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Sample records for caries detection methods

  1. Adjunct methods for caries detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, Svante; Axelsson, Susanna Bihari; Dahlén, Gunnar

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective. To assess the diagnostic accuracy of adjunct methods used to detect and quantify dental caries. Study design. A systematic literature search for relevant papers was conducted with pre-determined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Abstracts and full text articles were assessed...

  2. A Comparison of Different Methods for Fissure Caries Detection

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    Peycheva K.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to compare the diagnostic capabilities of three different diagnostic methods: Quantitative Laser Fluorescence (QLF − DIAGNOdent Classic (DD, Light-Induced Fluorescence (LIF − SoproLife daylight and blue fluorescence, and their relevance to ICDAS II system in detection of fissure caries lesions in permanent molars. Permanent molars (n = 45 are divided in two groups: 1 third molars, n = 35; 2 first and second molars, n = 10. They are examined by 2 examiners with and without magnification x5 using ICDAS II, SoproLife “day light” and “blue light” (405nm, LIF, DIAGNOdent Classic − emitting laser light on 655nm, QLF. The results are proven with histological bucco-lingual or mesio-distal sections through the body of the lesion with diamond blade rinsed with water. Photos of all occlusal surfaces of the molars are taken before and after the sections. The lowest overdiagnosis rate is found with SoproLife camera. When visual examination is applied overdiagnoses are fewer than with DD. DD is not capable to differentiate white and brown spots from a caries lesion. Soprolife is not capable to differentiate brown spots from a caries lesion. The most accurate method in this in vitro study for diagnosis of fissure caries is LIF (SoproLife − 75.6% of the teeth are correctly diagnosed, followed by ICDAS (57.8% and QLF (DIAGNOdent (40%.

  3. A Comparison of Different Methods for Fissure Caries Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Peycheva K.; Boteva E.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study is to compare the diagnostic capabilities of three different diagnostic methods: Quantitative Laser Fluorescence (QLF) − DIAGNOdent Classic (DD), Light-Induced Fluorescence (LIF) − SoproLife daylight and blue fluorescence, and their relevance to ICDAS II system in detection of fissure caries lesions in permanent molars. Permanent molars (n = 45) are divided in two groups: 1) third molars, n = 35; 2) first and second molars, n = 10. They are examined by 2 examiners with an...

  4. Caries detection in dental radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, S.M.

    1987-01-01

    Caries, or the decay of teeth are difficult to automatically detect in dental radiographs because of the small area of the image that is occupied by the decay. Images of dental radiographs has distinct regions of homogeneous gray levels, and therefore naturally lead to a segmentation based automatic caries detection algorithm. This paper describes a method for caries detection based on a multiclass, area independent thresholding and segmenting scheme. This multiclass thresholding algorithm is an extension of the uniform error threshold, an area independent, distribution free thresholding method used for images of only two classes of objects. The authors first consider the problem of caries detection and the image features that characterize the presence of caries. Next, the uniform error threshold is reviewed, and the general multiclass uniform error threshold algorithm is presented. This algorithm is used to automatically detect caries in dental radiographs

  5. Caries Detection Methods Based on Changes in Optical Properties between Healthy and Carious Tissue

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    Lena Karlsson

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A conservative, noninvasive or minimally invasive approach to clinical management of dental caries requires diagnostic techniques capable of detecting and quantifying lesions at an early stage, when progression can be arrested or reversed. Objective evidence of initiation of the disease can be detected in the form of distinct changes in the optical properties of the affected tooth structure. Caries detection methods based on changes in a specific optical property are collectively referred to as optically based methods. This paper presents a simple overview of the feasibility of three such technologies for quantitative or semiquantitative assessment of caries lesions. Two of the techniques are well-established: quantitative light-induced fluorescence, which is used primarily in caries research, and laser-induced fluorescence, a commercially available method used in clinical dental practice. The third technique, based on near-infrared transillumination of dental enamel is in the developmental stages.

  6. Radiographic and laser fluorescence methods have no benefits for detecting caries in primary teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, F M; Novaes, T F; Matos, R; Bittar, D G; Piovesan, C; Gimenez, T; Imparato, J C P; Raggio, D P; Braga, M M

    2012-01-01

    Clinical guidelines advise that dentists take radiographs in children to detect caries lesions missed by visual inspection; however, due to the current low caries prevalence in most countries, we hypothesized that the adjunct methods of caries detection would not significantly improve the detection of primary molar lesions in comparison to visual inspection alone. We evaluated the performance of visual inspection, alone or in combination with radiographic and laser fluorescence pen (LFpen) methods, in detecting occlusal and approximal caries lesions in primary molars. Two examiners evaluated children who had sought dental treatment with these diagnostic strategies. The reference standard involved the temporary separation of approximal and operative interventions for occlusal surfaces. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and utility of diagnostic strategies were calculated. Simultaneous combined strategies increased sensitivities but decreased specificities. Furthermore, no differences were observed in accuracy and utility, parameters more influenced by caries prevalence. In conclusion, adjunct radiographic and laser fluorescence methods offer no benefits to the detection of caries in primary teeth in comparison to visual inspection alone; hence, present clinical guidelines should be re-evaluated. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Hybrid approach for detection of dental caries based on the methods FCM and level sets

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    Chaabene, Marwa; Ben Ali, Ramzi; Ejbali, Ridha; Zaied, Mourad

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents a new technique for detection of dental caries that is a bacterial disease that destroys the tooth structure. In our approach, we have achieved a new segmentation method that combines the advantages of fuzzy C mean algorithm and level set method. The results obtained by the FCM algorithm will be used by Level sets algorithm to reduce the influence of the noise effect on the working of each of these algorithms, to facilitate level sets manipulation and to lead to more robust segmentation. The sensitivity and specificity confirm the effectiveness of proposed method for caries detection.

  8. Caries detection methods : Can they aid decision making for invasive sealant treatment?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pereira, AC; Verdonschot, EH; Huysmans, M

    2001-01-01

    The decision to place sealants is a difficult one, and it has been suggested that in a low risk population it may be efficient to wait until caries is detected in the fissure. An invasive sealant technique with fissure preparation may then be indicated. The diagnostic method used in the indication

  9. Detection method of proximal caries using line profile in digital intra-oral radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Yong Suk; Kim, Gyu Tae; Hwang, Eui Hwan; Lee, Min Ja; Choi, Sam Jin; Park, Hun Kuk; Park, Jeong Hoon

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how to detect proximal caries using line profile and validate linear measurements of proximal caries lesions by basic digital manipulation of radiographic images. The X-ray images of control group (15) and caries teeth (15) from patients were used. For each image, the line profile at the proximal caries-susceptible zone was calculated. To evaluate the contrast as a function of line profile to detect proximal caries, a difference coefficient (D) that indicates the relative difference between caries and sound dentin or intact enamel was measured. Mean values of D were 0.0354 ± 0.0155 in non-caries and 0.2632 ± 0.0982 in caries (p<0.001). The mean values of caries group were higher than non-caries group and there was correlation between proximal dental caries and D. It is demonstrated that the mean value of D from caries group was higher than that of control group. From the result, values of D possess great potentiality as a new detection parameter for proximal dental caries.

  10. Detection method of proximal caries using line profile in digital intra-oral radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yong Suk; Kim, Gyu Tae; Hwang, Eui Hwan; Lee, Min Ja; Choi, Sam Jin; Park, Hun Kuk [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry and Institute of Oral Biology, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jeong Hoon [Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how to detect proximal caries using line profile and validate linear measurements of proximal caries lesions by basic digital manipulation of radiographic images. The X-ray images of control group (15) and caries teeth (15) from patients were used. For each image, the line profile at the proximal caries-susceptible zone was calculated. To evaluate the contrast as a function of line profile to detect proximal caries, a difference coefficient (D) that indicates the relative difference between caries and sound dentin or intact enamel was measured. Mean values of D were 0.0354 {+-} 0.0155 in non-caries and 0.2632 {+-} 0.0982 in caries (p<0.001). The mean values of caries group were higher than non-caries group and there was correlation between proximal dental caries and D. It is demonstrated that the mean value of D from caries group was higher than that of control group. From the result, values of D possess great potentiality as a new detection parameter for proximal dental caries.

  11. Children's discomfort in assessments using different methods for approximal caries detection

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    Tatiane Fernandes Novaes

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Because discomfort caused by different approximal caries detection methods can influence their performance, the assessment of this discomfort is important. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the discomfort reported by children after the use of different diagnostic methods to detect approximal caries lesions in primary teeth: visual inspection, bitewing radiography, laser fluorescence (DIAGNOdent pen - LFpen and temporary separation with orthodontic rubbers. Seventy-six children aged 4 to 12 years were examined using these methods. Their discomfort was assessed using the Wong-Baker scale and compared among the methods. Visual inspection caused less discomfort than did other methods. Radiography and the LFpen presented similar levels of discomfort. Older children reported higher discomfort using temporary separation, whereas younger children reported less discomfort with the LFpen. In conclusion, radiographic, temporary separation and LFpen methods provoke higher discomfort than visual inspection.

  12. An In Vitro Comparison of Different Diagnostic Methods in Detection of Residual Dentinal Caries

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    Nimet Unlu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the efficiency of different diagnostic methods in detection of residual dentinal caries in excavated cavities. Fifty extracted molar with deep dentinal carious lesions were excavated using a slow-speed handpiece. All cavities were assessed by laser fluorescence(LF device, electronic caries monitor(ECM, and caries detector dye(CDD by three independent observers blindly. The measurements were repeated after two weeks. Specimens containing dentin slices 150 μm in thickness were prepared for histological analyses. The existence and absence of carious dentin was determined using a lightmicroscope. The average intraobserver accuracy was 1.00 (perfect agreement for CDD, 0.86 (excellent agreement for ECM, and 0.50 (good agreement for LF. The average interobserver accuracy values were 0.92 (excellent agreement, (0.36 marginal agreement and 0.48 (good agreement, for CDD, ECM, and LF, respectively. The average specificity was 0.60 for CDD, 73% for ECM, and 0.50 for LF. The average sensitivity was 0.55 for CDD, 0.85 for LF, and 0.47 for ECM. The average accuracy values were 0.53, 0.51, and 0.81 for CDD, ECM, and LF, respectively. LF had the greatest sensitivity and accuracy values of any of the methods tested. As a conclusion, LF device is appeared to most reliable method in detection of remain caries in cavity. However, because of its technical sensitivity it may susceptible to variations in measurements. To pay attention to the rule of usage and repeated measurements can minimize such variations in clinical practice. It was concluded that LF is an improvement on the currently available aids for residual caries detection.

  13. Clinical performance of fluorescence-based methods for detection of occlusal caries lesions in primary teeth

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    Laura Regina Antunes PONTES

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We aimed to investigate the performance of fluorescence-based methods (FBMs, compared to visual inspection after histological validation, in detecting and assessing the activity status of occlusal carious lesions in primary teeth. One examiner evaluated 50 primary molars close to exfoliation in 24 children. Teeth were assessed using quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF and pen-type laser fluorescence (LFpen. After exfoliation, histological validation was performed. Teeth were cut and sections were evaluated for lesion depth and activity status (after utilization of a pH indicator under a stereomicroscope. Parameters related to the performance of the methods in detecting caries lesions at two thresholds (initial and dentin lesions were calculated. Regarding the activity status, lesions were classified into sound+inactive or active, and the area under the ROC curve and the diagnostic odds ratio values of the methods were calculated and compared. Evaluation of red fluorescence using QLF presented higher sensitivity but lower specificity than visual inspection in detecting dentin caries lesions. However, QLF considering different parameters and LFpen had similar performance to that obtained with visual inspection. Regarding activity assessment, all FBMs and visual inspection also presented similar performance. In conclusion, FBMs did not prove advantageous for the detection and activity assessment of occlusal caries lesions in primary molars when compared to visual inspection.

  14. Clinical performance of fluorescence-based methods for detection of occlusal caries lesions in primary teeth.

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    Pontes, Laura Regina Antunes; Novaes, Tatiane Fernandes; Moro, Bruna Lorena Pereira; Braga, Mariana Minatel; Mendes, Fausto Medeiros

    2017-11-06

    We aimed to investigate the performance of fluorescence-based methods (FBMs), compared to visual inspection after histological validation, in detecting and assessing the activity status of occlusal carious lesions in primary teeth. One examiner evaluated 50 primary molars close to exfoliation in 24 children. Teeth were assessed using quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF) and pen-type laser fluorescence (LFpen). After exfoliation, histological validation was performed. Teeth were cut and sections were evaluated for lesion depth and activity status (after utilization of a pH indicator) under a stereomicroscope. Parameters related to the performance of the methods in detecting caries lesions at two thresholds (initial and dentin lesions) were calculated. Regarding the activity status, lesions were classified into sound+inactive or active, and the area under the ROC curve and the diagnostic odds ratio values of the methods were calculated and compared. Evaluation of red fluorescence using QLF presented higher sensitivity but lower specificity than visual inspection in detecting dentin caries lesions. However, QLF considering different parameters and LFpen had similar performance to that obtained with visual inspection. Regarding activity assessment, all FBMs and visual inspection also presented similar performance. In conclusion, FBMs did not prove advantageous for the detection and activity assessment of occlusal caries lesions in primary molars when compared to visual inspection.

  15. Comparison of different caries detectors for approximal caries detection

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    Esin Bozdemir

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: The ability of bitewing radiography to identify sound surfaces was better than that of the other methods. The LF device was the most sensitive tool for detecting approximal surfaces with caries, followed by the LED device.

  16. Can we trust visual methods alone for detecting caries in teeth?

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    Hoskin, Eileen R; Keenan, Analia Veitz

    2016-06-01

    Data sourcesElectronic Databases searched in PubMed, Embase and Scopus. Unpublished literature was traced through OpenSIGLE, annals of IADR/AADR (International and American Associations for Dental Research) and ORCA (European Organisation for Caries Research) from 2003-2014. Studies were limited to English.Study selectionStudies involving visual inspection for detection of primary coronal caries lesions in primary or permanent human teeth were considered. All papers needed to include a clearly defined reference standard and the reporting of absolute numbers of true positives, false positives, true negatives and false negatives or a presentation of sufficient data to calculate these figures. Reference methods considered appropriate were histologic evaluation, operative intervention, direct visual inspection after temporary tooth separation and radiography. For studies with the same data set only the most complete study was included. Articles that reported caries detection using artificial caries, root caries or recurrent decay adjacent to restorations were excluded.Data extraction and synthesisStudy selection for inclusion was performed independently by two reviewers and disagreements were resolved by discussion with a third reviewer. Data were collected by two reviewers on structured tables. Discrepancies were resolved by consensus. A meta-analysis was performed. The following information was extracted; reference standard method, setting (clinical or laboratory), type of teeth (primary or permanent), surface evaluated (smooth, proximal or occlusal), sample size, examiner's experience. Also recorded were visual scoring systems. Studies that did not report any criteria were classified as 'with no criteria'. If authors used criteria with no reference to previously published studies they were classified as 'own criteria'. The PRISMA guideline was followed to report the review and the QUADAS-2 checklist (Quality assessment of studies of diagnostic performance included

  17. Method for detection of dental caries and periodontal disease using optical imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nathel, H.; Kinney, J.H.; Otis, L.L.

    1996-10-29

    A method is disclosed for detecting the presence of active and inactive caries in teeth and diagnosing periodontal disease uses non-ionizing radiation with techniques for reducing interference from scattered light. A beam of non-ionizing radiation is divided into sample and reference beams. The region to be examined is illuminated by the sample beam, and reflected or transmitted radiation from the sample is recombined with the reference beam to form an interference pattern on a detector. The length of the reference beam path is adjustable, allowing the operator to select the reflected or transmitted sample photons that recombine with the reference photons. Thus radiation scattered by the dental or periodontal tissue can be prevented from obscuring the interference pattern. A series of interference patterns may be generated and interpreted to locate dental caries and periodontal tissue interfaces. 7 figs.

  18. Method for detection of dental caries and periodontal disease using optical imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nathel, Howard (Albany, CA); Kinney, John H. (Danville, CA); Otis, Linda L. (San Francisco, CA)

    1996-01-01

    A method for detecting the presence of active and inactive caries in teeth and diagnosing periodontal disease uses non-ionizing radiation with techniques for reducing interference from scattered light. A beam of non-ionizing radiation is divided into sample and reference beams. The region to be examined is illuminated by the sample beam, and reflected or transmitted radiation from the sample is recombined with the reference beam to form an interference pattern on a detector. The length of the reference beam path is adjustable, allowing the operator to select the reflected or transmitted sample photons that recombine with the reference photons. Thus radiation scattered by the dental or periodontal tissue can be prevented from obscuring the interference pattern. A series of interference patterns may be generated and interpreted to locate dental caries and periodontal tissue interfaces.

  19. Evaluating a Team-Based Learning Method for Detecting Dental Caries in Dental Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang E.; Kim, Junhyck; Anderson, Nina

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate whether the team-based learning environment facilitated the competency of third year dental students in caries detection and activity assessment. Corresponding data were achieved using digital radiographs to determine the carious lesions in three clinical cases. The distribution of the caries evaluations…

  20. An in vivo comparison of two diagnostic methods in secondary caries detection.

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    Kazem Saber Hamishaki

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the level of agreement between four operators with different levels of experience for two methods of detecting secondary enamel and dentin carious lesions in composite restored teeth.Sixty teeth of 40 patients with with secondary carious lesions in the composite resin were selected. The teeth were examined by two methods; visual inspection and a laser fluorescence device (DIAGNO dent pen 2190 by four operators including an undergraduate student, a dentist with 5 years of clinical experience, a general dentist with 12 years of clinical experience and an oral and maxillofacial radiologist. Cohen's kappa statistic was applied in order to assess the agreement between the diagnoses performed by the four operators with each diagnostic method.The diagnosis performed by different operators achieved an excellent agreement with high ICC.DIAGNOdent can be a useful device for secondary caries detection in posterior teeth as an adjunct to visual examination.

  1. A new screening method to detect proximal dental caries using fluorescence imaging.

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    Kim, Eun-Soo; Lee, Eun-Song; Kang, Si-Mook; Jung, Eun-Ha; de Josselin de Jong, Elbert; Jung, Hoi-In; Kim, Baek-Il

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to assess the screening performance of the quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF) technology to detect proximal caries using both fluorescence loss and red fluorescence in a clinical situation. Moreover, a new simplified QLF score for the proximal caries (QS-Proximal) is proposed and its validity for detecting proximal caries was evaluated as well. This clinical study included 280 proximal surfaces, which were assessed by visual-tactile and radiographic examinations and scored by each scoring system according to lesion severity. The occlusal QLF images were analysed in two different ways: (1) a quantitative analysis producing fluorescence loss (ΔF) and red fluorescence (ΔR) parameters; and (2) a new QLF scoring index. For both quantitative parameters and QS-Proximal, the sensitivity, specificity, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) were calculated as a function of the radiographic scoring index at the enamel and dentine caries levels. Both ΔF and ΔR showed excellent AUROC values at the dentine caries level (ΔF=0.860, ΔR=0.902) whereas a relatively lower value was observed at the enamel caries level (ΔF=0.655, ΔR=0.686). The QS-Proximal also showed excellent AUROC ranged from 0.826 to 0.864 for detecting proximal caries at the dentine level. The QS-Proximal, which represents fluorescence changes, showed excellent performance in detecting proximal caries using the radiographic score as the gold standard. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Study of the nanoporous CHAP photoluminiscence for developing the precise methods of early caries detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goloshchapov, D.; Seredin, P.; Minakov, D.; Domashevskaya, E.

    2018-02-01

    This paper deals with the luminescence characteristics of an analogue of the mineral component of dental enamel of the nanocrystalline B-type carbonate-substituted hydroxyapatite (CHAP) with 3D defects (i.e. nanopores of ∼2-5 nm) on the nanocrystalline surface. The laser-induced luminescence of the synthesized CHAP samples was in the range of ∼515 nm (∼2.4 eV) and is due to CO3 groups replacing the PO4 group. It was found that the intensity of the luminescence of the CHAP is caused by structurally incorporated CO3 groups in the HAP structure. Furthermore, the intensity of the luminescence also decreases as the number of the above intracentre defects (CO3) in the apatite structure declines. These results are potentially promising for developing the foundations for precise methods for the early detection of caries in human solid dental tissue.

