCs are not modeled completely for TPS. Conclusion: MC-calculated VMAT dose distributions is useful for the 3-D dose verification of VMAT plans by TPS.

  11. Experimental verification by means of thermoluminescent dosimetry of the distribution dose absorbed in water for a 137Cs Amersham CDCS-M-3 source, Monte Carlo simulated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fragoso Valdez, F. R.; Alvarez Romero, J. T.

    2001-01-01

    It verifies, in a experimental way, the Monte Carlo simulation results (PENELOPE algorithm) for the water absorbed dose distribution, imparted by a 1 37 Cs - Amersham source (model CDCS-M-3). The feigned results are expressed in terms of the functions Α(r,z), g(r) and F(r,Θ) according to the recommendations of the AAPM TG 43 [es

  12. SU-E-T-29: A Web Application for GPU-Based Monte Carlo IMRT/VMAT QA with Delivered Dose Verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folkerts, M; Graves, Y; Tian, Z; Gu, X; Jia, X; Jiang, S

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To enable an existing web application for GPU-based Monte Carlo (MC) 3D dosimetry quality assurance (QA) to compute “delivered dose” from linac logfile data. Methods: We added significant features to an IMRT/VMAT QA web application which is based on existing technologies (HTML5, Python, and Django). This tool interfaces with python, c-code libraries, and command line-based GPU applications to perform a MC-based IMRT/VMAT QA. The web app automates many complicated aspects of interfacing clinical DICOM and logfile data with cutting-edge GPU software to run a MC dose calculation. The resultant web app is powerful, easy to use, and is able to re-compute both plan dose (from DICOM data) and delivered dose (from logfile data). Both dynalog and trajectorylog file formats are supported. Users upload zipped DICOM RP, CT, and RD data and set the expected statistic uncertainty for the MC dose calculation. A 3D gamma index map, 3D dose distribution, gamma histogram, dosimetric statistics, and DVH curves are displayed to the user. Additional the user may upload the delivery logfile data from the linac to compute a 'delivered dose' calculation and corresponding gamma tests. A comprehensive PDF QA report summarizing the results can also be downloaded. Results: We successfully improved a web app for a GPU-based QA tool that consists of logfile parcing, fluence map generation, CT image processing, GPU based MC dose calculation, gamma index calculation, and DVH calculation. The result is an IMRT and VMAT QA tool that conducts an independent dose calculation for a given treatment plan and delivery log file. The system takes both DICOM data and logfile data to compute plan dose and delivered dose respectively. Conclusion: We sucessfully improved a GPU-based MC QA tool to allow for logfile dose calculation. The high efficiency and accessibility will greatly facilitate IMRT and VMAT QA

  13. SU-E-T-29: A Web Application for GPU-Based Monte Carlo IMRT/VMAT QA with Delivered Dose Verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folkerts, M [The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Ctr, Dallas, TX (United States); University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Graves, Y [University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Tian, Z; Gu, X; Jia, X; Jiang, S [The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Ctr, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To enable an existing web application for GPU-based Monte Carlo (MC) 3D dosimetry quality assurance (QA) to compute “delivered dose” from linac logfile data. Methods: We added significant features to an IMRT/VMAT QA web application which is based on existing technologies (HTML5, Python, and Django). This tool interfaces with python, c-code libraries, and command line-based GPU applications to perform a MC-based IMRT/VMAT QA. The web app automates many complicated aspects of interfacing clinical DICOM and logfile data with cutting-edge GPU software to run a MC dose calculation. The resultant web app is powerful, easy to use, and is able to re-compute both plan dose (from DICOM data) and delivered dose (from logfile data). Both dynalog and trajectorylog file formats are supported. Users upload zipped DICOM RP, CT, and RD data and set the expected statistic uncertainty for the MC dose calculation. A 3D gamma index map, 3D dose distribution, gamma histogram, dosimetric statistics, and DVH curves are displayed to the user. Additional the user may upload the delivery logfile data from the linac to compute a 'delivered dose' calculation and corresponding gamma tests. A comprehensive PDF QA report summarizing the results can also be downloaded. Results: We successfully improved a web app for a GPU-based QA tool that consists of logfile parcing, fluence map generation, CT image processing, GPU based MC dose calculation, gamma index calculation, and DVH calculation. The result is an IMRT and VMAT QA tool that conducts an independent dose calculation for a given treatment plan and delivery log file. The system takes both DICOM data and logfile data to compute plan dose and delivered dose respectively. Conclusion: We sucessfully improved a GPU-based MC QA tool to allow for logfile dose calculation. The high efficiency and accessibility will greatly facilitate IMRT and VMAT QA.

  14. Monte Carlo-derived TLD cross-calibration factors for treatment verification and measurement of skin dose in accelerated partial breast irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garnica-Garza, H M [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politecnico Nacional Unidad Monterrey, VIa del Conocimiento 201 Parque de Investigacion e Innovacion Tecnologica, Apodaca NL C.P. 66600 (Mexico)], E-mail: hgarnica@cinvestav.mx

    2009-03-21

    Monte Carlo simulation was employed to calculate the response of TLD-100 chips under irradiation conditions such as those found during accelerated partial breast irradiation with the MammoSite radiation therapy system. The absorbed dose versus radius in the last 0.5 cm of the treated volume was also calculated, employing a resolution of 20 {mu}m, and a function that fits the observed data was determined. Several clinically relevant irradiation conditions were simulated for different combinations of balloon size, balloon-to-surface distance and contents of the contrast solution used to fill the balloon. The thermoluminescent dosemeter (TLD) cross-calibration factors were derived assuming that the calibration of the dosemeters was carried out using a Cobalt 60 beam, and in such a way that they provide a set of parameters that reproduce the function that describes the behavior of the absorbed dose versus radius curve. Such factors may also prove to be useful for those standardized laboratories that provide postal dosimetry services.

  15. Independent dose verification system with Monte Carlo simulations using TOPAS for passive scattering proton therapy at the National Cancer Center in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Wook-Geun; Testa, Mauro; Kim, Hak Soo; Jeong, Jong Hwi; Byeong Lee, Se; Kim, Yeon-Joo; Min, Chul Hee

    2017-10-01

    For the independent validation of treatment plans, we developed a fully automated Monte Carlo (MC)-based patient dose calculation system with the tool for particle simulation (TOPAS) and proton therapy machine installed at the National Cancer Center in Korea to enable routine and automatic dose recalculation for each patient. The proton beam nozzle was modeled with TOPAS to simulate the therapeutic beam, and MC commissioning was performed by comparing percent depth dose with the measurement. The beam set-up based on the prescribed beam range and modulation width was automated by modifying the vendor-specific method. The CT phantom was modeled based on the DICOM CT files with TOPAS-built-in function, and an in-house-developed C++ code directly imports the CT files for positioning the CT phantom, RT-plan file for simulating the treatment plan, and RT-structure file for applying the Hounsfield unit (HU) assignment, respectively. The developed system was validated by comparing the dose distributions with those calculated by the treatment planning system (TPS) for a lung phantom and two patient cases of abdomen and internal mammary node. The results of the beam commissioning were in good agreement of up to 0.8 mm2 g-1 for B8 option in both of the beam range and the modulation width of the spread-out Bragg peaks. The beam set-up technique can predict the range and modulation width with an accuracy of 0.06% and 0.51%, respectively, with respect to the prescribed range and modulation in arbitrary points of B5 option (128.3, 132.0, and 141.2 mm2 g-1 of range). The dose distributions showed higher than 99% passing rate for the 3D gamma index (3 mm distance to agreement and 3% dose difference) between the MC simulations and the clinical TPS in the target volume. However, in the normal tissues, less favorable agreements were obtained for the radiation treatment planning with the lung phantom and internal mammary node cases. The discrepancies might come from the

  16. Status of Monte Carlo dose planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackie, T.R.

    1995-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulation will become increasing important for treatment planning for radiotherapy. The EGS4 Monte Carlo system, a general particle transport system, has been used most often for simulation tasks in radiotherapy although ETRAN/ITS and MCNP have also been used. Monte Carlo treatment planning requires that the beam characteristics such as the energy spectrum and angular distribution of particles emerging from clinical accelerators be accurately represented. An EGS4 Monte Carlo code, called BEAM, was developed by the OMEGA Project (a collaboration between the University of Wisconsin and the National Research Council of Canada) to transport particles through linear accelerator heads. This information was used as input to simulate the passage of particles through CT-based representations of phantoms or patients using both an EGS4 code (DOSXYZ) and the macro Monte Carlo (MMC) method. Monte Carlo computed 3-D electron beam dose distributions compare well to measurements obtained in simple and complex heterogeneous phantoms. The present drawback with most Monte Carlo codes is that simulation times are slower than most non-stochastic dose computation algorithms. This is especially true for photon dose planning. In the future dedicated Monte Carlo treatment planning systems like Peregrine (from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory), which will be capable of computing the dose from all beam types, or the Macro Monte Carlo (MMC) system, which is an order of magnitude faster than other algorithms, may dominate the field

  17. A preliminary study of in-house Monte Carlo simulations: an integrated Monte Carlo verification system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukumoto, Nobutaka; Tsujii, Katsutomo; Saito, Susumu; Yasunaga, Masayoshi; Takegawa, Hideki; Yamamoto, Tokihiro; Numasaki, Hodaka; Teshima, Teruki

    2009-10-01

    To develop an infrastructure for the integrated Monte Carlo verification system (MCVS) to verify the accuracy of conventional dose calculations, which often fail to accurately predict dose distributions, mainly due to inhomogeneities in the patient's anatomy, for example, in lung and bone. The MCVS consists of the graphical user interface (GUI) based on a computational environment for radiotherapy research (CERR) with MATLAB language. The MCVS GUI acts as an interface between the MCVS and a commercial treatment planning system to import the treatment plan, create MC input files, and analyze MC output dose files. The MCVS consists of the EGSnrc MC codes, which include EGSnrc/BEAMnrc to simulate the treatment head and EGSnrc/DOSXYZnrc to calculate the dose distributions in the patient/phantom. In order to improve computation time without approximations, an in-house cluster system was constructed. The phase-space data of a 6-MV photon beam from a Varian Clinac unit was developed and used to establish several benchmarks under homogeneous conditions. The MC results agreed with the ionization chamber measurements to within 1%. The MCVS GUI could import and display the radiotherapy treatment plan created by the MC method and various treatment planning systems, such as RTOG and DICOM-RT formats. Dose distributions could be analyzed by using dose profiles and dose volume histograms and compared on the same platform. With the cluster system, calculation time was improved in line with the increase in the number of central processing units (CPUs) at a computation efficiency of more than 98%. Development of the MCVS was successful for performing MC simulations and analyzing dose distributions.

  18. Monte Carlo calculations supporting patient plan verification in proton therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Viana Miranda Lima

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Patient’s treatment plan verification covers substantial amount of the quality assurance (QA resources, this is especially true for Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy (IMPT. The use of Monte Carlo (MC simulations in supporting QA has been widely discussed and several methods have been proposed. In this paper we studied an alternative approach from the one being currently applied clinically at Centro Nazionale di Adroterapia Oncologica (CNAO. We reanalysed the previously published data (Molinelli et al. 2013, where 9 patient plans were investigated in which the warning QA threshold of 3% mean dose deviation was crossed. The possibility that these differences between measurement and calculated dose were related to dose modelling (Treatment Planning Systems (TPS vs MC, limitations on dose delivery system or detectors mispositioning was originally explored but other factors such as the geometric description of the detectors were not ruled out. For the purpose of this work we compared ionisation-chambers measurements with different MC simulations results. It was also studied some physical effects introduced by this new approach for example inter detector interference and the delta ray thresholds. The simulations accounting for a detailed geometry typically are superior (statistical difference - p-value around 0.01 to most of the MC simulations used at CNAO (only inferior to the shift approach used. No real improvement were observed in reducing the current delta-ray threshold used (100 keV and no significant interference between ion chambers in the phantom were detected (p-value 0.81. In conclusion, it was observed that the detailed geometrical description improves the agreement between measurement and MC calculations in some cases. But in other cases position uncertainty represents the dominant uncertainty. The inter chamber disturbance was not detected for the therapeutic protons energies and the results from the current delta threshold are

  19. Monte Carlo dose calculations in advanced radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Karl Kenneth

    The remarkable accuracy of Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculation algorithms has led to the widely accepted view that these methods should and will play a central role in the radiotherapy treatment verification and planning of the future. The advantages of using MC clinically are particularly evident for radiation fields passing through inhomogeneities, such as lung and air cavities, and for small fields, including those used in today's advanced intensity modulated radiotherapy techniques. Many investigators have reported significant dosimetric differences between MC and conventional dose calculations in such complex situations, and have demonstrated experimentally the unmatched ability of MC calculations in modeling charged particle disequilibrium. The advantages of using MC dose calculations do come at a cost. The nature of MC dose calculations require a highly detailed, in-depth representation of the physical system (accelerator head geometry/composition, anatomical patient geometry/composition and particle interaction physics) to allow accurate modeling of external beam radiation therapy treatments. To perform such simulations is computationally demanding and has only recently become feasible within mainstream radiotherapy practices. In addition, the output of the accelerator head simulation can be highly sensitive to inaccuracies within a model that may not be known with sufficient detail. The goal of this dissertation is to both improve and advance the implementation of MC dose calculations in modern external beam radiotherapy. To begin, a novel method is proposed to fine-tune the output of an accelerator model to better represent the measured output. In this method an intensity distribution of the electron beam incident on the model is inferred by employing a simulated annealing algorithm. The method allows an investigation of arbitrary electron beam intensity distributions and is not restricted to the commonly assumed Gaussian intensity. In a second component of

  20. Monte Carlo dose distributions for radiosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perucha, M.; Leal, A.; Rincon, M.; Carrasco, E.

    2001-01-01

    The precision of Radiosurgery Treatment planning systems is limited by the approximations of their algorithms and by their dosimetrical input data. This fact is especially important in small fields. However, the Monte Carlo methods is an accurate alternative as it considers every aspect of particle transport. In this work an acoustic neurinoma is studied by comparing the dose distribution of both a planning system and Monte Carlo. Relative shifts have been measured and furthermore, Dose-Volume Histograms have been calculated for target and adjacent organs at risk. (orig.)

  1. Development and verification of Monte Carlo burnup calculation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Yoshihira; Yoshioka, Kenichi; Mitsuhashi, Ishi; Sakurada, Koichi; Sakurai, Shungo

    2003-01-01

    Monte Carlo burnup calculation code system has been developed to evaluate accurate various quantities required in the backend field. From the Actinide Research in a Nuclear Element (ARIANE) program, by using, the measured nuclide compositions of fuel rods in the fuel assemblies irradiated in the commercial Netherlands BWR, the analyses have been performed for the code system verification. The code system developed in this paper has been verified through analysis for MOX and UO2 fuel rods. This system enables to reduce large margin assumed in the present criticality analysis for LWR spent fuels. (J.P.N.)

  2. RapidArc treatment verification in 3D using polymer gel dosimetry and Monte Carlo simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ceberg, Sofie; Gagne, Isabel; Gustafsson, Helen

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the advanced inhomogeneous dose distribution produced by a volumetric arc therapy technique (RapidArc™) using 3D gel measurements and Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. The TPS (treatment planning system)-calculated dose distribution was compared with gel measurements...... and MC simulations, thus investigating any discrepancy between the planned dose delivery and the actual delivery. Additionally, the reproducibility of the delivery was investigated using repeated gel measurements. A prostate treatment plan was delivered to a 1.3 liter nPAG gel phantom using one single...... surface (VOI90), for the TPS versus gel and TPS versus MC. The differences between the verification methods, MC versus gel, and between two repeated gel measurements were investigated in the same way. For all volume comparisons, the mean value was within 1% and the standard deviation of the differences...

  3. Stability and Concentration Verification of Ammonium Perchlorate Dosing Solutions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tsui, David

    1998-01-01

    Stability and concentration verification was performed for the ammonium perchlorate dosing solutions used in the on-going 90-Day Oral Toxicity Study conducted by Springborn Laboratories, Inc. (SLI Study No. 3433.1...

  4. Verification of IMRT dose distributions using a water beam imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, J.S.; Boyer, Arthur L.; Ma, C.-M.

    2001-01-01

    A water beam imaging system (WBIS) has been developed and used to verify dose distributions for intensity modulated radiotherapy using dynamic multileaf collimator. This system consisted of a water container, a scintillator screen, a charge-coupled device camera, and a portable personal computer. The scintillation image was captured by the camera. The pixel value in this image indicated the dose value in the scintillation screen. Images of radiation fields of known spatial distributions were used to calibrate the device. The verification was performed by comparing the image acquired from the measurement with a dose distribution from the IMRT plan. Because of light scattering in the scintillator screen, the image was blurred. A correction for this was developed by recognizing that the blur function could be fitted to a multiple Gaussian. The blur function was computed using the measured image of a 10 cmx10 cm x-ray beam and the result of the dose distribution calculated using the Monte Carlo method. Based on the blur function derived using this method, an iterative reconstruction algorithm was applied to recover the dose distribution for an IMRT plan from the measured WBIS image. The reconstructed dose distribution was compared with Monte Carlo simulation result. Reasonable agreement was obtained from the comparison. The proposed approach makes it possible to carry out a real-time comparison of the dose distribution in a transverse plane between the measurement and the reference when we do an IMRT dose verification

  5. Range Verification Methods in Particle Therapy: Underlying Physics and Monte Carlo Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraan, Aafke Christine

    2015-01-01

    Hadron therapy allows for highly conformal dose distributions and better sparing of organs-at-risk, thanks to the characteristic dose deposition as function of depth. However, the quality of hadron therapy treatments is closely connected with the ability to predict and achieve a given beam range in the patient. Currently, uncertainties in particle range lead to the employment of safety margins, at the expense of treatment quality. Much research in particle therapy is therefore aimed at developing methods to verify the particle range in patients. Non-invasive in vivo monitoring of the particle range can be performed by detecting secondary radiation, emitted from the patient as a result of nuclear interactions of charged hadrons with tissue, including β+ emitters, prompt photons, and charged fragments. The correctness of the dose delivery can be verified by comparing measured and pre-calculated distributions of the secondary particles. The reliability of Monte Carlo (MC) predictions is a key issue. Correctly modeling the production of secondaries is a non-trivial task, because it involves nuclear physics interactions at energies, where no rigorous theories exist to describe them. The goal of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of various aspects in modeling the physics processes for range verification with secondary particles produced in proton, carbon, and heavier ion irradiation. We discuss electromagnetic and nuclear interactions of charged hadrons in matter, which is followed by a summary of some widely used MC codes in hadron therapy. Then, we describe selected examples of how these codes have been validated and used in three range verification techniques: PET, prompt gamma, and charged particle detection. We include research studies and clinically applied methods. For each of the techniques, we point out advantages and disadvantages, as well as clinical challenges still to be addressed, focusing on MC simulation aspects. PMID:26217586

  6. Range Verification Methods in Particle Therapy: Underlying Physics and Monte Carlo Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraan, Aafke Christine

    2015-01-01

    Hadron therapy allows for highly conformal dose distributions and better sparing of organs-at-risk, thanks to the characteristic dose deposition as function of depth. However, the quality of hadron therapy treatments is closely connected with the ability to predict and achieve a given beam range in the patient. Currently, uncertainties in particle range lead to the employment of safety margins, at the expense of treatment quality. Much research in particle therapy is therefore aimed at developing methods to verify the particle range in patients. Non-invasive in vivo monitoring of the particle range can be performed by detecting secondary radiation, emitted from the patient as a result of nuclear interactions of charged hadrons with tissue, including β (+) emitters, prompt photons, and charged fragments. The correctness of the dose delivery can be verified by comparing measured and pre-calculated distributions of the secondary particles. The reliability of Monte Carlo (MC) predictions is a key issue. Correctly modeling the production of secondaries is a non-trivial task, because it involves nuclear physics interactions at energies, where no rigorous theories exist to describe them. The goal of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of various aspects in modeling the physics processes for range verification with secondary particles produced in proton, carbon, and heavier ion irradiation. We discuss electromagnetic and nuclear interactions of charged hadrons in matter, which is followed by a summary of some widely used MC codes in hadron therapy. Then, we describe selected examples of how these codes have been validated and used in three range verification techniques: PET, prompt gamma, and charged particle detection. We include research studies and clinically applied methods. For each of the techniques, we point out advantages and disadvantages, as well as clinical challenges still to be addressed, focusing on MC simulation aspects.

  7. Verification of Entrance Dose Measurements with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TLD system at the Radiation Monitoring and. Protection Centre, Lagos State University, Ojo, Lagos‑Nigeria was used for the in vivo entrance dose readings. All patients were treated with Co‑60 (T780c) ... and to determine the influence of shape, size, and density variations of the body of the patient on the dose calculation.

  8. 3D VMAT Verification Based on Monte Carlo Log File Simulation with Experimental Feedback from Film Dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbeiro, A R; Ureba, A; Baeza, J A; Linares, R; Perucha, M; Jiménez-Ortega, E; Velázquez, S; Mateos, J C; Leal, A

    2016-01-01

    A model based on a specific phantom, called QuAArC, has been designed for the evaluation of planning and verification systems of complex radiotherapy treatments, such as volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). This model uses the high accuracy provided by the Monte Carlo (MC) simulation of log files and allows the experimental feedback from the high spatial resolution of films hosted in QuAArC. This cylindrical phantom was specifically designed to host films rolled at different radial distances able to take into account the entrance fluence and the 3D dose distribution. Ionization chamber measurements are also included in the feedback process for absolute dose considerations. In this way, automated MC simulation of treatment log files is implemented to calculate the actual delivery geometries, while the monitor units are experimentally adjusted to reconstruct the dose-volume histogram (DVH) on the patient CT. Prostate and head and neck clinical cases, previously planned with Monaco and Pinnacle treatment planning systems and verified with two different commercial systems (Delta4 and COMPASS), were selected in order to test operational feasibility of the proposed model. The proper operation of the feedback procedure was proved through the achieved high agreement between reconstructed dose distributions and the film measurements (global gamma passing rates > 90% for the 2%/2 mm criteria). The necessary discretization level of the log file for dose calculation and the potential mismatching between calculated control points and detection grid in the verification process were discussed. Besides the effect of dose calculation accuracy of the analytic algorithm implemented in treatment planning systems for a dynamic technique, it was discussed the importance of the detection density level and its location in VMAT specific phantom to obtain a more reliable DVH in the patient CT. The proposed model also showed enough robustness and efficiency to be considered as a pre

  9. Phantoms for IMRT dose distribution measurement and treatment verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low, Daniel A.; Gerber, Russell L.; Mutic, Sasa; Purdy, James A.

    1998-01-01

    Background: The verification of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) patient treatment dose distributions is currently based on custom-built or modified dose measurement phantoms. The only commercially available IMRT treatment planning and delivery system (Peacock, NOMOS Corp.) is supplied with a film phantom that allows accurate spatial localization of the dose distribution using radiographic film. However, measurements using other dosimeters are necessary for the thorough verification of IMRT. Methods: We have developed a phantom to enable dose measurements using a cylindrical ionization chamber and the localization of prescription isodose curves using a matrix of thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD) chips. The external phantom cross-section is identical to that of the commercial phantom, to allow direct comparisons of measurements. A supplementary phantom has been fabricated to verify the IMRT dose distributions for pelvis treatments. Results: To date, this phantom has been used for the verification of IMRT dose distributions for head and neck and prostate cancer treatments. Designs are also presented for a phantom insert to be used with polymerizing gels (e.g., BANG-2) to obtain volumetric dose distribution measurements. Conclusion: The phantoms have proven useful in the quantitative evaluation of IMRT treatments

  10. SU-F-T-268: A Feasibility Study of Independent Dose Verification for Vero4DRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, M; Kokubo, M; Takahashi, R; Takayama, K; Tanabe, H; Sueoka, M; Okuuchi, N; Ishii, M; Iwamoto, Y; Tachibana, H

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Vero4DRT (Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd.) has been released for a few years. The treatment planning system (TPS) of Vero4DRT is dedicated, so the measurement is the only method of dose verification. There have been no reports of independent dose verification using Clarksonbased algorithm for Vero4DRT. An independent dose verification software program of the general-purpose linac using a modified Clarkson-based algorithm was modified for Vero4DRT. In this study, we evaluated the accuracy of independent dose verification program and the feasibility of the secondary check for Vero4DRT. Methods: iPlan (Brainlab AG) was used as the TPS. PencilBeam Convolution was used for dose calculation algorithm of IMRT and X-ray Voxel Monte Carlo was used for the others. Simple MU Analysis (SMU, Triangle Products, Japan) was used as the independent dose verification software program in which CT-based dose calculation was performed using a modified Clarkson-based algorithm. In this study, 120 patients’ treatment plans were collected in our institute. The treatments were performed using the conventional irradiation for lung and prostate, SBRT for lung and Step and shoot IMRT for prostate. Comparison in dose between the TPS and the SMU was done and confidence limits (CLs, Mean ± 2SD %) were compared to those from the general-purpose linac. Results: As the results of the CLs, the conventional irradiation (lung, prostate), SBRT (lung) and IMRT (prostate) show 2.2 ± 3.5% (CL of the general-purpose linac: 2.4 ± 5.3%), 1.1 ± 1.7% (−0.3 ± 2.0%), 4.8 ± 3.7% (5.4 ± 5.3%) and −0.5 ± 2.5% (−0.1 ± 3.6%), respectively. The CLs for Vero4DRT show similar results to that for the general-purpose linac. Conclusion: The independent dose verification for the new linac is clinically available as a secondary check and we performed the check with the similar tolerance level of the general-purpose linac. This research is partially supported by Japan Agency for Medical Research and

  11. SU-F-T-268: A Feasibility Study of Independent Dose Verification for Vero4DRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, M; Kokubo, M [Kobe City Medical Center General Hospital, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Institute of Biomedical Research and Innovation, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Takahashi, R [Cancer Institute Hospital of Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Koto, Tokyo (Japan); Takayama, K [Institute of Biomedical Research and Innovation, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Kobe City Medical Center General Hospital, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Tanabe, H; Sueoka, M; Okuuchi, N [Institute of Biomedical Research and Innovation, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Ishii, M; Iwamoto, Y [Kobe City Medical Center General Hospital, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Tachibana, H [National Cancer Center, Kashiwa, Chiba (Japan)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Vero4DRT (Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd.) has been released for a few years. The treatment planning system (TPS) of Vero4DRT is dedicated, so the measurement is the only method of dose verification. There have been no reports of independent dose verification using Clarksonbased algorithm for Vero4DRT. An independent dose verification software program of the general-purpose linac using a modified Clarkson-based algorithm was modified for Vero4DRT. In this study, we evaluated the accuracy of independent dose verification program and the feasibility of the secondary check for Vero4DRT. Methods: iPlan (Brainlab AG) was used as the TPS. PencilBeam Convolution was used for dose calculation algorithm of IMRT and X-ray Voxel Monte Carlo was used for the others. Simple MU Analysis (SMU, Triangle Products, Japan) was used as the independent dose verification software program in which CT-based dose calculation was performed using a modified Clarkson-based algorithm. In this study, 120 patients’ treatment plans were collected in our institute. The treatments were performed using the conventional irradiation for lung and prostate, SBRT for lung and Step and shoot IMRT for prostate. Comparison in dose between the TPS and the SMU was done and confidence limits (CLs, Mean ± 2SD %) were compared to those from the general-purpose linac. Results: As the results of the CLs, the conventional irradiation (lung, prostate), SBRT (lung) and IMRT (prostate) show 2.2 ± 3.5% (CL of the general-purpose linac: 2.4 ± 5.3%), 1.1 ± 1.7% (−0.3 ± 2.0%), 4.8 ± 3.7% (5.4 ± 5.3%) and −0.5 ± 2.5% (−0.1 ± 3.6%), respectively. The CLs for Vero4DRT show similar results to that for the general-purpose linac. Conclusion: The independent dose verification for the new linac is clinically available as a secondary check and we performed the check with the similar tolerance level of the general-purpose linac. This research is partially supported by Japan Agency for Medical Research and

  12. Moments of spectral functions: Monte Carlo evaluation and verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predescu, Cristian

    2005-11-01

    The subject of the present study is the Monte Carlo path-integral evaluation of the moments of spectral functions. Such moments can be computed by formal differentiation of certain estimating functionals that are infinitely differentiable against time whenever the potential function is arbitrarily smooth. Here, I demonstrate that the numerical differentiation of the estimating functionals can be more successfully implemented by means of pseudospectral methods (e.g., exact differentiation of a Chebyshev polynomial interpolant), which utilize information from the entire interval . The algorithmic detail that leads to robust numerical approximations is the fact that the path-integral action and not the actual estimating functional are interpolated. Although the resulting approximation to the estimating functional is nonlinear, the derivatives can be computed from it in a fast and stable way by contour integration in the complex plane, with the help of the Cauchy integral formula (e.g., by Lyness' method). An interesting aspect of the present development is that Hamburger's conditions for a finite sequence of numbers to be a moment sequence provide the necessary and sufficient criteria for the computed data to be compatible with the existence of an inversion algorithm. Finally, the issue of appearance of the sign problem in the computation of moments, albeit in a milder form than for other quantities, is addressed.

  13. Optimizing dose prescription in stereotactic body radiotherapy for lung tumours using Monte Carlo dose calculation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Widder, Joachim; Hollander, Miranda; Ubbels, Jan F.; Bolt, Rene A.; Langendijk, Johannes A.

    Purpose: To define a method of dose prescription employing Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculation in stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for lung tumours aiming at a dose as low as possible outside of the PTV. Methods and materials: Six typical T1 lung tumours - three small, three large - were

  14. Dose verification by OSLDs in the irradiation of cell cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meca C, E. A.; Bourel, V.; Notcovich, C.; Duran, H.

    2015-10-01

    The determination of value of irradiation dose presents difficulties when targets are irradiated located in regions where electronic equilibrium of charged particle is not reached, as in the case of irradiation -in vitro- of cell lines monolayer-cultured, in culture dishes or flasks covered with culture medium. The present study aimed to implement a methodology for dose verification in irradiation of cells in culture media by optically stimulated luminescence dosimetry (OSLD). For the determination of the absorbed dose in terms of cell proliferation OSL dosimeters of aluminum oxide doped with carbon (Al 2 O 3 :C) were used, which were calibrated to the irradiation conditions of culture medium and at doses that ranged from 0.1 to 15 Gy obtained with a linear accelerator of 6 MV photons. Intercomparison measurements were performed with an ionization chamber of 6 cm 3 . Different geometries were evaluated by varying the thicknesses of solid water, air and cell culture medium. The results showed deviations below 2.2% when compared with the obtained doses of OSLDs and planning system used. Also deviations were observed below 3.4% by eccentric points of the irradiation plane, finding homogeneous dose distribution. Uncertainty in the readings was less than 2%. The proposed methodology contributes a contribution in the dose verification in this type of irradiations, eliminating from the calculation uncertainties, potential errors in settling irradiation or possible equipment failure with which is radiating. It also provides certainty about the survival curves to be plotted with the experimental data. (Author)

  15. Beam intensity scanner system for three dimensional dose verification of IMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vahc, Young W.; Kwon, Ohyun; Park, Kwangyl; Park, Kyung R.; Yi, Byung Y.; Kim, Keun M.

    2003-01-01

    Patient dose verification is clinically one of the most important parts in the treatment delivery of radiation therapy. The three dimensional (3D) reconstruction of dose distribution delivered to target volume helps to verify patient dose and determine the physical characteristics of beams used in IMRT. Here we present beam intensity scanner (BInS) system for the pre-treatment dosimetric verification of two dimensional photon intensity. The BInS is a radiation detector with a custom-made software for dose conversion of fluorescence signals from scintillator. The scintillator is used to produce fluorescence from the irradiation of 6 MV photons on a Varian Clinac 21EX. The digitized fluoroscopic signals obtained by digital video camera-based scintillator (DVCS) will be processed by our custom made software to reproduce 3D- relative dose distribution. For the intensity modulated beam (IMB), the BInS calculates absorbed dose in absolute beam fluence which is used for the patient dose distribution. Using BInS, we performed various measurements related to IMRT and found the following: (1) The 3D-dose profiles of the IMBs measured by the BInS demonstrate good agreement with radiographic film, pin type ionization chamber and Monte Carlo simulation. (2) The delivered beam intensity is altered by the mechanical and dosimetric properties of the collimation of dynamic and/or step MLC system. This is mostly due to leaf transmission, leaf penumbra scattered photons from the round edges of leaves, and geometry of leaf. (3) The delivered dose depends on the operational detail of how to make multi leaf opening. These phenomena result in a fluence distribution that can be substantially different from the initial and calculated intensity modulation and therefore, should be taken into account by the treatment planning for accurate dose calculations delivered to the target volume in IMRT. (author)

  16. Vega library for processing DICOM data required in Monte Carlo verification of radiotherapy treatment plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Locke, C.; Zavgorodni, S.; British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver Island Center, Victoria BC

    2008-01-01

    Monte Carlo (MC) methods provide the most accurate to-date dose calculations in heterogeneous media and complex geometries, and this spawns increasing interest in incorporating MC calculations into treatment planning quality assurance process. This involves MC dose calculations for clinically produced treatment plans. To perform these calculations, a number of treatment plan parameters specifying radiation beam

  17. Inclusion type radiochromic gel dosimeter for threedimensional dose verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usui, Shuji; Yoshioka, Munenori; Hayashi, Shin-ichiro; Tominaga, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    For the verification of 3D dose distributions in modern radiation therapy, a new inclusion type radiochromic gel detector has been developed. In this gel, a hydrophobic leuco dye (leucomalachite green: LMG) was dissolved in water as an inclusion complex with highly branched cyclic dextrin. The radiation induced radical oxidation property of the LMG gel with various sensitizers was investigated. As a result, the optical dose responses were enhanced by the addition of bromoacetic acid and manganese (II) chloride. Unfavorable auto-oxidation of the gel was reduced when it was stored at 4°C.

  18. Monte carlo dose calculation in dental amalgam phantom

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Zahri Abdul Aziz; A L Yusoff; N D Osman; R Abdullah; N A Rabaie; M S Salikin

    2015-01-01

    It has become a great challenge in the modern radiation treatment to ensure the accuracy of treatment delivery in electron beam therapy. Tissue inhomogeneity has become one of the factors for accurate dose calculation, and this requires complex algorithm calculation like Monte Carlo (MC). On the other hand, computed tomography (CT) images used in treatment planning system need to be trustful as they are the input in radiotherapy treatment. However, with the presence of metal amalgam in treatm...

  19. Summary and recommendations of a National Cancer Institute workshop on issues limiting the clinical use of Monte Carlo dose calculation algorithms for megavoltage external beam radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraass, Benedick A.; Smathers, James; Deye, James

    2003-01-01

    Due to the significant interest in Monte Carlo dose calculations for external beam megavoltage radiation therapy from both the research and commercial communities, a workshop was held in October 2001 to assess the status of this computational method with regard to use for clinical treatment planning. The Radiation Research Program of the National Cancer Institute, in conjunction with the Nuclear Data and Analysis Group at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, gathered a group of experts in clinical radiation therapy treatment planning and Monte Carlo dose calculations, and examined issues involved in clinical implementation of Monte Carlo dose calculation methods in clinical radiotherapy. The workshop examined the current status of Monte Carlo algorithms, the rationale for using Monte Carlo, algorithmic concerns, clinical issues, and verification methodologies. Based on these discussions, the workshop developed recommendations for future NCI-funded research and development efforts. This paper briefly summarizes the issues presented at the workshop and the recommendations developed by the group

  20. Independent verification of the delivered dose in High-Dose Rate (HDR) brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portillo, P.; Feld, D.; Kessler, J.

    2009-01-01

    An important aspect of a Quality Assurance program in Clinical Dosimetry is an independent verification of the dosimetric calculation done by the Treatment Planning System for each radiation treatment. The present paper is aimed at creating a spreadsheet for the verification of the dose recorded at a point of an implant with radioactive sources and HDR in gynecological injuries. An 192 Ir source automatic differed loading equipment, GammaMedplus model, Varian Medical System with HDR installed at the Angel H. Roffo Oncology Institute has been used. The planning system implemented for getting the dose distribution is the BraquiVision. The sources coordinates as well as those of the calculation point (Rectum) are entered into the Excel-devised verification program by assuming the existence of a point source in each one of the applicators' positions. Such calculation point has been selected as the rectum is an organ at risk, therefore determining the treatment planning. The dose verification is performed at points standing at a sources distance having at least twice the active length of such sources, so they may be regarded as point sources. Most of the sources used in HDR brachytherapy with 192 Ir have a 5 mm active length for all equipment brands. Consequently, the dose verification distance must be at least of 10 mm. (author)

  1. Verification of Monte Carlo calculations around a Fletcher Suit Delclos ovoid with normoxic polymer gel dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gifford, K; Horton, J; Steger, T; Heard, M; Jackson, E; Ibbott, G

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this work is to calculate the effect of including the anterior and posterior ovoid shields on the dose distribution around a Fletcher Suit Delclos (FSD) ovoid (Nucletron Trading BV, Leersum, Netherlands) and verify these calculations with normoxic polymer gel dosimetry. To date, no Monte Carlo results verified with dosimetry have been published for this ovoid

  2. Monte Carlo dose calculation of microbeam in a lung phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Company, F.Z.; Mino, C.; Mino, F.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Recent advances in synchrotron generated X-ray beams with high fluence rate permit investigation of the application of an array of closely spaced, parallel or converging microplanar beams in radiotherapy. The proposed techniques takes advantage of the hypothesised repair mechanism of capillary cells between alternate microbeam zones, which regenerates the lethally irradiated endothelial cells. The lateral and depth doses of 100 keV microplanar beams are investigated for different beam dimensions and spacings in a tissue, lung and tissue/lung/tissue phantom. The EGS4 Monte Carlo code is used to calculate dose profiles at different depth and bundles of beams (up to 20x20cm square cross section). The maximum dose on the beam axis (peak) and the minimum interbeam dose (valley) are compared at different depths, bundles, heights, widths and beam spacings. Relatively high peak to valley ratios are observed in the lung region, suggesting an ideal environment for microbeam radiotherapy. For a single field, the ratio at the tissue/lung interface will set the maximum dose to the target volume. However, in clinical application, several fields would be involved allowing much greater doses to be applied for the elimination of cancer cells. We conclude therefore that multifield microbeam therapy has the potential to achieve useful therapeutic ratios for the treatment of lung cancer

  3. An improved Monte Carlo (MC) dose simulation for charged particle cancer therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ying, C. K.; Kamil, W. A.; Shuaib, I. L.; Matsufuji, Naruhiro

    2014-01-01

    Heavy-particle therapy such as carbon ion therapy are more popular nowadays because of the nature characteristics of charged particle and almost no side effect to patients. An effective treatment is achieved with high precision of dose calculation, in this research work, Geant4 based Monte Carlo simulation method has been used to calculate the radiation transport and dose distribution. The simulation have the same setting with the treatment room in Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator, HIMAC. The carbon ion beam at the isocentric gantry nozzle for the therapeutic energy of 290 MeV/u was simulated, experimental work was carried out in National Institute of Radiological Sciences, NIRS, Chiba, Japan by using the HIMAC to confirm the accuracy and qualities dose distribution by MC methods. The Geant4 based simulated dose distribution were verified with measurements for Bragg peak and spread out Bragg peak (SOBP) respectively. The verification of results shows that the Bragg peak depth-dose and SOBP distributions in simulation has good agreement with measurements. In overall, the study showed that Geant4 based can be fully applied in the heavy-ion therapy field for simulation, further works need to be carry on to refine and improve the Geant4 MC simulations

  4. An improved Monte Carlo (MC) dose simulation for charged particle cancer therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ying, C.K.; Kamil, W.A.; Shuaib, I.L.; Ying, C.K.; Kamil, W.A.

    2013-01-01

    Full-text: Heavy-particle therapy such as carbon ion therapy are more popular nowadays because of the nature characteristics of charged particle and almost no side effect to patients. An effective treatment is achieved with high precision of dose calculation, in this research work, Geant4 based Monte Carlo simulation method has been used to calculate the radiation transport and dose distribution. The simulation have the same setting with the treatment room in Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator, HIMAC. The carbon ion beam at the isocentric gantry nozzle for the therapeutic energy of 290 MeV/u was simulated, experimental work was carried out in National Institute of Radiological Sciences, NIRS, Chiba, Japan by using the HIMAC to confirm the accuracy and qualities dose distribution by MC methods. The Geant4 based simulated dose distribution were verified with measurements for Bragg peak and spread out Bragg peak (SOBP) respectively. The verification of results shows that the Bragg peak depth-dose and SOBP distributions in simulation has good agreement with measurements. In overall, the study showed that Geant4 based can be fully applied in the heavy ion therapy field for simulation, further works need to be carry on to refine and improve the Geant4 MC simulations. (author)

  5. An improved Monte Carlo (MC) dose simulation for charged particle cancer therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ying, C. K. [Advanced Medical and Dental Institute, AMDI, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia and School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kota Bharu (Malaysia); Kamil, W. A. [Advanced Medical and Dental Institute, AMDI, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia and Radiology Department, Hospital USM, Kota Bharu (Malaysia); Shuaib, I. L. [Advanced Medical and Dental Institute, AMDI, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang (Malaysia); Matsufuji, Naruhiro [Research Centre of Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, NIRS, Chiba (Japan)

    2014-02-12

    Heavy-particle therapy such as carbon ion therapy are more popular nowadays because of the nature characteristics of charged particle and almost no side effect to patients. An effective treatment is achieved with high precision of dose calculation, in this research work, Geant4 based Monte Carlo simulation method has been used to calculate the radiation transport and dose distribution. The simulation have the same setting with the treatment room in Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator, HIMAC. The carbon ion beam at the isocentric gantry nozzle for the therapeutic energy of 290 MeV/u was simulated, experimental work was carried out in National Institute of Radiological Sciences, NIRS, Chiba, Japan by using the HIMAC to confirm the accuracy and qualities dose distribution by MC methods. The Geant4 based simulated dose distribution were verified with measurements for Bragg peak and spread out Bragg peak (SOBP) respectively. The verification of results shows that the Bragg peak depth-dose and SOBP distributions in simulation has good agreement with measurements. In overall, the study showed that Geant4 based can be fully applied in the heavy-ion therapy field for simulation, further works need to be carry on to refine and improve the Geant4 MC simulations.

  6. Verification of an effective dose equivalent model for neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanner, J.E.; Piper, R.K.; Leonowich, J.A.; Faust, L.G.

    1992-01-01

    Since the effective dose equivalent, based on the weighted sum of organ dose equivalents, is not a directly measurable quantity, it must be estimated with the assistance of computer modelling techniques and a knowledge of the incident radiation field. Although extreme accuracy is not necessary for radiation protection purposes, a few well chosen measurements are required to confirm the theoretical models. Neutron doses and dose equivalents were measured in a RANDO phantom at specific locations using thermoluminescence dosemeters, etched track dosemeters, and a 1.27 cm (1/2 in) tissue-equivalent proportional counter. The phantom was exposed to a bare and a D 2 O-moderated 252 Cf neutron source at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory's Low Scatter Facility. The Monte Carlo code MCNP with the MIRD-V mathematical phantom was used to model the human body and to calculate the organ doses and dose equivalents. The experimental methods are described and the results of the measurements are compared with the calculations. (author)

  7. Verification of an effective dose equivalent model for neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanner, J.E.; Piper, R.K.; Leonowich, J.A.; Faust, L.G.

    1991-10-01

    Since the effective dose equivalent, based on the weighted sum of organ dose equivalents, is not a directly measurable quantity, it must be estimated with the assistance of computer modeling techniques and a knowledge of the radiation field. Although extreme accuracy is not necessary for radiation protection purposes, a few well-chosen measurements are required to confirm the theoretical models. Neutron measurements were performed in a RANDO phantom using thermoluminescent dosemeters, track etch dosemeters, and a 1/2-in. (1.27-cm) tissue equivalent proportional counter in order to estimate neutron doses and dose equivalents within the phantom at specific locations. The phantom was exposed to bare and D 2 O-moderated 252 Cf neutrons at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory's Low Scatter Facility. The Monte Carlo code MCNP with the MIRD-V mathematical phantom was used to model the human body and calculate organ doses and dose equivalents. The experimental methods are described and the results of the measurements are compared to the calculations. 8 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  8. Spot scanning proton therapy plan assessment: design and development of a dose verification application for use in routine clinical practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustine, Kurt E.; Walsh, Timothy J.; Beltran, Chris J.; Stoker, Joshua B.; Mundy, Daniel W.; Parry, Mark D.; Bues, Martin; Fatyga, Mirek

    2016-04-01

    The use of radiation therapy for the treatment of cancer has been carried out clinically since the late 1800's. Early on however, it was discovered that a radiation dose sufficient to destroy cancer cells can also cause severe injury to surrounding healthy tissue. Radiation oncologists continually strive to find the perfect balance between a dose high enough to destroy the cancer and one that avoids damage to healthy organs. Spot scanning or "pencil beam" proton radiotherapy offers another option to improve on this. Unlike traditional photon therapy, proton beams stop in the target tissue, thus better sparing all organs beyond the targeted tumor. In addition, the beams are far narrower and thus can be more precisely "painted" onto the tumor, avoiding exposure to surrounding healthy tissue. To safely treat patients with proton beam radiotherapy, dose verification should be carried out for each plan prior to treatment. Proton dose verification systems are not currently commercially available so the Department of Radiation Oncology at the Mayo Clinic developed its own, called DOSeCHECK, which offers two distinct dose simulation methods: GPU-based Monte Carlo and CPU-based analytical. The three major components of the system include the web-based user interface, the Linux-based dose verification simulation engines, and the supporting services and components. The architecture integrates multiple applications, libraries, platforms, programming languages, and communication protocols and was successfully deployed in time for Mayo Clinic's first proton beam therapy patient. Having a simple, efficient application for dose verification greatly reduces staff workload and provides additional quality assurance, ultimately improving patient safety.

  9. Monte Carlo dose calculation algorithm on a distributed system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauvie, Stephane; Dominoni, Matteo; Marini, Piergiorgio; Stasi, Michele; Pia, Maria Grazia; Scielzo, Giuseppe

    2003-01-01

    The main goal of modern radiotherapy, such as 3D conformal radiotherapy and intensity-modulated radiotherapy is to deliver a high dose to the target volume sparing the surrounding healthy tissue. The accuracy of dose calculation in a treatment planning system is therefore a critical issue. Among many algorithms developed over the last years, those based on Monte Carlo proven to be very promising in terms of accuracy. The most severe obstacle in application to clinical practice is the high time necessary for calculations. We have studied a high performance network of Personal Computer as a realistic alternative to a high-costs dedicated parallel hardware to be used routinely as instruments of evaluation of treatment plans. We set-up a Beowulf Cluster, configured with 4 nodes connected with low-cost network and installed MC code Geant4 to describe our irradiation facility. The MC, once parallelised, was run on the Beowulf Cluster. The first run of the full simulation showed that the time required for calculation decreased linearly increasing the number of distributed processes. The good scalability trend allows both statistically significant accuracy and good time performances. The scalability of the Beowulf Cluster system offers a new instrument for dose calculation that could be applied in clinical practice. These would be a good support particularly in high challenging prescription that needs good calculation accuracy in zones of high dose gradient and great dishomogeneities

  10. Monte carlo dose calculation in dental amalgam phantom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Zahri Abdul Aziz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It has become a great challenge in the modern radiation treatment to ensure the accuracy of treatment delivery in electron beam therapy. Tissue inhomogeneity has become one of the factors for accurate dose calculation, and this requires complex algorithm calculation like Monte Carlo (MC. On the other hand, computed tomography (CT images used in treatment planning system need to be trustful as they are the input in radiotherapy treatment. However, with the presence of metal amalgam in treatment volume, the CT images input showed prominent streak artefact, thus, contributed sources of error. Hence, metal amalgam phantom often creates streak artifacts, which cause an error in the dose calculation. Thus, a streak artifact reduction technique was applied to correct the images, and as a result, better images were observed in terms of structure delineation and density assigning. Furthermore, the amalgam density data were corrected to provide amalgam voxel with accurate density value. As for the errors of dose uncertainties due to metal amalgam, they were reduced from 46% to as low as 2% at d80 (depth of the 80% dose beyond Zmax using the presented strategies. Considering the number of vital and radiosensitive organs in the head and the neck regions, this correction strategy is suggested in reducing calculation uncertainties through MC calculation.

  11. Monte Carlo dose calculation in dental amalgam phantom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Mohd Zahri Abdul; Yusoff, A L; Osman, N D; Abdullah, R; Rabaie, N A; Salikin, M S

    2015-01-01

    It has become a great challenge in the modern radiation treatment to ensure the accuracy of treatment delivery in electron beam therapy. Tissue inhomogeneity has become one of the factors for accurate dose calculation, and this requires complex algorithm calculation like Monte Carlo (MC). On the other hand, computed tomography (CT) images used in treatment planning system need to be trustful as they are the input in radiotherapy treatment. However, with the presence of metal amalgam in treatment volume, the CT images input showed prominent streak artefact, thus, contributed sources of error. Hence, metal amalgam phantom often creates streak artifacts, which cause an error in the dose calculation. Thus, a streak artifact reduction technique was applied to correct the images, and as a result, better images were observed in terms of structure delineation and density assigning. Furthermore, the amalgam density data were corrected to provide amalgam voxel with accurate density value. As for the errors of dose uncertainties due to metal amalgam, they were reduced from 46% to as low as 2% at d80 (depth of the 80% dose beyond Zmax) using the presented strategies. Considering the number of vital and radiosensitive organs in the head and the neck regions, this correction strategy is suggested in reducing calculation uncertainties through MC calculation.

  12. Monte Carlo simulation for radiation dose in children radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendes, Hitalo R.; Tomal, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    The dosimetry in pediatric radiology is essential due to the higher risk that children have in comparison to adults. The focus of this study is to present how the dose varies depending on the depth in a 10 year old and a newborn, for this purpose simulations are made using the Monte Carlo method. Potential differences were considered 70 and 90 kVp for the 10 year old and 70 and 80 kVp for the newborn. The results show that in both cases, the dose at the skin surface is larger for smaller potential value, however, it decreases faster for larger potential values. Another observation made is that because the newborn is less thick the ratio between the initial dose and the final is lower compared to the case of a 10 year old, showing that it is possible to make an image using a smaller entrance dose in the skin, keeping the same level of exposure at the detector. (author)

  13. Optimizing portal dose calculation for an amorphous silicon detector using Swiss Monte Carlo Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frauchiger, D; Fix, M K; Frei, D; Volken, W; Mini, R; Manser, P

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Modern treatment planning systems (TPS) are able to calculate doses within the patient for numerous delivery techniques as e. g. intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Even dose predictions to an electronic portal image device (EPID) are available in some TPS, but with limitations in accuracy. With the steadily increasing number of facilities using EPIDs for pre-treatment and treatment verification, the desire of calculating accurate EPID dose distributions is growing. A solution for this problem is the use of Monte Carlo (MC) methods. Aims of this study were firstly to implement geometries of an amorphous silicon based EPID with varying levels of geometry complexity. Secondly to analyze the differences between simulation results and measurements for each geometry. Thirdly, to compare different transport algorithms within all EPID geometries in a flexible C++ MC environment. Materials and Methods: In this work three geometry sets, representing the EPID, are implemented and investigated. To gain flexibility in the MC environment geometry and particle transport code are independent. That allows the user to select between the transport algorithms EGSnrc, VMC++ and PIN (an in-house developed transport code) while using one of the implemented geometries of the EPID. For all implemented EPID geometries dose distributions were calculated for 6 MV and 15 MV beams using different transport algorithms and are then compared with measurements. Results: A very simple geometry, consisting of a water slab, is not capable to reproduce measurements, whereas 8 material layers perform well. The more layers with different materials are used, the longer last the calculations. EGSnrc and VMC++ lead to dosimetrically equal results. Gamma analysis between calculated and measured EPID dose distributions, using a dose difference criterion of ± 3% and a distance to agreement criterion of ± 3 mm, revealed a gamma value < 1 within more than 95% of all pixels, that have a

  14. Verification of Monte Carlo calculations of the neutron flux in typical irradiation channels of the TRIGA reactor, Ljubljana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacimovic, R; Maucec, M; Trkov, A

    2003-01-01

    An experimental verification of Monte Carlo neutron flux calculations in typical irradiation channels in the TRIGA Mark II reactor at the Jozef Stefan Institute is presented. It was found that the flux, as well as its spectral characteristics, depends rather strongly on the position of the

  15. Micelle hydrogels for three-dimensional dose verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babic, S.; Battista, J.; Jordan, K.

    2009-05-01

    Gelatin hydrogels form a transparent and colourless matrix for polymerization or chromic reactions initiated by absorption of ionizing radiation. Generally, hydrogel chemistries have been limited to water soluble reactants. Work to adapt a water insoluble colourless leuco dye to coloured dye conversion reaction in hydrogels, led to the idea that micelles (i.e. tiny aggregates of surfactant molecules) may provide the necessary polar and nonpolar hybrid environment. Both leucomalachite green and leuco crystal violet radiochromic gels have been developed as three-dimensional (3-D) radiochromic dosimeters for optical computed tomography (CT) scanners. It has been found that the post-irradiation diffusion rates strongly correlate with the solubility of the leuco dyes. Since the crystal violet dye is more soluble in the micelle than in the surrounding water, the dose distribution degrades at the slower rate of micelle diffusion, thus yielding stable images of dose. A dosimetric characterization of leucomalachite green and leuco crystal violet gels, respectively, reveals that tissue equivalent micelle hydrogels are promising dosimeters for radiation therapy 3-D dose verification.

  16. Monte Carlo dose calculations for phantoms with hip prostheses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazalova, M; Verhaegen, F; Coolens, C; Childs, P; Cury, F; Beaulieu, L

    2008-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) images of patients with hip prostheses are severely degraded by metal streaking artefacts. The low image quality makes organ contouring more difficult and can result in large dose calculation errors when Monte Carlo (MC) techniques are used. In this work, the extent of streaking artefacts produced by three common hip prosthesis materials (Ti-alloy, stainless steel, and Co-Cr-Mo alloy) was studied. The prostheses were tested in a hypothetical prostate treatment with five 18 MV photon beams. The dose distributions for unilateral and bilateral prosthesis phantoms were calculated with the EGSnrc/DOSXYZnrc MC code. This was done in three phantom geometries: in the exact geometry, in the original CT geometry, and in an artefact-corrected geometry. The artefact-corrected geometry was created using a modified filtered back-projection correction technique. It was found that unilateral prosthesis phantoms do not show large dose calculation errors, as long as the beams miss the artefact-affected volume. This is possible to achieve in the case of unilateral prosthesis phantoms (except for the Co-Cr-Mo prosthesis which gives a 3% error) but not in the case of bilateral prosthesis phantoms. The largest dose discrepancies were obtained for the bilateral Co-Cr-Mo hip prosthesis phantom, up to 11% in some voxels within the prostate. The artefact correction algorithm worked well for all phantoms and resulted in dose calculation errors below 2%. In conclusion, a MC treatment plan should include an artefact correction algorithm when treating patients with hip prostheses

  17. Monte Carlo simulation of beta particle-induced bremsstrahlung doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrdja, D; Bikit, K; Bikit, I; Slivka, J; Forkapic, S; Knezevic, J

    2018-03-01

    It is well known that protection from the external irradiation produced by beta emitters is simpler than the corresponding shielding of radioactive sources that emit gamma radiation. This is caused by the relatively strong absorption (i.e. short range) of electrons in different materials. However, for strong beta sources specific attention should be paid to the bremsstrahlung radiation induced in the source encapsulation (matrix), especially for emitters with relatively high beta-endpoint energy (1 MeV) that are frequently used in nuclear medicine. In the present work, the bremsstrahlung spectra produced in various materials by the following beta emitters, Sr-90 (together with its daughter Y-90), P-32 and Bi-210, were investigated by Monte Carlo simulations using Geant4 software. In these simulations, it is supposed that the point radioactive sources are surrounded by cylindrically shaped capsules made from different materials: Pb, Cu, Al, glass and plastic. For the case of Y-90(Sr-90) in cylindrical lead and aluminum capsules, the dimensions of these capsules have also been varied. The absorbed dose rates from bremsstrahlung radiation were calculated for cases where the encapsulated point source is placed at a distance of 30 mm from the surface of a water cylinder with a mass of 75 kg (approximately representing the human body). The bremsstrahlung dose rate and bremsstrahlung spectrum from the Y-90(Sr-90) point source encapsulated in an Al capsule were also measured experimentally and compared with the corresponding simulation results. In addition, the bremsstrahlung radiation risk for medical staff in therapies using Y-90 was considered in simulations, relating to finger dose as well as whole-body dose during preparation and injection of this radioisotope. The corresponding annual doses were obtained for medical workers for specified numbers of Y-90 applications to patients.

  18. EDITORIAL: International Workshop on Monte Carlo Techniques in Radiotherapy Delivery and Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhaegen, Frank; Seuntjens, Jan

    2008-03-01

    Monte Carlo particle transport techniques offer exciting tools for radiotherapy research, where they play an increasingly important role. Topics of research related to clinical applications range from treatment planning, motion and registration studies, brachytherapy, verification imaging and dosimetry. The International Workshop on Monte Carlo Techniques in Radiotherapy Delivery and Verification took place in a hotel in Montreal in French Canada, from 29 May-1 June 2007, and was the third workshop to be held on a related topic, which now seems to have become a tri-annual event. About one hundred workers from many different countries participated in the four-day meeting. Seventeen experts in the field were invited to review topics and present their latest work. About half of the audience was made up by young graduate students. In a very full program, 57 papers were presented and 10 posters were on display during most of the meeting. On the evening of the third day a boat trip around the island of Montreal allowed participants to enjoy the city views, and to sample the local cuisine. The topics covered at the workshop included the latest developments in the most popular Monte Carlo transport algorithms, fast Monte Carlo, statistical issues, source modeling, MC treatment planning, modeling of imaging devices for treatment verification, registration and deformation of images and a sizeable number of contributions on brachytherapy. In this volume you will find 27 short papers resulting from the workshop on a variety of topics, some of them on very new stuff such as graphics processing units for fast computing, PET modeling, dual-energy CT, calculations in dynamic phantoms, tomotherapy devices, . . . . We acknowledge the financial support of the National Cancer Institute of Canada, the Institute of Cancer Research of the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, the Association Québécoise des Physicien(ne)s Médicaux Clinique, the Institute of Physics, and Medical

  19. Monte Carlo dose calculations for high-dose-rate brachytherapy using GPU-accelerated processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Z; Zhang, M; Hrycushko, B; Albuquerque, K; Jiang, S B; Jia, X

    2016-01-01

    Current clinical brachytherapy dose calculations are typically based on the Association of American Physicists in Medicine Task Group report 43 (TG-43) guidelines, which approximate patient geometry as an infinitely large water phantom. This ignores patient and applicator geometries and heterogeneities, causing dosimetric errors. Although Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculation is commonly recognized as the most accurate method, its associated long computational time is a major bottleneck for routine clinical applications. This article presents our recent developments of a fast MC dose calculation package for high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy, gBMC, built on a graphics processing unit (GPU) platform. gBMC-simulated photon transport in voxelized geometry with physics in (192)Ir HDR brachytherapy energy range considered. A phase-space file was used as a source model. GPU-based parallel computation was used to simultaneously transport multiple photons, one on a GPU thread. We validated gBMC by comparing the dose calculation results in water with that computed TG-43. We also studied heterogeneous phantom cases and a patient case and compared gBMC results with Acuros BV results. Radial dose function in water calculated by gBMC showed GPU-based MC dose calculation package, gBMC, for HDR brachytherapy make it attractive for clinical applications. Copyright © 2016 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Total skin electron therapy treatment verification: Monte Carlo simulation and beam characteristics of large non-standard electron fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavon, Ester Carrasco; Sanchez-Doblado, Francisco; Leal, Antonio; Capote, Roberto; Lagares, Juan Ignacio; Perucha, Maria; Arrans, Rafael

    2003-01-01

    Total skin electron therapy (TSET) is a complex technique which requires non-standard measurements and dosimetric procedures. This paper investigates an essential first step towards TSET Monte Carlo (MC) verification. The non-standard 6 MeV 40 x 40 cm 2 electron beam at a source to surface distance (SSD) of 100 cm as well as its horizontal projection behind a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) screen to SSD = 380 cm were evaluated. The EGS4 OMEGA-BEAM code package running on a Linux home made 47 PCs cluster was used for the MC simulations. Percentage depth-dose curves and profiles were calculated and measured experimentally for the 40 x 40 cm 2 field at both SSD = 100 cm and patient surface SSD = 380 cm. The output factor (OF) between the reference 40 x 40 cm 2 open field and its horizontal projection as TSET beam at SSD = 380 cm was also measured for comparison with MC results. The accuracy of the simulated beam was validated by the good agreement to within 2% between measured relative dose distributions, including the beam characteristic parameters (R 50 , R 80 , R 100 , R p , E 0 ) and the MC calculated results. The energy spectrum, fluence and angular distribution at different stages of the beam (at SSD = 100 cm, at SSD = 364.2 cm, behind the PMMA beam spoiler screen and at treatment surface SSD = 380 cm) were derived from MC simulations. Results showed a final decrease in mean energy of almost 56% from the exit window to the treatment surface. A broader angular distribution (FWHM of the angular distribution increased from 13deg at SSD 100 cm to more than 30deg at the treatment surface) was fully attributable to the PMMA beam spoiler screen. OF calculations and measurements agreed to less than 1%. The effect of changing the electron energy cut-off from 0.7 MeV to 0.521 MeV and air density fluctuations in the bunker which could affect the MC results were shown to have a negligible impact on the beam fluence distributions. Results proved the applicability of using MC

  1. Clinical implementation of full Monte Carlo dose calculation in proton beam therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paganetti, Harald; Jiang, Hongyu; Parodi, Katia; Slopsema, Roelf; Engelsman, Martijn

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this work was to facilitate the clinical use of Monte Carlo proton dose calculation to support routine treatment planning and delivery. The Monte Carlo code Geant4 was used to simulate the treatment head setup, including a time-dependent simulation of modulator wheels (for broad beam modulation) and magnetic field settings (for beam scanning). Any patient-field-specific setup can be modeled according to the treatment control system of the facility. The code was benchmarked against phantom measurements. Using a simulation of the ionization chamber reading in the treatment head allows the Monte Carlo dose to be specified in absolute units (Gy per ionization chamber reading). Next, the capability of reading CT data information was implemented into the Monte Carlo code to model patient anatomy. To allow time-efficient dose calculation, the standard Geant4 tracking algorithm was modified. Finally, a software link of the Monte Carlo dose engine to the patient database and the commercial planning system was established to allow data exchange, thus completing the implementation of the proton Monte Carlo dose calculation engine ('DoC++'). Monte Carlo re-calculated plans are a valuable tool to revisit decisions in the planning process. Identification of clinically significant differences between Monte Carlo and pencil-beam-based dose calculations may also drive improvements of current pencil-beam methods. As an example, four patients (29 fields in total) with tumors in the head and neck regions were analyzed. Differences between the pencil-beam algorithm and Monte Carlo were identified in particular near the end of range, both due to dose degradation and overall differences in range prediction due to bony anatomy in the beam path. Further, the Monte Carlo reports dose-to-tissue as compared to dose-to-water by the planning system. Our implementation is tailored to a specific Monte Carlo code and the treatment planning system XiO (Computerized Medical Systems Inc

  2. SU-E-T-762: Toward Volume-Based Independent Dose Verification as Secondary Check

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachibana, H; Tachibana, R

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Lung SBRT plan has been shifted to volume prescription technique. However, point dose agreement is still verified using independent dose verification at the secondary check. The volume dose verification is more affected by inhomogeneous correction rather than point dose verification currently used as the check. A feasibility study for volume dose verification was conducted in lung SBRT plan. Methods: Six SBRT plans were collected in our institute. Two dose distributions with / without inhomogeneous correction were generated using Adaptive Convolve (AC) in Pinnacle3. Simple MU Analysis (SMU, Triangle Product, Ishikawa, JP) was used as the independent dose verification software program, in which a modified Clarkson-based algorithm was implemented and radiological path length was computed using CT images independently to the treatment planning system. The agreement in point dose and mean dose between the AC with / without the correction and the SMU were assessed. Results: In the point dose evaluation for the center of the GTV, the difference shows the systematic shift (4.5% ± 1.9 %) in comparison of the AC with the inhomogeneous correction, on the other hands, there was good agreement of 0.2 ± 0.9% between the SMU and the AC without the correction. In the volume evaluation, there were significant differences in mean dose for not only PTV (14.2 ± 5.1 %) but also GTV (8.0 ± 5.1 %) compared to the AC with the correction. Without the correction, the SMU showed good agreement for GTV (1.5 ± 0.9%) as well as PTV (0.9% ± 1.0%). Conclusion: The volume evaluation for secondary check may be possible in homogenous region. However, the volume including the inhomogeneous media would make larger discrepancy. Dose calculation algorithm for independent verification needs to be modified to take into account the inhomogeneous correction

  3. SU-GG-T-49: Real Time Dose Verification for Novel Shielded Balloon Brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Govindarajan, Nandakarthik; Nazaryan, Vahagn; Gueye, Paul; Keppel, Cynthia

    2010-06-01

    Purpose: The validation of a novel approach for reducing skindoses to an acceptable level during Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation (APBI) when the balloon-to-skin distance is inadequate (less than 7 mm) is reported. The study uses a real time dose verification method for a metallic shielded balloon applicator using scintillation fiber technology. Method and Materials: Partial shielding of the radiationdose to the skin using iron or other ferrous powder could enable the extension of APBI to some patients. With small external and pre-determined magnetic fields (dose curve for various radiation lengths after cross-calibration with dedicated data acquired at Jefferson Lab. Some powder was then injected into various inflated MammoSite and rectal balloons within realistic breast and torso phantoms of differing sizes. The dose on the external surface of the skin was measured from a 6.1 Ci {sup 192}Ir of a GammaMed 12i afterloader unit, with a MOSFET,ion chamber and scintillating fiber array detectors. Results: Realistic Monte Carlo simulation studies for the amount and distribution of the required shielding material were compared to dedicated phantom data. A decrease of the skindose was measured to an acceptable level (~350-450 cGy) during standard breast Brachytherapy treatments with relatively weak magnetic fields. Additional measurements provided negligible corrections (< few %) on the saline water density from the suspended ironpowder.Conclusion: This project opens the possibility to increasing the survival expectancy and minimizing negative side effects during brachytherapy treatments, as well as improving cosmetic outcome for all APBI patients. The proposed method may also be used in other procedures for brain, heart, rectal, or vaginal cancers.

  4. Monte Carlo study of radiation dose enhancement by gadolinium in megavoltage and high dose rate radiotherapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel G Zhang

    Full Text Available MRI is often used in tumor localization for radiotherapy treatment planning, with gadolinium (Gd-containing materials often introduced as a contrast agent. Motexafin gadolinium is a novel radiosensitizer currently being studied in clinical trials. The nanoparticle technologies can target tumors with high concentration of high-Z materials. This Monte Carlo study is the first detailed quantitative investigation of high-Z material Gd-induced dose enhancement in megavoltage external beam photon therapy. BEAMnrc, a radiotherapy Monte Carlo simulation package, was used to calculate dose enhancement as a function of Gd concentration. Published phase space files for the TrueBeam flattening filter free (FFF and conventional flattened 6MV photon beams were used. High dose rate (HDR brachytherapy with Ir-192 source was also investigated as a reference. The energy spectra difference caused a dose enhancement difference between the two beams. Since the Ir-192 photons have lower energy yet, the photoelectric effect in the presence of Gd leads to even higher dose enhancement in HDR. At depth of 1.8 cm, the percent mean dose enhancement for the FFF beam was 0.38±0.12, 1.39±0.21, 2.51±0.34, 3.59±0.26, and 4.59±0.34 for Gd concentrations of 1, 5, 10, 15, and 20 mg/mL, respectively. The corresponding values for the flattened beam were 0.09±0.14, 0.50±0.28, 1.19±0.29, 1.68±0.39, and 2.34±0.24. For Ir-192 with direct contact, the enhanced were 0.50±0.14, 2.79±0.17, 5.49±0.12, 8.19±0.14, and 10.80±0.13. Gd-containing materials used in MRI as contrast agents can also potentially serve as radiosensitizers in radiotherapy. This study demonstrates that Gd can be used to enhance radiation dose in target volumes not only in HDR brachytherapy, but also in 6 MV FFF external beam radiotherapy, but higher than the currently used clinical concentration (>5 mg/mL would be needed.

  5. Monte Carlo calculation of ''skyshine'' neutron dose from ALS [Advanced Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moin-Vasiri, M.

