WorldWideScience

Sample records for caries management technical

  1. The Marketplace for New Caries Management Products: Dental Caries Detection and Caries Management by Risk Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Berg Joel H

    2006-01-01

    Abstract The number of new technologies emerging each year in the realm of dental caries management is growing at an exponential rate. Examining the patent literature, one can see that this growth rate will likely continue, with the outcome that dentistry will see an expanded growth in managing dental caries by risk assessment with medicinal therapeutic interventions. Restorative dentistry solutions, treating the results of dental caries, will continue to grow, while technologies to identify ...

  2. Caries management by risk assessment: A review on current strategies for caries prevention and management

    OpenAIRE

    Maheswari, S. Uma; Raja, Jacob; Kumar, Arvind; Seelan, R. Gnana

    2015-01-01

    The current trend in treating dental caries is using nondestructive risk-based caries management strategies rather than focusing on the restorative treatment alone. Currently, there have been many changes in understanding of the multifaceted nature of caries process and its management. Caries Management by Risk Assessment (CAMBRA) which is an evidence-based approach focuses on determining many factors causing the expression of disease and take corrective action. The clinicians can ascertain w...

  3. Current possibilities in occlusal caries management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrvoje Jurić

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is a multifactorial disease that affects most populations throughout the world and it is still the primary cause of oral pain and tooth loss. The occlusal surfaces of posterior teeth are the most vulnerable sites for dental caries due to their anatomy. Therefore, the aim of the following article is to summarize current knowledge on occlusal caries development and the possibilities of its prevention. Although the overall caries rate today has fallen for populations in industrialized countries, the rate of occlusal surface caries has not decreased. This may be explained with fact that topically applied fluorides and their mode of action prevent caries better on smooth than on occlusal surfaces. As we know, tooth decay of first permanent molars causes a great deal of different short and long term difficulties for patients. Therefore, there is a continuous need for implementation of programs for caries prevention in permanent teeth. Nowadays, we like to treat our patients by minimally invasive methods. A very important step in our effective preventive treatment is sealing pits and fissures as a cornerstone of occlusal caries management. Reliable assessment of caries activity is also very important for defining treatment needs and plans. A very important decision, which should be made during occlusal caries management, is the selection of restorative material according to the treatment plan. Conclusion. Current possibilities in occlusal caries prevention and management are very effective. Therefore, dentists today do not have any excuse for avoiding the philosophy of Minimally Invasive Dentistry, especially when we talk about caries management of occlusal surfaces in permanent molars.

  4. Implications of caries diagnostic strategies for clinical management decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baelum, Vibeke; Hintze, Hanne; Wenzel, Ann;

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In clinical practice, a visual-tactile caries examination is frequently supplemented by bitewing radiography. This study evaluated strategies for combining visual-tactile and radiographic caries detection methods and determined their implications for clinical management decisions in a...

  5. Understanding and managing dental caries: a medical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Steve

    2007-01-01

    This article has taken a medical approach toward the understanding and managing of dental caries. Caries has been defined as a point in a person's life when there is an imbalance between protective and pathologic factors such that the process of demineralization of tooth structure by acid from bacteria in the tooth biofilm exceeds the patient's ability to remineralized tooth structure. The patient diagnosed with caries is out of balance. Caries is a diagnosis of a person. People have caries, teeth have lesions. Caries lesion detection, classification, and analysis are done at the level of the tooth surface. Caries is a process in time. Today we establish a diagnosis. For the future we establish a prediction. Patients can be diagnosed as caries active, caries balanced, or caries undetermined. For an improved treatment plan, future risk and prognosis assessments are accomplished by classifying all patients as either low, moderate, or high risk. A combination of diagnosis and risk or prognosis assessment leads to five treatment groups, each with an appropriate protocol for managing the disease process. The five protocols follow from the use of the four-step medical model for caries management. In the end, there are two treatment plans for these patients: a restorative therapy plan that treats the holes and a disease management plan that treats the disease. Surgical treatment does not manage the disease. Today we are managing tooth decay with medicine instead of a drill. PMID:18051341

  6. Current possibilities in occlusal caries management

    OpenAIRE

    Hrvoje Jurić

    2013-01-01

    Dental caries is a multifactorial disease that affects most populations throughout the world and it is still the primary cause of oral pain and tooth loss. The occlusal surfaces of posterior teeth are the most vulnerable sites for dental caries due to their anatomy. Therefore, the aim of the following article is to summarize current knowledge on occlusal caries development and the possibilities of its prevention. Although the overall caries rate today has fallen for populations in industriali...

  7. MEDICAL MANAGEMENT OF DENTAL CARIES: A CHANGE IN THERAPEUTIC APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Malhotra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is an infectious, communicable disease, which causes destruction of teeth by acid-forming bacteria found in dental plaque. Caries progression or reversal is determined by the balance between protective and pathological factors in the mouth. There have been revolutions in every field and dentistry is no exception to it, these changes have led to a change in concept from the conventional surgical approach of removing dental decay and cutting of tooth structure to the medical model which deals with interception of disease at different stages and possible reversal of the disease process. The key to medical paradigm is determination of caries risk in an individual and effective early detection of initial carious lesions. There are various equipments available in market which uses different principles for diagnosing caries susceptibility in an individual. In the years of thorough research different agents have been investigated for their role in caries prevention and reversal. There is a separate treatment plan for managing patients falling in different risk category. This article outlines the need for the medical management of dental caries and how it can be a viable option in dental decay management.

  8. Technical innovation and management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book gives explanations of the conception of technical innovation, development plan in Korea, connection between technology and a growth factor in national income, problem of technical innovation in developing country, analysis on cooperation between a developed country and a developing country, evaluation and strategy of technical development in Korea, technical innovation of industry, management of technical industry, analysis of special condition in Korea.

  9. How do dental students determine patients' caries risk level using the Caries Management By Risk Assessment (CAMBRA) system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doméjean, Sophie; Léger, Stéphanie; Rechmann, Peter; White, Joel M; Featherstone, John D B

    2015-03-01

    Research has demonstrated the validation of specific caries risk assessment (CRA) systems, but little is known about how dental practitioners assign a caries risk level to their patients. The aim of this study was to explore dental students' decision making in caries risk assignment when using the Caries Management By Risk Assessment (CAMBRA) system. Multiple correspondence analysis and chi-squared automated interaction detector analysis were performed on data collected retrospectively for a period of six years (2003-09) at the University of California, San Francisco predoctoral dental clinic. The study population consisted of 12,952 patients from six years of age through adult who received a baseline CRA during the period, were new to CAMBRA, and had not received any prior CAMBRA recommendations. The results showed variation in decision making and risk level assignment, illustrated by the range of percentages for the three scores (low, moderate, and high/extreme caries risk) when CRA was assigned for the first time. For those first-time CRAs, decision making was mainly based on four factors: cavities or caries lesions into dentin on radiograph, restorations during the last three years due to caries, visible heavy plaque, and interproximal lesions into enamel (by radiographs). This study's findings provide important data regarding one group of CAMBRA users and thus contribute to the development of knowledge about the implementation of caries risk assessment in contemporary dental practice. PMID:25729021

  10. Nanotechnology-based restorative materials for dental caries management

    OpenAIRE

    Melo, Mary A. S.; Guedes, Sarah F.F.; Xu, Hockin H. K.; Rodrigues, Lidiany K. A.

    2013-01-01

    Nanotechnology has been applied to dental materials as an innovative concept for the development of materials with better properties and anticaries potential. In this review we discuss the current progress and future applications of functional nanoparticles incorporated in dental restorative materials as useful strategies to dental caries management. We also overview proposed antimicrobial and remineralizing mechanisms. Nanomaterials have great potential to decrease biofilm accumulation, inhi...

  11. The Role of Remineralizing and Anticaries Agents in Caries Management

    OpenAIRE

    Featherstone, J.D.; Doméjean, S.

    2012-01-01

    The first ICNARA conference (International Conference on Novel Anticaries and Remineralizing Agents) was held in Chile in January, 2008, and the proceedings were published in Advances in Dental Research (Volume 21, 2009). That issue of Advances summarized the state of the science and set a research agenda for the future for two key components of caries management, namely, antibacterial agents and remineralizing agents. The second conference (ICNARA 2, January 2012) provided an update on scien...

  12. Disease Management of Early Childhood Caries: ECC Collaborative Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Wai Ng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Until recently, the standard of care for early childhood caries (ECC has been primarily surgical and restorative treatment with little emphasis on preventing and managing the disease itself. It is now recognized that surgical treatment alone does not address the underlying etiology of the disease. Despite costly surgeries and reparative treatment, the onset and progression of caries are likely to continue. A successful rebalance of risk and protective factors may prevent, slow down, or even arrest dental caries and its progression. An 18-month risk-based chronic disease management (DM approach to address ECC in preschool children was implemented as a quality improvement (QI collaborative by seven teams of oral health care providers across the United States. In the aggregate, fewer DM children experienced new cavitation, pain, and referrals to the operating room (OR for restorative treatment compared to baseline historical controls. The teams found that QI methods facilitated adoption of the DM approach and resulted in improved care to patients and better outcomes overall. Despite these successes, the wide scale adoption and spread of the DM approach may be limited unless health policy and payment reforms are enacted to compensate providers for implementing DM protocols in their practice.

  13. Bio-modification approach for novel dentine caries management by Galla chinesis extract and microbial transglutaminase

    OpenAIRE

    Meng Deng; Xin Xu; Jiyao Li; Xuedong Zhou

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Dental caries still remains one of the most prevalent diseases worldwide. Unlike enamel caries which can be restored mainly by modulating mineral balance, the dentine caries are characterized with irreversible proteolytic disintegration of organic matrices, highlighting an urgent need to seek novel management strategies. Bio-modification of dentine matrix has been proposed as a novel and alternative approach to enhancing its biochemical and biomechanical properties. The resultan...

  14. Classification and management of dental caries. New concepts.

    OpenAIRE

    Sathyanarayanan R; Carounnanidy U

    2002-01-01

    There has been a tremendous change in the understanding of carious lesion in all aspects from pathogenesis to prevention. The profession has also seen a revolutionary change in the material science and technology. In spite of these changes, the caries classification provided by Dr. G. V. Black remains unchanged, deterring the radical changes needed in the understanding of caries as a disease process. This article propose a new classification of dental caries to suit the present day changes in...

  15. MEDICAL MANAGEMENT OF DENTAL CARIES: A CHANGE IN THERAPEUTIC APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    Amit Malhotra; Hegde, Mithra N

    2013-01-01

    Dental caries is an infectious, communicable disease, which causes destruction of teeth by acid-forming bacteria found in dental plaque. Caries progression or reversal is determined by the balance between protective and pathological factors in the mouth. There have been revolutions in every field and dentistry is no exception to it, these changes have led to a change in concept from the conventional surgical approach of removing dental decay and cutting of tooth structure to the medical model...

  16. Waste Management Technical Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckingham, J.S. [ed.

    1967-08-31

    This Manual has been prepared to provide a documented compendium of the technical bases and general physical features of Isochem Incorporated`s Waste Management Program. The manual is intended to be used as a means of training and as a reference handbook for use by personnel responsible for executing the Waste Management Program. The material in this manual was assembled by members of Isochem`s Chemical Processing Division, Battelle Northwest Laboratory, and Hanford Engineering Services between September 1965 and March 1967. The manual is divided into the following parts: Introduction, contains a summary of the overall Waste Management Program. It is written to provide the reader with a synoptic view and as an aid in understanding the subsequent parts; Feed Material, contains detailed discussion of the type and sources of feed material used in the Waste Management Program, including a chapter on nuclear reactions and the formation of fission products; Waste Fractionization Plant Processing, contains detailed discussions of the processes used in the Waste Fractionization Plant with supporting data and documentation of the technology employed; Waste Fractionization Plant Product and Waste Effluent Handling, contains detailed discussions of the methods of handling the product and waste material generated by the Waste Fractionization Plant; Plant and Equipment, describes the layout of the Waste Management facilities, arrangement of equipment, and individual equipment pieces; Process Control, describes the instruments and analytical methods used for process control; and Safety describes process hazards and the methods used to safeguard against them.

  17. Best clinical practice guidance for management of early caries lesions in children and young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kühnisch, J; Ekstrand, K R; Pretty, I;

    2016-01-01

    -invasively in the majority of cases. The spectrum of measures includes a low cariogenicity tooth-friendly diet, daily and appropriate management of the biofilm, home and within the dental office/surgery usage of fluorides as well as sealing techniques. CONCLUSION: The detection and management of non......BACKGROUND: The European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry (EAPD) encourages prevention and arrest of active dental caries. Therefore, the present guidance provides evidence- and clinically-based recommendations for detecting and diagnosing early/non-cavitated caries lesions, risk assessment and...... statements were agreed upon and, furthermore, gaps in our knowledge were identified. RESULTS: Following the systematic reviews and outcomes of the seminars, it was concluded that visual and radiographic caries detection should be utilised as a basic diagnostic approach to locate, assess and monitor non...

  18. TRManager – Technical Risk Manager

    OpenAIRE

    Gregory, Mark A.; Christopher White

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents research into the development of a new information management technique called Technical Risk Manager. Project management involves the use of processes and information management techniques to aid decision making in the pursuit of project success. Project success may be achieved by meeting time, cost or performance criteria. Current project management practices focus on achieving time and cost project success criteria by using three information management techniques develo...

  19. Progress in Early Childhood Caries and Opportunities in Research, Policy, and Clinical Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, Raul; Borrelli, Belinda; Dhar, Vineet;

    2015-01-01

    opportunities in research, policy, and clinical management that may improve early childhood caries outcomes and lower costs of care. While great progress has been made since the 1997 ECC Conference, there remains a paucity of high-quality evidence from randomized controlled trials on what are the most effective...... to identify preschool children at risk for caries. Fluoridated toothpaste and fluoride varnish currently are the most effective chemotherapeutic strategies to prevent ECC. Motivational interviewing, a form of patient-centered counseling, is effective for motivating oral health behaviors and shows...

  20. Occlusal Caries Management: Preferences among Dentists in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopperud, Simen E; Tveit, Anne B; Opdam, Niek J M; Espelid, Ivar

    2016-01-01

    The aim was to measure variations in the threshold for operative treatment of occlusal caries in permanent teeth and the use of dental materials, compared with results from a similar study conducted in Norway in 1995. In 2009, a precoded questionnaire was sent electronically to 3,654 dentists with E-mail addresses in the member register of the Norwegian Dental Association. The questions were related to caries, treatment strategies and choice of dental materials. Replies were obtained from 61.3% respondents after two reminders. Restorative treatment of occlusal lesions confined to enamel was proposed by 12% of the dentists, compared with 18% in 1995 (p risk of restoring occlusal enamel lesions operatively. The authors conclude that especially young dentists appear to be more reluctant to remove tooth substance in 2009 compared with 1995. Composite is the dominating material of choice in 2009 and seems to have substituted the use of most other filling materials in occlusal restorations in permanent teeth. PMID:26839953

  1. TRManager – Technical Risk Manager

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A. Gregory

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents research into the development of a new information management technique called Technical Risk Manager. Project management involves the use of processes and information management techniques to aid decision making in the pursuit of project success. Project success may be achieved by meeting time, cost or performance criteria. Current project management practices focus on achieving time and cost project success criteria by using three information management techniques developed in the 1950s: Gantt, PERT and Critical Path Method. Technical Risk Manager has been developed to provide an information management technique that may be used to aid project management decision making in the pursuit of achieving the performance project success criteria.

  2. Technical management courses (before July)

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Please find below the courses in the field of technical management scheduled before July and which have places available.       For more details about a course and to register, please go to the Training Catalogue. If you need a course which is not in the catalogue, please contact your supervisor, your Departmental Training Officer or HR-LD at Technical.Management.Training@cern.ch.

  3. PRIMARY CARIES: AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Solanki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary caries is an initial lesions produced by direct extension from an external surface. Dental caries is called as tooth decay or a cavity is a disease in which bacterial processes changes carbohydrate to acid which than dematerializes the hard tooth structure like enamel, dentin and cementum. Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus are the bacteria responsible for the dental caries by acid production. This article throws light on the dental caries disease, its sign and symptoms, treatment and prevention of it. A review of some patents on dental caries is also provided that summarizes the recent technical advancements taken place in this area.

  4. Bio-modification approach for novel dentine caries management by Galla chinesis extract and microbial transglutaminase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Deng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dental caries still remains one of the most prevalent diseases worldwide. Unlike enamel caries which can be restored mainly by modulating mineral balance, the dentine caries are characterized with irreversible proteolytic disintegration of organic matrices, highlighting an urgent need to seek novel management strategies. Bio-modification of dentine matrix has been proposed as a novel and alternative approach to enhancing its biochemical and biomechanical properties. The resultant chemical stability and mechanic durability are specifically desirable for prevention and restoration of dentine caries. However, conventional cross linking agents, e.g. glutaraldehyde, formaldehyde,are unsuitable for clinical use due to marked cytotoxicity or instability over time. The Hypothesis: Previous studies revealed that Galla chinesis extract (GCE could inhibit cariogenic microbes and positively modulate enamel de/remineralization balance, and the mechanism was directed to the polyphenols-organic matrix interaction involving hydrogen, covalent, ionic bonding and hydrophobic processes. Microbial transglutaminase (mTGase could induce crosslinks between peptide chains and improve functional properties of food proteins by catalyzing an acyl transfer reaction through ε - (γ-glutamyl lysine (GL bonds. Given the high organic content in dentine and universal reaction nature of GCE and mTGase, we put forward a hypothesis that these two natural products may serve as novel biocompatible bio-modifiers to improve biochemical and biomechanical properties of dentine matrices. Evaluation of the Hypothesis: The validation of our hypothesis will provide profound insights updating current therapeutic strategies against dentine caries, and pioneer novel approaches for biocompatible bio-modification of dentine matrices. Specifically, GCE and mTGase can be integrated into the root canal irrigating and dentine boding procedures, where they may generate beneficial

  5. Enhancing Fluoride: Clinical Human Studies of Alternatives or Boosters for Caries Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Margherita

    2016-01-01

    Dental caries remains a major public health problem, especially for certain high-risk population groups. The goal of this study was to assess the evidence regarding strategies meant to be used as alternatives or booster/supplements to fluoride for caries prevention and management. Articles were selected for inclusion if they had a prospective longitudinal design, with a fluoride control arm, and were conducted in human subjects. Of the included studies, 7/18 studies on calcium-based strategies favored the test product (the majority of studies included exposure of fluoride in all groups). All the arginine studies (8/8) included a combination of arginine and a calcium base, and concluded that this has the potential to significantly boost the performance of fluoride. The remaining included studies focused on the addition of microbial-related strategies to a fluoride-containing vehicle (2 xylitol studies and 1 study using a probiotic milk), and all favored the combination as a booster to fluoride. Thus, the current study did not identify evidence for any strategy to effectively be used as a substitute or alternative to fluoride, but identified some consistent evidence derived from the use of prebiotic strategies (primarily from use of arginine combined with calcium) to support their potential use to boost the mechanism of action of fluoride. Thus, fluoride-based strategies remain the standard for caries prevention and management, with some evidence that boosting the effects of fluoride by the use of prebiotic strategies is a promising possibility. PMID:27100833

  6. Overtreatment in Caries Management? A Literature Review Perspective and Recommendations for Clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Indrajeet; Dayal, Prakriti; Das, Samiran

    2016-06-01

    Dentistry, like various branches in the healthcare profession, is susceptible to overtreatment, especially in the management of dental caries, due to the adoption of an aggressive restorative approach. This philosophy provides no actual benefits to the patient in terms of arresting the disease process, which initially led to the carious lesions. Yet practitioners routinely continue to initiate restorative treatment procedures without attempting to understand and alter the biologic factors contributing to the caries process. This paper examines the available scientific literature in this regard and makes recommendations to the clinicians of today based on the available evidence. CPD/Clinical Relevance: The paper provides clinicians an approach to avoiding overtreatment by adhering to established clinical guidelines and accepted operative strategies. PMID:27529910

  7. Technical Management for Buildings

    CERN Document Server

    Vairo, Antonio

    1999-01-01

    This paper is a presentation of an 'instrument' for the optimization of the functionality and conservation of tertiary buildings. This technique has several different names: Building Automation Systems (BAS), Central Control and Monitoring System (CCMS) in English, and Gestion Technique du Bâtiment' (GTB) or Gestion Technique Centralisée (GTC) in French. With this technique it is possible to manage all the functions of a building, it is a modern instrument that introduces the concept of 'automation' in the operation of buildings using computerized procedures, earlier reserved for industrial processes. The system is structured with different automation levels with a distributed intelligence, each level characterized by a communication system (Fieldbus for the lowest and Ethernet for the highest level). In order to apply the BAS to CERN buildings it is necessary to evaluate the advantages, the CERN requirements and the integration with the several existing control and automation systems.

  8. Technical approach to aging management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Systematic and effective control of age-related degradation of safety-related components, systems, and structures in nuclear power plants (NPPs) is an important challenge to plant operators. Several data bases, available to provide guidance on aging management, are summarized. However, the ultimate consideration is: How effectively is aging management being implemented at individual plants? Illustrated here is a specific strategy that served to develop the technical data base for the Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program. The strategy is comprehensive, systematic, and adaptable. Effective aging management at NPPs could be facilitated by a parallel strategy. The elements of a strategy are suggested

  9. Technical assistance contractor Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project comprises Jacobs Engineering Group Inc. (JEG) and its major teaming partners [Roy F. Weston, Inc. (RFW), Sergent, Hauskins ampersand Beckwith Agra, Inc. (SHB Agra), and Geraghty ampersand Miller, Inc. (G ampersand M)]. The first three companies have worked together effectively on the UMTRA Project for more than 10 years. With the initiation of the UMTRA Groundwater Project in April 1991, a need arose to increase the TAC's groundwater technical breadth and depth, so G ampersand M was brought in to augment the team's capabilities. The TAC contract's scope is to provide technical, analytical, environmental, engineering, design, inspection, and management support services to the US Department of Energy (DOE) for both surface and groundwater projects. The TAC team continues to support the DOE in completing surface remedial actions and initiating groundwater remediation work for start-up, characterization, design, construction oversight, and remedial operations. A key feature of the TAC's management approach is the extensive set of communication systems implemented for the UMTRA Project. These systems assist all functional disciplines in performing UMTRA Project tasks associated with management, technical support, administrative support, and financial/project controls

  10. Management of technical information department

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, T. H.; Han, D. H.; Moon, H. W. [and others

    1997-03-01

    This report introduces technical information activities in 1996. They are composed of basic tasks and applied tasks. 1. Basic activities - acquisition, cataloging, and Information services 2. Management of KAERI-TIPS (Technical Information Processing System) 3. Construction of the database for nuclear-related Information 4. Role of Specialized Nuclear Information Center in the field of nuclear energy and cooperation with INIS section of IAEA 5. Beside above activities, in 1996 TID homepage was opened and online document delivery service was provided. (author). 25 tabs., 17 figs.

  11. Management of technical information department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report introduces technical information activities in 1996. They are composed of basic tasks and applied tasks. 1. Basic activities - acquisition, cataloging, and Information services 2. Management of KAERI-TIPS (Technical Information Processing System) 3. Construction of the database for nuclear-related Information 4. Role of Specialized Nuclear Information Center in the field of nuclear energy and cooperation with INIS section of IAEA 5. Beside above activities, in 1996 TID homepage was opened and online document delivery service was provided. (author). 25 tabs., 17 figs

  12. Treatment protocols: nonfluoride management of the caries disease process and available diagnostics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, Svante

    2010-01-01

    to prevent caries lesions. However, such measures may be considered to control the disease in caries-active individuals. There is evidence that xylitol has antibacterial properties that alter the oral ecology but the clinical evidence for caries prevention is rated as fair. However, preventive...

  13. Review manual for aging management technical evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Review Manual for Aging Management Technical Evaluation' defines the procedure for the Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization (JNES) to review technical adequacy of applicant's aging management technical evaluation report on aging degradation of nuclear power generation equipment which describes technical bases of long-term maintenance programs in applicant's operational safety program. JNES has prepared review manuals for aging management technical evaluation consisted of review manuals for six major degradation mechanisms (low-cycle fatigue, neutron irradiation embrittlement, irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking, thermal aging embrittlement of cast austenitic stainless steel, insulation degradation of electric and instrumentation equipment, reduced strength and shielding performance of concrete), review manual for seismic safety and general review manual which correlates these manuals and conducted reviews for aging management technical evaluation. However, due to the enforcement of revised Act on the Regulation of Nuclear Source Material, Nuclear Fuel Material and Reactors on July 8, 2013 and the revision of safety standards related to aging management technical evaluation, the Nuclear Regulation Authority (NRA) revised aging management implementation guideline for nuclear power generation equipment and the secretariat of NRA revised the review guideline for aging management technical evaluation. As a result of these revisions, JNES revised review manuals for aging management technical evaluation and integrated them in this review manual. (author)

  14. Caries Management: A Journey between Black’s principals and Minimally Invasive Concepts

    OpenAIRE

    Hamdi H. Hamama; Cynthia K.Yiu; Michael F. Burrow

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries is a multifactorial microbial disease that affects tooth hard tissue leading to destruction of its mineral and organic components. The current work reviewed the development of caries assessment methods and excavation concepts in the past two centuries. In the late ninetieth century, G.V. Black introduced a classification of dental caries, as well as established the principals of tooth preparation, based on his understanding of the nature of the disease. However, d...

  15. Minimal Intervention Dentistry (MID) for managing dental caries – a review: Report of a FDI task group*

    OpenAIRE

    FRENCKEN, Jo. E.; Peters, Mathilde C.; Manton, David J.; Leal, Soraya C.; Gordan, Valeria V.; Eden, Ece

    2012-01-01

    This publication describes the history of Minimal Intervention Dentistry (MID) for managing dental caries and presents evidence for various carious lesion detection devices, for preventive measures, for restorative and non-restorative therapies as well as for repairing rather than replacing defective restorations. It is a follow-up to the FDI World Dental Federation publication on MID, of 2000. The dental profession currently is faced with an enormous task of how to manage the high burden of ...

  16. TWRS technical baseline database manager definition document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document serves as a guide for using the TWRS Technical Baseline Database Management Systems Engineering (SE) support tool in performing SE activities for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS). This document will provide a consistent interpretation of the relationships between the TWRS Technical Baseline Database Management software and the present TWRS SE practices. The Database Manager currently utilized is the RDD-1000 System manufactured by the Ascent Logic Corporation. In other documents, the term RDD-1000 may be used interchangeably with TWRS Technical Baseline Database Manager

  17. Transcending culture : developing Africa's technical managers

    OpenAIRE

    Lawley, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    This thesis explains the background to the shortage of indigenous black technical management in Sub Saharan Africa by focusing on a number of countries in the Southern African region. It explains the implications of this shortage particularly for Zimbabwe and its mining industry which at independence in 1980 had no black technical managers. Having looked at management development worldwide and the experience of leading developed countries, the thesis goes on to consider the views and theories...

  18. International Caries Detection and Assessment System: A new paradigm in detection of dental caries

    OpenAIRE

    Shivakumar K; Prasad Sumanth; Chandu G

    2009-01-01

    A new emphasis on caries measurement and management is required for the dental community. The dental professionals need new approaches in caries detection, its assessment, and management. The future of research, practice, and education in Cariology requires the development of an integrated definition of dental caries, and uniform systems for measuring the caries process. Keeping this in view, the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) has presented a new paradigm for the...

  19. Talent management : Retaining and managing technical specialists in a technical career

    OpenAIRE

    Brunila, Alexandra; Baedecke Yllner, Emelie

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to investigate talent management and how companies should work with talent management in order to retain and manage technical specialists in a technical career. Talent management is found to be important for modern organizations because of the advent of the knowledge economy, new generations entering the workforce and the need for businesses to become more strategic and competitive, which implies new ways of managing human capital. Furthermore, talent management ...

  20. Core Technical Capability Laboratory Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaykhian, Linda; Dugger, Curtis; Griffin, Laurie

    2008-01-01

    The Core Technical Capability Lab - oratory Management System (CTCLMS) consists of dynamically generated Web pages used to access a database containing detailed CTC lab data with the software hosted on a server that allows users to have remote access.

  1. Economic versus technical approaches to frequency management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falch, Morten; Tadayoni, Reza

    2004-01-01

    While telecom markets have been liberalized, the institutional framework for spectrum management has largely remained unchanged. In particular, the process of allocation of the spectrum to different applications is still based on technical rather than economic criteria. This paper contrasts...... economic and technical approaches to frequency management, with an examination of spectrum management challenges and the current regulatory framework as the starting point. The benefits and limitations of the free market approach are discussed, and an economic evaluation of the Danish spectrum is used to...

  2. DENTAL CARIES LEADING TO PREMATURE LOSS OF BABY TEETH- IMPLICATIONS AND MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachana Bahuguna

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is a destructive process causing decalcification of the tooth enamel and leading to continued destruction of enamel and dentin, and cavitation of the tooth. Dental caries can occur soon after eruption of the primary teeth, starting at 6 months of age. Primary teeth are present for a reason. One key reason is that they save space for the permanent tooth, which will erupt into its position when the deciduous / primary tooth is lost normally. If a primary tooth (baby or milk tooth, has to be removed early due to say, an abscess which is mostly a result of dental caries, a space maintainer may be recommended to save the space. If the space is not preserved, the other teeth may drift causing difficult to treat crowding and orthodontic problems. These "spacers" are placed temporarily, and are not permanent. They are removed when the new tooth (usually a bicuspid erupts or the abutment teeth get loose.

  3. Non-operative anti-caries agents and dental caries increment among adults at high caries risk: a retrospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Chaffee, Benjamin W.; Cheng, Jing; Featherstone, John DB

    2015-01-01

    Background Consensus guidelines support non-operative preventives for dental caries management; yet, their use in practice is far from universal. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of non-operative anti-caries agents in caries prevention among high caries risk adults at a university clinic where risk-based caries management is emphasized. Methods This retrospective observational study drew data from the electronic patient records of non-edentulous adult patients deeme...

  4. Crew Transportation Technical Management Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckinnie, John M. (Compiler); Lueders, Kathryn L. (Compiler)

    2013-01-01

    Under the guidance of processes provided by Crew Transportation Plan (CCT-PLN-1100), this document, with its sister documents, International Space Station (ISS) Crew Transportation and Services Requirements Document (CCT-REQ-1130), Crew Transportation Technical Standards and Design Evaluation Criteria (CCT-STD-1140), Crew Transportation Operations Standards (CCT STD-1150), and ISS to Commercial Orbital Transportation Services Interface Requirements Document (SSP 50808), provides the basis for a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) certification for services to the ISS for the Commercial Provider. When NASA Crew Transportation System (CTS) certification is achieved for ISS transportation, the Commercial Provider will be eligible to provide services to and from the ISS during the services phase.

  5. DENTAL CARIES LEADING TO PREMATURE LOSS OF BABY TEETH- IMPLICATIONS AND MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Rachana Bahuguna; Sansriti Narain; Tapan Singh

    2011-01-01

    Dental caries is a destructive process causing decalcification of the tooth enamel and leading to continued destruction of enamel and dentin, and cavitation of the tooth. Dental caries can occur soon after eruption of the primary teeth, starting at 6 months of age. Primary teeth are present for a reason. One key reason is that they save space for the permanent tooth, which will erupt into its position when the deciduous / primary tooth is lost normally. If a primary tooth (baby or milk tooth...

  6. Rampant Caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman-Armstrong, Sandra

    2005-01-01

    Although dental caries in the pediatric and adolescent population has consistently declined in the United States, it is still the most common childhood disease. Dental problems are the number one reason for missing school next to the common cold. Dental caries are an infectious, communicable disease resulting in destruction of tooth structure by…

  7. Managing technical debt in software architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Zengyang

    2015-01-01

    Architectural technical debt (ATD) is mainly incurred by architecture decisions that intentionally or unintentionally compromise system-wide quality attributes, particularly maintainability and evolvability. ATD needs to be systematically managed in an appropriate manner, in order to improve the health of the software architecture and optimize the cost of system maintenance and evolution in the long term. Currently, there is a lack of an overall process for systematically managing ATD, as wel...

  8. Waste management project technical baseline description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sederburg, J.P.

    1997-08-13

    A systems engineering approach has been taken to describe the technical baseline under which the Waste Management Project is currently operating. The document contains a mission analysis, function analysis, requirement analysis, interface definitions, alternative analysis, system definition, documentation requirements, implementation definitions, and discussion of uncertainties facing the Project.

  9. Technical and Management Information System (TMIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, Timothy R.

    1987-01-01

    The TMIS goals developed to support the Space Station Program (SSP) mission requirements are outlined. The TMIS will provide common capabilities to all SSP centers and facilitate the flow of technical and management information throughout the program as well as SSP decision-making processes. A summary is presented of the various TMIS phases.

  10. Technical measures for management of Construction Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于泽东; 王英明

    2014-01-01

    the production of improved quality of life, cannot do without the construction, in recent years, the construction quality of the increasingly stringent requirements, how to ef ectively carry out the technical management of building construction is worthy of discussion. This paper wil discuss from the fol owing aspects.

  11. Waste management project technical baseline description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A systems engineering approach has been taken to describe the technical baseline under which the Waste Management Project is currently operating. The document contains a mission analysis, function analysis, requirement analysis, interface definitions, alternative analysis, system definition, documentation requirements, implementation definitions, and discussion of uncertainties facing the Project

  12. Technical Assistance Contractor management plan. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    The Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project comprises Jacobs Engineering Group Inc. (JEG) as the prime contractor and three teaming partner subcontractors: Roy F. Weston, Inc. (RFW), AGRA Earth and Environmental, Inc. (AGRA), and Geraghty and Miller, Inc. (G and M). The TAC contract`s scope is to provide technical, analytical, environmental, engineering, design, inspection, and management support services to the US Department of Energy (DOE) for both Surface and Ground Water Projects. The TAC team supports the DOE in completing surface remedial action and initiating ground water remediation work for start-up, characterization, compliance planning, design, construction oversight, and remedial operations. The TAC provides the DOE UMTRA Project Team with a dedicated management, scientific, and technical resource base in Albuquerque, New Mexico, which is supplemented by corporate resources. A carefully developed and maintained staff of technical experts is available to assess, analyze, develop, and execute cost-effective solutions to the demanding technical and institutional problems presented by the UMTRA Project.

  13. Technical Assistance Contractor management plan. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project comprises Jacobs Engineering Group Inc. (JEG) as the prime contractor and three teaming partner subcontractors: Roy F. Weston, Inc. (RFW), AGRA Earth and Environmental, Inc. (AGRA), and Geraghty and Miller, Inc. (G and M). The TAC contract's scope is to provide technical, analytical, environmental, engineering, design, inspection, and management support services to the US Department of Energy (DOE) for both Surface and Ground Water Projects. The TAC team supports the DOE in completing surface remedial action and initiating ground water remediation work for start-up, characterization, compliance planning, design, construction oversight, and remedial operations. The TAC provides the DOE UMTRA Project Team with a dedicated management, scientific, and technical resource base in Albuquerque, New Mexico, which is supplemented by corporate resources. A carefully developed and maintained staff of technical experts is available to assess, analyze, develop, and execute cost-effective solutions to the demanding technical and institutional problems presented by the UMTRA Project

  14. Technical considerations in materials management policy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under the Materials-in-Inventory (MIN) initiative, US DOE intends to develop policies to ensure that materials are managed and use efficiently, cost-effectively, and safely throughout DOE. The MIN initiative covers depleted uranium, scrap metals, chemicals, explosives, spent nuclear fuel, lead, alkali metals, etc.; by far the largest component is depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF6). A technically defensible approach has been developed and is being used to select a long-term management strategy for DOE's DUF6 inventory. The same approach can be adapted to management of other materials in inventory that have the potential to be reutilized

  15. Technical assistance contractor Management Plan. Final [report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    The Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project comprises Jacobs Engineering Group Inc. (JEG) and its major teaming partners [Roy F. Weston, Inc. (RFW), Sergent, Hauskins & Beckwith Agra, Inc. (SHB Agra), and Geraghty & Miller, Inc. (G&M)]. The first three companies have worked together effectively on the UMTRA Project for more than 10 years. With the initiation of the UMTRA Groundwater Project in April 1991, a need arose to increase the TAC`s groundwater technical breadth and depth, so G&M was brought in to augment the team`s capabilities. The TAC contract`s scope is to provide technical, analytical, environmental, engineering, design, inspection, and management support services to the US Department of Energy (DOE) for both surface and groundwater projects. The TAC team continues to support the DOE in completing surface remedial actions and initiating groundwater remediation work for start-up, characterization, design, construction oversight, and remedial operations. A key feature of the TAC`s management approach is the extensive set of communication systems implemented for the UMTRA Project. These systems assist all functional disciplines in performing UMTRA Project tasks associated with management, technical support, administrative support, and financial/project controls.

  16. Technical and financial project management tool

    CERN Document Server

    Symons, L J

    1998-01-01

    In order to control the technical and financial aspects of the civil engineering contribution to the LHC project, an autonomous data management tool has been put in place to integrate drawings, schedules and budget control. To assemble this very heterogeneous data in its support, contents, and naming, a uniform Product Breakdown Structure (PBS) has been introduced between the different files. For updating reasons, the technical menu has a direct access to the CERN Drawings Directory (CDD). The budget menu compares, for each structure, the initial estimates with the actualized ones, the latter compared permanently with the paid invoices. The total amount of the civil engineering cost is available online.

  17. Space Station Freedom - Technical and management challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Thomas L.

    1988-01-01

    The development of the Space Station is reviewed, focusing on the technical and managerial aspects of the program. The optimization of the Space Station configuration, utilization impacts on design, technical aspects of the distribution systems, and the problems of designing for a lifetime of 30 years or more are discussed. In addition, cost reduction studies, testing and verification, determining the assembly sequence, and operational communications and support systems are examined. Managerial aspects of the program include organization, program control, management tools and processes, and the integration of elements from the international partners.

  18. Quantification and Management of Manifest Occlusal Caries Lesions in Adults: A Methodological and a Clinical Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakhshandeh, Azam

    2010-01-01

    Resin fissure sealants were introduced in child and adolescents dental health care in the late 1960s and early 1970s in Denmark. Since the initial experience was good, sealing of first molars’ occlusal surfaces shortly after tooth eruption was a regular caries preventive treatment in the 1980s....... Today, due to the improved dental health, resin sealants on occlusal surfaces are mainly used based on indication, i.e. surfaces with progressive enamel lesions. Previous studies indicate that progression of the occlusal caries lesion may be arrested with resin sealants provided that the sealant is...... permanent molars with occlusal lesions in different stages. The lesions were visually scored with ICDAS scoring system then sectioned into a facial and a lingual fraction. Digital radiographs and macroscopic photos of each fraction were taken. After randomization, the facial or the lingual fraction of each...

  19. The role of fluoride in the preventive management of dentin hypersensitivity and root caries

    OpenAIRE

    Petersson, Lars G.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The objectives were to bring light on fluoride to control dentin hypersensitivity (DHS) and prevent root caries. Materials and methods Search strategy included papers mainly published in PubMed, Medline from October 2000 to October 2011. Results Fluoride toothpaste shows a fair effect on sensitive teeth when combined with dentin fluid-obstructing agents such as different metal ions, potassium, and oxalates. Fluoride in solution, gel, and varnish give an instant and long-term relief ...

  20. Knowledge Management for Technical and Production Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Gregory George Richards

    2011-01-01

    Trail Operations faces critical challenges in the coming years, including: a substantialchange in feed materials, significant workforce renewal and increasing environmental pressures. Technical and operating knowledge must be organized to leverage its potential for sustaining the business. A knowledge management system offers the potential for this by capturing and transferring knowledge for maximum benefit. The system must work to codify knowledge appropriately and provide a platform to faci...

  1. Technical project management using quality methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gwiazda

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The paper presents the results of investigations of new methods that could be utilized in a technicalproject management. These methods base on the classical quality tools which have been modified to fulfil newtechnical requirements.Design/methodology/approach: The empirical researches allow proposing a new formula of classical qualitytools methodology. The proposed tools have been theoretically discussed and used to present the technicalanalysis of a mechanized mining support.Findings: Two theoretical findings could be presented. Firstly this paper introduced the concept of a weightedIshikawa diagram. Secondly it includes the concept of a stratification analysis a data classifier.Research limitations/implications: The presented paper includes the description of possibilities of only one ofmany quality tools. The second limitation is considered with the analyzed technical mean, and namely a miningsupport. These limitations are the result of a range of the presented paper.Practical implications: This paper shows the importance of integration the management and technical procedures.The application of proposed techniques allowed improving the construction of presented mining support.Originality/value: The original ideas of the paper are: the concept of weighted Ishikawa diagram and thestratification analysis. These solution could be valuable for applications from the area of quality managementand technical project management.

  2. Risk management through dynamic technical specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The wide deployment of plant specific probabilistic risk assessments for nuclear power plants has provided the means to effect a fresh risk management perspective and a fresh, risk based, regulatory outlook on nuclear power. There has been a great deal of conversation on risk based regulation within the U. S. nuclear power industry but, curiously, very little on effective risk management. This paper proposes a means to link the two subjects through the plant Technical Specifications. A revised concept for Technical Specifications is suggested which is based on deterministic analyses and probabilistic risk assessments for each plant. The revised Technical Specifications would consider, on a real-time basis, the exact state of the plant in terms of the status of key components and systems. It would depict current plant risk levels and compare those levels to the desired and limiting (alert/action) levels. It would advise the plant operator on the risk impact of proposed actions through a simple query system and illustrate the impact of such actions on plant status relative to designated risk values. The basis for the proposed approach lies in realistic deterministic plant analyses and probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) deployment tools being developed, in parallel, by a number of parties in the U.S. today. These PRAs are based primarily on the existing plant responses to Generic Letter 88-20, 'Individual Plant Examinations' (IPEs). Each of these tools allows the plant operator to input, on a real-time basis, the status of key equipment and systems. The tools then provide explicit illustrations of dependency effects; updated, 'real-time' risk status indications such as core damage frequency; and, in some cases, allow the operator to assess the risk impact of removing from service selected components for maintenance or testing. These systems generally operate on personal computers and provide nearly instantaneous responses to plant queries. Moving from these tools to

  3. The Future of Project Management in Technical Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampf, Constance

    2006-01-01

    technical communication students. The Project Management course in the International Bachelor Program of Marketing and Management Communication at the Aarhus School of Business is described, and the implications fortechnical communication curricula are discussed.......Project Management increasing shapes workplace communication, especially when technical commuicators participate in cross-disciplinary development teams. This paper looks at the future of project management in technical communication and argues for a communicative approach to project management for...

  4. Technical information management in an emergency response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Through many experiences in responding to real radiation accidents and emergency response exercises, the Department of Energy (DOE) has developed a technical information management system that will be used in the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC) in the event of a major radiological accident. The core of the system is the Data Center in the FRMAC, utilizing a computerized database of all off-site environmental radiological data. The information contained and managed by the Data Center will be comprehensive, accountable, and traceable, providing information to the assessors for immediate health and safety needs as well as for long-term documentation requirements. A DOE task force has been formed to develop compatibility guidelines for video, automated data processing, and communication systems. An electronic mail, information status, and bulletin board system is also being developed to assist in the dissemination of information. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) offer a giant step forward in displaying and analyzing information in a geographically referenced system

  5. The management of dental caries in primary teeth - involving service providers and users in the design of a trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marshman Zoe

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a lack of evidence for the effective management of dental caries in children’s primary teeth. The trial entitled ‘Filling Children’s Teeth: Indicated Or Not?’ (FiCTION was designed to examine the clinical and cost effectiveness, in primary dental care, of three different approaches to the management of caries in primary teeth. However, before the FiCTION main trial commenced, a pilot trial was designed. Service provider (dentists and other members of the team including dental nurses and practice managers and participant (child participants and their parents involvement was incorporated into the pilot trial. The aim of this study is to describe service providers’ and users’ perspectives on the pilot trial to identify improvements to the conduct and design of the FiCTION main trial. Methods Qualitative interviews (individual and group were held with dentists, dental team members, children and parents involved in the FiCTION pilot trial. Individual interviews were held with four dentists and a group interview was held with 17 dental team members. Face-to-face interviews were held with four parents and children (four- to eight-years old representing the three arms of the trial and five telephone interviews were conducted with parents. All interviews were transcribed verbatim. Framework analysis was used. Results Overall, service providers, children and parents found the pilot trial to be well conducted and an interesting experience. Service providers highlighted the challenges of adhering to research protocols, especially managing the documentation and undertaking new clinical techniques. They indicated that the time and financial commitments were greater than they had anticipated. Particular difficulties were found recruiting suitable patients within the timeframe. For parents recruitment was apparently more related to trusting their dentist than the content of information packs. While some of the older

  6. Division of the technical normalization and information in water management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this presentation main tasks and international cooperation of the Division of the technical normalization and information in water management of the Water Research Institute, Bratislava are presented

  7. Caries risk assessment: why, when and how?

    OpenAIRE

    Antonsen, Grethe Marie; Hunstad, Marie Nøvik

    2011-01-01

    This literature study reviewed papers on caries risk assessment on patients` above 18 years published between 2000 and 2010. In the present study three different methods are discussed: The Cariogram, CAMBRA ( Caries Management By Risk Assessment) and the UIT – method (University of Tromsø). The purpose of caries risk assessments are to find out which risk level the patient has and try to lower the risk. By evaluating the protective and pathologic factors involved in the carious disease the de...

  8. A retrospective analysis of caries treatment and development in relation to assessed caries risk in an adult population in Sweden.

    OpenAIRE

    Söderström, Ulf; Johansson, Ingegerd; Sunnegårdh-Grönberg, Karin

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Public Dental Service of Västerbotten County (Sweden) recommends using population-based prevention strategies combined with an individual strategy for high-risk patients to manage caries. To facilitate this management strategy, all patients are evaluated for their risk of developing caries in the coming year using defined criteria. Using caries risk scoring over a seven-year period, the present study evaluates prophylactic measures, caries development, and non-operative treatm...