  3. Validity and reliability of methods for the detection of secondary caries around amalgam restorations in primary teeth

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    Mariana Minatel Braga

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Secondary caries has been reported as the main reason for restoration replacement. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the performance of different methods - visual inspection, laser fluorescence (DIAGNOdent, radiography and tactile examination - for secondary caries detection in primary molars restored with amalgam. Fifty-four primary molars were photographed and 73 suspect sites adjacent to amalgam restorations were selected. Two examiners evaluated independently these sites using all methods. Agreement between examiners was assessed by the Kappa test. To validate the methods, a caries-detector dye was used after restoration removal. The best cut-off points for the sample were found by a Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC analysis, and the area under the ROC curve (Az, and the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the methods were calculated for enamel (D2 and dentine (D3 thresholds. These parameters were found for each method and then compared by the McNemar test. The tactile examination and visual inspection presented the highest inter-examiner agreement for the D2 and D3 thresholds, respectively. The visual inspection also showed better performance than the other methods for both thresholds (Az = 0.861 and Az = 0.841, respectively. In conclusion, the visual inspection presented the best performance for detecting enamel and dentin secondary caries in primary teeth restored with amalgam.

  4. The performance of conventional and fluorescence-based methods for occlusal caries detection: an in vivo study with histologic validation.

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    Diniz, Michele B; Boldieri, Thalita; Rodrigues, Jonas A; Santos-Pinto, Lourdes; Lussi, Adrian; Cordeiro, Rita C L

    2012-04-01

    The authors conducted an in vivo study to determine clinical cutoffs for a laser fluorescence (LF) device, an LF pen and a fluorescence camera (FC), as well as to evaluate the clinical performance of these methods and conventional methods in detecting occlusal caries in permanent teeth by using the histologic gold standard for total validation of the sample. One trained examiner assessed 105 occlusal surfaces by using the LF device, LF pen, FC, International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) criteria and bitewing (BW) radiographic methods. After tooth extraction, the authors assessed the teeth histologically. They determined the optimal clinical cutoffs by means of receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. The specificities and sensitivities for enamel and dentin caries detection versus only dentin caries detection thresholds were 0.60 and 0.93 and 0.77 and 0.52 (ICDAS), 1.00 and 0.29 and 0.97 and 0.44 (BW radiography), 1.00 and 0.85 and 0.77 and 0.81 (LF device), 0.80 and 0.89 and 0.71 and 0.85 (LF pen) and 0.80 and 0.74 and 0.49 and 0.85 (FC), respectively. The accuracy values were higher for ICDAS, the LF device and the LF pen than they were for BW radiography and the FC. The clinical cutoffs for sound teeth, enamel carious lesions and dentin carious lesions were, respectively, 0 through 4, 5 through 27 and 28 through 99 (LF device); 0 through 4, 5 through 32 and 33 through 99 (LF pen); and 0 through 1.2, 1.3 and 1.4 through 5.0 (FC). The ICDAS, the LF device and the LF pen demonstrated good performance in helping detect occlusal caries in vivo. The ICDAS did not seem to perform as well at the D(3) threshold (histologic scores 3 and 4) as at the D(1) threshold (histologic scores 1-4). BW radiography and the FC had the lowest performances in helping detect lesions at the D(1) and D(3) thresholds, respectively. Occlusal caries detection should be based primarily on visual inspection. Fluorescence-based methods may be used to provide a second

  5. Detection and monitoring of early caries lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pretty, I A; Ekstrand, K R

    2016-01-01

    to the clinician and the patient for whom it may be a useful educational and motivational tool. CONCLUSIONS: Recommendations are presented that can be adopted and adapted to local circumstances and that are both substantiated by evidence and promote a clear, simple and consistent approach to caries detection...... and co-workers from 2013 and this still represents the current state of the science in relation to caries detection and monitoring. The review described among others, visible detection systems, image-based detection systems and point-measurement approaches. RESULTS: The current evidence base suggests...... that while there are numerous devices or technology-enabled detection systems, the use of a careful, methodical visual inspection of clean, dry teeth, supplemented where indicated by radiographic views, remains the standard of care in caries detection and diagnostics. Further, it is possible by means...

  6. Detection activity assessment and diagnosis of dental caries lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braga, Mariana M; Mendes, Fausto M; Ekstrand, Kim R

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the current methods for detection and assessment of caries lesions focusing on applicability for daily clinical practice. The end point is to arrive at a diagnosis for each caries lesion. Visual inspection aided by a ball-ended probe is essential for caries lesions assessment...

  7. Proximal caries detection using digital subtraction radiography in the artificial caries activity model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jong Hoon; Lee, Gi Ja; Choi, Sam Jin; Park, Young Ho; Kim, Kyung Soo; Jin, Hyun Seok; Hong, Kyung Won; Oh, Berm Seok; Park, Hun Kuk; Choi, Yong Suk; Hwang, Eui Hwan

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the experiment was to evaluating the diagnostic ability of dental caries detection using digital subtraction in the artificial caries activity model. Digital radiographs of five teeth with 8 proximal surfaces were obtained by CCD sensor (Kodak RVG 6100 using a size no.2). The digital radiographic images and subtraction images from artificial proximal caries were examined and interpreted. In this study, we proposed novel caries detection method which could diagnose the dental proximal caries from single digital radiographic image. In artificial caries activity model, the range of lesional depth was 572-1,374 μm and the range of lesional area was 36.95-138.52 mm 2 . The lesional depth and the area were significantly increased with demineralization time (p<0.001). Furthermore, the proximal caries detection using digital subtraction radiography showed high detection rate compared to the proximal caries examination using simple digital radiograph. The results demonstrated that the digital subtraction radiography from single radiographic image of artificial caries was highly efficient in the detection of dental caries compared to the data from simple digital radiograph.

  8. Proximal caries detection using digital subtraction radiography in the artificial caries activity model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong Hoon; Lee, Gi Ja; Choi, Sam Jin; Park, Young Ho; Kim, Kyung Soo; Jin, Hyun Seok; Hong, Kyung Won; Oh, Berm Seok; Park, Hun Kuk [Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Yong Suk; Hwang, Eui Hwan [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Institute of Oral Biology, School of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-03-15

    The purpose of the experiment was to evaluating the diagnostic ability of dental caries detection using digital subtraction in the artificial caries activity model. Digital radiographs of five teeth with 8 proximal surfaces were obtained by CCD sensor (Kodak RVG 6100 using a size no.2). The digital radiographic images and subtraction images from artificial proximal caries were examined and interpreted. In this study, we proposed novel caries detection method which could diagnose the dental proximal caries from single digital radiographic image. In artificial caries activity model, the range of lesional depth was 572-1,374 {mu}m and the range of lesional area was 36.95-138.52 mm{sup 2}. The lesional depth and the area were significantly increased with demineralization time (p<0.001). Furthermore, the proximal caries detection using digital subtraction radiography showed high detection rate compared to the proximal caries examination using simple digital radiograph. The results demonstrated that the digital subtraction radiography from single radiographic image of artificial caries was highly efficient in the detection of dental caries compared to the data from simple digital radiograph.

  9. The repeatability of three diagnostic methods (visual using ICDAS II, laser fluorescence, and radiographic) for early caries detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukmasari, S.; Lestari, W.; Ko, B. B.; Noh, Z.; Asmail, N.; Yaacob, N.

    2017-08-01

    Newly introduced ICDAS II as a visual method, laser fluorescence as another technique that have ability to quantify early mineral loss of tooth structure and intra oral radiograph, are methods can be used in the clinic. To provide standardization for comprehensive caries management at an early stage, all methods supposed to be tested between users. The objective of this research is to evaluate the repeatability of each system. It is a comparative cross sectional study using 100 extracted permanent teeth without obvious cavitation (premolar & molar) that were collected and stored in thymol solution. The teeth were embedded on the wax block and labeled with numbers. All 5 surfaces were examined by 5 examiners using visual (ICDAS II), laser fluorescence (LF) and radiographic examination. The data were then analyzed to measure intra and inter examiner repeatability using Cronbach’s alpha and inter-item correlation matrix. Intra-examiner repeatability for all examiners was >0.7. Chronbach’s a value for inter-examiner repeatability for ICDAS II was >0.8 on 3 surfaces except on buccal and lingual. LF exhibit repeatability of >0.8 on all surfaces. Radiograph shows a low value of inter examiner repeatability (caries detection in daily clinical basis. Laser fluorescence exhibits the highest repeatability while the radiograph showed weak inter-examiner repeatability. Treatment decisions of ICDAS II propose more preventive treatment for early caries lesions compared to laser fluorescence.

  10. Proximal caries lesion detection in primary teeth: does this justify the association of diagnostic methods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussaneli, D G; Restrepo, M; Boldieri, T; Albertoni, T H; Santos-Pinto, L; Cordeiro, R C L

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this clinical study was to evaluate and compare the performance of visual exam with use of the Nyvad criteria (visual examination - (VE)), interproximal radiography (BW), laser fluorescence device (DIAGNOdent Pen-DDPen), and their association in the diagnosis of proximal lesions in primary teeth. For this purpose, 45 children (n = 59 surfaces) of both sexes, aged between 5 and 9 years were selected, who presented healthy primary molars or primary molars with signs suggestive of the presence of caries lesions. The surfaces were clinically evaluated and coded according to the Nyvad criteria and immediately afterwards with the DDPen. Radiographic exam was performed only on the surfaces coded with Nyvad scores 2, 3, 5, or 6. Active caries lesions and/or those with discontinuous surfaces were restored, considering the depth of lesion as reference standard. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and area under ROC curve were calculated for each technique and its associations. Visual exam with Nyvad criteria presented the highest specificity, accuracy, and area under ROC curve values. The DDPen presented the highest sensitivity values. Association with one or more methods resulted in an increase in specificity. The performance of visual, radiographic, and DDpen exams and their associations were good; however, the clinical examination with the Nyvad criteria was sufficient for the diagnosis of interproximal lesions in primary teeth.

  11. A comparative evaluation of DIAGNOdent and caries detector dye in detection of residual caries in prepared cavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Majid; Ahrari, Farzaneh; Jafari, Marzieh

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the association between DIAGNOdent laser and caries detector dye in detection of the remaining caries in restorative cavities. The sample consisted of 100 cavities prepared in patients referring to the Department of Restorative Dentistry of Mashhad Dental School. After confirming caries absence by tactile examination, the presence of any residual caries was determined by a laser fluorescence (LF) device (DIAGNOdent Pen) and then by caries detector dye. The data were analyzed through McNemar test. When the cut off value was considered as ≥13, both DIAGNOdent Pen and caries detector dye found 54 cavities as without caries and 12 cavities as carious. There were 32 teeth diagnosed as decayed only by the dye and two cases that were diagnosed as having residual caries only by the DIAGNOdent. The McNemar test revealed a significant difference in the diagnosis of residual caries between the two methods (p laser fluorescence and tactile examination in residual caries detection (p > 0.05). Both DIAGNOdent Pen and caries detector dye can be considered as adjuncts for detecting residual caries in prepared cavities. However, the use of laser fluorescence device can provide results that are more consistent with tactile examination, while relying on caries detector dye may result in excessive removal of tooth tissue, and thus increase the risk of pulpal exposure. Incomparision with caries detector dye, Residual caries detection by DIAGNOdent Pen is more consistent with tactile examination.

  12. Reliability of Logicon caries detector in the detection and depth assessment of dental caries: An in-vitro study

    OpenAIRE

    Rohit R Behere; Shailesh M Lele

    2011-01-01

    Background: Digital radiography has so far not resulted in improved rates of proximal caries detection. Historically, automated caries detection tools have been largely academic. Opinions regarding the performance of the only such commercially available tool, viz., Logicon caries Detector (LCD) have been equivocal. This study was conducted to evaluate the reliability of LCD in the detection and depth assessment of proximal caries. Materials and Methods: Digital images were obtained of 100...

  13. Introducing a Dental Caries Marking Software and Evaluate Radiologists’ Disagreement in Caries Detection Using this Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baseri H

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Bitewing radiograph is the main reference for diagnosis of proximal and recurrent caries. There is no software for gathering and analyzing radiologists’ opinion in the field of caries detection on digital bitewing radiograph (DBR. Objectives: The main aim of this study is to introduce the first windows application that could be used for marking caries on DBR. This software is called Dental Caries Marking Software (DCMS. The second aim is to create the first DBR caries dataset to be used for future software development projects in the field of automatic caries detection; also gathering and documenting the disagreements and critiques regarding DCMS. Materials and Methods: DCMS has been designed and implemented by the researchers of this study. This software is divided into two parts. The first part is DCMS writer that is used for gathering the user’s opinion and The second part is DCMS analyzer that is used for reading and analyzing the user’s opinion file. Eight radiologists with different experiences used DCMS for marking dental caries on 200 DBR, 50 of which were repeated twice for assessing the accuracy of each radiologist. Results: A total of 3833 points were marked by 8 users on 150 non repetitive DBR. Only 35 points were marked similarly by 8 users; in other words, 8 users totally agreed with 4% of the caries points. According to 50 repetitive DBR, the maximum accuracy of users was 69% and the minimum was 50%. Conclusions: There is significant debate over the diagnosis of caries on DBR; therefore, for unifying the radiologist’s opinions, the need for intelligent caries detection software is apparent. DCMS is useful software for gathering caries data. Moreover, the use of conventional display monitor has negative impacts on accurate diagnosis of caries on DBR.

  14. Histological validation of cone-beam computed tomography versus laser fluorescence and conventional diagnostic methods for occlusal caries detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Elif; Sinanoglu, Alper

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the validity of visual (VE), radiological (RE), cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), and laser fluorescence (LFE) examination methods for the detection of the occlusal noncavitated caries in permanent posterior teeth. Two examiners assessed 121 selected sites on the occlusal surfaces of 44 molar teeth by visual (International Caries Assessment and Detection System II [ICDAS]), radiographic (bite-wing projection) cone-beam computed tomography, and laser fluorescence (DIAGNOdent Pen) examination methods. After a 1-week interval, each measurement was repeated by two examiners. Then, the teeth were sectioned, and histological evaluation was performed, which serves as the gold standard. The lesion depths were classified and correlated with the methods evaluated for validation. The intra- and inter-examiner reliability (sensitivity, specificity) and reproducibility of all examination methods were calculated using a weighted Cohen's κ statistic. The correlation between the examination methods was determined using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis indicating the area under the curve (AUC). CBCT exhibited excellent intra-examiner (0.76 for examiner 1, 0.78 for examiner 2) and fair to good inter-examiner (0.63 for the first, 0.64 for the second measurements) reproducibility. The intra-examiner reproducibility was excellent for the LFE method according to the weighted κ values of examiners 1 (0.90) and 2 (0.79). Among the combined methods, the highest AUC values (0.81-0.95) were obtained for the CBCT examination method performed by the two examiners at both the first and second measurements. Cone beam computed tomography showed better performance than other diagnostic methods.

  15. In vitro performance of QLF system and conventional methods for detection of occlusal caries around tooth-colored restorations in primary molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzi, Tathiane L; Piovesan, Chaiana; Mendes, Fausto M; Braga, Mariana M; Raggio, Daniela P

    2016-01-01

    Secondary caries is the main reason for restoration replacement, and therefore, an accurate detection of this type of condition is fundamental. To compare in vitro the performance of different conventional and quantitative light-induced fluorescence-based (QLF) methods in detecting occlusal caries around resin composite restorations in primary molars. Two examiners evaluated independently 42 sites adjacent to tooth-colored restorations using visual inspection (ICDAS-CARS), radiographic examination, and QLF. Histological examination was used as reference standard method. Area under the ROC curve (Az), sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the methods were calculated at enamel (D1) and dentin caries (D3) lesions thresholds. Intra- and interexaminer reproducibility were calculated using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and kappa statistics. There was no difference among the methods considering Az at D1 threshold. Visual inspection, radiograph, and QLF (scores) methods presented similar sensitivities and significantly higher than those obtained with the QLF (∆F%). At D3 threshold, there were no differences among the methods regarding sensitivities, specificities, and accuracy, except for the examiner 2 with the QLF (∆F%) who achieved a very low sensitivity value. Conventional methods are similar to QLF methods for detecting caries around tooth-colored restorations in primary teeth. © 2015 BSPD, IAPD and John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Comparison of validity of DIAGNOdent with conventional methods for detection of occlusal caries in primary molars using the histological gold standard: An in vivo study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goel A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was conducted to compare the in vivo effectiveness of DIAGNOdent with other conventional methods (visual, tactile and bitewing radiographs for the detection of occlusal caries in primary molars. Another objective of the study was to calculate new cut-off limits for the detection of caries by DIAGNOdent in primary teeth. Materials and Methods: Eighty-four primary molars in 52 children (aged 8-12 years, which were indicated for extraction, were selected and evaluated for dental caries using DIAGNOdent, visual and tactile examination and bitewing radiographs. Histological examination of the sections, prepared subsequent to extraction of the teeth, served as the gold standard for comparison of the above-mentioned methods. Results: When considering enamel caries, values obtained for sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 48.15, 100 and 49.40% for visual examination, 48.15, 100.00 and 49.40% for tactile examination, 49.38, 50.00 and 49.40% for bitewing radiographs, 85.19, 50.00 and 84.34% for DIAGNOdent scores interpreted according to manufacturer′s cut-off limits and 81.48, 100.00 and 81.93% for DIAGNOdent scores interpreted according to newly formulated cut-off limits, respectively. At dentin caries cut-off levels, the values of sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for visual examination were 52.78, 89.36 and 73.49%; 50.00, 91.49 and 73.49% for tactile examination; 30.56, 82.98 and 60.24% for bitewing radiographs; 72.22, 76.60 and 74.70% for DIAGNOdent scores when interpreted according to manufacturer′s cut-off limits and 77.48, 74.47 and 75.90%, respectively, for the DIAGNOdent scores when interpreted according to the newly formulated cut-off limits. Conclusions: DIAGNOdent showed higher sensitivity and accuracy as compared with other conventional methods for detection of enamel caries, whereas for detection of dentinal caries, even though the sensitivity was high, accuracy of the DIAGNOdent device was similar to other

  17. Caries Detection around Restorations Using ICDAS and Optical Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Michele Baffi; Eckert, George Joseph; González-Cabezas, Carlos; Cordeiro, Rita de Cássia Loiola; Ferreira-Zandona, Andrea Gonçalves

    2016-01-01

    Secondary caries is the major reason for replacement of restorations in operative dentistry. New detection methods and technology have the potential to improve the accuracy for diagnosis of secondary carious lesions. This in vitro study evaluated the performance of the ICDAS (International Caries Detection and Assessment System) visual criteria and optical devices for detecting secondary caries around amalgam and composite resin restorations in permanent teeth. A total of 180 extracted teeth with Class I amalgam (N = 90) and resin composite (N = 90) restorations were selected. Two examiners analyzed the teeth twice using the visual criteria (ICDAS), laser fluorescence (LF), light-emitting diode device (MID), quantitative light-induced fluorescence system (QLF), and a prototype system based on the Fluorescence Enamel Imaging technique (Professional Caries Detection System, PCDS). The gold standard was determined by means of confocal laser scanning microscopy. High-reproducibility values were shown for all methods, except for MID in the amalgam group. For both groups the QLF and PCDS were the most sensitive methods, whereas the other methods presented better specificity (p composite restorations, whereas around amalgam restorations all methods seemed to be questionable. Using Internal Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS), an LF device, quantitative light-induced fluorescence and a novel method based on Fluorescence Enamel Imaging technique may be effective for evaluating secondary caries around composite resin restorations. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. An artifical neural network for detection of simulated dental caries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kositbowornchai, S. [Khon Kaen Univ. (Thailand). Dept. of Oral Diagnosis; Siriteptawee, S.; Plermkamon, S.; Bureerat, S. [Khon Kaen Univ. (Thailand). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Chetchotsak, D. [Khon Kaen Univ. (Thailand). Dept. of Industrial Engineering

    2006-08-15

    Objects: A neural network was developed to diagnose artificial dental caries using images from a charged-coupled device (CCD)camera and intra-oral digital radiography. The diagnostic performance of this neural network was evaluated against a gold standard. Materials and methods: The neural network design was the Learning Vector Quantization (LVQ) used to classify a tooth surface as sound or as having dental caries. The depth of the dental caries was indicated on a graphic user interface (GUI) screen developed by Matlab programming. Forty-nine images of both sound and simulated dental caries, derived from a CCD camera and by digital radiography, were used to 'train' an artificial neural network. After the 'training' process, a separate test-set comprising 322 unseen images was evaluated. Tooth sections and microscopic examinations were used to confirm the actual dental caries status.The performance of neural network was evaluated using diagnostic test. Results: The sensitivity (95%CI)/specificity (95%CI) of dental caries detection by the CCD camera and digital radiography were 0.77(0.68-0.85)/0.85(0.75-0.92) and 0.81(0.72-0.88)/0.93(0.84-0.97), respectively. The accuracy of caries depth-detection by the CCD camera and digital radiography was 58 and 40%, respectively. Conclusions: The model neural network used in this study could be a prototype for caries detection but should be improved for classifying caries depth. Our study suggests an artificial neural network can be trained to make the correct interpretations of dental caries. (orig.)