    1990-06-01

    This report discusses the following topics on ''skyshine'' neutron dose from ALS: Sources of radiation; ALS modeling for skyshine calculations; MORSE Monte-Carlo; Implementation of MORSE; Results of skyshine calculations from storage ring; and Comparison of MORSE shielding calculations

  6. Online 3D EPID-based dose verification: Proof of concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spreeuw, Hanno; Rozendaal, Roel; Olaciregui-Ruiz, Igor; González, Patrick; Mans, Anton; Mijnheer, Ben; Herk, Marcel van

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Delivery errors during radiotherapy may lead to medical harm and reduced life expectancy for patients. Such serious incidents can be avoided by performing dose verification online, i.e., while the patient is being irradiated, creating the possibility of halting the linac in case of a large overdosage or underdosage. The offline EPID-based 3D in vivo dosimetry system clinically employed at our institute is in principle suited for online treatment verification, provided the system is able to complete 3D dose reconstruction and verification within 420 ms, the present acquisition time of a single EPID frame. It is the aim of this study to show that our EPID-based dosimetry system can be made fast enough to achieve online 3D in vivo dose verification. Methods: The current dose verification system was sped up in two ways. First, a new software package was developed to perform all computations that are not dependent on portal image acquisition separately, thus removing the need for doing these calculations in real time. Second, the 3D dose reconstruction algorithm was sped up via a new, multithreaded implementation. Dose verification was implemented by comparing planned with reconstructed 3D dose distributions delivered to two regions in a patient: the target volume and the nontarget volume receiving at least 10 cGy. In both volumes, the mean dose is compared, while in the nontarget volume, the near-maximum dose (D2) is compared as well. The real-time dosimetry system was tested by irradiating an anthropomorphic phantom with three VMAT plans: a 6 MV head-and-neck treatment plan, a 10 MV rectum treatment plan, and a 10 MV prostate treatment plan. In all plans, two types of serious delivery errors were introduced. The functionality of automatically halting the linac was also implemented and tested. Results: The precomputation time per treatment was ∼180 s/treatment arc, depending on gantry angle resolution. The complete processing of a single portal frame

  7. Evaluation of absorbed radiation dose in mammography using Monte Carlo simulation; Avaliacao da dose absorvida em mamografia usando simulacao Monte Carlo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Bruno L.; Tomal, Alessandra [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica Gleb Wataghin

    2016-07-01

    Mammography is the main tool for breast cancer diagnosis, and it is based on the use of X-rays to obtain images. However, the glandular tissue present within the breast is highly sensitive to ionizing radiation, and therefore requires strict quality control in order to minimize the absorbed dose. The quantification of the absorbed dose in the breast tissue can be done by using Monte Carlo simulation, which allows a detailed study of the deposition of energy in different regions of the breast. Besides, the results obtained from the simulation can be associated with experimental data and provide values of dose interest, such as the dose deposited in glandular tissue. (author)

  8. Experimental verification of methods for gamma dose rate calculations in the vicinity of containers with the RA reactor spent fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milosevic, M.; Cupac, S.; Pesic, M.

    2005-01-01

    The methodology for equivalent gamma dose rate determination on the outer surface of existing containers with the spent fuel elements of the RA reactor is briefly summarised, and experimental verification of this methodology in the field of gamma rays near the aluminium channel with spent fuel elements lifted from the stainless steel containers no. 275 in the RA reactor hall is presented. The proposed methodology is founded on: the existing fuel burnup data base; methods and models for the photon source determination in the RA reactor spent fuel elements developed in the Vinca Institute, and validated Monte Carlo codes for the equivalent gamma dose rate calculations. (author) [sr

  9. A feasible method for clinical delivery verification and dose reconstruction in tomotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapatoes, J.M.; Olivera, G.H.; Ruchala, K.J.; Smilowitz, J.B.; Reckwerdt, P.J.; Mackie, T.R.

    2001-01-01

    Delivery verification is the process in which the energy fluence delivered during a treatment is verified. This verified energy fluence can be used in conjunction with an image in the treatment position to reconstruct the full three-dimensional dose deposited. A method for delivery verification that utilizes a measured database of detector signal is described in this work. This database is a function of two parameters, radiological path-length and detector-to-phantom distance, both of which are computed from a CT image taken at the time of delivery. Such a database was generated and used to perform delivery verification and dose reconstruction. Two experiments were conducted: a simulated prostate delivery on an inhomogeneous abdominal phantom, and a nasopharyngeal delivery on a dog cadaver. For both cases, it was found that the verified fluence and dose results using the database approach agreed very well with those using previously developed and proven techniques. Delivery verification with a measured database and CT image at the time of treatment is an accurate procedure for tomotherapy. The database eliminates the need for any patient-specific, pre- or post-treatment measurements. Moreover, such an approach creates an opportunity for accurate, real-time delivery verification and dose reconstruction given fast image reconstruction and dose computation tools

  10. Verification of Monte Carlo calculations of the neutron flux in the carousel channels of the TRIGA Mark II reactor, Ljubljana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacimovic, R.; Maucec, M.; Trkov, A.

    2002-01-01

    In this work experimental verification of Monte Carlo neutron flux calculations in the carousel facility (CF) of the 250 kW TRIGA Mark II reactor at the Jozef Stefan Institute is presented. Simulations were carried out using the Monte Carlo radiation-transport code, MCNP4B. The objective of the work was to model and verify experimentally the azimuthal variation of neutron flux in the CF for core No. 176, set up in April 2002. '1'9'8Au activities of Al-Au(0.1%) disks irradiated in 11 channels of the CF covering 180'0 around the perimeter of the core were measured. The comparison between MCNP calculation and measurement shows relatively good agreement and demonstrates the overall accuracy with which the detailed spectral characteristics can be predicted by calculations.(author)

  11. Physics-aspects of dose accuracy in high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy: source dosimetry, treatment planning, equipment performance and in vivo verification techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Antony; Bradley, David; Nisbet, Andrew

    2012-06-01

    This study provides a review of recent publications on the physics-aspects of dosimetric accuracy in high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy. The discussion of accuracy is primarily concerned with uncertainties, but methods to improve dose conformation to the prescribed intended dose distribution are also noted. The main aim of the paper is to review current practical techniques and methods employed for HDR brachytherapy dosimetry. This includes work on the determination of dose rate fields around brachytherapy sources, the capability of treatment planning systems, the performance of treatment units and methods to verify dose delivery. This work highlights the determinants of accuracy in HDR dosimetry and treatment delivery and presents a selection of papers, focusing on articles from the last five years, to reflect active areas of research and development. Apart from Monte Carlo modelling of source dosimetry, there is no clear consensus on the optimum techniques to be used to assure dosimetric accuracy through all the processes involved in HDR brachytherapy treatment. With the exception of the ESTRO mailed dosimetry service, there is little dosimetric audit activity reported in the literature, when compared with external beam radiotherapy verification.

  12. Entrance surface dose distribution and organ dose assessment for cone-beam computed tomography using measurements and Monte Carlo simulations with voxel phantoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, M.; Di Maria, S.; Vieira, S.; Vaz, P.

    2017-11-01

    Cone-Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) enables high-resolution volumetric scanning of the bone and soft tissue anatomy under investigation at the treatment accelerator. This technique is extensively used in Image Guided Radiation Therapy (IGRT) for pre-treatment verification of patient position and target volume localization. When employed daily and several times per patient, CBCT imaging may lead to high cumulative imaging doses to the healthy tissues surrounding the exposed organs. This work aims at (1) evaluating the dose distribution during a CBCT scan and (2) calculating the organ doses involved in this image guiding procedure for clinically available scanning protocols. Both Monte Carlo (MC) simulations and measurements were performed. To model and simulate the kV imaging system mounted on a linear accelerator (Edge™, Varian Medical Systems) the state-of-the-art MC radiation transport program MCNPX 2.7.0 was used. In order to validate the simulation results, measurements of the Computed Tomography Dose Index (CTDI) were performed, using standard PMMA head and body phantoms, with 150 mm length and a standard pencil ionizing chamber (IC) 100 mm long. Measurements for head and pelvis scanning protocols, usually adopted in clinical environment were acquired, using two acquisition modes (full-fan and half fan). To calculate the organ doses, the implemented MC model of the CBCT scanner together with a male voxel phantom ("Golem") was used. The good agreement between the MCNPX simulations and the CTDIw measurements (differences up to 17%) presented in this work reveals that the CBCT MC model was successfully validated, taking into account the several uncertainties. The adequacy of the computational model to map dose distributions during a CBCT scan is discussed in order to identify ways to reduce the total CBCT imaging dose. The organ dose assessment highlights the need to evaluate the therapeutic and the CBCT imaging doses, in a more balanced approach, and the

  13. Calculation of dose conversion coefficients for the radionuclides in soil using the Monte Carlo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balos, Y.; Timurtuerkan, E. B.; Yorulmaz, N.; Bozkurt, A.

    2009-01-01

    In determining the radiation background of a region, it is important to carry out environmental radioactivity measurements in soil, water and air, to determine their contribution to the dose rate in air. This study aims to determine the dose conversion coefficients (in {nGy/h}/{Bq/kg}) that are used to convert radionuclide activity concentration in soil (in Bq/kg) to dose rate in air (in nGy/h) using the Monte Carlo method. An isotropic source which emits monoenergetic photons is assumed to be uniformly distributed in soil. The doses released by photons in organs and tissues of a mathematical phantom are determined by the Monte Carlo package MCNP. The organ doses are then used, together with radiation weighting factors and organ weighting factors, to obtain effective doses for the energy range of 100 keV-3 MeV, which in turn are used to determine the dose rates in air per unit of specific activity.

  14. SU-E-T-602: Patient-Specific Online Dose Verification Based On Transmission Detector Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoelking, J; Yuvaraj, S; Jens, F; Lohr, F; Wenz, F; Wertz, H; Wertz, H

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Intensity modulated radiotherapy requires a comprehensive quality assurance program in general and ideally independent verification of dose delivery. Since conventional 2D detector arrays allow only pre-treatment verification, there is a debate concerning the need of online dose verification. This study presents the clinical performance, including dosimetric plan verification in 2D as well as in 3D and the error detection abilities of a new transmission detector (TD) for online dose verification of 6MV photon beam. Methods: To validate the dosimetric performance of the new device, dose reconstruction based on TD measurements were compared to a conventional pre-treatment verification method (reference) and treatment planning system (TPS) for 18 IMRT and VMAT treatment plans. Furthermore, dose reconstruction inside the patient based on TD read-out was evaluated by comparing various dose volume indices and 3D gamma evaluations against independent dose computation and TPS. To investigate the sensitivity of the new device, different types of systematic and random errors for leaf positions and linac output were introduced in IMRT treatment sequences. Results: The 2D gamma index evaluation of transmission detector based dose reconstruction showed an excellent agreement for all IMRT and VMAT plans compared to reference measurements (99.3±1.2)% and TPS (99.1±0.7)%. Good agreement was also obtained for 3D dose reconstruction based on TD read-out compared to dose computation (mean gamma value of PTV = 0.27±0.04). Only a minimal dose underestimation within the target volume was observed when analyzing DVH indices (<1%). Positional errors in leaf banks larger than 1mm and errors in linac output larger than 2% could clearly identified with the TD. Conclusion: Since 2D and 3D evaluations for all IMRT and VMAT treatment plans were in excellent agreement with reference measurements and dose computation, the new TD is suitable to qualify for routine treatment plan

  15. Monte Carlo calculation of received dose from ingestion and inhalation of natural uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trobok, M.; Zupunski, Lj.; Spasic-Jokic, V.; Gordanic, V.; Sovilj, P.

    2009-01-01

    For the purpose of this study eighty samples are taken from the area Bela Crkva and Vrsac. The activity of radionuclide in the soil is determined by gamma- ray spectrometry. Monte Carlo method is used to calculate effective dose received by population resulting from the inhalation and ingestion of natural uranium. The estimated doses were compared with the legally prescribed levels. (author) [sr

  16. Monte Carlo calculations for reporting patient organ doses from interventional radiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Wanli; Feng, Mang; Pi, Yifei; Chen, Zhi; Gao, Yiming; Xu, X. George

    2017-09-01

    This paper describes a project to generate organ dose data for the purposes of extending VirtualDose software from CT imaging to interventional radiology (IR) applications. A library of 23 mesh-based anthropometric patient phantoms were involved in Monte Carlo simulations for database calculations. Organ doses and effective doses of IR procedures with specific beam projection, filed of view (FOV) and beam quality for all parts of body were obtained. Comparing organ doses for different beam qualities, beam projections, patients' ages and patient's body mass indexes (BMIs) which generated by VirtualDose-IR, significant discrepancies were observed. For relatively long time exposure, IR doses depend on beam quality, beam direction and patient size. Therefore, VirtualDose-IR, which is based on the latest anatomically realistic patient phantoms, can generate accurate doses for IR treatment. It is suitable to apply this software in clinical IR dose management as an effective tool to estimate patient doses and optimize IR treatment plans.

  17. New model for mines and transportation tunnels external dose calculation using Monte Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allam, Kh. A.

    2017-01-01

    In this work, a new methodology is developed based on Monte Carlo simulation for tunnels and mines external dose calculation. Tunnels external dose evaluation model of a cylindrical shape of finite thickness with an entrance and with or without exit. A photon transportation model was applied for exposure dose calculations. A new software based on Monte Carlo solution was designed and programmed using Delphi programming language. The variation of external dose due to radioactive nuclei in a mine tunnel and the corresponding experimental data lies in the range 7.3 19.9%. The variation of specific external dose rate with position in, tunnel building material density and composition were studied. The given new model has more flexible for real external dose in any cylindrical tunnel structure calculations. (authors)

  18. A measurement-based generalized source model for Monte Carlo dose simulations of CT scans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Xin; Feng, Yuanming; Liu, Ransheng; Yang, Chengwen; Zhou, Li; Zhai, Hezheng; Deng, Jun

    2017-03-07

    The goal of this study is to develop a generalized source model for accurate Monte Carlo dose simulations of CT scans based solely on the measurement data without a priori knowledge of scanner specifications. The proposed generalized source model consists of an extended circular source located at x-ray target level with its energy spectrum, source distribution and fluence distribution derived from a set of measurement data conveniently available in the clinic. Specifically, the central axis percent depth dose (PDD) curves measured in water and the cone output factors measured in air were used to derive the energy spectrum and the source distribution respectively with a Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. The in-air film measurement of fan-beam dose profiles at fixed gantry was back-projected to generate the fluence distribution of the source model. A benchmarked Monte Carlo user code was used to simulate the dose distributions in water with the developed source model as beam input. The feasibility and accuracy of the proposed source model was tested on a GE LightSpeed and a Philips Brilliance Big Bore multi-detector CT (MDCT) scanners available in our clinic. In general, the Monte Carlo simulations of the PDDs in water and dose profiles along lateral and longitudinal directions agreed with the measurements within 4%/1 mm for both CT scanners. The absolute dose comparison using two CTDI phantoms (16 cm and 32 cm in diameters) indicated a better than 5% agreement between the Monte Carlo-simulated and the ion chamber-measured doses at a variety of locations for the two scanners. Overall, this study demonstrated that a generalized source model can be constructed based only on a set of measurement data and used for accurate Monte Carlo dose simulations of patients' CT scans, which would facilitate patient-specific CT organ dose estimation and cancer risk management in the diagnostic and therapeutic radiology.

  19. Characterization and use of EBT radiochromic film for IMRT dose verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeidan, Omar A.; Stephenson, Stacy Ann L.; Meeks, Sanford L.; Wagner, Thomas H.; Willoughby, Twyla R.; Kupelian, Patrick A.; Langen, Katja M.

    2006-01-01

    We present an evaluation of a new and improved radiochromic film, type EBT, for its implementation to IMRT dose verification. Using a characterized flat bed color CCD scanner, the film's dose sensitivity, uniformity, and speed of development post exposure were shown to be superior to previous types of radiochromic films. The film's dose response was found to be very similar to ion chamber scans in water through comparisons of depth dose and lateral dose profiles. The effect of EBT film polarization with delivered dose and film scan orientation was shown to have a significant effect on the scanner's OD readout. In addition, the film's large size, flexibility, and the ability to submerge it in water for relatively short periods of time allowed for its use in both water and solid water phantoms to verify TomoTherapy IMRT dose distributions in flat and curved dose planes. Dose verification in 2D was performed on ten IMRT plans (five head and neck and five prostate) by comparing measured EBT dose distributions to TomoTherapy treatment planning system calculated dose. The quality of agreement was quantified by the gamma index for four sets of dose difference and distance to agreement criteria. Based on this study, we show that EBT film has several favorable features that allow for its use in routine IMRT patient-specific QA

  20. Monte Carlo dose calculation in photon beam radiotherapy: a dosimetric characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caccia, B.; Frustagli, G.; Valentini, S.; Petetti, E.; Andenna, C.

    2008-01-01

    Radiotherapy requires improved dose evaluation procedures in order to better exploit novel, high-performance techniques. This is the case with Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) where high gradients of dose are the result of highly conformed dose releases. Among all the methods for dose calculation, the Monte Carlo approach is considered the best one in terms of accuracy, but it is very time consuming and requires varied and specialised expertise. In the present paper, Monte Carlo beam models have been developed for a Varian Clinac 2100 medical accelerator. A GEANT4-based model and a distributed computing environment on a Beowulf cluster have been used to perform the simulations. The behaviour of the model was investigated with the use of two phantoms. A good agreement was obtained upon comparing the depth dose profiles simulated for both phantoms with experimental measurements. We consider this a first step towards a more complete model capable of accounting for more complex phantoms and irradiation conditions. (author)

  1. Local dose enhancement in radiation therapy: Monte Carlo simulation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Laura E. da; Nicolucci, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    The development of nanotechnology has boosted the use of nanoparticles in radiation therapy in order to achieve greater therapeutic ratio between tumor and healthy tissues. Gold has been shown to be most suitable to this task due to the high biocompatibility and high atomic number, which contributes to a better in vivo distribution and for the local energy deposition. As a result, this study proposes to study, nanoparticle in the tumor cell. At a range of 11 nm from the nanoparticle surface, results have shown an absorbed dose 141 times higher for the medium with the gold nanoparticle compared to the water for an incident energy spectrum with maximum photon energy of 50 keV. It was also noted that when only scattered radiation is interacting with the gold nanoparticles, the dose was 134 times higher compared to enhanced local dose that remained significant even for scattered radiation. (author)

  2. Scattered dose to thyroid from prophylactic cranial irradiation during childhood: a Monte Carlo study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazonakis, Michalis; Tzedakis, Antonis; Damilakis, John; Varveris, Haris; Kachris, Stefanos; Gourtsoyiannis, Nicholas

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the scattered dose to thyroid from prophylactic cranial irradiation during childhood. The MCNP transport code and mathematical phantoms representing the average individual at ages 3, 5, 10, 15 and 18 years old were employed to simulate cranial radiotherapy using two lateral opposed fields. The mean radiation dose received by the thyroid gland was calculated. A 10 cm thick lead block placed on the patient's couch to shield the thyroid was simulated by MCNP code. The Monte Carlo model was validated by measuring the scattered dose to the unshielded and shielded thyroid using three different humanoid phantoms and thermoluminescense dosimetry. For a cranial dose of 18 Gy, the thyroid dose obtained by Monte Carlo calculations varied from 47 to 79 cGy depending upon the age of the child. Appropriate placement of the couch block resulted in a thyroid dose reduction by 39 to 54%. Thyroid dose values at all possible positions of the radiosensitive gland with respect to the inferior field edge at five different patient ages were found. The mean difference between Monte Carlo results and thyroid dose measurements was 9.6%. (note)

  3. PET Scanning Protocols for In-Situ Dose Delivery Verification of Proton Therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buitenhuis, H.J.T.; Dendooven, P.; Biegun, A.K.; van der Borden, A.J.; Diblen, F.; van Goethem, M.-J.; van der Schaaf, A.A.; van t Veld, Aart; Brandenburg, S.

    2016-01-01

    Positron emission tomography is so far the only method for in-vivo dose delivery verification in hadron therapy that is in clinical use. A PET scanner placed in the treatment position (in-situ) will be able to obtain the highest number of counts, as it minimizes the decay of the positron emitting

  4. Experimental validation of Monte Carlo calculations for organ dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yalcintas, M.G.; Eckerman, K.F.; Warner, G.G.

    1980-01-01

    The problem of validating estimates of absorbed dose due to photon energy deposition is examined. The computational approaches used for the estimation of the photon energy deposition is examined. The limited data for validation of these approaches is discussed and suggestions made as to how better validation information might be obtained

  5. SU-F-T-267: A Clarkson-Based Independent Dose Verification for the Helical Tomotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagata, H [Shonan Kamakura General Hospital, Kamakura, Kanagawa, (Japan); Juntendo University, Hongo, Tokyo (Japan); Hongo, H [Shonan Kamakura General Hospital, Kamakura, Kanagawa, (Japan); Tsukuba University, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Kawai, D [Kanagawa Cancer Center, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan); Takahashi, R [Cancer Institute Hospital of Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Koto, Tokyo (Japan); Hashimoto, H [Shonan Fujisawa Tokushukai Hospital, Fujisawa, Kanagawa (Japan); Tachibana, H [National Cancer Center, Kashiwa, Chiba (Japan)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: There have been few reports for independent dose verification for Tomotherapy. We evaluated the accuracy and the effectiveness of an independent dose verification system for the Tomotherapy. Methods: Simple MU Analysis (SMU, Triangle Product, Ishikawa, Japan) was used as the independent verification system and the system implemented a Clarkson-based dose calculation algorithm using CT image dataset. For dose calculation in the SMU, the Tomotherapy machine-specific dosimetric parameters (TMR, Scp, OAR and MLC transmission factor) were registered as the machine beam data. Dose calculation was performed after Tomotherapy sinogram from DICOM-RT plan information was converted to the information for MU and MLC location at more segmented control points. The performance of the SMU was assessed by a point dose measurement in non-IMRT and IMRT plans (simple target and mock prostate plans). Subsequently, 30 patients’ treatment plans for prostate were compared. Results: From the comparison, dose differences between the SMU and the measurement were within 3% for all cases in non-IMRT plans. In the IMRT plan for the simple target, the differences (Average±1SD) were −0.70±1.10% (SMU vs. TPS), −0.40±0.10% (measurement vs. TPS) and −1.20±1.00% (measurement vs. SMU), respectively. For the mock prostate, the differences were −0.40±0.60% (SMU vs. TPS), −0.50±0.90% (measurement vs. TPS) and −0.90±0.60% (measurement vs. SMU), respectively. For patients’ plans, the difference was −0.50±2.10% (SMU vs. TPS). Conclusion: A Clarkson-based independent dose verification for the Tomotherapy can be clinically available as a secondary check with the similar tolerance level of AAPM Task group 114. This research is partially supported by Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development (AMED)

  6. Monte Carlo calculations of the impact of a hip prosthesis on the dose distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffard, Edwige; Gschwind, Régine; Makovicka, Libor; David, Céline

    2006-09-01

    Because of the ageing of the population, an increasing number of patients with hip prostheses are undergoing pelvic irradiation. Treatment planning systems (TPS) currently available are not always able to accurately predict the dose distribution around such implants. In fact, only Monte Carlo simulation has the ability to precisely calculate the impact of a hip prosthesis during radiotherapeutic treatment. Monte Carlo phantoms were developed to evaluate the dose perturbations during pelvic irradiation. A first model, constructed with the DOSXYZnrc usercode, was elaborated to determine the dose increase at the tissue-metal interface as well as the impact of the material coating the prosthesis. Next, CT-based phantoms were prepared, using the usercode CTCreate, to estimate the influence of the geometry and the composition of such implants on the beam attenuation. Thanks to a program that we developed, the study was carried out with CT-based phantoms containing a hip prosthesis without metal artefacts. Therefore, anthropomorphic phantoms allowed better definition of both patient anatomy and the hip prosthesis in order to better reproduce the clinical conditions of pelvic irradiation. The Monte Carlo results revealed the impact of certain coatings such as PMMA on dose enhancement at the tissue-metal interface. Monte Carlo calculations in CT-based phantoms highlighted the marked influence of the implant's composition, its geometry as well as its position within the beam on dose distribution.

  7. Modelling of electron contamination in clinical photon beams for Monte Carlo dose calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, J; Li, J S; Qin, L; Xiong, W; Ma, C-M

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to model electron contamination in clinical photon beams and to commission the source model using measured data for Monte Carlo treatment planning. In this work, a planar source is used to represent the contaminant electrons at a plane above the upper jaws. The source size depends on the dimensions of the field size at the isocentre. The energy spectra of the contaminant electrons are predetermined using Monte Carlo simulations for photon beams from different clinical accelerators. A 'random creep' method is employed to derive the weight of the electron contamination source by matching Monte Carlo calculated monoenergetic photon and electron percent depth-dose (PDD) curves with measured PDD curves. We have integrated this electron contamination source into a previously developed multiple source model and validated the model for photon beams from Siemens PRIMUS accelerators. The EGS4 based Monte Carlo user code BEAM and MCSIM were used for linac head simulation and dose calculation. The Monte Carlo calculated dose distributions were compared with measured data. Our results showed good agreement (less than 2% or 2 mm) for 6, 10 and 18 MV photon beams

  8. Absorbed dose in fibrotic microenvironment models employing Monte Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zambrano Ramírez, O.D.; Rojas Calderón, E.L.; Azorín Vega, E.P.; Ferro Flores, G.; Martínez Caballero, E.

    2015-01-01

    The presence or absence of fibrosis and yet more, the multimeric and multivalent nature of the radiopharmaceutical have recently been reported to have an effect on the radiation absorbed dose in tumor microenvironment models. Fibroblast and myofibroblast cells produce the extracellular matrix by the secretion of proteins which provide structural and biochemical support to cells. The reactive and reparative mechanisms triggered during the inflammatory process causes the production and deposition of extracellular matrix proteins, the abnormal excessive growth of the connective tissue leads to fibrosis. In this work, microenvironment (either not fibrotic or fibrotic) models composed of seven spheres representing cancer cells of 10 μm in diameter each with a 5 μm diameter inner sphere (cell nucleus) were created in two distinct radiation transport codes (PENELOPE and MCNP). The purpose of creating these models was to determine the radiation absorbed dose in the nucleus of cancer cells, based on previously reported radiopharmaceutical retain (by HeLa cells) percentages of the 177 Lu-Tyr 3 -octreotate (monomeric) and 177 Lu-Tyr 3 -octreotate-AuNP (multimeric) radiopharmaceuticals. A comparison in the results between the PENELOPE and MCNP was done. We found a good agreement in the results of the codes. The percent difference between the increase percentages of the absorbed dose in the not fibrotic model with respect to the fibrotic model of the codes PENELOPE and MCNP was found to be under 1% for both radiopharmaceuticals. (authors)

  9. Simulation Monte Carlo as a method of verification of the characterization of fountains in ophthalmic brachytherapy; Simulacion Monte Carlo como metodo de verificacion de la caracterizacion de fuentes en braquiterapia oftalmica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz Lora, A.; Miras del Rio, H.; Terron Leon, J. A.

    2013-07-01

    Following the recommendations of the IAEA, and as a further check, they have been Monte Carlo simulation of each one of the plates that are arranged at the Hospital. The objective of the work is the verification of the certificates of calibration and intends to establish criteria of action for its acceptance. (Author)

  10. SU-E-T-49: A Multi-Institutional Study of Independent Dose Verification for IMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, H; Tachibana, H; Kamima, T; Takahashi, R; Kawai, D; Sugawara, Y; Yamamoto, T; Sato, A; Yamashita, M

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: AAPM TG114 does not cover the independent verification for IMRT. We conducted a study of independent dose verification for IMRT in seven institutes to show the feasibility. Methods: 384 IMRT plans in the sites of prostate and head and neck (HN) were collected from the institutes, where the planning was performed using Eclipse and Pinnacle3 with the two techniques of step and shoot (S&S) and sliding window (SW). All of the institutes used a same independent dose verification software program (Simple MU Analysis: SMU, Triangle Product, Ishikawa, JP), which is Clarkson-based and CT images were used to compute radiological path length. An ion-chamber measurement in a water-equivalent slab phantom was performed to compare the doses computed using the TPS and an independent dose verification program. Additionally, the agreement in dose computed in patient CT images between using the TPS and using the SMU was assessed. The dose of the composite beams in the plan was evaluated. Results: The agreement between the measurement and the SMU were −2.3±1.9 % and −5.6±3.6 % for prostate and HN sites, respectively. The agreement between the TPSs and the SMU were −2.1±1.9 % and −3.0±3.7 for prostate and HN sites, respectively. There was a negative systematic difference with similar standard deviation and the difference was larger in the HN site. The S&S technique showed a statistically significant difference between the SW. Because the Clarkson-based method in the independent program underestimated (cannot consider) the dose under the MLC. Conclusion: The accuracy would be improved when the Clarkson-based algorithm should be modified for IMRT and the tolerance level would be within 5%

  11. Monte-Carlo Method Python Library for dose distribution Calculation in Brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randriantsizafy, R.D.; Ramanandraibe, M.J.; Raboanary, R.

    2007-01-01

    The Cs-137 Brachytherapy treatment is performed in Madagascar since 2005. Time treatment calculation for prescribed dose is made manually. Monte-Carlo Method Python library written at Madagascar INSTN is experimentally used to calculate the dose distribution on the tumour and around it. The first validation of the code was done by comparing the library curves with the Nucletron company curves. To reduce the duration of the calculation, a Grid of PC's is set up with listner patch run on each PC. The library will be used to modelize the dose distribution in the CT scan patient picture for individual and better accuracy time calculation for a prescribed dose.

  12. Verification of three dimensional triangular prismatic discrete ordinates transport code ENSEMBLE-TRIZ by comparison with Monte Carlo code GMVP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homma, Y.; Moriwaki, H.; Ikeda, K.; Ohdi, S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the verification of the 3 dimensional triangular prismatic discrete ordinates transport calculation code ENSEMBLE-TRIZ by comparison with the multi-group Monte Carlo calculation code GMVP in a large fast breeder reactor. The reactor is a 750 MWe electric power sodium cooled reactor. Nuclear characteristics are calculated at the beginning of cycle of an initial core and at the beginning and the end of cycle of an equilibrium core. According to the calculations, the differences between the two methodologies are smaller than 0.0002 Δk in the multiplication factor, relatively about 1% in the control rod reactivity, and 1% in the sodium void reactivity. (authors)

  13. Dose delivery verification and accuracy assessment of stereotaxy in stereotactic radiotherapy and radiosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelagade, S.M.; Bopche, T.T.; Namitha, K.; Munshi, M.; Bhola, S.; Sharma, H.; Patel, B.K.; Vyas, R.K.

    2008-01-01

    The outcome of stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) and stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) in both benign and malignant tumors within the cranial region highly depends on precision in dosimetry, dose delivery and the accuracy assessment of stereotaxy associated with the unit. The frames BRW (Brown-Roberts-Wells) and GTC (Gill- Thomas-Cosman) can facilitate accurate patient positioning as well as precise targeting of tumours. The implementation of this technique may result in a significant benefit as compared to conventional therapy. As the target localization accuracy is improved, the demand for treatment planning accuracy of a TPS is also increased. The accuracy of stereotactic X Knife treatment planning system has two components to verify: (i) the dose delivery verification and the accuracy assessment of stereotaxy; (ii) to ensure that the Cartesian coordinate system associated is well established within the TPS for accurate determination of a target position. Both dose delivery verification and target positional accuracy affect dose delivery accuracy to a defined target. Hence there is a need to verify these two components in quality assurance protocol. The main intention of this paper is to present our dose delivery verification procedure using cylindrical wax phantom and accuracy assessment (target position) of stereotaxy using Geometric Phantom on Elekta's Precise linear accelerator for stereotactic installation

  14. An IMRT dose distribution study using commercial verification software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grace, M.; Liu, G.; Fernando, W.; Rykers, K.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The introduction of IMRT requires users to confirm that the isodose distributions and relative doses calculated by their planning system match the doses delivered by their linear accelerators. To this end the commercially available software, VeriSoft TM (PTW-Freiburg, Germany) was trialled to determine if the tools and functions it offered would be of benefit to this process. The CMS Xio (Computer Medical System) treatment planning system was used to generate IMRT plans that were delivered with an upgraded Elekta SL15 linac. Kodak EDR2 film sandwiched in RW3 solid water (PTW-Freiburg, Germany) was used to measure the IMRT fields delivered with 6 MV photons. The isodose and profiles measured with the film generally agreed to within ± 3% or ± 3 mm with the planned doses, in some regions (outside the IMRT field) the match fell to within ± 5%. The isodose distributions of the planning system and the film could be compared on screen and allows for electronic records of the comparison to be kept if so desired. The features and versatility of this software has been of benefit to our IMRT QA program. Furthermore, the VeriSoft TM software allows for quick and accurate, automated planar film analysis.Copyright (2004) Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine

  15. Gamma irradiator dose mapping: a Monte Carlo simulation and experimental measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Rogerio R.; Ribeiro, Mariana A.; Grynberg, Suely E.; Ferreira, Andrea V.; Meira-Belo, Luiz Claudio; Sousa, Romulo V.; Sebastiao, Rita de C.O.

    2009-01-01

    Gamma irradiator facilities can be used in a wide range of applications such as biological and chemical researches, food treatment and sterilization of medical devices and products. Dose mapping must be performed in these equipment in order to establish plant operational parameters, as dose uniformity, source utilization efficiency and maximum and minimum dose positions. The isodoses curves are generally measured using dosimeters distributed throughout the device, and this procedure often consume a large amount of dosimeters, irradiation time and manpower. However, a detailed curve doses identification of the irradiation facility can be performed using Monte Carlo simulation, which reduces significantly the monitoring with dosimeters. The present work evaluates the absorbed dose in the CDTN/CNEN Gammacell Irradiation Facility, using the Monte Carlo N-particles (MCNP) code. The Gammacell 220, serial number 39, was produced by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited and was loaded with sources of 60 Co. Dose measurements using TLD and Fricke dosimeters were also performed to validate the calculations. The good agreement of the results shows that Monte Carlo simulations can be used as a predictive tool of irradiation planning for the CDTN/CNEN Gamma Cell Irradiator. (author)

  16. Problems following hippocampal irradiation in interventional radiologists - doses and potential effect:a Monte Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cumak, V.; Morgun, A.; Bakhanova, O.; Loganovs'kij, K.; Loganovs'ka, T.; Marazziti, D.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating radiation exposure of hippocampus in interventional medical professionals irradiated in the operating room, and to compare doses in the hippocampus with the effective dose (protection quantity), as well as with the doses measured by individual dosimeter, in order to estimate probability of reaching levels of radiation induced cognitive and other neuropsychiatric alterations during their working career, through a Monte Carlo simulation. The results showed that cranial irradiation was very heterogeneous and depended on the projection: doses of left and right hippocampi may be different up to a factor of 2.5; under certain conditions, the dose of the left hippocampus may be twice the effective dose, estimated by conventional double dosimetry algorithm. The professional span doses of the irradiated hippocampus may overcome the threshold able to provoke possible cognitive and emotional-behavioral impairment. Therefore, in-depth studies of the effects of brain irradiation in occupationally exposed interventional medical personnel appear urgently needed and crucial

  17. Effects of physics change in Monte Carlo code on electron pencil beam dose distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toutaoui, Abdelkader, E-mail: toutaoui.aek@gmail.com [Departement de Physique Medicale, Centre de Recherche Nucleaire d' Alger, 2 Bd Frantz Fanon BP399 Alger RP, Algiers (Algeria); Khelassi-Toutaoui, Nadia, E-mail: nadiakhelassi@yahoo.fr [Departement de Physique Medicale, Centre de Recherche Nucleaire d' Alger, 2 Bd Frantz Fanon BP399 Alger RP, Algiers (Algeria); Brahimi, Zakia, E-mail: zsbrahimi@yahoo.fr [Departement de Physique Medicale, Centre de Recherche Nucleaire d' Alger, 2 Bd Frantz Fanon BP399 Alger RP, Algiers (Algeria); Chami, Ahmed Chafik, E-mail: chafik_chami@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire de Sciences Nucleaires, Faculte de Physique, Universite des Sciences et de la Technologie Houari Boumedienne, BP 32 El Alia, Bab Ezzouar, Algiers (Algeria)

    2012-01-15

    Pencil beam algorithms used in computerized electron beam dose planning are usually described using the small angle multiple scattering theory. Alternatively, the pencil beams can be generated by Monte Carlo simulation of electron transport. In a previous work, the 4th version of the Electron Gamma Shower (EGS) Monte Carlo code was used to obtain dose distributions from monoenergetic electron pencil beam, with incident energy between 1 MeV and 50 MeV, interacting at the surface of a large cylindrical homogeneous water phantom. In 2000, a new version of this Monte Carlo code has been made available by the National Research Council of Canada (NRC), which includes various improvements in its electron-transport algorithms. In the present work, we were interested to see if the new physics in this version produces pencil beam dose distributions very different from those calculated with oldest one. The purpose of this study is to quantify as well as to understand these differences. We have compared a series of pencil beam dose distributions scored in cylindrical geometry, for electron energies between 1 MeV and 50 MeV calculated with two versions of the Electron Gamma Shower Monte Carlo Code. Data calculated and compared include isodose distributions, radial dose distributions and fractions of energy deposition. Our results for radial dose distributions show agreement within 10% between doses calculated by the two codes for voxels closer to the pencil beam central axis, while the differences are up to 30% for longer distances. For fractions of energy deposition, the results of the EGS4 are in good agreement (within 2%) with those calculated by EGSnrc at shallow depths for all energies, whereas a slightly worse agreement (15%) is observed at deeper distances. These differences may be mainly attributed to the different multiple scattering for electron transport adopted in these two codes and the inclusion of spin effect, which produces an increase of the effective range of

  18. Effects of physics change in Monte Carlo code on electron pencil beam dose distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toutaoui, Abdelkader; Khelassi-Toutaoui, Nadia; Brahimi, Zakia; Chami, Ahmed Chafik

    2012-01-01

    Pencil beam algorithms used in computerized electron beam dose planning are usually described using the small angle multiple scattering theory. Alternatively, the pencil beams can be generated by Monte Carlo simulation of electron transport. In a previous work, the 4th version of the Electron Gamma Shower (EGS) Monte Carlo code was used to obtain dose distributions from monoenergetic electron pencil beam, with incident energy between 1 MeV and 50 MeV, interacting at the surface of a large cylindrical homogeneous water phantom. In 2000, a new version of this Monte Carlo code has been made available by the National Research Council of Canada (NRC), which includes various improvements in its electron-transport algorithms. In the present work, we were interested to see if the new physics in this version produces pencil beam dose distributions very different from those calculated with oldest one. The purpose of this study is to quantify as well as to understand these differences. We have compared a series of pencil beam dose distributions scored in cylindrical geometry, for electron energies between 1 MeV and 50 MeV calculated with two versions of the Electron Gamma Shower Monte Carlo Code. Data calculated and compared include isodose distributions, radial dose distributions and fractions of energy deposition. Our results for radial dose distributions show agreement within 10% between doses calculated by the two codes for voxels closer to the pencil beam central axis, while the differences are up to 30% for longer distances. For fractions of energy deposition, the results of the EGS4 are in good agreement (within 2%) with those calculated by EGSnrc at shallow depths for all energies, whereas a slightly worse agreement (15%) is observed at deeper distances. These differences may be mainly attributed to the different multiple scattering for electron transport adopted in these two codes and the inclusion of spin effect, which produces an increase of the effective range of

  19. Organ doses for reference adult male and female undergoing computed tomography estimated by Monte Carlo simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Choonsik; Kim, Kwang Pyo; Long, Daniel; Fisher, Ryan; Tien, Chris; Simon, Steven L.; Bouville, Andre; Bolch, Wesley E.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a computed tomography (CT) organ dose estimation method designed to readily provide organ doses in a reference adult male and female for different scan ranges to investigate the degree to which existing commercial programs can reasonably match organ doses defined in these more anatomically realistic adult hybrid phantomsMethods: The x-ray fan beam in the SOMATOM Sensation 16 multidetector CT scanner was simulated within the Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNPX2.6. The simulated CT scanner model was validated through comparison with experimentally measured lateral free-in-air dose profiles and computed tomography dose index (CTDI) values. The reference adult male and female hybrid phantoms were coupled with the established CT scanner model following arm removal to simulate clinical head and other body region scans. A set of organ dose matrices were calculated for a series of consecutive axial scans ranging from the top of the head to the bottom of the phantoms with a beam thickness of 10 mm and the tube potentials of 80, 100, and 120 kVp. The organ doses for head, chest, and abdomen/pelvis examinations were calculated based on the organ dose matrices and compared to those obtained from two commercial programs, CT-EXPO and CTDOSIMETRY. Organ dose calculations were repeated for an adult stylized phantom by using the same simulation method used for the adult hybrid phantom. Results: Comparisons of both lateral free-in-air dose profiles and CTDI values through experimental measurement with the Monte Carlo simulations showed good agreement to within 9%. Organ doses for head, chest, and abdomen/pelvis scans reported in the commercial programs exceeded those from the Monte Carlo calculations in both the hybrid and stylized phantoms in this study, sometimes by orders of magnitude. Conclusions: The organ dose estimation method and dose matrices established in this study readily provides organ doses for a reference adult male and female for different

  20. Verification of dose delivery for a prostate sIMRT treatment using a SLIC-EPID

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammadi, Mohammad [Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: Mohammadi@umsha.ac.ir; Bezak, Eva; Reich, Paul [Department of Medical Physics, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, SA 5000 (Australia); Department of Physics and Mathematical Physics, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5000 (Australia)

    2008-12-15

    The current work focuses on the verification of transmitted dose maps, measured using a scanning liquid ionization chamber-electronic portal imaging device (SLIC-EPID) for a typical step-and-shoot prostate IMRT treatment using an anthropomorphic phantom at anterior-posterior (A-P), and several non-zero gantry angles. The dose distributions measured using the SLIC-EPID were then compared with those calculated in the modelled EPID for each segment/subfield and also for the corresponding total fields using a gamma function algorithm with a distance to agreement and dose difference criteria of 2.54 mm and 3%, respectively.

  1. Application of Monte Carlo method for dose calculation in thyroid follicle; Aplicacao de metodo Monte Carlo para calculos de dose em foliculos tiroideanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Frank Sinatra Gomes da

    2008-02-15

    The Monte Carlo method is an important tool to simulate radioactive particles interaction with biologic medium. The principal advantage of the method when compared with deterministic methods is the ability to simulate a complex geometry. Several computational codes use the Monte Carlo method to simulate the particles transport and they have the capacity to simulate energy deposition in models of organs and/or tissues, as well models of cells of human body. Thus, the calculation of the absorbed dose to thyroid's follicles (compound of colloid and follicles' cells) have a fundamental importance to dosimetry, because these cells are radiosensitive due to ionizing radiation exposition, in particular, exposition due to radioisotopes of iodine, because a great amount of radioiodine may be released into the environment in case of a nuclear accidents. In this case, the goal of this work was use the code of particles transport MNCP4C to calculate absorbed doses in models of thyroid's follicles, for Auger electrons, internal conversion electrons and beta particles, by iodine-131 and short-lived iodines (131, 132, 133, 134 e 135), with diameters varying from 30 to 500 {mu}m. The results obtained from simulation with the MCNP4C code shown an average percentage of the 25% of total absorbed dose by colloid to iodine- 131 and 75% to short-lived iodine's. For follicular cells, this percentage was of 13% to iodine-131 and 87% to short-lived iodine's. The contributions from particles with low energies, like Auger and internal conversion electrons should not be neglected, to assessment the absorbed dose in cellular level. Agglomerative hierarchical clustering was used to compare doses obtained by codes MCNP4C, EPOTRAN, EGS4 and by deterministic methods. (author)

  2. Monte Carlo calculation of dose rate conversion factors for external exposure to photon emitters in soil

    CERN Document Server

    Clouvas, A; Antonopoulos-Domis, M; Silva, J

    2000-01-01

    The dose rate conversion factors D/sub CF/ (absorbed dose rate in air per unit activity per unit of soil mass, nGy h/sup -1/ per Bq kg/sup -1/) are calculated 1 m above ground for photon emitters of natural radionuclides uniformly distributed in the soil. Three Monte Carlo codes are used: 1) The MCNP code of Los Alamos; 2) The GEANT code of CERN; and 3) a Monte Carlo code developed in the Nuclear Technology Laboratory of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki. The accuracy of the Monte Carlo results is tested by the comparison of the unscattered flux obtained by the three Monte Carlo codes with an independent straightforward calculation. All codes and particularly the MCNP calculate accurately the absorbed dose rate in air due to the unscattered radiation. For the total radiation (unscattered plus scattered) the D/sub CF/ values calculated from the three codes are in very good agreement between them. The comparison between these results and the results deduced previously by other authors indicates a good ag...

  3. Simulation studies for the in-vivo dose verification of particle therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohling, Heide

    2015-01-01

    An increasing number of cancer patients is treated with proton beams or other light ion beams which allow to deliver dose precisely to the tumor. However, the depth dose distribution of these particles, which enables this precision, is sensitive to deviations from the treatment plan, as e.g. anatomical changes. Thus, to assure the quality of the treatment, a non-invasive in-vivo dose verification is highly desired. This monitoring of particle therapy relies on the detection of secondary radiation which is produced by interactions between the beam particles and the nuclei of the patient's tissue. Up to now, the only clinically applied method for in-vivo dosimetry is Positron Emission Tomography which makes use of the β + -activity produced during the irradiation (PT-PET). Since from a PT-PET measurement the applied dose cannot be directly deduced, the simulated distribution of β + -emitting nuclei is used as a basis for the analysis of the measured PT-PET data. Therefore, the reliable modeling of the production rates and the spatial distribution of the β + -emitters is required. PT-PET applied during instead of after the treatment is referred to as in-beam PET. A challenge concerning in-beam PET is the design of the PET camera, because a standard full-ring scanner is not feasible. Thus, for in-beam PET and PGI dedicated detection systems and, moreover, profound knowledge about the corresponding radiation fields are required. Using various simulation codes, this thesis contributes to the modelling of the β + -emitters and photons produced during particle irradiation, as well as to the evaluation and optimization of hardware for both techniques. Concerning the modeling of the production of the relevant β + -emitters, the abilities of the Monte Carlo simulation code PHITS and of the deterministic, one-dimensional code HIBRAC were assessed. HIBRAC was substantially extended to enable the modeling of the depth-dependent yields of specific nuclides. For proton

  4. SU-E-J-60: Efficient Monte Carlo Dose Calculation On CPU-GPU Heterogeneous Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, K; Chen, D. Z; Hu, X. S; Zhou, B

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: It is well-known that the performance of GPU-based Monte Carlo dose calculation implementations is bounded by memory bandwidth. One major cause of this bottleneck is the random memory writing patterns in dose deposition, which leads to several memory efficiency issues on GPU such as un-coalesced writing and atomic operations. We propose a new method to alleviate such issues on CPU-GPU heterogeneous systems, which achieves overall performance improvement for Monte Carlo dose calculation. Methods: Dose deposition is to accumulate dose into the voxels of a dose volume along the trajectories of radiation rays. Our idea is to partition this procedure into the following three steps, which are fine-tuned for CPU or GPU: (1) each GPU thread writes dose results with location information to a buffer on GPU memory, which achieves fully-coalesced and atomic-free memory transactions; (2) the dose results in the buffer are transferred to CPU memory; (3) the dose volume is constructed from the dose buffer on CPU. We organize the processing of all radiation rays into streams. Since the steps within a stream use different hardware resources (i.e., GPU, DMA, CPU), we can overlap the execution of these steps for different streams by pipelining. Results: We evaluated our method using a Monte Carlo Convolution Superposition (MCCS) program and tested our implementation for various clinical cases on a heterogeneous system containing an Intel i7 quad-core CPU and an NVIDIA TITAN GPU. Comparing with a straightforward MCCS implementation on the same system (using both CPU and GPU for radiation ray tracing), our method gained 2-5X speedup without losing dose calculation accuracy. Conclusion: The results show that our new method improves the effective memory bandwidth and overall performance for MCCS on the CPU-GPU systems. Our proposed method can also be applied to accelerate other Monte Carlo dose calculation approaches. This research was supported in part by NSF under Grants CCF

  5. Effective dose in individuals from exposure the patients treated with 131I using Monte Carlo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho Junior, Alberico B. de; Silva, Ademir X.

    2007-01-01

    In this work, using the Visual Monte Carlo code and the voxel phantom FAX, elaborated similar scenes of irradiation to the treatments used in the nuclear medicine, with the intention of estimate the effective dose in individuals from exposure the patients treated with 131 I. We considered often specific situations, such as doses to others while sleeping, using public or private transportation, or being in a cinema for a few hours. In the possible situations that has been considered, the value of the effective dose did not overcome 0.05 mSv, demonstrating that, for the considered parameters the patient could be release without receiving instructions from radioprotection. (author)

  6. Comparison of ONETRAN calculations of electron beam dose profiles with Monte Carlo and experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garth, J.C.; Woolf, S.

    1987-01-01

    Electron beam dose profiles have been calculated using a multigroup, discrete ordinates solution of the Spencer-Lewis electron transport equation. This was accomplished by introducing electron transport cross-sections into the ONETRAN code in a simple manner. The authors' purpose is to ''benchmark'' this electron transport model and to demonstrate its accuracy and capabilities over the energy range from 30 keV to 20 MeV. Many of their results are compared with the extensive measurements and TIGER Monte Carlo data. In general the ONETRAN results are smoother, agree with TIGER within the statistical error of the Monte Carlo histograms and require about one tenth the running time of Monte Carlo

  7. Development and validation of Monte Carlo dose computations for contrast-enhanced stereotactic synchrotron radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vautrin, M.

    2011-01-01

    Contrast-enhanced stereotactic synchrotron radiation therapy (SSRT) is an innovative technique based on localized dose-enhancement effects obtained by reinforced photoelectric absorption in the tumor. Medium energy monochromatic X-rays (50 - 100 keV) are used for irradiating tumors previously loaded with a high-Z element. Clinical trials of SSRT are being prepared at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), an iodinated contrast agent will be used. In order to compute the energy deposited in the patient (dose), a dedicated treatment planning system (TPS) has been developed for the clinical trials, based on the ISOgray TPS. This work focuses on the SSRT specific modifications of the TPS, especially to the PENELOPE-based Monte Carlo dose engine. The TPS uses a dedicated Monte Carlo simulation of medium energy polarized photons to compute the deposited energy in the patient. Simulations are performed considering the synchrotron source, the modeled beamline geometry and finally the patient. Specific materials were also implemented in the voxelized geometry of the patient, to consider iodine concentrations in the tumor. The computation process has been optimized and parallelized. Finally a specific computation of absolute doses and associated irradiation times (instead of monitor units) was implemented. The dedicated TPS was validated with depth dose curves, dose profiles and absolute dose measurements performed at the ESRF in a water tank and solid water phantoms with or without bone slabs. (author) [fr

  8. Characterizing a Proton Beam Scanning System for Monte Carlo Dose Calculation in Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassberger, C; Lomax, Tony; Paganetti, H

    2015-01-01

    The presented work has two goals. First, to demonstrate the feasibility of accurately characterizing a proton radiation field at treatment head exit for Monte Carlo dose calculation of active scanning patient treatments. Second, to show that this characterization can be done based on measured depth dose curves and spot size alone, without consideration of the exact treatment head delivery system. This is demonstrated through calibration of a Monte Carlo code to the specific beam lines of two institutions, Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) and Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI). Comparison of simulations modeling the full treatment head at MGH to ones employing a parameterized phase space of protons at treatment head exit reveals the adequacy of the method for patient simulations. The secondary particle production in the treatment head is typically below 0.2% of primary fluence, except for low–energy electrons (protons), whose contribution to skin dose is negligible. However, there is significant difference between the two methods in the low-dose penumbra, making full treatment head simulations necessary to study out-of field effects such as secondary cancer induction. To calibrate the Monte Carlo code to measurements in a water phantom, we use an analytical Bragg peak model to extract the range-dependent energy spread at the two institutions, as this quantity is usually not available through measurements. Comparison of the measured with the simulated depth dose curves demonstrates agreement within 0.5mm over the entire energy range. Subsequently, we simulate three patient treatments with varying anatomical complexity (liver, head and neck and lung) to give an example how this approach can be employed to investigate site-specific discrepancies between treatment planning system and Monte Carlo simulations. PMID:25549079

  9. SU-E-T-455: Impact of Different Independent Dose Verification Software Programs for Secondary Check

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itano, M; Yamazaki, T; Kosaka, M; Kobayashi, N; Yamashita, M; Ishibashi, S; Higuchi, Y; Tachibana, H

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: There have been many reports for different dose calculation algorithms for treatment planning system (TPS). Independent dose verification program (IndpPro) is essential to verify clinical plans from the TPS. However, the accuracy of different independent dose verification programs was not evident. We conducted a multi-institutional study to reveal the impact of different IndpPros using different TPSs. Methods: Three institutes participated in this study. They used two different IndpPros (RADCALC and Simple MU Analysis (SMU), which implemented the Clarkson algorithm. RADCALC needed the input of radiological path length (RPL) computed by the TPSs (Eclipse or Pinnacle3). SMU used CT images to compute the RPL independently from TPS). An ion-chamber measurement in water-equivalent phantom was performed to evaluate the accuracy of two IndpPros and the TPS in each institute. Next, the accuracy of dose calculation using the two IndpPros compared to TPS was assessed in clinical plan. Results: The accuracy of IndpPros and the TPSs in the homogenous phantom was +/−1% variation to the measurement. 1543 treatment fields were collected from the patients treated in the institutes. The RADCALC showed better accuracy (0.9 ± 2.2 %) than the SMU (1.7 ± 2.1 %). However, the accuracy was dependent on the TPS (Eclipse: 0.5%, Pinnacle3: 1.0%). The accuracy of RADCALC with Eclipse was similar to that of SMU in one of the institute. Conclusion: Depending on independent dose verification program, the accuracy shows systematic dose accuracy variation even though the measurement comparison showed a similar variation. The variation was affected by radiological path length calculation. IndpPro with Pinnacle3 has different variation because Pinnacle3 computed the RPL using physical density. Eclipse and SMU uses electron density, though

  10. Evaluation of backscatter dose from internal lead shielding in clinical electron beams using EGSnrc Monte Carlo simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vries, Rowen J; Marsh, Steven

    2015-11-08

    Internal lead shielding is utilized during superficial electron beam treatments of the head and neck, such as lip carcinoma. Methods for predicting backscattered dose include the use of empirical equations or performing physical measurements. The accuracy of these empirical equations required verification for the local electron beams. In this study, a Monte Carlo model of a Siemens Artiste linac was developed for 6, 9, 12, and 15 MeV electron beams using the EGSnrc MC package. The model was verified against physical measurements to an accuracy of better than 2% and 2mm. Multiple MC simulations of lead interfaces at different depths, corresponding to mean electron energies in the range of 0.2-14 MeV at the interfaces, were performed to calculate electron backscatter values. The simulated electron backscatter was compared with current empirical equations to ascertain their accuracy. The major finding was that the current set of backscatter equations does not accurately predict electron backscatter, particularly in the lower energies region. A new equation was derived which enables estimation of electron backscatter factor at any depth upstream from the interface for the local treatment machines. The derived equation agreed to within 1.5% of the MC simulated electron backscatter at the lead interface and upstream positions. Verification of the equation was performed by comparing to measurements of the electron backscatter factor using Gafchromic EBT2 film. These results show a mean value of 0.997 ± 0.022 to 1σ of the predicted values of electron backscatter. The new empirical equation presented can accurately estimate electron backscatter factor from lead shielding in the range of 0.2 to 14 MeV for the local linacs.

  11. Primary and scattering contributions to beta scaled dose point kernels by means of Monte Carlo simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valente, Mauro; Botta, Francesca; Pedroli, Guido

    2012-01-01

    Beta-emitters have proved to be appropriate for radioimmunotherapy. The dosimetric characterization of each radionuclide has to be carefully investigated. One usual and practical dosimetric approach is the calculation of dose distribution from a unit point source emitting particles according to any radionuclide of interest, which is known as dose point kernel. Absorbed dose distributions are due to primary and radiation scattering contributions. This work presented a method capable of performing dose distributions for nuclear medicine dosimetry by means of Monte Carlo methods. Dedicated subroutines have been developed in order to separately compute primary and scattering contributions to the total absorbed dose, performing particle transport up to 1 keV or least. Preliminarily, the suitability of the calculation method has been satisfactory, being tested for monoenergetic sources, and it was further applied to the characterization of different beta-minus radionuclides of nuclear medicine interests for radioimmunotherapy. (author)

  12. Monte Carlo Calculated Effective Dose to Teenage Girls from Computed Tomography Examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caon, M.; Bibbo, G.; Pattison, J.

    2000-01-01

    Effective doses from CT to paediatric patients are not common in the literature. This article reports some effective doses to teenage girls from CT examinations. The voxel computational model ADELAIDE, representative of a 14-year-old girl, was scaled in size by ±5% to represent also 11-12-year-old and 16-year-old girls. The EGS4 Monte Carlo code was used to calculate the effective dose from chest, abdomen and whole torso CT examinations to the three version of ADELAIDE using a 120 kV spectrum. For the whole torso CT examination, in order of increasing model size, the effective doses were 9.0, 8.2 and 7.8 mSv per 100 mA.s. Data are presented that allow the estimation of effective dose from CT examinations of the torso for girls between the ages of 11 and 16. (author)

  13. Peak Skin and Eye Lens Radiation Dose From Brain Perfusion CT Based on Monte Carlo Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Di; Cagnon, Chris H.; Pablo Villablanca, J.; McCollough, Cynthia H.; Cody, Dianna D.; Stevens, Donna M.; Zankl, Maria; Demarco, John J.; Turner, Adam C.; Khatonabadi, Maryam; McNitt-Gray, Michael F.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. The purpose of our study was to accurately estimate the radiation dose to skin and the eye lens from clinical CT brain perfusion studies, investigate how well scanner output (expressed as volume CT dose index [CTDIvol]) matches these estimated doses, and investigate the efficacy of eye lens dose reduction techniques. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Peak skin dose and eye lens dose were estimated using Monte Carlo simulation methods on a voxelized patient model and 64-MDCT scanners from four major manufacturers. A range of clinical protocols was evaluated. CTDIvol for each scanner was obtained from the scanner console. Dose reduction to the eye lens was evaluated for various gantry tilt angles as well as scan locations. RESULTS. Peak skin dose and eye lens dose ranged from 81 mGy to 348 mGy, depending on the scanner and protocol used. Peak skin dose and eye lens dose were observed to be 66–79% and 59–63%, respectively, of the CTDIvol values reported by the scanners. The eye lens dose was significantly reduced when the eye lenses were not directly irradiated. CONCLUSION. CTDIvol should not be interpreted as patient dose; this study has shown it to overestimate dose to the skin or eye lens. These results may be used to provide more accurate estimates of actual dose to ensure that protocols are operated safely below thresholds. Tilting the gantry or moving the scanning region further away from the eyes are effective for reducing lens dose in clinical practice. These actions should be considered when they are consistent with the clinical task and patient anatomy. PMID:22268186

  14. Peak skin and eye lens radiation dose from brain perfusion CT based on Monte Carlo simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Di; Cagnon, Chris H; Villablanca, J Pablo; McCollough, Cynthia H; Cody, Dianna D; Stevens, Donna M; Zankl, Maria; Demarco, John J; Turner, Adam C; Khatonabadi, Maryam; McNitt-Gray, Michael F

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of our study was to accurately estimate the radiation dose to skin and the eye lens from clinical CT brain perfusion studies, investigate how well scanner output (expressed as volume CT dose index [CTDI(vol)]) matches these estimated doses, and investigate the efficacy of eye lens dose reduction techniques. Peak skin dose and eye lens dose were estimated using Monte Carlo simulation methods on a voxelized patient model and 64-MDCT scanners from four major manufacturers. A range of clinical protocols was evaluated. CTDI(vol) for each scanner was obtained from the scanner console. Dose reduction to the eye lens was evaluated for various gantry tilt angles as well as scan locations. Peak skin dose and eye lens dose ranged from 81 mGy to 348 mGy, depending on the scanner and protocol used. Peak skin dose and eye lens dose were observed to be 66-79% and 59-63%, respectively, of the CTDI(vol) values reported by the scanners. The eye lens dose was significantly reduced when the eye lenses were not directly irradiated. CTDI(vol) should not be interpreted as patient dose; this study has shown it to overestimate dose to the skin or eye lens. These results may be used to provide more accurate estimates of actual dose to ensure that protocols are operated safely below thresholds. Tilting the gantry or moving the scanning region further away from the eyes are effective for reducing lens dose in clinical practice. These actions should be considered when they are consistent with the clinical task and patient anatomy.

  15. Performance characteristics of an independent dose verification program for helical tomotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac C. F. Chang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Helical tomotherapy with its advanced method of intensity-modulated radiation therapy delivery has been used clinically for over 20 years. The standard delivery quality assurance procedure to measure the accuracy of delivered radiation dose from each treatment plan to a phantom is time-consuming. RadCalc®, a radiotherapy dose verification software, has released specifically for beta testing a module for tomotherapy plan dose calculations. RadCalc®'s accuracy for tomotherapy dose calculations was evaluated through examination of point doses in ten lung and ten prostate clinical plans. Doses calculated by the TomoHDA™ tomotherapy treatment planning system were used as the baseline. For lung cases, RadCalc® overestimated point doses in the lung by an average of 13%. Doses within the spinal cord and esophagus were overestimated by 10%. Prostate plans showed better agreement, with overestimations of 6% in the prostate, bladder, and rectum. The systematic overestimation likely resulted from limitations of the pencil beam dose calculation algorithm implemented by RadCalc®. Limitations were more severe in areas of greater inhomogeneity and less prominent in regions of homogeneity with densities closer to 1 g/cm3. Recommendations for RadCalc® dose calculation algorithms and anatomical representation were provided based on the results of the study.

  16. Validation and verification of the ORNL Monte Carlo codes for nuclear safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emmett, M.B.

    1993-01-01

    The process of ensuring the quality of computer codes can be very time consuming and expensive. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Monte Carlo codes all predate the existence of quality assurance (QA) standards and configuration control. The number of person-years and the amount of money spent on code development make it impossible to adhere strictly to all the current requirements. At ORNL, the Nuclear Engineering Applications Section of the Computing Applications Division is responsible for the development, maintenance, and application of the Monte Carlo codes MORSE and KENO. The KENO code is used for doing criticality analyses; the MORSE code, which has two official versions, CGA and SGC, is used for radiation transport analyses. Because KENO and MORSE were very thoroughly checked out over the many years of extensive use both in the United States and in the international community, the existing codes were open-quotes baselined.close quotes This means that the versions existing at the time the original configuration plan is written are considered to be validated and verified code systems based on the established experience with them

  17. Monte Carlo assessment of the dose rates produced by spent fuel from CANDU reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantazi, Doina; Mateescu, Silvia; Stanciu, Marcela

    2003-01-01

    One of the technical measures considered for biological protection is radiation shielding. The implementation process of a spent fuel intermediate storage system at Cernavoda NPP includes an evolution in computation methods related to shielding evaluation: from using simpler computer codes, like MicroShield and QAD, to systems of codes, like SCALE (which contains few independent modules) and the multipurpose and multi-particles transport code MCNP, based on Monte Carlo method. The Monte Carlo assessment of the dose rates produced by CANDU type spent fuel, during its handling for the intermediate storage, is the main objective of this paper. The work had two main features: -establishing of geometrical models according to description mode used in code MCNP, capable to account for the specific characteristics of CANDU nuclear fuel; - confirming the correctness of proposed models, by comparing MCNP results and the related results obtained with other computer codes for shielding evaluation and dose rates calculations. (authors)

  18. Independent calculation-based verification of IMRT plans using a 3D dose-calculation engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arumugam, Sankar; Xing, Aitang; Goozee, Gary; Holloway, Lois

    2013-01-01

    Independent monitor unit verification of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans requires detailed 3-dimensional (3D) dose verification. The aim of this study was to investigate using a 3D dose engine in a second commercial treatment planning system (TPS) for this task, facilitated by in-house software. Our department has XiO and Pinnacle TPSs, both with IMRT planning capability and modeled for an Elekta-Synergy 6 MV photon beam. These systems allow the transfer of computed tomography (CT) data and RT structures between them but do not allow IMRT plans to be transferred. To provide this connectivity, an in-house computer programme was developed to convert radiation therapy prescription (RTP) files as generated by many planning systems into either XiO or Pinnacle IMRT file formats. Utilization of the technique and software was assessed by transferring 14 IMRT plans from XiO and Pinnacle onto the other system and performing 3D dose verification. The accuracy of the conversion process was checked by comparing the 3D dose matrices and dose volume histograms (DVHs) of structures for the recalculated plan on the same system. The developed software successfully transferred IMRT plans generated by 1 planning system into the other. Comparison of planning target volume (TV) DVHs for the original and recalculated plans showed good agreement; a maximum difference of 2% in mean dose, − 2.5% in D95, and 2.9% in V95 was observed. Similarly, a DVH comparison of organs at risk showed a maximum difference of +7.7% between the original and recalculated plans for structures in both high- and medium-dose regions. However, for structures in low-dose regions (less than 15% of prescription dose) a difference in mean dose up to +21.1% was observed between XiO and Pinnacle calculations. A dose matrix comparison of original and recalculated plans in XiO and Pinnacle TPSs was performed using gamma analysis with 3%/3 mm criteria. The mean and standard deviation of pixels passing

  19. Independent calculation-based verification of IMRT plans using a 3D dose-calculation engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arumugam, Sankar; Xing, Aitang; Goozee, Gary; Holloway, Lois

    2013-01-01

    Independent monitor unit verification of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans requires detailed 3-dimensional (3D) dose verification. The aim of this study was to investigate using a 3D dose engine in a second commercial treatment planning system (TPS) for this task, facilitated by in-house software. Our department has XiO and Pinnacle TPSs, both with IMRT planning capability and modeled for an Elekta-Synergy 6MV photon beam. These systems allow the transfer of computed tomography (CT) data and RT structures between them but do not allow IMRT plans to be transferred. To provide this connectivity, an in-house computer programme was developed to convert radiation therapy prescription (RTP) files as generated by many planning systems into either XiO or Pinnacle IMRT file formats. Utilization of the technique and software was assessed by transferring 14 IMRT plans from XiO and Pinnacle onto the other system and performing 3D dose verification. The accuracy of the conversion process was checked by comparing the 3D dose matrices and dose volume histograms (DVHs) of structures for the recalculated plan on the same system. The developed software successfully transferred IMRT plans generated by 1 planning system into the other. Comparison of planning target volume (TV) DVHs for the original and recalculated plans showed good agreement; a maximum difference of 2% in mean dose, - 2.5% in D95, and 2.9% in V95 was observed. Similarly, a DVH comparison of organs at risk showed a maximum difference of +7.7% between the original and recalculated plans for structures in both high- and medium-dose regions. However, for structures in low-dose regions (less than 15% of prescription dose) a difference in mean dose up to +21.1% was observed between XiO and Pinnacle calculations. A dose matrix comparison of original and recalculated plans in XiO and Pinnacle TPSs was performed using gamma analysis with 3%/3mm criteria. The mean and standard deviation of pixels passing gamma

  20. Verification and validation of deterministic radiation transport numerical methods, codes, and nuclear data for estimating radiation dose to patients during CT scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hykes, J. M.; Azmy, Y. Y.; Schunert, S.; King, S. H.; Klingensmith, J. J.

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this work is to determine the viability of modeling an important x-ray procedure, the computed tomography (CT) scan of a pregnant woman and her conceptus using a deterministic radiation transport program. A prior experimental study provides the deposited dose as measured in an anthropomorphic phantom, with detectors positioned in the estimated uterine location. In this paper, we first verify the discrete ordinates code TORT3.2 and a suitably constructed multigroup cross section library against the Monte Carlo code MCNP5. Using MCNP, we demonstrate that accounting for the transport of secondary electrons is unnecessary in tissue-equivalent material. After demonstrating proper verification, we proceed to validate the MCNP and TORT simulations against data measured for the CTDI FDA phantom. In the model, the computed edge-to-center dose ratio is within experimental uncertainty, while the computed exposures are less than 35% from the measured values. (authors)

  1. Dose calculations for a simplified Mammosite system with the Monte Carlo Penelope and MCNPX simulation codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas C, E.L.; Varon T, C.F.; Pedraza N, R.

    2007-01-01

    The treatment of the breast cancer at early stages is of vital importance. For that, most of the investigations are dedicated to the early detection of the suffering and their treatment. As investigation consequence and clinical practice, in 2002 it was developed in U.S.A. an irradiation system of high dose rate known as Mammosite. In this work we carry out dose calculations for a simplified Mammosite system with the Monte Carlo Penelope simulation code and MCNPX, varying the concentration of the contrast material that it is used in the one. (Author)

  2. Applying graphics processor units to Monte Carlo dose calculation in radiation therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakhtiari M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the potential in using of using a graphics processor unit (GPU for Monte-Carlo (MC-based radiation dose calculations. The percent depth dose (PDD of photons in a medium with known absorption and scattering coefficients is computed using a MC simulation running on both a standard CPU and a GPU. We demonstrate that the GPU′s capability for massive parallel processing provides a significant acceleration in the MC calculation, and offers a significant advantage for distributed stochastic simulations on a single computer. Harnessing this potential of GPUs will help in the early adoption of MC for routine planning in a clinical environment.

  3. Dose verification and calibration of the Cyberknife by EPR/alanine dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Tristan, E-mail: tristan.garcia@cea.fr [CEA, LIST, Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Lacornerie, Thomas [Service de Physique Medicale, Centre Oscar-Lambret, 3, rue Frederic-Combemale, 59020 Lille (France); Popoff, Romain; Lourenco, Valerie; Bordy, Jean-Marc [CEA, LIST, Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)

    2011-09-15

    Standard calibration protocols in radiotherapy (AAPM TG-51 and IAEA TRS 398) recommend a 10 x 10 cm{sup 2} irradiation field at a distance of 100 cm. However, the specific geometry of the Cyberknife machine enables only circular radiation beams with a maximum diameter of 6 cm field size at a distance of 80 cm from the source which prevents from a direct use of these protocols. Thereby, specific calibration and verification protocols are required. Within this framework, the Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel and the Centre Oscar-Lambret decided to study two points of interest: i) the feasibility of the calibration of the Cyberknife beam; ii) the verification of the delivered dose during a treatment with a very small diameter beam using Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR)/alanine dosimetry. Alanine dosimeters are suitable for this work thanks to their small size, their integrating capability, and their low energy dependence as a function of both dose rate and beam energy in the radiotherapy dose range. The results of the dose rate calibration using EPR/alanine are very good, their deviations compared to the dose rate measured in the Cyberknife reference conditions are small (about 0.5%). The doses delivered during a treatment, measured within a 2% standard uncertainty, showed less than 4% deviation from the doses calculated by the treatment planning system. So, a rather good agreement is found between the measured and theoretically delivered doses. Nevertheless, the smaller the collimator diameter is, the larger the deviation is. This problem could be due to the evaluation of the output factor correction which is difficult to achieve for such small fields or to the Treatment Planning System algorithm itself and in particular the profile modelling.

