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Sample records for caries prevention project

  1. Evaluation of Pacific Islands Early Childhood Caries Prevention Project: Republic of the Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milgrom, Peter; Tut, Ohnmar K

    2009-01-01

    This communication reports an outcomes evaluation of the Pacific Islands Early Childhood Caries Prevention Project. The evaluation includes children in three conditions: a) topical fluoride varnish three times per school year; b) varnish plus twice-per-day toothbrushing; and c) intervention 2 plus three-times-per-day xylitol containing gummy bear snacks at school and home visits to encourage parental involvement. For this evaluation, groups 2 and 3 have been combined. One year after project implementation, mean decayed, extracted, or filled primary teeth was 10.3 [standard deviation (SD)= 4.3] teeth for group 1, and 8.2 (SD = 4.0) teeth for the combination of groups 2 and 3 (P 0.05). Evaluation confirms the outcome of a program including both in-school twice-daily toothbrushing with fluoridated toothpaste and frequent applications of fluoride varnish.

  2. Xylitol and caries prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duane, Brett

    2015-06-01

    Cochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Medline, Embase, CINAHL, Web of Science Conference Proceedings, Proquest Dissertations and Theses, US National Institutes of Health Trials Register (http://clinicaltrials.gov) and the WHO Clinical Trials Registry Platform for ongoing trials. No language or year restrictions were used. Randomised controlled trials assessing the effects of xylitol products on dental caries in children and adults. Two review authors independently screened the results of the electronic searches, extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of the included studies. Authors were contacted where possible for missing data or clarification where feasible. For continuous outcomes, means and standard deviations were used to obtain the mean difference and 95% confidence interval (CI). Continuous data was used to calculate prevented fractions (PF) and 95% CIs to summarise the percentage reduction in caries. For dichotomous outcomes, reported risk ratios (RR) and 95% CIs were used. As there were fewer than four studies included in the meta-analysis, a fixed effect model was used. Ten studies were included with a total of 5903 participants. One study was assessed as being at low risk of bias, two were assessed as unclear risk of bias with seven at high risk of bias. Over 2.5–3 years, low quality evidence demonstrated that with 4216 children analysed, a fluoride toothpaste with 10% xylitol (exact dosage unsure) reduced caries by 13% when compared to a fluoride only toothpaste. (PF −0.13, 95% CI −0.18 to −0.08. Remaining evidence of the use of xylitol in children has risk of bias and uncertainty of effect and was therefore insufficient to determine a benefit from xylitol. Four studies reported that there were no adverse effects from any of the interventions. Two studies reported similar rates of adverse effects between study arms. The remaining studies either mentioned adverse effects

  3. Caries Risk Assessment and Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pourhashemi SJ

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Over 20 years, several analytical approaches have been designed to predict caries in children."nCaries Risk Assessment is a recently developed technique concern to caries prediction."nThis procedure involves three stages as follows:"n1- Determination and assessment of the dental caries risk factors."n2- Examination and evaluation of each individual child to be specifically diagnosed the level of 3- caries risk e.g. high, moderate and low risk."n3- Recommendation of preventive programs according to risk assessment."nBecause children vary widely in their ability to develop cavities, a well-organized program holds great promise for promoting dental heath for pre-school children of varying caries risk. This article considered a series of principals that dentist can use in case planning, management and prevention programs according to risk assessment.

  4. [Preventive dentistry 5. Secondary caries].

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollanders, A.C.C.; Kuper, N.K.; Opdam, N.J.M.; Huysmans, M.C.D.N.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Secondary caries is reported as one of the most important reasons for replacing restorations. The patient's general caries risk plays an important role in the development of secondary caries. The connection, at the patient level, between various factors, the risk of caries and restoration factors,

  5. The role of chlorhexidine in caries prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autio-Gold, Jaana

    2008-01-01

    The use of chlorhexidine for caries prevention has been a controversial topic among dental educators and clinicians. In several reviews, it has been concluded that the most persistent reduction of mutans streptococci have been achieved by chlorhexidine varnishes, followed by gels and, lastly, mouth rinses. Also, the evidence for using different chlorhexidine modes or a combination of chlorhexidine-fluoride therapy for caries prevention has been "suggestive but incomplete". Variable study designs and lack of data in high-risk children and adults support the need to continue conducting randomized, well-controlled clinical trials and to search for a practical, effective mode of antimicrobial treatment that augments the known effect of fluoride treatments. Currently, the only chlorhexidine-containing products marketed in the United States (US) are mouthrinses containing 0.12 percent chlorhexidine. Based on the available reviews, chlorhexidine rinses have not been highly effective in preventing caries, or at least the clinical data are not convincing. Due to the current lack of long-term clinical evidence for caries prevention and reported side effects, chlorhexidine rinses should not be recommended for caries prevention. Due to the inconclusive literature and sparse clinical data on gels and varnishes, their use for caries prevention should also be studied further to develop evidence-based recommendations for their clinical role in caries prevention. Since dental caries is a disease with a multifactoral etiology, it is currently more appropriate to use other established, evidence-based prevention methods, such as fluoride applications, diet modifications and good oral hygiene practices. Recent findings also indicate that the effect of an antimicrobial agent for reducing the levels of mutans streptococci or plaque reduction may not always correlate with eventual caries reduction. The clinically important outcome is proven reductions in caries. Many advances in the

  6. EARLY CHILDHOOD CARIES: CAN YOU PREVENT IT?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. B. Miloserdova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The probability of the caries development largely depends on the oral microflora imbalance. This imbalance can be corrected with probiotics. The article analyzes the results of studies on the use of adapted milk formulas with probiotics to prevent caries in early childhood. It shows that the use of adapted formulas with probiotics is accompanied by a decrease in the frequency of releasing cariogenic streptococci and actinomycetes with a simultaneous increase in the frequency of detecting bacterial antagonists of the cariogenic flora, normalization of sIgA concentration in saliva, and decrease in the severity of the caries process. The survey results will contribute to the development of effective approaches to prevention of dental caries in children.

  7. Caries-preventive Effect of Supervised Toothbrushing and Sealants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilgert, L.A.; Leal, S.C.; Mulder, J.; Creugers, N.H.J.; Frencken, J.E.F.M.

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of 3 caries-preventive measures on high- and low-caries risk occlusal surfaces of first permanent molars over 3 y. This cluster-randomized controlled clinical trial covered 242 schoolchildren, 6 to 7 y old, from low socioeconomic areas. At baseline, caries risk was

  8. Prevention of Dental Caries: Knowledge, Practice and Opinion of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Dental caries is the most prevalent oral disease in children and this is preventable. Paediatricians are the first professionals whom children visit and are in good position to begin the process of prevention of dental caries if they recognize and encourage good preventive habits. Objective: To determine the ...

  9. Potency of probiotic therapy for dental caries prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Indah Listiana Kriswandini

    2008-01-01

    Probiotic therapy is one of the therapies to prevent dental caries prospectively. Such therapy has been used in the medical area but not in dentistry. Probiotic therapy is important to be done since this therapy study ecosystem in oral cavity which has many commensal bacteria more detail. The probiotic material used to prevent dental caries is the microorganism which counter microorganism causing dental caries and its virulent product (acid lactic). Veillonella sp. use lactic acid as the end ...

  10. Potency of probiotic therapy for dental caries prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indah Listiana Kriswandini

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Probiotic therapy is one of the therapies to prevent dental caries prospectively. Such therapy has been used in the medical area but not in dentistry. Probiotic therapy is important to be done since this therapy study ecosystem in oral cavity which has many commensal bacteria more detail. The probiotic material used to prevent dental caries is the microorganism which counter microorganism causing dental caries and its virulent product (acid lactic. Veillonella sp. use lactic acid as the end product of S. mutans which cause the dental caries. The principle of probiotic therapy is the comensalism symbiosis found in oral cavity ecosystem. Veillonella sp could be added to anticipate the lactic acid which cause enamel demineralization. Hopefully dentist will apply probiotic therapy, so there will be more study of Veillonella sp. as probiotic material for dental caries prevention. Further research on Veillonella sp in probiotic therapy and Immunology need to be done to achieve the balance of ecosystem.

  11. Sugar alcohols: what is the evidence for caries-preventive and caries-therapeutic effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Loveren, C

    2004-01-01

    The most widely used sugar alcohols are: xylitol, sorbitol, mannitol, maltitol, lactitol and the products Lycasin and Palatinit. It is often claimed that xylitol is superior to the other sugar alcohols for caries control. This paper examines clinical studies on the caries-preventive and therapeutic effects of sugar alcohols with emphasis on sorbitol and xylitol. It is concluded that chewing sugar-free gum 3 or more times daily for prolonged periods of time may reduce caries incidence irrespective of the type of sugar alcohol used. It may be sufficient to do this only on school days. Sucking xylitol-containing candies or tablets may have a similar effect as chewing xylitol chewing gum. Clinical trials suggest greater caries reductions from chewing gums sweetened with xylitol than from gums sweetened with sorbitol. However, the superiority of xylitol was not confirmed in 2 out of 4 clinical trials comparing the caries-preventive effect of xylitol- with sorbitol-sweetened gums. The caries-preventive effects of polyol-containing gums and candies seem to be based on stimulation of the salivary flow, although an antimicrobial effect cannot be excluded. There is no evidence for a caries-therapeutic effect of xylitol. These conclusions are in line with those of recent reviews and with the conclusions of the Scientific Committee on Medicinal Products and Medical Devices of the EU Commission. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  12. Prevention of dental caries through the effective use of fluoride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Poul Erik

    2016-01-01

    Background: The World Health Organization (WHO) emphasizes that dental caries is a severe public health problem across the world. The current global and regional patterns of dental caries reflect distinct risk profiles of countries which relate to the structure of the society, living conditions......, lifestyles, and the existence of preventive oral health programmes. Research conducted in high income countries documents that systematic use of fluoride reduces the burden of dental caries; such research is scarce in low and middle income countries. Objectives: This article reviews the evidence on effective...... use of fluoride, highlights the public health approach to fluoridation, and clarifies how automatic fluoridation contributes to breaking social inequities in dental caries. Data collection: Scientific publications on fluoride administration stored in PubMed/Medline and caries data from the WHO...

  13. Caries-preventive Effect of Supervised Toothbrushing and Sealants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilgert, L A; Leal, S C; Mulder, J; Creugers, N H J; Frencken, J E

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of 3 caries-preventive measures on high- and low-caries risk occlusal surfaces of first permanent molars over 3 y. This cluster-randomized controlled clinical trial covered 242 schoolchildren, 6 to 7 y old, from low socioeconomic areas. At baseline, caries risk was assessed at the tooth surface level, through a combination of ICDAS II (International Caries Detection and Assessment System) and fissure depth codes. High-caries risk occlusal surfaces were treated according to daily supervised toothbrushing (STB) at school and 2 sealants: composite resin (CR) and atraumatic restorative treatment-high-viscosity glass-ionomer cement (ART-GIC). Low-caries risk occlusal surfaces received STB or no intervention. Evaluations were performed after 0.5, 1, 2, and 3 y. A cavitated dentine carious lesion was considered a failure. Data were analyzed according to the proportional hazard rate regression model with frailty correction, Wald test, analysis of variance, and t test, according to the jackknife procedure for calculating standard errors. The cumulative survival rates of cavitated dentine carious lesion-free, high-caries risk occlusal surfaces were 95.6%, 91.4%, and 90.2% for STB, CR, and ART-GIC, respectively, over 3 y, which were not statistically significantly different. For low-caries risk occlusal surfaces, no statistically significant difference was observed between the cumulative survival rate of the STB group (94.8%) and the no-intervention group (92.1%) over 3 y. There was neither a difference among STB, CR, and ART-GIC on school premises in preventing cavitated dentine carious lesions in high-caries risk occlusal surfaces of first permanent molars nor a difference between STB and no intervention for low-caries risk occlusal surfaces of first permanent molars over 3 y. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2015.

  14. Caries prevention with fluoride toothpaste in children: an update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, S

    2009-01-01

    findings from the primary dentition. There were no studies available, and therefore insufficient evidence, on when to commence brushing with fluoride toothpaste as well as on the post-brushing behaviour. The use of "adult" toothpaste in very young children seemed to increase the risk for mild dental...... fluorosis in low-caries communities but not in socially deprived high-caries populations. CONCLUSIONS: The results reinforced the outstanding role of fluoride toothpaste as an effective caries preventive measure in children.......AIM: The aim was to examine recent literature and review the caries-preventive effect of fluoride toothpaste in children. METHODS: Based on three comprehensive systematic reviews published in 2003, a broad search of the PubMed and Cochrane library databases was conducted for papers published 2002...

  15. Risk factors for caries - control and prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melida Hasanagić

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To investigate a prevalence of caries, filled permanentand extracted permanent teeth, as well as caries risk factors inschool children aged 7, 9 and 11.Methods. The survey included 800 children (296 children aged7; 254 children aged 9 and 250 children aged 11 from the MostarMunicipality, 400 of them living in both rural and urban areas.A dental mirror and standard light of dental chair were used forexamination. The DMF index (Dental Caries, Missing Teeth andFilled Teeth was determined, as well as failure in keeping teethhygiene, sugar intake with food, and incidence of oral cavity infection.Results. The dental state of permanent teeth in children aged 7and 9 has shown significant difference between the children fromrural and urban areas (p < 0,001. Out of 2,698 and 2,790 permanentteeth in children aged 11 from rural and urban areas, 1,086(40,25 % and 884 (31.68 % had caries, respectively (p < 0.01.The difference between these groups of children has been foundin relation to the index of oral hygiene too (p < 0.05.Conclusion. An identification of risk groups for getting caries wasvery important and could help health and social structures to maintaintheir programs in order to improve oral health.

  16. Effect of caries preventive measures directed to expectant mothers on caries experience in their children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zanata Régia Luzia

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this prospective study was to determine the effectiveness of caries preventive measures started during pregnancy on the caries experience of first-time mothers and their infants. Eighty-one pregnant women with low social background were selected on the basis of the presence of active carious lesions and were randomly divided into control (38 and experimental (43 groups. The initial dental status (DMFS and white spot lesions was established through clinical examination. The prophylactic measures were repeated during pregnancy and 6 and 12 months after delivery. Both groups received primary care intervention. They were instructed in relation to the etiologic factors of dental caries and received oral hygiene kits. Oral hygiene instructions were reinforced through interactive brushing. The experimental group also received antimicrobial treatment (topical application of NaF and iodine solution immediately after prophylaxis and 3 and 5 days later and restorative care using glass ionomer cement. By the time the children were 2 years of age, 33.3% of the infants in the control group and 14.7% in the experimental group had caries activity. A significant difference in caries prevalence was observed between children with and without visible dental plaque. The mean number of tooth surfaces with carious lesions (including areas of demineralization was higher among the children in the control group compared to the experimental group (6.3 x 3.2, however, with no statistical significance. Maternal caries increase was a significant factor influencing the caries experience of the children. These data support the evidence of an association between caries prevalence in young children and clinical (dental plaque and maternal factors.

  17. Caries prevention through life course approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramos-Gomez, F.; van Loveren, C.; Eden, E.

    2016-01-01

    Recent epidemiological analyses showed that caries risk continues throughout all age groups. Moreover, it seems that there are trajectories of oral health. Individuals seem to enter such a trajectory at an early age and it shows to be difficult to escape to another trajectory with better health

  18. Probiotics for caries prevention and control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, S; Keller, M K

    2012-01-01

    of heterogeneity among the included investigations hampered the analysis. Significant reductions of mutans streptococci in saliva or plaque following daily intake of probiotic lactobacilli or bifidobacteria were reported in 12 out of 19 papers, whereas 3 reported an increase of lactobacilli. Three caries trials...

  19. Ozone therapy in the management and prevention of caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merve Erkmen Almaz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article was to assess the effectiveness of ozone therapy in the management and prevention of caries, reviewing clinical and in vitro studies. Ozone has proven to be effective against gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, viruses, and fungi. In dentistry, most of the published articles are based on ozone's antimicrobial effects and the treatment of caries. Most of the clinical studies reported ozone to be a promising alternative to conventional methods for caries management. However, a few studies have shown ozone to be insufficient for preventing caries and reducing microorganisms in open occlusal carious lesions. Ozone might be a useful tool to reduce and control oral infectious microorganisms in dental plaque and dental cavity. However, the results of in vitro studies are controversial; while some researchers reported that ozone therapy had a minimal or no effect on the viability of microorganisms, others suggested ozone to be highly effective in killing both gram-positive and gram-negative oral microorganisms. Therefore, more evidence is required before ozone can be accepted as an alternative to present methods for the management and prevention of caries.

  20. Caries prevention with fluoride toothpaste in children: an update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, S

    2009-01-01

    AIM: The aim was to examine recent literature and review the caries-preventive effect of fluoride toothpaste in children. METHODS: Based on three comprehensive systematic reviews published in 2003, a broad search of the PubMed and Cochrane library databases was conducted for papers published 2002...... fluorosis in low-caries communities but not in socially deprived high-caries populations. CONCLUSIONS: The results reinforced the outstanding role of fluoride toothpaste as an effective caries preventive measure in children.......AIM: The aim was to examine recent literature and review the caries-preventive effect of fluoride toothpaste in children. METHODS: Based on three comprehensive systematic reviews published in 2003, a broad search of the PubMed and Cochrane library databases was conducted for papers published 2002...... of the study. The targeted papers were critically assessed concerning design, methodology and performance according to a pre-determined checklist. RESULTS: The initial search revealed 179 papers of which 15 met the inclusion criteria. There was strong evidence that daily use of fluoride toothpaste has...

  1. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Caries Prevention in Dental Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tickle, M; O'Neill, C; Donaldson, M; Birch, S; Noble, S; Killough, S; Murphy, L; Greer, M; Brodison, J; Verghis, R; Worthington, H V

    2017-07-01

    We conducted a parallel group randomized controlled trial of children initially aged 2 to 3 y who were caries free, to prevent the children becoming caries active over the subsequent 36 mo. The setting was 22 dental practices in Northern Ireland, and children were randomly assigned by a clinical trials unit (CTU) (using computer-generated random numbers, with allocation concealed from the dental practice until each child was recruited) to the intervention (22,600-ppm fluoride varnish, toothbrush, 50-mL tube of 1,450 ppm fluoride toothpaste, and standardized, evidence-based prevention advice) or advice-only control at 6-monthly intervals. The primary outcome measure was conversion from caries-free to caries-active states. Secondary outcome measures were number of decayed, missing, or filled teeth (dmfs) in caries-active children, number of episodes of pain, and number of extracted teeth. Adverse reactions were recorded. Calibrated external examiners, blinded to the child's study group, assessed the status of the children at baseline and after 3 y. In total, 1,248 children (624 randomized to each group) were recruited, and 1,096 (549 intervention, 547 control) were included in the final analyses. Eighty-seven percent of intervention and 86% of control children attended every 6-mo visit ( P = 0.77). A total of 187 (34%) in the intervention group converted to caries active compared to 213 (39%) in the control group (odds ratio, 0.81; 95% confidence interval, 0.64-1.04; P = 0.11). Mean dmfs of those with caries in the intervention group was 7.2 compared to 9.6 in the control group ( P = 0.007). There was no significant difference in the number of episodes of pain between groups ( P = 0.81) or in the number of teeth extracted in caries-active children ( P = 0.95). Ten children in the intervention group had adverse reactions of a minor nature. This well-conducted trial failed to demonstrate that the intervention kept children caries free, but there was evidence that once

  2. Dental caries: strategies to control this preventable disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugg-Gunn, Andrew

    2013-11-01

    To provide a brief commentary review of strategies to control dental caries. Dental decay is one of man's most prevalent diseases. In many counties, severity increased in parallel with importation of sugar, reaching its zenith about 1950s and 1960s. Since then, severity has declined in many countries, due to the wide use of fluoride especially in toothpaste, but dental caries remains a disease of medical, social and economic importance. Within the EU in 2011, the cost of dental treatment was estimated to be €79 billion. The pathogenesis is well understood: bacteria in dental plaque (biofilm) metabolise dietary sugars to acids which then dissolve dental enamel and dentine. Possible approaches to control caries development, therefore, involve: removal of plaque, reducing the acidogenic potential of plaque, reduction in sugar consumption, increasing the tooth's resistance to acid attack, and coating the tooth surface to form a barrier between plaque and enamel. At the present time, only three approaches are of practical importance: sugar control, fluoride, and fissure sealing. The evidence that dietary sugars are the main cause of dental caries is extensive, and comes from six types of study. Without sugar, caries would be negligible. Fluoride acts in several ways to aid caries prevention. Ways of delivering fluoride can be classed as: 'automatic', 'home care' and 'professional care': the most important of these are discussed in detail in four articles in this issue of the Acta Medica Academica. Dental caries is preventable - individuals, communities and countries need strategies to achieve this. Copyright © 2013 by Academy of Sciences and Arts of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  3. Dental caries: Strategies to control this preventable disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Rugg-Gunn

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To provide a brief commentary review of strategies to control dental caries. Dental decay is one of man’s most prevalent diseases. In many counties, severity increased in parallel with importation of sugar, reaching its zenith about 1950s and 1960s. Since then, severity has declined in many countries, due to the wide use of fluoride especially in toothpaste, but dental caries remains a disease of medical, social and economic importance. Within the EU in 2011, the cost of dental treatment was estimated to be €79 billion. The pathogenesis is well understood: bacteria in dental plaque (biofilm metabolise dietary sugars to acids which then dissolve dental enamel and dentine. Possible approaches to control caries development, therefore, involve: removal of plaque, reducing the acidogenic potential of plaque, reduction in sugar consumption, increasing the tooth’s resistance to acid attack, and coating the tooth surface to form a barrier between plaque and enamel. At the present time, only three approaches are of practical importance: sugar control, fluoride, and fissure sealing. The evidence that dietary sugars are the main cause of dental caries is extensive, and comes from six types of study. Without sugar, caries would be negligible. Fluoride acts in several ways to aid caries prevention. Ways of delivering fluoride can be classed as: ‘automatic’, ‘home care’ and ‘professional care’: the most important of these are discussed in detail in four articles in this issue of the Acta Medica Academica. Conclusion. Dental caries is preventable – individuals, communities and countries need strategies to achieve this.

  4. Nd:YAG laser in caries prevention: a clinical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boari, Heloisa Gomes Dimiranda

    2000-01-01

    The caries prevention by using laser irradiation has been investigated during the last 30 years. The Nd: YAG laser associated with acidulated phosphate fluoride has been shown as a very promising technique for enamel caries prevention. The aim of this work was to clinically evaluate the efficiency of Nd: YAG laser associated with acidulated phosphate fluoride in pit and fissure caries prevention of children and adolescents. In this work it was determined the dye that enhance the effect of Nd: YAG laser in enamel. It was selected 242 pre-molar and molar teeth from 33 children and adolescents, aged from 7 to 15 years old. The selected teeth were free from caries or decalcification marks (active white marks) to the clinical and radiographic exams. The teeth were divided into two groups: the first group was laser irradiated and their homologous remained as a control. The right side teeth were dye-assisted Nd:YAG laser irradiated. The dye solution was a moisture of dust coal and equal parts of water and alcohol. The irradiation conditions were 60 mJ/10 Hz, optical fiber in contact mode, with diameter of 300 μm, resulting in an energy density of 84,9 J/cm 2 . The oclusal surface of the teeth was completely irradiated, specially on the slopes and in the deepest part of the pits and fissures. This procedure was repeated three times. In the sequence it was applied the acidulated phosphate fluoride for 4 minutes. On the left side teeth - control group- only acidulated phosphate fluoride was applied for the same time. The final examination considered the presence of caries and active white marks after a period of one year. There were statistical significant differences (p < 0.01) between the lased + fluoride group and the non irradiated group. The present study concluded that the technique used in this work can be an alternative clinical method for caries prevention. (author)

  5. Caries preventive efficiency of therapeutic complex accomponying orthodontic treatment of children with initial dental caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denga A.E.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of orthodontic non-removable appliance in orthodontic treatment inter¬feres with the process of teeth mineralization, worsens level of oral cavity hygiene, stimulates development of caries process. The situation is complicated when a patient has an initial tooth decay. The aim of this study was to determine genetic characteristics of children with initial caries and clinical evaluation of effectiveness of the developed caries preventive therapeutic complex accompanying treatment of jaw facial anomalies (JFA. 47 children aged 12-14 with initial tooth decay participated in the examination. Complex diagnostics, including molecular genetic studies was carried out. Therapeutic complex for children, of the main group included remineralizing, adaptogenic, biogenic agents, which increase non-specific resistance, as well as infiltration ICON therapy before fixing braces. Caries preventive complex accompanying JFA treatment in children with primary tooth decay developed with regard to revealed genetic disorders of amelogenesis, 2-nd of phase detoxification, collagen formation, functional responses in the oral cavity, state of hard tissues of teeth and periodontal tissues enabled to preserve existing carious process, normalize periodontal and hygienic indices at all stages of treatment.

  6. Bluetooth technology for prevention of dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolahi, Jafar; Fazilati, Mohamad

    2009-12-01

    Caries is caused when the pH at the tooth surface drops below 5.5. A miniaturized and autonomous pH monitoring nodes can be attached to the tooth surface, like a tooth jewel. This intelligent sensor includes three components: (a) digital micro pH meter, (b) power supply, (c) wireless communicating device. The micro pH meter facilitates long term tooth surface pH monitoring and providing real time feedback to the patients and dental experts. Power supply of this system will be microfabricated biocatalytic fuel cell (enzymatic micro-battery) using organic compounds (e.g. formate or glucose) as the fuel to generate electricity. When micro pH meter detects the pH lower than 5.5, wireless Bluetooth device sends a caution (e.g. "you are at risk of dental caries") to external monitoring equipment such as mobile phone or a hands-free heads. After reception of the caution, subjects should use routine brushing and flossing procedure or use a medicated chewing gum (e.g. chlorhexidine containing chewing gum) or rinse with a mouthwash.

  7. Measuring quality of dental care: Caries prevention services for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herndon, Jill Boylston; Tomar, Scott L; Catalanotto, Frank A; Rudner, Nancy; Huang, I-Chan; Aravamudhan, Krishna; Shenkman, Elizabeth A; Crall, James J

    2015-08-01

    The authors conducted a study to validate the following 3 evidence-based, process-of-care quality measures focused on dental caries prevention for children with an elevated risk of experiencing caries: sealants for 6- to 9-year-olds, sealants for 10- to 14-year-olds, and topical fluoride. Using evidence-based guidelines, the Dental Quality Alliance developed measures for implementation with administrative data at the plan and program levels. To validate the measures, the authors used data from the Florida and Texas Medicaid programs and Children's Health Insurance Programs and from national commercial dental benefit plans. Data were extracted from 414 randomly selected dental office records to validate the use of administrative data to accurately calculate the measures. The authors also assessed statistically significant variations in overall measure performance. Agreement between administrative data and dental records was 95% for sealants (κ = 0.82) and 90% for topical fluoride (κ = 0.78). Sensitivity and specificity were 90.7% and 88.5% for topical fluoride and 77.8% and 98.8% for sealants, respectively. Variation in overall measure performance was greatest for topical fluoride (χ(2) = 5,887.1; P caries received at least 2 topical fluoride applications during the reporting year. Although there was greater variation in performance for sealants for 6- to 9-year-olds (range, 21.0-31.3%; χ(2) = 548.6; P caries prevention process-of-care quality measures can be implemented feasibly and validly using administrative claims data. The measures can be used to assess, monitor, and improve the proportion of children with an elevated risk of experiencing dental caries who receive evidence-based caries prevention services. Copyright © 2015 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. [Costs of caries therapy and prevention in a school].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marci, F; Antenucci, F; Giannoni, M

    1989-01-01

    The prevalence of dental caries in the school children population in Rieti is very high, according to low levels of fluoride content in drinkable water, similar to those detected in other areas of Italy and Europe. The aim of our research is to propose a combined prevention protocol, utilizing fluoride tablets and dental therapy through structures already existing in the public health national organization. The application of this combined (profilaxis-therapy) protocol is expected to decrease the prevalence of dental caries to 50% in a five years period, at a very accettable cost. This protocol should find early application, possibly starting from maternal schools.

  9. Development of a multifunctional adhesive system for prevention of root caries and secondary caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ning; Melo, Mary A. S.; Chen, Chen; Liu, Jason; Weir, Michael D.; Bai, Yuxing; Xu, Hockin H. K.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The objectives of this study were to: (1) develop a novel adhesive for prevention of tooth root caries and secondary caries by possessing a combination of protein-repellent, antibacterial, and remineralization capabilities for the first time; and (2) investigate the effects of 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC), dimethylaminohexadecyl methacrylate (DMAHDM), and nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP) on dentine bond strength, protein-repellent properties, and dental plaque microcosm biofilm response. Methods MPC, DMAHDM and NACP were added into Scotchbond Multi-Purpose primer and adhesive. Dentine shear bond strengths were measured. Adhesive coating thickness, surface texture and dentine-adhesive interfacial structure were examined. Protein adsorption onto adhesive resin surface was determined by the micro bicinchoninic acid method. A human saliva microcosm biofilm model was used to investigate biofilm metabolic activity, colony-forming unit (CFU) counts, and lactic acid production. Results The resin with 7.5% MPC + 5% DMAHDM + 30% NACP did not adversely affect dentine shear bond strength (p > 0.1). The resin with 7.5% MPC + 5% DMAHDM + 30% NACP produced a coating on root dentine with a thickness of approximately 70 μm and completely sealed all the dentinal tubules. The resin with 7.5% MPC + 5% DMAHDM + 30% NACP had 95% reduction in protein adsorption, compared to SBMP control (p control. Significance The novel multifunctional adhesive with strong protein-repellent, antibacterial and remineralization properties is promising to coat tooth roots to prevent root caries and secondary caries. The combined use of MPC, DMAHDM and NACP may have wide applicability to bonding agents, cements, sealants and composites to inhibit caries. PMID:26187532

  10. Water fluoridation for the prevention of dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iheozor-Ejiofor, Zipporah; Worthington, Helen V; Walsh, Tanya; O'Malley, Lucy; Clarkson, Jan E; Macey, Richard; Alam, Rahul; Tugwell, Peter; Welch, Vivian; Glenny, Anne-Marie

    2015-06-18

    Dental caries is a major public health problem in most industrialised countries, affecting 60% to 90% of school children. Community water fluoridation was initiated in the USA in 1945 and is currently practised in about 25 countries around the world; health authorities consider it to be a key strategy for preventing dental caries. Given the continued interest in this topic from health professionals, policy makers and the public, it is important to update and maintain a systematic review that reflects contemporary evidence. To evaluate the effects of water fluoridation (artificial or natural) on the prevention of dental caries.To evaluate the effects of water fluoridation (artificial or natural) on dental fluorosis. We searched the following electronic databases: The Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register (to 19 February 2015); The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; Issue 1, 2015); MEDLINE via OVID (1946 to 19 February 2015); EMBASE via OVID (1980 to 19 February 2015); Proquest (to 19 February 2015); Web of Science Conference Proceedings (1990 to 19 February 2015); ZETOC Conference Proceedings (1993 to 19 February 2015). We searched the US National Institutes of Health Trials Registry (ClinicalTrials.gov) and the World Health Organization's WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform for ongoing trials. There were no restrictions on language of publication or publication status in the searches of the electronic databases. For caries data, we included only prospective studies with a concurrent control that compared at least two populations - one receiving fluoridated water and the other non-fluoridated water - with outcome(s) evaluated at at least two points in time. For the assessment of fluorosis, we included any type of study design, with concurrent control, that compared populations exposed to different water fluoride concentrations. We included populations of all ages that received fluoridated water (naturally or artificially

  11. Approaches to caries prevention and therapy in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walls, A W G; Meurman, J H

    2012-09-01

    The population of the world is aging. A greater proportion of older people are retaining increasing numbers of natural teeth. Aging is associated with changes in oral architecture and muscle weakness, making personal oral hygiene more difficult, particularly for the oldest and most frail individuals. Furthermore, there is exposure of root dentin with its higher pH for demineralization in addition to enamel as a substrate for caries. Aging is also associated, for many in the developed world, with taking multiple medications, with the associated risk of dry mouth. These variables combine to increase caries risk in older vulnerable populations. Caries occurs on both the crowns of teeth (predominantly around existing restorations) and the exposed roots. Prevention needs to be aggressive to control disease in this combination of circumstances, with multiple strategies for limiting the damage associated with caries in this population. This paper explores the evidence that is available supporting preventive strategies, including fluorides in various forms, chlorhexidine, and calcium phosphate supplementation.

  12. Are we ready for caries prevention through bacteriotherapy?

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    Svante Twetman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent insights in medical science indicate that human biofilms play an important role in health and well-being, and have put microbiota modulation through bacteriotherapy into focus. In dentistry, bacterial interference with probiotic bacteria to support the stability and diversity of oral biofilms has gained similar interest. Investigations in vitro into metabolic activity, co-aggregation, growth inhibition, bacteriocin production, and adhesion have collectively suggested a potential role for probiotic lactobacilli and bifidobacteria to modulate the oral microbial ecology. Likewise, short-term clinical studies with intermediate microbial endpoints indicate that interference with caries-associated bacteria seems possible through probiotic dairy products, tablets, lozenges and chewing gum in various dose regimens. Few randomized controlled clinical trials with caries outcomes are available, but three studies with preschool children and the elderly have demonstrated preventive fractions between 21% and 75%, following regular intake of milk supplemented with probiotic lactobacilli. However, further large-scale trials with orally derived anti-caries candidates are needed before we can say that we are ready for bacteriotherapy as an adjunct to complement the existing evidence-based methods for preventing and controlling caries in daily practice.

  13. Efficacy of Miswak (Salvadorapersica in Prevention of Dental Caries

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    F Ezoddini

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: The rate of tooth decay and periodontal diseases today is still high, regardless of progress in oral and dental hygiene. The traditional toothbrush or chewing stick called "Miswak" has been used since ancient times. Many significant effects of Miswak such as antibacterial, anti-caries and antiperiopathic effects have been recognized today. Tooth care is a very important issue and both prevention and treatment of dental caries could be very helpful in maintaining good personal health. In this research, the efficacy of natural toothbrush or Miswak in prevention of dental caries was investigated and compared with the efficacy of ordinary toothbrush and toothpaste. Aim: Miswak was introduced for preventing dental caries by the Holy Prophet Mohammad (S.A.W 1400 years ago and has been used since then in many Islamic countries. In this research, the efficacy of Miswak in prevention of dental caries was investigated and compared with the efficacy of ordinary toothbrush. Methods: This analytical and clinical trial was performed in a high school student population (girls and boys in the city of Yazd, Iran in 2001-2002. Twelve high schools were randomly chosen. From these high schools, 380 second year students (190 cases and 190 controls were enrolled and their teeth condition such as the number of decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMF were recorded in a specific questionnaire. The degrees of decay in the decayed teeth were recorded as well. Then, Miswak sticks were distributed to the case group and required dental training was given to both groups. After one year, the examinations were repeated and findings recorded in the same questionnaires. For analyzing the data, one-way variance analysis, Chi square, Paired t-test and two variable analyses were used. Results: At the start of the study, there were no significant differences between the two groups (case and control with regards to their dental condition and the frequency of

  14. Knowledge on dental trauma management and caries prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frujeri, Maria de Lourdes V; Pinto, Adriana B Silveira; Bezerra, Ana C B; de Toledo, Orlando A; Cortes, Maria I de S; Pordeus, Isabela de A

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the knowledge of dental assistants (DA) and hygienists (DH) on dental trauma management and dental caries prevention. Secondarily, other aims were 2-fold: (1) to update the assistants/hygienists through courses supported on scientific evidence-based information and (2) to evaluate their job satisfaction. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 46 participants, DHs and Das, working in the Secretary of Education of the city of Brasilia (Federal District, Brazil). The information was gathered through 2 self-administered questionnaires during 2 training meetings. The first questionnaire was applied before the first meeting and the second questionnaire after the last meeting. All participants were women older than 38 years and with more than 15 years of experience. The participants demonstrated knowledge on dental trauma types but lack of knowledge on dental trauma first-aid approaches. Concerning to dental caries, the professional demonstrated knowledge on both etiology and prevention. Lectures, periodical training, and inclusion in multidisciplinary training groups aiming to caries prevention and dental trauma are necessary.

  15. Oral hygiene in the prevention of caries and periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löe, H

    2000-06-01

    While some periodontal disease may be as old as mankind itself, caries as a public health problem appeared with the development of flour and sugar mills, and the universal access to fermentable carbohydrates. As a consequence, during the last 500 years caries and periodontal disease have been the most common diseases afflicting the human mouth. Together, these two diseases have been responsible for untold pain and suffering, and for excessive destruction and loss of people's teeth. With improving social circumstances in most industrialised nations, increased availability and affordability of modern oral health care, and the promotion of conservative treatment concepts, the 20th century saw significant progress in eliminating pain and tooth loss. Moreover, during the last 50 years advances in the oral health sciences and in technology, have not only increased our understanding of the nature of these diseases and their causes, but also introduced and tested new approaches to their prevention.

  16. School-Based Caries Prevention, Tooth Decay, and the Community Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruff, R R; Niederman, R

    2018-04-01

    The school and community context can contribute to inequity in child oral health. Whether the school and community affect the effectiveness of school-based caries prevention is unknown. The association between the school and community environment and dental caries, as well as their moderating effects with school-based caries prevention, was assessed using multilevel mixed-effects regression. Data were derived from a 6-y prospective cohort study of children participating in a school-based caries prevention program. For the school and community, living in a dental-shortage area and the proportion of children receiving free or reduced lunch were significantly related to an increased risk of dental caries at baseline. Caries prevention was associated with a significant per-visit decrease in the risk of untreated caries, but the rate of total caries experience increased over time. Caries prevention was more effective in children who had prior dental care at baseline and in schools with a higher proportion of low socioeconomic status students. There was significant variation across schools in the baseline prevalence of dental caries and the effect of prevention over time, although effects were modest. The school and community environment have a direct impact on oral health and moderate the association between school-based caries prevention and dental caries. Knowledge Transfer Statement: School-based caries prevention can be an effective means to reduce oral health inequity by embedding dental care within schools. However, the socioeconomic makeup of schools and characteristics of the surrounding community can affect the impact of school-based care.

  17. Milk fluoridation for the prevention of dental caries

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    Jolán Bánóczy

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review is to give an overview of 55 years experience of milk fluoridation and draw conclusions about the applicability of the method. Fluoridated milk was first investigated in the early 1950s, almost simultaneously in Switzerland, the USA and Japan. Stimulated by the favourable results obtained from these early studies, the establishment of The Borrow Dental Milk Foundation (subsequently The Borrow Foundation in England gave an excellent opportunity for further research, both clinical and non-clinical, and a productive collaboration with the World Health Organization which began in the early 1980s. Numerous peer-reviewed publications in international journals showed clearly the bioavailability of fluoride in various types of milk. Clinical trials were initiated in the 1980s – some of these can be classed as randomised controlled trials, while most of the clinical studies were community preventive programmes. Conclusion. These evaluations showed clearly that the optimal daily intake of fluoride in milk is effective in preventing dental caries. The amount of fluoride added to milk depends on background fluoride exposure and age of the children: commonly in the range 0.5 to 1.0 mg per day. An advantage of the method is that a precise amount of fluoride can be delivered under controlled conditions. The cost of milk fluoridation programmes is low, about € 2 to 3 per child per year. Fluoridation of milk can be recommended as a caries preventive measure where the fluoride concentration in drinking water is suboptimal, caries experience in children is significant, and there is an existing school milk programme.

  18. Caries management by risk assessment: A review on current strategies for caries prevention and management

    OpenAIRE

    Maheswari, S. Uma; Raja, Jacob; Kumar, Arvind; Seelan, R. Gnana

    2015-01-01

    The current trend in treating dental caries is using nondestructive risk-based caries management strategies rather than focusing on the restorative treatment alone. Currently, there have been many changes in understanding of the multifaceted nature of caries process and its management. Caries Management by Risk Assessment (CAMBRA) which is an evidence-based approach focuses on determining many factors causing the expression of disease and take corrective action. The clinicians can ascertain w...

  19. Disease Management of Early Childhood Caries: ECC Collaborative Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Man Wai; Ramos-Gomez, Francisco; Lieberman, Martin; Lee, Jessica Y; Scoville, Richard; Hannon, Cindy; Maramaldi, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Until recently, the standard of care for early childhood caries (ECC) has been primarily surgical and restorative treatment with little emphasis on preventing and managing the disease itself. It is now recognized that surgical treatment alone does not address the underlying etiology of the disease. Despite costly surgeries and reparative treatment, the onset and progression of caries are likely to continue. A successful rebalance of risk and protective factors may prevent, slow down, or even arrest dental caries and its progression. An 18-month risk-based chronic disease management (DM) approach to address ECC in preschool children was implemented as a quality improvement (QI) collaborative by seven teams of oral health care providers across the United States. In the aggregate, fewer DM children experienced new cavitation, pain, and referrals to the operating room (OR) for restorative treatment compared to baseline historical controls. The teams found that QI methods facilitated adoption of the DM approach and resulted in improved care to patients and better outcomes overall. Despite these successes, the wide scale adoption and spread of the DM approach may be limited unless health policy and payment reforms are enacted to compensate providers for implementing DM protocols in their practice.

  20. Disease Management of Early Childhood Caries: ECC Collaborative Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Wai Ng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Until recently, the standard of care for early childhood caries (ECC has been primarily surgical and restorative treatment with little emphasis on preventing and managing the disease itself. It is now recognized that surgical treatment alone does not address the underlying etiology of the disease. Despite costly surgeries and reparative treatment, the onset and progression of caries are likely to continue. A successful rebalance of risk and protective factors may prevent, slow down, or even arrest dental caries and its progression. An 18-month risk-based chronic disease management (DM approach to address ECC in preschool children was implemented as a quality improvement (QI collaborative by seven teams of oral health care providers across the United States. In the aggregate, fewer DM children experienced new cavitation, pain, and referrals to the operating room (OR for restorative treatment compared to baseline historical controls. The teams found that QI methods facilitated adoption of the DM approach and resulted in improved care to patients and better outcomes overall. Despite these successes, the wide scale adoption and spread of the DM approach may be limited unless health policy and payment reforms are enacted to compensate providers for implementing DM protocols in their practice.

  1. Novel technologies for the prevention and treatment of dental caries: a patent survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fu; Wang, Dong

    2010-05-01

    Dental caries is one of the most common preventable childhood diseases; people are susceptible to this ailment throughout their lifetime. In the US, 90% of late adolescents and young adults have dental caries, while 94% of all dentate adults had evidence of treated or untreated coronal caries. Dental caries is often not self-limiting and without proper care can progress until the tooth is destroyed. In this paper, the etiology of dental caries is briefly introduced. It is followed by a thorough review of patents and literatures on the recent development of various novel technologies for the prevention and treatment of dental caries. Recent advances in anti-plaque agents, including chemoprophylactic agents, antimicrobial peptides, vaccines, probiotics/replacement therapy and sugar substitutes, and remineralization agents including fluorides and casein phosphopeptides are analyzed. TAKE HOME MASSAGE: Both the discovery of new anti-caries agents and the development of dentotropic delivery systems will be the future focus of this research field.

  2. Fluoride mouthrinses for preventing dental caries in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinho, Valeria C C; Chong, Lee Yee; Worthington, Helen V; Walsh, Tanya

    2016-07-29

    Fluoride mouthrinses have been used extensively as a caries-preventive intervention in school-based programmes and by individuals at home. This is an update of the Cochrane review of fluoride mouthrinses for preventing dental caries in children and adolescents that was first published in 2003. The primary objective is to determine the effectiveness and safety of fluoride mouthrinses in preventing dental caries in the child and adolescent population.The secondary objective is to examine whether the effect of fluoride rinses is influenced by:• initial level of caries severity;• background exposure to fluoride in water (or salt), toothpastes or reported fluoride sources other than the study option(s); or• fluoride concentration (ppm F) or frequency of use (times per year). We searched the following electronic databases: Cochrane Oral Health's Trials Register (whole database, to 22 April 2016), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (the Cochrane Library, 2016, Issue 3), MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 22 April 2016), Embase Ovid (1980 to 22 April 2016), CINAHL EBSCO (the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, 1937 to 22 April 2016), LILACS BIREME (Latin American and Caribbean Health Science Information Database, 1982 to 22 April 2016), BBO BIREME (Bibliografia Brasileira de Odontologia; from 1986 to 22 April 2016), Proquest Dissertations and Theses (1861 to 22 April 2016) and Web of Science Conference Proceedings (1990 to 22 April 2016). We undertook a search for ongoing trials on the US National Institutes of Health Trials Register (http://clinicaltrials.gov) and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform. We placed no restrictions on language or date of publication when searching electronic databases. We also searched reference lists of articles and contacted selected authors and manufacturers. Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials where blind outcome assessment was stated or

  3. Fluoride gels for preventing dental caries in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinho, Valeria C C; Worthington, Helen V; Walsh, Tanya; Chong, Lee Yee

    2015-06-15

    Topically applied fluoride gels have been widely used as a caries-preventive intervention in dental surgeries and school-based programmes for over three decades. This updates the Cochrane review of fluoride gels for preventing dental caries in children and adolescents that was first published in 2002. The primary objective is to determine the effectiveness and safety of fluoride gels in preventing dental caries in the child and adolescent population.The secondary objectives are to examine whether the effect of fluoride gels is influenced by the following: initial level of caries severity; background exposure to fluoride in water (or salt), toothpastes, or reported fluoride sources other than the study option(s); mode of use (self applied under supervision or operator-applied), and whether there is a differential effect between the tray and toothbrush methods of application; frequency of use (times per year) or fluoride concentration (ppm F). We searched the Cochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register (to 5 November 2014), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (Cochrane Library 2014, Issue 11), MEDLINE via OVID (1946 to 5 November 2014), EMBASE via OVID (1980 to 5 November 2014), CINAHL via EBSCO (1980 to 5 November 2014), LILACS and BBO via the BIREME Virtual Health Library (1980 to 5 November 2014), ProQuest Dissertations and Theses (1861 to 5 November 2014) and Web of Science Conference Proceedings (1945 to 5 November 2014). We undertook a search for ongoing trials on ClinicalTrials.gov and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform on 5 November 2014. We placed no restrictions on language or date of publication in the search of the electronic databases. We also searched reference lists of articles and contacted selected authors and manufacturers. Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials where blind outcome assessment was stated or indicated, comparing topically applied fluoride gel with placebo or no treatment in

  4. Emerging science in the dietary control and prevention of dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dajani, Mahmoud; Limeback, Hardy

    2012-10-01

    The key environmental factor involved in caries incidence is fermentable carbohydrates. Because of the high costs of caries treatment, researchers continue to explore dietary control as a promising preventive method. While dietary change has been demonstrated to reduce Streptococcus mutans, a preventive role is expected for "functional foods" and dietary habit alterations. The authors consider how recent advances in the understanding of caries pathology can reveal dietary control as a valuable method in promoting a healthy dentition.

  5. [Current and future prospects concerning the prevention of dental caries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonetti D'Arca, A; Marino, F; Rosica, L

    1989-01-01

    Caries is a disease which on the basis of numerous epidemiological data it should be possible to control. The preventive interventions which have proved to have the greatest effect on the diffusion of this disease are essentially: fluoroprophylaxis, oral hygiene, food hygiene and periodic dental examination. The common denominator, which has the greatest effect on success, is a good level of health education of the populations affected by the programme, with specific reference to the teeth. The importance of the diet as a possible element predisposing to caries is an ascertained fact by now, and in fact it is well known that the greatest cariogenic effect is achieved after eating foods containing large quantities of fermentable sugars at irregular intervals throughout the day, especially in the form of products of high density and viscosity. The proposal to replace sugar with substitutive sweeteners such as: xilitol, sorbitol, licasin, talin, palatinit and, more recently, aspartame does not completely solve the problem; and apart from this the clearcut reduction of caries achieved in different European and non-European countries does not appear to be directly connected with a drop in sugar consumption, while more and more importance is ascribed to individual food choices. Oral hygiene procedures aim not only at the cleaning of teeth but also, to some extent, controlling the bacterial plaque. For this reason these are sometimes included among anticaries interventions; however opinions differ in this regard, with a clear prevalence of negative views. The question changes radically if we combine with mechanical procedures alone the use of fluoride-based toothpastes, which are recognised, in combination with other interventions, as playing a fundamental role in the rapid decline of caries in industralised countries. Toothpaste is considered as an excellent vehicle for the topical application of fluoride since it comes into contact with the teeth is slight

  6. Consensus statement of the Makkah symposium on the prevention of dental caries: Common goals to prevent dental caries in Saudi Arabia

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    Abdullah R AlShammery

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries levels in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia have been a cause of concern to public health planners for sometime. The dental caries symposium of the 14th Makkah Dental Conference brought together leaders from the different academic and clinical stakeholders in the provision of dental health care in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The aim of the symposium was to establish consensus on the role of different public health measures to be implemented in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia that could help reduce the overall dental caries rate. This consensus statement summarizes the key findings of the panel and presents a consensus statement on six major topics: (1 water fluoridation, (2 dental health care provision by the Ministry of Health, (3 cost-effectiveness of preventive dental care, (4 caries risk assessment, (5 evidence-based recommendations for the prevention of dental caries, and (6 the role of the dental academic sector in the prevention of dental caries. These six factors were discussed in the background of international best practices in caries prevention and how these practices could be adopted in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

  7. Knowledge and practices of caries prevention among Taiwanese dentists attending a national conference

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    Tzu-Hsien Lin

    2010-12-01

    Conclusions: A portion of Taiwanese dentists seemed to have limited up-to-date information about certain topics related to caries prevention. The frequency of treatments for caries prevention, such as topical fluoride and sealants, did not match the perceived effectiveness of these treatments by participants.

  8. Pencegahan primer pada anak yang berisiko karies tinggi (Primary prevention in children with high caries risk

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    Ami Angela

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Oral and dental health has got improvement tremendously over the last century but the prevalence of dental caries in children has remained a significant clinical problem. Caries risk varies between individuals according to each subject’s balance between factors exposing to and protecting from caries attack. It is important to assess the risk of caries for all patients on a routine basis. Caries risk is divided into three levels: high, moderate, and low. Thereby, the dental professional is better to make a specific prevention and treatment recommendations to reduce a child risk and improve overall oral health. The goal of caries-risk assessment and preventive treatment is to eliminate caries or at least to reduce the high-caries occurrence down to the level of the remaining part of the age group. Preventive treatment is divided into three parts: primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention. This paper describes the primary prevention in children with high caries risk by behavior modification and tooth protection. Behavior modification is about dental health education, oral hygiene, diet and sugar consumption, sugar-free chewing gum and sugar-free medicines. Tooth protection is about sealant, usage of flouride and chlorhexidine.

  9. Caries risk and prevention: Evaluation of a preventive program in a clinic for children

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    Fábio Correia Sampaio

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to verify the use of the Nexø caries risk assessment system together with the Cariogram® (School of Dentistry, Malmö, Sweden, in a preventive program for children at the cariology clinic at Federal University of Paraíba. Methods: A sample of 107 children (2- to 14-year-old was attended on two occasions. The patients’ clinical data (DMF-T, dmf-t, Bleeding index, OHI-S and those from the preventive procedures performed (professional cleaning, fluoride application, Cariogram® (School of Dentistry, Malmö, Sweden, Nexø caries risk were collected twice: first from the clinical record cards and on the second occasion by exams. Parents and guardians evaluated the clinical attendance in an interview and the children, by means of a VAS scale. According to the Nexø caries risk assessment system, 53 children (49.5% were classified at low risk (6. Data analysis was carried out using SPSS (11.0. Results: A positive correlation was observed between the two risk systems: Nexø and Cariogram® (School of Dentistry, Malmö, Sweden of chances of avoiding new caries lesions. The possibility of avoiding new caries lesions increased 5% in both groups and a discrete increase was observed in the other parameters. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the Nexø system associated with the Cariogram® (School of Dentistry, Malmö, Sweden, contributed to the assessment of the patients’ caries risk profile and to the success of the preventive program for children at the cariology clinic at Universidade Federal da Paraíba.

  10. Caries management by risk assessment: A review on current strategies for caries prevention and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheswari, S. Uma; Raja, Jacob; Kumar, Arvind; Seelan, R. Gnana

    2015-01-01

    The current trend in treating dental caries is using nondestructive risk-based caries management strategies rather than focusing on the restorative treatment alone. Currently, there have been many changes in understanding of the multifaceted nature of caries process and its management. Caries Management by Risk Assessment (CAMBRA) which is an evidence-based approach focuses on determining many factors causing the expression of disease and take corrective action. The clinicians can ascertain what behaviors are increasing a patient's risk for disease and disease progression by evaluating the current caries risk of a patient. With this modern CAMBRA protocol, a novel treatment plan can be designed to arrest dental caries thereby decreasing the chance of cavitation. After the recognition of the multi factorial nature of caries involving the biofilm, the contemporary approaches focused mainly on the various options to cope with the locally out-of-balance oral biofilm and stop the progression of the disease. The initial caries lesions can be diagnosed with modern diagnostic aids and with the help of CAMBRA, reestablishment of the integrity of the tooth surface early on in the caries process will bring great rewards for patients. This review focuses on the repair of hard tooth tissues using noninvasive strategies. PMID:26538870

  11. Caries management by risk assessment: A review on current strategies for caries prevention and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheswari, S Uma; Raja, Jacob; Kumar, Arvind; Seelan, R Gnana

    2015-08-01

    The current trend in treating dental caries is using nondestructive risk-based caries management strategies rather than focusing on the restorative treatment alone. Currently, there have been many changes in understanding of the multifaceted nature of caries process and its management. Caries Management by Risk Assessment (CAMBRA) which is an evidence-based approach focuses on determining many factors causing the expression of disease and take corrective action. The clinicians can ascertain what behaviors are increasing a patient's risk for disease and disease progression by evaluating the current caries risk of a patient. With this modern CAMBRA protocol, a novel treatment plan can be designed to arrest dental caries thereby decreasing the chance of cavitation. After the recognition of the multi factorial nature of caries involving the biofilm, the contemporary approaches focused mainly on the various options to cope with the locally out-of-balance oral biofilm and stop the progression of the disease. The initial caries lesions can be diagnosed with modern diagnostic aids and with the help of CAMBRA, reestablishment of the integrity of the tooth surface early on in the caries process will bring great rewards for patients. This review focuses on the repair of hard tooth tissues using noninvasive strategies.

  12. Dental caries and periodontal disease (prevention and control methods).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan, S P

    1999-01-01

    There is a compelling need to apply preventive programs in both private and community practice of dentistry. This is to maintain improvements in oral health in developed and industrialized countries, and to stem increases in oral diseases in underserved and developing ones. At the outset, the terms prevention and control must be understood. The former is considered to mean a procedure or course of action that prevents the onset of disease, whereas the latter, implies reversing or stabilizing disease conditions. To be more precise, prevention will refer to the pre-pathologic or pre-clinical stage encompassing the promotive and specific protection levels--primary prevention stage. On the other hand, control will encompass early diagnosis and prompt treatment, disability limitation and rehabilitation levels-termed also collectively, as pathologic, clinical and final stages, or secondary and tertiary prevention. Community-based programs are usually structured to compliment therapeutic interventions of oral diseases, as well as prevention. In this era, and towards the next millennium, preventive and control programs are given high priorities in order to minimize the need for curative, restorative and therapeutic management of oral diseases. This review of the literature will give emphasis on established methods and programs for the prevention and control of the two most common oral diseases, dental caries and periodontal disease. The problems, background, and oral health objectives for the year 2000 as proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Federation Dentaire Internationale (FDI), as well as the recent advances in oral health relative to these diseases will be discussed. Finally, to better improve the efficacy of existing prevention and control methods, research needs and areas of concern relative to these diseases will be given consideration.

  13. [Radiation-related caries: etiology and possible preventive strategies. What should the radiotherapist know?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweyen, R; Hey, J; Fränzel, W; Vordermark, D; Hildebrandt, G; Kuhnt, T

    2012-01-01

    After radiation treatment of head-and-neck cancer, the impairment of patient's quality of life still remains an issue. After completion of the treatment course, a substantial number of patients develop so-called radiation caries. In addition, almost 50% of all cases of infectious osteoradionecrosis (iORN) of the jaws are directly associated with radiation caries. This review addresses our current knowledge on the etiology and pathogenesis of radiation caries including possible preventive strategies. A PubMed search using the terms "radiation caries" ("radiation related caries", "radiation related damage to dentition") and "radiogenic caries" ("postradiation caries", "dental complications and radiotherapy") was performed. The analysis of its content focused on the etiology, the pathogenesis, and the available knowledge on prophylaxis as well as treatment of radiation caries. For this review, 60 publications were selected. As main causal factors for radiogenic caries, either indirect impairment, resulting from alterations in the oral environment (e.g., radiation-induced xerostomia) or direct radiation-induced damage in teeth hard tissues are discussed. Radiation caries remains a lifelong threat and, therefore, requires permanent prevention programs. To enable optimal medical care of the patients during the time course of radiotherapy as well as afterwards, close interdisciplinary cooperation between radiotherapists, oral surgeons, otorhinolaryngologists, and dentists is absolutely essential.

  14. Radiation-related caries. Etiology and possible preventive strategies. What should the radiotherapist know?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweyen, R.; Hey, J.; Fraenzel, W.; Vordermark, D.; Hildebrandt, G.; Kuhnt, T.

    2012-01-01

    After radiation treatment of head-and-neck cancer, the impairment of patient's quality of life still remains an issue. After completion of the treatment course, a substantial number of patients develop so-called radiation caries. In addition, almost 50% of all cases of infectious osteoradionecrosis (iORN) of the jaws are directly associated with radiation caries. This review addresses our current knowledge on the etiology and pathogenesis of radiation caries including possible preventive strategies. Materials and methods A PubMed search using the terms ''radiation caries'' (''radiation related caries'', ''radiation related damage to dentition'') and ''radiogenic caries'' (''postradiation caries'', ''dental complications and radiotherapy'') was performed. The analysis of its content focused on the etiology, the pathogenesis, and the available knowledge on prophylaxis as well as treatment of radiation caries. Results For this review, 60 publications were selected. As main causal factors for radiogenic caries, either indirect impairment, resulting from alterations in the oral environment (e.g., radiation-induced xerostomia) or direct radiation-induced damage in teeth hard tissues are discussed. Radiation caries remains a lifelong threat and, therefore, requires permanent prevention programs. Conclusion To enable optimal medical care of the patients during the time course of radiotherapy as well as afterwards, close interdisciplinary cooperation between radiotherapists, oral surgeons, otorhinolaryngologists, and dentists is absolutely essential. (orig.)

  15. Community-oriented administration of fluoride for the prevention of dental caries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, P E; Baez, R J; Lennon, M A

    2012-01-01

    coverage. Participants acknowledged that automatic fluoridation through water, salt, and milk is the most effective and equitable strategy for the prevention of dental caries. Concerns were expressed that government-subsidized community fluoride prevention programs may face privatization. In addition...

  16. Preventing Dental Caries in Children from Birth Through Age Five Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding Task Force Recommendations Preventing Dental Caries in Children from Birth Through Age Five Years The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) has issued a final recommendation statement ...

  17. Xylitol Chewing Gums on the Market: Do They Prevent Caries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanzi, Abrar; Soderling, Eva; Varghese, Anisha; Honkala, Eino

    To measure the xylitol content in sugar-free chewing gums available on the market in Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries in the Middle East, in order to identify those products that can provide the recommended daily dose of xylitol for caries prevention (6-7 g). Acid production from chewing gums was also measured in vitro and in vivo. Twenty-one chewing gums containing xylitol were identified and collected from the GCC market (Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, UAE and Oman). Xylitol was extracted and its concentration was analysed using a special enzymatic kit. The pH of extracts was measured during 30-min incubation with Streptococcus mutans. Changes in saliva and plaque pH were noted in four subjects after the consumption of highly concentrated xylitol gums. The xylitol content in grams was clearly mentioned only on one product's label. Twelve products stated the percentage of xylitol (3.5% to 35%). The rest did not specify the amount. The mean measured weight of one piece of gum was 1.67 ± 0.38 g. The mean measured xylitol content/piece was 0.33 ± 0.21 g. Xylitol content was 0.5 g in 5 products. None of the highly concentrated xylitol gums showed a pH drop in vitro or in vivo. One chewing gum, containing xylitol and glucose, resulted in a low pH level (xylitol chewing gums sold on the GCC market do not provide the consumers with the recommended daily dose of xylitol for caries prevention. Clear, accurate labeling is recommended.

  18. Prevention of caries with probiotic bacteria during early childhood. Promising but inconsistent findings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Mette Rose; pqd956, pqd956; Twetman, Svante

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: This review summarized the available literature on the prevention of childhood caries through biofilm engineering with probiotic bacteria in early childhood. METHODS: Three databases (PubMed, Cochrane Library and Trip) were searched through January, 2016 for randomized controlled trials...... the caries prevalence and expressed as prevented fraction and number needed to treat. RESULTS: Probiotic supplements were better than placebo in preventing early childhood caries in all seven studies although the difference was statistically significant in only four of them. The prevented fraction ranged...

  19. A randomised controlled trial to measure the effects and costs of a dental caries prevention regime for young children attending primary care dental services: the Northern Ireland Caries Prevention In Practice (NIC-PIP) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tickle, Martin; O'Neill, Ciaran; Donaldson, Michael; Birch, Stephen; Noble, Solveig; Killough, Seamus; Murphy, Lynn; Greer, Margaret; Brodison, Julie; Verghis, Rejina; Worthington, Helen V

    2016-09-01

    1.04; p = 0.11]. The mean number of tooth surfaces affected by caries was 7.2 in the intervention group, compared with 9.6 in the control group (p = 0.007). There was no significant difference in the number of episodes of pain between groups (p = 0.81). However, 164 out of the total of 400 (41%) children who converted to caries active reported toothache, compared with 62 out of 696 (9%) caries-free children (OR 7.1 95% CI 5.1 to 9.9; p children (p = 0.95). Ten children in the intervention group had ARs of a minor nature. The average direct dental care cost was £155.74 for the intervention group and £48.21 for the control group over 3 years (p develop, pain is likely. There was a statistically significant difference in dmfs in caries-active children in favour of the intervention. Although adequately powered, the effect size of the intervention was small and of questionable clinical and economic benefit. Future work should assess the caries prevention effects of interventions to reduce sugar consumption at the population and individual levels. Interventions designed to arrest the disease once it is established need to be developed and tested in practice. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN36180119 and EudraCT 2009-010725-39. This project was funded by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Health Technology Assessment programme and will be published in full in Health Technology Assessment; Vol. 20, No. 71. See the NIHR Journals Library website for further project information.

  20. Diagnostic and Preventive Approaches for Dental Caries in Children: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahryar Karami

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Context Oral health status plays an essential role in human health. Recently, enhancement in oral health caries has been noted in both developed and developing countries. Dental caries is still very common among children. Screening and preventive interventions is necessary. The aim of this study was to review the diagnostic and preventive approaches for dental caries in children. Evidence Acquisition Searching PubMed, Medline, the Cochrane Library (for 5 recent years from 2011 - 2016, and reference lists for keywords and phrases such as “dental caries in children” and prevention and diagnosis, we included trials and controlled observational studies regarding the diagnosis and preventive techniques for dental caries in children. Results We found no study demonstrating the effects of screening by primary care providers on clinical outcomes. In a cohort study, pediatrician examination associated with a sensitivity of 0.76 was reported to identify dental caries in children. The results of the new randomized trials that were confirmed by previous studies showed that the efficacy of fluoride varnish is more than no varnish in reduction of dental caries from 18% to 59%. Some of the trials regarding xylitol had no results regarding the effects on dental caries. New observational studies have shown an association between early childhood fluoride use and enamel fluorosis. There is no evidence on the accuracy of prediction instruments in primary care settings. Conclusions We found no direct evidence that reveals that screening by primary care clinicians can decrease early childhood caries. Previous evidences reviewed by the United State Preventive Services Task Force demonstrated that oral fluoride supplementation is effective in decreasing caries incidences, and recent evidences supported the effectiveness of fluoride varnish in higher-risk children.

  1. Getting the Incentives Right: Improving Oral Health Equity With Universal School-Based Caries Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederman, Richard; Huang, Shulamite S; Trescher, Anna-Lena; Listl, Stefan

    2017-05-01

    Despite significant financial, training, and program investments, US children's caries experience and inequities continued to increase over the last 20 years. We posit that (1) dental insurance payment systems are not aligned with the current best evidence, exacerbating inequities, and (2) system redesign could meet health care's triple aim and reduce children's caries by 80%. On the basis of 2013 to 2016 Medicaid and private payment rates and the caries prevention literature, we find that effective preventive interventions are either (1) consistently compensated less than ineffective interventions or (2) not compensated at all. This economic and clinical misalignment may account for underuse of effective caries prevention and subsequent overuse of restorative care. We propose universal school-based comprehensive caries prevention to address this misalignment. Preliminary modeling suggests that universal caries prevention could eliminate 80% of children's caries and cost less than one fifth of current Medicaid children's oral health spending. If implemented with bundled payments based on cycle of care and measurable outcomes, there would be an alignment of incentives, best evidence, care, and outcomes. Such a program would meet the Healthy People Oral Health goals for children, as well as health care's triple aim.