  19. An artifical neural network for detection of simulated dental caries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kositbowornchai, S.; Siriteptawee, S.; Plermkamon, S.; Bureerat, S.; Chetchotsak, D.

    2006-01-01

    Objects: A neural network was developed to diagnose artificial dental caries using images from a charged-coupled device (CCD)camera and intra-oral digital radiography. The diagnostic performance of this neural network was evaluated against a gold standard. Materials and methods: The neural network design was the Learning Vector Quantization (LVQ) used to classify a tooth surface as sound or as having dental caries. The depth of the dental caries was indicated on a graphic user interface (GUI) screen developed by Matlab programming. Forty-nine images of both sound and simulated dental caries, derived from a CCD camera and by digital radiography, were used to 'train' an artificial neural network. After the 'training' process, a separate test-set comprising 322 unseen images was evaluated. Tooth sections and microscopic examinations were used to confirm the actual dental caries status.The performance of neural network was evaluated using diagnostic test. Results: The sensitivity (95%CI)/specificity (95%CI) of dental caries detection by the CCD camera and digital radiography were 0.77(0.68-0.85)/0.85(0.75-0.92) and 0.81(0.72-0.88)/0.93(0.84-0.97), respectively. The accuracy of caries depth-detection by the CCD camera and digital radiography was 58 and 40%, respectively. Conclusions: The model neural network used in this study could be a prototype for caries detection but should be improved for classifying caries depth. Our study suggests an artificial neural network can be trained to make the correct interpretations of dental caries. (orig.)

  20. Early detection of dental caries using photoacoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K.; Witte, R.; Koh, I.; Ashkenazi, S.; O'Donnell, M.

    2006-02-01

    For decades, visual, tactile and radiographic examinations have been the standard for diagnosing caries. Nonetheless, the extent of variation in the diagnosis of dental caries is substantial among dental practitioners using these traditional techniques. Therefore, a more reliable standard for detecting incipient caries would be desirable. Using photoacoustics, near-infrared (NIR) optical contrast between sound and carious dental tissues can be relatively easily and accurately detected at ultrasound resolution. In this paper, a pulsed laser (Nd:YAG, Quanta-Ray) was used to probe extracted human molars at different disease stages determined from periapical radiographs. Both fundamental (1064nm) and first harmonic (532nm) pulses (15ns pulse length, 100mJ at fundamental and 9mJ at first harmonic , 10Hz pulse repetition rate) were used to illuminate the occlusal surface of tooth samples placed in a water tank. The photoacoustic signal was recorded with an unfocused wideband single-element piezoelectric transducer (centered at 12 MHz, bandwidth 15 MHz) positioned at small angle (less than 30 degrees) to the laser beam close to the occlusal surface. At the fundamental wavelength, total photoacoustic energy increases from normal to incipient stage disease by as much as a factor of 10. Differences between photoacoustic energy at the fundamental and first harmonic wavelength further indicate spectral absorption changes of the underlying structure with disease progression. Using a focused laser beam, an extracted molar with suspected incipient caries was scanned along the occulusal surface to help localize the caries inside enamel and dentin. The significantly increasing photoacoustic signal at a specific scan line both at fundamental and first harmonic indicates the local development of the incipient caries. The photoacoustic results compare well with visual inspection after layer by layer dissection. Preliminary results demonstrate the feasibility of detecting incipient

  1. New insights into urban planning of Caričin Grad: The application of modern sensing and detection methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanišević Vujadin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Caričin Grad, Justiniana Prima, urban planning, fortification, settlement, aerial photography, geophysical surveys, LiDAR, photogrammetry, excavations, GIS. Thanks to the application of modern non-destructive sensing and detection methods, in recent years a series of new data on urban planning in Caričin Grad was obtained. For the most part, the current research programme studies the Upper Town’s northern plateau, wooded until recently and hence the only previously unexplored unit of the city. In the course of this programme, the classical research method - the excavations started in 2009 - is for the first time combined with the systematic application of airborne and terrestrial sensing and detection techniques. The analysis of historic aerial photographs and topographic plans proved to be very useful as well. Along with them, LiDAR-derived DTMs, photogrammetric DEMs, different geophysical and orthophotographic plans are stored in the GIS database for Caričin Grad and the Leskovac Basin. In this way almost 80 percent of the plateau area was defined, and the obtained plan is hypothetical only to a small extent, which particularly refers to the unexcavated northern rampart of the Upper Town. Each source provided relevant information for the reconstruction of both the rampart and the settlement, which points to the value of a holistic approach to documentation from various dates. The first source to be studied were archival aerial photographs of Caričin Grad from 1938 and 1947 (Figs. 1, 2.1. The latter one was originally processed by Aleksandar Deroko and Svetozar Radojči}, who drew the plan of the town after it, labelling the unexplored Upper Town’s northern plateau as “a probable habitation area”. The route of the northern rampart was aslo rather precisely determined by the authors (Fig. 2.2. Recently, these photographs were rectified and georeferenced in the GIS. The 1938 shot reveals the position of some towers as well, and it is

  2. In vivo performance of two devices for occlusal caries detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozdemir, Esin; Karaarslan, Emine Sirin; Ozsevik, A Semih; Ata Cebe, M; Aktan, Ali Murat

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this in vivo study was to compare the performance of light-emitting diode (LED)- and laser fluorescence (LF)-based devices with that of visual inspection (VI) in the diagnosis of occlusal caries. A total of 156 occlusal surfaces were investigated. Each occlusal surface was assessed with LED- and LF-based devices after a VI was performed. Pit and fissure opening was applied to the occlusal surfaces in which opacity or discoloration was distinctly visible after airdrying. The inter-examiner reliability of caries examination was assessed using the weighted κ statistics. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of occlusal caries diagnosis using these methods were calculated according to the appropriate thresholds. Acceptable inter-examiner agreement was found for the LED- and LF-based devices and VI (κ=0.61, κ=0.76, and κ=0.87, respectively). Higher specificity values were achieved at a T2 threshold for the LF-based device (0.76 and 0.80) and at a T1 threshold for the LED-based readings (0.60 and 0.62) and VI (0.90 and 0.93) for both observers. With regard to VI, higher sensitivity values were found at both thresholds for the two observers in comparing the three caries detection methods (0.98 at T1 and 0.96 at T2). The accuracy values for T1 were higher than those for the T2 values, for all three caries detection methods. Caries lesions may be detected more accurately than clinically sound areas by both caries detection devices.

  3. Visual Inspection for Caries Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimenez, T; Piovesan, C; Braga, M M

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to perform a systematic review including a meta-analysis to evaluate the overall accuracy of visual methods for detecting carious lesions and to identify possible sources of heterogeneity among the studies included. Two reviewers searched PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and other sources through...

  4. Accuracy of dental radiographs for caries detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, James R; Keenan, Analia Veitz

    2016-06-01

    Data sourcesMedline, Embase, Cochrane Central and grey literature, complemented by cross-referencing from bibliographies. Diagnostic reviews were searched using the Medion database.Study selectionStudies reporting on the accuracy (sensitivity/specificity) of radiographic detection of primary carious lesions under clinical (in vivo) or in vitro conditions were included. The outcome of interest was caries detection using radiographs. The study also assessed the effect of the histologic lesion stage and included articles to assess the differences between primary or permanent teeth, if there had been improvements recently due to technical advances or radiographic methods, or if there are variations within studies (between examiners or applied radiographic techniques).Data extraction and synthesisData extraction was done by one reviewer first, using a piloted electronic spreadsheet and repeated independently by a second reviewer. Consensus was achieved by discussion. Data extraction followed guidelines from the Cochrane Collaboration. Risk of bias was assessed using QUADAS-2. Pooled sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic odds ratios (DORs) were calculated using random effects meta-analysis. Analyses were performed separately for occlusal and proximal lesions. Dentine lesions and cavitated lesions were analysed separately.Results947 articles were identified with the searches and 442 were analysed full text. 117 studies (13,375 teeth, 19,108 surfaces) were included. All studies were published in English. 24 studies were in vivo and 93 studies were in vitro. Risk of bias was found to be low in 23 and high in 94 studies. The pooled sensitivity for detecting any kind of occlusal carious lesions was 0.35 (95% CI : 0.31/40) and 0.41 (0.39/0.44) in clinical and in vitro studies respectively while the pooled specificity was 0.78 (0.73/0.83) and 0.70 (0.76/0.84). For the detection of any kind of proximal lesion the sensitivity in the clinical studies was 0.24 (CI 0.21/0/26) and

  5. 21 CFR 872.1740 - Caries detection device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Caries detection device. 872.1740 Section 872.1740...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 872.1740 Caries detection device. (a) Identification. The caries detection device is a device intended to show the existence of decay in a patient's tooth...

  6. Diagnostic value of DIAGNOdent in detecting caries under composite restorations of primary molars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ava Vali Sichani

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: DIAGNOdent showed a greater accuracy in detecting secondary caries under primary molar restorations, compared to radiographs. Although DIAGNOdent is an effective method for detecting caries under composite restorations, it is better to be used as an adjunctive method alongside other detecting procedures.

  7. Proximal caries lesion detection using the Canary Caries Detection System: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Janja; Wan Bakar, Wan Zaripah; Mathews, Sapna M; Okoye, Linda O; Ehler, Benjamin R; Louden, Christopher; Amaechi, Bennett T

    2016-11-01

    This study investigated the accuracy of the Canary System (CS) to detect proximal caries lesions in vitro, and compared it with conventional methods: International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) II and bitewing radiography (BW). Visible proximal surfaces of extracted human teeth were assessed by ICDAS-II before setting them in five manikin mouth models. Then contacting proximal surfaces in mouth models were assessed by BW and CS. Histological validation with polarized-light microscopy served as a gold standard. Pairwise comparisons were performed on area under the curve (AUC), sensitivity, and specificity of the three methods, and corrected using Bonferroni's method. Sensitivities and specificities were compared using a test of proportions and AUC values were compared using DeLong's method. The CS presented significantly higher sensitivity (0.933) than ICDAS-II (0.733, P = 0.01) and BW (0.267, P proximal lesions than ICDAS-II and BW, although without significantly higher specificity. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  8. Radiographic caries detection: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwendicke, Falk; Tzschoppe, Markus; Paris, Sebastian

    2015-08-01

    This systematic review aimed at evaluating the accuracy of radiographic caries detection for different lesions at different locations. Studies reporting on the accuracy (sensitivity/specificity) of radiographic detection of natural primary caries lesions under clinical or in vitro conditions were included. Risk of bias was assessed using QUADAS-2. Pooled sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic odds ratios (DORs) were calculated using random-effects meta-analysis. Analyses were performed separately for occlusal and proximal lesions, with further discrimination between any kind of lesions, dentine lesions, and cavitated lesions. Electronic databases (Medline, Embase, Cochrane Central) and grey literature were systematically searched, complemented by cross-referencing from bibliographies. From 947 identified articles, 442 were analyzed full-text. 117 studies (13,375 teeth, 19,108 surfaces) were included, the majority of them reporting on permanent teeth and having high risk of bias. The detection of any kind (i.e. also initial) lesions had low sensitivities (pooled DOR [95% CI]: 0.24 [0.21/0.26] to 0.42 [0.31/0.34]), but moderate to high specificities (0.70 [0.76/0.84] to 0.97 [0.95/0.98]). For dentine lesions, sensitivities were higher (from 0.36 [0.24/0.49] for proximal to 0.56 [0.53/0.59] for occlusal lesions), and specificities ranged between 0.87 [0.85/0.89] and 0.95 [0.94/0.96]. No studies reported on cavitated occlusal lesions, whilst for cavitated proximal lesions, sensitivities increased above 0.60, whilst sensitivities remained high (above 0.90). Radiographic caries detection is highly accurate for cavitated proximal lesions, and seems also suitable to detect dentine caries lesions. For detecting initial lesions, more sensitive methods could be considered in population with high caries risk and prevalence. Radiographic caries detection is especially suitable for detecting more advanced caries lesions, and has limited risks for false positive diagnoses. For

  9. Caries detection using light-based diagnostic tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rechmann, Peter; Rechmann, Beate M T; Featherstone, John D B

    2012-09-01

    Modern caries treatment concepts like caries management by risk assessment--CAMBRA--entail diagnosing early caries lesions in a precavitated stage to make it possible to reverse the caries process with remineralization and bacteria reduction efforts. Newer, sensitive caries diagnostic tools can serve not only for early detection but also for monitoring of caries lesions to confirm the success of prevention and remineralization efforts. This article describes light-based caries diagnostic tools, with emphasis on fluorescence-based techniques, and compares the most common available fluorescence-based tools with a standardized visual caries inspection system-the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS II). Fluorescence tools that provide high-resolution fluorescence pictures are likely to provide more reliable scores than fluorescence devices that assess via a single spot. The better visibility of the high-resolution fluorescence imaging could prevent unnecessary operative interventions.

  10. Visual Inspection Displays Good Accuracy for Detecting Caries Lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, Svante

    2015-01-01

    /QUESTION: To evaluate the overall accuracy of visual methods for detecting caries lesions. SOURCE OF FUNDING: Brazilian government (Process 2012/17888-1). TYPE OF STUDY/DESIGN: Systematic review with meta-analysis of data LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 1: Good-quality, patient-oriented evidence STRENGTH OF RECOMMENDATION...... GRADE: Grade A: Consistent, good-quality patient-oriented evidence....

  11. Digital camera resolution and proximal caries detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prapayasatok, S; Janhom, A; Verochana, K; Pramojanee, S

    2006-07-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of proximal caries detection from digitized film images captured by a digital camera at different resolution settings. Twenty-five periapical radiographs of 50 premolar and 25 molar teeth were photographed using a digital camera, Sony Cyber-shot, DSC-S75 at three different resolution settings: 640 x 480, 1280 x 960 and 1600 x 1200. Seventy-five digital images were transferred to a computer, saved and opened using ACDSee software. In addition, a PowerPoint slide was made from each digital image. Five observers scored three groups of images (the films, the displayed 1:1 digital images on the ACDSee software, and the PowerPoint slides) for the existence of proximal caries using a 5-point confidence scale, and the depth of caries on a 4-point scale. Ground sections of the teeth were used as the gold standard. Az values under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of each group of images and at different resolutions were compared using the Friedman and Wilcoxon signed rank tests. Mean different values between the lesions' depth interpreted by the observers and that of the gold standard were analysed. Films showed the highest Az values. Only the 1280 x 960 images on the ACDSee software showed no significant difference of the Az value from the films (P=0.28). The digital images from three resolution settings on the PowerPoint slides showed no significant differences, either among each other or between them and the films. For caries depth, the 1280 x 960 images showed lower values of mean difference in enamel lesions compared with the other two resolution groups. This study showed that in order to digitize conventional films, it was not necessary to use the highest camera resolution setting to achieve high diagnostic accuracy for proximal caries detection. The 1280 x 960 resolution setting of the digital camera demonstrated comparable diagnostic accuracy with film and was adequate for digitizing radiographs for caries

  12. Transillumination and HDR Imaging for Proximal Caries Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederer, A; Kunzelmann, K H; Hickel, R; Litzenburger, F

    2018-02-01

    The purpose was to develop an in vitro model for the validation of near-infrared transillumination (NIRT) for proximal caries detection, to enhance NIRT with high-dynamic-range imaging (HDRI), and to compare both methods, using micro-computed tomography (µCT) as a reference standard. Both proximal surfaces of 53 healthy or decayed permanent human teeth were examined using the Diagnocam (DC) (KaVo) and NIRT with HDRI (NIRT-HDRI). NIRT was combined with HDRI to improve the diagnostic performance by reducing under- and overexposed image areas. For NIRT-HDRI, an exposure series was captured and merged into a single HDR image. A classification was applied according to lesion depth. All surfaces were assessed twice by 2 trained examiners, and additionally with µCT for validation. The Kappa statistic was used to calculate inter-rater reliability and agreement between DC and NIRT-HDRI. Inter-rater reliability (weighted Kappa, wκ) showed very good agreement for the DC (0.90) and NIRT-HDRI (0.96). The overall agreement (wκ) was almost perfect (0.85). In the individual categories (0 to 4), the agreement (simple Kappa) ranged from almost perfect (category 4) to moderate (1 and 2) to substantial (categories 0 and 3). Sensitivity and specificity of sound surfaces, enamel, and dentin caries ranged from 0.57 to 0.99 and were similar for both methods in the different categories. NIRT-HDRI had a higher sensitivity for sound surfaces and enamel caries, as well as a higher specificity for dentin caries. Regarding the obtained images, HDRI allowed for the detection of caries within a greater range of luminance levels, resulting in a more detailed visualization of structures without under- or overexposure. However, HDRI this did not improve the diagnostics significantly. Distinguishing between a processed demineralized enamel and dentin lesions appears to be a problem specific to NIRT and cannot be balanced using HDRI.

  13. Detection of in vitro proximal caries in storage phosphor plate radiographs scanned with different resolutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, G.; Berkhout, W.E.R.; Sanderink, G.C.H.; Martins, M.; van der Stelt, P.F.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the effect of the scanning resolution of storage phosphor plate (SPP) radiographs on the detection of proximal caries lesions. Methods: 10 dentists evaluated 72 proximal surfaces of premolars with respect to caries from SPP radiographs scanned with theoretical spatial

  14. Economic aspects of the detection of occlusal dentine caries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norlund, Anders; Axelsson, Susanna; Dahlen, Gunnar

    2009-01-01

    clinically. A second aim was to analyse the different strategies when the costs of the subsequent restorative care are considered. METHODS: A model analysis was applied owing to the lack of original articles. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated from a systematic review and included in vitro......OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the cost of true-positive occlusal dentine caries detection in permanent molars assessed by: (I) visual-tactile examination, (II) visual-tactile examination combined with bitewing radiographs, and (III) selective radiographic examination of patients with lesions detected...... and in vivo studies of medium and high quality. The direct costs for examinations and restorative care were extracted from the costs of the Public Dental Service in Sweden (2006). RESULTS: The diagnostic costs per true-positive finding were dependent on the occurrence of occlusal caries and increased...

  15. An in vitro comparison of a combined FOTI/Visual examination of occlusal caries with other caries diagnostic methods and the effect of stain on their diagnostic performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekstrand, K.R.; Côrtes, D.F.; Ellwood, R.P.

    2003-01-01

    Occlusal caries, detection, fibre optic transillumination, visual inspection, DIAGNOdent, laser fluorescence, electrical caries monitor, electrical resistance, stain......Occlusal caries, detection, fibre optic transillumination, visual inspection, DIAGNOdent, laser fluorescence, electrical caries monitor, electrical resistance, stain...