  4. Evaluation of radiation dose to patients in intraoral dental radiography using Monte Carlo Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Il; Kim, Kyeong Ho; Oh, Seung Chul; Song, Ji Young [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    The use of dental radiographic examinations is common although radiation dose resulting from the dental radiography is relatively small. Therefore, it is required to evaluate radiation dose from the dental radiography for radiation safety purpose. The objectives of the present study were to develop dosimetry method for intraoral dental radiography using a Monte Carlo method based radiation transport code and to calculate organ doses and effective doses of patients from different types of intraoral radiographies. Radiological properties of dental radiography equipment were characterized for the evaluation of patient radiation dose. The properties including x-ray energy spectrum were simulated using MCNP code. Organ doses and effective doses to patients were calculated by MCNP simulation with computational adult phantoms. At the typical equipment settings (60 kVp, 7 mA, and 0.12 sec), the entrance air kerma was 1.79 mGy and the measured half value layer was 1.82 mm. The half value layer calculated by MCNP simulation was well agreed with the measurement values. Effective doses from intraoral radiographies ranged from 1 μSv for maxilla premolar to 3 μSv for maxilla incisor. Oral cavity layer (23⁓82 μSv) and salivary glands (10⁓68 μSv) received relatively high radiation dose. Thyroid also received high radiation dose (3⁓47 μSv) for examinations. The developed dosimetry method and evaluated radiation doses in this study can be utilized for policy making, patient dose management, and development of low-dose equipment. In addition, this study can ultimately contribute to decrease radiation dose to patients for radiation safety.

  5. GMC ['gimik]: a one-variable Monte Carlo dose algorithm for proton therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depauw, N.; Clasie, B.; Madden, T.; Rosenfeld, A.; Kooy, H.

    2014-03-01

    This work presents the CPU implementation of GMC ['gimik]: a fast yet accurate one-variable Monte Carlo dose algorithm for proton therapy to be incorporated into our in-house treatment planning system, Astroid. GMC is based on a simple mathematical model using the formulated proton scattering power and tabulated data of empirical depth-dose distributions. These Bragg peaks determine the energy deposited along the particle's track. The polar scattering angle is based on the particle's local energy and the voxel's density, while the azimuthal component of that scattering angle is the single variable in GMC, uniformly distributed from 0 to 2π. The halo effect of the beam, currently not implemented, will consider large scattering angles and secondary protons for a small percentage of the incident histories. GMC shows strong agreement with both the empirical data and GEANT4-based simulations. Its current CPU implementation runs at ~300 m.s--1, approximately ten times faster than GEANT4. Significant speed improvement is expected with the upcoming implementation of multi-threading and the portage to the GPU architecture. In conclusion, a one-variable Monte Carlo dose algorithm was produced for proton therapy dose computations. Its simplicity allows for fast dose computation while conserving accuracy against heterogeneities, hence drastically improving the current algorithms used in treatment planning systems.

  6. Monte Carlo dose calculations for BNCT treatment of diffuse human lung tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altieri, S.; Bortolussi, S.; Bruschi, P.

    2006-01-01

    In order to test the possibility to apply BNCT in the core of diffuse lung tumours, dose distribution calculations were made. The simulations were performed with the Monte Carlo code MCNP.4c2, using the male computational phantom Adam, version 07/94. Volumes of interest were voxelized for the tally requests, and results were obtained for tissues with and without Boron. Different collimated neutron sources were tested in order to establish the proper energies, as well as single and multiple beams to maximize neutron flux uniformity inside the target organs. Flux and dose distributions are reported. The use of two opposite epithermal neutron collimated beams insures good levels of dose homogeneity inside the lungs, with a substantially lower radiation dose delivered to surrounding structures. (author)

  7. Verification techniques and dose distribution for computed tomographic planned supine craniospinal radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Eric L.; Wong Peifong; Forster, Kenneth M.; Petru, Mark D.; Kowalski, Alexander V.; Maor, Moshe H.

    2003-01-01

    A modified 3-field technique was designed with opposed cranial fields and a single spinal field encompassing the entire spinal axis. Two methods of plan verifications were performed before the first treatment. First, a system of orthogonal rulers plus the thermoplastic head holder was used to visualize the light fields at the craniospinal junction. Second, film phantom measurements were taken to visualize the gap between the fields at the level of the spinal cord. Treatment verification entailed use of a posterior-anterior (PA) portal film and placement of radiopaque wire on the inferior border of the cranial field. More rigorous verification required a custom-fabricated orthogonal film holder. The isocenter positions of both fields when they matched were recorded using a record-and-verify system. A single extended distance spinal field collimated at 42 degree sign encompassed the entire spinal neuraxis. Data were collected from 40 fractions of craniospinal irradiation (CSI). The systematic error observed for the actual daily treatments was -0.5 mm (underlap), while the stochastic error was represented by a standard deviation of 5.39 mm. Measured data across the gapped craniospinal junction with junction shifts included revealed a dose ranging from 89.3% to 108%. CSI can be performed without direct visualization of the craniospinal junction by using the verification methods described. While the use of rigorous film verification for supine technique may have reduced the systematic error, the inability to visualize the supine craniospinal junction on skin appears to have increased the stochastic error compared to published data on such errors associated with prone craniospinal irradiation

  8. NEUTRON GENERATOR FACILITY AT SFU: GEANT4 DOSE RATE PREDICTION AND VERIFICATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J; Chester, A; Domingo, T; Rizwan, U; Starosta, K; Voss, P

    2016-11-01

    Detailed dose rate maps for a neutron generator facility at Simon Fraser University were produced via the GEANT4 Monte Carlo framework. Predicted neutron dose rates throughout the facility were compared with radiation survey measurements made during the facility commissioning process. When accounting for thermal neutrons, the prediction and measurement agree within a factor of 2 or better in most survey locations, and within 10 % inside the vault housing the neutron generator. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Evaluation of equivalent doses in 18F PET/CT using the Monte Carlo method with MCNPX code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belinato, Walmir; Santos, William Souza; Perini, Ana Paula; Neves, Lucio Pereira; Souza, Divanizia N.

    2017-01-01

    The present work used the Monte Carlo method (MMC), specifically the Monte Carlo NParticle - MCNPX, to simulate the interaction of radiation involving photons and particles, such as positrons and electrons, with virtual adult anthropomorphic simulators on PET / CT scans and to determine absorbed and equivalent doses in adult male and female patients

  10. Independent Monte-Carlo dose calculation for MLC based CyberKnife radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackeprang, P.-H.; Vuong, D.; Volken, W.; Henzen, D.; Schmidhalter, D.; Malthaner, M.; Mueller, S.; Frei, D.; Stampanoni, M. F. M.; Dal Pra, A.; Aebersold, D. M.; Fix, M. K.; Manser, P.

    2018-01-01

    This work aims to develop, implement and validate a Monte Carlo (MC)-based independent dose calculation (IDC) framework to perform patient-specific quality assurance (QA) for multi-leaf collimator (MLC)-based CyberKnife® (Accuray Inc., Sunnyvale, CA) treatment plans. The IDC framework uses an XML-format treatment plan as exported from the treatment planning system (TPS) and DICOM format patient CT data, an MC beam model using phase spaces, CyberKnife MLC beam modifier transport using the EGS++ class library, a beam sampling and coordinate transformation engine and dose scoring using DOSXYZnrc. The framework is validated against dose profiles and depth dose curves of single beams with varying field sizes in a water tank in units of cGy/Monitor Unit and against a 2D dose distribution of a full prostate treatment plan measured with Gafchromic EBT3 (Ashland Advanced Materials, Bridgewater, NJ) film in a homogeneous water-equivalent slab phantom. The film measurement is compared to IDC results by gamma analysis using 2% (global)/2 mm criteria. Further, the dose distribution of the clinical treatment plan in the patient CT is compared to TPS calculation by gamma analysis using the same criteria. Dose profiles from IDC calculation in a homogeneous water phantom agree within 2.3% of the global max dose or 1 mm distance to agreement to measurements for all except the smallest field size. Comparing the film measurement to calculated dose, 99.9% of all voxels pass gamma analysis, comparing dose calculated by the IDC framework to TPS calculated dose for the clinical prostate plan shows 99.0% passing rate. IDC calculated dose is found to be up to 5.6% lower than dose calculated by the TPS in this case near metal fiducial markers. An MC-based modular IDC framework was successfully developed, implemented and validated against measurements and is now available to perform patient-specific QA by IDC.

  11. Denoising of electron beam Monte Carlo dose distributions using digital filtering techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deasy, Joseph O.

    2000-01-01

    The Monte Carlo (MC) method has long been viewed as the ultimate dose distribution computational technique. The inherent stochastic dose fluctuations (i.e. noise), however, have several important disadvantages: noise will affect estimates of all the relevant dosimetric and radiobiological indices, and noise will degrade the resulting dose contour visualizations. We suggest the use of a post-processing denoising step to reduce statistical fluctuations and also improve dose contour visualization. We report the results of applying four different two-dimensional digital smoothing filters to two-dimensional dose images. The Integrated Tiger Series MC code was used to generate 10 MeV electron beam dose distributions at various depths in two different phantoms. The observed qualitative effects of filtering include: (a) the suppression of voxel-to-voxel (high-frequency) noise and (b) the resulting contour plots are visually more comprehensible. Drawbacks include, in some cases, slight blurring of penumbra near the surface and slight blurring of other very sharp real dosimetric features. Of the four digital filters considered here, one, a filter based on a local least-squares principle, appears to suppress noise with negligible degradation of real dosimetric features. We conclude that denoising of electron beam MC dose distributions is feasible and will yield improved dosimetric reliability and improved visualization of dose distributions. (author)

  12. Evaluation of a new commercial Monte Carlo dose calculation algorithm for electron beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandervoort, Eric J; Tchistiakova, Ekaterina; La Russa, Daniel J; Cygler, Joanna E

    2014-02-01

    In this report the authors present the validation of a Monte Carlo dose calculation algorithm (XiO EMC from Elekta Software) for electron beams. Calculated and measured dose distributions were compared for homogeneous water phantoms and for a 3D heterogeneous phantom meant to approximate the geometry of a trachea and spine. Comparisons of measurements and calculated data were performed using 2D and 3D gamma index dose comparison metrics. Measured outputs agree with calculated values within estimated uncertainties for standard and extended SSDs for open applicators, and for cutouts, with the exception of the 17 MeV electron beam at extended SSD for cutout sizes smaller than 5 × 5 cm(2). Good agreement was obtained between calculated and experimental depth dose curves and dose profiles (minimum number of measurements that pass a 2%/2 mm agreement 2D gamma index criteria for any applicator or energy was 97%). Dose calculations in a heterogeneous phantom agree with radiochromic film measurements (>98% of pixels pass a 3 dimensional 3%/2 mm γ-criteria) provided that the steep dose gradient in the depth direction is considered. Clinically acceptable agreement (at the 2%/2 mm level) between the measurements and calculated data for measurements in water are obtained for this dose calculation algorithm. Radiochromic film is a useful tool to evaluate the accuracy of electron MC treatment planning systems in heterogeneous media.

  13. Dose mapping inside a gamma irradiator measured with doped silica fibre dosimetry and Monte Carlo simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, F.; Khandaker, M. U.; Mahdiraji, G. A.; Ung, N. M.; Bradley, D. A.

    2017-11-01

    In recent years doped silica fibre thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) have been demonstrated to have considerable potential for irradiation applications, benefitting from the available sensitivity, spatial resolution and dynamic dose range, with primary focus being on the needs of medical dosimetry. Present study concerns the dose distribution inside a cylindrically shaped gamma-ray irradiator cavity, with irradiator facilities such as the familiar 60Co versions being popularly used in industrial applications. Quality assurance of the radiation dose distribution inside the irradiation cell of such a device is of central importance in respect of the delivered dose to the irradiated material. Silica fibre TLD dose-rates obtained within a Gammacell-220 irradiator cavity show the existence of non-negligible dose distribution heterogeneity, by up to 20% and 26% in the radial and axial directions respectively, Monte Carlo simulations and available literature providing some support for present findings. In practice, it is evident that there is need to consider making corrections to nominal dose-rates in order to avoid the potential for under-dosing.

  14. HDRMC, an accelerated Monte Carlo dose calculator for high dose rate brachytherapy with CT-compatible applicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chibani, Omar, E-mail: omar.chibani@fccc.edu; C-M Ma, Charlie [Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19111 (United States)

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: To present a new accelerated Monte Carlo code for CT-based dose calculations in high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy. The new code (HDRMC) accounts for both tissue and nontissue heterogeneities (applicator and contrast medium). Methods: HDRMC uses a fast ray-tracing technique and detailed physics algorithms to transport photons through a 3D mesh of voxels representing the patient anatomy with applicator and contrast medium included. A precalculated phase space file for the{sup 192}Ir source is used as source term. HDRM is calibrated to calculated absolute dose for real plans. A postprocessing technique is used to include the exact density and composition of nontissue heterogeneities in the 3D phantom. Dwell positions and angular orientations of the source are reconstructed using data from the treatment planning system (TPS). Structure contours are also imported from the TPS to recalculate dose-volume histograms. Results: HDRMC was first benchmarked against the MCNP5 code for a single source in homogenous water and for a loaded gynecologic applicator in water. The accuracy of the voxel-based applicator model used in HDRMC was also verified by comparing 3D dose distributions and dose-volume parameters obtained using 1-mm{sup 3} versus 2-mm{sup 3} phantom resolutions. HDRMC can calculate the 3D dose distribution for a typical HDR cervix case with 2-mm resolution in 5 min on a single CPU. Examples of heterogeneity effects for two clinical cases (cervix and esophagus) were demonstrated using HDRMC. The neglect of tissue heterogeneity for the esophageal case leads to the overestimate of CTV D90, CTV D100, and spinal cord maximum dose by 3.2%, 3.9%, and 3.6%, respectively. Conclusions: A fast Monte Carlo code for CT-based dose calculations which does not require a prebuilt applicator model is developed for those HDR brachytherapy treatments that use CT-compatible applicators. Tissue and nontissue heterogeneities should be taken into account in modern HDR

  15. Determining dose rate with a semiconductor detector - Monte Carlo calculations of the detector response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordenfors, C.

    1999-02-01

    To determine dose rate in a gamma radiation field, based on measurements with a semiconductor detector, it is necessary to know how the detector effects the field. This work aims to describe this effect with Monte Carlo simulations and calculations, that is to identify the detector response function. This is done for a germanium gamma detector. The detector is normally used in the in-situ measurements that is carried out regularly at the department. After the response function is determined it is used to reconstruct a spectrum from an in-situ measurement, a so called unfolding. This is done to be able to calculate fluence rate and dose rate directly from a measured (and unfolded) spectrum. The Monte Carlo code used in this work is EGS4 developed mainly at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. It is a widely used code package to simulate particle transport. The results of this work indicates that the method could be used as-is since the accuracy of this method compares to other methods already in use to measure dose rate. Bearing in mind that this method provides the nuclide specific dose it is useful, in radiation protection, since knowing what the relations between different nuclides are and how they change is very important when estimating the risks

  16. Dose patient verification during treatment using an amorphous silicon electronic portal imaging device in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, Lucie

    2006-01-01

    Today, amorphous silicon electronic portal imaging devices (aSi EPID) are currently used to check the accuracy of patient positioning. However, they are not use for dose reconstruction yet and more investigations are required to allow the use of an aSi EPID for routine dosimetric verification. The aim of this work is first to study the dosimetric characteristics of the EPID available at the Institut Curie and then, to check patient dose during treatment using these EPID. First, performance optimization of the Varian aS500 EPID system is studied. Then, a quality assurance system is set up in order to certify the image quality on a daily basis. An additional study on the dosimetric performance of the aS500 EPID is monitored to assess operational stability for dosimetry applications. Electronic portal imaging device is also a useful tool to improve IMRT quality control. The validation and the quality assurance of a portal dose image prediction system for IMRT pre-treatment quality control are performed. All dynamic IMRT fields are verified in clinical routine with the new method based on portal dosimetry. Finally, a new formalism for in vivo dosimetry using transit dose measured with EPID is developed and validated. The absolute dose measurement issue using aSi EPID is described and the midplane dose determination using in vivo dose measurements in combination with portal imaging is used with 3D-conformal-radiation therapy. (author) [fr

  17. Verification of absorbed dose calculation with XIO Radiotherapy Treatment Planning System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bokulic, T.; Budanec, M.; Frobe, A.; Gregov, M.; Kusic, Z.; Mlinaric, M.; Mrcela, I.

    2013-01-01

    Modern radiotherapy relies on computerized treatment planning systems (TPS) for absorbed dose calculation. Most TPS require a detailed model of a given machine and therapy beams. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) recommends acceptance testing for the TPS (IAEA-TECDOC-1540). In this study we present customization of those tests for measurements with the purpose of verification of beam models intended for clinical use in our department. Elekta Synergy S linear accelerator installation and data acquisition for Elekta CMS XiO 4.62 TPS was finished in 2011. After the completion of beam modelling in TPS, tests were conducted in accordance with the IAEA protocol for TPS dose calculation verification. The deviations between the measured and calculated dose were recorded for 854 points and 11 groups of tests in a homogenous phantom. Most of the deviations were within tolerance. Similar to previously published results, results for irregular L shaped field and asymmetric wedged fields were out of tolerance for certain groups of points.(author)

  18. 3D calculation of absorbed dose for 131I-targeted radiotherapy: A Monte Carlo study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeedzadeh, E.; Sarkar, S.; Abbaspour Tehrani-Fard, A.; Ay, M. R.; Khosravi, H. R.; Loudos, G.

    2008-01-01

    Various methods, such as those developed by the Medical Internal Radiation Dosimetry (MIRD) Committee of the Society of Nuclear Medicine or employing dose point kernels, have been applied to the radiation dosimetry of 131 I radionuclide therapy. However, studies have not shown a strong relationship between tumour absorbed dose and its overall therapeutic response, probably due in part to inaccuracies in activity and dose estimation. In the current study, the GATE Monte Carlo computer code was used to facilitate voxel-level radiation dosimetry for organ activities measured in an. 131 I-treated thyroid cancer patient. This approach allows incorporation of the size, shape and composition of organs (in the current study, in the Zubal anthropomorphic phantom) and intra-organ and intra-tumour inhomogeneities in the activity distributions. The total activities of the tumours and their heterogeneous distributions were measured from the SPECT images to calculate the dose maps. For investigating the effect of activity distribution on dose distribution, a hypothetical homogeneous distribution of the same total activity was considered in the tumours. It was observed that the tumour mean absorbed dose rates per unit cumulated activity were 0.65 E-5 and 0.61 E-5 mGY MBq -1 s -1 for the uniform and non-uniform distributions in the tumour, respectively, which do not differ considerably. However, the dose-volume histograms (DVH) show that the tumour non-uniform activity distribution decreases the absorbed dose to portions of the tumour volume. In such a case, it can be misleading to quote the mean or maximum absorbed dose, because overall response is likely limited by the tumour volume that receives low (i.e. non-cytocidal) doses. Three-dimensional radiation dosimetry, and calculation of tumour DVHs, may lead to the derivation of clinically reliable dose-response relationships and therefore may ultimately improve treatment planning as well as response assessment for radionuclide

  19. DOSIS: a Monte Carlo simulation program for dose related studies in mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delis, H. [Department of Medical Physics, School of Medicine, University of Patras, 26500 Patras (Greece); Spyrou, G. [Department of Medical Physics, School of Medicine, University of Patras, 26500 Patras (Greece); Foundation of Biomedical Research, Academy of Athens, 11527 Athens (Greece); Panayiotakis, G. [Department of Medical Physics, School of Medicine, University of Patras, 26500 Patras (Greece); Tzanakos, G. [Department of Physics, Division of Nuclear and Particle Physics, University of Athens, 15771 Athens (Greece)]. E-mail: tzanakos@cc.uoa.gr

    2005-06-01

    Dosimetric studies in mammography are addressed by means of a Monte Carlo simulation program. The core of this program (DOSIS: dosimetry simulation studies) is a simulation model developed using FORTRAN 90, enriched with a graphical user interface developed in MS Visual Basic. User defined mammographic technique parameters affecting breast dose are imported to the simulation model and the produced results are provided by means of both absolute (surface dose, exposure at detector plane) and relative quantities (percentage depth dose, isodose curves). The program functionality has been demonstrated in the evaluation of various mammographic examination techniques. Specifically, the influence of tube voltage and filtration on the surface dose and the exposure at detector plane has been studied utilizing a water phantom. Increase of tube voltage from 25 to 30 kVp for a Mo/Mo system resulted in a 42% decrease of the surface dose for a thick breast (6 cm), without changing the exposure at the detector plane. Use of 1.02 mm Al filter for a W anode system operating at 30 kVp resulted in a 19.1% decrease of the surface dose delivered to a 5 cm water equivalent breast. Overall, W/Al systems appear to have improved dosimetric performance, resulting up to a 65% decrease of surface dose compared to Mo/Mo systems, for identical exposures at the detector plane and breast thicknesses.

  20. A Monte Carlo Study of dose enhancement according to the enhancement agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung Hoon; Kim, Chang Soo [Dept. of Radiological Science, College of Health Sciences, Catholic University of Pusan, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Chul Hwan [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Pusan National University Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    Dose enhancement effects at megavoltage (MV) X and γ-ray energies, and the effects of different energy levels on incident energy, dose enhancement agents, and concentrations were analyzed using Monte Carlo simulations. Gold, gadolinium, Iodine, and iron oxide (Fe2O3) were compared as dose enhancement agents. For incident energy, 4, 6, 10 and 15 MV X-ray spectra produced by a linear accelerator and a Co60 γ-ray were used. The dose enhancement factor (DEF) was calculated using an ICRU Slab phantom for concentrations of 7, 18, and 30 mg/g. The DEF was higher at higher concentrations of dose enhancement agents and at lower incident energies. The calculated DEF ranged from 1.035 to 1.079, and dose enhancement effects were highest for iron oxide, followed by iodine, gadolinium, and gold. Thus, this study contributes to improving the therapeutic ratio by delivering larger doses of radiation to tumor volume, and provides data to support further in vivo and in vitro studies.

  1. Monte Carlo-based dose calculation engine for minibeam radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Rovira, I; Sempau, J; Prezado, Y

    2014-02-01

    Minibeam radiation therapy (MBRT) is an innovative radiotherapy approach based on the well-established tissue sparing effect of arrays of quasi-parallel micrometre-sized beams. In order to guide the preclinical trials in progress at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), a Monte Carlo-based dose calculation engine has been developed and successfully benchmarked with experimental data in anthropomorphic phantoms. Additionally, a realistic example of treatment plan is presented. Despite the micron scale of the voxels used to tally dose distributions in MBRT, the combination of several efficiency optimisation methods allowed to achieve acceptable computation times for clinical settings (approximately 2 h). The calculation engine can be easily adapted with little or no programming effort to other synchrotron sources or for dose calculations in presence of contrast agents. Copyright © 2013 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A Monte Carlo-based method to estimate radiation dose from spiral CT: from phantom testing to patient-specific models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarry, G; DeMarco, J J; Beifuss, U; Cagnon, C H; McNitt-Gray, M F

    2003-08-21

    The purpose of this work is to develop and test a method to estimate the relative and absolute absorbed radiation dose from axial and spiral CT scans using a Monte Carlo approach. Initial testing was done in phantoms and preliminary results were obtained from a standard mathematical anthropomorphic model (MIRD V) and voxelized patient data. To accomplish this we have modified a general purpose Monte Carlo transport code (MCNP4B) to simulate the CT x-ray source and movement, and then to calculate absorbed radiation dose in desired objects. The movement of the source in either axial or spiral modes was modelled explicitly while the CT system components were modelled using published information about x-ray spectra as well as information provided by the manufacturer. Simulations were performed for single axial scans using the head and body computed tomography dose index (CTDI) polymethylmethacrylate phantoms at both central and peripheral positions for all available beam energies and slice thicknesses. For comparison, corresponding physical measurements of CTDI in phantom were made with an ion chamber. To obtain absolute dose values, simulations and measurements were performed in air at the scanner isocentre for each beam energy. To extend the verification, the CT scanner model was applied to the MIRD V model and compared with published results using similar technical factors. After verification of the model, the generalized source was simulated and applied to voxelized models of patient anatomy. The simulated and measured absolute dose data in phantom agreed to within 2% for the head phantom and within 4% for the body phantom at 120 and 140 kVp; this extends to 8% for the head and 9% for the body phantom across all available beam energies and positions. For the head phantom, the simulated and measured absolute dose data agree to within 2% across all slice thicknesses at 120 kVp. Our results in the MIRD phantom agree within 11% of all the different organ dose values

  3. Online pretreatment verification of high-dose rate brachytherapy using an imaging panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Gabriel P; Podesta, Mark; Bellezzo, Murillo; Van den Bosch, Michiel R; Lutgens, Ludy; Vanneste, Ben G L; Voncken, Robert; Van Limbergen, Evert J; Reniers, Brigitte; Verhaegen, Frank

    2017-07-07

    Brachytherapy is employed to treat a wide variety of cancers. However, an accurate treatment verification method is currently not available. This study describes a pre-treatment verification system that uses an imaging panel (IP) to verify important aspects of the treatment plan. A detailed modelling of the IP was only possible with an extensive calibration performed using a robotic arm. Irradiations were performed with a high dose rate (HDR) 192 Ir source within a water phantom. An empirical fit was applied to measure the distance between the source and the detector so 3D Cartesian coordinates of the dwell positions can be obtained using a single panel. The IP acquires 7.14 fps to verify the dwell times, dwell positions and air kerma strength (Sk). A gynecological applicator was used to create a treatment plan that was registered with a CT image of the water phantom used during the experiments for verification purposes. Errors (shifts, exchanged connections and wrong dwell times) were simulated to verify the proposed verification system. Cartesian source positions (panel measurement plane) have a standard deviation of about 0.02 cm. The measured distance between the source and the panel (z-coordinate) have a standard deviation up to 0.16 cm and maximum absolute error of  ≈0.6 cm if the signal is close to sensitive limit of the panel. The average response of the panel is very linear with Sk. Therefore, Sk measurements can be performed with relatively small errors. The measured dwell times show a maximum error of 0.2 s which is consistent with the acquisition rate of the panel. All simulated errors were clearly identified by the proposed system. The use of IPs is not common in brachytherapy, however, it provides considerable advantages. It was demonstrated that the IP can accurately measure Sk, dwell times and dwell positions.

  4. A Monte Carlo study of macroscopic and microscopic dose descriptors for kilovoltage cellular dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, P. A. K.; Thomson, Rowan M.

    2017-02-01

    This work investigates how doses to cellular targets depend on cell morphology, as well as relations between cellular doses and doses to bulk tissues and water. Multicellular models of five healthy and cancerous soft tissues are developed based on typical values of cell compartment sizes, elemental compositions and number densities found in the literature. Cells are modelled as two concentric spheres with nucleus and cytoplasm compartments. Monte Carlo simulations are used to calculate the absorbed dose to the nucleus and cytoplasm for incident photon energies of 20-370 keV, relevant for brachytherapy, diagnostic radiology, and out-of-field radiation in higher-energy external beam radiotherapy. Simulations involving cell clusters, single cells and single nuclear cavities are carried out for cell radii between 5 and 10~μ m, and nuclear radii between 2 and 9~μ m. Seven nucleus and cytoplasm elemental compositions representative of animal cells are considered. The presence of a cytoplasm, extracellular matrix and surrounding cells can affect the nuclear dose by up to 13 % . Differences in cell and nucleus size can affect dose to the nucleus (cytoplasm) of the central cell in a cluster of 13 cells by up to 13 % (8 % ). Furthermore, the results of this study demonstrate that neither water nor bulk tissue are reliable substitutes for subcellular targets for incident photon energies  <50 keV: nuclear (cytoplasm) doses differ from dose-to-medium by up to 32 % (18 % ), and from dose-to-water by up to 21 % (8 % ). The largest differences between dose descriptors are seen for the lowest incident photon energies; differences are less than 3 % for energies ≥slant 90 keV. The sensitivity of results with regard to the parameters of the microscopic tissue structure model and cell model geometry, and the importance of the nucleus and cytoplasm as targets for radiation-induced cell death emphasize the importance of accurate models for cellular dosimetry studies.

  5. SU-E-T-238: Monte Carlo Estimation of Cerenkov Dose for Photo-Dynamic Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chibani, O; Price, R; Ma, C [Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Eldib, A [Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); University Cairo (Egypt); Mora, G [de Lisboa, Codex, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Estimation of Cerenkov dose from high-energy megavoltage photon and electron beams in tissue and its impact on the radiosensitization using Protoporphyrine IX (PpIX) for tumor targeting enhancement in radiotherapy. Methods: The GEPTS Monte Carlo code is used to generate dose distributions from 18MV Varian photon beam and generic high-energy (45-MV) photon and (45-MeV) electron beams in a voxel-based tissueequivalent phantom. In addition to calculating the ionization dose, the code scores Cerenkov energy released in the wavelength range 375–425 nm corresponding to the pick of the PpIX absorption spectrum (Fig. 1) using the Frank-Tamm formula. Results: The simulations shows that the produced Cerenkov dose suitable for activating PpIX is 4000 to 5500 times lower than the overall radiation dose for all considered beams (18MV, 45 MV and 45 MeV). These results were contradictory to the recent experimental studies by Axelsson et al. (Med. Phys. 38 (2011) p 4127), where Cerenkov dose was reported to be only two orders of magnitude lower than the radiation dose. Note that our simulation results can be corroborated by a simple model where the Frank and Tamm formula is applied for electrons with 2 MeV/cm stopping power generating Cerenkov photons in the 375–425 nm range and assuming these photons have less than 1mm penetration in tissue. Conclusion: The Cerenkov dose generated by high-energy photon and electron beams may produce minimal clinical effect in comparison with the photon fluence (or dose) commonly used for photo-dynamic therapy. At the present time, it is unclear whether Cerenkov radiation is a significant contributor to the recently observed tumor regression for patients receiving radiotherapy and PpIX versus patients receiving radiotherapy only. The ongoing study will include animal experimentation and investigation of dose rate effects on PpIX response.

  6. Air kerma calculation in Monte Carlo simulations for deriving normalized glandular dose coefficients in mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarno, Antonio; Mettivier, Giovanni; Russo, Paolo

    2017-07-01

    The estimation of the mean glandular dose in mammography using Monte Carlo simulations requires the calculation of the incident air kerma evaluated on the breast surface. In such a calculation, caution should be applied in considering explicitly the presence of the top compression paddle, since Compton scattering in this slab may produce a large spread of the incidence angles of x-ray photons on the scoring surface. Then, the calculation of the incident air kerma should contain the ‘effective’ area of the scoring surface, which takes into account the angle of incidence of photons on such a surface. Using Geant4 Monte Carlo simulations with a code previously validated according to the Task Group 195 of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine, we show that for typical x-ray spectra and energy range adopted in mammography, the resulting discrepancy in the calculation of the incident air kerma may lead to an overestimation from a minimum of 10% up to 12% of normalized dose coefficients and, hence, of the corresponding mean glandular dose if this contribution is not considered.

  7. Monte Carlo dose simulation of 192IR wires in tissue inhomogeneites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez-Reyes, A.; Salvat, F.; Rovirosa, A.; Varea, JM Fernandez

    1996-01-01

    AIM: Study of the effect of tissue inhomogeneities on the dose delivered by 192 Ir wire using Monte Carlo simulation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The Monte Carlo code PENELOPE is used to calculate radial dose distributions (scored on the symetry plane) produced by straight 192 Ir wires of different lengths (from 2 to 10 cm). PENELOPE is a self-contained simulation package for electron-photon transport, developed at the University of Barcelona. It is written in standard FORTRAN 77 and runs on virtually every computer. The present simulation have been performed on a 100 MHz PENTIUM. Typical running times were of the order of two days and involved the generation of about 7 million photon histories. Such large population were generated to ensure high statistical accuracy. Firstly, simulations were performed for water, and the results were compared with data available in the bibliography. Subsequently, the program was run for various tissues (bone, lung), and the effect of inhomogeneities was studied for geometries consisting of separate regions with different compositions (tissues, water and air). RESULTS: Good agreement between our simulation in water and data reported in the literature is found. Radial doses for water and lung not differ significantly. Separate regions with different compositions produce significant differences with simulation in water

  8. Comparison of measured and Monte Carlo calculated dose distributions from circular collimators for radiosurgical beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esnaashari, K. N.; Allahverdi, M.; Gharaati, H.; Shahriari, M.

    2007-01-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery is an important clinical tool for the treatment of small lesions in the brain, including benign conditions, malignant and localized metastatic tumors. A dosimetry study was performed for Elekta 'Synergy S' as a dedicated Stereotactic radiosurgery unit, capable of generating circular radiation fields with diameters of 1-5 cm at iso centre using the BEAM/EGS4 Monte Carlo code. Materials and Methods: The linear accelerator Elekta Synergy S equipped with a set of 5 circular collimators from 10 mm to 50 mm in diameter at iso centre distance was used. The cones were inserted in a base plate mounted on the collimator linac head. A PinPoint chamber and Wellhofer water tank chamber were selected for clinical dosimetry of 6 MV photon beams. The results of simulations using the Monte Carlo system BEAM/EGS4 to model the beam geometry were compared with dose measurements. Results: An excellent agreement was found between Monte Carlo calculated and measured percentage depth dose and lateral dose profiles which were performed in water phantom for circular cones with 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 cm in diameter. The comparison between calculation and measurements showed up to 0.5 % or 1 m m difference for all field sizes. The penumbra (80-20%) results at 5 cm depth in water phantom and SSD=95 ranged from 1.5 to 2.1 mm for circular collimators with diameter 1 to 5 cm. Conclusion: This study showed that BEAMnrc code has been accurate in modeling Synergy S linear accelerator equipped with circular collimators

  9. Application of the Monte Carlo method to estimate doses in a radioactive waste drum environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodenas, J.; Garcia, T.; Burgos, M.C.; Felipe, A.; Sanchez-Mayoral, M.L.

    2002-01-01

    During refuelling operation in a Nuclear Power Plant, filtration is used to remove non-soluble radionuclides contained in the water from reactor pool. Filter cartridges accumulate a high radioactivity, so that they are usually placed into a drum. When the operation ends up, the drum is filled with concrete and stored along with other drums containing radioactive wastes. Operators working in the refuelling plant near these radwaste drums can receive high dose rates. Therefore, it is convenient to estimate those doses to prevent risks in order to apply ALARA criterion for dose reduction to workers. The Monte Carlo method has been applied, using MCNP 4B code, to simulate the drum containing contaminated filters and estimate doses produced in the drum environment. In the paper, an analysis of the results obtained with the MCNP code has been performed. Thus, the influence on the evaluated doses of distance from drum and interposed shielding barriers has been studied. The source term has also been analysed to check the importance of the isotope composition. Two different geometric models have been considered in order to simplify calculations. Results have been compared with dose measurements in plant in order to validate the calculation procedure. This work has been developed at the Nuclear Engineering Department of the Polytechnic University of Valencia in collaboration with IBERINCO in the frame of an RD project sponsored by IBERINCO

  10. Postimplant Dosimetry Using a Monte Carlo Dose Calculation Engine: A New Clinical Standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrier, Jean-Francois; D'Amours, Michel; Verhaegen, Frank; Reniers, Brigitte; Martin, Andre-Guy; Vigneault, Eric; Beaulieu, Luc

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To use the Monte Carlo (MC) method as a dose calculation engine for postimplant dosimetry. To compare the results with clinically approved data for a sample of 28 patients. Two effects not taken into account by the clinical calculation, interseed attenuation and tissue composition, are being specifically investigated. Methods and Materials: An automated MC program was developed. The dose distributions were calculated for the target volume and organs at risk (OAR) for 28 patients. Additional MC techniques were developed to focus specifically on the interseed attenuation and tissue effects. Results: For the clinical target volume (CTV) D 90 parameter, the mean difference between the clinical technique and the complete MC method is 10.7 Gy, with cases reaching up to 17 Gy. For all cases, the clinical technique overestimates the deposited dose in the CTV. This overestimation is mainly from a combination of two effects: the interseed attenuation (average, 6.8 Gy) and tissue composition (average, 4.1 Gy). The deposited dose in the OARs is also overestimated in the clinical calculation. Conclusions: The clinical technique systematically overestimates the deposited dose in the prostate and in the OARs. To reduce this systematic inaccuracy, the MC method should be considered in establishing a new standard for clinical postimplant dosimetry and dose-outcome studies in a near future

  11. Monte Carlo simulation of secondary neutron dose for scanning proton therapy using FLUKA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaeyeong Lee

    Full Text Available Proton therapy is a rapidly progressing field for cancer treatment. Globally, many proton therapy facilities are being commissioned or under construction. Secondary neutrons are an important issue during the commissioning process of a proton therapy facility. The purpose of this study is to model and validate scanning nozzles of proton therapy at Samsung Medical Center (SMC by Monte Carlo simulation for beam commissioning. After the commissioning, a secondary neutron ambient dose from proton scanning nozzle (Gantry 1 was simulated and measured. This simulation was performed to evaluate beam properties such as percent depth dose curve, Bragg peak, and distal fall-off, so that they could be verified with measured data. Using the validated beam nozzle, the secondary neutron ambient dose was simulated and then compared with the measured ambient dose from Gantry 1. We calculated secondary neutron dose at several different points. We demonstrated the validity modeling a proton scanning nozzle system to evaluate various parameters using FLUKA. The measured secondary neutron ambient dose showed a similar tendency with the simulation result. This work will increase the knowledge necessary for the development of radiation safety technology in medical particle accelerators.

  12. Monte Carlo calculations of lung dose in ORNL phantom for boron neutron capture therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krstic, D; Markovic, V M; Jovanovic, Z; Milenkovic, B; Nikezic, D; Atanackovic, J

    2014-10-01

    Monte Carlo simulations were performed to evaluate dose for possible treatment of cancers by boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). The computational model of male Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) phantom was used to simulate tumours in the lung. Calculations have been performed by means of the MCNP5/X code. In this simulation, two opposite neutron beams were considered, in order to obtain uniform neutron flux distribution inside the lung. The obtained results indicate that the lung cancer could be treated by BNCT under the assumptions of calculations. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Application of Monte Carlo method for dose calculation in thyroid follicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Frank Sinatra Gomes da

    2008-02-01

    The Monte Carlo method is an important tool to simulate radioactive particles interaction with biologic medium. The principal advantage of the method when compared with deterministic methods is the ability to simulate a complex geometry. Several computational codes use the Monte Carlo method to simulate the particles transport and they have the capacity to simulate energy deposition in models of organs and/or tissues, as well models of cells of human body. Thus, the calculation of the absorbed dose to thyroid's follicles (compound of colloid and follicles' cells) have a fundamental importance to dosimetry, because these cells are radiosensitive due to ionizing radiation exposition, in particular, exposition due to radioisotopes of iodine, because a great amount of radioiodine may be released into the environment in case of a nuclear accidents. In this case, the goal of this work was use the code of particles transport MNCP4C to calculate absorbed doses in models of thyroid's follicles, for Auger electrons, internal conversion electrons and beta particles, by iodine-131 and short-lived iodines (131, 132, 133, 134 e 135), with diameters varying from 30 to 500 μm. The results obtained from simulation with the MCNP4C code shown an average percentage of the 25% of total absorbed dose by colloid to iodine- 131 and 75% to short-lived iodine's. For follicular cells, this percentage was of 13% to iodine-131 and 87% to short-lived iodine's. The contributions from particles with low energies, like Auger and internal conversion electrons should not be neglected, to assessment the absorbed dose in cellular level. Agglomerative hierarchical clustering was used to compare doses obtained by codes MCNP4C, EPOTRAN, EGS4 and by deterministic methods. (author)

  14. Dose measurement using radiochromic lms and Monte Carlo simulation for hadron-therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahra, N.

    2010-06-01

    Because of the increase in dose at the end of the range of ions, dose delivery during patient treatment with hadron-therapy should be controlled with high precision. Monte Carlo codes are now considered mandatory for validation of clinical treatment planning and as a new tool for dosimetry of ion beams. In this work, we aimed to calculate the absorbed dose using Monte Carlo simulation Geant4/Gate. The effect on the dose calculation accuracy of different Geant4 parameters has been studied for mono-energetic carbon ion beams of 300 MeV/u in water. The parameters are: the production threshold of secondary particles and the maximum step limiter of the particle track. Tolerated criterion were chosen to meet the precision required in radiotherapy in term of value and dose localisation (2%, 2 mm respectively) and to obtain the best compromise on dose distribution and computational time. We propose here the values of parameters in order to satisfy the precision required. In the second part of this work, we study the response of radiochromic films MD-v2-55 for quality control in proton and carbon ion beams. We have particularly observed and studied the quenching effect of dosimetric films for high LET (≥20 keV/μm) irradiation in homogeneous and heterogeneous media. This effect is due to the high ionization density around the track of the particle. We have developed a method to predict the response of radiochromic films taking into account the saturation effect. This model is called the RADIS model for 'Radiochromic films Dosimetry for Ions using Simulations'. It is based on the response of films under photon irradiations and the saturation of films due to high linear energy deposit calculated by Monte Carlo. Different beams were used in this study and aimed to validate the model for hadron-therapy applications: carbon ions, protons and photons at different energies. Experiments were performed at Grand Accelerateur National d'Ions Lourds (GANIL), Proton therapy center of

  15. Environmental dose rate assessment of ITER using the Monte Carlo method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karimian Alireza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to radiation is one of the main sources of risk to staff employed in reactor facilities. The staff of a tokamak is exposed to a wide range of neutrons and photons around the tokamak hall. The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER is a nuclear fusion engineering project and the most advanced experimental tokamak in the world. From the radiobiological point of view, ITER dose rates assessment is particularly important. The aim of this study is the assessment of the amount of radiation in ITER during its normal operation in a radial direction from the plasma chamber to the tokamak hall. To achieve this goal, the ITER system and its components were simulated by the Monte Carlo method using the MCNPX 2.6.0 code. Furthermore, the equivalent dose rates of some radiosensitive organs of the human body were calculated by using the medical internal radiation dose phantom. Our study is based on the deuterium-tritium plasma burning by 14.1 MeV neutron production and also photon radiation due to neutron activation. As our results show, the total equivalent dose rate on the outside of the bioshield wall of the tokamak hall is about 1 mSv per year, which is less than the annual occupational dose rate limit during the normal operation of ITER. Also, equivalent dose rates of radiosensitive organs have shown that the maximum dose rate belongs to the kidney. The data may help calculate how long the staff can stay in such an environment, before the equivalent dose rates reach the whole-body dose limits.

  16. Development of a Monte Carlo multiple source model for inclusion in a dose calculation auditing tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faught, Austin M; Davidson, Scott E; Fontenot, Jonas; Kry, Stephen F; Etzel, Carol; Ibbott, Geoffrey S; Followill, David S

    2017-09-01

    The Imaging and Radiation Oncology Core Houston (IROC-H) (formerly the Radiological Physics Center) has reported varying levels of agreement in their anthropomorphic phantom audits. There is reason to believe one source of error in this observed disagreement is the accuracy of the dose calculation algorithms and heterogeneity corrections used. To audit this component of the radiotherapy treatment process, an independent dose calculation tool is needed. Monte Carlo multiple source models for Elekta 6 MV and 10 MV therapeutic x-ray beams were commissioned based on measurement of central axis depth dose data for a 10 × 10 cm 2 field size and dose profiles for a 40 × 40 cm 2 field size. The models were validated against open field measurements consisting of depth dose data and dose profiles for field sizes ranging from 3 × 3 cm 2 to 30 × 30 cm 2 . The models were then benchmarked against measurements in IROC-H's anthropomorphic head and neck and lung phantoms. Validation results showed 97.9% and 96.8% of depth dose data passed a ±2% Van Dyk criterion for 6 MV and 10 MV models respectively. Dose profile comparisons showed an average agreement using a ±2%/2 mm criterion of 98.0% and 99.0% for 6 MV and 10 MV models respectively. Phantom plan comparisons were evaluated using ±3%/2 mm gamma criterion, and averaged passing rates between Monte Carlo and measurements were 87.4% and 89.9% for 6 MV and 10 MV models respectively. Accurate multiple source models for Elekta 6 MV and 10 MV x-ray beams have been developed for inclusion in an independent dose calculation tool for use in clinical trial audits. © 2017 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  17. Monte Carlo Dosimetry of the 60Co BEBIG High Dose Rate for Brachytherapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Tourinho Campos

    Full Text Available The use of high-dose-rate brachytherapy is currently a widespread practice worldwide. The most common isotope source is 192Ir, but 60Co is also becoming available for HDR. One of main advantages of 60Co compared to 192Ir is the economic and practical benefit because of its longer half-live, which is 5.27 years. Recently, Eckert & Ziegler BEBIG, Germany, introduced a new afterloading brachytherapy machine (MultiSource®; it has the option to use either the 60Co or 192Ir HDR source. The source for the Monte Carlo calculations is the new 60Co source (model Co0.A86, which is referred to as the new BEBIG 60Co HDR source and is a modified version of the 60Co source (model GK60M21, which is also from BEBIG.The purpose of this work is to obtain the dosimetry parameters in accordance with the AAPM TG-43U1 formalism with Monte Carlo calculations regarding the BEBIG 60Co high-dose-rate brachytherapy to investigate the required treatment-planning parameters. The geometric design and material details of the source was provided by the manufacturer and was used to define the Monte Carlo geometry. To validate the source geometry, a few dosimetry parameters had to be calculated according to the AAPM TG-43U1 formalism. The dosimetry studies included the calculation of the air kerma strength Sk, collision kerma in water along the transverse axis with an unbounded phantom, dose rate constant and radial dose function. The Monte Carlo code system that was used was EGSnrc with a new cavity code, which is a part of EGS++ that allows calculating the radial dose function around the source. The spectrum to simulate 60Co was composed of two photon energies, 1.17 and 1.33 MeV. Only the gamma part of the spectrum was used; the contribution of the electrons to the dose is negligible because of the full absorption by the stainless-steel wall around the metallic 60Co. The XCOM photon cross-section library was used in subsequent simulations, and the photoelectric effect, pair

  18. Monte Carlo calculations for doses in organs and tissues to oral radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampaio, E.V.M.

    1985-01-01

    Using the MIRD 5 phantom and Monte Carlo technique, organ doses in patients undergoing external dental examination were calculated taking into account the different x-ray beam geometries and the various possible positions of x-ray source with regard to the head of the patient. It was necessary to introduce in the original computer program a new source description specific for dental examinations. To have a realistic evaluation of organ doses during dental examination it was necessary to introduce a new region in the phantom heat which characterizes the teeth and salivary glands. The attenuation of the x-ray beam by the lead shield of the radiographic film was also introduced in the calculation. (author)

  19. Absorbed dose measurements in mammography using Monte Carlo method and ZrO2+PTFE dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duran M, H. A.; Hernandez O, M.; Salas L, M. A.; Hernandez D, V. M.; Vega C, H. R.; Pinedo S, A.; Ventura M, J.; Chacon, F.; Rivera M, T.

    2009-10-01

    Mammography test is a central tool for breast cancer diagnostic. In addition, programs are conducted periodically to detect the asymptomatic women in certain age groups; these programs have shown a reduction on breast cancer mortality. Early detection of breast cancer is achieved through a mammography, which contrasts the glandular and adipose tissue with a probable calcification. The parameters used for mammography are based on the thickness and density of the breast, their values depend on the voltage, current, focal spot and anode-filter combination. To achieve an image clear and a minimum dose must be chosen appropriate irradiation conditions. Risk associated with mammography should not be ignored. This study was performed in the General Hospital No. 1 IMSS in Zacatecas. Was used a glucose phantom and measured air Kerma at the entrance of the breast that was calculated using Monte Carlo methods and ZrO 2 +PTFE thermoluminescent dosemeters, this calculation was completed with calculating the absorbed dose. (author)

  20. Effective dose evaluation of NORM-added consumer products using Monte Carlo simulations and the ICRP computational human phantoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyun Cheol; Yoo, Do Hyeon; Testa, Mauro; Shin, Wook-Geun; Choi, Hyun Joon; Ha, Wi-Ho; Yoo, Jaeryong; Yoon, Seokwon; Min, Chul Hee

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential hazard of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) added consumer products. Using the Monte Carlo method, the radioactive products were simulated with ICRP reference phantom and the organ doses were calculated with the usage scenario. Finally, the annual effective doses were evaluated as lower than the public dose limit of 1 mSv y −1 for 44 products. It was demonstrated that NORM-added consumer products could be quantitatively assessed for the safety regulation. - Highlights: • Consumer products considered that NORM would be included should be regulated. • 44 products were collected and its gamma activities were measured with HPGe detector. • Through Monte Carlo simulation, organ equivalent doses and effective doses on human phantom were calculated. • All annual effective doses for the products were evaluated as lower than dose limit for the public.

  1. Absorbed dose calculations using mesh-based human phantoms and Monte Carlo methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Full text. Health risks attributable to ionizing radiation are considered to be a function of the absorbed dose to radiosensitive organs and tissues of the human body. However, as human tissue cannot express itself in terms of absorbed dose, exposure models have to be used to determine the distribution of absorbed dose throughout the human body. An exposure model, be it physical or virtual, consists of a representation of the human body, called phantom, plus a method for transporting ionizing radiation through the phantom and measuring or calculating the absorbed dose to organ and tissues of interest. Female Adult meSH (FASH) and the Male Adult meSH (MASH) virtual phantoms have been developed at the University of Pernambuco in Recife/Brazil based on polygon mesh surfaces using open source software tools. Representing standing adults, FASH and MASH have organ and tissue masses, body height and mass adjusted to the anatomical data published by the International Commission on Radiological Protection for the reference male and female adult. For the purposes of absorbed dose calculations the phantoms have been coupled to the EGSnrc Monte Carlo code, which transports photons, electrons and positrons through arbitrary media. This presentation reports on the development of the FASH and the MASH phantoms and will show dosimetric applications for X-ray diagnosis and for prostate brachytherapy. (author)

  2. Absorbed Dose Calculations Using Mesh-based Human Phantoms And Monte Carlo Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Health risks attributable to the exposure to ionizing radiation are considered to be a function of the absorbed or equivalent dose to radiosensitive organs and tissues. However, as human tissue cannot express itself in terms of equivalent dose, exposure models have to be used to determine the distribution of equivalent dose throughout the human body. An exposure model, be it physical or computational, consists of a representation of the human body, called phantom, plus a method for transporting ionizing radiation through the phantom and measuring or calculating the equivalent dose to organ and tissues of interest. The FASH2 (Female Adult meSH) and the MASH2 (Male Adult meSH) computational phantoms have been developed at the University of Pernambuco in Recife/Brazil based on polygon mesh surfaces using open source software tools and anatomical atlases. Representing standing adults, FASH2 and MASH2 have organ and tissue masses, body height and body mass adjusted to the anatomical data published by the International Commission on Radiological Protection for the reference male and female adult. For the purposes of absorbed dose calculations the phantoms have been coupled to the EGSnrc Monte Carlo code, which can transport photons, electrons and positrons through arbitrary media. This paper reviews the development of the FASH2 and the MASH2 phantoms and presents dosimetric applications for X-ray diagnosis and for prostate brachytherapy.

  3. Absorbed Dose Calculations Using Mesh-based Human Phantoms And Monte Carlo Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Richard

    2011-08-01

    Health risks attributable to the exposure to ionizing radiation are considered to be a function of the absorbed or equivalent dose to radiosensitive organs and tissues. However, as human tissue cannot express itself in terms of equivalent dose, exposure models have to be used to determine the distribution of equivalent dose throughout the human body. An exposure model, be it physical or computational, consists of a representation of the human body, called phantom, plus a method for transporting ionizing radiation through the phantom and measuring or calculating the equivalent dose to organ and tissues of interest. The FASH2 (Female Adult meSH) and the MASH2 (Male Adult meSH) computational phantoms have been developed at the University of Pernambuco in Recife/Brazil based on polygon mesh surfaces using open source software tools and anatomical atlases. Representing standing adults, FASH2 and MASH2 have organ and tissue masses, body height and body mass adjusted to the anatomical data published by the International Commission on Radiological Protection for the reference male and female adult. For the purposes of absorbed dose calculations the phantoms have been coupled to the EGSnrc Monte Carlo code, which can transport photons, electrons and positrons through arbitrary media. This paper reviews the development of the FASH2 and the MASH2 phantoms and presents dosimetric applications for X-ray diagnosis and for prostate brachytherapy.

  4. X-ray dose estimation from cathode ray tube monitors by Monte Carlo calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaledi, Navid; Arbabi, Azim; Dabaghi, Moloud

    2015-04-01

    Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) monitors are associated with the possible emission of bremsstrahlung radiation produced by electrons striking the monitor screen. Because of the low dose rate, accurate dosimetry is difficult. In this study, the dose equivalent (DE) and effective dose (ED) to an operator working in front of the monitor have been calculated using the Monte Carlo (MC) method by employing the MCNP code. The mean energy of photons reaching the operator was above 17 keV. The phantom ED was 454 μSv y (348 nSv h), which was reduced to 16 μSv y (12 nSv h) after adding a conventional leaded glass sheet. The ambient dose equivalent (ADE) and personal dose equivalent (PDE) for the head, neck, and thorax of the phantom were also calculated. The uncertainty of calculated ED, ADE, and PDE ranged from 3.3% to 10.7% and 4.2% to 14.6% without and with the leaded glass, respectively.

  5. Monte Carlo dosimetry of the IRAsource high dose rate 192Ir brachytherapy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarabiasl, Akbar; Ayoobian, Navid; Jabbari, Iraj; Poorbaygi, Hossein; Javanshir, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    High-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy is a common method for cancer treatment in clinical brachytherapy. Because of the different source designs, there is a need for specific dosimetry data set for each HDR model. The purpose of this study is to obtain detailed dose rate distributions in water phantom for a first prototype HDR 192 Ir brachytherapy source model, IRAsource, and compare with the other published works. In this study, Monte Carlo N-particle (MCNP version 4C) code was used to simulate the dose rate distributions around the HDR source. A full set of dosimetry parameters reported by the American Association of Physicists in Medicine Task Group No. 43U1 was evaluated. Also, the absorbed dose rate distributions in water, were obtained in an along-away look-up table. The dose rate constant, Λ, of the IRAsource was evaluated to be equal to 1.112 ± 0.005 cGy h −1 U −1 . The results of dosimetry parameters are presented in tabulated and graphical formats and compared with those reported from other commercially available HDR 192 Ir sources, which are in good agreement. This justifies the use of specific data sets for this new source. The results obtained in this study can be used as input data in the conventional treatment planning systems.

  6. Absorbed dose calculations using mesh-based human phantoms and Monte Carlo methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, Richard [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Full text. Health risks attributable to ionizing radiation are considered to be a function of the absorbed dose to radiosensitive organs and tissues of the human body. However, as human tissue cannot express itself in terms of absorbed dose, exposure models have to be used to determine the distribution of absorbed dose throughout the human body. An exposure model, be it physical or virtual, consists of a representation of the human body, called phantom, plus a method for transporting ionizing radiation through the phantom and measuring or calculating the absorbed dose to organ and tissues of interest. Female Adult meSH (FASH) and the Male Adult meSH (MASH) virtual phantoms have been developed at the University of Pernambuco in Recife/Brazil based on polygon mesh surfaces using open source software tools. Representing standing adults, FASH and MASH have organ and tissue masses, body height and mass adjusted to the anatomical data published by the International Commission on Radiological Protection for the reference male and female adult. For the purposes of absorbed dose calculations the phantoms have been coupled to the EGSnrc Monte Carlo code, which transports photons, electrons and positrons through arbitrary media. This presentation reports on the development of the FASH and the MASH phantoms and will show dosimetric applications for X-ray diagnosis and for prostate brachytherapy. (author)

  7. Radiation dose performance in the triple-source CT based on a Monte Carlo method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhenyu; Zhao, Jun

    2012-10-01

    Multiple-source structure is promising in the development of computed tomography, for it could effectively eliminate motion artifacts in the cardiac scanning and other time-critical implementations with high temporal resolution. However, concerns about the dose performance shade this technique, as few reports on the evaluation of dose performance of multiple-source CT have been proposed for judgment. Our experiments focus on the dose performance of one specific multiple-source CT geometry, the triple-source CT scanner, whose theories and implementations have already been well-established and testified by our previous work. We have modeled the triple-source CT geometry with the help of EGSnrc Monte Carlo radiation transport code system, and simulated the CT examinations of a digital chest phantom with our modified version of the software, using x-ray spectrum according to the data of physical tube. Single-source CT geometry is also estimated and tested for evaluation and comparison. Absorbed dose of each organ is calculated according to its real physics characteristics. Results show that the absorbed radiation dose of organs with the triple-source CT is almost equal to that with the single-source CT system. As the advantage of temporal resolution, the triple-source CT would be a better choice in the x-ray cardiac examination.

  8. The Monte Carlo Assessment of Photon Organ Doses from 222Rn Progeny in Adult ORNL Phantom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shila Banari Bahnamiri

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The potential hazards posed by exposure to radiation from radon have been of great concern worldwide, since it is especially associated with increased risk of lung cancer. Some radioisotopes of radon progeny deposited in the human lungs emit β particles followed by the γ rays. While γ rays are comparatively less damaging to the respiratory system than α and β particles, it is the principal deposited energy in other organs. Materials and Methods In order to establish a quantitative estimate of hazards caused by the radiation, this paper studies the photon absorbed doses from radon progeny in all major organs of the human body through a simulation of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL adult phantom using MCNPX2.4.0 Monte Carlo code and calculations which were performed in photon/electron mode. Results Effective dose due to photons from radon progeny deposited in the human lungs was about 1.69 µSvWLM-1. Based on UNSCEAR2006 reports, the effective dose of these photons per year is about 5.76´10-1mSv  in for radon concentration of 31000 Bq/m3  (the maximum concentration of radon in Iran. Therefore, this value is comparable with 1mSv (The annual allowable effective dose. Conclusion The dosimetry of photons particularly in areas with high levels of exposure to radon and radon's decay products is important because all organs receive the photon absorbed dose from radon progeny.

  9. A Monte Carlo evaluation of carbon and lithium ions dose distributions in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taleei, Reza; Hultqvist, Martha; Gudowska, Irena; Nikjoo, Hooshang

    2012-01-01

    To compare dose distributions on the central- and off-axis for (12)C and (7)Li ion beams simulated by the codes SHIELD-HIT (Heavy Ion Transport) and FLUKA (FLUKtuierende KAskade), and compare with experimental data for 300 MeV/u (12)C and 185 MeV/u (7)Li ion beams. The general purpose Monte Carlo codes, SHIELD-HIT10 and FLUKA 2008.3d.1 were used for the ion dose distribution calculations. SHIELD-HIT transports hadrons and atomic nuclei of arbitrary charge and mass number in an energy range from 1 keV/u up to 1 GeV/u. Similarly, FLUKA transports charged hadrons in an energy range from 100 keV up to 20 TeV. Neutrons are transported down to thermal energies in both codes. Inelastic nuclear interactions are modelled in SHIELD-HIT by the Many Stage Dynamical Model (MSDM), whereas in FLUKA the Pre-Equilibrium Approach to Nuclear Thermalisation (PEANUT) package which includes a Generalized Intra-Nuclear Cascade model was used. The dose distributions in water irradiated with 300 MeV/u (12)C and 185 MeV/u (7)Li ion beams were simulated with the two codes. Studies were performed of the energy deposition both on the central axis and at lateral distances up to 10 cm off-axis. The dose distributions calculated by SHIELD-HIT and FLUKA were compared with published experimental data. The dose mean lineal energy [Formula: see text], frequency mean lineal energy [Formula: see text], dose mean specific energy [Formula: see text], and frequency mean specific energy [Formula: see text] were calculated with the ion track-structure code PITS99 (Positive Ion Track Structure 99), coupled with the electron code KURBUC for the primary and secondary ions average energies at 1 mm before the Bragg peak. The Monte Carlo codes show good agreement with experimental results for off-axis dose distributions. The disagreements in the Bragg peak region for the central-axis dose distributions imply that further improvements especially in the nuclear interaction models are required to increase the

  10. IMRT implementation and patient specific dose verification with film and ion chamber array detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saminathan, S.; Manickam, R.; Chandraraj, V.; Supe, S. S.; Keshava, S. L.

    2009-01-01

    Implementation of Intensity Modulation Radiotherapy (IMRT) and patient dose verification was carried out with film and I'mariXX using linear accelerator with 120-leaf Millennium dynamic multi leaf collimator (dMLC). The basic mechanical and electrical commissioning and quality assurance tests of linear accelerator were carried out. The leaf position accuracy and leaf position repeatability checks were performed for static MLC positions. Picket fence test and garden fence test were performed to check the stability of the dMLC and the reproducibility of the gap between leaves. The radiation checks were performed to verify the position accuracy of MLCs in the collimator system. The dMLC dosimetric checks like output stability, average leaf transmission and dosimetric leaf separation were also investigated. The variation of output with gravitation at different gantry angles was found to be within 0.9%. The measured average leaf transmission for 6 MV was 1.6% and 1.8% for 18 MV beam. The dosimetric leaf separation was found to be 2.2 mm and 2.3 mm for 6 MV and 18 MV beams. In order to check the consistency of the stability and the precision of the dMLC, it is necessary to carryout regular weekly and monthly checks. The dynalog files analysis for Garden fence, leaf gap width and step wedge test patterns carried out weekly were in good agreement. Pretreatment verification was performed for 50 patients with ion chamber and I'matiXX device. The variations of calculated absolute dose for all treatment fields with the ion chamber measurement were within the acceptable criterion. Treatment Planning System (TPS) calculated dose distribution pattern was comparable with the I'matriXX measured dose distribution pattern. Out of 50 patients for which the comparison was made, 36 patients were agreed with the gamma pixel match of>95% and 14 patients were with the gamma pixel match of 90-95% with the criteria of 3% delta dose (DD) and 3 mm distance-to-agreement (DTA). Commissioning and

  11. Monte Carlo analysis of pion contribution to absorbed dose from Galactic cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aghara, S.K.; Blattnig, S.R.; Norbury, J.W.; Singleterry, R.C.

    2009-01-01

    Accurate knowledge of the physics of interaction, particle production and transport is necessary to estimate the radiation damage to equipment used on spacecraft and the biological effects of space radiation. For long duration astronaut missions, both on the International Space Station and the planned manned missions to Moon and Mars, the shielding strategy must include a comprehensive knowledge of the secondary radiation environment. The distribution of absorbed dose and dose equivalent is a function of the type, energy and population of these secondary products. Galactic cosmic rays (GCR) comprised of protons and heavier nuclei have energies from a few MeV per nucleon to the ZeV region, with the spectra reaching flux maxima in the hundreds of MeV range. Therefore, the MeV-GeV region is most important for space radiation. Coincidentally, the pion production energy threshold is about 280 MeV. The question naturally arises as to how important these particles are with respect to space radiation problems. The space radiation transport code, HZETRN (High charge (Z) and Energy TRaNsport), currently used by NASA, performs neutron, proton and heavy ion transport explicitly, but it does not take into account the production and transport of mesons, photons and leptons. In this paper, we present results from the Monte Carlo code MCNPX (Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended), showing the effect of leptons and mesons when they are produced and transported in a GCR environment.

  12. Monte Carlo analysis of pion contribution to absorbed dose from Galactic cosmic rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aghara, S.K. [Prairie View A and M University, Chemical Engineering (Nuclear Program), P.O. Box 519, MS 2505, Prairie View, TX 77446 (United States)], E-mail: Sukesh.K.Aghara@nasa.gov; Blattnig, S.R.; Norbury, J.W.; Singleterry, R.C. [NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA 23681 (United States)

    2009-04-15

    Accurate knowledge of the physics of interaction, particle production and transport is necessary to estimate the radiation damage to equipment used on spacecraft and the biological effects of space radiation. For long duration astronaut missions, both on the International Space Station and the planned manned missions to Moon and Mars, the shielding strategy must include a comprehensive knowledge of the secondary radiation environment. The distribution of absorbed dose and dose equivalent is a function of the type, energy and population of these secondary products. Galactic cosmic rays (GCR) comprised of protons and heavier nuclei have energies from a few MeV per nucleon to the ZeV region, with the spectra reaching flux maxima in the hundreds of MeV range. Therefore, the MeV-GeV region is most important for space radiation. Coincidentally, the pion production energy threshold is about 280 MeV. The question naturally arises as to how important these particles are with respect to space radiation problems. The space radiation transport code, HZETRN (High charge (Z) and Energy TRaNsport), currently used by NASA, performs neutron, proton and heavy ion transport explicitly, but it does not take into account the production and transport of mesons, photons and leptons. In this paper, we present results from the Monte Carlo code MCNPX (Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended), showing the effect of leptons and mesons when they are produced and transported in a GCR environment.

  13. Calculation of the external effective dose from a radioactive plume by using Monte Carlo dose kernel integration

    CERN Document Server

    Vojtyla, P

    2005-01-01

    The radiological impact of emissions of radioactive substances from accelerator facilities is characterized by a dominant contribution of the external exposure from short-lived radionuclides in the plume. Ventilation outlets of accelerator facilities are often at low emission heights and receptors reside very close to stacks. Simplified exposure models are not appropriate and integration of the dose kernel over the radioactive plume is required. By using Monte Carlo integration with certain biasing, the integrand can be simplified substantially and an optimum spatial resolution can be achieved. Moreover, long-term releases can be modeled by sampling real weather situations. The mathematical formulation does not depend on any particular atmospheric dispersion model and the applicable code parts can be designed separately, which is another advantage. The obtained results agree within ±10% with results calculated for the semi-infinite cloud model by using detailed particle transport codes and human phantoms.