  9. The future of technical knowledge management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sustainable development of nuclear energy can only be achieved by establishing the global nuclear safety regime. The effective management of technical knowledge will become one of the issues and challenges in establishing the global nuclear safety. We have to develop the measures to identify the nature and scope of associated problems and to explore the cooperative international actions to resolve them. The future of its effective management will depend on how to optimize the transfer and deployment of the knowledge as well as how to maintain the knowledge base. In this presentation, two specific topics are discussed: sharing of the knowledge and preservation of the workforce. In sharing the knowledge, topics are assurance of free flow of safety-related R and D information from developed to developing countries and potential imposition of a strong trade agreement between nuclear exporting and importing countries to ensure the safety. In preserving the workforce, topics are development of the knowledge transfer system from this generation to the next like a forum of IYNC, enforcement of regional and international educational systems like ANENT and WNU for workforce development, and exploration of optimal mechanism in using retired workforce. The publication of the world-wide directory of nuclear professionals, aggressive implementation of the youth internship program and introduction of the international professional certification program are also discussed. The reformation of CNS as a more enforcing and binding agreement in keeping the safety along with the introduction of 'Global Nuclear Safety Treaty' could be an excellent mechanism of achieving an effective knowledge management and eventually enforcing the global safety regime. IAEA has always been the corroborator of maintaining high levels of nuclear safety through close international nuclear cooperation. These important roles of IAEA should continue to be emphasized more than ever in order to secure the

  10. The future of technical knowledge management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The sustainable development of nuclear energy can only be achieved by establishing the global nuclear safety regime. The effective management of technical knowledge will become one of the issues and challenges in establishing the global nuclear safety. We have to develop the measures to identify the nature and scope of associated problems and to explore the cooperative international actions to resolve them. The future of its effective management will depend on how to optimize the transfer and deployment of the knowledge as well as how to maintain the knowledge base. In this presentation, two specific topics are discussed: sharing of the knowledge and preservation of the workforce. In sharing the knowledge, topics are assurance of free flow of safety-related R and D information from developed to developing countries and potential imposition of a strong trade agreement between nuclear exporting and importing countries to ensure the safety. In preserving the workforce, topics are development of the knowledge transfer system from this generation to the next like a forum of IYNC, enforcement of regional and international educational systems like ANENT and WNU for workforce development, and exploration of optimal mechanism in using retired workforce. The publication of the world-wide directory of nuclear professionals, aggressive implementation of the youth internship program and introduction of the international professional certification program are also discussed. The reformation of CNS as a more enforcing and binding agreement in keeping the safety along with the introduction of 'Global Nuclear Safety Treaty' could be an excellent mechanism of achieving an effective knowledge management and eventually enforcing the global safety regime. IAEA has always been the corroborator of maintaining high levels of nuclear safety through close international nuclear cooperation. These important roles of IAEA should continue to be emphasized more than ever in order to

  11. 25 CFR 286.11 - Management and technical assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Management and technical assistance. 286.11 Section 286... DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM § 286.11 Management and technical assistance. (a) Prior to and concurrent with the making of a grant to finance an Indian economic enterprise, the Assistant Secretary—Indian Affairs...

  12. 25 CFR 101.7 - Management and technical assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Management and technical assistance. 101.7 Section 101.7... THE REVOLVING LOAN FUND § 101.7 Management and technical assistance. Prior to and concurrent with the approval of a United States direct loan to finance an economic enterprise, the Commissioner will...

  13. Caries risk assessment models in caries prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Amila Zukanović

    2013-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this research was to assess the efficiency of different multifactor models in caries prediction. Material and methods. Data from the questionnaire and objective examination of 109 examinees was entered into the Cariogram, Previser and Caries-Risk Assessment Tool (CAT) multifactor risk assessment models. Caries risk was assessed with the help of all three models for each patient, classifying them as low, medium or high-risk patients. The development of new caries lesions ...

  14. Patient caries risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, Svante; Fontana, Margherita

    2009-01-01

    Risk assessment is an essential component in the decision-making process for the correct prevention and management of dental caries. Multiple risk factors and indicators have been proposed as targets in the assessment of risk of future disease, varying sometimes based on the age group at which they...... are targeted. Multiple reviews and systematic reviews are available in the literature on this topic. This chapter focusses primarily on results of reviews based on longitudinal studies required to establish the accuracy of caries risk assessment. These findings demonstrate that there is a strong body...... for prediction purposes, as measured until now in the literature, is at best questionable in schoolchildren, adolescents and adults. That is not to say these additional factors should not be assessed to help understand the strength of their associations with the disease experience in a particular...

  15. Minimal intervention dentistry: part 3. Paediatric dental care--prevention and management protocols using caries risk assessment for infants and young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Gomez, F J; Crystal, Y O; Domejean, S; Featherstone, J D B

    2012-11-01

    Recent increases in caries prevalence in young children throughout the world highlight the need for a simple but effective infant oral care programme. This programme needs to include a medical disease prevention management model with an early establishment of a dental home and a treatment approach based on individual patient risk. This article presents an updated approach with practical forms and tools based on the principles of caries management by risk assessment, CAMBRA. This method will aid the general practitioner to develop and maintain a comprehensive protocol adequate for infant and young children oral care visits. Perinatal oral health is vitally important in preventing early childhood caries (ECC) in young children. Providing dental treatment to expectant mothers and their young children in a 'dual parallel track' is an effective innovative strategy and an efficient practice builder. It promotes prevention rather than intervention, and this may be the best way to achieve long-lasting oral health for young patients. General dental practice can adopt easy protocols that will promote early preventive visits and anticipatory guidance/counselling rather than waiting for the need for restorative treatment. PMID:23175072

  16. Some technical issues in managing PCBs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Zhifu; Buekens, Alfons; Liu, Jie; Chen, Tong; Lu, Shengyong; Li, Xiaodong; Cen, Kefa

    2014-05-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were important industrial chemicals featuring high thermal and chemical stability and low flammability. They were widely used as dielectric and thermal fluid in closed electro-technical applications (transformers, capacitors…) and also in numerous dispersive uses, ranking from auto-copying paper to sealant or coatings. During the 1960s, severe environmental consequences started becoming apparent. The stability of PCBs contributed to their persistence in the environment, their lipophilic character to bio-magnification. Fish-eating species seemed threatened in their existence. In Japan and in Taiwan, thousands of people consumed PCB-contaminated oil. The production of PCBs stopped completely during the 1980s. Usage could continue in closed applications only. In this paper, particular attention is given to two issues: the cleaning of PCB electric transformers and the potential impact of PCB-containing building materials. Other contributions will cover the management and treatment of PCB-contaminated soil, sludge or fly ash. The complete survey is being prepared by request of the Knowledge Center for Engineers and Professionals. PMID:23812787

  17. LOGISTIC MANAGEMENT MATERIALS-TECHNICAL SUPPORT RAILWAY ENTERPRISES

    OpenAIRE

    Dykan, V.; Borozenetc, T.

    2014-01-01

    The essence of logistics management. Determine the feasibility of applying the principles of logistics management in organizing the logistics of railway transport. Discussed measures to develop suppliers in the implementation of logistics management logistics. Identified the need to develop and implement regulatory and methodical system to improve materials-technical support through the introduction of modern logistics principles. Applied systemic campaign to organize the materials-technical ...

  18. Validation of the CDA CAMBRA caries risk assessment--a six-year retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doméjean, Sophie; White, Joel M; Featherstone, John D B

    2011-10-01

    The present manuscript presents the results of a six-year retrospective study validating caries risk assessment in a caries management by risk assessment program in a large predominantly adult patient population seeking dental care. CRA was successful in accurately identifying patients at high caries risk. Caries risk assessment in a CAMBRA program is a good clinical tool for everyday dental practice. PMID:22132582

  19. Technical career opportunities in high-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technical career opportunities in high-level radioactive waste management are briefly described in the areas of: Hydrology; geology; biological sciences; mathematics; engineering; heavy equipment operation; and skilled labor and crafts

  20. The Office of Environmental Management technical reports: A bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Office of Environmental Management's (EM) technical reports bibliography is an annual publication that contains information on scientific and technical reports sponsored by the Office of Environmental Management added to the Energy Science and Technology Database from July 1, 1994 through June 30, 1995. This information is divided into the following categories: Focus Areas, Cross-Cutting Programs, and Support Programs. In addition, a category for general information is included. EM's Office of Science and Technology sponsors this bibliography

  1. Technical development of integrated radwaste management information system in Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, C.; Tsai, C.M.; Chang, P.L.

    1994-12-31

    Radioactive waste poses very complex problems from its generation, processing, shipping in-transit and interim storage, to its final destination and is carefully planned in Taiwan. The objectives of this plan are to use technical management skills and integrated computer technology to provide an Electronic Information Service Environment. We use a relational data structure to establish a computerized management of the radioactive waste. It combines methodologies in technical management, data processing, data base, hierarchical tree structure, multi-media user interface, decision analysis, and artificial intelligence, etc., to accomplish the integration of radioactive waste information and to effectively utilize resources in order to raise the overall management level and efficiency in Taiwan.

  2. Software configuration management plan for the Hanford site technical database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hanford Site Technical Database (HSTD) is used as the repository/source for the technical requirements baseline and programmatic data input via the Hanford Site and major Hanford Project Systems Engineering (SE) activities. The Hanford Site SE effort has created an integrated technical baseline for the Hanford Site that supports SE processes at the Site and project levels which is captured in the HSTD. The HSTD has been implemented in Ascent Logic Corporation (ALC) Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) package referred to as the Requirements Driven Design (RDD) software. This Software Configuration Management Plan (SCMP) provides a process and means to control and manage software upgrades to the HSTD system

  3. Technical strategy map to employing nuclear power plant aging management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stated in this report are back ground of technical strategy map for nuclear power plant aging management, result of the first road map, significance of technical strategy map, introduction scenario, technology map, road map, upgrade in every year, three groups of academia, industry and government, plan of technical strategy map, upgrade system, comprehensive introduction scenario, measures of nuclear power plant aging management in Japan and the world, new inspection system, outline of 'technical strategy map 2008', preparation of technical information bases in industry, academia and government, collaboration of them, safety researches of neutron radiation damage, stress corrosion crack, fatigue, piping thinning, insulation degradation, concrete degradation, thermal aging, evaluation technologies of earthquake resistance, preparation of rules and standards, ideal maintenance, and training talent. (S.Y.)

  4. Review of Knowledge Management Systems As Socio-Technical System

    OpenAIRE

    Assegaff, Setiawan; Hussin, Ab Razak Che

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge Management Systems as socio-technical systemperspectives has recognized for decades. Practitioners and scholars belief Knowledge Management is best carried out throught the optimization both technological and social-aspect.Lacking of understand and consider both aspects could lead organizations in misinterpretation while developing andimplementing Knowledge Management System. There is a need for practical guidance how Knowledge Management System should implement in organizations. We...

  5. Ohio Business Management. Technical Competency Profile (TCP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Gayl M.; Wilson, Nick; Mangini, Rick

    This document describes the essential competencies from secondary through post-secondary associate degree programs for a career in business management. Ohio College Tech Prep Program standards are described, and a key to profile codes is provided. Sample occupations in this career area, such as management trainee, product manager, and advertising…

  6. Cariogram – A Multi-factorial Risk Assessment Software for Risk Prediction of Dental Caries

    OpenAIRE

    Anup N; Preeti Vishnani

    2014-01-01

    For years, Swedish researchers have recognized caries risk assessment as an important part of routine dental practice for caries management. This paper reviews a new way of illustrating the caries risk profi le of an individual through a computer program, the Cariogram, which was described by Professor Bratthal in 1976. Cariogram is a risk as well as a prediction model. It presents a ‘weighted’ of the input data related to caries such as caries experience, related disease, diet, fl u...

  7. The role of chlorhexidine in caries prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autio-Gold, Jaana

    2008-01-01

    treatment and prevention of dental caries have been introduced over the past century. The use of chlorhexidine in caries prevention has been referred to as a nonsurgical management of dental caries and has represented the modern medical model of caries treatment. However, there is a lack of consensus on evidence-based treatment protocols and controversy regarding the role of chlorhexidine in caries prevention among dental educators and clinicians. There is a need to standardize guidelines to optimize evidence-based non-surgical disease management to provide appropriate care. This paper reviewed the literature on the effectiveness of different modes of chlorhexidine delivery for caries prevention and provides guidelines for chlorhexidine use in caries management. A literature search was conducted using the PubMed and Evidence-Based Medicine Reviews databases and the keywords "chlorhexidine" and "caries", limiting the search to "humans", "reviews" and "English". Based on the published reviews, it was concluded that chlorhexidine rinses, gels and varnishes or combinations of these items with fluoride have variable effects. Additionally, the sparse clinical data that was reported weakens the conclusions. Due to the current lack of evidence on long-term clinical outcomes and reported side effects, chlorhexidine rinse, which is currently the only treatment mode available in the US, should not be recommended for caries prevention. Clinical evidence on gels and varnishes is also inconclusive. For the treatment of dental caries, there are alternative evidence-based prevention methods available, such as fluoride applications, diet modifications and good oral hygiene practices. PMID:19051866

  8. Dental caries vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    Shivakumar K; Vidya S; Chandu G

    2009-01-01

    Dental caries is one of the most common diseases in humans. In modern times, it has reached epidemic proportions. Dental caries is an infectious microbiologic disease of the teeth that results in localized dissolution and destruction of the calcified tissue. Dental caries is a mulitifactorial disease, which is caused by host, agent, and environmental factors. The time factor is important for the development and progression of dental caries. A wide group of microorganisms are identified from c...

  9. PRIMARY CARIES: AN OVERVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Gaurav Solanki

    2012-01-01

    Primary caries is an initial lesions produced by direct extension from an external surface. Dental caries is called as tooth decay or a cavity is a disease in which bacterial processes changes carbohydrate to acid which than dematerializes the hard tooth structure like enamel, dentin and cementum. Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus are the bacteria responsible for the dental caries by acid production. This article throws light on the dental caries disease, its sign and symptoms, treatment...

  10. Management Studies Educational Knowledge: Technical, Elite or Political?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hordern, Jim

    2014-01-01

    This paper draws on the technical, elite and political interpretations of the purpose of management, to identify demands for particular forms of educational knowledge in the management studies curriculum. The varied character of this knowledge is discussed using Bernsteinian concepts of verticality, grammaticality, classification and framing, and…

  11. The Office of Environmental Management technical reports: a bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Office of Environmental Management''s (EM) technical reports bibliography is an annual publication that contains information on scientific and technical reports sponsored by the Office of Environmental Management added to the Energy Science and Technology Database from July 1, 1995 through Sept. 30, 1996. This information is divided into the following categories: Focus Areas and Crosscutting Programs. Support Programs, Technology Integration and International Technology Exchange are now included in the General category. EM''s Office of Science and Technology sponsors this bibliography

  12. The Office of Environmental Management technical reports: a bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The Office of Environmental Management`s (EM) technical reports bibliography is an annual publication that contains information on scientific and technical reports sponsored by the Office of Environmental Management added to the Energy Science and Technology Database from July 1, 1995 through Sept. 30, 1996. This information is divided into the following categories: Focus Areas and Crosscutting Programs. Support Programs, Technology Integration and International Technology Exchange are now included in the General category. EM`s Office of Science and Technology sponsors this bibliography.

  13. 1993 DOE technical standards managers workshop: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    This workshop is focused on the benefits of the DOE technical standards program, which is focused toward the preferred use of non-Government standards for DOE activities and the development of DOE technical standards when non-Government standards are not available or are inappropriate. One goal of the program is to replace redundant site-specific standards with more universally accepted documents that have been scrutinized by experts. This replacement is discussed at the workshop along with the problems encountered and solutions found. The workshop provided an opportunity for geographically dispersed people to meet and advance their standards knowledge and efforts to support the program. Safety issues have been the driving force behind the program to date. Several companies offer products and services that support the development, processing, and retrieval of standards. This document mostly comprise vugraphs.

  14. Nutrition and dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobley, Connie C

    2003-04-01

    Promotion of sound dietary practices is an essential component of caries management, along with fluoride exposure and oral hygiene practices. Scientific discoveries have lead to better understanding of the caries process, the ever-expanding food supply, and the interaction between the two. Fermentable carbohydrates interact dynamically with oral bacteria and saliva, and these foods will continue to be a major part of a healthful diet. Dental health professionals can serve their patients and the public by providing comprehensive oral health care and by promoting lifestyle behaviors to improve oral and general health within the time constraints of their practice. Dietary advice given should not contradict general health principles when providing practical guidance to reduce caries risk. The following principles should guide messages: * Encourage balanced diets based on moderation and variety as depicted by the Food Guide Pyramid and the Dietary Guidelines for Americans to provide a sound approach. Avoid references to "bad" foods and focus on "good" diets that include a variety of foods. * Give examples of how combining and sequencing foods can enhance mastication, saliva production, and oral clearance at each eating occasion. Combining dairy foods with sugary foods, raw foods with cooked, and protein-rich foods with acidogenic foods are all good examples. Suggest that eating and drinking be followed by cariostatic foods such as xylitol chewing gum. * Drink water to satisfy thirst and hydration needs as often as possible. Restrict consumption of sweetened beverages to meal and snack times when they can be combined with other cariostatic foods. * When a patient reports excessive dietary intake of a fermentable carbohydrate to the point of displacing other important foods in the diet, identify alternatives that will help the patient maintain or achieve a healthy body weight, oral health status, and a nutrient-dense intake. PMID:12699234

  15. The Office of Environmental Management technical reports: A bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The Office of Environmental Management`s (EM) technical reports bibliography is an annual publication that contains information on scientific and technical reports sponsored by the Office of Environmental Management added to the Energy Science and Technology Database from July 1, 1995--that were published from October 1, 1996--September 30, 1997. This information is divided into the following categories: Miscellaneous, Focus Areas and Crosscutting Programs, Support Programs, Technology Integration and International Technology Exchange, are now included in the Miscellaneous category. The Office of Environmental Management within the Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for environmental restoration, waste management, technology development and facility transition and management. Subjects include: subsurface contaminants; mixed waste characterization, treatment and disposal; radioactive tank waste remediation; plutonium; deactivation and decommissioning; robotics; characterization, monitoring, and sensor technology; and efficient separations. 880 refs.

  16. Do technical skills correlate with non-technical skills in crisis resource management: a simulation study

    OpenAIRE

    Riem, N.; Boet, S.; Bould, M. D.; Tavares, W.; Naik, V. N.

    2012-01-01

    Background Both technical skills (TS) and non-technical skills (NTS) are key to ensuring patient safety in acute care practice and effective crisis management. These skills are often taught and assessed separately. We hypothesized that TS and NTS are not independent of each other, and we aimed to evaluate the relationship between TS and NTS during a simulated intraoperative crisis scenario. Methods This study was a retrospective analysis of performances from a previously published work. After...

  17. TWRS safety and technical integration risk management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Safety and Technical Integration (STI) programmatic risk management program are to assess, analyze, and handle risks associated with TWRS STI responsibilities and to communicate information about the actions being taken and the results to enable decision making. The objective of this TWRS STI Risk Management Plan is to communicate a consistent approach to risk management that will be used by the organization

  18. Texas Instruments Technical Seminar: Power Management and Wireless

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Monday 6 November TECHNICAL TRAINING SEMINAR 14:00 to 17:30 - Training Centre Auditorium (bldg. 593) Texas Instruments Technical Seminar: Power Management and Wireless Michael Scholtholt, Field Application Engineer / TEXAS INSTRUMENTS (US, D, CH) The range of power management products available today offers the possibility to find the best solution for each application. To select the right product it is therefore necessary to understand system requirements, how power supply products work, and where they differentiate. This Technical Training Seminar will also present an overview of how to choose the right RF platform based on markets and applications: nowadays almost everbody has at least one wireless product in use, and this tendency seems to increase significantly. Power Management Voltage mode vs. current mode control Differentiating DC/DC converters by analyzing control and compensation schemes: line / load regulation, transient response, BOM, board space, ease-of-use Introduction to evaluati...

  19. Texas Instruments Technical Seminar: Power Management and Wireless

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Monday 6 November TECHNICAL TRAINING SEMINAR 14:00 to 17:30 - Training Centre Auditorium (bldg. 593) Texas Instruments Technical Seminar: Power Management and Wireless Michael Scholtholt, Field Application Engineer / TEXAS INSTRUMENTS (US, D, CH) The range of power management products available today offers the possibility to find the best solution for each application. To select the right product it is therefore necessary to understand system requirements, how power supply products work, and where they differentiate. This Technical Training Seminar will also present an overview of how to choose the right RF platform based on markets and applications: nowadays almost everbody has at least one wireless product in use, and this tendency seems to increase significantly. Power Management Voltage mode vs. current mode control Differentiating DC/DC converters by analyzing control and compensation schemes: line / load regulation, transient response, BOM, board space, ease-of-use Introduction to evalu...

  20. External Technical Reviews in the Environmental Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Environmental Management (EM) program believes strongly in reducing the technical risk of its projects and has initiated External Technical Reviews (ETR) as one of several steps to ensure the timely resolution of engineering and technology issues. EM's Office of Engineering and Technology is leading the ETR process and is working closely with Federal Project Directors to review such issues as technology development, systems integration, design, operations, maintenance, and nuclear safety. EM has completed several successful reviews using expert engineers and scientists from private industry and academia over the last two years. Additional external technical reviews will be conducted to support key project decisions and will be a mainstay of the EM program. The purpose of an ETR is to reduce technical risk and uncertainty. These independent reviews provide pertinent information for EM to assess technical risk associated with projects and develop strategies for reducing the technical risk, and provide technical information needed to support critical project decisions. Technical risk reduction increases the probability of successful implementation of technical scope. In general, an ETR assesses technical bases, technology development, and technical risk identification and handling strategies. The three key objectives of every ETR are: - To determine if the technology, process, system, or design under review will meet project objectives and requirements, - To identify any issues (show-stoppers) preventing successful implementation of the technology, process, system, or design under review, and - To identify issues or data needed to support critical or other project or program decisions. The specific objectives of ETRs may vary, but generally include: - Determining if technical objectives are well known and defined; - Determining if alternatives have been identified and effectively evaluated; - Determining if technology development is well planned and executed

  1. Technical assistance contractor management plan: Surface and ground water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    This report presents the general management structure of the Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. This team is a partnership of four major private subcontractors, which teamed together, are striving to be the leader in environmental restoration of uranium mining and milling operations. It will provide a pool of experts in various aspects of the technologies necessary to accomplish this goal, available to DOE to deal with mission concerns. The report expands on goals from TAC`s mission statement, which include management concerns, environment, safety, and health, quality, technical support, communications, and personnel.

  2. Technical assistance contractor management plan: Surface and ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the general management structure of the Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. This team is a partnership of four major private subcontractors, which teamed together, are striving to be the leader in environmental restoration of uranium mining and milling operations. It will provide a pool of experts in various aspects of the technologies necessary to accomplish this goal, available to DOE to deal with mission concerns. The report expands on goals from TAC's mission statement, which include management concerns, environment, safety, and health, quality, technical support, communications, and personnel

  3. Dental caries - A complete changeover (Part I)

    OpenAIRE

    Usha Carounanidy; Sathyanarayanan R

    2009-01-01

    In spite of a knowledge explosion in cariology science, dental caries still remains a misunderstood phenomenon by the clinicians. In order to effectively use the wide range of preventive and management strategies, it is imperative to look beyond those black and white spots that manifest on the tooth surfaces. This paper focuses on the revised versions of the etiopathogenesis and definition of dental caries disease in the present century.

  4. Dental caries - A complete changeover (Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usha Carounanidy

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In spite of a knowledge explosion in cariology science, dental caries still remains a misunderstood phenomenon by the clinicians. In order to effectively use the wide range of preventive and management strategies, it is imperative to look beyond those black and white spots that manifest on the tooth surfaces.This paper focuses on the revised versions of the etiopathogenesis and definition of dental caries disease in the present century.

  5. Tele-maintenance 'intelligent' system for technical plants result management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The management of technical plant for productivity and safety is generally a complex activity, particularly when many plants distributed in the territory are considered (i.e. the more and more frequent case of outsourced plants maintenance by specialized companies), granted quality and cost results are required (i.e. the case of some rather innovative contract solutions) and the technology involved is heterogeneous and innovative (i.e. electro-mechanical plants). In order to efficiently achieve the above aims an 'intelligent' maintenance-management system for the distant monitoring and controlling by a remote control center has been developed. The so-called GrAMS (granted availability management system) system is conceived to give to organizations involved in technical-industrial plants management the possibility to tend to a 'well-known availability' and 'zero-failures' management. In particular, this study deals with the diagnostic aspects and safety level of technical plants (such as elevators, thermo-technical plants, etc.), and with the involvement of ad hoc designed software analysis tools based on neural networks and reliability indicators. Part of the research dealing with the tele-maintenance intelligent system has been financed by the Italian High Institute for Safety (ISPESL) and led to the development of a pre-industrial prototype whose realization and testing is here described

  6. Germany; Technical Note on Crisis Management Arrangements

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses Germany’s challenges and measures to strengthen crisis management arrangements. Bundesanstalt für Finanzdienstleistungsaufsicht (BaFin) and the Bundesbank have closely coordinated with the interagency risk committee on banking matters, which also encompasses BaFin representatives for all three financial sectors. The Bundesbank maintains an internal crisis committee and a steering committee. The crisis committee is chaired by a board member and combines expertise from vari...

  7. Reducing Technical Risk in the Environmental Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of the Office of Engineering and Technology is to reduce the technical risk and uncertainty in the Environmental Management program. The office identifies and advances technologies, processes, and technical practices that improve the performance of Environmental Management projects over their entire life cycle, from planning to disposal. Within this office is the Office of Waste Processing, the Office of Groundwater and Soil, and the Office of Decontamination and Decommissioning and Facility Engineering. Each of these offices 1) develops policy and guidance; 2) assesses projects and programs through technical reviews and oversight; 3) provides technical assistance and support to the Field and other HQ offices, and 4) implements the Technology, Development and Deployment Program. This paper describes the efforts underway to reduce technical risks, including the External Technical Reviews being led by the Office of Engineering and Technology. In addition, the paper addresses the efforts underway to identify the technology needs and gaps as well as the strategic plan/road-map to address those needs. (authors)

  8. Life cycle assessment of waste management systems: Assessing technical externalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brogaard, Line Kai-Sørensen

    today to model these primary material production processes, but their data quality varies. The aim of this PhD project was to find the relevance and importance of technical externalities in LCA of waste management systems. To provide a thorough overview on this issue, two research questions were......The life cycle assessment (LCA) of a waste management system relies on many internal characteristics such as pollution control systems and recovery efficiencies. It also relies on technical externalities supporting the waste management system in terms of capital goods and energy and material...... production systems. In the past, capital goods have often been disregarded because of a lack of time and assumptions of lower environmental impacts from these capital goods compared to the total impacts of waste management. However, capital goods have not been addressed in detail in the literature until now...

  9. Life cycle assessment of waste management systems: Assessing technical externalities

    OpenAIRE

    Brogaard, Line Kai-Sørensen; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2013-01-01

    The life cycle assessment (LCA) of a waste management system relies on many internal characteristics such as pollution control systems and recovery efficiencies. It also relies on technical externalities supporting the waste management system in terms of capital goods and energy and material production systems. In the past, capital goods have often been disregarded because of a lack of time and assumptions of lower environmental impacts from these capital goods compared to the total impacts o...

  10. Ohio Marketing Management and Research. Technical Competency Profile (TCP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Gayl M.; Wilson, Nick; Mangini, Rick

    This document provides a framework for a broad-based secondary and postsecondary curriculum to prepare students for employment in marketing management and research (MMR). The first part of the technical competency profile (TCP) contains the following items: an explanation of the purpose and scope of Ohio's TCPs; college tech prep program…

  11. Ohio Medical Office Management. Technical Competency Profile (TCP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Gayl M.; Wilson, Nick; Mangini, Rick

    This document provides a framework for a broad-based secondary and postsecondary curriculum to prepare students for employment in medical office management. The first part of the technical competency profile (TCP) contains the following items: an explanation of the purpose and scope of Ohio's TCPs; college tech prep program standards; an overview…

  12. Early Childhood Caries

    OpenAIRE

    Kawashita, Yumiko; Kitamura, Masayasu; Saito, Toshiyuki

    2011-01-01

    Dental caries is one of the most common childhood diseases, and people continue to be susceptible to it throughout their lives. Although dental caries can be arrested and potentially even reversed in its early stages, it is often not self-limiting and progresses without proper care until the tooth is destroyed. Early childhood caries (ECC) is often complicated by inappropriate feeding practices and heavy infection with mutans streptococci. Such children should be targeted with a professional ...

  13. Library management and technical services the changing role of technical services in library organizations

    CERN Document Server

    Cargill, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    This exciting volume explores the role of technical services functions and organizational structure as forces in the library change process. It provides practical information to help administrators make decisions about how their libraries are organized and managed. As libraries change in many ways--organizational structure, design of jobs, managerial philosophy, responsibilities of professionals, and the impact of automation--librarians in technical services, administrators, and personnel officers--need guidance in meeting the new challenges in order to continue providing thorough efficient se

  14. Quality tools in a process of technical project management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gwiazda

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this paper is to show how it could utilize the tools of quality management for the processof project management. Also it could be presented a modification of the Ishikawa diagram.Design/methodology/approach: In presented work has been applied the research methodology that bases onthe theoretical analysis and on the empirical researches. It is also presented a practical solution that proved thevalidity of proposed method.Findings: The base finding of the presented work is the new concept of the Ishikawa diagram. The secondfinding is the stratification method. This new management tools let change the process of technical solutionpreparation.Research limitations/implications: In presented work it has been used only one improved quality tool. It isconsider with the fact that the aim of the paper is to present the possibility of the improved management tool.Practical implications: The article, and particularly the presented method allow to develop the researchesconsider with quality tools. Secondly, this paper shows the importance of integration the management andtechnical procedure. And thirdly in this article is presented a technical solution that is also a result of improvedwork technique.Originality/value: The presented improve Ishikawa diagram and stratification analysis is the original authorproposition. Also presented technical solutions are original.

  15. Management of People by Managers with a Technical Background - Research Results

    OpenAIRE

    D. Dobrovská

    2001-01-01

    In 1999 and 2000, the Masaryk Institute of Advanced studies of CTU in Prague launched a study of the efficiency of human resource management in Czech enterprises, with emphasis on technically educated managers. About 85 managers, each responsible for 5-250 employees assessed their own HRM activities and attitudes and those of their firm. The following aspects were analysed: evaluating individual management areas, assessing the general management standard of the given company, awareness of the...

  16. The cloud security ecosystem technical, legal, business and management issues

    CERN Document Server

    Ko, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    Drawing upon the expertise of world-renowned researchers and experts, The Cloud Security Ecosystem comprehensively discusses a range of cloud security topics from multi-disciplinary and international perspectives, aligning technical security implementations with the most recent developments in business, legal, and international environments. The book holistically discusses key research and policy advances in cloud security - putting technical and management issues together with an in-depth treaties on a multi-disciplinary and international subject. The book features contributions from key tho

  17. Technical Support Activities of a Nuclear Materials Management Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of a nuclear materials management programme in the United States of America has recognized from its inception the value and need of strong technical support. The success of that programme has depended to a large extent on the development of a closely allied technical support effort. This effort has drawn on the technical competency of top governmental, industrial and academic consultants, in addition to that within the USAEC. Under the planning, development and administration of the USAEC's Division of Nuclear Materials Management, a broad spectrum of technical activities has evolved. These include: (a) The establishment of an Advisory Committee for Standard Reference Materials and Methods of Measurement, (b) Preparation and USAEC co-ordination with the National Bureau of Standards in the development of a series of uranium and plutonium chemical and isotopic standards, (c) Research and development programmes designed to provide improved measurement techniques, (d) Compilation and publication of a book of selected measurement methods for uranium and plutonium. Each of these technical support activities is discussed in some detail, including the conditions that gave rise to their need and development, and their application to the USAEC's nuclear materials management programme. Included is a discussion of the USAEC's Advisory Committee for Standard Reference Materials and Methods of Measurement, which was established to provide guidance to the nuclear materials management programme and recommend research and development activities. Resulting from these recommendations was a USAEC co-operative effort with the National Bureau of Standards for the development of chemical and isotopic standard reference materials of uranium and plutonium; particular attention is devoted to the results of that joint effort. The need for research and development efforts in areas of mutual interest is examined, and the cooperation of other nations of the world is elicited in

  18. Caries risk assessment models in caries prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amila Zukanović

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this research was to assess the efficiency of different multifactor models in caries prediction. Material and methods. Data from the questionnaire and objective examination of 109 examinees was entered into the Cariogram, Previser and Caries-Risk Assessment Tool (CAT multifactor risk assessment models. Caries risk was assessed with the help of all three models for each patient, classifying them as low, medium or high-risk patients. The development of new caries lesions over a period of three years [Decay Missing Filled Tooth (DMFT increment = difference between Decay Missing Filled Tooth Surface (DMFTS index at baseline and follow up], provided for examination of the predictive capacity concerning different multifactor models. Results. The data gathered showed that different multifactor risk assessment models give significantly different results (Friedman test: Chi square = 100.073, p=0.000. Cariogram is the model which identified the majority of examinees as medium risk patients (70%. The other two models were more radical in risk assessment, giving more unfavorable risk –profiles for patients. In only 12% of the patients did the three multifactor models assess the risk in the same way. Previser and CAT gave the same results in 63% of cases – the Wilcoxon test showed that there is no statistically significant difference in caries risk assessment between these two models (Z = -1.805, p=0.071. Conclusions. Evaluation of three different multifactor caries risk assessment models (Cariogram, PreViser and CAT showed that only the Cariogram can successfully predict new caries development in 12-year-old Bosnian children.

  19. Cariësmanagement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C.M. van Gemert-Schriks; J.P. van Amerongen

    2010-01-01

    Within modern dentistry, a change from invasive to non-invasive strategies for the treatment of dental caries seems to be apparent. The foundation of non-invasive care is old, but is now interpreted differently as a result of new insights. Caries is a dynamic and multi-factorial process that takes p

  20. Caries og drikkevandets kvalitet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvin, Erik; Bardow, Allan; Bruvo, Maja;

    2011-01-01

    Drikkevandskvaliteten har stor betydning for forekomsten af caries blandt 15 årige skolebørn, også selv om de bruger fluoridholdigt tandpasta. Ud over den kendte effekt af fluorid har vi vist, at calcium også har en væsentlig betydning. Begge ioner forebygger caries. Denne viden har væsentlig...

  1. Technical Shortcomings of Designing and Implementing a Knowledge Management System

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadreza Hamidizadeh; Seyed Akbar Nilipour Tabatabaei; Maryam Gholizadeh

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the current research is to recognize technical shortcomings of designing and implementing a knowledge management system. The research population include two companies: Zobahan Esfahan Company and International Automation and Systems Engineering Company (IRISA) in which the staffs work in different departments such as research and development, method and structure, strategic planning, instruction, and information technology. applying a stratified random sampling, 50 samples were...

  2. LOGISTICS AND SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT IN THEATRE TECHNICAL CORPORATION

    OpenAIRE

    SMIRNOV SERGEI

    2014-01-01

    The transportation issues of the companies, doing business in Russia, are analyzed from the case study of Theatre Technical Corporation. The addressed difficulties are determined by the features of the theatrical market in Russia as well as the supply chain management as the whole. The national and international relations of the enterprise are described with the emphases on the specifics of logistics operations, which tend to be provided in accordance with Third Party Logistics (3PL) service.

  3. Places available - Technical management courses (up to end July)

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Please find below the courses in the field of technical management scheduled up to the end of July and which have places available.       For more details about a course and to register, please go to the Training Catalogue. If you need a course that is not in the catalogue, please contact your supervisor, your Departmental Training Officer or the HR-LD group at Communication.Training@cern.ch.  

  4. Early Childhood Caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumiko Kawashita

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is one of the most common childhood diseases, and people continue to be susceptible to it throughout their lives. Although dental caries can be arrested and potentially even reversed in its early stages, it is often not self-limiting and progresses without proper care until the tooth is destroyed. Early childhood caries (ECC is often complicated by inappropriate feeding practices and heavy infection with mutans streptococci. Such children should be targeted with a professional preventive program that includes oral hygiene instructions for mothers or caregivers, along with fluoride and diet counseling. However, these strategies alone are not sufficient to prevent dental caries in high-risk children; prevention of ECC also requires addressing the socioeconomic factors that face many families in which ECC is endemic. The aim of this paper is to systematically review information about ECC and to describe why many children are suffering from dental caries.

  5. Environmental restoration and remediation technical data management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tasks performed in the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) work plan for each Hanford Site operable unit must meet the requirements of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) and the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement, Ecology et. al 1992). An extensive amount of data will be generated in the evaluation and remediation of hazardous waste sites at the Site. The data must be of sufficient quality, as they will be used to evaluate the need, select the method(s), and support the full remediation of the waste sites as stipulated in the Tri-Party Agreement. In particular, a data management plan (DMP) is to be included in an RI/FS work plan for managing the technical data obtained during the characterization of an operable unit, as well as other data related to the study of the operable unit. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) sites are involved in the operable unit. Thus, the data management activities for the operable unit should be applied consistently to RCRA sites in the operable unit as well. This DMP provides common direction for managing-the environmental technical data of all defined operable units at the Hanford Site during the RI/FS activities. Details specific to an operable unit will be included in the actual work plan of that operable unit

  6. Environmental restoration and remediation technical data management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Key, K.T.; Fox, R.D.

    1994-02-01

    The tasks performed in the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) work plan for each Hanford Site operable unit must meet the requirements of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) and the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement, Ecology et. al 1992). An extensive amount of data will be generated in the evaluation and remediation of hazardous waste sites at the Site. The data must be of sufficient quality, as they will be used to evaluate the need, select the method(s), and support the full remediation of the waste sites as stipulated in the Tri-Party Agreement. In particular, a data management plan (DMP) is to be included in an RI/FS work plan for managing the technical data obtained during the characterization of an operable unit, as well as other data related to the study of the operable unit. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) sites are involved in the operable unit. Thus, the data management activities for the operable unit should be applied consistently to RCRA sites in the operable unit as well. This DMP provides common direction for managing-the environmental technical data of all defined operable units at the Hanford Site during the RI/FS activities. Details specific to an operable unit will be included in the actual work plan of that operable unit.

  7. Caries activity indicators. A review.

    OpenAIRE

    Wyne A; Guile E

    1993-01-01

    Caries activity is the sum total of new carious lesions and the enlargement of existing cavities during a given time. An objective evaluation of caries activity requires clinical examination of quantification of factors associated with the pathogenesis of caries. Caries activity tests have been in use in dental research and clinical dentistry for years. They are useful in establishing categories of risk for caries, and for targeting specific preventive measures to these groups. They are even ...

  8. Caries Risk Assessment and Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    SJ Pourhashemi

    2000-01-01

    Over 20 years, several analytical approaches have been designed to predict caries in children."nCaries Risk Assessment is a recently developed technique concern to caries prediction."nThis procedure involves three stages as follows:"n1- Determination and assessment of the dental caries risk factors."n2- Examination and evaluation of each individual child to be specifically diagnosed the level of 3- caries risk e.g. high, moderate and low risk."n3- Recommendation of pr...

  9. Abstract: Probiotics and dental caries

    OpenAIRE

    Söderling, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Caries is one of the most common infectious diseases in the world. Dental caries can be defined as destruction of the tissues of the tooth by bacterial fermentation of dietary carbohydrates. In this respect, some bacteria are considered more caries-promoting than others, as an example Streptococcus mutans. A common feature for caries-promoting bacteria is that they are acidogenic and aciduric. The most common bacteria used as probiotics, lactobacilli and bifidobacteria, are, in theory, caries...

  10. Technical modifications and management innovations in exporting nuclear reactor projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a main channel for the foreign economic cooperation of China nuclear industry, China Zhongyuan Engineering Corporation (CZEC) has been constantly engaged in technical modifications and management innovations in its exporting nuclear reactor projects. In the implementation of heavy water research reactor contract in Algeria, CZEC had established a complete and adequate design standards system in compliance with the international standards, and made significant modifications to the reference reactor in the aspects of reactor power and reactor safety, solved quite some technical issues which-affected the reactor technical performance. The modifications and improvements enabled the technical parameters, safety features, reactor multipurpose application to attain to the advanced level in the world. In the 300 MWe PWR NPPs in Pakistan, safety features had been updated in line with upgrading regulatory requisites. The design philosophy and technology application demonstrated CZEC' s creation and innovation on basis of constant safety enhancement of nuclear power projects. Efforts had also been made by CZEC' s creation and innovation on basis of constant safety enhancement of nuclear power projects. Efforts had also been made by CZEC in promoting China made equipment items and components exportation. (authors)

  11. Role of the Technical Information Center in the knowledge management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Competitive advantage of companies is directly proportional to their capacity for creating, capturing, handling, inventorying, transferring information, and generating knowledge, as well as for implementing best practices, in order to add value to the production process. Creation of an environment that allows carrying out this process efficiently, constitutes a transcendental step toward the systematic and useful application of knowledge management. This paper presents the role of Technical Information Centers, as entities which provide and integrate information and knowledge, within knowledge communities. The Technical Information Center (CIT for the Spanish: Centro de Information Tecnica) of PDVSA-Intevep and its contribution to strengthen the corporate technological intelligence through the information analysis and technical-scientific knowledge diffusion is also analyzed. The petrochemical and petroleum information network (RIPPET) and its data base RIPPET (from the Spanish Red de Informacion Petrolera y Petroquimica), coordinate by the CIT, and the CIT on line, a virtual organization, are also presented. Both are tools which facilitate the transfer of information and knowledge to communities organized within the company to manage knowledge

  12. Radiation caries - an evil eye of radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although radiotherapy plays an important role in the management of patients with head and neck cancer, it is also associated with several undesired side effects such as radiation caries which is a common, yet serious, complication. The radiotherapy field of exposure frequently includes the salivary glands, oral mucosa, and jaws, thus, leading to various side effects including hyposalivation, mucositis, and taste loss. Irradiated patients are also at increased risk for the development of a rapid, rampant carious process known as radiation caries. Lesions tend to develop four weeks after completion of radiotherapy and affect atypical areas of teeth, such as the lingual surface, incisal edges, and cusp tips. The aim of this paper is to review the clinical features, prevention and management of radiation caries. (author)

  13. The effect of xylitol on dental caries and oral flora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Prathibha Anand; Nayak, Ullal Anand; Khandelwal, Vishal

    2014-01-01

    Dental caries, the most chronic disease affecting mankind, has been in the limelight with regard to its prevention and treatment. Professional clinical management of caries has been very successful in cases of different severities of disease manifestations. However, tertiary management of this disease has been gaining attention, with numerous methods and agents emerging on a daily basis. Higher intake of nutritive sweeteners can result in higher energy intake and lower diet quality and thereby predispose an individual to conditions like obesity, cardiovascular disorders, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Non-nutritive sweeteners have gained popularity as they are sweeter and are required in substantially lesser quantities. Xylitol, a five-carbon sugar polyol, has been found to be promising in reducing dental caries disease and also reversing the process of early caries. This paper throws light on the role and effects of various forms of xylitol on dental caries and oral hygiene status of an individual. PMID:25422590

  14. Management of People by Managers with a Technical Background - Research Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Dobrovská

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1999 and 2000, the Masaryk Institute of Advanced studies of CTU in Prague launched a study of the efficiency of human resource management in Czech enterprises, with emphasis on technically educated managers. About 85 managers, each responsible for 5-250 employees assessed their own HRM activities and attitudes and those of their firm. The following aspects were analysed: evaluating individual management areas, assessing the general management standard of the given company, awareness of the company's personnel management policy, manager's own contribution to formulating the company's personnel management strategy, developing job descriptions, using professional methods of employee selection, promoting employees to the status of manager, periodic assessment of employees, training of staff responsible for assessment, employee remuneration and other motivation tools, etc. Results and data analysis are given in the paper. The managers of the Czech companies reviewed are still involved mainly in operating management, and devote limited time to the conceptual work needed in order to formulate an integral company policy in the area of personnel management. On the basis of this analysis, further training for managers with technical education will be designed and organised by the Masaryk Institute of Advanced Studies.

  15. Xilitol and dental caries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, Marten Titus

    1987-01-01

    Dental caries is a widespread multifactoral disease. The main sympthons are minaral loss from tooth enemal and dentine, eventually leading to total destruction of the teeth, pain, impairment of mastication and problems with facial esthetics. ... Zie: Summary

  16. Inactive waste sites at Hanford: The technical and management challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines some of the key technical and management challenges facing the Hanford Site in developing a coordinated and consistent approach to the cleanup of inactive waste sites. These challenges are similar to those of the original Hanford Site selection and the development of nuclear technology some 45 years ago. To help in understanding these challenges, early Hanford Site history, onsite operations, past waste storage/disposal activities,and Hanford's approach to the characterization and cleanup of inactive waste sites are also described. 28 refs., 5 figs

  17. New Technical Risk Management Development for Carbon Capture Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engel, David W.; Letellier, Bruce; Edwards, Brian; Leclaire, Rene; Jones, Edward

    2012-04-30

    The basic CCSI objective of accelerating technology development and commercial deployment of carbon capture technologies through the extensive use of numerical simulation introduces a degree of unfamiliarity and novelty that potentially increases both of the traditional risk elements. In order to secure investor confidence and successfully accelerate the marketability of carbon capture technologies, it is critical that risk management decision tools be developed in parallel with numerical simulation capabilities and uncertainty quantification efforts. The focus of this paper is on the development of a technical risk model that incorporates the specific technology maturity development (level).

  18. Fluoride and dental caries

    OpenAIRE

    Camilleri, George E.

    1998-01-01

    Fluorine was probably discovered by the chemist Scheele in 1771, and eventually isolated in 1886 by Moissan. Its presence in bones and teeth was initially disputed but eventually confirmed in the middle of the eighteenth century. In this article the author discusses the few epidemiological studies which confirm the relationship between fluoride concentration in drinking water, mottled enamel and the incidence of dental caries and also describes the Maltese scene in regards the caries level in...

  19. Applied Space Systems Engineering. Chapter 17; Manage Technical Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Effective space systems engineering (SSE) is conducted in a fully electronic manner. Competitive hardware, software, and system designs are created in a totally digital environment that enables rapid product design and manufacturing cycles, as well as a multitude of techniques such as modeling, simulation, and lean manufacturing that significantly reduce the lifecycle cost of systems. Because the SSE lifecycle depends on the digital environment, managing the enormous volumes of technical data needed to describe, build, deploy, and operate systems is a critical factor in the success of a project. This chapter presents the key aspects of Technical Data Management (TDM) within the SSE process. It is written from the perspective of the System Engineer tasked with establishing the TDM process and infrastructure for a major project. Additional perspectives are reflected from the point of view of the engineers on the project who work within the digital engineering environment established by the TDM toolset and infrastructure, and from the point of view of the contactors who interface via the TDM infrastructure. Table 17.1 lists the TDM process as it relates to SSE.

  20. The NIOSH Radiation Dose Reconstruction Project: managing technical challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, Matthew P; Townsend, Ronald D; Dooley, David A

    2008-07-01

    Approximately two years after promulgation of the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Office of Compensation and Analysis Support selected a contractor team to perform many aspects of the radiation dose reconstruction process. The project scope and schedule necessitated the development of an organization involving a comparatively large number of health physicists. From the initial stages, there were many technical and managerial challenges that required continuous planning, integration, and conflict resolution. This paper identifies those challenges and describes the resolutions and lessons learned. These insights are hopefully useful to managers of similar scientific projects, especially those requiring significant data, technical methods, and calculations. The most complex challenge has been to complete defensible, individualized dose reconstructions that support timely compensation decisions at an acceptable production level. Adherence to applying claimant-favorable and transparent science consistent with the requirements of the Act has been the key to establishing credibility, which is essential to this large and complex project involving tens of thousands of individual stakeholders. The initial challenges included garnering sufficient and capable scientific staff, developing an effective infrastructure, establishing necessary methods and procedures, and integrating activities to ensure consistent, quality products. The continuing challenges include maintaining the project focus on recommending a compensation determination (rather than generating an accurate dose reconstruction), managing the associated very large data and information management challenges, and ensuring quality control and assurance in the presence of an evolving infrastructure. The lessons learned concern project credibility, claimant favorability, project priorities, quality and consistency, and critical

  1. An audit questionnaire that examines specifically the management of technical activities clauses in ISO 15189

    OpenAIRE

    Hartley, T F

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to design an audit questionnaire that focuses on the management of the technical activities in a Diagnostic Pathology Laboratory. The ISO 15189 Standard is written in such a way that it continually moves back and forth from topics where the auditor needs to question bench level staff, to topics where the auditor needs to question Technical Management Staff. This makes for a disjointed audit process — both Bench Staff and Technical Managers are repeatedly interrupted....