  2. Compliance of post-radiation therapy head and neck cancer patients with caries preventive protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frydrych, A M; Slack-Smith, L M; Parsons, R

    2017-06-01

    Caries prevention is paramount in safeguarding the life quality of head and neck cancer patients and is dependent on patient compliance with caries preventive protocols. The purpose of this study was to examine this compliance. All records of patients referred to one public oral medicine clinic servicing a head and neck oncology unit of one major Western Australian hospital, between January 2005 and December 2011, were examined. Data extracted included patient and cancer characteristics and compliance with dietary advice, dental care, oral hygiene instruction and fluoride use over a follow-up period of at least 12 months. Compliance was assessed against various oral health outcomes and patient characteristics. Of the 116 participants, 75.9% complied with all caries preventive measures over a mean follow-up period of 45 months. Non-compliance with regular dental attendance (P = 0.004), oral hygiene instruction (P = 0.009), dietary advice (P = 0.034) and daily fluoride use (P = 0.018) were associated with the development of dental caries post-treatment. The presence of dental caries at the time of cancer diagnosis was predictive of poorer compliance. High compliance with caries preventive measures is attainable in the head and neck cancer patient group. Factors other than fluoride use seem important in caries prevention. © 2016 Australian Dental Association.

  3. The caries-preventive effect of chlorhexidine varnish in children and adolescents: a systematic review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    James, Patrice

    2010-01-01

    Our purpose was to systematically review the literature on the effectiveness of chlorhexidine varnish for preventing dental caries in children and adolescents and to determine its effectiveness compared to fluoride varnish.

  4. Pediatric Dental Care: Prevention and Management Protocols Based on Caries Risk Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    RAMOS-GOMEZ, FRANCISCO J.; CRYSTAL, YASMI O.; NG, MAN WAI; CRALL, JAMES J.; FEATHERSTONE, JOHN D.B.

    2010-01-01

    Recent increases in caries prevalence in young children, especially among minorities and the economically disadvantaged, highlight the need for early establishment of dental homes and simple, effective infant oral care preventive programs for all children as part of a medical disease prevention management model.1–3 This article presents an updated approach and practical tools for pediatric dental caries management by risk assessment, CAMBRA, in an effort to stimulate greater adoption of infan...

  5. Preventing dental caries in children <5 years: systematic review updating USPSTF recommendation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Roger; Cantor, Amy; Zakher, Bernadette; Mitchell, Jennifer Priest; Pappas, Miranda

    2013-08-01

    Screening and preventive interventions by primary care providers could improve outcomes related to early childhood caries. The objective of this study was to update the 2004 US Preventive Services Task Force systematic review on prevention of caries in children younger than 5 years of age. Searching Medline and the Cochrane Library (through March 2013) and reference lists, we included trials and controlled observational studies on the effectiveness and harms of screening and treatments. One author extracted study characteristics and results, which were checked for accuracy by a second author. Two authors independently assessed study quality. No study evaluated effects of screening by primary care providers on clinical outcomes. One good-quality cohort study found pediatrician examination associated with a sensitivity of 0.76 for identifying a child with cavities. No new trials evaluated oral fluoride supplementation. Three new randomized trials were consistent with previous studies in finding fluoride varnish more effective than no varnish (reduction in caries increment 18% to 59%). Three trials of xylitol were inconclusive regarding effects on caries. New observational studies were consistent with previous evidence showing an association between early childhood fluoride use and enamel fluorosis. Evidence on the accuracy of risk prediction instruments in primary care settings is not available. There is no direct evidence that screening by primary care clinicians reduces early childhood caries. Evidence previously reviewed by the US Preventive Services Task Force found oral fluoride supplementation effective at reducing caries incidence, and new evidence supports the effectiveness of fluoride varnish in higher-risk children.

  6. Changes in Caries Experience, Untreated Caries, Sealant Prevalence, and Preventive Behavior Among Third-Graders in New York State, 2002–2004 and 2009–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Vinicius; Kandhari, Priyanka; Moss, Mark; Jolaoso, I. Adeyemi

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study assessed changes in caries experience, untreated caries, sealant prevalence, and preventive behavior among third-grade children in New York State to monitor progress toward state health objectives. Methods We analyzed children's data from the 2002–2004 (n=10,865) and 2009–2012 (n=6,758) New York State Oral Health Survey. We calculated differences in weighted percentages and 95% confidence intervals for caries experience, untreated caries, sealant prevalence, and preventive behavior. We used logistic regression procedures to assess the independent effects and interaction terms on dental caries experience. Results The percentage of children with dental caries and untreated caries decreased from 54.1% and 33.0% in 2002–2004 to 45.2% and 23.6% in 2009–2012, respectively. While this decrease was not uniform across income subgroups, the prevalence of sealants, a key measure of the use of preventive services, increased significantly from 16.7% to 36.0% among lower-income children. Conclusions Measurable improvement in reducing dental caries prevalence among third-grade children has been made in New York State, but this improvement was not uniform across subgroups. Specifically, disease prevalence among lower-income children remained high, underscoring the need to strengthen existing programs and identify additional policy and programmatic interventions. PMID:26346760

  7. Prevention of dental caries in children from birth through age 5 years: US Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, Virginia A

    2014-06-01

    Update of the 2004 US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendation on prevention of dental caries in preschool-aged children. The USPSTF reviewed the evidence on prevention of dental caries by primary care clinicians in children 5 years and younger, focusing on screening for caries, assessment of risk for future caries, and the effectiveness of various interventions that have possible benefits in preventing caries. This recommendation applies to children age 5 years and younger. The USPSTF recommends that primary care clinicians prescribe oral fluoride supplementation starting at age 6 months for children whose water supply is deficient in fluoride. (B recommendation) The USPSTF recommends that primary care clinicians apply fluoride varnish to the primary teeth of all infants and children starting at the age of primary tooth eruption. (B recommendation) The USPSTF concludes that the current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of routine screening examinations for dental caries performed by primary care clinicians in children from birth to age 5 years. (I Statement). Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  8. Prevention of caries with probiotic bacteria during early childhood. Promising but inconsistent findings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Mette Rose; pqd956, pqd956; Twetman, Svante

    2016-01-01

    published in English. Out of 144 abstracts, seven studies fulfilled the predetermined inclusion criteria and were quality assessed with respect to risk of bias independently by two examiners. Due to the paucity and heterogeneity, a narrative synthesis was performed. The effect size was estimated from......PURPOSE: This review summarized the available literature on the prevention of childhood caries through biofilm engineering with probiotic bacteria in early childhood. METHODS: Three databases (PubMed, Cochrane Library and Trip) were searched through January, 2016 for randomized controlled trials...... the caries prevalence and expressed as prevented fraction and number needed to treat. RESULTS: Probiotic supplements were better than placebo in preventing early childhood caries in all seven studies although the difference was statistically significant in only four of them. The prevented fraction ranged...

  9. Maryland Physicians' Knowledge, Opinions, and Practices Related to Dental Caries Etiology and Prevention in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherspoon, Darien J; Horowitz, Alice M; Kleinman, Dushanka V

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess Maryland physicians' knowledge and understanding of dental caries etiology and prevention, opinions related to prevention effectiveness, and their prevention practices. In 2010, a 30-item, self-administered survey questionnaire was mailed to a random sample of 1,472 Maryland family physicians and pediatricians, with 294 surveys being returned and usable, yielding a 20 percent return rate. Statistical analyses in this descriptive study included distributions and cross-tabulations for the survey responses. Thirty-five percent of family physicians and 45 percent of pediatricians indicated they provide caries prevention education to their patients. Approximately half of the physicians reported performing some type of caries risk assessment. Out of 10 dental caries knowledge questions, there was not a single question that the majority of physicians answered correctly with certainty. Nine percent of family physicians and 12 percent of pediatricians reported they provided fluoride varnish treatment to their three- to six-year-old patients at the time of this survey. This study identified specific areas, related to Maryland physicians' dental caries etiology and prevention knowledge, that continuing education and training programs could enhance.

  10. Methods for the evaluation of caries preventing agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herkströter, Franciscus Maria

    1990-01-01

    Dental caries, or tooth decay, is a pathological process of localized destruction of tooth tissues by micro-organisms present in the so-called plaque. The destruction, caused by acids formed in the plague,Ieads to mineral loss (demineralization) from the hard tissues. A demineralized tooth can also

  11. Recommendations for using fluoride to prevent and control dental caries in the United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-08-17

    Widespread use of fluoride has been a major factor in the decline in the prevalence and severity of dental caries (i.e., tooth decay) in the United States and other economically developed countries. When used appropriately, fluoride is both safe and effective in preventing and controlling dental caries. All U.S. residents are likely exposed to some degree to fluoride, which is available from multiple sources. Both health-care professionals and the public have sought guidance on selecting the best way to provide and receive fluoride. During the late 1990s, CDC convened a work group to develop recommendations for using fluoride to prevent and control dental caries in the United States. This report includes these recommendations, as well as a) critical analysis of the scientific evidence regarding the efficacy and effectiveness of fluoride modalities in preventing and controlling dental caries, b) ordinal grading of the quality of the evidence, and c) assessment of the strength of each recommendation. Because frequent exposure to small amounts of fluoride each day will best reduce the risk for dental caries in all age groups, the work group recommends that all persons drink water with an optimal fluoride concentration and brush their teeth twice daily with fluoride toothpaste. For persons at high risk for dental caries, additional fluoride measures might be needed. Measured use of fluoride modalities is particularly appropriate during the time of anterior tooth enamel development (i.e., age <6 years). The recommendations in this report guide dental and other health-care providers, public health officials, policy makers, and the public in the use of fluoride to achieve maximum protection against dental caries while using resources efficiently and reducing the likelihood of enamel fluorosis. The recommendations address public health and professional practice, self-care, consumer product industries and health agencies, and further research. Adoption of these

  12. The biology, prevention, diagnosis and treatment of dental caries: scientific advances in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zero, Domenick T; Fontana, Margherita; Martínez-Mier, E Angeles; Ferreira-Zandoná, Andréa; Ando, Masatoshi; González-Cabezas, Carlos; Bayne, Stephen

    2009-09-01

    Scientific advances in cariology in the past 150 years have led to the understanding that dental caries is a chronic, dietomicrobial, site-specific disease caused by a shift from protective factors favoring tooth remineralization to destructive factors leading to demineralization. Epidemiologic data indicate that caries has changed in the last century; it now is distributed unequally in the U.S. population. People who are minorities, homeless, migrants, children with disabilities and of lower socioeconomic status suffer from the highest prevalence and severity of dental caries. Scientific advances have led to improvements in the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of dental caries, but there is a need for new diagnostic tools and treatment methods. and Future management of dental caries requires early detection and risk assessment if the profession is to achieve timely and cost-effective prevention and treatment for those who need it most. Dental professionals look forward to the day when people of all ages and backgrounds view dental caries as a disease of the past.

  13. Effectiveness of Different Preventive Programs in Cariogram Parameters of Young Adults at High Caries Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Karabekiroğlu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the effectiveness of different preventive programs in young adults at high caries risk using Cariogram software. Methods. Sixty-six young adults with high caries risk were evaluated. Dental caries risk for all subjects was determined according to WHO criteria. Subjects were divided into three different preventive groups (control: OH, fluoride varnish: FV, and chlorhexidine varnish: CV. They were followed for 12 weeks (baseline: T0, 1 week: T1, 4 weeks: T2, and 12 weeks: T3. Plaque index, diet frequency, and salivary chairside tests (to record the flow rate, buffer capacity, and mutans streptococci and lactobacillus counts were performed at each visit. Based on these data, ten caries-related variables were collected and inserted into the Cariogram software to calculate the predicted chance of avoiding caries for each subject. Results. Significant changes were obtained about the Cariogram parameters (diet, bacteria, susceptibility, circumstances, and Cariogram risk group. No significant differences were found between the three methods regarding mean Cariogram scores after 3 months (p>0.05. Conclusions. The regular and effective short-term (three months use of 1450 ppm fluoridated toothpaste, one visit application of fluoride, and chlorhexidine varnishes were effective for reducing caries risk in young adults, which can be clearly demonstrated using Cariogram software.

  14. [Serial clinical examinations as the main approach to dental caries prevention in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skripkina, G I; Garifullina, A Zh

    2015-01-01

    Leading scientific and organizational prerequisites for the feasibility of clinical examination of the entire child population of the Russian Federation to the dentist is, above all, the high prevalence and intensity of dental diseases in children of all ages. As a result of many years of research and follow-up of children of preschool and school age we have proved the need to distinguish a group of children with zero activity of dental caries. The referring criteria are determined according to the results of comprehensive clinical and laboratory examination in order to determine the degree of risk of dental caries and individual caries resistance. The age-specific risk group is settled by "Stop caries" software. In order to optimize the preventive activities children are divided in 5 groups for routine preventive dental care. Unfortunately the efforts of modern dental services aimed at eliminating the consequences of caries process by filling cavities. Individualized preventive approach will increase the effectiveness of preventive measures and save public funds allocated in the amount of compulsory health insurance for pediatric dentistry.

  15. Nd:YAG laser in occlusal caries prevention of primary teeth: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raucci-Neto, Walter; de Castro-Raucci, Larissa Moreira Spinola; Lepri, Cesar Penazzo; Faraoni-Romano, Juliana Jendiroba; Gomes da Silva, Jaciara Miranda; Palma-Dibb, Regina Guenka

    2015-02-01

    Dental caries is still the most prevalent chronic disease affecting human populations. Among the preventive treatments performed, it has been reported that laser irradiation combined with topical fluoride can induce an even greater increase in enamel caries resistance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the Nd:YAG laser, with or without fluoride, in occlusal caries prevention of the primary dentition. A double-blind split-mouth study design was used. Fifty-two children with high caries risk (7.6 ± 1.4 years) were selected and received the following: G1--the first molar was a negative control, and the second received a resin sealant; G2--the first molar was a negative control, and the second received laser irradiation (50 mJ, 10 Hz, 0.5 W); G3--the first molar received only acidulate phosphate fluoride (APF), and the second received APF + laser; G4--fisrt molar received only fluoride varnish, and the second received fluoride varnish + laser. Patients were followed up to 12 months to evaluate the presence of white-spot lesions and/or caries cavities by three calibrated observers. Thirty-five patients completed the study. Significant differences were found between the treatment and control groups (p laser-alone and resin sealant resulted in statistically lower caries formation than the negative control group (p laser irradiation in primary teeth effectively prevented occlusal caries in pits and fissures when used alone with lower energy over a 1-year period.

  16. Pediatric Dental Care: Prevention and Management Protocols Based on Caries Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    RAMOS-GOMEZ, FRANCISCO J.; CRYSTAL, YASMI O.; NG, MAN WAI; CRALL, JAMES J.; FEATHERSTONE, JOHN D.B.

    2012-01-01

    Recent increases in caries prevalence in young children, especially among minorities and the economically disadvantaged, highlight the need for early establishment of dental homes and simple, effective infant oral care preventive programs for all children as part of a medical disease prevention management model.1–3 This article presents an updated approach and practical tools for pediatric dental caries management by risk assessment, CAMBRA, in an effort to stimulate greater adoption of infant oral care programs among clinicians and early establishment of dental homes for young children. PMID:21162350

  17. Oral health attitudes and caries-preventive behaviour of Czech parents of preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Lenčová

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To characterize the oral health-related attitudes and behavior of Czech parents of preschool children. Materials and methods. A representative sample of 796 parents was recruited for the crosssectional questionnaire survey. Study data were collected using a validated questionnaire with 44 attitudinal items related to different aspects of caries prevention. The data were analyzed by explorative factor analysis, extracted factors were subjected to reliability analysis and Kruskal–Wallis ANOVA was used to test differences in the factor scores in respondents with different levels of education and selfperceived SES. Results. The factor analysis extracted 3 factors, labeled ”Toothbrushing – perceived significance and parental efficacy”; ”External caries control” and ”Internal caries control”. They explained 28.9% of the data variability. The comparison of the factor scores in groups with different SES and education of mothers showed highly significant differences. For all three factors, median values of the aggregated Likert scale increased with increasing SES and education of the mother. Conclusion. The parents report that they are aware of their responsibility for the prevention of tooth decay in their children. In caries prevention they concentrate on toothbrushing. Dietary measures do not seem to be of similar importance to them. The increasing self-perceived SES of the family and the education level of the mother have a significantly positive effect on the caries-preventive attitudes of the parents. Based on the study results, the message to the publichealth sector in the Czech Republic should include the need to highlight the importance of a non-cariogenic diet and the role of fluorides in caries prevention.

  18. Use of CO2 laser in pit and fissure caries prevention: clinical evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugnera, Aldo, Jr.; Rosso, Naomi; Duarte, Danilo; Guedes Pinto, Antonio C.; Genovese, Walter J.

    1997-05-01

    In this four-year follow up in vivo controlled study, 112 human permanent first molars, from children between the ages of 6 and 11 years old were used to investigate the viability of the CO2 laser in promoting carie-free occlusal surfaces in permanent molars, as an isolated form of treatment or associated with conventional fissure sealants. The findings suggest that occlusal caries prevention only by means of CO2 laser irradiation is not effective; that the utilization of photo-activated sealants, as well as its association with CO2 laser, applied over the occlusal fissures, are effective means of preventing occlusal caries and that the application of CO2 laser over occlusal fissures, prior to the application of a photo-activated fissure sealant, improves the retention of the sealant.

  19. Antibacterial Peptides: Opportunities for the Prevention and Treatment of Dental Caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepperney, Adam; Chikindas, Michael L

    2011-06-01

    Dental caries is a multifactorial disease that is a growing and costly global health concern. The onset of disease is a consequence of an ecological imbalance within the dental plaque biofilm that favors specific acidogenic and aciduric caries pathogens, namely Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus. It is now recognized by the scientific and medical community that it is neither possible nor desirable to totally eliminate dental plaque. Conversely, the chemical biocides most commonly used for caries prevention and treatment indiscriminately attack all plaque microorganisms. These treatments also suffer from other drawbacks such as bad taste, irritability, and staining. Furthermore, the public demand for safe and natural personal hygiene products continues to rise. Therefore, there are opportunities that exist to develop new strategies for the treatment of this disease. As an alternative to conventional antibiotics, antibacterial peptides have been explored greatly over the last three decades for many different therapeutic uses. There are currently tens of hundreds of antibacterial peptides characterized across the evolutionary spectrum, and among these, many demonstrate physical and/or biological properties that may be suitable for a more targeted approach to the selective control or elimination of putative caries pathogens. Additionally, many peptides, such as nisin, are odorless, colorless, and tasteless and do not cause irritation or staining. This review focuses on antibacterial peptides for their potential role in the treatment and prevention of dental caries and suggests candidates that need to be explored further. Practical considerations for the development of antibacterial peptides as oral treatments are also discussed.

  20. Caries prevention by professional fluoride gel application on enamel and dentinal lesions in low-caries children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Truin, G.J.; Hof, M.A. van 't

    2005-01-01

    In a double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial, the caries-reducing effect of semi-annually applied fluoride gel in a low-caries child population initially aged 4.5-6.5 years (n = 773) has been investigated. Secondary analyses of the data were performed to study the caries reduction

  1. Evidence of Effectiveness of Current Therapies to Prevent and Treat Early Childhood Caries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, Svante; Dhar, Vineet

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this paper was to systematically review the quality of evidence related to self-applied and professionally applied fluorides, antimicrobial agents, fissure sealants, temporary restorations, and restorative care for the prevention and management of early childhood caries (ECC...

  2. Evidence of Effectiveness of Current Therapies to Prevent and Treat Early Childhood Caries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, Svante; Dhar, Vineet

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this paper was to systematically review the quality of evidence related to self-applied and professionally applied fluorides, antimicrobial agents, fissure sealants, temporary restorations, and restorative care for the prevention and management of early childhood caries (E...

  3. Caries-preventive effect of sealants produced with altered glass-ionomer materials, after 2 years.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, X.; Du, M.Q.; Fan, M.W.; Mulder, J.; Huysmans, M.C.D.N.J.M.; Frencken, J.E.F.M.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to investigate the caries-preventive effect of sealants produced with a high-viscosity glass-ionomer with an elevated powder-liquid ratio (ART), of having energy added to this glass-ionomer, and that of glass-carbomer, in comparison to that of resin

  4. WHO: healthy diet to prevent chronic diseases and caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paglia, L

    2018-03-01

    For some years now, the WHO has recommended less than 10% of energy intake from free sugars. The same document also stresses the need to bring this limit below 5% as soon as possible. These guidelines have been promoted with the aim of reducing the prevalence of chronic non-communicable diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, obesity and metabolic syndrome. At the same time, the reduction of free sugars in the diet can be part of a strategy to reduce the prevalence of caries, which is known to be an infectious and transmissible multifactorial disease known to be "triggered" by wrong dietary habits. For this reason, paediatricians and paediatric dentists should combine their efforts to promote good eating habits from an early age and perhaps even earlier! In fact, we should teach future mothers and their children to prefer slowly absorbed sugars and drastically reduce the intake of free sugars with the diet. As soon as the child is able to chew, the diet should include fibre-rich foods, and water should be preferred over any sweetened drink. Raising children with a healthy and balanced diet means investing in his or her long-term general health and offer a dental future free of caries!

  5. Glycemic control with insulin prevents progression of dental caries and caries-related periodontitis in diabetic WBN/KobSlc rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, Yutaka; Sano, Tomoya; Kodama, Yasushi; Ozaki, Kiyokazu; Matsuura, Tetsuro

    2013-07-01

    We have previously reported that dental caries progress in spontaneously and chemically induced diabetic rodent models. The aim of this study was to clarify the relationship between hyperglycemia and dental caries by evaluating the preventive effect of glycemic control with insulin on the progression of the lesions in diabetic rats. Male WBN/KobSlc rats aged 15 weeks were divided into groups of spontaneously diabetic rats (intact group), spontaneously diabetic rats with insulin treatment (INS group), alloxan-induced prolonged diabetic rats (AL group), and alloxan-induced prolonged diabetic rats with insulin treatment (AL + INS group). The animals were killed at 90 weeks of age, and their oral tissue was examined. Dental caries and periodontitis were frequently detected in the intact group, and the lesions were enhanced in the AL group (in which there was an increased duration of diabetes). Meanwhile, glycemic control with insulin reduced the incidence and severity of dental caries and periodontitis in the INS group, and the effects became more pronounced in the AL + INS group. In conclusion, glycemic control by insulin prevented the progression of dental caries and caries-related periodontitis in the diabetic rats.

  6. Clinical practice guidelines for oral management of Sjögren disease: Dental caries prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zero, Domenick T; Brennan, Michael T; Daniels, Troy E; Papas, Athena; Stewart, Carol; Pinto, Andres; Al-Hashimi, Ibtisam; Navazesh, Mahvash; Rhodus, Nelson; Sciubba, James; Singh, Mabi; Wu, Ava J; Frantsve-Hawley, Julie; Tracy, Sharon; Fox, Philip C; Ford, Theresa Lawrence; Cohen, Stephen; Vivino, Frederick B; Hammitt, Katherine M

    2016-04-01

    Salivary dysfunction in Sjögren disease can lead to serious and costly oral health complications. Clinical practice guidelines for caries prevention in Sjögren disease were developed to improve quality and consistency of care. A national panel of experts devised clinical questions in a Population, Intervention, Comparison, Outcomes format and included use of fluoride, salivary stimulants, antimicrobial agents, and nonfluoride remineralizing agents. The panel conducted a systematic search of the literature according to pre-established parameters. At least 2 members extracted the data, and the panel rated the strength of the recommendations by using a variation of grading of recommendations, assessment, development, and evaluation. After a Delphi consensus panel was conducted, the experts finalized the recommendations, with a minimum of 75% agreement required. Final recommendations for patients with Sjögren disease with dry mouth were as follows: topical fluoride should be used in all patients (strong); although no study results link improved salivary flow to caries prevention, the oral health community generally accepts that increasing saliva may contribute to decreased caries incidence, so increasing saliva through gustatory, masticatory, or pharmaceutical stimulation may be considered (weak); chlorhexidine administered as varnish, gel, or rinse may be considered (weak); and nonfluoride remineralizing agents may be considered as an adjunct therapy (moderate). The incidence of caries in patients with Sjögren disease can be reduced with the use of topical fluoride and other preventive strategies. Copyright © 2016 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Focus on Fluorides: Update on the Use of Fluoride for the Prevention of Dental Caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Clifton M.

    2014-01-01

    Declarative Title: Improving the efficacy of fluoride therapies reduces dental caries and lowers fluoride exposure. Background Fluoride is delivered to the teeth systemically or topically to aid in the prevention of dental caries. Systemic fluoride from ingested sources is in blood serum and can be deposited only in teeth that are forming in children. Topical fluoride is from sources such as community water, processed foods, beverages, toothpastes, mouthrinses, gels, foams, and varnishes. The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the American Dental Association (ADA) have proposed changes in their long standing recommendations for the amount of fluoride in community drinking water in response to concerns about an increasing incidence of dental fluorosis in children. Current research is focused on the development of strategies to improve fluoride efficacy. The purpose of this update is to inform the reader about new research and policies related to the use of fluoride for the prevention of dental caries. Methods Reviews of the current research and recent evidence based systematic reviews on the topics of fluoride are presented. Topics discussed include: updates on community water fluoridation research and policies; available fluoride in dentifrices; fluoride varnish compositions, use, and recommendations; and other fluoride containing dental products. This update provides insights into current research and discusses proposed policy changes for the use of fluoride for the prevention of dental caries. Conclusions The dental profession is adjusting their recommendations for fluoride use based on current observations of the halo effect and subsequent outcomes. The research community is focused on improving the efficacy of fluoride therapies thus reducing dental caries and lowering the amount of fluoride required for efficacy. PMID:24929594

  8. Milk Sweetened with Xylitol: A Proof-of-Principle Caries Prevention Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Donald L; Zegarra, Graciela; Vasquez Huerta, Elsa C; Castillo, Jorge L; Milgrom, Peter; Roberts, Marilyn C; Cabrera-Matta, Ailin R; Merino, Ana P

    2016-09-15

    To evaluate the efficacy of xylitol-sweetened milk as a caries-preventive strategy. In this nine-month prospective proof-of-principle trial, Peruvian schoolchildren were randomized to one of five different milk groups: (1) eight g of xylitol per 200 mL milk once per day; (2) four g of xylitol per 100 mL milk twice per day; (3) eight g of sorbitol per 200 mL milk once per day; (4) four g of sorbitol per 100 mL milk twice per day; or (5) eight g of sucrose per 200 mL milk once per day. The primary outcome was plaque mutans streptococci (MS) at nine months. A secondary outcome was caries incidence. We hypothesized that children in the xylitol groups would have a greater MS decline and lower caries incidence. One hundred fifty-three children were randomized in the intent-to-treat analyses. Children receiving xylitol had a greater decline in MS than children receiving sucrose (P=0.02) but were not different from children receiving sorbitol (P=0.07). Dental caries incidence for xylitol once per day or twice per day was 5.3±3.4 and 4.3±4.0 surfaces, respectively, compared to sorbitol once per day, sorbitol twice per day, or sucrose (4.1±2.8, 3.7±4.2, and 3.2±3.4 surfaces, respectively). There were no differences in caries incidence between xylitol and sucrose (rate ratio [RR] = 1.51; 95 percent confidence interval [CI] = 0.88, 2.59; P=0.13) or between xylitol and sorbitol (RR = 1.28; 95 percent CI = 0.90, 1.83; P=0.16). Xylitol-sweetened milk significantly reduced mutans streptococci levels compared to sucrose-sweetened milk, but differences in caries incidence were not detected.

  9. Preventive care delivered within Public Dental Service after caries risk assessment of young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hänsel Petersson, G; Ericson, E; Twetman, S

    2016-08-01

    To study preventive care provided to young adults in relation to their estimated risk category over a 3-year period. The amount and type of preventive treatment during 3 years was extracted from the digital dental records of 982 patients attending eight public dental clinics. The baseline caries risk assessment was carried out by the patient's regular team in four classes according to a predetermined model, and the team was responsible for all treatment decisions. Based on the variables 'oral health information', 'additional fluoride' and 'professional tooth cleaning', a cumulative score was constructed and dichotomized to 'basic prevention' and 'additional prevention'. More additional preventive care was provided to the patients in the 'low-risk' and 'some risk' categories than to those classified as 'high' or 'very high' risk (OR = 2.0, 95% CI 1.4-3.0; P risk' and 'some risk' categories, respectively. Around 15% of the patients in the high-risk categories did not receive additional preventive measures over the 3-year period. There was an insignificant tendency that patients with additional prevention developed less caries than those that received basic prevention in all risk categories except for the 'very high-risk' group. The caries risk assessment process was not accompanied by a corresponding targeted individual preventive care in a cohort of young adults attending public dental service. Further research is needed how to reach those with the greatest need of primary and secondary prevention. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. [Comparison of varnishes and fluoridated toothpaste for the prevention of dental caries in school children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irigoyen-Camacho, María E; Luengas-Aguirre, María I; Amador-Pedraza, Yazmine; Zepeda-Zepeda, Marco A; Villanueva-Gutiérrez, Teresa; Sánchez-Pérez, Leonor

    2015-10-01

    Objective To compare preventive effect on dental caries of two frequencies of fluoridated varnish (FV) applications and a group given brushing instructions and using fluoridated toothpaste. Materials and Methods Follow-up study of 203 children attending an elementary school in the municipality of Tláhuac, Mexico City. The children were followed for 22 months. The students were randomly assigned to one of the following groups: 1) brushing instructions with fluoridated toothpaste, 2) FV every six months, 3) three FV applications per week per year. The FV contained fluorosilane (1000 ppm F) and NaF dentifrice (1450 ppm F). The DMFT-caries index and the presence of white spots were recorded (ICDAS, International Caries Detection and Assessment System). Results At baseline, the mean age of the children was 9.3 (SD 0.76) years, white lesions 0.63 (SD 1.48) and DMFT =0.70 (SD 1.11). Averages of the initial and final DMFT scores in the three groups were 0.67 and 1.17 for the toothpaste group, 0.77 and 1.46 for FV twice a year group, and 0.67 y 1.03 for the three-applications-FV group. According to the results of the GEE (Generalized-Estimating Equations) model, there were no significant differences in the rate of white lesions or the increase of the DMFT index. The results for the DMFT were: for bi-annual applications of FV, RR=1.24 (p=0.178) and for the three consecutive applications of FV, RR=0.83, (p=0.298) in comparison with the brushing-instructions group using fluoridated toothpaste, among the three treatment groups, controlling for age, sex, and initial-caries index in primary teeth and brushing frequency. Conclusions Schoolchildren showed a low incidence of caries using any of the three preventive regimens applied.

  11. Antibacterial agents in composite restorations for the prevention of dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira-Cenci, Tatiana; Cenci, Maximiliano S; Fedorowicz, Zbys; Azevedo, Marina

    2013-12-17

    Dental caries is a multifactorial disease in which the fermentation of food sugars by bacteria from the biofilm (dental plaque) leads to localised demineralisation of tooth surfaces, which may ultimately result in cavity formation. Resin composites are widely used in dentistry to restore teeth. These restorations can fail for a number of reasons, such as secondary caries, and restorative material fracture and other minor reasons. From these, secondary caries, which are caries lesions developed adjacent to restorations, is the main cause for restorations replacement. The presence of antibacterials in both the filling material and the bonding systems would theoretically be able to affect the initiation and progression of caries adjacent to restorations. This is an update of the Cochrane review published in 2009. To assess the effects of antibacterial agents incorporated into composite restorations for the prevention of dental caries. We searched the following electronic databases: the Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register (to 23 July 2013), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2013, Issue 6), MEDLINE via OVID (1946 to 23 July 2013) and EMBASE via OVID (1980 to 23 July 2013). We searched the US National Institutes of Health Trials Register (http://clinicaltrials.gov), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (www.controlled-trials.com) and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry platform (www.who.int/trialsearch) for ongoing trials. No restrictions were placed on the language or date of publication when searching the electronic databases. Randomised controlled trials comparing resin composite restorations containing antibacterial agents with composite restorations not containing antibacterial agents. Two review authors conducted screening of studies in duplicate and independently, and although no eligible trials were identified, the two authors had planned to extract data independently and

  12. Triphala in prevention of dental caries and as an antimicrobial in oral cavity- a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanbhag, Vagish K L

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries is a widely prevalent infectious disease afflicting the humans worldwide. Each year oral infections such as dental caries, periodontal diseases and oral candidiasis significantly adds to the economic burden of the world. Though there are standard management techniques for these diseases; they do have side effects and are not cost effective. Ayurveda is a traditional Indian system of medicine that is being practiced in the Indian peninsula since ages. Among the various herbal medicines in ayurveda, triphala occupies a royal position due to its wide beneficial systemic actions. Triphala is a mixture of fruits of Terminalia bellirica, Terminalia chebula and Emblica officinalis. The antimicrobial actions of triphala are well documented in the literature. However availability of review articles regarding triphala as an antimicrobial against oral infections is limited. Need was felt to review this aspect of triphala. The present article reviews the use of triphala and its constituents in the prevention and control of dental caries and other common oral infections. Thorough review of the literature indicated that triphala can be effectively used to manage dental caries, gingival and periodontal diseases. Further it can also be utilized as a root canal irrigant and against oral candida species.

  13. Caries risk assessment tool and prevention protocol for public health nurses in mother and child health centers, Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natapov, Lena; Dekel-Markovich, Dan; Granit-Palmon, Hadas; Aflalo, Efrat; Zusman, Shlomo Paul

    2018-01-01

    Dental caries is the most prevalent chronic disease in children. Caries risk assessment tools enable the dentists, physicians, and nondental health care providers to assess the individual's risk. Intervention by nurses in primary care settings can contribute to the establishment of oral health habits and prevention of dental disease. In Israel, Mother and Child Health Centers provide free preventive services for pregnant women and children by public health nurses. A caries prevention program in health centers started in 2015. Nurses underwent special training regarding caries prevention. A customized Caries Risk Assessment tool and Prevention Protocol for nurses, based on the AAPD tool, was introduced. A two-step evaluation was conducted which included a questionnaire and in-depth phone interviews. Twenty-eight (out of 46) health centers returned a completed questionnaire. Most nurses believed that oral health preventive services should be incorporated into their daily work. In the in-depth phone interviews, nurses stated that the integration of the program into their busy daily schedule was realistic and appropriate. The lack of specific dental module for computer program was mentioned as an implementation difficulty. The wide use of our tool by nurses supports its simplicity and feasibility which enables quick calculation and informed decision making. The nurses readily embraced the tool and it became an integral part of their toolkit. We provide public health nurses with a caries risk assessment tool and prevention protocol thus integrating oral health into general health of infants and toddlers. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Dental caries prevention in children and adolescents: a systematic quality assessment of clinical practice guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiffert, Andrea; Zaror, Carlos; Atala-Acevedo, Claudia; Ormeño, Andrea; Martínez-Zapata, María José; Alonso-Coello, Pablo

    2018-03-09

    To evaluate the quality of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) for dental caries prevention in children and adolescents MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a systematic search of CPGs on caries preventive measures between 2005 and 2016. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, TripDatabase, websites of CPG developers, compilers of CPGs, scientific societies and ministries of health. We included CPGs with recommendations on sealants, fluorides and oral hygiene. Three reviewers independently assessed the included CPGs using the AGREE II instrument. We calculated the standardised scores for the six domains and made a final recommendation about each CPG. Also, we calculated the overall agreement among calibrated reviewers with the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Twenty-two CPGs published were selected from a total of 637 references. Thirteen were in English and nine in Spanish. The overall agreement between reviewers was very good (ICC = 0.90; 95%CI 0.89-0.92). The mean score for each domain was the following: Scope and purpose 89.6 ± 12%; Stakeholder involvement 55.0 ± 15.6%; Rigour of development 64.9 ± 21.2%; Clarity of presentation 84.8 ± 14.1%; Applicability 30.6 ± 31.5% and Editorial independence 59.3 ± 25.5%. Thirteen CPGs (59.1%) were assessed as "recommended", eight (36.4%) "recommended with modifications" and one (4.5%) "not recommended". The overall quality of CPGs in caries prevention was moderate. The domains with greater deficiencies were Applicability, Stakeholder involvement and Editorial independence. Clinicians should use the best available CPGs in dental caries prevention to provide optimal oral health care to patients.

  15. Effectiveness of silver diamine fluoride in caries prevention and arrest: a systematic literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Contreras, Violeta; Toro, Milagros J.; Elías-Boneta, Augusto R.; Encarnación-Burgos, Angeliz

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the scientific evidence regarding the effectiveness of silver diamine fluoride (SDF) in preventing and arresting caries in the primary dentition and permanent first molars. A systematic review (SR) was performed by 2 independent reviewers using 3 electronic databases (PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Scopus). The database search employed the following key words: “topical fluorides” AND “children” AND “clinical trials”; “topical fluorides” OR “silver diamine fluoride” AN...

  16. Use of caries prevention services in the Northwest PRECEDENT dental network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferracane, J; Hilton, T; Korpak, A; Gillette, J; McIntyre, P Speed; Berg, J

    2011-02-01

    This cross-sectional study assessed the use of caries preventive services by Northwest PRECEDENT dental network practitioners and compared the caries experience of patients who received such services in the past 12 months with those who had not. An oral health survey was conducted on approximately 20 patients seen by each of 97 private practice dental practitioners in the network. Eligible patients (total of 1877 aged 3-92) were randomly assessed for the occurrence of one or more new caries lesions as well as having received the following preventive services within the past 12 months: fluoride varnish or gel, sealant in molar or premolar, and prophylaxis. Patients were stratified by gender and age (1-17 years old, 18-64 years old, and 65+ years old). Logistic regression was used to investigate the association between the practitioner characteristics and the use of preventive services, as well as the preventive services and the presence of a new caries lesion in the past 12 months. The percent of patients in age category 1-17 years old/18-64 years old/65+ years old receiving each preventive treatment varied as follows: 95%/85%/81% for prophylaxis, 87%/24%/22% for fluoride, and 27%/2%/0% for sealant. There was a very limited association between the use of a specific preventive service and practitioner gender, and no significant association between use of services and practice location (rural, urban or suburban). There was a significant association between greater use of sealants for dentists with 0-15 years of practice experience as compared with those having more than 25 years of experience. For the 1-17-year-old age group, boys had about 1.7 times the odds of having a new lesion than girls in the past 12 months, and patients receiving a sealant had 1.9 times the odds of having a new caries lesion. In the 18-64-year-old group, receiving a prophylaxis in the past 12 months was significantly associated with lower odds for having a new lesion (odds ratio = 0.57). This

  17. Use of caries-preventive agents in children: findings from the dental practice-based research network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riley, J L; Richman, Joshua S; Rindal, D Brad

    2010-01-01

    Scientific evidence supports the application of caries-preventive agents in children and adolescents, and this knowledge must be applied to the practice of dentistry. There are few multi-region data that allow for comparisons of practice patterns between types of dental practices and geographical...... regions. The objective of the present study was to characterise the use of specific caries-preventive agents for paediatric patients in a large multi-region sample of practising clinicians....

  18. Caries-preventive methods used for children and adolescents in Denmark, Iceland, Norway and Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Källestål, C; Wang, N J; Petersen, P E; Arnadottir, I B

    1999-04-01

    Denmark, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden have all had a similar decline in dental caries during the last 20 years, although the decline has come later in Iceland. The purpose of this study was to compare the caries-preventive methods used for children and adolescents in these four countries. Questionnaires were sent to random samples of dentists, dental hygienists, and dental nurses working with children during 1995 and 1996. The results showed that the use of preventive methods was generally consistent between the countries. Nevertheless there were differences between the countries concerning the choice of preventive strategy for risk patients and also in how prevention was implemented. Danish dental care providers chose oral hygiene education as the priority, which they put into practice. Apart from fluoride varnish for some patients, most of them did not use or recommend fluoride except fluoride toothpaste. The Norwegian and Icelandic dental care providers chose both oral hygiene education and the use of fluoride as priorities, while most Swedish dental care providers preferred to provide dietary advice and oral hygiene education, and additional fluoride for risk patients. The differences could not be explained by other variables than nationality, implying that there are differences between the dental cultures in the four countries. The informational basis of decisions on preventive strategies varied between the different dental professionals in each country as well as between the countries, indicating that national professional cultures are being shaped differently. Despite the differences in choice of preventive methods, the dental health of children varies little across the frontiers. This raises the question of the significance of the choice of preventive methods to the decline of dental caries and points towards an urgent need to develop evidence-based preventive strategies.

  19. Influence of the number of basis images and projection array on caries detection using tuned aperture computed tomography (TACT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, M; Tyndall, D A; Ludlow, J B; Nortjé, C J

    2002-01-01

    to determine if the number of basis images and spatial distribution of the projection array used for TACT slice generation influence observer performance in caries detection. In the first experiment, 2, 4, 8 and 12 basis projections of each of 40 teeth were acquired using a CMOS digital radiography sensor. Projections were distributed radially in space using a 20 degree angular disparity. TACT slices were generated from the four subgroups of images, presented to eight observers, and viewed on a high-resolution monitor. Observers scored the presence/absence of caries using a 5-point confidence scale. Gold standard was histological examination of tooth sections. ROC curves measured observer diagnostic performance. ANOVA tested for significant differences between observers and experimental conditions. In the second experiment, the number of basis projections judged to be satisfactory for TACT slice generation was used. Horizontal and vertical linear arrays of projections were compared to the circular projection array. There was a statistically significant difference between the numbers of basis projections in the detection of both occlusal (P=0.006) and proximal caries (P=0.005). No significant difference was found between projection arrays in the detection of either occlusal (P=0.065) or proximal (P=0.515) caries. The number of TACT basis projections significantly influences caries detection. Eight or more images should be used. Either linear-vertical, linear-horizontal or circular arrays of basis projections may be used for TACT slice generation in caries detection tasks.

  20. THE ROLE OF NUTRITION IN CARIES PREVENTION AND MAINTENANCE OF ORAL HEALTH DURING PREGNANCY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jevtić, Marija; Pantelinaci, Jelena; Jovanović Ilić, Tatjana; Petrović, Vasa; Grgić, Olja; Blazić, Larisa

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy may pose an increased risk for the development of caries and other oral health problems. Continuous screening of oral health status, implementing appropriate preventive measures (particularly oral hygiene, healthy diet plans and education) is of paramount importance not only for oral health but also for the general health status of the future mother and her offspring. EFFECTS OF FOOD ON CARIES DEVELOPMENT: Caries prevention through healthy diet implicates the reduction in frequency and amount of intake of cariogenic food, above all ofrefined carbohydrates, i.e. sugars and sweets. Foods known to have caries-prophylactic effects should predominate in healthy diet plans. They mainly include solid foods, which have mechanical effects on teeth cleaning, as well as foods providing sufficient amounts of vitamins (A, C, D) and a variety of elements and compounds (calcium, phosphates, fluorides) favoring the preservation and remineralization of tooth structures. EDUCATION OF PREGNANT WOMEN ON HEALHY DEIT: In accomplishing these goals, education and direct positive communication between the educator and the pregnant woman play a crucial role. Educative approach is always individual and determined by the patient's specific cultural and socioeconomic features and status, as well as her habits, motivation and willingness to accept relevant recommendations. Accomplishing the aforementioned goals requires the appropriate organization and professional competence within the preventive dental service and its close cooperation with the relevant medical institutions and social support in the framework of public health protection. Preserving of oral health during pregnancy is predominantly influenced by the following factors: 1) healthy diet, 2) oral hygiene, 3) patients' education, 4) regular control of oral health, 5) appropriate organization of dental services and 6) community engagement.

  1. Maryland dental hygienists' knowledge, opinions and practices regarding dental caries prevention and early detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clovis, Joanne B; Horowitz, Alice M; Kleinman, Dushanka V; Wang, Min Qi; Massey, Meredith

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess Maryland dental hygienists' knowledge, practices and opinions regarding dental caries prevention and early detection. A 30 item survey was mailed to 1,258 Maryland dental hygienists. Two follow-up mailings and email reminders were sent. The response rate was 43% (n=540). Nearly all respondents were female (98%), and 58% practiced in solo settings. Knowledge and certainty of knowledge were moderate: sealants are needed regardless of topical fluoride use (55% certain, 40% less certain), newly erupted permanent molars are the best candidates for sealants (54%, 36%) and professionally applied fluorides are desirable in areas without fluoridated water (55%, 36%). Fewer were certain that incipient lesions can be remineralized before cavitation (23%, 69%), and dilute, frequently administered fluorides are more effective in caries prevention than concentrated, less frequently administered fluorides (6%, 24%). Opinions regarding effectiveness of protocols for 2 age groups from 6 months to 6 years, the challenges of early childhood caries (ECC), prevention practices regarding sealant and topical fluoride applications varied widely. Eighty-nine percent reported routinely assessing dental caries risk factors of child patients and 90% were interested in continuing education courses. There were no significant differences between different types of practice settings, year of graduation, race/ethnicity or gender. Knowledge of recommended guidelines for fluoride and sealant application support clinical decision-making and self-care counseling. Misinformation and lack of understanding of current research and recommendations identify a need for educational interventions in undergraduate dental hygiene programs and through continuing education for practicing hygienists.

  2. Protocol for Northern Ireland Caries Prevention in Practice Trial (NIC-PIP) trial: a randomised controlled trial to measure the effects and costs of a dental caries prevention regime for young children attending primary care dental services

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tickle, Martin

    2011-10-10

    Abstract Background Dental caries is a persistent public health problem with little change in the prevalence in young children over the last 20 years. Once a child contracts the disease it has a significant impact on their quality of life. There is good evidence from Cochrane reviews including trials that fluoride varnish and regular use of fluoride toothpaste can prevent caries. The Northern Ireland Caries Prevention in Practice Trial (NIC-PIP) trial will compare the costs and effects of a caries preventive package (fluoride varnish, toothpaste, toothbrush and standardised dental health education) with dental health education alone in young children. Methods\\/Design A randomised controlled trial on children initially aged 2 and 3 years old who are regular attenders at the primary dental care services in Northern Ireland. Children will be recruited and randomised in dental practices. Children will be randomised to the prevention package of both fluoride varnish (twice per year for three years), fluoride toothpaste (1,450 ppm F) (supplied twice per year), a toothbrush (supplied twice a year) or not; both test and control groups receive standardised dental health education delivered by the dentist twice per year. Randomisation will be conducted by the Belfast Trust Clinical Research Support Centre ([CRSC] a Clinical Trials Unit). 1200 participants will be recruited from approximately 40 dental practices. Children will be examined for caries by independent dental examiners at baseline and will be excluded if they have caries. The independent dental examiners will examine the children again at 3 years blinded to study group. The primary end-point is whether the child develops caries (cavitation into dentine) or not over the three years. One secondary outcome is the number of carious surfaces in the primary dentition in children who experience caries. Other secondary outcomes are episodes of pain, extraction of primary teeth, other adverse events and costs which will

  3. Protocol for Northern Ireland Caries Prevention in Practice Trial (NIC-PIP) trial: a randomised controlled trial to measure the effects and costs of a dental caries prevention regime for young children attending primary care dental services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tickle, Martin; Milsom, Keith M; Donaldson, Michael; Killough, Seamus; O'Neill, Ciaran; Crealey, Grainne; Sutton, Matthew; Noble, Solveig; Greer, Margaret; Worthington, Helen V

    2011-10-10

    Dental caries is a persistent public health problem with little change in the prevalence in young children over the last 20 years. Once a child contracts the disease it has a significant impact on their quality of life. There is good evidence from Cochrane reviews including trials that fluoride varnish and regular use of fluoride toothpaste can prevent caries. The Northern Ireland Caries Prevention in Practice Trial (NIC-PIP) trial will compare the costs and effects of a caries preventive package (fluoride varnish, toothpaste, toothbrush and standardised dental health education) with dental health education alone in young children. A randomised controlled trial on children initially aged 2 and 3 years old who are regular attenders at the primary dental care services in Northern Ireland. Children will be recruited and randomised in dental practices. Children will be randomised to the prevention package of both fluoride varnish (twice per year for three years), fluoride toothpaste (1,450 ppm F) (supplied twice per year), a toothbrush (supplied twice a year) or not; both test and control groups receive standardised dental health education delivered by the dentist twice per year. Randomisation will be conducted by the Belfast Trust Clinical Research Support Centre ([CRSC] a Clinical Trials Unit). 1200 participants will be recruited from approximately 40 dental practices. Children will be examined for caries by independent dental examiners at baseline and will be excluded if they have caries. The independent dental examiners will examine the children again at 3 years blinded to study group.The primary end-point is whether the child develops caries (cavitation into dentine) or not over the three years. One secondary outcome is the number of carious surfaces in the primary dentition in children who experience caries. Other secondary outcomes are episodes of pain, extraction of primary teeth, other adverse events and costs which will be obtained from parental

  4. Protocol for Northern Ireland Caries Prevention in Practice Trial (NIC-PIP trial: a randomised controlled trial to measure the effects and costs of a dental caries prevention regime for young children attending primary care dental services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noble Solveig

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dental caries is a persistent public health problem with little change in the prevalence in young children over the last 20 years. Once a child contracts the disease it has a significant impact on their quality of life. There is good evidence from Cochrane reviews including trials that fluoride varnish and regular use of fluoride toothpaste can prevent caries. The Northern Ireland Caries Prevention in Practice Trial (NIC-PIP trial will compare the costs and effects of a caries preventive package (fluoride varnish, toothpaste, toothbrush and standardised dental health education with dental health education alone in young children. Methods/Design A randomised controlled trial on children initially aged 2 and 3 years old who are regular attenders at the primary dental care services in Northern Ireland. Children will be recruited and randomised in dental practices. Children will be randomised to the prevention package of both fluoride varnish (twice per year for three years, fluoride toothpaste (1,450 ppm F (supplied twice per year, a toothbrush (supplied twice a year or not; both test and control groups receive standardised dental health education delivered by the dentist twice per year. Randomisation will be conducted by the Belfast Trust Clinical Research Support Centre ([CRSC] a Clinical Trials Unit. 1200 participants will be recruited from approximately 40 dental practices. Children will be examined for caries by independent dental examiners at baseline and will be excluded if they have caries. The independent dental examiners will examine the children again at 3 years blinded to study group. The primary end-point is whether the child develops caries (cavitation into dentine or not over the three years. One secondary outcome is the number of carious surfaces in the primary dentition in children who experience caries. Other secondary outcomes are episodes of pain, extraction of primary teeth, other adverse events and costs

  5. Atraumatic restorative treatment for prevention and treatment of caries in an underserved community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Naty; Simpser-Rafalin, Sara; Berthold, Peter

    2005-08-01

    We evaluated the acceptability and effectiveness of atraumatic restorative treatment to prevent and treat caries in an underserved community in Mexico. We placed 370 restorations and 193 sealants in 118 children aged 5 to 18; 85% reported no pain, and 93% were comfortable with their restorations. We then evaluated the children 1 and 2 years later. At 2-year evaluation, 66% of restorations and 35% of sealants were retained. Atraumatic restorative treatment is acceptable and effective to control and prevent decay in a socioeconomically deprived community.

  6. A comparative study of the effect of probiotics on cariogenic biofilm model for preventing dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung-Hoon; Kim, Young-Jae

    2014-08-01

    Dental caries is induced by oral biofilm containing Streptococcus mutans. Probiotic bacteria were mainly studied for effect on the gastrointestinal tract and have been known to promote human health. However, the information of probiotics for oral health has been lack yet. In this study, we investigated influence of various probiotics on oral bacteria or cariogenic biofilm and evaluated candidate probiotics for dental caries among them. The antimicrobial activity of the spent culture medium of probiotics for oral streptococci was performed. Probiotics were added during the biofilm formation with salivary bacteria including S. mutans. The oral biofilms were stained with a fluorescent dye and observed using the confocal laser scanning microscope. To count bacteria in the biofilm, the bacteria were plated on MSB and BHI agar plates after disrupting the biofilm and cultivated. Glucosyltransferases (gtfs) expression of S. mutans and integration of lactobacilli into the biofilm were evaluated by real-time RT-PCR. Among probiotics, Lactobacillus species strongly inhibited growth of oral streptococci. Moreover, Lactobacillus species strongly inhibited formation of cariogenic biofilm model. The expression of gtfs was significantly reduced by Lactobacillus rhamnosus. The integration of L. rhamnosus into the biofilm model did not exhibit. However, L. acidophilus and L casei integrated into the biofilm model. These results suggest that L. rhamnosus may inhibit oral biofilm formation by decreasing glucan production of S. mutans and antibacterial activity and did not integrate into oral biofilm, which can be a candidate for caries prevention strategy.

  7. Xylitol-containing products for preventing dental caries in children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Philip; Moore, Deborah; Ahmed, Farooq; Sharif, Mohammad O; Worthington, Helen V

    2015-03-26

    Dental caries is a highly prevalent chronic disease which affects the majority of people. It has been postulated that the consumption of xylitol could help to prevent caries. The evidence on the effects of xylitol products is not clear and therefore it is important to summarise the available evidence to determine its effectiveness and safety. To assess the effects of different xylitol-containing products for the prevention of dental caries in children and adults. We searched the following electronic databases: the Cochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register (to 14 August 2014), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library, 2014, Issue 7), MEDLINE via OVID (1946 to 14 August 2014), EMBASE via OVID (1980 to 14 August 2014), CINAHL via EBSCO (1980 to 14 August 2014), Web of Science Conference Proceedings (1990 to 14 August 2014), Proquest Dissertations and Theses (1861 to 14 August 2014). We searched the US National Institutes of Health Trials Register (http://clinicaltrials.gov) and the WHO Clinical Trials Registry Platform for ongoing trials. No restrictions were placed on the language or date of publication when searching the electronic databases. We included randomised controlled trials assessing the effects of xylitol products on dental caries in children and adults. Two review authors independently screened the results of the electronic searches, extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of the included studies. We attempted to contact study authors for missing data or clarification where feasible. For continuous outcomes, we used means and standard deviations to obtain the mean difference and 95% confidence interval (CI). We used the continuous data to calculate prevented fractions (PF) and 95% CIs to summarise the percentage reduction in caries. For dichotomous outcomes, we reported risk ratios (RR) and 95% CIs. As there were less than four studies included in the meta-analysis, we used a fixed-effect model. We planned

  8. Fluoride toothpaste containing 1.5% arginine and insoluble calcium as a new standard of care in caries prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Cate, J M; Cummins, D

    2013-01-01

    In spite of obvious achievements in prevention, caries remains a prevalent disease. Fluorides are effective by inhibiting enamel and dentin demineralization and enhancing remineralization, but have little or no influence on bacterial processes in dental plaque. Dental caries is a continuum of stages from reversible, early lesions to irreversible, pre-cavitated lesions and, ultimately, to cavities. Prevention should focus on strengthening protective and reducing pathological factors, and careful monitoring of the disease state. While fluoride and the mineral aspects of caries have been in focus for decades, new insights into the etiology of caries have generated novel concepts and approaches to its prevention and treatment. The observation that some plaque bacteria can produce alkali metabolites and, thus, raise pH or neutralize acid formed in plaque has long been known. Such pH rise factors are related to caries susceptibility. Nourishing the plaque with substrates that encourage alkali-producing reactions is a protective factor in the caries continuum. This article reviews the results of clinical studies with a novel toothpaste containing 1.5% arginine, an insoluble calcium compound, and fluoride which have demonstrated superior remineralization of white spot enamel lesions and rehardening of root surface lesions, favorable effects on the de-/remineralization balance, as well as superior cavity prevention efficacy compared to toothpaste with fluoride alone. Studies have also confirmed formation of ammonia and elevated pH levels in subjects using the arginine-containing toothpaste. This novel toothpaste effectively combines the established effects of fluoride on de- and remineralization with reduction of caries-inducing pathological factors resulting from plaque metabolism.

  9. Dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, Nigel B; Zero, Domenick T; Marsh, Phil D; Ekstrand, Kim; Weintraub, Jane A; Ramos-Gomez, Francisco; Tagami, Junji; Twetman, Svante; Tsakos, Georgios; Ismail, Amid

    2017-05-25

    Dental caries is a biofilm-mediated, sugar-driven, multifactorial, dynamic disease that results in the phasic demineralization and remineralization of dental hard tissues. Caries can occur throughout life, both in primary and permanent dentitions, and can damage the tooth crown and, in later life, exposed root surfaces. The balance between pathological and protective factors influences the initiation and progression of caries. This interplay between factors underpins the classification of individuals and groups into caries risk categories, allowing an increasingly tailored approach to care. Dental caries is an unevenly distributed, preventable disease with considerable economic and quality-of-life burdens. The daily use of fluoride toothpaste is seen as the main reason for the overall decline of caries worldwide over recent decades. This Primer aims to provide a global overview of caries, acknowledging the historical era dominated by restoration of tooth decay by surgical means, but focuses on current, progressive and more holistic long-term, patient-centred, tooth-preserving preventive care.

  10. CO2 Laser (10.6 microm) parameters for caries prevention in dental enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteves-Oliveira, M; Zezell, D M; Meister, J; Franzen, R; Stanzel, S; Lampert, F; Eduardo, C P; Apel, C

    2009-01-01

    Although CO(2) laser irradiation can decrease enamel demineralisation, it has still not been clarified which laser wavelength and which irradiation conditions represent the optimum parameters for application as preventive treatment. The aim of the present explorative study was to find low-fluence CO(2) laser (lambda = 10.6 microm) parameters resulting in a maximum caries-preventive effect with the least thermal damage. Different laser parameters were systematically evaluated in 3 steps. In the first experiment, 5 fluences of 0.1, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6 J/cm(2), combined with high repetition rates and 10 micros pulse duration, were chosen for the experiments. In a second experiment, the influence of different pulse durations (5, 10, 20, 30 and 50 micros) on the demineralisation of dental enamel was assessed. Finally, 3 different irradiation times (2, 5 and 9 s) were tested in a third experiment. In total, 276 bovine enamel blocks were used for the experiments. An 8-day pH-cycling regime was performed after the laser treatment. Demineralisation was assessed by lesion depth measurements with a polarised light microscope, and morphological changes were assessed with a scanning electron microscope. Irradiation with 0.3 J/cm(2), 5 micros, 226 Hz for 9 s (2,036 overlapping pulses) increased caries resistance by up to 81% compared to the control and was even significantly better than fluoride application (25%, p laser irradiation. (c) 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Effects of Physician-Based Preventive Oral Health Services on Dental Caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranz, Ashley M; Preisser, John S; Rozier, R Gary

    2015-07-01

    Most Medicaid programs reimburse nondental providers for preventive dental services. We estimate the impact of comprehensive preventive oral health services (POHS) on dental caries among kindergarten students, hypothesizing improved oral health among students with medical visits with POHS. We conducted a retrospective study in 29,173 kindergarten students by linking Medicaid claims (1999-2006) with public health surveillance data (2005-2006). Zero-inflated regression models estimated the association between number of visits with POHS and (1) decayed, missing, and filled primary teeth (dmft) and (2) untreated decayed teeth while adjusting for confounding. Kindergarten students with ≥4 POHS visits averaged an adjusted 1.82 dmft (95% confidence interval: 1.55 to 2.09), which was significantly less than students with 0 visits (2.21 dmft; 95% confidence interval: 2.16 to 2.25). The mean number of untreated decayed teeth was not reduced for students with ≥4 POHS visits compared with those with 0 visits. POHS provided by nondental providers in medical settings were associated with a reduction in caries experience in young children but were not associated with improvement in subsequent use of treatment services in dental settings. Efforts to promote oral health in medical settings should continue. Strategies to promote physician-dentist collaborations are needed to improve continuity of care for children receiving dental services in medical settings. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  12. [Preventive and remineralization effect over incipient lesions of caries decay by phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez-López, María Lilia Adriana; Hernández-Palacios, Rosa Diana; Hernández-Guerrero, Juan Carlos; Jiménez-Farfán, Dolores; Molina-Frechero, Nelly

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION. Dental caries continues to affect a large percentage of Mexican children and currently advises that if diagnosed at an early stage can be reversed with minimally invasive treatments. The casein phosphopeptide amorphous calcium phosphate known as CPP-ACP is a phosphoprotein capable of releasing calcium and phosphate ions in the oral environment promoting remineralization. OBJECTIVE. To evaluate the effect of CPP-ACP with fluoride added in a scholar preventive program. MATERIAL AND METHODS. A cuasi- experimental study was conducted in 104 schools of six years old. The children were classified into three groups and received six months biweekly applications of different treatments: casein phosphopeptide amorphous calcium phosphate added fluoride (CPP-ACPF), sodium fluoride (NaF) and a control group. Clinical evaluation was performed with the laser fluorescence technique (Diagnodent model 2095). 1340 teeth were included: 294 teeth with incipient lesions and 1,046 healthy teeth. Statistical tests of χ2 y Mc Nemar were used. RESULTS. In the group that received the application of CPP-ACPF, 38% of incipient carious lesions were remineralizing compared with 21% in the group receiving the NaF (p application biweekly for six months of CPP-ACPF showed a protective and remineralizing effect on incipient carious lesions. His action was better than the application of NaF. However, to reduce the impact from dental caries in schoolchildren is important to have a comprehensive preventive approach that includes promoting self-care, as well as the application of sealants.