  14. Monte Carlo dose calculation improvements for low energy electron beams using eMC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fix, Michael K; Frei, Daniel; Volken, Werner; Born, Ernst J; Manser, Peter; Neuenschwander, Hans

    2010-01-01

    The electron Monte Carlo (eMC) dose calculation algorithm in Eclipse (Varian Medical Systems) is based on the macro MC method and is able to predict dose distributions for high energy electron beams with high accuracy. However, there are limitations for low energy electron beams. This work aims to improve the accuracy of the dose calculation using eMC for 4 and 6 MeV electron beams of Varian linear accelerators. Improvements implemented into the eMC include (1) improved determination of the initial electron energy spectrum by increased resolution of mono-energetic depth dose curves used during beam configuration; (2) inclusion of all the scrapers of the applicator in the beam model; (3) reduction of the maximum size of the sphere to be selected within the macro MC transport when the energy of the incident electron is below certain thresholds. The impact of these changes in eMC is investigated by comparing calculated dose distributions for 4 and 6 MeV electron beams at source to surface distance (SSD) of 100 and 110 cm with applicators ranging from 6 x 6 to 25 x 25 cm 2 of a Varian Clinac 2300C/D with the corresponding measurements. Dose differences between calculated and measured absolute depth dose curves are reduced from 6% to less than 1.5% for both energies and all applicators considered at SSD of 100 cm. Using the original eMC implementation, absolute dose profiles at depths of 1 cm, d max and R50 in water lead to dose differences of up to 8% for applicators larger than 15 x 15 cm 2 at SSD 100 cm. Those differences are now reduced to less than 2% for all dose profiles investigated when the improved version of eMC is used. At SSD of 110 cm the dose difference for the original eMC version is even more pronounced and can be larger than 10%. Those differences are reduced to within 2% or 2 mm with the improved version of eMC. In this work several enhancements were made in the eMC algorithm leading to significant improvements in the accuracy of the dose calculation

  15. Monte Carlo dose calculation improvements for low energy electron beams using eMC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fix, Michael K; Frei, Daniel; Volken, Werner; Neuenschwander, Hans; Born, Ernst J; Manser, Peter

    2010-08-21

    The electron Monte Carlo (eMC) dose calculation algorithm in Eclipse (Varian Medical Systems) is based on the macro MC method and is able to predict dose distributions for high energy electron beams with high accuracy. However, there are limitations for low energy electron beams. This work aims to improve the accuracy of the dose calculation using eMC for 4 and 6 MeV electron beams of Varian linear accelerators. Improvements implemented into the eMC include (1) improved determination of the initial electron energy spectrum by increased resolution of mono-energetic depth dose curves used during beam configuration; (2) inclusion of all the scrapers of the applicator in the beam model; (3) reduction of the maximum size of the sphere to be selected within the macro MC transport when the energy of the incident electron is below certain thresholds. The impact of these changes in eMC is investigated by comparing calculated dose distributions for 4 and 6 MeV electron beams at source to surface distance (SSD) of 100 and 110 cm with applicators ranging from 6 x 6 to 25 x 25 cm(2) of a Varian Clinac 2300C/D with the corresponding measurements. Dose differences between calculated and measured absolute depth dose curves are reduced from 6% to less than 1.5% for both energies and all applicators considered at SSD of 100 cm. Using the original eMC implementation, absolute dose profiles at depths of 1 cm, d(max) and R50 in water lead to dose differences of up to 8% for applicators larger than 15 x 15 cm(2) at SSD 100 cm. Those differences are now reduced to less than 2% for all dose profiles investigated when the improved version of eMC is used. At SSD of 110 cm the dose difference for the original eMC version is even more pronounced and can be larger than 10%. Those differences are reduced to within 2% or 2 mm with the improved version of eMC. In this work several enhancements were made in the eMC algorithm leading to significant improvements in the accuracy of the dose

  16. TU-AB-BRC-12: Optimized Parallel MonteCarlo Dose Calculations for Secondary MU Checks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    French, S; Nazareth, D [Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY (United States); Bellor, M [Lockheed Martin, Manassas, VA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Secondary MU checks are an important tool used during a physics review of a treatment plan. Commercial software packages offer varying degrees of theoretical dose calculation accuracy, depending on the modality involved. Dose calculations of VMAT plans are especially prone to error due to the large approximations involved. Monte Carlo (MC) methods are not commonly used due to their long run times. We investigated two methods to increase the computational efficiency of MC dose simulations with the BEAMnrc code. Distributed computing resources, along with optimized code compilation, will allow for accurate and efficient VMAT dose calculations. Methods: The BEAMnrc package was installed on a high performance computing cluster accessible to our clinic. MATLAB and PYTHON scripts were developed to convert a clinical VMAT DICOM plan into BEAMnrc input files. The BEAMnrc installation was optimized by running the VMAT simulations through profiling tools which indicated the behavior of the constituent routines in the code, e.g. the bremsstrahlung splitting routine, and the specified random number generator. This information aided in determining the most efficient compiling parallel configuration for the specific CPU’s available on our cluster, resulting in the fastest VMAT simulation times. Our method was evaluated with calculations involving 10{sup 8} – 10{sup 9} particle histories which are sufficient to verify patient dose using VMAT. Results: Parallelization allowed the calculation of patient dose on the order of 10 – 15 hours with 100 parallel jobs. Due to the compiler optimization process, further speed increases of 23% were achieved when compared with the open-source compiler BEAMnrc packages. Conclusion: Analysis of the BEAMnrc code allowed us to optimize the compiler configuration for VMAT dose calculations. In future work, the optimized MC code, in conjunction with the parallel processing capabilities of BEAMnrc, will be applied to provide accurate

  17. Correction for FDG PET dose extravasations: Monte Carlo validation and quantitative evaluation of patient studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva-Rodríguez, Jesús, E-mail: jesus.silva.rodriguez@sergas.es; Aguiar, Pablo, E-mail: pablo.aguiar.fernandez@sergas.es [Fundación Ramón Domínguez, Santiago de Compostela, Galicia (Spain); Servicio de Medicina Nuclear, Complexo Hospitalario Universidade de Santiago de Compostela (USC), 15782, Galicia (Spain); Grupo de Imaxe Molecular, Instituto de Investigación Sanitarias (IDIS), Santiago de Compostela, 15706, Galicia (Spain); Sánchez, Manuel; Mosquera, Javier; Luna-Vega, Víctor [Servicio de Radiofísica y Protección Radiológica, Complexo Hospitalario Universidade de Santiago de Compostela (USC), 15782, Galicia (Spain); Cortés, Julia; Garrido, Miguel [Servicio de Medicina Nuclear, Complexo Hospitalario Universitario de Santiago de Compostela, 15706, Galicia, Spain and Grupo de Imaxe Molecular, Instituto de Investigación Sanitarias (IDIS), Santiago de Compostela, 15706, Galicia (Spain); Pombar, Miguel [Servicio de Radiofísica y Protección Radiológica, Complexo Hospitalario Universitario de Santiago de Compostela, 15706, Galicia (Spain); Ruibal, Álvaro [Servicio de Medicina Nuclear, Complexo Hospitalario Universidade de Santiago de Compostela (USC), 15782, Galicia (Spain); Grupo de Imaxe Molecular, Instituto de Investigación Sanitarias (IDIS), Santiago de Compostela, 15706, Galicia (Spain); Fundación Tejerina, 28003, Madrid (Spain)

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: Current procedure guidelines for whole body [18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET) state that studies with visible dose extravasations should be rejected for quantification protocols. Our work is focused on the development and validation of methods for estimating extravasated doses in order to correct standard uptake value (SUV) values for this effect in clinical routine. Methods: One thousand three hundred sixty-seven consecutive whole body FDG-PET studies were visually inspected looking for extravasation cases. Two methods for estimating the extravasated dose were proposed and validated in different scenarios using Monte Carlo simulations. All visible extravasations were retrospectively evaluated using a manual ROI based method. In addition, the 50 patients with higher extravasated doses were also evaluated using a threshold-based method. Results: Simulation studies showed that the proposed methods for estimating extravasated doses allow us to compensate the impact of extravasations on SUV values with an error below 5%. The quantitative evaluation of patient studies revealed that paravenous injection is a relatively frequent effect (18%) with a small fraction of patients presenting considerable extravasations ranging from 1% to a maximum of 22% of the injected dose. A criterion based on the extravasated volume and maximum concentration was established in order to identify this fraction of patients that might be corrected for paravenous injection effect. Conclusions: The authors propose the use of a manual ROI based method for estimating the effectively administered FDG dose and then correct SUV quantification in those patients fulfilling the proposed criterion.

  18. Monte Carlo calculations and measurements of absorbed dose per monitor unit for the treatment of uveal melanoma with proton therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Nicholas; Newhauser, Wayne D; Titt, Uwe; Starkschall, George [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Blvd, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Gombos, Dan [Section of Ophthalmology, Department of Head and Neck Surgery MDACC Unit 441 (United States); Coombes, Kevin [Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Texas Health Science Center, 6767 Bertner Avenue, Houston, TX 77030 (United States)], E-mail: kochn@musc.edu

    2008-03-21

    The treatment of uveal melanoma with proton radiotherapy has provided excellent clinical outcomes. However, contemporary treatment planning systems use simplistic dose algorithms that limit the accuracy of relative dose distributions. Further, absolute predictions of absorbed dose per monitor unit are not yet available in these systems. The purpose of this study was to determine if Monte Carlo methods could predict dose per monitor unit (D/MU) value at the center of a proton spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP) to within 1% on measured values for a variety of treatment fields relevant to ocular proton therapy. The MCNPX Monte Carlo transport code, in combination with realistic models for the ocular beam delivery apparatus and a water phantom, was used to calculate dose distributions and D/MU values, which were verified by the measurements. Measured proton beam data included central-axis depth dose profiles, relative cross-field profiles and absolute D/MU measurements under several combinations of beam penetration ranges and range-modulation widths. The Monte Carlo method predicted D/MU values that agreed with measurement to within 1% and dose profiles that agreed with measurement to within 3% of peak dose or within 0.5 mm distance-to-agreement. Lastly, a demonstration of the clinical utility of this technique included calculations of dose distributions and D/MU values in a realistic model of the human eye. It is possible to predict D/MU values accurately for clinical relevant range-modulated proton beams for ocular therapy using the Monte Carlo method. It is thus feasible to use the Monte Carlo method as a routine absolute dose algorithm for ocular proton therapy.

  19. On the use of Monte Carlo-derived dosimetric data in the estimation of patient dose from CT examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perisinakis, Kostas; Tzedakis, Antonis; Damilakis, John

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate the applicability and appropriateness of Monte Carlo-derived normalized data to provide accurate estimations of patient dose from computed tomography (CT) exposures. Monte Carlo methodology and mathematical anthropomorphic phantoms were used to simulate standard patient CT examinations of the head, thorax, abdomen, and trunk performed on a multislice CT scanner. Phantoms were generated to simulate the average adult individual and two individuals with different body sizes. Normalized dose values for all radiosensitive organs and normalized effective dose values were calculated for standard axial and spiral CT examinations. Discrepancies in CT dosimetry using Monte Carlo-derived coefficients originating from the use of: (a) Conversion coefficients derived for axial CT exposures, (b) a mathematical anthropomorphic phantom of standard body size to derive conversion coefficients, and (c) data derived for a specific CT scanner to estimate patient dose from CT examinations performed on a different scanner, were separately evaluated. The percentage differences between the normalized organ dose values derived for contiguous axial scans and the corresponding values derived for spiral scans with pitch = 1 and the same total scanning length were up to 10%, while the corresponding percentage differences in normalized effective dose values were less than 0.7% for all standard CT examinations. The normalized organ dose values for standard spiral CT examinations with pitch 0.5-1.5 were found to differ from the corresponding values derived for contiguous axial scans divided by the pitch, by less than 14% while the corresponding percentage differences in normalized effective dose values were less than 1% for all standard CT examinations. Normalized effective dose values for the standard contiguous axial CT examinations derived by Monte Carlo simulation were found to considerably decrease with increasing body size of the mathematical

  20. Monte Carlo skin dose simulation in intraoperative radiotherapy of breast cancer using spherical applicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, F.; Ung, N. M.; Khandaker, M. U.; Mahdiraji, G. A.; Saad, M.; Malik, R. Abdul; Bustam, A. Z.; Zaili, Z.; Bradley, D. A.

    2017-08-01

    The relatively new treatment modality electronic intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) is gaining popularity, irradiation being obtained within a surgically produced cavity being delivered via a low-energy x-ray source and spherical applicators, primarily for early stage breast cancer. Due to the spatially dramatic dose-rate fall off with radial distance from the source and effects related to changes in the beam quality of the low keV photon spectra, dosimetric account of the Intrabeam system is rather complex. Skin dose monitoring in IORT is important due to the high dose prescription per treatment fraction. In this study, modeling of the x-ray source and related applicators were performed using the Monte Carlo N-Particle transport code. The dosimetric characteristics of the model were validated against measured data obtained using an ionization chamber and EBT3 film as dosimeters. By using a simulated breast phantom, absorbed doses to the skin for different combinations of applicator size (1.5-5 cm) and treatment depth (0.5-3 cm) were calculated. Simulation results showed overdosing of the skin (>30% of prescribed dose) at a treatment depth of 0.5 cm using applicator sizes larger than 1.5 cm. Skin doses were significantly increased with applicator size, insofar as delivering 12 Gy (60% of the prescribed dose) to skin for the largest sized applicator (5 cm diameter) and treatment depth of 0.5 cm. It is concluded that the recommended 0.5-1 cm distance between the skin and applicator surface does not guarantee skin safety and skin dose is generally more significant in cases with the larger applicators. Highlights: • Intrabeam x-ray source and spherical applicators were simulated and skin dose was calculated. • Skin dose for constant skin to applicator distance strongly depends on applicator size. • Use of larger applicators generally results in higher skin dose. • The recommended 0.5-1 cm skin to applicator distance does not guarantee skin

  1. Moving from organ dose to microdosimetry: contribution of the Monte Carlo simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Champion

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available When living cells are irradiated by charged particles, a wide variety of interactions occurs that leads to a deep modification of the biological material. To understand the fine structure of the microscopic distribution of the energy deposits, Monte Carlo event-by-event simulations are particularly suitable. However, the development of these track structure codes needs accurate interaction cross sections for all the electronic processes: ionization, excitation, Positronium formation (for incident positrons and even elastic scattering. Under these conditions, we have recently developed a Monte Carlo code for electrons and positrons in water, this latter being commonly used to simulate the biological medium. All the processes are studied in detail via theoretical differential and total cross sections calculated by using partial wave methods. Comparisons with existing theoretical and experimental data show very good agreements. Moreover, this kind of detailed description allows one access to a useful microdosimetry, which can be coupled to a geometrical modelling of the target organ and then provide a detailed dose calculation at the nanometric scale.Quando células vivas são irradiadas por partículas carregadas, ocorre uma grande variedade de interações, o que leva a uma modificação profunda do material biológico. Para entender a delicada estrutura da distribuição microscópica dos depósitos de energia, as simulações de Monte Carlo são particularmente adequadas. Entretanto, o desenvolvimento destes códigos necessitam de amostras representativa de interações perfeitas para todos os processos eletrônicos: ionização, excitação, formação de positrônico (para pósitrons incidentes e mesmo espalhamento elástico. Nessas condições, nós desenvolvemos recentemente um código Monte Carlo para elétrons e pósitrons em água usada posteriormente para simular o meio biológico. Todos os processos são estudados detalhadamente via se

  2. Fast CPU-based Monte Carlo simulation for radiotherapy dose calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegenhein, Peter; Pirner, Sven; Kamerling, Cornelis Ph; Oelfke, Uwe

    2015-08-01

    Monte-Carlo (MC) simulations are considered to be the most accurate method for calculating dose distributions in radiotherapy. Its clinical application, however, still is limited by the long runtimes conventional implementations of MC algorithms require to deliver sufficiently accurate results on high resolution imaging data. In order to overcome this obstacle we developed the software-package PhiMC, which is capable of computing precise dose distributions in a sub-minute time-frame by leveraging the potential of modern many- and multi-core CPU-based computers. PhiMC is based on the well verified dose planning method (DPM). We could demonstrate that PhiMC delivers dose distributions which are in excellent agreement to DPM. The multi-core implementation of PhiMC scales well between different computer architectures and achieves a speed-up of up to 37× compared to the original DPM code executed on a modern system. Furthermore, we could show that our CPU-based implementation on a modern workstation is between 1.25× and 1.95× faster than a well-known GPU implementation of the same simulation method on a NVIDIA Tesla C2050. Since CPUs work on several hundreds of GB RAM the typical GPU memory limitation does not apply for our implementation and high resolution clinical plans can be calculated.

  3. Dose rate evaluation of body phantom behind ITER bio-shield wall using Monte Carlo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beheshti, A.; Jabbari, I.; Karimian, A.; Abdi, M.

    2012-01-01

    One of the most critical risks to humans in reactors environment is radiation exposure. Around the tokamak hall personnel are exposed to a wide range of particles, including neutrons and photons. International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is a nuclear fusion research and engineering project, which is the most advanced experimental tokamak nuclear fusion reactor. Dose rates assessment and photon radiation due to the neutron activation of the solid structures in ITER is important from the radiological point of view. Therefore, the dosimetry considered in this case is based on the Deuterium-Tritium (DT) plasma burning with neutrons production rate at 14.1 MeV. The aim of this study is assessment the amount of radiation behind bio-shield wall that a human received during normal operation of ITER by considering neutron activation and delay gammas. To achieve the aim, the ITER system and its components were simulated by Monte Carlo method. Also to increase the accuracy and precision of the absorbed dose assessment a body phantom were considered in the simulation. The results of this research showed that total dose rates level near the outside of bio-shield wall of the tokamak hall is less than ten percent of the annual occupational dose limits during normal operation of ITER and It is possible to learn how long human beings can remain in that environment before the body absorbs dangerous levels of radiation. (authors)

  4. Use of Monte Carlo simulation software for calculating effective dose in cone beam computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes B, W. O.

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to develop a geometry of irradiation applicable to the software PCXMC and the consequent calculation of effective dose in applications of the Computed Tomography Cone Beam (CBCT). We evaluated two different CBCT equipment s for dental applications: Care stream Cs 9000 3-dimensional tomograph; i-CAT and GENDEX GXCB-500. Initially characterize each protocol measuring the surface kerma input and the product kerma air-area, P KA , with solid state detectors RADCAL and PTW transmission chamber. Then we introduce the technical parameters of each preset protocols and geometric conditions in the PCXMC software to obtain the values of effective dose. The calculated effective dose is within the range of 9.0 to 15.7 μSv for 3-dimensional computer 9000 Cs; within the range 44.5 to 89 μSv for GXCB-500 equipment and in the range of 62-111 μSv for equipment Classical i-CAT. These values were compared with results obtained dosimetry using TLD implanted in anthropomorphic phantom and are considered consistent. Os effective dose results are very sensitive to the geometry of radiation (beam position in mathematical phantom). This factor translates to a factor of fragility software usage. But it is very useful to get quick answers to regarding process optimization tool conclusions protocols. We conclude that use software PCXMC Monte Carlo simulation is useful assessment protocols for CBCT tests in dental applications. (Author)

  5. Use of Monte Carlo simulation software for calculating effective dose in cone beam computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes B, W. O., E-mail: wilsonottobatista@gmail.com [Instituto Federal da Bahia, Rua Emidio dos Santos s/n, Barbalho 40301-015, Salvador de Bahia (Brazil)

    2016-10-15

    This study aimed to develop a geometry of irradiation applicable to the software PCXMC and the consequent calculation of effective dose in applications of the Computed Tomography Cone Beam (CBCT). We evaluated two different CBCT equipment s for dental applications: Care stream Cs 9000 3-dimensional tomograph; i-CAT and GENDEX GXCB-500. Initially characterize each protocol measuring the surface kerma input and the product kerma air-area, P{sub KA}, with solid state detectors RADCAL and PTW transmission chamber. Then we introduce the technical parameters of each preset protocols and geometric conditions in the PCXMC software to obtain the values of effective dose. The calculated effective dose is within the range of 9.0 to 15.7 μSv for 3-dimensional computer 9000 Cs; within the range 44.5 to 89 μSv for GXCB-500 equipment and in the range of 62-111 μSv for equipment Classical i-CAT. These values were compared with results obtained dosimetry using TLD implanted in anthropomorphic phantom and are considered consistent. Os effective dose results are very sensitive to the geometry of radiation (beam position in mathematical phantom). This factor translates to a factor of fragility software usage. But it is very useful to get quick answers to regarding process optimization tool conclusions protocols. We conclude that use software PCXMC Monte Carlo simulation is useful assessment protocols for CBCT tests in dental applications. (Author)

  6. GPU-accelerated Monte Carlo convolution/superposition implementation for dose calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Bo; Yu, Cedric X; Chen, Danny Z; Hu, X Sharon

    2010-11-01

    Dose calculation is a key component in radiation treatment planning systems. Its performance and accuracy are crucial to the quality of treatment plans as emerging advanced radiation therapy technologies are exerting ever tighter constraints on dose calculation. A common practice is to choose either a deterministic method such as the convolution/superposition (CS) method for speed or a Monte Carlo (MC) method for accuracy. The goal of this work is to boost the performance of a hybrid Monte Carlo convolution/superposition (MCCS) method by devising a graphics processing unit (GPU) implementation so as to make the method practical for day-to-day usage. Although the MCCS algorithm combines the merits of MC fluence generation and CS fluence transport, it is still not fast enough to be used as a day-to-day planning tool. To alleviate the speed issue of MC algorithms, the authors adopted MCCS as their target method and implemented a GPU-based version. In order to fully utilize the GPU computing power, the MCCS algorithm is modified to match the GPU hardware architecture. The performance of the authors' GPU-based implementation on an Nvidia GTX260 card is compared to a multithreaded software implementation on a quad-core system. A speedup in the range of 6.7-11.4x is observed for the clinical cases used. The less than 2% statistical fluctuation also indicates that the accuracy of the authors' GPU-based implementation is in good agreement with the results from the quad-core CPU implementation. This work shows that GPU is a feasible and cost-efficient solution compared to other alternatives such as using cluster machines or field-programmable gate arrays for satisfying the increasing demands on computation speed and accuracy of dose calculation. But there are also inherent limitations of using GPU for accelerating MC-type applications, which are also analyzed in detail in this article.

  7. Development of Monte Carlo simulations to provide scanner-specific organ dose coefficients for contemporary CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Jan T M; Shrimpton, Paul C

    2016-07-21

    The ImPACT (imaging performance assessment of CT scanners) CT patient dosimetry calculator is still used world-wide to estimate organ and effective doses (E) for computed tomography (CT) examinations, although the tool is based on Monte Carlo calculations reflecting practice in the early 1990's. Subsequent developments in CT scanners, definitions of E, anthropomorphic phantoms, computers and radiation transport codes, have all fuelled an urgent need for updated organ dose conversion factors for contemporary CT. A new system for such simulations has been developed and satisfactorily tested. Benchmark comparisons of normalised organ doses presently derived for three old scanners (General Electric 9800, Philips Tomoscan LX and Siemens Somatom DRH) are within 5% of published values. Moreover, calculated normalised values of CT Dose Index for these scanners are in reasonable agreement (within measurement and computational uncertainties of  ±6% and  ±1%, respectively) with reported standard measurements. Organ dose coefficients calculated for a contemporary CT scanner (Siemens Somatom Sensation 16) demonstrate potential deviations by up to around 30% from the surrogate values presently assumed (through a scanner matching process) when using the ImPACT CT Dosimetry tool for newer scanners. Also, illustrative estimates of E for some typical examinations and a range of anthropomorphic phantoms demonstrate the significant differences (by some 10's of percent) that can arise when changing from the previously adopted stylised mathematical phantom to the voxel phantoms presently recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), and when following the 2007 ICRP recommendations (updated from 1990) concerning tissue weighting factors. Further simulations with the validated dosimetry system will provide updated series of dose coefficients for a wide range of contemporary scanners.

  8. Development of Monte Carlo simulations to provide scanner-specific organ dose coefficients for contemporary CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Jan T. M.; Shrimpton, Paul C.

    2016-07-01

    The ImPACT (imaging performance assessment of CT scanners) CT patient dosimetry calculator is still used world-wide to estimate organ and effective doses (E) for computed tomography (CT) examinations, although the tool is based on Monte Carlo calculations reflecting practice in the early 1990’s. Subsequent developments in CT scanners, definitions of E, anthropomorphic phantoms, computers and radiation transport codes, have all fuelled an urgent need for updated organ dose conversion factors for contemporary CT. A new system for such simulations has been developed and satisfactorily tested. Benchmark comparisons of normalised organ doses presently derived for three old scanners (General Electric 9800, Philips Tomoscan LX and Siemens Somatom DRH) are within 5% of published values. Moreover, calculated normalised values of CT Dose Index for these scanners are in reasonable agreement (within measurement and computational uncertainties of  ±6% and  ±1%, respectively) with reported standard measurements. Organ dose coefficients calculated for a contemporary CT scanner (Siemens Somatom Sensation 16) demonstrate potential deviations by up to around 30% from the surrogate values presently assumed (through a scanner matching process) when using the ImPACT CT Dosimetry tool for newer scanners. Also, illustrative estimates of E for some typical examinations and a range of anthropomorphic phantoms demonstrate the significant differences (by some 10’s of percent) that can arise when changing from the previously adopted stylised mathematical phantom to the voxel phantoms presently recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), and when following the 2007 ICRP recommendations (updated from 1990) concerning tissue weighting factors. Further simulations with the validated dosimetry system will provide updated series of dose coefficients for a wide range of contemporary scanners.

  9. SU-F-T-494: A Multi-Institutional Study of Independent Dose Verification Using Golden Beam Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itano, M; Yamazaki, T [Inagi Municipal Hospital, Inagi, Tokyo (Japan); Tachibana, R; Uchida, Y [National Cancer Center Hospital East, Kashiwa, Chiba (Japan); Yamashita, M [Kobe City Medical Center General Hospital, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Shimizu, H [Kitasato University Medical Center, Kitamoto, Saitama (Japan); Sugawara, Y; Kotabe, K [National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Shinjuku, Tokyo (Japan); Kamima, T [Cancer Institute Hospital Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Koto, Tokyo (Japan); Takahashi, R [Cancer Institute Hospital of Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Koto, Tokyo (Japan); Ishibashi, S [Sasebo City General Hospital, Sasebo, Nagasaki (Japan); Tachibana, H [National Cancer Center, Kashiwa, Chiba (Japan)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: In general, beam data of individual linac is measured for independent dose verification software program and the verification is performed as a secondary check. In this study, independent dose verification using golden beam data was compared to that using individual linac’s beam data. Methods: Six institutions were participated and three different beam data were prepared. The one was individual measured data (Original Beam Data, OBD) .The others were generated by all measurements from same linac model (Model-GBD) and all linac models (All-GBD). The three different beam data were registered to the independent verification software program for each institute. Subsequently, patient’s plans in eight sites (brain, head and neck, lung, esophagus, breast, abdomen, pelvis and bone) were analyzed using the verification program to compare doses calculated using the three different beam data. Results: 1116 plans were collected from six institutes. Compared to using the OBD, the results shows the variation using the Model-GBD based calculation and the All-GBD was 0.0 ± 0.3% and 0.0 ± 0.6%, respectively. The maximum variations were 1.2% and 2.3%, respectively. The plans with the variation over 1% shows the reference points were located away from the central axis with/without physical wedge. Conclusion: The confidence limit (2SD) using the Model-GBD and the All-GBD was within 0.6% and 1.2%, respectively. Thus, the use of golden beam data may be feasible for independent verification. In addition to it, the verification using golden beam data provide quality assurance of planning from the view of audit. This research is partially supported by Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development(AMED)

  10. Dosimetric verification and evaluation of segmental multileaf collimator (SMLC)-IMRT for quality assurance. The second report. Absolute dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tateoka, Kunihiko; Hareyama, Masato; Oouchi, Atsushi; Nakata, Kensei; Nagase, Daiki; Saikawa, Tsunehiko; Shimizume, Kazunari; Sugimoto, Harumi; Waka, Masaaki

    2003-01-01

    Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) was developed to irradiate the target are more conformally, sparing organs at risk (OARs). Since the beams are sequentially delivered by many, small, irregular, and off-center fields in IMRT, dosimetric quality assurance (QA) is an extremely important issue. QA is performed by verifying both the dose distribution and doses at arbitrary points. In this work, we describe the verification of doses at arbitrary points in our hospital for Segmental multileaf collimator (SMLC)-IMRT. In general, verification of the absolute doses for IMRT is performed by comparison between the calculated doses using Radiation Treatment Planning Systems (RTP) and the measured doses using an ionization chamber with a small volume at arbitrary points in relatively flat regions of the dose gradients. However, no clear definitions of the dose gradients and the flat regions have yet been reported. We carried out verification by comparison of the measured doses with the average dose and the central point dose in a virtual Farmer type ionization chamber (V-F) and a virtual PinPoint ionization chamber (V-P) equal to the Farmer-type ionization chamber volume and PinPoint ionization chamber volumes using the RTP. Furthermore, we defined the dose gradients as the deviation of the maximum dose from the minimum dose in the virtual ionization chamber volume. In IMRT, the dose gradients may be as high as 80% or more in the virtual ionization chamber volume. Therefore, it is thought that the effective center of the ionization chamber varies by segment for IMRT fields (i.e., the variation of the ionization chamber replacement effect). Additionally, in regions with a higher dose gradient, uncertainty in the measured doses is influenced by the variations in the ionization chamber replacement effect and the ionization chamber positioning error. We more objectively examined the verification method for the absolute dose in IMRT using the virtual ionization chamber

  11. Monte Carlo Calculations of Dose to Medium and Dose to Water for Carbon Ion Beams in Various Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Rochus; Petersen, Jørgen B.B.; Jäkel, Oliver

    treatment plans. Here, we quantisize the effect of dose to water vs. dose to medium for a series of typical target materials found in medical physics. 2     Material and Methods The Monte Carlo code FLUKA [Battistioni et al. 2007] is used to simulate the particle fluence spectrum in a series of target...... materials exposed to carbon ion beams. The scored track-length fluence spectrum Φi for a given particle i at the energy E, is multiplied with the mass stopping power for target material for calculating Dm . Similarly, Dw is calculated by multiplying the same fluence spectrum with the mass stopping power...... the PSTAR, ASTAR stopping power routines available at NIST1 and MSTAR2 provided by H. Paul et al. 3     Results For a pristine carbon ion beam we encountered a maximum deviation between Dw and Dm up to 8% for bone. In addition we investigate spread out Bragg peak configurations which dilutes the effect...

  12. A dual resolution measurement based Monte Carlo simulation technique for detailed dose analysis of small volume organs in the skull base region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, Chi-Yuan; Tung, Chuan-Jung; Chao, Tsi-Chain; Lin, Mu-Han; Lee, Chung-Chi

    2014-01-01

    canal. Dose volume histogram (DVH) analyses revealed much smoother DVH curves for the dual resolution sandwich phantom when compared to the SR phantom. In conclusion, MBMC simulations using a dual resolution sandwich phantom improved simulation spatial resolution for skull base IMRS therapy. More detailed dose analyses for small critical structures can be made available to help in clinical judgment. - Highlights: • The measurement-based Monte Carlo (MBMC) simulation can serve as a standard reference for dose verification in intensity-modulated radiosurgery. • This study is the first in literature to describe a dual resolution sandwich phantom for Monte Carlo simulation. • MBMC simulation using the sandwich phantom revealed more dose distribution details for small volume critical organs. • MBMC simulation using the sandwich phantom detected significant dose differences in small organs of the inner ear

  13. SU-G-JeP3-06: Lower KV Image Dose Are Expected From a Limited-Angle Intra-Fractional Verification (LIVE) System for SBRT Treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, G; Yin, F; Ren, L

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: In order to track the tumor movement for patient positioning verification during arc treatment delivery or in between 3D/IMRT beams for stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT), the limited-angle kV projections acquisition simultaneously during arc treatment delivery or in-between static treatment beams as the gantry moves to the next beam angle was proposed. The purpose of this study is to estimate additional imaging dose resulting from multiple tomosynthesis acquisitions in-between static treatment beams and to compare with that of a conventional kV-CBCT acquisition. Methods: kV imaging system integrated into Varian TrueBeam accelerators was modeled using EGSnrc Monte Carlo user code, BEAMnrc and DOSXYZnrc code was used in dose calculations. The simulated realistic kV beams from the Varian TrueBeam OBI 1.5 system were used to calculate dose to patient based on CT images. Organ doses were analyzed using DVHs. The imaging dose to patient resulting from realistic multiple tomosynthesis acquisitions with each 25–30 degree kV source rotation between 6 treatment beam gantry angles was studied. Results: For a typical lung SBRT treatment delivery much lower (20–50%) kV imaging doses from the sum of realistic six tomosynthesis acquisitions with each 25–30 degree x-ray source rotation between six treatment beam gantry angles were observed compared to that from a single CBCT image acquisition. Conclusion: This work indicates that the kV imaging in this proposed Limited-angle Intra-fractional Verification (LIVE) System for SBRT Treatments has a negligible imaging dose increase. It is worth to note that the MV imaging dose caused by MV projection acquisition in-between static beams in LIVE can be minimized by restricting the imaging to the target region and reducing the number of projections acquired. For arc treatments, MV imaging acquisition in LIVE does not add additional imaging dose as the MV images are acquired from treatment beams directly during the

  14. Three dimensional dose verification for clinical treatments of small intracranial tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, M.L.; Dunn, L.; Kairn, L.; Jenny, J.; Knight, R.; Trapp, J.; Smith, R.; Ackerly, T.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Cancers of the brain and central nervous system account for 1.6% of new cancers and 1.8% of cancer deaths globally. The highest rates of all developed nations are observed in Australia and New Zealand. There are known complexities associated with dose measurement of very small radiation fields. Here, 3D dosimetric verification of treatments for small intracranial tumours using gel dosimetry was investigated. An anthropomorphic head phantom with a 43 mm diameter and 63 mm long gel container was filled with PAGAT normoxic radiosensitive gel. In this work, we show results for a 12-field stereotactic radiotherapy treatment delivered using a Varian 21EX with BrainLAB mini-multi leaf collimator. The gel was read out using an Octopus-1Q laser optical CT scanner. Generally good agreement was observed between the measured doses and those calculated with the iPlan treatment planning system (pencil beam convolution); see Fig. I. For gamma criteria of 5%/5 mm the percentage of gamma values less than unity was 95% above the 80% isodose line, indicating good PTV coverage. For lower isodose regions approaching the boundaries of the container poorer agreement was observed. The feasibility of three-dimensional measurement of small field dose distributions in clinical contexts has been demonstrated. Development of this methodology has the potential to overcome many shortcomings of other dosimetric methods, such as limitations of spatial information (typically one- and two-dimensions), volume-averaging effects and perturbation due to poor mediamatching. (author)

  15. Image registration of BANG[reg] gel dose maps for quantitative dosimetry verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meeks, Sanford L.; Bova, Frank J.; Maryanski, Marek J.; Kendrick, Lance A.; Ranade, Manisha K.; Buatti, John M.; Friedman, William A.

    1999-01-01

    the pixel resolution of the MRI dose maps is 1.56 x 1.56 mm, and the treatment-planning dose distributions were calculated on a 1-mm dose grid. All points within the dose distribution were well within the tolerances set forth for commissioning and quality assurance of stereotactic treatment-planning systems. Moreover, the quantitative evaluation presented here tests the accuracy of the entire treatment-planning and delivery process, including stereotactic frame rigidity, CT localization, CT/MR correlation, dose calculation, and radiation delivery. Conclusion: BANG[reg] polymer gel dosimetry coupled with image correlation provides quantitative verification of the accuracy of 3D dose distributions. Such quantitative evaluation is imperative to ensure the high quality of the 3D dose distributions generated and delivered by stereotactic and other conformal irradiation systems

  16. Moving from organ dose to microdosimetry: contribution of the Monte Carlo simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Champion, Christophe

    2005-01-01

    When living cells are irradiated by charged particles, a wide variety of interactions occurs that leads to a deep modification of the biological material. To understand the fine structure of the microscopic distribution of the energy deposits, Monte Carlo event-by-event simulations are particularly suitable. However, the development of these track structure codes needs accurate interaction cross sections for all the electronic processes: ionization, excitation, Positronium formation (for incident positrons) and even elastic scattering. Under these conditions, we have recently developed a Monte Carlo code for electrons and positrons in water, this latter being commonly used to simulate the biological medium. All the processes are studied in detail via theoretical differential and total cross sections calculated by using partial wave methods. Comparisons with existing theoretical and experimental data show very good agreements. Moreover, this kind of detailed description allows one access to a useful microdosimetry, which can be coupled to a geometrical modelling of the target organ and then provide a detailed dose calculation at the nanometric scale.(author)

  17. Evaluation of an electron Monte Carlo dose calculation algorithm for treatment planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberland, Eve; Beaulieu, Luc; Lachance, Bernard

    2015-05-08

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of the electron Monte Carlo (eMC) dose calculation algorithm included in a commercial treatment planning system and compare its performance against an electron pencil beam algorithm. Several tests were performed to explore the system's behavior in simple geometries and in configurations encountered in clinical practice. The first series of tests were executed in a homogeneous water phantom, where experimental measurements and eMC-calculated dose distributions were compared for various combinations of energy and applicator. More specifically, we compared beam profiles and depth-dose curves at different source-to-surface distances (SSDs) and gantry angles, by using dose difference and distance to agreement. Also, we compared output factors, we studied the effects of algorithm input parameters, which are the random number generator seed, as well as the calculation grid size, and we performed a calculation time evaluation. Three different inhomogeneous solid phantoms were built, using high- and low-density materials inserts, to clinically simulate relevant heterogeneity conditions: a small air cylinder within a homogeneous phantom, a lung phantom, and a chest wall phantom. We also used an anthropomorphic phantom to perform comparison of eMC calculations to measurements. Finally, we proceeded with an evaluation of the eMC algorithm on a clinical case of nose cancer. In all mentioned cases, measurements, carried out by means of XV-2 films, radiographic films or EBT2 Gafchromic films. were used to compare eMC calculations with dose distributions obtained from an electron pencil beam algorithm. eMC calculations in the water phantom were accurate. Discrepancies for depth-dose curves and beam profiles were under 2.5% and 2 mm. Dose calculations with eMC for the small air cylinder and the lung phantom agreed within 2% and 4%, respectively. eMC calculations for the chest wall phantom and the anthropomorphic phantom also

  18. A fast - Monte Carlo toolkit on GPU for treatment plan dose recalculation in proton therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senzacqua, M.; Schiavi, A.; Patera, V.; Pioli, S.; Battistoni, G.; Ciocca, M.; Mairani, A.; Magro, G.; Molinelli, S.

    2017-10-01

    In the context of the particle therapy a crucial role is played by Treatment Planning Systems (TPSs), tools aimed to compute and optimize the tratment plan. Nowadays one of the major issues related to the TPS in particle therapy is the large CPU time needed. We developed a software toolkit (FRED) for reducing dose recalculation time by exploiting Graphics Processing Units (GPU) hardware. Thanks to their high parallelization capability, GPUs significantly reduce the computation time, up to factor 100 respect to a standard CPU running software. The transport of proton beams in the patient is accurately described through Monte Carlo methods. Physical processes reproduced are: Multiple Coulomb Scattering, energy straggling and nuclear interactions of protons with the main nuclei composing the biological tissues. FRED toolkit does not rely on the water equivalent translation of tissues, but exploits the Computed Tomography anatomical information by reconstructing and simulating the atomic composition of each crossed tissue. FRED can be used as an efficient tool for dose recalculation, on the day of the treatment. In fact it can provide in about one minute on standard hardware the dose map obtained combining the treatment plan, earlier computed by the TPS, and the current patient anatomic arrangement.

  19. Monte Carlo simulated dose to the human body due to neutrons emitted in laser-fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gileadi, A.E.; Cohen, M.O.

    1977-01-01

    Considering a point neutron source located at a given distance from the human body, modeled by a 'standard reference man' phantom, neutron doses to the whole body, as well as to selected organs thereof, are determined, using the SAM-CE system, a Monte Carlo computer code, written in Fortran and designed to solve time, space and energy dependent neutron and gamma ray transport equations in complex three-dimensional geometrice. Collision density, energy deposition and dose are treated in the SAM-CE system as flux functionals. A special feature of SAM-CE is its use of the 'Combinatorial Geometry' technique which affords the user geometric capabilities exceeding those available with other commonly used geometric packages. All neutron and gamma ray cross section data, as well as gamma ray production data, are derived from the ENDF libraries. Both resolved and unresolved resonance parameters from ENDF neutron data files are treated automatically and extremely precise and detailed descriptions of cross section behavior is permitted. Such treatment avoids the ambiguities usually associated with multi-group codes, which use flux-averaged cross sections based on assumed flux distributions which may or may not be appropriate. The 'standard reference man', a heterogeneous phantom, uses simple geometric forms to approximate the shape and dimensions of the human body. Materials composition of each subregion representing a certain 'organ' is given. Typical values of neutron doses to the whole body and to selected 'organs' of interest are presented

  20. The use of tetrahedral mesh geometries in Monte Carlo simulation of applicator based brachytherapy dose distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca, Gabriel Paiva; Yoriyaz, Hélio; Landry, Guillaume; White, Shane; Reniers, Brigitte; Verhaegen, Frank; D’Amours, Michel; Beaulieu, Luc

    2014-01-01

    Accounting for brachytherapy applicator attenuation is part of the recommendations from the recent report of AAPM Task Group 186. To do so, model based dose calculation algorithms require accurate modelling of the applicator geometry. This can be non-trivial in the case of irregularly shaped applicators such as the Fletcher Williamson gynaecological applicator or balloon applicators with possibly irregular shapes employed in accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) performed using electronic brachytherapy sources (EBS). While many of these applicators can be modelled using constructive solid geometry (CSG), the latter may be difficult and time-consuming. Alternatively, these complex geometries can be modelled using tessellated geometries such as tetrahedral meshes (mesh geometries (MG)). Recent versions of Monte Carlo (MC) codes Geant4 and MCNP6 allow for the use of MG. The goal of this work was to model a series of applicators relevant to brachytherapy using MG. Applicators designed for 192 Ir sources and 50 kV EBS were studied; a shielded vaginal applicator, a shielded Fletcher Williamson applicator and an APBI balloon applicator. All applicators were modelled in Geant4 and MCNP6 using MG and CSG for dose calculations. CSG derived dose distributions were considered as reference and used to validate MG models by comparing dose distribution ratios. In general agreement within 1% for the dose calculations was observed for all applicators between MG and CSG and between codes when considering volumes inside the 25% isodose surface. When compared to CSG, MG required longer computation times by a factor of at least 2 for MC simulations using the same code. MCNP6 calculation times were more than ten times shorter than Geant4 in some cases. In conclusion we presented methods allowing for high fidelity modelling with results equivalent to CSG. To the best of our knowledge MG offers the most accurate representation of an irregular APBI balloon applicator. (paper)

  1. Dose estimation in the crystalline lens of industrial radiography personnel using Monte Carlo Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Alexandre Roza de

    2014-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection, ICRP, in its publication 103, reviewed recent epidemiological evidence and indicated that, for the eye lens, the absorbed dose threshold for induction of late detriment is around 0.5 Gy. On this basis, on April 21, 2011, the ICRP recommended changes to the occupational dose limit in planned exposure situations, reducing the eye lens equivalent dose limit from 150 mSv to 20 mSv per year, on average, during the period of 5 years, with exposure not to exceed 50 mSv in a single year. This paper presents the dose estimation to eye lens, H p (10), effective dose and doses to important organs in the body, received by industrial gamma radiography workers, during planned or accidental exposure situations. The computer program Visual Monte Carlo was used and two relevant scenarios were postulated. The first is a planned exposure situation scenario where the operator is directly exposed to radiation during the operation. 12 radiographic exposures per day for 250 days per year, which leads to an exposure of 36,000 seconds or 10 hours per year were considered. The simulation was carried out using the following parameters: a 192 Ir source with 1.0 TBq of activity, the source/operator distance varying from 5 m to 10 m at three different heights of 0.2 m, 1.0 m and 2.0 m. The eyes lens doses were estimated as being between 16.9 mSv/year and 66.9 mSv/year and for H p (10) the doses were between 17.7 mSv/year and 74.2 mSv/year. For the accidental exposure situation scenario, the same radionuclide and activity were used, but in this case the doses were calculated with and without a collimator. The heights above ground considered were 1.0 m, 1.5 m e 2.0 m, the source/operator distance was 40 cm and, the exposure time 74 seconds. The eyes lens doses, for 1.5 m, were 12.3 mGy and 0.28 mGy without and with a collimator, respectively. Three conclusions resulted from this work. The first was that the estimated doses show that the new

  2. Fetal doses to pregnant patients from CT with tube current modulation calculated using Monte Carlo simulations and realistic phantoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, J.; George Xu, X.; Caracappa, P. F.; Liu, B.

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the radiation dose to the fetus using retrospective tube current modulation (TCM) data selected from archived clinical records. This paper describes the calculation of fetal doses using retrospective TCM data and Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. Three TCM schemes were adopted for use with three pregnant patient phantoms. MC simulations were used to model CT scanners, TCM schemes and pregnant patients. Comparisons between organ doses from TCM schemes and those from non-TCM schemes show that these three TCM schemes reduced fetal doses by 14, 18 and 25 %, respectively. These organ doses were also compared with those from ImPACT calculation. It is found that the difference between the calculated fetal dose and the ImPACT reported dose is as high as 46 %. This work demonstrates methods to study organ doses from various TCM protocols and potential ways to improve the accuracy of CT dose calculation for pregnant patients. (authors)

  3. GATE Monte Carlo simulation of dose distribution using MapReduce in a cloud computing environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yangchuan; Tang, Yuguo; Gao, Xin

    2017-12-01

    The GATE Monte Carlo simulation platform has good application prospects of treatment planning and quality assurance. However, accurate dose calculation using GATE is time consuming. The purpose of this study is to implement a novel cloud computing method for accurate GATE Monte Carlo simulation of dose distribution using MapReduce. An Amazon Machine Image installed with Hadoop and GATE is created to set up Hadoop clusters on Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2). Macros, the input files for GATE, are split into a number of self-contained sub-macros. Through Hadoop Streaming, the sub-macros are executed by GATE in Map tasks and the sub-results are aggregated into final outputs in Reduce tasks. As an evaluation, GATE simulations were performed in a cubical water phantom for X-ray photons of 6 and 18 MeV. The parallel simulation on the cloud computing platform is as accurate as the single-threaded simulation on a local server and the simulation correctness is not affected by the failure of some worker nodes. The cloud-based simulation time is approximately inversely proportional to the number of worker nodes. For the simulation of 10 million photons on a cluster with 64 worker nodes, time decreases of 41× and 32× were achieved compared to the single worker node case and the single-threaded case, respectively. The test of Hadoop's fault tolerance showed that the simulation correctness was not affected by the failure of some worker nodes. The results verify that the proposed method provides a feasible cloud computing solution for GATE.

  4. Fast on-site Monte Carlo tool for dose calculations in CT applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Kolditz, Daniel; Beister, Marcel; Bohle, Robert; Kalender, Willi A

    2012-06-01

    Monte Carlo (MC) simulation is an established technique for dose calculation in diagnostic radiology. The major drawback is its high computational demand, which limits the possibility of usage in real-time applications. The aim of this study was to develop fast on-site computed tomography (CT) specific MC dose calculations by using a graphics processing unit (GPU) cluster. GPUs are powerful systems which are especially suited to problems that can be expressed as data-parallel computations. In MC simulations, each photon track is independent of the others; each launched photon can be mapped to one thread on the GPU, thousands of threads are executed in parallel in order to achieve high performance. For further acceleration, the authors considered multiple GPUs. The total computation was divided into different parts which can be calculated in parallel on multiple devices. The GPU cluster is an MC calculation server which is connected to the CT scanner and computes 3D dose distributions on-site immediately after image reconstruction. To estimate the performance gain, the authors benchmarked dose calculation times on a 2.6 GHz Intel Xeon 5430 Quad core workstation equipped with two NVIDIA GeForce GTX 285 cards. The on-site calculation concept was demonstrated for clinical and preclinical datasets on CT scanners (multislice CT, flat-detector CT, and micro-CT) with varying geometry, spectra, and filtration. To validate the GPU-based MC algorithm, the authors measured dose values on a 64-slice CT system using calibrated ionization chambers and thermoluminesence dosimeters (TLDs) which were placed inside standard cylindrical polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) phantoms. The dose values and profiles obtained by GPU-based MC simulations were in the expected good agreement with computed tomography dose index (CTDI) measurements and reference TLD profiles with differences being less than 5%. For 10(9) photon histories simulated in a 256 × 256 × 12 voxel thorax dataset with voxel

  5. Neutron dose rate analysis on HTGR-10 reactor using Monte Carlo code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwoto; Adrial, H.; Hamzah, A.; Zuhair; Bakhri, S.; Sunaryo, G. R.

    2018-02-01

    The HTGR-10 reactor is cylinder-shaped core fuelled with kernel TRISO coated fuel particles in the spherical pebble with helium cooling system. The outlet helium gas coolant temperature outputted from the reactor core is designed to 700 °C. One advantage HTGR type reactor is capable of co-generation, as an addition to generating electricity, the reactor was designed to produce heat at high temperature can be used for other processes. The spherical fuel pebble contains 8335 TRISO UO2 kernel coated particles with enrichment of 10% and 17% are dispersed in a graphite matrix. The main purpose of this study was to analysis the distribution of neutron dose rates generated from HTGR-10 reactors. The calculation and analysis result of neutron dose rate in the HTGR-10 reactor core was performed using Monte Carlo MCNP5v1.6 code. The problems of double heterogeneity in kernel fuel coated particles TRISO and spherical fuel pebble in the HTGR-10 core are modelled well with MCNP5v1.6 code. The neutron flux to dose conversion factors taken from the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP-74) was used to determine the dose rate that passes through the active core, reflectors, core barrel, reactor pressure vessel (RPV) and a biological shield. The calculated results of neutron dose rate with MCNP5v1.6 code using a conversion factor of ICRP-74 (2009) for radiation workers in the radial direction on the outside of the RPV (radial position = 220 cm from the center of the patio HTGR-10) provides the respective value of 9.22E-4 μSv/h and 9.58E-4 μSv/h for enrichment 10% and 17%, respectively. The calculated values of neutron dose rates are compliant with BAPETEN Chairman’s Regulation Number 4 Year 2013 on Radiation Protection and Safety in Nuclear Energy Utilization which sets the limit value for the average effective dose for radiation workers 20 mSv/year or 10μSv/h. Thus the protection and safety for radiation workers to be safe from the radiation source has

  6. Head-and-neck IMRT treatments assessed with a Monte Carlo dose calculation engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seco, J; Adams, E; Bidmead, M; Partridge, M; Verhaegen, F

    2005-01-01

    IMRT is frequently used in the head-and-neck region, which contains materials of widely differing densities (soft tissue, bone, air-cavities). Conventional methods of dose computation for these complex, inhomogeneous IMRT cases involve significant approximations. In the present work, a methodology for the development, commissioning and implementation of a Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculation engine for intensity modulated radiotherapy (MC-IMRT) is proposed which can be used by radiotherapy centres interested in developing MC-IMRT capabilities for research or clinical evaluations. The method proposes three levels for developing, commissioning and maintaining a MC-IMRT dose calculation engine: (a) development of a MC model of the linear accelerator, (b) validation of MC model for IMRT and (c) periodic quality assurance (QA) of the MC-IMRT system. The first step, level (a), in developing an MC-IMRT system is to build a model of the linac that correctly predicts standard open field measurements for percentage depth-dose and off-axis ratios. Validation of MC-IMRT, level (b), can be performed in a rando phantom and in a homogeneous water equivalent phantom. Ultimately, periodic quality assurance of the MC-IMRT system is needed to verify the MC-IMRT dose calculation system, level (c). Once the MC-IMRT dose calculation system is commissioned it can be applied to more complex clinical IMRT treatments. The MC-IMRT system implemented at the Royal Marsden Hospital was used for IMRT calculations for a patient undergoing treatment for primary disease with nodal involvement in the head-and-neck region (primary treated to 65 Gy and nodes to 54 Gy), while sparing the spinal cord, brain stem and parotid glands. Preliminary MC results predict a decrease of approximately 1-2 Gy in the median dose of both the primary tumour and nodal volumes (compared with both pencil beam and collapsed cone). This is possibly due to the large air-cavity (the larynx of the patient) situated in the centre

  7. Novel method based on Fricke gel dosimeters for dose verification in IMRT techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aon, E.; Brunetto, M.; Sansogne, R.; Castellano, G.; Valente, M.

    2008-01-01

    Modern radiotherapy is becoming increasingly complex. Conformal and intensity modulated (IMRT) techniques are nowadays available for achieving better tumour control. However, accurate methods for 3D dose verification for these modern irradiation techniques have not been adequately established yet. Fricke gel dosimeters consist, essentially, in a ferrous sulphate (Fricke) solution fixed to a gel matrix, which enables spatial resolution. A suitable radiochromic marker (xylenol orange) is added to the solution in order to produce radiochromic changes within the visible spectrum range, due to the chemical internal conversion (oxidation) of ferrous ions to ferric ions. In addition, xylenol orange has proved to slow down the internal diffusion effect of ferric ions. These dosimeters suitably shaped in form of thin layers and optically analyzed by means of visible light transmission imaging have recently been proposed as a method for 3D absorbed dose distribution determinations in radiotherapy, and tested in several IMRT applications employing a homogeneous plane (visible light) illuminator and a CCD camera with a monochromatic filter for sample analysis by means of transmittance images. In this work, the performance of an alternative read-out method is characterized, consisting on visible light images, acquired before and after irradiation by means of a commercially available flatbed-like scanner. Registered images are suitably converted to matrices and analyzed by means of dedicated 'in-house' software. The integral developed method allows performing 1D (profiles), 2D (surfaces) and 3D (volumes) dose mapping. In addition, quantitative comparisons have been performed by means of the Gamma composite criteria. Dose distribution comparisons between Fricke gel dosimeters and traditional standard dosimetric techniques for IMRT irradiations show an overall good agreement, supporting the suitability of the method. The agreement, quantified by the gamma index (that seldom

  8. Simulation of digital pixel readout chip architectures with the RD53 SystemVerilog-UVM verification environment using Monte Carlo physics data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conti, E.; Marconi, S.; Christiansen, J.; Placidi, P.; Hemperek, T.

    2016-01-01

    The simulation and verification framework developed by the RD53 collaboration is a powerful tool for global architecture optimization and design verification of next generation hybrid pixel readout chips. In this paper the framework is used for studying digital pixel chip architectures at behavioral level. This is carried out by simulating a dedicated, highly parameterized pixel chip description, which makes it possible to investigate different grouping strategies between pixels and different latency buffering and arbitration schemes. The pixel hit information used as simulation input can be either generated internally in the framework or imported from external Monte Carlo detector simulation data. The latter have been provided by both the CMS and ATLAS experiments, featuring HL-LHC operating conditions and the specifications related to the Phase 2 upgrade. Pixel regions and double columns were simulated using such Monte Carlo data as inputs: the performance of different latency buffering architectures was compared and the compliance of different link speeds with the expected column data rate was verified

  9. Towards real-time photon Monte Carlo dose calculation in the cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegenhein, Peter; Kozin, Igor N.; Kamerling, Cornelis Ph; Oelfke, Uwe

    2017-06-01

    Near real-time application of Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculation in clinic and research is hindered by the long computational runtimes of established software. Currently, fast MC software solutions are available utilising accelerators such as graphical processing units (GPUs) or clusters based on central processing units (CPUs). Both platforms are expensive in terms of purchase costs and maintenance and, in case of the GPU, provide only limited scalability. In this work we propose a cloud-based MC solution, which offers high scalability of accurate photon dose calculations. The MC simulations run on a private virtual supercomputer that is formed in the cloud. Computational resources can be provisioned dynamically at low cost without upfront investment in expensive hardware. A client-server software solution has been developed which controls the simulations and transports data to and from the cloud efficiently and securely. The client application integrates seamlessly into a treatment planning system. It runs the MC simulation workflow automatically and securely exchanges simulation data with the server side application that controls the virtual supercomputer. Advanced encryption standards were used to add an additional security layer, which encrypts and decrypts patient data on-the-fly at the processor register level. We could show that our cloud-based MC framework enables near real-time dose computation. It delivers excellent linear scaling for high-resolution datasets with absolute runtimes of 1.1 seconds to 10.9 seconds for simulating a clinical prostate and liver case up to 1% statistical uncertainty. The computation runtimes include the transportation of data to and from the cloud as well as process scheduling and synchronisation overhead. Cloud-based MC simulations offer a fast, affordable and easily accessible alternative for near real-time accurate dose calculations to currently used GPU or cluster solutions.

  10. Effect of gold nanoparticles on radiation doses in tumor treatment: a Monte Carlo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Musywel, H A; Laref, A

    2017-12-01

    Radiotherapy is an extensively used treatment for most tumor types. However, ionizing radiation does not discriminate between cancerous and normal cells surrounding the tumor, which can be considered as a dose-limiting factor. This can lead to the reduction of the effectiveness of tumor cell eradication with this treatment. A potential solution to this problem is loading the tumor with high-Z materials prior to radiotherapy as this can induce higher toxicity in tumor cells compared to normal ones. New advances in nanotechnology have introduced the promising use of heavy metal nanoparticles to enhance tumor treatment. The primary studies showed that gold nanoparticles (GNPs) have unique characteristics as biocompatible radiosensitizers for tumor cells. This study aimed to quantify the dose enhancement effect and its radial dose distribution by Monte Carlo simulations utilizing the EGSnrc code for the water-gold phantom loaded with seven different concentrations of Au: 0, 7, 18, 30, 50, 75, and 100 mg-Au/g-water. The phantom was irradiated with two different radionuclide sources, Ir-192 and Cs-137, which are commonly used in brachytherapy, for all concentrations. The results exhibited that gold nanoparticle-aided radiotherapy (GNRT) increases the efficacy of radiotherapy with low-energy photon sources accompanied with high Au concentration loads of up to 30 mg-Au/g-water. Our finding conducts also to the detection of dose enhancement effects in a short average range of 650 μm outside the region loaded with Au. This can indicate that the location determination is highly important in this treatment method.

  11. Target dose conversion modeling from pencil beam (PB) to Monte Carlo (MC) for lung SBRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Dandan; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Qinghui; Liang, Xiaoying; Zhen, Weining; Lin, Chi; Verma, Vivek; Wang, Shuo; Wahl, Andrew; Lei, Yu; Zhou, Sumin; Zhang, Chi

    2016-01-01

    A challenge preventing routine clinical implementation of Monte Carlo (MC)-based lung SBRT is the difficulty of reinterpreting historical outcome data calculated with inaccurate dose algorithms, because the target dose was found to decrease to varying degrees when recalculated with MC. The large variability was previously found to be affected by factors such as tumour size, location, and lung density, usually through sub-group comparisons. We hereby conducted a pilot study to systematically and quantitatively analyze these patient factors and explore accurate target dose conversion models, so that large-scale historical outcome data can be correlated with more accurate MC dose without recalculation. Twenty-one patients that underwent SBRT for early-stage lung cancer were replanned with 6MV 360° dynamic conformal arcs using pencil-beam (PB) and recalculated with MC. The percent D95 difference (PB-MC) was calculated for the PTV and GTV. Using single linear regression, this difference was correlated with the following quantitative patient indices: maximum tumour diameter (MaxD); PTV and GTV volumes; minimum distance from tumour to soft tissue (dmin); and mean density and standard deviation of the PTV, GTV, PTV margin, lung, and 2 mm, 15 mm, 50 mm shells outside the PTV. Multiple linear regression and artificial neural network (ANN) were employed to model multiple factors and improve dose conversion accuracy. Single linear regression with PTV D95 deficiency identified the strongest correlation on mean-density (location) indices, weaker on lung density, and the weakest on size indices, with the following R 2 values in decreasing orders: shell2mm (0.71), PTV (0.68), PTV margin (0.65), shell15mm (0.62), shell50mm (0.49), lung (0.40), dmin (0.22), GTV (0.19), MaxD (0.17), PTV volume (0.15), and GTV volume (0.08). A multiple linear regression model yielded the significance factor of 3.0E-7 using two independent features: mean density of shell2mm (P = 1.6E-7) and PTV volume

  12. Impact of thermoplastic mask on X-ray surface dose calculated with Monte Carlo code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yanqun; Li Jie; Wu Liping; Wang Pei; Lang Jinyi; Wu Dake; Xiao Mingyong

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To calculate the effects of thermoplastic mask on X-ray surface dose. Methods: The BEAMnrc Monte Carlo Code system, designed especially for computer simulation of radioactive sources, was performed to evaluate the effects of thermoplastic mask on X-ray surface dose.Thermoplastic mask came from our center with a material density of 1.12 g/cm 2 . The masks without holes, with holes size of 0.1 cm x 0.1 cm, and with holes size of 0. 1 cm x 0.2 cm, and masks with different depth (0.12 cm and 0.24 cm) were evaluated separately. For those with holes, the material width between adjacent holes was 0.1 cm. Virtual masks with a material density of 1.38 g/cm 3 without holes with two different depths were also evaluated. Results: Thermoplastic mask affected X-rays surface dose. When using a thermoplastic mask with the depth of 0.24 cm without holes, the surface dose was 74. 9% and 57.0% for those with the density of 1.38 g/cm 3 and 1.12 g/cm 3 respectively. When focusing on the masks with the density of 1.12 g/cm 3 , the surface dose was 41.2% for those with 0.12 cm depth without holes; 57.0% for those with 0. 24 cm depth without holes; 44.5% for those with 0.24 cm depth with holes size of 0.1 cm x 0.2 cm;and 54.1% for those with 0.24 cm depths with holes size of 0.1 cm x 0.1 cm.Conclusions: Using thermoplastic mask during the radiation increases patient surface dose. The severity is relative to the hole size and the depth of thermoplastic mask. The surface dose change should be considered in radiation planning to avoid severe skin reaction. (authors)

  13. Modeling dose-rate on/over the surface of cylindrical radio-models using Monte Carlo methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Xuefu; Ma Guoxue; Wen Fuping; Wang Zhongqi; Wang Chaohui; Zhang Jiyun; Huang Qingbo; Zhang Jiaqiu; Wang Xinxing; Wang Jun

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To determine the dose-rates on/over the surface of 10 cylindrical radio-models, which belong to the Metrology Station of Radio-Geological Survey of CNNC. Methods: The dose-rates on/over the surface of 10 cylindrical radio-models were modeled using the famous Monte Carlo code-MCNP. The dose-rates on/over the surface of 10 cylindrical radio-models were measured by a high gas pressurized ionization chamber dose-rate meter, respectively. The values of dose-rate modeled using MCNP code were compared with those obtained by authors in the present experimental measurement, and with those obtained by other workers previously. Some factors causing the discrepancy between the data obtained by authors using MCNP code and the data obtained using other methods are discussed in this paper. Results: The data of dose-rates on/over the surface of 10 cylindrical radio-models, obtained using MCNP code, were in good agreement with those obtained by other workers using the theoretical method. They were within the discrepancy of ±5% in general, and the maximum discrepancy was less than 10%. Conclusions: As if each factor needed for the Monte Carlo code is correct, the dose-rates on/over the surface of cylindrical radio-models modeled using the Monte Carlo code are correct with an uncertainty of 3%

  14. A method for verification of treatment times for high-dose-rate intraluminal brachytherapy treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Asghar Gadhi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study was aimed to increase the quality of high dose rate (HDR intraluminal brachytherapy treatment. For this purpose, an easy, fast and accurate patient-specific quality assurance (QA tool has been developed. This tool has been implemented at Bahawalpur Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Oncology (BINO, Bahawalpur, Pakistan.Methods: ABACUS 3.1 Treatment planning system (TPS has been used for treatment planning and calculation of total dwell time and then results were compared with the time calculated using the proposed method. This method has been used to verify the total dwell time for different rectum applicators for relevant treatment lengths (2-7 cm and depths (1.5-2.5 cm, different oesophagus applicators of relevant treatment lengths (6-10 cm and depths (0.9 & 1.0 cm, and a bronchus applicator for relevant treatment lengths (4-7.5 cm and depth (0.5 cm.Results: The average percentage differences between treatment time TM with manual calculation and as calculated by the TPS is 0.32% (standard deviation 1.32% for rectum, 0.24% (standard deviation 2.36% for oesophagus and 1.96% (standard deviation 0.55% for bronchus, respectively. These results advocate that the proposed method is valuable for independent verification of patient-specific treatment planning QA.Conclusion: The technique illustrated in the current study is an easy, simple, quick and useful for independent verification of the total dwell time for HDR intraluminal brachytherapy. Our method is able to identify human error-related planning mistakes and to evaluate the quality of treatment planning. It enhances the quality of brachytherapy treatment and reliability of the system.

  15. Dose to drivers during drive-through cargo scanning using GEANT4 Monte Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, Rogerio S.; Gomes, Joana D'Arc R.L.; Costa, Mara Lucia L.

    2013-01-01

    The use of radiation technologies to perform screening for cargo containers has been increased due to security issues, mainly, as a consequence of the United States (US) legislation which requires, from 2013, the scanning of all intermodal cargo containers which arrive at US ports. Currently, systems to cargo inspections, using accelerator-driven high energy X-rays, between 4 and 9 MeV, are available for scanning operations. It is expected that, in the future, the use of these systems will be widely spread on roads, ports and airports in Brazil. However, in order to improve the productivity and reduce the costs of acquisition, operation and maintenance these systems require that the driver drives its vehicle through irradiation area, in a situation where members of the public (the truck drivers) enter in controlled area and are deliberately exposed to high-energy beam. Some manufacturers justifies this procedure arguing that the drivers are exposed briefly, and only to the scattered beam, since there are safety systems in order to avoid that the drivers are exposed to direct beam. In this work, it is presented the preliminary results of Monte Carlo simulations concerning the dose of drivers during scanning operations, including the dose due to a failure of safety system, producing an exposure of drivers to the direct beam, as well as, an analysis of the justification of practice, mainly related to the drive-through operational procedure. (author)

  16. A GPU-based Monte Carlo dose calculation code for photon transport in a voxel phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellezzo, M.; Do Nascimento, E.; Yoriyaz, H., E-mail: mbellezzo@gmail.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares / CNEN, Av. Lineu Prestes 2242, Cidade Universitaria, 05508-000 Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    As the most accurate method to estimate absorbed dose in radiotherapy, Monte Carlo method has been widely used in radiotherapy treatment planning. Nevertheless, its efficiency can be improved for clinical routine applications. In this paper, we present the CUBMC code, a GPU-based Mc photon transport algorithm for dose calculation under the Compute Unified Device Architecture platform. The simulation of physical events is based on the algorithm used in Penelope, and the cross section table used is the one generated by the Material routine, als present in Penelope code. Photons are transported in voxel-based geometries with different compositions. To demonstrate the capabilities of the algorithm developed in the present work four 128 x 128 x 128 voxel phantoms have been considered. One of them is composed by a homogeneous water-based media, the second is composed by bone, the third is composed by lung and the fourth is composed by a heterogeneous bone and vacuum geometry. Simulations were done considering a 6 MeV monoenergetic photon point source. There are two distinct approaches that were used for transport simulation. The first of them forces the photon to stop at every voxel frontier, the second one is the Woodcock method, where the photon stop in the frontier will be considered depending on the material changing across the photon travel line. Dose calculations using these methods are compared for validation with Penelope and MCNP5 codes. Speed-up factors are compared using a NVidia GTX 560-Ti GPU card against a 2.27 GHz Intel Xeon CPU processor. (Author)

  17. Dose point kernel simulation for monoenergetic electrons and radionuclides using Monte Carlo techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J; Liu, Y L; Chang, S J; Chao, M M; Tsai, S Y; Huang, D E

    2012-11-01

    Monte Carlo (MC) simulation has been commonly used in the dose evaluation of radiation accidents and for medical purposes. The accuracy of simulated results is affected by the particle-tracking algorithm, cross-sectional database, random number generator and statistical error. The differences among MC simulation software packages must be validated. This study simulated the dose point kernel (DPK) and the cellular S-values of monoenergetic electrons ranging from 0.01 to 2 MeV and the radionuclides of (90)Y, (177)Lu and (103 m)Rh, using Fluktuierende Kaskade (FLUKA) and MC N-Particle Transport Code Version 5 (MCNP5). A 6-μm-radius cell model consisting of the cell surface, cytoplasm and cell nucleus was constructed for cellular S-value calculation. The mean absolute percentage errors (MAPEs) of the scaled DPKs, simulated using FLUKA and MCNP5, were 7.92, 9.64, 4.62, 3.71 and 3.84 % for 0.01, 0.1, 0.5, 1 and 2 MeV, respectively. For the three radionuclides, the MAPEs of the scaled DPKs were within 5 %. The maximum deviations of S(N←N), S(N←Cy) and S(N←CS) for the electron energy larger than 10 keV were 6.63, 6.77 and 5.24 %, respectively. The deviations for the self-absorbed S-values and cross-dose S-values of the three radionuclides were within 4 %. On the basis of the results of this study, it was concluded that the simulation results are consistent between FLUKA and MCNP5. However, there is a minor inconsistency for low energy range. The DPK and the cellular S-value should be used as the quality assurance tools before the MC simulation results are adopted as the gold standard.

  18. A GPU-based Monte Carlo dose calculation code for photon transport in a voxel phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellezzo, M.; Do Nascimento, E.; Yoriyaz, H.

    2014-08-01

    As the most accurate method to estimate absorbed dose in radiotherapy, Monte Carlo method has been widely used in radiotherapy treatment planning. Nevertheless, its efficiency can be improved for clinical routine applications. In this paper, we present the CUBMC code, a GPU-based Mc photon transport algorithm for dose calculation under the Compute Unified Device Architecture platform. The simulation of physical events is based on the algorithm used in Penelope, and the cross section table used is the one generated by the Material routine, als present in Penelope code. Photons are transported in voxel-based geometries with different compositions. To demonstrate the capabilities of the algorithm developed in the present work four 128 x 128 x 128 voxel phantoms have been considered. One of them is composed by a homogeneous water-based media, the second is composed by bone, the third is composed by lung and the fourth is composed by a heterogeneous bone and vacuum geometry. Simulations were done considering a 6 MeV monoenergetic photon point source. There are two distinct approaches that were used for transport simulation. The first of them forces the photon to stop at every voxel frontier, the second one is the Woodcock method, where the photon stop in the frontier will be considered depending on the material changing across the photon travel line. Dose calculations using these methods are compared for validation with Penelope and MCNP5 codes. Speed-up factors are compared using a NVidia GTX 560-Ti GPU card against a 2.27 GHz Intel Xeon CPU processor. (Author)

  19. An analytic linear accelerator source model for GPU-based Monte Carlo dose calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhen; Li, Yongbao; Folkerts, Michael; Shi, Feng; Jiang, Steve B.; Jia, Xun

    2015-10-01

    Recently, there has been a lot of research interest in developing fast Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculation methods on graphics processing unit (GPU) platforms. A good linear accelerator (linac) source model is critical for both accuracy and efficiency considerations. In principle, an analytical source model should be more preferred for GPU-based MC dose engines than a phase-space file-based model, in that data loading and CPU-GPU data transfer can be avoided. In this paper, we presented an analytical field-independent source model specifically developed for GPU-based MC dose calculations, associated with a GPU-friendly sampling scheme. A key concept called phase-space-ring (PSR) was proposed. Each PSR contained a group of particles that were of the same type, close in energy and reside in a narrow ring on the phase-space plane located just above the upper jaws. The model parameterized the probability densities of particle location, direction and energy for each primary photon PSR, scattered photon PSR and electron PSR. Models of one 2D Gaussian distribution or multiple Gaussian components were employed to represent the particle direction distributions of these PSRs. A method was developed to analyze a reference phase-space file and derive corresponding model parameters. To efficiently use our model in MC dose calculations on GPU, we proposed a GPU-friendly sampling strategy, which ensured that the particles sampled and transported simultaneously are of the same type and close in energy to alleviate GPU thread divergences. To test the accuracy of our model, dose distributions of a set of open fields in a water phantom were calculated using our source model and compared to those calculated using the reference phase-space files. For the high dose gradient regions, the average distance-to-agreement (DTA) was within 1 mm and the maximum DTA within 2 mm. For relatively low dose gradient regions, the root-mean-square (RMS) dose difference was within 1.1% and the maximum

  20. An analytic linear accelerator source model for GPU-based Monte Carlo dose calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhen; Li, Yongbao; Folkerts, Michael; Shi, Feng; Jiang, Steve B; Jia, Xun

    2015-10-21

    Recently, there has been a lot of research interest in developing fast Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculation methods on graphics processing unit (GPU) platforms. A good linear accelerator (linac) source model is critical for both accuracy and efficiency considerations. In principle, an analytical source model should be more preferred for GPU-based MC dose engines than a phase-space file-based model, in that data loading and CPU-GPU data transfer can be avoided. In this paper, we presented an analytical field-independent source model specifically developed for GPU-based MC dose calculations, associated with a GPU-friendly sampling scheme. A key concept called phase-space-ring (PSR) was proposed. Each PSR contained a group of particles that were of the same type, close in energy and reside in a narrow ring on the phase-space plane located just above the upper jaws. The model parameterized the probability densities of particle location, direction and energy for each primary photon PSR, scattered photon PSR and electron PSR. Models of one 2D Gaussian distribution or multiple Gaussian components were employed to represent the particle direction distributions of these PSRs. A method was developed to analyze a reference phase-space file and derive corresponding model parameters. To efficiently use our model in MC dose calculations on GPU, we proposed a GPU-friendly sampling strategy, which ensured that the particles sampled and transported simultaneously are of the same type and close in energy to alleviate GPU thread divergences. To test the accuracy of our model, dose distributions of a set of open fields in a water phantom were calculated using our source model and compared to those calculated using the reference phase-space files. For the high dose gradient regions, the average distance-to-agreement (DTA) was within 1 mm and the maximum DTA within 2 mm. For relatively low dose gradient regions, the root-mean-square (RMS) dose difference was within 1.1% and the maximum

  1. The calculation of dose from photon exposures using reference human phantoms and Monte Carlo methods. Pt. 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petoussi, N.; Zankl, M.; Williams, G.; Veit, R.; Drexler, G.