  16. In vitro performance of a pen-type laser fluorescence device and bitewing radiographs for approximal caries detection in permanent and primary teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Feltrin de Souza

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: LFpen presented better reproducibility for primary and permanent teeth and higher accuracy in detecting caries lesions at D1 threshold than BW for permanent teeth. LFpen should be used as an adjunct method for approximal caries detection.

  17. Use of ICDAS-II, Fluorescence-Based Methods, and Radiography in Detection and Treatment Decision of Occlusal Caries Lesions: An In Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahita Jablonski-Momeni

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To use visual inspection (ICDAS-II, laser fluorescence (LF, fluorescence based camera (FC and radiographic examination (BW for detection of caries and for treatment decision. Methods. The occlusal sites of 84 extracted permanent teeth were examined using all methods and treatment decisions (preventive or operative care were recorded based on each method independently. For validation of the findings, fissures were opened with rotating instruments and clinical depth was determined as gold standard. Correlations (, sensitivity, specificity and AUC were calculated. McNemar test was used to show whether different methods led to significant changes in treatment decisions. Results. Highest correlation was found between ICDAS-II and FC ( 0.84, ICDAS-II and gold standard (0.82 and FC and gold standard (0.81. ICDAS-II provided the highest performance (AUC 1.0, followed by FC (0.95 and LF (0.88. The greatest difference was found for treatment planning of dentine lesions, where the use of FC (cut-offs according to the literature had the greatest agreement between operative treatment and dentine lesions, followed by use of ICDAS-II. Conclusion. ICDAS-II may have high potential for detection and treatment planning, and other devices, especially the fluorescence camera, can add substantial information to the visual examination, enabling examiners plan treatment more accurately.

  18. Visual-tactile versus radiographic caries detection agreement in caries-active adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, André V; Ramos, Mario D; Astorga, Fernando; Shugars, Daniel A; Bader, James D

    2013-01-01

    The study aims to determine a) the extent of agreement between visual-tactile caries examination (VTE) and radiographic examination (RE) in detecting presumptive caries lesions on occlusal and proximal surfaces of posterior teeth of UNC Xylitol for Adult Caries Trial participants; and b) the additional caries diagnostic yield obtained by adding RE to VTE. Data consisted of surface-level visual-tactile and radiographic classification of disease (cavitated and noncavitated caries lesions) or nondisease (sound surfaces). Participants (n = 114, adults with ≥12 erupted teeth and 1-10 caries lesions) received baseline VTE by a trained and calibrated examiner, and had interproximal radiographs obtained within 7 months before or after the VTE. Radiographs were assessed independently by two trained and calibrated examiners masked with respect to VTE results. The diagnostic threshold was surface-level disease/nondisease status. Kappa statistics provided an estimate of VTE-RE agreement on diseased surfaces. The additional diagnostic yield of the RE over VTE was calculated as the additional lesions detected radiographically as a percentage of the total number of lesions detected by VTE. Four-hundred ninety-four (51 occlusal, 433 proximal) lesions were detected; of these, 81 (2 occlusal, 79 proximal) lesions were detected by both VTE and RE. Kappa statistics were 0.18 (all surfaces), 0.04 (occlusal), and 0.18 (proximal). The additional diagnostic yield was 69 percent (all surfaces), 55 percent (occlusal), and 71 percent (proximal). There is poor agreement between VTE and RE to detect caries in posterior teeth of caries-active adults. However, an RE performed within 7 months of a VTE adds caries diagnostic yield in a clinical trial, especially on proximal surfaces. © 2013 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  19. Accuracy of digital panoramic regarding interproximal caries detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goodarzi Pour D

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aims: Conventional radiological equipments in our country are going to be converted to digital system using computed radiology (CR technology. If we know the accuracy of digital panoramic radiography for detection of small defects in tooth, it will be useful in cases with difficulty for taking the intraoral radiographs. The aim of this study was to evaluate sensitivity and specificity of digital panoramic radiography for detection of proximal caries compared with the bitewing radiography."nMaterials and Methods: One-hundred patients who had been ordered for taking both bitewing and panoramic radiography were included in this study. Panoramic and then bitewing radiographs were observed by a maxillofacial radiologist and interproximal caries were recorded. Sensitivity and specificity of digital panoramic radiography (CI=95% was calculated compared with the bitewing radiography as a gold standard."nResults: This study showed that the values for sensitivity and specificity were 62.7% (CI 95%=57.7%-67.5% and 91.0% (CI 95%=89.2%-92.5%, respectively."nConclusion: Sensitivity of digital panoramic is less than bitewing radiography even with processing before printing. Therefore, bitewing radiography is superior for detection of inter proximal caries.

  20. Detection of early caries by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasazawa, Shuhei; Kakino, Satoko; Matsuura, Yuji

    2015-07-01

    To improve sensitivity of dental caries detection by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) analysis, it is proposed to utilize emission peaks in the ultraviolet. We newly focused on zinc whose emission peaks exist in ultraviolet because zinc exists at high concentration in the outer layer of enamel. It was shown that by using ratios between heights of an emission peak of Zn and that of Ca, the detection sensitivity and stability are largely improved. It was also shown that early caries are differentiated from healthy part by properly setting a threshold in the detected ratios. The proposed caries detection system can be applied to dental laser systems such as ones based on Er:YAG-lasers. When ablating early caries part by laser light, the system notices the dentist that the ablation of caries part is finished. We also show the intensity of emission peaks of zinc decreased with ablation with Er:YAG laser light.

  1. Brief communication: a pilot study: smooth surface early caries (caries incipiens) detection with KaVo DIAGNODent in historical material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomczyk, Jacek; Komarnitki, Iulian; Olczak-Kowalczyk, Dorota

    2013-03-01

    In many odontological studies concerning archeological material, there is no analysis of early caries lesions (caries incipiens) that manifest as a carious spot. At this stage of caries, the enamel is still hard, and thus, it is impossible to diagnose caries by visual methods. We assessed the usefulness of the DIAGNODent pen (DD laser) in analyzing noncavity lesions on the smooth surface sites of crowns from historical populations. Twenty-seven individuals were examined: 18 from Radom (Poland), and nine from Tell Masaikh and Terqa (Syria). A total of 562 teeth were characterized. The series represented different climatic zones, but were dated from the similar period, 18th to 19th century AD. We used four diagnostic techniques: visual, DD laser, radiographic, and histological as the gold standard. DD laser showed that the mean values of healthy enamel in both series did not exceed 15 units. The mean values of smooth and rough spots in the Syrian population were significantly higher than those from Poland. This study showed that all the noncarious spots from the Radom series did not exceed 30 units. In the Syrian samples, this limit was higher at 44 units. These results were confirmed by histology and radiography. The DD laser provided good results in detecting dentine carious lesions in historical material, but its efficiency in diagnosing early caries (caries incipiens) remains uncertain based on the presented series. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Clinical evaluation of near-infrared light transillumination in approximal dentin caries detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, Gokhan; Guzel, Kadriye Gorkem Ulu

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this clinical study was to compare conventional caries detection techniques, pen-type laser fluorescence device, and near-infrared light transillumination method in approximal dentin caries lesions. The study included 157 patients, aged 12-18, without any cavity in the posterior teeth. Two calibrated examiners carried out the assessments of selected approximal caries sites independently. After the assessments, the unopened sites were excluded and a total of 161 approximal sites were included in the study. When both the examiners arrived at a consensus regarding the presence of dentin caries, the detected lesions were opened with a conical diamond burr, the cavity extent was examined and validated (gold standard). Sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value, positive predictive value, accuracy, and area under the ROC curve (Az) values among the caries detection methods were calculated. Bitewing radiography and near-infrared (NIR) light transillumination methods showed the highest sensitivity (0.83-0.82) and accuracy (0.82-0.80) among the methods. Visual inspection showed the lowest sensitivity (0.54). Laser fluorescence device and visual inspection showed nearly equal performance. Near-infrared light transillumination can be used as an alternative method to approximal dentin caries detection. Visual inspection and laser fluorescence device alone should not be used for approximal dentin caries.

  3. Caries clinical trial methods for the assessment of oral care products in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellwood, R P; Gomez, J; Goma, J; Pretty, I A

    2012-09-01

    Traditionally, caries clinical trials of oral care products have focused on the prevention of caries in children and adolescents at the "cavitation" level. Because of a general reduction in caries incidence and the use of positive control comparators, studies have grown both in size and duration to improve statistical power. Currently, they tend to be of 2 to 3 years' duration, with up to 2,000 high-risk individuals per group. During the past decade, there has been a shift in emphasis from a restorative approach to the treatment of dental caries to a therapeutic approach focused on the remineralization of early caries lesions. However, caries clinical trials of oral care products have not often reflected this paradigm change. This manuscript reviews alternative caries clinical trial methods for oral care products. It is concluded that methods focused on the detection and monitoring of enamel caries and root caries, by visual approaches such as ICDAS and instrumental methods such as QLF, Diagnodent, and Electrical Caries Monitors, provide viable alternatives to traditional methods. In particular, such approaches more accurately reflect the modes of action of many therapeutic agents and formulations and may reduce the cost and duration of product innovation.

  4. Comparison of Proximal Caries Detection in Primary Teeth between Laser Fluorescence and Bitewing Radiography: An in vivo Study

    OpenAIRE

    Mepparambath, Ratheesh; S Bhat, Sham; K Hegde, Sundeep; Anjana, G; Sunil, M; Mathew, Sherryl

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT% Background and objective: Proximal caries detection is of great importance because of the rapid rate of caries progression and the difficulty in determining the absence or presence of a lesion in primary dentition. Although, various methods for caries diagnosis offer good diagnostic performances, they provide varying sensitivities for detecting proximal carious lesions. The objective of this study was to compare, in vivo, the accuracy of DIAGNOdent and bitewing radiography at detect...

  5. RECENT ADVANCES IN DETECTION AND DIAGNOSIS OF DENTAL CARIES

    OpenAIRE

    Prachi; Neha; Aditya; Deepak; Medhavi

    2014-01-01

    Dental caries , a progressive bacterial damage to teeth , is one of the most commondiseases that affects 95% of the population and is still a major cause of tooth loss.Recent years have seen an increase in research activity surrounding diagnostic methods , particularly in the assessment of early caries lesions. The use of technologi es as adjunct to clinical visual examination for caries diagnosis will facilitate preventive care in dentistry to lower treatment...

  6. Comparison between Two Digital Panoramic Radiography Techniques for Proximal Caries Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Shafagh Motlagh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Although proximal dental caries are very common, clinical examinations cannot detect them all. Panoramic radiography has been widely used in dentistry for both diagnosis and screening. This study aimed to investigate and compare the efficacy of two digital panoramic radiography techniques in the diagnosis of proximal caries. Methods: A total number of 60 patients referred to a dental radiology center, all had complete dental system and bitewing radiographies, were included. The patients were randomly divided into two groups of 30 patients. For the first and second groups, CR and DR images were obtained respectively. Images were obtained from the distal of the third tooth to the distal of the eighth. Bitewing images were compared with CR and DR images regarding the detection of caries. Kappa index and chi-squared statistics were employed to analyze the results. Results: There was a high agreement rate between bitewing images and CR (Kappa=0.775 and DR (Kappa=o.762 images in detecting caries. Also no significant difference was shown between CR and DR techniques in the detection of caries (0.543. However, DR and CR images are not efficient enough to be prescribed as the sole imaging technique to detect proximal caries. Conclusion: DR and CR techniques could be good imaging techniques for the detection of dental caries as a companion to clinical examinations.

  7. The Comparison between Two Different Digital Panoramic Radiography Techniques in the Detection of Proximal Caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Hoseini Zarch

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Although proximal dental caries are very common, clinical examinations cannot detect them all. Panoramic radiography has been widely used in dentistry for both diagnosis and screening. This study aimed to investigate and compare the efficacy of two digital panoramic radiography techniques in the diagnosis of proximal caries. Methods: A total number of 60 patients referred to a dental radiology center, all had complete dental system and bitewing radiographies, were included. The patients were randomly divided into two groups of 30 patients. For the first and second groups, CR and DR images were obtained respectively. Images were obtained from the distal of the third tooth to the distal of the eighth. Bitewing images were compared with CR and DR images regarding the detection of caries. Kappa index and chi-squared statistics were employed to analyze the results. Results: There was a high agreement rate between bitewing images and CR (Kappa=0.775 and DR (Kappa=o.762 images in detecting caries. Also no significant difference was shown between CR and DR techniques in the detection of caries (0.543. However, DR and CR images are not efficient enough to be prescribed as the sole imaging technique to detect proximal caries. Conclusion: DR and CR techniques could be good imaging techniques for the detection of dental caries as a companion to clinical examinations

  8. Detection of proximal caries using digital radiographic systems with different resolutions

    OpenAIRE

    Sima Nikneshan; Fatemeh Mashhadi Abbas; Sedigheh Sabbagh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dental radiography is an important tool for detection of caries and digital radiography is the latest advancement in this regard. Spatial resolution is a characteristic of digital receptors used for describing the quality of images. Aim: This study was aimed to compare the diagnostic accuracy of two digital radiographic systems with three different resolutions for detection of noncavitated proximal caries. Settings and Design: Diagnostic accuracy. Materials and Methods...

  9. Proximal caries detection: Sirona Sidexis versus Kodak Ektaspeed Plus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Emad A; Tyndall, Donald A; Ludlow, John B; Caplan, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    This study compared the accuracy of intraoral film and a charge-coupled device (CCD) receptor for proximal caries detection. Four observers evaluated images of the proximal surfaces of 40 extracted posterior teeth. The presence or absence of caries was scored using a five-point confidence scale. The actual status of each surface was determined from ground section histology. Responses were evaluated by means of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Areas under ROC curves (Az) were assessed through a paired t-test. The performance of the CCD-based intraoral sensor was not different statistically from Ektaspeed Plus film in detecting proximal caries.

  10. A novel LED-based device for occlusal caries detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktan, Ali Murat; Cebe, Mehmet Ata; Ciftçi, Mehmet Ertuğrul; Sirin Karaarslan, Emine

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this in-vitro study was to compare the performance of laser-based (DIAGNOdent, KaVo, Biberach, Germany) and LED-based (Midwest Caries I.D., DENTSPLY Professional, New York, USA) caries detectors in the detection of occlusal caries in permanent molars. The study consisted of 129 visually sound or non-cavitated pits or fissures in 82 extracted permanent human molar teeth. Two trained examiners used the laser-based and LED-based caries detectors to examine the fissures for caries. The teeth were then sectioned at the surfaces suspected of containing occlusal caries and histologically evaluated using stereomicroscopy as a gold standard. Inter-examiner reliability of the caries detector examination was assessed using Cohen's Kappa statistics. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy in diagnosing occlusal caries using the two devices were calculated according to appropriate cut-off scores. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were also determined to compare the diagnostic performance of the devices in occlusal caries diagnosis. The cut-off level of significance was taken as p = 0.005. Cohen's Kappa showed substantial agreement for the laser-based caries detector (0.74), and almost perfect agreement for the LED-based (0.89) caries detector. The specificity of the laser-based device varied from 0.49 to 0.97 at T1 and T2. Its sensitivity varied from 0.33 to 0.65 at T1 and T2. The specificity of the LED-based device varied from 0.48 to 0.56 at T1 and T2. Its sensitivity varied from 0.65 to 0.84 at T1 and from 0.80 to 0.84 at T2. Taking the limitations of the current study into consideration, the DIAGNOdent laser pen was more accurate in determining when teeth were free of occlusal caries than was the Midwest Caries I.D. LED-based device, although the Midwest Caries I.D. device more often revealed the presence of occlusal caries than did the DIAGNOdent pen.

  11. The Marketplace for New Caries Management Products: Dental Caries Detection and Caries Management by Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berg Joel H

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The number of new technologies emerging each year in the realm of dental caries management is growing at an exponential rate. Examining the patent literature, one can see that this growth rate will likely continue, with the outcome that dentistry will see an expanded growth in managing dental caries by risk assessment with medicinal therapeutic interventions. Restorative dentistry solutions, treating the results of dental caries, will continue to grow, while technologies to identify the caries process at its earliest stages will soon invade practices everywhere. The most interesting aspect of these changes will be how industry responds to the inexorable, yet slow change in dental professional demand for these new technologies, while trying to be the "first to market" within the various categories of this business opportunity. This paper will take a close look at how businesses with the core competence to be key players in this emerging growth category will assess the marketplace, and match up their business interests with the changing needs of the dental profession. The paper will also address the strategic planning and business processes that the dental industry will undertake to bring new technologies to market, and how these technologies will be positioned to health care professionals and consumers. The results of the key interactions between industry and the dental profession will determine the extent to which dental caries is managed as a disease, in addition to being managed by surgical restorative interventions.

  12. The influence of interdental spacing on the detection of proximal caries lesions in primary teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane Fernandes Novaes

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of interdental spacing on the performance of proximal caries detection methods in primary molars. In addition, aspects related to temporary tooth separation with orthodontic separators were evaluated. The proximal spaces between the posterior primary teeth (n = 344 of 76 children (4-12 years old were evaluated before and after temporary separation. Stainless steel strips with different standardized thicknesses were used to measure the presence of biological spacing and the spacing obtained after temporary separation with orthodontic rubber rings. First, the presence of proximal caries lesions was assessed by visual inspection, bitewing radiographs and a pen-type laser fluorescence device (DIAGNOdent pen. Visual inspection after temporary separation with separators was the reference standard method in checking the actual presence of caries. Multilevel analyses were performed considering different outcomes: the performance of the methods in detecting caries lesions and the spacing after temporary separation. The spacing did not influence the performance of the caries detection methods. The maximum spacing obtained with temporary tooth separation was 0.80 mm (mean ± standard deviation = 0.46 ± 0.13 mm. The temporary separation was more effective in the upper arch and less effective when an initial biological interdental spacing was present. The biological interdental spacing does not influence the performance of proximal caries detection methods in primary molars, and temporary tooth separation provides spacing narrower than 1.0 mm.

  13. The influence of interdental spacing on the detection of proximal caries lesions in primary teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novaes, Tatiane Fernandes; Matos, Ronilza; Celiberti, Paula; Braga, Mariana Minatel; Mendes, Fausto Medeiros

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of interdental spacing on the performance of proximal caries detection methods in primary molars. In addition, aspects related to temporary tooth separation with orthodontic separators were evaluated. The proximal spaces between the posterior primary teeth (n = 344) of 76 children (4-12 years old) were evaluated before and after temporary separation. Stainless steel strips with different standardized thicknesses were used to measure the presence of biological spacing and the spacing obtained after temporary separation with orthodontic rubber rings. First, the presence of proximal caries lesions was assessed by visual inspection, bitewing radiographs and a pen-type laser fluorescence device (DIAGNOdent pen). Visual inspection after temporary separation with separators was the reference standard method in checking the actual presence of caries. Multilevel analyses were performed considering different outcomes: the performance of the methods in detecting caries lesions and the spacing after temporary separation. The spacing did not influence the performance of the caries detection methods. The maximum spacing obtained with temporary tooth separation was 0.80 mm (mean ± standard deviation = 0.46 ± 0.13 mm). The temporary separation was more effective in the upper arch and less effective when an initial biological interdental spacing was present. The biological interdental spacing does not influence the performance of proximal caries detection methods in primary molars, and temporary tooth separation provides spacing narrower than 1.0 mm.