  13. Cost-Effectiveness of Caries Prevention in Practice: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, C; Worthington, H V; Donaldson, M; Birch, S; Noble, S; Killough, S; Murphy, L; Greer, M; Brodison, J; Verghis, R; Tickle, M

    2017-07-01

    A 2-arm parallel-group randomized controlled trial measured the cost-effectiveness of caries prevention in caries-free children aged 2 to 3 y attending general practice. The setting was 22 dental practices in Northern Ireland. Participants were centrally randomized into intervention (22,600 ppm fluoride varnish, toothbrush, a 50-mL tube of 1,450 ppm fluoride toothpaste, and standardized prevention advice) and control (advice only), both provided at 6-monthly intervals during a 3-y follow-up. The primary outcome measure was conversion from caries-free to caries-active states assessed by calibrated and blinded examiners; secondary outcome measures included decayed, missing, or filled teeth surfaces (dmfs); pain; and extraction. Cumulative costs were related to each of the trial's outcomes in a series of incremental cost effectiveness ratios (ICERs). Sensitivity analyses examined the impact of using dentist's time as measured by observation rather than that reported by the dentist. The costs of applying topical fluoride were also estimated assuming the work was undertaken by dental nurses or hygienists rather than dentists. A total of 1,248 children (624 randomized to each group) were recruited, and 1,096 (549 in the intervention group and 547 in the control group) were included in the final analyses. The mean difference in direct health care costs between groups was £107.53 (£155.74 intervention, £48.21 control, P < 0.05) per child. When all health care costs were compared, the intervention group's mean cost was £212.56 more than the control group (£987.53 intervention, £774.97 control, P < 0.05). Statistically significant differences in outcomes were only detected with respect to carious surfaces. The mean cost per carious surface avoided was estimated at £251 (95% confidence interval, £454.39-£79.52). Sensitivity analyses did not materially affect the study's findings. This trial raises concerns about the cost-effectiveness of a fluoride-based intervention

  14. Developing pathways for oral care in elders: evidence-based interventions for dental caries prevention in dentate elders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghezzi, Elisa M

    2014-02-01

    Dental caries is becoming an ever-growing challenge as the number of elders maintaining their teeth increases. There is a need for low-cost, effective preventive interventions to retain natural teeth for elders. The purpose of this article is to evaluate evidence based interventions for dentate elders, specifically the adjunct therapies of fluoride, chlorhexidine, xylitol, casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate, ozone, and herbal liquorice. Fluoride interventions have demonstrated prevention and remineralization of dental caries in elders. Systematic reviews of the literature are unable to establish definitive conclusions regarding the effectiveness of other adjunct therapies in dental caries prevention. Further research with elders requires improved study design with well designed multi-center trials. Considerations for new strategies for research of the effectiveness of therapies to reduce dental caries include the development and evaluation of combinations of therapeutic interventions and dental caries management by risk assessment. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Analysis of health behaviour change interventions for preventing dental caries delivered in primary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adair, P M; Burnside, G; Pine, C M

    2013-01-01

    To improve oral health in children, the key behaviours (tooth brushing and sugar control) responsible for development of dental caries need to be better understood, as well as how to promote these behaviours effectively so they become habitual; and, the specific, optimal techniques to use in interventions. The aim of this paper is to describe and analyse the behaviour change techniques that have been used in primary school-based interventions to prevent dental caries (utilizing a Cochrane systematic review that we have undertaken) and to identify opportunities for improving future interventions by incorporating a comprehensive range of behaviour change techniques. Papers of five interventions were reviewed and data were independently extracted. Results indicate that behaviour change techniques were limited to information-behaviour links, information on consequences, instruction and demonstration of behaviours. None of the interventions were based on behaviour change theory. We conclude that behaviour change techniques used in school interventions to reduce dental caries were limited and focused around providing information about how behaviour impacts on health and the consequences of not developing the correct health behaviours as well as providing oral hygiene instruction. Establishing which techniques are effective is difficult due to poor reporting of interventions in studies. Future design of oral health promotion interventions using behaviour change theory for development and evaluation (and reporting results in academic journals) could strengthen the potential for efficacy and provide a framework to use a much wider range of behaviour change techniques. Future studies should include development and publication of intervention manuals which is becoming standard practice in other health promoting programmes. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Socio-behavioural aspects in the prevention and control of dental caries and periodontal diseases at an individual and population level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sälzer, Sonja; Alkilzy, Mohammad; Slot, Dagmar E; Dörfer, Christof E; Schmoeckel, Julian; Splieth, Christian H

    2017-03-01

    Aim was to systematically review behavioural aspects in the prevention and control of dental caries and periodontal diseases at individual and population level. With regard to caries, MEDLINE/PubMed was searched on three subheadings focusing on early childhood, proximal and root caries. For periodontal diseases, a meta-review on systematic reviews was performed; thus, the search strategy included specific interventions to change behaviour in order to perform a meta-review on systematic reviews. After extraction of data and conclusions, the potential risk of bias was estimated and the emerging evidence was graded. Regarding early childhood, proximal and root caries, 28, 6 and 0 papers, respectively, could be included, which predominantly reported on cohort studies. Regarding periodontal diseases, five systematic reviews were included. High evidence of mostly high magnitude was retrieved for behavioural interventions in early childhood caries (ECC), weak evidence for a small effect in proximal caries and an unclear effect of specific informational/motivational programmes on prevention of periodontal diseases and no evidence of root caries. Early childhood caries can be successfully prevented by population-based preventive programmes via aiming at the change in behaviour. The effect of individual specific motivational/informational interventions has not yet been clearly demonstrated neither for the prevention of caries nor for periodontal diseases. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Geo-mapping of time trends in childhood caries risk a method for assessment of preventive care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strömberg Ulf

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dental caries is unevenly distributed within populations with a higher burden in low socio-economy groups. Several attempts have been made to allocate resources to those that need them the most; there is a need for convenient approaches to population-based monitoring of caries risk over time. The aim of this study was to develop the geo-map concept, addressing time trends in caries risk, and demonstrate the novel approach by analyzing epidemiological data from preschool residents in the region of Halland, Sweden. Methods The study population consisted of 9,973 (2006 and 10,927 (2010 children between 3 to 6years of age (~77% of the eligible population from whom caries data were obtained. Reported dmfs>0 for a child was considered as the primary caries outcome. Each study individual was geo-coded with respect to his/her residence parish (66 parishes in the region. Smoothed caries risk geo-maps, along with corresponding statistical certainty geo-maps, were produced by using the free software Rapid Inquiry Facility and the ESRI ArcGIS system. Parish-level socioeconomic data were available. Results The overall proportion of caries-free (dmfs=0 children improved from 84.0% in 2006 to 88.6% in 2010. The ratio of maximum and minimum (parish-level smoothed relative risks (SmRRs increased from 1.76/0.44=4.0 in 2006 to 2.37/0.33=7.2 in 2010, which indicated an increased geographical polarization of early childhood caries in the population. Eight parishes showed evidential, positional changes in caries risk between 2006 and 2010; their corresponding SmRRs and statistical certainty ranks changed markedly. No considerable parallel changes in parish-level socioeconomic characteristics were seen during the same time period. Conclusion Geo-maps based on caries risk can be used to monitor changes in caries risk over time. Thus, geo-mapping offers a convenient tool for evaluating the effectiveness of tailored health promotion and preventive

  18. Geo-mapping of time trends in childhood caries risk--a method for assessment of preventive care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strömberg, Ulf; Holmn, Anders; Magnusson, Kerstin; Twetman, Svante

    2012-06-11

    Dental caries is unevenly distributed within populations with a higher burden in low socio-economy groups. Several attempts have been made to allocate resources to those that need them the most; there is a need for convenient approaches to population-based monitoring of caries risk over time. The aim of this study was to develop the geo-map concept, addressing time trends in caries risk, and demonstrate the novel approach by analyzing epidemiological data from preschool residents in the region of Halland, Sweden. The study population consisted of 9,973 (2006) and 10,927 (2010) children between 3 to 6 years of age (~77% of the eligible population) from whom caries data were obtained. Reported dmfs>0 for a child was considered as the primary caries outcome. Each study individual was geo-coded with respect to his/her residence parish (66 parishes in the region). Smoothed caries risk geo-maps, along with corresponding statistical certainty geo-maps, were produced by using the free software Rapid Inquiry Facility and the ESRI® ArcGIS system. Parish-level socioeconomic data were available. The overall proportion of caries-free (dmfs=0) children improved from 84.0% in 2006 to 88.6% in 2010. The ratio of maximum and minimum (parish-level) smoothed relative risks (SmRRs) increased from 1.76/0.44=4.0 in 2006 to 2.37/0.33=7.2 in 2010, which indicated an increased geographical polarization of early childhood caries in the population. Eight parishes showed evidential, positional changes in caries risk between 2006 and 2010; their corresponding SmRRs and statistical certainty ranks changed markedly. No considerable parallel changes in parish-level socioeconomic characteristics were seen during the same time period. Geo-maps based on caries risk can be used to monitor changes in caries risk over time. Thus, geo-mapping offers a convenient tool for evaluating the effectiveness of tailored health promotion and preventive care in child populations.

  19. Chlorhexidine treatment for the prevention of dental caries in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Tanya; Oliveira-Neto, Jeronimo M; Moore, Deborah

    2015-04-13

    Dental caries (tooth decay) is a common disease that is preventable by reducing the dietary intake of free sugars and using topical sodium fluoride products. An antibacterial agent known as chlorhexidine may also help prevent caries. A number of over-the-counter and professionally administered chlorhexidine-based preparations are available in a variety of formulations and in a range of strengths. Although previous reviews have concluded that some formulations of chlorhexidine may be effective in inhibiting the progression of established caries in children, there is currently a lack of evidence to either claim or refute a benefit for its use in preventing dental caries. To assess the effects of chlorhexidine-containing oral products (toothpastes, mouthrinses, varnishes, gels, gums and sprays) on the prevention of dental caries in children and adolescents. We searched the Cochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register (25 February 2015), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2014, Issue 12), MEDLINE via OVID (1946 to 25 February 2015), EMBASE via OVID (1980 to 25 February 2015) and CINAHL via EBSCO (1937 to 25 February 2015). We handsearched several journals placed no language restrictions on our search. After duplicate citations were removed, the electronic searches retrieved 1075 references to studies. We included parallel-group, randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared the caries preventive effects of chlorhexidine gels, toothpastes, varnishes, mouthrinses, chewing gums or sprays with each other, placebo or no intervention in children and adolescents. We excluded trials with combined interventions of chlorhexidine and fluoride or comparisons between chlorhexidine and fluoride interventions. Two review authors independently extracted trial data and assessed risk of bias. We resolved disagreements by consensus. We contacted trial authors for clarification or additional study details when necessary. The number of included studies that were

  20. In vitro assessment of laser efficiency for caries prevention in pits and fissures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa-Afonso, Alessandra M; Ciconne-Nogueira, Juliane C; Pécora, Jesus D; Palma-Dibb, Regina G

    2012-02-01

    This study aimed to assess the in vitro efficacy of the lasers Er:YAG, Nd:YAG, and CO(2) operating in the low energy mode for caries prevention in pits and fissures. Forty-five caries-free enamel occlusal sections were randomly divided into three groups: G1 - Er:YAG (80 mJ/2 Hz); G2 - Nd:YAG Laser (1 W and 10 Hz); and G3 - CO(2) Laser (0.4 W and 20 Hz). After surface treatment, the samples were submitted to challenge with acid consisting of a 10-day immersion in demineralizing (6 h) and remineralizing solution (18 h). Next, enamel demineralization was quantitatively evaluated by subsurface microhardness test and polarized-light microscopy (PLM, mm(2)) and qualitatively assessed by scanning electron microscopy. The Wilcoxon test was used for comparison of each group with its own control. ANOVA (α = 5%) was employed for comparison among groups, and Fisher's LSD multiple comparison test was applied, to check the difference in means. Concerning the microhardness analyses, statistical difference between control, and experimental areas was only detected for the CO(2) group. Experimental values were higher than the controls. As for PLM analyses, smaller demineralized areas were measured for G2 (Nd:YAG) and G3 (CO(2)) compared with the control areas. In conclusion, the present findings suggest that the CO(2) laser should be selected in order to increase the enamel resistance to acid in pits and fissures. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Argon and Nd:YAG lasers for caries prevention in enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Julieta Gomes; Eduardo, Carlos de Paula; Burnett, Luiz Henrique; Boff, Teonas Renato; de Freitas, Patrícia Moreira

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Nd:YAG and argon laser irradiations on enamel demineralization after two different models to induce artificial caries. It is believed that the use of the high-intensity laser on the dental structure can lead to a more acid-resistant surface. Twenty-one extracted human third molars were sectioned into tooth quarters. The quarters were distributed in three groups: Group I (control), untreated; Group II, Nd:YAG laser (60 mJ, 15 pps, 47.77 J/cm(2), 30 sec); and Group III, argon laser (250 mW, 12 J/cm(2), 48 sec). Tooth quarters from each group were subjected to two different demineralization models: cycle 1, a 14 day demineralization (pH 4.5; 6 h) and remineralization (pH 7.0; 18 h) solutions, 37 °C and cycle 2, 48 h in demineralization solution (pH 4.5). Samples were prepared in slices (60-100 μm thick) to be evaluated under polarized light microscopy. Demineralization areas were measured (mm(2)) (n=11). Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's test (plaser was more effective for caries preventive treatment than Nd:YAG laser, showing a smaller demineralization area in enamel.

  2. Comparison of two preventive interventions on dental caries among children in Democratic People's Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarvonen, P-L; Sipilä, K; Yang, G S; Kim, J K; Lamidi, M-L; Suominen, A L

    2016-11-01

    The aim was to compare the change in dental caries status in two different intervention groups of the Children's Oral Health Promotion Programme (COHPP). A longitudinal study among 500 children who had participated into the COHPP for 6 years was conducted in Pyongyang, Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK). Children in Group I received intensified school-based intervention and were clinically examined at the age of 7 years in 2007 (n = 250), 10 years in 2010 (n = 250) and 13 years in 2013 (n = 242). Children in Group II (n = 250) joined the programme at the age of 4 years in kindergarten in 2007, were provided with early preschool-based intervention and were clinically examined at the age of 7 years in 2010 and 10 years in 2013. Both the prevalence and the mean number of dt + DT decreased significantly in both groups during the follow-up. This was due to decrease in the number of dt, whereas the number of DT remained relatively constant. Poisson regression showed that the association between the group status and the change in the number of dt + DT was statistically significant when adjusted for gender but disappeared when the school was included in the analysis. The decrease in dental caries may be partly due to the exfoliation of deciduous teeth and dental treatment received. However, the study gave some reference emphasizing the early starting of the prevention. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. The Effect of Topical Iodine and Fluoride Varnish Combination in Preventing Early Childhood Caries: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Hashemi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Early Childhood Caries (ECC in the earliest stage is preventable. The studies indicate oral bacteria play an important role in pathogenesis of dental caries. According to high prevalence of ECC, alternative therapies should be explored in order to reduce the occurrence of it. Aim: This study aims to assess the effectiveness of a product containing Povidone Iodine 10% and Sodium Fluoride 0.2% as a supplementary intervention for preventing ECC.Materials and Methods: Thirty-seven children aged 4 to 6 year-old were recruited. Maxillary incisors on each side of the mouth were selected either as a test or control group. Early caries detection examinations were conducted using International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS clinically and photographically. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study, a product containing a mixture of  Povidone Iodine 10%  and Sodium Fluoride 0.2%  was applied to the designated incisors of the test group participants. This application was performed every week for a 3-month. The control group participants received a placebo mixture during the same time interval. The caries detection examinations were conducted again after 6 months and the results were compared. The data was analyzed with SPSS V.18, using McNemar test.Results: The incidence of carious lesions increased for the control group while it decreased in the test group (P

  4. Use of caries-preventive agents in children: findings from the dental practice-based research network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riley, J L; Richman, Joshua S; Rindal, D Brad

    2010-01-01

    Scientific evidence supports the application of caries-preventive agents in children and adolescents, and this knowledge must be applied to the practice of dentistry. There are few multi-region data that allow for comparisons of practice patterns between types of dental practices and geographical...

  5. [Research progress on a nanodrug delivery system for prevention and control of dental caries and periodontal diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaling, Jiang; Mingye, Feng; Lei, Cheng

    2017-02-01

    Dental caries and periodontal diseases are common chronic infectious diseases that cause serious damage to oral health. Bacteria is the primary factor leading to such conditions. As a dental plaque control method, chemotherapeutic agents face serious challenges in dental care because of the specific physiological and anatomical characteristics of the oral cavity. Nanodrug delivery system is a series of new drug delivery systems at nanoscale, and it can target cells, promote sustainedrelease effects, and enhance biodegradation. This review focuses on research progress on nanodrug delivery systems for prevention and control of dental caries and periodontal diseases.

  6. Pit and fissure sealants in the prevention of dental caries in children and adolescents: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarpazhooh, Amir; Main, Patricia A

    2008-03-01

    To investigate the evidence for sealants as a means to prevent caries in children and adolescents and, in the presence of suitable supporting evidence, to develop a protocol for the application of sealants. Previous systematic reviews on this topic were used as the basis for the current review. Ovid MEDLINE, CINAHL and several other relevant bibliographic databases were searched for English-language articles, with human subjects, published from 2000 to 2007. A total of 303 articles were identified by the literature search; relevance was determined by examining the title and abstract of the articles. Thirty-eight original research studies met the inclusion criteria. These articles were read in full and scored independently by 2 reviewers, and evidence was extracted for development of recommendations. The following recommendations are based on the evidence gathered in this review: 1. Sealants should be placed on all permanent teeth without cavitation (i.e., teeth that are free of caries, teeth that have deep pit and fissure morphology, teeth with "sticky" fissures or teeth with stained grooves) as soon after eruption as isolation can be achieved. 2. Sealants should not be placed on partially erupted teeth or teeth with cavitation or caries of the dentin. 3. Sealants should be placed on the primary molars of children who are susceptible to caries (i.e., those with a history of caries). 4. Sealants should be placed on first and second molars within 4 years after eruption. 5. Resin-based sealants should be preferred, until such time as glass ionomer cements with better retention capacity are developed. 6. Sealants should be placed as part of an overall prevention strategy based on assessment of caries risk.

  7. Dental caries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pitts, Nigel B; Zero, Domenick T; Marsh, Phil D

    2017-01-01

    Dental caries is a biofilm-mediated, sugar-driven, multifactorial, dynamic disease that results in the phasic demineralization and remineralization of dental hard tissues. Caries can occur throughout life, both in primary and permanent dentitions, and can damage the tooth crown and, in later life......, acknowledging the historical era dominated by restoration of tooth decay by surgical means, but focuses on current, progressive and more holistic long-term, patient-centred, tooth-preserving preventive care.......Dental caries is a biofilm-mediated, sugar-driven, multifactorial, dynamic disease that results in the phasic demineralization and remineralization of dental hard tissues. Caries can occur throughout life, both in primary and permanent dentitions, and can damage the tooth crown and, in later life......, exposed root surfaces. The balance between pathological and protective factors influences the initiation and progression of caries. This interplay between factors underpins the classification of individuals and groups into caries risk categories, allowing an increasingly tailored approach to care. Dental...

  8. Socio-behavioural aspects in the prevention and control of dental caries and periodontal diseases at an individual and population level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sälzer, S.; Alkilzy, M.; Slot, D.E.; Dörfer, C.E.; Schmoeckel, J.; Splieth, C.H.

    AIM: Aim was to systematically review behavioural aspects in the prevention and control of dental caries and periodontal diseases at individual and population level. MATERIAL & METHODS: With regard to caries, MEDLINE/PubMed was searched on three subheadings focusing on early childhood, proximal and

  9. Cluster-randomized xylitol toothpaste trial for early childhood caries prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Donald L.; Tut, Ohnmar K.; Milgrom, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Purpose We assessed the efficacy of supervised toothbrushing with xylitol toothpaste to prevent early childhood caries (ECC) and to reduce mutans streptococci (MS). Methods In this cluster-randomized efficacy trial, 4 Head Start classrooms in the Marshall Islands were randomly assigned to supervised toothbrushing with 1,400ppm/31% fluoride-xylitol (Epic Dental, Provo, UT) or 1,450ppm fluoride-sorbitol toothpaste (Colgate-Palmolive, New York, NY) (N=196 children, ages 4–5 yrs). We hypothesized no difference in efficacy between the two types of toothpaste. The primary outcome was primary molar d2-3mfs increment after 6 mos. A single examiner was blinded to classroom assignments. Two classrooms were assigned to the fluoride-xylitol group (85 children) and 2 classrooms to the fluoride-sorbitol group (83 children). The child-level analyses accounted for clustering. Results There was no difference between the two groups in baseline or end-of-trial mean d2-3mfs. The mean d2-3mfs increment was greater in the fluoride-xylitol group compared to the fluoride-sorbitol group (2.5 and 1.4 d2-3mfs, respectively), but the difference was not significant (95% CI:−0.17, 2.37;P=0.07). No adverse effects were reported. Conclusion After 6 mos, brushing with a low strength xylitol/fluoride toothpaste is no more efficacious in reducing ECC than a fluoride only toothpaste in a high caries risk child population. PMID:24709430

  10. Effectiveness of the bucco-lingual technique within a school-based supervised toothbrushing program on preventing caries: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frazão Paulo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Supervised toothbrushing programs using fluoride dentifrice have reduced caries increment. However there is no information about the effectiveness of the professional cross-brushing technique within a community intervention. The aim was to assess if the bucco-lingual technique can increase the effectiveness of a school-based supervised toothbrushing program on preventing caries. Methods A randomized double-blinded controlled community intervention trial to be analyzed at an individual level was conducted in a Brazilian low-income fluoridated area. Six preschools were randomly assigned to the test and control groups and 284 five-year-old children presenting at least one permanent molar with emerged/sound occlusal surface participated. In control group, oral health education and dental plaque dying followed by toothbrushing with fluoride dentifrice supervised directly by a dental assistant, was developed four times per year. At the remaining school days the children brushed their teeth under indirect supervising of the teachers. In test group, children also underwent a professional cross-brushing on surfaces of first permanent molar rendered by a specially trained dental assistant five times per year. Enamel and dentin caries were recorded on buccal, occlusal and lingual surfaces of permanent molars during 18-month follow-up. Exposure time of surfaces was calculated and incidence density ratio was estimated using Poisson regression model. Results Difference of 21.6 lesions per 1,000 children between control and test groups was observed. Among boys whose caries risk was higher compared to girls, incidence density was 50% lower in test group (p = 0.016. Conclusion Modified program was effective among the boys. It is licit to project a relevant effect in a larger period suggesting in a broader population substantial reduction of dental care needs. Trial registration ISRCTN18548869.

  11. Effectiveness of the bucco-lingual technique within a school-based supervised toothbrushing program on preventing caries: a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Supervised toothbrushing programs using fluoride dentifrice have reduced caries increment. However there is no information about the effectiveness of the professional cross-brushing technique within a community intervention. The aim was to assess if the bucco-lingual technique can increase the effectiveness of a school-based supervised toothbrushing program on preventing caries. Methods A randomized double-blinded controlled community intervention trial to be analyzed at an individual level was conducted in a Brazilian low-income fluoridated area. Six preschools were randomly assigned to the test and control groups and 284 five-year-old children presenting at least one permanent molar with emerged/sound occlusal surface participated. In control group, oral health education and dental plaque dying followed by toothbrushing with fluoride dentifrice supervised directly by a dental assistant, was developed four times per year. At the remaining school days the children brushed their teeth under indirect supervising of the teachers. In test group, children also underwent a professional cross-brushing on surfaces of first permanent molar rendered by a specially trained dental assistant five times per year. Enamel and dentin caries were recorded on buccal, occlusal and lingual surfaces of permanent molars during 18-month follow-up. Exposure time of surfaces was calculated and incidence density ratio was estimated using Poisson regression model. Results Difference of 21.6 lesions per 1,000 children between control and test groups was observed. Among boys whose caries risk was higher compared to girls, incidence density was 50% lower in test group (p = 0.016). Conclusion Modified program was effective among the boys. It is licit to project a relevant effect in a larger period suggesting in a broader population substantial reduction of dental care needs. Trial registration ISRCTN18548869. PMID:21426572

  12. Effectiveness of the bucco-lingual technique within a school-based supervised toothbrushing program on preventing caries: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazão, Paulo

    2011-03-22

    Supervised toothbrushing programs using fluoride dentifrice have reduced caries increment. However there is no information about the effectiveness of the professional cross-brushing technique within a community intervention. The aim was to assess if the bucco-lingual technique can increase the effectiveness of a school-based supervised toothbrushing program on preventing caries. A randomized double-blinded controlled community intervention trial to be analyzed at an individual level was conducted in a Brazilian low-income fluoridated area. Six preschools were randomly assigned to the test and control groups and 284 five-year-old children presenting at least one permanent molar with emerged/sound occlusal surface participated. In control group, oral health education and dental plaque dying followed by toothbrushing with fluoride dentifrice supervised directly by a dental assistant, was developed four times per year. At the remaining school days the children brushed their teeth under indirect supervising of the teachers. In test group, children also underwent a professional cross-brushing on surfaces of first permanent molar rendered by a specially trained dental assistant five times per year. Enamel and dentin caries were recorded on buccal, occlusal and lingual surfaces of permanent molars during 18-month follow-up. Exposure time of surfaces was calculated and incidence density ratio was estimated using Poisson regression model. Difference of 21.6 lesions per 1,000 children between control and test groups was observed. Among boys whose caries risk was higher compared to girls, incidence density was 50% lower in test group (p = 0.016). Modified program was effective among the boys. It is licit to project a relevant effect in a larger period suggesting in a broader population substantial reduction of dental care needs. ISRCTN18548869.

  13. Risk/prevention indicators for the prevalence of dental caries in schoolchildren: results from the Italian OHSAR Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perinetti, G; Caputi, S; Varvara, G

    2005-01-01

    The Italian Oral Health of Schoolchildren of the Abruzzo Region (OHSAR) Survey was designed to assess indicators associated with the prevalence of caries in both the primary and permanent dentitions in the same schoolchildren, and it comprised a representative sample of 5,938 7-, 9- and 11-year-old schoolchildren from three provinces within the region of Abruzzo, Italy, a low fluoride concentration area. Gender, age, geographic location, socioeconomic level, dietary and oral hygiene habits, and the use of F supplements were all considered as indicators. The subsequent multivariate analyses showed that the socioeconomic level, snack consumption frequency, consumption of sweets and the use of F supplements were mostly associated with caries prevalence in both dentitions. Other indicators, such as gender, age, geographic location, between-meal snack consumption frequency, consumption of sweet drinks, toothbrushing frequency and onset of regular toothbrushing habits also showed some significant associations with dental caries across the age groups and/or dentitions. Of interest, the consumption of commercial bottled mineral water was also seen to be a preventive indicator for dental caries of the primary dentition, particularly in the 7-year-old group. The consumption of sweet snacks, use of interdental floss and kind of toothbrush mainly used (manual or electric) did not show any relevant association with the outcomes. The strong effect of the geographic location, socioeconomical level and the preventive effects of commercial bottled mineral water are worth further investigation. Copyright 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Targeting of Streptococcus mutans Biofilms by a Novel Small Molecule Prevents Dental Caries and Preserves the Oral Microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, S S; Blackledge, M S; Michalek, S; Su, L; Ptacek, T; Eipers, P; Morrow, C; Lefkowitz, E J; Melander, C; Wu, H

    2017-07-01

    Dental caries is a costly and prevalent disease characterized by the demineralization of the tooth's enamel. Disease outcome is influenced by host factors, dietary intake, cariogenic bacteria, and other microbes. The cariogenic bacterial species Streptococcus mutans metabolizes sucrose to initiate biofilm formation on the tooth surface and consequently produces lactic acid to degrade the tooth's enamel. Persistence of S. mutans biofilms in the oral cavity can lead to tooth decay. To date, no anticaries therapies that specifically target S. mutans biofilms but do not disturb the overall oral microbiome are available. We screened a library of 2-aminoimidazole antibiofilm compounds with a biofilm dispersion assay and identified a small molecule that specifically targets S. mutans biofilms. At 5 µM, the small molecule annotated 3F1 dispersed 50% of the established S. mutans biofilm but did not disperse biofilms formed by the commensal species Streptococcus sanguinis or Streptococcus gordonii. 3F1 dispersed S. mutans biofilms independently of biofilm-related factors such as antigen I/II and glucosyltransferases. 3F1 treatment effectively prevented dental caries by controlling S. mutans in a rat caries model without perturbing the oral microbiota. Our study demonstrates that selective targeting of S. mutans biofilms by 3F1 was able to effectively reduce dental caries in vivo without affecting the overall oral microbiota shaped by the intake of dietary sugars, suggesting that the pathogenic biofilm-specific treatment is a viable strategy for disease prevention.

  15. Comparison of Oral Health Education and Fluoride Varnish to Prevent Early Childhood Caries: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memarpour, Mahtab; Dadaein, Shorangize; Fakhraei, Ebrahim; Vossoughi, Mehrdad

    2016-01-01

    Early childhood caries, a serious health problem among young children, can be prevented with effective intervention. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of oral health education and a fluoride varnish in the prevention of caries in children under the age of 3 years. For this single-blind randomized parallel group 1-year clinical trial in Shiraz, 300 children aged 12-24 months with sound primary teeth were selected and randomly divided into three groups (n = 100): (1) control: no preventive intervention; (2) oral health counseling, and (3) oral health counseling and fluoride varnish at baseline and 6 months later. At baseline and 4, 8 and 12 months after the intervention, caries risk reduction was recorded as the primary outcome. The mothers' knowledge and performance regarding oral health in children was used as a secondary outcome. A total of 260 children (mean age: 20.49 ± 7.33 months) completed the study. Compared to group 1, caries risk reduction in group 2 was 28% (95% CI: -39.05 to -17.45) and 31% in group 3 (95% CI: -41.88 to -21.73). However, there was no significant difference between groups 2 and 3 (95% CI: -8.58 to 1.47). In all groups, mothers' knowledge and performance at baseline were low; however, they increased significantly in follow-up appointments in groups 2 and 3 (p Oral health education increased mothers' knowledge and performance regarding oral health in children. Oral health counseling alone or associated with the use of fluoride varnish reduced the caries incidence in young children. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. An Effective Psychoeducational Intervention for Early Childhood Caries Prevention: Part I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber-Gasparoni, Karin; Reeve, Johnmarshall; Ghosheh, Natalie; Warren, Joh J.; Drake, David R.; Kramer, Katherine W.O.; Dawson, Deborah V.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose was to compare whether mothers exposed to an autonomy-supportive psychoeducational videotaped message, informed by the self-determination theory (SDT), demonstrated greater changes in oral health knowledge and behavioral intentions as a preventive means for early childhood caries (ECC) than mothers exposed to a neutral message delivered by brochure. Methods Data were collected at baseline, one-, and six-month follow-ups from 415 12- to 49-month-old WIC-enrolled children and their mothers: 283 in the video intervention group and 132 in the brochure control group. Mothers completed questionnaires on maternal knowledge and behavioral intentions for oral health care. Chi-square, Wilcoxon rank-sum, and Mann-Whitney tests were used to analyze data (P<.05). Results Relative to their baseline scores, the intervention group showed a greater increase in knowledge than the control group, both at one-month (P=.002) and six-month follow-ups (P<.001). The video group also demonstrated a greater increase in behavioral intentions than controls, both at one-month (P<.05) and six-month follow-ups (P<.001). Knowledge and behavioral intention levels at six-month follow-up did not differ significantly from those at one-month follow-up, indicating that intervention-based increases in these measures were maintained over time. Conclusions Data provided evidence of the effectiveness of the autonomy-supportive psychoeducational intervention for ECC prevention relative to a neutral brochure. PMID:23756308

  17. [Fluoride content of bottled natural mineral waters in Spain and prevention of dental caries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maraver, Francisco; Vitoria, Isidro; Almerich-Silla, José Manuel; Armijo, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the concentration of fluoride in natural mineral waters marketed in Spain in order to prevent tooth decay without the risk of causing dental fluorosis Descriptive and cross-sectional study during 2012. Natural mineral waters marketed in Spain. Three bottles with different bottling dates of 109 natural mineral waters (97 Spanish and 12 imported brands). Determination of fluoride by ion chromatography Median fluoride concentrations of the natural mineral waters bottled in Spain was 0.22 (range 0.00-4.16; interquartile range:0.37). Most samples (61 brands, 62%) contained less than 0.3mg/L. There are 19 Spanish brands with more than 0.6 mg/L. The median level in imported brands was 0.35 (range 0.10-1.21; interquartile range: 0.23). Only 28 of the 109 brands examined (25.6%) specified the fluoride content on the label. Good correlation was observed between the concentrations indicated and those determined. Fluoride concentrations in natural mineral waters showed high variation. Given the growing consumption of natural mineral waters in Spain, this type of information is important to make proper use of fluoride in the primary prevention of dental caries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Dental caries vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivakumar K

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is one of the most common diseases in humans. In modern times, it has reached epidemic proportions. Dental caries is an infectious microbiologic disease of the teeth that results in localized dissolution and destruction of the calcified tissue. Dental caries is a mulitifactorial disease, which is caused by host, agent, and environmental factors. The time factor is important for the development and progression of dental caries. A wide group of microorganisms are identified from carious lesions of which S. mutans , Lactobacillus acidophilus , and Actinomyces viscosus are the main pathogenic species involved in the initiation and development of dental caries. In India, surveys done on school children showed caries prevalence of approximately 58%. Surveys among the U.S. population showed an incidence of 45.3% in children and 93.8% in adults with either past or present coronal caries. Huge amounts of money and time are spent in treating dental caries. Hence, the prevention and control of dental caries is the main aim of public health, eventually the ultimate objective of public health is the elimination of the disease itself. Recently, dental caries vaccines have been developed for the prevention of dental caries. These dental caries vaccines are still in the early stages.

  19. Some special features of the caries preventive effect of water-fluoridation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Backer Dirks, O.; Houwink, B.; Kwant, G.W.

    In March 1953 water-fluoridation was started in Tiel, the Netherlands. From the caries numbers of three age classes the differences in caries inhibition for the various teeth and for the various tooth surfaces are shown after 5 1/2 of fluoridation. The free smooth surfaces (buccal and labial)

  20. The main aspects of the clinic picture, treatment and prevention of caries and periodontal tissues of children patients with epidermolysis bullosa

    OpenAIRE

    Vakoliuk, Olena; Budaev, Iurij; Kosteniuk, Snizhana

    2015-01-01

    Using the references listed below and the results of personal clinic observations, the plan of prevention and treatment of dental caries and periodontal tissues among the children patients with epidermolysis bullosa is suggested in this article.

  1. PRIMARY CARIES: AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Solanki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary caries is an initial lesions produced by direct extension from an external surface. Dental caries is called as tooth decay or a cavity is a disease in which bacterial processes changes carbohydrate to acid which than dematerializes the hard tooth structure like enamel, dentin and cementum. Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus are the bacteria responsible for the dental caries by acid production. This article throws light on the dental caries disease, its sign and symptoms, treatment and prevention of it. A review of some patents on dental caries is also provided that summarizes the recent technical advancements taken place in this area.

  2. The prevention of dental caries and periodontal disease. Fédération Dentaire Internationale Technical Report No. 20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-06-01

    The use of effective preventive methods has produced good results in developed countries, where caries is declining and periodontal disease is probably getting no worse. There are special problems with prevention in developing countries, principally high periodontal disease prevalence, rising caries rates and lack of resources to deal with these problems. With appropriate assistance, much can still be accomplished in these developing countries. Depending on economic resources and disease patterns, the following procedures for oral disease prevention can be recommended. Priority order will vary from country to country, and national and local laws may also determine what procedures can or cannot be employed. Fluoridation of water supplies is the most effective action to prevent caries in communities where piped water supplies are in place. It is relatively cheap and does not depend on individual action. Where water fluoridation is not feasible, community-based alternatives are salt fluoridation, school-water fluoridation or supervised ingestion of fluoride supplements. Supervised mouthrinsing with fluoride solutions, usually in schools, is effective in fluoridated and non-fluoridated communities. Dentists or auxiliaries can also apply fluoride gels or solutions to the teeth of individual patients. The use of fluoride toothpastes is recommended wherever possible as a routine part of self care. All preventive activities have an educational component. Community leaders and others should be educated regarding the institution and maintenance of community preventive measures which affect them. Individual patients should be educated regarding their oral hygiene, use of fluoride, restriction of sugary snacks between meals and the necessity for regular dental visits when services are available. Dental health education of the public can be concentrated in special target groups such as expectant mothers. Because dental caries is a public health problem in many countries, public

  3. Prevention and control of dental caries and periodontal diseases at individual and population level: consensus report of group 3 of joint EFP/ORCA workshop on the boundaries between caries and periodontal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jepsen, Søren; Blanco, Juan; Buchalla, Wolfgang; Carvalho, Joana C; Dietrich, Thomas; Dörfer, Christof; Eaton, Kenneth A; Figuero, Elena; Frencken, Jo E; Graziani, Filippo; Higham, Susan M; Kocher, Thomas; Maltz, Marisa; Ortiz-Vigon, Alberto; Schmoeckel, Julian; Sculean, Anton; Tenuta, Livia M A; van der Veen, Monique H; Machiulskiene, Vita

    2017-03-01

    The non-communicable diseases dental caries and periodontal diseases pose an enormous burden on mankind. The dental biofilm is a major biological determinant common to the development of both diseases, and they share common risk factors and social determinants, important for their prevention and control. The remit of this working group was to review the current state of knowledge on epidemiology, socio-behavioural aspects as well as plaque control with regard to dental caries and periodontal diseases. Discussions were informed by three systematic reviews on (i) the global burden of dental caries and periodontitis; (ii) socio-behavioural aspects in the prevention and control of dental caries and periodontal diseases at an individual and population level; and (iii) mechanical and chemical plaque control in the simultaneous management of gingivitis and dental caries. This consensus report is based on the outcomes of these systematic reviews and on expert opinion of the participants. Key findings included the following: (i) prevalence and experience of dental caries has decreased in many regions in all age groups over the last three decades; however, not all societal groups have benefitted equally from this decline; (ii) although some studies have indicated a possible decline in periodontitis prevalence, there is insufficient evidence to conclude that prevalence has changed over recent decades; (iii) because of global population growth and increased tooth retention, the number of people affected by dental caries and periodontitis has grown substantially, increasing the total burden of these diseases globally (by 37% for untreated caries and by 67% for severe periodontitis) as estimated between 1990 and 2013, with high global economic impact; (iv) there is robust evidence for an association of low socio-economic status with a higher risk of having dental caries/caries experience and also with higher prevalence of periodontitis; (v) the most important behavioural factor

  4. Caries, views and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratthall, D

    1992-02-01

    This paper describes some advances in caries research in the last century. A tremendous body of knowledge about the disease as well as several possibilities for caries prevention and treatment have been obtained. This knowledge is not used by people in developing countries and certain obstacles for implementation of the procedures under such conditions are identified. Research aimed at finding practical means and methods that can help prevent caries and other oral diseases for the majority of the world's population must be intensified.

  5. Is there a place for Tooth Mousse in the prevention and treatment of early dental caries? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raphael, Sarah; Blinkhorn, Anthony

    2015-09-25

    It is important for Dental Professionals to consider the evidence for the effectiveness of the preventive strategies used to maintain good oral health and reduce the risk of caries in their patients. Whilst many of the traditional preventive activities, including the recommendation and use of fluoride products and the placement of fissure sealants have a wealth of clinical evidence to support their use, some of the newer preventive agents have a more limited evidence base. In order to investigate the level of scientific support behind one such technology, a systematic literature review was carried out to assess the effectiveness of Tooth Mousse (MI Paste) and Tooth Mousse Plus (MI Paste Plus) in the prevention and treatment of early dental caries. A broad search strategy using Medline via OvidSP and EMBASE was performed in order to capture all published studies to related Casein Phosphopeptide-Amorphous Calcium Phosphate. In addition to the above searches the terms "CPP ACP" and "casein phosphopeptide amorphous calcium phosphate" were searched using PREMEDLINE and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Inclusion criteria were clinical trials of participants of any age, comparing the use of Tooth Mousse (MI Paste) or Tooth Mousse Plus (MI Paste Plus) to a routine oral care regimen and reporting recognised clinical outcome measures for early caries lesions. Only research studies in English were selected. 7576 articles were identified, but the majority were duplicates. Once these were removed 172 articles were inspected and the focus on 'CPP-ACP formulations of Tooth Mousse (MI Paste) and Tooth Mousse Plus (MI Paste Plus) resulted in 29 articles being selected, and of these 12 studies met the inclusion criteria and were considered acceptable for the systematic review. The overall findings of this review did not show any significant benefits of using Tooth Mousse (MI Paste) products over brushing with a fluoride toothpaste for the prevention of early

  6. Effect of non-fluoride agents on the prevention of dental caries in primary dentition: A systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Wang

    Full Text Available To assess the effect of non-fluoride agents on the prevention of dental caries in primary dentition.Medline, Web of Science, Embase, Cochrane Library, CBM and CNKI databases were searched to identify all the relevant articles published prior to 16 December 2016. Grey literature was also searched. Randomized controlled human clinical trials in which non-fluoride agents were delivered by any method were considered.Of the 1,236 studies screened, 39 full articles were scrutinized and 14 selected for inclusion in the final sample. Five chemical agents, namely arginine, casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP, chlorhexidine, triclosan and xylitol were investigated in these included studies. The cariostatic effects of non-fluoride agents in vivo were evaluated in comparison with fluoride or placebos in randomized controlled trials. There is evidence that the use of certain doses of xylitol may be effective in arresting dental caries in primary dentition. However, quantitative synthesis could not be carried out because of the clinical and methodological heterogeneity of the included studies.A study at low risk of bias indicated that daily use of xylitol wipes is a useful adjunct for caries control in young children, however, this conclusion should be interpreted with caution as this study had a very limited sample size. Chlorhexidine and CPP-ACP may be more effective than a placebo in managing caries in primary dentition, but their effectiveness is borderline when compared with fluoride. Arginine-containing mint confection and 0.3% triclosan varnish were found to reduce caries development in primary teeth but the evidence was at high risk of bias. High quality randomized controlled trials are needed in order to make a conclusive recommendation.

  7. Cross-Sectional Evaluation of Awareness of Prevention of Dental Caries Among General Pediatricians in Ghaziabad District, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P; Kumar, P; Dixit, A; Gupta, V; Singh, HP; Sargaiyan, V

    2014-01-01

    Background: Oral diseases are largely preventable and it is hoped that with the early exposure to oral health-care activities, the prevalence of oral diseases will be reduced in children and they would be more receptive to dental services. Aim: The present study evaluated the awareness of prevention of dental caries among pediatricians in Ghaziabad district, India. Subjects and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was undertaken among the pediatricians in Ghaziabad district, India. Total subjects including in the survey were 88 pediatricians, through systemic random sampling. Both the gender was including Male-37.8% (35/88) and Female-62.2% (53/88). Pre-tested, structured and self administered questionnaire was used in the survey and data analysis was done by using ‘SPSS’ software version 16.0 (IBM, United States). Results: Our study indicated that most of the pediatricians in Ghaziabad district had moderate knowledge 39.7% (35/88), followed by good knowledge 36.5% (32/88) and poor knowledge 23.8% (21/88) about dental caries. Practice guidelines and opinions of pediatricians in the survey were moderate 64.7% (57/88) in about more than half, followed by poor 23.8% (21/88) and followed by good 11.5% (10/88). The attitude for prevention of dental caries was positive in almost everybody 81.8% (72/88). Conclusion: The present survey concluded that pediatricians in Ghaziabad district, India had a good attitude and practices, but had moderate knowledge and lacked proper awareness about dental caries. PMID:25364606

  8. Effective use of fluorides for the prevention of dental caries in the 21st century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Poul Erik; Lennon, Michael A

    2004-01-01

    Despite great improvements in the oral health of populations across the world, problems still persist particularly among poor and disadvantaged groups in both developed and developing countries. According to the World Oral Health Report 2003, dental caries remains a major public health problem...... in most industrialized countries, affecting 60-90% of schoolchildren and the vast majority of adults. Although it appears that dental caries is less common and less severe in developing countries of Africa, it is anticipated that the incidence of caries will increase in several countries of that continent......, due to changing living conditions and dietary habits, and inadequate exposure to fluorides. Research on the oral health effects of fluoride started around 100 years ago; the focus has been on the link between water and fluorides and dental caries and fluorosis, topical fluoride applications, fluoride...

  9. Radiation-related caries. Etiology and possible preventive strategies. What should the radiotherapist know?; Radiogene Karies. Aetiologie und Moeglichkeiten der Praevention. Was sollte der Strahlentherapeut wissen?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schweyen, R.; Hey, J. [Martin-Luther-Univ., Halle-Wittenberg (Germany). Universitaetspoliklinik fuer Prothetik; Fraenzel, W. [Martin-Luther-Univ., Halle-Wittenberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Vordermark, D. [Martin-Luther-Univ., Halle-Wittenberg (Germany). Universitaetsklinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie; Hildebrandt, G.; Kuhnt, T. [Universitaetsklinikum Rostock (Germany). Universitaetsklinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie

    2012-01-15

    After radiation treatment of head-and-neck cancer, the impairment of patient's quality of life still remains an issue. After completion of the treatment course, a substantial number of patients develop so-called radiation caries. In addition, almost 50% of all cases of infectious osteoradionecrosis (iORN) of the jaws are directly associated with radiation caries. This review addresses our current knowledge on the etiology and pathogenesis of radiation caries including possible preventive strategies. Materials and methods A PubMed search using the terms ''radiation caries'' (''radiation related caries'', ''radiation related damage to dentition'') and ''radiogenic caries'' (''postradiation caries'', ''dental complications and radiotherapy'') was performed. The analysis of its content focused on the etiology, the pathogenesis, and the available knowledge on prophylaxis as well as treatment of radiation caries. Results For this review, 60 publications were selected. As main causal factors for radiogenic caries, either indirect impairment, resulting from alterations in the oral environment (e.g., radiation-induced xerostomia) or direct radiation-induced damage in teeth hard tissues are discussed. Radiation caries remains a lifelong threat and, therefore, requires permanent prevention programs. Conclusion To enable optimal medical care of the patients during the time course of radiotherapy as well as afterwards, close interdisciplinary cooperation between radiotherapists, oral surgeons, otorhinolaryngologists, and dentists is absolutely essential. (orig.)

  10. Effect of erythritol and xylitol on dental caries prevention in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honkala, Sisko; Runnel, Riina; Saag, Mare; Olak, Jana; Nõmmela, Rita; Russak, Silvia; Mäkinen, Pirkko-Liisa; Vahlberg, Tero; Falony, Gwen; Mäkinen, Kauko; Honkala, Eino

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the efficacy of long-term, daily intake of erythritol and xylitol candy, compared with sorbitol candy, on the development of enamel and dentin caries lesions. The study was a double-blind randomized controlled prospective clinical trial. Altogether 485 primary school children, first- and second-graders at baseline, from southeastern Estonia participated in this 3-year intervention. Each child consumed four erythritol, xylitol or sorbitol (control) candies three times per school day. The daily intake of polyol was about 7.5 g. The International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) was used in the clinical examinations by four calibrated examiners at baseline and at 12, 24 and 36 months. The annual examination analyses and the follow-up analyses confirmed that the number of dentin caries teeth and surfaces at 24 months follow-up and surfaces at 36 months follow-up was significantly lower in the mixed dentition in the erythritol group than in the xylitol or control group. Time of enamel/dentin caries lesions to develop and of dentin caries lesions to progress was significantly longer in the erythritol group compared to the sorbitol and xylitol groups. Also the increase in caries score was lower in the erythritol group than in the other groups. In the follow-up examinations, a lower number of dentin caries teeth and surfaces was found in the erythritol group than in the xylitol or control groups. Time to the development of caries lesions was longest in the erythritol group. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT01062633. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. The role of health behavior in preventing dental caries in resource-poor adults: a pilot intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Andrew; Switzer-Nadasdi, Rhonda

    2014-01-01

    Dental caries is a highly prevalent, yet preventable disease that is commonly overlooked in the adult population. It is strongly related to health-related behaviors and knowledge, and therefore, is potentially receptive to a behavioral health intervention. However, prevention strategies that target health behaviors in adults are fundamentally different from those in children, whom most current intervention strategies for dental caries target. This study attempts to pilot design, implement, and assess health behavior intervention tools for adults, in order to improve their oral health. To increase knowledge about dental caries by 80% and increase positive self-reported oral hygiene behaviors by 80% in low-income adult participants at Interfaith Dental Clinic by piloting novel interventional and educational tools based on the Transtheoretical Model of Health Behavior. A convenience sample of newly registered participants to the Interfaith Dental Clinic between August 2011 and May 2013, were interviewed on each participant's first appointment, exposed to the interventional tools, and subsequently interviewed at their next appointment. A control group, comprised of participants who had completed their caries care as deemed by the clinic and had not been exposed to the interventional tools, were also interviewed on their last appointment before graduating the clinic's program. A total of 112 participants were exposed to the intervention, and forty-two participants comprised the control group. Follow-up for the intervention group was 20.5% (n = 23). Knowledge about the cause of caries increased by 29.9%, and positive self-reported oral hygiene behaviors increased by 25.4%. A Wilcoxon rank sum test showed no significance between the interview scores of the post-intervention group and that of the control group (p = 0.18 for knowledge, p = 0.284 for behaviors). Qualitative results show the vast majority of participants blamed diet for cause of caries, that this participant

  12. It’s Not Just About Baby Teeth: Preventing Early Childhood Caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer D. Zwicker

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Early Childhood Caries (ECC is a serious disease that is about much more than cavities on baby teeth. In Canada, it is a growing public health problem with adverse long-term effects on children's physical, emotional and intellectual well-being. The failure to invest in preventive care has resulted in reactive, rather than proactive, measures against this disease. These measures are expensive and a needless drain on costs in the public health-care system. Children with severe ECC end up in hospital; in fact, in Canada, this disease is the most common reason children undergo day surgery. From 2010 to 2012, one in 100 children under age five required day surgery for ECC, with approximately 19,000 of these surgeries performed each year on children under age six. Canadian hospital costs for ECC day surgery in children aged one to five ranged from $1,271 to $1,963 per child, totalling $21.2 million between 2010 and 2012. Children from low-income families, along with aboriginal, immigrant and refugee children are disproportionately affected by dental disease, with between 50 per cent and 90 per cent of suffering from some form of ECC. This compares to an average of 57 per cent of children affected in the general population. A recent Alberta study indicates that when municipalities cease fluoridating their water supplies, children suffer increased levels of tooth decay. This has reignited the discussion around whether municipalities should add fluoride to the drinking water, or reinstate it in places where the water used to be fluoridated. While fluoridation can be an effective prevention strategy, this study also shows that fluoride alone is not enough. To reduce the costs and developmental consequences associated with severe ECC and improve well-being, oral health policies focused on disease prevention and health promotion are still necessary. This briefing paper provides background on the etiology, risk factors and prevalence of ECC in Canada to

  13. Prevention of early childhood caries (ECC) through parental toothbrushing training and fluoride varnish application: a 24-month randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Emily Ming; Lo, Edward Chin Man; Chu, Chun Hung; Wong, May Chun Mei

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of hands-on training in parental toothbrushing, with or without semi-annual applications of 5% sodium fluoride varnish in preventing ECC. Study was conducted in Hong Kong where water is optimally fluoridated. Children aged 8-23 months were recruited and randomly allocated to one of three groups: Gp 1 - control, one-off oral health education talk to parents; Gp 2 - oral health education talk and parental toothbrushing training, reinforced every 6 months; Gp 3 - semi-annual application of fluoride varnish onto child's teeth in addition to the intervention provided to Gp 2. Clinical examinations of the children and interviews were conducted at baseline and after 24 months to assess the children's dental caries status and toothbrushing behaviour. Out of the 450 child-parent dyads recruited at baseline, 415 (92%) remained after 24 months. At baseline, 2% of the children had non-cavitated enamel caries lesions and the mean dmft score was 0.03 ± 0.24. Most of the children did not have daily parental toothbrushing (65-73%) and self toothbrushing (86-90%). At 24-month follow-up, including both non-cavitated and cavitated carious lesions, the incidences of ECC in Gp 1 to Gp 3 were 11.9%, 11.8%, and 17.5%, respectively (p>0.05); and the mean new dmft scores in Gp 1 to Gp 3 were 0.3, 0.2, and 0.3, respectively (p>0.05). Proportions of parents who practiced parental toothbrushing twice daily were 62.7%, 60.4%, and 65.7% in Gp 1 to Gp 3, respectively (p>0.05). In a water fluoridated area, hands-on training in parental toothbrushing, with or without semi-annual application of 5% sodium fluoride varnish may not have additional effect on preventing ECC in young children with low risk of dental caries compared to provision of oral health education to parents. In a water fluoridated area, provision of individual oral health education to parents may be sufficient for preventing ECC in young children below age 3. Supplemental training in parental

  14. The development and validation of a new technology, based upon 1.5% arginine, an insoluble calcium compound and fluoride, for everyday use in the prevention and treatment of dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, D

    2013-08-01

    This paper briefly discusses caries prevalence, the multi-factorial nature of caries etiology, caries risk and the role and efficacy of fluoride. The paper also highlights research on bacterial metabolism which provided understanding of the mouth's natural defenses against caries and the basis for the development of a new technology for the everyday prevention and treatment of caries. Finally, evidence that the technology complements and enhances the anti-caries efficacy of fluoride toothpaste is summarized. Global data show that dental caries is a prevalent disease, despite the successful introduction of fluoride. Caries experience depends on the balance between consumption of sugars and oral hygiene and the use of fluoride. Three scientific concepts are fundamental to new measures to detect, treat and monitor caries: (1) dental caries is a dynamic process, (2) dental caries is a continuum of stages from reversible, pre-clinical to irreversible, clinically detectable lesions, and (3) the caries process is a balance of pathological and protective factors that can be modulated to manage caries. Fluoride functions as a protective factor by arresting and reversing the caries process, but fluoride does not prevent pathological factors that initiate the process. A novel technology, based upon arginine and an insoluble calcium compound, has been identified which targets dental plaque to prevent initiation of the caries process by reducing pathological factors. As the mechanisms of action of arginine and fluoride are highly complementary, a new dentifrice, which combines arginine with fluoride, has been developed and clinically proven to provide superior caries prevention. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of the low-intensity laser therapy on the prevention of dental caries induced in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, Karin Praia

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of low intensity laser therapy, associated or not to an acidulated phosphate fluoride, on the prevention of dental caries induced in rats. It was used 40 wistar rats, female, weaned with 18 days, fed with a cariogenic diet during 48 days and inoculated orally with Streptococcus mutans by three consecutive days starting from the second day of the diet. On the fifth day of experiment the animals were divided into five groups: G c (control) the animas were no submitted to any treatment; G L (laser) irradiation with low power laser (GaAlAs, λ=660 nm, P=30 mW, Δt=5 sec, 5 J/cm 2 ); G F (fluoride) topical application of acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF 1,23%) for four minutes; G LF (laser + fluoride) irradiation with low power laser followed by topical application of acidulated phosphate fluoride; G FL (fluoride + laser) topical application of acidulated phosphate fluoride followed by low power laser. The animals were sacrificed after 48 days; the molars were extracted and prepared to determine the dental caries lesions area by optical microscopy, enamel microhardness and analysis of the calcium and phosphorus ratio (Ca/P) by energy dispersive spectroscopy. The results were statistically analyzed by ANOVA (p LF was smaller than that for G F and G FL groups but no statistical difference was observed. There was no significant statistical difference between the microhardness of the G C and G L groups and among G FL , G LF and G F groups. Regarding to the calcium and phosphorus ratio, it was not observed significant statistical differences among the groups. These findings suggest that low-intensity laser radiation associated with acidulated phosphate fluoride reduces the caries area and could be an alternative in the prevention of the dental caries. (author)

  16. Absorption and thermal study of dental enamel when irradiated with Nd:YAG laser with the aim of caries prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boari, H. G. D.; Ana, P. A.; Eduardo, C. P.; Powell, G. L.; Zezell, D. M.

    2009-07-01

    It is widely recognized that Nd:YAG can increase enamel resistance to demineralization; however, the safe parameters and conditions that enable the application of Nd:YAG laser irradiation in vivo are still unknown. The aim of this study was to determine a dye as a photoabsorber for Nd:YAG laser and to verify in vitro a safe condition of Nd:YAG irradiation for caries prevention. Fifty-eight human teeth were selected. In a first morphological study, four dyes (waterproof India ink., iron oxide, caries indicator and coal paste) were tested before Nd:YAG laser irradiation, under two different irradiation conditions: 60 mJ/pulse and 10 Hz (84.9 J/cm2); 80 mJ/pulse and 10 Hz (113.1 J/cm2). In a second study, the enamel surface and pulp chamber temperatures were evaluated during laser irradiations. All dyes produced enamel surface melting, with the exception of the caries indicator, and coal paste was the only dye that could be completely removed. All irradiation conditions produced temperature increases of up to 615.08°C on the enamel surface. Nd:YAG laser irradiation at 60 mJ/pulse, 10 Hz and 84.9 J/cm2 promoted no harmful temperature increase in the pulp chamber (ANOVA, p < 0.05). Among all dyes tested, the coal paste was an efficient photoabsorber for Nd:YAG irradiation, considered feasible for clinical practice. Nd:YAG laser at 84.9 J/cm2 can be indicated as a safe parameter for use in caries prevention.

  17. Effectiveness of water fluoridation in the prevention of dental caries across adult age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Loc; Ha, Diep; Peres, Marco A; Skinner, John; Byun, Roy; Spencer, A John

    2017-06-01

    Lifetime access to fluoridated water (FW) is associated with lower caries experience. However, assessing this association in adults is likely affected by age. Cohort stratification and categorization of per cent lifetime access to fluoridated water (% LAFW) within cohorts are current approaches to this assessment. These approaches require an examination of the % LAFW and caries experience variation within and across age groups and their association to inform future analyses. This secondary analysis aimed to examine the age group variation in % LAFW and caries experience; and the association of % LAFW with caries within and across age groups of adults. A secondary analysis was undertaken using the Australian National Survey of Adult Oral Health 2004-2006 data on 4090 persons aged 15-91 years randomly sampled by a stratified, multistage probability method. Study participants underwent an interview, an oral examination by trained and standardized dentists to determine decayed, missing or filled tooth surfaces (DMFS) and a mailed self-complete questionnaire which collected residential history to calculate % LAFW. Variations in % LAFW and DMFS across age groups (15-34; 35-44; 45-54; 55+) were examined. Multivariable regression log-link models were generated for DMFS score within each age group. The age groups varied in values and distribution of % LAFW. Caries experience was strongly associated with age. % LAFW was significantly associated with DMFS score in the two younger age groups, but not in the others. Multivariable regression models showed that the highest % LAFW quartile had significantly lower DMFS count than the lowest quartile in the two younger age groups (mean ratios: 0.67 and 0.78, respectively), controlling for other covariates. Access to FW was associated with caries experience in Australian adults. The magnitude of associations varied between age groups, dependent on the natural history of caries and its measurement by DMFS. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A

  18. Nd:YAG laser in caries prevention: a clinical study; Avaliacao clinica da eficiencia do laser de Nd:YAG associado ao fluor fosfato acidulado na prevencao de caries de sulcos e fissuras de criancas e adolescentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boari, Heloisa Gomes Dimiranda

    2000-07-01

    The caries prevention by using laser irradiation has been investigated during the last 30 years. The Nd: YAG laser associated with acidulated phosphate fluoride has been shown as a very promising technique for enamel caries prevention. The aim of this work was to clinically evaluate the efficiency of Nd: YAG laser associated with acidulated phosphate fluoride in pit and fissure caries prevention of children and adolescents. In this work it was determined the dye that enhance the effect of Nd: YAG laser in enamel. It was selected 242 pre-molar and molar teeth from 33 children and adolescents, aged from 7 to 15 years old. The selected teeth were free from caries or decalcification marks (active white marks) to the clinical and radiographic exams. The teeth were divided into two groups: the first group was laser irradiated and their homologous remained as a control. The right side teeth were dye-assisted Nd:YAG laser irradiated. The dye solution was a moisture of dust coal and equal parts of water and alcohol. The irradiation conditions were 60 mJ/10 Hz, optical fiber in contact mode, with diameter of 300 {mu}m, resulting in an energy density of 84,9 J/cm{sup 2}. The oclusal surface of the teeth was completely irradiated, specially on the slopes and in the deepest part of the pits and fissures. This procedure was repeated three times. In the sequence it was applied the acidulated phosphate fluoride for 4 minutes. On the left side teeth - control group- only acidulated phosphate fluoride was applied for the same time. The final examination considered the presence of caries and active white marks after a period of one year. There were statistical significant differences (p < 0.01) between the lased + fluoride group and the non irradiated group. The present study concluded that the technique used in this work can be an alternative clinical method for caries prevention. (author)

  19. Office-based preventive dental program and statewide trends in dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achembong, Leo N; Kranz, Ashley M; Rozier, R Gary

    2014-04-01

    To evaluate the impact of a North Carolina Medicaid preventive dentistry program in primary care medical offices (Into the Mouths of Babes Program [IMBP]) on decayed, missing, and filled teeth (dmft) of kindergarten students statewide and in schools with a large proportion of students from low-income families. An ecologic study using panel data of 920,505 kindergarten students with 11,694 school-year observations examined the effect of the IMBP on dmft scores from 1998 to 2009. Ordinary least squares regression with fixed effects determined the association between IMBP visits per child 0 to 4 years of age per county and mean dmft scores per kindergarten student per school, controlling for school-level poverty and ethnicity, county-level Medicaid enrollment, and supply of dentists and physicians. Mean dmft per kindergarten student per school increased from 1.53 in 1998 to 1.84 in 2004, then decreased to 1.59 in 2009. The mean number of IMBP visits per child 0 to 4 years of age per county increased from 0.01 in 2000 to 0.22 in 2009. A 1-unit increase in IMBP visits per county was associated with a 0.248 (95% confidence interval, -0.40 to -0.10) decrease in dmft per kindergarten student per school. For schools with more students at high risk for dental disease, a 1-unit increase in IMBP visits was associated with a 0.320 (95% confidence interval, -0.55 to -0.09) decrease in dmft. IMBP reduced dental caries among targeted vulnerable children, which helped reduce oral health disparities among preschool-aged children in North Carolina.

  20. [Clinical evaluation of fluor protector and glass-ionomer cement used as pit and fissure sealant for preventing pit and fissure caries in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Pei-hong; Xu, Quan-lin; Ba, Yong

    2007-08-01

    To study the clinical effect of the fluor protector and glass-ionomer cement used as pit and fissure sealant for preventing pit and fissure caries in children. 622 health permanent teeth in 6-8 years old children were divided into three groups. Children in the experimental group A (n=207,335 teeth) underwent fluor protector every six months, experimental group B(n=205, 327 teeth) with glass-ionomer cement used as pit and fissure sealant and children in the control group(n=210, 354 teeth) underwent no treatment. The incidence of caries were compared among the three groups using SPSS10.0 software package after 3 years. After 3 years, the incidence of caries in A and B experimental groups were lower than in the control group, the difference was significant (P0.05). Fluor protector and glass-ionomer cement used as pit and fissure sealant also have good clinical effect in preventing caries.

  1. Disease management of early childhood caries: results of a pilot quality improvement project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Man Wai; Torresyap, Gay; White, Alex; Melvin, Patrice; Graham, Dionne; Kane, Daniel; Scoville, Richard; Ohiomoba, Henry

    2012-08-01

    The purpose is to report findings of a quality improvement (QI) project implemented at two hospital-based dental clinics that care for children with early childhood caries (ECC). We tested a disease management (DM) approach in children younger than age 60 months with ECC. After 30 months, for the 403 and 234 DM patients at Children's Hospital Boston (CHB) and Saint Joseph Hospital (SJH) who returned for at least two visits, rates of new cavitation, pain, and referrals to the OR were 26.1, 13.4 and 10.9% for CHB and 41.0, 7.3 and 14.9% for SJH. Rates of new cavitation, pain, and referrals to the OR for historical controls were 75.2, 21.7, and 20.9% for CHB and 71.3, 31.3, and 25.0% for SJH. A risk-based DM approach utilizing QI strategies to address ECC can be implemented into practice and has the potential to improve care and health outcomes.

  2. Caries preventive efficacy of silver diammine fluoride (SDF) and ART sealants in a school-based daily fluoride toothbrushing program in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monse, Bella; Heinrich-Weltzien, Roswitha; Mulder, Jan; Holmgren, Christopher; van Palenstein Helderman, Wim H

    2012-11-21

    Occlusal surfaces of erupting and newly erupted permanent molars are particularly susceptible to caries.The objective of the study was to assess and compare the effect of a single application of 38% SDF with ART sealants and no treatment in preventing dentinal (D3) caries lesions on occlusal surfaces of permanent first molars of school children who participated in a daily school-based toothbrushing program with fluoride toothpaste. The prospective community clinical trial in the Philippines was conducted over a period of 18 months and included 704 six- to eight-year-old school children in eight public elementary schools with a daily school-based fluoride toothpaste brushing program. Children were randomly assigned for SDF application or ART sealant treatment. Children from two of the eight schools did not receive SDF or ART sealant treatment and served as controls. SDF or ART sealant treatment was applied on sound occlusal surfaces of permanent first molars. Surfaces that were originally defined as sound at baseline but which changed to dentinal (D3) caries lesions were defined as surfaces with new caries (caries increment). Non-compliance to the daily toothbrushing program in three schools offered the opportunity to analyze the caries preventive effect of SDF and sealants separately in fluoride toothpaste brushing and in non-toothbrushing children. In the brushing group, caries increment in the SDF treatment group was comparable with the non-treatment group but caries increment in the sealant group was lower than in the non-treatment group with a statistically significant lower hazard ratio of 0.12 (0.02-0.61). In the non-brushing group, caries increment in the SDF treatment group and the sealant group was lower than the non-treatment group but the hazard ratio was only statistically significant for the sealant group (HR 0.33; 0.20-0.54). Caries increment was lower in toothbrushing children than in non-toothbrushing children. Hazard ratios reached statistical

  3. Caries preventive efficacy of silver diammine fluoride (SDF and ART sealants in a school-based daily fluoride toothbrushing program in the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monse Bella

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Occlusal surfaces of erupting and newly erupted permanent molars are particularly susceptible to caries. The objective of the study was to assess and compare the effect of a single application of 38% SDF with ART sealants and no treatment in preventing dentinal (D3 caries lesions on occlusal surfaces of permanent first molars of school children who participated in a daily school-based toothbrushing program with fluoride toothpaste. Methods The prospective community clinical trial in the Philippines was conducted over a period of 18 months and included 704 six- to eight-year-old school children in eight public elementary schools with a daily school-based fluoride toothpaste brushing program. Children were randomly assigned for SDF application or ART sealant treatment. Children from two of the eight schools did not receive SDF or ART sealant treatment and served as controls. SDF or ART sealant treatment was applied on sound occlusal surfaces of permanent first molars. Surfaces that were originally defined as sound at baseline but which changed to dentinal (D3 caries lesions were defined as surfaces with new caries (caries increment. Non-compliance to the daily toothbrushing program in three schools offered the opportunity to analyze the caries preventive effect of SDF and sealants separately in fluoride toothpaste brushing and in non-toothbrushing children. Results In the brushing group, caries increment in the SDF treatment group was comparable with the non-treatment group but caries increment in the sealant group was lower than in the non-treatment group with a statistically significant lower hazard ratio of 0.12 (0.02-0.61. In the non-brushing group, caries increment in the SDF treatment group and the sealant group was lower than the non-treatment group but the hazard ratio was only statistically significant for the sealant group (HR 0.33; 0.20-0.54. Caries increment was lower in toothbrushing children than in non

  4. Fluoridated salt for caries prevention and control - a 2-year field study in a disadvantaged community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wennhall, Inger; Hajem, Samara; Ilros, Susanna

    2014-01-01

    and progression rate, assessed from bitewing radiographs, was scored. Information on diet, oral hygiene, and fluoride exposure was collected through a baseline questionnaire. RESULTS: The dropout rate was high (IS 27%; RS 18%). At baseline, the IS children displayed more unfavourable risk factors and a higher...... caries experience than RS children. There were no significant differences in total caries increment or proximal progression rate between the two schools. A negative correlation (r = -0.29; P ... were reported. CONCLUSIONS: F-salt was not effective in this setting. Still, the findings indicate that salt may be a beneficial source of fluoride in schoolchildren provided that compliance can be secured....

  5. Cost-effectiveness of a long-term dental health education program for the prevention of early childhood caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowash, M B; Toumba, K J; Curzon, M E J

    2006-09-01

    To evaluate the benefit-cost (B/C) and cost-effectiveness (C/E) of a long-term dental health education program to prevention early childhood caries (ECC) through home visits. The data collected over a three year period in a dental health education programme (DHE), previously reported [Kowash et al., 2000] for infants aged 8 months at start were analysed for B/C and C/E. Dental caries indices (BASCD) for dmft and dmfs were used. Costs were based on British National Health Service (UK) fees for treating children by general dental practitioners and salaries for community dental officers in the Community Dental Services in the UK. Comparisons were made for B/C and C/E with results from a clinical trial of a slow releasing fluoride device (SRFD), community water fluoridation (CMF) and a school based fissure sealant program (FSP) using the hypothetical community of Niessen and Douglass, [1984]. The cavities, as ECC, saved over the three year period indicated a B/C ratio for the DHE of 5.21 compared with SRFD of 4.17; CWF of 1.15 and FSP of 0.42. The C/E results were 1.92, 2.40, 8.66 and 23.74 respectively. A dental health education program of home visits with mothers of young infants to prevent early childhood caries and starting at 8 months of age, gave better benefit-costs and costs effectiveness ratios than other preventive programs.