    1987-01-01

    There has been some evidence that cervical cancer patients who were treated by radiotherapy, had an increased incidence of second primary cancers noticeable 15 years or more after the radiotherapy. The data suggested that high dose pelvic irradiation was associated with increase in cancers of the bladder, kidneys, rectum, ovaries, corpus uteri, and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma but not leukemia (Kleinerman et al., 1982, Morton 1973). The aim of the present work is to estimate the absorbed dose, due to radiotherapy treatment for cervival cancer, to various organs and tissues in the body. Monte Carlo calculations were performed to calculate the organ absorbed doses resulting from intracavitary sources such as ovoids and applicators filled or loaded with radium, Co-60 and Cs-137. For that purpose a routine which simulates an internal source was constructed and added to the existing Monte Carlo code (GSF-Bericht S-885, Kramer et al.). Calculations were also made for external beam therapy. Various anterior, posterior and lateral fields were applied, resulting from megavoltage, Co-60 and Cs-137 therapy machines. The calculated organ doses are tabulated in three different ways: as organ dose per air Kerma in the reference field, according to the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU Report No 38, 1985); as organ dose per surface dose and as organ dose per tissue dose at Point B. (orig.)

  2. Radiotherapy pre-treatment dose validation: A second verification of monitor units (MU with a commercial software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iqbal Al Amri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Inversely planned intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT and stereotactic small field radiotherapy should be verified before treatment execution. A second verification is carried out for planned treatments in IMRT and 3D conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT using a monitor verification commercial dose calculation management software (DCMS. For the same reference point the ion-chamber measured doses are compared for IMRT plans. DCMS (Diamond computes dose based on modified Clarkson integration, accounting for multi-leaf collimators (MLC transmission and measured collimator scatter factors. DCMS was validated with treatment planning system (TPS (Eclipse 6.5 Version, Varian, USA separately. Treatment plans computed from TPS are exported to DCMS using DICOM interface. Doses are re-calculated at selected points for fields delivered to IMRT phantom (IBA Scanditronix Wellhofer in high-energy linac (Clinac 2300 CD, Varian. Doses measured at central axis, for the same points using CC13 (0.13 cc ion chamber with Dose 1 Electrometer (Scanditronix Wellhofer are compared with calculated data on DCMS and TPS. The data of 53 IMRT patients with fields ranging from 5 to 9 are reported. The computed dose for selected monitor units (MU by Diamond showed good agreement with planned doses by TPS. DCMS dose prediction matched well in 3D-CRT forward plans (0.8 ± 1.3%, n = 37 and in IMRT inverse plans (−0.1 ± 2.2%, n = 37. Ion chamber measurements agreed well with Eclipse planned doses (−2.1 ± 2.0%, n = 53 and re-calculated DCMS doses (−1.5 ± 2.6%, n = 37 in phantom. DCMS dose validation is in reasonable agreement with TPS. DCMS calculations corroborate well with ionometric measured doses in most of the treatment plans.

  3. Radiotherapy pre-treatment dose validation: A second verification of monitor units (MU) with a commercial software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Amri, Iqbal; Ravichandran, Ramamoorthy; Sivakumar, Somangili Satyamoorthi; Binukumar, Johnson Pichi; Davis, Chirayathmanjiyil Antony; Al Rahbi, Zakia; Al Shukeili, Khalsa; Al Kindi, Fatima

    2012-01-01

    Inversely planned intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and stereotactic small field radiotherapy should be verified before treatment execution. A second verification is carried out for planned treatments in IMRT and 3D conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) using a monitor verification commercial dose calculation management software (DCMS). For the same reference point the ion-chamber measured doses are compared for IMRT plans. DCMS (Diamond) computes dose based on modified Clarkson integration, accounting for multi-leaf collimators (MLC) transmission and measured collimator scatter factors. DCMS was validated with treatment planning system (TPS) (Eclipse 6.5 Version, Varian, USA) separately. Treatment plans computed from TPS are exported to DCMS using DICOM interface. Doses are re-calculated at selected points for fields delivered to IMRT phantom (IBA Scanditronix Wellhofer) in high-energy linac (Clinac 2300 CD, Varian). Doses measured at central axis, for the same points using CC13 (0.13 cc) ion chamber with Dose 1 Electrometer (Scanditronix Wellhofer) are compared with calculated data on DCMS and TPS. The data of 53 IMRT patients with fields ranging from 5 to 9 are reported. The computed dose for selected monitor units (MU) by Diamond showed good agreement with planned doses by TPS. DCMS dose prediction matched well in 3D-CRT forward plans (0.8 ± 1.3%, n = 37) and in IMRT inverse plans (–0.1 ± 2.2%, n = 37). Ion chamber measurements agreed well with Eclipse planned doses (–2.1 ± 2.0%, n = 53) and re-calculated DCMS doses (–1.5 ± 2.6%, n = 37) in phantom. DCMS dose validation is in reasonable agreement with TPS. DCMS calculations corroborate well with ionometric measured doses in most of the treatment plans. PMID:23293456

  4. Adjoint electron Monte Carlo calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, T.M.

    1986-01-01

    Adjoint Monte Carlo is the most efficient method for accurate analysis of space systems exposed to natural and artificially enhanced electron environments. Recent adjoint calculations for isotropic electron environments include: comparative data for experimental measurements on electronics boxes; benchmark problem solutions for comparing total dose prediction methodologies; preliminary assessment of sectoring methods used during space system design; and total dose predictions on an electronics package. Adjoint Monte Carlo, forward Monte Carlo, and experiment are in excellent agreement for electron sources that simulate space environments. For electron space environments, adjoint Monte Carlo is clearly superior to forward Monte Carlo, requiring one to two orders of magnitude less computer time for relatively simple geometries. The solid-angle sectoring approximations used for routine design calculations can err by more than a factor of 2 on dose in simple shield geometries. For critical space systems exposed to severe electron environments, these potential sectoring errors demand the establishment of large design margins and/or verification of shield design by adjoint Monte Carlo/experiment

  5. Environmental dose rate heterogeneity of beta radiation and its implications for luminescence dating: Monte Carlo modelling and experimental validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nathan, R.P.; Thomas, P.J.; Jain, M.

    2003-01-01

    -e distributions and it is important to characterise this effect, both to ensure that dose distributions are not misinterpreted, and that an accurate beta dose rate is employed in dating calculations. In this study, we make a first attempt providing a description of potential problems in heterogeneous environments...... and identify the likely size of these effects on D-e distributions. The study employs the MCNP 4C Monte Carlo electron/photon transport model, supported by an experimental validation of the code in several case studies. We find good agreement between the experimental measurements and the Monte Carlo...... simulations. It is concluded that the effect of beta, heterogeneity in complex environments for luminescence dating is two fold: (i) the infinite matrix dose rate is not universally applicable; its accuracy depends on the scale of the heterogeneity, and (ii) the interpretation of D-e distributions is complex...

  6. Radiation dose verification using real tissue phantom in modern radiotherapy techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurjar, Om Prakash; Mishra, S.P.; Bhandari, Virendra; Pathak, Pankaj; Patel, Prapti; Shrivastav, Garima

    2014-01-01

    In vitro dosimetric verification prior to patient treatment has a key role in accurate and precision radiotherapy treatment delivery. Most of commercially available dosimetric phantoms have almost homogeneous density throughout their volume, while real interior of patient body has variable and varying densities inside. In this study an attempt has been made to verify the physical dosimetry in actual human body scenario by using goat head as 'head phantom' and goat meat as 'tissue phantom'. The mean percentage variation between planned and measured doses was found to be 2.48 (standard deviation (SD): 0.74), 2.36 (SD: 0.77), 3.62 (SD: 1.05), and 3.31 (SD: 0.78) for three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) (head phantom), intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT; head phantom), 3DCRT (tissue phantom), and IMRT (tissue phantom), respectively. Although percentage variations in case of head phantom were within tolerance limit (< ± 3%), but still it is higher than the results obtained by using commercially available phantoms. And the percentage variations in most of cases of tissue phantom were out of tolerance limit. On the basis of these preliminary results it is logical and rational to develop radiation dosimetry methods based on real human body and also to develop an artificial phantom which should truly represent the interior of human body. (author)

  7. Radiation dose verification using real tissue phantom in modern radiotherapy techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Om Prakash Gurjar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In vitro dosimetric verification prior to patient treatment has a key role in accurate and precision radiotherapy treatment delivery. Most of commercially available dosimetric phantoms have almost homogeneous density throughout their volume, while real interior of patient body has variable and varying densities inside. In this study an attempt has been made to verify the physical dosimetry in actual human body scenario by using goat head as "head phantom" and goat meat as "tissue phantom". The mean percentage variation between planned and measured doses was found to be 2.48 (standard deviation (SD: 0.74, 2.36 (SD: 0.77, 3.62 (SD: 1.05, and 3.31 (SD: 0.78 for three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT (head phantom, intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT; head phantom, 3DCRT (tissue phantom, and IMRT (tissue phantom, respectively. Although percentage variations in case of head phantom were within tolerance limit (< ± 3%, but still it is higher than the results obtained by using commercially available phantoms. And the percentage variations in most of cases of tissue phantom were out of tolerance limit. On the basis of these preliminary results it is logical and rational to develop radiation dosimetry methods based on real human body and also to develop an artificial phantom which should truly represent the interior of human body.

  8. Real time Monte Carlo simulation for evaluation of patient doses involved in radiological examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fulea, D.; Cosma, C.

    2006-01-01

    In order to apply the Monte Carlo simulation technique for usual radiological examinations we developed a Pc program, 'IradMed', written entirely in Java. The main purpose of this program is to compute the organ doses and the effective dose of patients, which are exposed at a X-ray beam having photon energies in 10 to 150 keV radiodiagnostic range. Three major radiological procedures are considered, namely mammography, radiography and CT. The fluoroscopy implies an irregular geometry and therefore it is neglected. Nevertheless, a gross estimation of patient doses can be made taking into account the fluoroscopy as being composed of several radiographic examinations applied in different anatomical regions. The interactions between radiation and matter are well-known, and the accuracy of the calculation is limited by the accuracy of the anatomical model used to describe actual patients and by characterisation of the radiation field applied. In this version of IradMed, it is assumed that the absorbed dose is equal with kerma for all tissues. No procedure has been used to take account of the finite range of the secondary electrons that are produced by photoelectric or Compton interactions. These ranges are small compared with the dimensions of the organs, and the absorbed dose will not change abruptly with distance except at boundary where composition and density change. However these boundary effects would have little effect in the determination of the average doses to almost all organs, except the active bone marrow which is treated separately. Another justification for this kerma approximation is the fact that the sum of all electron energies that exit the organ is statistically equal with the sum of all electron energies that enter in that particular organ. In this version of program, it is considered the following interactions: the Rayleigh scattering, the Compton scattering and the photoelectric effect. The Compton scattering is modeled by several methods which

  9. Fast patient-specific Monte Carlo brachytherapy dose calculations via the correlated sampling variance reduction technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sampson, Andrew; Le Yi; Williamson, Jeffrey F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298 (United States)

    2012-02-15

    Purpose: To demonstrate potential of correlated sampling Monte Carlo (CMC) simulation to improve the calculation efficiency for permanent seed brachytherapy (PSB) implants without loss of accuracy. Methods: CMC was implemented within an in-house MC code family (PTRAN) and used to compute 3D dose distributions for two patient cases: a clinical PSB postimplant prostate CT imaging study and a simulated post lumpectomy breast PSB implant planned on a screening dedicated breast cone-beam CT patient exam. CMC tallies the dose difference, {Delta}D, between highly correlated histories in homogeneous and heterogeneous geometries. The heterogeneous geometry histories were derived from photon collisions sampled in a geometrically identical but purely homogeneous medium geometry, by altering their particle weights to correct for bias. The prostate case consisted of 78 Model-6711 {sup 125}I seeds. The breast case consisted of 87 Model-200 {sup 103}Pd seeds embedded around a simulated lumpectomy cavity. Systematic and random errors in CMC were unfolded using low-uncertainty uncorrelated MC (UMC) as the benchmark. CMC efficiency gains, relative to UMC, were computed for all voxels, and the mean was classified in regions that received minimum doses greater than 20%, 50%, and 90% of D{sub 90}, as well as for various anatomical regions. Results: Systematic errors in CMC relative to UMC were less than 0.6% for 99% of the voxels and 0.04% for 100% of the voxels for the prostate and breast cases, respectively. For a 1 x 1 x 1 mm{sup 3} dose grid, efficiency gains were realized in all structures with 38.1- and 59.8-fold average gains within the prostate and breast clinical target volumes (CTVs), respectively. Greater than 99% of the voxels within the prostate and breast CTVs experienced an efficiency gain. Additionally, it was shown that efficiency losses were confined to low dose regions while the largest gains were located where little difference exists between the homogeneous and

  10. Monte Carlo simulation on hard X-ray dose produced in interaction between high intensity laser and solid target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Bo; Qiu Rui; Li Junli; Zhang Hui

    2014-01-01

    The X-ray dose produced in the interaction between high intensity laser and solid target was studied by simulation using Monte Carlo code. Compared with experimental results, the calculation model was verified. The calculation model was used to study the effect on X-ray dose with different electron temperatures, target materials (including Au, Cu and PE) and thicknesses. The results indicate that the X-ray dose is mainly determined by the electron temperature, and will be affected by the target parameters. X-ray dose of Au is about 1.2 times that of Cu, and is about 5 times that of PE (polyethylene). In addition, compared with other target thickness, when target thickness is the mean range of electron in the target, X-ray dose is relatively large. These results will provide references on evaluating the ionizing radiation dose for laser devices. (authors)

  11. SU-E-T-48: A Multi-Institutional Study of Independent Dose Verification for Conventional, SRS and SBRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, R; Kamima, T; Tachibana, H; Baba, H; Itano, M; Yamazaki, T; Ishibashi, S; Higuchi, Y; Shimizu, H; Yamamoto, T; Yamashita, M; Sugawara, Y; Sato, A; Nishiyama, S; Kawai, D; Miyaoka, S

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To show the results of a multi-institutional study of the independent dose verification for conventional, Stereotactic radiosurgery and body radiotherapy (SRS and SBRT) plans based on the action level of AAPM TG-114. Methods: This study was performed at 12 institutions in Japan. To eliminate the bias of independent dose verification program (Indp), all of the institutions used the same CT-based independent dose verification software (Simple MU Analysis, Triangle Products, JP) with the Clarkson-based algorithm. Eclipse (AAA, PBC), Pinnacle 3 (Adaptive Convolve) and Xio (Superposition) were used as treatment planning system (TPS). The confidence limits (CL, Mean±2SD) for 18 sites (head, breast, lung, pelvis, etc.) were evaluated in comparison in dose between the TPS and the Indp. Results: A retrospective analysis of 6352 treatment fields was conducted. The CLs for conventional, SRS and SBRT were 1.0±3.7 %, 2.0±2.5 % and 6.2±4.4 %, respectively. In conventional plans, most of the sites showed within 5 % of TG-114 action level. However, there were the systematic difference (4.0±4.0 % and 2.5±5.8 % for breast and lung, respectively). In SRS plans, our results showed good agreement compared to the action level. In SBRT plans, the discrepancy between the Indp was variable depending on dose calculation algorithms of TPS. Conclusion: The impact of dose calculation algorithms for the TPS and the Indp affects the action level. It is effective to set the site-specific tolerances, especially for the site where inhomogeneous correction can affect dose distribution strongly

  12. A dose point kernel database using GATE Monte Carlo simulation toolkit for nuclear medicine applications: comparison with other Monte Carlo codes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitroulas, Panagiotis; Loudos, George; Nikiforidis, George C; Kagadis, George C

    2012-08-01

    GATE is a Monte Carlo simulation toolkit based on the Geant4 package, widely used for many medical physics applications, including SPECT and PET image simulation and more recently CT image simulation and patient dosimetry. The purpose of the current study was to calculate dose point kernels (DPKs) using GATE, compare them against reference data, and finally produce a complete dataset of the total DPKs for the most commonly used radionuclides in nuclear medicine. Patient-specific absorbed dose calculations can be carried out using Monte Carlo simulations. The latest version of GATE extends its applications to Radiotherapy and Dosimetry. Comparison of the proposed method for the generation of DPKs was performed for (a) monoenergetic electron sources, with energies ranging from 10 keV to 10 MeV, (b) beta emitting isotopes, e.g., (177)Lu, (90)Y, and (32)P, and (c) gamma emitting isotopes, e.g., (111)In, (131)I, (125)I, and (99m)Tc. Point isotropic sources were simulated at the center of a sphere phantom, and the absorbed dose was stored in concentric spherical shells around the source. Evaluation was performed with already published studies for different Monte Carlo codes namely MCNP, EGS, FLUKA, ETRAN, GEPTS, and PENELOPE. A complete dataset of total DPKs was generated for water (equivalent to soft tissue), bone, and lung. This dataset takes into account all the major components of radiation interactions for the selected isotopes, including the absorbed dose from emitted electrons, photons, and all secondary particles generated from the electromagnetic interactions. GATE comparison provided reliable results in all cases (monoenergetic electrons, beta emitting isotopes, and photon emitting isotopes). The observed differences between GATE and other codes are less than 10% and comparable to the discrepancies observed among other packages. The produced DPKs are in very good agreement with the already published data, which allowed us to produce a unique DPKs dataset using

  13. Monte Carlo derivation of filtered tungsten anode X-ray spectra for dose computation in digital mammography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Paixão

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: Derive filtered tungsten X-ray spectra used in digital mammography systems by means of Monte Carlo simulations. Materials and Methods: Filtered spectra for rhodium filter were obtained for tube potentials between 26 and 32 kV. The half-value layer (HVL of simulated filtered spectra were compared with those obtained experimentally with a solid state detector Unfors model 8202031-H Xi R/F & MAM Detector Platinum and 8201023-C Xi Base unit Platinum Plus w mAs in a Hologic Selenia Dimensions system using a direct radiography mode. Results: Calculated HVL values showed good agreement as compared with those obtained experimentally. The greatest relative difference between the Monte Carlo calculated HVL values and experimental HVL values was 4%. Conclusion: The results show that the filtered tungsten anode X-ray spectra and the EGSnrc Monte Carlo code can be used for mean glandular dose determination in mammography.

  14. Monte Carlo derivation of filtered tungsten anode X-ray spectra for dose computation in digital mammography*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paixão, Lucas; Oliveira, Bruno Beraldo; Viloria, Carolina; de Oliveira, Marcio Alves; Teixeira, Maria Helena Araújo; Nogueira, Maria do Socorro

    2015-01-01

    Objective Derive filtered tungsten X-ray spectra used in digital mammography systems by means of Monte Carlo simulations. Materials and Methods Filtered spectra for rhodium filter were obtained for tube potentials between 26 and 32 kV. The half-value layer (HVL) of simulated filtered spectra were compared with those obtained experimentally with a solid state detector Unfors model 8202031-H Xi R/F & MAM Detector Platinum and 8201023-C Xi Base unit Platinum Plus w mAs in a Hologic Selenia Dimensions system using a direct radiography mode. Results Calculated HVL values showed good agreement as compared with those obtained experimentally. The greatest relative difference between the Monte Carlo calculated HVL values and experimental HVL values was 4%. Conclusion The results show that the filtered tungsten anode X-ray spectra and the EGSnrc Monte Carlo code can be used for mean glandular dose determination in mammography. PMID:26811553

  15. [Simulation of dose distribution in bone medium of125I photon emitting source with Monte Carlo method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, K Q; Huang, M W; Li, J L; Tang, J T; Zhang, J G

    2018-02-18

    To present a theoretical analysis of how the presence of bone in interstitial brachytherapy affects dose rate distributions with MCNP4C Monte Carlo code and to prepare for the next clinical study on the dose distribution of interstitial brachytherapy in head and neck neoplasm. Type 6711, 125 I brachytherapy source was simulated with MCNP4C Monte Carlo code whose cross section library was DLC-200. The dose distribution along the transverse axis in water and dose constant were compared with the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) TG43UI update dosimetry formalism and current literature. The validated computer code was then applied to simple homogeneous bone tissue model to determine the affected different bone tissue had on dose distribution from 125 I interstitial implant. 125 I brachytherapy source simulated with MCNP4C Monte Carlo code met the requirements of TG43UI report. Dose rate constant, 0.977 78 cGy/(h×U), was in agreement within 1.32% compared with the recommended value of TG43UI. There was a good agreement between TG43UI about the dosimetric parameters at distances of 1 to 10 cm along the transverse axis of the 125 I source established by MCNP4C and current published data. And the dose distribution of 125 I photon emitting source in different bone tissue was calculated. Dose-deposition capacity of photons was in decreasing order: cortical bone, spongy bone, cartilage, yellow bone marrow, red bone marrow in the same medium depth. Photons deposited significantly in traversal axis among the phantom material of cortical bone and sponge bone relevant to the dose to water. In the medium depth of 0.01 cm, 0.1 cm, and 1 cm, the dose in the cortical bone was 12.90 times, 9.72 times, and 0.30 times of water respectively. This study build a 125 I source model with MCNP4C Monte Carlo code, which is validated, and could be used in subsequent study. Dose distribution of photons in different bone medium is not the same as water, and its main energy

  16. Analysis of uncertainties in Monte Carlo simulated organ and effective dose in chest CT: scanner- and scan-related factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muryn, John S.; Morgan, Ashraf G.; Liptak, Chris L.; Dong, Frank F.; Segars, W. Paul; Primak, Andrew N.; Li, Xiang

    2017-04-01

    In Monte Carlo simulation of CT dose, many input parameters are required (e.g. bowtie filter properties and scan start/end location). Our goal was to examine the uncertainties in patient dose when input parameters were inaccurate. Using a validated Monte Carlo program, organ dose from a chest CT scan was simulated for an average-size female phantom using a reference set of input parameter values (treated as the truth). Additional simulations were performed in which errors were purposely introduced into the input parameter values. The effects on four dose quantities were analyzed: organ dose (mGy/mAs), effective dose (mSv/mAs), CTDIvol-normalized organ dose (unitless), and DLP-normalized effective dose (mSv/mGy · cm). At 120 kVp, when spectral half value layer deviated from its true value by  ±1.0 mm Al, the four dose quantities had errors of 18%, 7%, 14% and 2%, respectively. None of the dose quantities were affected significantly by errors in photon path length through the graphite section of the bowtie filter; path length error as large as 5 mm produced dose errors of  ⩽2%. In contrast, error of this magnitude in the aluminum section produced dose errors of  ⩽14%. At a total collimation of 38.4 mm, when radiation beam width deviated from its true value by  ±  3 mm, dose errors were  ⩽7%. Errors in tube starting angle had little impact on effective dose (errors  ⩽  1%) however, they produced organ dose errors as high as 66%. When the assumed scan length was longer by 4 cm than the truth, organ dose errors were up to 137%. The corresponding error was 24% for effective dose, but only 3% for DLP-normalized effective dose. Lastly, when the scan isocenter deviated from the patient’s anatomical center by 5 cm, organ and effective dose errors were up 18% and 8%, respectively.

  17. Monte Carlo evaluation of Acuros XB dose calculation Algorithm for intensity modulated radiation therapy of nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Peter C. Y.; Lee, C. C.; Chao, T. C.; Tung, C. J.

    2017-11-01

    Intensity-modulated radiation therapy is an effective treatment modality for the nasopharyngeal carcinoma. One important aspect of this cancer treatment is the need to have an accurate dose algorithm dealing with the complex air/bone/tissue interface in the head-neck region to achieve the cure without radiation-induced toxicities. The Acuros XB algorithm explicitly solves the linear Boltzmann transport equation in voxelized volumes to account for the tissue heterogeneities such as lungs, bone, air, and soft tissues in the treatment field receiving radiotherapy. With the single beam setup in phantoms, this algorithm has already been demonstrated to achieve the comparable accuracy with Monte Carlo simulations. In the present study, five nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients treated with the intensity-modulated radiation therapy were examined for their dose distributions calculated using the Acuros XB in the planning target volume and the organ-at-risk. Corresponding results of Monte Carlo simulations were computed from the electronic portal image data and the BEAMnrc/DOSXYZnrc code. Analysis of dose distributions in terms of the clinical indices indicated that the Acuros XB was in comparable accuracy with Monte Carlo simulations and better than the anisotropic analytical algorithm for dose calculations in real patients.

  18. Development of dose delivery verification by PET imaging of photonuclear reactions following high energy photon therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janek, S.; Svensson, R.; Jonsson, C.; Brahme, A.

    2006-11-01

    A method for dose delivery monitoring after high energy photon therapy has been investigated based on positron emission tomography (PET). The technique is based on the activation of body tissues by high energy bremsstrahlung beams, preferably with energies well above 20 MeV, resulting primarily in 11C and 15O but also 13N, all positron-emitting radionuclides produced by photoneutron reactions in the nuclei of 12C, 16O and 14N. A PMMA phantom and animal tissue, a frozen hind leg of a pig, were irradiated to 10 Gy and the induced positron activity distributions were measured off-line in a PET camera a couple of minutes after irradiation. The accelerator used was a Racetrack Microtron at the Karolinska University Hospital using 50 MV scanned photon beams. From photonuclear cross-section data integrated over the 50 MV photon fluence spectrum the predicted PET signal was calculated and compared with experimental measurements. Since measured PET images change with time post irradiation, as a result of the different decay times of the radionuclides, the signals from activated 12C, 16O and 14N within the irradiated volume could be separated from each other. Most information is obtained from the carbon and oxygen radionuclides which are the most abundant elements in soft tissue. The predicted and measured overall positron activities are almost equal (-3%) while the predicted activity originating from nitrogen is overestimated by almost a factor of two, possibly due to experimental noise. Based on the results obtained in this first feasibility study the great value of a combined radiotherapy-PET-CT unit is indicated in order to fully exploit the high activity signal from oxygen immediately after treatment and to avoid patient repositioning. With an RT-PET-CT unit a high signal could be collected even at a dose level of 2 Gy and the acquisition time for the PET could be reduced considerably. Real patient dose delivery verification by means of PET imaging seems to be

  19. Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis of dose estimates in radiochromic film dosimetry with single-channel and multichannel algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera-Sánchez, Juan Antonio; Ruiz-Morales, Carmen; González-López, Antonio

    2018-03-01

    To provide a multi-stage model to calculate uncertainty in radiochromic film dosimetry with Monte-Carlo techniques. This new approach is applied to single-channel and multichannel algorithms. Two lots of Gafchromic EBT3 are exposed in two different Varian linacs. They are read with an EPSON V800 flatbed scanner. The Monte-Carlo techniques in uncertainty analysis provide a numerical representation of the probability density functions of the output magnitudes. From this numerical representation, traditional parameters of uncertainty analysis as the standard deviations and bias are calculated. Moreover, these numerical representations are used to investigate the shape of the probability density functions of the output magnitudes. Also, another calibration film is read in four EPSON scanners (two V800 and two 10000XL) and the uncertainty analysis is carried out with the four images. The dose estimates of single-channel and multichannel algorithms show a Gaussian behavior and low bias. The multichannel algorithms lead to less uncertainty in the final dose estimates when the EPSON V800 is employed as reading device. In the case of the EPSON 10000XL, the single-channel algorithms provide less uncertainty in the dose estimates for doses higher than four Gy. A multi-stage model has been presented. With the aid of this model and the use of the Monte-Carlo techniques, the uncertainty of dose estimates for single-channel and multichannel algorithms are estimated. The application of the model together with Monte-Carlo techniques leads to a complete characterization of the uncertainties in radiochromic film dosimetry. Copyright © 2018 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. In vivo dosimetry with semiconducting diodes for dose verification in total-body irradiation. A 10-year experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramm, U.; Licher, J.; Moog, J.; Scherf, C.; Kara, E.; Boettcher, H.D.; Roedel, C. [Dept. of Radiotherapy and Oncology, Center of Radiology, Univ. Hospital Johann Wolfgang Goethe Univ., Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Mose, S. [Dept. of Radiotherapy and Oncology, Center of Radiology, Univ. Hospital Johann Wolfgang Goethe Univ., Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology, Schwarzwald-Baar Hospital, Villingen-Schwenningen (Germany)

    2008-07-15

    Background and purpose: for total-body irradiation (TBI) using the translation method, dose distribution cannot be computed with computer-assisted three-dimensional planning systems. Therefore, dose distribution has to be primarily estimated based on CT scans (beam-zone method) which is followed by in vivo measurements to ascertain a homogeneous dose delivery. The aim of this study was to clinically establish semiconductor probes as a simple and fast method to obtain an online verification of the dose at relevant points. Patients and methods: in 110 consecutively irradiated TBI patients (12.6 Gy, 2 x 1.8 Gy/day), six semiconductor probes were attached to the body surface at dose-relevant points (eye/head, neck, lung, navel). The mid-body point of the abdomen was defined as dose reference point. The speed of translation was optimized to definitively reach the prescribed dose in this point. Based on the entrance and exit doses, the mid-body doses at the other points were computed. The dose homogeneity in the entire target volume was determined comparing all measured data with the dose at the reference point. Results: after calibration of the semiconductor probes under treatment conditions the dose in selected points and the dose homogeneity in the target volume could be quantitatively specified. In the TBI patients, conformity of calculated and measured doses in the given points was achieved with small deviations of adequate accuracy. The data of 80% of the patients are within an uncertainty of {+-} 5%. Conclusion: during TBI using the translation method, dose distribution and dose homogeneity can be easily controlled in selected points by means of semiconductor probes. Semiconductor probes are recommended for further use in the physical evaluation of TBI. (orig.)

  1. In vivo dosimetry with semiconducting diodes for dose verification in total-body irradiation. A 10-year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramm, Ulla; Licher, Jörg; Moog, Jussi; Scherf, Christian; Kara, Eugen; Böttcher, Heinz-Dietrich; Rödel, Claus; Mose, Stephan

    2008-07-01

    For total-body irradiation (TBI) using the translation method, dose distribution cannot be computed with computer-assisted three-dimensional planning systems. Therefore, dose distribution has to be primarily estimated based on CT scans (beam-zone method) which is followed by in vivo measurements to ascertain a homogeneous dose delivery. The aim of this study was to clinically establish semiconductor probes as a simple and fast method to obtain an online verification of the dose at relevant points. In 110 consecutively irradiated TBI patients (12.6 Gy, 2 x 1.8 Gy/day), six semiconductor probes were attached to the body surface at dose-relevant points (eye/head, neck, lung, navel). The mid-body point of the abdomen was defined as dose reference point. The speed of translation was optimized to definitively reach the prescribed dose in this point. Based on the entrance and exit doses, the mid-body doses at the other points were computed. The dose homogeneity in the entire target volume was determined comparing all measured data with the dose at the reference point. After calibration of the semiconductor probes under treatment conditions the dose in selected points and the dose homogeneity in the target volume could be quantitatively specified. In the TBI patients, conformity of calculated and measured doses in the given points was achieved with small deviations of adequate accuracy. The data of 80% of the patients are within an uncertainty of +/- 5%. During TBI using the translation method, dose distribution and dose homogeneity can be easily controlled in selected points by means of semiconductor probes. Semiconductor probes are recommended for further use in the physical evaluation of TBI.

  2. Verification of the model of a photon beam of 6 MV in a Monte Carlo planning comparison with collapsed cone in in homogeneous medium; Verificacion del modelado de un haz de fotones de 6 MV en un planificador Monte Carlo. Comparacion con Collapsed Cone en medio no homogeneo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez Ros, J. C.; Jerez Sainz, M. I.; Lobato Munoz, M.; Jodar Lopez, C. A.; Ruiz Lopez, M. A.; Carrasco rodriguez, J. L.; Pamos Urena, M.

    2013-07-01

    We evaluated the Monte Carlo Monaco Planner v2.0.3 for calculation between non-homogeneous low density (equivalent to lung), as a complement to the verification of modeling in homogeneous medium and prior to the introduction of the SBRT technique. We performed the same tests on Pinnacle v8.0m, with the same purpose. We compare the results obtained with the algorithm Monte Carlo of Monaco and the Collapsed Cone of Pinnacle. (Author)

  3. SimDoseCT: dose reporting software based on Monte Carlo simulation for a 320 detector-row cone-beam CT scanner and ICRP computational adult phantoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cros, Maria; Joemai, Raoul M. S.; Geleijns, Jacob; Molina, Diego; Salvadó, Marçal

    2017-08-01

    This study aims to develop and test software for assessing and reporting doses for standard patients undergoing computed tomography (CT) examinations in a 320 detector-row cone-beam scanner. The software, called SimDoseCT, is based on the Monte Carlo (MC) simulation code, which was developed to calculate organ doses and effective doses in ICRP anthropomorphic adult reference computational phantoms for acquisitions with the Aquilion ONE CT scanner (Toshiba). MC simulation was validated by comparing CTDI measurements within standard CT dose phantoms with results from simulation under the same conditions. SimDoseCT consists of a graphical user interface connected to a MySQL database, which contains the look-up-tables that were generated with MC simulations for volumetric acquisitions at different scan positions along the phantom using any tube voltage, bow tie filter, focal spot and nine different beam widths. Two different methods were developed to estimate organ doses and effective doses from acquisitions using other available beam widths in the scanner. A correction factor was used to estimate doses in helical acquisitions. Hence, the user can select any available protocol in the Aquilion ONE scanner for a standard adult male or female and obtain the dose results through the software interface. Agreement within 9% between CTDI measurements and simulations allowed the validation of the MC program. Additionally, the algorithm for dose reporting in SimDoseCT was validated by comparing dose results from this tool with those obtained from MC simulations for three volumetric acquisitions (head, thorax and abdomen). The comparison was repeated using eight different collimations and also for another collimation in a helical abdomen examination. The results showed differences of 0.1 mSv or less for absolute dose in most organs and also in the effective dose calculation. The software provides a suitable tool for dose assessment in standard adult patients undergoing CT

  4. SimDoseCT: dose reporting software based on Monte Carlo simulation for a 320 detector-row cone-beam CT scanner and ICRP computational adult phantoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cros, Maria; Joemai, Raoul M S; Geleijns, Jacob; Molina, Diego; Salvadó, Marçal

    2017-07-17

    This study aims to develop and test software for assessing and reporting doses for standard patients undergoing computed tomography (CT) examinations in a 320 detector-row cone-beam scanner. The software, called SimDoseCT, is based on the Monte Carlo (MC) simulation code, which was developed to calculate organ doses and effective doses in ICRP anthropomorphic adult reference computational phantoms for acquisitions with the Aquilion ONE CT scanner (Toshiba). MC simulation was validated by comparing CTDI measurements within standard CT dose phantoms with results from simulation under the same conditions. SimDoseCT consists of a graphical user interface connected to a MySQL database, which contains the look-up-tables that were generated with MC simulations for volumetric acquisitions at different scan positions along the phantom using any tube voltage, bow tie filter, focal spot and nine different beam widths. Two different methods were developed to estimate organ doses and effective doses from acquisitions using other available beam widths in the scanner. A correction factor was used to estimate doses in helical acquisitions. Hence, the user can select any available protocol in the Aquilion ONE scanner for a standard adult male or female and obtain the dose results through the software interface. Agreement within 9% between CTDI measurements and simulations allowed the validation of the MC program. Additionally, the algorithm for dose reporting in SimDoseCT was validated by comparing dose results from this tool with those obtained from MC simulations for three volumetric acquisitions (head, thorax and abdomen). The comparison was repeated using eight different collimations and also for another collimation in a helical abdomen examination. The results showed differences of 0.1 mSv or less for absolute dose in most organs and also in the effective dose calculation. The software provides a suitable tool for dose assessment in standard adult patients undergoing CT

  5. Patient dose study in chest radiographic examinations for different exposure techniques using Monte Carlo method and voxel phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa, Samanda C.A.; Souza, Edmilson M.; Silva, Ademir X.; Lopes, Ricardo T.

    2007-01-01

    Monte Carlo code MCNPX coupled with an adult voxel female model (FAX) were used to investigate how radiation dose in chest radiographic examinations vary with antiscatter techniques (air gap and grid) and projection geometry (anterior-posterior - AP and posterior-anterior - PA) for different tube voltages. The radiation doses were evaluated in terms of organ and effective doses, for a fixed air kerma at the image detector. The results show that the effective dose for grid technique decreases with increasing tube voltage, while that for air gap great variations were not observed. Besides, the work also showed that doses are larger for AP projections and that use of the air gap is recommended in the place of the anti-scatter grids. (author)

  6. OEDIPE, a software for personalized Monte Carlo dosimetry and treatment planning optimization in nuclear medicine: absorbed dose and biologically effective dose considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petitguillaume, A.; Broggio, D.; Franck, D.; Desbree, A.; Bernardini, M.; Labriolle Vaylet, C. de

    2014-01-01

    For targeted radionuclide therapies, treatment planning usually consists of the administration of standard activities without accounting for the patient-specific activity distribution, pharmacokinetics and dosimetry to organs at risk. The OEDIPE software is a user-friendly interface which has an automation level suitable for performing personalized Monte Carlo 3D dosimetry for diagnostic and therapeutic radionuclide administrations. Mean absorbed doses to regions of interest (ROIs), isodose curves superimposed on a personalized anatomical model of the patient and dose-volume histograms can be extracted from the absorbed dose 3D distribution. Moreover, to account for the differences in radiosensitivity between tumoral and healthy tissues, additional functionalities have been implemented to calculate the 3D distribution of the biologically effective dose (BED), mean BEDs to ROIs, isoBED curves and BED-volume histograms along with the Equivalent Uniform Biologically Effective Dose (EUD) to ROIs. Finally, optimization tools are available for treatment planning optimization using either the absorbed dose or BED distributions. These tools enable one to calculate the maximal injectable activity which meets tolerance criteria to organs at risk for a chosen fractionation protocol. This paper describes the functionalities available in the latest version of the OEDIPE software to perform personalized Monte Carlo dosimetry and treatment planning optimization in targeted radionuclide therapies. (authors)

  7. SU-E-T-289: Scintillating Fiber Based In-Vivo Dose Monitoring System to the Rectum in Proton Therapy of Prostate Cancer: A Geant4 Monte Carlo Simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tesfamicael, B; Gueye, P; Lyons, D; Mahesh, M; Avery, S

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To construct a dose monitoring system based on an endorectal balloon coupled to thin scintillating fibers to study the dose delivered to the rectum during prostate cancer proton therapy Methods: The Geant4 Monte Carlo toolkit version 9.6p02 was used to simulate prostate cancer proton therapy treatments of an endorectal balloon (for immobilization of a 2.9 cm diameter prostate gland) and a set of 34 scintillating fibers symmetrically placed around the balloon and perpendicular to the proton beam direction (for dosimetry measurements) Results: A linear response of the fibers to the dose delivered was observed within <2%, a property that makes them good candidates for real time dosimetry. Results obtained show that the closest fiber recorded about 1/3 of the dose to the target with a 1/r 2 decrease in the dose distribution as one goes toward the frontal and distal top fibers. Very low dose was recorded by the bottom fibers (about 45 times comparatively), which is a clear indication that the overall volume of the rectal wall that is exposed to a higher dose is relatively minimized. Further analysis indicated a simple scaling relationship between the dose to the prostate and the dose to the top fibers (a linear fit gave a slope of −0.07±0.07 MeV per treatment Gy) Conclusion: Thin (1 mm × 1 mm × 100 cm) long scintillating fibers were found to be ideal for real time in-vivo dose measurement to the rectum for prostate cancer proton therapy. The linear response of the fibers to the dose delivered makes them good candidates of dosimeters. With thorough calibration and the ability to define a good correlation between the dose to the target and the dose to the fibers, such dosimeters can be used for real time dose verification to the target

  8. [Comparison of Organ Dose Calculation Using Monte Carlo Simulation and In-phantom Dosimetry in CT Examination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriuchijima, Akiko; Fukushima, Yasuhiro; Ogura, Akio

    Direct measurement of each patient organ dose from computed tomography (CT) is not possible. Most methods to estimate patient organ dose is using Monte Carlo simulation with dedicated software. However, the method and the relative differences between organ dose simulation and measurement is unclear. The purpose of this study was to compare organ doses evaluated by Monte Carlo simulation with doses evaluated by in-phantom dosimetry. The simulation software Radimetrics (Bayer) was used for the calculation of organ dose. Measurement was performed with radio-photoluminescence glass dosimeter (RPLD) set at various organ positions within RANDO phantom. To evaluate difference of CT scanner, two different CT scanners were used in this study. Angular dependence of RPLD and measurement of effective energy were performed for each scanner. The comparison of simulation and measurement was evaluated by relative differences. In the results, angular dependence of RPLD at two scanners was 31.6±0.45 mGy for SOMATOM Definition Flash and 29.2±0.18 mGy for LightSpeed VCT. The organ dose was 42.2 mGy (range, 29.9-52.7 mGy) by measurements and 37.7 mGy (range, 27.9-48.1 mGy) by simulations. The relative differences of organ dose between measurement and simulation were 13%, excluding of breast's 42%. We found that organ dose by simulation was lower than by measurement. In conclusion, the results of relative differences will be useful for evaluating organ doses for individual patients by simulation software Radimetrics.

  9. Computation of gamma dose due to atmospheric dispersion of releases from nuclear power reactor using Monte Carlo integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jesan, T.; Venkataraman, S.; Hegde, A.G.; Sarkar, P.K.

    2011-01-01

    Estimation of dose rates due to atmospheric releases of gamma emitting radionuclide (such as 41 Ar-, 85 Kr-, 133 Xe etc) from stack using Gaussian Plume Model with build up and attenuation in the air medium ended with complicated function, which contains a triple integral to be solved in the spatial dimensions of plume. This triple integral can be solved numerically as there is no analytical solution to this problem. In BARC-1412 (1988) Manual, the approximate method for the solving of triple integral is explained by R.K. Hukoo et al and normalized dose rates computed at various downwind distances for single plume centreline and sector averaged plume, in the main sector and contribution from the side sectors are tabulated. This approximate method of is followed for regulatory purposes in all Indian Nuclear Power Plants. In this paper, the triple integral is evaluated by Monte Carlo techniques as this method may be the appropriate choice, when the integration region (function) is complicated and of higher dimension. The dose rate estimated by Monte Carlo integration at various downwind distances are slightly higher and accurate than of, numerical deterministic approximate method with same parameter set. The Monte Carlo integration method can be extended to Berger and Geometric progression forms of dose build up factor unlike BARC-1412 (1988) manual which uses linear form of build up factor. Further the Monte Carlo integration can be adopted for complex terrain like coastal site, where the modified Gaussian Plume model appropriately includes the fumigation effects due to sea breeze conditions. (author)

  10. Film techniques in radiotherapy for treatment verification, determination of patient exit dose, and detection of localization error

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haus, A.G.; Marks, J.E.

    1974-01-01

    In patient radiation therapy, it is important to know that the diseased area is included in the treatment field and that normal anatomy is properly shielded or excluded. Since 1969, a film technique developed for imaging of the complete patient radiation exposure has been applied for treatment verification and for the detection and evaluation of localization errors that may occur during treatment. The technique basically consists of placing a film under the patient during the entire radiation exposure. This film should have proper sensitivity and contrast in the exit dose exposure range encountered in radiotherapy. In this communication, we describe how various exit doses fit the characteristic curve of the film; examples of films exposed to various exit doses; the technique for using the film to determine the spatial distribution of the absorbed exit dose; and types of errors commonly detected. Results are presented illustrating that, as the frequency of use of this film technique is increased, localization error is reduced significantly

  11. Monte Carlo simulations of adult and pediatric computed tomography exams: Validation studies of organ doses with physical phantoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, Daniel J.; Lee, Choonsik; Tien, Christopher; Fisher, Ryan; Hoerner, Matthew R.; Hintenlang, David; Bolch, Wesley E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To validate the accuracy of a Monte Carlo source model of the Siemens SOMATOM Sensation 16 CT scanner using organ doses measured in physical anthropomorphic phantoms. Methods: The x-ray output of the Siemens SOMATOM Sensation 16 multidetector CT scanner was simulated within the Monte Carlo radiation transport code, MCNPX version 2.6. The resulting source model was able to perform various simulated axial and helical computed tomographic (CT) scans of varying scan parameters, including beam energy, filtration, pitch, and beam collimation. Two custom-built anthropomorphic phantoms were used to take dose measurements on the CT scanner: an adult male and a 9-month-old. The adult male is a physical replica of University of Florida reference adult male hybrid computational phantom, while the 9-month-old is a replica of University of Florida Series B 9-month-old voxel computational phantom. Each phantom underwent a series of axial and helical CT scans, during which organ doses were measured using fiber-optic coupled plastic scintillator dosimeters developed at University of Florida. The physical setup was reproduced and simulated in MCNPX using the CT source model and the computational phantoms upon which the anthropomorphic phantoms were constructed. Average organ doses were then calculated based upon these MCNPX results. Results: For all CT scans, good agreement was seen between measured and simulated organ doses. For the adult male, the percent differences were within 16% for axial scans, and within 18% for helical scans. For the 9-month-old, the percent differences were all within 15% for both the axial and helical scans. These results are comparable to previously published validation studies using GE scanners and commercially available anthropomorphic phantoms. Conclusions: Overall results of this study show that the Monte Carlo source model can be used to accurately and reliably calculate organ doses for patients undergoing a variety of axial or helical CT

  12. The calculation of dose from external photon exposures using reference human phantoms and Monte Carlo methods. Pt. 7. Organ doses due to parallel and environmental exposure geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zankl, M.

    1997-03-01

    This report presents a tabulation of organ and tissue equivalent dose as well as effective dose conversion coefficients, normalised to air kerma free in air, for occupational exposures and environmental exposures of the public to external photon radiation. For occupational exposures, whole-body irradiation with idealised geometries, i.e. broad parallel beams and fully isotropic radiation incidence, is considered. The directions of incidence for the parallel beams are anterior-posterior, posterior-anterior, left lateral, right lateral and a full 360 rotation around the body's longitudinal axis. The influence of beam divergence on the body doses is also considered as well as the dependence of effective dose on the angle of radiation incidence. Regarding exposure of the public to environmental sources, three source geometries are considered: exposure from a radioactive cloud, from ground contamination and from the natural radionuclides distributed homogeneously in the ground. The precise angular and energy distributions of the gamma rays incident on the human body were taken into account. The organ dose conversion coefficients given in this catalogue were calculated using a Monte Carlo code simulating the photon transport in mathematical models of an adult male and an adult female, respectively. Conversion coefficients are given for the equivalent dose of 23 organs and tissues as well as for effective dose and the equivalent dose of the so-called 'remainder'. The organ equivalent dose conversion coefficients are given separately for the adult male and female models and - as arithmetic mean of the conversion coefficients of both - for an average adult. Fitted data of the coefficients are presented in tables; the primary raw data as resulting from the Monte Carlo calculation are shown in figures together with the fitted data. (orig.)

  13. SU-E-T-50: A Multi-Institutional Study of Independent Dose Verification Software Program for Lung SBRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, D; Takahashi, R; Kamima, T; Baba, H; Yamamoto, T; Kubo, Y; Ishibashi, S; Higuchi, Y; Takahashi, H; Tachibana, H

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The accuracy of dose distribution depends on treatment planning system especially in heterogeneity-region. The tolerance level (TL) of the secondary check using the independent dose verification may be variable in lung SBRT plans. We conducted a multi-institutional study to evaluate the tolerance level of lung SBRT plans shown in the AAPM TG114. Methods: Five institutes in Japan participated in this study. All of the institutes used a same independent dose verification software program (Simple MU Analysis: SMU, Triangle Product, Ishikawa, JP), which is Clarkson-based and CT images were used to compute radiological path length. Analytical Anisotropic Algorithm (AAA), Pencil Beam Convolution with modified Batho-method (PBC-B) and Adaptive Convolve (AC) were used for lung SBRT planning. A measurement using an ion-chamber was performed in a heterogeneous phantom to compare doses from the three different algorithms and the SMU to the measured dose. In addition to it, a retrospective analysis using clinical lung SBRT plans (547 beams from 77 patients) was conducted to evaluate the confidence limit (CL, Average±2SD) in dose between the three algorithms and the SMU. Results: Compared to the measurement, the AAA showed the larger systematic dose error of 2.9±3.2% than PBC-B and AC. The Clarkson-based SMU showed larger error of 5.8±3.8%. The CLs for clinical plans were 7.7±6.0 % (AAA), 5.3±3.3 % (AC), 5.7±3.4 % (PBC -B), respectively. Conclusion: The TLs from the CLs were evaluated. A Clarkson-based system shows a large systematic variation because of inhomogeneous correction. The AAA showed a significant variation. Thus, we must consider the difference of inhomogeneous correction as well as the dependence of dose calculation engine

  14. The calculation of dose from external photon exposures using reference human phantoms and Monte Carlo methods. Pt. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, G.; Zankl, M.; Drexler, G.

    1984-12-01

    This report considers the contribution from scattered radiation to the dose to organs and tissues which lie outside the useful therapy beams. The results presented are the product of Monte Carlo studies used to determine the tissue doses due to internal scattering of the useful beams only. General cases are calculated in which central target volumes in the trunk are treated with 10 x 14 cm 2 and 14 x 14 cm 2 fields from 200 kV, Co-60, 8 MV and 25 MV therapy equipment. Target volumes in the neck are considered to be treated with 5 x 5 cm 2 fields. Different treatment plans are calculated including rotational therapy. Also two specific cases are more fully analysed, namely for Ankylosing Spondylitis and central abdomen malignant disease in the region of the head of the pancreas. The calculated organ doses are presented in tables as a percentage of the target volume dose. (orig.)

  15. Local dose enhancement in radiation therapy: Monte Carlo simulation study; Reforco local de dose em radioterapia utilizando nanoparticulas: estudo por simulacao Monte Carlo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Laura E. da; Nicolucci, Patricia, E-mail: laura.emilia.fm@gmail.com [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras

    2014-04-15

    The development of nanotechnology has boosted the use of nanoparticles in radiation therapy in order to achieve greater therapeutic ratio between tumor and healthy tissues. Gold has been shown to be most suitable to this task due to the high biocompatibility and high atomic number, which contributes to a better in vivo distribution and for the local energy deposition. As a result, this study proposes to study, nanoparticle in the tumor cell. At a range of 11 nm from the nanoparticle surface, results have shown an absorbed dose 141 times higher for the medium with the gold nanoparticle compared to the water for an incident energy spectrum with maximum photon energy of 50 keV. It was also noted that when only scattered radiation is interacting with the gold nanoparticles, the dose was 134 times higher compared to enhanced local dose that remained significant even for scattered radiation. (author)

  16. Dosimetric verification of small fields in the lung using lung-equivalent polymer gel and Monte Carlo simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahideh Gharehaghaji

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: Our study showed that the dose reduction with small fields in the lung was very high. Thus, inaccurate prediction of absorbed dose inside the lung and also lung/soft-tissue interfaces with small photon beams may lead to critical consequences for treatment outcome.

  17. The FLUKA Monte Carlo code coupled with the NIRS approach for clinical dose calculations in carbon ion therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magro, G.; Dahle, T. J.; Molinelli, S.; Ciocca, M.; Fossati, P.; Ferrari, A.; Inaniwa, T.; Matsufuji, N.; Ytre-Hauge, K. S.; Mairani, A.

    2017-05-01

    Particle therapy facilities often require Monte Carlo (MC) simulations to overcome intrinsic limitations of analytical treatment planning systems (TPS) related to the description of the mixed radiation field and beam interaction with tissue inhomogeneities. Some of these uncertainties may affect the computation of effective dose distributions; therefore, particle therapy dedicated MC codes should provide both absorbed and biological doses. Two biophysical models are currently applied clinically in particle therapy: the local effect model (LEM) and the microdosimetric kinetic model (MKM). In this paper, we describe the coupling of the NIRS (National Institute for Radiological Sciences, Japan) clinical dose to the FLUKA MC code. We moved from the implementation of the model itself to its application in clinical cases, according to the NIRS approach, where a scaling factor is introduced to rescale the (carbon-equivalent) biological dose to a clinical dose level. A high level of agreement was found with published data by exploring a range of values for the MKM input parameters, while some differences were registered in forward recalculations of NIRS patient plans, mainly attributable to differences with the analytical TPS dose engine (taken as reference) in describing the mixed radiation field (lateral spread and fragmentation). We presented a tool which is being used at the Italian National Center for Oncological Hadrontherapy to support the comparison study between the NIRS clinical dose level and the LEM dose specification.

  18. Calculation of electron and isotopes dose point kernels with FLUKA Monte Carlo code for dosimetry in nuclear medicine therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Mairani, A; Valente, M; Battistoni, G; Botta, F; Pedroli, G; Ferrari, A; Cremonesi, M; Di Dia, A; Ferrari, M; Fasso, A

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The calculation of patient-specific dose distribution can be achieved by Monte Carlo simulations or by analytical methods. In this study, FLUKA Monte Carlo code has been considered for use in nuclear medicine dosimetry. Up to now, FLUKA has mainly been dedicated to other fields, namely high energy physics, radiation protection, and hadrontherapy. When first employing a Monte Carlo code for nuclear medicine dosimetry, its results concerning electron transport at energies typical of nuclear medicine applications need to be verified. This is commonly achieved by means of calculation of a representative parameter and comparison with reference data. Dose point kernel (DPK), quantifying the energy deposition all around a point isotropic source, is often the one. Methods: FLUKA DPKS have been calculated in both water and compact bone for monoenergetic electrons (10-3 MeV) and for beta emitting isotopes commonly used for therapy ((89)Sr, (90)Y, (131)I, (153)Sm, (177)Lu, (186)Re, and (188)Re). Point isotropic...

  19. Monte Carlo dose calculation of segmental IMRT delivery to a moving phantom using dynamic MLC and gating log files

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, Mike; Gladwish, Adam; Chen, Jeff; Wong, Eugene; Staruch, Robert; Craig, Jeff

    2008-01-01

    Respiratory gating is emerging as a tool to limit the effect of motion for liver and lung tumors. In order to study the impact of target motion and gated intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) delivery, a computer program was developed to simulate segmental IMRT delivery to a moving phantom. Two distinct plans were delivered to a rigid-motion phantom with a film insert in place under four conditions: static, sinusoidal motion, gated sinusoidal motion with a duty cycle of 25% and gated sinusoidal motion with duty cycle of 50% under motion conditions of a typical patient (A = 1 cm, T = 4 s). The MLC controller log files and gating log files were retained to perform a retrospective Monte Carlo dose calculation of the plans. Comparison of the 2D planar dose distributions between simulation and measurement demonstrated that our technique had at least 94% of the points passing gamma criteria of 3% for dose difference and 3 mm as the distance to agreement. This note demonstrates that the use of dynamic multi-leaf collimator and respiratory monitoring system log files together with a fast Monte Carlo dose calculation algorithm is an accurate and efficient way to study the dosimetric effect of motion for gated or non-gated IMRT delivery on a rigidly-moving body. (note)

  20. Study of the heterogeneities effect in the dose distributions of Leksell Gamma Knife (R), through Monte Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas C, E.L.; Al-Dweri, F.M.O.; Lallena R, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    In this work they are studied, by means of Monte Carlo simulation, the effects that take place in the dose profiles that are obtained with the Leksell Gamma Knife (R), when they are kept in account heterogeneities. The considered heterogeneities simulate the skull and the spaces of air that are in the head, like they can be the nasal breasts or the auditory conduits. The calculations were made using the Monte Carlo Penelope simulation code (v. 2003). The geometry of each one of the 201 sources that this instrument is composed, as well as of the corresponding channels of collimation of the Gamma Knife (R), it was described by means of a simplified model of geometry that has been recently studied. The obtained results when they are kept in mind the heterogeneities they present non worthless differences regarding those obtained when those are not considered. These differences are maximum in the proximities of the interfaces among different materials. (Author)

  1. Clinical evaluation of a dose monitoring software tool based on Monte Carlo Simulation in assessment of eye lens doses for cranial CT scans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guberina, Nika; Suntharalingam, Saravanabavaan; Nassenstein, Kai; Forsting, Michael; Theysohn, Jens; Wetter, Axel; Ringelstein, Adrian [University Hospital Essen, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Essen (Germany)

    2016-10-15

    The aim of this study was to verify the results of a dose monitoring software tool based on Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) in assessment of eye lens doses for cranial CT scans. In cooperation with the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (Neuherberg, Germany), phantom measurements were performed with thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLD LiF:Mg,Ti) using cranial CT protocols: (I) CT angiography; (II) unenhanced, cranial CT scans with gantry angulation at a single and (III) without gantry angulation at a dual source CT scanner. Eye lens doses calculated by the dose monitoring tool based on MCS and assessed with TLDs were compared. Eye lens doses are summarized as follows: (I) CT angiography (a) MCS 7 mSv, (b) TLD 5 mSv; (II) unenhanced, cranial CT scan with gantry angulation, (c) MCS 45 mSv, (d) TLD 5 mSv; (III) unenhanced, cranial CT scan without gantry angulation (e) MCS 38 mSv, (f) TLD 35 mSv. Intermodality comparison shows an inaccurate calculation of eye lens doses in unenhanced cranial CT protocols at the single source CT scanner due to the disregard of gantry angulation. On the contrary, the dose monitoring tool showed an accurate calculation of eye lens doses at the dual source CT scanner without gantry angulation and for CT angiography examinations. The dose monitoring software tool based on MCS gave accurate estimates of eye lens doses in cranial CT protocols. However, knowledge of protocol and software specific influences is crucial for correct assessment of eye lens doses in routine clinical use. (orig.)

  2. Changes in dose with segmentation of breast tissues in Monte Carlo calculations for low-energy brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, J. G. H.; Thomson, R. M.; Rogers, D. W. O.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the use of various breast tissue segmentation models in Monte Carlo dose calculations for low-energy brachytherapy. Methods: The EGSnrc user-code BrachyDose is used to perform Monte Carlo simulations of a breast brachytherapy treatment using TheraSeed Pd-103 seeds with various breast tissue segmentation models. Models used include a phantom where voxels are randomly assigned to be gland or adipose (randomly segmented), a phantom where a single tissue of averaged gland and adipose is present (averaged tissue), and a realistically segmented phantom created from previously published numerical phantoms. Radiation transport in averaged tissue while scoring in gland along with other combinations is investigated. The inclusion of calcifications in the breast is also studied in averaged tissue and randomly segmented phantoms. Results: In randomly segmented and averaged tissue phantoms, the photon energy fluence is approximately the same; however, differences occur in the dose volume histograms (DVHs) as a result of scoring in the different tissues (gland and adipose versus averaged tissue), whose mass energy absorption coefficients differ by 30%. A realistically segmented phantom is shown to significantly change the photon energy fluence compared to that in averaged tissue or randomly segmented phantoms. Despite this, resulting DVHs for the entire treatment volume agree reasonably because fluence differences are compensated by dose scoring differences. DVHs for the dose to only the gland voxels in a realistically segmented phantom do not agree with those for dose to gland in an averaged tissue phantom. Calcifications affect photon energy fluence to such a degree that the differences in fluence are not compensated for (as they are in the no calcification case) by dose scoring in averaged tissue phantoms. Conclusions: For low-energy brachytherapy, if photon transport and dose scoring both occur in an averaged tissue, the resulting DVH for the entire

  3. Secondary Neutron Doses to Pediatric Patients During Intracranial Proton Therapy: Monte Carlo Simulation of the Neutron Energy Spectrum and its Organ Doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Shinnosuke; Koba, Yusuke; Kohno, Ryosuke; Lee, Choonsik; Bolch, Wesley E; Kai, Michiaki

    2016-04-01

    Proton therapy has the physical advantage of a Bragg peak that can provide a better dose distribution than conventional x-ray therapy. However, radiation exposure of normal tissues cannot be ignored because it is likely to increase the risk of secondary cancer. Evaluating secondary neutrons generated by the interaction of the proton beam with the treatment beam-line structure is necessary; thus, performing the optimization of radiation protection in proton therapy is required. In this research, the organ dose and energy spectrum were calculated from secondary neutrons using Monte Carlo simulations. The Monte Carlo code known as the Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System (PHITS) was used to simulate the transport proton and its interaction with the treatment beam-line structure that modeled the double scattering body of the treatment nozzle at the National Cancer Center Hospital East. The doses of the organs in a hybrid computational phantom simulating a 5-y-old boy were calculated. In general, secondary neutron doses were found to decrease with increasing distance to the treatment field. Secondary neutron energy spectra were characterized by incident neutrons with three energy peaks: 1×10, 1, and 100 MeV. A block collimator and a patient collimator contributed significantly to organ doses. In particular, the secondary neutrons from the patient collimator were 30 times higher than those from the first scatter. These results suggested that proactive protection will be required in the design of the treatment beam-line structures and that organ doses from secondary neutrons may be able to be reduced.

  4. A virtual photon source model of an Elekta linear accelerator with integrated mini MLC for Monte Carlo based IMRT dose calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikora, M; Dohm, O; Alber, M

    2007-08-07

    A dedicated, efficient Monte Carlo (MC) accelerator head model for intensity modulated stereotactic radiosurgery treatment planning is needed to afford a highly accurate simulation of tiny IMRT fields. A virtual source model (VSM) of a mini multi-leaf collimator (MLC) (the Elekta Beam Modulator (EBM)) is presented, allowing efficient generation of particles even for small fields. The VSM of the EBM is based on a previously published virtual photon energy fluence model (VEF) (Fippel et al 2003 Med. Phys. 30 301) commissioned with large field measurements in air and in water. The original commissioning procedure of the VEF, based on large field measurements only, leads to inaccuracies for small fields. In order to improve the VSM, it was necessary to change the VEF model by developing (1) a method to determine the primary photon source diameter, relevant for output factor calculations, (2) a model of the influence of the flattening filter on the secondary photon spectrum and (3) a more realistic primary photon spectrum. The VSM model is used to generate the source phase space data above the mini-MLC. Later the particles are transmitted through the mini-MLC by a passive filter function which significantly speeds up the time of generation of the phase space data after the mini-MLC, used for calculation of the dose distribution in the patient. The improved VSM model was commissioned for 6 and 15 MV beams. The results of MC simulation are in very good agreement with measurements. Less than 2% of local difference between the MC simulation and the diamond detector measurement of the output factors in water was achieved. The X, Y and Z profiles measured in water with an ion chamber (V = 0.125 cm(3)) and a diamond detector were used to validate the models. An overall agreement of 2%/2 mm for high dose regions and 3%/2 mm in low dose regions between measurement and MC simulation for field sizes from 0.8 x 0.8 cm(2) to 16 x 21 cm(2) was achieved. An IMRT plan film verification

  5. Electron Irradiation of Conjunctival Lymphoma-Monte Carlo Simulation of the Minute Dose Distribution and Technique Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brualla, Lorenzo, E-mail: lorenzo.brualla@uni-due.de [NCTeam, Strahlenklinik, Universitaetsklinikum Essen, Essen (Germany); Zaragoza, Francisco J.; Sempau, Josep [Institut de Tecniques Energetiques, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain); Wittig, Andrea [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Giessen and Marburg, Philipps-University Marburg, Marburg (Germany); Sauerwein, Wolfgang [NCTeam, Strahlenklinik, Universitaetsklinikum Essen, Essen (Germany)

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: External beam radiotherapy is the only conservative curative approach for Stage I non-Hodgkin lymphomas of the conjunctiva. The target volume is geometrically complex because it includes the eyeball and lid conjunctiva. Furthermore, the target volume is adjacent to radiosensitive structures, including the lens, lacrimal glands, cornea, retina, and papilla. The radiotherapy planning and optimization requires accurate calculation of the dose in these anatomical structures that are much smaller than the structures traditionally considered in radiotherapy. Neither conventional treatment planning systems nor dosimetric measurements can reliably determine the dose distribution in these small irradiated volumes. Methods and Materials: The Monte Carlo simulations of a Varian Clinac 2100 C/D and human eye were performed using the PENELOPE and PENEASYLINAC codes. Dose distributions and dose volume histograms were calculated for the bulbar conjunctiva, cornea, lens, retina, papilla, lacrimal gland, and anterior and posterior hemispheres. Results: The simulated results allow choosing the most adequate treatment setup configuration, which is an electron beam energy of 6 MeV with additional bolus and collimation by a cerrobend block with a central cylindrical hole of 3.0 cm diameter and central cylindrical rod of 1.0 cm diameter. Conclusions: Monte Carlo simulation is a useful method to calculate the minute dose distribution in ocular tissue and to optimize the electron irradiation technique in highly critical structures. Using a voxelized eye phantom based on patient computed tomography images, the dose distribution can be estimated with a standard statistical uncertainty of less than 2.4% in 3 min using a computing cluster with 30 cores, which makes this planning technique clinically relevant.

  6. Assessment of influence of OSL dosimeters in the skin dose in radiotherapy: study for Monte Carlo simulation; Avaliacao da influencia de dosimetros OSL na dose na pele em radioterapia: estudo por simulacao Monte Carlo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuch, Franciely F.; Nicolucci, Patricia, E-mail: franschuch@yahoo.com.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeiraoo Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    The interest in optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dosimetry materials is growing due to its potential use in quality control in Radiotherapy. The use of these dosimeters for in vivo dosimetry, however, may influence the dose to the skin and deeper tissues in the patient. The goal of this study is to evaluate the influence of the OSL Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} material in dose deposited in the skin and deep in Radiotherapy. Monte Carlo simulation is used to evaluate this purpose when OSL dosimeters of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} are positioned on the skin surface of the patient. Percentage depth dose curves for clinical beams of 6 and 10 MV were simulated with and without the presence of the dosimeter on the surface of a water phantom. The results showed a decrease of doses in regions close to the surface of the skin. In the build-up region, the maximum decreases of dose produced by the presence of the dosimeters were 52,5% and 47,5% for the 6 and 10 MV beams, respectively. After the build-up region, there are not significant changes in the doses for any of the used beams. The differences of doses found are due to the influence of the dosimetric material on the relative fluence of electrons near the end surface of the dosimeter. Thus, the results showed that the presence of the dosimetric material on the surface interferes on the skin dose. However, these dosimeters do not cause dose variations in depths of clinical interest, allowing its application in routine in vivo dosimetry in Radiotherapy. (author)

  7. Influence of difference in cross-sectional dose profile in a CTDI phantom on X-ray CT dose estimation: a Monte Carlo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haba, Tomonobu; Koyama, Shuji; Ida, Yoshihiro

    2014-01-01

    The longitudinal dose profile in a computed tomography dose index (CTDI) phantom had been studied by many researchers. The cross-sectional dose profile in the CTDI phantom, however, has not been studied. It is also important to understand the cross-sectional dose profile in the CTDI phantom for dose estimation in X-ray CT. In this study, the cross-sectional dose profile in the CTDI phantom was calculated by use of a Monte Carlo (MC) simulation method. A helical or a 320-detector-row cone-beam X-ray CT scanner was simulated. The cross-sectional dose profile in the CTDI phantom from surface to surface through the center point was calculated by MC simulation. The shape of the calculation region was a cylinder of 1-mm-diameter. The length of the cylinder was 23, 100, or 300 mm to represent various CT ionization chamber lengths. Detailed analyses of the energy depositions demonstrated that the cross-sectional dose profile was different in measurement methods and phantom sizes. In this study, we also focused on the validation of the weighting factor used in weighted CTDI (CTDI w ). As it stands now, the weighting factor used in CTDI w is (1/3, 2/3) for the (central, peripheral) axes. Our results showed that an equal weighting factor, which is (1/2, 1/2) for the (central, peripheral) axes, is more suitable to estimate the average cross-sectional dose when X-ray CT dose estimation is performed.

  8. The Monte Carlo SRNA-VOX code for 3D proton dose distribution in voxelized geometry using CT data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilic, Radovan D; Spasic-Jokic, Vesna; Belicev, Petar; Dragovic, Milos

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the application of the SRNA Monte Carlo package for proton transport simulations in complex geometry and different material compositions. The SRNA package was developed for 3D dose distribution calculation in proton therapy and dosimetry and it was based on the theory of multiple scattering. The decay of proton induced compound nuclei was simulated by the Russian MSDM model and our own using ICRU 63 data. The developed package consists of two codes: the SRNA-2KG, which simulates proton transport in combinatorial geometry and the SRNA-VOX, which uses the voxelized geometry using the CT data and conversion of the Hounsfield's data to tissue elemental composition. Transition probabilities for both codes are prepared by the SRNADAT code. The simulation of the proton beam characterization by multi-layer Faraday cup, spatial distribution of positron emitters obtained by the SRNA-2KG code and intercomparison of computational codes in radiation dosimetry, indicate immediate application of the Monte Carlo techniques in clinical practice. In this paper, we briefly present the physical model implemented in the SRNA package, the ISTAR proton dose planning software, as well as the results of the numerical experiments with proton beams to obtain 3D dose distribution in the eye and breast tumour

  9. Development of virtual CT DICOM images of patients with tumors: application for TPS and Monte Carlo dose evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milian, F. M.; Attili, A.; Russo, G; Marchetto, F.; Cirio, R.; Bourhaleb, F.