  2. U Plant Aggregate Area Management study technical baseline report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document was prepared in support of an Aggregate Area Management Study of U Plant. It provides a technical baseline of the aggregate area and results from an environmental investigation that was undertaken by the Technical Baseline Section of the Environmental Engineering Group, Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), which is currently the Waste Site and Facility Research Office, Natural Resources, Bechtel Hanford, Inc. (BHI). It is based upon review and evaluation of numerous Hanford Site current and historical reports, drawings and photographs, supplemented with site inspections and employee interviews. U Plant refers to the 221-U Process Canyon Building, a chemical separation facility constructed during World War II. It also includes the Uranium Oxide (UO3) Plant constructed at the same time as 221-U as an adjunct to the original plutonium separation process but which, like 221-U, was converted for other missions. Waste sites are associated primarily with U Plant's 1952 through 1958 Uranium Metal Recovery Program mission and the U03 Plant's ongoing U03 mission. Waste sites include cribs, reverse wells, french drains, septic tanks and drain fields, trenches, catch tanks, settling tanks, diversion boxes, a waste vault, and the lines and encasements that connect them. It also includes the U Pond and its feed ditches and an underground tank farm designed for high-level liquid wastes

  3. Management of technical and scientific competence and human resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Canadian nuclear industry has recently begun to expand and is facing challenges in developing and maintaining expertise in the nuclear sector. A report commissioned by the CANDU Owners Group confirmed that organizations that provide R and D support to the nuclear industry were operating at or near minimum capabilities. It revealed low entry rates into the nuclear industry and an ageing workforce. In response, industry adopted a three part strategy: (i) development of a strategic plan for maintaining the strength of R and D organizations, (ii) development of CANDU specific technical centres of excellence and (iii) development of strategies for the attraction, training and retention of new graduates. The University Network of Excellence in Nuclear Engineering (UNENE) was established as an alliance of Canadian universities, nuclear power utilities, and research and regulatory agencies for the support and development of nuclear education, as well as R and D capability in Canadian universities. The University of Ontario Institute of Technology (UOIT), Canada's newest university, includes the School of Energy Engineering and Nuclear Sciences (SEENS), which offers undergraduate degrees in nuclear engineering, radiation science and related areas. The Canadian nuclear industry and universities established the CANTEACH programme to develop a comprehensive set of education and training documents, with university participation. The Canadian Nuclear Association prepared three initiatives: (i) developing a strategic and long term view of the nuclear industry on which individual companies can anchor and build recruitment strategies; (ii) pursuing career and industry branding initiatives to attract young students; (iii) providing benchmarking initiatives to improve workforce planning, talent management, succession planning capabilities and knowledge management. Through these initiatives, the Canadian nuclear industry believes that it has a realistic and achievable plan to

  4. Into the Future: Keeping Healthy Teeth Caries Free: Pediatric CAMBRA Protocols

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos-Gomez, Francisco; Ng, Man-Wai

    2011-01-01

    Early childhood caries (ECC) prevalence has increased significantly in children ages 2–5 years.1 ECC disproportionately affects lower socioeconomic and minority groups, is a predictor for future decay, but is preventable and manageable2. Caries risk assessment systematically derives a patient’s caries risk and is important during an infant oral health visit beginning at age one. Information obtained through a risk assessment can guide a disease management care path tailored to an individual’s...

  5. Need for new caries detection methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Douglas A.; Featherstone, John D. B.

    1999-05-01

    Dental caries (tooth decay) continues to be a major problems for adults as well as children, even though great advances have been made in preventive methods in the last 20 years. New methods for the management of caries will work best if lesions can be detected at an early stage and chemical rather than physical intervention can take place, thereby preserving the natural tooth structure and helping the saliva to heal, or remineralize, the areas of early decay. Clinical detection of caries in the US relies on visual examination, tactile with hand held explorer, and conventional radiographs, all of which are inadequate for the occlusal (biting) surfaces of the teeth where most of the decay now occurs. The dentist often has to explore by drilling with a dental bur to confirm early decay in these areas. New method that can determine the extent and degree of subsurface lesions in these surfaces non-destructively are essential for further advances in the clinical management of dental caries. Optical methods, which exploit the differences between sound and carious enamel and dentin, show great promise for the accurate detection of these lesions. Two or three- dimensional images, which include a measure of severity will be needed.

  6. Adolescent rampant caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namita

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Adolescent rampant caries is a new and growing challenge in Conservative Dentistry. It has the same etiology and pattern as that of nursing bottle syndrome. Herein, a case is presented in which the main cause of rampant caries is the patient′s habit of keeping cariogenic food in her mouth and going to sleep. Educating this etiology and introduction of preventive strategies not only assists in meeting the special oral needs of the adolescent population, but also helps to establish lifelong healthful habits.

  7. Genetics and caries: prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Rezende Vieira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Caries remains the most prevalent non-contagious infectious disease in humans. It is clear that the current approaches to decrease the prevalence of caries in human populations, including water fluoridation and school-based programs, are not enough to protect everyone. The scientific community has suggested the need for innovative work in a number of areas in cariology, encompassing disease etiology, epidemiology, definition, prevention, and treatment. We have pioneered the work on genetic studies to identify genes and genetic markers of diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic value. This paper summarizes a presentation that elaborated on these initial findings.

  8. Technical and Administrative Considerations in the Management of Radioactive Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the technical and administrative aspects of radioactive waste management in the light of our present experience and knowledge and to relate that discussion to possible future requirements for the adequate engineering, legal and administrative control of radioactive effluents from atomic energy operations. Initially, the various kinds of radioactive wastes are classified in a general way to emphasize that the many-faceted problem of waste management is not susceptible of a single, unique solution. The role of specific environments in waste management practices is briefly summarized and the basic approaches (''dilute and disperse'' and ''concentrate and contain'') to waste control are defined. A distinction is made between basic radiation protection standards and the operating or performance criteria that must be established in connexion with effluent control operations in' order to assure that the basic standards are met. The development of standards and criteria and their application in the promulgation of health and safety regulations and legal and administrative procedures are discussed. In this connexion, the utilization to the maximum practicable extent of existing laws and administrative procedures through existing authorities at various levels of government is suggested as being advantageous from the points of view of public relations and of administration. Although the total costs for treatment and disposal of radioactive wastes are substantial, the cost per unit of electrical energy produced is a rather small percentage of the total cost per unit of energy. Other economic factors related to handling and disposal of wastes are also noted, including the relation of plant site to disposal location. In addition, other considerations related to waste management, such as site selection and transport, are discussed. (author)

  9. Detection activity assessment and diagnosis of dental caries lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braga, Mariana M; Mendes, Fausto M; Ekstrand, Kim R

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the current methods for detection and assessment of caries lesions focusing on applicability for daily clinical practice. The end point is to arrive at a diagnosis for each caries lesion. Visual inspection aided by a ball-ended probe is essential for caries lesions assessment...... process, additional methods could aid the dentist in reaching a more appropriate treatment decision in some cases. The ICDAS, including the activity assessment system or the Nyvad system, seems to be the best option to reach final diagnoses for managing lesions. The radiographic method is the most...

  10. Caries set fra et økologisk perspektiv

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, Svante; Ekstrand, Kim; Qvist, Vibeke

    2010-01-01

    Dental caries affects the majority of the Danish population. Its aetiology is multi-factorial, but a pH-induced change in the homeostasis of the oral biofilm leading to overgrowth of acid-tolerating bacteria is a key event. A non-invasive concept for prevention and management is emerging based on...... the common risk factor approach. There is strong evidence that tooth brushing twice a day with fluoridated toothpaste is the most cost-effective way to prevent and control caries development. Physicians need to consider that a number of drugs may affect the saliva flow rate, which increases the caries...

  11. Complex socio-technical systems: Characterization and management guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righi, Angela Weber; Saurin, Tarcisio Abreu

    2015-09-01

    Although ergonomics has paid increasing attention to the perspective of complexity, methods for its operationalization are scarce. This study introduces a framework for the operationalization of the "attribute view" of complexity, which involves: (i) the delimitation of the socio-technical system (STS); (ii) the description of four complexity attributes, namely a large number of elements in dynamic interactions, a wide diversity of elements, unexpected variability, and resilience; (iii) the assessment of six management guidelines, namely design slack, give visibility to processes and outcomes, anticipate and monitor the impacts of small changes, monitor the gap between prescription and practice, encourage diversity of perspectives when making decisions, and create an environment that supports resilience; and (iv) the identification of leverage points for improving the STS design, based on both the analysis of relationships among the attributes and their classification as irreducible/manageable complexity, and liability/asset. The use of the framework is illustrated by the study of an emergency department of a University hospital. Data collection involved analysis of documents, observations of work at the front-line, interviews with employees, and the application of questionnaires. PMID:25959314

  12. Technical management techniques for identification and control of industrial safety and pollution hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, R.; Dyer, M. K.; Hoard, E. G.; Little, D. G.; Taylor, A. C.

    1972-01-01

    Constructive recommendations are suggested for pollution problems from offshore energy resources industries on outer continental shelf. Technical management techniques for pollution identification and control offer possible applications to space engineering and management.

  13. The evolution and application of technical risk management within the United States Navy

    OpenAIRE

    Wheeler, Michael A.

    2002-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. This research examines how technical risk management has evolved throughout the Department of the Navy (DoN) and to what extent acquisition programs have implemented best practice methods and techniques. A sample of DoN program managers, risk managers, and other acquisition professionals was surveyed to determine attitudes on technical risk management and what fundamental methods are being applied. Survey data was also collected to de...

  14. Fluor Hanford, Inc. Groundwater and Technical Integration Support (Master Project) Quality Assurance Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The scope of the Fluor Hanford, Inc. Groundwater and Technical Integration Support (Master Project) is to provide technical and integration support to Fluor Hanford, Inc., including operable unit investigations at 300-FF-5 and other groundwater operable units, strategic integration, technical integration and assessments, remediation decision support, and science and technology. This Quality Assurance Management Plan provides the quality assurance requirements and processes that will be followed by the Fluor Hanford, Inc. Groundwater and Technical Integration Support (Master Project).

  15. Fluor Hanford, Inc. Groundwater and Technical Integration Support (Master Project) Quality Assurance Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fix, N. J.

    2008-02-20

    The scope of the Fluor Hanford, Inc. Groundwater and Technical Integration Support (Master Project) is to provide technical and integration support to Fluor Hanford, Inc., including operable unit investigations at 300-FF-5 and other groundwater operable units, strategic integration, technical integration and assessments, remediation decision support, and science and technology. This Quality Assurance Management Plan provides the quality assurance requirements and processes that will be followed by the Fluor Hanford, Inc. Groundwater and Technical Integration Support (Master Project).

  16. Leveraging Independent Management and Chief Engineer Hierarchy: Vertically and Horizontally-Derived Technical Authority Value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barley, Bryan; Newhouse, Marilyn

    2012-01-01

    In the development of complex spacecraft missions, project management authority is usually extended hierarchically from NASA's highest agency levels down to the implementing institution's project team level, through both the center and the program. In parallel with management authority, NASA utilizes a complementary, but independent, hierarchy of technical authority (TA) that extends from the agency level to the project, again, through both the center and the program. The chief engineers (CEs) who serve in this technical authority capacity oversee and report on the technical status and ensure sound engineering practices, controls, and management of the projects and programs. At the lowest level, implementing institutions assign project CEs to technically engage projects, lead development teams, and ensure sound technical principles, processes, and issue resolution. At the middle level, programs and centers independently use CEs to ensure the technical success of their projects and programs. At the agency level, NASA's mission directorate CEs maintain technical cognizance over every program and project in their directorate and advise directorate management on the technical, cost, schedule, and programmatic health of each. As part of this vertically-extended CE team, a program level CE manages a continually varying balance between penetration depth and breadth across his or her assigned missions. Teamwork issues and information integration become critical for management at all levels to ensure value-added use of both the synergy available between CEs at the various agency levels, and the independence of the technical authority at each organization.

  17. Managing knowledge in technical and scientific support organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In an introduction, the issues in knowledge management regarding licensing and supervision authorities as well as technical and scientific support organisations (TSO's) will be discussed. Although in general many of these issues are quite similar across organizations in the nuclear field, specific questions arise according to the knowledge management policies in regulation and supervision, as will be demonstrated by discussing the results of a recent workshop on human resource management in regulation and safety. With the need for managing knowledge in regulation and safety, a further field of supporting authorities has been opened to TSO's. As a prerequisite, a good knowledge on knowledge management methods and tools has to be acquired by a TSO, preferably by installing an own knowledge management system, thus gaining the indispensable practical experience. Driven by the ongoing demographic change, some TSO's have started early with the implementation of knowledge management practices in their own organizations. Three examples will be presented in the paper concerning knowledge management in safety and regulation, illustrating the efforts undertaken at GRS, the BMU (German Federal Ministry of Environment, Nature Preservation and Reactor Safety), and the TUV-SUD. At GRS, knowledge management started by specifying the goals of maintaining knowledge, particularly of retiring experts, and transferring this knowledge to the next generation. In addition, the knowledge management methods should become an integral part of every day's work, thus ensuring the sustainability of the effort. Initially, a basis for handling and distributing information and documents was provided by setting up a portal with integrated document management capabilities. In a next step, work was concentrated on the core business process, namely project work. This has been achieved by providing an own portal site for each project where all information pertinent to the project such as

  18. Application of owner technical management in hydraulic machinery and electrical equipment investment target control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, H.

    2012-11-01

    Using technical means in investment target control is an effective method to improve investment benefit of a construction project. Take the practice of construction and management in hydropower station as an example, the investment and management need of the owner is put forward through the investment target decision-making process of electromechanical equipment. Owner technical management in the specific application measures and effects of investment target control was discussed in the paper, and the revelation in investment target control application of owner technical management was also summarized. The paper is aimed to provide a useful reference for the investment target control work in the construction of electromechanical equipment.

  19. Technical and economic impacts of active management on distribution network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the deregulation of energy market and the appeal for environment protection, more and more distributed generation (DG) is embedded in the distribution network. However the approach of connecting DG in most cases is based on a so-called ''fit and forget'' policy and the capacity of DG is limited rigidly by distribution network operator (DNO) to avoid the negative effects of high level penetration. Therefore active management (AM) is put forward as an effective method to network reinforcement for the connection and operation of DG. In this paper, the concept and principle of AM are introduced, and several indices are proposed to evaluate both technical and economic impacts of AM on distribution network with DG. To simplify the simulation fuzzy C-means clustering (FCM) algorithm is introduced. The test results on a sample system represent that AM will lead to decrease of power generation of DG, but it can reduce energy losses and improve voltage profile effectively. Furthermore, AM will take great economic incentives to DG developer as well as DNO with reasonable policy. (author)

  20. Nature vs. nurture in dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, I D

    1994-10-01

    Why are some people more resistant to dental caries than others? Certainly diet plays a part, but are there hereditary factors that affect caries development? This report explores genetic components that appear related to caries resistance and susceptibility. PMID:7844299

  1. Caries detection in dental radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caries, or the decay of teeth are difficult to automatically detect in dental radiographs because of the small area of the image that is occupied by the decay. Images of dental radiographs has distinct regions of homogeneous gray levels, and therefore naturally lead to a segmentation based automatic caries detection algorithm. This paper describes a method for caries detection based on a multiclass, area independent thresholding and segmenting scheme. This multiclass thresholding algorithm is an extension of the uniform error threshold, an area independent, distribution free thresholding method used for images of only two classes of objects. The authors first consider the problem of caries detection and the image features that characterize the presence of caries. Next, the uniform error threshold is reviewed, and the general multiclass uniform error threshold algorithm is presented. This algorithm is used to automatically detect caries in dental radiographs

  2. Laser methods of caries prophylaxis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunin, Anatoly A.; Dergunova, Elvira I.; Kazmina, Svetlana G.

    1996-01-01

    Low intensive laser irradiation is widely used for the treatment of many stomatological diseases. The caries static activity of HNL light and infrared lasers, its influence on the activation of microcirculation of the pulp enzyme system and on the increase of enamel permeability became clear. These data allow us to suppose that the low intensive laser irradiation may potent the activity of the initial caries by the increase of teeth stability to the factors provoking the caries.

  3. The effect of xylitol on dental caries and oral flora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayak PA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Prathibha Anand Nayak,1 Ullal Anand Nayak,2 Vishal Khandelwal3 1Department of Periodontics, NIMS Dental College and Hospital, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India; 2Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, NIMS Dental College and Hospital, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India; 3Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, Index Dental College and Hospital, Indore, Madhya Pradesh, India Abstract: Dental caries, the most chronic disease affecting mankind, has been in the limelight with regard to its prevention and treatment. Professional clinical management of caries has been very successful in cases of different severities of disease manifestations. However, tertiary management of this disease has been gaining attention, with numerous methods and agents emerging on a daily basis. Higher intake of nutritive sweeteners can result in higher energy intake and lower diet quality and thereby predispose an individual to conditions like obesity, cardiovascular disorders, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Non-nutritive sweeteners have gained popularity as they are sweeter and are required in substantially lesser quantities. Xylitol, a five-carbon sugar polyol, has been found to be promising in reducing dental caries disease and also reversing the process of early caries. This paper throws light on the role and effects of various forms of xylitol on dental caries and oral hygiene status of an individual. Keywords: xylitol, caries preventive effect, oral flora 

  4. Dental caries: Therapeutic possibilities

    OpenAIRE

    Perić Tamara; Marković Dejan; Živković Slavoljub

    2008-01-01

    Contemporary tendencies in dentistry are based on the concept of maximal protection of healthy tooth tissues. Caries removal has been done traditionally with mechanical rotary instruments that are fast and precise. However, conventional cavity preparation has potential adverse effects to the pulp due to heat, pressure and vibrations. Moreover, drilling often causes pain and requires local anaesthesia, and these procedures are frequently perceived as unpleasant. Etiology, development and preve...

  5. Caries diagnosis using laser fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanin, Fatima A. A.; Pinheiro, Antonio L. B.; Souza-Campos, Dilma H.; Brugnera, Aldo, Jr.; Pecora, Jesus D.

    2000-03-01

    Caries prevention is a goal to be achieved by dentist in order to promote health. There are several methods used to detect dental caries each one presenting advantages and disadvantages, especially regarding hidden occlusal caries. The improvement of laser technology has permitted the use of laser fluorescence for early diagnosis of hidden occlusal caries. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of the use of 655 nm laser light on the detection of hidden occlusal caries. Forty molar teeth from patients of both sexes which ages ranging from 10 - 18 years old were used on this study. Following manufacture's instructions regarding the use of the equipment, the teeth had their occlusal surface examined with the DIAGNOdent. Twenty six of 40 teeth had hidden occlusal caries detected by the DIAGNOdent. However only 17 of these 26 teeth showed radiographic signs of caries the other 9 teeth showed no radiological signs of the lesion. Radiographic examination was able to identify 34,61% of false negative cases. This means that many caries would be left untreated due to the lack of diagnosis using both visual and radiographic examination. The use of the DIAGNOdent was effective in successfully detecting hidden occlusal caries.

  6. Caries risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejàre, I; Axelsson, S; Dahlén, G;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the ability of multivariate models and single factors to correctly identify future caries development in pre-school children and schoolchildren/adolescents. STUDY DESIGN: A systematic literature search for relevant papers was conducted with pre-determined inclusion criteria. ...... hampered the synthesis of results. There is a great need to standardize study design, outcome measures and reporting of data in studies on caries risk assessment. The accuracy of prediction models should be validated in at least one independent population.......OBJECTIVE: To assess the ability of multivariate models and single factors to correctly identify future caries development in pre-school children and schoolchildren/adolescents. STUDY DESIGN: A systematic literature search for relevant papers was conducted with pre-determined inclusion criteria....... Abstracts and full-text articles were assessed independently by two reviewers. The quality of studies was graded according to the QUADAS tool. The quality of evidence of models and single predictors was assessed using the GRADE approach. RESULTS: Ninety original articles fulfilled the inclusion criteria...

  7. Information technology - Telecommunications and information exchange between systems - Elements of management information related to OSI transport layer standards; Amendment 1: NCMS Management; Technical Corrigendum 1

    CERN Document Server

    International Organization for Standardization. Geneva

    1994-01-01

    Information technology - Telecommunications and information exchange between systems - Elements of management information related to OSI transport layer standards; Amendment 1: NCMS Management; Technical Corrigendum 1

  8. An approach to knowledge structuring for advanced phases of the Technical and Management Information System (TMIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goranson, H. T.

    1986-01-01

    The Technical and Management Information System (TMIS) must employ on enlightened approach to its object structure, but basic issues in conceptual structuring remain to be resolved. Sirius outlines the necessary agenda and reports on progress toward solutions.

  9. Teaching Management at Technical Universities, Business Reality in the Academic Environment

    OpenAIRE

    V. Baroch; B. Duchoň; V. Faifrová; Říha, Z. (Zdeněk)

    2012-01-01

    Students of technical universities often do not understand why their studies should include learning management skills (in addition to the study of economics). However, not only the experience of graduates but also the requirements of their future employers show that education in the field of the management should provide training, skills and practical testing. It is only a matter of time before graduates of technical university take up leading positions or become part of a team working on so...

  10. Software configuration management plan for the Hanford site technical database; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hanford Site Technical Database (HSTD) is used as the repository/source for the technical requirements baseline and programmatic data input via the Hanford Site and major Hanford Project Systems Engineering (SE) activities. The Hanford Site SE effort has created an integrated technical baseline for the Hanford Site that supports SE processes at the Site and project levels which is captured in the HSTD. The HSTD has been implemented in Ascent Logic Corporation (ALC) Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) package referred to as the Requirements Driven Design (RDD) software. This Software Configuration Management Plan (SCMP) provides a process and means to control and manage software upgrades to the HSTD system

  11. An analysis of the technical status of high level radioactive waste and spent fuel management systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, T.; Miller, C.; Bullard, E.; Campbell, R.; Chockie, A.; Divita, E.; Douthitt, C.; Edelson, E.; Lees, L.

    1977-01-01

    The technical status of the old U.S. mailine program for high level radioactive nuclear waste management, and the newly-developing program for disposal of unreprocessed spent fuel was assessed. The method of long term containment for both of these waste forms is considered to be deep geologic isolation in bedded salt. Each major component of both waste management systems is analyzed in terms of its scientific feasibility, technical achievability and engineering achievability. The resulting matrix leads to a systematic identification of major unresolved technical or scientific questions and/or gaps in these programs.

  12. Program for providing engineering technical assistance to site remediation managers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Office of Research and Development (ORD) of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) provides technical support to USEPA Regional Offices which are responsible for overseeing and/or implementing the remediation of contaminated sites. As a result, ORD has developed a number of effective mechanisms for prividing timely, practical and high quality technical support on such site remediation projects, and has produced a variety of technology transfer documents on the topic. The paper describes these activities, with particular emphasis on the program of the USEPA ORD Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory's program to deal with engineering remediation problems

  13. Management of technical documents: a projection at the University of Zulia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Judith Paredes Chacin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This paper analyze comprehensively and systematically the principles of organization and technical procedure, which support document management based on the use of information technologies. Method. We developed a study based on the documentary descriptive method in the context of the Dirección de Infraestructura (Dinfra from the Universidad del Zulia. Results. We find evidence of efficiency in the processes that support the management of technical documents: Plans, metrics and memories generated by the Dinfra. Conclusion. The conceptual basis of organizational and technical archives contribute to the systematization, shelter save and documental preservation, and ensure the timely retrieval of technical information for the management of the University of Zulia.

  14. Incidence of dental caries in chronic urticaria

    OpenAIRE

    Kaur Surrinder; Ghosh Srabani; Kanwar A; Gauba A

    1991-01-01

    Three hundred patients of chronic urticaria were screened for dental affections. Sixty two (20.66%) patients were detected to have dental caries. Among the control group which com-prised of 100 patients, 20% had dental caries. There was thus no increased incidence of dental caries among patients with urticaria. Only 2 patients had remission of urticaria following treat-ment of caries. Dental caries therefore is probably not a cause of chronic urticaria.

  15. Technical Communications in OSS Content Management Systems: An Academic Institutional Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cripps, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Single sourcing through a content management system (CMS) is altering technical communication practices in many organizations, including institutions of higher education. Open source software (OSS) solutions are currently among the most popular content management platforms adopted by colleges and universities in the United States and abroad. The…

  16. Electronic resource management practical perspectives in a new technical services model

    CERN Document Server

    Elguindi, Anne

    2012-01-01

    A significant shift is taking place in libraries, with the purchase of e-resources accounting for the bulk of materials spending. Electronic Resource Management makes the case that technical services workflows need to make a corresponding shift toward e-centric models and highlights the increasing variety of e-formats that are forcing new developments in the field.Six chapters cover key topics, including: technical services models, both past and emerging; staffing and workflow in electronic resource management; implementation and transformation of electronic resource management systems; the ro

  17. Optimization of Software Quality Using Management and Technical Review Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Optimizing the quality of software is a function of the degree of reviews made during the early life of a software development process. Reviews detect errors and potential errors early in the software development process. The errors detected during the early life cycle of software are least expensive to correct. Efficient involvement in software inspections and technical reviews, help developers improve their own skills, thereby mitigating the occurrence of errors in the later stage of softwa...

  18. Industrial management- control and profit a technical approach

    CERN Document Server

    Halevi, Gideon

    2014-01-01

    This volume presents controlling tools for management in order to be in a position to communicate with control engineers concerning technological decisions. The main objective of manufacturing management is to make profit. However, in traditional manufacturing systems none of the separate stages in the process support this objective. Management is not expert in any of these stages, and therefore is dependent on specific experts at each stage and must follow their decisions. Each stage has its own first priority which is not profit and cost. This means that management does not have real control over these functional stages, nor over the process as a whole. This book presents controlling tools for management in order to allow them to communicate better with the experts of the particular manufacturing stages to reach better results and higher profits. It is shown that most enterprises can improve their efficiency rate by between 25 and 60% by using the tools developed here.

  19. Caries en una población militar española Dental caries in a Spanish military population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Mombiedro Sandoval

    2011-03-01

    filled teeth (DMF-T were 4.05. The 23% of the sample was free of caries. The 40% of those examined presented untreated caries, the percentage of untreated caries was significantly higher among the privates and among those who did not report regular tooth brushing. The care index (% F/DMF-T was 60%. The privates presented more decay and less treated caries (M,F than the officers and non-commissioned officers, these differences were statistically significant. Conclusions: Nearly half of those polled need caries treatment. Strategies based on preventive policy of early diagnosis and Caries management by risk assessment adapted to military life, may be the key to achieving emergency-free troop deployment during future operations.

  20. Nuklearna Elektrarna Krsko: managing technical documentation for the 'rightsized' 90's and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuklearna Elektrarna Krsko (NEK) was constructed as a turnkey plant, entering commercial service in 1981. NEK operates the plant with a unique management philosophy which has adapted well to the demands of today's business environment. Contributing to this success has been the NEK Management Information System (MIS) that has assisted NEK in 'making more with less'. A key element of the MIS is the Technical Document system, which includes the DCM (Document Control Module) and QRM (Quality Records Management), enabling the successful retrofit of the existing document management and 'turnkey' plant records environment to a new, thoroughly integrated system controlling plant operation and configuration management. The system integrates the Engineering Equipment and Configuration Management data systems, providing immediate, realtime cross-reference of plant equipment and plant modifications with technical documentation. (author)

  1. Implementation of quality improvement techniques for management and technical processes in the ACRV project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiman, Laura B.

    1992-01-01

    Total Quality Management (TQM) is a cooperative form of doing business that relies on the talents of everyone in an organization to continually improve quality and productivity, using teams and an assortment of statistical and measurement tools. The objective of the activities described in this paper was to implement effective improvement tools and techniques in order to build work processes which support good management and technical decisions and actions which are crucial to the success of the ACRV project. The objectives were met by applications in both the technical and management areas. The management applications involved initiating focused continuous improvement projects with widespread team membership. The technical applications involved applying proven statistical tools and techniques to the technical issues associated with the ACRV Project. Specific activities related to the objective included working with a support contractor team to improve support processes, examining processes involved in international activities, a series of tutorials presented to the New Initiatives Office and support contractors, a briefing to NIO managers, and work with the NIO Q+ Team. On the technical side, work included analyzing data from the large-scale W.A.T.E.R. test, landing mode trade analyses, and targeting probability calculations. The results of these efforts will help to develop a disciplined, ongoing process for producing fundamental decisions and actions that shape and guide the ACRV organization .

  2. Current Problems in the Technical and Vocational Education Management System in Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NURBOLAT ALPYSBAYULY ALPYSBAY

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The reactive nature of the technical and vocational education management, which is manifested in the delayed reaction to the processes, events and phenomena occurring in all sectors of the national economy, is revealed in this article. Also the problems of the formation of technical and vocational education system, ensuring the quality of staff training, the search for new forms of quality assessment, based on the relationships with the environment and meeting the employers' interests, are considered in the article. As a result of the research to address the issues raised and improve the technical and vocational education system in Kazakhstan, a model of technical and vocational education management in the regions is proposed by the authors.

  3. Radiation caries: a therapeutical option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is showed a clinical report about radiation caries. As the tooth destruction was, mainly, of the majority of the teeth, was made a therapy where, besides avoiding the osteoradiomielite, also is possible to reability the patient. (author)

  4. [The impact of childhood caries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrid, Carlos; Abarca, Marcelo; Bouferrache, Kahina; Gehri, Mario; Bodenmann, Patrick; Pop, Sabina

    2012-04-01

    The early childhood caries affect primary dentition before the eruption of the permanent teeth. It is set to extended use of a bottle containing fermentable carbohydrates. The early childhood caries is not only a dental disease: it is a social, cultural and behavioral condition that reflects the practices and beliefs around the child. Swiss data indicate that in aged 2 children, one of for could be affected by this devastating oral disease, mainly in vulnerable populations. The primary care physician has an important role in the screening of preschool children, in determining the risk level of the child for early childhood caries. Physicians can advise families, especially pregnant women, about preventive measures and behavior, leading to a dramatic drop of early childhood caries prevalence. PMID:22545498

  5. PHILANTHROPIC TECHNICAL TRAINING & EMPLOYEE CHALLENGES- IN RELATION TO MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    SURESH DHAKA; RUPESH SINGH; NIDHI SINGH; KULVINDER NANDA

    2012-01-01

    Human Resource Management (HRM) plays a strategic role in the survival of an organization. In this time of global financial crisis, Human Resource (HR) managers must not only innovate but must also act as change agents, strategists, mentors, counselors and motivators.(1) They must adopt a people-centered model of management instead of the go-get-them approach. The latter approach will not only push down the morale of your employees but it will also shove your talented workers from leaving you...

  6. Waste Management Program. Technical progress report, October-December 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This quarterly report provides current information on operations and development programs for the management of radioactive wastes from operation of the Savannah River Plant and offplant participants. The studies on environmental and safety assessments, in situ storage or disposal, waste from development and characterization, process and equipment development, and low-level waste management are a part of the Long-Term Waste Management Technology Program. The following studies are reported for the SR Interim Waste Operations Program: surveillance and maintenance, waste concentration, low-level effluent waste, tank replacement/waste transfer, and solid waste storage and related activities

  7. Waste Management Program. Technical progress report, October-December 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1983-07-01

    This quarterly report provides current information on operations and development programs for the management of radioactive wastes from operation of the Savannah River Plant and offplant participants. The studies on environmental and safety assessments, in situ storage or disposal, waste from development and characterization, process and equipment development, and low-level waste management are a part of the Long-Term Waste Management Technology Program. The following studies are reported for the SR Interim Waste Operations Program: surveillance and maintenance, waste concentration, low-level effluent waste, tank replacement/waste transfer, and solid waste storage and related activities.

  8. Refactoring for software design smells managing technical debt

    CERN Document Server

    Suryanarayana, Girish; Sharma, Tushar

    2014-01-01

    Awareness of design smells - indicators of common design problems - helps developers or software engineers understand mistakes made while designing, what design principles were overlooked or misapplied, and what principles need to be applied properly to address those smells through refactoring. Developers and software engineers may ""know"" principles and patterns, but are not aware of the ""smells"" that exist in their design because of wrong or mis-application of principles or patterns. These smells tend to contribute heavily to technical debt - further time owed to fix projects thought to b

  9. A method for strategic technical life cycle management of real estates

    OpenAIRE

    Koskelo, Taina

    2005-01-01

    This research study focuses on the strategic technical life cycle management (TLCM) of real estate. In the early phases of the study it became clear that very often the performance of TLCM was not perceived as satisfactory: there were problems in the purchasing and provision of technical services, TLCM was not performed according to real estate specific needs and objective-setting for building characteristics did not serve cost-effective ownership. The study focuses on four research quest...

  10. Fluoride varnishes and enamel caries

    OpenAIRE

    De Bruyn, Hugo

    1987-01-01

    Topical fluoride applications have the aim of increasing the fluoride uptake in enamel and consequently reducing caries. In the early ‘60s fluoride varnishes were introduced because they had a long contact period with the enamel which resulted in a higher fluoride uptake than from other topical applications. Recently the importance of small amounts of fluoride in caries prevention and remineralization has been stressed and the importance of large arnounts of fluoride acquired in the teeth is ...

  11. Technical competencies in knowledge management: implications for training

    OpenAIRE

    Noordin, Siti Arpah Binti

    2008-01-01

    Many organizations have started to adopt knowledge management as one of their strategic initiatives that is to create, retain, share and use the valuable knowledge assets to achieve the organisational objectives. Although knowledge management (KM) is mainly adopted by the private sectors, the Knowledge-based Economy Master Plan, which was launched in 2002 by the government of Malaysia, has encouraged the public and government sectors to value and exploit their knowledge assets. While knowledg...

  12. Salivary biomarkers for dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiaoli; Jiang, Shan; Koh, David; Hsu, Chin-Ying Stephen

    2016-02-01

    As a highly prevalent multifactorial disease, dental caries afflicts a large proportion of the world's population. As teeth are constantly bathed in saliva, the constituents and properties of this oral fluid play an essential role in the occurrence and progression of dental caries. Various inorganic (water and electrolytes) and organic (proteins and peptides) components may protect teeth from dental caries. This occurs via several functions, such as clearance of food debris and sugar, aggregation and elimination of microorganisms, buffering actions to neutralize acid, maintaining supersaturation with respect to tooth mineral, participation in formation of the acquired pellicle and antimicrobial defense. Modest evidence is available on the associations between dental caries and several salivary parameters, including flow rate, buffering capacity and abundance of mutans streptococci. Despite some controversial findings, the main body of the literature supports an elevated caries prevalence and/or incidence among people with a pathologically low saliva flow rate, compromised buffering capacity and early colonization or high titer of mutans streptococci in saliva. The evidence remains weak and/or inconsistent on the association between dental caries and other saliva parameters, such as other possible cariogenic species (Lactobacillus spp., Streptococcus sanguis group, Streptococcus salivarius, Actinomyces spp. and Candida albicans), diversity of saliva microbiomes, inorganic and organic constituents (electrolytes, immunoglobulins, other proteins and peptides) and some functional properties (sugar clearance rate, etc.). The complex interactions between salivary components and functions suggest that saliva has to be considered in its entirety to account for its total effects on teeth. PMID:26662487

  13. Independent Electricity Market Operator integration management participant technical reference manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document provides potential participants with the essential technical information to permit them to participate in the IMO-administered markets, and is not intended to be a complete technical reference manual for all issues within the realm of electricity production, distribution, or consumption. Written for the participants, it provides only that information which is relevant to the participant for interfacing with the IMO and participating in the market. Written as a generic guide, all the information contained within it may not be relevant to all the participants. The document's intent is to provide participants with a description of the various facilities and interfaces required by market participants to take part in the IMO-administered markets. The document supplements the market rules and provides installation, set-up, and configuration information for the various tools and facilities that will be required for market participation as a supplier, carrier/delivery (transmitter/distributor), generator, or consumer in the market. Aspects considered include: participant workstation specifications, dispatch workstation specification, message exchange, remote terminal unit specification, AGC operational RTU specification, real time network connection specification, telephone connection specification, revenue administration specification, funds administration specification, data catalogues, market information, power grid connection requirements, and appendices

  14. Knowledge-Centric Technical Support Organization (TSO) Using Process Oriented Knowledge Management Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the United States of America, Process Oriented Knowledge Management (POKM) Model has been successfully implemented in most of Nuclear Power Plants. This approach has been introduced in Nuclear Knowledge Management program by the IAEA since 2011. Malaysia has involved in the IAEA Coordinated Research Project (CRP) focusing the approach started in 2011. The main objective for Malaysian participation of this project is to support readiness in terms of nuclear technical knowledge by Technical Support Organization (TSO) for Nuclear Power Program. This project has focused on several nuclear technical areas which consist of Public Information (PI), Radiological Impact Assessment (RIA), Nuclear Reactor Technology (NRT), Plant and Prototype Development (PDC) and nuclear knowledge management. This paper articulates the detail POKM approach and project experience in implementing the approach at organizational level. (author)

  15. PHILANTHROPIC TECHNICAL TRAINING & EMPLOYEE CHALLENGES- IN RELATION TO MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SURESH DHAKA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Human Resource Management (HRM plays a strategic role in the survival of an organization. In this time of global financial crisis, Human Resource (HR managers must not only innovate but must also act as change agents, strategists, mentors, counselors and motivators.(1 They must adopt a people-centered model of management instead of the go-get-them approach. The latter approach will not only push down the morale of your employees but it will also shove your talented workers from leaving your organization. Retaining the right employee is a crucial challenge for any HR manager. In the book of Jim Collins “Good to Great”, he does not agree with the old adage “People are your most important asset”. According to him, employees are not the most important asset of the company but the “right” employees are. In a troubled economic condition, HR managers must develop a strategy that will keep the most talented employees in your organization and at the same time, discourages the “not-so” talented employees from hurting the company's operations.Companies thrive only if they create value. What does “value” mean? How do organizations transform “value” from a lofty word to a concept that sticks? The key is to fully engage the employees. Employees must feel like the most valuable component of the business; they are the foundation, after all.

  16. Waste Management Program. Technical progress report, July-December, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides information on operations and development programs for the management of radioactive wastes from operation of the Savannah River Plant and offplant participants. The studies on environmental and safety assessments, other support, in situ storage or disposal, waste form development and characterization, process and equipment development, and the Defense Waste Processing Facility are a part of the Long-Term Waste Management Technology Program. The following studies are reported for the SR Interim Waste Operations: tank farm operation, inspection program, burial ground operations, and waste transfer/tank replacement

  17. Waste Management Program. Technical progress report, Aporil-June 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1984-02-01

    This quarterly report provides current information on operations and development programs for the management of radioactive wastes from operation of the Savannah River Plant. The studies on environmental and safety assessments, process and equipment development, TRU waste, and low-level waste are a part of the Long-Term Waste Management Technology Program. The following studies are reported for the SR Interim Waste Operations Program: surveillance and maintenance, waste concentration, low-level effluent waste, tank replacement/waste transfer, and solid waste storage and related activities.

  18. Waste Management Program. Technical progress report, July-December, 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1986-10-01

    This report provides information on operations and development programs for the management of radioactive wastes from operation of the Savannah River Plant and offplant participants. The studies on environmental and safety assessments, other support, in situ storage or disposal, waste form development and characterization, process and equipment development, and the Defense Waste Processing Facility are a part of the Long-Term Waste Management Technology Program. The following studies are reported for the SR Interim Waste Operations: tank farm operation, inspection program, burial ground operations, and waste transfer/tank replacement.

  19. Technical Procedures Management in Gas-Phase Detoxification Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The natural cycle of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) has been disturbed by the industrial and socioeconomic activities of human beings. This imbalance in the environment has affected the ecosystems and the human health. Initiatives have been planned to mitigate these adverse effects. In order to minimize the hazardous effects, initiatives have been proposed for the treatment of gaseous emissions. The solar photo catalysis appears as a clear and renewable technology in front of the conventional ones.In CIEMAT this line is being investigated as the base of a future implementation at a pre industrial scale.Technical procedures are written in this document for testing Gas-Phase detoxification at lab scale in the Renewable Energy Department (DER) CIEMAT- Madrid to eliminate the VOCs by using the solar photo catalysis technology. (Author) 34 refs

  20. PUREX Plant aggregate area management study technical baseline report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The PUREX aggregate area is made up of six operable units; 200-PO-1 through 200-PO-6 and consists of liquid and solid waste disposal sites in the vicinity of, and related to, PUREX Plant operations. This report describes PUREX and its waste sites, including cribs, french drains, septic tanks and drain fields, trenches and ditches, ponds, catch tanks, settling tanks, diversion boxes, underground tank farms, and the lines and encasements that connect them. Each waste site in the aggregate area is described separately. Close relationships between waste units, such as overflow from one to another, are also discussed. This document provides a technical baseline of the aggregate area and results from an environmental investigation. This document is based upon review and evaluation of numerous Hanford Site current and historical reports, drawings and photographs, supplemented with site inspections and employee interviews. No intrusive field investigations or sampling were conducted

  1. Technical and management considerations in conducting type B shipping container tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) mandate that type B shipping containers are capable of surviving specific drop tests. One approach for demonstrating compliance to the CFRs is to drop test a shipping container. This paper will discuss the technical and management considerations in conducting such drop tests on the 9975 family of shipping containers. For both technical and management considerations this paper will comment on loading the shipping container, dropping the shopping container, and examination of the shipping container after the drop tests

  2. Water management paradigms in Iran: technical, social and ethical aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balali, M.R.; Keulartz, F.W.J.; Korthals, M.J.J.A.A.

    2007-01-01

    In Iran, water scarcity is one of the main problems threatening food security. The country is confronted with the challenge to continue the expansion of food production to meet future demand without negative effects on the environment. To illuminate the problems and perspectives of water management

  3. Ohio Financial Services and Risk Management. Technical Competency Profile (TCP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Gayl M.; Wilson, Nick; Mangini, Rick

    This document describes the essential competencies from secondary through post-secondary associate degree programs for a career in financial services and risk management. Ohio College Tech Prep Program standards are described, and a key to profile codes is provided. Sample occupations in this career area, such as financial accountant, loan…

  4. Ohio Legal Office Managment. Technical Competency Profile (TCP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Gayl M.; Wilson, Nick; Mangini, Rick

    This document, which lists core business and legal office management competencies identified by representatives from education and business and industry throughout Ohio, is intended to assist individuals and organizations in developing college tech prep programs that will prepare students from secondary through post-secondary associate degree…

  5. Technical considerations and policy requirements for plutonium management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goals for plutonium management have changed dramatically over the past few years. Today, the challenge is focused on isolating plutonium from the environment and preparing it for permanent disposition. In parallel, the requirements for managing plutonium are rapidly changing. For example, there is a significant increase in public awareness on how facilities operate, increased attention to environmental safety and health (ES and H) concerns, greater interest in minimizing waste, more emphasis on protecting material from theft, providing materials for international inspection, and a resurgence of interest in using plutonium as an energy source. Of highest concern, in the immediate future, is protecting plutonium from theft or diversion, while the national policy on disposition is debated. These expanded requirements are causing a broadening of responsibilities within the Department of Energy (DOE) to include at least seven organizations. An unavoidable consequence is the divergence in approach and short-term goals for managing similar materials within each organization. The technology base does exist, properly, safely, and cost effectively to extract plutonium from excess weapons, residues, waste, and contaminated equipment and facilities, and to properly stabilize it. Extracting the plutonium enables it to be easily inventoried, packaged, and managed to minimize the risk of theft and diversion. Discarding excess plutonium does not sufficiently reduce the risk of diversion, and as a result, long-term containment of plutonium from the environment may not be able to be proven to the satisfaction of the public

  6. Examining the Impact of Non-Technical Security Management Factors on Information Security Management in Health Informatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imam, Abbas H.

    2013-01-01

    Complexity of information security has become a major issue for organizations due to incessant threats to information assets. Healthcare organizations are particularly concerned with security owing to the inherent vulnerability of sensitive information assets in health informatics. While the non-technical security management elements have been at…

  7. Health promotion and dental caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Maltz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The central idea of the Brazilian health system is to prevent the establishment of disease or detect it as early as possible. Prevention and treatment of dental caries are related to behavioral factors, including dietary and oral hygiene habits, which are related to many chronic diseases. Dental health promotion therefore should be fully integrated into broadly based health-promoting strategies and actions such as food and health policies, and general hygiene (including oral hygiene, among others. For decades, a linear relationship between sugar consumption and caries has been observed. Recent data has indicated that this relationship is not as strong as it used to be before the widespread use of fluoride. However, diet is still a key factor acting in the carious process. Oral hygiene is a major aspect when it comes to caries, since dental biofilm is its etiological factor. Oral hygiene procedures are effective in controlling dental caries, especially if plaque removal is performed adequately and associated with fluoride. An alternative to a more efficient biofilm control in occlusal areas is the use of dental sealants, which are only indicated for caries-active individuals. If a cavity is formed as a consequence of the metabolic activity of the biofilm, a restorative material or a sealant can be placed to block access of the biofilm to the oral environment in order to prevent caries progress. The prevention of dental caries based on common risk-factor strategies (diet and hygiene should be supplemented by more disease-specific policies such as rational use of fluoride, and evidence-based dental health care.

  8. Technical Perspectives on Knowledge Management in Bioinformatics Workflow Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walaa N. Ismail

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Workflow systems by it’s nature can help bioin-formaticians to plan for their experiments, store, capture and analysis of the runtime generated data. On the other hand, the life science research usually produces new knowledge at an increasing speed; Knowledge such as papers, databases and other systems knowledge that a researcher needs to deal with is actually a complex task that needs much of efforts and time. Thus the management of knowledge is therefore an important issue for life scientists. Approaches has been developed to organize biological knowledge sources and to record provenance knowledge of an experiment into a readily resource are presently being carried out. This article focuses on the knowledge management of in silico experimentation in bioinformatics workflow systems.

  9. Nuclear graphite waste management. Proceedings of a technical committee meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the seminar was to bring together the specialists dealing with various aspects of radioactive graphite waste management to exchange and review information on the decommissioning, characterisation, processing and disposal of irradiated graphite from reactor cores and other graphite waste associated with reactor operation. The seminar covered radioactive graphite characterisation, the effect of irradiation on graphite components, Wigner energy, radioactive graphite waste treatment, conditioning, interim storage and long term disposal options. Individual papers presented at the seminar were indexed separately

  10. Dental caries: A complete changeover, PART III: Changeover in the treatment decisions and treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Carounanidy Usha; Sathyanarayanan R

    2010-01-01

    Comprehensive management of dental caries should involve the management of disease as well as the lesion. Current decision making process in cariology is influenced by numerous factors such as the size/ depth/ activity of the carious lesion and age/ the caries risk status of the patient. Treatment decisions should involve planning the non-operative/ preventive treatment for non-cavitated or early cavitated lesions and also formulating operative treatment for cavitated lesions. Apart from thes...