  6. A holistic food labelling strategy for preventing obesity and dental caries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cinar, A B; Murtomaa, H

    2009-01-01

    of dental caries and obesity; energy-dense foods (sugar-coated cereals, high-sugar yogurt, soft drinks) are becoming very popular among children because of their dense marketing, cheaper price, increased supply and variety. Implementation of health-promoting and -supporting marketing strategies for healthy...

  7. Preventive care delivered within Public Dental Service after caries risk assessment of young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hänsel Petersson, G; Ericson, E; Twetman, S

    2016-01-01

    . The baseline caries risk assessment was carried out by the patient's regular team in four classes according to a predetermined model, and the team was responsible for all treatment decisions. Based on the variables 'oral health information', 'additional fluoride' and 'professional tooth cleaning', a cumulative...

  8. Caries Risk Assessment for Determination of Focus and Intensity of Prevention in a Dental School Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodds, Michael W. J.; Suddick, Richard P.

    1995-01-01

    A study at the University of Texas, San Antonio's dental school resulted in development of a system of caries risk assessment, applied to all undergraduate clinic patients. The rationale, structure, elements, and application of the system are outlined, and course content supporting the system is noted. Need for validation and other improvements is…

  9. The use of sugar free chewing gum as a supplement in the prevention of dental caries. Narrative Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Matthews

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is one of the most prevalent diseases. The WHO has classified it as one of the major public health problems worldwide. That is why a special emphasis has been paid to developing new preventive methods and the use of gum without sugar has been included as one of them. This strategy has significant benefits on oral health due to: (1 saliva stimulation, which favors teeth clearance and regulates the pH; (2 remineralization promotion as a result of the above and incorporation of minerals to the gum; (3 mechanical control of the bacterial plaque; (4 replacement of sugar by sweeteners which are harmful for bacteria (the most commonly used is xylitol and (5 incorporation of active agents such as bicarbonate, casein, urea, chlorhexidine and chitosan, among others. Despite these benefits, the effect of the gum is considered to be weak for dental caries prevention when used instead of brushing. Therefore, its implementation must be proposed as a complement to oral hygiene routines and not as a preventive measure by itself. It is necessary to carry out a greater amount of clinical trials to evaluate its effectiveness in a context of high biological variability in the short and long term and including patients of different sex, age, socio-economic status and systemic health.

  10. Traditional and cultural approaches to childrearing: preventing early childhood caries in Norway House Cree Nation, Manitoba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cidro, Jaime; Zahayko, Lynelle; Lawrence, Herenia; McGregor, Margaret; McKay, Kristen

    2014-01-01

    Infant health and development is linked to a wide range of interventions including maternal nutrition and infant feeding. Early childhood caries (ECC) is a chronic condition that affects large proportions of Aboriginal children worldwide. The health of a child's mouth is linked to their overall health and wellbeing and can have a significant impact in their day-to-day experiences of eating, playing, and sleeping. The rates of ECC have increased dramatically and communities, parents, and governments are increasingly burdened with the social, economic, and personal costs associated with treatment. There is a close association between ECC and unhealthy infant feeding practices and poor oral health care for infants. This research looked at traditional and culturally based approaches to healthy infant feeding and oral health care for infants in one remote First Nations community in northern Manitoba, Canada. Research was already under way in the community in a longer term intervention-based project called the Baby Teeth Talk Study (BTT). In discussions on the interim findings of the study, participants discussed traditional cultural approaches practised in the community for healthy infant feeding and oral health. Using a participatory research approach, the authors engaged in a partnership with the community partner who assisted with the development of research questions as well as identifying research participants. Grandmothers in the community were recruited to participate in a total of 20 interviews and four focus groups. This article explores three key findings pertaining specifically to culturally based childrearing practices and infant oral health. Respondents discussed the importance of feeding infants country food (such as fish, moose and rabbit) at a young age for the overall health of the infant. Related to this was the use of traditional medicine to address oral health issues such as teething and thrush with salves made from tree bark rubbed on the gums of

  11. Do glass ionomer cements prevent caries lesions in margins of restorations in primary teeth?: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raggio, Daniela Prócida; Tedesco, Tamara Kerber; Calvo, Ana Flávia Bissoto; Braga, Mariana Minatel

    2016-03-01

    Fluoride released from glass ionomer cements (GICs) is capable of preventing caries lesions. However, the preventive effect in margins of occlusal and occlusoproximal restorations have not been proved. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of GIC to prevent caries lesions in margins of occlusal and occlusoproximal restorations in primary teeth compared with that of other restorative materials. The authors conducted a literature search in PubMed and MEDLINE to verify the clinical trials available on the outcome of caries lesions. The inclusion criteria were that the subject related to the scope of this systematic review, the study had a follow-up, and the study was not performed in specific groups. The authors performed all meta-analyses by considering the secondary caries rates for the restorations in clinical trials. The search strategy identified 450 potentially relevant studies, and the authors included 8 of them in the review. The main reasons for exclusion were that the studies were not related to the scope of this review or were not longitudinal trials. The secondary caries rate of the occlusal restorations was not different among the restorative materials (odds ratio, 1.2; 95% confidence interval, 0.5-3.1). For occlusoproximal analysis, GIC was associated significantly with better ability to prevent caries lesions (odds ratio, 1.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-2.5). Because new caries lesions in the margins of restorations are the main reason for failure and replacement of restorations in primary teeth, it is important to know whether there is a benefit in using GICs in both occlusal and occlusoproximal cavities. Copyright © 2016 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Prevención indirecta de caries en la temprana infancia: Área “Aballí”. II Parte Indirect prevention of dental caries in early childhood.: “Aballí” Area. II Part

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estela Gispert Abreu

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio en 159 niños de 6 meses a 1 año de edad con el objetivo de analizar la influencia de la prevención indirecta en la incidencia bienal de caries en la primera infancia y la relación entre la afectación por caries y el grado de infección por Estreptococos mutans. Se formaron 2 grupos por el método aleatorio: T donde sus madres y familias convivientes con alta infección por E. mutans (Em recibieron barniz laca flúor al 2 % + clorhexidina al 1 % cada 3 meses, así como actividades educativas y curativas; y el grupo C que solo recibió estas 2 últimas actividades. Cuando los niños arribaron a los 3 años fueron examinados y se observó que la incidencia de caries dependió de forma significativa (X²=pA study was conducted among 159 children aged 6 months old -1 year old to analyse the influence of indirect prevention on the biennial incidence of dental caries in early childhood, and the relation between the affectation due to caries and the degree of infection caused by Streptococcus mutans. They were divided into groups at random: group T where their mothers and relatives living together with high E. mutans infection received fluorine shellac-varnish 2 % plus chlorhexidine 1 % every 3 months, in addition to educative and curative activities, and group C that participated only in the last two activities. The children were examined at the age of 3 and it was observed that the incidence of dental caries depended significantly (X²=p<0,001 y (t=p<0,001 on the E. mutans infection degree in the relatives, mainly in mothers, as well as on the treatment applied to them.

  13. Mutanase-containing chewing gum: A new potential approach for prevention of dental caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Kolahi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Study on the effect of topically applied mutanase on plaque formation and caries in rats showed strong inhibition of dental caries. Furthermore, it has been shown that the presence of mutanase in dental plaque may affect the synthesis and structure of sticky, extracellular glucans. The Hypothesis: Mutanase can be easily added to gum base. After chewing of mutanase-containing chewing gum, the enzyme will be released into the oral cavity. Mutanase will hydrolyze sticky, extracellular glucans, e.g., mutan inhibiting cariogenic bacteria to cohere/adhere and form plaque. Evaluation of the Hypothesis: The main challenge with this hypothesis is the source of mutanase. It can be obtained from Paenibacillus sp. MP-1 or Trichoderma harzianum F-340. Directly compressible medicated chewing gum bases can be used to avoid inactivation of mutanase during the manufacturing process.

  14. Mucoadhesive electrospun chitosan-based nanofibre mats for dental caries prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samprasit, Wipada; Kaomongkolgit, Ruchadaporn; Sukma, Monrudee; Rojanarata, Theerasak; Ngawhirunpat, Tanasait; Opanasopit, Praneet

    2015-03-06

    The mucoadhesive electrospun nanofibre mats were developed using chitosan (CS) and thiolated chitosan (CS-SH) as mucoadhesive polymers. Garcinia mangostana (GM) extract was incorporated into nanofibre mats. The antibacterial activity in the single and combined agents was evaluated against dental caries pathogens. The morphology of mats was observed using SEM. The mats were evaluated for GM extract amount, mucoadhesion, in vitro release, antibacterial activity and cytotoxicity. The mucoadhesion and antibacterial activity were determined in healthy human volunteers. The prepared mats were in nanoscale with good physical and mucoadhesive properties. The CS-SH caused the higher mucoadhesion. All mats rapidly released active substances, which had the synergistic antibacterial activity. In addition, the reduction of bacteria and good mucoadhesion in the oral cavity occurred without cytotoxicity. The results suggest that mats have the potential to be mucoadhesive dosage forms to maintain oral hygiene by reducing the bacterial growth that causes the dental caries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Passive immunization with antisera to Streptococcus mutans in the prevention of caries in rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehner, T; Russell, M W; Wilton, J M; Challacombe, S J; Scully, C M; Hawkes, J E

    1978-01-01

    1) The immunological mechanism of protection against dental caries has been investigated by passive immunization with antisera to S. mutans in the rhesus monkey. 2) Passive immunization with separated IgG, IgM and IgA from sera of immunized monkeys supports the concept that IgG, unlike IgA or IgM antibodies are protective. 3) The role of cell-mediated immunity has been explored by the use of transfer factor. This showed that protection against dental caries can be elicited by passive transfer of whole immune serum and cellular immunity, but not by cellular immunity or immune serum alone. 4) The results of active and passive immunization suggests that immuno-regulation of T and B cell interactions plays an important part in the effector mechanism of opsonization, phagocytosis and killing of S. mutans.

  16. Interdental brushing for the prevention and control of periodontal diseases and dental caries in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poklepovic, Tina; Worthington, Helen V; Johnson, Trevor M; Sambunjak, Dario; Imai, Pauline; Clarkson, Jan E; Tugwell, Peter

    2013-12-18

    Effective oral hygiene is a crucial factor in maintaining good oral health, which is associated with overall health and health-related quality of life. Dental floss has been used for many years in conjunction with toothbrushing for removing dental plaque in between teeth, however, interdental brushes have been developed which many people find easier to use than floss, providing there is sufficient space between the teeth. To evaluate the effects of interdental brushing in addition to toothbrushing, as compared with toothbrushing alone or toothbrushing and flossing for the prevention and control of periodontal diseases, dental plaque and dental caries. We searched the following electronic databases: the Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register (to 7 March 2013), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2013, Issue 2), MEDLINE via OVID (1946 to 7 March 2013), EMBASE via OVID (1980 to 7 March 2013), CINAHL via EBSCO (1980 to 7 March 2013), LILACS via BIREME (1982 to 7 March 2013), ZETOC Conference Proceedings (1980 to 7 March 2013) and Web of Science Conference Proceedings (1990 to 7 March 2013). We searched the US National Institutes of Health Trials Register (http://clinicaltrials.gov) and the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (http://www.controlled-trials.com/mrct/) for ongoing trials to 7 March 2013. No restrictions were placed on the language or date of publication when searching the electronic databases. We included randomised controlled trials (including split-mouth design, cross-over and cluster-randomised trials) of dentate adult patients. The interventions were a combination of toothbrushing and any interdental brushing procedure compared with toothbrushing only or toothbrushing and flossing. At least two review authors assessed each of the included studies to confirm eligibility, assessed risk of bias and extracted data using a piloted data extraction form. We calculated standardised mean difference (SMD) and 95

  17. Pulpal safety of a 9.6-μm TEA CO2 laser used for caries prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodis, Harold E.; Fried, Daniel; Featherstone, John D. B.

    2002-06-01

    Lasers are used for several procedures involving hard and soft tissues of the oral cavity. Included in those procedures is the use of the CO2 laser to alter the surface structure of tooth enamel to render it more resistant to caries. A new 9.6micrometers wavelength TEA CO2 laser (Argu Photonics, Jpiter, FL) has been investigated as a device that can be used for this procedure without harming the dental pulp. Erupted, caries and restoration free third molars (n=24) were used in the experiment. Teeth were irradiated at an incident fluence of 1.5J/cm2 and a repetition rate of 10Hz and a spot size 1mm in diameter. At the low and high settings, 200 to 400 pulses were delivered at 12mJ per pulse for a total energy of 2.4 or 4.8J delivered for 20 or 40 seconds respectively. Other teeth were subjected to a sham dental procedure (positive control) or no procedure (negative control). Prior to testing, radiographs were taken of all teeth, and they were tested pulpally using heat, cold and electricity to determine vitality. The teeth were removed either immediately or at one week or one month after testing. They were bioprepared and examined histologically for signs of inflammation. Only one tooth developed symptoms of sensitivity to cold for 10 days following exposure to the high power level. The sensitivity was of fleeting duration and was judged to be reversible pulpitis. All teeth tested responded normally at pretesting and pre-extraction time periods. Histological examination disclosed no indication of an inflammatory response in the pulp tissue. All sections appeared normal with no changes seen in the normal pulpal morphology. We conclude that the 9.6 micrometers wavelength laser causes no pulpal damage at the energy levels used and can be used safely for caries prevention treatments.

  18. In-vivo occlusal caries prevention by pulsed CO2 -laser and fluoride varnish treatment--a clinical pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rechmann, Peter; Charland, Daniel A; Rechmann, Beate M T; Le, Charles Q; Featherstone, John D B

    2013-07-01

    High caries prevalence in occlusal pits and fissures warrants novel prevention methods. An 86% reduction in dental enamel smooth surface demineralization in-vivo following short-pulsed 9.6 µm-CO(2) -laser irradiation was recently reported. The objective of this study was to conduct a blinded 12-month-pilot clinical trial of occlusal pit and fissure caries inhibition using the same CO(2) -laser irradiation conditions. Twenty subjects, average age 14 years, were recruited. At baseline, second molars were randomized into test and control groups, assessed by International Caries Detection & Assessment System (ICDAS-II), SOPROLIFE light-induced fluorescence evaluator in daylight and blue-fluorescence mode and DIAGNOdent. An independent investigator irradiated test molars with a CO(2) -laser, wavelength 9.6 µm, pulse-duration 20 µs, pulse-repetition-rate 20 Hz, beam diameter 800 µm, average fluence 4.5 ± 0.5 J/cm(2), 20 laser pulses per spot. At 3-, 6- and 12-month recall teeth were assessed by ICDAS, SOPROLIFE and DIAGNOdent. All subjects received fluoride varnish applications at baseline and 6-month recall. All subjects completed the 3-month, 19 the 6-month and 16 the 12-month recall. At all recalls average ICDAS scores had decreased for the test and increased for the control fissures (laser vs. control, 3-month: -0.10 ± 0.14, 0.30 ± 0.18, P > 0.05; 6-month: -0.26 ± 0.13, 0.47 ± 0.16, P = 0.001; 12-month: -0.31 ± 0.15, 0.75 ± 0.17, P laser vs. control, 6-month: 0.22 ± 0.13, 0.17 ± 0.09, P = 0.02; 12-month: 0.28 ± 0.19, 0.25 ± 0.17, P = 0.03). For SOPROLIFE blue-fluorescence evaluation mean changes in comparison to baseline for the control and the laser treated teeth were also statistically significant for the 6- and 12-month recall. Specific microsecond short-pulsed 9.6 µm CO(2) -laser irradiation markedly inhibits caries progression in pits and fissures in comparison to

  19. A phase II clinical trial of a dental health education program delivered by aboriginal health workers to prevent early childhood caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Early Childhood Caries (ECC) is a widespread problem in Australian Aboriginal communities causing severe pain and sepsis. In addition dental services are difficult to access for many Aboriginal children and trying to obtain care can be stressful for the parents. The control of dental caries has been identified as a key indictor in the reduction of Indigenous disadvantage. Thus, there is a need for new approaches to prevent ECC, which reflect the cultural norms of Aboriginal communities. Methods/Design This is a Phase II single arm trial designed to gather information on the effectiveness of a dental health education program for Aboriginal children aged 6 months, followed over 2 years. The program will deliver advice from Aboriginal Health Workers on tooth brushing, diet and the use of fluoride toothpaste to Aboriginal families. Six waves of data collection will be conducted to enable estimates of change in parental knowledge and their views on the acceptability of the program. The Aboriginal Health Workers will also be interviewed to record their views on the acceptability and program feasibility. Clinical data on the child participants will be recorded when they are 30 months old and compared with a reference population of similar children when the study began. Latent variable modeling will be used to interpret the intervention effects on disease outcome. Discussion The research project will identify barriers to the implementation of a family centered Aboriginal oral health strategy, as well as the development of evidence to assist in the planning of a Phase III cluster randomized study. Trial registration ACTRN12612000712808 PMID:22909327

  20. A three-year randomized controlled trial in 6 year old children on caries preventive strategies in a general dental practice in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermaire, J.H.; Poorterman, J.H.G.; Herwijnen, L. van; Loveren, C. van

    2014-01-01

    A parallel-randomized controlled trial on caries-preventive strategies was conducted in a general dental practice with a mixed socioeconomic background patient population. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that, compared to regular care consisting of check-ups twice a year with

  1. A three-year randomized controlled trial in 6-year-old children on caries-preventive strategies in a general dental practice in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermaire, J.H.; Poorterman, J.H.G.; van Herwijnen, L.; van Loveren, C.

    2014-01-01

    A parallel-randomized controlled trial on caries-preventive strategies was conducted in a general dental practice with a mixed socioeconomic background patient population. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that, compared to regular care consisting of check-ups twice a year with

  2. Signos Vitales de los CDC–Los selladores dentales previenen las caries (Dental Sealants Prevent Cavities)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-10-18

    Este podcast se basa en la edición de octubre del 2016 del informe Signos Vitales de los CDC. Los selladores dentales, que se aplican poco después de que les salgan las muelas permanentes a los niños, pueden protegerlos contra las caries hasta por nueve años. Aplicarles los selladores dentales a los niños de bajos ingresos en las escuelas podría ahorrar millones de dólares en costos de tratamientos.  Created: 10/18/2016 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 10/18/2016.

  3. Four-level evaluation of health promotion intervention for preventing early childhood caries: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Basir

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early childhood caries (ECC is the most common dental disease among children, which can affect children’s primary teeth during their teething. This study evaluates an intervention for preventing early childhood caries in a pediatric population in Ahvaz, Iran. Method The population of this study (IRCT2017070210804N10 consists of 104 women with 12 to 36 months of age without dental caries referred to a health care center in Ahvaz, Iran. The children were randomly assigned to either an experimental or control group in equal numbers. First, the demographic information of participants was collected through a questionnaire containing components of perceived threat, health literacy, and oral health behaviors using a valid and reliable questionnaire. The ECC status of the children was established by a dentist. Control group received “standard well baby care”. The experimental group received standard well baby care in addition to educational interventions, including lecture and group discussion. After 6 months, the participant completed the questionnaire for the second time, and the children’s teeth were reexamined. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 15 at a significance level of p  0.05. However, after the intervention, a significant difference was observed between the perceived threats (41.15 ± 4.46 in the experimental group and 38.26 ± 4.21 in the control group, p = 0.001, health literacy (20.98 ± 2.15 in the experimental group and 19.76 ± 2.70 in the control group, p = 0.01, oral health behaviors (7.75 ± 2.30 in the experimental group and 6.15 ± 2.65 in the control group, p = 0.01, and the incidence of ECC (13% in the experimental group and 35% in the control group, p = 0.001. Conclusion This intervention had positive effects on the perceived threat, health literacy, and health behaviors; and the intervention could reduce the incidence of ECC. The finding of this study provided a suggestion

  4. Design and implementation of a dental caries prevention trial in remote Canadian Aboriginal communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Rosamund; Veronneau, Jacques; Leroux, Brian

    2010-05-13

    The goal of this cluster randomized trial is to test the effectiveness of a counseling approach, Motivational Interviewing, to control dental caries in young Aboriginal children. Motivational Interviewing, a client-centred, directive counseling style, has not yet been evaluated as an approach for promotion of behaviour change in indigenous communities in remote settings. Aboriginal women were hired from the 9 communities to recruit expectant and new mothers to the trial, administer questionnaires and deliver the counseling to mothers in the test communities. The goal is for mothers to receive the intervention during pregnancy and at their child's immunization visits. Data on children's dental health status and family dental health practices will be collected when children are 30-months of age. The communities were randomly allocated to test or control group by a random "draw" over community radio. Sample size and power were determined based on an anticipated 20% reduction in caries prevalence. Randomization checks were conducted between groups. In the 5 test and 4 control communities, 272 of the original target sample size of 309 mothers have been recruited over a two-and-a-half year period. A power calculation using the actual attained sample size showed power to be 79% to detect a treatment effect. If an attrition fraction of 4% per year is maintained, power will remain at 80%. Power will still be > 90% to detect a 25% reduction in caries prevalence. The distribution of most baseline variables was similar for the two randomized groups of mothers. However, despite the random assignment of communities to treatment conditions, group differences exist for stage of pregnancy and prior tooth extractions in the family. Because of the group imbalances on certain variables, control of baseline variables will be done in the analyses of treatment effects. This paper explains the challenges of conducting randomized trials in remote settings, the importance of thorough

  5. Prevention of oiled wildlife project (POW)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, T.C.

    1998-01-01

    The establishment of a project to analyse the nature and extent of the problem of marine oil spills and their impact on the wildlife in coastal Newfoundland was described. Pelagic seabirds were identified as the marine wildlife most affected by oil released into the ocean. The Prevention of Oiled Wildlife (POW) project was initiated by the Canadian Coast Guard, the lead agency for oil spills of unknown origin. Details of the POW project were provided. It was shown that the project serves as an interdepartmental approach to: (1) identifying past occurrences, probable sources, causes, effects and possible releases of oil into the marine environment, (2) identifying remedial measures undertaken to date to curb the release of oil, and (3) establishing a plan of action through legislation, education, detection, prosecution or any other means, to eliminate the release of oil. 14 refs., 4 tabs., 5 figs

  6. Photo activated disinfection efficiency of low-intensity laser and comprehensive prevention of caries and gingivitis in adolescents using bracket system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Ye. Suetenkov

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available It is very important to study the problem of caries and gingivitis in adolescents who are being treated for orthodontic pathology with bracket systems. The method of combined treatment which incorporates the use of medicine and laser therapy has been proved effective in caries prevention. This research aims to study clinical aspects of the effectiveness of the combined influence of the low-intensity laser "OPTODAN" with a wavelength of 0.85 μm (Scientific Development and Production Center "VEND", Saratov, Russia in caries prevention. The research also aims to study the disinfection method of PAD with "FotoSan" ("CMS Dental", Denmark, with a wavelength of 625–635 nm, where toluidine blue is used as photosensitizer molecules combined with regular measure to prevent gingivitis in adolescents being treated for orthodontic pathology with bracket systems. This paper presents the results of 1.5 years of clinical study of 60 12–13-year-old children. They were examined before and after the orthodontic treatment: their decayed, missing, filled teeth (DMFT, decayed, missing, filled tooth surfaces (DMFS index and hygiene status (OHI-S were calculated, gum inflammations were detected. Before the orthodontic treatment, their mouths were sanitized. After orthodontic appliances were placed, the children were randomly divided into two groups of 30 each. Children of the first group, while being treated with braces, took traditional preventative measures against gum inflammation and caries: occupational hygiene, local antiseptics (0.05% chlorhexidine solution, the use of remineralizing and phosphorus containing applications four times a year. The children of the second group, along with the traditional scheme of preventive measures, were treated with the devices "FotoSan" and "Optodan". Results of clinical examination of the second group have accurately proved decrease in the growth of dental caries intensity and surface caries intensity (ΔDMFT, ΔDMFS and

  7. Cost-effectiveness of preventing dental caries and full mouth dental reconstructions among Alaska Native children in the Yukon–Kuskokwim delta region of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Charisma Y.; Thomas, Timothy K.; Lenaker, Dane; Day, Gretchen M.; Hennessy, Thomas W.; Meltzer, Martin I.

    2016-01-01

    Objective We conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis of five specific dental interventions to help guide resource allocation. Methods We developed a spreadsheet-based tool, from the healthcare payer perspective, to evaluate the cost effectiveness of specific dental interventions that are currently used among Alaska Native children (6-60 months). Interventions included: water fluoridation, dental sealants, fluoride varnish, tooth brushing with fluoride toothpaste, and conducting initial dental exams on children caries treatments completed by a dental provider in the dental chair, while 161 children received FMDRs completed by a dental surgeon in an operating room. The average cost of treating dental caries in the dental chair was $1,467 (~258,000 per year); while the cost of treating FMDRs was $9,349 (~1.5 million per year). All interventions were shown to prevent caries and FMDRs; however tooth brushing prevented the greatest number of caries at minimum and maximum effectiveness with 1,433 and 1,910, respectively. Tooth brushing also prevented the greatest number of FMDRs (159 and 211) at minimum and maximum effectiveness. Conclusions All of the dental interventions evaluated were shown to produce cost savings. However, the level of that cost saving is dependent on the intervention chosen. PMID:26990678

  8. Dental plaque, preventive care, and tooth brushing associated with dental caries in primary teeth in schoolchildren ages 6-9 years of Leon, Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Miriam del Socorro; Medina-Solís, Carlo Eduardo; Minaya-Sánchez, Mirna; Pontigo-Loyola, América Patricia; Villalobos-Rodelo, Juan José; Islas-Granillo, Horacio; de la Rosa-Santillana, Rubén; Maupomé, Gerardo

    2013-11-19

    Our study aimed to evaluate the effect of various risk indicators for dental caries on primary teeth of Nicaraguan children (from Leon, Nicaragua) ages 6 to 9, using the negative binomial regression model. A cross-sectional study was carried out to collect clinical, demographic, socioeconomic, and behavioral data from 794 schoolchildren ages 6 to 9 years, randomly selected from 25 schools in the city of León, Nicaragua. Clinical examinations for dental caries (dmft index) were performed by 2 trained and standardized examiners. Socio-demographic, socioeconomic, and behavioral data were self-reported using questionnaires. Multivariate negative binomial regression (NBR) analysis was used. Mean age was 7.49 ± 1.12 years. Boys accounted for 50.1% of the sample. Mean dmft was 3.54 ± 3.13 and caries prevalence (dmft >0) was 77.6%. In the NBR multivariate model (pBrushing teeth at least once a day and having received preventive dental care in the last year before data collection were associated with declines in the expected mean dmft by 19.5% and 69.6%, respectively. Presence of dental plaque increased the expected mean dmft by 395.5%. The proportion of students with caries in this sample was high. We found associations between dental caries in the primary dentition and dental plaque, brushing teeth at least once a day, and having received preventive dental care. To improve oral health, school programs and/or age-appropriate interventions need to be developed based on the specific profile of caries experience and the associated risk indicators.

  9. Children's acceptance of milk with xylitol or sorbitol for dental caries prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castillo Ramon

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Xylitol, a polyol sugar, has been shown to reduce dental caries when mixed with food or chewing gum. This study examines the taste acceptability of xylitol in milk as a first step toward measuring the effectiveness of xylitol in milk for the reduction of dental caries in a public health program. Methods Three different types of milk (Ultra High Temperature (UHT, powder and evaporated were tested for acceptability by 75 Peruvian children (25 per milk group, ages 4 to 7 years. Each group evaluated xylitol and sorbitol in one type of milk. In the first phase, each child was presented with a tray of four plastic cups containing 50 ml of milk with 0.021 g/ml xylitol, 0.042 g/ml xylitol, 0.042 g/ml sorbitol or no sugar. Each child was asked to taste the samples in a self-selected order. After tasting each sample, the child placed the milk cup in front of one of three cartoon faces (smile, frown or neutral representing the child's response to the taste of each sample. In the second phase, the child was asked to rank order the milk samples within each category (smile, frown or neutral. Ranks within categories were then combined to obtain a rank ordering for all the test samples. Results The ranking from best to worst for the samples across categories (UHT, powder, evaporated was xylitol (0.0.042 g/ml, sorbitol (0.042 g/ml, xylitol (0.021 g/ml and milk alone (Friedman's ANOVA. Xylitol and sorbitol were preferred over milk alone, and xylitol (0.042 g/ml was preferred to sorbitol (0.042 g/ml(p Conclusion Milk sweetened with xylitol is well accepted by Peruvian children ages 4–7 years.

  10. Bridging the gap between preventive and restorative dentistry: identification of caries risk factors and strategies for minimizing risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maragliano-Muniz, Pamela

    2013-10-01

    Following the introduction of CAMBRA (Caries Management by Risk Assessment) in 2007, a number of recommendations for office protocols were introduced, and many companies have formulated products and procedures for implementing CAMBRA. As a result, the implementation of a caries management program can be confounding and overwhelming to a dental practitioner. Understanding risk factors as they contribute to the caries process can help mitigate confusion and guide the practitioner when selecting materials for their practice. Ultimately, knowing how the risk factors play a role in the progression of dental caries will lead to appropriate risk management and product recommendations. The purpose of this article is to discuss the contribution of risk factors to the caries process and to introduce strategies that restorative dentists can utilize to minimize caries risk.

  11. Adolescent rampant caries

    OpenAIRE

    Namita,; Rai, Rita

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent rampant caries is a new and growing challenge in Conservative Dentistry. It has the same etiology and pattern as that of nursing bottle syndrome. Herein, a case is presented in which the main cause of rampant caries is the patient′s habit of keeping cariogenic food in her mouth and going to sleep. Educating this etiology and introduction of preventive strategies not only assists in meeting the special oral needs of the adolescent population, but also helps to establish lifelong hea...

  12. Effects of the low-intensity laser therapy on the prevention of dental caries induced in rats; Efeitos da radiacao laser em baixa intensidade na prevencao de carie dental induzida em ratos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Karin Praia

    2004-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of low intensity laser therapy, associated or not to an acidulated phosphate fluoride, on the prevention of dental caries induced in rats. It was used 40 wistar rats, female, weaned with 18 days, fed with a cariogenic diet during 48 days and inoculated orally with Streptococcus mutans by three consecutive days starting from the second day of the diet. On the fifth day of experiment the animals were divided into five groups: G{sub c} (control) the animas were no submitted to any treatment; G{sub L} (laser) irradiation with low power laser (GaAlAs, {lambda}=660 nm, P=30 mW, {delta}t=5 sec, 5 J/cm{sup 2}); G{sub F} (fluoride) topical application of acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF 1,23%) for four minutes; G{sub LF} (laser + fluoride) irradiation with low power laser followed by topical application of acidulated phosphate fluoride; G{sub FL} (fluoride + laser) topical application of acidulated phosphate fluoride followed by low power laser. The animals were sacrificed after 48 days; the molars were extracted and prepared to determine the dental caries lesions area by optical microscopy, enamel microhardness and analysis of the calcium and phosphorus ratio (Ca/P) by energy dispersive spectroscopy. The results were statistically analyzed by ANOVA (pcaries areas for the group G{sub LF} was smaller than that for G{sub F} and G{sub FL} groups but no statistical difference was observed. There was no significant statistical difference between the microhardness of the G{sub C} and G{sub L} groups and among G{sub FL}, G{sub LF} and G{sub F} groups. Regarding to the calcium and phosphorus ratio, it was not observed significant statistical differences among the groups. These findings suggest that low-intensity laser radiation associated with acidulated phosphate fluoride reduces the caries area and could be an alternative in the prevention of the dental caries. (author)

  13. Geo-mapping of time trends in childhood caries risk--a method for assessment of preventive care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strömberg, Ulf; Holmn, Anders; Magnusson, Kerstin

    2012-01-01

    Dental caries is unevenly distributed within populations with a higher burden in low socio-economy groups. Several attempts have been made to allocate resources to those that need them the most; there is a need for convenient approaches to population-based monitoring of caries risk over time...

  14. [How do Prevention Projects Reach their Target Groups? Results of a Survey with Prevention Projects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, T; Böttcher, S; Jahn, I

    2015-12-01

     The aim of this study was to assess methods used to access target groups in prevention projects funded within the prevention research framework by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research.  A survey with prevention projects was conducted. Access strategies, communication channels, incentives, programme reach, and successful practical recruitment strategies were explored.  38 out of 60 projects took part in the survey. Most projects accessed their target group within structured settings (e. g., child day-care centers, schools, workplaces). Multiple communication channels and incentives were used, with written information and monetary incentives being used most frequently. Only few projects were able to report their programme reach adequately; programme reach was highest for programmes accessing the target groups in structured settings. The respondents viewed active recruitment via personal communication with the target group and key persons in the settings as the most successful strategy.  The paper provides an overview on recruitment strategies used in current preven-tion projects. More systematic research on programme reach is necessary. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. The Pacific Obesity Prevention in Communities project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swinburn, B A; Millar, L; Utter, J

    2011-01-01

    , Tonga, New Zealand and Australia) designed to prevent adolescent obesity. This paper overviews the project and the methods common to the four countries. Each country implemented a community-based intervention programme promoting healthy eating, physical activity and healthy weight in adolescents....... A community capacity-building approach was used, with common processes employed but with contextualized interventions within each country. Changes in anthropometric, behavioural and perception outcomes were evaluated at the individual level and school environments and community capacity at the settings level...

  16. Minimal intervention dentistry: part 3. Paediatric dental care--prevention and management protocols using caries risk assessment for infants and young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Gomez, F J; Crystal, Y O; Domejean, S; Featherstone, J D B

    2012-11-01

    Recent increases in caries prevalence in young children throughout the world highlight the need for a simple but effective infant oral care programme. This programme needs to include a medical disease prevention management model with an early establishment of a dental home and a treatment approach based on individual patient risk. This article presents an updated approach with practical forms and tools based on the principles of caries management by risk assessment, CAMBRA. This method will aid the general practitioner to develop and maintain a comprehensive protocol adequate for infant and young children oral care visits. Perinatal oral health is vitally important in preventing early childhood caries (ECC) in young children. Providing dental treatment to expectant mothers and their young children in a 'dual parallel track' is an effective innovative strategy and an efficient practice builder. It promotes prevention rather than intervention, and this may be the best way to achieve long-lasting oral health for young patients. General dental practice can adopt easy protocols that will promote early preventive visits and anticipatory guidance/counselling rather than waiting for the need for restorative treatment.

  17. Caries preventive measures used in orthodontic practices: an evidence-based decision?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derks, A.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.; Frencken, J.E.F.M.; Hof, M.A. van 't; Katsaros, C.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Although it is well known that treatment with fixed appliances increases the risk of enamel demineralization, little information is available about preventive measures that orthodontists actually use. This study was executed to survey measures used in orthodontic practices to prevent

  18. Patient caries risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, Svante; Fontana, Margherita

    2009-01-01

    Risk assessment is an essential component in the decision-making process for the correct prevention and management of dental caries. Multiple risk factors and indicators have been proposed as targets in the assessment of risk of future disease, varying sometimes based on the age group at which...... they are targeted. Multiple reviews and systematic reviews are available in the literature on this topic. This chapter focusses primarily on results of reviews based on longitudinal studies required to establish the accuracy of caries risk assessment. These findings demonstrate that there is a strong body...... of evidence to support that caries experience is still, unfortunately, the single best predictor for future caries development. In young children, prediction models which include a variety of risk factors seem to increase the accuracy of the prediction, while the usefulness of additional risk factors...

  19. Caries-Preventive Effect of NaF, NaF plus TCP, NaF plus CPP-ACP, and SDF Varnishes on Sound Dentin and Artificial Dentin Caries in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierichs, Richard J; Stausberg, Sabrina; Lausch, Julian; Meyer-Lueckel, Hendrik; Esteves-Oliveira, Marcella

    2018-01-17

    The aim of this study was to compare the caries-preventive effect of different fluoride varnishes on sound dentin as well as on artificial dentin caries-like lesions. Bovine dentin specimens (n = 220) with one sound surface (ST) and one artificial caries lesion (DT) were prepared and randomly allocated to 11 groups. The interventions before pH cycling were as follows: application of a varnish containing NaF (22,600 ppm F-; Duraphat [NaF0/NaF1]), NaF plus tricalcium phosphate (22,600 ppm F-; Clinpro White Varnish Mint [TCP0/TCP1]), NaF plus casein phosphopeptide-stabilized amorphous calcium phosphate complexes (CPP-ACP; 22,600 ppm F-; MI Varnish [CPP0/CPP1]), or silver diamine fluoride (SDF; 35,400 ppm F-; Cariestop 30% [SDF0/SDF1]) and no intervention (NNB/N0/N1). During pH cycling (14 days, 6 × 120 min demineralization/day) half of the specimens in each group were brushed (10 s; 2 times/day) with either fluoride-free ("0"; e.g., TCP0) or 1,100 ppm F- ("1"; e.g., TCP1) dentifrice slurry. In another subgroup, the specimens were pH cycled but not brushed (NNB). Differences in integrated mineral loss (ΔΔZ), lesion depth (ΔLD), and colorimetric values (ΔΔE) were calculated between the values after initial demineralization and those after pH cycling, using transversal microradiography and photographic images. After pH cycling, no discoloration could be observed. Furthermore, NNB, N0, and N1 showed significantly increased ΔZDT/LDDT and ΔZST/LDST values, indicating further demineralization. In contrast, CPP0, CPP1, SDF0, and SDF1 showed significantly decreased ΔZDT/LDDT values, indicating remineralization (p ≤ 0.004; paired t test). CPP0, CPP1, SDF0, and SDF1 showed significantly higher changes in ΔΔZDT/ΔLDDT and ΔΔZST/ΔLDST than NNB, N0, and N1 (p plus CPP-ACP and SDF could remineralize artificial dentin caries-like lesions under net-demineralizing conditions, thereby indicating that NaF plus CPP-ACP and SDF may be helpful to high-caries-risk patients.

  20. Middle Urals` pollution prevention priorities assessment project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, M.; Ott, R.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Chukanov, V. [Institute of Industrial Ecology, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1995-09-13

    The Middle Urals is an important Russian industrial region. The key industries are also the most environmentally damaging: mining, metallurgical and chemical industries. There are some 600 large-sized and medium-sized enterprises located within the Middle Urals` region. Their annual solid and gaseous chemical releases have led to exceeding some maximum permissible contaminant concentrations by factors of tens and hundreds. The environmental problems of the Middle Urals are of such magnitude, seriousness, and urgency that the limited available resources can be applied only to the problems of the highest priority in the most cost-effective way. By the combined efforts of scientists from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (USA), Institute of Industrial Ecology (Ekaterinburg, Russia) and Russian Federal Nuclear Center (Snezhinsk, Russia) the project on Environmental Priorities Assessment was initiated in 1993. Because the project will cut across a spectrum of Russian environmental, social, and political issues, it has been established as a genuine Russian effort led by Russian principals. Russian participants are the prime movers and decision-makers, and LLNL participants are advisors. A preliminary project has been completed to gather relevant environmental data and to develop a formal proposal for the full priorities assessment project for submittal to the International Science and Technology Center. The proposed priorities assessment methodology will be described in this paper. The specific objectives of this project are to develop and to implement a methodology to establish Russian priorities for future pollution prevention efforts in a limited geographic region of the Middle Urals (a part of Chelyabinsk and Sverdlovsk Oblasts). This methodology will be developed on two geographic levels: local (town scale) and regional (region scale). Detailed environmental analysis will be performed on a local scale and extrapolated to the regional scale.

  1. Dental caries: Therapeutic possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perić Tamara

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary tendencies in dentistry are based on the concept of maximal protection of healthy tooth tissues. Caries removal has been done traditionally with mechanical rotary instruments that are fast and precise. However, conventional cavity preparation has potential adverse effects to the pulp due to heat, pressure and vibrations. Moreover, drilling often causes pain and requires local anaesthesia, and these procedures are frequently perceived as unpleasant. Etiology, development and prevention of dental caries are better understood today and new restorative materials that bond micromechanically and/or chemically to dental tissues have been introduced. Thus, development of a new, less destructive caries removal technique is allowed. In the last decades, many alternative methods have been introduced in an attempt to replace rotary instruments. These are claimed to be efficient and selective for diseased tissues and to offer comfortable treatment to the patients. New methods include air abrasion, air polishing, ultrasonic, polymer burs, enzymes, systems for chemo-mechanical caries removal, and lasers. The aim of this paper was to discuss various caries removal techniques and possibilities of their use in clinical practice. Based on the literature review it can be concluded that none of the new caries removal methods can completely replace conventional rotary instruments.

  2. A comparison of dental caries levels in two communities with different oral health prevention strategies stratified in different social classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagheri, Darius; McLoughlin, Jacinta; Clarkson, John J

    2007-01-01

    To compare dental caries levels of schoolchildren stratified in different social classes whose domestic water supply had been fluoridated since birth (Dublin) with those living in an area where fluoridated salt was available (Freiburg). A representative, random sample of twelve-year-old children was examined and dental caries was recorded using World Health Organization criteria. A total of 699 twelve-year-old children were examined, 377 were children in Dublin and 322 in Freiburg. In Dublin the mean decayed, missing, and filled permanent teeth (DMFT) was 0.80 and in Freiburg it was 0.69. An examination of the distribution of the DMFT score revealed that its distribution is highly positively skewed. For this reason this study provides summary analyses based on medians and inter-quartile range and nonparametric rank sum tests. In both cities caries levels of children in social class 1 (highest) were considerably lower when compared with the other social classes regardless of the fluoride intervention model used. The caries levels showed a reduced disparity between children in social class 2 (medium) and 3 (lowest) in Dublin compared with those in social class 2 and 3 in Freiburg. The evidence from this study confirmed that water fluoridation has reduced the gap in dental caries experience between medium and lower social classes in Dublin compared with the greater difference in caries experience between the equivalent social classes in Freiburg. The results from this study established the important role of salt fluoridation where water fluoridation is not feasible.

  3. Rampant Caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman-Armstrong, Sandra

    2005-01-01

    Although dental caries in the pediatric and adolescent population has consistently declined in the United States, it is still the most common childhood disease. Dental problems are the number one reason for missing school next to the common cold. Dental caries are an infectious, communicable disease resulting in destruction of tooth structure by…

  4. The use of sub-ablative Er:YAG laser irradiation in prevention of dental caries during orthodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornaini, Carlo; Brulat, Nathalie; Milia, Giulia; Rockl, Andrea; Rocca, Jean-Paul

    2014-09-30

    This « in-vitro » study had two specific aims: the first, to test using a universal testing machine whether sub-ablative Er:YAG laser irradiation prior to acid etching is effective in orthodontic bracket bonding and secondly using micro-hardness measurements and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) observations to investigate the effectiveness of de-mineralization reduction in enamel treated with sub-ablative Er:YAG laser irradiation followed by fluoride varnish application. One hundred and eighty bovine permanent maxillary incisors were selected for shear bond strength testing and microhardness measurements. Sub-ablative Er:YAG laser irradiation was set at a power density of 2.5 J/cm(2), a frequency of 7 Hz and air/water spray. Brackets were bonded with an auto-curing resin paste. The shear bond strength was measured comparing laser irradiated and non-irradiated enamel surface, followed by SEM observation of the bracket-resin-enamel interface. Microhardness measurements were made on enamel samples before treatment, after samples preparation, and after demineralization. While the adhesion of orthodontic brackets to bovine enamel after sub-ablative Er:YAG laser irradiation and acid etching is comparable to that obtained after conventional acid etching, the effect of laser irradiation associated with topical application of fluoride varnish increases the microhardness of enamel. Sub-ablative Er:YAG laser irradiation before the acid etching doesn't reduce the shear bond whereas when associated with fluoride application it may play a role in caries prevention. Further studies will be necessary to establish the mechanism by which the protective laser activated fluoride effect is achieved.

  5. Geo-mapping of caries risk in children and adolescents - a novel approach for allocation of preventive care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strömberg, Ulf; Magnusson, Kerstin; Holmén, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Dental caries in children is unevenly distributed within populations with a higher burden in low socio-economy groups. Thus, tools are needed to allocate resources and establish evidence-based programs that meet the needs of those at risk. The aim of the study was to apply a novel concept for pre...... for presenting epidemiological data based on caries risk in the region of Halland in southwest Sweden, using geo-maps.......Dental caries in children is unevenly distributed within populations with a higher burden in low socio-economy groups. Thus, tools are needed to allocate resources and establish evidence-based programs that meet the needs of those at risk. The aim of the study was to apply a novel concept...

  6. Microstructure and mechanical changes induced by Q-Switched pulse laser on human enamel with aim of caries prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apsari, R.; Pratomo, D. A.; Hikmawati, D.; Bidin, N.

    2016-03-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of Q-Switched Nd: YAG laser energy dose to human enamel caries. The specifications of Q-Switched Nd: YAG laser as followed: wavelength of 1064 nm and 6 ns pulse width. Caries enamel samples taken from human teeth molars of 17-35 ages and the type of media caries. Energy doses used in this study were 723.65 mJ/cm2, 767.72 mJ/cm2, and 1065.515 mJ/cm2; 5 Hz repetition rate, and 20 second exposure time. Samples characterized the surface morphology and the percentage of constituent elements, especially calcium/phosphorus (Ca/P) with FESEM-EDAX. The fraction volume and crystallinity percentage of hydroxyapatite (HA) with XRD and hardness value using Vickers Microhardness Test. The results indicated that exposure of Q-Switched Nd:YAG laser on enamel caries resulting cracks, holes, and melt due to plasma production effects in the surface. Plasma production effect also resulted in micro properties such as percentage of Ca/P was close to normal, the fraction volume and crystallinity percentage of HA went up but did not change the crystal structure (in terms of the lattice structure). The hardness value also rose as linear as exposure energy dose caused by phototermal effect. Based on the results, Q-Switched Nd:YAG laser can be used as contactless drill dental caries replacement candidate with the additional therapy effect such as localized caries in order to avoid the spread, the ratio of Ca/P approaching healthy teeth, the fraction volume and crystallinity percentage of HA rose and established stronger teeth with peak energy dose 1065.515 mJ/cm2.

  7. Secondary caries and microleakage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokstad, Asbjørn

    2016-01-01

    To critically appraise experimental ex vivo research that has focused on secondary caries, and to offer possible explanations for the seemingly poor correlation to clinical observations. The literature relating to the etiopathogenesis or prevention of secondary caries gained from experimental ex vivo research was reviewed, with particular emphasis on microleakage and artificial caries-like lesions. It is doubtful whether a caries wall lesion can exist independently of an outer enamel caries lesion. Microleakage experiments apparently continue to emerge regardless of multiple reviews questioning the reliability and validity of the method. Several of the approaches used to generate artificial caries-like lesions are very aggressive. Remarkably little discussion has evolved about how these aggressive approaches create microenvironments that do not occur in reality. Corrosion- and biodegradation products may influence the biofilm qualitatively and quantitatively and it is difficult to replicate these variables in any ex vivo environment. Clinical data sampling method, patient demography as well as study methodology influences the incidence and prevalence estimates of secondary caries. Clinical results based on clinical work in settings where cost per unit time is of nominal concern do not provide any indications on how the restorative material will perform when placed by the average dentists in the mouths of their spectrum of patients during a busy workday. The term "wall lesion" including its variants is ill defined, has been, and is still being used indiscriminately. Stakeholders should avoid using this ambiguous label due to its connotation to an entity that does not exist per se. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Esperance primary prevention of suicide project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaven, Janine; Kisely, Stephen

    2002-10-01

    Suicide has been a major community concern in Esperance, a geographically isolated port on the south coast of Western Australia. To evaluate the effect of three evidence-based initiatives for the primary prevention of suicide: (i) providing suicide awareness sessions for staff members in health, education and social services; (ii) limiting the sale of over the counter analgesics (aspirin and paracetamol) to packets containing less than the minimum lethal dose; and (iii) implementing Commonwealth media guidelines in the reporting of suicides by media. Changes in knowledge, awareness, attitudes, comfort and use, before and after each intervention were assessed using standardized instruments and pro forma derived from previous work, such as the Youth Suicide Prevention Training Manual and Suicide Intervention Beliefs Scale. Percentage changes in the number of retail outlets selling over the counter analgesics to less than potentially lethal quantities (less than 8 g of paracetamol or aspirin) were also measured. Media representatives were interviewed to gain their perceptions of Commonwealth Guidelines for the reporting of suicide, and encouraged to consult the project team before reporting suicide related issues. The baseline survey illustrated that mental health staff and general practitioners were more aware of suicide issues, risk factors for suicide and awareness of professional and ethical responses than staff from other services, and were more willing to raise the issue with a person at risk. Thirty-three subjects participated in suicide awareness training of whom 21 (66%) returned questionnaires. There were significant increases in awareness of suicide-related issues and risk factors, as well as reported levels of knowledge of professional and ethical responses and comfort, competence and confidence levels when assisting a person at risk. Only three media representatives were aware of the Commonwealth Health Department Guidelines for reporting suicide and only

  9. Genetics and caries: prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Rezende Vieira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Caries remains the most prevalent non-contagious infectious disease in humans. It is clear that the current approaches to decrease the prevalence of caries in human populations, including water fluoridation and school-based programs, are not enough to protect everyone. The scientific community has suggested the need for innovative work in a number of areas in cariology, encompassing disease etiology, epidemiology, definition, prevention, and treatment. We have pioneered the work on genetic studies to identify genes and genetic markers of diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic value. This paper summarizes a presentation that elaborated on these initial findings.

  10. Adolescent rampant caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namita

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Adolescent rampant caries is a new and growing challenge in Conservative Dentistry. It has the same etiology and pattern as that of nursing bottle syndrome. Herein, a case is presented in which the main cause of rampant caries is the patient′s habit of keeping cariogenic food in her mouth and going to sleep. Educating this etiology and introduction of preventive strategies not only assists in meeting the special oral needs of the adolescent population, but also helps to establish lifelong healthful habits.

  11. Revitalising Silver Nitrate for Caries Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherry Shiqian Gao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Silver nitrate has been adopted for medical use as a disinfectant for eye disease and burned wounds. In dentistry, it is an active ingredient of Howe’s solution used to prevent and arrest dental caries. While medical use of silver nitrate as a disinfectant became subsidiary with the discovery of antibiotics, its use in caries treatment also diminished with the use of fluoride in caries prevention. Since then, fluoride agents, particularly sodium fluoride, have gained popularity in caries prevention. However, caries is an infection caused by cariogenic bacteria, which demineralise enamel and dentine. Caries can progress and cause pulpal infection, but its progression can be halted through remineralisation. Sodium fluoride promotes remineralisation and silver nitrate has a profound antimicrobial effect. Hence, silver nitrate solution has been reintroduced for use with sodium fluoride varnish to arrest caries as a medical model strategy of caries management. Although the treatment permanently stains caries lesions black, this treatment protocol is simple, painless, non-invasive, and low-cost. It is well accepted by many clinicians and patients and therefore appears to be a promising strategy for caries control, particularly for young children, the elderly, and patients with severe caries risk or special needs.

  12. Republic of the Marshall Islands: planning and implementation of a dental caries prevention program for an island nation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tut, Ohnmar K; Greer, Mark H K; Milgrom, Peter

    2005-03-01

    The Republic of Marshall Islands (R.M.I.) is an island state in eastern Micronesia with a landmass of 70 square miles scattered across 750,000 square miles of the western Pacific Ocean with a national population of approximately 51,000. In a 2002 children's oral health survey, 85 percent of six year old children in the R.M.I. capital of Majuro were found to have had at least one carious tooth and 65 percent had 5 or more affected teeth. The mean caries prevalence among primary (or baby) teeth was 5.79 decayed or filled teeth (dft), a caries prevalence rate close to three times the U.S. national mean. While 12.3 percent were caries-free, 65.0 percent had experienced 5 or more affected teeth (rampant caries). Of these, less than 1 percent had received any form of dental treatment. Comparably remarkable early childhood dental disease rates were also observed on other populated islands and atolls. In response to the rampant dental disease shown to be affecting young children, the R.M.I. Ministry of Health has proposed the implementation of a strategy targeting the pre-natal / pen-natal environment, young parents, pre-school and elementary school children.

  13. Knowledge, attitude, and practices of oral health care in prevention of early childhood caries among parents of children in Belagavi city: A Questionnaire study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suma Sogi, H P; Hugar, Shivayogi M; Nalawade, Triveni Mohan; Sinha, Anjali; Hugar, Shweta; Mallikarjuna, Rachappa M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the existing knowledge, attitude, and practices of "oral health care" in the prevention of early childhood caries (ECCs) among parents of children in Belagavi city. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the outpatient Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, KLE VK Institute of Dental Sciences, Belagavi, Karnataka. Institutional Ethical Clearance was obtained. The study was conducted during the month of April 2014 to October 2014 after taking prior informed consent from the 218 parents. Inclusion criteria were parents getting their children treated for dental caries and who were willing to participate. Parents who could not read and write were excluded from the study. The self-administered, close-ended questionnaire was written in English. It was then translated in local languages, i.e. Kannada and Marathi, and a pilot study was conducted on 10 parents to check for its feasibility and any changes if required were done. The response rate was 100% as all 218 parents completed the questionnaire. Of 218 parents, 116 were mothers and 102 were fathers. The overall mean knowledge score was 69.5%. The overall mean attitude score was 53.5%. The overall attitude toward prevention of ECC was not in accordance to knowledge. The overall mean of "good" practices and "bad" practices score was 33.5% and 18.5%, respectively. Good knowledge and attitude toward oral health do not necessarily produce good practices.

  14. The relationship between diet and Dental Caries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duggal, M. S

    1991-01-01

    Dental caries is a disease of multifactorial etiology and results from a complex interaction between both cariogenic and protective influences acting on the teeth. Though diet plays a major role in the causation of dental caries it has been a common mistake to over-simplify the relationship. Dietary manipulation is also extremely difficult to achieve thus limiting its role in the prevention of caries. Accordingly, alternative preventive measures such as the use of fissure sealants and fluoride which enhance the resistance of the host to disease and are of proven efficacy are more likely to be successful in the control and prevention of dental caries. (author)

  15. Effect of type of cavity preparation (bur,Er:YAG laser and restorative materials on prevention of caries lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masumeh Hasani Tabatabaei

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Despite the reduction of incidence of dental caries in recent years, this disease is common and many efforts were conducted to decrease the prevalence of dental caries. On the other hand secondary caries lesions are the main reason for replacement of direct restorations. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to evaluate suitable methods of preparation and restorative materials to reduce caries recurrence. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, eighty human teeth were collected and stored in normal saline. The teeth were soft-tissue debrided and cleaned with water/pumice slurry and rubber cups in a low-speed handpiece. Speciments were randomly divided in two main groups. Cavities were prepared with diamond burs or Er:YAG laser (10 Hz, 300 mJ, 3W. Each group was divided into 4 sub-groups, and restored with a glass-ionomer cement (Fuji IX, resin modified glass-ionomer (Fuji II LC, total etch bonding + composite resin or self-etch bonding + composite resin. The specimens were submitted to pH cycling. Speciments were then sectioned, polished and Vickers microhardness measurements were performed on each specimen. Differences among the medians were analyzed using two way ANOVA test at a 95% confidence level and Tukey test. Results: Statistical analysis showed significant difference in the type of substrate (enamel, dentin in both main groups (P<0.0001 but no differences in the caries lesion development between the cavities restored with the same material and prepared with diamond burs or Er:YAG laser. Conclusion: The Er:YAG laser used for cavity preparation and different types of restorative materials used did not show the ability to guarantee significantly more acid-resistance tooth structure against demineralization.

  16. HARD CHROME POLLUTION PREVENTION DEMONSTRATION PROJECT - INTERIM REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the project, five chromium emission prevention/control devices were tested tha cover the spectrum of prevention/control techniques currently in use in small- and large-size hard chromium electroplating job shops. The Project results show that some of the tested devices had ch...

  17. Innovative interventions to promote positive dental health behaviors and prevent dental caries in preschool children: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiaoli; Lo, Edward Chin Man; McGrath, Colman; Ho, Samuel Mun Yin

    2013-04-30

    Dental caries (tooth decay) is highly prevalent and is largely attributable to unhealthy self-care behaviors (diet and oral hygiene). The conventional (health) education (CE), focusing on disseminating information and giving normative advice, often fails to achieve sustained behavioral changes. This study incorporates two innovative elements into CE: (i) motivational interviewing (MI), a client-centered counseling for changing behaviors, and (ii) an interactive caries risk assessment (RA) tool, which is devised to facilitate dental counseling and may enhance MI in several ways. Through a randomized, controlled, evaluator-blinded trial, three intervention schemes (CE, CE+MI, and CE+MI+RA) will be compared for their effectiveness in eliciting dentally healthy behaviors and preventing caries in preschool children. This study targets 3-year-old children who are at a critical stage for embedding health habits. Children with unfavorable dental behaviors (insufficient toothbrushing and/or frequent snacking) and their parents will be recruited from 12 participating kindergartens. Parent-child dyads (n=690) will be randomly assigned into three groups. In the first group (CE), oral health information and advice will be delivered to parents through pamphlets. In the second group (CE+MI), in addition to the pamphlets, individual MI counseling with each parent will be performed by one of two trained dental hygienists. In the third group (CE+MI+RA), besides pamphlets and MI, interactive RA will be integrated into MI to motivate parents and facilitate their informed decision making and goal planning. At baseline and after 12 and 24 months, parents will complete a questionnaire and children will undergo a dental examination. The effectiveness of the intervention schemes will be compared over 12 and 24 months. The primary outcome will be caries increment in children and proportion of caries-free children. Secondary outcomes will be changes in parental efficacy for protecting

  18. Uso de sellantes de fosas y fisuras para la prevención de caries en población infanto-juvenil: Methodological review of clinical trials Use of pit and fissure sealants for preventing caries in child population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Faleiros Chioca

    2013-04-01

    using complementary methods for its control. Pit and fissures sealants represent one of the most effective preventive interventions in dentistry, being considered as a contribution to the public health interventions. Nevertheless, there are no consistent evidences about their true effectiveness and impact in the prevention of caries. These inconsistencies could be due to the presence of bias or the heterogeneity of the studies available in literature. Thus, we propose to make a review with the aim to evaluate the methodological quality of clinical trials using pit and fissure sealants. A search of studies between 1990 and 2012 was conducted and 18 clinical trials that fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria were found. The studies included were obtained and evaluated by a single reviewer. This review concludes that the evidence that guarantees the use of this intervention is methodologically poor. These findings may stimulate the professionals to clarify the truth referring to the effectiveness of sealants, before applying it indiscriminately. The accomplishment of new clinical trials executed with an appropriate methodological design and statistical analysis is recommended, generating reliable results for the decision making that guides the Public Health Policies.

  19. Two and a half-year outcome of caries-preventive programs offered to groups of children in the Solntsevsky district of Moscow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekstrand, K R; Kuzmina, I N; Kuzmina, E; Christiansen, M E

    2000-01-01

    This study examined the 2.5-year outcome of preventive programs - based on the Nexö method - offered to three groups of children from Solntsevsky, a district of Moscow. Study group A consisted of 45 3-year-olds, study group B of 50 6-year-olds, and study group C of 50 11-year-olds. A similar number of children were selected as control groups and they followed the normal dental service provided by the local Health Service System in the district. The caries-preventive programs offered to the study groups were based on: (1) education of the child, parents and teachers in the caries disease, (2) training in toothbrushing. In addition, the children in study groups B and C were offered professional plaque removal, applications of sodium fluoride (2%) and sealant applications according to individual needs. The children in groups B and C were clinically examined in March 1994 (baseline) after 1 and 2.5 years, respectively. Because of the age of the children in group A, these children were only examined once, after the study had been completed. After 2.5 years the children in all three study groups had improved their oral health status significantly compared to the children in the control group. The caries experience among the children in study group A was about half of that observed among children in the control group (4.91 def-s versus 8.60 def-s). The program was highly effective in controlling dental caries in the permanent dentition among the children in the study groups, who finished with a mean DMF-S of 0.28 (group B) and 3.12 (group C) compared to 2.24 and 6.35 among the children in the corresponding control groups. Nearly all the children used fluoridated toothpaste. The mean number of visits to the clinic decreased from year 1 to year 2 (5 versus 3.4 in study group B and 4.5 versus 3.3 in study group C). In conclusion, the preventive programs were highly effective with regard to improving the level of oral hygiene, and thereby reducing or even controlling the

  20. Effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit of a single annual professional intervention for the prevention of childhood dental caries in a remote rural Indigenous community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalloo, Ratilal; Kroon, Jeroen; Tut, Ohnmar; Kularatna, Sanjeewa; Jamieson, Lisa M; Wallace, Valda; Boase, Robyn; Fernando, Surani; Cadet-James, Yvonne; Scuffham, Paul A; Johnson, Newell W

    2015-08-29

    The aim of the study is to reduce the high prevalence of tooth decay in children in a remote, rural Indigenous community in Australia, by application of a single annual dental preventive intervention. The study seeks to (1) assess the effectiveness of an annual oral health preventive intervention in slowing the incidence of dental caries in children in this community, (2) identify the mediating role of known risk factors for dental caries and (3) assess the cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit of the intervention. The intervention is novel in that most dental preventive interventions require regular re-application, which is not possible in resource constrained communities. While tooth decay is preventable, self-care and healthy habits are lacking in these communities, placing more emphasis on health services to deliver an effective dental preventive intervention. Importantly, the study will assess cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness for broader implementation across similar communities in Australia and internationally. There is an urgent need to reduce the burden of dental decay in these communities, by implementing effective, cost-effective, feasible and sustainable dental prevention programs. Expected outcomes of this study include improved oral and general health of children within the community; an understanding of the costs associated with the intervention provided, and its comparison with the costs of allowing new lesions to develop, with associated treatment costs. Findings should be generalisable to similar communities around the world. The research is registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR), registration number ACTRN12615000693527; date of registration: 3rd July 2015.

  1. Ameloglyphics and predilection of dental caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girish, HC; Murgod, Sanjay; Ravath, CJ Manasa; Hegde, Ramesh B

    2013-01-01

    Background: Dental caries is an infectious disease of microbiologic origin resulting in destruction and loss of tooth structure and is related to every speciality of dentistry. Many studies have been carried out to identify the causative factors, methods of prevention, and treatment of dental caries. Ameloglyphics is the study of enamel rod end patterns. These patterns have been found to be unique to individual teeth of the same individual and also to different individuals. A possible correlation between the type of enamel rod end pattern and the occurrence of dental caries might help in predicting caries susceptibility of an individual and implementation of preventive measures. This is a simple and easy method cutting short elaborate methods currently in use and can be invaluable in caries prevention. Objective: This study is aimed at ascertaining the possibility of a correlation between enamel rod end patterns and occurrence of dental caries, which might help in identifying predisposition to dental caries. Materials and Methods: Thirty carious and 30 noncarious teeth were used to obtain enamel rod end patterns. Occurrence of any particular pattern in either of the study groups, which might affect the predisposition of teeth to dental caries was analyzed. Results: No particular rod end pattern was found in teeth affected by dental caries. Also, no particular pattern was found to be unique to teeth not affected by dental caries. PMID:24250075

  2. Dental caries in persons over the age of 80 living in Kungsholmen, Sweden: findings from the KEOHS project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morse, Douglas E; Holm-Pedersen, Poul; Holm-Pedersen, Jytte

    2002-01-01

    The Kungsholmen Elders Oral Health Study (KEOHS) evaluated the oral health status of generally healthy, community-dwelling persons over the age of 80 living in Kungsholmen, an area in central Stockholm. This paper reports findings regarding the prevalence and severity of dental caries among the d...

  3. Dental caries in persons over the age of 80 living in Kungsholmen, Sweden: findings from the KEOHS project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morse, Douglas E; Holm-Pedersen, Poul; Holm-Pedersen, Jytte

    2002-01-01

    The Kungsholmen Elders Oral Health Study (KEOHS) evaluated the oral health status of generally healthy, community-dwelling persons over the age of 80 living in Kungsholmen, an area in central Stockholm. This paper reports findings regarding the prevalence and severity of dental caries among...

  4. Caries detection using light-based diagnostic tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rechmann, Peter; Rechmann, Beate M T; Featherstone, John D B

    2012-09-01

    Modern caries treatment concepts like caries management by risk assessment--CAMBRA--entail diagnosing early caries lesions in a precavitated stage to make it possible to reverse the caries process with remineralization and bacteria reduction efforts. Newer, sensitive caries diagnostic tools can serve not only for early detection but also for monitoring of caries lesions to confirm the success of prevention and remineralization efforts. This article describes light-based caries diagnostic tools, with emphasis on fluorescence-based techniques, and compares the most common available fluorescence-based tools with a standardized visual caries inspection system-the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS II). Fluorescence tools that provide high-resolution fluorescence pictures are likely to provide more reliable scores than fluorescence devices that assess via a single spot. The better visibility of the high-resolution fluorescence imaging could prevent unnecessary operative interventions.