  14. Methods used by Dental Practice-Based Research Network (DPBRN) dentists to diagnose dental caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordan, Valeria V.; Riley, Joseph L; Carvalho, Ricardo M.; Snyder, John; Sanderson, James L; Anderson, Mary; Gilbert, Gregg H.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To (1) identify the methods that dentists in The Dental Practice-Based Research Network (DPBRN) use to diagnose dental caries; (2) quantify their frequency of use; and (3) test the hypothesis that certain dentist and dental practice characteristics are significantly associated with their use. Methods A questionnaire about methods used for caries diagnosis was sent to DPBRN dentists who reported doing at least some restorative dentistry; 522 dentists participated. Questions included use of dental radiographs, dental explorer, laser fluorescence, air-drying, fiber optic devices, and magnification, as used when diagnosing primary, secondary/recurrent, or non-specific caries lesions. Variations on the frequency of their use were tested using multivariate analysis and Bonferroni tests. Results Overall, the dental explorer was the instrument most commonly used to detect primary occlusal caries as well as to detect caries at the margins of existing restorations. In contrast, laser fluorescence was rarely used to help diagnose occlusal primary caries. For proximal caries, radiographs were used to help diagnose 75-100% of lesions by 96% of the DPBRN dentists. Dentists who use radiographs most often to assess proximal surfaces of posterior teeth, were significantly more likely to also report providing a higher percentage of patients with individualized caries prevention (p = .040) and seeing a higher percentage of pediatric patients (p = .001). Conclusion Use of specific diagnostic methods varied substantially. The dental explorer and radiographs are still the most commonly used diagnostic methods. PMID:21488724

  15. Accuracy of Digital Bitewing Radiography versus Different Views of Digital Panoramic Radiography for Detection of Proximal Caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdinian, Mehrdad; Razavi, Sayed Mohammad; Samety, Amir Abbas; Faghihian, Elham

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Dental caries are common and have a high incidence among populations. Radiographs are essential for detecting proximal caries. The best technique should be recognized for accurate detection of caries. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of detection of proximal caries using intraoral bitewing, extraoral bitewing, improved interproximal panoramic, improved orthogonality panoramic and conventional panoramic radiographs. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive cross sectional study, 100 extracted human teeth with and without proximal caries were used. Intra and extraoral radiographs were taken. Images were evaluated and scored by two observers. Scores were compared with the histological gold standard. The diagnostic accuracy of radiographs was assessed by means of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis (Ppanoramic and extraoral bitewing radiographs were superior to conventional panoramic radiography for detection of proximal caries ex vivo and should be considered for patients with contraindications for intraoral radiographs. PMID:26622284

  16. [Accuracy of computer aided measurement for detecting dental proximal caries lesions in images of cone-beam computed tomography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z L; Li, J P; Li, G; Ma, X C

    2017-02-09

    Objective: To establish and validate a computer program used to aid the detection of dental proximal caries in the images cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images. Methods: According to the characteristics of caries lesions in X-ray images, a computer aided detection program for proximal caries was established with Matlab and Visual C++. The whole process for caries lesion detection included image import and preprocessing, measuring average gray value of air area, choosing region of interest and calculating gray value, defining the caries areas. The program was used to examine 90 proximal surfaces from 45 extracted human teeth collected from Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology. The teeth were then scanned with a CBCT scanner (Promax 3D). The proximal surfaces of the teeth were respectively detected by caries detection program and scored by human observer for the extent of lesions with 6-level-scale. With histologic examination serving as the reference standard, the caries detection program and the human observer performances were assessed with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Student t -test was used to analyze the areas under the ROC curves (AUC) for the differences between caries detection program and human observer. Spearman correlation coefficient was used to analyze the detection accuracy of caries depth. Results: For the diagnosis of proximal caries in CBCT images, the AUC values of human observers and caries detection program were 0.632 and 0.703, respectively. There was a statistically significant difference between the AUC values ( P= 0.023). The correlation between program performance and gold standard (correlation coefficient r (s)=0.525) was higher than that of observer performance and gold standard ( r (s)=0.457) and there was a statistically significant difference between the correlation coefficients ( P= 0.000). Conclusions: The program that automatically detects dental proximal caries lesions could improve the

  17. Diagnostic Accuracy of Digitized Conventional Radiographs by Camera and Scanner in Detection of Proximal Caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solmaz Valizadeh

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. Digital radiographs have some advantages over conventional ones. Application of digital receptors is not routine yet. Therefore, there is a need for digitizing conventional radiographs. The aim of the present study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of digitized conventional radiographs by scanner and camera in detection of proximal caries. Material and methods. Three hundred and sixteen surfaces of 158 extracted posterior teeth were radiographed. The radiographs were digitized using a digital camera and a scanner. Five observers scored the images for the presence and depth of caries. Histopathologic sections were the gold standard. Kappa agreement coefficient was used for statistical analysis. Results. Kappa agreement coefficients between the camera and the scanner and also between each one with the gold standard in detecting the depth of caries were 0.504, 0.557 and 0.454, respectively. In detection of caries, the indexes were 0.571, 0.553 and 0.527, respectively. Conclusion. Diagnostic accuracy of camera images in caries detection was more than that of scanned images, but there was also a moderate consistency between them. The consistency of detecting the presence of caries was more than that of detecting their depths. It seems that both digital cameras and scanners can be used interchangeably.

  18. Validity of Digital Imaging of Fiber-Optic Transillumination in Caries Detection on Proximal Tooth Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marja-Liisa Laitala

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of our study was to evaluate the validity of the digital imaging fiber-optic transillumination (DIFOTI method in comparison with clinical visual examination (CV and bitewing (BW radiography on detecting caries lesions on proximal surfaces of teeth. Materials and Methods. Proximal tooth surfaces of premolars and molars (n=2,103 of 91 voluntary university students aged from 18 to 30 years were examined with CV, BW radiography, and the DIFOTI method. Results. DIFOTI detected more initial and manifested caries lesions compared with CV and BW. Of the analyzed tooth surfaces, 69.8% were classified as sound by DIFOTI, 80.3% by BW, and 91.6% by CV. Initial caries lesions were found in 21.2% of the surfaces by DIFOTI, in 14.1% by BW, and in 6.2% by CV, whereas the proportions for manifested dental caries lesions were 9.0%, 5.6%, and 2.2%, respectively. The interexaminer agreement regarding the DIFOTI findings between an experienced clinician and a fifth-year dental student was high: κ=0.67 for initial and κ=0.91 for manifested caries lesions. Conclusions. The noninvasive DIFOTI method seems to offer a potential tool for everyday clinical practice. In clinical use, DIFOTI finds well even initial caries lesions on proximal surfaces, thus providing an instrument for detecting lesions potential for arresting as well as for monitoring the outcome after preventive measures.

  19. The validity of proximal caries detection using magnifying visual aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haak, Rainer; Wicht, Michael J; Hellmich, Martin; Gossmann, Andrea; Noack, Michael J

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the validity of proximal caries detection supported by a prism loupe and a surgical microscope used by examiners having different professional experience. One hundred and sixty extracted premolars and molars with varying degrees of proximal caries or sound surfaces were embedded in 10 pairs of models with proximal tooth contacts and a simulated gingiva mask. The proximal surfaces were visually evaluated by 14 observers (7 students, 7 dentists) according to a 5-point caries rating scale using a head-worn prism loupe (x4.5), a surgical microscope (x 14) and without any magnifying device (control). The validity of observations was expressed as ROC curves calculated for two gold standard thresholds: (a) the presence of caries and (b) macroscopic cavitation. Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to determine the effects of 'observer group' and 'diagnostic modality'. An influence of the observer group could not be demonstrated (p > 0.72), whereas significant differences were revealed between the diagnostic modalities (p caries detection with magnifying aids were smaller compared to the control group. It was concluded that the use of a prism loupe or a surgical microscope does not improve the validity of proximal caries detection if the operators, irrespective of being dental students or clinical instructors, are inexperienced in its utilisation. In general only moderate validity was achieved with visual inspection of proximal sites. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  20. Validity of Digital Imaging of Fiber-Optic Transillumination in Caries Detection on Proximal Tooth Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laitala, Marja-Liisa; Piipari, Liina; Sämpi, Noora; Korhonen, Maria; Pesonen, Paula; Joensuu, Tiina; Anttonen, Vuokko

    2017-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the validity of the digital imaging fiber-optic transillumination (DIFOTI) method in comparison with clinical visual examination (CV) and bitewing (BW) radiography on detecting caries lesions on proximal surfaces of teeth. Proximal tooth surfaces of premolars and molars ( n = 2,103) of 91 voluntary university students aged from 18 to 30 years were examined with CV, BW radiography, and the DIFOTI method. DIFOTI detected more initial and manifested caries lesions compared with CV and BW. Of the analyzed tooth surfaces, 69.8% were classified as sound by DIFOTI, 80.3% by BW, and 91.6% by CV. Initial caries lesions were found in 21.2% of the surfaces by DIFOTI, in 14.1% by BW, and in 6.2% by CV, whereas the proportions for manifested dental caries lesions were 9.0%, 5.6%, and 2.2%, respectively. The interexaminer agreement regarding the DIFOTI findings between an experienced clinician and a fifth-year dental student was high: κ = 0.67 for initial and κ = 0.91 for manifested caries lesions. The noninvasive DIFOTI method seems to offer a potential tool for everyday clinical practice. In clinical use, DIFOTI finds well even initial caries lesions on proximal surfaces, thus providing an instrument for detecting lesions potential for arresting as well as for monitoring the outcome after preventive measures.

  1. Methods used by Dental Practice-based Research Network (DPBRN) dentists to diagnose dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordan, V V; Riley, J L; Carvalho, R M; Snyder, J; Sanderson, J L; Anderson, M; Gilbert, G H

    2011-01-01

    To (1) identify the methods that dentists in The Dental Practice-Based Research Network (DPBRN) use to diagnose dental caries; (2) quantify their frequency of use and (3) test the hypothesis that certain dentist and dental practice characteristics are significantly associated with their use. A questionnaire about methods used for caries diagnosis was sent to DPBRN dentists who reported doing some restorative dentistry; 522 dentists participated. Questions included the use of dental radiographs, the dental explorer, laser fluorescence, air-drying and fiber-optic devices and magnification as used when diagnosing primary, secondary/recurrent or non-specific caries lesions. Variations on the frequency of their use were tested using multivariate analysis and Bonferroni tests. Overall, the dental explorer was the instrument most commonly used to detect primary occlusal caries and caries at the margins of existing restorations. In contrast, laser fluorescence was rarely used to help diagnose occlusal primary caries. For proximal caries, radiographs were used to help diagnose 75%–100% of lesions by 96% of the DPBRN dentists. Dentists who use radiographs most often to assess proximal surfaces of posterior teeth were significantly more likely to also report providing a higher percentage of patients with individualized caries prevention (p=.040) and seeing a higher percentage of pediatric patients (p=.001). The use of specific diagnostic methods varied substantially. The dental explorer and radiographs are still the most commonly used diagnostic methods..

  2. Methods used by dental practice-based research network dentists to diagnose dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordan, Valerie V; Riley, Joseph L; De Carvalho, Ricardo Marins; Snyder, John; Sanderson, James L; Anderson, Mary; Gilbert, Gregg H

    2013-04-01

    To (1) identify the methods that dentists in The Dental Practice-based Research Network (DPBRN) use to diagnose dental caries; (2) quantify their frequency of use, and (3) test the hypothesis that certain dentist and dental practice characteristics are significantly associated with their use. A questionnaire about methods used for caries diagnosis was sent to DPBRN dentists who reported doing some restorative dentistry; 522 dentists participated. Questions included the use of dental radiographs, the dental explorer, laser fluorescence, air-drying and fiber-optic devices and magnification as used when diagnosing primary, secondary/recurrent or non-specific caries lesions. Variations on the frequency of their use were tested using multivariate analysis and Bonferroni tests. Overall, the dental explorer was the instrument most commonly used to detect primary occlusal caries and caries at the margins of existing restorations. In contrast, laser fluorescence was rarely used to help diagnose occlusal primary caries. For proximal caries, radiographs were used to help diagnose 75%-100% of lesions by 96% of the DPBRN dentists. Dentists who use radiographs most often to assess proximal surfaces of posterior teeth were significantly more likely to also report providing a higher percentage of patients with individualized caries prevention (p = .040) and seeing a higher percentage of pediatric patients (p = .001). The use of specific diagnostic methods varied substantially. The dental explorer and radiographs are still the most commonly used diagnostic methods.

  3. Designing of a Computer Software for Detection of Approximal Caries in Posterior Teeth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valizadeh, Solmaz; Goodini, Mostafa; Ehsani, Sara; Mohseni, Hadis; Azimi, Fateme; Bakhshandeh, Hooman

    2015-01-01

    Background: Radiographs, adjunct to clinical examination are always valuable complementary methods for dental caries detection. Recently, progressing in digital imaging system provides possibility of software designing for automatically dental caries detection. Objectives: The aim of this study was to develop and assess the function of diagnostic computer software designed for evaluation of approximal caries in posterior teeth. This software should be able to indicate the depth and location of caries on digital radiographic images. Materials and Methods: Digital radiographs were obtained of 93 teeth including 183 proximal surfaces. These images were used as a database for designing the software and training the software designer. In the design phase, considering the summed density of pixels in rows and columns of the images, the teeth were separated from each other and the unnecessary regions; for example, the root area in the alveolar bone was eliminated. Therefore, based on summed intensities, each image was segmented such that each segment contained only one tooth. Subsequently, based on the fuzzy logic, a well-known data-clustering algorithm named fuzzy c-means (FCM) was applied to the images to cluster or segment each tooth. This algorithm is referred to as a soft clustering method, which assigns data elements to one or more clusters with a specific membership function. Using the extracted clusters, the tooth border was determined and assessed for cavity. The results of histological analysis were used as the gold standard for comparison with the results obtained from the software. Depth of caries was measured, and finally Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) and Bland-Altman plot were used to show the agreement between the methods. Results: The software diagnosed 60% of enamel caries. The ICC (for detection of enamel caries) between the computer software and histological analysis results was determined as 0.609 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0

  4. Designing of a Computer Software for Detection of Approximal Caries in Posterior Teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valizadeh, Solmaz; Goodini, Mostafa; Ehsani, Sara; Mohseni, Hadis; Azimi, Fateme; Bakhshandeh, Hooman

    2015-10-01

    Radiographs, adjunct to clinical examination are always valuable complementary methods for dental caries detection. Recently, progressing in digital imaging system provides possibility of software designing for automatically dental caries detection. The aim of this study was to develop and assess the function of diagnostic computer software designed for evaluation of approximal caries in posterior teeth. This software should be able to indicate the depth and location of caries on digital radiographic images. Digital radiographs were obtained of 93 teeth including 183 proximal surfaces. These images were used as a database for designing the software and training the software designer. In the design phase, considering the summed density of pixels in rows and columns of the images, the teeth were separated from each other and the unnecessary regions; for example, the root area in the alveolar bone was eliminated. Therefore, based on summed intensities, each image was segmented such that each segment contained only one tooth. Subsequently, based on the fuzzy logic, a well-known data-clustering algorithm named fuzzy c-means (FCM) was applied to the images to cluster or segment each tooth. This algorithm is referred to as a soft clustering method, which assigns data elements to one or more clusters with a specific membership function. Using the extracted clusters, the tooth border was determined and assessed for cavity. The results of histological analysis were used as the gold standard for comparison with the results obtained from the software. Depth of caries was measured, and finally Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) and Bland-Altman plot were used to show the agreement between the methods. The software diagnosed 60% of enamel caries. The ICC (for detection of enamel caries) between the computer software and histological analysis results was determined as 0.609 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.159-0.849) (P = 0.006). Also, the computer program diagnosed 97% of

  5. Designing of a Computer Software for Detection of Approximal Caries in Posterior Teeth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valizadeh, Solmaz; Goodini, Mostafa; Ehsani, Sara; Mohseni, Hadis; Azimi, Fateme; Bakhshandeh, Hooman

    2015-01-01

    Radiographs, adjunct to clinical examination are always valuable complementary methods for dental caries detection. Recently, progressing in digital imaging system provides possibility of software designing for automatically dental caries detection. The aim of this study was to develop and assess the function of diagnostic computer software designed for evaluation of approximal caries in posterior teeth. This software should be able to indicate the depth and location of caries on digital radiographic images. Digital radiographs were obtained of 93 teeth including 183 proximal surfaces. These images were used as a database for designing the software and training the software designer. In the design phase, considering the summed density of pixels in rows and columns of the images, the teeth were separated from each other and the unnecessary regions; for example, the root area in the alveolar bone was eliminated. Therefore, based on summed intensities, each image was segmented such that each segment contained only one tooth. Subsequently, based on the fuzzy logic, a well-known data-clustering algorithm named fuzzy c-means (FCM) was applied to the images to cluster or segment each tooth. This algorithm is referred to as a soft clustering method, which assigns data elements to one or more clusters with a specific membership function. Using the extracted clusters, the tooth border was determined and assessed for cavity. The results of histological analysis were used as the gold standard for comparison with the results obtained from the software. Depth of caries was measured, and finally Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) and Bland-Altman plot were used to show the agreement between the methods. The software diagnosed 60% of enamel caries. The ICC (for detection of enamel caries) between the computer software and histological analysis results was determined as 0.609 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.159-0.849) (P = 0.006). Also, the computer program diagnosed 97% of

  6. A comparative evaluation of DIAGNOdent with visual and radiography for detection of occlusal caries: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sridhar N

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The diagnosis of dental caries is fundamental to the practice of dentistry. Despite the fact that dental caries has declined considerably, it is still a problem of great importance. The reduction in caries prevalence has not occurred uniformly for all the surfaces. The greatest reduction was observed at lesions located on smooth surfaces, so that occlusal caries are most common in children. Aim: The purpose of this study is to determine the clinical efficacy of DIAGNOdent in detecting occlusal caries. Materials and Methods: A total number of 50 teeth were subjected for visual, radiographic, and DIAGNOdent examinations. All the three methods were compared to histology which is a gold standard. Results: The result obtained showed that DIAGNOdent is superior to visual and radiographic methods in diagnosing occlusal caries.

  7. Evaluation of Diagnodent Accuracy in Detecting Approximal Caries in Primary Molars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Bahrololoomi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Detection of caries lesions on approximal surfaces of posterior teeth is difficult, since wide contact points hamper direct visual inspection. Due to the importance of the early detection of dental caries, the aim of this study is to compare the performance of different methods (visual, bitewing radiography and DIAGNOdent in detecting approximal caries in primary molars. Methods: Thirty six children were selected from patients referred to the pediatric dentistry department of Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran. Two examiners evaluated 229 approximal surfaces of primary molars using: visual inspection, radiography and a pen-type laser fluorescence device (DIAGNOdent for the presence of proximal caries. The surfaces were evaluated by 2 other examiners for the presence of white spots or cavitations. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy (percentage of correct diagnosis were calculated for each method. The area under the receiver-operating characteristics curve (A z was calculated for DIAGNOdent device. The inter-examiner reproducibility was calculated using the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC values for laser Fluorescence and agreement coefficient for visual and radiographic methods.Results: At white-spot threshold, a DIAGNOdent device presented better performance. At cavitation threshold the radiographic method demonstrated higher sensitivity than visual inspection and DIAGNOdent device .In this threshold, all methods presented high specificities Conclusions: A DIAGNOdent device performs better in white spot threshold. However, radiography shows better performance in detecting more advanced approximal caries lesions.