  11. B Plant aggregate area management study technical baseline report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The B aggregate area is made up of 13 operable units; 200-BP 1 through 200-BP 1 1, 200-IU-6, and 200-SS-1 that consist of liquid and solid waste disposal sites in the vicinity of, and related to, B Plant operations. This report describes B Plant and its waste sites, including cribs, french drains, septic tanks and drain fields, trenches and ditches, ponds, catch tanks, settling tanks, diversion boxes, underground tank farms designed for high-level liquid wastes, and the lines and encasements that connect them. Each waste site in the aggregate area is described separately. Close relationships between waste units, such as overflow from one to another, are also discussed. This document provides a technical baseline of the aggregate area and results from an environmental investigation. This document is based upon review and evaluation of numerous Hanford Site current and historical reports, drawings and photographs, supplemented with site inspections and employee interviews. No intrusive field investigations or sampling were conducted

  12. Managing technical support organizations at the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As I noted earlier, I am a strong believer in international collaborations that address nuclear science and technology. I also strongly support collaborations among international regulatory bodies and value the expertise of their associated TSOs. Each regulatory body has its own unique needs for TSO support related to the technologies it regulates and the manner in which it is organized. I believe there can be many benefits from collaborative arrangements between countries with shared interests and needs. Such benefits can be found from specific technical collaborations as well as more general regulatory collaborations. It can also be very beneficial in international conferences such as this one to share our experiences in effectively utilizing TSOs. Finally, if I let my thoughts drift northward for a moment to Cadarache, the future home of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) project, I see one of the most impressive and complex examples of an international commitment to research collaboration. I believe that such commitments are necessary to solve the most significant problems that face our global human society today

  13. Salivary Biomarkers for Caries Risk Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Lihong; Shi, Wenyuan

    2013-01-01

    Saliva contains various microbes and host biological components that could be used for caries risk assessment. This review focuses on the research topics that connect dental caries with saliva, including both the microbial and host components within saliva.

  14. The CHPRC Groundwater and Technical Integration Support (Master Project) Quality Assurance Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fix, N. J.

    2009-04-03

    The scope of the CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company, LLC (CHPRC) Groundwater and Technical Integration Support (Master Project) is for Pacific Northwest National Laboratory staff to provide technical and integration support to CHPRC. This work includes conducting investigations at the 300-FF-5 Operable Unit and other groundwater operable units, and providing strategic integration, technical integration and assessments, remediation decision support, and science and technology. The projects under this Master Project will be defined and included within the Master Project throughout the fiscal year, and will be incorporated into the Master Project Plan. This Quality Assurance Management Plan provides the quality assurance requirements and processes that will be followed by the CHPRC Groundwater and Technical Integration Support (Master Project) and all releases associated with the CHPRC Soil and Groundwater Remediation Project. The plan is designed to be used exclusively by project staff.

  15. Efficiency potential of management and technical solutions for a construction object

    OpenAIRE

    Lapidus Azariy Abramovich

    2014-01-01

    The authors investigate the models of efficiency potential of management and technical solutions for a construction object, which allows accounting for the influence of management-technological and administrative solutions in the process of implementing construction project. The solutions are represented by various factors – solitary integral potentials. The factors, which should be taken into account in the process of developing an integral model, are: development of general contracting stru...

  16. From technical quality assurance of radiotherapy to a comprehensive quality of service management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A hierarchy of dosimetry, planning and machine performance checks and evaluations of clinical outcomes have been widely used in radiotherapy for decades. Procedures, codes of practice and guidance are readily available on the technical aspects of radiotherapy treatments, maintenance of which is achieved by quality control checks within a quality assurance approach to radiotherapy. Recently a series of high profile, well-publicised treatment accidents resulting in damage to patients have focused the attention of both professionals and the public. There is now pressure to introduce formal quality management systems. Patients and their relatives/carers are having their expectations raised but their definition of a quality service differs from that generally considered by the oncology professionals. Most departmental managers and staff have wide experience of quality control checks. They understand the philosophy of quality assurance. However the idea of formal quality systems/quality management is alien to them. What is a professional/departmental manager to do? This paper addresses that question by discussing the underlying principles of quality management covering service provision as well as technical radiotherapy treatment delivery and by providing some guidance based on experience in the practical implementation of quality management through three stages of development: a QA programme incorporating checks on essential parts of the technical treatment delivery, a formal documented certified QA system focusing on technical treatment delivery, a comprehensive quality management system covering all parts of a service. One possible action plan is provided indicating progress through the three stages of development based on experience in one large Radiation Oncology Department. With planning, resources and commitment. a comprehensive quality of service management system is achievable in radiotherapy. (author.)

  17. Technical assistance development soil management policy in Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruyt, Eva; Helsen, Stefan; Hambach, Patrick; Cuyvers, Lars

    2014-05-01

    As from the first of July 2013, Croatia became a EU member country and therefore has to comply with all the EU-rules (the "acquis") as defined in the European Council in Copenhagen in 1993. One of the aspects of this acquis is the protection and conservation of the soil and groundwater and the remediation of contaminated sites that cause human and environmental risks. On behalf of the Department of Environment, Nature and Energy of the Flemish government together with the Public Waste Agency of Flanders(OVAM), ECOREM was assigned to carry out this study. The scope of this study therefore focuses on the aspect of soil management that can be divided into two main policies, beïng the policy for the prevention of soil contamination from new activities(1) and the policy for the management and remediation of historical soil contamination from local sources like industrial sites(2). To form a soil management policy, Croatia must start from the legal obligations enforced by the European Union. One of the European Directives regulating the monitoring and protection of soil and groundwater is the new Industrial Emission Directive ('IED' - 2010/78/EU) from the 24th of November 2010. Whereas the framework of the Directive is larger than contamination of soil , the focus of this study was limited to soil contamination only. In order to comply with the existing EU policy contributing to soil protection, the regulations in the IED, the Croatian government needs to adapt existing legislations or apply new regulations regarding soil monitoring for the industrial activities. Also other EU Directives enforce actions contributing to soil protection. Therefore, a questionnaire with different sorts of questions was sent to the different stakeholders (environmental institutes, agencies, ministries,…). The results were interpreted and allowed Ecorem, being the environmental consultant, to evaluate the gaps in the environmental and soil management policy. This study gives advice on how

  18. [Role and integration of technical prevention figures in the management system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolucci, G B; Santantonio, P; Casciani, M; Dagazzini, I

    2010-01-01

    The multifarious issues of health and safety at work require multi-disciplinary skills, both in the risk assessment and in the subsequent definition and management of preventive measures, and this requires a renewed operational protocol that supports integration and co-operation between the technical prevention figures. Thus, between occupational physicians and technical advisers there should be a concrete and fruitful interaction, which should not be episodic or occasional, but a modus operandi systematic and constant. In this contribution is discussed as the technical prevention figures should be included in the Health and Safety Management System and should make a specific contribution in defining corporate policies on prevention. In particular it is outlined the role that the occupational physician may play in the development of prevention and health promotion activities within the strategies of corporate social responsibility. PMID:21086691

  19. Disparities in Early Childhood Caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronzio Cynthia R

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Despite remarkable reduction in the prevalence of dental caries in the United States, dental caries is still a highly prevalent disease among children who are socially disadvantaged (racial/ethnic minority, poor, rural, immigrants. Consequently, caries sequelae such as dental pain, need for dental treatment under general anesthesia, and future orthodontic treatment, are also concentrated among the most socially disadvantaged children. To make the situation more appalling, those children who need treatment the most are the ones least likely to visit the dentist. Low income children are less likely to visit the dentist in part because of family's competing needs for limited resources, shortage of pediatric dentists, and dentists not taking uninsured or publicly insured patients. In the same vein, if these children do not have access to dental care, they are deprived from effective caries preventive measures that are dentist-dependent such as sealants and professionally applied fluoride. Dentistry has done well at devising caries preventive and treatment strategies; but these strategies have missed the most needed segment of society: disadvantaged children. The challenge now is to develop innovative strategies to reach these children.

  20. On the initial propagation of dental caries

    OpenAIRE

    Fabregas, Rene; Rubinstein, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    A multi-dimensional model for dental caries is applied to study the shape of caries lesions in a realistic tooth geometry and to examine the rate of progress of caries. An upgraded model, taking into account the outer prismless enamel layer, is derived and solved. The model demonstrates the importance of this layer in delaying the onset of caries. The conclusions are discussed in light of experimental results.

  1. Early prevention of dental caries in children

    OpenAIRE

    Lebedeva S.N.; Kharitonova T.L.; Kazakova L.N.

    2011-01-01

    Early prevention of dental caries in children plays an important role in the preservation of dental health. This article explains the necessity of early prevention of dental caries in children. The most effective methods of prevention of dental caries are beginning hygiene care and respect for the recommendations dentist since the first teeth. It is shown that the use of conservative therapy is very effective in the treatment of early forms of dental caries

  2. The Dental Caries Pandemic and Disparities Problem

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Understanding caries etiology and distribution is central to understanding potential opportunities for and likely impact of new biotechnologies and biomaterials to reduce the caries burden worldwide. This review asserts the appropriateness of characterizing caries as a "pandemic" and considers static and temporal trend reports of worldwide caries distribution. Oral health disparities within and between countries are related to sugar consumption, fluoride usage, dental care, and social determi...

  3. Engineering data management a tool for technical coordination

    CERN Document Server

    Bachy, Gérard; Mottier, M; Bachy, Gerard; Hameri, Ari Pekka; Mottier, Marcel

    1995-01-01

    This paper studies the basic motivations behind Engineering Data Management (EDM) in a decade long Large Hadron Collider (LHC) project with at least another decade’s operational period at CERN. The main argument is that without strict managerial principles to control engineering work the exploitation of EDM becomes impossible. Structured and organized configuration management is the absolute prerequisite for an effective integration of design, manufacturing and installation work. EDM is seen to provide all collaborating parties of the project with a coherent and up-to-date view of the product specifications together with other relevant information, such as product’s change log, responsibilities and status indicators during the product’s whole life-cycle. It is argued that by combining simple and commonly accepted managerial principles with an advanced EDM system the outcome supports the main phases of product’s evolution, i.e. design, assembly, operation and maintenance. The paper outlines the main tasks ...

  4. Land and water management paradigms in Iran: technical, social and ethical aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balali, M.R.; Keulartz, F.W.J.; Korthals, M.J.J.A.A.

    2007-01-01

    With respect to land and water management in Iran, three paradigms can be distinguished. The pre-modern paradigm can be characterised by its key technical system (the `qanat¿ underground irrigation system), its main social institution (the `buneh¿ cooperative organisation of agricultural production)

  5. DOE Handbook: Guide to good practices for training of technical staff and managers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    Training programs at DOE facilities should prepare personnel to safely and efficiently operate the facilities in accordance with DOE requirements. This guide contains information that can be used to develop or validate training programs for technical staff and managers at DOE nuclear facilities. Training programs based on the content of this guide should provide assurance that these personnel perform their jobs safely and competently.

  6. Technical Management in an Age of Openness: The Political, Public, and Environmental Forest Ranger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Sarah E.; Hodges, Heather E.; Anderson, Terry L.

    2013-01-01

    Modern bureaucracy faces trade-offs between public and congressional input and agency expertise. The U.S. Forest Service offers an opportunity to quantitatively analyze whether an agency that is required to be more open to the public and congressional input will be forced to ignore its technical expertise in managing resources. This study uses…

  7. An audit questionnaire that examines specifically the management of technical activities clauses in ISO 15189.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, T F

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to design an audit questionnaire that focuses on the management of the technical activities in a Diagnostic Pathology Laboratory. The ISO 15189 Standard is written in such a way that it continually moves back and forth from topics where the auditor needs to question bench level staff, to topics where the auditor needs to question Technical Management Staff. This makes for a disjointed audit process - both Bench Staff and Technical Managers are repeatedly interrupted. The solution was to do a clause by clause analysis of the Standard and assign the major responsibility for the compliance to each clause to either Technical Managers or Bench Staff. The Clauses were then grouped under four topic headings regardless of whether they were a Section 4 or Section 5 Clause. Two questionnaires have emerged - the one described in this work and one directed primarily towards the activities of bench staff. There are 95 questions and it takes approximately two hours to complete. PMID:23105892

  8. DOE Handbook: Guide to good practices for training of technical staff and managers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Training programs at DOE facilities should prepare personnel to safely and efficiently operate the facilities in accordance with DOE requirements. This guide contains information that can be used to develop or validate training programs for technical staff and managers at DOE nuclear facilities. Training programs based on the content of this guide should provide assurance that these personnel perform their jobs safely and competently

  9. Managing of Core Competemces: A Case study of SP Research Technical Institute

    OpenAIRE

    Zehra, Khizran; Wong, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

      Master's Thesis in Innovation and Business Creation ______________________________________________________ Title: Managing of Core Competences: A case study of SP Technical Research Institute Authors: Khizran Zehra & Stephanie Wong Supervisor: Mike Danilovic Date: May 2009 Key Words: Core Competences, Technological Changes, Sustainable Development, Sustained Competitive Advantage and Organizational Learning. _______________________________________________________________ A...

  10. Caries Resistance as a Function of Age in an Initially Caries-free Population

    OpenAIRE

    Wen, A.; Goldberg, D.; Marrs, C F; Weyant, R. J.; Marazita, M.L.; SRINIVASAN, U.; Zhang, L; Crout, R.; McNeil, D.W.; Foxman, B.

    2012-01-01

    Using data from the Center for Oral Health Research in Appalachia Study, we examined variability in susceptibility to dental caries among children and adolescents in rural Appalachia. Among 210 participants who were caries-free at the initial visit, age at the baseline visit can be used as a proxy for the degree of caries resistance; probability of caries development at the tooth level decreased as age at the baseline visit increased. Participants who stayed caries-free for a longer period du...

  11. The prevalence of questionable occlusal caries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makhija, Sonia K; Gilbert, Gregg H; Funkhouser, Ellen;

    2012-01-01

    Questionable occlusal caries (QOC) can be defined as clinically suspected caries with no cavitation or radiographic evidence of occlusal caries. To the authors' knowledge, no one has quantified the prevalence of QOC, so this quantification was the authors' objective in conducting this study...

  12. Caries og de nye nationale indkaldeintervaller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekstrand, Kim; Bruun, Gitte; Bakhshandeh, Azam

    2015-01-01

    obligatorisk at gøre under de nye retningslinjer. Det gennemgås, hvilke behandlinger der er relevante for patienten i forhold til de tre cariesdiagnoser: Caries dentalis progressiva superficialis (CS), Caries dentalis progressiva media (CM) og Caries dentalis progressiva profunda (CP). Diagnoserne angiver...

  13. Technical Potential for Peak Load Management Programs in New Jersey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby, B.J.

    2002-12-13

    producers and consumers. Fortunately too, only a percentage of loads need to respond elastically for all customers to benefit. This report explores mechanisms to reduce, when necessary, the peak load in New Jersey's electricity market. It examines load pricing and technical load reduction programs used in recent years in New Jersey and discuss how they can be made more effective in controlling summer peaks and attendant high prices of electricity. Particular attention is given to load curtailment programs now in place and utility opinions relating to them.

  14. Technical considerations in total knee surgery. Management of patella problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, V M; Figgie, H E; Figgie, M P

    1989-04-01

    Patellofemoral symptoms are now the most common cause of aseptic knee revision; however, the majority of patello-femoral problems are self-limited and may be managed symptomatically and nonoperatively. A trial of anti-inflammatory medications, stretching exercises, and appropriate bracing is always indicated. Patellofemoral symptoms are usually related to mechanical malalignment of all three components of the total knee arthroplasty. Attention to the fundamental principles of total knee arthroplasty, including restoration of the bony mechanical alignment, soft tissue stability, and maintenance of the anatomic joint line, prevents many of the problems. Meticulous preoperative planning and anatomic placement of the component parts are important for a satisfactory long-term outcome. Present research is directed to providing kinematic analysis of the patellofemoral tracking mechanism and to minimizing patellofemoral contact stresses with appropriate new designs. PMID:2646562

  15. [NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 3:] Technical communications in aeronautics: Results of an exploratory study. An analysis of profit managers' and nonprofit managers' responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Glassman, Myron; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Oliu, Walter E.

    1989-01-01

    Data collected from an exploratory study concerned with the technical communications practices of aerospace engineers and scientists were analyzed to test the primary assumption that profit and nonprofit managers in the aerospace community have different technical communications practices. Five assumptions were established for the analysis. Profit and nonprofit managers in the aerospace community were found to have different technical communications practices for one of the five assumptions tested. It was, therefore, concluded that profit and nonprofit managers in the aerospace community do not have different technical communications practices.

  16. Arresting rampant dental caries with silver diamine fluoride in a young teenager suffering from chronic oral graft versus host disease post-bone marrow transplantation: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, Chun-Hung; Lee, Angeline Hui-Cheng; Zheng, Liwu; Mei, May Lei; Chan, Godfrey Chi-fung

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Rampant caries is an advanced and severe dental disease that affects multiple teeth. This case describes the management of rampant caries in a young teenager suffering from chronic oral graft versus host disease after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. CASE PRESENTATION: A 14-year-old Chinese boy suffering from beta-thalassemia major was referred to the dental clinic for the management of rampant dental caries. An oral examination revealed pale conjunctiva, bruising of lips, ...

  17. Can coffee prevent caries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anila Namboodiripad P

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine the anti-carious effect of coffee in humans. Coffee represents one of the most consumed products by the population. Materials and Methods: A random sample of 1000 individuals, of both sexes, who consumed only coffee as a beverage and who visited the Out-Patient Department of KLE Society′s Institute of Dental Sci-ences, with a dental complaint and no history of any major illness, were considered as subjects. The patients′ histories with regard to the coffee intake, such as, period of consumption, frequency of consumption, whether taken with milk or wihout milk, with sugar or without sugar, and the brand make, was noted. History of the type of diet, consumption of sweets, periodic-ity of brushing, and whether they had undergone fluoride applications were also noted. A thousand patients who consumed beverages other than coffee were taken as the control. Results: The results showed that coffee most consumed was roasted coffee, and the frequency on an average was about three cups per day, for an average period of 35 years. The Decayed/Missing/Filled Surface (DMFS scores varied from 2.9, in subjects who drank black coffee, to 5.5 in subjects who consumed coffee together with sweeteners and creaming agents. The DMFS score was 3.4 in subjects who consumed coffee together with milk but no sugar. The DMFS score of the control subjects was 4, indicating that coffee if consumed alone had anticaries action, but in the presence of additives the antibacterial and anticaries action was totally minimized. Conclusion: Thus coffee can help in prevention of dental caries if consumed without additives.

  18. An SNMP-based solution to enable remote ISO/IEEE 11073 technical management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasierra, Nelia; Alesanco, Alvaro; García, José

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents the design and implementation of an architecture based on the integration of simple network management protocol version 3 (SNMPv3) and the standard ISO/IEEE 11073 (X73) to manage technical information in home-based telemonitoring scenarios. This architecture includes the development of an SNMPv3-proxyX73 agent which comprises a management information base (MIB) module adapted to X73. In the proposed scenario, medical devices (MDs) send information to a concentrator device [designated as compute engine (CE)] using the X73 standard. This information together with extra information collected in the CE is stored in the developed MIB. Finally, the information collected is available for remote access via SNMP connection. Moreover, alarms and events can be configured by an external manager in order to provide warnings of irregularities in the MDs' technical performance evaluation. This proposed SNMPv3 agent provides a solution to integrate and unify technical device management in home-based telemonitoring scenarios fully adapted to X73. PMID:22491096

  19. The Socio-Technical Aspects of Water Management: Emerging Trends at Grass Roots Level in Uzbekistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter P. Mollinga

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In Soviet times, water management was presented generally as a technical issue to be taken care of by the state water bureaucracy. Due to structural changes in agriculture in the two decades post-independence, irrigation water management has become an explicitly political and social issue in Central Asia. With the state still heavily present in the regulation of agricultural production, the situation in Uzbekistan differs from other post-communist states. Water management strategies are still strongly ‘Soviet’ in approach, regarded by state actors as purely ‘technical’, because other dimensions – economic, social and political – are ‘fixed’ through strong state regulation. However, new mechanisms are appearing in this authoritarian and technocratic framework. The application of a framework for socio-technical analysis in some selected Water Users’ Associations (WUAs in northwest Uzbekistan’s Khorezm region shows that the WUAs are becoming arenas of interaction for different interest groups involved in water management. The socio-technical analysis of Khorezm’s water management highlights growing social differences at grass root level in the study of WUAs. The process of social differentiation is in its early phases, but is still able to express itself fully due to the strict state control of agriculture and social life in general.

  20. Native American Technical Assistance and Training for Renewable Energy Resource Development and Electrical Generation Facilities Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. David Lester

    2008-10-17

    The Council of Energy Resource Tribes (CERT) will facilitate technical expertise and training of Native Americans in renewable energy resource development for electrical generation facilities, and distributed generation options contributing to feasibility studies, strategic planning and visioning. CERT will also provide information to Tribes on energy efficiency and energy management techniques.This project will provide facilitation and coordination of expertise from government agencies and private industries to interact with Native Americans in ways that will result in renewable energy resource development, energy efficiency program development, and electrical generation facilities management by Tribal entities. The intent of this cooperative agreement is to help build capacity within the Tribes to manage these important resources.

  1. A pedoprosthetic rehabilitation in patients with severe early childhood caries (S-ECC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Apurva; Pandey, Ramesh; Pandey, Neelisha; Jain, Eesha

    2013-01-01

    Early childhood caries (ECC) is a rapid form of dental caries. ECC is the most common chronic childhood disease that can compromise a child's self-esteem, nutritional intake, oral development and quality of life, subsequently leading to malocclusion and psychological problems. The restoration of severely decayed primary teeth is often a difficult procedure that offers a great challenge to paediatric dentists. The present case series document the clinical management of patients suffering from severe early childhood caries using removable partial prosthesis restoring their masticatory function and aesthestics. The ultimate aim of the treatment was to improve psychological and physiological development leading to better functioning of the stomatognathic system. PMID:23843409

  2. 11. annual report of the technical advisory committee on the nuclear fuel waste management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Eleventh Annual Report of the Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) assesses the scientific and technical progress made within the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program (NFWMP) during the period July 1989 to June 1990. The Committee notes that the general concept of a multibarrier system involving geologic media and engineered systems is based on known technologies and current scientific knowledge, and has gained strong international scientific and engineering support as currently the most feasible and practical. TAC continues to endorse the full investigation of the concept of nuclear waste disposal deep in plutonic formations, such as those in the Canadian Shield

  3. [Cause of secondary caries and prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiping

    2014-04-01

    Secondary caries is a disease that occurs on the tooth after the filling has been used for a period of time. Secondary caries is also the main reason for the replacement of dental restorations. Regardless of the material used for fillings, secondary caries cannot be completely avoided. The proportion of secondary caries is very high after filling in permanent teeth or primary teeth. Secondary caries mainly occurs because of the formation of micro cracks after filling. When the micro crack width exceeds 50 microm, saliva will enter the micro cracks between the filling and tooth tissue. The cariogenic bacteria in the saliva will grow when the environment of micro cracks is appropriate, thereby producing secondary caries. The prevention of secondary caries includes micro crack control, fluoride use, teeth cleaning, tooth decay and gum disease treatment, and regular checkups. PMID:24881200

  4. Validation of Visual Caries Activity Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guedes, R S; Piovesan, C; Ardenghi, T M;

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the predictive and construct validity of a caries activity assessment system associated with the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) in primary teeth. A total of 469 children were reexamined: participants of a caries survey performed 2 yr before (follow-up rate...... of 73.4%). At baseline, children (12-59 mo old) were examined with the ICDAS and a caries activity assessment system. The predictive validity was assessed by evaluating the risk of active caries lesion progression to more severe conditions in the follow-up, compared with inactive lesions. We also...... assessed if children with a higher number of active caries lesions were more likely to develop new lesions (construct validity). Noncavitated active caries lesions at occlusal surfaces presented higher risk of progression than inactive ones. Children with a higher number of active lesions and with higher...

  5. Quality assurance study of caries risk assessment performance by clinical faculty members in a school of dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rechmann, Peter; Featherstone, John D B

    2014-09-01

    The goal of this quality assurance study was to explore the decision making of clinical faculty members at the University of California, San Francisco School of Dentistry predoctoral dental clinic in terms of caries risk level assignment using the caries risk assessment (CRA) as part of the Caries Management by Risk Assessment (CAMBRA) concept. This research was done in part to determine if additional training and calibration were needed for these faculty members. The study tested the reliability and reproducibility of the caries risk levels assigned by different clinical teachers who completed CRA forms for simulated patients. In the first step, five clinical teachers assigned caries risk levels for thirteen simulated patients. Six months later, the same five plus an additional nine faculty members assigned caries risk levels to the same thirteen simulated and nine additional cases. While the intra-examiner reliability with weighted kappa strength of agreement was very high, the inter-examiner agreements with a gold standard were on average only moderate. In total, 20 percent of the presented high caries risk cases were underestimated at caries levels too low, even when obvious caries disease indicators were present. This study suggests that more consistent training and calibration of clinical faculty members as well as students are needed. PMID:25179930

  6. Teaching Management at Technical Universities, Business Reality in the Academic Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Baroch

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Students of technical universities often do not understand why their studies should include learning management skills (in addition to the study of economics. However, not only the experience of graduates but also the requirements of their future employers show that education in the field of the management should provide training, skills and practical testing. It is only a matter of time before graduates of technical university take up leading positions or become part of a team working on some complicated technical problem. A classical technical education is no longer sufficient and, aboveall, it is employees with knowledge of economics and with managerial skills, specifically soft skills that come to the fore. It is evident from ample experience that people’s individual dispositions play a role in learning soft skills, but many of these skills can also be acquired by progressive training. The question is which form of teaching to choose to enable necessary skills to be learned, without at the same discouraging students by offering them potentially unattractive courses. These are the issues that will be treated in this paper.

  7. The Environmental Trilogy project: Balancing technical, institutional, and cultural perspectives to environmental management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'The significant problems we face cannot be solved at the same level of thinking we were at when we created them.' Albert Einstein. I've identified an initial set of three perspectives important to building an integrated, comprehensive approach to managing the environment - technical, institutional, and cultural. I've constructed an holistic model (called the Environmental Trilogy) for environmental management, encompassing at least these three perspectives and their interrelationships. In this paper, I outline the model and report the results of a working session facilitated at Virginia Tech in Blacksburg, Virginia, in October 1991, involving three representatives from each of the technical, institutional, and cultural perspectives. The institutional members of this group were people who understand institutional effects, rather than those who represent institutions. The working group discussed and analyzed the technical-institutional, technical-cultural, and institutional-cultural inter- relationships of the environmental trilogy. The goals of the working group were to put structure on the environmental trilogy model, to facilitate the definition of variables, and explore relationships between and among variables. The working group members are to continue studying issues and components, perspectives, connections, and cause-and-effect in the models and report back to interested parties. The outcome is projected to be a more holistic, integrated view of the environment. (author)

  8. Realizing Sustainability in Facilities Management: a pilot study at the Technical University of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Susanne Balslev; Møller, Jacob Steen; Jäschke, Stefan;

    2012-01-01

    , qualitative research and the preliminary analysis of a single, pilot case study of The Technical University of Denmark. Progress with the other complementary cases will be included in the presentation. The cases should be supplemented by more research on sustainable facilities management. Originality and......, stakeholder interviews, focus groups, usability evaluations and practice-research workshops. The Technical University of Denmark (DTU) is the pilot case of an international collaboration, and more studies are planned to follow. Findings: The paper presents a framework for qualitative research on Sustainable...... Facilities Management (SFM), which can guide future research on Sustainability in FM and increase comparability between case studies. The research identifies the challenges and opportunities for integrating ecological, social and economical sustainability in university FM. The paper presents the analysis and...

  9. Fissile material management strategies for sustainable nuclear energy. Proceedings of a technical meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication is the proceedings of a technical meeting with the objective to identify fissile material management strategies for different nuclear fuel cycle options, to clarify issues and challenges existing in fissile material management and to seek possible solutions for these issues and challenges, focusing, in particular, on the sustainability of nuclear power in different fuel cycle options. It provides a comprehensive review of the relative merits of the different fuel cycle options, valuable technical information on the current status and future direction of the fuel cycle in Member States, and essential information for policy makers and those involved in strategic planning. It contains 35 individual papers relating to front and back end fuel cycle strategies as well as future sustainable fuel cycle technology options. They are indexed separately

  10. Technical information management; A facet of the reliable operation at the nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KHNP has the twenty nuclear power units in operation. In the management of numerous power plants, there must have been several kinds of business. One of them is the management of the numerous kinds of and the huge amount of technical information. In many countries there exists a common national organization responsible for some parts of the operating experience programme. KNHP also has organized a centralized team being designed to collect, review, screen, analyze, disseminate and apply the various kinds of the technical information to the plants. There hereby I intend to introduce the KONIT (KOrea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., LTD Nuclear Information Team) and its role/responsibility, performance, and business tool (a system called KONIS)

  11. Technical factors of quality management in gamma-ray spectrometry of environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The establishment of a quality management system is the best way to comply with international requirements concerning the achievement of confident and traceable analytical results. Some important points dealing with the technical factors of quality management in gamma-ray spectrometry of environmental samples are discussed. The experience obtained from analytical procedure validation is presented. Results of the application of standardized procedures to the analysis of ALMERA intercomparison samples, as well as the outcome of the utilization of certified reference materials for the quality control of measurement are presented. In fact, the implantation of simple technical principles reports reliable results and allows to elevate the quality of the measurements at a cost relatively low according to the real possibilities of the small laboratories, even in developing countries. (author)

  12. Technical Data Management Center: a focal point for meteorological and other environmental transport computing technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Technical Data Management Center, collecting, packaging, analyzing, and distributing information, computer technology and data which includes meteorological and other environmental transport work is located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, within the Engineering Physics Division. Major activities include maintaining a collection of computing technology and associated literature citations to provide capabilities for meteorological and environmental work. Details of the activities on behalf of TDMC's sponsoring agency, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, are described

  13. Social Research Data: Documentation, Management, and Technical Implementation within the SFB 882

    OpenAIRE

    Friedhoff, Stefan; Meier zu Verl, Christian; Pietsch, Christian; Meyer, Christian; Vompras, Johanna; Liebig, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a contribution to the methodological and technical discussion of social research infrastructure. The main question is how to store and manage data in a way that meets the increasing demand for secondary data analysis in both quantitative and qualitative social science research. The first two sections focus mainly on aspects of data documentation, in particular on the unification of various documentation requirements that have arisen across ongoing projects of the SFB 882. While ...

  14. Global Approach for Technical Data Management Application to Ship Equipment Part Families

    OpenAIRE

    LE DUIGOU, Julien; Bernard, Alain; Delplace, Jean-Charles; Gabriel, Serge

    2009-01-01

    International audience For several years, digital engineering has increasingly taken a more important place in the strategic issues of mechanical engineering companies. Our proposition is a global approach that enables technical data to be managed and used throughout the product life-cycle. This approach aimed to provide assistance for costing, development and the industrialization of the product, and for the capitalization, the reuse and the extension of fundamental knowledge. This approa...

  15. Places available - Technical management courses (up to the end of 2015)

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Please find below the courses in the field of technical management scheduled up to the end of 2015 and which have places available.       For more details about a course and to register, please go to the Training Catalogue. If you need a course that is not in the catalogue, please contact your supervisor, your Departmental Training Officer or the HR-LD group at Communication.Training@cern.ch.

  16. Places available - Technical management courses (up to the end of July)

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Please find below the courses in the field of technical management scheduled up to the end of July and which have places available.       For more details about a course and to register, please go to the Training Catalogue. If you need a course that is not in the catalogue, please contact your supervisor, your Departmental Training Officer or the HR-LD group at Communication.Training@cern.ch.

  17. Places available - Technical management courses (up to the end of June 2016)

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Please find below the courses in the field of technical management scheduled up to the end of June 2016 and which have places available.     For more details about a course and to register, please go to the Training Catalogue. If you need a course that is not in the catalogue, please contact your supervisor, your Departmental Training Officer or the HR-LD group at Communication.Training@cern.ch.

  18. Places available - Technical management courses (up to the end of 2015)

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Please find below the courses in the field of technical management scheduled up to the end of 2015 and which have places available.     For more details about a course and to register, please go to the Training Catalogue. If you need a course that is not in the catalogue, please contact your supervisor, your Departmental Training Officer or the HR-LD group at Communication.Training@cern.ch.

  19. Validation of Visual Caries Activity Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, R.S.; Piovesan, C.; Ardenghi, T.M.; Emmanuelli, B.; Braga, M.M.; Ekstrand, K.R.; Mendes, F.M.

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the predictive and construct validity of a caries activity assessment system associated with the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) in primary teeth. A total of 469 children were reexamined: participants of a caries survey performed 2 yr before (follow-up rate of 73.4%). At baseline, children (12-59 mo old) were examined with the ICDAS and a caries activity assessment system. The predictive validity was assessed by evaluating the risk of active caries lesion progression to more severe conditions in the follow-up, compared with inactive lesions. We also assessed if children with a higher number of active caries lesions were more likely to develop new lesions (construct validity). Noncavitated active caries lesions at occlusal surfaces presented higher risk of progression than inactive ones. Children with a higher number of active lesions and with higher caries experience presented higher risk of developing new lesions. In conclusion, the caries activity system associated with the ICDAS presents predictive and construct validity in primary teeth in the assessment of occlusal caries lesions, but predictive validity was not observed in smooth surfaces. PMID:24713370

  20. Diagnosis of Dentin Caries – Ultraviolet Fluorescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzunov Ts.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The technology advance in recent years determines the need of construction of modern appliances for early diagnosis of dental caries, which are categorized by great precision, non-invasiveness, easy usage and wide availability. Such non-invasive and accurate tool for diagnostics of caries is Caries Detector (LED, Bulgarian product by “Optica Laser”. The detector emits a specific wavelength of near ultraviolet light, which causes fluorescence to porphyrins - metabolic products of the life cycle of caries-inducing bacteria. The purpose of the study is piloting a new diagnostic tool for detection and monitoring of caries excavation based on fluorescence - LED UV caries detector of company “Optica laser”. Subjected to examination by caries indicator dye and UV caries detector were sixty permanent teeth with deep dentine caries. Two methods were used to assess the dentin caries - UV fluorescence detector of “Optica Laser” and staining with caries indicator - dye (Sable ™ Seek®. It was found that among all sixty teeth, the fields, closed by margins of carious process overlap. Fifty-four of tested teeth has shown bigger field of images with staining method and six - smaller in comparison to the fluorescent method. Ultraviolet fLuorescence caries detector of “Optica Laser” company is affordable and easy applicable method for controlled excavation of dentine caries. The detector can be used in daily dental practice equally with other methods. The unit has a number of advantages - non-invasiveness, lack of interaction with tooth structures, speed, reliability, efficiency, predictability and repeatability of results.

  1. Aircraft/Air Traffic Management Functional Analysis Model: Technical Description. 2.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etheridge, Melvin; Plugge, Joana; Retina, Nusrat

    1998-01-01

    The Aircraft/Air Traffic Management Functional Analysis Model, Version 2.0 (FAM 2.0), is a discrete event simulation model designed to support analysis of alternative concepts in air traffic management and control. FAM 2.0 was developed by the Logistics Management Institute (LMI) under a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) contract. This document provides a technical description of FAM 2.0 and its computer files to enable the modeler and programmer to make enhancements or modifications to the model. Those interested in a guide for using the model in analysis should consult the companion document, Aircraft/Air Traffic Management Functional Analysis Model, Version 2.0 Users Manual.

  2. Caries risk assessment in young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersson, Gunnel Hänsel; Twetman, Svante

    2015-01-01

    impaired specificities. No combinations proved clinically useful values according to Yuoden's index. CONCLUSIONS: Within the limitations of the present study, the computer-based Cariogram did not perform better than a caries risk assessment scheme based on past caries experience and caries progression...... baseline examination, including radiographs and salivary tests. An individual caries risk profile was computed and the patient was placed in one of five risk categories. After 3 years, 982 patients (75.8%) were re-examined and caries increment for each patient was calculated. The outcome was expressed as...... sensitivity, specificity and predictive values and compared with a risk assessment scheme used in Public Dental Service. RESULTS: The drop-outs displayed more risk factors and a significantly higher caries burden at baseline compared with those that remained in the project (p < 0.05). There was a strong...

  3. Caries Detection Methods Based on Changes in Optical Properties between Healthy and Carious Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Karlsson

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A conservative, noninvasive or minimally invasive approach to clinical management of dental caries requires diagnostic techniques capable of detecting and quantifying lesions at an early stage, when progression can be arrested or reversed. Objective evidence of initiation of the disease can be detected in the form of distinct changes in the optical properties of the affected tooth structure. Caries detection methods based on changes in a specific optical property are collectively referred to as optically based methods. This paper presents a simple overview of the feasibility of three such technologies for quantitative or semiquantitative assessment of caries lesions. Two of the techniques are well-established: quantitative light-induced fluorescence, which is used primarily in caries research, and laser-induced fluorescence, a commercially available method used in clinical dental practice. The third technique, based on near-infrared transillumination of dental enamel is in the developmental stages.

  4. A strategy to improve skills in pharmaceutical supply management in East Africa: the regional technical resource collaboration for pharmaceutical management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minzi Omary

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background International initiatives such as the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief and the President's Malaria Initiative have significantly increased availability and access to medicines in some parts of the developing world. Despite this, however, skills remain limited on quantifying needs for medications and ordering, receiving and storing medications appropriately; recording medications inventories accurately; distributing medications for use appropriately; and advising patients on how to use medications appropriately. The Regional Technical Resource Collaboration for Pharmaceutical Management (RTRC has been established to help address the problem of skills shortage in pharmaceutical management in East Africa. Methods The initiative brings together academic institutions from four East African countries to participate in skills-building activities in pharmaceutical supply management. The initiative targeted the institutions' ability to conduct assessments of pharmaceutical supply management systems and to develop and implement effective skills-building programmes for pharmaceutical supply chain management. Results Over a two-year period, the RTRC succeeded in conducting assessments of pharmaceutical supply management systems and practices in Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda. In 2006, the RTRC participated in a materials-development workshop in Kampala, Uganda, and contributed to the development of comprehensive HIV/AIDS pharmaceutical management training materials; these materials are now widely available in all four countries. In Tanzania and Uganda the RTRC has been involved with the training of health care workers in HIV/AIDS pharmaceutical management. In Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda the RTRC has been conducting operations research to find solutions to their countries' skills-shortage problems. Some of the interventions tested include applying and evaluating the

  5. Technical-economic modelling of integrated water management: wastewater reuse in a French island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, P; Valette, F; Brissaud, F; Fazio, A; Lazarova, V

    2001-01-01

    An integrated technical-economic model is used to address water management issues in the French island of Noirmoutier. The model simulates potable water production and supply, potable and non potable water demand and consumption, wastewater collection, treatment and disposal, water storage, transportation and reuse. A variety of water management scenarios is assessed through technical, economic and environmental evaluation. The scenarios include wastewater reclamation and reuse for agricultural and landscape irrigation as well as domestic non potable application, desalination of seawater and brackish groundwater for potable water supply. The study shows that, in Noirmoutier, wastewater reclamation and reuse for crop irrigation is the most cost-effective solution to the lack of water resources and the protection of sensitive environment. Some water management projects which are regarded as having less economic benefit in the short-term may become competitive in the future, as a result of tightened environmental policy, changed public attitudes and advanced water treatment technologies. The model provides an appropriate tool for water resources planning and management. PMID:11436805

  6. Caries risk assessment in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, S

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To summarise the findings of recent systematic reviews (SR) covering caries risk assessment in children, updated with recent primary studies. METHODS: A search for relevant papers published 2012-2014 was conducted in electronic databases. The systematic reviews were quality assessed with......, while the rest displayed a high risk of bias. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the present summary of literature, it may be concluded: (1) a caries risk assessment should be carried out at the child's first dental visit and reassessments should be done during childhood (D); (2) multivariate models display a better...... the AMSTAR tool and the primary publications according to the Cochrane handbook. The quality was rated as low, moderate, or high risk of bias. The findings were descriptively synthesised and the quality of evidence was graded according to GRADE. For the recommendations of practice, the SIGN scores...

  7. Parity & Untreated Dental Caries in US Women

    OpenAIRE

    Russell, S.L.; Ickovics, J.R.; Yaffee, R.A.

    2010-01-01

    While parity (number of children) reportedly is related to tooth loss, the relationship between parity and dental caries has not been extensively investigated. We used path analysis to test a theoretical model that specified that parity influences dental caries levels through dental care, psycho- social factors, and dental health damaging behaviors in 2635 women selected from the NHANES III dataset. We found that while increased parity was not associated with a greater level of total caries (...

  8. Snacking Habits and Caries in Young Children

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, I; Lif Holgerson, P.; Kressin, N.R.; Nunn, M.E.; Tanner, A C

    2010-01-01

    Dental caries is caused by a combination of infection and diet. This disease, if left untreated, may lead to pain, and impair the quality of life, nutritional status and development of young children. The objective was to investigate the association between snacking and caries in a population at high risk of dental caries. American preschool children (n = 1,206) were recruited in the offices of paediatricians. Data on sociodemographic characteristics, oral hygiene, breast-feeding, use of bott...

  9. Early childhood caries: a New Zealand perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Bach K; Manton DJ

    2014-01-01

    Dental caries, primarily a preventable disease, remains the most common chronic disease of childhood and one of the most common reasons for hospital admissions for children in New Zealand. The most vulnerable children are shouldering the burden of the disease, with Maori and Pacific children having greater experience and severity of dental caries. Early childhood caries has deleterious effects on a child’s oral and general health and significant numbers of preschool-aged children experience p...

  10. Vitamin D and Dental Caries in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroth, R J; Rabbani, R; Loewen, G; Moffatt, M E

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between vitamin D status and dental caries in Canadian school-aged children participating in the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS). The CHMS was a national cross-sectional study involving physical assessments, laboratory analysis, and interviews. Analysis was restricted to data for 1,017 children 6 to 11 y of age. Outcome variables included the presence of caries and overall total caries score (dmft/DMFT index). Levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) were measured from serum samples obtained from participants. Bivariate analysis, logistic regression for the presence of caries, and multiple linear regression for total caries scores were used. Significance was set at P ≤ 0.05. Overall, 56.4% of children experienced caries, and the mean dmft/DMFT score was 2.47 (95% CI 2.09 to 2.84). The unadjusted odds of children with 25(OH)D levels ≥75 nmol/L having experienced caries was 0.57 (95% CI 0.39 to 0.82), while the odds for caries at the ≥50 nmol/L level was 0.56 (95% CI 0.39 to 0.89). After controlling for other covariates, backward logistic regression revealed that the presence of caries was significantly associated with 25(OH) levels caries scores were also associated with 25(OH)D concentrations caries and lower serum vitamin D. Improving children's vitamin D status may be an additional preventive consideration to lower the risk for caries. PMID:26553883

  11. Palmistry: A tool for dental caries prediction!

    OpenAIRE

    Nidhi Madan; Arun Rathnam; Neeti Bajaj

    2011-01-01

    Background: Dermatoglyphics can prove to be an extremely useful tool for preliminary investigations in conditions with a suspected genetic base. Since caries is a multifactorial disease with the influence of genetic pattern, early prediction for high-risk children can help in using effective and efficient caries preventive measures that are a part of the pedodontist arsenal. Aims and Objectives: This study was done to determine the genetic aspect involved in the occurrence of dental carie...

  12. Laser prophylaxis and treatment of primary caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazmina, Svetlana G.; Kunin, Anatoly A.; Dergunova, Elvira I.

    1995-04-01

    The light of He-Ne laser is widely used for the treatment of many stomatological diseases. The caries static activity of a helium-neon laser (HNL) light, its influence ont he activation of microcirculation of the pulpenzyme system and on the increase of enamel permeability became clear nowadays. These data allow to suppose that the Ne-Ne light may potent the activity of the initial caries by the increase of teeth stability to the factors provoking the caries.

  13. Health promotion and dental caries

    OpenAIRE

    Marisa Maltz; Juliana Jobim Jardim; Luana Severo Alves

    2010-01-01

    The central idea of the Brazilian health system is to prevent the establishment of disease or detect it as early as possible. Prevention and treatment of dental caries are related to behavioral factors, including dietary and oral hygiene habits, which are related to many chronic diseases. Dental health promotion therefore should be fully integrated into broadly based health-promoting strategies and actions such as food and health policies, and general hygiene (including oral hygiene), among o...

  14. Risk factors in dental caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Emamie

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available   Since 3 decades ago, dental equipments and technologies as well as materials have been greatly improved and numerous effective treatment modalities have been discovered. As a result, the number of survived teeth have been greatly increased and many studies have been conducted in this regard. Fluride therapy is found as an effective treatment modality and can reduce dental caries up to 60%, due to recent evidences.

  15. Depreciation Policy as a Key Element of Enterprise Technical Resources Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puyda Halya V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Depreciation policy and depreciation in particular play a number of functions at an enterprise. The modern stage of scientific studies describes the essence and breadth of the “depreciation” notion for an enterprise rather deeply. The article considers depreciation as a tool of managing technical resources at an enterprise. It conducts a critical review of modern approaches to determination of depreciation and identifies its functions. The author carries out a deep analysis of modern views on the existing concepts of depreciation essence and its place in managing enterprise assets. The article reveals the essence of the “depreciation policy” notion. It provides examples of influence of different types of the depreciation policy upon the state and rate of renovation of technical resources at an enterprise. In the result the author offers types of the depreciation policy of an enterprise depending on the desired rate of renovation of the technical base and desired volume of the capital released into circulation.

  16. The relationship between diet and Dental Caries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dental caries is a disease of multifactorial etiology and results from a complex interaction between both cariogenic and protective influences acting on the teeth. Though diet plays a major role in the causation of dental caries it has been a common mistake to over-simplify the relationship. Dietary manipulation is also extremely difficult to achieve thus limiting its role in the prevention of caries. Accordingly, alternative preventive measures such as the use of fissure sealants and fluoride which enhance the resistance of the host to disease and are of proven efficacy are more likely to be successful in the control and prevention of dental caries. (author)

  17. Dental Caries Vaccine – A Possible Option?

    OpenAIRE

    KT, Shanmugam; KMK, Masthan; N, Balachander; Jimson, Sudha; R, Sarangarajan

    2013-01-01

    Dental caries is an irreversible microbial disease of the calcified tissues of the teeth and it has a multifactorial origin. In India, the dental caries prevalence in 35-44 year olds was reported to be 80-95% in a DCI survey. Among the elderly in the 65-74 years age group, the DCI survey reported the caries prevalence to be about 70%, while the present survey reported it to be 51- 95% in various states. Surveys which were done on school children in India showed a carie prevalence of approxima...

  18. Dental Caries Vaccine – A Possible Option?

    Science.gov (United States)

    KT, Shanmugam; KMK, Masthan; N, Balachander; Jimson, Sudha; R, Sarangarajan

    2013-01-01

    Dental caries is an irreversible microbial disease of the calcified tissues of the teeth and it has a multifactorial origin. In India, the dental caries prevalence in 35-44 year olds was reported to be 80-95% in a DCI survey. Among the elderly in the 65-74 years age group, the DCI survey reported the caries prevalence to be about 70%, while the present survey reported it to be 51- 95% in various states. Surveys which were done on school children in India showed a carie prevalence of approximately 58%.Among the U.S. population, a survey showed an incidence of 93.8% in adults with either past or present coronal caries and an incidence of 45.3% in children 23. In countries like Brazil and China, it is reaching epidemic proportions. Thus, more effective public-health measures are needed to combat dental caries. Mutans streptococci is one of the main microorganisms which are associated with the aetiology of dental caries. Preclinical studies of immunological interventions have shown that the disease can be interrupted. Clinical trials have indicated that a mucosal immune response to Streptococcus mutans crucial antigens can influence the pathogenesis of dental caries. The dental caries vaccine, when it is used in appropriate individuals at the appropriate time, can reduce the reemergence of the disease. PMID:23905153

  19. Implementation of burnup credit in spent fuel management systems. Proceedings of a technical committee meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this Technical Committee Meeting was to explore the status of international activities related to the use of burnup credit for spent fuel applications. This was the second major meeting on the issues of burnup credit for spent fuel management systems held since the IAEA began to monitor the uses of burnup credit in spent fuel management systems in 1997. Burnup credit for wet and dry storage systems is needed in many Member States to allow for increased initial fuel enrichment, and to increase the storage capacity and thus to avoid the need for extensive modifications of the spent fuel management systems involved. This document contains 31 individual papers presented at the Meeting; each of the papers was indexed separately

  20. Technical specification for the Product Evaluation Management Information System (PREMIS) Version 1. 1. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eaton, D.S.; Hall, R.C.; Orman, J.L.; Klamerus, J.