  5. AIDS prevention project among women in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesce, L

    1993-01-01

    The recommendations of a staff member of the Paulina Luisi Movement and member of the Women's Global Network for Reproductive Rights were six-fold. Being a woman was considered a risk factor for AIDS. AIDS and HIV infection prevention must concentrate on prevention of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). 1) Women's organizations have the responsibility for sensitizing health professionals about STDs and AIDS and break the "culture of silence." 2) Women's health focus must actively include prevention of AIDS/HIV. 3) The Pap test must be included routinely as part of public and individual health services and conducted with high quality standards. 4) The flow of communication about women's health issues must be initiated between health professionals and women advocates with the objective of changing concepts and attitudes and of developing complementary strategies. 5) The strategy of promoting condom use and quality information does not address the larger issue of discrimination against women. Gender relations between spouses and between patient and doctor must be based on responsibility, reciprocity, and autonomy. Strategies must aim to combat the negativity in society that prevents responsible gender relations. 6) Professional women who have an awareness of gender issues must be engaged in international and governmental institutions with decision making power. Sex and women's health have been lesser priorities. The health system has responded to women as "objects" rather than subjects of attention. Women's position sexually and socially makes them more vulnerable to AIDS and HIV infections, which may be transmitted through a single sexual contact. STDs increase the risk of AIDS. Latin American women feel shame about STDS, while men respond to STDs as a condition of their sexual virility or potency. Treatment of STDS, much less AIDS prevention, is inadequate. The health system must stop treating women as objects and give them their right to health.

  6. Current possibilities in occlusal caries management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrvoje Jurić

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is a multifactorial disease that affects most populations throughout the world and it is still the primary cause of oral pain and tooth loss. The occlusal surfaces of posterior teeth are the most vulnerable sites for dental caries due to their anatomy. Therefore, the aim of the following article is to summarize current knowledge on occlusal caries development and the possibilities of its prevention. Although the overall caries rate today has fallen for populations in industrialized countries, the rate of occlusal surface caries has not decreased. This may be explained with fact that topically applied fluorides and their mode of action prevent caries better on smooth than on occlusal surfaces. As we know, tooth decay of first permanent molars causes a great deal of different short and long term difficulties for patients. Therefore, there is a continuous need for implementation of programs for caries prevention in permanent teeth. Nowadays, we like to treat our patients by minimally invasive methods. A very important step in our effective preventive treatment is sealing pits and fissures as a cornerstone of occlusal caries management. Reliable assessment of caries activity is also very important for defining treatment needs and plans. A very important decision, which should be made during occlusal caries management, is the selection of restorative material according to the treatment plan. Conclusion. Current possibilities in occlusal caries prevention and management are very effective. Therefore, dentists today do not have any excuse for avoiding the philosophy of Minimally Invasive Dentistry, especially when we talk about caries management of occlusal surfaces in permanent molars.

  7. Influence of CO2 (10.6 μm) and Nd:YAG laser irradiation on the prevention of enamel caries around orthodontic brackets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seino, Priscila Yumi; Freitas, Patrícia Moreira; Marques, Márcia Martins; de Souza Almeida, Fernanda Campos; Botta, Sérgio Brossi; Moreira, Maria Stella Nunes Araújo

    2015-02-01

    One possible undesirable consequence of orthodontic therapy is the development of incipient caries lesions of enamel around brackets. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of CO2 (λ = 10.6 μm) and Nd:YAG (λ = 1,064 nm) lasers associated or not with topical fluoride application on the prevention of caries lesions around brackets. Brackets were bonded to the enamel of 65 premolars. The experimental groups (n = 13) were: G1--application of 1.23% acidulated fluoride phosphate gel (AFP, control); G2--Nd:YAG laser irradiation (0.6 W, 84.9 J/cm(2), 10 Hz, 110 μs, contact mode); G3--Nd:YAG laser irradiation associated with AFP; G4--CO2 laser irradiation (0.5 W, 28.6 J/cm(2), 50 Hz, 5 μs, and 10 mm focal distance); and G5--CO2 laser irradiation associated with AFP. Quantitative light-induced fluorescence was used to assess enamel demineralization. The data were statistically compared (α = 5%). The highest demineralization occurred in the Nd:YAG laser group (G2, 26.15% ± 1.94). The demineralization of all other groups was similar to that of the control group. In conclusion, CO2 laser alone was able to control enamel demineralization around brackets at the same level as that obtained with topical fluoride application.

  8. [Caries and gingivitis study among preschool children (2-5 years) of the region of Ziguinchor in Senegal. Strategies of prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yam, A A; Ba, M; Faye, M; Sane, D D

    2000-01-01

    We studied the preschool (2-5 years) group of child's oral health status in Ziguinchor, the southern regions of Senegal. Our objective was to make the inventory of fixtures dealing with dental caries, gingivitis and tartar among the children of this age group. It's a transversal study based on a clinical examination of a sample size of 168 children collected by stratified random sampling in 12 neursey schools in the region. We used carious (dmf/t), gingival and plaque indices to estimate, orodental status of the population constituting the sample. In the lump, 60.71% of the children have a natural history of dental caries with a mean dmf/t of 2.47 and gingivitis and or tartar are observed in 42.86% of the children. Even children less than 3 years are affected. None age may no longer be free from these diseases. That lead us to suggest to set up in this regional area a preventive program involving mainling the parents and the educators and based on the oral health education and the optimal use of dental products with fluoride since the drinking water in the region is poor in fluoride. The aim of this program would be to reduce the prevalence of the diseases in the proportions indicated by the world health organization and even eradicate these diseases among the prescolar children during the coming years as it's going on actually in the developed countries.

  9. [Immunology of dental caries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Andreia G; Neves, Ana M; Trindade, António C

    2010-01-01

    Dental carie is the most common infectious disease in humans. In the past decades, it has been described as a multifactorial condition, where diet and the immune response are main factors for the establishment of the disease. The authors approach the formation of the bacterian biofilm, the host's immune response, according to its maturation and deficiencies, and the current research to find a preventive intervention for this disease.

  10. Palmistry: A tool for dental caries prediction!

    OpenAIRE

    Nidhi Madan; Arun Rathnam; Neeti Bajaj

    2011-01-01

    Background: Dermatoglyphics can prove to be an extremely useful tool for preliminary investigations in conditions with a suspected genetic base. Since caries is a multifactorial disease with the influence of genetic pattern, early prediction for high-risk children can help in using effective and efficient caries preventive measures that are a part of the pedodontist arsenal. Aims and Objectives: This study was done to determine the genetic aspect involved in the occurrence of dental carie...

  11. Knowledge, attitude, and practices of oral health care in prevention of early childhood caries among parents of children in Belagavi city: A Questionnaire study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H P Suma Sogi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the existing knowledge, attitude, and practices of “oral health care” in the prevention of early childhood caries (ECCs among parents of children in Belagavi city. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in the outpatient Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, KLE VK Institute of Dental Sciences, Belagavi, Karnataka. Institutional Ethical Clearance was obtained. The study was conducted during the month of April 2014 to October 2014 after taking prior informed consent from the 218 parents. Inclusion criteria were parents getting their children treated for dental caries and who were willing to participate. Parents who could not read and write were excluded from the study. The self-administered, close-ended questionnaire was written in English. It was then translated in local languages, i.e. Kannada and Marathi, and a pilot study was conducted on 10 parents to check for its feasibility and any changes if required were done. Results: The response rate was 100% as all 218 parents completed the questionnaire. Of 218 parents, 116 were mothers and 102 were fathers. The overall mean knowledge score was 69.5%. The overall mean attitude score was 53.5%. The overall attitude toward prevention of ECC was not in accordance to knowledge. The overall mean of “good” practices and “bad” practices score was 33.5% and 18.5%, respectively. Good knowledge and attitude toward oral health do not necessarily produce good practices.

  12. Knowledge, attitude, and practices of oral health care in prevention of early childhood caries among parents of children in Belagavi city: A Questionnaire study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suma Sogi, H. P.; Hugar, Shivayogi M.; Nalawade, Triveni Mohan; Sinha, Anjali; Hugar, Shweta; Mallikarjuna, Rachappa M.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the existing knowledge, attitude, and practices of “oral health care” in the prevention of early childhood caries (ECCs) among parents of children in Belagavi city. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in the outpatient Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, KLE VK Institute of Dental Sciences, Belagavi, Karnataka. Institutional Ethical Clearance was obtained. The study was conducted during the month of April 2014 to October 2014 after taking prior informed consent from the 218 parents. Inclusion criteria were parents getting their children treated for dental caries and who were willing to participate. Parents who could not read and write were excluded from the study. The self-administered, close-ended questionnaire was written in English. It was then translated in local languages, i.e. Kannada and Marathi, and a pilot study was conducted on 10 parents to check for its feasibility and any changes if required were done. Results: The response rate was 100% as all 218 parents completed the questionnaire. Of 218 parents, 116 were mothers and 102 were fathers. The overall mean knowledge score was 69.5%. The overall mean attitude score was 53.5%. The overall attitude toward prevention of ECC was not in accordance to knowledge. The overall mean of “good” practices and “bad” practices score was 33.5% and 18.5%, respectively. Good knowledge and attitude toward oral health do not necessarily produce good practices. PMID:27843829

  13. Health promotion and dental caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Maltz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The central idea of the Brazilian health system is to prevent the establishment of disease or detect it as early as possible. Prevention and treatment of dental caries are related to behavioral factors, including dietary and oral hygiene habits, which are related to many chronic diseases. Dental health promotion therefore should be fully integrated into broadly based health-promoting strategies and actions such as food and health policies, and general hygiene (including oral hygiene, among others. For decades, a linear relationship between sugar consumption and caries has been observed. Recent data has indicated that this relationship is not as strong as it used to be before the widespread use of fluoride. However, diet is still a key factor acting in the carious process. Oral hygiene is a major aspect when it comes to caries, since dental biofilm is its etiological factor. Oral hygiene procedures are effective in controlling dental caries, especially if plaque removal is performed adequately and associated with fluoride. An alternative to a more efficient biofilm control in occlusal areas is the use of dental sealants, which are only indicated for caries-active individuals. If a cavity is formed as a consequence of the metabolic activity of the biofilm, a restorative material or a sealant can be placed to block access of the biofilm to the oral environment in order to prevent caries progress. The prevention of dental caries based on common risk-factor strategies (diet and hygiene should be supplemented by more disease-specific policies such as rational use of fluoride, and evidence-based dental health care.

  14. An overview of caries risk assessment: Rationale, risk indicators, risk assessment methods, and risk-based caries management protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekta Singh Suneja

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paradigm shift in our understanding of the dynamic, multifactorial nature of dental caries and the resultant change in caries preventive and treatment strategies necessitates that caries risk assessment (CRA should be an integral part of any caries management protocol. This review discusses the rationale for CRA and the role various risk indicators play in the fluctuating demineralization-remineralization cycle of dental caries. It also provides an overview of different CRA methods and a risk-based clinical protocol for dental caries management in infants and children.

  15. [Dental caries--therapeutic possibilities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perić, Tamara; Marković, Dejan; Zivković, Slavoljub

    2008-01-01

    Contemporary tendencies in dentistry are based on the concept of maximal protection of healthy tooth tissues. Caries removal has been done traditionally with mechanical rotary instruments that are fast and precise. However, conventional cavity preparation has potential adverse effects to the pulp due to heat, pressure and vibrations. Moreover, drilling often causes pain and requires local anaesthesia, and these procedures are frequently perceived as unpleasant. Etiology, development and prevention of dental caries are better understood today and new restorative materials that bond micromechanically and/or chemically to dental tissues have been introduced. Thus, development of a new, less destructive caries removal technique is allowed. In the last decades, many alternative methods have been introduced in an attempt to replace rotary instruments. These are claimed to be efficient and selective for diseased tissues and to offer comfortable treatment to the patients. New methods include air abrasion, air polishing, ultrasonic, polymer burs, enzymes, systems for chemo-mechanical caries removal, and lasers. The aim of this paper was to discuss various caries removal techniques and possibilities of their use in clinical practice. Based on the literature review it can be concluded that none of the new caries removal methods can completely replace conventional rotary instruments.

  16. New diagnostic technology and hidden pits and fissures caries

    OpenAIRE

    Fabrizio Guerra; Marta Mazur; Francesca Rinaldo; Denise Corridore; Daniele Salvi; Debora Pasqualotto; Gianna Maria Nardi; Livia Ottolenghi

    2015-01-01

    The accuracy in pits and fissures caries detection is of paramount importance in dental caries primary and secondary prevention. A combination of visual examination and probing is currently the mainstay of occlusal caries diagnosis. Unfortunately, these types of inspection alone may leave a certain number of pit and fissure caries undetected. The Vista Cam iX fluorescence camera (Durr Dental, Bietigheim-Bissingen, Germany) is a novel dental diagnostic tool for quantitative assessment of denta...

  17. A critical care network pressure ulcer prevention quality improvement project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Joanna; Richardson, Annette

    2015-03-30

    Pressure ulcer prevention is an important safety issue, often underrated and an extremely painful event harming patients. Critically ill patients are one of the highest risk groups in hospital. The impact of pressure ulcers are wide ranging, and they can result in increased critical care and the hospital length of stay, significant interference with functional recovery and rehabilitation and increase cost. This quality improvement project had four aims: (1) to establish a critical care network pressure ulcer prevention group; (2) to establish baseline pressure ulcer prevention practices; (3) to measure, compare and monitor pressure ulcers prevalence; (4) to develop network pressure ulcer prevention standards. The approach used to improve quality included strong critical care nursing leadership to develop a cross-organisational pressure ulcer prevention group and a benchmarking exercise of current practices across a well-established critical care Network in the North of England. The National Safety Thermometer tool was used to measure pressure ulcer prevalence in 23 critical care units, and best available evidence, local consensus and another Critical Care Networks' bundle of interventions were used to develop a local pressure ulcer prevention standards document. The aims of the quality improvement project were achieved. This project was driven by successful leadership and had an agreed common goal. The National Safety Thermometer tool was an innovative approach to measure and compare pressure ulcer prevalence rates at a regional level. A limitation was the exclusion of moisture lesions. The project showed excellent engagement and collaborate working in the quest to prevent pressure ulcers from many critical care nurses with the North of England Critical Care Network. A concise set of Network standards was developed for use in conjunction with local guidelines to enhance pressure ulcer prevention. © 2015 British Association of Critical Care Nurses.

  18. A retrospective analysis of caries treatment and development in relation to assessed caries risk in an adult population in Sweden.

    OpenAIRE

    Söderström, Ulf; Johansson, Ingegerd; Sunnegårdh-Grönberg, Karin

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Public Dental Service of Västerbotten County (Sweden) recommends using population-based prevention strategies combined with an individual strategy for high-risk patients to manage caries. To facilitate this management strategy, all patients are evaluated for their risk of developing caries in the coming year using defined criteria. Using caries risk scoring over a seven-year period, the present study evaluates prophylactic measures, caries development, and non-operative treatm...

  19. Practitioners' forum: public health and the primary prevention of adolescent violence--the violence prevention project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivak, H; Hausman, A J; Prothrow-Stith, D

    1989-01-01

    The Violence Prevention Project is a community-based outreach and education project directed toward reducing the negative social and medical outcomes of violence among adolescents. Community agency personnel are trained to work with youth on issues of anger and conflict resolution. A mass media campaign advertises the issue to the broader population. Interventions, such as the Violence Prevention Project, can use the public health strategies to increase awareness of the problem and associated risk factors, provide alternative conflict resolution techniques, and generate a new community ethos around violence. This approach holds great promise in an area in which after-the-fact legislative and punitive interventions have not worked.

  20. Effect of Silver Nanoparticle-Added Pit and Fissure Sealant in the Prevention of Dental Caries in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-López, Enid Karina; Pierdant-Pérez, Mauricio; Hernández-Sierra, Juan Francisco; Ruíz, Facundo; Mandeville, Peter; Pozos-Guillén, Amaury J

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of pit and fissure sealant mixed with silver nanoparticles on dental caries, by means of monthly measurement of fluorescence with DIAGNOdent over six months. This study was divided in two phases: experimental and clinical. In the experimental phase, the adhesion and microleakage of the pit and fissure sealant experiment were evaluated. Two groups of 10 teeth, without serious carious lesions, were included. Conventional (group A) and silver nanoparticles (group B) were added to the pit and fissure sealant. For the clinical phase, a split-mouth study was performed on 40 children aged 6-10 years old with healthy, erupted permanent first molars. A conventional pit and fissure sealant or a silver nanoparticle-mixed sealant was randomly placed. Repeated measures analysis was performed. Conventional sealant presented an average microleakage of 30.6%, and the silver nanoparticle-mixed sealant showed 33.6% (P=NS). A three times greater reduction in fluorescence was found in the silver nanoparticles group compared to the conventional group (Psilver nanoparticle-mixed sealant reduced tooth demineralization significantly and likely increased remineralization, compared to the conventional sealant.

  1. Developing a caries risk registry to support caries risk assessment and management for children: A quality improvement initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruff, Jesley C; Herndon, Jill Boylston; Horton, Roger A; Lynch, Julie; Mathwig, Dawn C; Leonard, Audra; Aravamudhan, Krishna

    2017-10-27

    Health registries are commonly used in medicine to support public health activities and are increasingly used in quality improvement (QI) initiatives. Illustrations of dental registries and their QI applications are lacking. Within dentistry, caries risk assessment implementation and documentation are vital to optimal patient care. The purpose of this article is to describe the processes used to develop a caries risk assessment registry as a QI initiative to support clinical caries risk assessment, caries prevention, and disease management for children. Developmental steps reflected Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality recommendations for planning QI registries and included engaging "champions," defining the project, identifying registry features, defining performance dashboard indicators, and pilot testing with participant feedback. We followed Standards for Quality Improvement Reporting Excellence guidelines. Registry eligibility is patients aged 0-17 years. QI tools include prompts to register eligible patients; decision support tools grounded in evidence-based guidelines; and performance dashboard reports delivered at the provider and aggregated levels at regular intervals. The registry was successfully piloted in two practices with documented caries risk assessment increasing from 57 percent to 92 percent and positive feedback regarding the potential to improve dental practice patient centeredness, patient engagement and education, and quality of care. The caries risk assessment registry demonstrates how dental registries may be used in QI efforts to promote joint patient and provider engagement, foster shared decision making, and systematically collect patient information to generate timely and actionable data to improve care quality and patient outcomes at the individual and population levels. © 2017 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  2. Palmistry: a tool for dental caries prediction!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, Nidhi; Rathnam, Arun; Bajaj, Neeti

    2011-01-01

    Dermatoglyphics can prove to be an extremely useful tool for preliminary investigations in conditions with a suspected genetic base. Since caries is a multifactorial disease with the influence of genetic pattern, early prediction for high-risk children can help in using effective and efficient caries preventive measures that are a part of the pedodontist arsenal. This study was done to determine the genetic aspect involved in the occurrence of dental caries through a cost-effective means, which can be used in field studies. 550 kindergarten school children in the age group 3-6 years were examined during a school examination camp. Of these, only 336 children were included in the study. They were divided into four groups as follows: caries-free males (df score=0), caries-free females, caries males (df score≥10), caries females. The handprints of each child were taken and the frequency of occurrence of type of dermatoglyphic pattern on fingertip of each digit was noted. Separate df scores were recorded. SPSS software and test of proportions were used for the analysis. Handprints of caries-free children, especially females, showed maximum ulnar loops. The caries group showed maximum occurrence of whorls (r=2:1), which were more prevalent in females on the left hand 3rd digit than in males where the whorls were found on the right hand 3 rd digit, and also low total ridge count, especially in males.

  3. [Dental caries in an ecological perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twetman, Svante; Ekstrand, Kim; Qvist, Vibeke

    2010-11-01

    Dental caries affects the majority of the Danish population. Its aetiology is multi-factorial, but a pH-induced change in the homeostasis of the oral biofilm leading to overgrowth of acid-tolerating bacteria is a key event. A non-invasive concept for prevention and management is emerging based on the common risk factor approach. There is strong evidence that tooth brushing twice a day with fluoridated toothpaste is the most cost-effective way to prevent and control caries development. Physicians need to consider that a number of drugs may affect the saliva flow rate, which increases the caries risk.

  4. Treatment protocols: nonfluoride management of the caries disease process and available diagnostics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, Svante

    2010-01-01

    to prevent caries lesions. However, such measures may be considered to control the disease in caries-active individuals. There is evidence that xylitol has antibacterial properties that alter the oral ecology but the clinical evidence for caries prevention is rated as fair. However, preventive programs...

  5. Prevention and control of dental caries and periodontal diseases at individual and population level: consensus report of group 3 of joint EFP/ORCA workshop on the boundaries between caries and periodontal diseases.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jepsen, S.; Blanco, J.; Buchalla, W.; Carvalho, J.C.; Dietrich, T.; Dorfer, C.; Eaton, K.A.; Figuero, E.; Frencken, J.E.F.M.; Graziani, F.; Higham, S.M.; Kocher, T.; Maltz, M.; Ortiz-Vigon, A.; Schmoeckel, J.; Sculean, A.; Tenuta, L.M.; Veen, M.H. van der; Machiulskiene, V.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The non-communicable diseases dental caries and periodontal diseases pose an enormous burden on mankind. The dental biofilm is a major biological determinant common to the development of both diseases, and they share common risk factors and social determinants, important for their

  6. Prevention and control of dental caries and periodontal diseases at individual and population level : consensus report of group 3 of joint EFP/ORCA workshop on the boundaries between caries and periodontal diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jepsen, S.; Blanco, J.; Buchalla, W.; Carvalho, J.C.; Dietrich, T.; Dörfer, C.; Eaton, K.A.; Figuero, E.; Frencken, J.E.; Graziani, F.; Higham, S.M.; Kocher, T.; Maltz, M.; Ortiz-Vigon, A.; Schmoeckel, J.; Sculean, A.; Tenuta, L.M.A.; van der Veen, M.H.; Machiulskiene, V.

    BACKGROUND: The non-communicable diseases dental caries and periodontal diseases pose an enormous burden on mankind. The dental biofilm is a major biological determinant common to the development of both diseases, and they share common risk factors and social determinants, important for their

  7. Caries-Preventive Effect of High-Viscosity Glass Ionomer and Resin-Based Fissure Sealants on Permanent Teeth: A Systematic Review of Clinical Trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Mickenautsch

    Full Text Available Glass-ionomers are traditionally regarded to be inferior to resin as fissure sealants in protecting teeth from dental caries, due to their comparatively lower retention rate. Unlike low-viscosity glass-ionomers, high-viscosity glass-ionomer cements (HVGIC are placed as sealants by pressing the material into pits and fissures with a petroleum-jelly-coated index finger. Hence, HVGIC sealants are assumed to penetrate pits and fissures deeper, resulting in a higher material retention rate, which may increase its caries-preventive effect.The aim of this review was to answer the question as to whether, in patients with fully erupted permanent molar teeth, HVGIC based fissure sealants are less effective to protect against dental carious lesions in occlusal pits and fissures than resin-based fissure sealants? A systematic literature search in eight databases was conducted. Heterogeneity of accepted trials and imprecision of the established evidence were assessed. Extracted sufficiently homogenous datasets were pooled by use of a random-effects meta-analysis. Internal trial validity was evaluated. The protocol of this systematic review was registered with the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO / Nr.: CRD42015016007.Seven clinical trials were provisionally included for further review. Of these, one was excluded. Seven trial reports reporting on six trials were accepted. From these, 11 datasets were extracted and pooled in four meta-analyses. The results suggest no statistically significant differences after up to 48 months and borderline significant differences in favour of HVGIC sealants after 60 months (RR 0.29; 95% CI: 0.09-0.95; p = 0.04 / RD -0.07; 95% CI: -0.14, -0.01. The point estimates and upper confidence levels after 24, 36, 48 and 60 months of RR 1.36; RR 0.90; RR 0.62; RR 0.29 and 2.78; 1.67; 1.21; 0.95, respectively, further suggest a chronological trend in favour of HVGIC above resin-based sealants. The

  8. Airlie House Pollution Prevention Technology Transfer pilot projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thuot, J.R.; Myron, H.; Gatrone, R.; McHenry, J.

    1996-08-01

    The projects were a series of pilot projects developed for DOE with the intention of transferring pollution prevention technology to private industry. The concept was to develop small technology transfer initiatives in partnership with the private sector. Argonne National Laboratory developed three projects: the microscale chemistry in education program, the microscale cost benefit study, and the Bethel New Life recycling trainee program. The two microscale chemistry projects focused on introducing microscale chemistry technologies to secondary and college education. These programs were inexpensive to develop and received excellent evaluations from participants and regulators. The recycle trainee project provided training for two participants and identified recycling and source reduction opportunities in Argonne`s solid waste stream. The pilot projects demonstrated that technology transfer initiatives can be developed and implemented with a small budget and within a short period of time. The essential components of the pilot projects were identification of target technologies that were already available, identification of target audiences, and a focus of effort to achieve a limited but defined objective.

  9. [Incidence of dental caries in a child population from Mostoles: evaluation of a preventive program after 2 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapias Ledesma, M A; Gil de Miguel, A; Regidor, E; Domínguez Rojas, V

    2000-06-15

    To know the efficacy and effectivity od dental health program after 2 years. The study of prospective cohorts not aleatorized. The exposed cohort is composed of 583 school children, 296 girls and 287 boys, the non-exposed cohort is composed of 261 school children, 132 girls and 129 boys. We carried out and odontological exploration following the criteria of the WHO the preventive measures we carried out are health education, weekly mouthrinse of NaFl at 0.2%, occlusive sealant in the first permanent molar and external application fluorine gel. We measured and compared the different indexes of tooth decay and sociodemographic variables between both cohorts, the statistic meaning has been determined through the U est of Mann Whitney. We have found statistically significant differences between both cohorts in the indexes of decay in the exposed cohorts. The indexes of decay in the exposed cohort being DMFT: 0.31; DMFM (first permanent molar): 0.31; DMFS: 0.4. And in the non-exposed cohort DMFT: 0.81; DMFM: 0.81; DMFS; 1.09. Existing an epidemiological association between the preventive program and the prevention of dental decay with a relative risk of 0.24 (95% CI, 0.17-0.33) and the prevention fraction of 76.3% (95% CI, 67-83). The preventive program after two years elapsed is effective and has a clear protector effect.

  10. Oral health screening using a caries detection device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetuan, Theresa M; McGlasson, Dawn; Meyer, Ileen

    2005-10-01

    Children from low-income families are more likely to have dental disease and less likely to have regular dental care. Children's dental-related illnesses are responsible for more than 880,000 lost school days each year. The lack of reliable state-level data often makes monitoring the oral health of children a challenge. By conducting oral health screenings, school nurses could promote prevention and early identification of dental problems and could aid in the collection of data. This innovative project used a convenience sample of students to test a caries detection device. Children in Grades 3 and 6 (n = 2,622) received oral health screening by the school nurse using a noninvasive laser fluorescent dental device. Findings revealed that 82% of students referred to the dentists received dental care. School nurses can contribute to improving the oral health status of the school-age population by early detection of dental caries and referrals for a dental evaluation.

  11. Biological approach of dental caries management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigalauskienė, Rūta; Slabšinskienė, Eglė; Vasiliauskienė, Ingrida

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries is a disease induced by dental plaque, which can be described as a community of microorganisms (biofilm). Because of genetic and environmental factors a number of changes in the oral microbiome takes place; in case of commensalism and mutualism between biofilm microorganisms and the host, homeostasis in oral microbiome is maintained. However, when a risk factor occurs parasitic relationship starts prevailing and activity of the pathogenic cariogenic microorganisms increases leading to a dental caries. According to the newest technologies of molecular microbiology new cariogenic microorganisms species have been determined. Each individual's oral microbiome is as unique as his/her immune system; therefore, commonly taken caries prevention measures cannot be of the same effectiveness for all individuals. Each person has his own caries risk which is determined by the oral microbiome and immune system influenced by the environmental and genetic factors. Early caries diagnostic, risk assessment and individualized caries prevention plan will allow us to control the disease and achieve a desirable effect. For the dentist the most important thing is not to treat the consequences of the disease - cavities - but be aware of the dental caries as a biological phenomenon.

  12. Introducing a Dental Caries Marking Software and Evaluate Radiologists’ Disagreement in Caries Detection Using this Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baseri H

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Bitewing radiograph is the main reference for diagnosis of proximal and recurrent caries. There is no software for gathering and analyzing radiologists’ opinion in the field of caries detection on digital bitewing radiograph (DBR. Objectives: The main aim of this study is to introduce the first windows application that could be used for marking caries on DBR. This software is called Dental Caries Marking Software (DCMS. The second aim is to create the first DBR caries dataset to be used for future software development projects in the field of automatic caries detection; also gathering and documenting the disagreements and critiques regarding DCMS. Materials and Methods: DCMS has been designed and implemented by the researchers of this study. This software is divided into two parts. The first part is DCMS writer that is used for gathering the user’s opinion and The second part is DCMS analyzer that is used for reading and analyzing the user’s opinion file. Eight radiologists with different experiences used DCMS for marking dental caries on 200 DBR, 50 of which were repeated twice for assessing the accuracy of each radiologist. Results: A total of 3833 points were marked by 8 users on 150 non repetitive DBR. Only 35 points were marked similarly by 8 users; in other words, 8 users totally agreed with 4% of the caries points. According to 50 repetitive DBR, the maximum accuracy of users was 69% and the minimum was 50%. Conclusions: There is significant debate over the diagnosis of caries on DBR; therefore, for unifying the radiologist’s opinions, the need for intelligent caries detection software is apparent. DCMS is useful software for gathering caries data. Moreover, the use of conventional display monitor has negative impacts on accurate diagnosis of caries on DBR.

  13. Clinical use of lasers in caries diagnosis and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ambrose

    2008-06-01

    Laser technology is now ubiquitous in science, business, the arts, the military, industry, telecommunications, entertainment and medicine. It is increasingly finding a useful place in dentistry to offer the potential for practical solutions to managing difficult clinical problems. Research into the clinical use of lasers in diagnostic and therapeutic dental procedures has escalated rapidly in recent years. Laser technology has revolutionized the treatment of dental caries. This article reviews the role of laser technology in the clinical management of caries, early caries diagnosis and treatment planning decision making, caries prevention, soft tissue management, fluorescence aided caries elimination and fluorescence feedback-controlled selective caries removal. Laser technology plays a vital role in enhancing caries diagnosis and therapy.

  14. Caries Risk Assessment Among School Children in Davangere City Using Cariogram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umesh Kemparaj

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Cariogram can be a reliable tool in caries prediction. It can aid in identifying different risk groups in a community and developing preventive strategies for reducing caries risk in children.

  15. Consistent evidence to support the use of xylitol- and sorbitol-containing chewing gum to prevent dental caries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, Svante

    2009-01-01

    DATA SOURCES: Studies were identified using searches with Medline, the Cochrane Library and Google Scholar. STUDY SELECTION: Studies were screened independently and were included if they evaluated the effect of one or more chewing gums containing at least one polyol (xylitol, sorbitol, mannitol...... blend were statistically significant. Sensitivity analyses confirmed the robustness of the findings. CONCLUSIONS: Although research gaps exist, particularly on optimal dosing and relative polyol efficacy, there is consistent evidence to support the use of xylitol- and sorbitol-containing chewing gum...... randomised controlled trials (RCT) of which four were cluster RCT, nine controlled clinical trials (CCT) and four cohort studies]. Two RCT had a Jadad score of three or higher. The mean preventive fraction for the four main gum types are shown in the table 1, results of all except the sorbitol -mannitol...

  16. Sugar Alcohols, Caries Incidence, and Remineralization of Caries Lesions: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kauko K. Mäkinen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Remineralization of minor enamel defects is a normal physiological process that is well known to clinicians and researchers in dentistry and oral biology. This process can be facilitated by various dietary and oral hygiene procedures and may also concern dentin caries lesions. Dental caries is reversible if detected and treated sufficiently early. Habitual use of xylitol, a sugar alcohol of the pentitol type, can be associated with significant reduction in caries incidence and with tooth remineralization. Other dietary polyols that can remarkably lower the incidence of caries include erythritol which is a tetritol-type alditol. Based on known molecular parameters of simple dietary alditols, it is conceivable to predict that their efficacy in caries prevention will follow the homologous series, that is, that the number of OH-groups present in the alditol molecule will determine the efficacy as follows: erythritol≥xylitol>sorbitol. The possible difference between erythritol and xylitol must be confirmed in future clinical trials.

  17. Breaking the Chain of Early Childhood Caries Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxine Strickland

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Dental disease can have devas-tating effects on children who lack access to dental care. The US was shocked to learn of the recent death of a child from a caries related infection. The bio-logical basis of dental caries risk is usually considered interims of individual behavior. The role of the family and other more complex units of social organization in determining caries risk are not often appreciated. The transmission of caries causing bacteria from mothers (or other care givers having extensive contact with the child has been well docu-mented. In addition the age at which children are vulnerable to colonization with caries causing organisms is known. Despite the fact that the dental and scientific communities possess knowledge concerning the routs of caries transmission, efforts to implement preventive programs specifically targeting the reduction of caries transmission have been inconsistent. Working with and motivating families to prevent caries transmission should be the shared objective of researchers and clinicians. Armed with the available know-ledge, caries should not the thought of as an inevitable part of life. The goal of this essay is to challenge readers to empower people at risk to make decisions that enable them to break the chain of caries infection.

  18. RECENT ADVANCES IN DETECTION AND DIAGNOSIS OF DENTAL CARIES

    OpenAIRE

    Prachi; Neha; Aditya; Deepak; Medhavi

    2014-01-01

    Dental caries , a progressive bacterial damage to teeth , is one of the most commondiseases that affects 95% of the population and is still a major cause of tooth loss.Recent years have seen an increase in research activity surrounding diagnostic methods , particularly in the assessment of early caries lesions. The use of technologi es as adjunct to clinical visual examination for caries diagnosis will facilitate preventive care in dentistry to lower treatment...

  19. Longitudinal Study of Caries Development from Childhood to Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall-Scullin, E; Whitehead, H; Milsom, K; Tickle, M; Su, T-L; Walsh, T

    2017-07-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) stated that globally, dental caries is the most important oral condition. To develop effective prevention strategies requires an understanding of how this condition develops and progresses over time, but there are few longitudinal studies of caries onset and progression in children. The aim of the study was to establish the pattern of caries development from childhood into adolescence and to explore the role of potential risk factors (age, sex, ethnicity, and social deprivation). Of particular interest was the disease trajectory of dentinal caries in the permanent teeth in groups defined by the presence or absence of dentinal caries in the primary teeth. Intraoral examinations to assess oral health were performed at 4 time points by trained and calibrated dentist examiners using a standardized, national diagnostic protocol. Clinical data were available from 6,651 children. Mean caries prevalence (% D 3 MFT > 0) was 16.7% at the first clinical examination (ages 7-9 y), increasing to 31.0%, 42.2%, and 45.7% at subsequent examinations. A population-averaged model (generalized estimating equations) was used to model the longitudinal data. Estimated mean values indicated a rising D 3 MFT count as pupils aged (consistent with new teeth emerging), which was significantly higher (4.49 times; 95% confidence interval, 3.90-5.16) in those pupils with caries in their primary dentition than in those without. This study is one of the few large longitudinal studies to report the development of dental caries from childhood into adolescence. Children who developed caries in their primary dentition had a very different caries trajectory in their permanent dentition compared to their caries-free contemporaries. In light of these results, caries-free and caries-active children should be considered as 2 separate populations, suggesting different prevention strategies are required to address their different risk profiles.

  20. A best practices approach to caries management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurlbutt, Michelle; Young, Douglas A

    2014-06-01

    Caries management by risk assessment represents best practices and is an evidence-based model that focuses on treating and preventing disease at the patient level rather than a surgical/restorative approach at the tooth level. Dental caries is a multifactorial, biofilm and pH mediated disease that affects people of all ages and disproportionally affects certain populations at epidemic proportions. Simply restoring cavitated teeth does nothing to resolve the disease. At the heart of the CAMBRA philosophy is identifying the patient's unique risk level for future caries disease. This can be done by completing a caries risk assessment (CRA). Several easy to use CRA questionnaires are available. Once the patient's unique risk level has been determined, preventive and therapeutic interventions, based on the specific risk level, can then be implemented. Landmark publications, original research, and systematic reviews are analyzed and reviewed to form the basis for this shift in patient care related to caries disease. Caries management by risk assessment has emerged as the new paradigm in patient care and represents an evidence-based, best practices approach with the potential for significant advantages over traditional methods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of an institutional project to improve venous thromboembolism prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Christina A; Yang, Anthony D; Ju, Mila; Culver, Eckford; Seifert, Kathryn; Kreutzer, Lindsey; Halverson, Terri; O'Leary, Kevin J; Bilimoria, Karl Y

    2016-12-01

    Northwestern Memorial Hospital (NMH) was historically a poor performer on the venous thromboembolism (VTE) outcome measure. As this measure has been shown to be flawed by surveillance bias, NMH embraced process-of-care measures to ensure appropriate VTE prophylaxis to assess healthcare-associated VTE prevention efforts. To evaluate the impact of an institution-wide project aimed at improving hospital performance on VTE prophylaxis measures. A retrospective observational study. NMH, an 885-bed academic medical center in Chicago, Illinois PATIENTS: Inpatients admitted to NMH from January 1, 2013 to May 1, 2013 and from October 1, 2014 to April 1, 2015 were eligible for evaluation. Using the define-measure-analyze-improve-control (DMAIC) process-improvement methodology, a multidisciplinary team implemented and iteratively improved 15 data-driven interventions in 4 broad areas: (1) electronic medical record (EMR) alerts, (2) education initiatives, (3) new EMR order sets, and (4) other EMR changes. The Joint Commission's 6 core measures and the Surgical Care Improvement Project (SCIP) SCIP-VTE-2 measure. Based on 3103 observations (1679 from January 1, 2013 to May 1, 2013, and 1424 from October 1, 2014 to April 1, 2015), performance on the core measures improved. Performance on measure 1 (chemoprophylaxis) improved from 82.5% to 90.2% on medicine services, and from 94.4% to 97.6% on surgical services. The largest improvements were seen in measure 4 (platelet monitoring), with a performance increase from 76.7% adherence to 100%, and measure 5 (warfarin discharge instructions), with a performance increase from 27.4% to 88.8%. A systematic hospital-wide DMAIC project improved VTE prophylaxis measure performance. Sustained performance has been observed, and novel control mechanisms for continued performance surveillance have been embedded in the hospital system. Journal of Hospital Medicine 2016;11:S29-S37. © 2016 Society of Hospital Medicine. © 2016 Society of Hospital

  2. Early Childhood Caries (ECC): an infectious transmissible oral disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poureslami, H.R.; van Amerongen, W.E.

    2009-01-01

    Dental caries in babies and toddlers is called Early Childhood Caries (ECC). It is an infectious and transmissible die-to-bacterial disease. Detailed knowledge regarding the acquisition and transmission of infectious agents facilitates a more comprehensive approach toward prevention. Mutans

  3. Fluorine profiling after application of various anti-caries gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zschau, H.-E.; Plier, F.; Otto, G.; Wyrwich, C.; Treide, A.

    1990-04-01

    Two newly developed caries-preventing gels were tested together with Elmex R on pre-school children over a time of 3 years. Proton-induced gamma-ray emission spectrometry (PIGE) was used to measure the fluorine profiles in milk teeth (incisors). In accordance with the clinical statement the results allow to produce a new anti-caries drug.

  4. Dental caries experience and treatment needs of an adult female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Experience and awareness of adult females concerning dental caries is important in its prevention particularly in children because of their natural role as care givers. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of dental caries and treatment needs in an adult female Nigerian population. Methods: In this ...

  5. Fluorine profiling after application of various anti-caries gels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zschau, H.E.; Plier, F.; Otto, G.; Wyrwich, C.; Treide, A.

    1990-01-01

    Two newly developed caries-preventing gels were tested together with Elmex on pre-school children over a time of 3 years. Proton-induced gamma-ray emission spectrometry (PIGE) was used to measure the fluorine profiles in milk teeth (incisors). In accordance with the clinical statement the results allow to produce a new anti-caries drug. (orig.)

  6. Immunization against dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, Toshihiko; Oho, Takahiko; Shimazaki, Yoshihiro; Nakano, Yoshio

    2002-05-15

    Dental caries is one of the most common infectious diseases. Of the oral bacteria, mutans streptococci, such as Streptococcus mutans and S. sobrinus, are considered to be causative agents of dental caries in humans. There have been numerous studies of the immunology of mutans streptococci. To control dental caries, dental caries vaccines have been produced using various cell-surface antigens of these organisms. Progress in recombinant DNA technology and peptide synthesis has been applied to the development of recombinant and synthetic peptide vaccines to control dental caries. Significant protective effects against dental caries have been shown in experimental animals, such as mice, rats and monkeys, which have been subcutaneously, orally, or intranasally immunized with these antigens. Only a few studies, however, have examined the efficacy of dental caries vaccines in humans. Recently, local passive immunization using murine monoclonal antibodies, transgenic plant antibodies, egg-yolk antibodies, and bovine milk antibodies to antigens of mutans streptococci have been used to control the colonization of the organisms and the induction of dental caries in human. Such immunization procedures may be a safer approach for controlling human dental caries than active immunization.

  7. Caries risk assessment models in caries prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amila Zukanović

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this research was to assess the efficiency of different multifactor models in caries prediction. Material and methods. Data from the questionnaire and objective examination of 109 examinees was entered into the Cariogram, Previser and Caries-Risk Assessment Tool (CAT multifactor risk assessment models. Caries risk was assessed with the help of all three models for each patient, classifying them as low, medium or high-risk patients. The development of new caries lesions over a period of three years [Decay Missing Filled Tooth (DMFT increment = difference between Decay Missing Filled Tooth Surface (DMFTS index at baseline and follow up], provided for examination of the predictive capacity concerning different multifactor models. Results. The data gathered showed that different multifactor risk assessment models give significantly different results (Friedman test: Chi square = 100.073, p=0.000. Cariogram is the model which identified the majority of examinees as medium risk patients (70%. The other two models were more radical in risk assessment, giving more unfavorable risk –profiles for patients. In only 12% of the patients did the three multifactor models assess the risk in the same way. Previser and CAT gave the same results in 63% of cases – the Wilcoxon test showed that there is no statistically significant difference in caries risk assessment between these two models (Z = -1.805, p=0.071. Conclusions. Evaluation of three different multifactor caries risk assessment models (Cariogram, PreViser and CAT showed that only the Cariogram can successfully predict new caries development in 12-year-old Bosnian children.

  8. Prosthetic crowns and other clinical risk indicators of caries among old-old Swedish adults: findings from the KEOHS Project. Kungsholmen Elders Oral Health Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morse, Douglas E; Holm-Pedersen, Poul; Holm-Pedersen, Jytte

    2002-01-01

    The Kungsholmen Elders Oral Health Study (KEOHS) evaluated the oral health status of generally healthy, community-dwelling persons over the age of 80 living in Kungsholmen, Sweden. This paper explored possible clinical risk indicators of coronal and root caries among the KEOHS subjects....

  9. Caries og drikkevandets kvalitet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvin, Erik; Bardow, Allan; Bruvo, Maja

    2011-01-01

    Drikkevandskvaliteten har stor betydning for forekomsten af caries blandt 15 årige skolebørn, også selv om de bruger fluoridholdigt tandpasta. Ud over den kendte effekt af fluorid har vi vist, at calcium også har en væsentlig betydning. Begge ioner forebygger caries. Denne viden har væsentlig...

  10. Best clinical practice guidance for management of early caries lesions in children and young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kühnisch, J; Ekstrand, K R; Pretty, I

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry (EAPD) encourages prevention and arrest of active dental caries. Therefore, the present guidance provides evidence- and clinically-based recommendations for detecting and diagnosing early/non-cavitated caries lesions, risk assessment and di...... is an essential aspect of preventive dentistry. Therefore, the EAPD encourages oral health care providers and caregivers to implement preventive practices that can arrest early caries and improve individual and public dental health....

  11. Aspirin for Stroke Prevention in Elderly Patients With Vascular Risk Factors: Japanese Primary Prevention Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Shinichiro; Ishizuka, Naoki; Shimada, Kazuyuki; Teramoto, Tamio; Yamazaki, Tsutomu; Oikawa, Shinichi; Sugawara, Masahiro; Ando, Katsuyuki; Murata, Mitsuru; Yokoyama, Kenji; Minematsu, Kazuo; Matsumoto, Masayasu; Ikeda, Yasuo

    2016-06-01

    The effect of aspirin in primary prevention of stroke is controversial among clinical trials conducted in Western countries, and no data are available for Asian populations with a high risk of intracranial hemorrhage. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of aspirin on the risk of stroke and intracranial hemorrhage in the Japanese Primary Prevention Project (JPPP). A total of 14 464 patients (age, 60-85 years) with hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes mellitus participated and were randomized into 2 treatment groups: 100 mg of aspirin or no aspirin. The median follow-up period was 5.02 years. The cumulative rate of fatal or nonfatal stroke was similar for the aspirin (2.068%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.750-2.443) and no aspirin (2.299%; 95% CI, 1.963-2.692) groups at 5 years; the estimated hazard ratio was 0.927 (95% CI, 0.741-1.160; P=0.509). Aspirin nonsignificantly reduced the risk of ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack (hazard ratio, 0.783; 95% CI, 0.606-1.012; P=0.061) and nonsignificantly increased the risk of intracranial hemorrhage (hazard ratio, 1.463; 95% CI; 0.956-2.237; P=0.078). A Cox regression adjusted by the risk factors for all stroke, which were age >70 years, smoking, and diabetes mellitus, supported the above result. Aspirin did not show any net benefit for the primary prevention of stroke in elderly Japanese patients with risk factors for stroke, whereas age >70 years, smoking, and diabetes mellitus were risk factors for stroke regardless of aspirin treatment. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00225849. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. Design of the Xylitol for Adult Caries Trial (X-ACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaechi Bennett T

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dental caries incidence in adults is similar to that in children and adolescents, but few caries preventive agents have been evaluated for effectiveness in adults populations. In addition, dentists direct fewer preventive services to their adult patients. Xylitol, an over-the-counter sweetener, has shown some potential as a caries preventive agent, but the evidence for its effectiveness is not yet conclusive and is based largely on studies in child populations. Methods/Design X-ACT is a three-year, multi-center, placebo controlled, double-blind, randomized clinical trial that tests the effects of daily use of xylitol lozenges versus placebo lozenges on the prevention of adult caries. The trial has randomized 691 participants (ages 21-80 to the two arms. The primary outcome is the increment of cavitated lesions. Discussion This trial should help resolve the overall issue of the effectiveness of xylitol in preventing caries by contributing evidence with a low risk of bias. Just as importantly, the trial will provide much-needed information about the effectiveness of a promising caries prevention agent in adults. An effective xylitol-based caries prevention intervention would represent an easily disseminated method to extend caries prevention to individuals not receiving caries preventive treatment in the dental office. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.Gov NCT00393055

  13. Prevalence of early childhood caries and associated risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Javier Aguilar-Ayala

    2014-08-01

    Conclusion: due to the high prevalence of white spots, is necessary to create prevention programs that educate mothers or caregivers about the caries risk factors and its control, promoting self-care as a preven- tion strategy.

  14. Adopting caries risk assessment in all practice environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Claire; Patel, Piyush

    2016-01-01

    Caries management by risk assessment (CAMBRA) is an evidence-based model intended to provide dentists with a protocol for diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of caries by assessing and addressing a patient's overall oral health. The aim of this review was to examine the literature on CAMBRA to determine its efficacy. Clinical studies demonstrate that the CAMBRA approach is an effective concept that is both predictive of dental caries development and accurate in outlining appropriate treatment options and preventive strategies that can reduce the morbidity of this common disease process across all patient demographics.

  15. Pressure ulcer prevention is everyone's business: the PUPS project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blenman, Juliet; Marks-Maran, Di

    2017-03-23

    Prevention of pressure ulcers is one of the greatest healthcare challenges in terms of reducing patient harm. The literature shows that although numerous reports and policy documents have been published, pressure ulcer prevention remains an ongoing challenge. A number of innovations have been published offering practising nurses and managers ideas for raising awareness of skin care and preventing pressure ulcers. The majority of these have focused on patients in hospital settings with very little in the literature related to care-home and community initiatives. This article reports on an innovative approach to education for pressure ulcer prevention through collaboration between patients, carers and health and social care professionals.

  16. Clinical, salivary, and bacterial markers for caries risk assessment in schoolchildren: a 4-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Pérez, Leonor; Golubov, Jordan; Irigoyen-Camacho, M Esther; Moctezuma, Patricia Alfaro; Acosta-Gio, Enrique

    2009-05-01

    In Mexico, there is a high prevalence of dental caries and large groups of children still show extensive untreated dental damage. This study aims to evaluate, in a cohort of 6-year-old Mexican children, the relationship between caries increment at 4 years and the following caries risk markers: fissure morphology, caries experience, salivary flow rate, Snyder test results, and mutans and lactobacilli counts. To predict new caries lesions in 110 schoolchildren, clinical, salivary, and bacteriological caries risk markers were used, including fissure morphology, caries experience, salivary flow rate, Snyder test, and Streptococcus mutans and lactobacilli counts. To determine the validity of these markers, the baseline data were compared with the caries increment after 4 years. The risk model's capacity to predict caries was moderate (specificity 79.6% and sensitivity 78.6%). Caries experience (P = 0.0001), Snyder test (P = 0.002), and fissure morphology (P = 0.024) had the strongest association with caries increment. Salivary flow rate, lactobacilli, and S. mutans counts did not contribute significantly to the prediction of caries lesions in these children. In addition to the initial caries experience, tooth morphology and Snyder test proved to be useful predictors for caries. These three risk markers may be particularly useful in targeting caries prevention efforts in developing countries.

  17. [Cost-effectiveness of conventional and modified supervised toothbrushing in preventing caries in permanent molars among 5-year-old children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazão, Paulo

    2012-02-01

    The cost-effectiveness of a modified supervised toothbrushing program was compared to a conventional program. A total of 284 five-year-old children presenting at least one permanent molar with emerged/sound occlusal surface participated. In the control group, oral health education and dental plaque dying followed by toothbrushing with fluoride dentifrice was carried outfour times per year. With the test group, children also underwent professional cross-brushing on surfaces of first permanent molar rendered by a dental assistant five times per year. Enamel/dentin caries were recorded on buccal, occlusal and lingual surfaces of permanent molars for a period of 18 months. The incidence density (ID) ratio was estimated using Poisson's regression model. The ID was 50% lower among boys in the test group (p = 0.016). The cost of the modified program was US$ 1.79 per capita. The marginal cost-effectiveness ratio among boys was US$ 6.30 per avoided carie. The modified supervised toothbrushing program was shown to be cost-effective in the case of boys.

  18. Radiation caries - an evil eye of radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakshman, Anusha Rangare

    2013-01-01

    Although radiotherapy plays an important role in the management of patients with head and neck cancer, it is also associated with several undesired side effects such as radiation caries which is a common, yet serious, complication. The radiotherapy field of exposure frequently includes the salivary glands, oral mucosa, and jaws, thus, leading to various side effects including hyposalivation, mucositis, and taste loss. Irradiated patients are also at increased risk for the development of a rapid, rampant carious process known as radiation caries. Lesions tend to develop four weeks after completion of radiotherapy and affect atypical areas of teeth, such as the lingual surface, incisal edges, and cusp tips. The aim of this paper is to review the clinical features, prevention and management of radiation caries. (author)

  19. The Clinical, Environmental, and Behavioral Factors That Foster Early Childhood Caries: Evidence for Caries Risk Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Margherita

    2015-01-01

    Caries risk assessment, an essential component of targeted health care delivery for young children, is of paramount importance in the current environment of increasing health care costs and resource constraints. The purpose of this manuscript was to review recent best available evidence behind the factors that influence caries risk assessment and the validity of strategies to assess the caries risk of young children. Moderate to weak evidence supports the following recommendations: (1) Children should have a caries risk assessment done in their first year (or as soon as their first tooth erupts) as part of their overall health assessment, and this should be reassessed periodically over time. (2) Multiple clinical, environmental, and behavioral factors should be considered when assessing caries risk in young children, including factors associated with the primary caregiver. (3) The use of structured forms, although most may not yet be validated, may aid in systematic assessment of multiple caries risk factors and in objective record-keeping. (4) Children from low socioeconomic status groups should be considered at increased risk when developing community preventive programs.

  20. Xilitol and dental caries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, Marten Titus

    1987-01-01

    Dental caries is a widespread multifactoral disease. The main sympthons are minaral loss from tooth enemal and dentine, eventually leading to total destruction of the teeth, pain, impairment of mastication and problems with facial esthetics. ... Zie: Summary

  1. Experiences and challenges in implementing complex community-based research project: the Pacific Obesity Prevention in Communities project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, J T; Moodie, M; Mavoa, H; Utter, J; Snowdon, W; McCabe, M P; Millar, L; Kremer, P; Swinburn, B A

    2011-11-01

    Policy makers throughout the world are struggling to find effective ways to prevent the rising trend of obesity globally, particularly among children. The Pacific Obesity Prevention in Communities project was the first large-scale, intervention research project conducted in the Pacific aiming to prevent obesity in adolescents. The project spanned four countries: Australia, New Zealand, Fiji and Tonga. This paper reports on the strengths and challenges experienced from this complex study implemented from 2004 to 2009 across eight cultural groups in different community settings. The key strengths of the project were its holistic collaborative approach, participatory processes and capacity building. The challenges inherent in such a large complex project were underestimated during the project's development. These related to the scale, complexity, duration, low research capacity in some sites and overall coordination across four different countries. Our experiences included the need for a longer lead-in time prior to intervention for training and up-skilling of staff in Fiji and Tonga, investment in overall coordination, data quality management across all sites and the need for realistic capacity building requirements for research staff. The enhanced research capacity and skills across all sites include the development and strengthening of research centres, knowledge translation and new obesity prevention projects. © 2011 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2011 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  2. A Nanocomposite Approach to Microcrack Prevention in Composite Cryotanks Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Nanomaterials and nanocomposites offer great potential for improvement in many applications. One such NASA application is the prevention of microcracking as well as...

  3. Effectiveness evaluation of Contra Caries Oral Health Education Program for improving Spanish-speaking parents’ preventive oral health knowledge and behaviors for their young children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeft, Kristin S.; Barker, Judith C.; Shiboski, Stephen; Guzman, Estela Pantoja; Hiatt, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine the effectiveness of the Contra Caries Oral Health Education Program (CCOHEP) for improving low-income, Spanish-speaking parents’ oral health knowledge and behaviors for their young children. Mexican American children in the United States suffer disproportionately high prevalence and severity of early childhood caries, yet few evaluated, theory-based behavioral interventions exist for this population. CCOHEP is a theory-based curriculum consisting of four 2-hour interactive classes designed for and by Spanish speakers and led by designated community health educators (promotoras). Topics included children’s oral hygiene, caries etiology, dental procedures, nutrition, child behavior management and parent skill-building activities. Methods Low-income Spanish-speaking parents/caregivers of children aged 0–5 years were recruited through community services in an agricultural city in California. Survey questions from the Oral Health Basic Research Facts Questionnaire measuring oral health related behaviors and knowledge were verbally administered before, immediately after, and 3 months after attendance at CCOHEP. Five questions measured aspects of parental tooth brushing for their children (frequency, using fluoridated toothpaste, brushing before bed, not drinking or eating after nighttime brushing, adult assistance), three questions measured other oral health behaviors, and 16 questions measured oral health-related knowledge. Analyses of within-person changes between pre- and posttests, and again between post-test and three month follow up consisted of McNemar’s test for binary outcomes and sign tests for ordinal outcomes. Results Overall, 105 caregivers participated in CCOHEP (n= 105 pretest, n=95 posttest, n=79 second posttest). At baseline, all parents self-reported doing at least one aspect of toothbrushing correctly, but only 13% reported performing all five aspects according to professional guidelines. At posttest, 44% of parents

  4. Effect of a school-based oral health education programme on use of recommended oral self-care for reducing the risk of caries by children in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esan, Ayodeji; Folayan, Morenike Oluwatoyin; Egbetade, Grace O; Oyedele, Titus Ayodeji

    2015-07-01

    Caries is a major oral health problem children with efforts focused on promoting use of caries prevention methods. The aim of the study is to assess the effect of a school-based oral health education programme on use of oral self-care measures for reducing caries. A structured school-based oral health education programme was implemented in six schools in Ile-Ife, Nigeria for 4 years. At the end of the project, information was sought from school children in their last year and final 2 years of studies on the use of fluoridated toothpaste, consumption of sugar-containing snacks more than once a day, frequency of tooth brushing and flossing, and time of the last dental check-up. Predictors of the use of preventive oral health practices for caries were determined. School children who received the intervention were more likely to report frequent use of fluoride-containing toothpastes (P dental floss once a day (P < 0.001) when compared to the control group. This long term school based educational programme was able to increase school children's use of fluoride-containing toothpaste and twice daily tooth brushing, which are critical tools for reducing the risk of caries. © 2014 BSPD, IAPD and John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Upset Prevention and Recovery for Unimpaired and Impaired Aircraft Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the project is the development of an on-board envelope estimation, protection and upset recovery tool to address loss of control incidents in...

  6. The effect of xylitol on dental caries and oral flora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayak PA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Prathibha Anand Nayak,1 Ullal Anand Nayak,2 Vishal Khandelwal3 1Department of Periodontics, NIMS Dental College and Hospital, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India; 2Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, NIMS Dental College and Hospital, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India; 3Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, Index Dental College and Hospital, Indore, Madhya Pradesh, India Abstract: Dental caries, the most chronic disease affecting mankind, has been in the limelight with regard to its prevention and treatment. Professional clinical management of caries has been very successful in cases of different severities of disease manifestations. However, tertiary management of this disease has been gaining attention, with numerous methods and agents emerging on a daily basis. Higher intake of nutritive sweeteners can result in higher energy intake and lower diet quality and thereby predispose an individual to conditions like obesity, cardiovascular disorders, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Non-nutritive sweeteners have gained popularity as they are sweeter and are required in substantially lesser quantities. Xylitol, a five-carbon sugar polyol, has been found to be promising in reducing dental caries disease and also reversing the process of early caries. This paper throws light on the role and effects of various forms of xylitol on dental caries and oral hygiene status of an individual. Keywords: xylitol, caries preventive effect, oral flora 

  7. Project Healthy Bones: An Osteoporosis Prevention Program for Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotzbach-Shimomura, Kathleen

    2001-01-01

    Project Healthy Bones is a 24-week exercise and education program for older women and men at risk for or who have osteoporosis. The exercise component is designed to improve strength, balance, and flexibility. The education curriculum stresses the importance of exercise, nutrition, safety, drug therapy, and lifestyle factors. (SK)

  8. Ecological Hypothesis of Dentin and Root Caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Nobuhiro; Nyvad, Bente

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances regarding the caries process indicate that ecological phenomena induced by bacterial acid production tilt the de- and remineralization balance of the dental hard tissues towards demineralization through bacterial acid-induced adaptation and selection within the microbiota - from the dynamic stability stage to the aciduric stage via the acidogenic stage [Takahashi and Nyvad, 2008]. Dentin and root caries can also be partly explained by this hypothesis; however, the fact that these tissues contain a considerable amount of organic material suggests that protein degradation is involved in caries formation. In this review, we compiled relevant histological, biochemical, and microbiological information about dentin/root caries and refined the hypothesis by adding degradation of the organic matrix (the proteolytic stage) to the abovementioned stages. Bacterial acidification not only induces demineralization and exposure of the organic matrix in dentin/root surfaces but also activation of dentin-embedded and salivary matrix metalloproteinases and cathepsins. These phenomena initiate degradation of the demineralized organic matrix in dentin/root surfaces. While a bacterial involvement has never been confirmed in the initial degradation of organic material, the detection of proteolytic/amino acid-degrading bacteria and bacterial metabolites in dentin and root caries suggests a bacterial digestion and metabolism of partly degraded matrix. Moreover, bacterial metabolites might induce pulpitis as an inflammatory/immunomodulatory factor. Root and dentin surfaces are always at risk of becoming demineralized in the oral cavity, and exposed organic materials can be degraded by host-derived proteases contained in saliva and dentin itself. New approaches to the prevention and treatment of root/dentin caries are required. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Pattern and surface prevalence of dental caries on posterior teeth of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pattern and surface prevalence of dental caries on posterior teeth of children in a Nigerian teaching hospital. ... high occurrence of occlusal caries in permanent dentition showed the need to design preventive clinical procedures such as the placement of fissure sealants on first molars so as to prevent occurrence of occlusal ...

  10. A review of the dental caries status of ethnic minority children in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shinan; Lo, Edward Chin Man; Liu, Juan; Chu, Chun Hung

    2015-02-01

    China has 55 ethnic minority groups comprised of 113 million persons, or 7.0% of total population. Dental caries is a major health problem for children in China, and national oral health surveys currently report dental caries based on geographical location rather than by ethnic group. This study reviews the literature on dental caries in ethnic minority children in China. Publications were retrieved in Chinese and English from five electronic databases; thirty-eight studies from 1983 to 2012 met inclusion criteria and described 25 ethnic minority groups. Primary dentition median caries prevalence and experience were higher (51% and dmft = 3.0, respectively) than permanent dentition caries prevalence and experience (39% and DMFT = 0.8). Median caries prevalence was highest (80%) for permanent dentition among aggregated ethnic minorities with population greater than 1 million. More work and research is needed to expand dental caries prevention and treatment measures for ethnic minority child populations in China.

  11. Association between BMI and Dental Caries among School Children and Adolescents in Jiangsu Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Hussein Musa, Taha; Gao, Rong; Li, Xiao Shan; Wang, Wei Xiang; Hong, Lei; Wei, Ping Min

    2017-10-01

    Obesity and dental caries are increasing epidemics, especially among children and adolescents. This epidemiological observational cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the possible association between body mass index (BMI) and dental caries among 111,792 school children and adolescents in Jiangsu Province. We found that 13.14% participants of the study sample were overweight, and 7.37% were obese. The prevalence of dental caries was 12.95% in overweight and 7.89% in obese students. There were significant differences in caries prevalence by sex, region, age group, and BMI. Overweight and obesity statuses were associated with dental caries among the study population. BMI and dental caries present a continuous health problem. Thus, we recommend that oral health promotion be used for caries prevention and control. Copyright © 2017 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  12. The Langley Tobacco Prevention Project: "a model of school and community partnerships": executive summary

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morrow, Karina

    1996-01-01

    "The objective [of this project] was to provide children, parents and school personnel with tobacco prevention education and skill training in order for these groups of individuals to create a smoke-free school community...

  13. Prevention at school level. UNESCO and WHO: six pilot projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) and the World Health Organization (WHO) are jointly undertaking six pilot projects in Asia and the Pacific, Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean to develop innovative approaches for AIDS education in schools, with the long-term objective of integrating successful educational strategies into school curricula. The projects are being carried out through workshops for the production of educative materials and teacher training workshops. The overall goal is to help young people of school age behave responsibly, giving rightful importance to self-esteem and mutual respect. In line with the program's objective of focusing on technical leadership and support to help countries plan and implement effective AIDS control, plans are underway to organize regional training courses for decision makers on AIDS education in school. full text

  14. Tooth Surface Level Caries Progression in the Primary Dentition among Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Amid I; Lim, Sungwoo; Tellez, Marisol

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to describe primary tooth surface level caries progression, over 2 years, based on the severity of the caries lesions. Data were collected from 790 low-income African-American preschool children in Detroit, Mich., USA. The caregivers of the children (aged 0-5 years) completed interviews and the dyad of child-caregiver completed dental examinations in 2002-2004 (baseline) and in 2004-2005 (follow-up). Caries were measured using the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS). The caries status of tooth surfaces was classified into initial (ICDAS 1-2), moderate (ICDAS 3-4) and extensive (ICDAS 5-6) stages. Counts of tooth surfaces with progression, by baseline caries severity level, were used to compute rate ratios (RRs) relative to sound stages. RRs were also computed for type of tooth surfaces and frequency of intake of soda consumption at baseline. After adjusting for confounders, caries progression was more likely to occur in tooth surfaces with any baseline caries relative to sound surfaces. For surfaces with initial caries, the rate of progression to moderate caries was 9.6 times higher than that of sound surfaces. Surfaces with initial and moderate caries progressed to extensive caries 6.1 and 20.6 times, respectively, relative to sound surfaces. Baseline soda consumption was not associated with the RR of caries progression. In conclusion, the staging of caries identifies different progression risks and significant emphasis should be placed on secondary prevention of initial lesions as well as on primary prevention. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Ultra-Structural Changes of the Early Childhood Caries Starting Phases of Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kokoceva-Ivanovska Olga

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the recent 20 years, besides dramatic reduction of caries in many countries where complex programme of prevention is carried out, prevalence of Early Childhood Caries (ECC has expressed continual growth trend. The aim of our research was to determine precisely ultra-structural changes in the enamel substance at the initial lesion of the ECC (white spot lesion, as initial change of great importance for its preventive aspect. Therefore, we directed our experiment to evaluate ultra-structural changes of the teeth enamel in primary teeth with circular caries in its opening stages of development: initial caries lesion and superficial form.