    2013-01-01

    A novel procedure for the generation of a realistic virtual Computed Tomography (CT) image of a patient, using the advanced Boundary RE Presentation (BREP)-based model MASH, has been implemented. This method can be used in radiotherapy assessment. It is shown that it is possible to introduce an artificial cancer, which can be modeled using mesh surfaces. The use of virtual CT images based on BREP models presents several advantages with respect to CT images of actual patients, such as automation, control and flexibility. As an example, two artificial cases, namely a brain and a prostate cancer, were created through the generation of images and tumor/organ contours. As a secondary objective, the described methodology has been used to generate input files for treatment planning system (TPS) and Monte Carlo code dose evaluation. In this paper, we consider treatment plans generated assuming a dose delivery via an active proton beam scanning performed with the INFN-IBA TPS kernel. Additionally, Monte Carlo simulations of the two treatment plans were carried out with GATE/GEANT4. The work demonstrates the feasibility of the approach based on the BREP modeling to produce virtual CT images. In conclusion, this study highlights the benefits in using digital phantom model capable of representing different anatomical structures and varying tumors across different patients. These models could be useful for assessing radiotherapy treatment planning systems (TPS) and computer simulations for the evaluation of the adsorbed dose. (author)

  10. The Monte Carlo srna code as the engine in istar proton dose planning software for the tesla accelerator installation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Radovan D.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the application of SRNA Monte Carlo package for proton transport simulations in complex geometry and different material composition. SRNA package was developed for 3D dose distribution calculation in proton therapy and dosimetry and it was based on the theory of multiple scattering. The compound nuclei decay was simulated by our own and the Russian MSDM models using ICRU 63 data. The developed package consists of two codes SRNA-2KG, which simulates proton transport in the combinatorial geometry and SRNA-VOX, which uses the voxelized geometry using the CT data and conversion of the Hounsfield’s data to tissue elemental composition. Transition probabilities for both codes are prepared by the SRNADAT code. The simulation of proton beam characterization by Multi-Layer Faraday Cup, spatial distribution of positron emitters obtained by SRNA-2KG code, and intercomparison of computational codes in radiation dosimetry, indicate the immediate application of the Monte Carlo techniques in clinical practice. In this paper, we briefly present the physical model implemented in SRNA pack age, the ISTAR proton dose planning software, as well as the results of the numerical experiments with proton beams to obtain 3D dose distribution in the eye and breast tumor.

  11. Monte Carlo evaluation of hand and finger doses due to exposure to 18F in PET procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pessanha, Paula R.; Queiroz Filho, Pedro P.; Santos, Denison S.; Mauricio, Claudia L.P.

    2011-01-01

    The increasing number of PET procedures performed in nuclear medicine, and, consequently, of workers handling radiopharmaceuticals, is a potential hazard in radiation protection. It is then necessary to evaluate the doses of workers employed in the practice of PET. In this work, the Geant4 Monte Carlo code was used to evaluate doses to fingers and hands of those workers. A geometric phantom, representing the hand of the professional inserted in the clinical procedure, was implemented in the simulation code, with dimensions of a standard man's forearm, which in this case will assess the exposure of the extremities. The geometric phantom is designed so that a simple definition of joint angles configures the fingers, allowing investigations into alternative configurations. Thus, it was possible the placement of the phantom fingers, to simulate all forms of manipulation of a syringe, and subsequently obtain exposure data, relating to the administration procedure of the PET radiopharmaceutical to the patient. The simulation was validated by the irradiation of a REMAB R hand phantom, consisting of a human skeleton hand covered by a tenite II shell, which can be filled with water. Air Kerma values were obtained from the beam dosimetry, which was done with a calibrated ionization chamber. The reading of TLD's, placed on certain points of the surface of the phantom, were compared with the values obtained in the Monte Carlo simulation. After validation of the program, we obtained dose values for the PET procedure, simulating syringes with and without shielding. (author)

  12. Dosimetric verification in water of a Monte Carlo treatment planning tool for proton, helium, carbon and oxygen ion beams at the Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessonnier, T.; Böhlen, T. T.; Ceruti, F.; Ferrari, A.; Sala, P.; Brons, S.; Haberer, T.; Debus, J.; Parodi, K.; Mairani, A.

    2017-08-01

    The introduction of ‘new’ ion species in particle therapy needs to be supported by a thorough assessment of their dosimetric properties and by treatment planning comparisons with clinically used proton and carbon ion beams. In addition to the latter two ions, helium and oxygen ion beams are foreseen at the Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Center (HIT) as potential assets for improving clinical outcomes in the near future. We present in this study a dosimetric validation of a FLUKA-based Monte Carlo treatment planning tool (MCTP) for protons, helium, carbon and oxygen ions for spread-out Bragg peaks in water. The comparisons between the ions show the dosimetric advantages of helium and heavier ion beams in terms of their distal and lateral fall-offs with respect to protons, reducing the lateral size of the region receiving 50% of the planned dose up to 12 mm. However, carbon and oxygen ions showed significant doses beyond the target due to the higher fragmentation tail compared to lighter ions (p and He), up to 25%. The Monte Carlo predictions were found to be in excellent geometrical agreement with the measurements, with deviations below 1 mm for all parameters investigated such as target and lateral size as well as distal fall-offs. Measured and simulated absolute dose values agreed within about 2.5% on the overall dose distributions. The MCTP tool, which supports the usage of multiple state-of-the-art relative biological effectiveness models, will provide a solid engine for treatment planning comparisons at HIT.

  13. Dosimetric verification in water of a Monte Carlo treatment planning tool for proton, helium, carbon and oxygen ion beams at the Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessonnier, T; Böhlen, T T; Ceruti, F; Ferrari, A; Sala, P; Brons, S; Haberer, T; Debus, J; Parodi, K; Mairani, A

    2017-07-31

    The introduction of 'new' ion species in particle therapy needs to be supported by a thorough assessment of their dosimetric properties and by treatment planning comparisons with clinically used proton and carbon ion beams. In addition to the latter two ions, helium and oxygen ion beams are foreseen at the Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Center (HIT) as potential assets for improving clinical outcomes in the near future. We present in this study a dosimetric validation of a FLUKA-based Monte Carlo treatment planning tool (MCTP) for protons, helium, carbon and oxygen ions for spread-out Bragg peaks in water. The comparisons between the ions show the dosimetric advantages of helium and heavier ion beams in terms of their distal and lateral fall-offs with respect to protons, reducing the lateral size of the region receiving 50% of the planned dose up to 12 mm. However, carbon and oxygen ions showed significant doses beyond the target due to the higher fragmentation tail compared to lighter ions (p and He), up to 25%. The Monte Carlo predictions were found to be in excellent geometrical agreement with the measurements, with deviations below 1 mm for all parameters investigated such as target and lateral size as well as distal fall-offs. Measured and simulated absolute dose values agreed within about 2.5% on the overall dose distributions. The MCTP tool, which supports the usage of multiple state-of-the-art relative biological effectiveness models, will provide a solid engine for treatment planning comparisons at HIT.

  14. Estimating radiation doses from multidetector CT using Monte Carlo simulations: effects of different size voxelized patient models on magnitudes of organ and effective dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMarco, J J; Cagnon, C H; Cody, D D; Stevens, D M; McCollough, C H; Zankl, M; Angel, E; McNitt-Gray, M F

    2007-05-07

    The purpose of this work is to examine the effects of patient size on radiation dose from CT scans. To perform these investigations, we used Monte Carlo simulation methods with detailed models of both patients and multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) scanners. A family of three-dimensional, voxelized patient models previously developed and validated by the GSF was implemented as input files using the Monte Carlo code MCNPX. These patient models represent a range of patient sizes and ages (8 weeks to 48 years) and have all radiosensitive organs previously identified and segmented, allowing the estimation of dose to any individual organ and calculation of patient effective dose. To estimate radiation dose, every voxel in each patient model was assigned both a specific organ index number and an elemental composition and mass density. Simulated CT scans of each voxelized patient model were performed using a previously developed MDCT source model that includes scanner specific spectra, including bowtie filter, scanner geometry and helical source path. The scan simulations in this work include a whole-body scan protocol and a thoracic CT scan protocol, each performed with fixed tube current. The whole-body scan simulation yielded a predictable decrease in effective dose as a function of increasing patient weight. Results from analysis of individual organs demonstrated similar trends, but with some individual variations. A comparison with a conventional dose estimation method using the ImPACT spreadsheet yielded an effective dose of 0.14 mSv mAs(-1) for the whole-body scan. This result is lower than the simulations on the voxelized model designated 'Irene' (0.15 mSv mAs(-1)) and higher than the models 'Donna' and 'Golem' (0.12 mSv mAs(-1)). For the thoracic scan protocol, the ImPACT spreadsheet estimates an effective dose of 0.037 mSv mAs(-1), which falls between the calculated values for Irene (0.042 mSv mAs(-1)) and Donna (0.031 mSv mAs(-1)) and is higher relative

  15. Estimating radiation doses from multidetector CT using Monte Carlo simulations: effects of different size voxelized patient models on magnitudes of organ and effective dose

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMarco, J. J.; Cagnon, C. H.; Cody, D. D.; Stevens, D. M.; McCollough, C. H.; Zankl, M.; Angel, E.; McNitt-Gray, M. F.

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this work is to examine the effects of patient size on radiation dose from CT scans. To perform these investigations, we used Monte Carlo simulation methods with detailed models of both patients and multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) scanners. A family of three-dimensional, voxelized patient models previously developed and validated by the GSF was implemented as input files using the Monte Carlo code MCNPX. These patient models represent a range of patient sizes and ages (8 weeks to 48 years) and have all radiosensitive organs previously identified and segmented, allowing the estimation of dose to any individual organ and calculation of patient effective dose. To estimate radiation dose, every voxel in each patient model was assigned both a specific organ index number and an elemental composition and mass density. Simulated CT scans of each voxelized patient model were performed using a previously developed MDCT source model that includes scanner specific spectra, including bowtie filter, scanner geometry and helical source path. The scan simulations in this work include a whole-body scan protocol and a thoracic CT scan protocol, each performed with fixed tube current. The whole-body scan simulation yielded a predictable decrease in effective dose as a function of increasing patient weight. Results from analysis of individual organs demonstrated similar trends, but with some individual variations. A comparison with a conventional dose estimation method using the ImPACT spreadsheet yielded an effective dose of 0.14 mSv mAs-1 for the whole-body scan. This result is lower than the simulations on the voxelized model designated 'Irene' (0.15 mSv mAs-1) and higher than the models 'Donna' and 'Golem' (0.12 mSv mAs-1). For the thoracic scan protocol, the ImPACT spreadsheet estimates an effective dose of 0.037 mSv mAs-1, which falls between the calculated values for Irene (0.042 mSv mAs-1) and Donna (0.031 mSv mAs-1) and is higher relative to Golem (0

  16. Assessment of ocular beta radiation dose distribution due to 106Ru/106Rh brachytherapy applicators using MCNPX Monte Carlo code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilseia Aparecida Barbosa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Melanoma at the choroid region is the most common primary cancer that affects the eye in adult patients. Concave ophthalmic applicators with 106Ru/106Rh beta sources are the more used for treatment of these eye lesions, mainly lesions with small and medium dimensions. The available treatment planning system for 106Ru applicators is based on dose distributions on a homogeneous water sphere eye model, resulting in a lack of data in the literature of dose distributions in the eye radiosensitive structures, information that may be crucial to improve the treatment planning process, aiming the maintenance of visual acuity. Methods: The Monte Carlo code MCNPX was used to calculate the dose distribution in a complete mathematical model of the human eye containing a choroid melanoma; considering the eye actual dimensions and its various component structures, due to an ophthalmic brachytherapy treatment, using 106Ru/106Rh beta-ray sources. Two possibilities were analyzed; a simple water eye and a heterogeneous eye considering all its structures. Two concave applicators, CCA and CCB manufactured by BEBIG and a complete mathematical model of the human eye were modeled using the MCNPX code. Results and Conclusion: For both eye models, namely water model and heterogeneous model, mean dose values simulated for the same eye regions are, in general, very similar, excepting for regions very distant from the applicator, where mean dose values are very low, uncertainties are higher and relative differences may reach 20.4%. For the tumor base and the eye structures closest to the applicator, such as sclera, choroid and retina, the maximum difference observed was 4%, presenting the heterogeneous model higher mean dose values. For the other eye regions, the higher doses were obtained when the homogeneous water eye model is taken into consideration. Mean dose distributions determined for the homogeneous water eye model are similar to those obtained for the

  17. Monte Carlo Treatment Planning for Advanced Radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cronholm, Rickard

    This Ph.d. project describes the development of a workflow for Monte Carlo Treatment Planning for clinical radiotherapy plans. The workflow may be utilized to perform an independent dose verification of treatment plans. Modern radiotherapy treatment delivery is often conducted by dynamically...... modulating the intensity of the field during the irradiation. The workflow described has the potential to fully model the dynamic delivery, including gantry rotation during irradiation, of modern radiotherapy. Three corner stones of Monte Carlo Treatment Planning are identified: Building, commissioning...

  18. Validation of Monte Carlo simulation of mammography with TLD measurement and depth dose calculation with a detailed breast model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenjing; Qiu, Rui; Ren, Li; Liu, Huan; Wu, Zhen; Li, Chunyan; Li, Junli

    2017-09-01

    Mean glandular dose (MGD) is not only determined by the compressed breast thickness (CBT) and the glandular content, but also by the distribution of glandular tissues in breast. Depth dose inside the breast in mammography has been widely concerned as glandular dose decreases rapidly with increasing depth. In this study, an experiment using thermo luminescent dosimeters (TLDs) was carried out to validate Monte Carlo simulations of mammography. Percent depth doses (PDDs) at different depth values were measured inside simple breast phantoms of different thicknesses. The experimental values were well consistent with the values calculated by Geant4. Then a detailed breast model with a CBT of 4 cm and a glandular content of 50%, which has been constructed in previous work, was used to study the effects of the distribution of glandular tissues in breast with Geant4. The breast model was reversed in direction of compression to get a reverse model with a different distribution of glandular tissues. Depth dose distributions and glandular tissue dose conversion coefficients were calculated. It revealed that the conversion coefficients were about 10% larger when the breast model was reversed, for glandular tissues in the reverse model are concentrated in the upper part of the model.

  19. The calculation of dose from external photon exposures using reference human phantoms and Monte Carlo methods. Pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drexler, G.; Panzer, W.; Widenmann, L.; Williams, G.; Zankl, M.

    1984-03-01

    This report gives tables of conversion factors for the calculation of organ doses from technical parameters of typical radiographic techniques. These conversion factors were calculated using a male and a female mathematical human phantom and an efficient Monte Carlo programme that determines the mean organ doses from the energy deposited in each organ. Each diagnostic X-ray examination is studied using three X-ray spectra resulting from three different high tension values. The conversion factors per unit entrance air dose in free air are given for sixteen organs and for the entrance and exit surface skin doses. The tables are actually valid only for the given parameters such as phantom dimensions, source-to-skin distance, projection and X-ray quality. This, of course, gives rise to some uncertainty when dealing with the individual technique and patient. The uncertainty in organ dose of adult patients, however, should not be very large, if the calculation is based on a similar geometry, and before all, on the actually administered entrance air dose in the selected high tension range according to the patient parameters. (orig.)

  20. On the use of Gafchromic EBT3 films for validating a commercial electron Monte Carlo dose calculation algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, EuJin; Lydon, Jenny; Kron, Tomas

    2015-03-07

    This study aims to investigate the effects of oblique incidence, small field size and inhomogeneous media on the electron dose distribution, and to compare calculated (Elekta/CMS XiO) and measured results. All comparisons were done in terms of absolute dose. A new measuring method was developed for high resolution, absolute dose measurement of non-standard beams using Gafchromic® EBT3 film. A portable U-shaped holder was designed and constructed to hold EBT3 films vertically in a reproducible setup submerged in a water phantom. The experimental film method was verified with ionisation chamber measurements and agreed to within 2% or 1 mm. Agreement between XiO electron Monte Carlo (eMC) and EBT3 was within 2% or 2 mm for most standard fields and 3% or 3 mm for the non-standard fields. Larger differences were seen in the build-up region where XiO eMC overestimates dose by up to 10% for obliquely incident fields and underestimates the dose for small circular fields by up to 5% when compared to measurement. Calculations with inhomogeneous media mimicking ribs, lung and skull tissue placed at the side of the film in water agreed with measurement to within 3% or 3 mm. Gafchromic film in water proved to be a convenient high spatial resolution method to verify dose distributions from electrons in non-standard conditions including irradiation in inhomogeneous media.

  1. A Monte Carlo simulation framework for electron beam dose calculations using Varian phase space files for TrueBeam Linacs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Anna; Sawkey, Daren; Yin, Fang-Fang; Wu, Qiuwen

    2015-05-01

    To develop a framework for accurate electron Monte Carlo dose calculation. In this study, comprehensive validations of vendor provided electron beam phase space files for Varian TrueBeam Linacs against measurement data are presented. In this framework, the Monte Carlo generated phase space files were provided by the vendor and used as input to the downstream plan-specific simulations including jaws, electron applicators, and water phantom computed in the EGSnrc environment. The phase space files were generated based on open field commissioning data. A subset of electron energies of 6, 9, 12, 16, and 20 MeV and open and collimated field sizes 3 × 3, 4 × 4, 5 × 5, 6 × 6, 10 × 10, 15 × 15, 20 × 20, and 25 × 25 cm(2) were evaluated. Measurements acquired with a CC13 cylindrical ionization chamber and electron diode detector and simulations from this framework were compared for a water phantom geometry. The evaluation metrics include percent depth dose, orthogonal and diagonal profiles at depths R100, R50, Rp, and Rp+ for standard and extended source-to-surface distances (SSD), as well as cone and cut-out output factors. Agreement for the percent depth dose and orthogonal profiles between measurement and Monte Carlo was generally within 2% or 1 mm. The largest discrepancies were observed within depths of 5 mm from phantom surface. Differences in field size, penumbra, and flatness for the orthogonal profiles at depths R100, R50, and Rp were within 1 mm, 1 mm, and 2%, respectively. Orthogonal profiles at SSDs of 100 and 120 cm showed the same level of agreement. Cone and cut-out output factors agreed well with maximum differences within 2.5% for 6 MeV and 1% for all other energies. Cone output factors at extended SSDs of 105, 110, 115, and 120 cm exhibited similar levels of agreement. We have presented a Monte Carlo simulation framework for electron beam dose calculations for Varian TrueBeam Linacs. Electron beam energies of 6 to 20 MeV for open and collimated

  2. Quality control of the treatment planning systems dose calculations in external radiation therapy using the Penelope Monte Carlo code; Controle qualite des systemes de planification dosimetrique des traitements en radiotherapie externe au moyen du code Monte-Carlo Penelope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blazy-Aubignac, L

    2007-09-15

    The treatment planning systems (T.P.S.) occupy a key position in the radiotherapy service: they realize the projected calculation of the dose distribution and the treatment duration. Traditionally, the quality control of the calculated distribution doses relies on their comparisons with dose distributions measured under the device of treatment. This thesis proposes to substitute these dosimetry measures to the profile of reference dosimetry calculations got by the Penelope Monte-Carlo code. The Monte-Carlo simulations give a broad choice of test configurations and allow to envisage a quality control of dosimetry aspects of T.P.S. without monopolizing the treatment devices. This quality control, based on the Monte-Carlo simulations has been tested on a clinical T.P.S. and has allowed to simplify the quality procedures of the T.P.S.. This quality control, in depth, more precise and simpler to implement could be generalized to every center of radiotherapy. (N.C.)

  3. Monte Carlo simulations of the dose from imaging with GE eXplore 120 micro-CT using GATE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretin, Florian; Bahri, Mohamed Ali; Luxen, André; Phillips, Christophe; Plenevaux, Alain; Seret, Alain

    2015-10-01

    Small animals are increasingly used as translational models in preclinical imaging studies involving microCT, during which the subjects can be exposed to large amounts of radiation. While the radiation levels are generally sublethal, studies have shown that low-level radiation can change physiological parameters in mice. In order to rule out any influence of radiation on the outcome of such experiments, or resulting deterministic effects in the subjects, the levels of radiation involved need to be addressed. The aim of this study was to investigate the radiation dose delivered by the GE eXplore 120 microCT non-invasively using Monte Carlo simulations in GATE and to compare results to previously obtained experimental values. Tungsten X-ray spectra were simulated at 70, 80, and 97 kVp using an analytical tool and their half-value layers were simulated for spectra validation against experimentally measured values of the physical X-ray tube. A Monte Carlo model of the microCT system was set up and four protocols that are regularly applied to live animal scanning were implemented. The computed tomography dose index (CTDI) inside a PMMA phantom was derived and multiple field of view acquisitions were simulated using the PMMA phantom, a representative mouse and rat. Simulated half-value layers agreed with experimentally obtained results within a 7% error window. The CTDI ranged from 20 to 56 mGy and closely matched experimental values. Derived organ doses in mice reached 459 mGy in bones and up to 200 mGy in soft tissue organs using the highest energy protocol. Dose levels in rats were lower due to the increased mass of the animal compared to mice. The uncertainty of all dose simulations was below 14%. Monte Carlo simulations proved a valuable tool to investigate the 3D dose distribution in animals from microCT. Small animals, especially mice (due to their small volume), receive large amounts of radiation from the GE eXplore 120 microCT, which might alter physiological

  4. Quality assurance of sterilized products: verification of a model relating frequency of contaminated items and increasing radiation dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.A.; Tallentire, A.; Dwyer, J.

    1977-01-01

    Values of the γ-radiation resistance parameters (k and n of the 'multi-hit' expression) for Bacillus pumilus E601 spores and Serratia marcescens cells have been determined and the constancy of values for a given test condition demonstrated. These organisms, differing by a factor of about 50 in k value, have been included in a laboratory test system for use in verification of a model describing the dependence of the proportion of contaminated items in a population of items on radiation dose. The proportions of contaminated units of the test system at various γ-radiation doses have been measured for different initial numbers and types of organisms present in units either singly or together. Using the model, the probabilities of contaminated units for corresponding sets of conditions have been evaluated together with associated variances. Measured proportions and predicted probabilities agree well, showing that the model holds in a laboratory contrived situation. (author)

  5. Electron dose distributions caused by the contact-type metallic eye shield: Studies using Monte Carlo and pencil beam algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Sei-Kwon; Yoon, Jai-Woong; Hwang, Taejin; Park, Soah; Cheong, Kwang-Ho; Jin Han, Tae; Kim, Haeyoung; Lee, Me-Yeon; Ju Kim, Kyoung, E-mail: kjkim@hallym.or.kr; Bae, Hoonsik

    2015-10-01

    A metallic contact eye shield has sometimes been used for eyelid treatment, but dose distribution has never been reported for a patient case. This study aimed to show the shield-incorporated CT-based dose distribution using the Pinnacle system and Monte Carlo (MC) calculation for 3 patient cases. For the artifact-free CT scan, an acrylic shield machined as the same size as that of the tungsten shield was used. For the MC calculation, BEAMnrc and DOSXYZnrc were used for the 6-MeV electron beam of the Varian 21EX, in which information for the tungsten, stainless steel, and aluminum material for the eye shield was used. The same plan was generated on the Pinnacle system and both were compared. The use of the acrylic shield produced clear CT images, enabling delineation of the regions of interest, and yielded CT-based dose calculation for the metallic shield. Both the MC and the Pinnacle systems showed a similar dose distribution downstream of the eye shield, reflecting the blocking effect of the metallic eye shield. The major difference between the MC and the Pinnacle results was the target eyelid dose upstream of the shield such that the Pinnacle system underestimated the dose by 19 to 28% and 11 to 18% for the maximum and the mean doses, respectively. The pattern of dose difference between the MC and the Pinnacle systems was similar to that in the previous phantom study. In conclusion, the metallic eye shield was successfully incorporated into the CT-based planning, and the accurate dose calculation requires MC simulation.

  6. Developing equations to predict surface dose and therapeutic interval in bolused electron fields: A Monte Carlo Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbari, Nasrollah; Khalkhali, Hamid Reza

    2017-07-01

    In this research, we aim to investigate the influence of different materials, as a bolus, on the low-energy electron beam dose distributions and to develop equations for predicting surface dose based on bolus thickness, as well as the therapeutic interval based on surface dose. All the Monte Carlo (MC) calculations and measurements were conducted on a Siemens PRIMUS linac. Based on EGSnrc MC code, BEAMnrc system was used to model a Siemens linac and generate phase-space files for three electron beams (6, 8, and 10 MeV). The particles were transported from the phase-space files to the bolus materials and the simulated water phantom using DOSXYZnrc. Various materials with different thicknesses were examined as a bolus, and appropriate equations were determined for each material and electron beam. The comparison of percent depth dose (PDD) curves and beam profiles, using MC, with the measured data demonstrated that the calculated values properly matched with the measurements. The results indicated that the use of bolus materials with the density of higher than soft tissue can increase both surface dose and therapeutic interval simultaneously. This finding arises from the fact that the required bolus thickness for achieving the therapeutic surface dose decreases in the case of high-density materials. Two series of prediction equations were proposed for predicting the surface dose based on bolus thickness and the therapeutic interval based on surface dose. These equations are able to calculate properly the bolus thickness required for producing a therapeutic surface dose (above 90%) for any therapeutic interval.

  7. Generalized eMC implementation for Monte Carlo dose calculation of electron beams from different machine types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fix, Michael K; Cygler, Joanna; Frei, Daniel; Volken, Werner; Neuenschwander, Hans; Born, Ernst J; Manser, Peter

    2013-05-07

    The electron Monte Carlo (eMC) dose calculation algorithm available in the Eclipse treatment planning system (Varian Medical Systems) is based on the macro MC method and uses a beam model applicable to Varian linear accelerators. This leads to limitations in accuracy if eMC is applied to non-Varian machines. In this work eMC is generalized to also allow accurate dose calculations for electron beams from Elekta and Siemens accelerators. First, changes made in the previous study to use eMC for low electron beam energies of Varian accelerators are applied. Then, a generalized beam model is developed using a main electron source and a main photon source representing electrons and photons from the scattering foil, respectively, an edge source of electrons, a transmission source of photons and a line source of electrons and photons representing the particles from the scrapers or inserts and head scatter radiation. Regarding the macro MC dose calculation algorithm, the transport code of the secondary particles is improved. The macro MC dose calculations are validated with corresponding dose calculations using EGSnrc in homogeneous and inhomogeneous phantoms. The validation of the generalized eMC is carried out by comparing calculated and measured dose distributions in water for Varian, Elekta and Siemens machines for a variety of beam energies, applicator sizes and SSDs. The comparisons are performed in units of cGy per MU. Overall, a general agreement between calculated and measured dose distributions for all machine types and all combinations of parameters investigated is found to be within 2% or 2 mm. The results of the dose comparisons suggest that the generalized eMC is now suitable to calculate dose distributions for Varian, Elekta and Siemens linear accelerators with sufficient accuracy in the range of the investigated combinations of beam energies, applicator sizes and SSDs.

  8. Electron dose distributions caused by the contact-type metallic eye shield: Studies using Monte Carlo and pencil beam algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sei-Kwon; Yoon, Jai-Woong; Hwang, Taejin; Park, Soah; Cheong, Kwang-Ho; Han, Tae Jin; Kim, Haeyoung; Lee, Me-Yeon; Kim, Kyoung Ju; Bae, Hoonsik

    2015-01-01

    A metallic contact eye shield has sometimes been used for eyelid treatment, but dose distribution has never been reported for a patient case. This study aimed to show the shield-incorporated CT-based dose distribution using the Pinnacle system and Monte Carlo (MC) calculation for 3 patient cases. For the artifact-free CT scan, an acrylic shield machined as the same size as that of the tungsten shield was used. For the MC calculation, BEAMnrc and DOSXYZnrc were used for the 6-MeV electron beam of the Varian 21EX, in which information for the tungsten, stainless steel, and aluminum material for the eye shield was used. The same plan was generated on the Pinnacle system and both were compared. The use of the acrylic shield produced clear CT images, enabling delineation of the regions of interest, and yielded CT-based dose calculation for the metallic shield. Both the MC and the Pinnacle systems showed a similar dose distribution downstream of the eye shield, reflecting the blocking effect of the metallic eye shield. The major difference between the MC and the Pinnacle results was the target eyelid dose upstream of the shield such that the Pinnacle system underestimated the dose by 19 to 28% and 11 to 18% for the maximum and the mean doses, respectively. The pattern of dose difference between the MC and the Pinnacle systems was similar to that in the previous phantom study. In conclusion, the metallic eye shield was successfully incorporated into the CT-based planning, and the accurate dose calculation requires MC simulation. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Medical Dosimetrists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Validating a virtual source model based in Monte Carlo Method for profiles and percent deep doses calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Nero, Renata Aline; Yoriyaz, Hélio [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Nakandakari, Marcos Vinicius Nakaoka, E-mail: hyoriyaz@ipen.br, E-mail: marcos.sake@gmail.com [Hospital Beneficência Portuguesa de São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The Monte Carlo method for radiation transport data has been adapted for medical physics application. More specifically, it has received more attention in clinical treatment planning with the development of more efficient computer simulation techniques. In linear accelerator modeling by the Monte Carlo method, the phase space data file (phsp) is used a lot. However, to obtain precision in the results, it is necessary detailed information about the accelerator's head and commonly the supplier does not provide all the necessary data. An alternative to the phsp is the Virtual Source Model (VSM). This alternative approach presents many advantages for the clinical Monte Carlo application. This is the most efficient method for particle generation and can provide an accuracy similar when the phsp is used. This research propose a VSM simulation with the use of a Virtual Flattening Filter (VFF) for profiles and percent deep doses calculation. Two different sizes of open fields (40 x 40 cm² and 40√2 x 40√2 cm²) were used and two different source to surface distance (SSD) were applied: the standard 100 cm and custom SSD of 370 cm, which is applied in radiotherapy treatments of total body irradiation. The data generated by the simulation was analyzed and compared with experimental data to validate the VSM. This current model is easy to build and test. (author)

  10. SU-D-BRC-03: Development and Validation of an Online 2D Dose Verification System for Daily Patient Plan Delivery Accuracy Check

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, J; Hu, W; Xing, Y; Wu, X; Li, Y

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: All plan verification systems for particle therapy are designed to do plan verification before treatment. However, the actual dose distributions during patient treatment are not known. This study develops an online 2D dose verification tool to check the daily dose delivery accuracy. Methods: A Siemens particle treatment system with a modulated scanning spot beam is used in our center. In order to do online dose verification, we made a program to reconstruct the delivered 2D dose distributions based on the daily treatment log files and depth dose distributions. In the log files we can get the focus size, position and particle number for each spot. A gamma analysis is used to compare the reconstructed dose distributions with the dose distributions from the TPS to assess the daily dose delivery accuracy. To verify the dose reconstruction algorithm, we compared the reconstructed dose distributions to dose distributions measured using PTW 729XDR ion chamber matrix for 13 real patient plans. Then we analyzed 100 treatment beams (58 carbon and 42 proton) for prostate, lung, ACC, NPC and chordoma patients. Results: For algorithm verification, the gamma passing rate was 97.95% for the 3%/3mm and 92.36% for the 2%/2mm criteria. For patient treatment analysis,the results were 97.7%±1.1% and 91.7%±2.5% for carbon and 89.9%±4.8% and 79.7%±7.7% for proton using 3%/3mm and 2%/2mm criteria, respectively. The reason for the lower passing rate for the proton beam is that the focus size deviations were larger than for the carbon beam. The average focus size deviations were −14.27% and −6.73% for proton and −5.26% and −0.93% for carbon in the x and y direction respectively. Conclusion: The verification software meets our requirements to check for daily dose delivery discrepancies. Such tools can enhance the current treatment plan and delivery verification processes and improve safety of clinical treatments.

  11. Comparison of absorbed dose in the cervix carcinoma therapy by brachytherapy of high dose rate using the conventional planning and Monte Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Aneli Oliveira da

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to compare the doses received for patients submitted to brachytherapy High Dose Rate (HDR) brachytherapy, a method of treatment of the cervix carcinoma, performed in the planning system PLATO BPS with the doses obtained by Monte Carlo simulation using the radiation transport code MCNP 5 and one female anthropomorphic phantom based on voxel, the FAX. The implementation of HDR brachytherapy treatment for the cervix carcinoma consists of the insertion of an intrauterine probe and an intravaginal probe (ring or ovoid) and then two radiographs are obtained, anteroposterior (AP) and lateral (LAT) to confirm the position of the applicators in the patient and to allow the treatment planning and the determination of the absorbed dose at points of interest: rectum, bladder, sigmoid and point A, which corresponds anatomically to the crossings of the uterine arteries with ureters The absorbed doses obtained with the code MCNP 5, with the exception of the absorbed dose in the rectum and sigmoid for the simulation considering a point source of 192 Ir, are lower than the absorbed doses from PLATO BPS calculations because the MCNP 5 considers the chemical compositions and densities of FAX body, not considering the medium as water. When considering the Monte Carlo simulation for a source with dimensions equal to that used in the brachytherapy irradiator used in this study, the values of calculated absorbed dose to the bladder, to the rectum, to the right point A and to the left point A were respectively lower than those determined by the treatment planning system in 33.29, 5.01, 22.93 and 19.04%. These values are almost all larger than the maximum acceptable deviation between patient planned and administered doses (5 %). With regard to the rectum and bladder, which are organs that must be protected, the present results are in favor of the radiological protection of patients. The point A, that is on the isodose of 100%, used to tumor treatment, the results indicate

  12. Evaluation of dose-volume metrics for microbeam radiation therapy dose distributions in head phantoms of various sizes using Monte Carlo simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Danielle; Siegbahn, E. Albert; Fallone, B. Gino; Serduc, Raphael; Warkentin, Brad

    2012-05-01

    This work evaluates four dose-volume metrics applied to microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) using simulated dosimetric data as input. We seek to improve upon the most frequently used MRT metric, the peak-to-valley dose ratio (PVDR), by analyzing MRT dose distributions from a more volumetric perspective. Monte Carlo simulations were used to calculate dose distributions in three cubic head phantoms: a 2 cm mouse head, an 8 cm cat head and a 16 cm dog head. The dose distribution was calculated for a 4 × 4 mm2 microbeam array in each phantom, as well as a 16 × 16 mm2 array in the 8 cm cat head, and a 32 × 32 mm2 array in the 16 cm dog head. Microbeam widths of 25, 50 and 75 µm and center-to-center spacings of 100, 200 and 400 µm were considered. The metrics calculated for each simulation were the conventional PVDR, the peak-to-mean valley dose ratio (PMVDR), the mean dose and the percentage volume below a threshold dose. The PVDR ranged between 3 and 230 for the 2 cm mouse phantom, and between 2 and 186 for the 16 cm dog phantom depending on geometry. The corresponding ranges for the PMVDR were much smaller, being 2-49 (mouse) and 2-46 (dog), and showed a slightly weaker dependence on phantom size and array size. The ratio of the PMVDR to the PVDR varied from 0.21 to 0.79 for the different collimation configurations, indicating a difference between the geometric dependence on outcome that would be predicted by these two metrics. For unidirectional irradiation, the mean lesion dose was 102%, 79% and 42% of the mean skin dose for the 2 cm mouse, 8 cm cat and 16 cm dog head phantoms, respectively. However, the mean lesion dose recovered to 83% of the mean skin dose in the 16 cm dog phantom in intersecting cross-firing regions. The percentage volume below a 10% dose threshold was highly dependent on geometry, with ranges for the different collimation configurations of 2-87% and 33-96% for the 2 cm mouse and 16 cm dog heads, respectively. The results of this study

  13. Evaluation of dose-volume metrics for microbeam radiation therapy dose distributions in head phantoms of various sizes using Monte Carlo simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Danielle; Fallone, B Gino; Warkentin, Brad; Siegbahn, E Albert; Serduc, Raphael

    2012-01-01

    This work evaluates four dose-volume metrics applied to microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) using simulated dosimetric data as input. We seek to improve upon the most frequently used MRT metric, the peak-to-valley dose ratio (PVDR), by analyzing MRT dose distributions from a more volumetric perspective. Monte Carlo simulations were used to calculate dose distributions in three cubic head phantoms: a 2 cm mouse head, an 8 cm cat head and a 16 cm dog head. The dose distribution was calculated for a 4 × 4 mm 2 microbeam array in each phantom, as well as a 16 × 16 mm 2 array in the 8 cm cat head, and a 32 × 32 mm 2 array in the 16 cm dog head. Microbeam widths of 25, 50 and 75 µm and center-to-center spacings of 100, 200 and 400 µm were considered. The metrics calculated for each simulation were the conventional PVDR, the peak-to-mean valley dose ratio (PMVDR), the mean dose and the percentage volume below a threshold dose. The PVDR ranged between 3 and 230 for the 2 cm mouse phantom, and between 2 and 186 for the 16 cm dog phantom depending on geometry. The corresponding ranges for the PMVDR were much smaller, being 2–49 (mouse) and 2–46 (dog), and showed a slightly weaker dependence on phantom size and array size. The ratio of the PMVDR to the PVDR varied from 0.21 to 0.79 for the different collimation configurations, indicating a difference between the geometric dependence on outcome that would be predicted by these two metrics. For unidirectional irradiation, the mean lesion dose was 102%, 79% and 42% of the mean skin dose for the 2 cm mouse, 8 cm cat and 16 cm dog head phantoms, respectively. However, the mean lesion dose recovered to 83% of the mean skin dose in the 16 cm dog phantom in intersecting cross-firing regions. The percentage volume below a 10% dose threshold was highly dependent on geometry, with ranges for the different collimation configurations of 2–87% and 33–96% for the 2 cm mouse and 16 cm dog heads, respectively. The results of this

  14. Verification of radiation dose to a and b position at cervix during low dose rate 137Cs brachytherapy in bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, S.; Begur, M.

    2001-01-01

    A manual low dose rate 137Cs brachytherapy consists two sets viz. 440 mCi (tandem 120,40,40, 40, 40 and ovoids 40, 40 mCi each) and 360 mCi ( tandem 120, 40, 40 mCi and ovoids 40, 40 Mci each) having the dose rates at A were 155.2 cGy/hr and 140.8 cGy/hr. respectively on June 1996) was supplied by the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Mumbai, India and are being used in the Delta Medical Centre Limited, Mirpur, Dhaka, Bangladesh for gynecological insertion. BARC also supplied the operation manual quoting the dose at point A and B of cervix of the patient only for straight uterine tubes and separation between vaginal ovoids of 2, 3 and 4 cm. BARC also mentioned that the dose at A and B are within 1-2 % of the mean dose. Manual calculation was done to compare the dose at point A and B for ten intracavitary insertions in the hospital to compare those with the value supplied by the BARC. It was found that the dose varied at point A from +0.46% to +9.11% for eight patients and -3.4% and -5.96% for two patients with the quoted value. Dose at B varied from +0.59% to 9.8% for nine patients and -10.94% for one patient with the quoted value supplied by the supplier. This is not unusual because the tandem used for treatment were with different angles such as, 15 degree, 30 degree etc. as per anatomy of the patient. Moreover, the tolerance dose of the fornix region is much more higher (about 140 Gy) than that of the other critical organs. Overall prognosis of the patients, treated so far, using this manual brachytherapy and performing manual calculation were found to satisfactory. So, the result shows a good result with the manual treatment planning

  15. Absorbed dose measurements in mammography using Monte Carlo method and ZrO{sub 2}+PTFE dosemeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran M, H. A.; Hernandez O, M. [Departamento de Investigacion en Polimeros y Materiales, Universidad de Sonora, Blvd. Luis Encinas y Rosales s/n, Col. Centro, 83190 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Salas L, M. A.; Hernandez D, V. M.; Vega C, H. R. [Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Cipres 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico); Pinedo S, A.; Ventura M, J.; Chacon, F. [Hospital General de Zona No. 1, IMSS, Interior Alameda 45, 98000 Zacatecas (Mexico); Rivera M, T. [Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, IPN, Av. Legaria 694, Col. Irrigacion, 11500 Mexico D. F.(Mexico)], e-mail: hduran20_1@hotmail.com

    2009-10-15

    Mammography test is a central tool for breast cancer diagnostic. In addition, programs are conducted periodically to detect the asymptomatic women in certain age groups; these programs have shown a reduction on breast cancer mortality. Early detection of breast cancer is achieved through a mammography, which contrasts the glandular and adipose tissue with a probable calcification. The parameters used for mammography are based on the thickness and density of the breast, their values depend on the voltage, current, focal spot and anode-filter combination. To achieve an image clear and a minimum dose must be chosen appropriate irradiation conditions. Risk associated with mammography should not be ignored. This study was performed in the General Hospital No. 1 IMSS in Zacatecas. Was used a glucose phantom and measured air Kerma at the entrance of the breast that was calculated using Monte Carlo methods and ZrO{sub 2}+PTFE thermoluminescent dosemeters, this calculation was completed with calculating the absorbed dose. (author)

  16. A new Monte Carlo program for calculations of dose distributions within tissue equivalent phantoms irradiated from π--meson beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Przybilla, G.

    1980-11-01

    The present paper reports on the structure and first results from a new Monte Carlo programme for calculations of energy distributions within tissue equivalent phantoms irradiated from π - -beams. Each pion or generated secondary particle is transported until to the complete loss of its kinetic energy taking into account pion processes like multiple Coulomb scattering, pion reactions in flight and absorption of stopped pions. The code uses mainly data from experiments, and physical models have been added only in cases of lacking data. Depth dose curves for a pensil beam of 170 MeV/c within a water phantom are discussed as a function of various parameters. Isodose contours are plotted resulting from a convolution of an extended beam profile and the dose distribution of a pencil beams. (orig.) [de

  17. TestDose: A nuclear medicine software based on Monte Carlo modeling for generating gamma camera acquisitions and dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Marie-Paule; Villoing, Daphnée; McKay, Erin; Ferrer, Ludovic; Cremonesi, Marta; Botta, Francesca; Ferrari, Mahila; Bardiès, Manuel

    2015-12-01

    The TestDose platform was developed to generate scintigraphic imaging protocols and associated dosimetry by Monte Carlo modeling. TestDose is part of a broader project (www.dositest.com) whose aim is to identify the biases induced by different clinical dosimetry protocols. The TestDose software allows handling the whole pipeline from virtual patient generation to resulting planar and SPECT images and dosimetry calculations. The originality of their approach relies on the implementation of functional segmentation for the anthropomorphic model representing a virtual patient. Two anthropomorphic models are currently available: 4D XCAT and ICRP 110. A pharmacokinetic model describes the biodistribution of a given radiopharmaceutical in each defined compartment at various time-points. The Monte Carlo simulation toolkit gate offers the possibility to accurately simulate scintigraphic images and absorbed doses in volumes of interest. The TestDose platform relies on gate to reproduce precisely any imaging protocol and to provide reference dosimetry. For image generation, TestDose stores user's imaging requirements and generates automatically command files used as input for gate. Each compartment is simulated only once and the resulting output is weighted using pharmacokinetic data. Resulting compartment projections are aggregated to obtain the final image. For dosimetry computation, emission data are stored in the platform database and relevant gate input files are generated for the virtual patient model and associated pharmacokinetics. Two samples of software runs are given to demonstrate the potential of TestDose. A clinical imaging protocol for the Octreoscan™ therapeutical treatment was implemented using the 4D XCAT model. Whole-body "step and shoot" acquisitions at different times postinjection and one SPECT acquisition were generated within reasonable computation times. Based on the same Octreoscan™ kinetics, a dosimetry computation performed on the ICRP 110

  18. TestDose: A nuclear medicine software based on Monte Carlo modeling for generating gamma camera acquisitions and dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Marie-Paule; Villoing, Daphnée; McKay, Erin; Ferrer, Ludovic; Cremonesi, Marta; Botta, Francesca; Ferrari, Mahila; Bardiès, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The TestDose platform was developed to generate scintigraphic imaging protocols and associated dosimetry by Monte Carlo modeling. TestDose is part of a broader project (www.dositest.com) whose aim is to identify the biases induced by different clinical dosimetry protocols. Methods: The TestDose software allows handling the whole pipeline from virtual patient generation to resulting planar and SPECT images and dosimetry calculations. The originality of their approach relies on the implementation of functional segmentation for the anthropomorphic model representing a virtual patient. Two anthropomorphic models are currently available: 4D XCAT and ICRP 110. A pharmacokinetic model describes the biodistribution of a given radiopharmaceutical in each defined compartment at various time-points. The Monte Carlo simulation toolkit GATE offers the possibility to accurately simulate scintigraphic images and absorbed doses in volumes of interest. The TestDose platform relies on GATE to reproduce precisely any imaging protocol and to provide reference dosimetry. For image generation, TestDose stores user’s imaging requirements and generates automatically command files used as input for GATE. Each compartment is simulated only once and the resulting output is weighted using pharmacokinetic data. Resulting compartment projections are aggregated to obtain the final image. For dosimetry computation, emission data are stored in the platform database and relevant GATE input files are generated for the virtual patient model and associated pharmacokinetics. Results: Two samples of software runs are given to demonstrate the potential of TestDose. A clinical imaging protocol for the Octreoscan™ therapeutical treatment was implemented using the 4D XCAT model. Whole-body “step and shoot” acquisitions at different times postinjection and one SPECT acquisition were generated within reasonable computation times. Based on the same Octreoscan™ kinetics, a dosimetry

  19. TestDose: A nuclear medicine software based on Monte Carlo modeling for generating gamma camera acquisitions and dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Marie-Paule, E-mail: marie-paule.garcia@univ-brest.fr; Villoing, Daphnée [UMR 1037 INSERM/UPS, CRCT, 133 Route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse (France); McKay, Erin [St George Hospital, Gray Street, Kogarah, New South Wales 2217 (Australia); Ferrer, Ludovic [ICO René Gauducheau, Boulevard Jacques Monod, St Herblain 44805 (France); Cremonesi, Marta; Botta, Francesca; Ferrari, Mahila [European Institute of Oncology, Via Ripamonti 435, Milano 20141 (Italy); Bardiès, Manuel [UMR 1037 INSERM/UPS, CRCT, 133 Route de Narbonne, Toulouse 31062 (France)

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: The TestDose platform was developed to generate scintigraphic imaging protocols and associated dosimetry by Monte Carlo modeling. TestDose is part of a broader project (www.dositest.com) whose aim is to identify the biases induced by different clinical dosimetry protocols. Methods: The TestDose software allows handling the whole pipeline from virtual patient generation to resulting planar and SPECT images and dosimetry calculations. The originality of their approach relies on the implementation of functional segmentation for the anthropomorphic model representing a virtual patient. Two anthropomorphic models are currently available: 4D XCAT and ICRP 110. A pharmacokinetic model describes the biodistribution of a given radiopharmaceutical in each defined compartment at various time-points. The Monte Carlo simulation toolkit GATE offers the possibility to accurately simulate scintigraphic images and absorbed doses in volumes of interest. The TestDose platform relies on GATE to reproduce precisely any imaging protocol and to provide reference dosimetry. For image generation, TestDose stores user’s imaging requirements and generates automatically command files used as input for GATE. Each compartment is simulated only once and the resulting output is weighted using pharmacokinetic data. Resulting compartment projections are aggregated to obtain the final image. For dosimetry computation, emission data are stored in the platform database and relevant GATE input files are generated for the virtual patient model and associated pharmacokinetics. Results: Two samples of software runs are given to demonstrate the potential of TestDose. A clinical imaging protocol for the Octreoscan™ therapeutical treatment was implemented using the 4D XCAT model. Whole-body “step and shoot” acquisitions at different times postinjection and one SPECT acquisition were generated within reasonable computation times. Based on the same Octreoscan™ kinetics, a dosimetry

  20. WE-F-16A-06: Using 3D Printers to Create Complex Phantoms for Dose Verification, Quality Assurance, and Treatment Planning System Commissioning in Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassaee, A; Ding, X; McDonough, J; Reiche, M; Witztum, A; Teo, B

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To use 3D printers to design and construct complex geometrical phantoms for commissioning treatment planning systems, dose calculation algorithms, quality assurance (QA), dose delivery, and patient dose verifications. Methods: In radiotherapy, complex geometrical phantoms are often required for dose verification, dose delivery and calculation algorithm validation. Presently, fabrication of customized phantoms is limited due to time, expense and challenges in machining of complex shapes. In this work, we designed and utilized 3D printers to fabricate two phantoms for QA purposes. One phantom includes hills and valleys (HV) for verification of intensity modulated radiotherapy for photons, and protons (IMRT and IMPT). The other phantom includes cylindrical cavities (CC) of various sizes for dose verification of inhomogeneities. We evaluated the HV phantoms for an IMPT beam, and the CC phantom to study various inhomogeneity configurations using photon, electron, and proton beams. Gafcromic ™ films were used to quantify the dose distributions delivered to the phantoms. Results: The HV phantom has dimensions of 12 cm × 12 cm and consists of one row and one column of five peaks with heights ranging from 2 to 5 cm. The CC phantom has a size 10 cm × 14 cm and includes 6 cylindrical cavities with length of 7.2 cm and diameters ranging from 0.6 to 1.2 cm. The IMPT evaluation using the HV phantom shows good agreement as compared to the dose distribution calculated with treatment planning system. The CC phantom also shows reasonable agreements for using different algorithms for each beam modalities. Conclusion: 3D printers with submillimiter resolutions are capable of printing complex phantoms for dose verification and QA in radiotherapy. As printing costs decrease and the technology becomes widely available, phantom design and construction will be readily available to any clinic for testing geometries that were not previously feasible

  1. RESRAD-BUILD verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamboj, S.; Yu, C.; Biwer, B. M.; Klett, T.

    2002-01-01

    The results generated by the RESRAD-BUILD code (version 3.0) were verified with hand or spreadsheet calculations using equations given in the RESRAD-BUILD manual for different pathways. For verification purposes, different radionuclides--H-3, C-14, Na-22, Al-26, Cl-36, Mn-54, Co-60, Au-195, Ra-226, Ra-228, Th-228, and U-238--were chosen to test all pathways and models. Tritium, Ra-226, and Th-228 were chosen because of the special tritium and radon models in the RESRAD-BUILD code. Other radionuclides were selected to represent a spectrum of radiation types and energies. Verification of the RESRAD-BUILD code was conducted with an initial check of all the input parameters for correctness against their original source documents. Verification of the calculations was performed external to the RESRAD-BUILD code with Microsoft Excel to verify all the major portions of the code. In some cases, RESRAD-BUILD results were compared with those of external codes, such as MCNP (Monte Carlo N-particle) and RESRAD. The verification was conducted on a step-by-step basis and used different test cases as templates. The following types of calculations were investigated: (1) source injection rate, (2) air concentration in the room, (3) air particulate deposition, (4) radon pathway model, (5) tritium model for volume source, (6) external exposure model, (7) different pathway doses, and (8) time dependence of dose. Some minor errors were identified in version 3.0; these errors have been corrected in later versions of the code. Some possible improvements in the code were also identified

  2. A Monte Carlo program converting activity distribution to absorbed dose distributions in a radionuclide treatment planning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagesson, M.; Ljungberg, M.; Strand, S.E.

    1996-01-01

    In systemic radiation therapy, the absorbed dose distribution must be calculated from the individual activity distribution. A computer code has been developed for the conversion of an arbitrary activity distribution to a 3-D absorbed dose distribution. The activity distribution can be described either analytically or as a voxel based distribution, which comes from a SPECT acquisition. Decay points are sampled according to the activity map, and particles (photons and electrons) from the decay are followed through the tissue until they either escape the patient or drop below a cut off energy. To verify the calculated results, the mathematically defined MIRD phantom and unity density spheres have been included in the code. Also other published dosimetry data were used for verification. Absorbed fraction and S-values were calculated. A comparison with simulated data from the code with MIRD data shows good agreement. The S values are within 10-20% of published MIRD S values for most organs. Absorbed fractions for photons and electrons in spheres (masses between 1 g and 200 kg) are within 10-15% of those published. Radial absorbed dose distributions in a necrotic tumor show good agreement with published data. The application of the code in a radionuclide therapy dose planning system, based on quantitative SPECT, is discussed. (orig.)

  3. An independent dose-to-point calculation program for the verification of high-dose-rate brachytherapy treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, Gil'ad N.; Amols, Howard I.; Zaider, Marco

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: We describe computer software that performs, quickly and accurately, secondary dose calculations for high-dose-rate (HDR) treatment plans, including those employed for prostate treatments. Methods: The program takes as primary input the data file used by the HDR remote afterloader console for treatment. Dosimetric calculations are performed using the Meisberger polynomial and the anisotropy table for the HDR Iridium-192 source. For standard applicators, treatment geometry is automatically reconstructed and the dose is calculated at relevant reference point(s). Template-based treatment plans (e.g., prostate) require additional user input; the dose calculation is then performed at user-selected reference points. A total dwell time calculation for volume and planar implants using the Manchester tables was also implemented. Results: For fixed-geometry HDR procedures, secondary dose calculations are within 2% of the treatment plan, and results are available for review instantly. For more general applications, the calculated and planned doses are typically within 3% at the prescription isodose line. The Manchester-based dwell time calculation is within 10% of the planned time

  4. Verification of radiotherapy doses by EPR dosimetry in patients' teeth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaminska, J.; Ciesielski, B.; Drogoszewska, B.; Emerich, K.; Krefft, K.; Juniewicz, M.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to verify applicability of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) ex vivo dosimetry in teeth enamel for determination of doses absorbed by patients during radiotherapy with radiation fields covering head regions and to examine with what accuracy the doses predicted by radiotherapy treatment plan (RTP) can be confirmed by doses measured ex post by the EPR method. The doses were determined in 22 enamel samples obtained from 11 patients who, after their radiotherapy treatment underwent extraction of teeth due to medical reasons. The delivered doses were determined by measuring EPR signals in enamel samples from the extracted teeth; magnitude of these signals is proportional to concentration of stable free radicals induced by radiation in the hydroxyapatite content of enamel. The measured doses were compared with doses planned in the teeth locations by RTP systems. The relation between the measured (D m ) and the planned (D p ) doses can be described as a linear function: D m  = s·D p  + b, with the slope s = 0.93 ± 0.03 and the intercept b = 0.67 ± 1.26. The deviations between the measured and calculated doses were in the (−12.6%, +1.9%) range with the average deviation of – 4.6%. It is concluded, than more accurate measurements, achievable when using a higher calibration dose than in the present study, are necessary to confirm or to deny the observed bias between the measured and planned doses. - Highlights: • EPR signal in enamel is proportional to dose delivered in vivo during radiotherapy. • The average deviation of the measured from the planned doses was −4.6%. • The doses in enamel can be determined many years after radiotherapy.

  5. A GPU OpenCL based cross-platform Monte Carlo dose calculation engine (goMC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhen; Shi, Feng; Folkerts, Michael; Qin, Nan; Jiang, Steve B; Jia, Xun

    2015-10-07

    Monte Carlo (MC) simulation has been recognized as the most accurate dose calculation method for radiotherapy. However, the extremely long computation time impedes its clinical application. Recently, a lot of effort has been made to realize fast MC dose calculation on graphic processing units (GPUs). However, most of the GPU-based MC dose engines have been developed under NVidia's CUDA environment. This limits the code portability to other platforms, hindering the introduction of GPU-based MC simulations to clinical practice. The objective of this paper is to develop a GPU OpenCL based cross-platform MC dose engine named goMC with coupled photon-electron simulation for external photon and electron radiotherapy in the MeV energy range. Compared to our previously developed GPU-based MC code named gDPM (Jia et al 2012 Phys. Med. Biol. 57 7783-97), goMC has two major differences. First, it was developed under the OpenCL environment for high code portability and hence could be run not only on different GPU cards but also on CPU platforms. Second, we adopted the electron transport model used in EGSnrc MC package and PENELOPE's random hinge method in our new dose engine, instead of the dose planning method employed in gDPM. Dose distributions were calculated for a 15 MeV electron beam and a 6 MV photon beam in a homogenous water phantom, a water-bone-lung-water slab phantom and a half-slab phantom. Satisfactory agreement between the two MC dose engines goMC and gDPM was observed in all cases. The average dose differences in the regions that received a dose higher than 10% of the maximum dose were 0.48-0.53% for the electron beam cases and 0.15-0.17% for the photon beam cases. In terms of efficiency, goMC was ~4-16% slower than gDPM when running on the same NVidia TITAN card for all the cases we tested, due to both the different electron transport models and the different development environments. The code portability of our new dose engine goMC was validated by

  6. Verification of absorbed dose rates in reference beta radiation fields: measurements with an extrapolation chamber and radiochromic film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynaldo, S. R. [Development Centre of Nuclear Technology, Posgraduate Course in Science and Technology of Radiations, Minerals and Materials / CNEN, Av. Pte. Antonio Carlos 6627, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Benavente C, J. A.; Da Silva, T. A., E-mail: sirr@cdtn.br [Development Centre of Nuclear Technology / CNEN, Av. Pte. Antonio Carlos 6627, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil)

    2015-10-15

    Beta Secondary Standard 2 (Bss 2) provides beta radiation fields with certified values of absorbed dose to tissue and the derived operational radiation protection quantities. As part of the quality assurance, metrology laboratories are required to verify the reliability of the Bss-2 system by performing additional verification measurements. In the CDTN Calibration Laboratory, the absorbed dose rates and their angular variation in the {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y and {sup 85}Kr beta radiation fields were studied. Measurements were done with a 23392 model PTW extrapolation chamber and with Gafchromic radiochromic films on a PMMA slab phantom. In comparison to the certificate values provided by the Bss-2, absorbed dose rates measured with the extrapolation chamber differed from -1.4 to 2.9% for the {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y and -0.3% for the {sup 85}Kr fields; their angular variation showed differences lower than 2% for incidence angles up to 40-degrees and it reached 11% for higher angles, when compared to ISO values. Measurements with the radiochromic film showed an asymmetry of the radiation field that is caused by a misalignment. Differences between the angular variations of absorbed dose rates determined by both dosimetry systems suggested that some correction factors for the extrapolation chamber that were not considered should be determined. (Author)

  7. Design, implementation and verification of software code for radiation dose assessment based on simple generic environmental model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    I Putu Susila; Arif Yuniarto

    2017-01-01

    Radiation dose assessment to determine the potential of radiological impacts of various installations within nuclear facility complex is necessary to ensure environmental and public safety. A simple generic model-based method for calculating radiation doses caused by the release of radioactive substances into the environment has been published by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) as the Safety Report Series No. 19 (SRS-19). In order to assist the application of the assessment method and a basis for the development of more complex assessment methods, an open-source based software code has been designed and implemented. The software comes with maps and is very easy to be used because assessment scenarios can be done through diagrams. Software verification was performed by comparing its result to SRS-19 and CROM software calculation results. Dose estimated by SRS-19 are higher compared to the result of developed software. However, these are still acceptable since dose estimation in SRS-19 is based on conservative approach. On the other hand, compared to CROM software, the same results for three scenarios and a non-significant difference of 2.25 % in another scenario were obtained. These results indicate the correctness of our implementation and implies that the developed software is ready for use in real scenario. In the future, the addition of various features and development of new model need to be done to improve the capability of software that has been developed. (author)

  8. Evaluation of dose equivalent to the people accompanying patients in diagnostic radiology using MCNP4C Monte Carlo code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehdizadeh, S.; Faghihi, R.; Sina, S.; Zehtabian, M.

    2007-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Objective: X rays used in diagnostic radiology contribute a major share to population doses from man-made sources of radiation. In some branches of radiology, it is necessary that another person stay in the imaging room and immobilize the patient to carry out radiological operation. ICRP 70 recommends that this should be done by parents or accompanying nursing or ancillary personnel and not in any case by radiation workers. Methods: Dose measurements were made previously using standard methods employing LiF TLD-100 dosimeters. A TLD card was installed on the main trunk of the body of the accompanying people where the maximum dose was probable. In this research the general purpose Monte Carlo N-particle radiation transport computer code (MCNP4C) is used to calculate the equivalent dose to the people accompanying patients exposed to radiation scattered from the patient (Without protective clothing). To do the simulations, all components of the geometry are placed within an air-filled box. Two homogeneous water phantoms are used to simulate the patient and the accompanying person. The accompanying person leans against the table at one side of the patient. Finally in case of source specification, only the focus of the X-ray tube is modelled, i.e. as a standard MCNP point source emitting a cone of photons. Photon stopping material is used as a collimator model to reduce the circular cross section of the cone to a rectangle. The X-ray spectra to be used in the MCNP simulations are generated with spectrum generator software, taking the X-ray voltage and all filtration applied in the clinic as input parameters. These calculations are done for different patient sizes and for different radiological operations. Results: In case of TL dosimetry, for a group of 100 examinations, the dose equivalents ranged from 0.01 μsv to 0.13 msv with the average of 0.05 msv. The results are seen to be in close agreement with Monte Carlo simulations

  9. Measurement of dosimetric parameters and dose verification in stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reduan Abdullah; Nik Ruzman Nik Idris; Ahmad Lutfi Yusof; Mazurawati Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Full-text: The purpose of this study was to measure the dosimetric parameters for small photon beams to be used as input data treatment planning computer system (TPS) and to verify dose calculated by TPS in Stereotactic Radiosurgery (SRS) procedure. The beam data required were Percentage Depth Dose (PDD), Off-axis Ratio (OAR), and Scatter Factor of Relative Output Factor. Small beams of 5 mm to 45 mm diameter circular cone collimators used in SRS were utilized for beam data measurements measured using pinpoint 3D ionization chamber (0.016 cc). For second part of this study, we reported the important quality assurance (QA) procedures before SRS treatment that influenced the dose delivery. These QA procedures consist of measurements on the accuracy in target localization and room laser alignment. The dose calculated to be delivered for treatment was verified using pinpoint 3D ionization chamber and TLD 100H. The mean deviation of measured dose using TLD 100H compared to calculated dose was 3.37 %. Beside that, pinpoint ionization 3D chamber give more accurate results of dose compared to TLD 100H. The measured dose using pinpoint 3D ionization chamber are good agreement with calculated dose by TPS with deviation of 2.17 %. The results are acceptable such as recommended by International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) Report No. 50 (1993) that dose delivered to the target volume must be within ±5 % error. (author)

  10. Calculating of Dose Distribution in Tongue Brachytherapy by Different Radioisotopes using Monte Carlo Simulation and Comparing by Experimental Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banafsheh Zeinali Rafsanjani

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Among different kinds of oral cavity cancers, the frequency of tongue cancer occurrence is more significant. Brachytherapy is the most common method to cure tongue cancers. Long sources are used in different techniques of tongue brachytherapy. The objective of this study is to asses the dose distribution around long sources, comparing different radioisotopes as brachytherapy sources, measuring the homogeneity of delivered dose to treatment volume and also comparing mandible dose and dose of tongue in the regions near the mandible with and without using shield. Material and Method: The Monte Carlo code MCNP4C was used for simulation. The accuracy of simulation was verified by comparing the results with experimental data. The sources like Ir-192, Cs-137, Ra-226, Au-198, In-111 and Ba-131 were simulated and the position of sources was determined by Paris system. Results: The percentage of mandible dose reduction with use of 2 mm Pb shield for the sources mentioned above were: 35.4%, 20.1%, 86.6%, 32.24%, 75.6%, and 36.8%. The tongue dose near the mandible with use of shied did not change significantly. The dose homogeneity from the most to least was obtained from these sources: Cs-137, Au-198, Ir-192, Ba-131, In-111 and Ra-226. Discussion and Conclusion: Ir-192 and Cs-137 were the best sources for tongue brachytherapy treatment but In-111 and Ra-226 were not suitable choices for tongue brachytherapy. The sources like Au-198 and Ba-131 had rather the same performance as Ir-192

  11. Technical Note: A Monte Carlo study of magnetic-field-induced radiation dose effects in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubinstein, Ashley E. [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 and The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Liao, Zhongxing [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Melancon, Adam D.; Followill, David S.; Tailor, Ramesh C. [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Guindani, Michele [Department of Biostatistics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Hazle, John D. [Department of Imaging Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Court, Laurence E., E-mail: lecourt@mdanderson.org [Departments of Radiation Physics and Imaging Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Purpose: Magnetic fields are known to alter radiation dose deposition. Before patients receive treatment using an MRI-linear accelerator (MRI-Linac), preclinical studies are needed to understand the biological consequences of magnetic-field-induced dose effects. In the present study, the authors sought to identify a beam energy and magnetic field strength combination suitable for preclinical murine experiments. Methods: Magnetic field dose effects were simulated in a mouse lung phantom using various beam energies (225 kVp, 350 kVp, 662 keV [Cs-137], 2 MV, and 1.25 MeV [Co-60]) and magnetic field strengths (0.75, 1.5, and 3 T). The resulting dose distributions were compared with those in a simulated human lung phantom irradiated with a 6 or 8 MV beam and orthogonal 1.5 T magnetic field. Results: In the human lung phantom, the authors observed a dose increase of 45% and 54% at the soft-tissue-to-lung interface and a dose decrease of 41% and 48% at the lung-to-soft-tissue interface for the 6 and 8 MV beams, respectively. In the mouse simulations, the magnetic fields had no measurable effect on the 225 or 350 kVp dose distribution. The dose increases with the Cs-137 beam for the 0.75, 1.5, and 3 T magnetic fields were 9%, 29%, and 42%, respectively. The dose decreases were 9%, 21%, and 37%. For the 2 MV beam, the dose increases were 16%, 33%, and 31% and the dose decreases were 9%, 19%, and 30%. For the Co-60 beam, the dose increases were 19%, 54%, and 44%, and the dose decreases were 19%, 42%, and 40%. Conclusions: The magnetic field dose effects in the mouse phantom using a Cs-137, 3 T combination or a Co-60, 1.5 or 3 T combination most closely resemble those in simulated human treatments with a 6 MV, 1.5 T MRI-Linac. The effects with a Co-60, 1.5 T combination most closely resemble those in simulated human treatments with an 8 MV, 1.5 T MRI-Linac.

  12. Dose calculation and verification of the Vero gimbal tracking treatment delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetio, H.; Wölfelschneider, J.; Ziegler, M.; Serpa, M.; Witulla, B.; Bert, C.

    2018-02-01

    The Vero linear accelerator delivers dynamic tumor tracking (DTT) treatment using a gimbal motion. However, the availability of treatment planning systems (TPS) to simulate DTT is limited. This study aims to implement and verify the gimbal tracking beam geometry in the dose calculation. Gimbal tracking was implemented by rotating the reference CT outside the TPS according to the ring, gantry, and gimbal tracking position obtained from the tracking log file. The dose was calculated using these rotated CTs. The geometric accuracy was verified by comparing calculated and measured film response using a ball bearing phantom. The dose was verified by comparing calculated 2D dose distributions and film measurements in a ball bearing and a homogeneous phantom using a gamma criterion of 2%/2 mm. The effect of implementing the gimbal tracking beam geometry in a 3D patient data dose calculation was evaluated using dose volume histograms (DVH). Geometrically, the gimbal tracking implementation accuracy was  98.4%. The introduction of the gimbal tracking beam geometry in the dose calculation shifted the DVH curves by 0.05%–1.26% for the phantom geometry and by 5.59% for the patient CT dataset. This study successfully demonstrates a method to incorporate the gimbal tracking beam geometry into dose calculations. By combining CT rotation and MU distribution according to the log file, the TPS was able to simulate the Vero tracking treatment dose delivery. The DVH analysis from the gimbal tracking dose calculation revealed changes in the dose distribution during gimbal DTT that are not visible with static dose calculations.

  13. Dose calculation and verification of the Vero gimbal tracking treatment delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetio, H; Wölfelschneider, J; Ziegler, M; Serpa, M; Witulla, B; Bert, C

    2018-02-06

    The Vero linear accelerator delivers dynamic tumor tracking (DTT) treatment using a gimbal motion. However, the availability of treatment planning systems (TPS) to simulate DTT is limited. This study aims to implement and verify the gimbal tracking beam geometry in the dose calculation. Gimbal tracking was implemented by rotating the reference CT outside the TPS according to the ring, gantry, and gimbal tracking position obtained from the tracking log file. The dose was calculated using these rotated CTs. The geometric accuracy was verified by comparing calculated and measured film response using a ball bearing phantom. The dose was verified by comparing calculated 2D dose distributions and film measurements in a ball bearing and a homogeneous phantom using a gamma criterion of 2%/2 mm. The effect of implementing the gimbal tracking beam geometry in a 3D patient data dose calculation was evaluated using dose volume histograms (DVH). Geometrically, the gimbal tracking implementation accuracy was  98.4%. The introduction of the gimbal tracking beam geometry in the dose calculation shifted the DVH curves by 0.05%-1.26% for the phantom geometry and by 5.59% for the patient CT dataset. This study successfully demonstrates a method to incorporate the gimbal tracking beam geometry into dose calculations. By combining CT rotation and MU distribution according to the log file, the TPS was able to simulate the Vero tracking treatment dose delivery. The DVH analysis from the gimbal tracking dose calculation revealed changes in the dose distribution during gimbal DTT that are not visible with static dose calculations.

  14. Monte Carlo calculation of the neutron dose to a fetus at commercial flight altitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, M. C.; Galeano, D. C.; Santos, W. S.; Hunt, John G.; d'Errico, Francesco; Souza, S. O.; de Carvalho Júnior, A. B.