    1990-06-01

    This document contains the technical specifications and implementation details for the Product Evaluation Management Information System (PREMIS) Version 1.1.2. This document does not include the requirements analysis or design information and is not intended as a user's guide. The INGRES Applications-by-Forms (ABF) software development tool was used to specify and define the modules and screens which comprise the PREMIS application. Several external procedures are called by the ABF procedures; these have been written in VAX/VMS DCL (Digital Command Language) and SQL (Standard Query Language). These specifications together with the PREMIS information model and corresponding database definition constitute the PREMIS Version 1.1.2 technical specification and implementation description presented herein.

  1. The development of technical database of advanced spent fuel management process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to develop the technical database system to provide useful information to researchers who study on the back end nuclear fuel cycle. Technical database of advanced spent fuel management process was developed for a prototype system in 1997. In 1998, this database system is improved into multi-user systems and appended special database which is composed of thermochemical formation data and reaction data. In this report, the detailed specification of our system design is described and the operating methods are illustrated as a user's manual. Also, expanding current system, or interfacing between this system and other system, this report is very useful as a reference. (Author). 10 refs., 18 tabs., 46 fig

  2. Reducing nuclear danger through intergovernmental technical exchanges on nuclear materials safety management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United States (U.S.) and Russia are dismantling nuclear weapons and generating hundreds of tons of excess plutonium and high-enriched uranium fissile nuclear materials that require disposition. The U.S. Department of Energy and the Ministry of the Russian Federation for Atomic Energy (Minatom) organizations are planning and implementing safe, secure storage and disposition operations for these materials in numerous facilities. This provides a new opportunity for technical exchanges between Russian and U.S. scientists that can establish an improved and sustained common safety culture for handling these materials. An initiative that develops and uses personal relationships and joint projects among Russian and U.S. participants involved in nuclear materials safety management contributes to improving nuclear materials nonproliferation and to making a safer world. Technical exchanges and workshops are being used to systematically identify opportunities in the nuclear materials facilities to improve and ensure the safety of workers, the public, and the environment. (author)

  3. The management of scientific and technical knowledge at the university: a case report and a draft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAVIER URRUTIA GUTIÉRREZ

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available In present times, universities face increasing financial needs, while, according to a common standard of judgement, the public administrations contributions should be decreasing. On the other hand, some researchers point out that universities are loosing positions as central institutions of the generation of knowledge. Knowledge is being considered as a key resource in competition, attracting increasingly the attention of companies and governments. Under these circumstances we suggest that university research, in collaboration with private companies and public institutions, should focus on the practical application of scientific and technical knowledge, as shown by Etzkowitz and Leydesdorff's triple helix model. Furthermore, this paper addresses the University of the Basque Country's management of scientific and technical knowledge, as well as the description of a current project in this context

  4. Technical approach to finalizing sensible soil cleanup levels at the Fernald Environmental Management Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The remedial strategy for addressing contaminated environmental media was recently finalized for the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) following almost 10 years of detailed technical analysis. The FEMP represents one of the first major nuclear facilities to successfully complete the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) phase of the environmental restoration process. A critical element of this success was the establishment of sensible cleanup levels for contaminated soil and groundwater both on and off the FEMP property. These cleanup levels were derived based upon a strict application of Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) regulations and guidance, coupled with positive input from the regulatory agencies and the local community regarding projected future land uses for the site. The approach for establishing the cleanup levels was based upon a Feasibility Study (FS) strategy that examined a bounding range of viable future land uses for the site. Within each land use, the cost and technical implications of a range of health-protective cleanup levels for the environmental media were analyzed. Technical considerations in driving these cleanup levels included: direct exposure routes to viable human receptors; cross- media impacts to air, surface water, and groundwater; technical practicality of attaining the levels; volume of affected media; impact to sensitive environmental receptors or ecosystems; and cost. This paper will discuss the technical approach used to support the finalization of the cleanup levels for the site. The final cleanup levels provide the last remaining significant piece to the puzzle of establishing a final site-wide remedial strategy for the FEMP, and positions the facility for the expedient completion of site-wide remedial activities

  5. The scientific and technical committee on the management of dams in Quebec, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Committee of Inquiry, consisting of members of the Canadian Dam Safety Association, was set up by the Government of Quebec following the Saguenay-Lac Saint Jean disaster in July 1996. The report of the Scientific and Technical Committee was published in two volumes. In this English language version Volume 1 contains the report of the Committee, including its conclusions and recommendations on how the management of dams might be improved in the future. Volume 2 contains a series of appendices, mostly of technical data, the report of the Advisory Board and a summary of public hearings held by the Committee. In the course of the Committee's investigation, the basins and physical characteristics of the watersheds that were most heavily impacted were subjected to intense examination. An examination of the existing framework and regulations for the management of the structures, and a thorough evaluation of the structures themselves, were also part of the inquiry. It was concluded that the flood was an exceptional phenomenon, one that the existing infrastructure and services were never built to resist. The inquiry also reviewed existing infrastructure codes adopted by the Ministry of Transportation, and probed the responsibilities of the government, the owners, and the regional and municipal authorities. Finally, the committee provided a series of recommendations for a much stricter framework for the design, surveillance and management of water retaining works, designed to prevent recurrence of the 1996 disaster. tabs., figs

  6. Using plant status data for off-site emergency management: Technical and political aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subsequent to the TMI and Chernobyl accidents, emergency management is investigating the possibility of taking balanced decisions on interventions as early as possible. This process relies more and more on in-plant data to assess the term of releases. The paper discusses the regulatory aspects of the communication related to the source term between the utility and the national authorities, and the authorities of a host country and neighbouring countries that may be affected. The technical aspects of the assessment process are summarised, with the emphasis on the handling of uncertainties. Notwithstanding the technical progress, the main dilemma for the decision makers remains the same. Risk management and prevention measures become more familiar to authorities. Utilities and national authorities have to get rid of complexes with respect to accidents covered by the accepted residual risk. International emergency management has to look for an organisation type ensuring the continuity of countermeasures independent of the presence of administrative borders, and with respect to national autonomies. (authors)

  7. Survey on the Technology Readiness Level of R and D projects for a Technical Risk Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of applying the Technology Readiness Level/Design Readiness Level (TRL/DRL) in technical risk management is to make technology assessments, and improve communication among researchers with a consistent, systematic technology readiness Technical risk management for the Nuclear Hydrogen Production project was adopted of experience assessed with Delphi Method from the Next Generation Nuclear Plant(NGNP)of the DOE to improve the poor contactor management of the major projects which experienced cost increases and/or schedule delays in long-term. In the current phase that is doing key technology research and development projects, the technology readiness level was reviewed and applied to the Nuclear Hydrogen Production project to prepare an input for the next design phases. Based on the previous works, pre-conceptional design and key R and D works for the Nuclear Hydrogen Design and Development(NHDD) projects and the results of key research and development projects, the TRL was applied to assess the levels and compared with the advanced design stages of Westinghouse Electric Co. With this process, several issues were identified to apply the design and technology level to the familiar steps of design process and research and development projects. In order to resolve these issues, it is needed to systematically adjust and modify the current process with TRLs

  8. Development of a requirements management system for technical decision - making processes in the geological disposal project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NUMO (Nuclear Waste Management Organization of Japan) has a responsibility for implementing geological disposal of vitrified HLW (High-Level radioactive Waste) in the Japanese nuclear waste management programme. Its staged siting procedure was initiated in 2002 by an open call for volunteer sites. Careful management strategy and methodology for the technical decision-making at every milestone are required to prepare for the volunteer site application and the site investigation stages after that. The formal Requirement Management System (RMS) is planned to support the computerized implementation of the specific management methodology, termed the NUMO Structured Approach (NSA). This planned RMS will help for comprehensive management of the decision-making processes in the geological disposal project, change management towards the anticipated project deviations, efficient project driving such as well programmed R and D etc. and structured record-keeping regarding the past decisions, which leads to soundness of the project in terms of the long-term continuity. The system should have handling/management functions for the database including the decisions/requirements in the project in consideration, their associated information and the structures composed of them in every decision-making process. The information relating to the premises, boundary conditions and time plan of the project should also be prepared in the system. Effective user interface and efficient operation on the in-house network are necessary. As a living system for the long-term formal use, flexibility to updating is indispensable. In advance of the formal system development, two-year activity to develop the preliminary RMS was already started. The purpose of this preliminary system is to template the decision/requirement structure, prototype the decision making management and thus show the feasibility of the innovative RMS. The paper describes the current status of the development, focusing on the

  9. Fitness for accident management through NPP personnel training, simulators and technical support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contributions within the context of accident management of the Siemens A G-Power Generation Group Crisis Centre and the Siemens A G Training Centre are described. The Crisis Centre provides direct technical consulting to NPPs from experts in design and engineering. Training of NPP personnel is here outlined with particular emphasis on the use of simulators in getting practice of emergency handling and on development of documentation and operating procedures. It is pointed to projects to the introduction of these services in Eastern NPPs and training facilities

  10. Establishing a scientific and technical information program: Planning and resource management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blados, Walter R.

    1992-01-01

    In the last 50 years, technological advances have accelerated at a rate unprecedented in history. We are experiencing a tremendous expansion of scientific and technological effort in many directions, and the result is a fantastic increase in the accumulation of scientific and technical information (STI) and knowledge. An integral part of the research and development (R&D) process is the STI associated with it. STI is both a raw material (input) and a product (output) of this process. The topics addressed include the following: the value of STI, management of an STI program, program policy and guidance, organizational structure, data sources, training/orientation, and the current information environment.

  11. CSNI Technical Opinion Papers No. 15 - Ageing management of nuclear fuel cycle facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Managing the ageing of fuel cycle facilities (FCFs) means, as for other nuclear installations, ensuring the availability of required safety functions throughout their service life while taking into account the changes that occur with time and use. This technical opinion paper identifies a set of good practices by benchmarking strategies and good practices on coping with physical ageing and obsolescence from the facility design stage until decommissioning. It should be of particular interest to nuclear safety regulators, fuel cycle facilities operators and fuel cycle researchers

  12. Management and technical requirements for laboratories in charge of water monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report completes the series of volumes focused on microbiological (Rapporti ISTISAN 07/5) and chemical methods (Rapporti ISTISAN 07/31) for the monitoring of water intended for human consumption according to the Italian Legislative Decree 31/2001 (transposition of European Directive 98/83/EC) and its integrations. The guidelines here presented concern management and technical requirements for laboratories in charge of testing parameters required by the Decree also taking into account the criteria stated by the standard UNI CEI EN ISO/IEC 17025

  13. State Policies on Human Capital Resource Management: Ohio. Human Capital Resource Management Technical Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Monica; Wraight, Sara; Behrstock, Ellen; Cushing, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    Training, recruiting, developing, and supporting talented and effective educators throughout their careers is known as human capital resource management (HCRM) in education. HCRM has been identified in recent literature as one of the ways in which districts and states may increase school effectiveness and improve student learning (Heneman &…

  14. State Policies on Human Capital Resource Management: Minnesota. Human Capital Resource Management Technical Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Monica; Behrstock, Ellen; Cushing, Ellen; Wraight, Sara

    2010-01-01

    Training, recruiting, developing, and supporting talented and effective educators throughout their careers is known as human capital resource management (HCRM) in education. HCRM has been identified in recent literature as one of the ways in which districts and states may increase school effectiveness and improve student learning (Heneman &…

  15. State Policies on Human Capital Resource Management: Iowa. Human Capital Resource Management Technical Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrstock, Ellen; Bhatt, Monica; Cushing, Ellen; Wraight, Sara

    2010-01-01

    Training, recruiting, developing, and supporting talented and effective educators throughout their careers is known as human capital resource management (HCRM) in education. HCRM has been identified in recent literature as one of the ways in which districts and states may increase school effectiveness and improve student learning (Heneman &…

  16. State Policies on Human Capital Resource Management: Illinois. Human Capital Resource Management Technical Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Coby; Bhatt, Monica; Wraight, Sara; Behrstock, Ellen; Cushing, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    Training, recruiting, developing, and supporting talented and effective educators throughout their careers is known as human capital resource management (HCRM) in education. HCRM has been identified in recent literature as one of the ways in which districts and states may increase school effectiveness and improve student learning (Heneman &…

  17. State Policies on Human Capital Resource Management: Michigan. Human Capital Resource Management Technical Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Cassandra; Bhatt, Monica; Wraight, Sara; Behrstock, Ellen; Cushing, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    Training, recruiting, developing, and supporting talented and effective educators throughout their careers is known as human capital resource management (HCRM) in education. HCRM has been identified in recent literature as one of the ways in which districts and states may increase school effectiveness and improve student learning (Heneman &…

  18. State Policies on Human Capital Resource Management: Wisconsin. Human Capital Resource Management Technical Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushing, Ellen; Bhatt, Monica; Wraight, Sara; Behrstock, Ellen; Meyer, Cassandra

    2010-01-01

    Training, recruiting, developing, and supporting talented and effective educators throughout their careers is known as human capital resource management (HCRM) in education. HCRM has been identified in recent literature as one of the ways in which districts and states may increase school effectiveness and improve student learning (Heneman &…

  19. State Policies on Human Capital Resource Management: Indiana. Human Capital Resource Management Technical Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Cassandra; Bhatt, Monica; Wraight, Sara; Behrstock, Ellen; Cushing, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    Training, recruiting, developing, and supporting talented and effective educators throughout their careers is known as human capital resource management (HCRM) in education. HCRM has been identified in recent literature as one of the ways in which districts and states may increase school effectiveness and improve student learning (Heneman &…

  20. Update on nonsurgical, ultraconservative approaches to treat effectively non-cavitated caries lesions in permanent teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Boniek Castillo Dutra; de Souza Borges, Juliane; de Araujo, Larissa Sgarbosa Napoleao; Machado, Claudia Tavares; Dos Santos, Alex Jose Souza; de Assunçao Pinheiro, Isauremi Vieira

    2011-04-01

    Dental caries on tooth surfaces is still a problem in many industrialized countries. For many years, dentistry was influenced by a mechanical approach characterized by the use of high-speed rotary cutting instruments, and dentists predominantly used surgical methods to address caries. This included radical removal of diseased portions of the tooth, along with material-driven geometric extensions to areas that were assumed to be caries-resistant. This concept of extension for prevention was introduced by G. V. Black and influenced dentists for more than 120 years. Recently, a new paradigm of operative conservatism, sometimes referred to as "minimally invasive dentistry," has gained popularity. This paradigm is designed to promote maximum preservation of healthy dental structures over a lifetime. The aim of this review is to discuss the efficacy of current nonsurgical treatments for non-cavitated caries lesions in permanent teeth. Based on results obtained from clinical trials, this review evaluates treatments such as consumption of CPP-ACP added gums, resin infiltration and fissure sealing. Although in a few cases an invasive approach is needed to arrest caries progression, the non-surgical approach generally provides potential benefits that include conserving structure by delaying intervention or minimizing the operative procedure. All current non-invasive methods are effective in treating non-cavitated caries lesions. The adoption of non-invasive approaches in the management of these lesions can preserve dental tissues, thus increasing tooth longevity. PMID:21494394

  1. Dental caries: A complete changeover (Part II- Changeover in the diagnosis and prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carounanidy Usha

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Realization that dental caries is a reversible, dynamic biochemical event at a micron level has changed the way the profession recognizes the caries disease and the caries lesion. The diagnosis of dental caries poses challenges due to the complex interaction of multiple endogenous causal factors. The most appropriate diagnostic aid for this purpose is the risk model of caries risk assessment. The analyses of the biological determinants provide clues to the dominant causal factor. The detection of a carious lesion has undergone a rigorous revision and revolution in order to identify the earliest mineral change so that it can be controlled without resorting to invasive management options. Apart from detection, it became mandatory to assess the extent of the lesion (noncavitated/cavitated, assess the activity status of the lesion (active/arrested, monitor the lesion progress (progression/regression over a period of time, and finally to predict the prognosis of the lesion as well as the disease. The prognosis of the disease can be best assessed by analyzing the predictor factors in caries risk assessment. The ultimate objective of such a meticulous and methodical approach aids in devising a tailor-made treatment plan, using preventing measures precisely and restorative measures minimally. This ensures the best oral health outcome of the patient.

  2. Early caries naked-eyed examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In view of its potential for dental diagnostics, noninvasive optical methods have been the object of research for the last years. Different techniques (spectroscopy, microscopy, and tomography) are used to discriminate between caries and sound enamel. The main aim of this paper is to determine a simple way to see incipient caries with the naked eye

  3. Multimodal imaging system for dental caries detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Rongguang; Wong, Victor; Marcus, Michael; Burns, Peter; McLaughlin, Paul

    2007-02-01

    Dental caries is a disease in which minerals of the tooth are dissolved by surrounding bacterial plaques. A caries process present for some time may result in a caries lesion. However, if it is detected early enough, the dentist and dental professionals can implement measures to reverse and control caries. Several optical, nonionized methods have been investigated and used to detect dental caries in early stages. However, there is not a method that can singly detect the caries process with both high sensitivity and high specificity. In this paper, we present a multimodal imaging system that combines visible reflectance, fluorescence, and Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) imaging. This imaging system is designed to obtain one or more two-dimensional images of the tooth (reflectance and fluorescence images) and a three-dimensional OCT image providing depth and size information of the caries. The combination of two- and three-dimensional images of the tooth has the potential for highly sensitive and specific detection of dental caries.

  4. Palmistry: A tool for dental caries prediction!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Madan

    2011-01-01

    Results and Conclusion: Handprints of caries-free children, especially females, showed maximum ulnar loops. The caries group showed maximum occurrence of whorls (r=2:1, which were more prevalent in females on the left hand 3rd digit than in males where the whorls were found on the right hand 3 rd digit, and also low total ridge count, especially in males.

  5. Technical and management information system: The tool for professional productivity on the space station program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, G.; Boldon, P.

    1985-01-01

    The Space Station Program is highly complex not only in its technological goals and requirements but also in its organizational structure. Eight Contractor teams supporting four NASA centers plus Headquarters must depend on effective exchange of information--the lifeblood of the program. The Technical and Management Information System (TMIS) is the means by which this exchange can take place. Value of the TMIS in increasing productivity comes primarily from its ability to make the right information available to whomever needs it when it is needed. Productivity of the aerospace professional and how it can be enhanced by the use of specifically recommended techniques and procedures for information management using the TMIS are discussed.

  6. 76 FR 50265 - Solicitation for a Cooperative Agreement-Management of Technical Assistance for Selected Sites in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... National Institute of Corrections Solicitation for a Cooperative Agreement--Management of Technical...'' Project AGENCY: National Institute of Corrections, U.S. Department of Justice. ACTION: Solicitation for a... out the goals of the project? Program Management/Administration: (25%) Does the applicant...

  7. A Study of the Relationship between Personality Types and the Acceptance of Technical Knowledge Management Systems (TKMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Maureen S.

    2012-01-01

    Technical knowledge management systems (TKMSs) are not achieving the usage (acceptance) and the benefits that have been forecasted and are therefore, not enhancing competitive advantage and profits in organizations (Comb, 2004, "Assessing customer relationship management strategies for creating competitive advantage in electronic…

  8. An in vitro comparison of a combined FOTI/Visual examination of occlusal caries with other caries diagnostic methods and the effect of stain on their diagnostic performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekstrand, K.R.; Côrtes, D.F.; Ellwood, R.P.

    Occlusal caries, detection, fibre optic transillumination, visual inspection, DIAGNOdent, laser fluorescence, electrical caries monitor, electrical resistance, stain......Occlusal caries, detection, fibre optic transillumination, visual inspection, DIAGNOdent, laser fluorescence, electrical caries monitor, electrical resistance, stain...

  9. The database system for the management of technical documentations of PWR fuel design project using CD-ROM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report, the database system developed for the management of technical documentation of PWR fuel design project using CD-ROM (compact disk - read only memory) is described. The database system, KIRDOCM (KAERI Initial and Reload Fuel project technical documentation management), is developed and installed on PC using Visual Foxpro 3.0. Descriptions are focused on the user interface of the KIRDOCM. Introduction addresses the background and concept of the development. The main chapter describes the user requirements, the analysis of computing environment, the design of KIRDOCM, the implementation of the KIRDOCM, user's manual of KIRDOCM and the maintenance of the KIRDOCM for future improvement. The implementation of KIRDOCM system provides the efficiency in the management, maintenance and indexing of the technical documents. And, it is expected that KIRDOCM may be a good reference in applying Visual Foxpro for the development of information management system. (author). 2 tabs., 13 figs., 8 refs

  10. New technical knowledge to be implemented to the revision of rules on pipe wall thinning management for PWR plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rules for PWR plant pipe wall thinning management were formulated by the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers in 2006. Since then thinning management of Japanese PWR plants has been carried out based on this rule. Pipe wall thinning phenomena to be dealt with in this rule have been identified in many piping components of power plants. New technical knowledge has been accumulated since the issuance of 2006 edition. We have formulated these knowledge and information about the thinning phenomena in PWR power plants. Given the history of application of this rule, we have to make our best effort to carry out a study of latest technical knowledge and implement them to the revision of rule and improve pipe wall thinning management. This paper summarizes the new technical knowledge and basis to be implemented to the revision of rules on pipe wall thinning management for PWR plants in Japan. (author)

  11. Visual Inspection for Caries Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimenez, T; Piovesan, C; Braga, M M;

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to perform a systematic review including a meta-analysis to evaluate the overall accuracy of visual methods for detecting carious lesions and to identify possible sources of heterogeneity among the studies included. Two reviewers searched PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and other sources through...... July 2014 to identify published and nonpublished studies in English. Studies of visual inspection were included that 1) assessed accuracy of the method in detecting caries lesions; 2) were performed on occlusal, proximal, or free smooth surfaces in primary or permanent teeth; 3) had a reference...

  12. Three dimensional visualization breakthrough in analysis and communication of technical information for nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computer graphics systems that provide interactive display and manipulation of three-dimensional data are powerful tools for the analysis and communication of technical information required for characterization and design of a geologic repository for nuclear waste. Greater understanding of site performance and repository design information is possible when performance-assessment modeling results can be visually analyzed in relation to site geologic and hydrologic information and engineering data for surface and subsurface facilities. In turn, this enhanced visualization capability provides better communication between technical staff and program management with respect to analysis of available information and prioritization of program planning. A commercially-available computer system was used to demonstrate some of the current technology for three-dimensional visualization within the architecture of systems for nuclear waste management. This computer system was used to interactively visualize and analyze the information for two examples: (1) site-characterization and engineering data for a potential geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada; and (2) three-dimensional simulations of a hypothetical release and transport of contaminants from a source of radionuclides to the vadose zone. Users may assess the three-dimensional distribution of data and modeling results by interactive zooming, rotating, slicing, and peeling operations. For those parts of the database where information is sparse or not available, the software incorporates models for the interpolation and extrapolation of data over the three-dimensional space of interest. 12 refs., 4 figs

  13. Development of a technical scheme for the management of chemical dangerous substances in hospitable environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical substances that are used in the hospitals, and their remainders, represent risks for the environment, the health and security of those who work in these establishments, and of the civil population. The deficiency of a norm that establishes the directives for the handling responsible for such products in the hospitals that our country has motivated the elaboration of a technical scheme that serves as it guides for the correct manipulation, storage and safe disposition of chemical substances in the twenty-nine hospitals of the Caja Costarricense del Seguro Social, establishing Procedures of Standard Operation for its management. To development of the guideline proposal it took a sample of hospitals that includes three levels of comple complexity: national, regional and peripheral. Applying a methodology of evaluation of risks two factors of risk of hospitable were determined, the zones and the population but affected by the existence of chemical substances, which allowed to identify some operative deficiencies in the product handling diverse. The qualitative analysis of the results lead to the elaboration of a technical scheme that includes an instrument for the identification of risks, guideline for the management responsible for hospitable chemical substances, a friendly tool computations like complementary source of intelligence and the proposal of a governing group in charge of the monitoring of the fulfillment of these lineament. (Author)

  14. Technical aspects of quality management in gamma analysis of environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The establishment of a Quality Management System is the best way to comply with international requirements concerning the achievement of confident and traceable analytical results. Some important points dealing with the technical aspects of quality management in gamma analysis of environmental samples are discussed. Results of our own analytical procedure validation are presented including the principal sources of variability that may be associated with basic stages of the gamma analysis of environmental samples, as well as the assumed significance of these sources in the overall uncertainty of the determined radionuclide activity during validation. Particularly, the identified significant sources, namely counting statistics and the detection efficiency for specific radionuclide are discussed and a significant attention was reserved for the validation of the photopeak area evaluation code: the MCA emulation and gamma ray spectrum analysis software SILENA EMCAPLUS (version 3.00.3, 1995). The outcome of the experimental validation of the uncertainty equation based on the verification of complete statistical control for real sample materials is given. Moreover, results of the application of standardized procedures to the analysis of ALMERA intercomparison samples, as well as outcome of the utilization of Certified Reference Materials for the quality control of measurements are presented. In fact, the implantation of simple technical principles reports reliable results and allows to elevate the quality of the measurements at a cost relatively low according to the real possibilities of the small laboratories, even in developing countries

  15. Proximal caries detection using digital subtraction radiography in the artificial caries activity model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the experiment was to evaluating the diagnostic ability of dental caries detection using digital subtraction in the artificial caries activity model. Digital radiographs of five teeth with 8 proximal surfaces were obtained by CCD sensor (Kodak RVG 6100 using a size no.2). The digital radiographic images and subtraction images from artificial proximal caries were examined and interpreted. In this study, we proposed novel caries detection method which could diagnose the dental proximal caries from single digital radiographic image. In artificial caries activity model, the range of lesional depth was 572-1,374 μm and the range of lesional area was 36.95-138.52 mm2. The lesional depth and the area were significantly increased with demineralization time (p<0.001). Furthermore, the proximal caries detection using digital subtraction radiography showed high detection rate compared to the proximal caries examination using simple digital radiograph. The results demonstrated that the digital subtraction radiography from single radiographic image of artificial caries was highly efficient in the detection of dental caries compared to the data from simple digital radiograph.

  16. Proximal caries detection using digital subtraction radiography in the artificial caries activity model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong Hoon; Lee, Gi Ja; Choi, Sam Jin; Park, Young Ho; Kim, Kyung Soo; Jin, Hyun Seok; Hong, Kyung Won; Oh, Berm Seok; Park, Hun Kuk [Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Yong Suk; Hwang, Eui Hwan [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Institute of Oral Biology, School of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-03-15

    The purpose of the experiment was to evaluating the diagnostic ability of dental caries detection using digital subtraction in the artificial caries activity model. Digital radiographs of five teeth with 8 proximal surfaces were obtained by CCD sensor (Kodak RVG 6100 using a size no.2). The digital radiographic images and subtraction images from artificial proximal caries were examined and interpreted. In this study, we proposed novel caries detection method which could diagnose the dental proximal caries from single digital radiographic image. In artificial caries activity model, the range of lesional depth was 572-1,374 {mu}m and the range of lesional area was 36.95-138.52 mm{sup 2}. The lesional depth and the area were significantly increased with demineralization time (p<0.001). Furthermore, the proximal caries detection using digital subtraction radiography showed high detection rate compared to the proximal caries examination using simple digital radiograph. The results demonstrated that the digital subtraction radiography from single radiographic image of artificial caries was highly efficient in the detection of dental caries compared to the data from simple digital radiograph.

  17. Caries risk assessment in chilean adolescents and adults and its association with caries experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Andrés Giacaman

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Cariogram is a computer program that uses an algorithm to assess caries risk. Although the use of Cariogram has recently increased, little information is available regarding its effectiveness in adults. This study aimed to determine whether caries risk from Cariogram relates to caries experience in adults. One hundred and eighty Cariogram files were completed from patients aged ten to fifty-six years (mean: 23.28 years. Seven factors from the software were included from patient records to complete the Cariogram: caries experience, diet (content and frequency, stimulated salivary flow, hygiene index, related diseases and fluoride usage. The percentages of "chances of avoiding new lesions" (caries risk were obtained from Cariogram, and the subjects were classified into five risk groups. Results were compared for each variable with ANOVA, and a correlation between caries and Cariogram variables was calculated by Pearson's correlation coefficient. A multivariate regression model was also used. Only three patients were classified as low risk, and none were classified as very low risk. Thus, only the four upper quintiles were considered for the analysis, and the lower quintile was not considered in the study. Neither DMFT nor the number of lesions were significantly different among the Cariogram's risk categories (p > 0.05. Only diet content was significantly correlated with caries experience (p = 0.006. Caries lesions failed to correlate with any Cariogram variable (p > 0.05. Age, not sex or caries risk scores, showed a strong and positive association with DMFT (p < 0.01. Caries risk from Cariogram appears to be unrelated with caries experience or caries lesions in a high-caries adult population.

  18. Waste management and final storage in Germany - failed for lack of content and a technical basis?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The assertion by the political parties at present in government in Germany, SPD and Alliance 90/The Greens, that 'the previous waste management concept for radioactive waste had failed in terms of content and no longer had any technical basis', is a purely ideological statement utterly devoid of any realistic reason. In actual fact, the waste management concept so far pursued in Germany has been transferred into industrial practice in many areas: Transports of radioactive waste and spent fuel elements can be carried out safely at any time; spent fuel has been reprocessed on an industrial scale for many years. The central interim stores of Ahaus, Gorleben, and Lubmin, all of which are in operation, actually represent sufficient capacity for the interim storage of spent fuel elements. The successful exploration of the Gorleben salt dome has advanced far. No result so far would detract from its suitability. Consequently, the federal government should not try 'to elaborate a (new) national waste management plan for the inherited burden of radioactive waste', but rather invest all its power to make functional as quickly as possible the missing building blocks in the existing waste management concept. In doing so, it would make an important contribution to domestic peace and to the international recognition of Germany as a high-tech country. Part 1 of the article covers reprocessing and interim storage, while part 2, which will be published in atw 8/9, will be about problems of final storage. (orig.)

  19. WWER Technical Support Center and Training of its Staff for Severe Accident Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Russian Utility organization Concern Rosenergoatom (REA) has well developed multi-level system of prevention and liquidation of emergency situations at nuclear power plants. This system covers all aspects related to beyond design accidents - from the technical support of the plant personnel to the measures for protection of the population and environment. In case a radiation dangerous situation or accident at a NPP occurred, the urgent help is being performed by the OPAS group, which coordinates the activities of forces and means participating in localization and liquidation of accident. Technical and information needs of the OPAS group is assured by Crisis center of REA (CC) with its Expert group. The task of CC is the development of the technical recommendations for the plant personnel on the accident management measures aimed to prevent the severe accident or to restrict its consequences. This task is being solved by Expert group (EG) of Crisis center in interaction with the Technical support centers (TSC) established in different design and scientific organizations (NSSS General designer, NPP General designer, Scientific leader of NPP design, institutes of Academy of Sciences, etc). Each TSC is being considered as a constituent of Rosenergoatom CC. Such Technical support center for WWER nuclear power plants (WWER TCS) has been established in OKB Gidropress some years ago. Three modes of WWER TSC operation (and, accordingly, its interaction with REA CC) are defined: normal operation, increased readiness and emergency situation. In case of beyond design accident on a plant, WWER TSC under request of REA CC will develop the recommendations for CC Expert group aimed to prevent the accident progression to the severe phase or to restrict the severe accident consequences, if it nevertheless has occurred. In chapter 2 of the present paper, place and role of WWER TSC in general system of emergency response of Rosenergoatom is highlighted. TSC structure, functions of

  20. Measuring Dental Caries in the Mixed Dentition by ICDAS

    OpenAIRE

    Mare Saag; Tero Vahlberg; Jana Olak; Sisko Honkala; Riina Runnel; Eino Honkala; Kauko K. Mäkinen

    2011-01-01

    Caries has traditionally been assessed with WHO criteria including only obvious caries lesions. ICDAS has been developed to detect also the enamel caries lesions. This study aims to study caries and the associations of the number of caries lesions between the permanent and primary molars with ICDAS in the mixed dentition of the first and second grade primary school children. The clinical examinations of 485 children were conducted by four examiners with high reproducibility (inter- and intrae...

  1. Molecular Analysis of Bacterial Species Associated with Childhood Caries

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, Mitzi R.; Paster, Bruce J.; Leys, Eugene J.; Moeschberger, Melvin L.; Kenyon, Sarah G.; Galvin, Jamie L.; Boches, Susan K.; Dewhirst, Floyd E.; Griffen, Ann L.

    2002-01-01

    Although substantial epidemiologic evidence links Streptococcus mutans to caries, the pathobiology of caries may involve more complex communities of bacterial species. Molecular methods for bacterial identification and enumeration now make it possible to more precisely study the microbiota associated with dental caries. The purpose of this study was to compare the bacteria found in early childhood caries (ECC) to those found in caries-free children by using molecular identification methods. C...

  2. Reflecting socio-technical combinations in radioactive waste management. Results from the InSOTEC European research project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallenbach-Herbert, Beate [Oeko-Institut e.V., Darmstadt (Germany); Bergmans, Anne [Antwerp Univ. (Belgium); Martell, Meritxell [Merience Strategic Thinking, Olerdola (Spain); Schroeder, Jantine [Antwerp Univ. (Belgium); SCK - CEN, Mol (Belgium)

    2015-07-01

    InSOTEC is a three-year collaborative social sciences research project funded under the European Atomic Energy Community's 7th Framework Programme FP7. The project aims to generate a better understanding of the complex interplay between the technical and the social in the context of geological disposal of radioactive waste. In doing so, InSOTEC has moved beyond the social and technical division that is frequently being found in this context by - investigating the consideration of social sciences and the recognition of socio-technical combinations in research programs on geological disposal, - analyzing the socio-technical entanglement in selected contexts like siting, reversibility and retrievability, demonstrating safety and technology transfer on the basis of case studies, and - exploring the integration of diverse stakeholders in technology oriented networks. The analyses reveal that activities in the context of geological disposal, whether related to research, planning, siting etc., rather support the divide of social and technical aspects than fostering the consideration of their entanglement. Reasons identified for this are manifold. The wish to reduce complexity by focusing stakeholder involvement on social questions and fixing the technical part ''when acceptance is reached'' is only one of them. However, the analyses also show that over the long timescales of repository planning and implementation, robust management strategies must provide the flexibility to adapt to both technical and social developments and demands. Understanding the socio-technical interplay and creating structures for its consideration provides the basis for dealing with this challenge. This presentation will focus on the main findings of the InSOTEC project with regard to the consideration of socio-technical combinations in practice. These insights are currently under development and will be finalized at the end of the project in June 2014. We will reflect on

  3. Reflecting socio-technical combinations in radioactive waste management. Results from the InSOTEC European research project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    InSOTEC is a three-year collaborative social sciences research project funded under the European Atomic Energy Community's 7th Framework Programme FP7. The project aims to generate a better understanding of the complex interplay between the technical and the social in the context of geological disposal of radioactive waste. In doing so, InSOTEC has moved beyond the social and technical division that is frequently being found in this context by - investigating the consideration of social sciences and the recognition of socio-technical combinations in research programs on geological disposal, - analyzing the socio-technical entanglement in selected contexts like siting, reversibility and retrievability, demonstrating safety and technology transfer on the basis of case studies, and - exploring the integration of diverse stakeholders in technology oriented networks. The analyses reveal that activities in the context of geological disposal, whether related to research, planning, siting etc., rather support the divide of social and technical aspects than fostering the consideration of their entanglement. Reasons identified for this are manifold. The wish to reduce complexity by focusing stakeholder involvement on social questions and fixing the technical part ''when acceptance is reached'' is only one of them. However, the analyses also show that over the long timescales of repository planning and implementation, robust management strategies must provide the flexibility to adapt to both technical and social developments and demands. Understanding the socio-technical interplay and creating structures for its consideration provides the basis for dealing with this challenge. This presentation will focus on the main findings of the InSOTEC project with regard to the consideration of socio-technical combinations in practice. These insights are currently under development and will be finalized at the end of the project in June 2014. We will reflect on

  4. Lactotransferrin Gene Polymorphism Associated with Caries Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doetzer, Andrea D; Brancher, João A; Pecharki, Giovana D; Schlipf, Nina; Werneck, Renata; Mira, Marcelo T; Riess, Olaf; Bauer, Peter; Trevilatto, Paula Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries is a common multifactorial disease, resulting from the interaction of biofilm, cariogenic diet and host response over time. Lactotransferrin (LTF) is a main salivary glycoprotein, which modulates the host immune-inflammatory and antibacterial response. Although a genetic component for caries outcome has been identified, little is known over the genetic aspects underlying its susceptibility. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the association between LTF polymorphisms and caries susceptibility. Six hundred seventy seven 12-year-old students were selected: 346 with (DMFT ≥ 1) and 331 without caries experience (DMFT = 0). Also, individuals concentrating higher levels of disease (polarization group, DMFT ≥ 2, n = 253) were tested against those with DMFT ≤ 1 (n = 424). Along with clinical parameters, three representative LTF tag SNPs (rs6441989, rs2073495, rs11716497) were genotyped and the results were evaluated using univariate and multivariate analyses. Allele A for tag SNP rs6441989 was found to be significantly less frequent in the polarization group, conferring a protective effect against caries experience [AA + AG × GG (OR: 0.710, 95% CI: 0.514-0.980, p = 0.045)], and remained significantly associated with caries protection in the presence of gingivitis (p = 0.020) and plaque (p = 0.035). These results might contribute to the understanding of the genetic control of caries susceptibility in humans. PMID:25998152

  5. Role of technical support organizations in development and maintaining knowledge management systems for Russian regulatory body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The task of maintaining knowledge in the field of atomic energy is one of the most important challenges of today. The development of science and technology has reached a level when passing the accumulated knowledge becomes labor- and resource-consuming, demanding for significant time expenses, which is conditioned, as we know from the theory of knowledge management, by an inevitable process of transformation of knowledge when passing it from one individual to another. Under such circumstances, proper attention should be given to the problem of knowledge maintenance and transfer. The responsibility of the state nuclear safety regulatory authority that oversees how properly the facilities ensure safety requires highly competent experts of the regulatory authority and constant and complete use of the experience in regulatory activities (including theoretical knowledge and practice), which is possible only if there is a well thought-out and effective knowledge management system. Considering the limited resources of the regulatory authority itself, one of possible ways of accomplishing the task is involvement of a technical support organization (TSO) in development and maintenance of the knowledge management system. Such an approach is a practice in a number of countries, which was repeatedly pointed out by the speakers at the International Conference on the Challenges Faced by Technical and Scientific Support Organizations in Enhancing Nuclear Safety held in April 2007 in France. The Russian nuclear and radiation safety regulatory authority is not an exception. Its technical support organization, FSUE VO 'Safety', is directly involved in implementation of the regulator's task of continuing enhancement of the level of competence of its experts by means of development of a knowledge management system. It should be noted that the way our organization approaches the knowledge management system is an obligatory combination of two subsystems - educational and

  6. Snacking habits and caries in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, I; Holgerson, P Lif; Kressin, N R; Nunn, M E; Tanner, A C

    2010-01-01

    Dental caries is caused by a combination of infection and diet. This disease, if left untreated, may lead to pain, and impair the quality of life, nutritional status and development of young children. The objective was to investigate the association between snacking and caries in a population at high risk of dental caries. American preschool children (n = 1,206) were recruited in the offices of paediatricians. Data on sociodemographic characteristics, oral hygiene, breast-feeding, use of bottle and snacking were collected by questionnaire. Plaque presence, the number of teeth and their caries status (deft) were scored. The children sampled were 61% Black, 27% White and 10% Asian. Of the 1- to 2-, 2- to 3- and 3- to 4-year-old children, 93.8, 82.4 and 77.3% were caries free, and their mean caries scores were 0.16, 0.58 and 0.93, respectively. Multivariate partial least squares (PLS) modelling revealed plaque presence, lowest income, descriptors for tooth exposure time (number of teeth and age) and cariogenic challenge (total intake of sugar-containing snacks and chips/crisps, and chips intake with a sugar-containing drink) to be associated with more caries. These differences were also found in univariate analyses; in addition, children who continued breast-feeding after falling asleep had significantly higher deft values than those who did not. PLS modelling revealed that eating chips clustered with eating many sweet snacks, candies, popcorn and ice cream. We conclude that, in addition to the traditional risk indicators for caries - presence of plaque, sugar intake and socioeconomic status -, consumption of chips was associated with caries in young children. PMID:20720422

  7. Caries dental en escolares del Distrito Federal

    OpenAIRE

    IRIGOYEN-CAMACHO MARÍA ESTHER

    1997-01-01

    Objetivo. Presentar las estimaciones de la prevalencia y la severidad de caries dental, así como las necesidades de tratamiento de la población escolar del Distrito Federal examinada en la encuesta de caries dental que se llevó a cabo en 1988 con la finalidad de obtener datos basales sobre caries en los escolares al inicio del Programa Nacional de Fluoruración de la Sal en México. Material y métodos. La población de estudio fue seleccionada empleando un marco muestral basado en el listado de ...

  8. Contemporary aspects of caries prevention in children

    OpenAIRE

    Alimani - Jakupi, Jetmire; Iljovska, Snezana; Pavlevska, Meri; Naskova, Sanja

    2012-01-01

    The analysis of the trends of the caries dispersion in the developed countries in the last 40 years, show signifi cantly diminished values of CIA (caries index average) from11 to 4. But, the situati on in the developing countries is completely diff erent. The caries goes upwards, and CIA is increased for 5 points in the last 20 years. (WHO 2000) The purposel of our study would be to suggest a strategy for preventive dental protecti on which will be applied on the whole territory of the countr...

  9. Caries risk assessment in chilean adolescents and adults and its association with caries experience

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Andrés Giacaman; Paulina Miranda Reyes; Valeria Bravo León

    2013-01-01

    Cariogram is a computer program that uses an algorithm to assess caries risk. Although the use of Cariogram has recently increased, little information is available regarding its effectiveness in adults. This study aimed to determine whether caries risk from Cariogram relates to caries experience in adults. One hundred and eighty Cariogram files were completed from patients aged ten to fifty-six years (mean: 23.28 years). Seven factors from the software were included from patient records to co...

  10. Sugar Alcohols, Caries Incidence, and Remineralization of Caries Lesions: A Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Mäkinen, Kauko K.

    2010-01-01

    Remineralization of minor enamel defects is a normal physiological process that is well known to clinicians and researchers in dentistry and oral biology. This process can be facilitated by various dietary and oral hygiene procedures and may also concern dentin caries lesions. Dental caries is reversible if detected and treated sufficiently early. Habitual use of xylitol, a sugar alcohol of the pentitol type, can be associated with significant reduction in caries incidence and with tooth remi...

  11. Caries-risk profiles in Italian adults using computer caries assessment system and ICDAS

    OpenAIRE

    Carta, Giovanna; Cagetti, Maria Grazia; Cocco, Fabio; Sale, Silvana; Lingström, Peter; Campus, Guglielmo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the correlation among socio-behavioral factors, caries status and caries risk, calculated through Cariogram, in an adult population. Four hundred eighty subjects (mean age 40.73, SE ± 0.33) randomly selected from the municipal electoral registry consented to participate in the survey. Subjects were examined, and the International Caries Detection Assessment System (ICDAS) index was registered. A highly structured questionnaire was submitted to investigate ...

  12. Caries preventive efficiency of therapeutic complex accomponying orthodontic treatment of children with initial dental caries.

    OpenAIRE

    Denga A.E.

    2013-01-01

    The use of orthodontic non-removable appliance in orthodontic treatment inter¬feres with the process of teeth mineralization, worsens level of oral cavity hygiene, stimulates development of caries process. The situation is complicated when a patient has an initial tooth decay. The aim of this study was to determine genetic characteristics of children with initial caries and clinical evaluation of effectiveness of the developed caries preventive therapeutic complex accompanying treatment of j...

  13. Early Childhood Caries and Caries Experience in Permanent Dentition: A 15-year Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, A Rainer; Becker, Natascha; Jöhren, Hans-Peter; Zimmer, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    In Germany, caries of young people has been declining since the late 1980s, while the prevalence of early childhood caries has remained steady. Data from a number of regional studies suggest a current prevalence between 10% and 15%. However, there is a dearth of longitudinal observational study data on the risk of caries in the permanent teeth of persons who as children had to undergo comprehensive treatment for caries under intubation general anesthesia. The aim of this study was to compare caries experience in the permanent teeth of patients who had to undergo surgical treatment under general anesthesia as a result of non-compliance with caries treatment in early childhood with the experience of patients who did not develop caries at a young age. Analysis of the data revealed that severe caries experience during early childhood resulted in a more severe caries experience during adulthood (difference: 14.8 DMFS; p = 0.001). This increase in caries experience applied to both untreated and treated carious surfaces, and was also apparent in relation to tooth extractions. When compared with persons whose first teeth had been caries-free, patients with severe childhood caries experience tended to show poorer dental hygiene in relation to smooth (p < 0.06) and interproximal (p < 0.04) surfaces. Patients who had been non-compliant as young children were not found to suffer from dental anxiety as young adults. Patients in the treatment and control groups differed with regard to dental health. Aside from being statistically relevant, these differences also have implications for clinical dental practice. PMID:26915485

  14. Dentist and practice characteristics associated with restorative treatment of enamel caries in permanent teeth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fellows, Jeffrey L; Gordan, Valeria V; Gilbert, Gregg H;

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: Current evidence in dentistry recommends non-surgical treatment to manage enamel caries lesions. However, surveyed practitioners report they would restore enamel lesions that are confined to the enamel. Actual clinical data were used to evaluate patient, dentist, and practice characteris......PURPOSE: Current evidence in dentistry recommends non-surgical treatment to manage enamel caries lesions. However, surveyed practitioners report they would restore enamel lesions that are confined to the enamel. Actual clinical data were used to evaluate patient, dentist, and practice...... participating network dentists were combined. ANOVA and logistic regression, using generalized estimating equations (GEE) and variable selection within blocks, were used to test the hypothesis that patient, dentist, and practice characteristics were associated with variations in enamel restorations of occlusal...... and proximal caries compared to dentin lesions, accounting for dentist and patient clustering. RESULTS: Network dentists from five regions placed 6,891 restorations involving occlusal and/or proximal caries lesions. Enamel restorations accounted for 16% of enrolled occlusal caries lesions and 6% of enrolled...