  16. Patient caries risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, Svante; Fontana, Margherita

    2009-01-01

    for prediction purposes, as measured until now in the literature, is at best questionable in schoolchildren, adolescents and adults. That is not to say these additional factors should not be assessed to help understand the strength of their associations with the disease experience in a particular patient...... they are targeted. Multiple reviews and systematic reviews are available in the literature on this topic. This chapter focusses primarily on results of reviews based on longitudinal studies required to establish the accuracy of caries risk assessment. These findings demonstrate that there is a strong body...... of evidence to support that caries experience is still, unfortunately, the single best predictor for future caries development. In young children, prediction models which include a variety of risk factors seem to increase the accuracy of the prediction, while the usefulness of additional risk factors...

  17. Current Situation of the Educational Project on Disaster Prevention in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, C.-P.; Chen, Y.-A.; Hsu, T.-H.

    2011-09-01

    The Taiwan government has invested much effort in developing and promoting disaster relief and prevention by following out many research projects after the 1999 Chichi earthquake. "Experiment and Development Project on Implementation and Introspection of Disaster Prevention Education" is one of the most important among these projects. This project includes five major areas such as, 1) "operation and supporting mechanism build-up"; 2) "curriculum development and popularization experiment"; 3) "teachers' training programs on disaster prevention education"; 4) "promotion and popularization of experiment and e-learning"; and 5) "establishment of evaluation system". Furthermore, The Ministry of Education has promoted actively for the participation of local government since 2007. Depending upon the requirements and characteristics of different areas, different projects are set up and some involved the teachers and students senior high schools and event under to participate. Through this project, most primary and secondary schools in Taiwan have participated the evacuation training during the large earthquake in the campus and have developed the disaster prevention project for their selves. These implementations are still of the early stage, most of the schools still lack experience and need to be more relevant for disaster prevention and relief exercises. In the future more executive powers and supports from the Ministry of Education and from the local government works will largely help the schools and general public at all levels to reduce the occurrence of disaster events on campus.

  18. The untreated dental caries in primary teeth: would it be problems?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udijanto Tedjosasongko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries still remain as the most prevalent oral health disease in children. Many efforts have been done to prevent dental caries in children, but unfortunately there are dental practitioners who still have false mindset and prefer not to treat the dental caries case in primary teeth with the most common reasons are because it will be replaced with the permanent teeth. There are many negative effect will occur if the dental caries treatments in primary teeth are neglected.This topic would review the effects of untreated dental caries in children based on research reports.Severely decayed teeth have an important impact on children’s general health, nutrition, growth and body weight by causing discomfort, pain, sleeping problems, learning disorders and absence from school.  Untreated caries may affect seriously the quality of children’s life because of pain and discomfort, which could lead to acute and chronic infections, oral mucosal conditions and altered eating and sleeping habits. Furthermore, untreated caries in primary teeth can have a lasting detrimental impact on the permanent dentition by causing high caries risk or developmental defects of the permanent successor tooth. Moreover it has been reported that children at each higher level of caries had significantly lower height and weight outcomes than those with lower caries levels. The untreated dental caries in primary teeth would lead the children to poor growth and health which lowering the their quality of life.

  19. Utility of Dermatoglyphic Pattern in Prediction of Caries in Children of Telangana Region, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asif, Shaik M; Babu, Dara Bg; Naheeda, Shaik

    2017-06-01

    Dermatoglyphics is an extremely useful tool as a preliminary investigation method for diagnosing suspected genetic disorders. Caries being a multifactorial disease with the influence of genetic pattern, early identification of caries risk children with dermatoglyphics can help in using effective and efficient caries preventive measures. The study was undertaken to record and know the frequency of occurrence of fingerprint patterns among children with caries and in children without caries. A total of 400 schoolchildren in the age group of 5 to 12 years were selected from a private school, Warangal, Telangana, India. Of 400 schoolchildren, 200 children were with caries group and 200 children were in caries-free group. Children with dental caries in five or more teeth based on the decayed, missing, filled teeth index performed were considered as study group, and the control group was normal healthy children without any dental caries. The fingerprints of each child were recorded using stamp pad method, and type of dermatoglyphic pattern of each digit was recorded based on Cummins and Midlo method. Data obtained were put for statistical analysis; p Dermatoglyphics could be an appropriate method to explore the possibility of a noninvasive and an early predictor for dental caries. Dermatoglyphics has a future role in identifying people with or at increased risk for dental caries so that risk reduction measures or earlier therapy may be instituted.

  20. OECD Health Care Quality Indicator Project. The expert panel on primary care prevention and health promotion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marshall, Martin; Klazinga, Niek; Leatherman, Sheila; Hardy, Charlie; Bergmann, Eckhard; Pisco, Luis; Mattke, Soeren; Mainz, Jan

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: This article describes a project undertaken as part of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)'s Healthcare Quality Indicator (HCQI) Project, which aimed to develop a set of quality indicators representing the domains of primary care, prevention and health

  1. New diagnostic technology and hidden pits and fissures caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Guerra

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The accuracy in pits and fissures caries detection is of paramount importance in dental caries primary and secondary prevention. A combination of visual examination and probing is currently the mainstay of occlusal caries diagnosis. Unfortunately, these types of inspection alone may leave a certain number of pit and fissure caries undetected. The Vista Cam iX fluorescence camera (Durr Dental, Bietigheim-Bissingen, Germany is a novel dental diagnostic tool for quantitative assessment of dental caries with high specificity for carious lesions detection. In the presented cases photographic images, representing the visual diagnostic approach, are applied as integration to VistaCam iX Proof images. A step-by-step sequence of inspection and assessment of operative treatment need is presented in a case of hidden pit and fissure caries on a permanent molar. Based on the reported case, it could be observed that VistaCam iX Proof shows promising results in hidden pits and fissures caries detection and could be considered a non-invasive examination method that facilitate the detection of early lesions and a potential diagnostic aid.

  2. Socioeconomic factors that affect international caries levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehnelt, D E; Kiyak, H A

    2001-06-01

    Health policy makers have examined the impact of economic policies and a nation's social development on the health of its population. The purpose of this research was to investigate the association between health care expenditures, socioeconomic factors, and caries levels in 109 countries representing an array of social and economic conditions, and to determine how such factors are related to caries experience at different levels of economic development. Countries were divided into established market economies and three groups of developing nations, based on their GNP (high, medium, low income). Total health expenditures as percent GDP and as US dollars per capita, public expenditures and aid flow as percent of total health expenditures, dentists per 100,000 population, per capita sugar consumption, and urbanization of the population were compared among these countries. Correlations between these variables, and decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT) of 12-year-olds in these countries were assessed. The highest correlations were found between DMFT and public expenditures, sugar consumption, and urbanization. Highly significant differences emerged across nation groups by stages of development on several variables. The findings suggest that it is important to consider the stage of development of a given country when planning caries prevention policies and programs. Such a contextual approach is more likely to be successful in reducing caries levels.

  3. Into the Future: Keeping Healthy Teeth Caries Free: Pediatric CAMBRA Protocols

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos-Gomez, Francisco; Ng, Man-Wai

    2011-01-01

    Early childhood caries (ECC) prevalence has increased significantly in children ages 2–5 years.1 ECC disproportionately affects lower socioeconomic and minority groups, is a predictor for future decay, but is preventable and manageable2. Caries risk assessment systematically derives a patient’s caries risk and is important during an infant oral health visit beginning at age one. Information obtained through a risk assessment can guide a disease management care path tailored to an individual’s...

  4. Prevention of homicidal violence in schools in Germany: the Berlin Leaking Project and the Networks Against School Shootings Project (NETWASS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuschner, Vincenz; Bondü, Rebecca; Schroer-Hippel, Miriam; Panno, Jennifer; Neumetzler, Katharina; Fisch, Sarah; Scholl, Johanna; Scheithauer, Herbert

    2011-01-01

    Since 1999, Germany has experienced at least twelve serious cases of targeted school violence. This article describes two projects designed to fill the gap between universal prevention and emergency response in preventing severe forms of school violence in Germany. The Berlin Leaking Project examined the viability of preventive efforts based on early identification of leaking behavior that often precedes targeted school attacks. Leaking refers to any behavior or communication that indicates a student is preparing to carry out a violent attack. This would include explicit or implied threats of violence, apparent fascination with prior acts of violence such as Columbine, and any evidence of planning or preparation to carry out an attack. The NETWASS project will test a training program and intervention strategy based on those findings, examining the usefulness of a threat assessment approach to prevent violence by training teachers to recognize leaking behavior by students. This approach is extended by training teachers on a larger scale to identify leaking and then having a school-based team evaluate the student and initiate appropriate interventions, such as mental health services, and in some cases, law enforcement action. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  5. Evidence on existing caries risk assessment systems: are they predictive of future caries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellez, M; Gomez, J; Pretty, I; Ellwood, R; Ismail, A I

    2013-02-01

    To critically appraise evidence for the prediction of caries using four caries risk assessment (CRA) systems/guidelines (Cariogram, Caries Management by Risk Assessment (CAMBRA), American Dental Association (ADA), and American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry (AAPD)). This review focused on prospective cohort studies or randomized controlled trials. A systematic search strategy was developed to locate papers published in Medline Ovid and Cochrane databases. The search identified 539 scientific reports, and after title and abstract review, 137 were selected for full review and 14 met the following inclusion criteria: (i) used as validating criterion caries incidence/increment, (ii) involved human subjects and natural carious lesions, and (iii) published in peer-reviewed journals. In addition, papers were excluded if they met one or more of the following criteria: (i) incomplete description of sample selection, outcomes, or small sample size and (ii) not meeting the criteria for best evidence under the prognosis category of the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine. There are wide variations among the systems in terms of definitions of caries risk categories, type and number of risk factors/markers, and disease indicators. The Cariogram combined sensitivity and specificity for predicting caries in permanent dentition ranges from 110 to 139 and is the only system for which prospective studies have been conducted to assess its validity. The Cariogram had limited prediction utility in preschool children, and a moderate to good performance for sorting out elderly individuals into caries risk groups. One retrospective analysis on CAMBRA's CRA reported higher incidence of cavitated lesions among those assessed as extreme-risk patients when compared with those at low risk. The evidence on the validity for existing systems for CRA is limited. It is unknown if the identification of high-risk individuals can lead to more effective long-term patient management that prevents

  6. Heavy smoking and severe dental caries in Indonesian men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumartono, Wasis

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In Indonesia, the prevalence of dental caries is 85%–99% and 67.4% of males aged 15 years or older are current users of tobacco. The aim of this study was to examine the association between heavy smoking and severe dental caries. METHODS: The authors used secondary data from Basic Health Research 2007. Respondents were Indonesian males aged 45–54 years (n = 34 534. Decay, Missing, Filled Teeth (DMFT value was used to define severe dental caries with 31.4% of respondents having DMFT value ≥ 8, the cutoff point of severe dental caries in this study. In addition, the enumerators recorded socio-demographic characteristics (age, socio-economic status, education, and job, tooth brushing and smoking behavior of respondents. Chi-square test was used to compare the prevalence of severe dental caries between heavy smokers (defined as Brinkman Index or BI ≥ 400 and never smokers (BI = 0. The multivariable logistic regression model was used to estimate adjusted association between heavy smoking and dental caries severity. RESULTS: The prevalence of severe dental caries among never smokers, light smokers (BI 1-399 and heavy smokers was 24.9%, 32.5%, and 38.7% respectively (p < 0.005. Compared to never smokers, the adjusted ORs of having severe dental caries among light smokers and heavy smokers were 1.45 (95% CI: 1.37-1.53 and 1.70 (95% CI: 1.59 – 1.81, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking is a risk factor of severe dental caries in Indonesian men with dose-and-response association revealed between the exposure and the outcome. Indonesian dentists, individually and collectively, have to participate in smoking prevention and control more actively.

  7. Waste minimization and pollution prevention technology transfer : the Airlie House Projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatrone, R.; McHenry, J.; Myron, H.; Thout, J. R.

    1998-01-01

    The Airlie House Pollution Prevention Technology Transfer Projects were a series of pilot projects developed for the US Department of Energy with the intention of transferring pollution prevention technology to the private sector. The concept was to develop small technology transfer initiatives in partnership with the private sector. Argonne National Laboratory developed three projects: the microscale chemistry in education project, the microscale cost benefit study project, and the Bethel New Life recycling trainee project. The two microscale chemistry projects focused on introducing microscale chemistry technologies to secondary and college education. These programs were inexpensive to develop and received excellent evaluations from participants and regulators. The Bethel New Life recycling trainee project provided training for two participants who helped identify recycling and source reduction opportunities in Argonne National Laboratory's solid waste stream. The pilot projects demonstrated that technology transfer initiatives can be developed and implemented with a small budget and within a short period of time. The essential components of the pilot projects were identifying target technologies that were already available, identifying target audiences, and focusing on achieving a limited but defined objective

  8. Formative evaluation of the telecare fall prevention project for older veterans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saliba Debra

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fall prevention interventions for community-dwelling older adults have been found to reduce falls in some research studies. However, wider implementation of fall prevention activities in routine care has yielded mixed results. We implemented a theory-driven program to improve care for falls at our Veterans Affairs healthcare facility. The first project arising from this program used a nurse advice telephone line to identify patients' risk factors for falls and to triage patients to appropriate services. Here we report the formative evaluation of this project. Methods To evaluate the intervention we: 1 interviewed patient and employee stakeholders, 2 reviewed participating patients' electronic health record data and 3 abstracted information from meeting minutes. We describe the implementation process, including whether the project was implemented according to plan; identify barriers and facilitators to implementation; and assess the incremental benefit to the quality of health care for fall prevention received by patients in the project. We also estimate the cost of developing the pilot project. Results The project underwent multiple changes over its life span, including the addition of an option to mail patients educational materials about falls. During the project's lifespan, 113 patients were considered for inclusion and 35 participated. Patient and employee interviews suggested support for the project, but revealed that transportation to medical care was a major barrier in following up on fall risks identified by nurse telephone triage. Medical record review showed that the project enhanced usual medical care with respect to home safety counseling. We discontinued the program after 18 months due to staffing limitations and competing priorities. We estimated a cost of $9194 for meeting time to develop the project. Conclusions The project appeared feasible at its outset but could not be sustained past the first cycle of

  9. Formative evaluation of the telecare fall prevention project for older veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miake-Lye, Isomi M; Amulis, Angel; Saliba, Debra; Shekelle, Paul G; Volkman, Linda K; Ganz, David A

    2011-05-23

    Fall prevention interventions for community-dwelling older adults have been found to reduce falls in some research studies. However, wider implementation of fall prevention activities in routine care has yielded mixed results. We implemented a theory-driven program to improve care for falls at our Veterans Affairs healthcare facility. The first project arising from this program used a nurse advice telephone line to identify patients' risk factors for falls and to triage patients to appropriate services. Here we report the formative evaluation of this project. To evaluate the intervention we: 1) interviewed patient and employee stakeholders, 2) reviewed participating patients' electronic health record data and 3) abstracted information from meeting minutes. We describe the implementation process, including whether the project was implemented according to plan; identify barriers and facilitators to implementation; and assess the incremental benefit to the quality of health care for fall prevention received by patients in the project. We also estimate the cost of developing the pilot project. The project underwent multiple changes over its life span, including the addition of an option to mail patients educational materials about falls. During the project's lifespan, 113 patients were considered for inclusion and 35 participated. Patient and employee interviews suggested support for the project, but revealed that transportation to medical care was a major barrier in following up on fall risks identified by nurse telephone triage. Medical record review showed that the project enhanced usual medical care with respect to home safety counseling. We discontinued the program after 18 months due to staffing limitations and competing priorities. We estimated a cost of $9194 for meeting time to develop the project. The project appeared feasible at its outset but could not be sustained past the first cycle of evaluation due to insufficient resources and a waning of local

  10. Artificial caries formation around fluoride-releasing restorations in roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionysopoulos, P; Kotsanos, N; Papadogiannis, Y; Konstantinidis, A

    1998-11-01

    Secondary caries is one of the most important factors leading to replacement of dental restorations. This investigation assessed the capacity of fluoride-releasing restorative materials to resist caries in vitro when used in roots. Class 5 cavities were prepared in the buccal and lingual surfaces of 30 extracted premolars. The six materials used were: glass-ionomer cement (Fuji), glass-ionomer cement with silver particles added (Ketac-silver), fluoride-containing composite resin (Tetric), composite resin (Silux plus), fluoride-containing amalgam (Fluor-Alloy) and high-copper amalgam (Dispersalloy). After 5 weeks in an acid gel for caries-like lesion formation, the teeth were sectioned longitudinally and examined with polarized light. The results showed that repair with glass-ionomer materials of a carious lesion may be of great importance in the prevention of secondary caries around the restorations in roots.

  11. Prioritizing the Risk Factors of Severe Early Childhood Caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noha Samir Kabil

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Severe early childhood caries remains the most common chronic disease affecting children. The multifactorial etiology of caries has established a controversy about which risk factors were more significant to its development. Therefore, our study aimed through meticulous statistical analysis to arrange the “well agreed upon” common risk factors in order of significance, to aid the clinician in tailoring an adequate preventive program. The study prioritized or reshuffled the risk factors contributing to severe early childhood caries and placed them in the order of their significance as follows: snacking of sugary food several times a day, increased number of siblings to three or more, night feeding, child self-employed brushing, mother’s caries experience, two siblings, on demand feeding, once/day sugary food, sharing utensils, one sibling, male gender, father’s education, late first dental visit, brushing time, mother’s education, no dental visit, decreased brushing frequency, and no night brushing.

  12. Lasers in modern caries management--part II: CAMBRA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Douglas A

    2005-01-01

    Part two of this series discussed the key strategies that each practice should focus on for caries management. History has proven that oral hygiene and "drilling and filling" alone will not eliminate dental caries. Chemical treatments to prevent and reverse early lesions and conservative, tooth-preserving restorative procedures when surgical intervention is necessary should be the new standard of care. Caries management by risk assessment (CAMBRA), where risk factors are "re-balanced" to that of health, is a sound strategy that is one step closer to "curative" dentistry and improving the quality of life of dental patients. The final article in this series will discuss the role that glass-ionomer materials and hard tissue lasers play in the minimally invasive restorative procedures for dental caries.

  13. Dental Fluorosis and Dental Caries Prevalence among 12 and 15 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    246. Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research | Sep-Oct 2014 | Vol 4 | Special Issue 3 | and no infrastructure upon which to base large-scale prevention measures. Dental caries is, therefore potentially of major public health significance in developing countries, and the need to focus on its prevention is a matter of ...

  14. The Leadership Program’s Violence Prevention Project: Infusing the Arts into Conflict Resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M. Chauveron

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available While the demand for youth violence prevention programs increases, the ability of the traditional school day schedule to accommodate violence prevention program time requirements has diminished. School reforms, such as No Child Left Behind, have pressed schools to focus more tightly on academics, often to the exclusion of subjects such as physical education and the arts. Viable violence prevention programs must offer components that supplement classroom curriculum as well as reduce violence and strike a balance between brevity and effectiveness. The Leadership Program’s (TLP universal Violence Prevention Project (VPP meets this call with a conflict resolution model for students in urban schools. The curriculum is based on a conceptual framework derived from prevention science and positive youth development delivered through the vehicle of the arts. Utilizing an engaging hybrid prevention program, this high quality 12 session model melds fidelity and adaptation to yield effective evaluation outcomes.

  15. Community-based efforts to prevent obesity: Australia-wide survey of projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Melanie S; Reynolds, Rebecca C; Waters, Elizabeth; Gill, Timothy; King, Lesley; Swinburn, Boyd A; Allender, Steven

    2013-08-01

    Community-based programs that affect healthy environments and policies have emerged as an effective response to high obesity levels in populations. Apart from limited individual reports, little is currently known about these programs, limiting the potential to provide effective support, to promote effective practice, prevent adverse outcomes and disseminate intervention results and experience. The aim of the present study was to identify the size and reach of current community-based obesity prevention projects in Australia and to examine their characteristics, program features (e.g. intervention setting), capacity and approach to obesity prevention. Detailed survey completed by representatives from community-based obesity prevention initiatives in Australia. There was wide variation in funding, capacity and approach to obesity prevention among the 78 participating projects. Median annual funding was Au$94900 (range Au$2500-$4.46 million). The most common intervention settings were schools (39%). Forty per cent of programs focused on a population group of ≥50000 people. A large proportion of respondents felt that they did not have sufficient resources or staff training to achieve project objectives. Community-based projects currently represent a very large investment by both government and non-government sectors for the prevention of obesity. Existing projects are diverse in size and scope, and reach large segments of the population. Further work is needed to identify the full extent of existing community actions and to monitor their reach and future 'scale up' to ensure that future activities aim for effective integration into systems, policies and environments. SO WHAT? Community-based programs make a substantial contribution to the prevention of obesity and promotion of healthy lifestyles in Australia. A risk of the current intervention landscape is that effective approaches may go unrecognised due to lack of effective evaluations or limitations in program

  16. Caries clinical trial methods for the assessment of oral care products in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellwood, R P; Gomez, J; Goma, J; Pretty, I A

    2012-09-01

    Traditionally, caries clinical trials of oral care products have focused on the prevention of caries in children and adolescents at the "cavitation" level. Because of a general reduction in caries incidence and the use of positive control comparators, studies have grown both in size and duration to improve statistical power. Currently, they tend to be of 2 to 3 years' duration, with up to 2,000 high-risk individuals per group. During the past decade, there has been a shift in emphasis from a restorative approach to the treatment of dental caries to a therapeutic approach focused on the remineralization of early caries lesions. However, caries clinical trials of oral care products have not often reflected this paradigm change. This manuscript reviews alternative caries clinical trial methods for oral care products. It is concluded that methods focused on the detection and monitoring of enamel caries and root caries, by visual approaches such as ICDAS and instrumental methods such as QLF, Diagnodent, and Electrical Caries Monitors, provide viable alternatives to traditional methods. In particular, such approaches more accurately reflect the modes of action of many therapeutic agents and formulations and may reduce the cost and duration of product innovation.

  17. Resin infiltration of non-cavitated caries lesions: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doméjean, Sophie; Ducamp, Raphaël; Léger, Stéphanie; Holmgren, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the in vivo scientific evidence of the ability of resin infiltration (RI) to arrest non-cavitated caries lesions. The PubMed database was searched for randomized controlled trials that evaluated the in vivo effect of RI versus placebo or other preventive treatment on the progression of caries lesions. The keywords used were 'resin infiltration, dental caries', 'resin infiltration, carious lesions', 'resin infiltration, caries lesions', 'caries infiltration' and 'Icon DMG' with the 'clinical trial' filter activated. Among the 14 articles originally identified with these keywords, only 4 (related to 3 different in vivo studies) were included for this review. All 4 articles reported on proximal caries lesions. One study had been conducted on 48 high-caries-risk children while the other 3 (n = 22, 22 and 39, respectively) concerned moderate- and low-caries-risk adolescents and adults. The quality of the studies was assessed to be high with respect to randomization, split-mouth design and blinding. All the included studies showed significant differences in caries progression between test and control/placebo groups, indicating that RI may inhibit the carious process. This systematic review revealed that RI appeared to be an effective method to arrest the progression of non-cavitated caries lesions. Additional, long-term studies are required.

  18. Formative evaluation of the telecare fall prevention project for older veterans

    OpenAIRE

    Miake-Lye, Isomi M; Amulis, Angel; Saliba, Debra; Shekelle, Paul G; Volkman, Linda K; Ganz, David A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Fall prevention interventions for community-dwelling older adults have been found to reduce falls in some research studies. However, wider implementation of fall prevention activities in routine care has yielded mixed results. We implemented a theory-driven program to improve care for falls at our Veterans Affairs healthcare facility. The first project arising from this program used a nurse advice telephone line to identify patients' risk factors for falls and to triage pa...

  19. Into the future: keeping healthy teeth caries free: pediatric CAMBRA protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Gomez, Francisco; Ng, Man-Wai

    2011-10-01

    Early childhood caries prevalence has increased significantly in children ages 2-5 years. ECC disproportionately affects lower socioeconomic and minority groups, is a predictor for future decay, but is preventable and manageable. Caries risk assessment systematically derives a patient's caries risk and is important during an infant oral health visit beginning at age 1. Information obtained through a risk assessment can guide a disease management care path tailored to an individual's age and risk to effectively treat and manage one's caries disease process.

  20. Caries detection in dental radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, S.M.

    1987-01-01

    Caries, or the decay of teeth are difficult to automatically detect in dental radiographs because of the small area of the image that is occupied by the decay. Images of dental radiographs has distinct regions of homogeneous gray levels, and therefore naturally lead to a segmentation based automatic caries detection algorithm. This paper describes a method for caries detection based on a multiclass, area independent thresholding and segmenting scheme. This multiclass thresholding algorithm is an extension of the uniform error threshold, an area independent, distribution free thresholding method used for images of only two classes of objects. The authors first consider the problem of caries detection and the image features that characterize the presence of caries. Next, the uniform error threshold is reviewed, and the general multiclass uniform error threshold algorithm is presented. This algorithm is used to automatically detect caries in dental radiographs

  1. Error begat error: design error analysis and prevention in social infrastructure projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Peter E D; Lopez, Robert; Edwards, David J; Goh, Yang M

    2012-09-01

    Design errors contribute significantly to cost and schedule growth in social infrastructure projects and to engineering failures, which can result in accidents and loss of life. Despite considerable research that has addressed their error causation in construction projects they still remain prevalent. This paper identifies the underlying conditions that contribute to design errors in social infrastructure projects (e.g. hospitals, education, law and order type buildings). A systemic model of error causation is propagated and subsequently used to develop a learning framework for design error prevention. The research suggests that a multitude of strategies should be adopted in congruence to prevent design errors from occurring and so ensure that safety and project performance are ameliorated. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Rescue the problem project: a complete guide to identifying, preventing, and recovering from project failure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williams, Todd C

    2011-01-01

    ... vii American Management Association www.amanet.orgviii Contents Creating the Assignment's Statement of Work Defining the Responsibilities by Phase in the SOW Establishing the Recovery Manager's Authority Accepting the Role as a Recovery Manager Creating an Outline of the Recovery Chapter Takeaway 24 25 28 28 29 30 PART II Auditing the Project: Unde...

  3. Nature vs. nurture in dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, I D

    1994-10-01

    Why are some people more resistant to dental caries than others? Certainly diet plays a part, but are there hereditary factors that affect caries development? This report explores genetic components that appear related to caries resistance and susceptibility.

  4. Remineralization of initial enamel caries in vitro using a novel peptide based on amelogenin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Danxue; Lv, Xueping; Tu, Huanxin; Zhou, Xuedong; Yu, Haiyang; Zhang, Linglin

    2015-09-01

    Dental caries is the most common oral disease with high incidence, widely spread and can seriously affect the health of oral cavity and the whole body. Current caries prevention measures such as fluoride treatment, antimicrobial agents, and traditional Chinese herbal, have limitations to some extent. Here we design and synthesize a novel peptide based on the amelogenin, and assess its ability to promote the remineralization of initial enamel caries lesions. We used enamel blocks to form initial lesions, and then subjected to 12-day pH cycling in the presence of peptide, NaF and HEPES buffer. Enamel treated with peptide or NaF had shallower, narrower lesions, thicker remineralized surfaces and less mineral loss than enamel treated with HEPES. This peptide can promote the remineralization of initial enamel caries and inhibit the progress of caries. It is a promising anti-caries agent with various research prospects and practical application value.

  5. Oral health behavior and prevalence of dental caries among 12-year ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    43.5% and females - 56.5%). Oral health related behavior and knowledge on causes and prevention of dental caries were investigated using a structured questionnaire. Caries experience was assessed using WHO methods. Results: Tooth brushing at least once/day was reported by 92.1% of the children and 71.9 % used ...

  6. [Validity of a new caries indicator dye in detection of carious, infected dentine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knabben, A.P.; Waard, E.A. de; Verdonschot, E.H.A.M.

    2001-01-01

    During cavity excavation diagnostic test are used to prevent any unnecessary removal of sound dentine. In this study the validity of a newly introduced blue dye (Quadrant CariTest) was investigated. Twenty-five carious teeth were collected immediately after extraction. The caries lesions were

  7. Validation of an age-modified caries risk assessment program (Cariogram) in preschool children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holgerson, Pernilla Lif; Twetman, Svante; Stecksèn-Blicks, Christina

    2009-01-01

    AND METHODS: Caries risk was assessed in 125 two-year-old children invited to participate in a 2-year caries-preventive trial with xylitol tablets. At 7 years of age, 103 were available for follow-up, 48 from the former intervention group and 55 from the control group. At baseline and after 5 years, 7...

  8. [Caries risk assessment - are saliva tests as well as microbiological and clinical test procedures worthwhile?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, S; Bizhang, M; Barthel, C; Raab, W H-M

    2008-11-01

    The recent representative survey has proven once more that people in Germany are affected by caries to a very different extent. Since caries can be prevented by risk-adjusted preventive programs, it would be helpful to have a possibility to determine the individual caries risk before cavities occur. Determination of a relative risk, risk screening and risk diagnosis are different levels of caries risk assessment. The present article provides information about which caries risk assessment options are available for different populations. A relative risk can be determined by the detection of Mutants Streptococci in caries-free 2-5-year-old children. With Dentoprog, a valid instrument for caries risk screening is available for 6-12-year-old school children. With respect to all other patients, a quantitative risk diagnosis can be roughly performed using the Cariogram which is based on the assessment of multiple risk parameters. The conclusion is that several options for caries risk assessment for different age groups are available. Nevertheless, there is no solution to how often a patient should appear for prevention in a dental office nor which preventive measures have to be taken to keep him/her healthy. Therefore it seems reasonable to roughly determine the recall frequency on the basis of the respective risk assessment and to adjust this frequency over time after the evaluation of disease progression.

  9. Early Childhood Caries and the Impact of Current U.S. Medicaid Program: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bussma Ahmed Bugis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric dental caries is the most common chronic disease among children. Above 40% of the U.S. children aged 2–11 years have dental caries; more than 50% of them come from low-income families. Under dental services of the Medicaid program, children enrolled in Medicaid must receive preventive dental services. However, only 1/5 of them utilize preventive dental services. The purpose of this overview is to measure the impact of Medicaid dental benefits on reducing oral health disparities among Medicaid-eligible children. This paper explains the importance of preventive dental care, children at high risk of dental caries, Medicaid dental benefits, utilization of dental preventive services by Medicaid-eligible children, dental utilization influencing factors, and outcome evaluation of Medicaid in preventing dental caries among children. In conclusion, despite the recent increase of children enrolled in Medicaid, utilizing preventive dental care is still a real challenge that faces Medicaid.

  10. Body mass index and dental caries in children aged 5 to 8 years attending a dental paediatric referral practice in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong-Lenters, M.; van Dommelen, P.; Schuller, A.A.; Verrips, E.H.W.

    2015-01-01

    Background Obesity and dental caries are widely-recognised problems that affect general health. The prevention of both dental caries and obesity have proven very difficult: children and their parents may need professional support to achieve behaviour change. To find out whether both dental caries

  11. Body mass index and dental caries in children aged 5 to 8 years attending a dental paediatric referral practice in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong-Lenters, Maddelon; van Dommelen, Paula; Schuller, Annemarie A; Verrips, Erik H W

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Obesity and dental caries are widely-recognised problems that affect general health. The prevention of both dental caries and obesity have proven very difficult: children and their parents may need professional support to achieve behaviour change. To find out whether both dental caries

  12. [Stevia in the fight against dental caries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, M S; Blanksma, N G

    2015-01-01

    Stevia is a natural, non-caloric sweetener of plant origin. The sweetening power of stevia is several hundred times larger than that of table sugar (sucrose). On the basis of available research, the European Food Safety Authority concluded that stevia is safe for human consumption. Since then, stevia has been approved as a sweetener for the European market. As a substitute for sucrose, stevia can contribute to a reduced caloric intake and can play a role in the prevention and/or treatment of metabolic disorders. In addition, stevia is non-cariogenic and is, moreover, affordable. Promoting the consumption of stevia can therefore be a preventive means of fighting dental caries.

  13. Caries management by risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Douglas A; Featherstone, John D B

    2013-02-01

    Caries disease is multifactorial. Whether caries disease will be expressed and damage dental hard tissue is dependent on the patient's own unique make-up of pathogenic risk factors and protective factors. Objectives This manuscript will review the science of managing caries disease based on assessing caries risk. Methods The caries balance/imbalance model and a practical caries risk assessment procedure for patients aged 6 years through adult will illustrate how treatment options can be based on caries risk. Results Neither the forms nor the clinical protocols are meant to imply there is currently only one correct way this can be achieved, rather are used in this manuscript as examples only. Conclusions It is important to have the forms and protocols simple and easy to understand when implementing caries management by risk assessment into clinical practice. The science of CAMBRA based on the caries balance/imbalance model was reviewed and an example protocol was presented. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Relationship between parental locus of control and caries experience in preschool children - cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lencová, Erika; Pikhart, Hynek; Broukal, Zdenek; Tsakos, Georgios

    2008-06-12

    Due to high prevalence and serious impacts, childhood caries represents a public health issue. Behavioural risk factors such as locus of health control have been implicated in the development of the disease; however their association with childhood caries has not been thoroughly studied. The aim of this cross-sectional survey was to assess the relationship between parental locus of health control and caries experience and untreated caries of their preschool children in a representative sample in Czech Republic, adjusting for relevant sociodemographic characteristics. A representative sample of 285 preschool children and their parents was recruited. Study data included children's dental status recorded in nurseries and parental questionnaires with 13 attitudinal items regarding locus of control (LoC) in caries prevention. The association between parental locus of control and children's caries experience and level of untreated caries was analysed using logistic regression, adjusting for the effect of key sociodemographic variables. There was a statistically highly significant linear trend between increased parental LoC and higher probability of the children to be free from untreated caries, independent from the effect of sociodemographic variables of children and parents. A similar highly statistically significant trend, although not entirely linear, and independent from sociodemographic variables was observed with respect to the chance of the children to be free from caries experience with increasing strength of parental LoC. After full adjustment, children in the strongest parental LoC quintile were 2.81 (1.23-6.42, pcontrol of both untreated caries and caries experience in their preschool children and highlight that a more internal LoC within the family is advantageous in the prevention of dental caries.

  15. Influence of a preschool preventive dental programme on caries prevalence, oral care and secretory immunity to Streptococcus mutans in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aida, K L; de Paula Ramos, S; Seixas, G F; Bozza, A; Couto de Almeida, R S; Dezan Garbelini, C C

    2018-05-01

    To evaluate oral hygiene habits, decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT) and surfaces (DMFS), dental care, dietetic habits and anti-Streptococcus mutans salivary secretory Immunoglobulin A (SIgA) in young adults who attended a preventive programme during preschool age. The study group (Baby Clinic) comprised 72 patients, aged 18-25 years, who had participated in the Baby Clinic preventive programme. The control group was age- and gender-matched. The patients were examined and unstimulated whole saliva was sampled for detection of anti-S. mutansSIgA antibodies. Control patients presented increased DMFS scores (P  .05). Baby Clinic patients presented better periodontal status (P < .005), less calculus (P < .005) and bleeding on probing (P < .005), and reported visiting dental services more regularly (P < .05). Adjusted multivariate linear regression analysis demonstrated that DMFT was associated with study group (P < .05), gender (P < .05), parents' education (P < .05), carbohydrate intake (P < .001) and levels of anti-S. mutansSIgA (P < .007). DMFS was associated with time elapsed since the last visit to the dentist (P < .005) and weekly carbohydrate intake (P < .005). Preventive programmes for preschool children positively impact on DMFS and periodontal status in young adults, but have no long-term effects on dietary or hygiene habits. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. 77 FR 30292 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Project (SIP): Initial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-22

    ..., Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Project (SIP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Identifying Barriers to Receiving Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening Among Muslim... ``Identifying Barriers to Receiving Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening Among Muslim Women Living in the United...

  17. 77 FR 31358 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): Initial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-25

    ..., Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): Initial Review The meeting...-Management Intervention Research, SIP12-057, Panel E, initial review. In accordance with Section 10(a)(2) of... Epilepsy Well (MEW) Collaborating Center for Epilepsy Self-Management Intervention Research, SIP12-057...

  18. 75 FR 32190 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): SIP 10...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-07

    ..., Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): SIP 10-033, Innovative... Start Times on the Health and Academic Performance of High School Students, Initial Review In accordance... Populations & SIP 10-035, Impact of High School Start Times on the Health and Academic Performance of High...

  19. Reconstructing Masculinity in the Locker Room: The Mentors in Violence Prevention Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Jackson

    1995-01-01

    The Mentors in Violence Prevention Project seeks to reduce violence against women by inspiring male athletes and other models of traditional masculinity to challenge norms that equate strength in men with dominance over women and to use their influence for positive behavior change. (SK)

  20. Impact of Vitamin D on development of early childhood caries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, N.; Rahim, A.; Ali, S.; Iqbal, M.H.

    2017-01-01

    additional preventive consideration to lower the risk for caries. (author)

  1. The Evidence for Caries Management by Risk Assessment (CAMBRA®).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Featherstone, J D B; Chaffee, B W

    2018-02-01

    A system for Caries Management by Risk Assessment (CAMBRA ® ) has been developed in California. The purpose of this article is to summarize the science behind the methodology, the history of the development of CAMBRA, and the outcomes of clinical application. The CAMBRA caries risk assessment (CRA) tool for ages 6 y through adult has been used at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), for 14 y, and outcome studies involving thousands of patients have been conducted. Three outcomes assessments, each on different patient cohorts, demonstrated a clear relationship between CAMBRA-CRA risk levels of low, moderate, high, and extreme with cavitation or lesions into dentin (by radiograph) at follow-up. This validated risk prediction tool has been updated with time and is now routinely used at UCSF and in other settings worldwide as part of normal clinical practice. The CAMBRA-CRA tool for 0- to 5-y-olds has demonstrated similar predictive validity and is in routine use. The addition of chemical therapy (antibacterial plus fluoride) to the traditional restorative treatment plan, based on caries risk status, has been shown to reduce the caries increment by about 20% to 38% in high-caries-risk adult patients. The chemical therapy used for high-risk patients is a combination of daily antibacterial therapy (0.12% w/v chlorhexidine gluconate mouth rinse) and twice-daily high-concentration fluoride toothpaste (5,000 ppm F), both for home use. These outcomes assessments provide the evidence to use these CRA tools with confidence. Caries can be managed by adding chemical therapy, based on the assessed caries risk level, coupled with necessary restorative procedures. For high- and extreme-risk patients, a combination of antibacterial and fluoride therapy is necessary. The fluoride therapy must be supplemented by antibacterial therapy to reduce the bacterial challenge, modify the biofilm, and provide prevention rather than continued caries progression.

  2. Validity of caries risk assessment programmes in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiaoli; Di Wu, Ivy; Lo, Edward Chin Man; Chu, Chun Hung; Hsu, Chin-Ying Stephen; Wong, May Chun Mei

    2013-09-01

    Various programmes have been developed for caries risk assessment (CRA). Nevertheless, scientific evidence on their validity is lacking. This study aimed to compare the validity of 4 CRA programmes (CAT, CAMBRA, Cariogram, and NUS-CRA) in predicting early childhood caries. A total of 544 children aged 3 years underwent oral examination and biological tests (saliva flow rate, salivary buffering capacity and abundance of cariogenic bacteria mutans Streptococci and Lactobacilli). Their parents completed a questionnaire. Children's caries risk was predicted using the 4 study programmes without biological tests (screening mode) and with biological tests (comprehensive mode). After 12 months, caries increment in 485 (89%) children was recorded and compared with the baseline risk predictions. Reasoning-based programmes (CAT and CAMBRA screening) had high sensitivity (≥ 93.8%) but low specificity (≤ 43.6%) in predicting caries in children. CAMBRA comprehensive assessment reached a better balance (sensitivity/specificity of 83.7%/62.9%). Algorithm-based programmes (Cariogram and NUS-CRA) generated better predictions. The sensitivity/specificity of NUS-CRA screening and comprehensive models were 73.6%/84.7% and 78.1%/85.3%, respectively, higher than those of the Cariogram screening (62.9%/77.9%) and comprehensive assessment (64.6%/78.5%). NUS-CRA comprehensive model met the criteria for a useful CRA tool (sensitivity+specificity ≥ 160%), while its screening model approached that target. Our results supported algorithm-based approach of caries risk modelling and the usefulness of NUS-CRA in identifying children susceptible to caries. This prospective study provided evidence for practitioners to select tools for assessing children's caries risk, so that prevention measures can be tailored and treatment plan can be optimised. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Epidemiology of dental caries in children in the United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bluwi, Ghada S M

    2014-08-01

    Dental caries has a significant impact on the general health and development of children. Understanding caries epidemiology is an essential task for the United Arab Emirates (UAE) policymakers to evaluate preventive programmes and to improve oral health. The purpose of this review is to collect and summarise all data available in the published literature on the epidemiology of dental caries in the UAE in children aged under 13 years. This will provide dental health planners with a comprehensive data summary, which will help in the planning for and evaluation of dental caries prevention programmes. Data were collected from the various published studies in PubMed, Academic Search Complete, Google, and the reference lists in relevant articles. Four keywords were used in the search: 'dental caries,' 'epidemiology,' 'prevalence,' and 'UAE'. All studies conducted in the UAE in general or any single emirate that sheds light on the prevalence of dental caries of children under 13 years were included in this literature review. Studies on early childhood caries and factors associated with dental caries were also included. The review comprises 11 published surveys of childhood caries in UAE. The earliest study was published in 1991 and the most recent was published in 2011. The range of decayed, missing and filled primary teeth (dmft) in UAE children (age between 4 years and 6 years) was 5.1-8.4. For the 12-year-old group the decayed missing and filled permanent teeth (DMFT) ranged from 1.6 to 3.24. Baseline data on oral health and a good understanding of dental caries determinants are necessary for setting appropriate goals and planning for preventive oral health programmes. The current data available on the dmft and DMFT indicate that childhood dental caries is still a serious dental public health problem in the UAE that warrants immediate attention by the government and policy makers. © 2014 FDI World Dental Federation.

  4. Children with Severe Early Childhood Caries: Pilot Study Examining Mutans Streptococci Genotypic Strains After Full-Mouth Caries Restorative Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Elizabeth A.; Nielsen, Truman; Peirano, Patricia; Nguyen, Anna T.; Vo, Alex; Nguyen, Aivan; Jackson, Stephen; Finlayson, Tyler; Sauerwein, Rebecca; Marsh, Katie; Edwards, Issac; Wilmot, Beth; Engle, John; Peterson, John; Maier, Tom; Machida, Curtis A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Genotypic strains of mutans streptococci (MS) may vary in important virulence properties, and may be differentially affected by specific components of full-mouth caries restorative therapy. The purpose of this pilot study was to identify MS strains that predominate following caries restorative therapy. Methods Plaque from seven children with severe early childhood caries was collected before and following therapy. MS isolates (N=828) were subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and arbitrarily primed-PCR (AP-PCR) for assignment within MS strains. Determining the longitudinal changes in MS strain distribution over time within each patient required the isolation of larger numbers of isolates per patient, but from fewer patients. Results Up to 39 genotypic strains of S. mutans and S. sobrinus, and seven genotypic strains of non-MS streptococci were identified by AP-PCR and 16S ribosomal rRNA gene sequencing. The number of MS strains isolated from each patient were 3–7 prior to treatment, diminishing to 1–2 dominant MS strains in most patients 6 months post-therapy. Conclusions Caries restorative therapy resulted in shifts of specific MS and non-MS streptococci strains. The implications are that caries restorative therapy affects the distribution of MS strains, and that well-accepted practices for caries prevention should be more closely examined for efficacy. PMID:22583870

  5. A European Seal of Approval for 'gay' businesses: findings from an HIV-prevention pilot project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherriff, Nigel; Gugglberger, Lisa

    2014-05-01

    'Gay' businesses can be important settings through which to deliver health promotion interventions to vulnerable populations, such as men who have sex with men (MSM) regarding HIV prevention. This article draws on data from the European Everywhere project, which represents the first scheme to develop and pre-test a common framework for HIV/STI prevention in 'gay' businesses across eight European countries. The scientific basis of the Everywhere framework was developed using a comprehensive consensus-building process over 30 months. This process included: formative scoping research; interviews with 54 'gay' businesses; meetings/workshops with representatives from project partners, 'gay' businesses, public health administrations and external experts; 15 interviews and three focus groups with project partners; a five-month pilot action phase in eight countries, together with support from the project's Advisory Group; and all Everywhere project partners including the Scientific Steering Committee. A voluntary European code setting out differentiated HIV/STI-prevention standards for 'gay' businesses (including sex venues, 'gay' and 'gay' friendly social spaces, travel agencies, hotels, dating websites) was developed and piloted in eight European cities. During a five-month pilot action, 83 'gay' businesses were certified with the Everywhere Seal of Approval representing a considerable increase on the expected pilot target of 30. Everywhere offers a major contribution to the public health and/or health promotion field in the form of a practical, policy-relevant, settings-based HIV-prevention framework for 'gay' businesses that is common across eight European countries. Findings suggest that a European-wide model of prevention is acceptable and feasible to businesses.

  6. Avaliação da participação de mães em um programa de prevenção e controle de cáries e doenças periodontais para lactentes Evaluación de la participación de madres en un programa de prevención y control de las enfermedades caries y periodontal para lactantes Assessment of mothers' participation in a program of prevention and control of caries and periodontal diseases for infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubenice Amaral da Silva

    2013-03-01

    de los bebés. También se examinó la cavidad bucal de los bebés a fin de detectar el nivel de la placa bacteriana, sangrado gingival y presencia de caries. Enseguida, se realizaron charlas educativo-preventivas y, tras un año de seguimiento, se realizaron nuevas entrevistas, así como el examen clínico. Para analizar los datos, se utilizaron las pruebas de chi-cuadrado y Exacto de Fisher, con nivel de significancia de 5%. RESULTADOS: Antes de las charlas educativas, el 93% de las madres ejecutaba la higiene bucal de sus bebés, y el 57,3% la realizaban en los periodos diurno y nocturno. Después de las charlas, todas contestaron ejecutar los cuidados (p=0,02, siendo el 74,7% en los periodos diurno y nocturno (p=0,01. No hubo diferencia respecto al consumo de alimentos cariogénicos en los cuestionarios inicial y final. Se notó que, inicialmente, el 5,6% de las caras dentales presentaba caries; el 29,7%, placa bacteriana; y el 11,9% sangrado gingival. Después de las charlas, solamente el 0,4% de las caras dentales presentó caries (pOBJECTIVE: To evaluate mothers who participated in an educational and preventive program for infants in relation to their knowledge on oral health practices. METHODS: A cohort study was performed with 112 mothers and their babies aged 0 to 8 months and registered in the project "Promotion of Oral Health in Early Childhood" from the Federal University of Maranhão (Northeast Brazil. Initially, semi-structured interviews on the level of mothers' knowledge as to their babies' oral health were conducted. The oral cavities of the infants were also examined regarding: level of plaque, gingival bleeding, and dental caries. Then, educational lectures were ministered and, after a year of follow-up, new interviews and clinical examination were performed. For statistical analysis, the chi-square and Fisher exact tests were applied, being significant p0.02 and 74.7% performed it at daytime and nighttime (p=0.01. There were no differences

  7. Amoco-US Environmental Protection Agency, pollution prevention project, Yorktown, Virginia: Project peer review. Report of the Peer Review Committee of the Amoco/EPA Pollution Prevention Project at the Yorktown, Virginia refinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klee, H.; Podar, M.

    1991-01-01

    The Amoco/EPA Pollution Prevention Project involved a number of representatives from federal and Virginia regulatory agencies, and Amoco's refining business. Participants believed that the Project could benefit from a broader perspective than these organizations along might provide. The Project Work Group selected an independent Peer Review Process which was conducted by Resource for the Future (RFF), a Washington DC think tank. A group of technical, policy and environmental experts from diverse backgrounds served as Peer Review members. The Peer Review Committee met on three occasions to discuss (1) the Project Work Plan (2) sampling data and interpretation and (3) project conclusions and recommendations. The focus of the meeting was on the general scope and content of the project

  8. Dental reductions and dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D L; Popovich, F

    1977-11-01

    Although first permanent molar hypoconulid absence, third molar agenesis, and small tooth size are all part of evolutionary trend of dental retardation, each bears a different relationship to dental caries. Caries prevalence in the maxillary and mandibular permanent first molars of the Burlington Research Centre serial experimental group at age 16 years was less in the children whose first molars were missing the hypoconulid. Conversely, caries prevalence in mandibular first molars was greater in the children who had agenesis of third molars. The extraction of first molars due to caries was more frequent in children with agenesis of third molars, less frequent in those with absence of hypoconulids of the first molars and unrelated to tooth size. Caries prevalence was less in small teeth, and occurred least in the small mandibular first molars with four cusps. Whereas this is in harmony with the hypothesis that evolutionary dental reductions resulted from the pressure of caries, the increased prevalence of caries and extractions coinciding with third molar agenesis does not support this view. In addition, agenesis of hypoconulids and agenesis of third molars were related to changes in structures unrelated to caries.

  9. Evaluation of two educational interventions regarding prevention of early childhood caries on self-reported practice of parents of 2-5-year-old children receiving dental treatment under general anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaneh Razeghi

    2017-02-01

    (pamphlet and pamphlet along with reminder on self-reported practice of parents of 2-5-years-old children receiving dental treatment under general anesthesia was assessed. Thirty seven couples of children and mothers in two groups were randomly selected. Before and three months after interventions, a standard questionnaire regarding self-reported practice of mothers on prevention of early childhood caries was completed by respondents. Moreover, oral examination including Simplified oral hygiene index (S-OHI, dmft, and white spot lesions were rerecorded at the beginning and three months after interventions. At this time in one of the groups reminder phone calls were made every month. Finally, the answers were scored and data were statistically analyzed to be compared in pre- and post-test. Results: Comparing each of the groups before and after interventions showed that in both groups there were significant differences in mothers’ perception of perceived ability to make child brush his teeth twice a day (P=0.001, and child’s tooth brushing frequency more than once a day (P=0.03. S-OHI had no significant difference after the intervention between two groups. But each group had a significant decrease three months after intervention (P=0.003. Also the mean number of white spots showed a significant decrease before and after intervention in each groups. Regarding mothers’ self-reported practice no significant difference was observed between two groups (P>0.05. Conclusion: Using pamphlets along with or without reminder as educational measures had similar enhancing effects on the mothers’ self-reported practice on oral health of children within three months.

  10. Quantitative assessment of IgA levels in the unstimulated whole saliva of caries-free and caries-active children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shifa S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Saliva is commonly referred to as the blood stream of the oral cavity. It has many functions, one of the major functions being protection of teeth against dental caries. There are many components in saliva, each one having a specific role in the prevention of dental caries. The composition of saliva varies from individual to individual and in the same individual it varies between the glands. The composition of whole saliva, especially when unstimulated, has gained much interest, because it is this which constantly bathes the teeth. The aim of this study was to determine the IgA levels in the unstimulated whole saliva of caries-free and caries-active children aged 3-6 years and to correlate its role in protection of the tooth against dental caries.

  11. Nutrition and dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobley, Connie C

    2003-04-01

    Promotion of sound dietary practices is an essential component of caries management, along with fluoride exposure and oral hygiene practices. Scientific discoveries have lead to better understanding of the caries process, the ever-expanding food supply, and the interaction between the two. Fermentable carbohydrates interact dynamically with oral bacteria and saliva, and these foods will continue to be a major part of a healthful diet. Dental health professionals can serve their patients and the public by providing comprehensive oral health care and by promoting lifestyle behaviors to improve oral and general health within the time constraints of their practice. Dietary advice given should not contradict general health principles when providing practical guidance to reduce caries risk. The following principles should guide messages: * Encourage balanced diets based on moderation and variety as depicted by the Food Guide Pyramid and the Dietary Guidelines for Americans to provide a sound approach. Avoid references to "bad" foods and focus on "good" diets that include a variety of foods. * Give examples of how combining and sequencing foods can enhance mastication, saliva production, and oral clearance at each eating occasion. Combining dairy foods with sugary foods, raw foods with cooked, and protein-rich foods with acidogenic foods are all good examples. Suggest that eating and drinking be followed by cariostatic foods such as xylitol chewing gum. * Drink water to satisfy thirst and hydration needs as often as possible. Restrict consumption of sweetened beverages to meal and snack times when they can be combined with other cariostatic foods. * When a patient reports excessive dietary intake of a fermentable carbohydrate to the point of displacing other important foods in the diet, identify alternatives that will help the patient maintain or achieve a healthy body weight, oral health status, and a nutrient-dense intake.

  12. [Association between overweight and early childhood caries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaror S, Carlos; Sapunar Z, Jorge; Muñoz N, Sergio; González C, Damaris

    2014-07-01

    To determine whether overweight is a risk factor for the development of early childhood caries (ECC) in preschoolers. An observational retrospective cohort study was performed in 196 children under 2 years of age at Calbuco Hospital, Los Lagos Region, Chile, who were admitted between 2007 and 2009. Patients were grouped based on their nutritional status at admission in the two following categories: eutrophic and overweighed children as a result of excessive intake. Information regarding caries incidence and nutritional status were annually retrieved from records until the age of 5 years, according to medical and dental records. At the beginning of the study, 33.67% were overweight and 16.33% were obese, reaching 40% overweight and 20.56% obese at four years of age. The incidence of early childhood caries in overweighed children was 57.14% compared to 40.82% in normal weight children (p = 0.022), with 1.4 RR (95% CI, 1044-1.88). The increased risk of early childhood decay in overweighed patients makes necessary to create instances of timely mutual referral between the professional that diagnoses overweighed children and the pediatric dentist in order to develop preventive treatments for both diseases.

  13. Soluble toll like receptor 2 (TLR-2) is increased in saliva of children with dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Alyssa; Blackburn, Corinne; Chin, Judith; Srinivasan, Mythily

    2014-08-31

    Dental caries is the most common microbial disease affecting mankind. Caries risk assessment methods, identification of biomarkers and vaccine development strategies are being emphasized to control the incidence of the largely preventable disease. Pattern recognition receptors such as the toll like receptors (TLR) have been implicated as modulators of host-microbial interactions. Soluble TLR-2 and its co-receptor, CD14 identified in saliva can bind the cell wall components of cariogenic bacteria and modulate the disease process. The objective of this study is to determine the potential of salivary sTLR-2 and sCD14 as biomarkers of caries activity and indirect measures of the cariogenic bacterial burden. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected from twenty caries free and twenty caries active children between the ages of 5 and 13 years. The concentration of sCD14 and sTLR-2 together with that of the cytokine IL-8 reported to be increased in dental caries was assessed by the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. While the level of sCD14 and that of IL-8 was equivocal between the two groups, the sTLR-2 concentration in caries active saliva was significantly higher than that in caries free saliva. The sTLR-2 in saliva could serve as a potential biomarker for caries activity.

  14. Sugars and Dental Caries: Evidence for Setting a Recommended Threshold for Intake123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moynihan, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Dental caries affects ≤80% of the world’s population with almost a quarter of US adults having untreated caries. Dental caries is costly to health care and negatively affects well-being. Dietary free sugars are the most important risk factor for dental caries. The WHO has issued guidelines that recommend intake of free sugars should provide ≤10% of energy intake and suggest further reductions to caries risk, which showed evidence of moderate quality from cohort studies that limiting free sugars to ≤10% of energy reduced, but did not eliminate, dental caries. Even low levels of dental caries in children are of concern because caries is a lifelong progressive and cumulative disease. The systematic review therefore explored if there were further benefits to dental health if the intake of free sugars was limited to caries when free sugar intake was 5% but ≤10% of energy. The WHO recommendations are intended for use by policy makers as a benchmark when assessing intake of sugars by populations and as a driving force for policy change. Multiple strategies encompassing both upstream and downstream preventive approaches are now required to translate the recommendations into policy and practice. PMID:26773022

  15. Sugars and Dental Caries: Evidence for Setting a Recommended Threshold for Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moynihan, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Dental caries affects ≤80% of the world's population with almost a quarter of US adults having untreated caries. Dental caries is costly to health care and negatively affects well-being. Dietary free sugars are the most important risk factor for dental caries. The WHO has issued guidelines that recommend intake of free sugars should provide ≤10% of energy intake and suggest further reductions to caries risk, which showed evidence of moderate quality from cohort studies that limiting free sugars to ≤10% of energy reduced, but did not eliminate, dental caries. Even low levels of dental caries in children are of concern because caries is a lifelong progressive and cumulative disease. The systematic review therefore explored if there were further benefits to dental health if the intake of free sugars was limited to caries when free sugar intake was 5% but ≤10% of energy. The WHO recommendations are intended for use by policy makers as a benchmark when assessing intake of sugars by populations and as a driving force for policy change. Multiple strategies encompassing both upstream and downstream preventive approaches are now required to translate the recommendations into policy and practice. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  16. Oral lactic acid bacteria related to the occurrence and/or progression of dental caries in Japanese preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Ayumi; Noda, Masafumi; Matoba, Yasuyuki; Kumagai, Takanori; Kozai, Katsuyuki; Sugiyama, Masanori

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the presence of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), especially those classified into the genus Lactobacillus, is associated with the progression of dental caries in preschool children. Nevertheless, the kinds of species of LAB and the characteristics that are important for dental caries have been unclear. The aims of this study were: (1) to investigate the distribution of oral LAB among Japanese preschool children with various prevalence levels of caries; and (2) to reveal the characteristics of these isolated LAB species. Seventy-four Japanese preschool children were examined for caries scores and caries progression, and their dental cavity samples were collected for LAB isolation and identification. The saliva-induced agglutination rate and the resistance to acidic environments of the identified strains were measured. Statistical analysis showed that preschool children carrying Lactobacillus (L.) salivarius or Streptococcus mutans have a significantly higher prevalence of dental caries, the growth ability in acidic environments correlates with the caries scores of individuals with L. salivarius, and the caries scores exhibit positive correlation with saliva-induced agglutination in L. salivarius. These results show that specific Lactobacillus species are associated with dental caries based on the level of carious lesion severity. The present study suggests that these specific Lactobacillus species, especially those with easily agglutinated properties and acid resistance, affect the dental caries scores of preschool children, and that these properties may provide useful information for research into the prevention of dental caries.

  17. A home-based prevention program for sixth-grade alcohol use: Results from project Northland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C L; Perry, C L; Dudovitz, B; Veblen-Mortenson, S; Anstine, P S; Komro, K A; Toomey, T L

    1995-12-01

    Project Northland is designed to prevent alcohol use among young adolescents. The project is ongoing in 24 school districts, randomly assigned to intervention or reference conditions. Multiple interventions begin with sixth graders and continue through eighth grade. The reference districts offer their standard health curricula. Evaluation consists of school surveys with the cohort (N = 2201) and telephone surveys of half their parents. This article describes the sixth-grade home-based intervention, the Slick Tracy Home Team. Findings of broad-based participation across sex, race, and risk status were documented, as well as some increases in knowledge and family communication about alcohol use.

  18. Caries set fra et økologisk perspektiv

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, Svante; Ekstrand, Kim; Qvist, Vibeke

    2010-01-01

    Dental caries affects the majority of the Danish population. Its aetiology is multi-factorial, but a pH-induced change in the homeostasis of the oral biofilm leading to overgrowth of acid-tolerating bacteria is a key event. A non-invasive concept for prevention and management is emerging based...

  19. Caries set fra et økologisk perspektiv

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, Svante; Ekstrand, Kim; Qvist, Vibeke

    2010-01-01

    Dental caries affects the majority of the Danish population. Its aetiology is multi-factorial, but a pH-induced change in the homeostasis of the oral biofilm leading to overgrowth of acid-tolerating bacteria is a key event. A non-invasive concept for prevention and management is emerging based on...

  20. Oral Lactobacilli and Dental Caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caufield, P.W.; Schön, C.N.; Saraithong, P.; Li, Y.; Argimón, S.

    2015-01-01

    Lactobacilli have been associated with dental caries for over a century. Here, we review the pertinent literature along with findings from our own study to formulate a working hypothesis about the natural history and role of lactobacilli. Unlike most indigenous microbes that stably colonize a host, lactobacilli appear to be planktonic, opportunistic settlers that can gather and multiply only in certain restrictive niches of the host, at least within the oral cavity. We postulate that the following essential requirements are necessary for sustained colonization of lactobacilli in humans: 1) a stagnant, retentive niche that is mostly anaerobic; 2) a low pH milieu; and 3) ready access to carbohydrates. Three sites on the human body meet these specifications: caries lesions, the stomach, and the vagina. Only a handful of Lactobacillus species is found in caries lesions, but they are largely absent in caries-free children. Lactobacilli present in caries lesions represent both a major contributor to caries progression and a major reservoir to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. We extend the assertion from other investigators that lactobacilli found in the GI tract originate in the oral cavity by proposing that lactobacilli in the oral cavity arise from caries lesions. This, in turn, leads us to reflect on the health implications of the lactobacilli in the mouth and downstream GI and to ponder whether these or any of the Lactobacillus species are truly indigenous to the human GI tract or the oral cavity. PMID:25758458

  1. Correlation of dental caries and dermatoglyphics in pediatric cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakruti H Sanghani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental caries is a multifactorial disease, and its etiology has been advocated to various environmental and genetic factors. Dermatoglyphics is the study of dermal ridges on the palmar and plantar surfaces of hands and feet. It is genetic in nature and is unique to each individual. Enamel as well as finger buds are ectodermal in origin and develop during the same time of intrauterine life; therefore, factors affecting dental caries may cause peculiarities in dermal ridge patterns. Aim: To find a correlation between dermatoglyphic pattern and dental caries in pediatric cases. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed on 200 children (100 caries-active and 100 caries-free between the age range of 6–13 years. The decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT score was recorded for caries-active children having a score range of 3–6 and under each score there were 25 cases. Midlo and Cummins method (1943 of recording palm prints was used using Indiana Ink (stamp pad, roller and printing papers. The prints were inspected with the help of magnifying lens and whorls and loops in each hand were recorded. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software 14.00, and Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis of collected data. Results: The number of whorls was found to be more in caries-active children with increased number of whorls in children with a higher DMFT whereas the number of loops was more in caries-free children. There was a statistically significant difference between the groups (P < 0.05. The number of whorls and loops was found to be more on the right hand as compared to the left hand. Conclusion: The results of the study indicate that there is a definite correlation between the number of whorls and loops and the presence of dental caries in children. Hence, dermatoglyphics can be used as a screening method to provide adequate preventive treatment to children showing a higher

  2. As práticas preventivas no controle da cárie dental: uma síntese de pesquisas Preventive strategies in the control of dental caries: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia Cristina Lima Chaves

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizada uma revisão sistemática de trabalhos de pesquisa sobre a efetividade das ações preventivas no controle da cárie dental, publicados no MEDLINE no período compreendido entre 1980 e 1998. Foram localizados 210 artigos, sendo que seus resumos foram analisados segundo as estratégias de intervenção, os tipos de desenho de pesquisa utilizados e os efeitos. As práticas preventivas mais avaliadas foram os dentifrícios com flúor (20,5%, os bochechos com flúor (17,2% e os selantes oclusais (18,1%. Houve uma predominância de estudos em indivíduos na idade escolar entre 6 e 12 anos (53,8%. Observou-se um maior número de trabalhos oriundos da Europa Ocidental (58,6%, seguidos dos Estados Unidos (20,4%. Não foram encontradas relações entre o resultado (estudos efetivos e não efetivos e o tipo de estratégia avaliada, por um lado, e o tipo de desenho do estudo utilizado, por outro. Esse fato revela que outras explicações para a diversidade dos resultados devem ser buscadas, principalmente no que diz respeito ao contexto de implantação dos programas (onde, como e quem os implementa. A educação em saúde oral está sendo pouco descrita ou considerada nos estudos de intervenção isolados.A literature review was conducted on the effectiveness of measures to prevent dental caries. Articles published in scientific journals from 1980 to 1998 and indexed in MEDLINE were selected. Some 210 articles were found and their abstracts classified according to intervention strategies, type of research design, and observed effects. The most frequent preventive measures were the use of fluoride toothpaste (20.5%, fluoride mouthwash (17.2%, and occlusal sealants (18,1%. The main target population was schoolchildren 6-12 years old (53.8% and teenagers (15.7%. Western Europe produced 58.7% of the articles on this subject, followed by United States (22.7%, Eastern Europe, Asia, Canada, and Latin America. No relationship was identified between

  3. Comparison of caries experience in residents of two Brazilian municipalities with and without fluoridation of the public water supplies

    OpenAIRE

    Rando-Meireles, Maria Paula; Olivati, Fabricio Narciso; Franco, Decio Henrique; Bittar, Telmo; Marques, Tais Cristina Nascimento; Sousa, Maria da Luz Rosario de

    2016-01-01

    The public water supply fluoridation is an effective measure and is cost-effective in preventing tooth decay. This article bases on a study that compared the caries experience between two municipalities in Brazil, São Paulo and Manaus, at the time, with and without fluoridation of its water. The study used the projeto SBBrasil 2010 (SBBrazil project 2010) data that evaluated three indices for 2.176 individuals: dmft (decay, missing, filled teeth for primary dentition), DMFT (number of decayed...