    2017-11-01

    Aircrew members are exposed to primary cosmic rays as well as to secondary radiations from the interaction of cosmic rays with the atmosphere and with the aircraft. The radiation field at flight altitudes comprises neutrons, protons, electrons, positrons, photons, muons and pions. Generally, 50% of the effective dose to airplane passengers is due to neutrons. Care must be taken especially with pregnant aircrew members and frequent fliers so that the equivalent dose to the fetus will not exceed prescribed limits during pregnancy (1 mSv according to ICRP, and 5 mSv according to NCRP). Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the equivalent dose to a fetus in the maternal womb. Up to now, the equivalent dose rate to a fetus at commercial flight altitudes was obtained using stylized pregnant-female phantom models. The aim of this study was calculating neutron fluence to dose conversion coefficients for a fetus of six months of gestation age using a new, realistic pregnant-female mesh-phantom. The equivalent dose rate to a fetus during an intercontinental flight was also calculated by folding our conversion coefficients with published spectral neutron flux data. The calculated equivalent dose rate to the fetus was 2.35 μSv.h-1, that is 1.5 times higher than equivalent dose rates reported in the literature. The neutron fluence to dose conversion coefficients for the fetus calculated in this study were 2.7, 3.1 and 3.9 times higher than those from previous studies using fetus models of 3, 6 and 9 months of gestation age, respectively. The differences between our study and data from the literature highlight the importance of using more realistic anthropomorphic phantoms to estimate doses to a fetus in pregnant aircrew members.

  15. Estimation of staff doses in complex radiological examinations using a Monte Carlo computer code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanhavere, F.

    2007-01-01

    The protection of medical personnel in interventional radiology is an important issue of radiological protection. The irradiation of the worker is largely non-uniform, and a large part of his body is shielded by a lead apron. The estimation of effective dose (E) under these conditions is difficult and several approaches are used to estimate effective dose involving such a protective apron. This study presents a summary from an extensive series of simulations to determine scatter-dose distribution around the patient and staff effective dose from personal dosimeter readings. The influence of different parameters (like beam energy and size, patient size, irradiated region, worker position and orientation) on the staff doses has been determined. Published algorithms that combine readings of an unshielded and a shielded dosimeter to estimate effective dose have been applied and a new algorithm, that gives more accurate dose estimates for a wide range of situations was proposed. A computational approach was used to determine the dose distribution in the worker's body. The radiation transport and energy deposition was simulated using the MCNP4B code. The human bodies of the patient and radiologist were generated with the Body Builder anthropomorphic model-generating tool. The radiologist is protected with a lead apron (0.5 mm lead equivalent in the front and 0.25 mm lead equivalent in the back and sides) and a thyroid collar (0.35 mm lead equivalent). The lower-arms of the worker were folded to simulate the arms position during clinical examinations. This realistic situation of the folded arms affects the effective dose to the worker. Depending on the worker position and orientation (and of course the beam energy), the difference can go up to 25 percent. A total of 12 Hp(10) dosimeters were positioned above and under the lead apron at the neck, chest and waist levels. Extra dosimeters for the skin dose were positioned at the forehead, the forearms and the front surface of

  16. Verification of radiation dose to a and b position during low dose rate 137cs brachytherapy in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, S.; Begur, M.

    2001-01-01

    A manual low dose rate 137Cs brachytherapy consists of two sets viz. 440 mCi (tandem 120, 40,40, 40,40 and ovoids 40,40 mCi each) and 360 mCi (tandem 120, 40,40 mCi and ovoids 40,40 mCi each) having the dose rates at A were 155.2 c Gy/hr and 140.8 c Gy/hr respectively on June 1996) was supplied by the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Mumbai, India and are being used in the Delta Medical Centre Limited, Mirpur, Dhaka, Bangladesh for gynecological insertion. BARC also supplied the operation manual quoting the dose at point A and B of cervix of the patient only for straight uterine tubes and separation between vaginal ovoids of 2, 3 and 4 cm. BARC also mentioned that the dose at A and B are within 1-2 % of the mean value. Manual calculation was done to compare the dose at point A and B for ten intracavitary insertions in the hospital to compare those with the value supplied by the BARC. It was found that dose varied at point A from +0.46 % to +9.11 % for eight patients and -3.4 % to -5.96 % for two patients with quoted value. Dose at B varied from +0.59 % to +9.8 % for nine patients and -10.94 % for one patient with the quoted value supplied by the supplier. This is not unusual because the tandem used for treatment were with different angles such as, 15 degree, 30 degree etc. as per anatomy of the patient. Moreover, the tolerance dose of the fornix region is much higher (about 140 Gy) than that of the other critical organ. Overall prognosis of the patients, treated so far, using this manual brachytherapy and performing manual calculation is satisfactory. So, the results shows a good result with the manual treatment planning

  17. Monte Carlo modeling of the Yttrium-90 nanospheres application in the liver radionuclide therapy and organs doses calculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghavami Seyed Mostafa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Using the nano-scaled radionuclides in the radionuclide therapy significantly reduces the particles trapping in the organs vessels and avoids thrombosis formations. Additionally, uniform distribution in the target organ may be another benefit of the nanoradionuclides in the radionuclide therapy. Monte Carlo simulation was conducted to model a mathematical humanoid phantom and the liver cells of the simulated phantom were filled with the 90Y nanospheres. Healthy organs doses, fatal and nonfatal risks of the surrounding organs were estimated. The estimations and calculations were made in four different distribution patterns of the radionuclide seeds. Maximum doses and risks estimated for the surrounding organs were obtained in the high edge concentrated distribution model of the liver including the nanoradionuclides. For the dose equivalent, effective dose, fatal and non-fatal risks, the values obtained as 7.51E-03 Sv/Bq, 3.01E-01 Sv/Bq, and 9.16E-01 cases/104 persons for the bladder, colon, and kidney of the modeled phantom, respectively. The mentioned values were the maximum values among the studied modeled distributions. Maximum values of Normal Tissue Complication Probability for the healthy organs calculated as 5.9-8.9 %. Result of using nanoparticles of the 90Y provides promising dosimetric properties in MC simulation results considering non-toxicity reports for the radionuclide.

  18. Monte Carlo simulations for dose enhancement in cancer treatment using bismuth oxide nanoparticles implanted in brain soft tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Eslam; Djouider, Fathi; Banoqitah, Essam

    2018-03-26

    The objective of this work is to study the dosimetric performances of bismuth oxide nanoparticles implanted in tumors in cancer radiotherapy. GEANT4 based Monte Carlo numerical simulations were performed to assess dose enhancement distributions in and around a 1 × 1 × 1 cm 3 tumor implanted with different concentrations of bismuth oxide and irradiated with low energies 125 I, 131 Cs, and 103 Pd radioactive sources. Dose contributions were considered from photoelectrons, Auger electrons, and characteristic X-rays. Our results show the dose enhancement increased with increasing both bismuth oxide concentration in the target and photon energy. A dose enhancement factor up to 18.55 was obtained for a concentration of 70 mg/g of bismuth oxide in the tumor when irradiated with 131 Cs source. This study showed that bismuth oxide nanoparticles are innovative agents that could be potentially applicable to in vivo cancer radiotherapy due to the fact that they induce a highly localized energy deposition within the tumor.

  19. Dosimetry of indigenously developed 192Ir high-dose rate brachytherapy source: An EGSnrc Monte Carlo study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sridhar Sahoo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical application using high-dose rate (HDR 192Ir sources in remote afterloading technique is a well-established treatment method. In this direction, Board of Radiation and Isotope Technology (BRIT and Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, India, jointly indigenously developed a remote afterloading machine and 192Ir HDR source. The two-dimensional (2D dose distribution and dosimetric parameters of the BRIT 192Ir HDR source are generated using EGSnrc Monte Carlo code system in a 40 cm dia × 40 cm height cylindrical water phantom. The values of air-kerma strength and dose rate constant for BRIT 192Ir HDR source are 9.894 × 10−8 ± 0.06% UBq−1 and 1.112 ± 0.11% cGyh−1U−1, respectively. The values of radial dose function (gL(r of this source compare well with the corresponding values of BEBIG, Flexisource, and GammaMed 12i source models. This is because of identical active lengths of the sources (3.5 mm and the comparable phantom dimensions. A comparison of gL(r values of BRIT source with microSelectron-v1 show differences about 2% at r = 6 cm and up to 13% at r = 12 cm, which is due to differences in phantom dimensions involved in the calculations. The anisotropy function of BRIT 192Ir HDR source is comparable with the corresponding values of microSelectron-v1 (classic HDR source.

  20. Commissioning and Validation of the First Monte Carlo Based Dose Calculation Algorithm Commercial Treatment Planning System in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larraga-Gutierrez, J. M.; Garcia-Garduno, O. A.; Hernandez-Bojorquez, M.; Galvan de la Cruz, O. O.; Ballesteros-Zebadua, P.

    2010-01-01

    This work presents the beam data commissioning and dose calculation validation of the first Monte Carlo (MC) based treatment planning system (TPS) installed in Mexico. According to the manufacturer specifications, the beam data commissioning needed for this model includes: several in-air and water profiles, depth dose curves, head-scatter factors and output factors (6x6, 12x12, 18x18, 24x24, 42x42, 60x60, 80x80 and 100x100 mm 2 ). Radiographic and radiochromic films, diode and ionization chambers were used for data acquisition. MC dose calculations in a water phantom were used to validate the MC simulations using comparisons with measured data. Gamma index criteria 2%/2 mm were used to evaluate the accuracy of MC calculations. MC calculated data show an excellent agreement for field sizes from 18x18 to 100x100 mm 2 . Gamma analysis shows that in average, 95% and 100% of the data passes the gamma index criteria for these fields, respectively. For smaller fields (12x12 and 6x6 mm 2 ) only 92% of the data meet the criteria. Total scatter factors show a good agreement ( 2 ) that show a error of 4.7%. MC dose calculations are accurate and precise for clinical treatment planning up to a field size of 18x18 mm 2 . Special care must be taken for smaller fields.

  1. MO-F-CAMPUS-I-03: GPU Accelerated Monte Carlo Technique for Fast Concurrent Image and Dose Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becchetti, M; Tian, X; Segars, P; Samei, E [Clinical Imaging Physics Group, Department of Radiology, Duke University Me, Durham, NC (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To develop an accurate and fast Monte Carlo (MC) method of simulating CT that is capable of correlating dose with image quality using voxelized phantoms. Methods: A realistic voxelized phantom based on patient CT data, XCAT, was used with a GPU accelerated MC code for helical MDCT. Simulations were done with both uniform density organs and with textured organs. The organ doses were validated using previous experimentally validated simulations of the same phantom under the same conditions. Images acquired by tracking photons through the phantom with MC require lengthy computation times due to the large number of photon histories necessary for accurate representation of noise. A substantial speed up of the process was attained by using a low number of photon histories with kernel denoising of the projections from the scattered photons. These FBP reconstructed images were validated against those that were acquired in simulations using many photon histories by ensuring a minimal normalized root mean square error. Results: Organ doses simulated in the XCAT phantom are within 10% of the reference values. Corresponding images attained using projection kernel smoothing were attained with 3 orders of magnitude less computation time compared to a reference simulation using many photon histories. Conclusion: Combining GPU acceleration with kernel denoising of scattered photon projections in MC simulations allows organ dose and corresponding image quality to be attained with reasonable accuracy and substantially reduced computation time than is possible with standard simulation approaches.

  2. Study of dose distributions in voxel phantoms for brachytherapy sources using the GEANT4 Monte Carlo toolkit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Maximiano C.; Santos, Denison S.; Queiroz Filho, Pedro P. de; Begalli, Marcia

    2009-01-01

    This work studies the effects of corrections in the calculation of dose distribution for brachytherapy sources when they are inserted in a male human voxel phantom. The sources studied here are the Best Industries 125 I 2301 model for low dose rate and the Amersham Buchler G0814 model 192 Ir seed for high dose rate, in the simulation of prostate treatments. The presence of organs around the interest point scatters radiation in a different form than a water cube, the situation that is usually configured in these calculations. The insertion of the sources in an anthropomorphic phantom brings results closer to the real situation. The chosen phantom was the head and torso voxel phantom created by Zubal. The Geant4 Monte Carlo toolkit was used to simulate the radiation transportation along the source shielding and the human organs of the voxel phantom. After inserting the source in the phantom, the energy deposition in each voxel is computed, allowing the construction of isodose curves. The source insertion in the anthropomorphic phantom aims also at a further knowledge about the brachytherapy treatment planning and additional information such as the target volume dose and in neighbor organs, data that will be useful for medical staff working with this technique. (author)

  3. Calculation of dose distribution in compressible breast tissues using finite element modeling, Monte Carlo simulation and thermoluminescence dosimeters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadyari, Parvin; Faghihi, Reza; Mosleh-Shirazi, Mohammad Amin; Lotfi, Mehrzad; Hematiyan, Mohammad Rahim; Koontz, Craig; Meigooni, Ali S

    2015-12-07

    Compression is a technique to immobilize the target or improve the dose distribution within the treatment volume during different irradiation techniques such as AccuBoost(®) brachytherapy. However, there is no systematic method for determination of dose distribution for uncompressed tissue after irradiation under compression. In this study, the mechanical behavior of breast tissue between compressed and uncompressed states was investigated. With that, a novel method was developed to determine the dose distribution in uncompressed tissue after irradiation of compressed breast tissue. Dosimetry was performed using two different methods, namely, Monte Carlo simulations using the MCNP5 code and measurements using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). The displacement of the breast elements was simulated using a finite element model and calculated using ABAQUS software. From these results, the 3D dose distribution in uncompressed tissue was determined. The geometry of the model was constructed from magnetic resonance images of six different women volunteers. The mechanical properties were modeled by using the Mooney-Rivlin hyperelastic material model. Experimental dosimetry was performed by placing the TLD chips into the polyvinyl alcohol breast equivalent phantom. The results determined that the nodal displacements, due to the gravitational force and the 60 Newton compression forces (with 43% contraction in the loading direction and 37% expansion in the orthogonal direction) were determined. Finally, a comparison of the experimental data and the simulated data showed agreement within 11.5%  ±  5.9%.

  4. Simulation of dose deposition in stereotactic synchrotron radiation therapy: a fast approach combining Monte Carlo and deterministic algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smekens, F; Freud, N; Letang, J M; Babot, D [CNDRI (Nondestructive Testing using Ionizing Radiations) Laboratory, INSA-Lyon, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Adam, J-F; Elleaume, H; Esteve, F [INSERM U-836, Equipe 6 ' Rayonnement Synchrotron et Recherche Medicale' , Institut des Neurosciences de Grenoble (France); Ferrero, C; Bravin, A [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France)], E-mail: francois.smekens@insa-lyon.fr

    2009-08-07

    A hybrid approach, combining deterministic and Monte Carlo (MC) calculations, is proposed to compute the distribution of dose deposited during stereotactic synchrotron radiation therapy treatment. The proposed approach divides the computation into two parts: (i) the dose deposited by primary radiation (coming directly from the incident x-ray beam) is calculated in a deterministic way using ray casting techniques and energy-absorption coefficient tables and (ii) the dose deposited by secondary radiation (Rayleigh and Compton scattering, fluorescence) is computed using a hybrid algorithm combining MC and deterministic calculations. In the MC part, a small number of particle histories are simulated. Every time a scattering or fluorescence event takes place, a splitting mechanism is applied, so that multiple secondary photons are generated with a reduced weight. The secondary events are further processed in a deterministic way, using ray casting techniques. The whole simulation, carried out within the framework of the Monte Carlo code Geant4, is shown to converge towards the same results as the full MC simulation. The speed of convergence is found to depend notably on the splitting multiplicity, which can easily be optimized. To assess the performance of the proposed algorithm, we compare it to state-of-the-art MC simulations, accelerated by the track length estimator technique (TLE), considering a clinically realistic test case. It is found that the hybrid approach is significantly faster than the MC/TLE method. The gain in speed in a test case was about 25 for a constant precision. Therefore, this method appears to be suitable for treatment planning applications.

  5. Calculation of primary and secondary dose in proton therapy of brain tumors using Monte Carlo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moghbel Esfahani, F.; Alamatsaz, M.; Karimian, A.

    2012-01-01

    High-energy beams of protons offer significant advantages for the treatment of deep-seated local tumors. Their physical depth-dose distribution in tissue is characterized by a small entrance dose and a distinct maximum - Bragg peak - near the end of range with a sharp falloff at the distal edge. Therefore, research must be done to investigate the possible negative and positive effects of using proton therapy as a treatment modality. In proton therapy, protons do account for the vast majority of dose. However, when protons travel through matter, secondary particles are created by the interactions of protons and matter en route to and within the patient. It is believed that secondary dose can lead to secondary cancer, especially in pediatric cases. Therefore, the focus of this work is determining both primary and secondary dose. Dose calculations were performed by MCNPX in tumoral and healthy parts of brain. The brain tumor has a 10 mm diameter and is located 16 cm under the skin surface. The brain was simulated by a cylindrical water phantom with the dimensions of 19 x 19cm 2 (length x diameter), with 0.5 cm thickness of plexiglass (C 4 H 6 O 2 ). Then beam characteristics were investigated to ensure the accuracy of the model. Simulations were initially validated with against packages such as SRIM/TRIM. Dose calculations were performed using different configurations to evaluate depth-dose profiles and dose 2D distributions.The results of the simulation show that the best proton energy interval, to cover completely the brain tumor, is from 152 to 154 MeV. (authors)

  6. Tomotherapy dose distribution verification using MAGIC-f polymer gel dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavoni, J. F.; Pike, T. L.; Snow, J.; DeWerd, L.; Baffa, O.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper presents the application of MAGIC-f gel in a three-dimensional dose distribution measurement and its ability to accurately measure the dose distribution from a tomotherapy unit. Methods: A prostate intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) irradiation was simulated in the gel phantom and the treatment was delivered by a TomoTherapy equipment. Dose distribution was evaluated by the R2 distribution measured in magnetic resonance imaging. Results: A high similarity was found by overlapping of isodoses of the dose distribution measured with the gel and expected by the treatment planning system (TPS). Another analysis was done by comparing the relative absorbed dose profiles in the measured and in the expected dose distributions extracted along indicated lines of the volume and the results were also in agreement. The gamma index analysis was also applied to the data and a high pass rate was achieved (88.4% for analysis using 3%/3 mm and of 96.5% using 4%/4 mm). The real three-dimensional analysis compared the dose-volume histograms measured for the planning volumes and expected by the treatment planning, being the results also in good agreement by the overlapping of the curves. Conclusions: These results show that MAGIC-f gel is a promise for tridimensional dose distribution measurements.

  7. Tomotherapy dose distribution verification using MAGIC-f polymer gel dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavoni, J. F.; Pike, T. L.; Snow, J.; DeWerd, L.; Baffa, O. [Departamento de Fisica, Faculdade de Filosofia Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto-Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Bandeirantes, 3900 - CEP 14040-901 - Bairro Monte Alegre - Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Medical Radiation Research Center, Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin, 1111 Highland Avenue, B1002 WIMR, Madison, Wisconsin 53705-2275 (United States); Departamento de Fisica, Faculdade de Filosofia Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto-Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Bandeirantes, 3900 - CEP 14040-901 - Bairro Monte Alegre - Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2012-05-15

    Purpose: This paper presents the application of MAGIC-f gel in a three-dimensional dose distribution measurement and its ability to accurately measure the dose distribution from a tomotherapy unit. Methods: A prostate intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) irradiation was simulated in the gel phantom and the treatment was delivered by a TomoTherapy equipment. Dose distribution was evaluated by the R2 distribution measured in magnetic resonance imaging. Results: A high similarity was found by overlapping of isodoses of the dose distribution measured with the gel and expected by the treatment planning system (TPS). Another analysis was done by comparing the relative absorbed dose profiles in the measured and in the expected dose distributions extracted along indicated lines of the volume and the results were also in agreement. The gamma index analysis was also applied to the data and a high pass rate was achieved (88.4% for analysis using 3%/3 mm and of 96.5% using 4%/4 mm). The real three-dimensional analysis compared the dose-volume histograms measured for the planning volumes and expected by the treatment planning, being the results also in good agreement by the overlapping of the curves. Conclusions: These results show that MAGIC-f gel is a promise for tridimensional dose distribution measurements.

  8. Use of Monte Carlo Simulations to Determine Optimal Carbapenem Dosing in Critically Ill Patients Receiving Prolonged Intermittent Renal Replacement Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Susan J; Kays, Michael B; Mueller, Bruce A

    2016-10-01

    Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic analyses with Monte Carlo simulations (MCSs) can be used to integrate prior information on model parameters into a new renal replacement therapy (RRT) to develop optimal drug dosing when pharmacokinetic trials are not feasible. This study used MCSs to determine initial doripenem, imipenem, meropenem, and ertapenem dosing regimens for critically ill patients receiving prolonged intermittent RRT (PIRRT). Published body weights and pharmacokinetic parameter estimates (nonrenal clearance, free fraction, volume of distribution, extraction coefficients) with variability were used to develop a pharmacokinetic model. MCS of 5000 patients evaluated multiple regimens in 4 different PIRRT effluent/duration combinations (4 L/h × 10 hours or 5 L/h × 8 hours in hemodialysis or hemofiltration) occurring at the beginning or 14-16 hours after drug infusion. The probability of target attainment (PTA) was calculated using ≥40% free serum concentrations above 4 times the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for the first 48 hours. Optimal doses were defined as the smallest daily dose achieving ≥90% PTA in all PIRRT combinations. At the MIC of 2 mg/L for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, optimal doses were doripenem 750 mg every 8 hours, imipenem 1 g every 8 hours or 750 mg every 6 hours, and meropenem 1 g every 12 hours or 1 g pre- and post-PIRRT. Ertapenem 500 mg followed by 500 mg post-PIRRT was optimal at the MIC of 1 mg/L for Streptococcus pneumoniae. Incorporating data from critically ill patients receiving RRT into MCS resulted in markedly different carbapenem dosing regimens in PIRRT from those recommended for conventional RRTs because of the unique drug clearance characteristics of PIRRT. These results warrant clinical validation. © 2016, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  9. Efficiency of radiation protection equipment in interventional radiology: a systematic Monte Carlo study of eye lens and whole body doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koukorava, C; Farah, J; Clairand, I; Donadille, L; Struelens, L; Vanhavere, F; Dimitriou, P

    2014-01-01

    Monte Carlo calculations were used to investigate the efficiency of radiation protection equipment in reducing eye and whole body doses during fluoroscopically guided interventional procedures. Eye lens doses were determined considering different models of eyewear with various shapes, sizes and lead thickness. The origin of scattered radiation reaching the eyes was also assessed to explain the variation in the protection efficiency of the different eyewear models with exposure conditions. The work also investigates the variation of eye and whole body doses with ceiling-suspended shields of various shapes and positioning. For all simulations, a broad spectrum of configurations typical for most interventional procedures was considered. Calculations showed that ‘wrap around’ glasses are the most efficient eyewear models reducing, on average, the dose by 74% and 21% for the left and right eyes respectively. The air gap between the glasses and the eyes was found to be the primary source of scattered radiation reaching the eyes. The ceiling-suspended screens were more efficient when positioned close to the patient’s skin and to the x-ray field. With the use of such shields, the H p (10) values recorded at the collar, chest and waist level and the H p (3) values for both eyes were reduced on average by 47%, 37%, 20% and 56% respectively. Finally, simulations proved that beam quality and lead thickness have little influence on eye dose while beam projection, the position and head orientation of the operator as well as the distance between the image detector and the patient are key parameters affecting eye and whole body doses. (paper)

  10. Efficiency of radiation protection equipment in interventional radiology: a systematic Monte Carlo study of eye lens and whole body doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koukorava, C; Farah, J; Struelens, L; Clairand, I; Donadille, L; Vanhavere, F; Dimitriou, P

    2014-09-01

    Monte Carlo calculations were used to investigate the efficiency of radiation protection equipment in reducing eye and whole body doses during fluoroscopically guided interventional procedures. Eye lens doses were determined considering different models of eyewear with various shapes, sizes and lead thickness. The origin of scattered radiation reaching the eyes was also assessed to explain the variation in the protection efficiency of the different eyewear models with exposure conditions. The work also investigates the variation of eye and whole body doses with ceiling-suspended shields of various shapes and positioning. For all simulations, a broad spectrum of configurations typical for most interventional procedures was considered. Calculations showed that 'wrap around' glasses are the most efficient eyewear models reducing, on average, the dose by 74% and 21% for the left and right eyes respectively. The air gap between the glasses and the eyes was found to be the primary source of scattered radiation reaching the eyes. The ceiling-suspended screens were more efficient when positioned close to the patient's skin and to the x-ray field. With the use of such shields, the Hp(10) values recorded at the collar, chest and waist level and the Hp(3) values for both eyes were reduced on average by 47%, 37%, 20% and 56% respectively. Finally, simulations proved that beam quality and lead thickness have little influence on eye dose while beam projection, the position and head orientation of the operator as well as the distance between the image detector and the patient are key parameters affecting eye and whole body doses.

  11. Independent dose verification method using TG43 parameters for HDR brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Sharma, S.D.; Kannan, S.; Vijaykumar, C.

    2007-01-01

    High-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy has been proven as an effective treatment in the definitive management of different type of cancer. In this mode of therapy almost all the treatment unit uses a single stepping 192 Ir source which steps through precalculated treatment positions. As manual calculations of dose distribution and hence the treatment time is labourious. Computerized treatment planning systems (TPS) is used to derive the dose distribution. Though TPS facilitates the determination of the dose optimization and treatment time calculation, it is challenging to verify the TPS calculated dose. The importance of independently verifying the dosimetry prior to the treatment delivery has been recognized in the various works worldwide and is a requirement of various regulatory agencies. We describe here an independent method used for the sole purpose of verifying HDR dosimetry based on the AAPM TG43 formalism

  12. Spectra and depth-dose deposition in a polymethylmethacrylate breast phantom obtained by experimental and Monte Carlo method; Espectros e deposicao de dose em profundidade em phantom de mama de polimetilmetacrilato: obtencao experimental e por metodo de Monte Carlo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, Mariano G.; Pires, Evandro J.; Magalhaes, Luis A.; Almeida, Carlos E. de; Alves, Carlos F.E., E-mail: marianogd08@gmail.com [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Lab. Ciencias Radiologicas; Albuquerque, Marcos A. [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Instituto Alberto Luiz Coimbra; Bernal, Mario A. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica Gleb Wataghin; Peixoto, Jose G. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-08-15

    This paper focuses on the obtainment, using experimental and Monte Carlo-simulated (MMC) methods, of the photon spectra at various depths and depth-dose deposition curves for x-rays beams used in mammography, obtained on a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) breast phantom. Spectra were obtained for 28 and 30 kV quality-beams and the corresponding average energy values (Emed) were calculated. For the experimental acquisition was used a Si-PIN photodiode spectrometer and for the MMC simulations the PENELOPE code was employed. The simulated and the experimental spectra show a very good agreement, which was corroborated by the low differences found between the Emed values. An increase in the Emed values and a strong attenuation of the beam through the depth of the PMMA phantom was also observed. (author)

  13. Calculated organ doses using Monte Carlo simulations in a reference male phantom undergoing HDR brachytherapy applied to localized prostate carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candela-Juan, Cristian; Perez-Calatayud, Jose; Ballester, Facundo; Rivard, Mark J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to obtain equivalent doses in radiosensitive organs (aside from the bladder and rectum) when applying high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy to a localized prostate carcinoma using 60 Co or 192 Ir sources. These data are compared with results in a water phantom and with expected values in an infinite water medium. A comparison with reported values from proton therapy and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is also provided. Methods: Monte Carlo simulations in Geant4 were performed using a voxelized phantom described in International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 110, which reproduces masses and shapes from an adult reference man defined in ICRP Publication 89. Point sources of 60 Co or 192 Ir with photon energy spectra corresponding to those exiting their capsules were placed in the center of the prostate, and equivalent doses per clinical absorbed dose in this target organ were obtained in several radiosensitive organs. Values were corrected to account for clinical circumstances with the source located at various positions with differing dwell times throughout the prostate. This was repeated for a homogeneous water phantom. Results: For the nearest organs considered (bladder, rectum, testes, small intestine, and colon), equivalent doses given by 60 Co source were smaller (8%–19%) than from 192 Ir. However, as the distance increases, the more penetrating gamma rays produced by 60 Co deliver higher organ equivalent doses. The overall result is that effective dose per clinical absorbed dose from a 60 Co source (11.1 mSv/Gy) is lower than from a 192 Ir source (13.2 mSv/Gy). On the other hand, equivalent doses were the same in the tissue and the homogeneous water phantom for those soft tissues closer to the prostate than about 30 cm. As the distance increased, the differences of photoelectric effect in water and soft tissue, and appearance of other materials such as air, bone, or lungs, produced

  14. Calculated organ doses using Monte Carlo simulations in a reference male phantom undergoing HDR brachytherapy applied to localized prostate carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Candela-Juan, Cristian [Radioprotection Department, La Fe University and Polytechnic Hospital, Valencia 46026 (Spain); Perez-Calatayud, Jose [Radiotherapy Department, La Fe University and Polytechnic Hospital, Valencia 46026 (Spain); Ballester, Facundo [Department of Atomic, Molecular and Nuclear Physics, University of Valencia, Burjassot 46100 (Spain); Rivard, Mark J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02111 (United States)

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to obtain equivalent doses in radiosensitive organs (aside from the bladder and rectum) when applying high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy to a localized prostate carcinoma using {sup 60}Co or {sup 192}Ir sources. These data are compared with results in a water phantom and with expected values in an infinite water medium. A comparison with reported values from proton therapy and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is also provided. Methods: Monte Carlo simulations in Geant4 were performed using a voxelized phantom described in International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 110, which reproduces masses and shapes from an adult reference man defined in ICRP Publication 89. Point sources of {sup 60}Co or {sup 192}Ir with photon energy spectra corresponding to those exiting their capsules were placed in the center of the prostate, and equivalent doses per clinical absorbed dose in this target organ were obtained in several radiosensitive organs. Values were corrected to account for clinical circumstances with the source located at various positions with differing dwell times throughout the prostate. This was repeated for a homogeneous water phantom. Results: For the nearest organs considered (bladder, rectum, testes, small intestine, and colon), equivalent doses given by {sup 60}Co source were smaller (8%-19%) than from {sup 192}Ir. However, as the distance increases, the more penetrating gamma rays produced by {sup 60}Co deliver higher organ equivalent doses. The overall result is that effective dose per clinical absorbed dose from a {sup 60}Co source (11.1 mSv/Gy) is lower than from a {sup 192}Ir source (13.2 mSv/Gy). On the other hand, equivalent doses were the same in the tissue and the homogeneous water phantom for those soft tissues closer to the prostate than about 30 cm. As the distance increased, the differences of photoelectric effect in water and soft tissue, and appearance of other materials

  15. Using the Monte Carlo technique to calculate dose conversion coefficients for medical professionals in interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, W.S.; Carvalho Jr, A.B.; Hunt, J.G.; Maia, A.F.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate doses in the physician and the nurse assistant at different positions during interventional radiology procedures. In this study, effective doses obtained for the physician and at points occupied by other workers were normalised by air kerma-area product (KAP). The simulations were performed for two X-ray spectra (70 kVp and 87 kVp) using the radiation transport code MCNPX (version 2.7.0), and a pair of anthropomorphic voxel phantoms (MASH/FASH) used to represent both the patient and the medical professional at positions from 7 cm to 47 cm from the patient. The X-ray tube was represented by a point source positioned in the anterior posterior (AP) and posterior anterior (PA) projections. The CC can be useful to calculate effective doses, which in turn are related to stochastic effects. With the knowledge of the values of CCs and KAP measured in an X-ray equipment, at a similar exposure, medical professionals will be able to know their own effective dose. - Highlights: ► This study presents a series of simulations to determine scatter-dose in IR. ► Irradiation of the worker is non-uniform and a part of his body is shielded. ► With the CCs it is possible to estimate the occupational doses in the CA examination. ► Protection of medical personnel in IR is an important issue of radiological protection

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF A MULTIMODAL MONTE CARLO BASED TREATMENT PLANNING SYSTEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumada, Hiroaki; Takada, Kenta; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Suzuki, Minoru; Takata, Takushi; Sakurai, Hideyuki; Matsumura, Akira; Sakae, Takeji

    2017-10-26

    To establish boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), the University of Tsukuba is developing a treatment device and peripheral devices required in BNCT, such as a treatment planning system. We are developing a new multimodal Monte Carlo based treatment planning system (developing code: Tsukuba Plan). Tsukuba Plan allows for dose estimation in proton therapy, X-ray therapy and heavy ion therapy in addition to BNCT because the system employs PHITS as the Monte Carlo dose calculation engine. Regarding BNCT, several verifications of the system are being carried out for its practical usage. The verification results demonstrate that Tsukuba Plan allows for accurate estimation of thermal neutron flux and gamma-ray dose as fundamental radiations of dosimetry in BNCT. In addition to the practical use of Tsukuba Plan in BNCT, we are investigating its application to other radiation therapies. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Verification of Dose Distribution in Carbon Ion Radiation Therapy for Stage I Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irie, Daisuke; Saitoh, Jun-ichi, E-mail: junsaito@gunma-u.ac.jp; Shirai, Katsuyuki; Abe, Takanori; Kubota, Yoshiki; Sakai, Makoto; Noda, Shin-ei; Ohno, Tatsuya; Nakano, Takashi

    2016-12-01

    Purpose: To evaluate robustness of dose distribution of carbon-ion radiation therapy (C-ion RT) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and to identify factors affecting the dose distribution by simulated dose distribution. Methods and Materials: Eighty irradiation fields for delivery of C-ion RT were analyzed in 20 patients with stage I NSCLC. Computed tomography images were obtained twice before treatment initiation. Simulated dose distribution was reconstructed on computed tomography for confirmation under the same settings as actual treatment with respiratory gating and bony structure matching. Dose-volume histogram parameters, such as %D95 (percentage of D95 relative to the prescribed dose), were calculated. Patients with any field for which the %D95 of gross tumor volume (GTV) was below 90% were classified as unacceptable for treatment, and the optimal target margin for such cases was examined. Results: Five patients with a total of 8 fields (10% of total number of fields analyzed) were classified as unacceptable according to %D95 of GTV, although most patients showed no remarkable change in the dose-volume histogram parameters. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that tumor displacement and change in water-equivalent pathlength were significant predictive factors of unacceptable cases (P<.001 and P=.002, respectively). The main cause of degradation of the dose distribution was tumor displacement in 7 of the 8 unacceptable fields. A 6-mm planning target volume margin ensured a GTV %D95 of >90%, except in 1 extremely unacceptable field. Conclusions: According to this simulation analysis of C-ion RT for stage I NSCLC, a few fields were reported as unacceptable and required resetting of body position and reconfirmation. In addition, tumor displacement and change in water-equivalent pathlength (bone shift and/or chest wall thickness) were identified as factors influencing the robustness of dose distribution. Such uncertainties should be regarded

  18. Dosimetric verification of x-ray fields with steep dose gradients using an electronic portal imaging device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regions with steep dose gradients are often encountered in clinical x-ray beams, especially with the growing use of intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Such regions are present both at field edges and, for IMRT, in the vicinity of the projection of sensitive anatomical structures in the treatment field. Dose measurements in these regions are often difficult and labour intensive, while dose prediction may be inaccurate. A dedicated algorithm developed in our institution for conversion of pixel values, measured with a charged coupled device camera based fluoroscopic electronic portal imaging device (EPID), into absolute absorbed doses at the EPID plane has an accuracy of 1-2% for flat and smoothly modulated fields. However, in the current algorithm there is no mechanism to correct for the (short-range) differences in lateral electron transport between water and the metal plate with the fluorescent layer in the EPID. Moreover, lateral optical photon transport in the fluorescent layer is not taken into account. This results in large deviations (>10%) in the penumbra region of these fields. We have investigated the differences between dose profiles measured in water and with the EPID for small heavily peaked fields. A convolution kernel has been developed to empirically describe these differences. After applying the derived kernel to raw EPID images, a general agreement within 2% was obtained with the water measurements in the central region of the fields, and within 0.03 cm in the penumbra region. These results indicate that the EPID is well suited for accurate dosimetric verification of steep gradient x-ray fields

  19. Calculation and experimental verification of the RBE-weighted dose for scanned ion beams in the presence of target motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gemmel, A; Rietzel, E; Kraft, G; Durante, M; Bert, C

    2011-01-01

    We present an algorithm suitable for the calculation of the RBE-weighted dose for moving targets with a scanned particle beam. For verification of the algorithm, we conducted a series of cell survival measurements that were compared to the calculations. Calculation of the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) with respect to tumor motion was included in the treatment planning procedure, in order to fully assess its impact on treatment delivery with a scanned ion beam. We implemented an algorithm into our treatment planning software TRiP4D which allows determination of the RBE including its dependence on target tissue, absorbed dose, energy and particle spectra in the presence of organ motion. The calculations are based on time resolved computed tomography (4D-CT) and the corresponding deformation maps. The principal of the algorithm is illustrated in in silico simulations that provide a detailed view of the different compositions of the energy and particle spectra at different target positions and their consequence on the resulting RBE. The calculations were experimentally verified with several cell survival measurements using a dynamic phantom and a scanned carbon ion beam. The basic functionality of the new dose calculation algorithm has been successfully tested in in silico simulations. The algorithm has been verified by comparing its predictions to cell survival measurements. Four experiments showed in total a mean difference (standard deviation) of −1.7% (6.3%) relative to the target dose of 9 Gy (RBE). The treatment planning software TRiP is now capable to calculate the patient relevant RBE-weighted dose in the presence of target motion and was verified against cell survival measurements.

  20. 3D dose imaging for arc therapy techniques by means of Fricke gel dosimetry and dedicated Monte Carlo simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valente, Mauro; Castellano, Gustavo; Sosa, Carlos

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Radiotherapy is one of the most effective techniques for tumour treatment and control. During the last years, significant developments were performed regarding both irradiation technology and techniques. However, accurate 3D dosimetric techniques are nowadays not commercially available. Due to their intrinsic characteristics, traditional dosimetric techniques like ionisation chamber, film dosimetry or TLD do not offer proper continuous 3D dose mapping. The possibility of using ferrous sulphate (Fricke) dosimeters suitably fixed to a gel matrix, along with dedicated optical analysis methods, based on light transmission measurements for 3D absorbed dose imaging in tissue-equivalent materials, has become great interest in radiotherapy. Since Gore et al. showed in 1984 that the oxidation of ferrous ions to ferric ions still happen even when fixing the ferrous sulphate solution to a gelatine matrix, important efforts have been dedicated in developing and improving real continuous 3D dosimetric systems based on Fricke solution. The purpose of this work is to investigate the capability and suitability of Fricke gel dosimetry for arc therapy irradiations. The dosimetric system is mainly composed by Fricke gel dosimeters, suitably shaped in form of thin layers and optically analysed by means of visible light transmission measurements, acquiring sample images just before and after irradiation by means of a commercial flatbed-like scanner. Image acquisition, conversion to matrices and further analysis are accomplished by means of dedicated developed software, which includes suitable algorithms for optical density differences calculation and corresponding absorbed dose conversion. Dedicated subroutines allow 3D dose imaging reconstruction from single layer information, by means of computer tomography-like algorithms. Also, dedicated Monte Carlo (PENELOPE) subroutines have been adapted in order to achieve accurate simulation of arc therapy irradiation techniques

  1. Dosimetric characterization and organ dose assessment in digital breast tomosynthesis: Measurements and Monte Carlo simulations using voxel phantoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baptista, Mariana, E-mail: marianabaptista@ctn.ist.utl.pt; Di Maria, Salvatore; Barros, Sílvia; Vaz, Pedro [Centro de Ciências e Tecnologias Nucleares, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Estrada Nacional 10, km 139,7, Bobadela LRS 2695-066 (Portugal); Figueira, Catarina [Centre for Plasma Physics, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen’s University, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Sarmento, Marta; Orvalho, Lurdes [Serviço de Imagiologia, Hospital da Luz, Avenida Lusíada, 100, Lisboa 1500-650 (Portugal)

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: Due to its capability to more accurately detect deep lesions inside the breast by removing the effect of overlying anatomy, digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) has the potential to replace the standard mammography technique in clinical screening exams. However, the European Guidelines for DBT dosimetry are still a work in progress and there are little data available on organ doses other than to the breast. It is, therefore, of great importance to assess the dosimetric performance of DBT with respect to the one obtained with standard digital mammography (DM) systems. The aim of this work is twofold: (i) to study the dosimetric properties of a combined DBT/DM system (MAMMOMAT Inspiration Siemens{sup ®}) for a tungsten/rhodium (W/Rh) anode/filter combination and (ii) to evaluate organs doses during a DBT examination. Methods: For the first task, measurements were performed in manual and automatic exposure control (AEC) modes, using two homogeneous breast phantoms: a PMMA slab phantom and a 4 cm thick breast-shaped rigid phantom, with 50% of glandular tissue in its composition. Monte Carlo (MC) simulations were performed using Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended v.2.7.0. A MC model was implemented to mimic DM and DBT acquisitions for a wide range of x-ray spectra (24 –34 kV). This was used to calculate mean glandular dose (MGD) and to compute series of backscatter factors (BSFs) that could be inserted into the DBT dosimetric formalism proposed by Dance et al. Regarding the second aim of the study, the implemented MC model of the clinical equipment, together with a female voxel phantom (“Laura”), was used to calculate organ doses considering a typical DBT acquisition. Results were compared with a standard two-view mammography craniocaudal (CC) acquisition. Results: Considering the AEC mode, the acquisition of a single CC view results in a MGD ranging from 0.53 ± 0.07 mGy to 2.41 ± 0.31 mGy in DM mode and from 0.77 ± 0.11 mGy to 2.28 ± 0.32 mGy in DBT mode

  2. Verification of Dose Distribution for Stereotactic Radiosurgery with a Linear Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kyung Ran; Kimm, Kye Jun; Chu, Sung Sil; Lee, Jong Young; Joh, Chul Woo; Lee, Chang Geol; Suh, Chang Ok; Kim, Gwi Eon [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-12-15

    The calculation of dose distribution in multiple arc stereotactic radiotherapy is a three-dimensional problem and, therefore, the three-dimensional dose calculation algorithm is important and the algorithm accuracy and reliability should be confirmed experimentally. The aim of this study is to verify the dose distribution of stereotactic radiosurgery experimentally and to investigate the effect of the beam quality, the number of arcs of radiation, and the tertiary collimation on the resulting dose distribution. Film dosimetry with phantom measurements was done to get the three-dimensional orthogonal isodose distribution. All experiments were carried out with a 6 MV X-ray, except for the study of the effects of beam energy on dose distribution, which was done for X-ray energies of 6 and 15 MV. The irradiation technique was from 4 to 11 arcs at intervals of from 15 to 45 degrees between each arc with various field sizes with additional circular collimator. The dose distributions of square field with linear accelerator collimator compared with the dose distributions obtained using circular field with tertiary collimator. The parameters used for comparing the results were the shape of the isodose curve, dose fall-offs from 90% to 50 % and from 90% to 20% isodose line for the steepest and shallowest profile, and A= (90% idsose area) /( 50% isodose area - 90% isodose area (modified from Chierego)). This ratio may be considered as being proportional to the sparing of normal tissue around the target volume. The effect of beam energy in 6 and 15 MV X-ray indicated that the shapes of isodose cuties were the same. The value of ratio A and the steepest and shallowest dose fall-offs for 6 MV X-ray was minimally better than that for 15 MV X-ray. These data illustrated that an increase in the dimensions of the field from 10 to 28 mm in diameter did not significantly change the isodose distribution. There was no significant difference in dose gradient and the shape of isodose

  3. Tissue classifications in Monte Carlo simulations of patient dose for photon beam tumor treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Mu-Han [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, 101 Sec. 2, Kung Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Chao, Tsi-Chian [Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hwa 1st Road, Kwei-Shan, Tao-Yuan 333, Taiwan (China); Lee, Chung-Chi [Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hwa 1st Road, Kwei-Shan, Tao-Yuan 333, Taiwan (China); Department of Radiation Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, 5 Fu-Hsin Street, Kwei-Shan, Tao-Yuan 333, Taiwan (China); Tung-Chieh Chang, Joseph [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, 5 Fu-Hsin Street, Kwei-Shan, Tao-Yuan 333, Taiwan (China); Tung, Chuan-Jong, E-mail: cjtung@mail.cgu.edu.t [Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hwa 1st Road, Kwei-Shan, Tao-Yuan 333, Taiwan (China)

    2010-07-21

    The purpose of this work was to study the calculated dose uncertainties induced by the material classification that determined the interaction cross-sections and the water-to-material stopping-power ratios. Calculations were made for a head- and neck-cancer patient treated with five intensity-modulated radiotherapy fields using 6 MV photon beams. The patient's CT images were reconstructed into two voxelized patient phantoms based on different CT-to-material classification schemes. Comparisons of the depth-dose curve of the anterior-to-posterior field and the dose-volume-histogram of the treatment plan were used to evaluate the dose uncertainties from such schemes. The results indicated that any misassignment of tissue materials could lead to a substantial dose difference, which would affect the treatment outcome. To assure an appropriate material assignment, it is desirable to have different conversion tables for various parts of the body. The assignment of stopping-power ratio should be based on the chemical composition and the density of the material.

  4. Tissue classifications in Monte Carlo simulations of patient dose for photon beam tumor treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Mu-Han; Chao, Tsi-Chian; Lee, Chung-Chi; Tung-Chieh Chang, Joseph; Tung, Chuan-Jong

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to study the calculated dose uncertainties induced by the material classification that determined the interaction cross-sections and the water-to-material stopping-power ratios. Calculations were made for a head- and neck-cancer patient treated with five intensity-modulated radiotherapy fields using 6 MV photon beams. The patient's CT images were reconstructed into two voxelized patient phantoms based on different CT-to-material classification schemes. Comparisons of the depth-dose curve of the anterior-to-posterior field and the dose-volume-histogram of the treatment plan were used to evaluate the dose uncertainties from such schemes. The results indicated that any misassignment of tissue materials could lead to a substantial dose difference, which would affect the treatment outcome. To assure an appropriate material assignment, it is desirable to have different conversion tables for various parts of the body. The assignment of stopping-power ratio should be based on the chemical composition and the density of the material.

  5. Application of the Monte Carlo method to estimate doses due to neutron activation of different materials in a nuclear reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ródenas, José

    2017-11-01

    All materials exposed to some neutron flux can be activated independently of the kind of the neutron source. In this study, a nuclear reactor has been considered as neutron source. In particular, the activation of control rods in a BWR is studied to obtain the doses produced around the storage pool for irradiated fuel of the plant when control rods are withdrawn from the reactor and installed into this pool. It is very important to calculate these doses because they can affect to plant workers in the area. The MCNP code based on the Monte Carlo method has been applied to simulate activation reactions produced in the control rods inserted into the reactor. Obtained activities are introduced as input into another MC model to estimate doses produced by them. The comparison of simulation results with experimental measurements allows the validation of developed models. The developed MC models have been also applied to simulate the activation of other materials, such as components of a stainless steel sample introduced into a training reactors. These models, once validated, can be applied to other situations and materials where a neutron flux can be found, not only nuclear reactors. For instance, activation analysis with an Am-Be source, neutrography techniques in both medical applications and non-destructive analysis of materials, civil engineering applications using a Troxler, analysis of materials in decommissioning of nuclear power plants, etc.

  6. Monte Carlo generated conversion factors for the estimation of average glandular dose in contact and magnification mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutalonis, M.; Delis, H.; Spyrou, G.; Costaridou, L.; Tzanakos, G.; Panayiotakis, G.

    2006-11-01

    Magnification mammography is a special technique used in the cases where breast complaints are noted by a woman or when an abnormality is found in a screening mammogram. The carcinogenic risk in mammography is related to the dose deposited in the glandular tissue of the breast rather than the adipose, and average glandular dose (AGD) is the quantity taken into consideration during a mammographic examination. Direct measurement of the AGD is not feasible during clinical practice and thus, the incident air KERMA on the breast surface is used to estimate the glandular dose, with the help of proper conversion factors. Additional conversion factors adapted for magnification and tube voltage are calculated, using Monte Carlo simulation. The effect of magnification degree, tube voltage, various anode/filter material combinations and glandularity on AGD is also studied, considering partial breast irradiation. Results demonstrate that the estimation of AGD utilizing conversion factors depends on these parameters, while the omission of correction factors for magnification and tube voltage can lead to significant underestimation or overestimation of AGD. AGD was found to increase with filter material's k-absorption edge, anode material's k-emission edge, tube voltage and magnification. Decrease of the glandularity of the breast leads to higher AGD due to the increased penetrating ability of the photon beam in thick breasts with low glandularity.

  7. Monte Carlo generated conversion factors for the estimation of average glandular dose in contact and magnification mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koutalonis, M [Department of Medical Physics, School of Medicine, University of Patras, 265 00 Patras (Greece); Delis, H [Department of Medical Physics, School of Medicine, University of Patras, 265 00 Patras (Greece); Spyrou, G [Department of Medical Physics, School of Medicine, University of Patras, 265 00 Patras (Greece); Costaridou, L [Department of Medical Physics, School of Medicine, University of Patras, 265 00 Patras (Greece); Tzanakos, G [Department of Physics, Div. Nucl. and Particle Physics, University of Athens, 157 71 Athens (Greece); Panayiotakis, G [Department of Medical Physics, School of Medicine, University of Patras, 265 00 Patras (Greece)

    2006-11-07

    Magnification mammography is a special technique used in the cases where breast complaints are noted by a woman or when an abnormality is found in a screening mammogram. The carcinogenic risk in mammography is related to the dose deposited in the glandular tissue of the breast rather than the adipose, and average glandular dose (AGD) is the quantity taken into consideration during a mammographic examination. Direct measurement of the AGD is not feasible during clinical practice and thus, the incident air KERMA on the breast surface is used to estimate the glandular dose, with the help of proper conversion factors. Additional conversion factors adapted for magnification and tube voltage are calculated, using Monte Carlo simulation. The effect of magnification degree, tube voltage, various anode/filter material combinations and glandularity on AGD is also studied, considering partial breast irradiation. Results demonstrate that the estimation of AGD utilizing conversion factors depends on these parameters, while the omission of correction factors for magnification and tube voltage can lead to significant underestimation or overestimation of AGD. AGD was found to increase with filter material's k-absorption edge, anode material's k-emission edge, tube voltage and magnification. Decrease of the glandularity of the breast leads to higher AGD due to the increased penetrating ability of the photon beam in thick breasts with low glandularity.

  8. Monte Carlo estimation of the dose and heating of cobalt adjuster rods irradiated in the CANDU 6 reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gugiu, D.; Dumitrache, I.

    2005-01-01

    The present work is a part of a more complex project related to the replacement of the original stainless steel adjuster rods with cobalt assemblies in the CANDU 6 reactor core. The 60 Co produced by 59 Co irradiation could be used extensively in medicine and industry. The paper will mainly describe some of the reactor physics and safety requirements that must be carried into practice for the Co adjuster rods. The computations related to the neutronic equivalence of the stainless steel adjusters with the Co adjuster assemblies, as well as the estimations of the activity and heating of the irradiated cobalt rods, are performed using the Monte Carlo codes MCNP5 and MONTEBURNS 2.1. The activity values are used to evaluate the dose at the surface of the device designed to transport the cobalt adjusters. (authors)

  9. An analysis of exposure dose on hands of radiation workers using a Monte Carlo simulation in nuclear medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Dong Gun [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Dongnam Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences Cancer Center, Pusan (Korea, Republic of); Kang, SeSik; Kim, Jung Hoon; KIm, Chang Soo [Dept. of Radiological Science, College of Health Sciences, Catholic University, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Workers in nuclear medicine have performed various tasks such as production, distribution, preparation and injection of radioisotope. This process could cause high radiation exposure to workers’ hand. The purpose of this study was to investigate shielding effect for r-rays of 140 and 511 keV by using Monte-Carlo simulation. As a result, it was effective, regardless of lead thickness for radiation shielding in 140 keV r-ray. However, it was effective in shielding material with thickness of more than only 1.1 mm in 511 keV r-ray. And also it doesn’t effective in less than 1.1 mm due to secondary scatter ray and exposure dose was rather increased. Consequently, energy of radionuclide and thickness of shielding materials should be considered to reduce radiation exposure.

  10. Comparison of doses calculated by the Monte Carlo method and measured by LiF TLD in the buildup region for a {sup 60}Co photon beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budanec, M. [Department of Oncology and Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital ' Sestre milosrdnice' , Vinogradska str. 29, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia)], E-mail: mbudanec@kbsm.hr; Knezevic, Z. [Ruder Boskovic Institute, Bijenicka str. 54, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Bokulic, T.; Mrcela, I. [Department of Oncology and Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital ' Sestre milosrdnice' , Vinogradska str. 29, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Vrtar, M. [Clinical Hospital Rebro, Kispaticeva str. 12, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Vekic, B. [Ruder Boskovic Institute, Bijenicka str. 54, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Kusic, Z. [Department of Oncology and Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital ' Sestre milosrdnice' , Vinogradska str. 29, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2008-12-15

    This work studied the percent depth doses of {sup 60}Co photon beams in the buildup region of a plastic phantom by LiF TLD measurements and by Monte Carlo calculations. An agreement within {+-}1.5% was found between PDDs measured by TLD and calculated by the Monte Carlo method with the TLD in a plastic phantom. The dose in the plastic phantom was scored in voxels, with thickness scaled by physical and electron density. PDDs calculated by electron density scaling showed a better match with PDD{sub TLD}{sup MC}; the difference is within {+-}1.5% in the buildup region for square and rectangular field sizes.

  11. Monte Carlo dosimetric characterization of the Flexisource Co-60 high-dose-rate brachytherapy source using PENELOPE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almansa, Julio F; Guerrero, Rafael; Torres, Javier; Lallena, Antonio M

    60 Co sources have been commercialized as an alternative to 192 Ir sources for high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy. One of them is the Flexisource Co-60 HDR source manufactured by Elekta. The only available dosimetric characterization of this source is that of Vijande et al. [J Contemp Brachytherapy 2012; 4:34-44], whose results were not included in the AAPM/ESTRO consensus document. In that work, the dosimetric quantities were calculated as averages of the results obtained with the Geant4 and PENELOPE Monte Carlo (MC) codes, though for other sources, significant differences have been quoted between the values obtained with these two codes. The aim of this work is to perform the dosimetric characterization of the Flexisource Co-60 HDR source using PENELOPE. The MC simulation code PENELOPE (v. 2014) has been used. Following the recommendations of the AAPM/ESTRO report, the radial dose function, the anisotropy function, the air-kerma strength, the dose rate constant, and the absorbed dose rate in water have been calculated. The results we have obtained exceed those of Vijande et al. In particular, the absorbed dose rate constant is ∼0.85% larger. A similar difference is also found in the other dosimetric quantities. The effect of the electrons emitted in the decay of 60 Co, usually neglected in this kind of simulations, is significant up to the distances of 0.25 cm from the source. The systematic and significant differences we have found between PENELOPE results and the average values found by Vijande et al. point out that the dosimetric characterizations carried out with the various MC codes should be provided independently. Copyright © 2017 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. MAGIK: a Monte Carlo system for computing induced residual activation dose rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barish, J.; Gabriel, T.A.; Alsmiller, R.G. Jr.

    1979-08-01

    The photon dose rate from the induced activity produced by sustained bombardment of materials by neutrons and charged particles may present a significant radiation hazard. To minimize this hazard, the material configuration must be so designed that the photon dose rate decays to an acceptable level soon after the source beam is turned off. MAGIK calculates the time-independent photon dose rates that result from activities produced by nucleon-nucleus and meson-nucleus collisions over a wide range of energies. The system has been used both for high-energy accelerator studies and for fusion reactor studies. In the MAGIK system the lengthy photon transport calculations are carried out independent of time, and the time dependence is introduced in the final program, thereby permitting study of various operating scenarios with a minimum computing cost

  13. Photon activation therapy: a Monte Carlo study on dose enhancement by various sources and activation media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakhshabadi, Mahdi; Ghorbani, Mahdi; Meigooni, Ali Soleimani

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, a number of brachytherapy sources and activation media were simulated using MCNPX code and the results were analyzed based on the dose enhancement factor values. Furthermore, two new brachytherapy sources ( 131 Cs and a hypothetical 170 Tm) were evaluated for their application in photon activation therapy (PAT). 125 I, 103 Pd, 131 Cs and hypothetical 170 Tm brachytherapy sources were simulated in water and their dose rate constant and the radial dose functions were compared with previously published data. The sources were then simulated in a soft tissue phantom which was composed of Ag, I, Pt or Au as activation media uniformly distributed in the tumour volume. These simulations were performed using the MCNPX code, and dose enhancement factor (DEF) was obtained for 7, 18 and 30 mg/ml concentrations of the activation media. Each source, activation medium and concentration was evaluated separately in a separate simulation. The calculated dose rate constant and radial dose functions were in agreement with the published data for the aforementioned sources. The maximum DEF was found to be 5.58 for a combination of the 170 Tm source with 30 mg/ml concentration of I. The DEFs for 131 Cs and 170 Tm sources for all the four activation media were higher than those for other sources and activation media. From this point of view, these two sources can be more useful in photon activation therapy with photon emitter sources. Furthermore, 131 Cs and 170 Tm brachytherapy sources can be proposed as new options for use in the field of PAT.

  14. 3D in vivo dose verification of entire hypo-fractionated IMRT treatments using an EPID and cone-beam CT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McDermott, Leah N.; Wendling, Markus; Nijkamp, Jasper; Mans, Anton; Sonke, Jan-Jakob; Mijnheer, Ben J.; van Herk, Marcel

    2008-01-01

    As radiotherapy becomes more complicated, dose and geometry verification become more necessary. The aim of this study was to use back-projected EPID-based 3D in vivo dosimetry and cone-beam CT (CBCT) to obtain a complete account of the entire treatment for a select patient group. Nine

  15. Monte Carlo derivation of filtered tungsten anode X-ray spectra for dose computation in digital mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paixao, L.; Oliveira, B. B.; Nogueira, M. do S. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear, Post-graduation in Science and Technology of Radiations, Minerals and Materials, Pte. Antonio Carlos 6.627, Pampulha, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte (Brazil); Viloria, C. [UFMG, Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear, Post-graduation in Nuclear Sciences and Techniques, Pte. Antonio Carlos 6.627, Pampulha, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte (Brazil); Alves de O, M. [UFMG, Department of Anatomy and Imaging, Prof. Alfredo Balena 190, 30130-100 Belo Horizonte (Brazil); Araujo T, M. H., E-mail: lpr@cdtn.br [Dr Maria Helena Araujo Teixeira Clinic, Guajajaras 40, 30180-100 Belo Horizonte (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    It is widely accepted that the mean glandular dose (D{sub G}) for the glandular tissue is the more useful magnitude for characterizing the breast cancer risk. The procedure to estimate the D{sub G}, for being difficult to measure it directly in the breast, it is to make the use of conversion factors that relate incident air kerma (K{sub i}) at this dose. Generally, the conversion factors vary with the x-ray spectrum half-value layer and the breast composition and thickness. Several authors through computer simulations have calculated such factors by the Monte Carlo (Mc) method. Many spectral models for D{sub G} computer simulations purposes are available in the diagnostic range. One of the models available generates unfiltered spectra. In this work, the Monte Carlo EGSnrc code package with the C++ class library (eg spp) was employed to derive filtered tungsten x-ray spectra used in digital mammography systems. Filtered spectra for rhodium and aluminium filters were obtained for tube potentials between 26 and 32 kV. The half-value layer of simulated filtered spectra were compared with those obtained experimentally with a solid state detector Unfors model 8202031-H Xi R/F and Mam Detector Platinum and 8201023-C Xi Base unit Platinum Plus w m As in a Hologic Selenia Dimensions system using a Direct Radiography mode. Calculated half-value layer values showed good agreement compared to those obtained experimentally. These results show that the filtered tungsten anode x-ray spectra and the EGSnrc Mc code can be used for D{sub G} determination in mammography. (Author)

  16. Monte Carlo dose calculations and radiobiological modelling: analysis of the effect of the statistical noise of the dose distribution on the probability of tumour control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buffa, Francesca M.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate the influence of the statistical fluctuations of Monte Carlo (MC) dose distributions on the dose volume histograms (DVHs) and radiobiological models, in particular the Poisson model for tumour control probability (tcp). The MC matrix is characterized by a mean dose in each scoring voxel, d, and a statistical error on the mean dose, σ d ; whilst the quantities d and σ d depend on many statistical and physical parameters, here we consider only their dependence on the phantom voxel size and the number of histories from the radiation source. Dose distributions from high-energy photon beams have been analysed. It has been found that the DVH broadens when increasing the statistical noise of the dose distribution, and the tcp calculation systematically underestimates the real tumour control value, defined here as the value of tumour control when the statistical error of the dose distribution tends to zero. When increasing the number of energy deposition events, either by increasing the voxel dimensions or increasing the number of histories from the source, the DVH broadening decreases and tcp converges to the 'correct' value. It is shown that the underestimation of the tcp due to the noise in the dose distribution depends on the degree of heterogeneity of the radiobiological parameters over the population; in particular this error decreases with increasing the biological heterogeneity, whereas it becomes significant in the hypothesis of a radiosensitivity assay for single patients, or for subgroups of patients. It has been found, for example, that when the voxel dimension is changed from a cube with sides of 0.5 cm to a cube with sides of 0.25 cm (with a fixed number of histories of 10 8 from the source), the systematic error in the tcp calculation is about 75% in the homogeneous hypothesis, and it decreases to a minimum value of about 15% in a case of high radiobiological heterogeneity. The possibility of using the error on the

  17. Monte Carlo based estimation of organ and effective doses to patients undergoing hysterosalpingography and retrograde urethrography fluoroscopy procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngaile, J. E.; Msaki, P. K.; Kazema, R. R.

    2018-04-01

    Contrast investigations of hysterosalpingography (HSG) and retrograde urethrography (RUG) fluoroscopy procedures remain the dominant diagnostic tools for the investigation of infertility in females and urethral strictures in males, respectively, owing to the scarcity and high cost of services of alternative diagnostic technologies. In light of the radiological risks associated with contrast based investigations of the genitourinary tract systems, there is a need to assess the magnitude of radiation burden imparted to patients undergoing HSG and RUG fluoroscopy procedures in Tanzania. The air kerma area product (KAP), fluoroscopy time, number of images, organ dose and effective dose to patients undergoing HSG and RUG procedures were obtained from four hospitals. The KAP was measured using a flat transmission ionization chamber, while the organ and effective doses were estimated using the knowledge of the patient characteristics, patient related exposure parameters, geometry of examination, KAP and Monte Carlo calculations (PCXMC). The median values of KAP for the HSG and RUG were 2.2 Gy cm2 and 3.3 Gy cm2, respectively. The median organ doses in the present study for the ovaries, urinary bladder and uterus for the HSG procedures, were 1.0 mGy, 4.0 mGy and 1.6 mGy, respectively, while for urinary bladder and testes of the RUG were 3.4 mGy and 5.9 mGy, respectively. The median values of effective doses for the HSG and RUG procedures were 0.65 mSv and 0.59 mSv, respectively. The median values of effective dose per hospital for the HSG and RUG procedures had a range of 1.6-2.8 mSv and 1.9-5.6 mSv, respectively, while the overall differences between individual effective doses across the four hospitals varied by factors of up to 22.0 and 46.7, respectively for the HSG and RUG procedures. The proposed diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) for the HSG and RUG were for KAP 2.8 Gy cm2 and 3.9 Gy cm2, for fluoroscopy time 0.8 min and 0.9 min, and for number of images 5 and 4

  18. Estimation of tumour dose enhancement due to gold nanoparticles during typical radiation treatments: a preliminary Monte Carlo study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, S H

    2005-01-01

    A recent mice study demonstrated that gold nanoparticles could be safely administered and used to enhance the tumour dose during radiation therapy. The use of gold nanoparticles seems more promising than earlier methods because of the high atomic number of gold and because nanoparticles can more easily penetrate the tumour vasculature. However, to date, possible dose enhancement due to the use of gold nanoparticles has not been well quantified, especially for common radiation treatment situations. Therefore, the current preliminary study estimated this dose enhancement by Monte Carlo calculations for several phantom test cases representing radiation treatments with the following modalities: 140 kVp x-rays, 4 and 6 MV photon beams, and 192 Ir gamma rays. The current study considered three levels of gold concentration within the tumour, two of which are based on the aforementioned mice study, and assumed either no gold or a single gold concentration level outside the tumour. The dose enhancement over the tumour volume considered for the 140 kVp x-ray case can be at least a factor of 2 at an achievable gold concentration of 7 mg Au/g tumour assuming no gold outside the tumour. The tumour dose enhancement for the cases involving the 4 and 6 MV photon beams based on the same assumption ranged from about 1% to 7%, depending on the amount of gold within the tumour and photon beam qualities. For the 192 Ir cases, the dose enhancement within the tumour region ranged from 5% to 31%, depending on radial distance and gold concentration level within the tumour. For the 7 mg Au/g tumour cases, the loading of gold into surrounding normal tissue at 2 mg Au/g resulted in an increase in the normal tissue dose, up to 30%, negligible, and about 2% for the 140 kVp x-rays, 6 MV photon beam, and 192 Ir gamma rays, respectively, while the magnitude of dose enhancement within the tumour was essentially unchanged. (note)

  19. Characterization of a fiber-coupled Al2O3:C luminescence dosimetry system for online in vivo dose verification during Ir-192 brachytherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Claus Erik; Nielsen, Søren Kynde; Greilich, Steffen

    2009-01-01

    A prototype of a new dose-verification system has been developed to facilitate prevention and identification of dose delivery errors in remotely afterloaded brachytherapy. The system allows for automatic online in vivo dosimetry directly in the tumor region using small passive detector probes...... that fit into applicators such as standard needles or catheters. The system measures the absorbed dose rate (0.1 s time resolution) and total absorbed dose on the basis of radioluminescence (RL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) from aluminum oxide crystals attached to optical fiber cables (1 mm...

  20. Radiation dose delivery verification in the treatment of carcinoma-cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrotriya, D.; Srivastava, R. N. L.; Kumar, S.

    2015-01-01

    The accurate dose delivery to the clinical target volume in radiotherapy can be affected by various pelvic tissues heterogeneities. An in-house heterogeneous woman pelvic phantom was designed and used to verify the consistency and computational capability of treatment planning system of radiation dose delivery in the treatment of cancer cervix. Oncentra 3D-TPS with collapsed cone convolution (CCC) dose calculation algorithm was used to generate AP/PA and box field technique plan. the radiation dose was delivered by Primus Linac (Siemens make) employing high energy 15 MV photon beam by isocenter technique. A PTW make, 0.125cc ionization chamber was used for direct measurements at various reference points in cervix, bladder and rectum. The study revealed that maximum variation between computed and measured dose at cervix reference point was 1% in both the techniques and 3% and 4% variation in AP/PA field and 5% and 4.5% in box technique at bladder and rectum points respectively

  1. Radiation dose delivery verification in the treatment of carcinoma-cervix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrotriya, D.; Kumar, S.; Srivastava, R. N. L.

    2015-06-01

    The accurate dose delivery to the clinical target volume in radiotherapy can be affected by various pelvic tissues heterogeneities. An in-house heterogeneous woman pelvic phantom was designed and used to verify the consistency and computational capability of treatment planning system of radiation dose delivery in the treatment of cancer cervix. Oncentra 3D-TPS with collapsed cone convolution (CCC) dose calculation algorithm was used to generate AP/PA and box field technique plan. the radiation dose was delivered by Primus Linac (Siemens make) employing high energy 15 MV photon beam by isocenter technique. A PTW make, 0.125cc ionization chamber was used for direct measurements at various reference points in cervix, bladder and rectum. The study revealed that maximum variation between computed and measured dose at cervix reference point was 1% in both the techniques and 3% and 4% variation in AP/PA field and 5% and 4.5% in box technique at bladder and rectum points respectively.

  2. Radiation dose delivery verification in the treatment of carcinoma-cervix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrotriya, D., E-mail: shrotriya2007@gmail.com; Srivastava, R. N. L. [Department of Radiotherapy, J.K. Cancer Institute Kanpur-208019 (India); Kumar, S. [Department of Physics, Christ Church College, Kanpur-208001 (India)

    2015-06-24

    The accurate dose delivery to the clinical target volume in radiotherapy can be affected by various pelvic tissues heterogeneities. An in-house heterogeneous woman pelvic phantom was designed and used to verify the consistency and computational capability of treatment planning system of radiation dose delivery in the treatment of cancer cervix. Oncentra 3D-TPS with collapsed cone convolution (CCC) dose calculation algorithm was used to generate AP/PA and box field technique plan. the radiation dose was delivered by Primus Linac (Siemens make) employing high energy 15 MV photon beam by isocenter technique. A PTW make, 0.125cc ionization chamber was used for direct measurements at various reference points in cervix, bladder and rectum. The study revealed that maximum variation between computed and measured dose at cervix reference point was 1% in both the techniques and 3% and 4% variation in AP/PA field and 5% and 4.5% in box technique at bladder and rectum points respectively.

  3. Real-Time Verification of a High-Dose-Rate Iridium 192 Source Position Using a Modified C-Arm Fluoroscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nose, Takayuki, E-mail: nose-takayuki@nms.ac.jp [Department of Radiation Oncology, Nippon Medical School Tamanagayama Hospital, Tama (Japan); Chatani, Masashi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka Rosai Hospital, Sakai (Japan); Otani, Yuki [Department of Radiology, Kaizuka City Hospital, Kaizuka (Japan); Teshima, Teruki [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases, Osaka (Japan); Kumita, Shinichirou [Department of Radiology, Nippon Medical School Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)

    2017-03-15

    Purpose: High-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy misdeliveries can occur at any institution, and they can cause disastrous results. Even a patient's death has been reported. Misdeliveries could be avoided with real-time verification methods. In 1996, we developed a modified C-arm fluoroscopic verification of an HDR Iridium 192 source position prevent these misdeliveries. This method provided excellent image quality sufficient to detect errors, and it has been in clinical use at our institutions for 20 years. The purpose of the current study is to introduce the mechanisms and validity of our straightforward C-arm fluoroscopic verification method. Methods and Materials: Conventional X-ray fluoroscopic images are degraded by spurious signals and quantum noise from Iridium 192 photons, which make source verification impractical. To improve image quality, we quadrupled the C-arm fluoroscopic X-ray dose per pulse. The pulse rate was reduced by a factor of 4 to keep the average exposure compliant with Japanese medical regulations. The images were then displayed with quarter-frame rates. Results: Sufficient quality was obtained to enable observation of the source position relative to both the applicators and the anatomy. With this method, 2 errors were detected among 2031 treatment sessions for 370 patients within a 6-year period. Conclusions: With the use of a modified C-arm fluoroscopic verification method, treatment errors that were otherwise overlooked were detected in real time. This method should be given consideration for widespread use.