  8. Detecting Proximal Secondary Caries Lesions: A Cost-effectiveness Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwendicke, F; Brouwer, F; Paris, S; Stolpe, M

    2016-02-01

    When choosing detection methods for secondary caries lesions, dentists need to weigh sensitivity, allowing early initiation of retreatments to avoid lesion progression, against specificity, aiming to reduce risks of false-positive diagnoses and invasive overtreatments. We assessed the cost-effectiveness of different detection methods for proximal secondary lesions using Monte Carlo microsimulations. A vital permanent molar with an occlusal-proximal restoration was simulated over the lifetime of an initially 20-y-old. Three methods were compared: biannual tactile detection, radiographic detection every 2 y, and biannual laser fluorescence detection. Methods were employed either on their own or in pairwise combinations at sensitive and specific thresholds estimated with systematically collected data. A mixed public-private payer perspective in the context of German health care was applied. Effectiveness was calculated as years of tooth retention. Net-benefit analyses were used to evaluate cost-effectiveness acceptability at different willingness-to-pay thresholds. Radiographic detection verified by tactile assessment (both at specific thresholds) was least costly (mean, 1,060 euros) but had limited effectiveness (mean retention time, 50 y). The most effective but also more costly combination was laser fluorescence detection verified by radiography, again at specific thresholds (1157 euros, 53 y, acceptable if willingness to pay >32 euro/y). In the majority of simulations, not combining detection methods or applying them at sensitive thresholds was less effective and more costly. Net benefits were not greatly altered by applying different discounting rates or using different baseline prevalence of secondary lesions. Current detection methods for secondary lesions should best be used in combination, not on their own, at specific thresholds to avoid false-positive diagnoses leading to costly and invasive overtreatment. The relevant characteristics, such as predictive

  9. Comparison of Proximal Caries Detection in Primary Teeth between Laser Fluorescence and Bitewing Radiography: An in vivo Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mepparambath, Ratheesh; S Bhat, Sham; K Hegde, Sundeep; Anjana, G; Sunil, M; Mathew, Sherryl

    2014-01-01

    Proximal caries detection is of great importance because of the rapid rate of caries progression and the difficulty in determining the absence or presence of a lesion in primary dentition. Although, various methods for caries diagnosis offer good diagnostic performances, they provide varying sensitivities for detecting proximal carious lesions. The objective of this study was to compare, in vivo, the accuracy of DIAGNOdent and bitewing radiography at detecting proximal caries in primary teeth. One Hundred and one primary maxillary and mandibular molars without obvious cavities of children between the age group of 3 and 10 years were included. The teeth were first subjected to DIAGNOdent examination followed by bitewing radiography. The specificity and sensitivity of the systems were calculated. At the dentin caries (D3) level, the sensitivity of DIAGNOdent and bitewing radiography was 78.5%; at the enamel caries (D1 and D2) level it was 39.12% and for the sound teeth (D0) it was found to be 76.52%. A strong association was observed between the DIAGNOdent and the bitewing radiograph (p proximal caries in primary teeth. But when seen at the each caries level, the DIAGNOdent is more accurate at the D0 and D3 threshold. How to cite this article: Mepparambath R, Bhat SS, Hegde SK, Anjana G, Sunil M, Mathew S. Comparison of Proximal Caries Detection in Primary Teeth between Laser Fluorescence and Bitewing Radiography: An in vivo Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(3):163-167.

  10. An overview of caries risk assessment: Rationale, risk indicators, risk assessment methods, and risk-based caries management protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekta Singh Suneja

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paradigm shift in our understanding of the dynamic, multifactorial nature of dental caries and the resultant change in caries preventive and treatment strategies necessitates that caries risk assessment (CRA should be an integral part of any caries management protocol. This review discusses the rationale for CRA and the role various risk indicators play in the fluctuating demineralization-remineralization cycle of dental caries. It also provides an overview of different CRA methods and a risk-based clinical protocol for dental caries management in infants and children.

  11. Histological validation of near-infrared reflectance multispectral imaging technique for caries detection and quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salsone, Silvia; Taylor, Andrew; Gomez, Juliana; Pretty, Iain; Ellwood, Roger; Dickinson, Mark; Lombardo, Giuseppe; Zakian, Christian

    2012-07-01

    Near infrared (NIR) multispectral imaging is a novel noninvasive technique that maps and quantifies dental caries. The technique has the ability to reduce the confounding effect of stain present on teeth. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a quantitative NIR multispectral imaging system for caries detection and assessment against a histological reference standard. The proposed technique is based on spectral imaging at specific wavelengths in the range from 1000 to 1700 nm. A total of 112 extracted teeth (molars and premolars) were used and images of occlusal surfaces at different wavelengths were acquired. Three spectral reflectance images were combined to generate a quantitative lesion map of the tooth. The maximum value of the map at the corresponding histological section was used as the NIR caries score. The NIR caries score significantly correlated with the histological reference standard (Spearman's Coefficient=0.774, p<0.01). Caries detection sensitivities and specificities of 72% and 91% for sound areas, 36% and 79% for lesions on the enamel, and 82% and 69% for lesions in dentin were found. These results suggest that NIR spectral imaging is a novel and promising method for the detection, quantification, and mapping of dental caries.

  12. 21 CFR 872.1745 - Laser fluorescence caries detection device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... is to aid in the detection of tooth decay by measuring increased laser induced fluorescence. (b... aids in the detection of tooth decay by measuring increased laser induced fluorescence; and (3) The... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 872.1745 Laser fluorescence caries...

  13. First Detection and Characterization of Streptococcus dentapri from Caries Active Subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, Hamzah Abdulrahman; Kumar, R Senthil; Babu, N Chaitanya; Imran, Khalid

    2017-07-01

    Mutans streptococci (MS) are a group of oral bacteria generally regarded as the principal agents in the pathogenesis of dental caries. The study aimed was characterize S. dentapri based on phylogenetic analysis and phenotypic methods from Caries Active Subject. While sequencing MS species which were isolated from 65 caries active subjects, one strain of S. dentapri was detected. Dental plaque samples were processed and cultured on mitis salivarius bacitracin agar. S. dentapri was characterized using phylogenetic analysis, colony morphology characterization and biotyping. Among the study population, one strain designated as H14 was identified as S. dentapri by 16S rDNA sequencing. Morphologically, S. dentapri could not differentiate from other species of MS. S. dentapri H14 demonstrated biotype II biochemical characteristics of MS. The phylogenetic analysis showed S. dentapri is closely related to S. macacae . The study concludes that S. dentapri can inhabit the human oral cavity and therefore further investigations are warranted to determine its role in caries.

  14. Reliability of Logicon caries detector in the detection and depth assessment of dental caries: an in-vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behere, Rohit R; Lele, Shailesh M

    2011-01-01

    Digital radiography has so far not resulted in improved rates of proximal caries detection. Historically, automated caries detection tools have been largely academic. Opinions regarding the performance of the only such commercially available tool, viz., Logicon caries Detector (LCD) have been equivocal. This study was conducted to evaluate the reliability of LCD in the detection and depth assessment of proximal caries. Digital images were obtained of 100 proximal tooth surfaces using the Kodak RVG 5000 sensor and analyzed by three observers. The images were then analyzed by the principal investigator using the LCD software. The teeth were then sectioned and magnified photographic images were obtained which were taken as the gold standard. All the grades were entered in proformas and the data were statistically analyzed using the chi-square test. Five parameters of reliability were calculated. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and overall accuracy of LCD for the grade No caries were 33, 96, 73, 82, and 81%, respectively; for the grade Enamel caries were 5, 97, 33, 80, and 79%, respectively; and for the grade Dentin caries were 100, 96, 50, 100, and 96%, respectively. In conclusion, LCD appears to be more reliable in ruling out (both enamel and dentin) caries than in detecting caries.

  15. Assessment of caries status among schoolchildren according to decayed-missing-filled teeth/decayed-extract-filled teeth index, International Caries Detection and Assessment System, and Caries Assessment Spectrum and Treatment criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Rajendra Reddy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Detection and evaluation of dental caries is of epidemiological importance. Its early detection is important to commence appropriate treatment planning. Cavitated, noncavitated, and initial lesions of dental caries can be detected by various indices. Objectives: The objective of the study was to assess the caries experience in schoolchildren using decayed-missing-filled teeth (DMFT/decayed-extracted-filled teeth (deft, International Caries Detection and Assessment System-II (ICDAS-II, and Caries Assessment Spectrum and Treatment (CAST systems. Materials and Methods: An epidemiological survey was carried out among 1550 schoolchildren (37,644 teeth between the age ranges of 4 and 14 years. American Dental Association type III examination was performed using plane mouth mirrors and community periodontal index probes using DMFT/deft, ICDAS II, and CAST indices. Results: Out of 37,644 teeth examined, 2,718 teeth had shown caries. Caries experience with DMFT/deft index was 5.54%. Highest score of DMFT was observed in deciduous dentition period (59.02%. Overall prevalence of dental caries with ICDAS and CAST system was 6.7% and 6.95%, respectively. The highest percentage of noncavitated lesions (ICDAS - 2.26% and CAST - 3.9% and greater prevalence of caries among deciduous teeth (ICDAS - 53.2% and CAST - 58.7% was observed with both ICDAS and CAST systems. Conclusion: A high prevalence of noncavitated lesions and less number of sealants and restorations indicates the lack of awareness for prevention and treatment of oral diseases, which suggests a strong need for preventive and operative treatments.

  16. Detection of early dental caries with short pulse laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okubo, Nahoko; Goto, Shigeru [Osada Research Inst., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Tanaka, Hiroshi; Ohzu, Akira; Arisawa, Takashi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Kansai Research Establishment, Advanced Photon Research Center, Kyoto (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    Differences in the optical properties of polarization and photoluminescence between caries lesion and noncaries (sound) enamel have been investigated by focusing a pulsed Nd:YAG laser of 532 nm on the surface of teeth. Significant difference in the polarization property of the scattered light from the surface can be observed with some carious samples. For photoluminescence spectral lines which appear at around 650 nm, the intensity of caries lesion has been approximately two times higher than that of sound one. A discussion is presented in which early are potentially detectable by the pulsed laser. (author)

  17. Caries detection under composite restorations by laser fluorescence and digital radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kositbowornchai, Suwadee; Sukanya, Chotikpanich; Tidarat, Tangkittikasem; Chanoggarn, Thongsombat

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the potential of DIAGNOdent readings in detecting carious lesions under composite resin restorations in comparison with digital radiography. One hundred extracted third molars were visually selected: 50 with and 50 without carious lesions. Class I occlusal cavities were prepared. In the carious group, caries were left on the floor of cavities before composite resin restoration. The occlusal surface relevant to the caries position in the carious group and a counterfeit point in the non-carious group were marked for DIAGNOdent reading. Teeth were fixed in a plaster box. Digital radiographs were taken and examined by four observers. Definitive diagnosis of caries was based on a histological assessment. Diagnostic accuracy for each method was expressed by the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Differences between the areas under the ROC curves were assessed using the McNemar test. The respective sensitivity (95 % confidence interval (%CI)) and specificity (95 %CI) of DIAGNOdent were 0.74 (0.66-0.83) and 0.84 (0.76-0.92). The respective average diagnostic performance values for digital radiographs assessed by four observers were 0.54 (0.36-0.72) and 0.77 (0.65-0.86). The respective ROC values for DIAGNOdent and digital radiographs based on four observers were 0.79 and 0.65. Cohen's kappa statistic revealed a moderate to substantial agreement among interobserver reliabilities (k = 0.60-0.77). There were no statistically significant differences between DIAGNOdent and digital radiographs for the detection of dental caries under composite restoration (p value > 0.05). DIAGNOdent was developed to detect caries on occlusal surfaces and was tested for caries adjacent to filling materials. This study demonstrated the use of DIAGNOdent in detecting caries under old composite restorations.

  18. Diagnostic accuracy of different imaging modalities in detection of proximal caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senel, B; Kamburoglu, K; Uçok, O; Yüksel, S P; Ozen, T; Avsever, H

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the in vitro diagnostic ability of visual inspection, film, charge-coupled device (CCD) sensor, photostimulable phosphor (PSP) sensor and cone beam CT in the detection of proximal caries in posterior teeth compared with the histological gold standard. Visual inspection, film, CCD, PSP and cone beam CT images were used to detect proximal caries in the mesial and distal surfaces of 138 teeth (276 surfaces). Visual inspection and evaluation of all intraoral digital and conventional radiographs and cone beam CT images were performed twice by three oral radiologists. Weighted kappa coefficients were calculated to assess intra- and interobserver agreement for each image set, and scores were compared with the histological gold standard using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis to evaluate diagnostic ability. Intraobserver kappa coefficients calculated for each observer for each method of detecting caries ranged from 0.739 to 0.928. Strong interobserver agreement ranging from 0.631 to 0.811 was found for all detection methods. The highest Az values for all three observers were obtained with the cone beam CT images; however, differences between detection methods were not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Visual inspection, film, CCD, PSP plates and cone beam CT performed similarly in the detection of proximal caries.

  19. First step toward translation of thermophotonic lock-in imaging to dentistry as an early caries detection technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojaghi, Ashkan; Parkhimchyk, Artur; Tabatabaei, Nima

    2016-09-01

    Early detection of the most prevalent oral disease worldwide, i.e., dental caries, still remains as one of the major challenges in dentistry. The current dental standard of care relies on caries detection methods, such as visual inspection and x-ray radiography, which lack the sufficient specificity and sensitivity to detect caries at early stages of formation when they can be healed. We report on the feasibility of early caries detection in a clinically and commercially viable thermophotonic imaging system. The system incorporates intensity-modulated laser light along with a low-cost long-wavelength infrared (LWIR; 8 to 14 μm) camera, providing diagnostic contrast based on the enhanced light absorption of early caries. The LWIR camera is highly suitable for integration into clinical platforms because of its low weight and cost. In addition, through theoretical modeling, we show that LWIR detection enhances the diagnostic contrast due to the minimal LWIR transmittance of enamel and suppression of the masking effect of the direct thermal Planck emission. Diagnostic performance of the system and its detection threshold are experimentally evaluated by monitoring the inception and progression of artificially induced occlusal and smooth surface caries. The results are suggestive of the suitability of the developed LWIR system for detecting early dental caries.

  20. Extraoral imaging for proximal caries detection: Bitewings vs scanogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Emad A; Tyndall, Donald A; Caplan, Daniel

    2004-12-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of 3 extraoral imaging modalities with an intraoral bitewing radiograph for proximal caries detection. Three modalities of Cranex TOME scanograms, x-ray film and DenOptix photostimulable phosphor plates with and without digital enhancement, were compared with Insight intraoral radiographs for proximal caries detection. Nine observers evaluated images of the proximal surfaces of 45 extracted posterior teeth. The presence or absence of caries was scored using a 5-point confidence scale. The ground truth was determined from histological sections. Responses were evaluated by repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) for areas under receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves (A z ). Repeated measures ANOVA (at alpha = 0.05) demonstrated significant differences among modalities ( P = .041). Paired t tests with Bonferroni correction demonstrated that Insight was superior to only unenhanced digital scanograms ( P = .003). Mean A z scores (+/-SD) were 0.73 (+/-0.08) for Insight, 0.65 (+/-0.06) for screen/film scanogram, 0.64 (+/-0.04) for unenhanced digital scanogram, and 0.66 (+/-0.07) for enhanced digital scanogram. The performances of film-based and enhanced digital scanograms were not statistically different from Insight film for proximal caries detection. Unenhanced digital scanograms exhibited a statistically significant lower diagnostic accuracy than Insight film.

  1. Validity of digital imaging of fiber-optic transillumination in caries detection on proximal tooth surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Laitala, M.-L. (Marja-Liisa); Piipari, L. (Liina); Sämpi, N. (Noora); Korhonen, M. (Maria); Pesonen, P. (Paula); Joensuu, T. (Tiina); Anttonen, V. (Vuokko)

    2017-01-01

    Objective The aim of our study was to evaluate the validity of the digital imaging fiber-optic transillumination (DIFOTI) method in comparison with clinical visual examination (CV) and bitewing (BW) radiography on detecting caries lesions on proximal surfaces of teeth. Materials and Methods Proximal tooth surfaces of premolars and molars (n = 2,103) of 91 voluntary university students aged from 18 to 30 years were examined with CV, BW radiography, and the DIFOTI method. Results DIFOTI detecte...

  2. Detection of oral streptococci in dental biofilm from caries-active and caries-free children

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Andréa Cristina Barbosa; Cruz, Jader dos Santos; Sampaio, Fábio Correia; de Araújo, Demetrius Antônio Machado

    2008-01-01

    This work correlated the presence of oral streptococci in dental biofilm with clinical indexes of caries and oral hygiene in caries-active and caries-free children. S. mutans and/or S. sobrinus in the dental biofilm does not indicate a direct risk for developing dental caries. PMID:24031282

  3. Near infrared transillumination compared with radiography to detect and monitor proximal caries: A clinical retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelaziz, Marwa; Krejci, Ivo; Perneger, Thomas; Feilzer, Albert; Vazquez, Lydia

    2018-03-01

    To compare near infrared transillumination device, DIAGNOcam (DC) and bitewing radiography (BW) for the detection of proximal caries. This retrospective analysis of DC and BW images of 18 students in dental medicine who had consented to the anonymous use of their dental record. The data included BW and DC images performed for a check-up in 2013, and corresponding follow-up images performed in 2015. Two observers rated 376 proximal surfaces on a 4-level dentin lesion scale and reached a unanimous rating for each surface. Calculated measures of agreement for each assessment method over time provided the reproducibility of the information obtained by each method. Agreement between 2013 and 2015 within each method was excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient, BW: 0.86, DC: 0.90). Agreement between DC and BW was similar for dentin lesion detection, but was low for enamel caries detection; DC detected more enamel caries than BW. Agreement between DC and BW was modest (0.33 in 2013 and 0.36 in 2015), chiefly because DC identified more enamel caries. This study shows that DC is as reliable as BW to detect proximal dentin lesions. DC detects proximal enamel lesions at an earlier stage than BW. DC enables clinicians to differentiate lesions limited to the enamel from lesions that have reached the enamel dentin junction. Regular monitoring with DC should help provide individualized preventive measures and early non-invasive caries management. The early detection of enamel lesions with near infrared transillumination can help clinicians undertake early non invasive treatments to prevent or slow down the progression of initial proximal lesions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Performance of laser fluorescence devices and visual examination for the detection of occlusal caries in permanent molars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rechmann, Peter; Charland, Daniel; Rechmann, Beate M. T.; Featherstone, John D. B.

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic capabilities of a laser fluorescence tool DIAGNOdent (KaVo, Biberach, Germany) and two light-emitting diode fluorescence tools--Spectra Caries Detection Aid (AIR TECHNIQUES, Melville, NY), and SOPROLIFE light-induced fluorescence evaluator in daylight and blue florescence mode (SOPRO, ACTEON Group, La Ciotat, France)--in comparison to the caries detection and assessment system (ICDAS-II) in detection of caries lesions. In 100 subjects (age 23.4+/-10.6 years), 433 posterior permanent unrestored teeth were examined. On the occlusal surfaces, up to 1066 data points for each assessment method were available for statistical evaluation, including 1034 ICDAS scores (intra-examiner kappa=0.884). For the SOPROLIFE tool, a new caries-scoring system was developed. Per assessment tool each average score for one given ICDAS code was significantly different from the one for another ICDAS code. Normalized data linear regression revealed that both SOPROLIFE assessment tools allowed for best caries score discrimination followed by DIAGNOdent and Spectra Caries Detection Aid. The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve calculations showed the same grading sequence when cutoff point ICDAS codes 0-1-2 were grouped together. Sensitivity and specificity values at the same cutoff were calculated (DIAGNOdent 87/66, Spectra Caries Detection Aid 93/37, SOPROLIFE 93/63, SOPROLIFE blue fluorescence 95/55.)

  5. Oral health screening using a caries detection device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetuan, Theresa M; McGlasson, Dawn; Meyer, Ileen

    2005-10-01

    Children from low-income families are more likely to have dental disease and less likely to have regular dental care. Children's dental-related illnesses are responsible for more than 880,000 lost school days each year. The lack of reliable state-level data often makes monitoring the oral health of children a challenge. By conducting oral health screenings, school nurses could promote prevention and early identification of dental problems and could aid in the collection of data. This innovative project used a convenience sample of students to test a caries detection device. Children in Grades 3 and 6 (n = 2,622) received oral health screening by the school nurse using a noninvasive laser fluorescent dental device. Findings revealed that 82% of students referred to the dentists received dental care. School nurses can contribute to improving the oral health status of the school-age population by early detection of dental caries and referrals for a dental evaluation.

  6. Influence of cross-infection control methods on performance of pen-type laser fluorescence in detecting occlusal caries lesions in primary teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Ronilza; Novaes, Tatiane Fernandes; Reyes, Alessandra; De Benedetto, Monique Saveriano; Mendes, Fausto Medeiros; Braga, Mariana Minatel

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to determine the influence of cross-infection control methods, as probe tip autoclaving and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) wrapping, on the performance of laser fluorescence device (DIAGNOdent pen--LFpen) on occlusal surfaces of primary molars. One experienced examiner carried out all examinations (n = 78). For the probe tip autoclaving study, 62 sites (sample A, 40 teeth) were used. The sites were assessed with LFpen using tips in six different conditions: without autoclaving and after autoclaving for 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 cycles of 10 min. For the PVC wrapping study, we selected other 58 sites (sample B, 38 teeth). The sites were assessed with the LFpen device in two conditions: with and without PVC wrapping. The teeth were sectioned and histologically assessed for caries depth. LFpen values, sensitivity, and specificity were compared among the different conditions. The LF readings were slightly higher after successive examinations, independently of autoclaving. In both studies, no statistical differences in the sensitivity and specificity were observed for all conditions. In conclusion, probe tip autoclaving and PVC wrapping do not influence the performance of LFpen device on occlusal surfaces of primary molars.