  4. Uranium Mill Tailings remedial action project waste minimization and pollution prevention awareness program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    The purpose of this plan is to establish a waste minimization and pollution prevention awareness (WM/PPA) program for the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The program satisfies DOE requirements mandated by DOE Order 5400.1. This plan establishes planning objectives and strategies for conserving resources and reducing the quantity and toxicity of wastes and other environmental releases

  5. Evaluation of DELTA PREP: A Project Aimed at Integrating Primary Prevention of Intimate Partner Violence within State Domestic Violence Coalitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Kimberley E.; Zakocs, Ronda; Le, Brenda; Hill, Jessica A.; Brown, Pamela; Wheaton, Jocelyn

    2015-01-01

    Background: Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been recognized as a public health problem since the late 20th century. To spur IPV prevention efforts nationwide, the DELTA PREP Project selected 19 state domestic violence coalitions to build organizational prevention capacity and catalyze IPV primary prevention strategies within their states.…

  6. Development of interventions for the secondary prevention of Alzheimer's dementia: the European Prevention of Alzheimer's Dementia (EPAD) project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Craig W; Molinuevo, José Luis; Truyen, Luc; Satlin, Andrew; Van der Geyten, Serge; Lovestone, Simon

    2016-02-01

    Alzheimer's dementia affects more than 40 million people worldwide with substantial increases in prevalence anticipated. Interventions that either modify risk or reduce the development of early disease could delay the onset of dementia or reduce the rate of cognitive and functional decline. The European Prevention of Alzheimer's Dementia (EPAD) is a public-private consortium, funded by the Innovative Medicines Initiative, designed to increase the likelihood of successful development of new treatments for the secondary prevention of Alzheimer's dementia. EPAD will help with testing of different agents in this pre-dementia population through four components: improvement of access to existing cohorts and registries, development of the EPAD Registry of approximately 24,000 people who might be at increased risk of developing Alzheimer's dementia, establishment of the EPAD Longitudinal Cohort Study of 6000 people at any one time, and establishment of an adaptive, proof-of-concept trial including 1500 participants at any given time. The need for EPAD and its key design elements are described, and we discuss EPAD in relation to similar projects in progress. These parallel efforts reflect the need for a coordinated, worldwide battle against dementia, in which EPAD will play a crucial role. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Dental Caries Progression Among U.S. Marine Corps Personnel Following Operational Deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    were non-preventable. Providers were only able to adequately classify, predict, and prevent urgent oral surgery -, endodontic-, and restorative...epidemiology of oral , dental, and maxillofacial conditions during military deployments. They found that caries was the leading cause of dental...Prevalence of dental caries. J Dent Edu 1985; 49(6): 341-353 35. Department of the Navy, Bureau of Medicine and Surgery : Oral

  8. [Clinical relevance of tooth brushing in relation to dental caries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pita-Fernández, Salvador; Pombo-Sánchez, Antonio; Suárez-Quintanilla, Juan; Novio-Mallón, Silvia; Rivas-Mundiña, Berta; Pértega-Díaz, Sonia

    2010-07-01

    To determine the impact and clinical relevance of tooth brushing on oral health. Prevalence study. Fontiñas Health Centre. (Santiago de Compostela, Spain). Prevalence study (n=281 children aged 5-14 years. Odontological examination according to WHO methodology, to determine the frequency of tooth brushing, frequency of sweet consumption and their impact on the prevalence of caries. Logistic regression and estimation of the relative prevalence difference (RPD) and the Number Needed to Treat in order to prevent one additional bad outcome (NNT). The children who never brush their teeth have a 40% (95% CI: 24.3%-57.8%) of early caries, while those who brush their teeth several times a day have 15.3% (95% CI: 9.4%-23.7%). An association between not brushing the teeth and caries in primary teeth (OR=2.3; 95% CI:1.05-5.3) was observed after adjusting for age, sweet consumption and visits to the dentist. The same occurred with final teeth (OR=3.9; 95% CI:1.4-10.3). The RPD was 62%(95% CI: 30%-79%), meaning that prevalence of caries is 62% lower in children who brush their teeth several times a day as compared to those who never brush their teeth. The NNT is 4 (95% CI: 2.4-14), so for every 4 children who brush their teeth several times a day, there is one less case of caries, compared to those who never brush their teeth. There is a dose-response relationship between prevalence of caries and brushing frequency. The same effect was observed with definitive caries: RPD=55% (95% CI:16%-76%), NNT=5 (95% CI:2.8-53.3). Tooth brushing is related to oral health, with a major clinical impact. The positive effect of tooth brushing was superior to that of a correct diet. 2009 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  9. Project EX-India: A classroom-based tobacco use prevention and cessation intervention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, Anupreet Kaur; Sussman, Steve; Tewari, Abha; Bassi, Shalini; Arora, Monika

    2016-02-01

    Tobacco use experimentation is most frequent between the ages of 15–24 in India. Therefore, programming to counteract tobacco use among adolescents is needed. There is a lack of evidence-based teen tobacco use prevention and cessation programs. The current study provides an outcome evaluation of the Project EX tobacco use prevention and cessation program among Indian adolescents (16–18 years). An eight-session classroom-based curriculum was adapted to the Indian context and translated from English to Hindi (local language). Next, it was tested using a quasi-experimental design with 624 Indian students at baseline, involving two program and two control schools, with a three-month post-program follow-up. Project EX involves motivation enhancement (e.g., talk shows and games) and coping skills (e.g., complementary and alternative medicine) components. Program participants rated complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) activities like meditation, yoga and healthy breathing higher than talk shows and games. Compared to the standard care control condition, the program condition revealed a prevention effect, but not a cessation effect. Implications for prevention/cessation programming among Indian teens are discussed. This study was approved by the Independent Ethics Committee, Mumbai.

  10. Macroscopic and radiographic examination of proximal root surface caries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordenram, G.; Bergvist, A.; Johnson, G.; Henriksen, C.O.; Anneroth, G.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare macroscopic and radiographic examination of proximal root surface caries of extracted teeth from patients aged 65-95 years. Although the study conditions for macroscopic and radiographic diagnosis favored more sensitive evaluations than routine clinical conditions, there was a 24% disagreement in diagnosis. This finding indicates that under routine clinical conditions it is difficult to register with certainty all superficial root carious lesions. Even in the absence of clinically detectable root surface caries, preventive measures should be considered for elderly people with exposed root surfaces.

  11. Macroscopic and radiographic examination of proximal root surface caries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordenram, G.; Bergvist, A.; Johnson, G.; Henriksen, C.O.; Anneroth, G.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare macroscopic and radiographic examination of proximal root surface caries of extracted teeth from patients aged 65-95 years. Although the study conditions for macroscopic and radiographic diagnosis favored more sensitive evaluations than routine clinical conditions, there was a 24% disagreement in diagnosis. This finding indicates that under routine clinical conditions it is difficult to register with certainty all superficial root carious lesions. Even in the absence of clinically detectable root surface caries, preventive measures should be considered for elderly people with exposed root surfaces

  12. Comparison of different caries detectors for approximal caries detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esin Bozdemir

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: The ability of bitewing radiography to identify sound surfaces was better than that of the other methods. The LF device was the most sensitive tool for detecting approximal surfaces with caries, followed by the LED device.

  13. Assessment of caries status among schoolchildren according to decayed-missing-filled teeth/decayed-extract-filled teeth index, International Caries Detection and Assessment System, and Caries Assessment Spectrum and Treatment criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Rajendra Reddy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Detection and evaluation of dental caries is of epidemiological importance. Its early detection is important to commence appropriate treatment planning. Cavitated, noncavitated, and initial lesions of dental caries can be detected by various indices. Objectives: The objective of the study was to assess the caries experience in schoolchildren using decayed-missing-filled teeth (DMFT/decayed-extracted-filled teeth (deft, International Caries Detection and Assessment System-II (ICDAS-II, and Caries Assessment Spectrum and Treatment (CAST systems. Materials and Methods: An epidemiological survey was carried out among 1550 schoolchildren (37,644 teeth between the age ranges of 4 and 14 years. American Dental Association type III examination was performed using plane mouth mirrors and community periodontal index probes using DMFT/deft, ICDAS II, and CAST indices. Results: Out of 37,644 teeth examined, 2,718 teeth had shown caries. Caries experience with DMFT/deft index was 5.54%. Highest score of DMFT was observed in deciduous dentition period (59.02%. Overall prevalence of dental caries with ICDAS and CAST system was 6.7% and 6.95%, respectively. The highest percentage of noncavitated lesions (ICDAS - 2.26% and CAST - 3.9% and greater prevalence of caries among deciduous teeth (ICDAS - 53.2% and CAST - 58.7% was observed with both ICDAS and CAST systems. Conclusion: A high prevalence of noncavitated lesions and less number of sealants and restorations indicates the lack of awareness for prevention and treatment of oral diseases, which suggests a strong need for preventive and operative treatments.

  14. Development of a student engagement approach to alcohol prevention: the Pragmatics Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buettner, Cynthia K; Andrews, David W; Glassman, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Significant involvement of students in the development and implementation of college alcohol prevention strategies is largely untested, despite recommendations by the National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism and others. The purpose of the Pragmatics Project was to test a student engagement model for developing and implementing alcohol intervention strategies. The Pragmatics Project involved 89 undergraduate students on a large Midwestern university campus in the design and implementation of projects focused on reducing harm associated with high-risk drinking and off-campus parties. The engagement model used an innovative course piloted in the Human Development and Family Science department. The course successfully involved both students and the community in addressing local alcohol issues. The course design described would fit well into a Master of Public Health, Community Psychology, Health Psychology, or interdisciplinary curricula as well as the service learning model, and it is applicable in addressing other health risk behaviors.

  15. Caries risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejàre, I; Axelsson, S; Dahlén, G

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the ability of multivariate models and single factors to correctly identify future caries development in pre-school children and schoolchildren/adolescents. STUDY DESIGN: A systematic literature search for relevant papers was conducted with pre-determined inclusion criteria....... Abstracts and full-text articles were assessed independently by two reviewers. The quality of studies was graded according to the QUADAS tool. The quality of evidence of models and single predictors was assessed using the GRADE approach. RESULTS: Ninety original articles fulfilled the inclusion criteria....... Seven studies had high quality, 35 moderate and the rest poor quality. The accuracy of multivariate models was higher for pre-school children than for schoolchildren/adolescents. However, the models had seldom been validated in independent populations, making their accuracy uncertain. Of the single...

  16. Dermatoglyphics: A genetic marker of early childhood caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Anitha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is an accepted fact that genetics plays an important role in determination of palmar dermatoglyphic patterns. Since caries is a multifactorial disease with the influence of genetic pattern, this study was undertaken to explore the possibility of dermatoglyphics as a noninvasive and early predictor of dental caries in children, so as to initiate preventive oral health measures at an early age. Materials and Methods: The study group comprised of 200 children aged between 4 and 5 years. The dmfs score was evaluated. The experimental group (Group 1, comprised of 100 children with early childhood caries (ECC with dmfs >5. The control group (Group 2 comprised of 100 children with dmfs score of 0. Results: An increased frequency of ulnar loops in caries-free children and whorls in children with ECC was observed. Low mean atd angle and low mean. Total ridge count was observed in the ECC group. Conclusion: There is definite variation in dermatoglyphics between the ECC and caries-free group, indicating that dermatoglyphic patterns can be used as a predictive tool for children with ECC.

  17. Dermatoglyphics: a genetic marker of early childhood caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anitha, C; Konde, Sapna; Raj, N Sunil; Kumar, N C; Peethamber, Preetha

    2014-01-01

    It is an accepted fact that genetics plays an important role in determination of palmar dermatoglyphic patterns. Since caries is a multifactorial disease with the influence of genetic pattern, this study was undertaken to explore the possibility of dermatoglyphics as a noninvasive and early predictor of dental caries in children, so as to initiate preventive oral health measures at an early age. The study group comprised of 200 children aged between 4 and 5 years. The dmfs score was evaluated. The experimental group (Group 1), comprised of 100 children with early childhood caries (ECC) with dmfs >5. The control group (Group 2) comprised of 100 children with dmfs score of 0. An increased frequency of ulnar loops in caries-free children and whorls in children with ECC was observed. Low mean atd angle and low mean. Total ridge count was observed in the ECC group. There is definite variation in dermatoglyphics between the ECC and caries-free group, indicating that dermatoglyphic patterns can be used as a predictive tool for children with ECC.

  18. Caries Experience and Salivary Parameters among Overweight Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele B. Diniz

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a chronic disease characterized by excess body fat, which can lead to other health problems, including insulin resistance, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, polycystic ovary syndrome, hypertension, dyslipidemia, sleep apnea, asthma, heart attack, stroke, atherosclerosis and metabolic syndrome. Currently, obesity and dental caries are major public health concerns and dietary habits are a very important common component of their etiological factors, showing some correlation with the sociodemographic characteristics of individuals presenting these diseases. In relation to caries experience, the literature suggests a correlation between obesity and dental caries in children and adolescents, in primary and/or permanent dentition, though divergent results exist regarding assessment based on the method recommended by the WHO (1997, i.e., restricted to carious lesions with cavitation. Some studies indicate greater prevalence of proximal carious lesions in obese adolescents compared with those with normal weight. Salivary changes, such as the concentrations of phosphate, sialic acid, proteins and immunoglobulins and in peroxidase activity could explain the increased probability of obese children presenting greater risk of dental caries. Thus, it is important to consider the contribution of salivary parameters in caries experience of overweight children and adolescents and the implementation of preventive measures in this population.

  19. Radiation caries: a therapeutical option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biazolla, E.R.; Miziara, T.C.

    1988-01-01

    It is showed a clinical report about radiation caries. As the tooth destruction was, mainly, of the majority of the teeth, was made a therapy where, besides avoiding the osteoradiomielite, also is possible to reability the patient. (author)

  20. Proteomic analysis of human tooth pulp proteomes – Comparison of caries-resistant and caries-susceptible

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jágr, Michal; Eckhardt, Adam; Pataridis, Statis; Foltán, R.; Myšák, J.; Mikšík, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 145, Aug 11 (2016), s. 127-136 ISSN 1874-3919 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NT14324 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : human tooth pulp * DIGE * proteome * caries * resistance Subject RIV: FF - HEENT, Dentistry Impact factor: 3.914, year: 2016

  1. Quantitative assessment of IgA levels in the unstimulated whole saliva of caries-free and caries-active children

    OpenAIRE

    Shifa S; Muthu M; Amarlal D; Prabhu V

    2008-01-01

    Saliva is commonly referred to as the blood stream of the oral cavity. It has many functions, one of the major functions being protection of teeth against dental caries. There are many components in saliva, each one having a specific role in the prevention of dental caries. The composition of saliva varies from individual to individual and in the same individual it varies between the glands. The composition of whole saliva, especially when unstimulated, has gained much interest, because it is...

  2. Finding a voice: participatory research with street-involved youth in the youth injection prevention project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coser, Larissa Rodrigues; Tozer, Kira; Van Borek, Natasha; Tzemis, Despina; Taylor, Darlene; Saewyc, Elizabeth; Buxton, Jane A

    2014-09-01

    This article uses a Positive Youth Development framework to explore the experiences of six experiential youth coresearchers (YCs) in the Youth Injection Prevention (YIP) participatory research project, and the parallel track process of empowerment and capacity building that developed. The YIP project was conducted in Metro Vancouver at the BC Centre for Disease Control and community organizations serving street-involved youth. A process evaluation was conducted to explore themes in the YCs experience in the project, as well as process strengths and challenges. Semistructured interviews with the YCs, researcher field notes, and team meeting and debrief session minutes were analyzed. The YIP project appears to have exerted a positive influence on the YCs. Positive self-identities, sense of purpose, reconceptualization of intellectual ability, new knowledge and skills, supportive relationships, finding a voice, and social and self-awareness were among the positive impacts. Process strengths included team-building activities, team check-in and checkout sessions, and professional networking opportunities. Process challenges included the time required to help YCs overcome personal barriers to participation. The YIP project demonstrates that participatory research with street-involved youth is a viable research option that contributes to positive youth development and empowerment. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.

  3. Design, Implementation, and Evaluation of the Adolescents and Surveillance System for the Obesity Prevention Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabacchi, Garden; Bianco, Antonino; Alessi, Nicola; Filippi, Anna Rita; Napoli, Giuseppe; Jemni, Monèm; Censi, Laura; Breda, João; Schumann, Nathali Lehmann; Firenze, Alberto; Vitale, Francesco; Mammina, Caterina

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Adolescents Surveillance System for Obesity prevention (ASSO) Project aimed at developing standardized and web-based tools for collecting data on adolescents’ obesity and its potential determinants. This has been implemented and piloted in the local area of Palermo city, Italy. The aim of the present study is to provide an overview of the Project's design, implementation, and evaluation, highlighting all the aspects for a potential scale-up of the surveillance system on the whole national territory and abroad, as a sustainable and effective source of data. The overall structure and management, the ASSO-toolkit, the ASSO-NutFit software, and all developed and used procedures for recruiting, training, and data collecting/analyzing are addressed. An interim evaluation has been performed through a feasibility study; a final Project evaluation has been performed reporting the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) and the attributes that a surveillance system should have. This article provides a detailed overview of the Project and highlights that ASSO can be considered a valid, logical, coherent, efficient, and sustainable surveillance system that is consistent with countries’ needs and priorities. The system developed by the ASSO Project provides high-quality data and complies with several characteristics typical of a suitable surveillance system. It has a potential of being adopted within the National Health Service and other countries’ Health Services for monitoring adolescents’ obesity and its determinants, such as food intakes, behaviors, physical activity, and fitness profiles. PMID:27015195

  4. Design, Implementation, and Evaluation of the Adolescents and Surveillance System for the Obesity Prevention Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabacchi, Garden; Bianco, Antonino; Alessi, Nicola; Filippi, Anna Rita; Napoli, Giuseppe; Jemni, Monèm; Censi, Laura; Breda, João; Schumann, Nathali Lehmann; Firenze, Alberto; Vitale, Francesco; Mammina, Caterina

    2016-03-01

    The Adolescents Surveillance System for Obesity prevention (ASSO) Project aimed at developing standardized and web-based tools for collecting data on adolescents' obesity and its potential determinants. This has been implemented and piloted in the local area of Palermo city, Italy. The aim of the present study is to provide an overview of the Project's design, implementation, and evaluation, highlighting all the aspects for a potential scale-up of the surveillance system on the whole national territory and abroad, as a sustainable and effective source of data.The overall structure and management, the ASSO-toolkit, the ASSO-NutFit software, and all developed and used procedures for recruiting, training, and data collecting/analyzing are addressed. An interim evaluation has been performed through a feasibility study; a final Project evaluation has been performed reporting the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) and the attributes that a surveillance system should have.This article provides a detailed overview of the Project and highlights that ASSO can be considered a valid, logical, coherent, efficient, and sustainable surveillance system that is consistent with countries' needs and priorities.The system developed by the ASSO Project provides high-quality data and complies with several characteristics typical of a suitable surveillance system. It has a potential of being adopted within the National Health Service and other countries' Health Services for monitoring adolescents' obesity and its determinants, such as food intakes, behaviors, physical activity, and fitness profiles.

  5. The effect of xylitol on dental caries and oral flora

    OpenAIRE

    Nayak PA; Nayak UA; Khandelwal V

    2014-01-01

    Prathibha Anand Nayak,1 Ullal Anand Nayak,2 Vishal Khandelwal3 1Department of Periodontics, NIMS Dental College and Hospital, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India; 2Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, NIMS Dental College and Hospital, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India; 3Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, Index Dental College and Hospital, Indore, Madhya Pradesh, India Abstract: Dental caries, the most chronic disease affecting mankind, has been in the limelight with regard to its...

  6. Caries prevalence of 5, 12 and 15-year-old Greek children: a national pathfinder survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oulis, C J; Tsinidou, K; Vadiakas, G; Mamai-Homata, E; Polychronopoulou, A; Athanasouli, T

    2012-03-01

    To study the caries prevalence and caries experience of 5, 12 and 15-year-old children in Greece and evaluate how the disease pattern is related to their sociodemographic parameters. A stratified cluster sample of 1209, 1224 and 1257 of five, twelve and fifteen-year-old Greek children were randomly selected according to WHO guidelines for national pathfinder surveys and examined for dental caries, according to the BASCD criteria and standards. d3mft, D3MFT and their components, as well as d3mfs, D3MFS, Care Index (CI) and SiC were recorded and related to the demographic data collected concerning age, gender, counties, urban/rural areas and parents' educational status. Dental caries varied considerably between the different districts, with a mean dmft/DMFT value for each age group being 1.77, 2.05 and 3.19 respectively, while 64%, 37% and 29% of them, were with no obvious dentinal caries. Children living in rural areas demonstrated significantly higher dmft/DMFT values and less dental restorative care (CI), whereas children with fathers of a higher educational level showed significantly lower dmft/DMFT values. The significant caries (SIC) index value for the three age groups was 5.01, 4.83 and 7.07 respectively. Posterior occlusal surfaces of the permanent teeth presented most of the caries in the 12 (68%) and 15-year-old group (78%). Despite the decrease in the prevalence of caries in Greek children disparities remain. Children in rural areas and children with less educated parents had more caries and more untreated caries. All the above call for immediate intervention with comprehensive preventive programs and better geographic targeting of the dental services at a national level including targeted prevention of pit and fissure sealants on posterior permanent molars.

  7. Risk assessment of dental caries by using Classification and Regression Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Ataru; Hayashi, Mikako; Hamasaki, Toshimitsu; Ebisu, Shigeyuki

    2011-06-01

    Being able to predict an individual's risks of dental caries would offer a potentially huge natural step forward toward better oral heath. As things stand, preventive treatment against caries is mostly carried out without risk assessment because there is no proven way to analyse an individual's risk factors. The purpose of this study was to try to identify those patients with high and low risk of caries by using Classification and Regression Trees (CART). In this historical cohort study, data from 442 patients in a general practice who met the inclusion criteria were analysed. CART was applied to the data to seek a model for predicting caries by using the following parameters according to each patient: age, number of carious teeth, numbers of cariogenic bacteria, the secretion rate and buffer capacity of saliva, and compliance with a prevention programme. The risks of caries were presented by odds ratios. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to confirm the results obtained by CART. CART identified high and low risk patients for primary caries with relative odds ratios of 0.41 (95%CI: 0.22-0.77, p = 0.0055) and 2.88 (95%CI: 1.49-5.59, p = 0.0018) according the numbers of cariogenic bacteria. High and low risk patients for secondary caries were also identified with the odds ratios of 0.07 (95%CI: 0.01-0.55, p = 0.00109) and 7.00 (95%CI: 3.50-13.98, p caries. Cariogenic bacteria play a leading role in the incidence of caries. CART proved effective in identifying an individual patient's risk of caries. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. In vitro assessment of cone beam local computed tomography for proximal caries detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalathingal, Sajitha M; Mol, André; Tyndall, Donald A; Caplan, Daniel J

    2007-11-01

    To compare the accuracy of local computed tomography (LCT) and conventional radiography for proximal caries detection and depth assessment. An in vitro model was used consisting of 20 extracted posterior teeth with 18 caries lesions. Local computed tomography slices were reconstructed in axial and parasagittal planes from 100 basis projections. Conventional radiographs were also acquired. Eight observers determined the presence and depth of caries lesions. Receiver operating characteristic analysis and weighted kappa statistics were used. Local computed tomography had a mean A(z) score of 0.82 (SD = 0.07) and conventional radiography of 0.79 (SD = 0.08; analysis of variance: P > .05). Interobserver agreement was moderate. The mean kappa for depth assessment was 0.68 (SD = 0.06) for LCT and 0.47 (SD = 0.08) for conventional radiography (analysis of variance: P proximal caries detection. Local computed tomography was more accurate for assessing caries lesion depth.

  9. Dental caries experience and association to risk indicators of remote rural populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Sean L; Martinez-Mier, E Angeles; Dean, Jeffrey A; Weddell, James A; Sanders, Brian J; Eggertsson, Hafsteinn; Ofner, Susan; Yoder, Karen

    2008-07-01

    Dental caries continues to be the most common infectious disease of childhood; however, it is no longer pandemic, but endemic in specific sectors of populations. Therefore, it is important to identify and target patients at risk of developing caries in order to develop specific preventive measures. This study aims to test dental caries risk indicators for significant associations with caries severity. Five separate, small, isolated rural villages in Mexico with varying degrees of caries prevalence were selected for this observational study. A total of 248 children were examined. Risk indicators were assessed via questionnaire and water and salt fluoride analysis. Caries severity was measured by the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS-I). Prevalence of caries ranged from 95% to 100% for the five villages. Mean total DMFS (decayed, missing, or filled surfaces-permanent teeth) and dmfs (decayed, missing, or filled surfaces-primary teeth) scores ranged from 2.5 to 5.0 and from 11.3 to 16.9, respectively. Multivariable models showed age and drinking soda between meals to be significantly associated with DMFS, and drinking juice and being female were significantly associated with dmfs. DMFS and dmfs were high in each village, significantly different between villages, and associated with specific risk indicators.

  10. Dental caries experience and treatment needs of an adult female population in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawal, Folake; Alade, Omolola

    2017-09-01

    Experience and awareness of adult females concerning dental caries is important in its prevention particularly in children because of their natural role as care givers. To determine the prevalence of dental caries and treatment needs in an adult female Nigerian population. In this cross-sectional study, adult females attending outreach programmes were examined for dental caries using the Decayed Missing and Filled Teeth caries index (DMFT). Socio-demographic variables were also recorded and statistical analysis done with SPSS software. A total of 430 females aged 16 to 59 years participated in the outreach programme out of which 109 (25.3%) had a DMFT score > 0. Mean DMFT was 0.7 ± 1.6. Fifty-five (12.8%) participants had decayed teeth, 78 (18.1 %) had missing teeth and 10(2.3%) had filled teeth. The treatment need was 34.3%, restorative index was 13.3% and significant caries index was 2.0. There were significant differences in caries experience based on age, marital status and educational qualifications of participants p caries among the study group was low but the treatment need was high. Younger females, singles and those with lower educational qualifications had a higher dental caries experience.

  11. Prevalence of Dental Caries among the Population of Gwalior (India) in Relation of Different Associated Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Abdul Arif; Jain, Sudhir K.; Shrivastav, Archana

    2008-01-01

    Objectives India is unique in entire world due to variety of dietary habits in population. Many people of India follow totally vegetarian life style through their entire life time due to some religious and cultural reasons. Present study tried to analyze the role of different factors in the occurrence of dental caries including dietary habit. Methods Persons suffering with dental caries were examined for the type of dental caries in relation to different factors. Dental examination was performed and patients were asked a questionnaire and the data was recorded and analyzed. Results Incidence of dental caries was higher in female. High number of dental caries patients was observed among vegetarian population. 21–30 year age group was found to be most infected with dental caries. Conclusions This study can be helpful to analyze respective role of different dietary factors including protein rich diet, age, gender etc. on the prevalence of dental caries, which can be helpful to counteract the potential increase in the cases of dental caries and to design and plan preventive strategies for the persons at greatest risk. PMID:19212515

  12. Childhood caries in the state of Kentucky, USA: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandel Elizabeth A

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Untreated dental caries afflicts almost one third of school-aged children in the United States and many of them are from disadvantaged families. This cross-sectional study was undertaken to investigate the prevalence of untreated caries in north central Kentucky, USA and to examine the relationships between the available demographic variables and untreated childhood caries as reported on the forms from the Smile Kentucky! program. Methods During the fall of 2008, caries status was assessed during the visual oral screening examination component of “SmileKentucky!”– a model of the American Dental Association’s Give Kids A Smile program. Parents had completed brief surveys concerning 3,488 elementary school children aged 5 to 13 years who participated in the program. A secondary analysis was conducted using univariate, bivariate and multivariate statistical methods. Results Untreated caries was reported in 33% of children. Bivariate and logistic regression analyses found that the most significant risk factors for having untreated caries were living in the metropolitan Louisville, Kentucky area, not having had a dental visit in the previous 3 years and not having any form of dental insurance. Conclusions Untreated caries in elementary school children is prevalent in north-central Kentucky despite efforts to improve access to care. The results suggest that additional family and community preventive initiatives are needed to reduce the development of childhood caries in this area of the United States.

  13. Methods used by Dental Practice-based Research Network (DPBRN) dentists to diagnose dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordan, V V; Riley, J L; Carvalho, R M; Snyder, J; Sanderson, J L; Anderson, M; Gilbert, G H

    2011-01-01

    To (1) identify the methods that dentists in The Dental Practice-Based Research Network (DPBRN) use to diagnose dental caries; (2) quantify their frequency of use and (3) test the hypothesis that certain dentist and dental practice characteristics are significantly associated with their use. A questionnaire about methods used for caries diagnosis was sent to DPBRN dentists who reported doing some restorative dentistry; 522 dentists participated. Questions included the use of dental radiographs, the dental explorer, laser fluorescence, air-drying and fiber-optic devices and magnification as used when diagnosing primary, secondary/recurrent or non-specific caries lesions. Variations on the frequency of their use were tested using multivariate analysis and Bonferroni tests. Overall, the dental explorer was the instrument most commonly used to detect primary occlusal caries and caries at the margins of existing restorations. In contrast, laser fluorescence was rarely used to help diagnose occlusal primary caries. For proximal caries, radiographs were used to help diagnose 75%–100% of lesions by 96% of the DPBRN dentists. Dentists who use radiographs most often to assess proximal surfaces of posterior teeth were significantly more likely to also report providing a higher percentage of patients with individualized caries prevention (p=.040) and seeing a higher percentage of pediatric patients (p=.001). The use of specific diagnostic methods varied substantially. The dental explorer and radiographs are still the most commonly used diagnostic methods..

  14. Methods used by dental practice-based research network dentists to diagnose dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordan, Valerie V; Riley, Joseph L; De Carvalho, Ricardo Marins; Snyder, John; Sanderson, James L; Anderson, Mary; Gilbert, Gregg H

    2013-04-01

    To (1) identify the methods that dentists in The Dental Practice-based Research Network (DPBRN) use to diagnose dental caries; (2) quantify their frequency of use, and (3) test the hypothesis that certain dentist and dental practice characteristics are significantly associated with their use. A questionnaire about methods used for caries diagnosis was sent to DPBRN dentists who reported doing some restorative dentistry; 522 dentists participated. Questions included the use of dental radiographs, the dental explorer, laser fluorescence, air-drying and fiber-optic devices and magnification as used when diagnosing primary, secondary/recurrent or non-specific caries lesions. Variations on the frequency of their use were tested using multivariate analysis and Bonferroni tests. Overall, the dental explorer was the instrument most commonly used to detect primary occlusal caries and caries at the margins of existing restorations. In contrast, laser fluorescence was rarely used to help diagnose occlusal primary caries. For proximal caries, radiographs were used to help diagnose 75%-100% of lesions by 96% of the DPBRN dentists. Dentists who use radiographs most often to assess proximal surfaces of posterior teeth were significantly more likely to also report providing a higher percentage of patients with individualized caries prevention (p = .040) and seeing a higher percentage of pediatric patients (p = .001). The use of specific diagnostic methods varied substantially. The dental explorer and radiographs are still the most commonly used diagnostic methods.

  15. Dental caries experience among Albanian pre-school children: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hysi, D; Caglar, E; Droboniku, E; Toti, C; Kuscu, O O

    2017-03-01

    To determine the dental caries experience and treatment needs among 5-year-olds in Albania. This cross sectional study was conducted in 2015 by using a cluster sampling technique. The dmft was used to assess dental caries experience and caries prevalence as percentages of children with dmf⟩0. Caries treatment needs were assessed with dt/dmft x 100, missing teeth with mt/dmft x 100 and ft /dmft x 100 as the Care Index. 2,039 five-year-olds, from 17 districts of Albania were selected . Children's residency was divided into 3 main regions (South, West, Central and North). WHO 2013 diagnostic criteria were used and dental caries was recorded at cavity level d3. The mean age was 5.4 (SD 0.5) years. The caries prevalence (dmf⟩0) was 84.1%. The prevalence of children without cavitated lesions (d=0) was 20.1%. The mean dmft index was 4.41 (SD 3.83). The caries treatment needs were 84% (SD 26%). The Albanian 5-year-olds assessed in this survey had a high dental caries experience and untreated cavities in the primary dentition. The national health authorities should introduce preventive programs and improved dental care access for this age group. Copyright© 2017 Dennis Barber Ltd

  16. Dental caries and weight among children in Nuuk, Greenland, at school entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Signe Sloth; Wetterstrand, Vicky Jenny Rebecka; Pedersen, Michael Lynge

    2017-01-01

    To explore the possible association between weight class and prevalence of caries among children born 2005-2007, living in Nuuk, Greenland, at time of school entry. A cross-sectional register study based on data from electronic medical records(EMR) and oral health data from public health and dental care facilities. Data from routine examinations of children at time of primary school entry, including height and weight, were obtained from the EMRs. Dental charts recording oral health and caries were collected from public dental healthcare service. The prevalence of caries was calculated as the proportion of included children with dft score (decayed and/or filled non-permanent teeth) ≥1. 55%(373/681) had relevant data recorded in EMRs and dental charts, and could be included in the study. The prevalence of dental caries was 57.1%(213/373). The prevalence of caries increased with higher weight class,but no statistically significant trend was observed(p=0.063). Increasing prevalence of caries with increasing weight class was observed in this study. A linear trend could not be confirmed statistically. The high prevalence of caries and overweight indicate the need for continued focus on preventative initiatives and monitoring. A combined strategy targeting both caries and overweight may be considered.

  17. Methods used by Dental Practice-Based Research Network (DPBRN) dentists to diagnose dental caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordan, Valeria V.; Riley, Joseph L; Carvalho, Ricardo M.; Snyder, John; Sanderson, James L; Anderson, Mary; Gilbert, Gregg H.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To (1) identify the methods that dentists in The Dental Practice-Based Research Network (DPBRN) use to diagnose dental caries; (2) quantify their frequency of use; and (3) test the hypothesis that certain dentist and dental practice characteristics are significantly associated with their use. Methods A questionnaire about methods used for caries diagnosis was sent to DPBRN dentists who reported doing at least some restorative dentistry; 522 dentists participated. Questions included use of dental radiographs, dental explorer, laser fluorescence, air-drying, fiber optic devices, and magnification, as used when diagnosing primary, secondary/recurrent, or non-specific caries lesions. Variations on the frequency of their use were tested using multivariate analysis and Bonferroni tests. Results Overall, the dental explorer was the instrument most commonly used to detect primary occlusal caries as well as to detect caries at the margins of existing restorations. In contrast, laser fluorescence was rarely used to help diagnose occlusal primary caries. For proximal caries, radiographs were used to help diagnose 75-100% of lesions by 96% of the DPBRN dentists. Dentists who use radiographs most often to assess proximal surfaces of posterior teeth, were significantly more likely to also report providing a higher percentage of patients with individualized caries prevention (p = .040) and seeing a higher percentage of pediatric patients (p = .001). Conclusion Use of specific diagnostic methods varied substantially. The dental explorer and radiographs are still the most commonly used diagnostic methods. PMID:21488724

  18. Visual scoring of non-cavitated caries lesions and clinical trial efficiency, testing xylitol in caries active adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, JP; Amaechi, BT; Bader, JD; Gilbert, GH; Makhija, SK; Lozano-Pineda, J; Leo, MC; Chuhe, C; Vollmer, WM

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To better understand the effectiveness of xylitol in caries prevention in adults, and to attempt improved clinical trial efficiency. Methods As part of the Xylitol for Adult Caries Trial (X-ACT), non-cavitated and cavitated caries lesions were assessed in subjects who were experiencing the disease. The trial was a test of the effectiveness of 5 grams/day of xylitol, consumed by dissolving in the mouth five 1 gram lozenges spaced across each day, compared with a sucralose placebo. For this analysis, seeking trial efficiency, 538 subjects aged 21–80, with complete data for four dental examinations were selected from the 691 randomized into the three year trial, conducted at three sites. Acceptable inter and intra examiner reliability before and during the trial was quantified using the kappa statistic. Results The mean annualized non-cavitated plus cavitated lesion transition scores in coronal and root surfaces, from sound to carious favoured xylitol over placebo, during the three cumulative periods of 12, 24, and 33 months, but these clinically and statistically non-significant differences declined in magnitude over time. Restricting the present assessment to those subjects with a higher baseline lifetime caries experience showed possible but inconsistent benefit. Conclusions There was no clear and clinically relevant preventive effect of xylitol on caries in adults with adequate fluoride exposure when non-cavitated plus cavitated lesions were assessed. This conformed to the X-ACT trial result assessing cavitated lesions. Including non-cavitated lesion assessment in this full scale, placebo controlled, multi site, randomized, double blinded clinical trial in adults experiencing dental caries, did not achieve added trial efficiency or demonstrate practical benefit of xylitol. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.Gov NCT00393055 PMID:24205951

  19. Visual scoring of non cavitated caries lesions and clinical trial efficiency, testing xylitol in caries-active adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, John P; Amaechi, Bennett T; Bader, James D; Gilbert, Gregg H; Makhija, Sonia K; Lozano-Pineda, Juanita; Leo, Michael C; Chen, Chuhe; Vollmer, William M

    2014-06-01

    To better understand the effectiveness of xylitol in caries prevention in adults and to attempt improved clinical trial efficiency. As part of the Xylitol for Adult Caries Trial (X-ACT), non cavitated and cavitated caries lesions were assessed in subjects who were experiencing the disease. The trial was a test of the effectiveness of 5 g/day of xylitol, consumed by dissolving in the mouth five 1 g lozenges spaced across each day, compared with a sucralose placebo. For this analysis, seeking trial efficiency, 538 subjects aged 21-80, with complete data for four dental examinations, were selected from the 691 randomized into the 3-year trial, conducted at three sites. Acceptable inter- and intra-examiner reliability before and during the trial was quantified using the kappa statistic. The mean annualized noncavitated plus cavitated lesion transition scores in coronal and root surfaces, from sound to carious favoured xylitol over placebo, during the three cumulative periods of 12, 24, and 33 months, but these clinically and statistically nonsignificant differences declined in magnitude over time. Restricting the present assessment to those subjects with a higher baseline lifetime caries experience showed possible but inconsistent benefit. There was no clear and clinically relevant preventive effect of xylitol on caries in adults with adequate fluoride exposure when non cavitated plus cavitated lesions were assessed. This conformed to the X-ACT trial result assessing cavitated lesions. Including non cavitated lesion assessment in this full-scale, placebo-controlled, multisite, randomized, double-blinded clinical trial in adults experiencing dental caries did not achieve added trial efficiency or demonstrate practical benefit of xylitol. ClinicalTrials.Gov NCT00393055. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Caries dental en escolares del Distrito Federal Dental caries in school children in Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARÍA ESTHER IRIGOYEN-CAMACHO

    1997-03-01

    World Health Organization. Results. A total of 4 475 scholars of 5 to 12 years of age were included in the study. Dental caries prevalence in the population reached 90.5%. The index of treatment necessities was high (79.6%. The mean of caries index in scholars of 12 years of age was DMFT=4.42 (SD= 3.2 and DMFS= 6.53 (SD= 4.8. Conclusions. Results emphasize the pertinence of a widely reaching preventive program of such as salt fluoridation. Additionally, strategies to improve access of the school children population to dental services must be elaborated.

  1. Caries status and proximal lesion behaviour during a 6-year period in young adult Danes: an epidemiological investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martignon, Stefania; Chavarría, Nathaly; Ekstrand, Kim

    2009-01-01

    Studies have indicated that many initial proximal caries lesions progress and are eventually restored even if the patients have been under comprehensive preventive programmes. The objectives of the study were (1) to describe the 1996-year baseline caries status of male Danish conscripts and (2...

  2. Estimating unbiased economies of scale of HIV prevention projects: a case study of Avahan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lépine, Aurélia; Vassall, Anna; Chandrashekar, Sudha; Blanc, Elodie; Le Nestour, Alexis

    2015-04-01

    Governments and donors are investing considerable resources on HIV prevention in order to scale up these services rapidly. Given the current economic climate, providers of HIV prevention services increasingly need to demonstrate that these investments offer good 'value for money'. One of the primary routes to achieve efficiency is to take advantage of economies of scale (a reduction in the average cost of a health service as provision scales-up), yet empirical evidence on economies of scale is scarce. Methodologically, the estimation of economies of scale is hampered by several statistical issues preventing causal inference and thus making the estimation of economies of scale complex. In order to estimate unbiased economies of scale when scaling up HIV prevention services, we apply our analysis to one of the few HIV prevention programmes globally delivered at a large scale: the Indian Avahan initiative. We costed the project by collecting data from the 138 Avahan NGOs and the supporting partners in the first four years of its scale-up, between 2004 and 2007. We develop a parsimonious empirical model and apply a system Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) and fixed-effects Instrumental Variable (IV) estimators to estimate unbiased economies of scale. At the programme level, we find that, after controlling for the endogeneity of scale, the scale-up of Avahan has generated high economies of scale. Our findings suggest that average cost reductions per person reached are achievable when scaling-up HIV prevention in low and middle income countries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Occlusal dental caries incidence and implications for sealant programs in a US college student population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, J W; Katz, R V

    1993-01-01

    Given the decline in dental caries incidence in preteens and young teenagers in the United States, a study of the incidence of dental caries in young adults (17-23 years) was conducted to provide a descriptive epidemiologic picture of this "new" natural history of dental caries in the late and post-teenage years. A retrospective study was performed analyzing the detailed dental records of the four-year college experience in the class of 1989, US Coast Guard Academy. Occlusal caries incidence, in the absence of associated proximal caries, was shown to be moderately common in molars (11.9%) and rare in premolars (0.8%). In contrast to previous studies' findings, demographic indicators, socioeconomic status indicators, and prior caries experience were poor predictors of occlusal caries incidence; targeting a universal sealant policy in this population therefore would be done best by tooth type rather than patient type. A preliminary cost-comparison model, projected over a 40-month period, suggests that the cost of initiating a universal molar sealant policy in this population would be 92 cents per year per student greater than the cost of restoring occlusal caries in the presence of sound proximal surfaces. This cost comparison suggests that it would be advantageous to initiate such a policy.

  4. Caries-related factors and bacterial composition of supragingival plaques in caries free and caries active Algerian adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amina Hoceini

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: This study confirms the association of some aciduric bacteria with caries formation, and a direct association of sugar intake and cultural level with dental caries. Furthermore, oral hygiene practices minimize the prevalence of tooth decay.

  5. Black stain and dental caries in Filipino schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich-Weltzien, Roswitha; Monse, Bella; van Palenstein Helderman, Wim

    2009-04-01

    Black stain is defined as dark pigmented exogenous substance in lines or dots parallel to the gingival margin and firmly adherent to the enamel at the cervical third of the tooth crowns in the primary and permanent dentition. This study was conducted to assess the prevalence of black stain on teeth of Filipino children and to determine a possible association between black stain and caries levels. The study was designed to test the following hypotheses: (i) the prevalence of black stain does not differ between children from schools with oral health intervention programs and those from schools without an intervention program, (ii) the prevalence of black stain does not differ in children attending easily accessible and remote schools, (iii) caries prevalence and caries experience do not differ in children with and without black stain and (iv) the caries distribution at the surface level does not differ in children with and without black stain. In total, 32 elementary schools were included. 19 schools with a comprehensive school-based preventive oral health program, seven schools with a basic preventive program and six control schools. All sixth graders of these schools (n=1748) aged 11.7+/-1.1 years were clinically examined for black stain. DMFT was assessed in 1121 children by seven calibrated dentists using WHO criteria. DMFS was scored in 627 children by two calibrated dentists. Black stain was found in 16% of this population. The prevalence of black stain did not differ significantly between children attending schools with different oral health intervention programs. Thus, hypothesis 1 was accepted. The prevalence of black stain was significantly higher (Pcaries prevalence and caries experience than children without black stain. Thus, hypothesis 3 was rejected. No difference was found in the DMFS pattern of occlusal, smooth and proximal surfaces between children with and without black stain. Thus hypothesis 4 was accepted. The presence of black stain is

  6. Community Awareness on Rabies Prevention and Control in Bicol, Philippines: Pre- and Post-Project Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toni Rose M. Barroga

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Rabies is endemic in the Philippines. To support the rabies campaign in the Bicol region at the southeastern part of Luzon, the BAI-OIE Stop Transboundary Animal Diseases and Zoonoses (STANDZ Rabies project was implemented in the pilot provinces of Camarines Norte, Camarines Sur, Albay, and Masbate. A community awareness survey was conducted with the residents of these provinces to determine their knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAP on rabies during the start and end of the project. Qualitative, descriptive research was done with a structured KAP questionnaire. Pet owners in the pilot provinces were chosen as respondents. Results showed that respondents know that they can acquire rabies in animals through the bite of a rabid dog (pre-project implementation (PRI: 19.6%, post-project implementation (POI: 38.0%. Vaccination was the top rabies preventive measure (PRI: 61.8%, POI: 92.8%. Biting incidents were noted in some respondents, and observing the dog and killing it immediately were some of the actions taken by bite victims. If a supposed rabid dog was seen, respondents would either: immediately kill the dog (PRI: 20.3%, POI: 13.7%, report it to authorities (PRI: 26.3%, POI: 63.1%, and capture and observe the dog concerned (PRI: 13.5%, POI: 6.0%. Pet owners increased their KAP about rabies prevention and control as compared to the pre-implementation study. However, certain gaps in their KAP need to be given attention; thus continuous education of pet owners must be done.

  7. [Epidemiology survey of dental caries and fluorosis of children in Kunming city].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qing; Liu, Juan; Zhang, Canhua; Zhang, Shinan; Li, Yanhong

    2011-10-01

    To determine the feasibility of water fluoridation to prevent caries in Kunming by investigating the epidemiological status of dental caries and dental fluorosis of children, and to provide the longitudinal reference data for the long-term epidemiology survey of dental caries and dental fluorosis in Kunming city. Through stratified cluster sampling method, 212 5-year-old children and 1149 12-year-old children were recruited in the survey. Dental caries condition of each child was clinically examined, dental fluorosis was examined in 12-year-old group. The prevalence of dental caries of primary teeth in 5-year-old group was 73.6%, mean value was 4.47 +/- 4.39. The values of permanent teeth in 12-year-old group were 53.5% and 1.42 +/- 1.83. The prevalence of dental fluorosis in 12-year-old group was 4.1% and the average community fluorosis index was 0.03. Based on the high prevalence of dental caries and the low prevalence of dental fluorosis, it is suggested that using water fluoridation to prevent caries is feasible and necessary in Kunming city.

  8. Results from the Xylitol for Adult Caries Trial (X-ACT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, James D.; Vollmer, William M.; Shugars, Daniel A.; Gilbert, Gregg H.; Amaechi, Bennett T.; Brown, John P.; Laws, Reesa L.; Funkhouser, Kimberly A.; Makhija, Sonia K.; Ritter, André V.; Leo, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Although caries is prevalent in adults, few preventive therapies have been tested in adult populations. This randomized clinical trial evaluated the effectiveness of xylitol lozenges in preventing caries in elevated caries-risk adults. Methods X-ACT was a three-site placebo-controlled randomized trial. Participants (n=691) ages 21–80 consumed five 1.0 g xylitol or placebo lozenges daily for 33 months. Clinical examinations occurred at baseline, 12, 24 and 33 months. Results Xylitol lozenges reduced the caries increment 11%. This reduction, which represented less than one-third of a surface per year, was not statistically significant. There was no indication of a dose-response effect. Conclusions Daily use of xylitol lozenges did not result in a statistically or clinically significant reduction in 33-month caries increment among elevated caries-risk adults. Clinical Implications These results suggest that xylitol used as a supplement in adults does not significantly reduce their caries experience. PMID:23283923

  9. Diagnosis and management of dental caries throughout life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To provide health care providers, patients, and the general public with a responsible assessment of currently available data regarding the diagnosis and management of dental caries throughout life. A non-Federal, non-advocate, 13-member panel representing the fields of dentistry, epidemiology, genetics, medicine, oral biology, oral radiology, pathology, periodontics, public health, statistics, surgery, and including a public representative. In addition, 31 experts in these same fields presented data to the panel and to a conference audience of approximately 700. Presentations by experts; a systematic review of the dental research literature provided by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; and an extensive bibliography of dental caries research papers, prepared by the National Library of Medicine. Scientific evidence was given precedence over clinical anecdotal experience. Answering predefined questions, the panel drafted a statement based on the scientific evidence presented in open forum and the scientific literature. The draft statement was read in its entirety on the final day of the conference and circulated to the experts and the audience for comment. The panel then met in executive session to consider these comments and released a revised statement at the end of the conference. The statement was made available on the World Wide Web at http://consensus.nih.gov immediately after the conference. This statement is an independent report of the panel and is not a policy statement of the NIH or the Federal Government. This Consensus Development Conference, the first sponsored by the NIH on dental caries, provided an excellent venue to describe the great success that has been achieved in reducing caries prevalence. More importantly, it provided a public forum to review both the strengths and weaknesses of current dental caries research and clinical procedures. Effective preventive practices, such as the use of fluoride, sugarless products, and dental

  10. Dental caries - not just holes in teeth! A perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, W H

    2016-06-01

    Cavitation in teeth results from a pathogenic process termed dental caries that has occurred on the tooth surface for weeks or even years. Accumulation of dental plaque (biofilm) on the tooth is usually the first manifestation of the disease. Although acid production is the immediate and proximal cause of dissolution of teeth; it is the milieu within which the acid is formed that should be of primary concern. Focusing on the 'critical pH' has detracted attention from the more biological aspects (biofilm formation) of dental caries. Dental caries is unique; it is a biological process occurring on essentially an inert surface. Investigation of the multitude of interactions occurring in plaque ranging from enamel interfaces to surfaces of bacteria and matrices poses challenges worthy of the best scientific minds. The mouth clearly offers unique opportunities to investigate the multi facets of biofilm formation in vivo, generating data that have relevance way beyond the mouth. Prevention of this ubiquitous disease, dental caries, continues to present serious challenges. The public health benefits of fluoride delivered in its various formats are well recognized. Nevertheless, additional preventive approaches are required. Overcoming the rapid clearance of agents from the mouth is particularly challenging. Building on the polymerizing capacity of glucosyltransferases it may be possible to incorporate a therapeutic agent into the matrix plaque, thereby delivering therapeutic agents precisely to where they are needed. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Detection of oral streptococci in dental biofilm from caries-active and caries-free children

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Andréa Cristina Barbosa; Cruz, Jader dos Santos; Sampaio, Fábio Correia; de Araújo, Demetrius Antônio Machado

    2008-01-01

    This work correlated the presence of oral streptococci in dental biofilm with clinical indexes of caries and oral hygiene in caries-active and caries-free children. S. mutans and/or S. sobrinus in the dental biofilm does not indicate a direct risk for developing dental caries. PMID:24031282

  12. Caries assessment: establishing mathematical link of clinical and benchtop method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaechi, Bennett T.

    2009-02-01

    It is well established that the development of new technologies for early detection and quantitative monitoring of dental caries at its early stage could provide health and economic benefits ranging from timely preventive interventions to reduction of the time required for clinical trials of anti-caries agents. However, the new technologies currently used in clinical setting cannot assess and monitor caries using the actual mineral concentration within the lesion, while a laboratory-based microcomputed tomography (MCT) has been shown to possess this capability. Thus we envision the establishment of mathematical equations relating the measurements of each of the clinical technologies to that of MCT will enable the mineral concentration of lesions detected and assessed in clinical practice to be extrapolated from the equation, and this will facilitate preventitive care in dentistry to lower treatment cost. We utilize MCT and the two prominent clinical caries assessment devices (Quantitative Light-induced Fluorescence [QLF] and Diagnodent) to longitudinally monitor the development of caries in a continuous flow mixed-organisms biofilm model (artificial mouth), and then used the collected data to establish mathematical equation relating the measurements of each of the clinical technologies to that of MCT. A linear correlation was observed between the measurements of MicroCT and that of QLF and Diagnodent. Thus mineral density in a carious lesion detected and measured using QLF or Diagnodent can be extrapolated using the developed equation. This highlights the usefulness of MCT for monitoring the progress of an early caries being treated with therapeutic agents in clinical practice or trials.

  13. Avaliação da incidência de cárie em pacientes com síndrome de Down após sua inserção em um programa preventivo Evaluation of the incidence of dental caries in patients with Down syndrome after their insertion in a preventive program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Rogéria Freire de Castilho

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a incidência de cárie dentária por meio dos índices CPO-D, CPO-S, ceo-d e ceo-s em indivíduos com síndrome de Down regularmente matriculados em um programa preventivo. Foram examinados 24 indivíduos com síndrome de Down de ambos os sexos, com idade entre um e 48 anos. A prevalência (situação experimental inicial e a incidência (situação experimental final de cárie dentária foram verificadas utilizando-se os índices CPO-D, CPO-S, ceo-d e ceo-s iniciais e finais dos participantes. Dos 24 indivíduos examinados, dez (42,0% eram livres de cárie. A prevalência de cárie dentária mostrou valores de CPO-D= 2,33; CPO-S= 3,60; ceo-d= 1,75 e ceo-s= 2,80; enquanto a incidência de cárie apresentou valores de 2,33; 3,80; 1,10 e 1,90, respectivamente. Os indivíduos com síndrome de Down avaliados neste estudo apresentaram baixos índices de cárie e pequena incidência de novas lesões, enfatizando a importância da manutenção desses pacientes em programas preventivos.The objective of this work was to verify the incidence of dental caries by means of the CPO-D, CPO-S, ceo-d and ceo-s indexes in patients with Down syndrome regularly enrolled in a preventive program. Twenty four Down syndrome patients of both sexes age range of one to 48 years were examined. The prevalence (initial experimental situation and incidence (final experimental situation of dental caries were verified using of the initial and final CPO-D, CPO-S, ceo-d and ceo-s indexes of the participants. From 24 individual examined, 10 (42.0% were free of caries. The prevalence of dental caries showed values of CPO-D= 2.33; CPO-S= 3.60; ceo-d= 1.75 e ceo-s= 2.80; while the incidence of caries showed values of 2.33; 3.80; 1.10 e 1.90, respectively. Down syndrome individuals evaluated in this study presented low level of caries and small incidence of new lesions, emphasizing the importance of the maintenance of these patients at

  14. Prevalence of Dental Caries and Designing the Interventional Strategies for School Children in Rural Konkan Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asawari Modak

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available School remains an important setting offering an effective and efficient ways to reach over to children and through them, families and community members.(1 Dental caries is very common disease in childhood, interfering with food intake affecting physical development in the form of malnutrition, child’s school attendance and academic performance. Tooth decay or cavities caused by dental caries is an infectious disease and is diet and oral hygiene dependent. If left untreated result in toothache, permanent cavitations and children with active disease become adult with tooth decay. Also poor dentition and malocclusion decreases the masticatory performance effecting oral health and quality of life. Fortunately dental caries is both preventable and treatable with effective home care and regular access to preventive dental services. The present study was carried out in the rural area of Konkan region to assess the awareness regarding oral hygiene, prevalence of dental caries, to assess the masticatory performance.

  15. The surgical care improvement project and prevention of post-operative infection, including surgical site infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberger, Laura H; Politano, Amani D; Sawyer, Robert G

    2011-06-01

    In response to inconsistent compliance with infection prevention measures, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services collaborated with the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention on the Surgical Infection Prevention (SIP) project, introduced in 2002. Quality improvement measures were developed to standardize processes to increase compliance. In 2006, the Surgical Care Improvement Project (SCIP) developed out of the SIP project and its process measures. These initiatives, published in the Specifications Manual for National Inpatient Quality Measures, outline process and outcome measures. This continually evolving manual is intended to provide standard quality measures to unify documentation and track standards of care. Seven of the SCIP initiatives apply to the peri-operative period: Prophylactic antibiotics should be received within 1 h prior to surgical incision (1), be selected for activity against the most probable antimicrobial contaminants (2), and be discontinued within 24 h after the surgery end-time (3); (4) euglycemia should be maintained, with well-controlled morning blood glucose concentrations on the first two post-operative days, especially in cardiac surgery patients; (6) hair at the surgical site should be removed with clippers or by depilatory methods, not with a blade; (9) urinary catheters are to be removed within the first two post-operative days; and (10) normothermia should be maintained peri-operatively. There is strong evidence that implementation of protocols that standardize practices reduce the risk of surgical infection. The SCIP initiative targets complications that account for a significant portion of preventable morbidity as well as cost. One of the goals of the SCIP guidelines was a 25% reduction in the incidence of surgical site infections from implementation through 2010. Process measures are becoming routine, and as we practice more evidence-based medicine, it falls to us, the surgeons and scientists, to be active

  16. Limited evidence suggests standard fluoride toothpaste reduces caries potential in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkhadem, Ahmed; Wanees, Suzan

    2014-03-01

    CENTRAL, Medline, Embase, Web of Science, LILACS and BBO databases, the Brazilian database of thesis and dissertations (Banco de Teses CAPES), a Brazilian register of ethically approved projects involving human beings (SISNEP) and two registers of ongoing trials (Current Controlled Trials and Clinical-Trials.gov). Reference lists were also scanned for relevant papers. Study authors were contacted for additional information. Individual or cluster-randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials conducted in children under seven were included. Study selection and data abstraction were conducted by two reviewers independently. Risk of bias assessment was undertaken using the Cochrane Collaboration tool. Meta-analyses of prevented fractions (PF) were performed to assess the effect of fluoride toothpaste on the dmft and dmfs. Meta-analyses were also performed to obtain a pooled relative risk (RR) to assess the effect of fluoride toothpastes on the proportion of children developing caries. Eight studies were included. When standard F toothpastes were compared to placebo or no intervention, significant caries reduction at surface (PF = 31%; 95% CI 18-43; 2644 participants in five studies), tooth (PF = 16%; 95% CI 8-25; 2555 participants in one study) and individual (RR = 0.86; 95% CI 0.81-0.93; 2806 participants in two studies) level were observed. Low F toothpastes were effective only at surface level (PF = 40%; 95% CI 5-75; 561 participants in two studies). Standard F toothpastes are effective in reducing dental caries in the primary teeth of preschool children and thus their use should be recommended to this age group.

  17. Dental caries experience and barriers to care in young children with disabilities in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagheri, Darius; McLoughlin, Jacinta; Nunn, June H

    2013-02-01

    Dental caries among preschool children remains a significant dental public health problem. In Ireland, there are no national data available regarding dental caries levels in preschool children. Furthermore, the number of young children with disabilities and their dental caries levels remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to measure the dental caries levels in a sample of preschool children with disabilities. A team of trained and calibrated dentists examined a sample of all 0- to 6-year old preschool children with disabilities in two health service administrative areas under standardized conditions. Dental caries was recorded using WHO criteria. Of a total of 422 participants, 337 datasets were included in the study. Of these 337 examined children, approximately 75.1% had a cognitive disability and 12.9% had a noncognitive disability. In 12% of the children, a diagnosis had not yet been established. Dental caries at dentin level was detected from the age of 4 years. The overall mean decayed/missing/ filled teeth (dmft) was 0.49 (SD, 1.39). The analysis of mean dmft levels in children with positive (dmft > 0) scores revealed a mean dmft of 1.14. The evidence from this study demonstrated that dental caries levels in preschool children with disabilities in Ireland are low when compared with the general population. Furthermore, children aged 3 years or younger exhibited no dental caries at dentin level and therefore were not affected by early childhood caries. An adjustment of current oral health prevention practice may lead to a further reduction in dental caries levels in this section of the child population.

  18. The approach of the PREFER project to wildfire prevention and damage assessment in the Mediterranean area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laneve, Giovanni; Fusilli, Lorenzo; Tampellini, Maria Lucia; Vimercati, Marco; Hirn, Barbara; Sebastian-Lopez, Ana; Diagourtas, Dimitri; Eftychidis, Georgios; Clandillon, Stephen; Caspard, Mathilde; Oliveira, Sandra; Lourenco, Luciano

    2015-04-01

    PREFER is a Copernicus Emergency project funded from the 2012 FP7 Space Work Programme, and it is aimed at developing products and services that will contribute to improve the European capacity to respond to the preparedness, prevention, and recovery management steps in the case of forest fire emergency cycle, with focus on the Mediterranean area. It is well known from the most recent reports on state of Europe's forests that the Mediterranean area is particularly affected by uncontrolled forest fires, with a number of negative consequences on ecosystems, such as desertification and soil erosion, and on the local economy. Most likely, the current risks of forest fires will be exacerbated by climate change. In particular, the climate of Southern Europe and the Mediterranean basin is projected to warm at a rate exceeding the global average. Wild fires will therefore remain the most serious threat to Southern European forests. In this situation, the need to collect better information and more knowledge concerning future risks of forest fires and fire prevention in the Mediterranean area is widely recognized to be a major urgent one. As part of the Copernicus programme (i.e. the European Earth Observation Programme), PREFER is based on advanced geo-information products using in particular the earth observation data acquired and developed in the frame of Copernicus. The objective of the PREFER project, started at the end of 2012, 8 partners (from Italy, Portugal, Spain, France and Greece) involved and three years schedule, is the design, development and demonstration of a pre-operational "end-to-end" information service, fully exploiting satellite sensors data and able to support prevention/ preparedness and recovery phases of the Forest Fires emergency cycle in the EU Mediterranean Region. The PREFER information is as general as to be usable in the different countries of the Mediterranean Region, and acts in full complement to already existing services, such as the EC

  19. Teen Peer Outreach-Street Work Project: HIV prevention education for runaway and homeless youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podschun, G D

    1993-01-01

    Each year, there are approximately 2 million homeless and runaway youths in the United States. On any given night, there are 1,000 homeless youngsters living on the streets of San Diego, CA. Homeless young people are commonly involved in one or more of the following activities that place them at risk for HIV infection--unprotected sexual intercourse, needle-sharing in the use of injectable drugs, sex with someone who injects drugs. The Teen Peer Outreach-Street Work Project trains teen peer educators to work in three existing San Diego youth service programs with street outreach staff members to provide HIV prevention education and referral services to San Diego's homeless youth. Selected teens from the target population also participate in street-based case management that provides skill development to bring about behavioral and attitudinal changes. An HIV outreach program cannot stand alone and is most successful if it is integrated with services that meet the basic needs of its clients. In the three participating youth service programs of the Teen Peer Outreach-Street Work Project, food, clothes, and shelter information are provided. There are shelters in two of the three programs that become places where HIV educational messages, delivered on the street, can be reinforced. Immediate and concrete assistance can be offered to homeless youth. Low literacy among the target population presents a significant obstacle to adequate and appropriate HIV prevention education for homeless youth. Currently, education materials that specifically target homeless youth do not exit. The outreach street project is being expanded to develop materials for homeless youth with low literacy levels.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8464971

  20. Validation of Visual Caries Activity Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guedes, R S; Piovesan, C; Ardenghi, T M

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the predictive and construct validity of a caries activity assessment system associated with the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) in primary teeth. A total of 469 children were reexamined: participants of a caries survey performed 2 yr before (follow-up ra...

  1. The prevalence of questionable occlusal caries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makhija, Sonia K; Gilbert, Gregg H; Funkhouser, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Questionable occlusal caries (QOC) can be defined as clinically suspected caries with no cavitation or radiographic evidence of occlusal caries. To the authors' knowledge, no one has quantified the prevalence of QOC, so this quantification was the authors' objective in conducting this study...

  2. Caries og de nye nationale indkaldeintervaller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekstrand, Kim; Bruun, Gitte; Bakhshandeh, Azam

    2015-01-01

    obligatorisk at gøre under de nye retningslinjer. Det gennemgås, hvilke behandlinger der er relevante for patienten i forhold til de tre cariesdiagnoser: Caries dentalis progressiva superficialis (CS), Caries dentalis progressiva media (CM) og Caries dentalis progressiva profunda (CP). Diagnoserne angiver...

  3. Silver Diamine Fluoride Treatment Considerations in Children's Caries Management Brief Communication and Commentary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crystal, Yasmi O; Niederman, Richard

    2016-01-01

    By arresting and preventing caries, SDF offers an alternate care path for patients for whom traditional restorative treatment is not immediately available. Current data from controlled clinical trials encompassing more than 3900 children, indicates that biannual application of SDF reduces progression of current and risk of subsequent caries. This commentary highlights the best evidence from systematic reviews and clinical trials for clinicians to consider the benefits, risks and limitations as they implement SDF therapy on young children. PMID:28281949

  4. Remineralization of Artificial Caries in Primary Teeth by Grape Seed Extract: An In Vitro Study

    OpenAIRE

    Mirkarimi, Mahkameh; Eskandarion, Solmauz; Bargrizan, Majid; Delazar, Abbas; Kharazifard, Mohammad Javad

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims. Promoting remineralization is the ultimate goal of clinical prevention of caries lesion. The present in vitro study aimed to investigate the effect of grape seed extract (GSE) on artificial enamel caries in primary human teeth. Materials and methods. Seventeen human sound primary incisors were sectioned mesiodistally. The tooth slices were placed in a demineralizing solution for 96 hours at 37ºC and 50% relative humidity to create lesions. The demineralized ...

  5. NEW DATA ON THE CLINICAL AND THERAPEUTIC MANAGEMENT OF OCCLUSAL CARIES (III)

    OpenAIRE

    Sorin ANDRIAN; Andrei GEORGESCU; Simona STOLERIU; Emilia DÎMBU

    2017-01-01

    In the control of occlusal caries, the major challenges are related not only to the detection of non-cavitary lesions, but also to the establishment of the treatment strategies to be subsequently applied. Considering the objective of each treatment, that of helping the patient, it is essential to control the progression of carious lesions by means of nonsurgical, preventive/therapeutical methods, whenever necessary. The new strategies applied in caries management are b...