  4. An estimation of the percentage of dose in intraoral radiology exams using Monte Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonzoumet, S.P.J.; Braz, D.; Lopes, R.T.; Anjos, M.J.; Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro; Padilha, Lucas

    2005-01-01

    In this work we used the EGS4 code in a simulated study of dose percentage in intraoral examination to 10 energy range to 140 keV. The simulation was carried out on a model consisting of different geometry (cheek, tooth and mouth cavity) under normal incidence X-ray beam over the surface of the various simulated materials. It was observed that for energy smaller than 30 keV most of the energy is deposited on the cheek. In 30 keV there is a point of maximum radiation absorption in the tooth (approximately 60% of the energy of the incident radiation is deposited on the tooth) in relation to other simulated materials. It means that in this energy there is a better contrast in the radiographic image of the tooth and a smaller dose on the cheek. In 40 keV the deposited energy in the tooth is roughly equal to the energy that is transmitted (to the radiographic film or buccal cavity) causing a degradation in the radiographic image and/or a higher dose in the oral cavity. For energies above 40 keV, the amount of energy transmitted (to the oral cavity and/or radiographic film) is higher than the energy deposited in other materials, i.e, it only contributes to increasing of dose in the regions close to the oral cavity and the radiographic image degradation. These results can provide important information for radiological procedures applied in dentistry where the image quality is a relevant factor to a dental evaluation needs as well as reducing dose in the oral cavity.

  5. Verification of the calculation program for brachytherapy planning system of high dose rate (PLATO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almansa, J.; Alaman, C.; Perez-Alija, J.; Herrero, C.; Real, R. del; Ososrio, J. L.

    2011-01-01

    In our treatments are performed brachytherapy high dose rate since 2007. The procedures performed include gynecological intracavitary treatment and interstitial. The treatments are performed with a source of Ir-192 activity between 5 and 10 Ci such that small variations in treatment times can cause damage to the patient. In addition the Royal Decree 1566/1998 on Quality Criteria in radiotherapy establishes the need to verify the monitor units or treatment time in radiotherapy and brachytherapy. All this justifies the existence of a redundant system for brachytherapy dose calculation that can reveal any abnormality is present.

  6. Studying the potential of point detectors in time-resolved dose verification of dynamic radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beierholm, Anders Ravnsborg; Behrens, C. F.; Andersen, Claus E.

    2015-01-01

    based on fiber-coupled plastic scintillator detectors was evaluated and compared with a Farmer-type ionization chamber and a small-volume ionization chamber. An important feature of scintillator detectors is that the sensitive volume of the detector can easily be scaled, and five scintillator detectors......-volume ionization chamber and the smallest scintillators. The time-resolved RapidArc dose profiles revealed volume-dependent discrepancies between scintillator and ionization chamber response, which confirmed that correction factors for ionization chambers in high temporal and spatial dose gradients are dominated...

  7. SU-F-I-53: Coded Aperture Coherent Scatter Spectral Imaging of the Breast: A Monte Carlo Evaluation of Absorbed Dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, R [Durham, NC (United States); Lakshmanan, M; Fong, G; Kapadia, A [Carl E Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Durham, NC (United States); Greenberg, J [Duke University, Durham, NC (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Coherent scatter based imaging has shown improved contrast and molecular specificity over conventional digital mammography however the biological risks have not been quantified due to a lack of accurate information on absorbed dose. This study intends to characterize the dose distribution and average glandular dose from coded aperture coherent scatter spectral imaging of the breast. The dose deposited in the breast from this new diagnostic imaging modality has not yet been quantitatively evaluated. Here, various digitized anthropomorphic phantoms are tested in a Monte Carlo simulation to evaluate the absorbed dose distribution and average glandular dose using clinically feasible scan protocols. Methods: Geant4 Monte Carlo radiation transport simulation software is used to replicate the coded aperture coherent scatter spectral imaging system. Energy sensitive, photon counting detectors are used to characterize the x-ray beam spectra for various imaging protocols. This input spectra is cross-validated with the results from XSPECT, a commercially available application that yields x-ray tube specific spectra for the operating parameters employed. XSPECT is also used to determine the appropriate number of photons emitted per mAs of tube current at a given kVp tube potential. With the implementation of the XCAT digital anthropomorphic breast phantom library, a variety of breast sizes with differing anatomical structure are evaluated. Simulations were performed with and without compression of the breast for dose comparison. Results: Through the Monte Carlo evaluation of a diverse population of breast types imaged under real-world scan conditions, a clinically relevant average glandular dose for this new imaging modality is extrapolated. Conclusion: With access to the physical coherent scatter imaging system used in the simulation, the results of this Monte Carlo study may be used to directly influence the future development of the modality to keep breast dose to

  8. Effect of inhomogeneities and source position on dose distribution of nucletron high dose rate Ir-192 brachytherapy source by Monte Carlo simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandola R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The presence of least dense dry air and highly dense cortical bone in the path of radiation and the position of source, near or far from the surface of patient, affects the exact dose delivery like in breast brachytherapy. Aim: This study aims to find out the dose difference in the presence of inhomogenieties like cortical bone and dry air as well as to find out difference of dose due to position of source in water phantom of high dose rate (HDR 192 Ir nucletron microselectron v2 (mHDRv2 brachytherapy source using Monte Carlo (MC simulation EGSnrc code, so that the results could be used in Treatment Planning System (TPS for more precise brachytherapy treatment. Settings and Design: The settings and design are done using different software of the computer. Methods and Materials: For this study, the said source, water phantom of volume 30 x 30 x 30 cm 3 , inhomogeneities each of volume 1 x 2 x 2 cm 3 with their position, water of water phantom and position of source are modeled using three-dimensional MC EGSnrc code. Statistical Analysis Used: Mean and probability are used for results and discussion. Results : The % relative dose difference is calculated here as 5.5 to 6.5% higher and 4.5 to 5% lower in the presence of air and cortical bone respectively at transverse axis of the source, which may be due to difference of linear attenuation coefficients of the inhomogeneities. However, when the source was positioned at 1 cm distance from the surface of water phantom, the near points between 1 to 2 cm and 3 to 8 cm. from the source, at its transverse axis, were 2 to 3.5% and 4 to 16% underdose to the dose when the source was positioned at mid-point of water phantom. This may be due to lack of back scatter material when the source was positioned very near to the surface of said water phantom and overlap of the additional cause of missing scatter component with the primary dose for near points from the source. These results were found in

  9. An evaluation of calculation parameters in the EGSnrc/BEAMnrc Monte Carlo codes and their effect on surface dose calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jung-Ha; Hill, Robin; Kuncic, Zdenka

    2012-01-01

    The Monte Carlo (MC) method has proven invaluable for radiation transport simulations to accurately determine radiation doses and is widely considered a reliable computational measure that can substitute a physical experiment where direct measurements are not possible or feasible. In the EGSnrc/BEAMnrc MC codes, there are several user-specified parameters and customized transport algorithms, which may affect the calculation results. In order to fully utilize the MC methods available in these codes, it is essential to understand all these options and to use them appropriately. In this study, the effects of the electron transport algorithms in EGSnrc/BEAMnrc, which are often a trade-off between calculation accuracy and efficiency, were investigated in the buildup region of a homogeneous water phantom and also in a heterogeneous phantom using the DOSRZnrc user code. The algorithms and parameters investigated include: boundary crossing algorithm (BCA), skin depth, electron step algorithm (ESA), global electron cutoff energy (ECUT) and electron production cutoff energy (AE). The variations in calculated buildup doses were found to be larger than 10% for different user-specified transport parameters. We found that using BCA = EXACT gave the best results in terms of accuracy and efficiency in calculating buildup doses using DOSRZnrc. In addition, using the ESA = PRESTA-I option was found to be the best way of reducing the total calculation time without losing accuracy in the results at high energies (few keV ∼ MeV). We also found that although choosing a higher ECUT/AE value in the beam modelling can dramatically improve computation efficiency, there is a significant trade-off in surface dose uncertainty. Our study demonstrates that a careful choice of user-specified transport parameters is required when conducting similar MC calculations. (note)

  10. Monte Carlo calculations of the depth-dose distribution in skin contaminated by hot particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patau, J.-P. (Toulouse-3 Univ., 31 (France))

    1991-01-01

    Accurate computer programs were developed in order to calculate the spatial distribution of absorbed radiation doses in the skin, near high activity particles (''hot particles''). With a view to ascertaining the reliability of the codes the transport of beta particles was simulated in a complex configuration used for dosimetric measurements: spherical {sup 60}Co sources of 10-1000 {mu}m fastened to an aluminium support with a tissue-equivalent adhesive overlaid with 10 {mu}m thick aluminium foil. Behind it an infinite polystyrene medium including an extrapolation chamber was assumed. The exact energy spectrum of beta emission was sampled. Production and transport of secondary knock-on electrons were also simulated. Energy depositions in polystyrene were calculated with a high spatial resolution. Finally, depth-dose distributions were calculated for hot particles placed on the skin. The calculations will be continued for other radionuclides and for a configuration suited to TLD measurements. (author).

  11. SU-E-T-416: Experimental Evaluation of a Commercial GPU-Based Monte Carlo Dose Calculation Algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paudel, M R; Beachey, D J; Sarfehnia, A; Sahgal, A; Keller, B [Sunnybrook Odette Cancer Center, Toronto, ON (Canada); University of Toronto, Department of Radiation Oncology, Toronto, ON (Canada); Kim, A; Ahmad, S [Sunnybrook Odette Cancer Center, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: A new commercial GPU-based Monte Carlo dose calculation algorithm (GPUMCD) developed by the vendor Elekta™ to be used in the Monaco Treatment Planning System (TPS) is capable of modeling dose for both a standard linear accelerator and for an Elekta MRI-Linear accelerator (modeling magnetic field effects). We are evaluating this algorithm in two parts: commissioning the algorithm for an Elekta Agility linear accelerator (the focus of this work) and evaluating the algorithm’s ability to model magnetic field effects for an MRI-linear accelerator. Methods: A beam model was developed in the Monaco TPS (v.5.09.06) using the commissioned beam data for a 6MV Agility linac. A heterogeneous phantom representing tumor-in-lung, lung, bone-in-tissue, and prosthetic was designed/built. Dose calculations in Monaco were done using the current clinical algorithm (XVMC) and the new GPUMCD algorithm (1 mm3 voxel size, 0.5% statistical uncertainty) and in the Pinnacle TPS using the collapsed cone convolution (CCC) algorithm. These were compared with the measured doses using an ionization chamber (A1SL) and Gafchromic EBT3 films for 2×2 cm{sup 2}, 5×5 cm{sup 2}, and 10×10 cm{sup 2} field sizes. Results: The calculated central axis percentage depth doses (PDDs) in homogeneous solid water were within 2% compared to measurements for XVMC and GPUMCD. For tumor-in-lung and lung phantoms, doses calculated by all of the algorithms were within the experimental uncertainty of the measurements (±2% in the homogeneous phantom and ±3% for the tumor-in-lung or lung phantoms), except for 2×2 cm{sup 2} field size where only the CCC algorithm differs from film by 5% in the lung region. The analysis for bone-in-tissue and the prosthetic phantoms are ongoing. Conclusion: The new GPUMCD algorithm calculated dose comparable to both the XVMC algorithm and to measurements in both a homogeneous solid water medium and the heterogeneous phantom representing lung or tumor-in-lung for 2×2 cm

  12. Verification by the FISH translocation assay of historic doses to Mayak workers from external gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sotnik, Natalia V.; Azizova, Tamara V. [Southern Urals Biophysics Institute (SUBI), Ozyorsk, Chelyabinsk Region (Russian Federation); Darroudi, Firouz [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Toxicogenetics, Leiden (Netherlands); College of North Atlantic, Department of Health Science, Centre for Human Safety and Environmental Research, Doha (Qatar); Ainsbury, Elizabeth A.; Moquet, Jayne E.; Lloyd, David C.; Hone, Pat A.; Edwards, Alan A. [Public Health England, Chilton, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Fomina, Janna [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Toxicogenetics, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2015-11-15

    The aim of this study was to apply the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) translocation assay in combination with chromosome painting of peripheral blood lymphocytes for retrospective biological dosimetry of Mayak nuclear power plant workers exposed chronically to external gamma radiation. These data were compared with physical dose estimates based on monitoring with badge dosimeters throughout each person's working life. Chromosome translocation yields for 94 workers of the Mayak production association were measured in three laboratories: Southern Urals Biophysics Institute, Leiden University Medical Center and the former Health Protection Agency of the UK (hereinafter Public Health England). The results of the study demonstrated that the FISH-based translocation assay in workers with prolonged (chronic) occupational gamma-ray exposure was a reliable biological dosimeter even many years after radiation exposure. Cytogenetic estimates of red bone marrow doses from external gamma rays were reasonably consistent with dose measurements based on film badge readings successfully validated in dosimetry system ''Doses-2005'' by FISH, within the bounds of the associated uncertainties. (orig.)

  13. Development of modern approach to absorbed dose assessment in radionuclide therapy, based on Monte Carlo method simulation of patient scintigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysak, Y. V.; Klimanov, V. A.; Narkevich, B. Ya

    2017-01-01

    One of the most difficult problems of modern radionuclide therapy (RNT) is control of the absorbed dose in pathological volume. This research presents new approach based on estimation of radiopharmaceutical (RP) accumulated activity value in tumor volume, based on planar scintigraphic images of the patient and calculated radiation transport using Monte Carlo method, including absorption and scattering in biological tissues of the patient, and elements of gamma camera itself. In our research, to obtain the data, we performed modeling scintigraphy of the vial with administered to the patient activity of RP in gamma camera, the vial was placed at the certain distance from the collimator, and the similar study was performed in identical geometry, with the same values of activity of radiopharmaceuticals in the pathological target in the body of the patient. For correct calculation results, adapted Fisher-Snyder human phantom was simulated in MCNP program. In the context of our technique, calculations were performed for different sizes of pathological targets and various tumors deeps inside patient’s body, using radiopharmaceuticals based on a mixed β-γ-radiating (131I, 177Lu), and clear β- emitting (89Sr, 90Y) therapeutic radionuclides. Presented method can be used for adequate implementing in clinical practice estimation of absorbed doses in the regions of interest on the basis of planar scintigraphy of the patient with sufficient accuracy.

  14. Calculation of effective dose for nuclear medicine applications using an image-base body model and the Monte Carlo Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yorulmaz, N.; Bozkurt, A.

    2009-01-01

    In nuclear medicine applications, the aim is to obtain diagnostic information about the organs and tissues of the patient with the help of some radiopharmaceuticals administered to him/her. Because some organs of the patient other than those under investigation will also be exposed to the radiation, it is important for radiation risk assessment to know how much radiation is received by the vital or radio-sensitive organs or tissues. In this study, an image-based body model created from the realistic images of a human is used together with the Monte Carlo code MCNP to compute the radiation doses absorbed by organs and tissues for some nuclear medicine procedures at gamma energies of 0.01, 0.015, 0.02, 0.03, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5 and 1 MeV. Later, these values are used in conjunction with radiation weighting factors and organ weighting factors to estimate the effective dose for each diagnostic application.

  15. Experimental verification of the air kerma to absorbed dose conversion factor Cw,u.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijnheer, B J; Wittkämper, F W; Aalbers, A H; van Dijk, E

    1987-01-01

    In a recently published code of practice for the dosimetry of high-energy photon beams, the absorbed dose to water is determined using an ionization chamber having an air kerma calibration factor and applying the air kerma to absorbed dose conversion factor Cw,u. The consistency of these Cw,u values has been determined for four commonly employed types of ionization chambers in photon beams with quality varying between 60Co gamma-rays and 25 MV X-rays. Using a graphite calorimeter, Cw,u has been determined for a graphite-walled ionization chamber (NE 2561) for the same qualities. The values of Cw,u determined with the calorimeter are within the experimental uncertainty equal to Cw,u values determined according to any of the recent dosimetry protocols.

  16. Monte Carlo Dose Calculation of 90 Sr/ 90 Y Source in Water Phantom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Asghar Mowlavi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:  90 Sr/ 90 Y source  has  been  used  for  the  intravascular  brachytherapy  to  prevent  coronary  restenosis in the patients who have undergone angioplasty. The aim of this research is to determine the  dose distribution of  90 Sr/ 90 Y source in a water phantom.  Materials  and  Methods:  In  the  present  work,  MCNP  code  has  been  applied  to  calculate  the  dose  distribution around a 3 cm length of  90 Sr/ 90 Y source in a 30×30×30 cm 3 water phantom. Also, the exact  geometry  of  the  source  has  been  used  in  this  simulation.  Tally  *F8:e  which  is  suitable  for  beta  ray  dosimetry has been evaluated with less than %5 relative error in a sphere having 0.2 mm radius.  Results:  The  isodose  curve  for  10,  20,  40,  and  90%  depth  dose  (PDD  were  derived  based  on  the  calculated dose curves along the parallel and perpendicular axis to the source.  Discussion  and  Conclusion:  The  results  obtained  in  this  work  are  in  a  good  agreement  with  the  experimental  result  published  by  Buckley  et  al.  and  the  International  Atomic  Energy  Agency  (IAEA  report  in  a  water  phantom.    Therefore,  the  result  of  this  research  can  be  used  in  the  intravascular  brachytherapy.

  17. Estimation of the dose deposited by electron beams in radiotherapy in voxelised phantoms using the Monte Carlo simulation platform GATE based on GEANT4 in a grid environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrot, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Radiation therapy treatment planning requires accurate determination of absorbed dose in the patient. Monte Carlo simulation is the most accurate method for solving the transport problem of particles in matter. This thesis is the first study dealing with the validation of the Monte Carlo simulation platform GATE (GEANT4 Application for Tomographic Emission), based on GEANT4 (Geometry And Tracking) libraries, for the computation of absorbed dose deposited by electron beams. This thesis aims at demonstrating that GATE/GEANT4 calculations are able to reach treatment planning requirements in situations where analytical algorithms are not satisfactory. The goal is to prove that GATE/GEANT4 is useful for treatment planning using electrons and competes with well validated Monte Carlo codes. This is demonstrated by the simulations with GATE/GEANT4 of realistic electron beams and electron sources used for external radiation therapy or targeted radiation therapy. The computed absorbed dose distributions are in agreement with experimental measurements and/or calculations from other Monte Carlo codes. Furthermore, guidelines are proposed to fix the physics parameters of the GATE/GEANT4 simulations in order to ensure the accuracy of absorbed dose calculations according to radiation therapy requirements. (author)

  18. Comparison of absorbed dose in the cervix carcinoma therapy by brachytherapy of high dose rate using the conventional planning and Monte Carlo simulation; Comparacao da dose absorvida no tratamento do cancer ginecologico por braquiterapia de alta taxa de dose utilizando o planejamento convencional do tratamento e simulacao de Monte Carlo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Aneli Oliveira da

    2010-07-01

    This study aims to compare the doses received for patients submitted to brachytherapy High Dose Rate (HDR) brachytherapy, a method of treatment of the cervix carcinoma, performed in the planning system PLATO BPS with the doses obtained by Monte Carlo simulation using the radiation transport code MCNP 5 and one female anthropomorphic phantom based on voxel, the FAX. The implementation of HDR brachytherapy treatment for the cervix carcinoma consists of the insertion of an intrauterine probe and an intravaginal probe (ring or ovoid) and then two radiographs are obtained, anteroposterior (AP) and lateral (LAT) to confirm the position of the applicators in the patient and to allow the treatment planning and the determination of the absorbed dose at points of interest: rectum, bladder, sigmoid and point A, which corresponds anatomically to the crossings of the uterine arteries with ureters The absorbed doses obtained with the code MCNP 5, with the exception of the absorbed dose in the rectum and sigmoid for the simulation considering a point source of {sup 192}Ir, are lower than the absorbed doses from PLATO BPS calculations because the MCNP 5 considers the chemical compositions and densities of FAX body, not considering the medium as water. When considering the Monte Carlo simulation for a source with dimensions equal to that used in the brachytherapy irradiator used in this study, the values of calculated absorbed dose to the bladder, to the rectum, to the right point A and to the left point A were respectively lower than those determined by the treatment planning system in 33.29, 5.01, 22.93 and 19.04%. These values are almost all larger than the maximum acceptable deviation between patient planned and administered doses (5 %). With regard to the rectum and bladder, which are organs that must be protected, the present results are in favor of the radiological protection of patients. The point A, that is on the isodose of 100%, used to tumor treatment, the results

  19. WE-AB-BRB-04: Cherenkov Imaging for Radiation Therapy Dose Verification On Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogue, B.

    2016-01-01

    Despite widespread IMRT treatments at modern radiation therapy clinics, precise dosimetric commissioning of an IMRT system remains a challenge. In the most recent report from the Radiological Physics Center (RPC), nearly 20% of institutions failed an end-to-end test with an anthropomorphic head and neck phantom, a test that has rather lenient dose difference and distance-to-agreement criteria of 7% and 4 mm. The RPC report provides strong evidence that IMRT implementation is prone to error and that improved quality assurance tools are required. At the heart of radiation therapy dosimetry is the multidimensional dosimeter. However, due to the limited availability of water-equivalent dosimetry materials, research and development in this important field is challenging. In this session, we will review a few dosimeter developments that are either in the laboratory phase or in the pre-commercialization phase. 1) Radiochromic plastic. Novel formulations exhibit light absorbing optical contrast with very little scatter, enabling faster, broad beam optical CT design. 2) Storage phosphor. After irradiation, the dosimetry panels will be read out using a dedicated 2D scanning apparatus in a non-invasive, electro-optic manner and immediately restored for further use. 3) Liquid scintillator. Scintillators convert the energy from x-rays and proton beams into visible light, which can be recorded with a scientific camera (CCD or CMOS) from multiple angles. The 3D shape of the dose distribution can then be reconstructed. 4) Cherenkov emission imaging. Gated intensified imaging allows video-rate passive detection of Cherenkov emission during radiation therapy with the room lights on. Learning Objectives: To understand the physics of a variety of dosimetry techniques based upon optical imaging To investigate the strategies to overcome respective challenges and limitations To explore novel ideas of dosimeter design Supported in part by NIH Grants R01CA148853, R01CA182450, R01CA109558

  20. Monte Carlo simulation to study the doses in an accelerator BNCT treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burlon, Alejandro A.; Valda, Alejandro A.; Somacal, Hector R.; Kreiner, Andres J.; Minsky, Daniel M.

    2003-01-01

    In this work the 7 Li(p, n) 7 Be reaction has been studied as a neutron source for accelerator-based BNCT (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy). In order to optimize the design of the neutron production target and the beam shaping assembly, extensive MCNP simulations have been performed. These simulations include a thick Li metal target, a whole-body phantom, a moderator-reflector assembly (Al/AlF 3 as moderator and graphite as reflector) and the treatment room. The doses were evaluated for two proton bombarding energies of 1.92 MeV (near to the threshold of the reaction) and 2.3 MeV (near to the resonance of the reaction) and for three Al/ALF 3 moderator thicknesses (18, 26 and 34 cm). To assess the doses, a comparison using a Tumor Control Probability (TCP) model was done. In a second instance, the effect of the specific skin radiosensitivity (an RBE of 2.5 for the 10 B(n,α) 7 Li reaction) and a 10 B uptake of 17 ppm was considered for the scalp. Finally, the simulations show the advantage of irradiating with near-resonance-energy protons (2.3 MeV) because of the high neutron yield at this energy, leading to the lowest treatment times. Moreover, the 26 cm Al/AlF 3 moderator has shown the best performance among the studied cases. (author)

  1. Implementation and verification of nuclear interactions in a Monte-Carlo code for the Procom-ProGam proton therapy planning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostyuchenko, V.I.; Makarova, A.S.; Ryazantsev, O.B.; Samarin, S.I.; Uglov, A.S.

    2013-01-01

    Proton interaction with an exposed object material needs to be modeled with account for three basic processes: electromagnetic stopping of protons in matter, multiple coulomb scattering and nuclear interactions. Just the last type of processes is the topic of this paper. Monte Carlo codes are often used to simulate high-energy particle interaction with matter. However, nuclear interaction models implemented in these codes are rather extensive and their use in treatment planning systems requires huge computational resources. We have selected the IThMC code for its ability to reproduce experiments which measure the distribution of the projected ranges of nuclear secondary particles generated by proton beams in a multi-layer Faraday cup. The multi-layer Faraday cup detectors measure charge rather than dose and allow distinguishing between electromagnetic and nuclear interactions. The event generator used in the IThMC code is faster, but less accurate than any other used in testing. Our model of nuclear reactions demonstrates quite good agreement with experiment in the context of their effect on the Bragg peak in therapeutic applications

  2. Use of Monte Carlo Methods in the modeling of the dose/INAK distribution of natural radioactive sources: First studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezerra, Luis R.A.; Vieira, Jose W.; Amaral, Romilton dos S.; Santos Junior, Jose A. dos; Silva, Arykerne N.C. da; Silva, Alberto A. da; Damascena, Kennedy F.; Santos Junior, Otavio P.; Medeiros, Nilson V.S.; Santos, Josineide M.N. dos

    2017-01-01

    One of the means of exposure that the world population is subjected to daily is natural radiation, which covers exposure to sources of cosmic origin and terrestrial origin, which accounts for about 84.1% of all exposure due to natural radiation. Some research groups have been estimating the distribution of the dose by the radiosensitive organs and tissues of people submitted to gamma radiation using Computational Exposure Models (MCE). The MCE is composed, fundamentally, of an anthropomorphic simulator (phantom), a Monte Carlo code and a radioactive source algorithm. The Group of Computational Dosimetry and Embedded Systems (DCSE), together with the group of Radioecology (RAE), have been developing a variety of MCEs to simulate exposure to natural environmental gamma radiation. Such models estimate the dose distribution absorbed by the organs and tissues radiosensitive to ionizing radiation from a flat portion of the ground in which photons emerge from within a circle of radius r, reaching a person in an orthostatic position and centered on the circumference. We investigated in this work the exposure of an individual by a radioactive cloud of gamma emission of Potassium-40, which emits a photon characteristic of energy 1461 keV. It was optimized the number of histories to obtain Dose/Kerma values in the air, with low dispersion and viable computational time for the available PCs, statistically validating the results. To do so, was adapted the MCE MSTA, composed by the MASH (Male Adult meSH) phantom in an orthostatic position coupled to the EGSnrc, with the planar source algorithm. (author)

  3. Use of Monte Carlo Methods in the modeling of the dose/INAK distribution of natural radioactive sources: First studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezerra, Luis R.A.; Vieira, Jose W.; Amaral, Romilton dos S.; Santos Junior, Jose A. dos; Silva, Arykerne N.C. da; Silva, Alberto A. da; Damascena, Kennedy F.; Santos Junior, Otavio P.; Medeiros, Nilson V.S.; Santos, Josineide M.N. dos, E-mail: jaraujo@ufpe.br, E-mail: romilton@ufpe.br, E-mail: kennedy.eng.ambiental@gmail.com, E-mail: nvsmedeiros@gmail.com, E-mail: josineide.santos@ufpe.br, E-mail: arykerne.silva@ufpe.br, E-mail: luis.rodrigo@vitoria.ifpe.edu.br, E-mail: otavio.santos@vitoria.ifpe.edu.br, E-mail: s, E-mail: jose.wilson@recife.ifpe.edu.br, E-mail: alberto.silva@barreiros.ifpe.edu.br, E-mail: jose.wilson59@uol.com.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Energia Nuclear; Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Pernambuco (IFPE), PE (Brazil); Universidade de Pernambuco (UPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    One of the means of exposure that the world population is subjected to daily is natural radiation, which covers exposure to sources of cosmic origin and terrestrial origin, which accounts for about 84.1% of all exposure due to natural radiation. Some research groups have been estimating the distribution of the dose by the radiosensitive organs and tissues of people submitted to gamma radiation using Computational Exposure Models (MCE). The MCE is composed, fundamentally, of an anthropomorphic simulator (phantom), a Monte Carlo code and a radioactive source algorithm. The Group of Computational Dosimetry and Embedded Systems (DCSE), together with the group of Radioecology (RAE), have been developing a variety of MCEs to simulate exposure to natural environmental gamma radiation. Such models estimate the dose distribution absorbed by the organs and tissues radiosensitive to ionizing radiation from a flat portion of the ground in which photons emerge from within a circle of radius r, reaching a person in an orthostatic position and centered on the circumference. We investigated in this work the exposure of an individual by a radioactive cloud of gamma emission of Potassium-40, which emits a photon characteristic of energy 1461 keV. It was optimized the number of histories to obtain Dose/Kerma values in the air, with low dispersion and viable computational time for the available PCs, statistically validating the results. To do so, was adapted the MCE MSTA, composed by the MASH (Male Adult meSH) phantom in an orthostatic position coupled to the EGSnrc, with the planar source algorithm. (author)

  4. A voxel-dose algorithm of heterogeneous activity distribution for Monte-Carlo simulation of radionuclide therapy dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hui; Jing, Jia; Cai, Jinfeng; Xu, Liangfeng

    2012-08-01

    The organ or tumor activity is not uniform due to inhomogeneous expression/distributions of receptors/antigens and the nonuniform vascularization of the tumor tissue. However, most patient-specific three-dimensional Monte-Carlo methods for radionuclide dosimetry have dealt with quasi-homogeneous activity distributions. A voxel-by-voxel activity sample algorithm (VM) without artifacts is presented to calculate the dose of the heterogeneous activity distribution for radionuclide dosimetry. The source particle location is sampled according to the activity spatial distribution. The source particle weight is imparted by the relative activity concentration of its origination voxel. This algorithm is applied to calculate the dose volume histogram for multiple independent activity regions with Gauss diffusion activity distributions and then compared with the level partition method (LM). The minimal response and the mean tolerant initial total activity threshold required by tumor control probability and normal tissue complication probability for radioimmunotherapy ((131)I-RIT) also were evaluated by the voxel-by-voxel sample algorithm and the LM. The effective clearance half-time is assumed to be equal to its physical half-life (i.e., 8.02 days for (131)I). The result shows that the new algorithm is more consistent with the weighted superposition of the quasi-homogeneous activity distribution than the LM, especially for the multiple independent activity regions composed of different amounts of voxels. The new algorithm effectively avoids the leveling/binning artifacts to the heterogeneous activity distribution. The (131)I-RIT simulation also showed that the minimal response initial total activity threshold of tumors will be much more than the mean tolerant initial total activity threshold of normal organs (e.g., kidney) with the activity heterogeneous grade deteriorating. A VM is presented to simulate the dose of the heterogeneous activity distribution for radionuclide

  5. Dosimetric evaluation of a commercial proton spot scanning Monte-Carlo dose algorithm: comparisons against measurements and simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Jatinder; Maes, Dominic; Egan, Alexander; Bowen, Stephen R.; St. James, Sara; Janson, Martin; Wong, Tony; Bloch, Charles

    2017-10-01

    RaySearch Americas Inc. (NY) has introduced a commercial Monte Carlo dose algorithm (RS-MC) for routine clinical use in proton spot scanning. In this report, we provide a validation of this algorithm against phantom measurements and simulations in the GATE software package. We also compared the performance of the RayStation analytical algorithm (RS-PBA) against the RS-MC algorithm. A beam model (G-MC) for a spot scanning gantry at our proton center was implemented in the GATE software package. The model was validated against measurements in a water phantom and was used for benchmarking the RS-MC. Validation of the RS-MC was performed in a water phantom by measuring depth doses and profiles for three spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP) beams with normal incidence, an SOBP with oblique incidence, and an SOBP with a range shifter and large air gap. The RS-MC was also validated against measurements and simulations in heterogeneous phantoms created by placing lung or bone slabs in a water phantom. Lateral dose profiles near the distal end of the beam were measured with a microDiamond detector and compared to the G-MC simulations, RS-MC and RS-PBA. Finally, the RS-MC and RS-PBA were validated against measured dose distributions in an Alderson-Rando (AR) phantom. Measurements were made using Gafchromic film in the AR phantom and compared to doses using the RS-PBA and RS-MC algorithms. For SOBP depth doses in a water phantom, all three algorithms matched the measurements to within  ±3% at all points and a range within 1 mm. The RS-PBA algorithm showed up to a 10% difference in dose at the entrance for the beam with a range shifter and  >30 cm air gap, while the RS-MC and G-MC were always within 3% of the measurement. For an oblique beam incident at 45°, the RS-PBA algorithm showed up to 6% local dose differences and broadening of distal fall-off by 5 mm. Both the RS-MC and G-MC accurately predicted the depth dose to within  ±3% and distal fall-off to within 2

  6. Stereotactic targeting and dose verification for age-related macular degeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gertner, Michael; Chell, Erik; Pan, Kuang-Hung; Hansen, Steve; Kaiser, Peter K.; Moshfeghi, Darius M. [Oraya Therapeutics, Inc., Newark, California 94560 (United States); Cole Eye Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio 44915 (United States); Department of Ophthalmology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2010-02-15

    Purpose: Validation of the targeting and dose delivery of the IRay low voltage age-related macular degeneration treatment system. Methods: Ten human cadaver eyes were obtained for this study and mounted in the IRay system. Using gel and vacuum, an I-Guide immobilization device was coupled to the eyes and radiochromic film was affixed to the posterior aspect of the globes. Three narrow x-ray beams were delivered through the pars plana to overlap on the predicted nominal fovea. A needle was placed through the center of the film's beam spot and into the eye to register the film and the inner retina. The process was performed three times for each of the ten eyes (30 simulated treatments; 90 individual beams). The globes were dissected to assess the targeting accuracy by measuring the distances from the needles to the fovea. The dose to the fovea was calculated from the radiochromic film. Results: X-ray targeting on the retina averaged 0.6{+-}0.4 mm from the fovea. Repeated treatments on the same eye showed a reproducibility of 0.4{+-}0.4 mm. The optic nerve was safely avoided, with the 90% isodose edge of the beam spot between 0.4 and 2.6 mm from the edge of the optic disk. Measured dose matched that prescribed. Conclusions: This study provides confidence that the IRay, with an average accuracy of 0.6 mm and a precision of 0.4 mm, can reliably treat most AMD lesions centered on the fovea. With the exception of motion, all sources of error are included.

  7. MRI gel dosimetry for verification of mono-isocentric junction doses in head and neck radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Back, S.A.J.; Jayasekera, P.M.; Lepage, M.; Baldock, C.; Menzies, N.; Back, P.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: The use of independent collimators in the abutment of two adjacent treatment volumes, as in head and neck radiation treatments, consists typically of positioning the collimator rotation axis (CRA) at the junction of the volumes, and offsetting each field by its half-field width. This has the effect of positioning one of the collimator jaws at the CRA for each field. However, misalignment of the jaws can lead to variations in dose uniformity in the junction region. We have used gel dosimetry to measure junction doses in three dimensions. PAG gel MRI was used to investigate junction dosimetry for a mono-isocentriic treatment of two orthogonal pairs of opposed (ant/post and lateral) 6 MV x-ray beams. PAG gels in an 11cm diameter cylindrical gel phantom were imaged using a Siemens Vision 1.5 T MRI. The exposures were made using a Philips SL 20 linear accelerator with independent jaws that were known to overlap at the isocentre for sequential abutting offset (within manufacturer's specifications for symmetric fields). X-Omat V films were exposed in mono-directional beams, and optically scanned for comparison. Measurements of off-axis ratios and of relative depth profiles using gel MRI and perpendicular film were in excellent agreement with each other. Measurements through the multi-directional junction at the isocentre are illustrated in the graph, for orthogonal planes centred at the isocentre of the neck phantom. They demonstrate a minimum dose of 75 % of that of the adjacent 'treatment' regions, which agrees closely with the results measured (72%) in the mono-directional case with film. We conclude that this measurement confirms that junction dosimetry at the isocentre measured with perpendicular film for a single direction is a good approximation to the situation in multiple directions. Copyright (2000) Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine

  8. Dose verification of radiotherapy for lung cancer by using plastic scintillator dosimetry and a heterogeneous phantom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosson, Wiviann; Behrens, C. F.; Andersen, Claus E.

    2015-01-01

    of this study was to investigate the performance of a commercial treatment planning system (TPS) using a PSD and a specially designed thorax phantom with lung tumor inserts. 10 treatment plans of different complexity and phantom configurations were evaluated. Although the TPS agreed well with the measurements...... for the least complex tests, deviations of tumor dose > 4% were observed for some cases. This study underpins the dosimetric challenge in TPS calculations for clinically relevant heterogeneous geometries. The scintillator system, together with the special phantom, provides a promising tool for evaluation...

  9. Improved tissue assignment using dual-energy computed tomography in low-dose rate prostate brachytherapy for Monte Carlo dose calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Côté, Nicolas [Département de Physique, Université de Montréal, Pavillon Roger-Gaudry (D-428), 2900 Boulevard Édouard-Montpetit, Montréal, Québec H3T 1J4 (Canada); Bedwani, Stéphane [Département de Radio-Oncologie, Centre Hospitalier de l’Université de Montréal (CHUM), 1560 Rue Sherbrooke Est, Montréal, Québec H2L 4M1 (Canada); Carrier, Jean-François, E-mail: jean-francois.carrier.chum@ssss.gouv.qc.ca [Département de Physique, Université de Montréal, Pavillon Roger-Gaudry (D-428), 2900 Boulevard Édouard-Montpetit, Montréal, Québec H3T 1J4, Canada and Département de Radio-Oncologie, Centre Hospitalier de l’Université de Montréal (CHUM), 1560 Rue Sherbrooke Est, Montréal, Québec H2L 4M1 (Canada)

    2016-05-15

    Purpose: An improvement in tissue assignment for low-dose rate brachytherapy (LDRB) patients using more accurate Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculation was accomplished with a metallic artifact reduction (MAR) method specific to dual-energy computed tomography (DECT). Methods: The proposed MAR algorithm followed a four-step procedure. The first step involved applying a weighted blend of both DECT scans (I {sub H/L}) to generate a new image (I {sub Mix}). This action minimized Hounsfield unit (HU) variations surrounding the brachytherapy seeds. In the second step, the mean HU of the prostate in I {sub Mix} was calculated and shifted toward the mean HU of the two original DECT images (I {sub H/L}). The third step involved smoothing the newly shifted I {sub Mix} and the two original I {sub H/L}, followed by a subtraction of both, generating an image that represented the metallic artifact (I {sub A,(H/L)}) of reduced noise levels. The final step consisted of subtracting the original I {sub H/L} from the newly generated I {sub A,(H/L)} and obtaining a final image corrected for metallic artifacts. Following the completion of the algorithm, a DECT stoichiometric method was used to extract the relative electronic density (ρ{sub e}) and effective atomic number (Z {sub eff}) at each voxel of the corrected scans. Tissue assignment could then be determined with these two newly acquired physical parameters. Each voxel was assigned the tissue bearing the closest resemblance in terms of ρ{sub e} and Z {sub eff}, comparing with values from the ICRU 42 database. A MC study was then performed to compare the dosimetric impacts of alternative MAR algorithms. Results: An improvement in tissue assignment was observed with the DECT MAR algorithm, compared to the single-energy computed tomography (SECT) approach. In a phantom study, tissue misassignment was found to reach 0.05% of voxels using the DECT approach, compared with 0.40% using the SECT method. Comparison of the DECT and SECT D

  10. Monte Carlo dose characterization of a new 90Sr/90Y source with balloon for intravascular brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ruqing; Li, X. Allen; Lobdell, John

    2003-01-01

    Beta emitting source wires or seeds have been adopted in clinical practice of intravascular brachytherapy for coronary vessels. Due to the limitation of penetration depth, this type of source is normally not applicable to treat vessels with large diameter, e.g., peripheral vessel. In the effort to extend application of its beta source for peripheral vessels, Novoste has recently developed a new catheter-based system, the Corona trade mark sign 90 Sr/ 90 Y system. It is a source train of 6 cm length and is jacketed by a balloon. The existence of the balloon increases the penetration of the beta particles and maintains the source within a location away from the vessel wall. Using the EGSnrc Monte Carlo system, we have calculated the two-dimensional (2-D) dose rate distribution of the Corona trade mark sign system in water for a balloon diameter of 5 mm. The dose rates on the transverse axis obtained in this study are in good agreement with calibration results of the National Institute of Standards and Technology for the same system for balloon diameters of 5 and 8 mm. Features of the 2-D dose field were studied in detail. The dose parameters based on AAPM TG-60 protocol were derived. For a balloon diameter of 5 mm, the dose rate at the reference point (defined as r 0 =4.5 mm, 2 mm from the balloon surface) is found to be 0.010 28 Gy min -1 mCi -1 . A new formalism for a better characterization of this long source is presented. Calculations were also performed for other balloon diameters. The dosimetry for this source is compared with a 192 Ir source, commonly used for peripheral arteries. In conclusion, we have performed a detailed dosimetric characterization for a new beta source for peripheral vessels. Our study shows that, from dosimetric point of view, the Corona trade mark sign system can be used for the treatment of an artery with a large diameter, e.g., peripheral vessel

  11. Two computational approaches for Monte Carlo based shutdown dose rate calculation with applications to the JET fusion machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrizzi, L.; Batistoni, P.; Migliori, S.; Chen, Y.; Fischer, U.; Pereslavtsev, P.; Loughlin, M.; Secco, A.

    2003-01-01

    In deuterium-deuterium (D-D) and deuterium-tritium (D-T) fusion plasmas neutrons are produced causing activation of JET machine components. For safe operation and maintenance it is important to be able to predict the induced activation and the resulting shut down dose rates. This requires a suitable system of codes which is capable of simulating both the neutron induced material activation during operation and the decay gamma radiation transport after shut-down in the proper 3-D geometry. Two methodologies to calculate the dose rate in fusion devices have been developed recently and applied to fusion machines, both using the MCNP Monte Carlo code. FZK has developed a more classical approach, the rigorous 2-step (R2S) system in which MCNP is coupled to the FISPACT inventory code with an automated routing. ENEA, in collaboration with the ITER Team, has developed an alternative approach, the direct 1 step method (D1S). Neutron and decay gamma transport are handled in one single MCNP run, using an ad hoc cross section library. The intention was to tightly couple the neutron induced production of a radio-isotope and the emission of its decay gammas for an accurate spatial distribution and a reliable calculated statistical error. The two methods have been used by the two Associations to calculate the dose rate in five positions of JET machine, two inside the vacuum chamber and three outside, at cooling times between 1 second and 1 year after shutdown. The same MCNP model and irradiation conditions have been assumed. The exercise has been proposed and financed in the frame of the Fusion Technological Program of the JET machine. The scope is to supply the designers with the most reliable tool and data to calculate the dose rate on fusion machines. Results showed that there is a good agreement: the differences range between 5-35%. The next step to be considered in 2003 will be an exercise in which the comparison will be done with dose-rate data from JET taken during and

  12. SU-F-T-33: Air-Kerma Strength and Dose Rate Constant by the Full Monte Carlo Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuji, S [Kawasaki Medical School, Kurashiki, Okayama (Japan); Oita, M [Graduate School of Health Sciences, Okayama University, Okayama, Okayama (Japan); Narihiro, N [Kawasaki College of Allied Health Professions, Kurashiki, Okayama (Japan)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: In general, the air-kerma strength (Sk) has been determined by the energy weighting the photon energy fluence and the corresponding mass-energy absorption coefficient or mass-energy transfer coefficient. Kerma is an acronym for kinetic energy released per unit mass, defined as the sum of the initial kinetic energies of all the charged particles. Monte Carlo (MC) simulations can investigate the kinetic energy of the charged particles after photo interactions and sum the energy. The Sk of {sup 192}Ir source is obtained in the full MC simulation and finally the dose rate constant Λ is determine. Methods: MC simulations were performed using EGS5 with the microSelectron HDR v2 type of {sup 192}Ir source. The air-kerma rate obtained to sum the electron kinetic energy after photoelectric absorption or Compton scattering for transverse-axis distance from 1 to 120 cm with a 10 m diameter air phantom. Absorbed dose in water is simulated with a 30 cm diameter water phantom. The transport cut-off energy is 10 keV and primary photons from the source need two hundred and forty billion in the air-kerma rate and thirty billion in absorbed dose in water. Results: Sk is multiplied by the square of the distance in air-kerma rate and determined by fitting a linear function. The result of Sk is (2.7039±0.0085)*10-{sup −11} µGy m{sup 2} Bq{sup −1} s{sup −1}. Absorbed dose rate in water at 1 cm transverse-axis distance D(r{sub 0}, θ{sub 0}) is (3.0114±0.0015)*10{sup −11} cGy Bq{sup −1} s{sup −1}. Conclusion: From the results, dose rate constant Λ of the microSelectron HDR v2 type of {sup 192}Ir source is (1.1137±0.0035) cGy h{sup −1} U{sup −1} by the full MC simulations. The consensus value conΛ is (1.109±0.012) cGy h{sup −1} U{sup −1}. The result value is consistent with the consensus data conΛ.

  13. Dose calculations for a simplified Mammosite system with the Monte Carlo Penelope and MCNPX simulation codes; Calculos de dosis para un sistema Mammosite simplificado con los codigos de simulacion Monte Carlo PENELOPE y MCNPX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas C, E.L.; Varon T, C.F.; Pedraza N, R. [ININ, 52750 La Marquesa, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: elrc@nuclear.inin.mx

    2007-07-01

    The treatment of the breast cancer at early stages is of vital importance. For that, most of the investigations are dedicated to the early detection of the suffering and their treatment. As investigation consequence and clinical practice, in 2002 it was developed in U.S.A. an irradiation system of high dose rate known as Mammosite. In this work we carry out dose calculations for a simplified Mammosite system with the Monte Carlo Penelope simulation code and MCNPX, varying the concentration of the contrast material that it is used in the one. (Author)

  14. SU-E-T-24: A Simple Correction-Based Method for Independent Monitor Unit (MU) Verification in Monte Carlo (MC) Lung SBRT Plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pokhrel, D; Badkul, R; Jiang, H; Estes, C; Kumar, P; Wang, F [UniversityKansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Lung-SBRT uses hypo-fractionated dose in small non-IMRT fields with tissue-heterogeneity corrected plans. An independent MU verification is mandatory for safe and effective delivery of the treatment plan. This report compares planned MU obtained from iPlan-XVM-Calgorithm against spreadsheet-based hand-calculation using most commonly used simple TMR-based method. Methods: Treatment plans of 15 patients who underwent for MC-based lung-SBRT to 50Gy in 5 fractions for PTV V100%=95% were studied. ITV was delineated on MIP images based on 4D-CT scans. PTVs(ITV+5mm margins) ranged from 10.1- 106.5cc(average=48.6cc). MC-SBRT plans were generated using a combination of non-coplanar conformal arcs/beams using iPlan XVM-Calgorithm (BrainLAB iPlan ver.4.1.2) for Novalis-TX consisting of micro-MLCs and 6MV-SRS (1000MU/min) beam. These plans were re-computed using heterogeneity-corrected Pencil-Beam (PB-hete) algorithm without changing any beam parameters, such as MLCs/MUs. Dose-ratio: PB-hete/MC gave beam-by-beam inhomogeneity-correction-factors (ICFs):Individual Correction. For independent-2nd-check, MC-MUs were verified using TMR-based hand-calculation and obtained an average ICF:Average Correction, whereas TMR-based hand-calculation systematically underestimated MC-MUs by ∼5%. Also, first 10 MC-plans were verified with an ion-chamber measurement using homogenous phantom. Results: For both beams/arcs, mean PB-hete dose was systematically overestimated by 5.5±2.6% and mean hand-calculated MU systematic underestimated by 5.5±2.5% compared to XVMC. With individual correction, mean hand-calculated MUs matched with XVMC by - 0.3±1.4%/0.4±1.4 for beams/arcs, respectively. After average 5% correction, hand-calculated MUs matched with XVMC by 0.5±2.5%/0.6±2.0% for beams/arcs, respectively. Smaller dependence on tumor volume(TV)/field size(FS) was also observed. Ion-chamber measurement was within ±3.0%. Conclusion: PB-hete overestimates dose to lung tumor relative to

  15. Feasibility study of a dual detector configuration concept for simultaneous megavoltage imaging and dose verification in radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshpande, Shrikant, E-mail: shrikant.Deshpande@sswahs.nsw.gov.au [Department of Medical Physics, Liverpool and Macarthur Cancer Therapy Centre, Sydney NSW 2170 (Australia); Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong, Wollongong NSW 2170 (Australia); Ingham Institute for Applied Medical Research, Sydney, NSW 2170 (Australia); McNamara, Aimee L. [Ingham Institute for Applied Medical Research, Sydney, NSW 2170, Australia and Institute of Medical Physics, School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Holloway, Lois [Department of Medical Physics, Liverpool and Macarthur Cancer Therapy Centre, Sydney NSW 2170 (Australia); Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong, Wollongong NSW 2170 (Australia); Ingham Institute for Applied Medical Research, Sydney, NSW 2170 (Australia); Institute of Medical Physics, School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); South Western Sydney Clinical School, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Metcalfe, Peter [Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong, Wollongong NSW 2170 (Australia); Ingham Institute for Applied Medical Research, Sydney, NSW 2170 (Australia); Vial, Philip [Department of Medical Physics, Liverpool and Macarthur Cancer Therapy Centre, Sydney NSW 2170 (Australia); Ingham Institute for Applied Medical Research, Sydney, NSW 2170 (Australia); Institute of Medical Physics, School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: To test the feasibility of a dual detector concept for comprehensive verification of external beam radiotherapy. Specifically, the authors test the hypothesis that a portal imaging device coupled to a 2D dosimeter provides a system capable of simultaneous imaging and dose verification, and that the presence of each device does not significantly detract from the performance of the other. Methods: The dual detector configuration comprised of a standard radiotherapy electronic portal imaging device (EPID) positioned directly on top of an ionization-chamber array (ICA) with 2 cm solid water buildup material (between EPID and ICA) and 5 cm solid backscatter material. The dose response characteristics of the ICA and the imaging performance of the EPID in the dual detector configuration were compared to the performance in their respective reference clinical configurations. The reference clinical configurations were 6 cm solid water buildup material, an ICA, and 5 cm solid water backscatter material as the reference dosimetry configuration, and an EPID with no additional buildup or solid backscatter material as the reference imaging configuration. The dose response of the ICA was evaluated by measuring the detector’s response with respect to off-axis position, field size, and transit object thickness. Clinical dosimetry performance was evaluated by measuring a range of clinical intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) beams in transit and nontransit geometries. The imaging performance of the EPID was evaluated quantitatively by measuring the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and spatial resolution. Images of an anthropomorphic phantom were also used for qualitative assessment. Results: The measured off-axis and field size response with the ICA in both transit and nontransit geometries for both dual detector configuration and reference dosimetry configuration agreed to within 1%. Transit dose response as a function of object thickness agreed to within 0.5%. All

  16. Feasibility study of a dual detector configuration concept for simultaneous megavoltage imaging and dose verification in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshpande, Shrikant; McNamara, Aimee L.; Holloway, Lois; Metcalfe, Peter; Vial, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To test the feasibility of a dual detector concept for comprehensive verification of external beam radiotherapy. Specifically, the authors test the hypothesis that a portal imaging device coupled to a 2D dosimeter provides a system capable of simultaneous imaging and dose verification, and that the presence of each device does not significantly detract from the performance of the other. Methods: The dual detector configuration comprised of a standard radiotherapy electronic portal imaging device (EPID) positioned directly on top of an ionization-chamber array (ICA) with 2 cm solid water buildup material (between EPID and ICA) and 5 cm solid backscatter material. The dose response characteristics of the ICA and the imaging performance of the EPID in the dual detector configuration were compared to the performance in their respective reference clinical configurations. The reference clinical configurations were 6 cm solid water buildup material, an ICA, and 5 cm solid water backscatter material as the reference dosimetry configuration, and an EPID with no additional buildup or solid backscatter material as the reference imaging configuration. The dose response of the ICA was evaluated by measuring the detector’s response with respect to off-axis position, field size, and transit object thickness. Clinical dosimetry performance was evaluated by measuring a range of clinical intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) beams in transit and nontransit geometries. The imaging performance of the EPID was evaluated quantitatively by measuring the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and spatial resolution. Images of an anthropomorphic phantom were also used for qualitative assessment. Results: The measured off-axis and field size response with the ICA in both transit and nontransit geometries for both dual detector configuration and reference dosimetry configuration agreed to within 1%. Transit dose response as a function of object thickness agreed to within 0.5%. All

  17. 3D absorbed dose calculation with GATE Monte Carlo simulation for the image-guided radiation therapy dedicated to the small animal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noblet, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Innovating irradiators dedicated to small animal allow to mimic clinical treatments in image-guided radiation therapy. Clinical practice is scaled down to the small animal by reducing beam dimensions (from cm to mm) and energy (from MeV to keV). Millimeter medium energy beams (<300 keV) are used to treat animals. This scaling induces higher constraints than in clinical practice especially for absorbed dose calculation in animals. Due to the beam dimensions and the medium energy range, clinical dose calculation methods are not easily applicable to the preclinical practice. Monte Carlo methods are needed. To this aim, a Monte Carlo model of the XRAD225Cx preclinical irradiator has been developed with the GATE (Geant4) framework. This model was validated by comparing simulation results against measurements and results obtained with a reference Monte Carlo code in external beam radiation therapy, EGSnrc. A specific issue has been highlighted: the significant dosimetric impact of tissue segmentation in the animal CT images. Indeed, at medium energy range, thresholding based on electronic density cannot accurately take into account the heterogeneities. Materials should be defined using both the tissue elemental composition and the mass density. An original segmentation method has been developed to obtain realistic dose distributions in small animals. Finally, our Monte Carlo platform has been successfully used for several radiobiological studies with mice and rats. (author) [fr

  18. Verification of the model of a photon beam of 6 MV in a Monte Carlo planning comparison with collapsed cone in homogeneous medium; Verificacion del modelado de un haz de fotones de 6 MV en un planificador Monte Carlo. Comparacion con collapsed cone en medio homegeneo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez Ros, J. C.; Jerez Sainz, M. I.; Jodar Lopez, C. A.; Lobato Munoz, M.; Ruiz Lopez, M. A.; Carrasco Rodriguez, J. L.; Pamos Urena, M.

    2013-07-01

    We evaluated the Monte Carlo Monaco Planner v2.0.3 by planners of the SEFM Protocol [1] to the modeling of the photon beam of 6 MV of a linear accelerator Elekta Synergy with collimator MLC Beam Modulator. We compare the Monte Carlo calculation with profiles on water measurement DFS = 100 cm, absorbed dose and dose levels for rectangular, asymmetric fields and different DFS. We compare the results with those obtained with the algorithm Collapsed Cone of Pinnacle Scheduler v8.0m. (Author)

  19. Calculation of electron and isotopes dose point kernels with FLUKA Monte Carlo code for dosimetry in nuclear medicine therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botta, F; Mairani, A; Battistoni, G; Cremonesi, M; Di Dia, A; Fassò, A; Ferrari, A; Ferrari, M; Paganelli, G; Pedroli, G; Valente, M

    2011-07-01

    The calculation of patient-specific dose distribution can be achieved by Monte Carlo simulations or by analytical methods. In this study, FLUKA Monte Carlo code has been considered for use in nuclear medicine dosimetry. Up to now, FLUKA has mainly been dedicated to other fields, namely high energy physics, radiation protection, and hadrontherapy. When first employing a Monte Carlo code for nuclear medicine dosimetry, its results concerning electron transport at energies typical of nuclear medicine applications need to be verified. This is commonly achieved by means of calculation of a representative parameter and comparison with reference data. Dose point kernel (DPK), quantifying the energy deposition all around a point isotropic source, is often the one. FLUKA DPKS have been calculated in both water and compact bone for monoenergetic electrons (10-3 MeV) and for beta emitting isotopes commonly used for therapy (89Sr, 90Y, 131I 153Sm, 177Lu, 186Re, and 188Re). Point isotropic sources have been simulated at the center of a water (bone) sphere, and deposed energy has been tallied in concentric shells. FLUKA outcomes have been compared to PENELOPE v.2008 results, calculated in this study as well. Moreover, in case of monoenergetic electrons in water, comparison with the data from the literature (ETRAN, GEANT4, MCNPX) has been done. Maximum percentage differences within 0.8.RCSDA and 0.9.RCSDA for monoenergetic electrons (RCSDA being the continuous slowing down approximation range) and within 0.8.X90 and 0.9.X90 for isotopes (X90 being the radius of the sphere in which 90% of the emitted energy is absorbed) have been computed, together with the average percentage difference within 0.9.RCSDA and 0.9.X90 for electrons and isotopes, respectively. Concerning monoenergetic electrons, within 0.8.RCSDA (where 90%-97% of the particle energy is deposed), FLUKA and PENELOPE agree mostly within 7%, except for 10 and 20 keV electrons (12% in water, 8.3% in bone). The

  20. SU-F-T-111: Investigation of the Attila Deterministic Solver as a Supplement to Monte Carlo for Calculating Out-Of-Field Radiotherapy Dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mille, M; Lee, C [Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, MD (United States); Failla, G [Varian Medical Systems, Gig Harbor, WA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To use the Attila deterministic solver as a supplement to Monte Carlo for calculating out-of-field organ dose in support of epidemiological studies looking at the risks of second cancers. Supplemental dosimetry tools are needed to speed up dose calculations for studies involving large-scale patient cohorts. Methods: Attila is a multi-group discrete ordinates code which can solve the 3D photon-electron coupled linear Boltzmann radiation transport equation on a finite-element mesh. Dose is computed by multiplying the calculated particle flux in each mesh element by a medium-specific energy deposition cross-section. The out-of-field dosimetry capability of Attila is investigated by comparing average organ dose to that which is calculated by Monte Carlo simulation. The test scenario consists of a 6 MV external beam treatment of a female patient with a tumor in the left breast. The patient is simulated by a whole-body adult reference female computational phantom. Monte Carlo simulations were performed using MCNP6 and XVMC. Attila can export a tetrahedral mesh for MCNP6, allowing for a direct comparison between the two codes. The Attila and Monte Carlo methods were also compared in terms of calculation speed and complexity of simulation setup. A key perquisite for this work was the modeling of a Varian Clinac 2100 linear accelerator. Results: The solid mesh of the torso part of the adult female phantom for the Attila calculation was prepared using the CAD software SpaceClaim. Preliminary calculations suggest that Attila is a user-friendly software which shows great promise for our intended application. Computational performance is related to the number of tetrahedral elements included in the Attila calculation. Conclusion: Attila is being explored as a supplement to the conventional Monte Carlo radiation transport approach for performing retrospective patient dosimetry. The goal is for the dosimetry to be sufficiently accurate for use in retrospective

  1. Accuracy and Radiation Dose of CT-Based Attenuation Correction for Small Animal PET: A Monte Carlo Simulation Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Ching-Ching; Chan, Kai-Chieh

    2013-06-01

    -Small animal PET allows qualitative assessment and quantitative measurement of biochemical processes in vivo, but the accuracy and reproducibility of imaging results can be affected by several parameters. The first aim of this study was to investigate the performance of different CT-based attenuation correction strategies and assess the resulting impact on PET images. The absorbed dose in different tissues caused by scanning procedures was also discussed to minimize biologic damage generated by radiation exposure due to PET/CT scanning. A small animal PET/CT system was modeled based on Monte Carlo simulation to generate imaging results and dose distribution. Three energy mapping methods, including the bilinear scaling method, the dual-energy method and the hybrid method which combines the kVp conversion and the dual-energy method, were investigated comparatively through assessing the accuracy of estimating linear attenuation coefficient at 511 keV and the bias introduced into PET quantification results due to CT-based attenuation correction. Our results showed that the hybrid method outperformed the bilinear scaling method, while the dual-energy method achieved the highest accuracy among the three energy mapping methods. Overall, the accuracy of PET quantification results have similar trend as that for the estimation of linear attenuation coefficients, whereas the differences between the three methods are more obvious in the estimation of linear attenuation coefficients than in the PET quantification results. With regards to radiation exposure from CT, the absorbed dose ranged between 7.29-45.58 mGy for 50-kVp scan and between 6.61-39.28 mGy for 80-kVp scan. For 18 F radioactivity concentration of 1.86x10 5 Bq/ml, the PET absorbed dose was around 24 cGy for tumor with a target-to-background ratio of 8. The radiation levels for CT scans are not lethal to the animal, but concurrent use of PET in longitudinal study can increase the risk of biological effects. The

  2. A phantom for verification of dwell position and time of a high dose rate brachytherapy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madebo, M.; Kron, T.; Pillainayagam, J.; Franich, R.

    2012-01-01

    Accuracy of dwell position and reproducibility of dwell time are critical in high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy. A phantom was designed to verify dwell position and dwell time reproducibility for an Ir-192 HDR stepping source using Computed Radiography (CR). The central part of the phantom, incorporating thin alternating strips of lead and acrylic, was used to measure dwell positions. The outer part of the phantom features recesses containing different absorber materials (lead, aluminium, acrylic and polystyrene foam), and was used for determining reproducibility of dwell times. Dwell position errors of <1 mm were easily detectable using the phantom. The effect of bending a transfer tube was studied with this phantom and no change of clinical significance was observed when varying the curvature of the transfer tube in typical clinical scenarios. Changes of dwell time as low as 0.1 s, the minimum dwell time of the treatment unit, could be detected by choosing dwell times over the four materials that produce identical exposure at the CR detector.

  3. DS86 neutron dose. Monte Carlo analysis for depth profile of {sup 152}Eu activity in a large stone sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endo, Satoru; Hoshi, Masaharu; Takada, Jun [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Radiation Biology and Medicine; Iwatani, Kazuo; Oka, Takamitsu; Shizuma, Kiyoshi; Imanaka, Tetsuji; Fujita, Shoichiro; Hasai, Hiromi

    1999-06-01

    The depth profile of {sup 152}Eu activity induced in a large granite stone pillar by Hiroshima atomic bomb neutrons was calculated by a Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code (MCNP). The pillar was on the Motoyasu Bridge, located at a distance of 132 m (WSW) from the hypocenter. It was a square column with a horizontal sectional size of 82.5 cm x 82.5 cm and height of 179 cm. Twenty-one cells from the north to south surface at the central height of the column were specified for the calculation and {sup 152}Eu activities for each cell were calculated. The incident neutron spectrum was assumed to be the angular fluence data of the Dosimetry System 1986 (DS86). The angular dependence of the spectrum was taken into account by dividing the whole solid angle into twenty-six directions. The calculated depth profile of specific activity did not agree with the measured profile. A discrepancy was found in the absolute values at each depth with a mean multiplication factor of 0.58 and also in the shape of the relative profile. The results indicated that a reassessment of the neutron energy spectrum in DS86 is required for correct dose estimation. (author)

  4. Monte Carlo design of a system for the detection of explosive materials and analysis of the dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez A, P. L.; Medina C, D.; Rodriguez I, J. L.; Salas L, M. A.; Vega C, H. R.

    2015-10-01

    The problems associated with insecurity and terrorism have forced to designing systems for detecting nuclear materials, drugs and explosives that are installed on roads, ports and airports. Organic materials are composed of C, H, O and N; similarly the explosive materials are manufactured which can be distinguished by the concentration of these elements. Its elemental composition, particularly the concentration of hydrogen and oxygen, allow distinguish them from other organic substances. When these materials are irradiated with neutrons nuclear reactions (n, γ) are produced, where the emitted photons are ready gamma rays whose energy is characteristic of each element and its abundance allows estimating their concentration. The aim of this study was designed using Monte Carlo methods a system with neutron source, gamma rays detector and moderator able to distinguish the presence of Rdx and urea. In design were used as moderators: paraffin, light water, polyethylene and graphite; as detectors were used HPGe and the NaI(Tl). The design that showed the best performance was the moderator of light water and HPGe, with a source of 241 AmBe. For this design, the values of ambient dose equivalent around the system were calculated. (Author)

  5. Patient-Specific Quality Assurance Using Monte Carlo Dose Calculation and Elekta Log Files for Prostate Volumetric-Modulated Arc Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsuta, Yoshiyuki; Kadoya, Noriyuki; Fujita, Yukio; Shimizu, Eiji; Matsunaga, Kenichi; Sawada, Kinya; Matsushita, Haruo; Majima, Kazuhiro; Jingu, Keiichi

    2017-12-01

    Log file-based methods are attracting increasing interest owing to their ability to validate volumetric-modulated arc therapy outputs with high resolution in the leaf and gantry positions and in delivered dose. Cross-validation of these methods for comparison with measurement-based methods using the ionization chamber/ArcCHECK-3DVH software (version 3.2.0) under the same conditions of treatment anatomy and plan enables an efficient evaluation of this method. In this study, with the purpose of cross-validation, we evaluate the accuracy of a log file-based method using Elekta log files and an X-ray voxel Monte Carlo dose calculation technique in the case of leaf misalignment during prostate volumetric-modulated arc therapy. In this study, 10 prostate volumetric-modulated arc therapy plans were used. Systematic multileaf collimator leaf positional errors (±0.4 and ±0.8 mm for each single bank) were deliberately introduced into the optimized plans. Then, the delivered 3-dimensional doses to a phantom with a certain patient anatomy were estimated by our system. These doses were compared with the ionization chamber dose and the ArcCHECK-3DVH dose. For the given phantom and patient anatomy, the estimated dose strongly coincided with the ionization chamber/ArcCHECK-3DVH dose ( P < .01). In addition, good agreement between the estimated dose and the ionization chamber/ArcCHECK-3DVH dose was observed. The dose estimation accuracy of our system, which combines Elekta log files and X-ray voxel Monte Carlo dose calculation, was evaluated.

  6. Radiation dose considerations by intra-individual Monte Carlo simulations in dual source spiral coronary computed tomography angiography with electrocardiogram-triggered tube current modulation and adaptive pitch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, Matthias S.; Kuettner, Axel; Lell, Michael M.; Wuest, Wolfgang; Scharf, Michael; Uder, Michael [University of Erlangen, Department of Radiology, Erlangen (Germany); Deak, Paul; Kalender, Willi A. [University of Erlangen, Department of Medical Physics, Erlangen (Germany); Keller, Andrea K.; Haeberle, Lothar [University of Erlangen, Department of Medical Informatics, Biometry and Epidemiology, Erlangen (Germany); Achenbach, Stephan; Seltmann, Martin [University of Erlangen, Department of Cardiology, Erlangen (Germany)

    2012-03-15

    To evaluate radiation dose levels in patients undergoing spiral coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) on a dual-source system in clinical routine. Coronary CTA was performed for 56 patients with electrocardiogram-triggered tube current modulation (TCM) and heart-rate (HR) dependent pitch adaptation. Individual Monte Carlo (MC) simulations were performed for dose assessment. Retrospective simulations with constant tube current (CTC) served as reference. Lung tissue was segmented and used for organ and effective dose (ED) calculation. Estimates for mean relative ED was 7.1 {+-} 2.1 mSv/100 mAs for TCM and 12.5 {+-} 5.3 mSv/100 mAs for CTC (P < 0.001). Relative dose reduction at low HR ({<=}60 bpm) was highest (49 {+-} 5%) compared to intermediate (60-70 bpm, 33 {+-} 12%) and high HR (>70 bpm, 29 {+-} 12%). However lowest ED is achieved at high HR (5.2 {+-} 1.5 mSv/100 mAs), compared with intermediate (6.7 {+-} 1.6 mSv/100 mAs) and low (8.3 {+-} 2.1 mSv/100 mAs) HR when automated pitch adaptation is applied. Radiation dose savings up to 52% are achievable by TCM at low and regular HR. However lowest ED is attained at high HR by pitch adaptation despite inferior radiation dose reduction by TCM. circle Monte Carlo simulations allow for individual radiation dose calculations. (orig.)

  7. Treatment planning and 3D dose verification of whole brain radiation therapy with hippocampal avoidance in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, S. W.; Miles, D.; Cramer, C.; Reinsvold, M.; Kirsch, D.; Oldham, M.

    2017-05-01

    Despite increasing use of stereotactic radiosurgery, whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) continues to have a therapeutic role in a selected subset of patients. Selectively avoiding the hippocampus during such treatment (HA-WBRT) emerged as a strategy to reduce the cognitive morbidity associated with WBRT and gave rise to a recently published the phase II trial (RTOG 0933) and now multiple ongoing clinical trials. While conceptually hippocampal avoidance is supported by pre-clinical evidence showing that the hippocampus plays a vital role in memory, there is minimal pre-clinic data showing that selectively avoiding the hippocampus will reduce radiation-induced cognitive decline. Largely the lack of pre-clinical evidence can be attributed to the technical hurdles associated with delivering precise conformal treatment the rat brain. In this work we develop a novel conformal HA-WBRT technique for Wistar rats, utilizing a 225kVp micro-irradiator with precise 3D-printed radiation blocks designed to spare hippocampus while delivering whole brain dose. The technique was verified on rodent-morphic Presage® 3D dosimeters created from micro-CT scans of Wistar rats with Duke Large Field-of-View Optical Scanner (DLOS) at 1mm isotropic voxel resolution. A 4-field box with parallel opposed AP-PA and two lateral opposed fields was explored with conformal hippocampal sparing aided by 3D-printed radiation blocks. The measured DVH aligned reasonably well with that calculated from SmART Plan Monte Carlo simulations with simulated blocks for 4-field HA-WBRT with both demonstrating hippocampal sparing of 20% volume receiving less than 30% the prescription dose.

  8. Treatment pl