  7. Risk indicators for dental caries using the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Amid I; Sohn, Woosung; Tellez, Marisol; Willem, Jenefer M; Betz, James; Lepkowski, James

    2008-02-01

    While national surveys have found that African-Americans have a higher prevalence and severity of dental caries than white-Americans, there are only a few descriptive studies of the prevalence and severity of dental caries in low-income urban African-Americans. This study assessed the prevalence, severity and determinants of dental caries, using the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS). A representative sample of low-income families (a caregiver and a child aged 0-5 years) was selected from low-income census tracts in the city of Detroit, Michigan. Of the 12,655 randomly selected housing units, 10,695 were occupied and 9781 were successfully contacted (91.5%). There were 1386 families with eligible children in the contacted households; and of those, 1021 were interviewed and examined at a permanent examination center organized for this study. This represents an overall response rate of 73.7%. At the center, trained staff interviewed the main caregivers of the selected children, and trained and calibrated dentists examined the caregiver and her/his child. Data used in this study included information gathered from the social, behavioral and parenting questionnaires, the Block Food Frequency Questionnaire (total sugar intake), and data collected from community and census databases. Over 90% of the adults (ages 14-70 years, average 29.3) had at least one noncavitated carious lesion and 82.2% had at least one primary cavitated lesion. Negative binomial regression models found that the age of caregivers and the number of churches in neighborhoods were negatively associated with the number of noncavitated tooth surfaces. Cavitated tooth surfaces were positively associated with age, oral hygiene status, being worried about teeth, a recent visit to a dentist, and the number of grocery stores in the neighborhoods. However, the number of cavitated tooth surfaces was negatively associated with preventive dental visits, positive rating of oral health

  8. Effect of Zooming, Colorization, and Contrast Conversion on Proximal Caries Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solmaz Valizadeh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Different enhancements have been used to improve the diagnostic accuracy of radiographic images in digital systems. However, the diagnostic accuracy of the effects of these enhancement options on dental caries has not been determined. Objectives This study evaluated the effects of software enhancements of zooming, colorization, and contrast conversion on the accuracy of proximal caries detection. Materials and Methods In this diagnostic in vitro trial study, 42 non-cavitated and restoration-free extracted permanent molars and premolars were selected and mounted onto 14 blocks in contact with each other. Radiographic images were obtained from the teeth in similar standardized condition using the paralleling technique. The images were shown without any enhancement or with using the options of zooming, colorization, and contrast conversion. Depth of proximal caries was determined by a radiologist using four-scaled criteria. The diagnostic accuracy of digital images that had undergone different enhancements was calculated by the chi-square test. Results The diagnostic odds of the original digital images were lower than 20 (5.7. By using the enhancement options of zooming, colorization, and contrast conversion, the diagnostic odds of the enamel proximal caries had a score of less than 20. The score was higher than 20 for proximal caries located in the outer and inner half of the dentin. Conclusions The enhancement options of zooming, colorization, and contrast conversion did not significantly influence the diagnostic accuracy of digital images in enamel caries, but they enhanced caries diagnosis/progression in the outer and inner half of the dentin.

  9. In vitro detection of secondary caries associated with composite restorations on approximal surfaces using laser fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Jonas A; Neuhaus, Klaus W; Hug, Isabel; Stich, Herman; Seemann, Rainer; Lussi, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the performance of the DIAGNOdent pen laser fluorescence device (LFpen) in comparison with visual examination (VE), bitewing radiographs (BW) and visual examination combined with bitewing radiographs (VEBW) in detecting secondary approximal caries associated with composite restorations. In total, 60 approximal surfaces from 43 permanent molars with composite restorations were assessed twice by two examiners using the LFpen, VE, BW and VEBW. After histological preparation and hardness measurements, the sample was assigned to either a crown or root caries group, depending on the location of the lesions as the gold standard. For crown caries at D1, the highest values of specificity and sensitivity were observed for the LFpen at a cutoff value of 18 (1.00) and for the VEBW (0.89). At D3 (cutoff of 30), the LFpen showed the highest values of sensitivity and specificity. For root caries, the LFpen and VEBW showed the highest values of specificity (0.54), sensitivity (0.81) and accuracy (0.69). The Spearman rank correlation coefficients for crown/root caries with histology were 0.54/0.37 (LFpen), 0.29/0.10 (BW), 0.29/0.18 (VE) and 0.23/0.37 (VEBW). For the LFpen, the ICC varied from 0.80 (interexaminer) to 0.97 (intraexaminer B); the kappa value was 0.19 for BW and 0.35 for VE (interexaminer). Intraexaminer kappa values for BW were 0.25 (A) and 0.29 (B), and those for VE were 0.31 (A) and 0.32 (B). The LFpen device exhibited a performance comparable to that of conventional methods but with higher interexaminer reproducibility. Therefore, the LFpen should be considered an auxiliary method for the detection of secondary approximal caries associated with composite restorations.

  10. Validation of micro-computed tomography for occlusal caries detection: an in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan ÖZKAN

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional methods of caries detection, including the gold standard of histological examination, have certain disadvantages that must be addressed prior to validating any other diagnostic technique—current or new. Here we evaluated the validity of micro-computed tomography (micro-CT as an alternative gold-standard technique for caries detection. Sixty teeth with suspected occlusal caries were chosen from a pool of teeth extracted for orthodontic, periodontal, or surgical reasons. Identical reference points were marked on photographs taken for teeth and were used to evaluate each method. Dimensions of caries were assessed by two calibrated examiners using the ICDAS-II visual examination system, bitewing radiographs, and micro-CT. The teeth included in the study were selected randomly from solution before all measurements. For micro-CT, the device was set to 50 kV, 800 µA, pixel size 15 µm (at 1024 × 1024 resolution, and 1° rotation step. NRecon software (SkyScan was used to obtain reconstructed images. For each diagnostic method, results were compared with histology results using the McNemar test. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC analysis was also performed for each method (Z-test; p < 0.05. Besides showing a high correlation with histology results, micro-CT yielded the greatest values at the D3 threshold; moreover, accuracy and area under the ROC curve (AUC values were greatest at the D1threshold. Our results indicate that micro-CT performs as well as or better than histological examination for the purpose of comparing methods for caries detection.

  11. Validation of micro-computed tomography for occlusal caries detection: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkan, Gökhan; Kanli, Aydan; Başeren, Nurdan Meserret; Arslan, Umut; Tatar, İlkan

    2015-01-01

    Conventional methods of caries detection, including the gold standard of histological examination, have certain disadvantages that must be addressed prior to validating any other diagnostic technique-current or new. Here we evaluated the validity of micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) as an alternative gold-standard technique for caries detection. Sixty teeth with suspected occlusal caries were chosen from a pool of teeth extracted for orthodontic, periodontal, or surgical reasons. Identical reference points were marked on photographs taken for teeth and were used to evaluate each method. Dimensions of caries were assessed by two calibrated examiners using the ICDAS-II visual examination system, bitewing radiographs, and micro-CT. The teeth included in the study were selected randomly from solution before all measurements. For micro-CT, the device was set to 50 kV, 800 µA, pixel size 15 µm (at 1024 × 1024 resolution), and 1° rotation step. NRecon software (SkyScan) was used to obtain reconstructed images. For each diagnostic method, results were compared with histology results using the McNemar test. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis was also performed for each method (Z-test; p < 0.05). Besides showing a high correlation with histology results, micro-CT yielded the greatest values at the D3 threshold; moreover, accuracy and area under the ROC curve (AUC) values were greatest at the D1threshold. Our results indicate that micro-CT performs as well as or better than histological examination for the purpose of comparing methods for caries detection.

  12. Caries assessment: establishing mathematical link of clinical and benchtop method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaechi, Bennett T.

    2009-02-01

    It is well established that the development of new technologies for early detection and quantitative monitoring of dental caries at its early stage could provide health and economic benefits ranging from timely preventive interventions to reduction of the time required for clinical trials of anti-caries agents. However, the new technologies currently used in clinical setting cannot assess and monitor caries using the actual mineral concentration within the lesion, while a laboratory-based microcomputed tomography (MCT) has been shown to possess this capability. Thus we envision the establishment of mathematical equations relating the measurements of each of the clinical technologies to that of MCT will enable the mineral concentration of lesions detected and assessed in clinical practice to be extrapolated from the equation, and this will facilitate preventitive care in dentistry to lower treatment cost. We utilize MCT and the two prominent clinical caries assessment devices (Quantitative Light-induced Fluorescence [QLF] and Diagnodent) to longitudinally monitor the development of caries in a continuous flow mixed-organisms biofilm model (artificial mouth), and then used the collected data to establish mathematical equation relating the measurements of each of the clinical technologies to that of MCT. A linear correlation was observed between the measurements of MicroCT and that of QLF and Diagnodent. Thus mineral density in a carious lesion detected and measured using QLF or Diagnodent can be extrapolated using the developed equation. This highlights the usefulness of MCT for monitoring the progress of an early caries being treated with therapeutic agents in clinical practice or trials.

  13. Implementation. Improving caries detection, assessment, diagnosis and monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, N B

    2009-01-01

    This chapter deals with improving the detection, assessment, diagnosis and monitoring of caries to ensure optimal personalized caries management. This can be achieved by delivering what we have (synthesized evidence and international consensus) better and more consistently, as well as driving research and innovation in the areas where we need them. There is a need to better understand the interrelated pieces of the jigsaw that makes up evidence-based dentistry, i.e. the linkages between (a) research and synthesis, (b) dissemination of research results and (c) the implementation of research findings which should ensure that research findings change practice at the clinician-patient level. The current situation is outlined; it is at the implementation step where preventive caries control seems to have failed in some countries but not others. Opportunities for implementation include: capitalizing on the World Health Organization's global policy for improvement of oral health, which sets out an action plan for health promotion and integrated disease prevention; utilizing the developments around the International Caries Detection and Assessment System wardrobe of options and e-learning; building on initiatives from the International Dental Federation and the American Dental Association and linking these to patients' preferences, the wider moves to wellbeing and health maintenance. Challenges for implementation include the slow pace of evolution around dental remuneration systems and some groups of dentists failing to embrace clinical prevention. In the future, implementation of current and developing evidence should be accompanied by research into getting research findings into routine practice, with impacts on the behaviour of patients, professionals and policy makers. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel

  14. Diagnostic Methods for Dental Caries Used by Private Dental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-03-06

    Mar 6, 2017 ... The high prevalence of caries-related diseases highlights the importance of ... In order to detect. INTRODUCTION. Dental health care service is one of the most important factors for the maintenance of oral health. The diagnostic tools and treatment ... and anonymous during data processing. All retrieved.

  15. Diagnostic methods for dental caries used by private dental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... caries (P = 0.003). Only three participants reported the use of DIAGNOdent, while two participants used fiber-optic transillumination (FOTI). Conclusions: It was observed that visual-tactile examination using sharp explorer accompanied with radiographs were among the main instruments used for detecting carious lesions.

  16. The Efficiency of Operating Microscope Compared with Unaided Visual Examination, Conventional and Digital Intraoral Radiography for Proximal Caries Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Peker, Ilkay; Toraman Alkurt, Meryem; Bala, Oya; Altunkaynak, Bulent

    2009-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of operating microscope compared with unaided visual examination, conventional and digital intraoral radiography for proximal caries detection. Materials and Methods. The study was based on 48 extracted human posterior permanent teeth. The teeth were examined with unaided visual examination, operating microscope, conventional bitewing and digital intraoral radiographs. Then, true caries depth was determined by histological ex...

  17. Effectiveness of teaching International Caries Detection and Assessment System II and its e-learning program to freshman dental students on occlusal caries detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Damanhoury, Hatem M; Fakhruddin, Kausar Sadia; Awad, Manal A

    2014-10-01

    To assess the feasibility of teaching International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) II and its e-learning program as tools for occlusal caries detection to freshmen dental students in comparison to dental graduates with 2 years of experience. Eighty-four freshmen and 32 dental graduates examined occlusal surfaces of molars/premolars (n = 72) after a lecture and a hands-on workshop. The same procedure was repeated after 1 month following the training with ICDAS II e-learning program. Validation of ICDAS II codes was done histologically. Intra- and inter-examiner reproducibility of ICDAS II severity scores were assessed before and after e-learning using (Fleiss's kappa). The kappa values showed inter-examiner reproducibility ranged from 0.53 (ICDAS II code cut off ≥ 1) to 0.70 (ICDAS II code cut off ≥ 3) by undergraduates and 0.69 (ICDAS II code cut off ≥ 1) to 0.95 (ICDAS II code cut off ≥ 3) by graduates. The inter-examiner reproducibility ranged from 0.64 (ICDAS II code cut off ≥ 1) to 0.89 (ICDAS II code cut off ≥ 3). No statistically significant difference was found between both groups in intra-examiner agreements for assessing ICDAS II codes. A high statistically significant difference (P ≤ 0.01) in correct identification of codes 1, 2, and 4 from before to after e-learning were observed in both groups. The bias indices for the undergraduate group were higher than those of the graduate group. Early exposure of students to ICDAS II is a valuable method of teaching caries detection and its e-learning program significantly improves their caries diagnostic skills.

  18. Association and comparison between visual inspection and bitewing radiography for the detection of recurrent dental caries under restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lino, José R; Ramos-Jorge, Joana; Coelho, Valéria Silveira; Ramos-Jorge, Maria L; Moysés, Marcos R; Ribeiro, José C R

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate, in posterior teeth, the association between the characteristics of the margins of a restoration visually inspected and the presence, under restorations, of recurrent or residual dental caries detected by radiographic examination. Furthermore, the agreement between visual inspection and radiographs to detect dental caries was assessed. Eighty-five permanent molars and premolars with resin restorations on the interproximal and/or occlusal faces, from 18 patients, were submitted for visual inspection and radiographic examination. The visual inspection involved the criteria of the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS). Bitewing radiographs were used for the radiographic examination. Logistic regression was used to analyse the association between the characteristics of the margins of a restoration assessed by visual inspection (absence of dental caries, or early, established, inactive and active lesions) and the presence of recurrent caries detected by radiographs. Kappa coefficients were calculated for determining agreement between the two methods. The Kappa coefficient for agreement between visual inspection and radiographic examination was 0.19. Established lesions [odds ratio (OR) = 9.89; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 2.94-33.25; P caries detected by radiographs. Restorations with established and active lesions at the margins had a greater chance of exhibiting recurrent or residual lesions in the radiographic examination. The present findings demonstrate that restorations with established and active lesions at the margins when visually inspected often require removal and retreatment. © 2015 FDI World Dental Federation.

  19. A comparison of periapical radiographs and their digital images for the detection of dental caries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Byung Cheol [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Chonnam National University, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-02-15

    In summary, it has been demonstrated by this study that the detection rate of definite large proximal surface caries (C2) on the digital images was good and the detection rate of the first stage caries (C1) was somewhat inferior to film based images. It has been demonstrated by this study and others that the detection of proximal surface caries by present clinical methodologies is still poor. Every effort should be made to develop new means to improve digitizing process.

  20. A comparison of periapical radiographs and their digital images for the detection of dental caries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Byung Cheol

    1994-01-01

    In summary, it has been demonstrated by this study that the detection rate of definite large proximal surface caries (C2) on the digital images was good and the detection rate of the first stage caries (C1) was somewhat inferior to film based images. It has been demonstrated by this study and others that the detection of proximal surface caries by present clinical methodologies is still poor. Every effort should be made to develop new means to improve digitizing process.

  1. Diagnostic performance of a new red light LED device for approximal caries detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhaus, Klaus W; Ciucchi, Philip; Rodrigues, Jonas Almeida; Hug, Isabelle; Emerich, Marta; Lussi, Adrian

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to test a newly developed LED-based fluorescence device for approximal caries detection in vitro. We assembled 120 extracted molars without frank cavitations or fillings pairwise in order to create contact areas. The teeth were independently assessed by two examiners using visual caries detection (International Caries Detection and Assessment System, ICDAS), bitewing radiography (BW), laser fluorescence (LFpen), and LED fluorescence (Midwest Caries I.D., MW). The measurements were repeated at least 1 week later. The diagnostic performance was calculated with Bayesian analyses. Post-test probabilities were calculated in order to judge the diagnostic performance of combined methods. Reliability analyses were performed using kappa statistics for nominal data and intraclass correlation (ICC) for absolute data. Histology served as the gold standard. Sensitivities/specificities at the enamel threshold were 0.33/0.84 for ICDAS, 0.23/0.86 for BW, 0.47/0.78 for LFpen, and 0.32/0.87 for MW. Sensitivities/specificities at the dentine threshold were 0.04/0.89 for ICDAS, 0.27/0.94 for BW, 0.39/0.84 for LFpen, and 0.07/0.96 for MW. Reliability data were fair to moderate for MW and good for BW and LFpen. The combination of ICDAS and radiography yielded the best diagnostic performance (post-test probability of 0.73 at the dentine threshold). The newly developed LED device is not able to be recommended for approximal caries detection. There might be too much signal loss during signal transduction from the occlusal aspect to the proximal lesion site and the reverse.

  2. A Review of Emerging Technologies for the Detection and Diagnosis of Dental Caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    i A REVIEW OF EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES FOR DETECTON AND DIAGNOSIS OF DENTAL CARIES by Walter B. Volinski Jr. Lieutenant... CARIES WALTER B. VOLINSKI JR. DDS, COMPREHENSIVE DEPARTMENT, 2016 Thesis directed by: Ling Ye, DDS, PhD LCDR, DC, USN Department of Dental ...diagnosis of dental caries and to compare their efficacy and accuracy to visual, tactile, and radiographic examination. Methods: The technologies reviewed

  3. Histological validation of a laser fluorescence device for occlusal caries detection in primary molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostolopoulou, D; Lagouvardos, P; Kavvadia, K; Papagiannoulis, L

    2009-11-01

    This was to validate in vitro a laser fluorescence device, DIAGNOdent 2095 - DD, on the detection of occlusal caries in primary molars using the histological examination as the gold standard and to compare the laser fluorescence findings to the results of the conventionally used diagnostic methods. 111 occlusal pits in 24 extracted primary molars were examined for caries by one trained operator (Intra-examiner Reliability K>0.83), using direct visual (DV), indirect visual (IDV), radiographic (XR) and fluorescence (DD) examinations and then the extent of caries was determined histologically. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and the area under the ROC curve - AUC were calculated for all methods, using the histological evaluation as the gold standard. Differences between examination methods were estimated by pair-wise comparison of their respective AUC. DD's sensitivity for enamel and for dentine lesions respectively was 0.90 and 0.36, its specificity 0.36 and 0.91 and its accuracy 0.61 and 0.65. The DD device exhibited better sensitivity than specificity for enamel lesions and better specificity than sensitivity for lesions into dentine. The DD device was found to have the highest sensitivity for lesions into enamel, specificity and accuracy and as well as the largest AUC compared with all other methods. For lesions into dentine however, according to AUC values the DD was not statistically significant different from the other methods. Compared with the other methods, the DD had the highest validity for enamel caries while its validity for caries into dentine was not statistical different from the other methods.

  4. Detection accuracy of in vitro approximal caries by cone beam computed tomography images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu Xingmin; Li Gang; Zhang Zuyan; Ma Xuchen

    2011-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of approximal carious lesions among five CBCT systems and to assess the effect of detector types employed by different CBCT systems on the accuracy of approximal caries diagnosis. Materials and methods: Thirty-nine extracted non-cavitated human permanent teeth were employed in the study. Seven observers evaluated 78 approximal surfaces of the teeth with respect to caries by the images from the following five CBCT systems: (1) NewTom 9000; (2) Accuitomo 3DX; (3) Kodak 9000 3D; (4) ProMax 3D; and (5) DCT PRO, respectively. The lesions were validated by histological examination. The area under receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (A z ) was used to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy. Results: Microscopy of approximal surfaces found 47.4% sound, 39.8% enamel and 12.8% dentin lesions. The differences of A z values among the five CBCT systems were not statistically significant (p = 0.348). No significant difference was found between the two detector types of CBCT systems (p = 0.47). Conclusions: The five CBCT systems employed in the study showed no significant difference in the in vitro approximal caries detection. Neither the detector nor the FOV employed by the CBCT systems has an impact on the detection accuracy of approximal caries.