  15. The Social-Technical View of Knowledge Management in Services Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choong K. Fatt

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study investigated the social-technical view of knowledge management that supported a close social and technology relationship on automotive industry in Australia. It also examined the impacts of legacy EDI groupware technology as a mean to support knowledge management in providing value creation for an automotive company. The industry viewed legacy EDI groupware as an agent in converting tacit knowledge to explicit knowledge. Approach: It was a descriptive study. In this study, an undertaking explored the implementation of this groupware application, its organizational impact, success factors and success indicators and this using the framework and analysis of legacy EDI groupware, which incorporated the objectives, strategies, success indicators and success factors. The study presented the finding of a case study of an automotive company, who contracted an external website design consultant to implement legacy EDI groupware system on their sites. The report explored the website design consultant company in order to gain an alternate perspective of topics and issues raised by the study. Results: In this study, legacy EDI groupware technology had successfully offered infrastructure to the automotive industry, which supported the acquisition of knowledge and enhanced the environment that supported the creation and management of knowledge artifacts. Conclusion: The choice and use of the legacy EDI groupware project as a means of supporting knowledge management in providing value creation for automotive industry, was because of the belief that this technology was able to provide a strategy for managing and exploiting knowledge. This project also served to help automotive industry in understanding its knowledge asset, i.e., the value of its knowledge and in assessing that the successful application of its knowledge.

  16. Efficiency potential of management and technical solutions for a construction object

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lapidus Azariy Abramovich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors investigate the models of efficiency potential of management and technical solutions for a construction object, which allows accounting for the influence of management-technological and administrative solutions in the process of implementing construction project. The solutions are represented by various factors – solitary integral potentials. The factors, which should be taken into account in the process of developing an integral model, are: development of general contracting structure, project decisions, management decisions, administrative decisions and ecological impact. In is necessary to develop the model, which will integrally put together the above mentioned factors of a construction project, observe and investigate other factors, create a model and get the opportunity not only to predict the endpoint of the future construction object on the stage of formulating technological requirements, but also to monitor the changes of this prognosis in time. The parameters of the integral potential will allow the system to obtain flexibility, which makes it possible to adjust to the changes usually taking place on a construction object and at the same time to aim for optimization of organizational, technological and administrative solutions in the process of reaching endpoint of construction.

  17. Improved ability of biological and previous caries multimarkers to predict caries disease as revealed by multivariate PLS modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Ericson Thorild; Källestål Carina; Johansson Ingegerd; Nordlund Åke; Sjöström Michael; Strömberg Nicklas

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Dental caries is a chronic disease with plaque bacteria, diet and saliva modifying disease activity. Here we have used the PLS method to evaluate a multiplicity of such biological variables (n = 88) for ability to predict caries in a cross-sectional (baseline caries) and prospective (2-year caries development) setting. Methods Multivariate PLS modelling was used to associate the many biological variables with caries recorded in thirty 14-year-old children by measuring the ...

  18. [NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 2:] Technical communications in aeronautics: Results of an exploratory study. An analysis of managers' and nonmanagers' responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Glassman, Myron; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Oliu, Walter E.

    1989-01-01

    Data collected from an exploratory study concerned with the technical communications practices of aerospace engineers and scientists were analyzed to test the primary assumption that aerospace managers and nonmanagers have different technical communications practices. Five assumptions were established for the analysis. Aerospace managers and nonmanagers were found to have different technical communications practices for three of the five assumptions tested. Although aerospace managers and nonmanagers were found to have different technical communications practices, the evidence was neither conclusive nor compelling that the presumption of difference in practices could be attributed to the duties performed by aerospace managers and nonmanagers.

  19. U.S. spent nuclear fuel management: Political, fiscal, and technical feasibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Successful U.S. spent nuclear fuel management policy must satisfy political, fiscal, and technical constraints. Technical requirements have been thoroughly investigated in the United States and Nordic countries for volcanic tuff, salt, and granite. Fiscal planning requires an inflation-adjusted revenue stream and predictable real interest rate earnings on fund balances. A prompt solution satisfying political constraints requires compromise between the overlapping but distinct goals of seven different sets of interests at the federal level. Absent such compromise, there will be delay until sufficient support for one of three strategies evolves: (1) force the Yucca Mountain repository on Nevada, (2) open a centralized storage facility without coupling to repository licensing, or (3) follow a “consent-based” process for repository licensing. Formulations of each of these strategies to overcome impediments to their success are described. - Highlights: • U.S. spent nuclear fuel policy has been at an impasse. • No compromise on Yucca Mountain is at hand. • Yucca only, new repository, or no repository are options. • Success with each is more likely with sounder financing

  20. Distributed, explicit modeling of technical snow production and ski area management with the hydroclimatological model AMUNDSEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanzer, Florian; Marke, Thomas; Strasser, Ulrich

    2016-04-01

    In this presentation, a module for simulating technical snow production in ski areas coupled to the spatially distributed physically based hydroclimatological model AMUNDSEN is presented. The module explicitly considers individual snow guns and distributes the produced snow along the slopes. The amount of snow produced by each device is a function of its type, of wet-bulb temperature at the location, of ski area infrastructure (in terms of water supply and pumping capacity), and of snow demand. An empirical rule in the modeling for snow production, derived from common snowmaking practices, splits the winter season into a period of maximum snowmaking and a successive period of selective on-demand snowmaking. The model is exemplarily set up for a ski area in the Schladming region (Austrian Alps) using actual snowmaking infrastructure data. Integration of these data as model variables, as well as stakeholder-defined indicators and thresholds, have been implemented as defined interfaces in a coupled component model architecture. Comparison of the model results with recordings of snowmaking operation and satellite-derived snow cover maps indicate that the model is capable of accurately simulating the real-world snowmaking practice, and the combined natural and technical snow conditions on the slopes. The explicit consideration of individual snow guns and ski area infrastructure makes the model a valuable tool for scenario applications, e.g. to assess the effects of different ski area management strategies and changes in snowmaking infrastructure for climate change impact studies.

  1. Technical changes that would contribute to success in the civilian radioactive waste management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many changes have taken place since the SCP safety strategy was formulated; it needs to be revised or replaced. Four concepts would aid in the shift from a rigid, ecelctic, schedule-driven, all-or-nothing program to an incremental, evolving, and experimental but integrated program. These are a simple safety case, reversability, demonstrability, and decoupling operations of a repository from operation of reactors. A simple safety case based on containment can be made for a repository at Yucca Mountain. This containment strategy is based on the dryness of openings at Yucca Mountain, Extended Dry heat management, and long-lived containers. Reversibility is technically believable at Yucca Mountain because of extended retrievability and drift emplacement, if an MRS were co-located with the repository. Because the rock is unsaturated, extended retrievability is technically feasible at Yucca Mountain. Demonstrability could be improved at Yucca Mountain by planning for incremental progression toward operation and closure of a repository, possibly including a shift to underground retrievable storage. Demonstrability can also be improved by using natural analogs. Repository operation can be decoupled from reactor operation by use of an unconstrained MRS facility or at-reactor dry storage and multipurpose storage canister/casks

  2. Management of RepU: Recent analyses of the IAEA and new approach towards technical issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recognising the potential importance of reprocessed uranium (RepU) in hedging the ‘Nuclear Renaissance’ against nuclear fuel shortages, the IAEA has prepared a report aiming to review and summarize the information on the management of RepU (IAEA-TECDOC-1529 of February 2007). However, during the preparation of this TECDOC the impression intensified that there is a necessity to elaborate more on technical aspects of the processes involved in the utilization of RepU. In particular, at the IAEA the idea was born to produce another document, structured like a handbook for those who wish to use RepU for nuclear energy generation and who wish to provide services and products related to RepU. (author)

  3. ANL Technical Support Program for DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides an overview of progress during FY 1991 for the Technical Support Program that is part of the ANL Technology Support Activity for DOE, Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM). The purpose is to evaluate, before hot start-up of the Defenses Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) and the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), factors that are likely to affect glass reaction in an unsaturated environment typical of what may be expected for the candidate Yucca Mountain repository site. Specific goals for the testing program include the following: (1) to review and evaluate available information on parameters that will be important in establishing the long-term performance of glass in a repository environment; (2) to perform testing to further quantify the effects of important variables where there are deficiencies in the available data; and (3) to initiate long-term testing that will bound glass performance under a range of conditions applicable to repository disposal

  4. Automated energy management systems for small buildings. Final report, Volume 1: technical document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-08-01

    Energy controls can perform a valuable function in energy conservation or energy-management strategy in buildings. While the more-simple controls can be applied to virtually any building, the more-complex automation systems are currently available only to large buildings where their greater costs may be justified. At the present, however, there is a lack of effective, automatic energy-management control practices and schemes available for application to small buildings. This is due, in large measure, to the absence of cost-effective integrated control equipment in the small-building marketplace. Furthermore, a general philosophy or strategy, for the application of equipment for total energy conservation in small commercial buildings has not yet evolved. Both technical and marketing issues related to the implementation of automation systems in small commercial buildings under 75,000 square feet gross area are explored. The functional requirements for small-building automation systems are identified and determination of system costs and energy savings potential are made. Market analyses identify cost and payback requirements as well as attitudes of potential equipment buyers in the small-building market. Schools, apartments, and offices, which together consume more than half the energy of the small-building market, are used as analysis models. The market and technical analyses are combined to formulate the potential marketplace for a small building AEMS in terms of building size, and building type. An AEMS concept is defined which embodies the necessary functional requirements within a framework of applied strategy to energy conservation in buildings.

  5. Technical Aspects Regarding the Management of Radioactive Waste from Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proper application of the nuclear techniques and technologies in Romania started in 1957, once with the commissioning of the Research Reactor VVR-S from IFIN-HH-Magurele. During the last 45 years, appear thousands of nuclear application units with extremely diverse profiles (research, biology, medicine, education, agriculture, transport, all types of industry) which used different nuclear facilities containing radioactive sources and generating a great variety of radioactive waste during the decommissioning after the operation lifetime is accomplished. A new aspect appears by the planning of VVR-S Research Reactor decommissioning which will be a new source of radioactive waste generated by decontamination, disassembling and demolition activities. By construction and exploitation of the Radioactive Waste Treatment Plant (STDR)--Magurele and the National Repository for Low and Intermediate Radioactive Waste (DNDR)--Baita, Bihor county, in Romania was solved the management of radioactive wastes arising from operation and decommissioning of small nuclear facilities, being assured the protection of the people and environment. The present paper makes a review of the present technical status of the Romanian waste management facilities, especially raising on treatment capabilities of ''problem'' wastes such as Ra-266, Pu-238, Am-241 Co-60, Co-57, Sr-90, Cs-137 sealed sources from industrial, research and medical applications. Also, contain a preliminary estimation of quantities and types of wastes, which would result during the decommissioning project of the VVR-S Research Reactor from IFIN-HH giving attention to some special category of wastes like aluminum, graphite and equipment, components and structures that became radioactive through neutron activation. After analyzing the technical and scientific potential of STDR and DNDR to handle big amounts of wastes resulting from the decommissioning of VVR-S Research Reactor and small nuclear facilities, the necessity of

  6. A parameter network and model pyramid for managing technical information flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prototypes of information management tools have been developed that can help communicate the technical basis for nuclear waste disposal to a broad audience of program scientists and engineers, project managers, and informed observers from stakeholder organizations. These tools include system engineering concepts, parameter networks expressed as influence diagrams, associated model hierarchies, and a relational database. These tools are used to express relationships among data-collection parameters, model input parameters, model output parameters, systems requirements, physical elements of a system description, and functional analysis of the contribution of physical elements and their associated parameters in satisfying the system requirements. By organizing parameters, models, physical elements, functions, and requirements in a visually reviewable network and a relational database the severe communication challenges facing participants in the nuclear waste dialog can be addressed. The network identifies the influences that data collected in the field have on measures of repository suitability, providing a visual, traceable map that clarifies the role of data and models in supporting conclusions about repository suitability. The map allows conclusions to be traced directly to the underlying parameters and models. Uncertainty in these underlying elements can be exposed to open review in the context of the effects uncertainty has on judgements about suitability. A parameter network provides a stage upon which an informed social dialog about the technical merits of a nuclear waste repository can be conducted. The basis for such dialog must be that stage, if decisions about repository suitability are to be based on a repository's ability to meet requirements embodied in laws and regulations governing disposal of nuclear wastes

  7. Risk management in the oil and gas industry : integration of human, organisational and technical factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skogdalen, Jon Espen

    2011-07-01

    The overall objective of this thesis is to provide knowledge and tools for the major hazard risk assessment for offshore installations (and onshore plants) based on an improved understanding of the influence of organisational, human and technical (OMT) factors. This extensive objective was further described by the following sub-goals: 1. Identify and describe human and organisational barriers in risk analysis, 2. Provide knowledge regarding human, organisational and technical factors that influence safety barriers, 3. Define indicators that are suitable for the measurement of barrier performance, 4. Develop models for barrier performance reflecting human, organisational and technical factors These four sub-goals formed the basis for the more specific objectives in the articles. The Deepwater Horizon accident and Macondo blowout were important inputs for several of the articles. One important acknowledgement is that risk management of major hazards differs from managing occupational safety. Another is that managing risks in the oil and gas (O&G) industry demands a high level due to the potential severe consequences. Quantitative risk analyses/assessments (QRAs) are used for risk control in the O&G industry. An important part of the QRA process is to identify and describe barriers in risk analysis. A study of offshore QRAs (Skogdalen and Vinnem, 2011b) showed that there were large differences between the analyses regarding incorporation of human and organisational factors (HOFs). The study divided the QRAs into a four-level classification system. Level 1 QRAs did not describe or comment on HOFs at all. By contrast, relevant research projects were conducted to fulfil the requirements of level 3 analyses. At this level, there was a systematic collection of data related to HOFs. The methods for analyzing the data were systematic and documented, and the QRAs were adjusted according to the status of the HOFs. A second study of QRAs (Skogdalen and Vinnem, 2011a) revealed

  8. Technical forums as an instrument for knowledge management in oil pipelines and terminals companies: the experience of TRANSPETRO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Maria Fatima Ludovico de [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio/ITUC), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Instituto Tecnologico; Santiago, Adilson; Ribeiro, Kassandra Senra; Arruda, Daniela Mendonca [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This paper describes the experience of TRANSPETRO's Oil Pipelines and Terminals Unit regarding an institutionalized knowledge management (KM) process of systematically promoting technical forums focused on: pipeline and terminal operations; industrial maintenance; and right-of-way activities management. This empirical work adds evidence that in the model of cooperative and communicative knowledge management it is necessary to motivate staff to provide the company with their tacit knowledge and to take a proactive part in knowledge management processes, particularly in technical forums. Within this KM perspective, technical forums have been held by TRANSPETRO for the following purposes: to discuss the main barriers and challenges the oil pipelines and terminals unit has to face in the coming years; to share and disseminate good practices concerning oil pipeline and terminal activities; to discuss new processes, methods and equipment developments with potential application in business and operational processes; to establish action plans concerning the main challenges, barriers and opportunities; to disseminate Research and Development (R and D) projects in course, new procedures, methods and equipment and to promote integration among forum attendees. The two year-experience in TRANSPETRO's Oil Pipelines and Terminals Unit revealed that technical forums have been an important instrument for cooperative and communicative knowledge management, according to evaluations from 173 attendees. (author)

  9. Adjunct methods for caries detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, Svante; Axelsson, Susanna Bihari; Dahlén, Gunnar;

    2012-01-01

    scientific evidence for diagnostic accuracy regarding fiber-optic methods and quantitative light-induced fluorescence (+OOO). The electrical methods and laser fluorescence could be useful adjuncts to visual-tactile and radiographic examinations, especially on occlusal surfaces in permanent and primary molars......Abstract Objective. To assess the diagnostic accuracy of adjunct methods used to detect and quantify dental caries. Study design. A systematic literature search for relevant papers was conducted with pre-determined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Abstracts and full text articles were assessed...... independently by two reviewers. The study characteristics were compiled in tables and quality graded according to the QUADAS tool. The level of evidence for each diagnostic technology (fiber-optic methods, fluorescence methods, electrical methods) was based on studies of high or moderate quality according to...

  10. Natural products and caries prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Lei; Li, Jiyao; He, Libang; Zhou, Xuedong

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries is considered as the most common polymicrobial oral disease in the world. With the aim of developing alternative approaches to reduce or prevent the decay, numerous papers showed the potential anticaries activity of a number of natural products. The natural products with anticaries effects are selected from e.g. food, beverages, flowers or traditional herbs. Most of the effective components are proven to be polyphenol compounds. Many of the natural products are studied as antibacterial agents, while some of them are found to be effective in shifting the de-/remineralization balance. However, the mechanisms of the anticaries effects are still unclear for most of the natural products. In the future, more efforts need to be made to seek novel effective natural products via in vitro experiment, animal study and in situ investigations, as well as to enhance their anticaries effects with the help of novel technology like nanotechnology. PMID:25871417

  11. Probiotics in the prevention of dental caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johany Duque de Estrada Riverón

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics have the potential to provide significant benefits to human health, so we decided to investigate the probiotics species that may have preventive action against dental caries mainly in children in order to determine if there can be created a preventive medicine, made from probiotics found in the oral cavity. Oral probiotics that have shown promising activities in the prevention of dental caries are: Streptococcus salivarius (strain K12, BGH01 Lactobacillus salivarius, BGH089 gasseri Lactobacillus, Streptococcus sanguinis and Streptococcus oligofermentans. In vitro studies on the use of probiotics for the prevention of dental caries have shown interesting results, but in vivo they are not very encouraging. It is necessary to deepen in the therapeutic effects of probiotics strains already discovered in order to obtain from them an effective preventive agent against dental caries and so ensuring a better quality of life, especially in children.

  12. The Microbial Ecology of Dental Caries

    OpenAIRE

    Bowden, G. H. W.

    2011-01-01

    The microbial ecology of caries is complex and incorporates mechanisms common to the natural colonization of the host and to plaque accumulation at sites that do not develop caries lesions. It is not simply accumulation of plaque in the oral cavity but also the ecology of oral bacteria among the host population and the ecology of organisms in the lesion. In these three habitats odontopathogens and other oral bacteria can undergo genotypic change, which may produce phenotypes more virulent or ...

  13. Ameloglyphics and predilection of dental caries

    OpenAIRE

    H C Girish; Sanjay Murgod; C J Manasa Ravath; Hegde, Ramesh B

    2013-01-01

    Background: Dental caries is an infectious disease of microbiologic origin resulting in destruction and loss of tooth structure and is related to every speciality of dentistry. Many studies have been carried out to identify the causative factors, methods of prevention, and treatment of dental caries. Ameloglyphics is the study of enamel rod end patterns. These patterns have been found to be unique to individual teeth of the same individual and also to different individuals. A possible correla...

  14. Caries in Portuguese children with Down syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Maria Areias; Benedita Sampaio-Maia; Hercilia Guimaraes; Paulo Melo; David Andrade

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Oral health in Down syndrome children has some peculiar aspects that must be considered in the follow-up of these patients. This study focuses on characterizing the environmental and host factors associated with dental caries in Portuguese children with and without Down syndrome. METHODS: A sibling-matched, population-based, cross-sectional survey was performed. RESULTS: Down syndrome children presented a significantly greater percentage of children without caries, 78% vs. 58% of ...

  15. Exploring the Mismatch between Skills and Jobs for Women in Saudi Arabia in Technical and Vocational Areas: The Views of Saudi Arabian Private Sector Business Managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, John R.; Al-Shetaiwi, A. S.

    2002-01-01

    Gives an overview of women in both general and technical-vocational education and employment in Saudi Arabia. Reports on a survey of 220 private business managers: 83% indicated that Saudi women had limited participation in technical jobs; 63% suggested that vocational-technical education did not promote women's participation. (Contains 51…

  16. Technical and management challenges associated with structural materials degradation in nuclear reactors in the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are active plans worldwide to increase nuclear power production by significant amounts. In the near term (i.e. by 2020) this will be accomplished by, (a) increasing the power output of the existing reactors and extending their life, and by, (b) constructing new reactors that are very similar to the current water-cooled designs. Beyond 2025-2030, it is possible that new reactors (i.e. the 'GEN IV' designs) will be very different from those currently in service. A full discussion of the technical and management concerns associated with materials degradation that might arise over the next 40 years would need to address a wide range of topics. Quite apart from discussing the structural integrity issues for the materials of construction and the fuel cladding, the debate would also need to cover, for example, fuel resources and the associated issues of fuel cycle management and waste disposal, manufacturing capacity, inspection capabilities, human reliability, etc., since these all impact to one degree or another on the choice of material and the reactor operating conditions. For brevity, the scope of this article is confined to the integrity of the materials of construction for passive components in the current water-cooled reactors and the evolutionary designs (which will dominate the near term new constructions), and the very different GEN IV reactor designs. In all cases the operating environments will be more aggressive than currently encountered. For instance, the concerns for flow accelerated corrosion and flow-induced vibration will be increased under extended power uprate conditions for the current water-cooled reactors. Of greater concern, the design life will be at least 60 years for all of the new reactors and for those current reactors operating with extended licenses. This automatically presents challenges with regard to managing both irradiation damage in metallic and non-metallic materials of construction, and environmentally assisted cracking. This

  17. Generation management using batteries in wind farms. Economical and technical analysis for Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an hourly management method for energy generated in grid-connected wind farms using battery storage (Wind-Batteries systems). The method proposed is analysed technically and economically. Electricity generation in wind farms does not usually coincide with the electrical demand curve. If the wind-power penetration becomes high in the Spanish electrical grid, energy management will become necessary for some wind farms. A method is proposed in this paper to adjust the generation curve to the demand curve by storing electrical energy in batteries during off-peak hours (low demand) and selling stored energy to the grid during peak hours (high demand). With the results obtained and reported in this paper, for a Wind-Batteries system to be economically as profitable as a Wind-Only system, the selling price of the energy provided by the batteries during peak hours should be between 22 and 66 cEUR/kWh, depending on the technology and cost of the batteries. Comparison with flexible thermal generation has been performed. Additionally, the results are compared with those obtained if using hydrogen (Wind-Hydrogen system, which uses an electrolyser, hydrogen tank, and fuel cell instead of batteries), concluding that the Wind-Batteries system is both economically and energetically far more suitable. (author)

  18. Generation management using batteries in wind farms: Economical and technical analysis for Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an hourly management method for energy generated in grid-connected wind farms using battery storage (Wind-Batteries systems). The method proposed is analysed technically and economically. Electricity generation in wind farms does not usually coincide with the electrical demand curve. If the wind-power penetration becomes high in the Spanish electrical grid, energy management will become necessary for some wind farms. A method is proposed in this paper to adjust the generation curve to the demand curve by storing electrical energy in batteries during off-peak hours (low demand) and selling stored energy to the grid during peak hours (high demand). With the results obtained and reported in this paper, for a Wind-Batteries system to be economically as profitable as a Wind-Only system, the selling price of the energy provided by the batteries during peak hours should be between 22 and 66 c Euro /kWh, depending on the technology and cost of the batteries. Comparison with flexible thermal generation has been performed. Additionally, the results are compared with those obtained if using hydrogen (Wind-Hydrogen system, which uses an electrolyser, hydrogen tank, and fuel cell instead of batteries), concluding that the Wind-Batteries system is both economically and energetically far more suitable

  19. Technical Note: Seasonality in alpine water resources management - a regional assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanham, D.; Fleischhacker, E.; Rauch, W.

    2008-01-01

    Alpine regions are particularly affected by seasonal variations in water demand and water availability. Especially the winter period is critical from an operational point of view, as being characterised by high water demands due to tourism and low water availability due to the temporal storage of precipitation as snow and ice. The clear definition of summer and winter periods is thus an essential prerequisite for water resource management in alpine regions. This paper presents a GIS-based multi criteria method to determine the winter season. A snow cover duration dataset serves as basis for this analysis. Different water demand stakeholders, the alpine hydrology and the present day water supply infrastructure are taken into account. Technical snow-making and (winter) tourism were identified as the two major seasonal water demand stakeholders in the study area, which is the Kitzbueheler region in the Austrian Alps. Based upon different geographical datasets winter was defined as the period from December to March, and summer as the period from April to November. By determining potential regional water balance deficits or surpluses in the present day situation and in future, important management decisions such as water storage and allocation can be made and transposed to the local level.

  20. Technical Note: Seasonality in alpine water resources management – a regional assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Rauch

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Alpine regions are particularly affected by seasonal variations in water demand and water availability. Especially the winter period is critical from an operational point of view, as being characterised by high water demands due to tourism and low water availability due to the temporal storage of precipitation as snow and ice. The clear definition of summer and winter periods is thus an essential prerequisite for water resource management in alpine regions. This paper presents a GIS-based multi criteria method to determine the winter season. A snow cover duration dataset serves as basis for this analysis. Different water demand stakeholders, the alpine hydrology and the present day water supply infrastructure are taken into account. Technical snow-making and (winter tourism were identified as the two major seasonal water demand stakeholders in the study area, which is the Kitzbueheler region in the Austrian Alps. Based upon different geographical datasets winter was defined as the period from December to March, and summer as the period from April to November. By determining potential regional water balance deficits or surpluses in the present day situation and in future, important management decisions such as water storage and allocation can be made and transposed to the local level.

  1. Brief assessment of some technical and radiological hazard factors affecting clad waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zima, G.E.

    1976-07-30

    In the management of the adverse byproducts of nuclear energy, the general problem is centered in the post-reactor discharge phases. Various waste streams are generated in the reprocessing and fuel manufacturing plants which add both volume and physicochemical diversity to the nuclear fuel waste management problem. Of these streams, the high level waste (HLW) and the clad waste streams carry the principal radiological hazard and thermal power burdens when considering post reactor-discharge times in excess of roughly a year and reasonable contamination factors. In order to measure the relative importance of the high level and clad waste streams within the context of a reasonable nuclear power scenario, various technical and hazard indices are compared for the light water, enriched uranium fueled, reactor (LWR(U)). For the clad waste, two fuel models are used for the volume comparison: the Reference Fuel Assembly (RFA) and the Diablo Canyon reference fuel model (DC). The more extensive data available for the Diablo Canyon model on radioactivity and thermal power are used in the comparison of these indices. Most of this review pertains to a burnup of 33GWD/MT. A brief analysis is given of the effect of burnup and fuel model on certain clad waste characteristics. This report is submitted as a preliminary to technico-economic considerations of clad waste. (DLC)

  2. Technical Reference Suite Addressing Challenges of Providing Assurance for Fault Management Architectural Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitz, Rhonda; Whitman, Gerek

    2016-01-01

    Research into complexities of software systems Fault Management (FM) and how architectural design decisions affect safety, preservation of assets, and maintenance of desired system functionality has coalesced into a technical reference (TR) suite that advances the provision of safety and mission assurance. The NASA Independent Verification and Validation (IVV) Program, with Software Assurance Research Program support, extracted FM architectures across the IVV portfolio to evaluate robustness, assess visibility for validation and test, and define software assurance methods applied to the architectures and designs. This investigation spanned IVV projects with seven different primary developers, a wide range of sizes and complexities, and encompassed Deep Space Robotic, Human Spaceflight, and Earth Orbiter mission FM architectures. The initiative continues with an expansion of the TR suite to include Launch Vehicles, adding the benefit of investigating differences intrinsic to model-based FM architectures and insight into complexities of FM within an Agile software development environment, in order to improve awareness of how nontraditional processes affect FM architectural design and system health management.

  3. Technical Staff Management for Radical Innovation in Science-based Organizations: a New Framework Based on Design Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Cabanes, Benjamin; Galy, Philippe; Le Masson, Pascal; Weil, Benoit

    2016-01-01

    The challenges of managing radical innovation in hypercompetitive environments require a critical re-evaluation of R&D practices. Among these R&D practices, the management of technical staff (i.e. researchers, scientists and engineers) is increasingly crucial for science-based organizations. Indeed, a key challenge is to be able to anticipate and to accelerate the renewal of knowledge, competencies and expertise in a context of uncertain dominant design, while controlling resources. Today, th...

  4. Optical caries diagnostics: comparison of laser spectroscopic PNC method with method of laser integral fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masychev, Victor I.

    2000-11-01

    In this research we present the results of approbation of two methods of optical caries diagnostics: PNC-spectral diagnostics and caries detection by laser integral fluorescence. The research was conducted in a dental clinic. PNC-method analyses parameters of probing laser radiation and PNC-spectrums of stimulated secondary radiations: backscattering and endogenous fluorescence of caries-involved bacterias. He-Ne-laser ((lambda) =632,8 nm, 1-2mW) was used as a source of probing (stimulated) radiation. For registration of signals, received from intact and pathological teeth PDA-detector was applied. PNC-spectrums were processed by special algorithms, and were displayed on PC monitor. The method of laser integral fluorescence was used for comparison. In this case integral power of fluorescence of human teeth was measured. As a source of probing (stimulated) radiation diode lasers ((lambda) =655 nm, 0.1 mW and 630nm, 1mW) and He-Ne laser were applied. For registration of signals Si-photodetector was used. Integral power was shown in a digital indicator. Advantages and disadvantages of these methods are described in this research. It is disclosed that the method of laser integral power of fluorescence has the following characteristics: simplicity of construction and schema-technical decisions. However the method of PNC-spectral diagnostics are characterized by considerably more sensitivity in diagnostics of initial caries and capability to differentiate pathologies of various stages (for example, calculus/initial caries). Estimation of spectral characteristics of PNC-signals allows eliminating a number of drawbacks, which are character for detection by method of laser integral fluorescence (for instance, detection of fluorescent fillings, plagues, calculus, discolorations generally, amalgam, gold fillings as if it were caries.

  5. Comparison of laser spectroscopic PNC method with laser integral fluorescence in optical caries diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masychev, Victor I.

    2001-05-01

    In this research we represent the results of approbation of two methods of optical caries diagnostics: PNC-spectral diagnostics and caries detection by laser integral fluorescence. The research was conducted in a dental clinic. PNC-method analyzes parameters of probing laser radiation and PNC-spectrums of stimulated secondary radiations: backscattering and endogenous fluorescence of caries- involved bacteria. Ia-Ne laser ((lambda) equals632.8 nm, 1-2 mW) was used as a source of probing (stimulated) radiation. For registration of signals, received from intact and pathological teeth PDA-detector was applied. PNC-spectrums were processed by special algorithms, and were displayed on PC monitor. The method of laser integral fluorescence was used for comparison. In this case integral power of fluorescence of human teeth was measured. As a source of probing (stimulated) radiation diode lasers ((lambda) equals655 nm, 0.1 mW and 630 nm, 1 mW) and Ia-Na laser were applied. For registration of signals Si-photodetector was used. Integral power was shown in a digital indicator. Advantages and disadvantages of these methods are described in this research. It is disclosed that the method of laser integral power of fluorescence has the following characteristics: simplicity of construction and schema-technical decisions. However the method of PNC-spectral diagnostics are characterized by considerably more sensitivity in diagnostics of initial caries and capability to differentiate pathologies of various stages (for example, calculus/initial caries). Estimation of spectral characteristics of PNC-signals allows eliminating a number of drawbacks, which are character for detection by method of laser integral fluorescence (for instance, detection of fluorescent fillings, plagues, calculus, discolorations generally, amalgam, gold fillings as if it were caries).

  6. Improving curriculum development practices in a technical vocational community college: examining effects of a professional development arrangement for middle managers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.M. Albashiry; J.M. Voogt; J.M. Pieters

    2015-01-01

    Learning about curriculum development is critical for middle managers of technical vocational institutions in order to assume curriculum leadership in maintaining and enhancing the quality and relevance of their educational programs. This case study reports on the design and effects of a professiona

  7. Improving Curriculum Development Practices in a Technical Vocational Community College: Examining Effects of a Professional Development Arrangement for Middle Managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albashiry, Nabeel M.; Voogt, Joke M.; Pieters, Jules M.

    2015-01-01

    Learning about curriculum development is critical for middle managers of technical vocational institutions in order to assume curriculum leadership in maintaining and enhancing the quality and relevance of their educational programs. This case study reports on the design and effects of a professional development arrangement (PDA), with such a…

  8. A VIRTUAL TECHNICAL SYSTEMS AUDIT OF RESEARCH QUALITY ASSURANCE AND RECORD MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS IN ORD, U.S EPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    NHEERL conducts technical systems audits (TSAs) on its research projects. The findings are reported by the QA Manager (QAM) to the Director of QA (DQA) as Exemplary Findings (things the QA Team liked); Corrective Actions (things that must be corrected immediately); and Areas for...

  9. 48 CFR 801.602-80 - Legal and technical review-Office of Construction and Facilities Management and National Cemetery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Legal and technical review-Office of Construction and Facilities Management and National Cemetery Administration. 801.602-80 Section 801.602-80 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ACQUISITION...

  10. Learning Styles of Non-Science and Non-Technology Students on Technical Courses in an Information Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amran, Noraizan; Bahry, Farrah Diana Saiful; Yusop, Zulkefli Mohd; Abdullah, Szarina

    2011-01-01

    The study was conducted among students with some or no background in science and technology subjects (non S&T students) who enrolled in the Faculty of Information Management in a Malaysian public university during semester 2009/2010. It aims to identify students' learning styles on technical courses in order to provide inputs to instructors'…

  11. The Predisposing Factors between Dental Caries and Deviations from Normal Weight

    OpenAIRE

    Amandeep Chopra; Nanak Chand Rao; Nidhi Gupta; Shelja Vashisth; Manav Lakhanpal

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dental caries and deviations from normal weight are two conditions which share several broadly predisposing factors. So it′s important to understand any relationship between dental state and body weight if either is to be managed appropriately. Aims: The study was done to find out the correlation between body mass index (BMI), diet, and dental caries among 12-15-year-old schoolgoing children in Panchkula District. Materials and Methods: A multistage sample of 12-15-year-old school...

  12. Early childhood caries update: A review of causes, diagnoses, and treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colak, Hakan; Dülgergil, Coruh T; Dalli, Mehmet; Hamidi, Mehmet Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    Dental caries (decay) is an international public health challenge, especially amongst young children. Early childhood caries (ECC) is a serious public health problem in both developing and industrialized countries. ECC can begin early in life, progresses rapidly in those who are at high risk, and often goes untreated. Its consequences can affect the immediate and long-term quality of life of the child's family and can have significant social and economic consequences beyond the immediate family as well. ECC can be a particularly virulent form of caries, beginning soon after dental eruption, developing on smooth surfaces, progressing rapidly, and having a lasting detrimental impact on the dentition. Children experiencing caries as infants or toddlers have a much greater probability of subsequent caries in both the primary and permanent dentitions. The relationship between breastfeeding and ECC is likely to be complex and confounded by many biological variables, such as mutans streptococci, enamel hypoplasia, intake of sugars, as well as social variables, such as parental education and socioeconomic status, which may affect oral health. Unlike other infectious diseases, tooth decay is not self-limiting. Decayed teeth require professional treatment to remove infection and restore tooth function. In this review, we give detailed information about ECC, from its diagnosis to management. PMID:23633832

  13. Fuel cycle and waste management. 7. Thorium Nitrate Stockpile Stewardship and Disposition Technical Basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is performing work for the Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) to assist in a future determination of the disposition for thorium nitrate hydrate [Th(NO3)4.5H2O] currently stored at Hammond, Indiana, and Curtis Bay, Maryland. The DLA has ∼3500 tons of ThN contained in 21 000 drums of various configurations. This material has been declared surplus to the needs of the DOD. The ORNL efforts will supply technical input to quantify the potential for use in a thorium fuel cycle and identify characterization requirements and processing requirements consistent with available waste disposition pathways. The Defense National Support Command stores ∼7 million pounds of thorium nitrate crystals (hydrate form) at two depot locations in the United States (75 wt% at the Curtis Bay, Maryland, depot and 25 wt% at the Hammond, Indiana, depot). The managing agency is the DLA. An upgrade evaluation is required to define and control risks and costs associated with long-term management of the thorium nitrate stockpile. Technical studies are underway to determine the most viable options to be compared against continued storage in the present conditions. The generalized alternatives for technical analysis include the following: A. Retain the stockpile in the thorium nitrate form for disposal. B. Retain the stockpile in the thorium nitrate form for long-term storage. C. Process the stockpile to reduce the thorium nitrate to a suitable thorium form for disposal, without preserving chemical purity. D. Process the stockpile to reduce the thorium nitrate to pure thorium oxide for long-term storage. The technical assessment of option results is the focus of this paper. The methodology for analytical characterization is included because strategies are impacted by whether or not the ThN falls into a hazardous waste category. Baseline location and other relevant information are presented, as impact options, from

  14. Sugar alcohols, caries incidence, and remineralization of caries lesions: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkinen, Kauko K

    2010-01-01

    Remineralization of minor enamel defects is a normal physiological process that is well known to clinicians and researchers in dentistry and oral biology. This process can be facilitated by various dietary and oral hygiene procedures and may also concern dentin caries lesions. Dental caries is reversible if detected and treated sufficiently early. Habitual use of xylitol, a sugar alcohol of the pentitol type, can be associated with significant reduction in caries incidence and with tooth remineralization. Other dietary polyols that can remarkably lower the incidence of caries include erythritol which is a tetritol-type alditol. Based on known molecular parameters of simple dietary alditols, it is conceivable to predict that their efficacy in caries prevention will follow the homologous series, that is, that the number of OH-groups present in the alditol molecule will determine the efficacy as follows: erythritol >/= xylitol > sorbitol. The possible difference between erythritol and xylitol must be confirmed in future clinical trials. PMID:20339492

  15. Sugar Alcohols, Caries Incidence, and Remineralization of Caries Lesions: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kauko K. Mäkinen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Remineralization of minor enamel defects is a normal physiological process that is well known to clinicians and researchers in dentistry and oral biology. This process can be facilitated by various dietary and oral hygiene procedures and may also concern dentin caries lesions. Dental caries is reversible if detected and treated sufficiently early. Habitual use of xylitol, a sugar alcohol of the pentitol type, can be associated with significant reduction in caries incidence and with tooth remineralization. Other dietary polyols that can remarkably lower the incidence of caries include erythritol which is a tetritol-type alditol. Based on known molecular parameters of simple dietary alditols, it is conceivable to predict that their efficacy in caries prevention will follow the homologous series, that is, that the number of OH-groups present in the alditol molecule will determine the efficacy as follows: erythritol≥xylitol>sorbitol. The possible difference between erythritol and xylitol must be confirmed in future clinical trials.

  16. Evaluation of pH, buffering capacity, viscosity and flow rate levels of saliva in caries-free, minimal caries and nursing caries children: An in vivo study

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the pH, buffering capacity, viscosity and flow rate of saliva in caries free, minimal caries and nursing caries children and to evaluate the relationship of these on the caries activity of children. Materials and Methods: A total of 75 school children of age group between 4 and 12 years were selected and divided into three equal groups: Group I, Group II and Group III, consisting of 25 subjects each. Group I included caries-free...

  17. Managing technical-institutional design processes: some strategic lessons from environmental co-operatives in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Roep, D.; Ploeg, van der, J.; Wiskerke, J.S.C.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper the case of the environmental co-operatives VEL and VANLA is reviewed in terms of coevolving technical and institutional change and the strategic lessons to be learned for a pro-active management of such complex technical-institutional design processes. Facing the many-sided crisis in agriculture the two co-operatives developed a radically different approach. The aim is to re-ground agriculture in local agro-ecological processes following the approach of lowering external inputs...

  18. Factors associated with early childhood caries in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Hoffmeister

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The high prevalence of caries in this young group is concerning. The factors associated with caries identified in this study could help in the design of preventive interventions at early ages.

  19. Caries selective ablation: the handpiece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennig, Thomas; Rechmann, Peter; Holtermann, Andreas

    1995-05-01

    Caries selective ablation is fixed to a window of fluences predicted by the ablation thresholds of carious and healthy dentin, respectively. The aim of the study was to develop a dental handpiece which guarantees homogeneous fluence at the irradiated tooth surface. Furthermore the point of treatment should be cooled down without energy losses due to the cooling system. We suggest the direct coupling of the laser radiation into a laminar stream of liquid, which acts in turn as a lengthened beam guide. The impacts of the laser radiation and of the cooling medium fall exactly into the same point. Hot ablation debris is removed out of the crater by the flush of the water jet. Fluences are constant if the handpiece is used in contact mode or at a distance. Normally the surface of a bare fiber working in contact mode is destroyed after a few shots. Coupling the laser radiation into a stream of liquid prevents this destruction. Putting together the benefits of this special handpiece short overall treatment times seem to be possible. High average power can be applied to the tooth without the threat of thermal damage. Furthermore no time consuming cutting of the fiber prolongs the treatment time.

  20. Technical Reference Suite Addressing Challenges of Providing Assurance for Fault Management Architectural Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitz, Rhonda; Whitman, Gerek

    2016-01-01

    Research into complexities of software systems Fault Management (FM) and how architectural design decisions affect safety, preservation of assets, and maintenance of desired system functionality has coalesced into a technical reference (TR) suite that advances the provision of safety and mission assurance. The NASA Independent Verification and Validation (IV&V) Program, with Software Assurance Research Program support, extracted FM architectures across the IV&V portfolio to evaluate robustness, assess visibility for validation and test, and define software assurance methods applied to the architectures and designs. This investigation spanned IV&V projects with seven different primary developers, a wide range of sizes and complexities, and encompassed Deep Space Robotic, Human Spaceflight, and Earth Orbiter mission FM architectures. The initiative continues with an expansion of the TR suite to include Launch Vehicles, adding the benefit of investigating differences intrinsic to model-based FM architectures and insight into complexities of FM within an Agile software development environment, in order to improve awareness of how nontraditional processes affect FM architectural design and system health management. The identification of particular FM architectures, visibility, and associated IV&V techniques provides a TR suite that enables greater assurance that critical software systems will adequately protect against faults and respond to adverse conditions. Additionally, the role FM has with regard to strengthened security requirements, with potential to advance overall asset protection of flight software systems, is being addressed with the development of an adverse conditions database encompassing flight software vulnerabilities. Capitalizing on the established framework, this TR suite provides assurance capability for a variety of FM architectures and varied development approaches. Research results are being disseminated across NASA, other agencies, and the

  1. Management of radioactive waste at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory: a technical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review was performed for the US Department of Energy by a panel of the Board on Radioactive Waste Management under the National Research Council's Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Resources. In summary, ORNL's waste management practices have kept offsite doses low; some of the practices are temporary and improvised - they may not be as satisfactory in the future; reducing anticipated future releases will be difficult because the limited number of candidate waste disposal locations are characterized by topographic peculiarities; and a major ORNL accomplishment has been the demonstration that hydrofracture can be a successful method of disposal for at least low- and intermediate-level waste. The panel obtained its information over a 2-year period by examining a large body of technical literature, by making six visits to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and through briefings by representatives of government agencies and their subcontractors. Chapter 2 contains the charge to the panel. Chapters 3, 4, and 5 describe the site, the waste that is present, and the methods used to handle it. Chapters 6 through 10 treat the manner in which the performance of the waste-handling system is monitored, the criteria against which performance is assessed, the panel's assessment of performance, and consideration of alternative methods for future handling of radioactive waste. Chapter 11 contains a brief comparison of ORNL with other sites. The panel's principal conclusions and recommendations are summarized below and treated in detail in subsequent chapters. In general, the conclusions and recommendations considered by the panel to be the most important are provided first. 123 refs., 30 figs., 24 tabs

  2. Nuclear knowledge management - The role of the IAEA and its Technical Cooperation Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: IAEA has an excellent record in promoting the peaceful and safe use of the atom for socioeconomic development. After nearly half a century, the Agency has acquired considerable expertise in both its promotional and regulatory activities. Recent years have seen, on the one hand, a greater emphasis being placed on the strengthening of safeguards, safety and security under the Agency's regular programme, while the promotional activities are somewhat being affected because of public disenchantment in the West, as well as donor fatigue and unwillingness to freely share know-how. Early euphoria for the development of peaceful uses of the nuclear programme seems to have evaporated. The Agency has to continue to strive to rectify this situation and play its leadership role. In this regard, there is a growing awareness to adequately develop Nuclear Knowledge Management (NKM) practices to face new challenges, resulting from retirement of professionals who pioneered national programmes, difficulties in replacement because of younger generation not opting for nuclear careers, and generally diminishing opportunities for nuclear education. Furthermore, aging nuclear facilities require special care and management for their operation and ultimate decommissioning and safe disposal. NKM as a tool for preservation and maintaining competence in nuclear technology should be developed and shared with MSs through Technical Cooperation Programme. There is a need to transform INIS from merely a database of published literature to an effective knowledge base service. Member States should know how to utilize the nuclear knowledge to determine where nuclear techniques have an edge. Valuable material is available with the Agency in the form of various reports which can be a good source to develop a rich knowledge base for dissemination. The Agency and the MSs should know what they need to know to build and share nuclear knowledge for a self-reliant and sustainable national nuclear

  3. Technical measures and engineering management measures for radiation protection in underground uraniferous coal mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reserves of uraniferous coal resource account for a certain proportion of all uranium resources in China. China began to mine the uraniferous coal deposits in late 1960s. In the process of mining, much research was conducted on the control and reduction of the radiation hazards in underground uraniferous coal mine. However, such mining practice was stopped for many reasons in late 1980s. During recent years, electricity shortages have taken place from time to time. In order to alleviate the shortages, the Chinese government has decided to further develop nuclear electricity. Under such circumstances, underground mining of uraniferous coal deposits will be restarted. In order to make sure that the radiation protection will be stressed and the radiation hazards will be controlled effectively in the underground uraniferous mine, this paper gives the basic knowledge of radiation protection, describes the radiation hazards to the miners and our national dosage standards implemented in the underground mine, and, on the basis of summing-up of the past experience in mine radiation protection, presents the technical and management measures for controlling and reducing radiation hazards. (authors)

  4. Risk factors for caries - control and prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melida Hasanagić

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To investigate a prevalence of caries, filled permanentand extracted permanent teeth, as well as caries risk factors inschool children aged 7, 9 and 11.Methods. The survey included 800 children (296 children aged7; 254 children aged 9 and 250 children aged 11 from the MostarMunicipality, 400 of them living in both rural and urban areas.A dental mirror and standard light of dental chair were used forexamination. The DMF index (Dental Caries, Missing Teeth andFilled Teeth was determined, as well as failure in keeping teethhygiene, sugar intake with food, and incidence of oral cavity infection.Results. The dental state of permanent teeth in children aged 7and 9 has shown significant difference between the children fromrural and urban areas (p < 0,001. Out of 2,698 and 2,790 permanentteeth in children aged 11 from rural and urban areas, 1,086(40,25 % and 884 (31.68 % had caries, respectively (p < 0.01.The difference between these groups of children has been foundin relation to the index of oral hygiene too (p < 0.05.Conclusion. An identification of risk groups for getting caries wasvery important and could help health and social structures to maintaintheir programs in order to improve oral health.

  5. Restorative Treatment Thresholds for Proximal Caries in Dental PBRN

    OpenAIRE

    Kakudate, N.; Sumida, F.; Matsumoto, Y.; Manabe, K.; Yokoyama, Y.; Gilbert, G.H.; Gordan, V.V.

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess caries treatment thresholds among Japanese dentists and to identify characteristics associated with their decision to intervene surgically in proximal caries lesions within the enamel. Participants (n = 189) were shown radiographic images depicting interproximal caries and asked to indicate the lesion depth at which they would surgically intervene in both high- and low-caries-risk scenarios. Differences in treatment thresholds were then assessed via chi-squa...

  6. Total antioxidant capacity of saliva and dental caries

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmadi Motamayel, Fatemeh; Goodarzi, Mohammad Taghi; Hendi, Seyedeh Sareh; Kasraei, Shahin; Moghimbeigi, Abbas

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Dental caries is one of the most common infectious diseases worldwide. Saliva has many functions in the oral cavity and is the first line defense against dental caries. Oxidative stress can affect initiation and progression of many inflammatory and infectious diseases such as dental caries. Thus the aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of saliva and dental caries. Study Design: 100 healthy high school students (50 female and 50...