  6. Project ECHO: A Telementoring Program for Cervical Cancer Prevention and Treatment in Low-Resource Settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa S. Lopez

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates are significantly higher in low- and middle-income countries compared with the United States and other developed countries. This disparity is caused by decreased access to screening, often coupled with low numbers of trained providers offering cancer prevention and treatment services. However, similar disparities are also found in underserved areas of the United States, such as the Texas-Mexico border, where cervical cancer mortality rates are 30% higher than in the rest of Texas. To address these issues, we have adopted the Project ECHO (Extension for Community Healthcare Outcomes program, a low-cost telementoring model previously proven to be successful in increasing local capacity, improving patient management skills, and ultimately improving patient outcomes in rural and underserved areas. We use the Project ECHO model to educate local providers in the management of cervical dysplasia in a low-resource region of Texas and have adapted it to inform strategies for the management of advanced cervical and breast cancer in Latin America and sub-Saharan Africa. This innovative approach, using ECHO, is part of a larger strategy to enhance clinical skills and develop collaborative projects between academic centers and partners in low-resource regions.

  7. The Healthy Skin Project: changing nursing practice to prevent and treat hospital-acquired pressure ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour-Burton, Teri; Fields, Willa; Outlaw, Lanie; Deleon, Elvira

    2013-06-01

    Hospital-acquired pressure ulcers are serious clinical complications that can lead to increased length of stay, pain, infection, and, potentially, death. The surgical progressive care unit at Sharp Grossmont Hospital, San Diego, California, developed the multidisciplinary Healthy Skin Project to decrease the prevalence of hospital-acquired pressure ulcers. The previous treatment plan was reviewed and modified according to current evidence-based practice. The project consisted of 3 components: creation of a position for a unit-based wound liaison nurse, staff education, and involvement of the nursing assistants. The wound liaison nurse developed and conducted bimonthly skin audits, which revealed inconsistencies in clinical practice and documentation. Education for the staff was accomplished via a self-learning module, case presentations, and 1-on-1 training. In addition, a pressure ulcer algorithm tool was developed to demonstrate step-by-step wound management and documentation. From Spring 2003 through Summer 2006, the prevalence of hospital-acquired pressure ulcers ranged from 0.0% to 18.92%, with a mean of 4.85%. After implementation of the project, the prevalence decreased to 0.0% for 17 of 20 quarters, through 2011. Prevention and a multidisciplinary approach are effective in reducing the occurrence of hospital-acquired pressure ulcers.

  8. Caries risk assessment in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, S

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To summarise the findings of recent systematic reviews (SR) covering caries risk assessment in children, updated with recent primary studies. METHODS: A search for relevant papers published 2012-2014 was conducted in electronic databases. The systematic reviews were quality assessed...... displayed a high risk of bias. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the present summary of literature, it may be concluded: (1) a caries risk assessment should be carried out at the child's first dental visit and reassessments should be done during childhood (D); (2) multivariate models display a better accuracy than...... the use of single predictors and this is especially true for preschool children (C); (3) there is no clearly superior method to predict future caries and no evidence to support the use of one model, program, or technology before the other (C); and (4) the risk category should be linked to appropriate...

  9. [Recent findings in the etiopathogenesis of caries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farge, P

    1998-10-01

    Caries have three main interrelated etiological factors: 1) a bacteriological factor represented by cariogen oral bacteria, mainly Streptococcus mutans, which adhere to the dental surface and initiate the decalcification of the enamel by producing an acid environment through carbohydrate degradation; 2) the quality of the oral biofilm which is colonized more or less rapidly by bacteria after brushing, leading to an adhesive and aggressive dental plaque; 3) the quality of enamel which is reinforced by fluor ion, and of saliva. The early superficial phase of carie constitution is reversible through remineralisation from calcium, phosphate and fluor ions present in the oral cavity. In the absence of remineralisation the destructive and infectious process extends to the inner part of the tooth leading, to its progressive destruction. Prevention is based upon the following pathophysiological data, mainly: 1) family education on oral hygiene by regular brushing, and avoidance of foods or fluids containing sugars between meals; 2) fluoride intake starting at birth and being adapted to age, the prescription of fluoride supplementation, taking into account possible other sources of fluor (salt, water).

  10. The Marketplace for New Caries Management Products: Dental Caries Detection and Caries Management by Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berg Joel H

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The number of new technologies emerging each year in the realm of dental caries management is growing at an exponential rate. Examining the patent literature, one can see that this growth rate will likely continue, with the outcome that dentistry will see an expanded growth in managing dental caries by risk assessment with medicinal therapeutic interventions. Restorative dentistry solutions, treating the results of dental caries, will continue to grow, while technologies to identify the caries process at its earliest stages will soon invade practices everywhere. The most interesting aspect of these changes will be how industry responds to the inexorable, yet slow change in dental professional demand for these new technologies, while trying to be the "first to market" within the various categories of this business opportunity. This paper will take a close look at how businesses with the core competence to be key players in this emerging growth category will assess the marketplace, and match up their business interests with the changing needs of the dental profession. The paper will also address the strategic planning and business processes that the dental industry will undertake to bring new technologies to market, and how these technologies will be positioned to health care professionals and consumers. The results of the key interactions between industry and the dental profession will determine the extent to which dental caries is managed as a disease, in addition to being managed by surgical restorative interventions.

  11. Salivary biomarkers for dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiaoli; Jiang, Shan; Koh, David; Hsu, Chin-Ying Stephen

    2016-02-01

    As a highly prevalent multifactorial disease, dental caries afflicts a large proportion of the world's population. As teeth are constantly bathed in saliva, the constituents and properties of this oral fluid play an essential role in the occurrence and progression of dental caries. Various inorganic (water and electrolytes) and organic (proteins and peptides) components may protect teeth from dental caries. This occurs via several functions, such as clearance of food debris and sugar, aggregation and elimination of microorganisms, buffering actions to neutralize acid, maintaining supersaturation with respect to tooth mineral, participation in formation of the acquired pellicle and antimicrobial defense. Modest evidence is available on the associations between dental caries and several salivary parameters, including flow rate, buffering capacity and abundance of mutans streptococci. Despite some controversial findings, the main body of the literature supports an elevated caries prevalence and/or incidence among people with a pathologically low saliva flow rate, compromised buffering capacity and early colonization or high titer of mutans streptococci in saliva. The evidence remains weak and/or inconsistent on the association between dental caries and other saliva parameters, such as other possible cariogenic species (Lactobacillus spp., Streptococcus sanguis group, Streptococcus salivarius, Actinomyces spp. and Candida albicans), diversity of saliva microbiomes, inorganic and organic constituents (electrolytes, immunoglobulins, other proteins and peptides) and some functional properties (sugar clearance rate, etc.). The complex interactions between salivary components and functions suggest that saliva has to be considered in its entirety to account for its total effects on teeth. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. [An epidemiological investigation of deciduous dental caries among 5375 preschool children aged between 3 to 6 years in Shenyang City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Rui-bo; Zhang, Xiao-fang; Zhang, Ying; Pan, Lin; Tao, Wei

    2006-12-01

    To investigate the status of dental caries of deciduous teeth among preschool children in Shenyang city. According to the criteria recommended by the World Health Organization and The Second National Oral Health Investigation, the deciduous caries of 5375 preschool children aged from 3 to 6 years were clinically examined. The mean dmft and the prevalence of dental caries for each age group were calculated. The results were analyzed using SPSS11.0 software package for t test (to compare the difference between the two sample groups), one way ANOVA (to compare the differences among three and more sample groups) and chi2 test (to compare the rate of each group). The prevalence of dental caries was 71.29%. The mean dmft score was 3.88. The prevalence of dental caries and mean dmft increased gradually as the children were growing up (P caries of the upper teeth was significantly more common than that of the lower teeth (P caries were minor in degree of severity, and mostly lie in the occlusal and proximal surface. The filling rate was 10.82%.As the age increase, the filling rate increased, too. Deciduous dental caries of preschool children was an important problem in Shenyang city, and the filling rate was very low. Necessary methods for early prevention of dental caries must be taken into consideration. Supported by Scientific Research Fund for College and University from Liaoning Provincial Education Bureau (Grant No. 20201316).

  13. Long-term adoption of caries management by risk assessment among dental students in a university clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffee, Benjamin W; Featherstone, John D B

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term adoption of a risk-based caries management program at a university dental clinic. The authors extracted data from electronic records of adult non-edentulous patients who underwent a comprehensive oral evaluation in the university predoctoral clinic from July 2007 through June 2014 (N=21,984). Consistency with caries management guidelines was measured as the percentage of patients with caries risk designation (low, moderate, high, or extreme) and the percentage of patients provided non-operative anti-caries agents within each designated caries risk category. Additionally, patient and provider characteristics associated with risk assessment completion and with provision of anti-caries therapy were identified. Results showed that the percentage of patients with documented caries risk grew steadily from 62.3% in 2007-08 to 92.8% in 2013-14. Overall, receipt of non-operative anti-caries agents increased with rising caries risk, from low (6.9%), moderate (14.1%), high (36.4%), to extreme (51.4%), but percentages were stable over the study period. Younger patients were more likely to have a completed risk assessment, and among high- and extreme-risk patients, delivery of anti-caries therapy was more common among patients who were younger, identified as Asian or Caucasian, received public dental benefits, or were seen by a student in the four-year DDS program or in the final year of training. These results demonstrate that extensive compliance in documenting caries risk was achieved within a decade of implementing risk-based clinical guidelines at this dental school clinic. Caries risk was the most strongly associated of several factors related to delivery of non-operative therapy. The eventual success of this program suggests that, in dental education, transition to a risk-based, prevention-focused curriculum may require a long-term commitment.

  14. Dental Caries and Associated Factors in Children Aged 2-4 Years Old in Mbeya City, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwakayoka, Hery; Masalu, Joyce Rose; Namakuka Kikwilu, Emil

    2017-06-01

    Dental caries in infants and young children is prevalent worldwide; its magnitude and associated factors vary between communities because of cultural and social economic differences. No such information was available for pre-school children in Mbeya city. To determine dental caries status and associated factors in 2 to 4-year-old children in Mbeya city. A cross sectional study was conducted among 525 children aged 2-4 years and their parents/caregivers. Caries was assessed using caries assessment spectrum and treatment index, oral hygiene by visual inspection for visible plaque on index teeth, and dietary and oral hygiene habits by a questionnaire. Kappa statistics was used to test reliability of study instruments, χ 2 -test and logistic regression was employed for studying associations. Caries free children for dmft1, dmft2 and dmft3 were 79.8%, 83.8% and 94.7% and caries experience was 0.49 (1.23), 0.4 (1.14) and 0.10 (0.53) respectively. Older age [(OR =2.722 (1.617-4.582) p =caries. Prolonged breastfeeding for more than 1 year and breastfeeding at night had no association with dental caries. The prevalence of dental caries was very low. Older age and frequent consumption of factory made sugary foods at age 1-2 years were associated with higher odds of developing dental caries. Prolonged breasfeeding and breastfeeding at night had no association with dental caries. Prevention of dental caries should be instituted as soon as primary teeth start erupting, especially through discouraging consumption of factory made sugary foods/snacks.

  15. Dental Caries and Associated Factors in Children Aged 2-4 Years Old in Mbeya City, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwakayoka, Hery; Masalu, Joyce Rose; Namakuka Kikwilu, Emil

    2017-01-01

    Statement of the Problem: Dental caries in infants and young children is prevalent worldwide; its magnitude and associated factors vary between communities because of cultural and social economic differences. No such information was available for pre-school children in Mbeya city. Purpose: To determine dental caries status and associated factors in 2 to 4-year-old children in Mbeya city. Materials and Method: A cross sectional study was conducted among 525 children aged 2-4 years and their parents/caregivers. Caries was assessed using caries assessment spectrum and treatment index, oral hygiene by visual inspection for visible plaque on index teeth, and dietary and oral hygiene habits by a questionnaire. Kappa statistics was used to test reliability of study instruments, χ2-test and logistic regression was employed for studying associations. Results: Caries free children for dmft1, dmft2 and dmft3 were 79.8%, 83.8% and 94.7% and caries experience was 0.49 (1.23), 0.4 (1.14) and 0.10 (0.53) respectively. Older age [(OR =2.722 (1.617-4.582) p=caries. Prolonged breastfeeding for more than 1 year and breastfeeding at night had no association with dental caries. Conclusion: The prevalence of dental caries was very low. Older age and frequent consumption of factory made sugary foods at age 1-2 years were associated with higher odds of developing dental caries. Prolonged breasfeeding and breastfeeding at night had no association with dental caries. Prevention of dental caries should be instituted as soon as primary teeth start erupting, especially through discouraging consumption of factory made sugary foods/snacks. PMID:28620634

  16. Planning and implementation of community oral health programs for caries management in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, C H; Chau, Alex M H; Lo, Edward C M; Lam, Anty

    2012-01-01

    Tooth decay or cavities (dental caries) can have a significant impact on children's quality of life, causing pain, infection, and other problems in the oral environment. Good oral health is a fundamental element of good general health for children, yet dental caries is still prevalent among children in many countries. Dental caries is well-understood, and effective prevention is an attainable goal. Dental professionals should actively engage with communities--in particular, the underprivileged--to identify dental caries problems and implement appropriate and effective community oral health programs (COHPs) to improve oral health and reduce oral health inequalities. This paper discusses COHPs as well as the steps involved in caries prevention for children. These steps cannot ensure the success of every COHP, but they are helpful for developing, integrating, expanding, and enhancing them. The effectiveness of COHPs for the prevention of caries in children varies from country to country, according to cultural, social, economic, and health care settings. Careful consideration of the local situation is required when selecting the elements of COHPs.

  17. Allowing for MSD prevention during facilities planning for a public service: an a posteriori analysis of 10 library design projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellemare, Marie; Trudel, Louis; Ledoux, Elise; Montreuil, Sylvie; Marier, Micheline; Laberge, Marie; Vincent, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    Research was conducted to identify an ergonomics-based intervention model designed to factor in musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) prevention when library projects are being designed. The first stage of the research involved an a posteriori analysis of 10 recent redesign projects. The purpose of the analysis was to document perceptions about the attention given to MSD prevention measures over the course of a project on the part of 2 categories of employees: librarians responsible for such projects and personnel working in the libraries before and after changes. Subjects were interviewed in focus groups. Outcomes of the analysis can guide our ergonomic assessment of current situations and contribute to a better understanding of the way inclusion or improvement of prevention measures can support the workplace design process.

  18. Effectiveness of Xylitol in Reducing Dental Caries in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marghalani, Abdullah A; Guinto, Emilie; Phan, Minhthu; Dhar, Vineet; Tinanoff, Norman

    2017-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of xylitol in reducing dental caries in children compared to no treatment, a placebo, or preventive strategies. MEDLINE via PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) were searched from January 1, 1995 through Sept. 26, 2016 for randomized and controlled trials on children consuming xylitol for at least 12 months. The primary endpoint was caries reduction measured by mean decayed, missing, and filled primary and permanent surfaces/ teeth (dmfs/t, DMFS/T, respectively). The I2 and chi-square test for heterogeneity were used to detect trial heterogeneity. Meta-analyses were performed and quality was evaluated using GRADE profiler software. Analysis of five randomized controlled trials (RCTs) showed that xylitol had a small effect on reducing dental caries (standardized mean difference [SMD] equals -0.24; 95 percent confidence interval [CI] equals -0.48 to 0.01; P = 0.06) with a very low quality of evidence and considerable heterogeneity. Studies with higher xylitol doses (greater than four grams per day) demonstrated a medium caries reduction (SMD equals -0.54; 95 percent CI equals -1.14 to 0.05; P = 0.07), with these studies also having considerable heterogeneity and very low quality of evidence. The present systematic review examining the effectiveness of xylitol on caries incidence in children showed a small effect size in randomized controlled trials and a very low quality of evidence that makes preventive action of xylitol uncertain.

  19. Project Protect” intervention. Testing a new approach for HIV prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasylyeva, Tetyana

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND. “Project Protect” aims to find highly infectious individuals through screening for acute/recent infection cases and prevent HIV transmission in the risk networks of these cases through contact tracing of these networks` participants, distributing community alerts about risk of acute infection among them and accurate post-test counseling.METHODS. An ongoing pilot phase of the intervention began in Kriviy Rig and Lviv, Ukraine in November, 2011. Participants are recruited through: 1 screening for cases of acute/recent infection at voluntary counseling and testing (VCT sites and in partner organizations (including AIDS-Centers which conduct VCT; 2 visits to drug use venues, chain-referral and contact tracing. Genscreen ultra HIV Ag-Ab “special-tests” are used to detect cases of acute infection. Recent infection is defined as positive test result and preceding negative result within 6 months and/or age younger than 21 years old.RESULTS. In the two cities 173 respondents were recruited to the project, 118 special tests were done. No cases of acute infection and eleven cases of recent infection were found (8 injection drug users (IDUs with preceding negative result within 6 months, 2 IDUs younger than 21 recruited by project team; one non-IDU with preceding negative result within 6 months referred from AIDS-Center. Six recent cases were recruited through screening at VCT sites, 5 others through contact tracing. Psychologists conducted 41 interviews with recent infection cases and their risk networks` members; 176 community alert flyers were distributed to members of risk networks during the interview by psychologist, at the venue by social worker and by participants themselves; 3 drug use venues were visited by project team with concomitant HIV-testing of people present at the venue. CONCLUSIONS. Network tracing seems to be feasible and to help find recently infected people. Further research is needed to tell whether this

  20. Risk indicators for dental caries using the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Amid I; Sohn, Woosung; Tellez, Marisol; Willem, Jenefer M; Betz, James; Lepkowski, James

    2008-02-01

    While national surveys have found that African-Americans have a higher prevalence and severity of dental caries than white-Americans, there are only a few descriptive studies of the prevalence and severity of dental caries in low-income urban African-Americans. This study assessed the prevalence, severity and determinants of dental caries, using the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS). A representative sample of low-income families (a caregiver and a child aged 0-5 years) was selected from low-income census tracts in the city of Detroit, Michigan. Of the 12,655 randomly selected housing units, 10,695 were occupied and 9781 were successfully contacted (91.5%). There were 1386 families with eligible children in the contacted households; and of those, 1021 were interviewed and examined at a permanent examination center organized for this study. This represents an overall response rate of 73.7%. At the center, trained staff interviewed the main caregivers of the selected children, and trained and calibrated dentists examined the caregiver and her/his child. Data used in this study included information gathered from the social, behavioral and parenting questionnaires, the Block Food Frequency Questionnaire (total sugar intake), and data collected from community and census databases. Over 90% of the adults (ages 14-70 years, average 29.3) had at least one noncavitated carious lesion and 82.2% had at least one primary cavitated lesion. Negative binomial regression models found that the age of caregivers and the number of churches in neighborhoods were negatively associated with the number of noncavitated tooth surfaces. Cavitated tooth surfaces were positively associated with age, oral hygiene status, being worried about teeth, a recent visit to a dentist, and the number of grocery stores in the neighborhoods. However, the number of cavitated tooth surfaces was negatively associated with preventive dental visits, positive rating of oral health

  1. The process evaluation of It's Your Move!, an Australian adolescent community-based obesity prevention project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simmons Annie M

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence on interventions for preventing unhealthy weight gain in adolescents is urgently needed. The aim of this paper is to describe the process evaluation for a three-year (2005-2008 project conducted in five secondary schools in the East Geelong/Bellarine region of Victoria, Australia. The project, 'It's Your Move!' aimed to reduce unhealthy weight gain by promoting healthy eating patterns, regular physical activity, healthy body weight, and body size perception amongst youth; and improve the capacity of families, schools, and community organisations to sustain the promotion of healthy eating and physical activity in the region. Methods The project was supported by Deakin University (training and evaluation, a Reference Committee (strategic direction, budgetary approval and monitoring and a Project Management Committee (project delivery. A workshop of students, teachers and other stakeholders formulated a 10-point action plan, which was then translated into strategies and initiatives specific to each school by the School Project Officers (staff members released from teaching duties one day per week and trained Student Ambassadors. Baseline surveys informed intervention development. Process data were collected on all intervention activities and these were collated and enumerated, where possible, into a set of mutually exclusive tables to demonstrate the types of strategies and the dose, frequency and reach of intervention activities. Results The action plan included three guiding objectives, four on nutrition, two on physical activity and one on body image. The process evaluation data showed that a mix of intervention strategies were implemented, including social marketing, one-off events, lunch time and curriculum programs, improvements in infrastructure, and healthy school food policies. The majority of the interventions were implemented in schools and focused on capacity building and healthy eating strategies as

  2. A National Implementation Project to Prevent Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infection in Nursing Home Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mody, Lona; Greene, M Todd; Meddings, Jennifer; Krein, Sarah L; McNamara, Sara E; Trautner, Barbara W; Ratz, David; Stone, Nimalie D; Min, Lillian; Schweon, Steven J; Rolle, Andrew J; Olmsted, Russell N; Burwen, Dale R; Battles, James; Edson, Barbara; Saint, Sanjay

    2017-08-01

    utilization remained unchanged (4.50 at baseline, 4.45 at conclusion of project; IRR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.88-1.03; P = .26) in adjusted analyses. The number of urine cultures ordered for all residents decreased from 3.49 per 1000 resident-days to 3.08 per 1000 resident-days. Similarly, after adjustment, the rates were shown to decrease from 3.52 to 3.09 (IRR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.77-0.94; P = .001). In a large-scale, national implementation project involving community-based nursing homes, combined technical and socioadaptive catheter-associated UTI prevention interventions successfully reduced the incidence of catheter-associated UTIs.

  3. Caries progression in non-cavitated fissures after infiltrant application: a 3-year follow-up of a randomized controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camillo ANAUATE-NETTO

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To evaluate the efficacy of a conservative treatment to prevent the progression of caries using an infiltrant on non-cavitated pit and fissures. Material and Methods This controlled clinical trial selected 23 volunteers with clinically and radiographically non-cavitated occlusal caries among patients presenting a “rather low” to “very high” caries risk. Eighty-six teeth were randomly divided into two experimental groups: teeth receiving a commercial pit-and-fissure sealant (Alpha Seal-DFL and contralateral teeth receiving Icon infiltrant (DMG. Caries progression was monitored by clinical (laser fluorescence caries detection and radiographic examination at 12-month intervals over a period of 3 years of monitored caries progression. Probing the sealing materials to detect areas of retention was also used to evaluate marginal integrity. Results Statistical analysis showed no difference in caries progression using laser fluorescence caries detection when both materials were compared, regardless of the evaluation times (p>0.05. No significance was observed when the marginal sealant integrity of both materials was compared, regardless of the evaluation time (p0.05. SEM analysis exhibited a more homogeneous sealing for the infiltrant than obtained by the sealant. Conclusions The infiltrant was effective to prevent the caries progression in non-cavitated pit-and-fissures after 3 years of clinical evaluation, comparable with the conventional sealant. The infiltrant also presented better results in terms of caries progression at the 3-year evaluation time using the radiographic analysis.

  4. "Helping Communities To Help Themselves." Twenty 1989 Exemplary Prevention Programs for Preventing Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse. Project Summaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Association of State Alcohol and Drug Abuse Directors, Inc.

    Twenty exemplary substance abuse prevention programs are presented in this document. These programs are included: (1) Tuba City, Arizona, Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) Prevention Program; (2) Chemical Addiction Course, University of Arkansas; (3) "Teens Are Concerned" of Arkansas; (4) "Dare to be You of Colorado"; (5) Winyan…

  5. Caries experience in the primary dentition among French 6-year-olds between 1991 and 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Colette; Eid, Ariane; Riordan, Paul J; Wolikow, Maryse; Cohen, Fabien

    2005-10-01

    There are few national caries preventive policies for children in France. Various surveys suggest that in the late 1980s, oral health of the 6-year olds in France was poorer than in those of other European countries. In Val de Marne (a Department just east of Paris) a public dental service was established in 1991. A programme to inform preschool staff about dental diseases was commenced and volunteers brought oral health information to parents and health professionals. Periodical monitoring of primary tooth caries of 6-year olds was planned. The aim of the study was to evaluate changes in primary tooth caries in 6-year olds over the 10 years of the programme. Participating 6-year olds, randomly selected, were examined in schools by dentists. Clinical data were collected (WHO criteria). Sociodemographic data were collected through questionnaire. Statistical analysis involved comparison of mean values, variance analysis and chi-square test for categorical variables. The proportions of children with caries experience were, 38.9%, 30.6% and 22.2% in 1991, 1995 and 2000 respectively (P European native parents or belonging to low socioeconomic families remained those most affected by dental caries in 2000. Dental caries in 6-year olds improved between 1991 and 2000 in Val de Marne but caries remained a socially inequitable disease. Most children did not have access to dental care. The situation requires changes to the dental care provision system.

  6. Effects of low power red laser on induced-dental caries in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Karin P; Rodrigues, Célia R M D; Núñez, Silvia C; Rocha, Raquel; Jorge, Antonio O C; Ribeiro, Martha S

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of low power red laser associated with acidulated phosphate fluoride on the development of induced-dental caries in rats. Dental caries were induced in molars of 40 rats divided into five groups: control group (CG), the teeth were not submitted to any treatment; laser group (LG), teeth were irradiated with a low power red laser (LPRL), power of 30 mW and dose of 5 J/cm(2); fluoride group (FG), teeth were treated with topical acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) 1.23% applied for 4 min; laser+fluoride group (LFG), teeth were irradiated with LPRL followed by APF; fluoride+laser group (FLG), teeth were treated with APF followed by LPRL. The animals were killed after 48 days, and the first and second molars were extracted to analyze the caries lesion area, microhardness, and calcium and phosphorus ratio. There were no statistical differences among FG, LFG, and FLG regarding to caries area and microhardness, although the caries area were smaller in LFG. Ca/P ratio did not show significant differences among all groups. Although LPRL before APF application appeared to diminish the caries progression, LPRL did not present any additional benefit compared with acidulated phosphate fluoride on the prevention of induced-dental caries in rats.

  7. Caries Risk Profiles amongst Preschool Aged Children Living in the Sleman District of Yogyakarta, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elastria Widita

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the caries risk factors of preschool aged children. Methods: Data was collected from a sample of 85 preschool children and their mothers. An interview, and a clinical and microbiology assessment was included in this study. Clinical examinations were performed to measure the dental caries experience and plaque visibility of the children and mothers. The presence and levels of Mutans Streptococci (MS in the saliva was measured using a commercial kit by Dentocult SM and evaluated using the manufacturer’s chart. Results: Sixty-five children had a high risk of caries (76.5%, 12.9% had a low risk, and 10.6% had a moderate risk of caries. Active cavities were found in more than half of the mothers and children. The majority of the child subjects had a snacking habit between meals (85.9%. High risk scores of 2 and 3, indicating salivary levels of MS, was found in 41.1% of children. Fluoride exposure experienced by the study population was very limited. Conclusion: Results suggest that the majority of the population had a high caries risk. There was a high occurrence of teeth with cavities in children and active carious lesions in the mothers. There was a high frequency in snacking habits, the presence of plaque and bleeding gums, high levels of salivary MS, and low protective factors for the children. Results suggest that management of caries related factors are needed in order to prevent caries in the future. 

  8. Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder medication and dental caries in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Sandra S; Kumar, Sajeesh; Williams, Nancy J

    2014-12-01

    Few studies have been conducted to investigate the effects, if any, of specific medication used to manage the symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as a risk factor for dental caries. A reported side-effect of the medication is a reduction in saliva. Healthy saliva has been shown to play many important functions in the prevention of dental caries. The focus of this review is to determine if any evidence exists to confirm that stimulant medication used to treat the symptoms of ADHD in children increases the risk of dental caries by virtue of its effect on the reduction of salivary flow. A MEDLINE search was conducted for relevant studies. Search terms used were dental caries, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, ADHD, pharmacologic treatment of ADHD, stimulant medication, xerostomia, dry-mouth and saliva flow. Publication dates ranged from 2002 to 2012. Although dental caries prevalence has been found to be higher in children with ADHD, decreased salivary flow as a side-effect of pharmacological treatment does not appear to be responsible. Dental caries is a multi-factorial disease process. The most effective method of reducing dental caries in ADHD children is more frequent recare visits focusing on home plaque removal practices along with dietary counseling to reduce the consumption of cariogenic foods and drinks. This can only be accomplished with inclusion of the parent/guardian in the process. Copyright © 2014 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.

  9. Characterization of enamel caries lesions in rat molars using synchrotron X-ray microtomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Free, R.D.; DeRocher, K.; Stock, S.R.; Keane, D.; Scott-Anne, K.; Bowen, W.H.; Joester, D. (Rochester); (NWU)

    2017-08-18

    Dental caries is a ubiquitous infectious disease with a nearly 100% lifetime prevalence. Rodent caries models are widely used to investigate the etiology, progression and potential prevention or treatment of the disease. To explore the suitability of these models for deeper investigations of intact surface zones during enamel caries, the structures of early-stage carious lesions in rats were characterized and compared with previous reports on white spot enamel lesions in humans. Synchrotron X-ray microcomputed tomography non-destructively mapped demineralization in carious rat molar specimens across a range of caries severity, identifying 52 lesions across the 30 teeth imaged. Of these lesions, 13 were shown to have intact surface zones. Depth profiles of fractional mineral density were qualitatively similar to lesions in human teeth. However, the thickness of the surface zone in the rat model ranges from 10 to 58 µm, and is therefore significantly thinner than in human enamel. These results indicate that a fraction of lesions in rat caries possess an intact surface zone and are qualitatively similar to human lesions at the micrometer scale. This suggests that rat caries models may be a suitable analog through which to investigate the structure of surface zone enamel and its role during dental caries.

  10. The Role and Impact of Salivary Zn Levels on Dental Caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milaim Sejdini

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Minimal attention has been given to the role of salivary microelements, the importance they have in reducing the intensity of caries, and the effect of caries prophylaxes. Aim. This research aimed to determine the concentration and quantity of Zn and its impact on the prevention and the reduction of the intensity of caries in schoolchildren aged 12-13 years with permanent dentition. Methods. For this research, we analyzed the stimulated and nonstimulated full saliva of 106 schoolchildren divided into three groups by mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT index. The control group consisted of 25 caries-free children, the second group had 47 children with mean DMFT index of 1 to 6, and the third group had 34 children with DMFT index of ≥ 6. Complete saliva was collected from all children in a sterile test tube. Results. The concentration of Zn in saliva before stimulation in caries-free children has variations of the order of 0.001+ to 0.01 mmol/l. The maximum concentration after stimulation is 6.72 mmol/l, while the maximum value is 64.38 mmol/l. Conclusion. The Zn concentration in the stimulated saliva showed a significant increase in the group of caries-free children and could be described as a positive value for the reduction of caries.

  11. Environmental Restoration Program pollution prevention checklist guide for the feasibility study project phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    Feasibility studies (FS) determine what remedial alternatives are presented to regulators for site cleanup. A key consideration in this process is the waste to be generated. Minimizing the volume and toxicity of this waste will ultimately contribute to the selection of the best remedial option. The purpose of this checklist guide is to assist the user in incorporating pollution prevention/waste minimization (PP/WM) in all FS phase projects of the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program. This guide will help users document PP/WM activities for technology transfer and reporting requirements. Automated computer screens will be created from the checklist data to assist users with implementing and evaluating waste reduction. Users can then establish numerical performance measures to measure progress in planning, training, self-assessments, field implementation, documentation, and technology transfer. Cost savings result as users train and assess themselves and perform preliminary waste assessments

  12. [Dental caries in schoolchildren of the Federal District].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irigoyen-Camacho, M E

    1997-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence and severity of dental caries and the dental treatment necessities of school children in Mexico City. The studied population was surveyed for dental caries in 1988 to obtain data necessary for the National Program of Salt Fluoridation in Mexico. The population was selected with a sample frame based on a list of Kindergartens and primary schools registered at the Ministry of Public Education in 1988. The oral cavity examination was based on diagnostic criteria marked by the World Health Organization. A total of 4475 scholars of 5 to 12 years of age were included in the study. Dental caries prevalence in the population reached 90.5%. The index of treatment necessities was high (79.6%). The mean of caries index in scholars of 12 years of age was DMFT = 4.42 (SD = 3.2) and DMFS = 6.53 (SD = 4.8). Results emphasize the pertinence of a widely reaching preventive program of such as salt fluoridation. Additionally, strategies to improve access of the school children population to dental services must be elaborated.

  13. Managing Early Childhood Caries for Young Children in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kitty Jieyi Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The latest national survey found that 70% of 5-year-old children in China had dental caries. The prevalence of early childhood caries (ECC may not only be attributed to poor oral hygiene and unhealthy diet, but also to limited access to and availability of dental care. The prevailing preventive measures adopted by industrialised countries for ECC management are neither practical nor affordable in China. Hence, an alternative approach to ECC management is necessary. Atraumatic restorative treatment (ART has been advocated because the simple and short operative time renders ART affordable. However, the success rate of ART in restoring anterior primary teeth is unfavourable. Although there is no water fluoridation in China, topical fluorides may be used to manage ECC. Tooth brushing with fluoride toothpaste is effective for caries control, but not all toothpastes in China are fluoridated. Professionally applied fluorides such as sodium fluoride varnish can be a cost-effective treatment for managing the high prevalence of ECC in China. Silver diamine fluoride (SDF at 38% is suggested to be effective in arresting ECC in China. It can be a simple, non-invasive and low-cost treatment. However, it stains caries black. Children and their parents must be well informed before SDF treatment.

  14. Caries risk assessment in young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersson, Gunnel Hänsel; Twetman, Svante

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To validate baseline caries risk classifications according to the Cariogram model with the actual caries development over a 3-year period in a group of young adults living in Sweden. METHODS: The study group consisted of 1,295 19-year-old patients that completed a comprehensive clinical...... baseline examination, including radiographs and salivary tests. An individual caries risk profile was computed and the patient was placed in one of five risk categories. After 3 years, 982 patients (75.8%) were re-examined and caries increment for each patient was calculated. The outcome was expressed...... of impaired specificities. No combinations proved clinically useful values according to Yuoden's index. CONCLUSIONS: Within the limitations of the present study, the computer-based Cariogram did not perform better than a caries risk assessment scheme based on past caries experience and caries progression...

  15. Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Error processing SSI file About Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Heart disease and stroke are an epidemic in ... secondhand smoke. Barriers to Effective Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Many people with key risk factors for heart ...

  16. Prevented Mortality and Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Historical and Projected Nuclear Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharecha, Pushker A.; Hansen, James E.

    2013-01-01

    In the aftermath of the March 2011 accident at Japan's Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, the future contribution of nuclear power to the global energy supply has become somewhat uncertain. Because nuclear power is an abundant, low-carbon source of base-load power, it could make a large contribution to mitigation of global climate change and air pollution. Using historical production data, we calculate that global nuclear power has prevented an average of 1.84 million air pollution-related deaths and 64 gigatonnes of CO2-equivalent (GtCO2-eq) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that would have resulted from fossil fuel burning. On the basis of global projection data that take into account the effects of the Fukushima accident, we find that nuclear power could additionally prevent an average of 420 000-7.04 million deaths and 80-240 GtCO2-eq emissions due to fossil fuels by midcentury, depending on which fuel it replaces. By contrast, we assess that large-scale expansion of unconstrained natural gas use would not mitigate the climate problem and would cause far more deaths than expansion of nuclear power.

  17. Environmental Restoration Program pollution prevention checklist guide for the facility characterization project phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    A facility characterization (FC) is conducted to determine the nature and extent contamination at a potential hazardous facility waste site. The information gathered during an FC includes (1) data on the volume and chemical nature of the waste, (2) information on the extent of contamination and the migration potential of the contaminants, (3) preliminary information on evaluation of alternative concepts that can or cannot be considered, and (4)supportive technical and cost data. For the purposes of identification, the following operational phases will be used for definition for this phase of the decommissioning and decontamination process (1) facility characterization before clean up, (2) characterization during clean up, (3) characterization of waste materials, and (4) site characterization after clean up. A key consideration in this process is the prevention of any waste to be generated from these characterization activities. The purpose of this checklist guide is to assist users with incorporating pollution prevention/waste minimization (PP/WM) in all FC phase projects of the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program. This guide will help users document PP/WM activities for technology transfer and reporting requirements. Automated computer screens will be created from the checklist data to assist users with implementing and evaluating waste reduction

  18. Longitudinal effects of the European smoking prevention framework approach (ESFA) project in Spanish adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariza, Carles; Nebot, Manel; Tomás, Zoa; Giménez, Emmanuel; Valmayor, Sara; Tarilonte, Visitación; De Vries, Hein

    2008-10-01

    To describe the effects of a Spanish smoking prevention programme in the context of an European project on regular smoking, in a sample of Barcelona adolescents. A quasi-experimental design was conducted. An experimental group (EG) (1080 pupils) was exposed to programme and compared with a control group (CG) (872 students). The intervention included a school-based programme (16 sessions in 3 years), reinforcement of a smoke-free school policy, smoking cessation for teachers, brochures for parents and other community-based activities involving youth clubs and tobacco sales. At 12 months, 4.5% of boys and 5.6% of girls were new smokers in the EG versus 6.7% and 11.7% in the CG (P < 0.001). At 36 months, 18.6% of boys and 31.2% of girls in the EG were regular smokers versus 21.6% of boys and 38.3% of girls in the CG (P < 0.001). The main factors associated with progression to regular smoking at 36 months were to be girl, to attend to a public school and to belong to the CG. These results endorse the effectiveness of multi-modal smoking prevention programmes, which include strategies with adults who influence adolescents.

  19. PREVENTING POLLUTION USING ISO 14001 AT A PARTICLE ACCELERATOR THE RELATIVISTIC HEAVY ION COLLIDER PROJECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BRIGGS, S.L.K.; MUSOLINO, S.V.

    2001-01-01

    In early 1997 Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) discovered that the spent fuel pool of their High Flux Beam Reactor was leaking tritium into the groundwater. Community members, activist groups, politicians and regulators were outraged with the poor environmental management practices at BNL. The reactor was shut down and the Department of Energy (DOE) terminated the contract with the existing Management Company. At this same time, a major new scientific facility, the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), was nearing the end of construction and readying for commissioning. Although environmental considerations had been incorporated into the design of the facility; some interested parties were skeptical that this new facility would not cause significant environmental impacts. RHIC management recognized that the future of its operation was dependent on preventing pollution and allaying concerns of its stakeholders. Although never done at a DOE National Laboratory before Brookhaven Science Associates, the new management firm, committed to implementing an Environmental Management System (EMS) and RHIC managers volunteered to deploy it within their facility on an extremely aggressive schedule. Several of these IS0 requirements contribute directly to preventing pollution, an area where particular emphasis was placed. This paper describes how Brookhaven used the following key IS0 14001 elements to institutionalize Pollution Prevention concepts: Environmental Policy, Aspects, Objectives and Targets, Environmental Management Program, Structure and Responsibility, Operational Controls, Training, and Management Review. In addition, examples of implementation at the RHIC Project illustrate how BNL's premiere facility was able to demonstrate to interested parties that care had been taken to implement technological and administrative controls to minimize environmental impacts, while at the same time reduce the applicability of regulatory requirements to their operations

  20. Effectiveness of a project to prevent HIV vertical transmission in the Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisio, Francesca; Masini, Giulia; Blasi Vacca, Elisabetta; Calzi, Anna; Cardinale, Francesco; Bruzzone, Bianca; Bruzzi, Paolo; Viscoli, Claudio

    2013-08-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a prevention programme against the vertical transmission of HIV in a resource-limited setting and to investigate variables associated with compliance. The Kento-Mwana project (2005-2008) provided counselling, serological and biomolecular testing and prophylaxis/therapy to HIV-positive pregnant women and their children attending four antenatal clinics in Pointe Noire, Republic of Congo. Expected and actual rates of vertical transmission of HIV were compared. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed in order to identify variables associated with non-compliance. The observed transmission rate in the group who completed follow-up was 5/290 (1.7%, 95% CI 0.6%-4.1%). The overall estimated transmission rate in the target population, computed taking into account the expected vertical transmission of HIV among drop-outs, was 67-115/638 (10.5%-18.0%). A comparison between this rate and the expected transmission rate in the absence of intervention (25%-40%) showed that the programme was able to prevent approximately 50% of vertical transmissions. Older age (OR 0.33, 95% CI 0.16-0.66, P = 0.002), telephone availability (OR 0.42, 95% CI 0.24-0.72, P = 0.002) and occupation (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.29-1.10, P = 0.092) were associated with better compliance. Despite the vast majority of women accepting counselling and testing, many of them refused prophylaxis or dropped out, thus reducing the effectiveness of the intervention from an ideal 2% to a still important but less impressive median transmission rate of 15% (range 10.5%-18%). Promoting participation and compliance, rather than increasing the potency of antiretroviral regimens, is crucial for preventing the vertical transmission of HIV in Africa.

  1. Dental caries and first permanent molar pit and fissure morphology in 7- to 8-year-old children in Wuhan, China

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jin-Dong; Chen, Xi; Frencken, Jo; Du, Min-Quan; Chen, Zhi

    2012-01-01

    To obtain the caries experience and, plaque accumulation severity and pit and fissure morphology in first permanent molars in 7-8 children in Wuhan, as a reasonable prediction of caries risk and preventive attention in the future, a convenient sample of five primary schools in the vicinity of the Wuhan University School and Hospital of Stomatology was drawn. Two calibrated examiners orally examined all present grade 2 children in the classroom, using standard caries plaque and tooth morpholog...

  2. Fluoride varnishes and enamel caries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruyn, Hugo de

    1987-01-01

    Topical fluoride applications have the aim of increasing the fluoride uptake in enamel and consequently reducing caries. In the early ‘60s fluoride varnishes were introduced because they had a long contact period with the enamel which resulted in a higher fluoride uptake than from other topical

  3. Adjunct methods for caries detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, Svante; Axelsson, Susanna Bihari; Dahlén, Gunnar

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective. To assess the diagnostic accuracy of adjunct methods used to detect and quantify dental caries. Study design. A systematic literature search for relevant papers was conducted with pre-determined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Abstracts and full text articles were assessed...

  4. [Resource support as the basis of projects for the prevention of violence and addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keupp, Heiner

    2004-10-01

    Lastingly effective projects for the prevention of violence and addiction must ask which resources adolescents require for coping with their lives. A central criteria for a successful life is the creation of coherence in one's inner life and thus the basis for becoming capable of functioning in society. In earlier social eras, the readiness to take on ready-made identity packages was the central criteria for coping with life. Today, this depends on individual adaptation and identity work, and thus the capability for self-organisation, for "intentionality" or "embedding". Children and young people need "free spaces" in their worlds, in order to be able to outline themselves and to act formatively upon their everyday environment. The future prospects of adolescents depend upon their options for learning the "craft of freedom". Sustainable key qualifications for coping with life in globalised, digital capitalism must grasp education as a hard-headed process in which the subject's capacity for self-organisation is to be given optimal encouragement, so that the patchwork of their own identity can succeed as a self-determined creative project.

  5. Knowledge exchange in the Pacific: The TROPIC (Translational Research into Obesity Prevention Policies for Communities) project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Policies targeting obesogenic environments and behaviours are critical to counter rising obesity rates and lifestyle-related non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Policies are likely to be most effective and enduring when they are based on the best available evidence. Evidence-informed policy making is especially challenging in countries with limited resources. The Pacific TROPIC (Translational Research for Obesity Prevention in Communities) project aims to implement and evaluate a tailored knowledge-brokering approach to evidence-informed policy making to address obesity in Fiji, a Pacific nation challenged by increasingly high rates of obesity and concomitant NCDs. Methods The TROPIC project draws on the concept of ‘knowledge exchange’ between policy developers (individuals; organisations) and researchers to deliver a knowledge broking programme that maps policy environments, conducts workshops on evidence-informed policy making, supports the development of evidence-informed policy briefs, and embeds evidence-informed policy making into organisational culture. Recruitment of government and nongovernment organisational representatives will be based on potential to: develop policies relevant to obesity, reach broad audiences, and commit to resourcing staff and building a culture that supports evidence-informed policy development. Workshops will increase awareness of both obesity and policy cycles, as well as develop participants’ skills in accessing, assessing and applying relevant evidence to policy briefs. The knowledge-broking team will then support participants to: 1) develop evidence-informed policy briefs that are both commensurate with national and organisational plans and also informed by evidence from the Pacific Obesity Prevention in Communities project and elsewhere; and 2) collaborate with participating organisations to embed evidence-informed policy making structures and processes. This knowledge broking initiative will be evaluated via

  6. Occlusal caries risk assessment using Cariogram analysis in student aged 11-12 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riana Wardani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT   Introduction: Basic Health Research 2013 showed Dental Caries Index in school age student in West Java was lower than the expected target, with occlusal surface as most affected part. The purpose of this study was to determine the risk status of dental caries in school age student by using cariogram analysis. Methods: Observational research. Study was conducted on 30 student aged 11-12 years with caries high risk on occlusal surfaces. Purposive sampling was taken from students of SDN Cikawari and SDN Mekarjaya Bandung Regency with high DMF-S index. Inclusion criteria: male and female, aged 11-12 years, good systemic health, SDN Mekarjaya and SDN Cikawari Bandung Regency students. Exclusion criteria: suffering from systemic disorder, currently in long-term antibiotic therapy, orthodontic appliance usage. Case history, eating habits and intake of fluoride, caries experience, salivary volume and buffering capacity of each sample was examined using cariogram examination method. Results: The cariogram analysis showed 43% chance of caries avoidance. Diet control was 23.3%, includes two factors: sugary foods and eating frequency. Bacteria control was 11.9% by evaluating both bacterial factors (the amount of plaque and the bacteria Streptococcus mutans. Vulnerability control was 14.4%, including caries prevention by the continuation of fluorine program and other conditions control that affect salivary secretions. Conclusion: Based on cariogram analysis found that all samples who had occlusal surfaces caries were at a high risk category, but still having moderate potential of avoiding new caries occurrence by controlling risk factors. Keywords: Cariogram analysis, Occlusal caries, Aged 11-12 years

  7. [Dental caries experience and its relation to oral hygiene in Mexican children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Frechero, Nelly; Durán-Merino, Denisse; Castañeda-Castaneira, Enrique; Juárez-López, María Lilia Adriana

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries is public health problem in Mexico and there are few studies on preschool children. The aim of this study was to determine the caries experience in preschool children and its relation to oral hygiene in an underserved area of ​​the state of Mexico. A cross-sectional, descriptive, observational and analytical study in children aged four and five years of age enrolled in children´s centers. The sociodemographic variables were obtained through a questionnaire. Clinical evaluation of each of the infants was performed using the CPOD index for primary teeth caries , the criteria of the World Health Organization, and the significant caries index was calculated and oral hygiene was assessed using the criteria of the O'Leary index. Calibration was kappa>0.86 for indexes. The study population consisted of children of both genders: 69.5% had caries experience, and the index of decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) was 3.52±3.7 (d=3.37±3.5; m=0; f=0.11±0.51). The significant caries index was 8.95±0.39 (d=8.68±0.41; f=0.26±0.13). In total, 98.2% of children with caries experience had poor oral hygiene (DMFT: 4.91: 95% CI: 3.99-5.84), whereas in children with good hygiene it was 0.17 (95% CI: -0.18-0.51); existing association between caries experience and oral hygiene RM 913 (95% CI: 864-962; pcaries experience of preschool children was high and was associated with poor oral hygiene affecting their dentition and usually is associated with caries in permanent dentition associated to social deprivation. Preventive programs are recommended from the first stage of life.

  8. Adultos livres de cárie: estudo de casos e controles sobre conhecimentos, atitudes e práticas preventivas Adults free of caries: a case-control study about: awareness/consciousness, attitudes and preventive practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo C. Petry

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de investigar o efeito do conhecimento e atitudes pessoais, hábitos de higiene oral e uso de fluoretos sobre a total ausência de cáries, realizou-se um estudo do tipo caso-controle entre estudantes universitários da região sul do Brasil. A análise bruta por regressão logística condicional não demonstrou efeito para as variáveis relacionadas ao uso de fluoretos e hábitos de higiene oral (p > 0,20. Já o uso de fio dental apareceu como um fator de risco: os que afirmaram não usá-lo apresentaram "odds ratio" (OR bruto de 0,70, e de 0,73 quando ajustado para visitas regulares ao dentista. O efeito para as visitas regulares ao dentista foi de risco. Pessoas com história de cárie visitavam mais os profissionais. Aqueles com história de cárie apresentaram um "odds ratio" bruto de 1,55; após o ajuste para uso de fio dental o risco foi levemente superior (OR = 1,67. Hábitos de higiene oral não demonstraram efeito protetor esperado. O uso de fluoretos não esteve significativamente associado à ausência de cáries. Permanece intrigando o fato de que algumas pessoas não desenvolvam cáries, mesmo não relatando cuidados considerados ideais à saúde bucal.The purpose of this article was to investigate the effect of personal awareness and attitudes, the dentist's role, oral hygiene habits, and fluoride use on total absence of caries in adults, using a case-control study matched for sex and age with undergraduate students from two private Brazilian universities. Crude analysis using conditional logistic regression failed to show any effect for the related variables regarding fluoride use and oral hygiene habits (p > 0.20. Use of dental floss was the only exception in this set. It appeared as a risk factor, since individuals who stated not flossing presented a crude odds ratio (OR of 0.70, or 0.73 when adjusted for regular visits to the dentist. The effect for regular visits to the dentist was that of a risk. Those with a

  9. Dental caries and vitamin D3 in children with growth hormone deficiency: A STROBE compliant study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójcik, Dorota; Krzewska, Aleksandra; Szalewski, Leszek; Pietryka-Michałowska, Elżbieta; Szalewska, Magdalena; Krzewski, Szymon; Pels, Elżbieta; Beń-Skowronek, Iwona

    2018-02-01

    Vitamin D may prevent dental caries. To date, no attempts have been made to examine the correlation between the incidence of caries and the concentrations of vitamin D in children with pituitary growth hormone deficiency.The study observed patients of the Department of Endocrinology and Diabetology of the University Paediatric Hospital of the Medical University of Lublin treated with human recombinant growth hormone for pituitary growth hormone deficiency (GHD). The study was conducted between October 2014 and June 2015. The study group consisted of 121 children and adolescents (6-17 years old), including 56 children from rural areas and 65 children from urban areas. The study group was stratified by area of residence.In our study, the increase in vitamin D3 [25(OH)D] levels reduced the D component by 0.66 per each 10 ng/mL of vitamin D3 concentration. The percentage of children with active caries in rural areas is 91.07% (n = 51), which is significantly higher than the percentage of children with active caries in urban areas (81.54%, n = 53).To date, information regarding the potential possibility of reducing the incidence of dental caries by means of increasing the levels of vitamin D was sidelined by paediatricians and dentists alike. Therefore, this aspect of caries prevention should be highlighted.

  10. Health Department HIV Prevention Programs That Support the National HIV/AIDS Strategy: The Enhanced Comprehensive HIV Prevention Planning Project, 2010-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Holly H; Hoyte, Tamika; Purcell, David W; Van Handel, Michelle; Williams, Weston; Krueger, Amy; Dietz, Patricia; Stratford, Dale; Heitgerd, Janet; Dunbar, Erica; Wan, Choi; Linley, Laurie A; Flores, Stephen A

    2016-01-01

    The Enhanced Comprehensive HIV Prevention Planning project was the first initiative of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to address the goals of the National HIV/AIDS Strategy (NHAS). Health departments in 12 U.S. cities with a high prevalence of AIDS conducted comprehensive program planning and implemented cost-effective, scalable HIV prevention interventions that targeted high-risk populations. We examined trends in health department HIV prevention programs in these cities during the project. We analyzed the number of people who received partner services, condoms distributed, and people tested for HIV, as well as funding allocations for selected HIV prevention programs by year and by site from October 2010 through September 2013. We assessed trends in the proportional change in services and allocations during the project period using generalized estimating equations. We also conducted thematic coding of program activities that targeted people living with HIV infection (PLWH). We found significant increases in funding allocations for HIV testing and condom distribution. All HIV partner services indicators, condom distribution, and HIV testing of African American and Hispanic/Latino populations significantly increased. HIV tests associated with a new diagnosis increased significantly among those self-identifying as Hispanic/Latino but significantly decreased among African Americans. For programs targeting PLWH, health department activities included implementing new program models, improving local data use, and building local capacity to enhance linkage to HIV medical care, retention in care, and treatment adherence. Overall, these findings indicate that health departments in areas with a high burden of AIDS successfully shifted their HIV prevention resources to scale up important HIV programs and make progress toward NHAS goals.

  11. Salivary Microbiome Diversity in Caries-Free and Caries-Affected Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shan; Gao, Xiaoli; Jin, Lijian; Lo, Edward C. M.

    2016-01-01

    Dental caries (tooth decay) is an infectious disease. Its etiology is not fully understood from the microbiological perspective. This study characterizes the diversity of microbial flora in the saliva of children with and without dental caries. Children (3–4 years old) with caries (n = 20) and without caries (n = 20) were recruited. Unstimulated saliva (2 mL) was collected from each child and the total microbial genomic DNA was extracted. DNA amplicons of the V3-V4 hypervariable region of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene were generated and subjected to Illumina Miseq sequencing. A total of 17 phyla, 26 classes, 40 orders, 80 families, 151 genera, and 310 bacterial species were represented in the saliva samples. There was no significant difference in the microbiome diversity between caries-affected and caries-free children (p > 0.05). The relative abundance of several species (Rothia dentocariosa, Actinomyces graevenitzii, Veillonella sp. oral taxon 780, Prevotella salivae, and Streptococcus mutans) was higher in the caries-affected group than in the caries-free group (p caries-free children than in caries-affected children (p caries-free and caries-affected children were similar. Salivary counts of certain bacteria such as R. dentocariosa and F. periodonticum may be useful for screening/assessing children’s risk of developing caries. PMID:27898021

  12. Diagnosis of Dentin Caries – Ultraviolet Fluorescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzunov Ts.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The technology advance in recent years determines the need of construction of modern appliances for early diagnosis of dental caries, which are categorized by great precision, non-invasiveness, easy usage and wide availability. Such non-invasive and accurate tool for diagnostics of caries is Caries Detector (LED, Bulgarian product by “Optica Laser”. The detector emits a specific wavelength of near ultraviolet light, which causes fluorescence to porphyrins - metabolic products of the life cycle of caries-inducing bacteria. The purpose of the study is piloting a new diagnostic tool for detection and monitoring of caries excavation based on fluorescence - LED UV caries detector of company “Optica laser”. Subjected to examination by caries indicator dye and UV caries detector were sixty permanent teeth with deep dentine caries. Two methods were used to assess the dentin caries - UV fluorescence detector of “Optica Laser” and staining with caries indicator - dye (Sable ™ Seek®. It was found that among all sixty teeth, the fields, closed by margins of carious process overlap. Fifty-four of tested teeth has shown bigger field of images with staining method and six - smaller in comparison to the fluorescent method. Ultraviolet fLuorescence caries detector of “Optica Laser” company is affordable and easy applicable method for controlled excavation of dentine caries. The detector can be used in daily dental practice equally with other methods. The unit has a number of advantages - non-invasiveness, lack of interaction with tooth structures, speed, reliability, efficiency, predictability and repeatability of results.

  13. Implementation. Improving caries detection, assessment, diagnosis and monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, N B

    2009-01-01

    This chapter deals with improving the detection, assessment, diagnosis and monitoring of caries to ensure optimal personalized caries management. This can be achieved by delivering what we have (synthesized evidence and international consensus) better and more consistently, as well as driving research and innovation in the areas where we need them. There is a need to better understand the interrelated pieces of the jigsaw that makes up evidence-based dentistry, i.e. the linkages between (a) research and synthesis, (b) dissemination of research results and (c) the implementation of research findings which should ensure that research findings change practice at the clinician-patient level. The current situation is outlined; it is at the implementation step where preventive caries control seems to have failed in some countries but not others. Opportunities for implementation include: capitalizing on the World Health Organization's global policy for improvement of oral health, which sets out an action plan for health promotion and integrated disease prevention; utilizing the developments around the International Caries Detection and Assessment System wardrobe of options and e-learning; building on initiatives from the International Dental Federation and the American Dental Association and linking these to patients' preferences, the wider moves to wellbeing and health maintenance. Challenges for implementation include the slow pace of evolution around dental remuneration systems and some groups of dentists failing to embrace clinical prevention. In the future, implementation of current and developing evidence should be accompanied by research into getting research findings into routine practice, with impacts on the behaviour of patients, professionals and policy makers. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel

  14. A longitudinal study of the relationship between dental caries and obesity in late childhood and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall-Scullin, Emma Patricia; Whitehead, Hilary; Rushton, Helen; Milsom, Keith; Tickle, Martin

    2017-10-30

    To determine whether caries experience in late childhood (aged 7-9 years) was predictive of adolescent obesity (ages 12-16 years) to inform the use of a common risk factor approach (CRFA) for prevention. A cohort study was conducted in an area of North West England. Clinical assessment of caries took place using the same methodology at ages 7-9 years and 12-16 years. Body mass index (BMI) category was calculated from height and weight measurements using age and gender specific cut-offs at 12-16 years only. The association between dependent variable (BMI category dichotomized as underweight/normal and overweight/obese) and explanatory variables (baseline and follow-up dental caries and sociodemographic status) adjusted for age, was assessed. At baseline, 5,470 (96.8 percent) participants took part and information was available for 2,958 (54.1 percent) participants at follow-up. Univariate analysis indicated that BMI category in adolescence was not shown to be significantly associated with: the presence or absence of caries in late childhood (P = 0.61); in adolescence (P = 0.06); gender (P = 0.91); or deprivation (P = 0.35). Multivariate logistic regression indicated that BMI category in adolescence was not predicted by caries in late childhood or adolescence, after adjusting for sociodemographic variables. Caries and obesity were highly prevalent in this population. Caries in childhood was not shown to be associated with obesity in adolescence and there was no cross-sectional association between the two diseases in adolescence. A CRFA is not precluded, however, the results suggest that additional interventions, specific for each disease, are required to prevent obesity and caries. © 2017 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  15. Is Project Towards No Drug Abuse (Project TND) an evidence-based drug and violence prevention program? A review and reappraisal of the evaluation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Dennis M

    2014-08-01

    This paper critically reviews the published evidence pertaining to Project Towards No Drug Abuse (Project TND). Publications from seven evaluation studies of Project TND are reviewed, and the results from these are discussed as related to the following outcomes: main effects on the use of cigarettes, alcohol and marijuana; main effects on the use of "hard drugs," defined in the evaluations as cocaine, hallucinogens, stimulants, inhalants, ecstasy and other drugs (e.g., depressants, PCP, steroids and heroin); subgroup and interaction analyses of drug use; and violence-related behaviors. Very few main effects have been found for cigarette, alcohol and marijuana use in the Project TND evaluations. While studies do report main effects for hard drug use, these findings are subject to numerous threats to validity and may be attributable to the data analyses employed. Similarly, while isolated subgroup and interaction effects were found for alcohol use among baseline nonusers and some violence-related behaviors in the early Project TND evaluations, these findings have not been replicated in more recent studies and may result from multiple comparisons between study conditions. In conclusion, there is little evidence to support the assertion that Project TND is an effective drug or violence prevention program. The broader implications of these findings for prevention science are discussed and suggestions are made as to how the quality of research in the field might be improved.

  16. Advances in surveillance of periodontitis: the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention periodontal disease surveillance project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eke, Paul I; Thornton-Evans, Gina; Dye, Bruce; Genco, Robert

    2012-11-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has as one of its strategic goals to support and improve surveillance of periodontal disease. In 2003, the CDC initiated the CDC Periodontal Disease Surveillance Project in collaboration with the American Academy of Periodontology to address population-based surveillance of periodontal disease at the local, state, and national levels. This initiative has made significant advancements toward the goal of improved surveillance, including developing valid self-reported measures that can be obtained from interview-based surveys to predict prevalence of periodontitis in populations. This will allow surveillance of periodontitis at the state and local levels and in countries where clinical resources for surveillance are scarce. This work has produced standard case definitions for surveillance of periodontitis that are now widely recognized and applied in population studies and research. At the national level, this initiative has evaluated the validity of previous clinical examination protocols and tested new protocols on the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), recommending and supporting funding for the gold-standard full-mouth periodontal examination in NHANES 2009 to 2012. These examinations will generate accurate estimates of the prevalence of periodontitis in the US adult population and provide a superior dataset for surveillance and research. Also, this data will be used to generate the necessary coefficients for our self-report questions for use in subsets of the total US population. The impact of these findings on population-based surveillance of periodontitis and future directions of the project are discussed along with plans for dissemination and translation efforts for broader public health use.

  17. Socioeconomic, sociodemographic, and clinical variables associated with root caries in a group of persons age 60 years and older in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islas-Granillo, Horacio; Borges-Yañez, Socorro A; Medina-Solís, Carlo E; Casanova-Rosado, Alejandro J; Minaya-Sánchez, Mirna; Villalobos Rodelo, Juan J; Maupomé, Gerardo

    2012-04-01

    To determine the prevalence of root caries and the root caries index in a population of older Mexicans, and its relationship to socioeconomic, sociodemographic and dental factors. We carried out a cross-sectional study in 85 persons 60 years and older living either in long-term care facilities, or independently and attending an elder day-care group. Each subject underwent an oral examination, performed by a trained and standardized dentist, to determine the root caries index and other clinical variables. Questionnaires were administered to collect socioeconomic, sociodemographic and hygiene data. Statistical analyses were performed using non-parametric tests. The prevalence of root caries was 96.5%. The root caries index was 37.7% ± 21.7%. Statistically significant differences (P caries index were observed across residential arrangements and marital statuses, and were higher in publicly funded long-term care and among single subjects (P caries (P caries was very high. The type of long-term care, marital status, schooling and oral hygiene were associated with a higher root caries index. Oral health programs and preventive caries interventions are needed for this age group in general; targeted strategies may be better focused if sociodemographic profiles are used to characterize high need groups. © 2011 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  18. Adding caries diagnosis to caries risk assessment: the next step in caries management by risk assessment (CAMBRA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Steven

    2009-10-01

    In the quest to conquer dental caries, caries management by risk assessment (CAMBRA) is a significant tool. Using CAMBRA methodology, the clinician identifies the cause of disease by assessing each patient's risk factors. By managing risk factors, the clinician then corrects the problems. Through the use of risk assessment, CAMBRA focuses on predicting likelihood of disease. In addition, the present condition of the patient needs to be addressed. That is to say, a diagnosis is needed. This article suggests that including a diagnosis with risk assessment adds to the understanding and improves management of dental caries. A simplified caries treatment protocol is presented, using these concepts.

  19. [The relationship between the infant nursing bottle caries and the feeding patterns, oral health behavior and parents' oral health information].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Zhao-qi

    2009-12-01

    To investigate the relationship between the infant nursing bottle caries in city community and the feeding patterns, oral health behavior, parents' oral health information, and to provide scientific basis for future infant nursing bottle caries prevention. Three hundred infants aged 6, 7, 12, 18 months in April 2009 in Bai Guan Street Community Hospital Shangyu City were enrolled in this study, nursing bottle caries were examined and recorded. Questionnaires on infant basic data, feeding patterns, oral health behavior, parents' oral health information were asked and recorded in these 300 parents. The relationship was analyzed between the infant nursing bottle caries and the questionnaires by Chi-square test with the SPSS14.0 software package. The infant nursing bottle caries correlated obviously with the habit of sleeping with the nursing bottle or mammary papilla in mouth, and did not correlate with the breast or artificial feeding patterns. The occurrence rate of infant nursing bottle caries was significantly lower in the infants with oral health behavior than those without oral health behavior. After feeding food, more parents feed the infants with little plain boiled water than clean the infant oral cavity with finger cap wet carbasus. 56.7% of parents had no acknowledge of danger of infant nursing bottle caries. There is some correlation between the infant nursing bottle caries and the feeding patterns, oral health behavior, parents' oral health information.

  20. Environmental restoration program pollution prevention checklist guide for the evaluation of alternatives project phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    Evaluation of alternative studies determine what decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) alternatives are presented to regulators for facility and site cleanup. A key consideration in this process is the waste to be generated. Minimizing the volume and toxicity of this waste will ultimately contribute to the selection of the best clean-up option. The purpose of this checklist guide is to assist the user with incorporating pollution prevention/waste minimization (PP/WM) in all Evaluation of Alternatives (EV) phase projects of the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program. This guide will assist users with documenting PP/WM activities for technology transfer and reporting requirements. Automated computer screens will be created from the checklist data to help users implement and evaluate waste reduction. Users can then establish numerical performance measures to measure progress in planning, training, self-assessments, field implementation, documentation, and technology transfer. Cost savings result as users train and assess themselves, eliminating expensive process waste assessments and audit teams

  1. The television, school, and family smoking prevention and cessation project. VIII. Student outcomes and mediating variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flay, B R; Miller, T Q; Hedeker, D; Siddiqui, O; Britton, C F; Brannon, B R; Johnson, C A; Hansen, W B; Sussman, S; Dent, C

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents the student outcomes of a large-scale, social-influences-based, school and media-based tobacco use prevention and cessation project in Southern California. The study provided an experimental comparison of classroom delivery with television delivery and the combin