  7. Influence of chemomechanical caries removal methods on dentine

    OpenAIRE

    Hamama, Hamdi Hosni Hamdan Eldesouki

    2014-01-01

    Chemomechanical caries excavation is an excellent example of conservative caries removal methods due to its ability to reliably preserve a greater thickness of caries-affected dentine (CAD). Chemomechanical caries removal (CMCR) agents dissolve the denatured collagen fibrils leaving the sound and partially degraded fibrils intact. Also, one of the main advantages of the CMCR method is its characteristic visual excavation end point sign, after this point, the solution fails to become turbid. C...

  8. Salivary Antimicrobial Peptide Expression and Dental Caries Experience in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Tao, Renchuan; Jurevic, Richard J.; Coulton, Kimberly K.; Tsutsui, Marjorie T.; Roberts, Marilyn C.; Kimball, Janet R.; Wells, Norma; Berndt, Jeffery; Dale, Beverly A.

    2005-01-01

    Dental caries is a major worldwide oral disease problem in children. Although caries are known to be influenced by dietary factors, the disease results from a bacterial infection; thus, caries susceptibility may be affected by host factors such as salivary antimicrobial peptides. This study aimed to determine a possible correlation between caries prevalence in children and salivary concentrations of the antimicrobial peptides human beta-defensin-3 (hBD-3), the cathelicidin LL37, and the alpha...

  9. Microbial Risk Markers for Childhood Caries in Pediatricians’ Offices

    OpenAIRE

    Kanasi, E.; Johansson, I; Lu, S.C.; Kressin, N.R.; Nunn, M.E.; Kent, R; Tanner, A.C.R.

    2010-01-01

    Dental caries in pre-school children has significant public health and health disparity implications. To determine microbial risk markers for this infection, this study aimed to compare the microbiota of children with early childhood caries with that of caries-free children. Plaque samples from incisors, molars, and the tongue from 195 children attending pediatricians’ offices were assayed by 74 DNA probes and by PCR to Streptococcus mutans. Caries-associated factors included visible plaque, ...

  10. 21 CFR 872.1740 - Caries detection device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Caries detection device. 872.1740 Section 872.1740...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 872.1740 Caries detection device. (a) Identification. The caries detection device is a device intended to show the existence of decay in a patient's...

  11. 21 CFR 872.1745 - Laser fluorescence caries detection device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Laser fluorescence caries detection device. 872... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 872.1745 Laser fluorescence caries detection device. (a) Identification. A laser fluorescence caries detection device is a laser,...

  12. Pattern of dental caries in Mulago Dental School clinic, Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Kutesa, Annet; Mwanika, Andrew; Wandera, Margaret

    2005-01-01

    Information on dental caries among patients attending Mulago Hospital is scarce. Yet knowledge of the pattern of caries can be used to plan preventive and treatment interventions. This study describes the pattern of dental caries (in terms of age group, tooth and tooth surface and gender) among patients attending the Public Health Dental Officers School Clinic, Mulago Hospital.

  13. The caries process and its effect on the pulp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørndal, Lars

    2008-01-01

    The understanding of the caries process and its effect on the pulp is presented in the context that caries does develop in various rates of progression. Early in the caries process, the pulp reflects changes within lesion activity. Thus, the early pulp response is reversible. Later, the rate of c...

  14. Comparative studies of modern methods for caries detection and quantification

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Xie-Qi

    2001-01-01

    In clinical dentistry proper treatment of caries lesions is highly dependent on diagnostic accuracy. Aim The present dissertation aimed at the evaluation and comparisons between several modem methods for caries detection and quantification. Methods The employed methods for detection and quantification of caries lesions may be divided into two categories, namely laser fluorescence based methods and radiographic methods. Laser fluorescence The performance of the...

  15. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program Technical Basis Guide Describing How to Perform Safety Margin Configuration Risk Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis Smith; James Knudsen; Bentley Harwood

    2013-08-01

    The INL has carried out a demonstration of the RISMC approach for the purpose of configuration risk management. We have shown how improved accuracy and realism can be achieved by simulating changes in risk – as a function of different configurations – in order to determine safety margins as the plant is modified. We described the various technical issues that play a role in these configuration-based calculations with the intent that future applications can take advantage of the analysis benefits while avoiding some of the technical pitfalls that are found for these types of calculations. Specific recommendations have been provided on a variety of topics aimed at improving the safety margin analysis and strengthening the technical basis behind the analysis process.

  16. Summary of technical information and agreements from Nuclear Management and Resources Council industry reports addressing license renewal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regan, C.; Lee, S. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Div. of Reactor Program Management; Chopra, O.K.; Ma, D.C.; Shack, W.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1996-10-01

    In about 1990, the Nuclear Management and Resources Council (NUMARC) submitted for NRC review ten industry reports (IRs) addressing aging issues associated with specific structures and components of nuclear power plants ad one IR addressing the screening methodology for integrated plant assessment. The NRC staff had been reviewing the ten NUMARC IRs; their comments on each IR and NUMARC responses to the comments have been compiled as public documents. This report provides a brief summary of the technical information and NUMARC/NRC agreements from the ten IRs, except for the Cable License Renewal IR. The technical information and agreements documented herein represent the status of the NRC staffs review when the NRC staff and industry resources were redirected to address rule implementation issues. The NRC staff plans to incorporate appropriate technical information and agreements into the draft standard review plan for license renewal.

  17. Summary of technical information and agreements from Nuclear Management and Resources Council industry reports addressing license renewal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In about 1990, the Nuclear Management and Resources Council (NUMARC) submitted for NRC review ten industry reports (IRs) addressing aging issues associated with specific structures and components of nuclear power plants ad one IR addressing the screening methodology for integrated plant assessment. The NRC staff had been reviewing the ten NUMARC IRs; their comments on each IR and NUMARC responses to the comments have been compiled as public documents. This report provides a brief summary of the technical information and NUMARC/NRC agreements from the ten IRs, except for the Cable License Renewal IR. The technical information and agreements documented herein represent the status of the NRC staffs review when the NRC staff and industry resources were redirected to address rule implementation issues. The NRC staff plans to incorporate appropriate technical information and agreements into the draft standard review plan for license renewal

  18. Platform development for merging various information sources for water management: methodological, technical and operational aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvao, Diogo

    2013-04-01

    As a result of various economic, social and environmental factors, we can all experience the increase in importance of water resources at a global scale. As a consequence, we can also notice the increasing need of methods and systems capable of efficiently managing and combining the rich and heterogeneous data available that concerns, directly or indirectly, these water resources, such as in-situ monitoring station data, Earth Observation images and measurements, Meteorological modeling forecasts and Hydrological modeling. Under the scope of the MyWater project, we developed a water management system capable of satisfying just such needs, under a flexible platform capable of accommodating future challenges, not only in terms of sources of data but also on applicable models to extract information from it. From a methodological point of view, the MyWater platform obtains data from distinct sources, and in distinct formats, be they Satellite images or meteorological model forecasts, transforms and combines them in ways that allow them to be fed to a variety of hydrological models (such as MOHID Land, SIMGRO, etc…), which themselves can also be combined, using such approaches as those advocated by the OpenMI standard, to extract information in an automated and time efficient manner. Such an approach brings its own deal of challenges, and further research was developed under this project on the best ways to combine such data and on novel approaches to hydrological modeling (like the PriceXD model). From a technical point of view, the MyWater platform is structured according to a classical SOA architecture, with a flexible object oriented modular backend service responsible for all the model process management and data treatment, while the information extracted can be interacted with using a variety of frontends, from a web portal, including also a desktop client, down to mobile phone and tablet applications. From an operational point of view, a user can not only see

  19. Evaluation of non-microbial salivary caries activity parameters and salivary biochemical indicators in predicting dental caries

    OpenAIRE

    A. Kaur; K S Kwatra; Kamboj, P.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the present study was the evaluation of non-microbial salivary caries activity parameters and salivary biochemical indicators in predicting dental caries. Materials and Methods: The present study was carried out on 60 children, aged 4-6 years, selected from the schools of Panchkula district, Haryana, on the basis of their caries status. Level of hydration, flow rate, pH, buffering capacity, relative viscosity, calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase levels in caries-free ...

  20. Fluoride Importance in Controlling Caries and Fluorosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Solanki

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of fluorides for oral health has always involved a balance between the protective benefit against dental caries and the risk of developing fluorosis. The link between fluoride and dental health was established to determining the causes of dental fluorosis or enamel mottling. Fluorosis in Indian children was highly prevalent in the early 1990s. Policy were introduced to control fluoride exposure and to reduce the prevalence of fluorosis. The study aimed of describing the prevalence, severity and risk factors for fluorosis, and to describe the trend of fluorosis among Indian children. The study also aimed of exploring the effect of the change in fluoride exposure on dental fluorosis and caries. Establishing an appropriate use of fluoride toothpaste could be successful in reducing fluorosis without a significant increase in caries experience.

  1. Probiotics for caries prevention and control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, S; Keller, M K

    2012-01-01

    Modulation of the microbiota for restoring and maintaining health is a growing issue in medical science. A search for relevant clinical trials on the use of probiotic bacteria as a potential and clinically applicable anti-caries measure was performed. According to predetermined criteria, papers...... were selected and key data on study design, sample size, intervention, duration, and results were extracted. Two animal and 19 human studies were retrieved. Most studies were short-term and restricted to microbiological endpoints, and only 3 human studies reported a caries endpoint. A high degree of...... heterogeneity among the included investigations hampered the analysis. Significant reductions of mutans streptococci in saliva or plaque following daily intake of probiotic lactobacilli or bifidobacteria were reported in 12 out of 19 papers, whereas 3 reported an increase of lactobacilli. Three caries trials in...

  2. Detection and monitoring of early caries lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pretty, I A; Ekstrand, K R

    2016-01-01

    co-workers from 2013 and this still represents the current state of the science in relation to caries detection and monitoring. The review described among others, visible detection systems, image-based detection systems and point-measurement approaches. RESULTS: The current evidence base suggests...... that while there are numerous devices or technology-enabled detection systems, the use of a careful, methodical visual inspection of clean, dry teeth, supplemented where indicated by radiographic views, remains the standard of care in caries detection and diagnostics. Further, it is possible by means...... to the clinician and the patient for whom it may be a useful educational and motivational tool. CONCLUSIONS: Recommendations are presented that can be adopted and adapted to local circumstances and that are both substantiated by evidence and promote a clear, simple and consistent approach to caries...

  3. Diet and Caries-associated Bacteria in Severe Early Childhood Caries

    OpenAIRE

    Palmer, C A; Kent, R.; Loo, C. Y.; Hughes, C. V.; Stutius, E.; Pradhan, N.; Dahlan, M.; Kanasi, E.; Arevalo Vasquez, S.S.; Tanner, A.C.R.

    2010-01-01

    Frequent consumption of cariogenic foods and bacterial infection are risk factors for early childhood caries (ECC). This study hypothesized that a short diet survey focused on frequency of foods, categorized by putative cariogenicity, would differentiate severe ECC (S-ECC) from caries-free children. Children’s diets were obtained by survey and plaque bacteria detected by PCR from 72 S-ECC and 38 caries-free children. S-ECC children had higher scores for between-meal juice (p < 0.01), solid-re...

  4. Caries Prevalence and Caries Associated Measures in Children Living in a Rural Romanian Village

    OpenAIRE

    Kaveh, Babak; Witkowska, Emilia

    2014-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was performed with the aim to investigate the caries prevalence and associated factors in 6 to 15 year old school children living in a village outside Cluj-Napoca, Romania. All children were offered to be included and examined for dental caries according to World Health Organisation (WHO) criteria. Caries was scored at the tooth and surface levels D/d=decayed, M/m=missing, F/f=filled, T/t=tooth, S/s=surface (DMFT/DMFS/dmft/dmfs) for the permanent and deciduous dentitio...

  5. Genotypic Diversity of Streptococcus mutans in Caries-Free and Caries-Active Preschool Children

    OpenAIRE

    R.C. Poli-Frederico; Garcia, J.E.; Ferreira, F. B. A.; Maciel, S. M.; Segura, V. G.; M.R. Rodrigues; Pieralisi, F. J. S.

    2010-01-01

    Aim. The aim of the present paper was to evaluate the genotypic diversity of S. mutans in caries-free and caries-active preschool children in Brazil. Design. Twenty-eight preschool children were examined regarding caries experience by the dmft index. DNA from 280 isolates of S. mutans was extracted. S. mutans evaluated using to the PCR method, with primers for the glucosyltransferase gene. The genetic diversity of S. mutans isolates was analyzed by arbitrary primed-PCR (AP-PCR) reactions. The...

  6. Enamel remineralization: controlling the caries disease or treating early caries lesions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Aparecido Cury

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The emphasis currently given to new technologies for enamel remineralization suggests that the changes in the understanding of the dental caries disease, which occurred in the last century, were either not yet adopted or were forgotten. Just like in the past, when the disease was "treated" by restoring cavities, there is presently a misunderstanding on the concept of incipient lesion remineralization. The aim of this paper was to review some concepts about caries, the natural phenomenon of enamel remineralization and the effect of fluoride (F on it, and also to discuss the clinical relevance of remineralizing products recently launched in the marketplace aiming to "treat early caries lesions".

  7. Technical Advisory Committee on the nuclear fuel waste management program : thirteenth annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the last reporting period by the Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) the emphasis of the work in the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program (CNFWMP) has been on the writing of the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and the associated set of nine primary reference documents as well as supporting documents. These are in preparation for submission to the Environmental Assessment Review Panel who will lead the national evaluation of the disposal concept under the auspices of the Federal Environmental Assessment Review Office (FEARO). The disposal concept developed over the last fourteen years by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) and anticipated to be presented by means of the EIS in 1994, is based on a multiple system of natural and man-made barriers wherein nuclear waste is first enclosed in corrosion-resistant containers, designed to last at least 500 years, and then placed in a vault excavated 500 - 1000 m deep in granitic rocks of the Canadian Shield. After container emplacement either in or on the floor of the vault, and with a surrounding buffer material of a bentonite clay/sand mixture, the vault will be backfilled and sealed with crushed rock, buffer and sand, as will be the shafts and exploratory boreholes. The case study being presented by AECL to demonstrate the safety of this concept and the technology to implement it, relies on computer simulations of a hypothetical disposal site with geological characteristics similar to those at the Underground Research Laboratory (URL) in the Whiteshell Research Area (WRA) located in Manitoba. The preliminary simulation results suggest that safe containment can be achieved provided that the waste is surrounded by a sparsely-fractured zone of rock wherein movement of contaminants carried by groundwater is modelled as a diffusive as opposed to a advective process. The principal focus of work during the past year within the environmental and safety assessment has been to complete the Post

  8. Independent technical evaluation and recommendations for contaminated groundwater at the department of energy office of legacy management Riverton processing site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Looney, Brain B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Denham, Miles E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Eddy-Dilek, Carol A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2014-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management (DOE-LM) manages the legacy contamination at the Riverton, WY, Processing Site – a former uranium milling site that operated from 1958 to 1963. The tailings and associated materials were removed in 1988-1989 and contaminants are currently flushing from the groundwater. DOE-LM commissioned an independent technical team to assess the status of the contaminant flushing, identify any issues or opportunities for DOE-LM, and provide key recommendations. The team applied a range of technical frameworks – spatial, temporal, hydrological and geochemical – in performing the evaluation. In each topic area, an in depth evaluation was performed using DOE-LM site data (e.g., chemical measurements in groundwater, surface water and soil, water levels, and historical records) along with information collected during the December 2013 site visit (e.g., plant type survey, geomorphology, and minerals that were observed, collected and evaluated).

  9. Strategic Management for Competitive Advantage: A Case Study of Higher Technical and Vocational Education in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hsun-I; Lee, Cheng-Fei

    2012-01-01

    Higher technical and vocational education institutions in Taiwan face the pressure of an oversupply of student places and fierce competition from domestic and international institutions. To cope with these challenges, higher technical and vocational education institutions that are better equipped to respond to market requirements are expected to…

  10. Experiences in the management of technical competencies and suitability of qualified experts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The UK Defence Science and Technology Laboratory (Dstl) RPA Body was established to provide radiation protection advice to the UK Ministry of Defence and other UK Government organisations. It consists of around 20 individually certificated Qualified Experts (known as Radiation Protection Advisers (RPA) in the terminology of UK legislation) 15 health physicists (HP), and other support staff. The RPA Body operates to procedures that satisfy the requirements of the UK Heath and Safety Executive (HSE) (the primary regulator in the UK for radiation protection legislation) and as such is recognised by the HSE as an 'RPA Body'. Individual RPAs, HPs and support staff are only appointed to the RPA Body when they are deemed suitable and can satisfy the various general and specific operational roles within the Body. The criteria and procedures for establishing suitability of a candidate to a role are described. In addition to the basic underpinning knowledge for RPAs (the equivalent of the 'qualified expert' defined in Article 1 of the Basic Safety Standards Directive 96/29/EURATOM, candidates for appointment to the RPA Body are required to demonstrate competence and suitability in specialist areas as determined by the business needs of Dstl RPA Body. The criteria and assessment processes are described. The technical management of the RPA Body is illustrated, stressing the importance of the selection and allocation of suitable individuals to specific tasks, using a competency matrix. Experience to date with the RPA Body processes has been very positive; the arrangements are sufficiently flexible such as to accommodate the changing legislative requirements and the business needs of the RPA Body. There are many additional benefits arising to Dstl and its customers as a result of operation as an RPA Body. (author)

  11. Experiences in the management of technical competencies and suitability of qualified experts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The UK Defence Science and Technology Laboratory (Dstl) RPA Body was established to provide radiation protection advice to the UK Ministry of Defence and other UK Government organisations. It consists of around 20 individually certificated Qualified Experts (known as Radiation Protection Advisers (RPA) in the terminology of UK legislation) 15 health physicists (HP), and other support staff. The RPA Body operates to procedures that satisfy the requirements of the UK Heath and Safety Executive (HSE) (the primary regulator in the UK for radiation protection legislation) and as such is recognised by the HSE as an RPA Body. Individual RPAs, HPs and support staff are only appointed to the RPA Body when they are deemed suitable and can satisfy the various general and specific operational roles within the Body. The criteria and procedures for establishing suitability of a candidate to a role are described. In addition to the basic underpinning knowledge for RPAs (the equivalent of the 'qualified expert' defined in Article 1 of the Basic Safety Standards Directive 96/29/EURATOM, candidates for appointment to the RPA Body are required to demonstrate competence and suitability in specialist areas as determined by the business needs of Dstl RPA Body. The criteria and assessment processes are described. The technical management of the RPA Body is illustrated, stressing the importance of the selection and allocation of suitable individuals to specific tasks, using a competency matrix. Experience to date with the RPA Body processes has been very positive; the arrangements are sufficiently flexible such as to accommodate the changing legislative requirements and the business needs of the RPA Body. There are many additional benefits arising to Dstl and its customers as a result of operation as an RPA Body. (author)

  12. ANL technical support program for DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A program was established for DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) to evaluate factors that are anticipated to affect waste glass reaction during repository disposal, especially in an unsaturated environment typical of what may be expected for the proposed Yucca Mountain repository site. This report covers progress in FY 1992 on the following tasks: 1. A compendium of the characteristics of high-level nuclear waste borosilicate glass has been written. 2. A critical review of important parameters that affect the reactivity of glass in an unsaturated environment is being prepared. 3. A series of tests has been started to evaluate the reactivity of fully radioactive glasses in a high-level waste repository environment and compare it to the reactivity of synthetic, nonradioactive glasses of similar composition. 4. The effect of radiation upon the durability of waste glasses at a high glass surface area-to-liquid volume (SA/V) ratio and a high gas-to-liquid volume ratio will be assessed. These tests address both vapor and high SA/V liquid conditions. 5. A series of tests is being performed to compare the extent of reaction of nuclear waste glasses at various SAN ratios. Such differences in the SAN ratio may significantly affect glass durability. 6. A series of natural analogue tests is being analyzed to demonstrate a meaningful relationship between experimental and natural alteration conditions. 7. Analytical electron microscopy (AEM), infrared spectroscopys and nuclear resonant profiling are being used to assess the glass/water reaction pathway by identifying intermediate phases that appear on the reacting glass. Additionally, colloids from the leach solutions are being studied using AEM. 8. A technical review of AEM results is being provided. 9. A study of water diffusion involving nuclear waste glasses is being performed. 10. A mechanistically based model is being developed to predict the performance of glass over repository-relevant time periods

  13. Risk perception of various technical options in the field of radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author's group had a wide ranging discussion of risk and, at the very end of the discussion got to the question that was posed to them, which is that of risk perception of various technical options in the field of radioactive waste management. Some of the points that were made in this discussion is a reality that the group, as decision-makers, have to deal with, and it has to be treated as a reality. Secondly, the scientist looks at risk from the classic definition of ''probability times consequences'', but the public only looks at the consequences side of the equation, and too often the probability of something happening is treated as a probability of one that it will actually happen. A third problem that was identified in this area is that often the efforts to make the disposal of waste safer may contribute, in the public mind, to the fact that the risk is even more hazardous. And the last problem is that people do not trust what a decision maker is saying when he talks about the fact that there is little probability of something happening. The group then went on to a discussion of how he should try to treat risk perception. One point that was made is that voluntary acceptance of a risk is important. A second point that was made on how to deal with risk perception problems is that the group could try to put the risk of radioactive waste disposal in the perspective of other risks to society, from the chemical industry for instance. The group also talked about the possibility of putting the benefits in perspective for people. Another point was that the group should have different communications strategies for different audiences. But, the more the public is involved in the decision making process, the more comfortable they are going to be with the risk, and the more consistent the perception of risk may be with the scientific definition thereof. In terms of new technologies, new innovations on the generation and management of waste, although these may actually

  14. Vision and framework for technical and management support to facilitate foreign spent fuel storage and geologic disposal in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This 'Technical and Management Support' program would facilitate the transfer of spent fuel from commercial power plants in Taiwan to a storage and geologic repository site near Krasnoyarsk, Russia. This program resolves issues of disposition of Taiwan spent fuel (including US origin fuel) and provides revenue for Russia to develop an integrated spent fuel storage and radioactive waste management system including a geologic repository. LLNL has ongoing contracts and collaborations with all the principal parties and is uniquely positioned to facilitate the development of such a program. A three-phase approach over 20 years is proposed: namely, an initial feasibility investigation followed by an engineering development phase, and then implementation

  15. Italy; Technical Note on Financial Risk Management and Supervision of Cassa Di Compensazione e Garanzia S.P.A.

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2013-01-01

    This Technical Note analyzes financial risk management and supervision of Cassa Di Compensazione e Garanzia S.P.A. (CC&G) in Italy. CC&G, the Italian central counterparty (CCP), is systemically important for the Italian market, and through the link with the French CCP, it is also relevant in terms of cross-border financial stability. CC&G’s financial risk management framework is being improved further to comply with European Market Infrastructure Regulation (EMIR) requirements. The main cha...

  16. Improved Management of the Technical Interfaces Between the Hanford Tank Farm Operator and the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant - 13383

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is constructing the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) at the Hanford site in Washington to treat and immobilize approximately 114 million gallons of high level radioactive waste (after all retrievals are accomplished). In order for the WTP to be designed and operated successfully, close coordination between the WTP engineering, procurement, and construction contractor, Bechtel National, Inc. and the tank farms operating contractor (TOC), Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC, is necessary. To develop optimal solutions for DOE and for the treatment of the waste, it is important to deal with the fact that two different prime contractors, with somewhat differing contracts, are tasked with retrieving and delivering the waste and for treating and immobilizing that waste. The WTP and the TOC have over the years cooperated to manage the technical interface. To manage what is becoming a much more complicated interface as the WTP design progresses and new technical issues have been identified, an organizational change was made by WTP and TOC in November of 2011. This organizational change created a co-located integrated project team (IPT) to deal with mutual and interface issues. The Technical Organization within the One System IPT includes employees from both TOC and WTP. This team has worked on a variety of technical issues of mutual interest and concern. Technical issues currently being addressed include: - The waste acceptance criteria; - Waste feed delivery and the associated data quality objectives (DQO); - Evaluation of the effects of performing a riser cut on a single shell tank on WTP operations; - The disposition of secondary waste from both TOC and WTP; - The close coordination of the TOC double shell tank mixing and sampling program and the Large Scale Integrated Test (LSIT) program for pulse jet mixers at WTP along with the associated responses to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation

  17. Improved Management of the Technical Interfaces Between the Hanford Tank Farm Operator and the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant - 13383

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, Garth M. [Bechtel National Inc., 2435 Stevens Center Place, Richland, Washington, 99352 (United States); Saunders, Scott A. [Washington River Protection Solutions, P.O. Box 850, Richland, Washington, 99352 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is constructing the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) at the Hanford site in Washington to treat and immobilize approximately 114 million gallons of high level radioactive waste (after all retrievals are accomplished). In order for the WTP to be designed and operated successfully, close coordination between the WTP engineering, procurement, and construction contractor, Bechtel National, Inc. and the tank farms operating contractor (TOC), Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC, is necessary. To develop optimal solutions for DOE and for the treatment of the waste, it is important to deal with the fact that two different prime contractors, with somewhat differing contracts, are tasked with retrieving and delivering the waste and for treating and immobilizing that waste. The WTP and the TOC have over the years cooperated to manage the technical interface. To manage what is becoming a much more complicated interface as the WTP design progresses and new technical issues have been identified, an organizational change was made by WTP and TOC in November of 2011. This organizational change created a co-located integrated project team (IPT) to deal with mutual and interface issues. The Technical Organization within the One System IPT includes employees from both TOC and WTP. This team has worked on a variety of technical issues of mutual interest and concern. Technical issues currently being addressed include: - The waste acceptance criteria; - Waste feed delivery and the associated data quality objectives (DQO); - Evaluation of the effects of performing a riser cut on a single shell tank on WTP operations; - The disposition of secondary waste from both TOC and WTP; - The close coordination of the TOC double shell tank mixing and sampling program and the Large Scale Integrated Test (LSIT) program for pulse jet mixers at WTP along with the associated responses to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation

  18. Technical Review of Law Enforcement Standards and Guides Relative to Incident Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenner, Robert D.; Salter, R.; Stanton, J. R.; Fisher, D.

    2009-03-24

    In an effort to locate potential law enforcement-related standards that support incident management, a team from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contacted representatives from the National Institute of Standards-Office of Law Enforcement Standards (NIST-OLES), National Institute of Justice (NIJ), Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), Secret Service, ASTM International committees that have a law enforcement focus, and a variety of individuals from local and regional law enforcement organizations. Discussions were held with various state and local law enforcement organizations. The NIJ has published several specific equipment-related law enforcement standards that were included in the review, but it appears that law enforcement program and process-type standards are developed principally by organizations that operate at the state and local level. Input is provided from state regulations and codes and from external non-government organizations (NGOs) that provide national standards. The standards that are adopted from external organizations or developed independently by state authorities are available for use by local law enforcement agencies on a voluntary basis. The extent to which they are used depends on the respective jurisdictions involved. In some instances, use of state and local disseminated standards is mandatory, but in most cases, use is voluntary. Usually, the extent to which these standards are used appears to depend on whether or not jurisdictions receive certification from a “governing” entity due to their use and compliance with the standards. In some cases, these certification-based standards are used in principal but without certification or other compliance monitoring. In general, these standards appear to be routinely used for qualification, selection for employment, and training. In these standards, the term “Peace Officer” is frequently used to refer to law enforcement personnel. This technical review of national law

  19. BizWatts: A modular socio-technical energy management system for empowering commercial building occupants to conserve energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We developed a socio-technical commercial building energy management system. • It was designed for directly engaging and connecting building occupants via feedback. • We collected an array of clickstream data for internal design validation. • A pilot study validated its ability to drive energy savings in commercial buildings. - Abstract: Commercial buildings represent a significant portion of energy consumption and environmental emissions worldwide. To help mitigate the environmental impact of building operations, building energy management systems and behavior-based campaigns designed to reduce energy consumption are becoming increasingly popular. In this paper, we describe the development of a modular socio-technical energy management system, BizWatts, which combines the two approaches by providing real-time, appliance-level power management and socially contextualized energy consumption feedback. We describe in detail the physical and virtual architecture of the system, which simultaneously engages building occupants and facility managers, as well as the main principles behind the interface design and component functionalities. A discussion about how the data collection capabilities of the system enable insightful commercial building energy efficiency studies and quantitative network analysis is also included. We conclude by commenting on the validation of the system, identifying current system limitations and introducing new research avenues that the development and deployment of BizWatts enables

  20. Evaluation of non-microbial salivary caries activity parameters and salivary biochemical indicators in predicting dental caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Kaur

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the present study was the evaluation of non-microbial salivary caries activity parameters and salivary biochemical indicators in predicting dental caries. Materials and Methods: The present study was carried out on 60 children, aged 4-6 years, selected from the schools of Panchkula district, Haryana, on the basis of their caries status. Level of hydration, flow rate, pH, buffering capacity, relative viscosity, calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase levels in caries-free and caries-active children were evaluated. Results: Results showed that 90% of subjects in the caries-free group and 30% of subjects in the caries-active group had normal level of hydration value of less than 60 s and the difference was found to be statistically very highly significant. Normal flow rate of stimulated saliva was found in 90% of the subjects in caries-free group and 33.3% subjects in the caries active group and difference was found to be statistically very highly significant. Adequate salivary pH was found in 100% subjects in caries-free group and 30% in caries-active group and the difference was statistically very highly significant. Conclusion: To conclude, within limitations of this study, it became clear that normal level of hydration and higher values for flow rate, pH, buffering capacity of saliva lead to good oral health and a reduced caries occurrence. Increased salivary viscosity plays a role in increasing caries incidence. Salivary biochemical indicators like calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase also play their respective role in determining caries susceptibility of an individual. These salivary parameters can be used as diagnostic tool for caries risk assessment.

  1. The predisposing factors between dental caries and deviations from normal weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandeep Chopra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental caries and deviations from normal weight are two conditions which share several broadly predisposing factors. So it′s important to understand any relationship between dental state and body weight if either is to be managed appropriately. Aims: The study was done to find out the correlation between body mass index (BMI, diet, and dental caries among 12-15-year-old schoolgoing children in Panchkula District. Materials and Methods: A multistage sample of 12-15-year-old school children (n = 810 in Panchkula district, Haryana was considered. Child demographic details and diet history for 5 days was recorded. Data regarding dental caries status was collected using World Health Organization (1997 format. BMI was calculated and categorized according to the World Health Organization classification system for BMI. The data were subjected to statistical analysis using chi-square test and binomial regression developed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS 20.0. Results: The mean Decayed Missing Filled Teeth (DMFT score was found to be 1.72 with decayed, missing, and filled teeth to be 1.22, 0.04, and 0.44, respectively. When the sample was assessed based on type of diet, it was found that vegetarians had higher mean DMFT (1.72 as compared to children having mixed diet. Overweight children had highest DMFT (3.21 which was followed by underweight (2.31 and obese children (2.23. Binomial regression revealed that females were 1.293 times at risk of developing caries as compared to males. Fair and poor Simplified-Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S showed 3.920 and 4.297 times risk of developing caries as compared to good oral hygiene, respectively. Upper high socioeconomic status (SES is at most risk of developing caries. Underweight, overweight, and obese are at 2.7, 2.5, and 3 times risk of developing caries as compared to children with normal BMI, respectively. Conclusion: Dental caries and deviations from normal weight are two

  2. Calcium-phosphate-osteopontin particles for caries control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlafer, Sebastian; Birkedal, Henrik; Olsen, Jakob;

    2016-01-01

    Caries is caused by acid production in biofilms on dental surfaces. Preventing caries therefore involves control of microorganisms and/or the acid produced. Here, calcium-phosphate-osteopontin particles are presented as a new approach to caries control. The particles are made by co-precipitation ......Caries is caused by acid production in biofilms on dental surfaces. Preventing caries therefore involves control of microorganisms and/or the acid produced. Here, calcium-phosphate-osteopontin particles are presented as a new approach to caries control. The particles are made by co......, and the pH always remained above 5.5. Hence, calcium-phosphate-osteopontin particles show potential for applications in caries control....

  3. Relation Between Past and Present Dietary Sugar Intake and Dental Caries in A High Caries Population

    OpenAIRE

    T Malek Mohammadi; Kay EJ; A Hajizamani

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The main objective of this study was to investigate relationship between re-ported dietary habits and dental caries in five and six-year-old children referred for dental extractions.Materials and Methods: Two hundred children were examined using standard caries di-agnostic criteria. The numbers of decayed, missing and filled deciduous teeth were re-corded. A food frequency table was completed by the parents of each child and analyzedthrough weighting the cariogenic potentialby the ...

  4. Diabetes Enhances Dental Caries and Apical Periodontitis in Caries-Susceptible WBN/KobSlc Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kodama, Yasushi; Matsuura, Masahiro; Sano, Tomoya; Nakahara, Yutaka; Ozaki, Kiyokazu; Narama, Isao; Matsuura, Tetsuro

    2011-01-01

    Many epidemiologic studies have suggested that diabetes may be an important risk factor for periodontal disease. To determine whether diabetes induces or enhances periodontal disease or dental caries, dental tissue from diabetic male and nondiabetic female WBN/KobSlc rats and male and female age-matched nondiabetic F344 rats was analyzed morphologically and morphometrically for these 2 types of lesions. Soft X-ray examination revealed that the incidence and severity of both molar caries and a...

  5. Effect of caries preventive measures directed to expectant mothers on caries experience in their children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanata, Régia Luzia; Navarro, Maria Fidela de Lima; Pereira, José Carlos; Franco, Eduardo Batista; Lauris, José Roberto P; Barbosa, Sílvia Helena

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to determine the effectiveness of caries preventive measures started during pregnancy on the caries experience of first-time mothers and their infants. Eighty-one pregnant women with low social background were selected on the basis of the presence of active carious lesions and were randomly divided into control (38) and experimental (43) groups. The initial dental status (DMFS and white spot lesions) was established through clinical examination. The prophylactic measures were repeated during pregnancy and 6 and 12 months after delivery. Both groups received primary care intervention. They were instructed in relation to the etiologic factors of dental caries and received oral hygiene kits. Oral hygiene instructions were reinforced through interactive brushing. The experimental group also received antimicrobial treatment (topical application of NaF and iodine solution immediately after prophylaxis and 3 and 5 days later) and restorative care using glass ionomer cement. By the time the children were 2 years of age, 33.3% of the infants in the control group and 14.7% in the experimental group had caries activity. A significant difference in caries prevalence was observed between children with and without visible dental plaque. The mean number of tooth surfaces with carious lesions (including areas of demineralization) was higher among the children in the control group compared to the experimental group (6.3 x 3.2), however, with no statistical significance. Maternal caries increase was a significant factor influencing the caries experience of the children. These data support the evidence of an association between caries prevalence in young children and clinical (dental plaque) and maternal factors. PMID:12964648

  6. Antibody Response to Actinomyces Antigen and Dental Caries Experience: Implications for Caries Susceptibility

    OpenAIRE

    Levine, Martin; Owen, Willis L; Avery, Kevin T

    2005-01-01

    Fluoridated dentifrices reduce dental caries in subjects who perform effective oral hygiene. Actinomyces naeslundii increases in teeth-adherent microbial biofilms (plaques) in these subjects, and a well-characterized serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody response (Actinomyces antibody [A-Ab]) is also increased. Other studies suggest that a serum IgG antibody response to streptococcal d-alanyl poly(glycerophosphate) (S-Ab) may indicate caries experience associated strongly with gingival health...

  7. Dental caries and the need for treatment among institutionalized elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigild, M

    1989-04-01

    The main purpose for the study was to determine the occurrence of untreated dental decay, and to assess the expressed demand for operative caries therapy among dentate institutionalized elderly in Denmark. The study population comprised all dentate elderly in eight nursing homes (n = 126) and in five hospital long-term care facilities (n = 75). In both groups of elderly 70% had untreated decay. The mean number of surfaces with untreated decay among the elderly in nursing homes (NH) and in hospital long-term care facilities (LTC) was respectively 9.7 and 7.5. The predominant factors influencing the occurrence of untreated decay were the use of dental services and the degree of helplessness. Regular use of dental services reduced the amount of untreated decay among the NH elderly, and the totally helpless LTC elderly had more decay than those able to manage alone. Half of the NH residents who had decay did not want treatment or were not able to express their demand for treatment due to poor mental or physical health. The realistic need for traditional operative filling therapy is discussed and it is concluded that the goal of an oral health care program for NH elderly should be to meet not only the demand for such treatment but also the need for emergency treatment and non-operative caries treatment. PMID:2522034

  8. Dental caries from a molecular microbiological perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Nyvad; W. Crielaard; A. Mira; N. Takahashi; D. Beighton

    2013-01-01

    Dental caries results from an imbalance of the metabolic activity in the dental biofilm. The microbial communities of teeth have traditionally been studied by standard cultural approaches. More recently, cloning and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene have been used to characterize the microbial composi

  9. The oral microbiome in dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struzycka, Izabela

    2014-01-01

    Dental caries is one of the most common chronic and multifactorial diseases affecting the human population. The appearance of a caries lesion is determined by the coexistence of three main factors: acidogenic and acidophilic microorganisms, carbohydrates derived from the diet, and host factors. Socio-economic and behavioral factors also play an important role in the etiology of the disease. Caries develops as a result of an ecological imbalance in the stable oral microbiom. Oral microorganisms form dental plaque on the surfaces of teeth, which is the cause of the caries process, and shows features of the classic biofilm. Biofilm formation appears to be influenced by large scale changes in protein expression over time and under genetic control Cariogenic microorganisms produce lactic, formic, acetic and propionic acids, which are a product of carbohydrate metabolism. Their presence causes a decrease in pH level below 5.5, resulting in demineralization of enamel hydroxyapatite crystals and proteolytic breakdown of the structure of tooth hard tissues. Streptococcus mutans, other streptococci of the so-called non-mutans streptococci group, Actinomyces and Lactobacillus play a key role in this process. Dental biofilm is a dynamic, constantly active metabolically structure. The alternating processes of decrease and increase of biofilm pH occur, which are followed by the respective processes of de- and remineralisation of the tooth surface. In healthy conditions, these processes are in balance and no permanent damage to the tooth enamel surface occurs. PMID:25115106

  10. Declining caries trends: are we satisfied?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.D. Lagerweij; C. van Loveren

    2015-01-01

    WHO data suggest that all over the world the prevalence of caries has declined at the end of the previous and in the first decade of the present century. This decline started wherever the use of effective fluoride toothpaste became commonplace. Even though the decline is considerable with a 90 % red

  11. Caries experience in schoolchildren in Bucharest, Romania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funieru, Cristian; Twetman, Svante; Funieru, Elena;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the prevalence and experience of dental caries among children from public middle schools in Bucharest in relation to socioeconomic status and access to school-based dental care. METHODS: Clinical data were collected from 1,595 schoolchild...

  12. Infiltrating/sealing proximal caries lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martignon, S; Ekstrand, K R; Gomez, J;

    2012-01-01

    significant differences in lesion progression between infiltration and placebo (P = 0.0012) and between sealing and placebo (P = 0.0269). The study showed that infiltration and sealing are significantly better than placebo treatment for controlling caries progression on proximal lesions. No significant...... difference was seen between infiltration and sealing (ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT01417832)....

  13. The Importance of Detail and Organization of Technical Drawings for the Project Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego de Avila

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This research takes into account the process of technical improvement through the development and interpretation of technical drawing with the appropriate software. However, it’s known that the technical design, no longer being new in business, tends to effect the production process in a clear and objective way, but there is a concern for the training and use of this standardized form tool. This article presents a case study detailing the use of standardized technical drawing by CAD system and continuously. Seeking to meet the improvement of quality control, production flexibility, reduced costs, documentation and even security, in a company in the northern region of the State of Rio Grande do Sul.

  14. Risk management in the oil and gas industry : integration of human, organisational and technical factors

    OpenAIRE

    Skogdalen, Jon Espen

    2011-01-01

    The overall objective of this thesis is to provide knowledge and tools for the major hazard risk assessment for offshore installations (and onshore plants) based on an improved understanding of the influence of organisational, human and technical (OMT) factors. This extensive objective was further described by the following sub-goals: 1. Identify and describe human and organisational barriers in risk analysis, 2. Provide knowledge regarding human, organisational and technical factors th...

  15. The prevalence of nursing caries in Davangere preschool children and its relationship with feeding practices and socioeconomic status of the family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyagi R

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to find the prevalence of nursing caries in Davangere preschool children and its relationship with feeding practices and socioeconomic status of the family. Materials and Methods: A total of 813 children aged 2-6 years were screened for the present study from randomly selected three kindergarten schools each from Government, Government aided, and private managements. Clinical examination was done inside the respective schools. At the time of examination, a proforma was filled for each child comprising of DFS index. The questionnaire by Winter et al. was modified and used in this study. The completed proformas were statistically analyzed to find if any correlation existed between the nursing caries to the feeding practices and socioeconomic status of the family. Results: Duration of breastfeeding increases the number of children with nursing caries and the mean DFS. There is a strong and significant relationship between the severity of nursing caries and the degree of feeding abuse. Children from low socioeconomic status have increased early childhood caries. Conclusion: The prevalence of nursing caries was 19.2% in Davangere preschool population. Nursing caries were more in children who were taking a feeding bottle to bed at night and were increasingly seen in large families and lower socioeconomic groups.

  16. ROC analysis of acid demineralized artificial caries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study is designed to determine the artificial incipient proximal caries lesion detectability by dentists on Ektaspeed Plus film using ROC analysis. Sixteen premolars and 30 molars, which have 52 proximal caries-like demineralized lesions using acid-gel technique were added to 20 sound premolars and 30 sound molars to make 24 plaster blocks. Each block with 4 teeth and 6 contacting proximal surfaces was placed in an optical bench to take 12 bitewing radiographs with Ektaspeed Plus film. Thirty-six dentists acted as observers to evaluated the proximal lesions using five rating scales for ROC analysis. They were also asked to determine the presence or absence of the proximal caries. The true status of the proximal caries was established by the consensus of three oral and maxillofacila radiologists. For evaluation of intra-observer agreement, 9 dentist reread the radiographs at an interval of 1 month. The Pearson correlation coefficient for the intra-observer agreement was 0.746 (good agreement). Ten observer's data set were degenerated. The mean area under ROC curve from 26 observers was 0.806 and standard deviation was 0.061. The sensitivity and the specificity of the binary response were 0.17 (SD=0.11) and 0.78 (SD=0.17) respectively. The binary response only reveal a single values of sensitivity and the specificity. The ROC analysis to assess the diagnostic accuracy in caries detection, which producing estimates of sensitivities for all specifities, yield more comprehensive measures of diagnostic performance than single values for sensitivity and specificity.

  17. Caries dental en escolares del Distrito Federal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IRIGOYEN-CAMACHO MARÍA ESTHER

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Presentar las estimaciones de la prevalencia y la severidad de caries dental, así como las necesidades de tratamiento de la población escolar del Distrito Federal examinada en la encuesta de caries dental que se llevó a cabo en 1988 con la finalidad de obtener datos basales sobre caries en los escolares al inicio del Programa Nacional de Fluoruración de la Sal en México. Material y métodos. La población de estudio fue seleccionada empleando un marco muestral basado en el listado de las escuelas primarias y los jardines de niños registrados por la Secretaría de Educación Pública en 1988. En el examen de la cavidad bucal de los escolares se utilizaron los criterios diagnósticos señalados por la Organización Mundial de la Salud. Resultados. Un total de 4 475 escolares de 5 a 12 años de edad participaron en el estudio. La prevalencia de caries dental en la población alcanzó 90.5%. El índice de necesidades de tratamiento fue elevado (79.6%. El promedio de los índices de caries en los escolares de 12 años de edad fue CPOD= 4.42 (desviación estándar -DE- 3.2 y CPOS= 6.53 (DE 4.8. Conclusiones. Los resultados de la encuesta subrayan la pertinencia de un programa preventivo de amplia cobertura, como el de fluoruración de la sal. Además, muestran que se requiere elaborar estrategias para mejorar el acceso de la población escolar a los servicios odontológicos del sistema de salud en México.

  18. The research project on technical information basis for aging management in Fukui and Kinki area. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Research Project on Technical Information Basis for Aging Management was initiated in FY2006 by the Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (NISA) of the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) as a five-year program effectively, to promote aging management of domestic nuclear power plants. Its main objective was to improve the technical basis on which aging nuclear power plants are regulated. Upon taking part in the technical strategy map for Aging Management and Safe Long Term Operation, the experiences and achievements of the participating organizations were taken into account and the following four topics were chosen. The regional characteristics of the Fukui and Kinki area where 15 nuclear power plants, mainly PWRs, and many nuclear related research institutes and universities are located, were also considered. 1) The improvement of pipe thinning management in nuclear power plants, 2) The development of inspection techniques to monitor the initiation and propagation of defects, 3) The development of a guideline for evaluating weld repair methods, 4) The development of a guideline for evaluating the degradation of main structures. To promote this research project, INSS has established a regional consortium (called the 'Fukui Regional Cluster' in coordination with universities, research institutes, electric utilities and venders in the Fukui and Kinki area. INSS is acting as a coordinator to make contracts, facilitate execution, and compile annual reports. In FY2010, 11 continuing research subjects were proposed for this project and all were accepted. Of these, 5 subjects were related to the first topic (pipe thinning), 4 subjects to the second topic (inspection technique) and 1 subject to each of the other two topics (weld repair and main structures). All the subjects have been completed, fulfilling the requirements and expectations. (author)

  19. ENHANCING RESERVOIR MANAGEMENT IN THE APPALACHIAN BASIN BY IDENTIFYING TECHNICAL BARRIER AND PREFERRED PRACTICES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald R. McDowell; Khashayar Aminian; Katharine L. Avary; John M. Bocan; Michael Ed. Hohn; Douglas G. Patchen

    2003-09-01

    The Preferred Upstream Management Practices (PUMP) project, a two-year study sponsored by the United States Department of Energy (USDOE), had three primary objectives: (1) the identification of problems, problematic issues, potential solutions and preferred practices related to oil production; (2) the creation of an Appalachian Regional Council to oversee and continue this investigation beyond the end of the project; and (3) the dissemination of investigative results to the widest possible audience, primarily by means of an interactive website. Investigation and identification of oil production problems and preferred management practices began with a Problem Identification Workshop in January of 2002. Three general issues were selected by participants for discussion: Data Management; Reservoir Engineering; and Drilling Practices. At the same meeting, the concept of the creation of an oversight organization to evaluate and disseminated preferred management practices (PMP's) after the end of the project was put forth and volunteers were solicited. In-depth interviews were arranged with oil producers to gain more insight into problems and potential solutions. Project members encountered considerable reticence on the part of interviewees when it came to revealing company-specific production problems or company-specific solutions. This was the case even though interviewees were assured that all responses would be held in confidence. Nevertheless, the following production issues were identified and ranked in order of decreasing importance: Water production including brine disposal; Management of production and business data; Oil field power costs; Paraffin accumulation; Production practices including cementing. An number of secondary issues were also noted: Problems associated with Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) and Waterflooding; Reservoir characterization; Employee availability, training, and safety; and Sale and Purchase problems. One item was mentioned both in

  20. Breaking the Chain of Early Childhood Caries Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxine Strickland

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Dental disease can have devas-tating effects on children who lack access to dental care. The US was shocked to learn of the recent death of a child from a caries related infection. The bio-logical basis of dental caries risk is usually considered interims of individual behavior. The role of the family and other more complex units of social organization in determining caries risk are not often appreciated. The transmission of caries causing bacteria from mothers (or other care givers having extensive contact with the child has been well docu-mented. In addition the age at which children are vulnerable to colonization with caries causing organisms is known. Despite the fact that the dental and scientific communities possess knowledge concerning the routs of caries transmission, efforts to implement preventive programs specifically targeting the reduction of caries transmission have been inconsistent. Working with and motivating families to prevent caries transmission should be the shared objective of researchers and clinicians. Armed with the available know-ledge, caries should not the thought of as an inevitable part of life. The goal of this essay is to challenge readers to empower people at risk to make decisions that enable them to break the chain of caries infection.

  1. Caries-risk profiles in Italian adults using computer caries assessment system and ICDAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna CARTA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the correlation among socio-behavioral factors, caries status and caries risk, calculated through Cariogram, in an adult population. Four hundred eighty subjects (mean age 40.73, SE ± 0.33 randomly selected from the municipal electoral registry consented to participate in the survey. Subjects were examined, and the International Caries Detection Assessment System (ICDAS index was registered. A highly structured questionnaire was submitted to investigate (1 personal data (i.e., age, gender, educational level, job categorization, (2 life-style behavior (i.e., smoking and dietary habits, and (3 oral health behavior (i.e., tooth brushing, use of fluoride and dental check-up frequency. An evaluation of the mutans streptococci concentration in saliva was also performed. Information on caries-related factors was entered into the Cariogram in order to generate an individual caries risk profile for each subject. Multinomial logistic regression was performed using Cariogram levels as the dependent variable. The possible correlated variables were analyzed using the principal component analysis (PCA. Considering ICDAS scores, 5.62% of the sample had at least an initial decay (ICDAS = 1-2, whereas 40.83% of the sample presented at least one moderate decay (ICDAS = 3-4 and 17.08% a severe decay (ICDAS = 5-6. Decay at ICDAS levels 5-6 and more than 5 missing teeth were statistically associated with Cariogram scores (OR = 2.36, 95%CI = 1.83–3.03 and OR = 1.43, 95%CI = 1.13–1.82, respectively. The results suggest that the Cariogram model was able to identify caries-related factors in an adult population. A direct association among the risk categories from Cariogram, the caries status and some socio-behavioral variables was verified.

  2. Caries-risk profiles in Italian adults using computer caries assessment system and ICDAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carta, Giovanna; Cagetti, Maria Grazia; Cocco, Fabio; Sale, Silvana; Lingström, Peter; Campus, Guglielmo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the correlation among socio-behavioral factors, caries status and caries risk, calculated through Cariogram, in an adult population. Four hundred eighty subjects (mean age 40.73, SE ± 0.33) randomly selected from the municipal electoral registry consented to participate in the survey. Subjects were examined, and the International Caries Detection Assessment System (ICDAS) index was registered. A highly structured questionnaire was submitted to investigate (1) personal data (i.e., age, gender, educational level, job categorization), (2) life-style behavior (i.e., smoking and dietary habits), and (3) oral health behavior (i.e., tooth brushing, use of fluoride and dental check-up frequency). An evaluation of the mutans streptococci concentration in saliva was also performed. Information on caries-related factors was entered into the Cariogram in order to generate an individual caries risk profile for each subject. Multinomial logistic regression was performed using Cariogram levels as the dependent variable. The possible correlated variables were analyzed using the principal component analysis (PCA). Considering ICDAS scores, 5.62% of the sample had at least an initial decay (ICDAS = 1-2), whereas 40.83% of the sample presented at least one moderate decay (ICDAS = 3-4) and 17.08% a severe decay (ICDAS = 5-6). Decay at ICDAS levels 5-6 and more than 5 missing teeth were statistically associated with Cariogram scores (OR = 2.36, 95%CI = 1.83-3.03 and OR = 1.43, 95%CI = 1.13-1.82, respectively). The results suggest that the Cariogram model was able to identify caries-related factors in an adult population. A direct association among the risk categories from Cariogram, the caries status and some socio-behavioral variables was verified. PMID:26892361

  3. Technical Analysis of In-Valley Drainage Management Strategies for the Western San Joaquin Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presser, Theresa S.; Schwarzbach, Steven E.

    2008-01-01

    The western San Joaquin Valley is one of the most productive farming areas in the United States, but salt-buildup in soils and shallow groundwater aquifers threatens this area?s productivity. Elevated selenium concentrations in soils and groundwater complicate drainage management and salt disposal. In this document, we evaluate constraints on drainage management and implications of various approaches to management considered in: *the San Luis Drainage Feature Re-Evaluation (SLDFRE) Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) (about 5,000 pages of documentation, including supporting technical reports and appendices); *recent conceptual plans put forward by the San Luis Unit (SLU) contractors (i.e., the SLU Plans) (about 6 pages of documentation); *approaches recommended by the San Joaquin Valley Drainage Program (SJVDP) (1990a); and *other U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) models and analysis relevant to the western San Joaquin Valley. The alternatives developed in the SLDFRE EIS and other recently proposed drainage plans (refer to appendix A for details) differ from the strategies proposed by the San Joaquin Valley Drainage Program (1990a). The Bureau of Reclamation (USBR) in March 2007 signed a record of decision for an in-valley disposal option that would retire 194,000 acres of land, build 1,900 acres of evaporation ponds, and develop a treatment system to remove salt and selenium from drainwater. The recently proposed SLU Plans emphasize pumping drainage to the surface, storing approximately 33% in agricultural water re-use areas, treating selenium through biotechnology, enhancing the evaporation of water to concentrate salt, and identifying ultimate storage facilities for the remaining approximately 67% of waste selenium and salt. The treatment sequence of reuse, reverse osmosis, selenium bio-treatment, and enhanced solar evaporation is unprecedented and untested at the scale needed to meet plan requirements. All drainage management strategies that have been proposed

  4. Building control. Technical systems in buildings: Automation and management; 2. ed.; Building control. Technische Gebaeudesysteme: Automation und Bewirtschaftung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kranz, H.R. [Siemens AG, Karlsruhe (Germany). Gebaeudetechnik - Automation; Baenninger, M. [Schweizerische Bankgesellschaft, Zurich (Switzerland); Bieler, P. [ROM (Rud. Otto Meyer), Duesseldorf (Germany); Brettschneider, J.P. [PIA, Hanau (Germany); Damnig, A. [IBM Deutschland GmbH, Boeblingen (Germany); Fassbender, H.W. [Honeywell GmbH, Maintal (Germany); Friedrichs, K. [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany). Fakultaet fuer Architektur; Gauchel, J. [WIBc Objektorientierte Systeme fuer Gebaeudeplanung und -management, Karlsruhe (Germany); Hegewald, B. [Zentralverband Elektrotechnik- und Elektronikindustrie e.V. (ZVEI), Frankfurt am Main (Germany)]|[Siemens AG, Muenchen (Germany); Kaelin, W. [Ingenieurbuero Werner Kaelin, Schwyz (Switzerland); Lezius, A. [Staefa Control System GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany); Markert, H. [MW Software GmbH, Koeln (Germany); Oehler, A. [Fachhochschule Reutlingen (Germany); Otto, J. [IEP Ingenieurbuero Dr. Ellrich und Partner, Muenchen (Germany); Puettmer, M. Jr. [Goetz GmbH, Fellbach (Germany); Rohrbacher, H. [ABB Stotz Kontakt, Heidelberg (Germany); Schuerdt, K. [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany). Gebaeudetechnik; Vogt, D. [RWE Energie AG, Essen (Germany); Wittling, J. [Canzler Ingenieure GmbH, Muelheim an der Ruhr (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    Cost-optimized management, business management and maintenance of buildings all rely on electronic data processing. Technical and administrative systems must be projected for `lean buildings`, i.e. with easy operability and high economic efficiency. This book presents an easy-to-read, interdisciplinary and practical introduction to the following issues: Data processing in projecting and operation - ecological concepts for refrigeration and external walls - facility management, alarm systems and automation - communication technology, open communication and networks - building systems engineering and installation bus - energy management - operators` experience - standards and regulations (European standards, the new VDI 3814 information list) - construction law and legal regulations (e.g. building products, CE certificates, electromagnetic compatibility, environmental liability, software licensing legislation). (orig.) 260 figs., 161 refs. [Deutsch] Kostenoptimiertes Management, Betriebswirtschaft und Instandhaltung von Gebaeuden ist ohne EDV nicht mehr denkbar. Technische und administrative Systeme muessen im Hinblick auf Bedienbarkeit und Wirtschaftlichkeit geplant werden. Ziel sind `Lean-Buildings`. Dieses Buch behandelt kurzweilig, interdisziplinaer und praxisnah - EDV-Einsatz beim Planen und Betreiben - oekologische Kuehl- und Fassadenkonzepte - Facility Management, Gefahrenmeldetechnik, Gebaeudeautomation - Kommunikationstechnik, offene Kommunikation und Netzwerke - Gebaeudesystemtechnik und Installationsbus - Energiemanagement - Betreiber-Erfahrungen - Normen und Richtlinien (Stand der Europa-Normung, neue VDI 3814 Informationsliste) - Baurecht und Gesetz (z.B.: Bauprodukte, CE-Zeichen, elektromagnetische Vertraeglichkeit, Umwelt-Haftungsgesetz, Software-Lizenzrecht). (orig.)

  5. Risk based safety management to enhance technical safety and safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risk management is an activity which integrates recognition of risk, risk assessment and develops strategies to manage it. Objective of risk management is to reduce different risks related to a pre-selected domain to an acceptable level. It may refer to numerous types of threats caused by environment, technology, humans, organizations and politics. The paper describes the different steps and methods in the risk management process. (authors)

  6. The Warp and Woof of the General Manager's Job. Technical Report Number 27.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Robert E.

    This report draws details and examples from a study of the general manager job in a major corporation in an effort to determine what it takes to be an effective general manager. The report looks at two aspects of the demanding and important position of general manager. First, the report discusses the more or less constant requirements of the job,…

  7. Prevalence of dental caries and caries-related risk factors in premature and term children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Resende Nogueira Cruvinel

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the prevalence of enamel defects and dental caries and their risk factors on primary and permanent dentitions of prematurely-born children and term children. Eighty children were examined, 40 born prematurely (G1 and 40 born term (G2, in the age group between 5 and 10 years. The demographic variables, medical history and oral health behaviors were recorded on a questionnaire. The teeth were examined for presence of deficiencies of the enamel and caries that were registered. The caries were registered, focusing on the indices dmft (decayed, missing, and filled primary teeth and DMFT (decayed, missing, and filled permanent teeth. The results showed that 75% of the total sample had enamel defects. The logistic regression model showed that other risk factors such as per capita family income, educational level, dietary and hygiene habits, fluoride exposure, trauma, and diseases had no correlation with enamel defects and caries. A smaller value of total DMFT (0.95 was found in the group of premature children in comparison to the term children (2.07 p = 0.0164. There was no difference concerning the permanent dentition between the two groups (p = 0.9926. One concludes that prematurity can't be a predisposing factor for the presence of dental caries.

  8. Relation Between Past and Present Dietary Sugar Intake and Dental Caries in A High Caries Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Malek Mohammadi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The main objective of this study was to investigate relationship between re-ported dietary habits and dental caries in five and six-year-old children referred for dental extractions.Materials and Methods: Two hundred children were examined using standard caries di-agnostic criteria. The numbers of decayed, missing and filled deciduous teeth were re-corded. A food frequency table was completed by the parents of each child and analyzedthrough weighting the cariogenic potentialby the frequency of consumption, and summing the two scores.Results: The mean number of decayed, missing and filled teeth (dmft was 7.1 (SD=3.29. There was no statistically significant correlation between the reported dietary intake and the caries rate in the study population P=0.07.Use of bottles with sugared drinks during infancy was associated with increased caries levels (P<0.01.Conclusion: Poor infant feeding practices promote caries in childhood. A method of diet assessment which would evaluate diet-related health education is required.

  9. Dental caries status of Chinese children in Johannesburg, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInnes, P M; Vieira, E

    1979-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the dental health status of a representative sample of Johannesburg Chinese schoolchildren, all 250 attending the only Chinese school in the city. In 18 preschoolchildren, 3--5 years old, 16.7% were caries-free, mean dmft was 7.1 +/- 5.8 and labial caries was present in 33.3%. In 165 primary schoolchildren aged 5--16 years, the mean dmft was 590 +/- 3.2 with 20% of the primary dentition caries-free and the mean DMFT was 2.4 +/- 1.9 4.8% of the primary schoolchildren were caries-free. In 67 high school pupils of 11--17 years, 4.5% were caries-free and the mean DMFT score was 7.1 +/- 3.9. Caries prevalences among the Chinese were similar to corresponding groups of children of Chinese immigrants in the United Kingdom and Malaysia. PMID:287589

  10. Building organizational technical capabilities: a new approach to address the office of environmental management cleanup challenges in the 21. century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Management (EM) is responsible for the nations nuclear weapons program legacy wastes cleanup. The EM cleanup efforts continue to progress, however the cleanup continues to be technologically complex, heavily regulated, long-term, and a high life cycle cost estimate (LCCE) effort. Over the past few years, the EM program has undergone several changes to accelerate its cleanup efforts with varying degrees of success. Several cleanup projects continued to experience schedule delays and cost growth. The schedule delays and cost growth have been attributed to several factors such as changes in technical scope, regulatory and safety considerations, inadequacy of acquisition approach and project management. This article will briefly review the background and schools of thought on strategic management and organizational change practiced in the United States over the last few decades to improve an organisation's competitive edge and cost performance. The article will briefly review examples such as the change at General Electric, and the recent experience obtained from the nuclear industry, namely the long-term response to the 1986 Chernobyl accident. The long-term response to Chernobyl, though not a case of organizational change, could provide some insight in the strategic management approaches used to address people issues. The article will discuss briefly EM attempts to accelerate cleanup over the past few years, and the subsequent paradigm shift. The paradigm shift targets enhancing and/or creating organizational capabilities to achieve cost savings. To improve its ability to address the 21. century environmental cleanup challenges and achieve cost savings, EM has initiated new corporate changes to develop new and enhance existing capabilities. These new and enhanced organizational capabilities include a renewed emphasis on basics, especially technical capabilities including safety, project management

  11. Final Technical Close out Report University Research Program in Robotics for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report covers the 2003-04 contract period, with a retrospective of the 11 years for the contract, from 1993 to 2004. This includes personnel, technical publications and reports, plus research laboratories employed. Specific information is given in eight research areas, reporting on all technology developed and/or deployed by the University of Florida

  12. Application of data-processing to the technical and economical management of the plants of Simo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The firm Simo is entrusted with the processing of the uranium ores extracted from the mines of Cogema in France, in its three plants. The paper describes the conception and the functioning of the information system. Among the advantages contributed by the system, the coherence between the technical follow-up and the economical follow-up constitutes one of the principal progressive features

  13. Managing Technical and Cost Uncertainties During Product Development in a Simulation-Based Design Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karandikar, Harsh M.

    1997-01-01

    An approach for objective and quantitative technical and cost risk analysis during product development, which is applicable from the earliest stages, is discussed. The approach is supported by a software tool called the Analytical System for Uncertainty and Risk Estimation (ASURE). Details of ASURE, the underlying concepts and its application history, are provided.

  14. Effect of Dental Caries on Children Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Malek Mohammadi

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The study examined the hypothesis that severe dental caries may affect growth and development in preschool children. Methods: The study examined 218 children with severe caries using standard diagnostic criteria. All children were weighed and measured and a food frequency questionnaire was completed for each. Six months subsequent to tooth extraction, 131 of the children were followed up and underwent repeat measurement of height, weight, dental health and food intake. For each child, body mass index (BMI was calculated, and all measurements were converted into standard deviation scores and compared to the UK 1990 growth reference. Results: In the six months period after having their decayed teeth extracted the children’s BMIs had increased by 0.654. Two-sided t-tests for paired data showed this difference to be significant (P< 0.01. Conclusion: Treatment of gross dental disease appears to promote "catch-up" growth and normalisation of body mass index.

  15. Caries prevalence in skeletal series: is it possible to compare?

    OpenAIRE

    Veronica Wesolowski

    2006-01-01

    Because of the relationship with subsistence, dental caries is a central issue in paleopathological research. Usually, comparisons between caries prevalence exhibited in different skeletal series are made. Dietary variation is the most common explanation for cavities prevalence. The aim of this paper is to verify if it is possible to compare caries prevalence reported on papers for archaeological skeletal series. Another goal is to determine if other factors besides diet are implicated in den...

  16. Inhibition of caries in hamsters treated with staphylococcin 1580.

    OpenAIRE

    Fitzgerald, R J; Morhart, R E; Marquez, C; Adams, B. O.

    1986-01-01

    Littermate hamsters were infected orally with cariogenic Streptococcus mutans NS-50S and maintained on a high-sucrose diet to induce dental caries. Individual groups of animals were treated by single daily instillation of staphylococcin 1580 (100 micrograms) in the cheek pouches. Other groups were treated similarly with bacitracin (60 or 120 U) or saline. After 35 days on the caries test regimen, animals treated with staphylococcin 1580 had 49 or 60% less caries than the saline controls in tw...

  17. School dietary habits and incidence of dental caries

    OpenAIRE

    Monteagudo S??nchez, Celia; T??llez, Francisco; Heras Gonz??lez, Leticia; Ib????ez-Peinado, Diana; Mariscal Arcas, Miguel; Olea Serrano, F??tima

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: healthy dietary habits are considered to improve oral health and tooth quality. Caries treatment comprises tooth restoration with dental composites and sealants, almost all (> 90%) of which contain bisphenol A (BPA). Study hypotheses were: a) breakfast and oral hygiene habits are important factors in dental caries development; and b) dental caries treatment with epoxy-resins entails a risk of oral exposure to monomers migrating from the polymeric material...

  18. GWAS of Dental Caries Patterns in the Permanent Dentition

    OpenAIRE

    Shaffer, J. R.; Feingold, E; Wang, X.; M. Lee; TCuenco, K.; Weeks, D E; Weyant, R.J.; Crout, R.; McNeil, D.W.; Marazita, M L

    2013-01-01

    The importance of susceptibility genes in the risk for dental caries has been clearly established. While many candidate caries genes have been proposed, to date, few of them have been rigorously validated through observational and experimental studies. Moreover, most genetic epidemiological studies have analyzed global caries phenotypes that ignore the possibility that genes may exert differential effects across tooth surfaces of the dentition. Therefore, we performed genome-wi...

  19. Sugar sweetened beverages and childhood dental caries : a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Yuerong; 杜月蓉

    2014-01-01

    Background Dental caries on primary and permanent teeth is a common chronic disease worldwide with negative effects on children`s quality of life, both in the present and future. Sugar intake is a risk factor for caries. However, the association between sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and dental caries is unclear. Methods A systematic review of relevant literature was performed in PubMed, Cochrane Library and ScienceDirect to locate every journal article in English assessing the as...

  20. DENTAL CARIES- A WIDELY GROWING DISEASE OF TEETH

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Dental caries called as tooth decay is basically a disease in which bacterial processes changes carbohydrate to acid. This acid then dematerializes the hard tooth structure. They are produced when demineralization amount exceeds the remineralization amount. Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus are the bacteria responsible for the dental caries. This article throws light on the dental caries disease, its sign and symptoms, treatment, prevention and risk factors associated with it. A review o...

  1. Dental caries prevalence and treatment levels in Arizona preschool children.

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, J. M.; Altman, D S; Robertson, D C; O'Sullivan, D.M.; Douglass, J M; Tinanoff, N

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence of dental caries in a large group of preschool children, to determine the extent to which the children received dental treatment, to examine the association between demographic and socioeconomic factors and the prevalence of caries, and to compare these findings with those from previous studies of preschool populations in the United States. METHODS: Dental caries exams were performed on 5171 children ages 5 months through 4 years, and a parent or other car...

  2. Obesity and dental caries: systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre Emidio Ribeiro Silva; Ana Maria Baptista Menezes; Flavio Fernando Demarco; Fabiana Vargas-Ferreira; Marco Aurelio Peres

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Identifying, through a systematic literature review, evidence of a possible association between obesity and dental caries. METHODS A search of articles published between 2005 and January 2012 was performed in the Medline/PubMed, LILACS and Web of Science databases. The quality of scientific evidence of the selected articles was assessed by the items proposed for observational studies in the Downs & Black instrument. RESULTS Initially, 537 references were found; after checking t...

  3. Effects of Laser Irradiation on Caries Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam Esmaeilzadeh; Hossein Bagheri; Yashar Rezaei

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Although dental caries is a preventable disease, it is still common and remains a public health problem. One of the potentially effective preventive measures is the use of lasers. The purpose of this study was to review the studies about use of laser irradiation on the inhibition of carious lesions and the effectiveness of different commercial laser type (Nd:YAG, CO2, and Argon).METHODS: A literature search included journal databases, existing systematic reviews, and studies ide...

  4. Caries prevalence among schoolchildren in Zagreb, Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Dukić, Walter; Delija, Barbara; Lulić Dukić, Olga

    2011-01-01

    Aim To investigate the prevalence of dental caries and treatment needs in schoolchildren aged 7-14 years from Zagreb. Methods Dental examinations based on the World Health Organization criteria were performed on 1168 children in the period 2009-2010. The teeth were clinically examined with standard dental instruments using visual-tactile method under standard dental light. We recorded the clinical indexes of decayed, missed, and filled teeth (DMFT and dmft; upper-case letters refer to permane...

  5. Review and comment on the advanced spent fuel management process (1): Technical aspects and non-proliferation concerns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efforts are made to analyze the project, the Advanced Spent Fuel Management Technology (ASFMT), which is currently carried out at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, on the technical feasibility and validity as well as on the nuclear non-proliferation concerns. The project is a part of a program under the 'Long and Midterm Nuclear Development Program'. On the technical analysis, reviewed the papers presented at the national and international meetings on the subject by KAERI staffs, and also participated to various technical discussions on the 'Mock-up Test', currently in progress. On the non-proliferation concerns, the ASFMT project was reviewed and analyzed in reference to various programs currently in progress or in a formulation stages in US, such as the DOE TOPS and ATW. Further reviewed the past JASNEC process and programs for possible application of the ASFMT project for JASNEC project. Provided a few thoughts for effectively carrying out the ASFMT project, and a plan for the next phase is presented

  6. Review and comment on the advanced spent fuel management process (1): Technical aspects and non-proliferation concerns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Yo Taik

    2001-01-01

    Efforts are made to analyze the project, the Advanced Spent Fuel Management Technology (ASFMT), which is currently carried out at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, on the technical feasibility and validity as well as on the nuclear non-proliferation concerns. The project is a part of a program under the 'Long and Midterm Nuclear Development Program'. On the technical analysis, reviewed the papers presented at the national and international meetings on the subject by KAERI staffs, and also participated to various technical discussions on the 'Mock-up Test', currently in progress. On the non-proliferation concerns, the ASFMT project was reviewed and analyzed in reference to various programs currently in progress or in a formulation stages in US, such as the DOE TOPS and ATW. Further reviewed the past JASNEC process and programs for possible application of the ASFMT project for JASNEC project. Provided a few thoughts for effectively carrying out the ASFMT project, and a plan for the next phase is presented.

  7. Genetic mapping of high caries experience on human chromosome 13

    OpenAIRE

    Erika C Küchler; Deeley, Kathleen; Ho, Bao; Linkowski, Samantha; Meyer, Chelsea; Noel, Jacqueline; Kouzbari, M Zahir; Bezamat, Mariana; José M Granjeiro; Antunes, Leonardo S; Antunes, Livia Azeredo; de Abreu, Fernanda Volpe; Marcelo C. Costa; Tannure, Patricia N; SEYMEN, Figen

    2013-01-01

    Background Our previous genome-wide linkage scan mapped five loci for caries experience. The purpose of this study was to fine map one of these loci, the locus 13q31.1, in order to identify genetic contributors to caries. Methods Seventy-two pedigrees from the Philippines were studied. Caries experience was recorded and DNA was extracted from blood samples obtained from all subjects. Sixty-one single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 13q31.1 were genotyped. Association between caries experie...

  8. Radiographic caries diagnosis and restorative treatment decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis is concerned with a single diagnostic technique: the bitewing radiograph, and the way it is used by dentists to decide on patient treatment need for interproximal caries. The variation in caries diagnosis and treatment decisions using bitewing radiographs is described and the radiographic criteria of choice for minimizing over and undertreatment according to a norm are investigated. Three possible diagnostic strategies in interproximal caries diagnosis using a decision analysis approach are described and evaluated, and the effect of the reported diagnostic behaviour and knowledge of practicing Dutch dentists in their use of bitewing radiographs for the diagnosis and treatment of interproximal caries is described and analyzed. (Auth.)

  9. Breaking the Chain of Early Childhood Caries Transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Maxine Strickland; Kenneth Markowitz

    2011-01-01

    Dental disease can have devas-tating effects on children who lack access to dental care. The US was shocked to learn of the recent death of a child from a caries related infection. The bio-logical basis of dental caries risk is usually considered interims of individual behavior. The role of the family and other more complex units of social organization in determining caries risk are not often appreciated. The transmission of caries causing bacteria from mothers (or other care givers having ex...

  10. Radiographic diagnoses and treatment decisions on approximal caries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mineral loss which represents a threshold value for radiographic diagnosis, cannot be defined exactly. For clinical use 10% mineral loss in the direction of the X-ray beam may constitute a border line lesion for radiographic detection, and caries lesions without cavitation seemed to be beyond this diagnostic threshold. The degree of caries estimated by using radiographs is fairly closely related to the depth of the tissue changes recorded in the prepared cavity. Radiographic examinations more often lead to underestimation than overestimation of the degree of caries. Radiographic caries diagnoses made at different degrees of penetration toward the pulp showed insignificant variations with respect to quality, but the observers were more confident of caries being present (used more strict criterion) when they scored caries in inner dentin. Consensus on diagnostic criteria and improved diagnostic quality are considerably more important to the quality of therapeutic decisions on approximal caries than viewing conditions and film density. A semi-radiopaque material in Class II fillings seems to offer advantages compared to amalgam in respect of the diagnosis of secondary caries and marginal defects. There is a danger that dentists will restore approximal caries lesions too early and before these can be diagnosed in dentin radiographically

  11. Obesity and dental caries: systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Emidio Ribeiro Silva

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE Identifying, through a systematic literature review, evidence of a possible association between obesity and dental caries. METHODS A search of articles published between 2005 and January 2012 was performed in the Medline/PubMed, LILACS and Web of Science databases. The quality of scientific evidence of the selected articles was assessed by the items proposed for observational studies in the Downs & Black instrument. RESULTS Initially, 537 references were found; after checking the titles and abstracts by two independent researchers, twenty-eight articles were selected for complete reading. Ten of them that assessed the primary and/or permanent dentition observed a positive association between obesity and dental caries and one study found an inverse association. According to the Downs & Black classification, thirteen articles with good scientific evidence were found. CONCLUSIONS The present review did not find sufficient evidence regarding the association between obesity and dental caries, and it did not clarify the possible role of diet and other possible effect modifiers on this association.

  12. Role of saliva in caries models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, W M; Higham, S M

    1995-11-01

    The crucial role played by the actions of saliva in controlling the equilibrium between de- and remineralization in a cariogenic environment is demonstrated by the effects on caries incidence of salivary dysfunction and by the distribution of sites of caries predilection to those were salivary effects are restricted. However, of the several properties of saliva which may confer protective effects, it is not certain which are most important. A distinction can be made between static protective effects, which act continuously, and dynamic effects, which act during the time-course of the Stephan curve. Evidence implicates salivary buffering and sugar clearance as important dynamic effects of saliva to prevent demineralization; of these, the buffering of plaque acids may predominate. Enhanced remineralization of white spot lesions may also be regarded as dynamic protective effects of saliva. Fluoride in saliva (from dentifrices, ingesta, etc.) may promote remineralization and (especially fluoride in plaque) inhibit demineralization. The design of experiments using caries models must take into account the static and dynamic effects of saliva. Some models admit a full expression of these effects, while others may exclude them, restricting the range of investigations possible. The possibility is raised that protective effects of saliva and therapeutic agents may act cooperatively. PMID:8615945

  13. New method to detect caries via fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhart, J.; Frentzen, M.; Thoms, M.

    2007-07-01

    Caries, a common and widespread infectious disease, has to be detected as early as possible. Based on the need for an easy and handy tool for preventing invasive treatment a new fluorescence camera system has been developed. Using this camera the so-called porphyrins, metabolic products of oral pathogenic bacteria can be visualized. Thereby fluorophores are excited at a wavelength of 405nm by the built-in GaN-LEDs. Healthy and diseased dental hard tissues fluoresce in the green and in the red spectral range, respectively, thus allowing differentiation by coulor. To prove the reliability of this fluorescence camera system, freshly extracted teeth were examined. Three different methods of analysis were verified and compared to give information about the lesions (sensitivity & selectivity): The extent of the fluorescence area, the integral of the red/green ratio of the lesion and the maximum red/green ratio in the area of interest. Histological sections of the teeth served as reference. In addition, the camera was compared to a tip probe sensor already available on the market. In total, our results show that regarding the three different algorithms of analysis, the maximum of the red/green ratio is a preferential method to evaluate carious lesions. Sound tissue, enamel caries and dentin caries can be clearly distinguished. The new fluorescence camera is a handy, efficient and fast device in order to detect lesions and seems to be superior to the tip probe sensor regarding the positioning. Further studies are required.

  14. Vision and framework for technical and management support to facilitate foreign spent fuel storage and geologic disposal in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halsey, W G; Jardine, L J; Smith, C F

    1999-07-01

    This ''Technical and Management Support'' program would facilitate the transfer of spent fuel from commercial power plants in Taiwan to a storage and geologic repository site near Krasnoyarsk, Russia. This program resolves issues of disposition of Taiwan spent fuel (including US origin fuel) and provides revenue for Russia to develop an integrated spent fuel storage and radioactive waste management system including a geologic repository. LLNL has ongoing contracts and collaborations with all the principal parties and is uniquely positioned to facilitate the development of such a program. A three-phase approach over 20 years is proposed: namely, an initial feasibility investigation followed by an engineering development phase, and then implementation.

  15. Compendium of technical computer codes used in support of the DOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A compilation of technical computer codes related to ongoing work under the cognizance of the US Department of Energy's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (DOE/OCRWM) is presented. Much of the information was obtained from responses to a questionnaire distributed by DOE/OCRWM to all DOE offices associated with the radioactive waste management program. The codes are arranged alphabetically by name. In addition to the code description, each sheet includes other data such as computer hardware and software requirements, document references, name of respondent, and code variants. The codes are categorized into seventeen subject areas plus a miscellaneous category. Some of the subject areas covered are atmospheric dispersion, biosphere transport, geochemistry, nuclear radiation transport, nuclide inventory, and risk assessment. Three appendixes are included which list the names of the contributors, a list of the literature reviewed, and a glossary of computer code terminology and definitions. 50 refs., 3 tabs

  16. An Evaluation of the Federal Energy Management Program Technical Assistance Workshops: Results of a 1998 Customer Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. B. Gordon; N. Hall

    1999-04-01

    This report presents the results of a customer telephone survey of the participants of six workshops provided by the U. S. Department of Energy Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) during calendar years 1995 and 1996. The primary purpose for the survey was to provide the Team Leader for FEMP Technical Assistance and members of the team with detailed customer feedback pertaining to how well selected FEMP workshops are doing and to identify areas for improvement. The information presented enables managers to see both the strengths of their workshops, as well as workshop components that can be improved. In addition, the report identifies the questions included in the survey that were the most productive for obtaining customers experiences, opinions and recommendations. The experiences gained during this survey provide a platform from which to launch an annual FEMP customer survey.

  17. Influence of different variables on the inter-municipality variation in caries experience in Danish adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekstrand, K.R.; Christiansen, M.E.C.; Qvist, V.

    Caries experience, adolescents, explanatory role, fluoride, socio-economic factors, structural factors......Caries experience, adolescents, explanatory role, fluoride, socio-economic factors, structural factors...

  18. A Review on Traditional Caries Diagnostic Systems and Introduction of New International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS)

    OpenAIRE

    Malek Mohammadi T.; Hajizamani A.

    2011-01-01

    Dental caries is a chronic infection disease that manifests itself through demineralization of dental tissues and cavitations in the tooth structure. The diagnosis of dental caries poses challenges due to the complex interaction of multiple endogenous causal factors. Naturally, visual and visual-tactile examinations have been the most commonly used diagnostic aids in caries examination for many years. A major drawback in common dental examination was the use of varied diagnostic criteria by v...

  19. Studies on strains of Streptococcus mutans isolated from caries-active and caries-free individuals in Iceland

    OpenAIRE

    Holbrook, W. Peter; Magnúsdóttir, Margrét O.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Dental caries has been strongly associated with mutans streptococci, particularly Streptococcus mutans and S. sobrinus. Many studies have linked these organisms to the carious process and counts of mutans streptococci have been used to monitor caries risk. The high levels of caries generally found in Iceland have enabled several studies to be performed on the variation within strains of S. mutans. Methods: This paper reports some studies showing phenotypic differences between stra...

  20. TECHNICAL AND FINANCIAL ASSESSMENT OF ORGANIZATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS OF SELECTED BUSINESS ENTITIES OF FOOD CHAIN MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Krotowska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article was technical and economic assessment of organizational improvements and use of resources of the examined business entities within the frames of their economic activity. The measurement of economic effi ciency was done with the use of commonly accepted profi tability indices (ROE, profi t margin and RONA. The technical assessment was based on the DEA method, taking into account the model: CRS, VRS and the scale of production. The variables applied in the model w ere operating incomes, as well as expenditures, i.e. UR area, labour input, value of fi xed assets and expenditure connected with energy and materials consumption. The research results proved that there were not signifi cant diff erences between the examined groups (Z and N as far as calculated indices were concerned.

  1. New technical knowledge to be implemented to the revision of rules on pipe wall thinning management for PWR Plants. 2006 edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rules for PWR plant pipe wall thinning management were formulated by the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers in 2006. Since then thinning management of Japanese PWR plants has been carried out based on this rule. Pipe wall thinning phenomena to be dealt with in this rule have been identified in many piping components of power plants. New technical knowledge has been accumulated since the issuance of 2006 edition. We have formulated these knowledge and information about the thinning phenomena in PWR power plants. Given the history of application of this rule, we have to make our best effort to carry out a study of latest technical knowledge and implement them to the revision of rule and improve pipe wall thinning management. This paper summarizes the new technical knowledge and basis to be implemented to the revision of rules on pipe wall thinning management for PWR plants in Japan. (author)

  2. Organic Centre Wales Technical Note 3: Biology and Management of Soil pests

    OpenAIRE

    Anon.

    2005-01-01

    The majority of crops grown in the UK are host to single or multiple insect pests that feed on the growing plant at some stage of their life cycle. Insect pest is not strictly correct terminology because the pests come from a wide range of families or groups, from Coleoptera (beetles), Diptera (true flies), Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths), Molluscs (slugs and snails) and Nematodes. This technical sheet lists major and minor pests, provides a simple key for identifying soil pests, lists r...

  3. Instrumentation and Controls Division, Technical Support Department Management Plan, FY 1993--FY 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adkisson, B.P.; Kunselman, C.W.; Effler, R.P.; Miller, D.R.; Millet, A.J.; Stansberry, C.T.

    1993-08-01

    This report describes the organization, key functions, and major activities of the Technical Support Department The Department is the programmatic support element of the Instrumentation and Controls Division. The Department`s primary focus is the support of existing equipment and systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory that are generally characterized as instrumentation and controls. The support takes the form of repair, calibration, fabrication, field engineering, preventive maintenance, software support, and record keeping.

  4. From Management to Negotiation: Technical and Institutional Innovations for Integrated Water Resource Management in the Upper Comoé River Basin, Burkina Faso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncoli, Carla; Kirshen, Paul; Etkin, Derek; Sanon, Moussa; Somé, Léopold; Dembélé, Youssouf; Sanfo, Bienvenue J.; Zoungrana, Jacqueline; Hoogenboom, Gerrit

    2009-10-01

    This study focuses on the potential role of technical and institutional innovations for improving water management in a multi-user context in Burkina Faso. We focus on a system centered on three reservoirs that capture the waters of the Upper Comoé River Basin and servicing a diversity of users, including a sugar manufacturing company, a urban water supply utility, a farmer cooperative, and other downstream users. Due to variable and declining rainfall and expanding users’ needs, drastic fluctuations in water supply and demand occur during each dry season. A decision support tool was developed through participatory research to enable users to assess the impact of alternative release and diversion schedules on deficits faced by each user. The tool is meant to be applied in the context of consultative planning by a local user committee that has been created by a new national integrated water management policy. We contend that both solid science and good governance are instrumental in realizing efficient and equitable water management and adaptation to climate variability and change. But, while modeling tools and negotiation platforms may assist users in managing climate risk, they also introduce additional uncertainties into the deliberative process. It is therefore imperative to understand how these technological and institutional innovations frame water use issues and decisions to ensure that such framing is consistent with the goals of integrated water resource management.

  5. Dental caries, salivary parameters and plaque scores as ‎caries risk predictors among 12 year old school children – A ‎follow up study

    OpenAIRE

    Mamata Hebbal; Anil V Ankola; Sharada C Metgud

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Dental caries is a disease with multifactorial etiology and many other factors ‎influence indirectly. The important factors are Streptococci mutans, Lactobacilli counts, saliva ‎flow rate, buffering capacity and past caries experience.‎Objective: To find the association between caries increment and various risk factors: Caries ‎experience, dental plaque, salivary flow rate, buffering capacity, Streptococcus mutans and ‎Lactobacilli counts.‎Method: Dental caries and plaque scores...

  6. Inequalities of caries experience in Nevada youth expressed by DMFT index vs. Significant Caries Index (SiC) over time

    OpenAIRE

    Mobley Connie; Dounis Georgia; Ditmyer Marcia; Schwarz Eli

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background With the increasingly polarized distribution of dental caries among children and adolescents, the usual DMFT measure has become a less meaningful population descriptor. To re-focus on identifying the high caries prevalence group the Significant Caries Index (SiC) was created. The aims of this study were to analyze the prevalence and severity of dental caries in Nevada youth over a period of eight years and to compare its expression by means of DMFT and SiC; analyze the car...

  7. Marketing: Managing the Marketing Mix. Courseware Evaluation for Vocational and Technical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Lian; And Others

    This courseware evaluation rates the Marketing: Managing the Marketing Mix program developed by Control Data Limited. (This program--not contained in this document--is designed to introduce decisions made by marketing managers during the implementation phase of marketing.) Part A describes the program in terms of subject area (marketing, decision…

  8. Career Anchors and Career Paths: A Panel Study of Management School Graduates. Technical Report No. 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schein, Edgar H.

    The first of a series, this report describes a 10-year followup study of a sample of 44 graduates of the Sloan School of Management, analyzing the interaction of personal values and career events in the lives of managers in organizations. All 44 participants were located, interviewed, and given the same attitude surveys as in the early 1960's.…

  9. Knowledge Management: A Tripartite Conceptual Framework for Career and Technical Teacher Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hae-Young; Roth, Gene L.

    2008-01-01

    Researchers and practitioners consider knowledge management to be a strategic intervention that integrates organizational resources such as technologies and human resources. This conceptual paper focuses on the foundational contributions of economics, sociology, and psychology to knowledge management. Select theories from each foundational area…

  10. Analyzing Leadership Practices of Enrollment Management at Fletcher Technical Community College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rholdon, Christopher M.

    2012-01-01

    The study problem was the lack of available information regarding leadership in enrollment management at community colleges. As legislators continue to increase tuition in Louisiana to offset holes in the state budget, leaders in enrollment management at community colleges are being heavily relied upon to successfully recruit and retain students…

  11. [Dental caries of the developmental age as a civilization disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójcicka, Anna; Zalewska, Magdalena; Czerech, Ewa; Jabłoński, Robert; Grabowska, Stanisława Zyta; Maciorkowska, Elzbieta

    2012-01-01

    According to the definition of the World Health Organization (WHO), dental caries is a local pathological process of the extrasomatic background, leading to enamel decalcification, decomposition of dental hard tissue, and in consequence to formation of a dental cavity. Morbidity of dental caries increases with age, reaching 100% of children, aged from 6 to 7. Poland is one of few European countries where the incidence of dental caries in children did not decrease, despite recommendations of WHO for 2000 year, aimed at the decrease in the incidence of dental caries among 6-year-old children to the level of 50%. The recommendation of WHO for 2015 year is to reduce the incidence of dental caries to 30% among 6-year-olds, i.e., 70% of 6 year-old children should be free of dental caries. Apart from genetic conditioning, inappropriate health behaviors, nutritional habits and gastroesophageal reflux disease influence the development of dental caries. Consumption of 'fast food' and drinking sweetened beverages of low pH contribute markedly to the development of dental caries, decreasing simultaneously consumption of pro healthy foods, including milk and cereals. Taking into consideration perspective clinical examinations of children and adolescents, evaluating the relationship between dental caries and nutritional habits as well as environmental conditioning, the study shows current data about factors, contributing to the incidence of dental caries in children, collected from the literature. The attention was paid to the relationship between dental caries and gastroesophageal reflux disease and the necessity of its early diagnostics and proper treatment. PMID:23484402

  12. A study of influence of sugars on the modulations of dental plaque pH in children with rampant caries, moderate caries and no caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utreja D

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study is undertaken to find out the pH of resting plaque in children with no caries, moderate caries and rampant caries and to determine the modulations of plaque pH with different sugar solution rinses viz: sucrose, glucose and fructose. The study was carried out on forty five children, in the age group of 3-10 years (25 males and 20 females. The child was given 10 ml of test solution and was asked to rinse and swish it in the mouth for a period of 30 sec. Plaque samples were taken from 20 different spots after 5, 10, 20 and 30 min of the rinse and pH values of all the samples were determined. Results show that there was a statistically significant (P<0.05 difference between the pH values of plaque at different intervals of time with sucrose, fructose and glucose solution rinse in children with moderate caries, rampant caries as compared to the caries free group. Sucrose was found to be highly cariogenic in all the children with a greater potentiating effect in moderate and rampant caries. Glucose also appeared to have a cariogenic role while fructose had the least of it all.

  13. Compilation of Habitat-Based Catchment Information and Historical Eel Data in Support of Eel Management Plans ‘EEL-PLAN’ – Final Technical Report

    OpenAIRE

    Ltd, Compass Informatics; Ireland, Inland Fisheries; National University of Ireland, Galway

    2011-01-01

    The overall aim of the project was to establish an information management framework for the development of River Basin Eel Management Plans (EMP). This involved the collation of base information to assist the publication of the initial National Plan (DCENR 2008) and, importantly, the establishment of a GIS and database system for continued information collation, analysis, management and planning. This report is the full technical report of this project.

  14. The management system for technical services in radiation safety. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Implementing a management system into a service provider organization is an important task to promote the quality of the service. Many Member States currently require management systems in their procedure of service authorization. This publication will be of use to consulting or measurement organizations when creating and implementing management systems that will help them to obtain authorization for their activities. The publication describes clearly the different requirements for consulting organizations that do and do not perform measurements. The difference between third party assessment requirements (often also used in Member States to speed up the authorization process) for certification and accreditation is explained in detail. The text is supplemented with informative examples covering tasks within the management system

  15. Technical infrastructures workshop (Chair). Knowledge Exchange Workshop : Research data management activities and challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grim, R.

    2011-01-01

    Scientific data Infrastructures can be defined as managed digital scientific data-networked environments consisting of services and tools that support: (i) the full life cycle of scientific data (capture, collection, curation, documentation, analysis, visualization, preservation, and publication), (

  16. The management system for technical services in radiation safety. Safety guide (Russian edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Implementing a management system into a service provider organization is an important task to promote the quality of the service. Many Member States currently require management systems in their procedure of service authorization. This publication will be of use to consulting or measurement organizations when creating and implementing management systems that will help them to obtain authorization for their activities. The publication describes clearly the different requirements for consulting organizations that do and do not perform measurements. The difference between third party assessment requirements (often also used in Member States to speed up the authorization process) for certification and accreditation is explained in detail. The text is supplemented with informative examples covering tasks within the management system

  17. Technical, environmental and regulatory aspects of waste management and their reflection in the IAEA programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the IAEA training course on waste management this paper is intended to overview technological, radiological, encironmental, regulatory and institutional aspects of importance in establishing a waste management policy for nuclear power programmes; the objectives and results of IAEA activities in this field; and some current issues from a national and international perspective with special consideration on the needs of countries embarking on nuclear power. (orig./RW)

  18. STUDY OF TRENDS IN THE ANALYSIS OF EXPERTISE IN PROJECT MANAGEMENT THROUGH TECHNICAL BIBLIOMETRICS

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo Moreira Calixto; Patricia Kuzmenko Furlan; Marly Monteiro de Carvalho

    2012-01-01

    The competency analysis focused on the skills of project management is an issue that has been debated both organizations and academia. This paper aims to conduct a study of the literature on skills within project management. The methodology consisted of the hybrid approach with techniques of bibliometrics and social networks, and search and selection of relevant publications on the basis of ISI Web of Knowledge (Web of Science). The result revealed 147 items aligned to the theme considering t...

  19. DECENTRALIZED MANAGEMENT OF WILD FAUNA: THE CASE OF THE TECHNICAL DIVISION OF VETERINARY MEDICINE AND WILD FAUNA MANAGEMENT IN THE MUNICIPALITY OF SÃO PAULO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Maria Branco

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic pressure causes significant changes in the environment that affect the fauna. However, few studies have been conducted to support management and handling of wild animals victimized in urban ecosystem. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the decentralized management of wildlife by the Municipality of São Paulo, through the Technical Division of Veterinary Medicine and Wild Fauna Management (DEPAVE-3, of Municipal Secretariat for Environment. The methodology was based on references and data obtained from the care of animals that passed through the service in the period 1993 to 2007. The research showed that the DEPAVE-3 is structured to make the veterinary medical and biological support for wild animals, seeking their replacement in nature. The study evaluated and described the physical structure the physical structure and operational assignments related to the handling of animals, the investigation of zoonoses, the inventory of fauna, in addition to data used in decision making. In conclusion, the study showed that the successful management of wildlife, held by the Municipality of São Paulo, stems from the existence of a service aimed at serving victimized animals in the region and recommends that this model be also implemented in other major urban centers.

  20. Social and Behavioral Determinants for Early Childhood Caries among Preschool Children in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Mitali; Namdev, Ritu; Bodh, Meenakshi; Dutta, Samir; Singhal, Parul; Kumar, Arun

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. Early Childhood Caries (ECC) is a public health problem with biological, social and behavioural determinants and the notion that the principal etiology is inappropriate feeding modalities is no longer tenable. Hence this study was undertaken to assess the relationship between ECC and socio-demographic factors, dietary habits, oral hygiene habits and parental characteristics. Materials and methods. The study involved a dental examination of 1400 children aged 0-71 months, recording caries using Gruebbel's deft index and a structured questionnaire to interview parents or caretakers. The tabulated data was statistically analyzed using t-test and ANOVA at 5% level of significance. Results. The variables significantly associated with ECC were age (PPPPPPPPP>0.05). Conclusion. ECC is preventable and manageable with proper information and skills. It is important for healthcare professionals, family physicians and parents to be cognizant of the involved risk factors as their preventive efforts represent the first line of defense. PMID:26236439