  5. Detection accuracy of in vitro approximal caries by cone beam computed tomography images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu Xingmin, E-mail: quxingmin@bjmu.edu.cn [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, 22 Zhongguancun Nandajie, Hai Dian District, Beijing 100081 (China); Li Gang, E-mail: kqgang@bjmu.edu.cn [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, 22 Zhongguancun Nandajie, Hai Dian District, Beijing 100081 (China); Zhang Zuyan, E-mail: zhangzy-bj@vip.sina.com [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, 22 Zhongguancun Nandajie, Hai Dian District, Beijing 100081 (China); Ma Xuchen, E-mail: kqxcma@bjmu.edu.cn [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, 22 Zhongguancun Nandajie, Hai Dian District, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2011-08-15

    Aims: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of approximal carious lesions among five CBCT systems and to assess the effect of detector types employed by different CBCT systems on the accuracy of approximal caries diagnosis. Materials and methods: Thirty-nine extracted non-cavitated human permanent teeth were employed in the study. Seven observers evaluated 78 approximal surfaces of the teeth with respect to caries by the images from the following five CBCT systems: (1) NewTom 9000; (2) Accuitomo 3DX; (3) Kodak 9000 3D; (4) ProMax 3D; and (5) DCT PRO, respectively. The lesions were validated by histological examination. The area under receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (A{sub z}) was used to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy. Results: Microscopy of approximal surfaces found 47.4% sound, 39.8% enamel and 12.8% dentin lesions. The differences of A{sub z} values among the five CBCT systems were not statistically significant (p = 0.348). No significant difference was found between the two detector types of CBCT systems (p = 0.47). Conclusions: The five CBCT systems employed in the study showed no significant difference in the in vitro approximal caries detection. Neither the detector nor the FOV employed by the CBCT systems has an impact on the detection accuracy of approximal caries.

  6. Quantitative method to assess caries via fluorescence imaging from the perspective of autofluorescence spectral analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Q. G.; Zhu, H. H.; Xu, Y.; Lin, B.; Chen, H.

    2015-08-01

    A quantitative method to discriminate caries lesions for a fluorescence imaging system is proposed in this paper. The autofluorescence spectral investigation of 39 teeth samples classified by the International Caries Detection and Assessment System levels was performed at 405 nm excitation. The major differences in the different caries lesions focused on the relative spectral intensity range of 565-750 nm. The spectral parameter, defined as the ratio of wavebands at 565-750 nm to the whole spectral range, was calculated. The image component ratio R/(G + B) of color components was statistically computed by considering the spectral parameters (e.g. autofluorescence, optical filter, and spectral sensitivity) in our fluorescence color imaging system. Results showed that the spectral parameter and image component ratio presented a linear relation. Therefore, the image component ratio was graded as 1.62 to quantitatively classify sound, early decay, established decay, and severe decay tissues, respectively. Finally, the fluorescence images of caries were experimentally obtained, and the corresponding image component ratio distribution was compared with the classification result. A method to determine the numerical grades of caries using a fluorescence imaging system was proposed. This method can be applied to similar imaging systems.

  7. Quantitative method to assess caries via fluorescence imaging from the perspective of autofluorescence spectral analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Q G; Xu, Y; Zhu, H H; Chen, H; Lin, B

    2015-01-01

    A quantitative method to discriminate caries lesions for a fluorescence imaging system is proposed in this paper. The autofluorescence spectral investigation of 39 teeth samples classified by the International Caries Detection and Assessment System levels was performed at 405 nm excitation. The major differences in the different caries lesions focused on the relative spectral intensity range of 565–750 nm. The spectral parameter, defined as the ratio of wavebands at 565–750 nm to the whole spectral range, was calculated. The image component ratio R/(G + B) of color components was statistically computed by considering the spectral parameters (e.g. autofluorescence, optical filter, and spectral sensitivity) in our fluorescence color imaging system. Results showed that the spectral parameter and image component ratio presented a linear relation. Therefore, the image component ratio was graded as <0.66, 0.66–1.06, 1.06–1.62, and >1.62 to quantitatively classify sound, early decay, established decay, and severe decay tissues, respectively. Finally, the fluorescence images of caries were experimentally obtained, and the corresponding image component ratio distribution was compared with the classification result. A method to determine the numerical grades of caries using a fluorescence imaging system was proposed. This method can be applied to similar imaging systems. (paper)

  8. Accuracy of Digital Bitewing Radiography versus Different Views of Digital Panoramic Radiography for Detection of Proximal Caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Abdinian

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Dental caries are common and have a high incidence among populations. Radiographs are essential for detecting proximal caries. The best technique should be recognized for accurate detection of caries. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of detection of proximal caries using intra oral bitewing, extra oral bitewing, improved interproximal panoramic, improved orthogonality panoramic and digital con- ventional panoramic radiographs.Materials and Methods: In this descriptive cross sectional study, 100 extracted human teeth with and without proximal caries were used. Intra and extra oral radiographs were taken. Images were evaluated and scored by two observers. Scores were compared with the histological gold standard. The diagnostic accuracy of radiographs was assessed by means of receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve analysis (P<0.05.Results: Microscopic evaluation of proximal surfaces revealed that 54.8% of the sur- faces were sound and 45.2% were carious (with different depths. The differences in the area under the ROC curve (Az value among the five techniques were not statisti- cally significant.Conclusion: Improved interproximal panoramic and extra oral bitewing radiographs were superior to conventional panoramic radiography for detection of proximal caries ex vivo and should be considered for patients with contraindications for intra oral radi- ographs.

  9. Assessment of enamel-dentin caries lesions detection using bitewing PSP digital images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna Guanaes Gomes Torres

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the detection of enamel-dentin occlusal caries using photostimulable phosphor plates. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The ability to detect enamel-dentin occlusal caries in 607 premolars and molars from 47 patients between 10 and 18 years old, referred to the School of Dentistry of the Federal University of Bahia, Brazil, was evaluated based on clinical and radiographic examinations, using the criteria proposed in a previous study. A total of 156 bitewing digital images were obtained using Digora® (Soredex Medical Systems, Helsinki, Finland phosphor plates. The plates were scanned and the images were captured and displayed on a computer screen. Image evaluation was done using Digora® for Windows 2.1 software, Soredex®. The radiologists were allowed to use enhancement tools to obtain better visibility during scoring of the teeth based on the radiographic criteria proposed in a previous study. Descriptive analysis and chi-squared proportion tests were done at 5% significance level. RESULTS: The results of clinical examination showed a higher prevalence of teeth with a straight dark line or demineralization of the occlusal fissure (score 1 and a lower prevalence of sealed teeth (score 5. In the bitewing digital images, 47 teeth presented visible radiolucency, circumscribed, in dentin under occlusal enamel (enamel-dentin caries lesions. CONCLUSIONS: Correlating the clinical and radiographic findings, it was found that in the majority of teeth diagnosed by radiographic images as having enamel-dentin caries, no caries could be detected by clinical examination.

  10. A comparison between conventional radiography and digitized image accuracy in proximal caries detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pangnoosh M

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Computer Sciences, in radiology, like other fields, is of high importance. It should"nalso be noted that the accuracy of the technique and work conditions affects the radiographs information"nconsiderably. There for, in order to get more accurate diagnostic information, it seems necessary to investigate"ndifferent digitized radiographic techniques and to compare them with the conventional technique."nPurpose: The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of conventional and digitized radiographic"nimages by three digitization techniques in proximal caries detection."nMaterial and Methods: In this research study, sixty extracted human canines, premolars and molars were"nmounted in blocks and imaged on E-Kodak film, similar to bitewing radiographs. Ten bitewing radiographs"nwere then scanned at 600 d.p.i with flat bed scanner and a digital camera, then digitized at 300 d.p.i with"nanother digital camera. The digitized images were displayed randomly on a high-resolution monitor. Six"nobservers assessed the caries status of 120 proximal surfaces by conventional and digitized images. The"nobserver's scores were compared with the results of the macroscopic examination. Reliability of each"ntechnique was calculated. Data were analyzed using chi-square and ANOVA tests."nResults: No significant differences were detected between different techniques in intact proximal surfaces and"nenamel caries diagnosis. However, digital techniques were more sensitive in dentin caries detection (P<0.05."nConclusions: When conventional film images are digitized, medium resolution (300 d.p.i seems to be"nsufficient. At this resolution the file size is decreased and there is no significant loss of the information"nnecessary for caries diagnosis.

  11. Application of NIR Raman spectroscopy for detecting and characterizing early dental caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, A. C.; Choo-Smith, L.-P.; Zhu, R.; Hewko, M.; Dong, C.; Cleghorn, B.; Sowa, M. G.

    2006-02-01

    Early dental caries detection facilitates implementation of non-surgical methods for arresting caries progression and promoting tooth remineralization. We present a method based on Raman spectroscopy with near-IR laser excitation to provide biochemical contrast for detecting and characterizing incipient carious lesions found in extracted human teeth. Changes in Raman spectra are observed in PO 4 3- vibrations arising from hydroxyapatite of mineralized tooth tissue. Examination of various intensities of the PO 4 3- ν2, ν3, ν4 vibrations showed consistent increased intensities in spectra of carious lesions compared to sound enamel. The spectral changes are attributed to demineralization-induced alterations of enamel crystallite morphology and/or orientation. This hypothesis is supported by reduced Raman polarization anisotropy derived from polarized Raman spectra of carious lesions. Polarized Raman spectral imaging of carious lesions found on whole (i.e. un-sectioned) tooth samples will also be presented.

  12. Detection and treatment of proximal caries lesions: Milieu-specific cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwendicke, Falk; Paris, Sebastian; Stolpe, Michael

    2015-06-01

    Dental caries lesions are highly prevalent, concentrated in high-risk groups, and often affect proximal tooth surfaces. Choosing a caries detection method determines the available treatment options: radiographically detected early lesion stages might receive non-, micro-, or invasive treatments, whilst visually tactile detected lesions are often advanced and mostly require invasive treatment. Thus, the choice of detection method impacts on patients via the applied treatment. We compared the cost-effectiveness of combinations of detections and treatments of proximal lesions in different populations which did or did not receive prevention during adolescence. These cost-effectiveness comparisons of different detection-treatment combinations should aid clinical decision making and improve resource allocation. A Markov-model was constructed to follow a proximal posterior surface in a 12-year-old German over his lifetime. Prevalence, validity and transition probabilities were extracted from the literature. Microsimulations were performed to evaluate costs (Euro) per tooth-retention-time (years). For populations with low risk, radiographic detection plus non-invasive treatment without (270 Euro, 61.5 years) and with prevention (312 Euro, 63.0 years), as well as radiographic detection plus micro-invasive treatment and prevention (373 Euro, 64.0 years) were cost-effective. For populations with high risk, radiographic detection plus micro-invasive treatment without (427 Euro, 58.5 years) and with prevention (436 Euro, 61.0 years) were cost-effective. Combinations involving invasive treatments had limited cost-effectiveness. Caries detection methods should be evaluated regarding the cost-effectiveness resulting from their use in different populations. Caries detection methods are usually evaluated regarding their validity compared to a gold standard. We demonstrate that the cost-effectiveness stemming from using different detection methods additionally depends on the

  13. Comparison of laser fluorescence devices for detection of caries in primary teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cınar, Cağdaş; Atabek, Didem; Odabaş, Mesut E; Olmez, Ayşegül

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this in vivo study was to evaluate the performance of fluorescence-based devices in detecting occlusal caries lesions in primary molars compared with conventional methods. Two examiners assessed 44 occlusal surfaces of first and second primary molars in 20 patients using two fluorescence devices: DIAGNOdent (LF) and DIAGNOdent pen (LFpen). Teeth were also assessed by visual examination and bitewing radiograph. Histological examination served as the gold standard after extraction. By using the McNemar test, the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and area under the receiver operating curve were calculated as outer enamel (D1), inner enamel (D2) and dentine caries (D3) lesion thresholds. The intra- and inter-examiner reproducibility were calculated using the Cohen's unweighted kappa statistics. At the D1 threshold, the LFpen sensitivity was statistically higher than LF and radiographic examination (P 0.05). All methods demonstrated the highest sensitivity values at D3. At the D1 and D2 thresholds, there were no significant differences between the LFpen specificity and the other methods. All methods presented similar performance in detecting all lesions considering the area under the receiver operating curve. The LFpen showed better performance than LF. Furthermore, visual examination and the LFpen device seem to be sufficient for detection of occlusal caries in primary molars. © 2013 FDI World Dental Federation.

  14. Diagnostic Accuracy of Digitized Conventional Radiographs by Camera and Scanner in Detection of Proximal Caries

    OpenAIRE

    Solmaz Valizadeh; Mohammad Amin Tavakoli; Tara Zarabian; Farzad Esmaeili

    2009-01-01

    Background and aims Digital radiographs have some advantages over conventional ones. Application of digital recep-tors is not routine yet. Therefore, there is a need for digitizing conventional radiographs. The aim of the present study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of digitized conventional radiographs by scanner and camera in detection of proximal car-ies. Materials and methods Three hundred and sixteen surfaces of 158 extracted posterior teeth were radiographed. The radiographs wer...

  15. Dyes for caries detection: influence on composite and compomer microleakage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piva, Evandro; Meinhardt, Luciene; Demarco, Flávio F; Powers, John M

    2002-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of caries-detecting dyes on the microleakage of adhesive materials. Sixty cubic class V cavities were prepared on buccal and lingual surfaces of 30 human third molars. Coronal margins were located in enamel and gingival margins in cementum. The teeth were randomly divided into six groups of ten restorations each. Cavities were restored with an adhesive system (Single Bond, 3M ESPE, St. Paul, Minn., USA), a compomer (F2000, 3M ESPE), or a composite resin (Z100, 3M ESPE) according to the manufacturer's directions. Acid red dye (Seek, Ultradent, South Jordan, Ut., USA) and basic fuchsin dye (Vide Cárie, Inodon, Porto Alegre, Brazil) were tested. Control groups were prepared without the use of dyes. After 7 days of storage in distilled water, the restorations were polished and the teeth were subjected to thermal cycling followed by immersion in 2% methylene blue. The teeth were sectioned, and microleakage scores were evaluated under magnification (40x). Data were submitted to statistical analysis using the nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test. A statistically significant difference ( PF2000) but not in enamel. Control and experimental groups using dyes showed similar results. It was concluded that dyes for caries detection did not increase microleakage of the adhesive materials tested.

  16. Validation of quantitative light-induced fluorescence-digital (QLF-D) for the detection of approximal caries in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Hae-Youn; Kang, Si-Mook; Kim, Hee Eun; Kwon, Ho-Keun; Kim, Baek-Il

    2015-05-01

    Detection of approximal caries lesions can be difficult due to their anatomical position. This study aimed to assess the ability of the quantitative light-induced fluorescence-digital (QLF-D) in detecting approximal caries, and to compare the performance with those of the International Caries Detection and Assessment System II (ICDAS II) and digital radiography (DR). Extracted permanent teeth (n=100) were selected and mounted in pairs. The simulation pairs were assessed by one calibrated dentist using each detection method. After all the examinations, the teeth (n=95) were sectioned and examined histologically as gold standard. The modalities were compared in terms of sensitivity, specificity, areas under receiver operating characteristic curves (AUROC) for enamel (D1) and dentine (D3) levels. The intra-examiner reliability was assessed for all modalities. At D1 threshold, the ICDAS II presented the highest sensitivity (0.80) while the DR showed the highest specificity (0.89); however, the methods with the greatest AUC values at D1 threshold were DR and QLF-D (0.80 and 0.80 respectively). At D3 threshold, the methods with the highest sensitivity were ICDAS II and QLF-D (0.64 and 0.64 respectively) while the method with the lowest sensitivity was DR (0.50). However, with regard to the AUC values at D3 threshold, the QLF-D presented the highest value (0.76). All modalities showed to have excellent intra-examiner reliability. The newly developed QLF-D was not only able to detect proximal caries, but also showed to have comparable performance to the visual inspection and radiography in detecting proximal caries. QLF-D has the potential to be a useful detection method for proximal caries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Clinical detection of caries in the primary dentition with and without bitewing radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, B; Seow, W K; Kazoullis, S; Ford, D; Holcombe, T

    2009-03-01

    Inadequate detection of caries in the primary dentition due to non-use of bitewing radiography is commonly encountered in paediatric practice. The present study investigated the increased benefits of using bitewing radiography in addition to the visual-tactile examination technique for detection of primary dentition caries in a non-fluoridated community, and determined the prevalence of "hidden" occlusal caries in the primary dentition. Primary teeth were scored for caries at the restorative threshold using a visual-tactile technique followed by bitewing radiographic examination in a sample of 611 schoolchildren aged 6.4 +/- 0.5 yrs to 12.1 +/- 0.8 yrs residing in a non-fluoridated city. Overall, at the restorative threshold, the visual-tactile technique could detect 62 per cent of occlusal caries compared to 74 per cent for bitewing radiography (p caries was 12 per cent. In contrast, for primary molar proximal surface caries, the visual-tactile technique could detect only 43 per cent of caries compared with 91 per cent for bitewing radiography (p detection rate of proximal surface caries substantially. It is recommended that bitewing radiography be included as part of the routine examination of children with proximal surfaces that cannot be visualized.

  18. Validation of different diagnostic aids in detection of occlusal caries in primary molars: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Shwetha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim and Objective: To estimate the accuracy and assess the sensitivity and specificity of direct visual examination (DVE, computerized radiograph (VISTA SCAN mini, and DIAGNOdent (DD for caries diagnosis in primary molars as compared to histological examination of the teeth. Materials and Methods: An in vitro comparative study was carried out on 40 freshly extracted primary molars with questionable pit and fissures that yielded 89 examination sites. These samples were mounted on plaster and were subjected to examination methods for caries detection on the occlusal surface by two trained and calibrated examiners. The examination methods used in this study were DVE, computerized radiographic (CR examination, laser fluorescence examination using DD followed by histological examination which is a gold standard; later, these samples were examined under microscope for caries extent. The scoring criteria given by Nytun et al. were used in this study for scoring the extent of caries. Results: The sensitivity for caries in enamel were 66.10%, 52.86%, and 54.17% for DVE, CR, and DD, respectively, while the specificity for DVE, CR, and DD were found to be 86.67%, 68.42%, and 76.47%, respectively. For dentinal caries, sensitivity for DVE, CR, and DD were 86.67%, 92.86%, and 81.25%, respectively, while the specificity were 66.10%, 56%, and 54.79%, respectively. The accuracy were 73.03%, 61.80%, and 59.55%, respectively, suggesting that the DVE showed highest sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for enamel caries, whereas for dentinal caries, CR showed highest sensitivity and DVE showed highest specificity and accuracy. Conclusion: The DD exhibited better specificity than sensitivity for enamel lesions and better sensitivity than specificity for lesions into dentin. DD may prove useful as a predictive clinical tool and should only be used in addition to other diagnostic methods such as visual inspection and dental radiographs to avoid false

  19. Quantitative detection of Streptococcus mutans and bacteria of dental caries and no caries groups in permanent teeth from a north China population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhan-Yong; Wang, Jian-Qiu; Zhou, Yan; Zhao, Dong; Xiao, Bai

    2012-11-01

    Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) is the prime pathogen of dental caries. There are few reports that studied the relationship between S. mutans, bacteria and dental caries in permanent teeth when compared to those in primary teeth. This study aimed to detect S. mutans and bacteria of dental caries and non-caries groups in permanent teeth from a north China population by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and compare the relationship between the number of these bacteria and the prevalence of dental caries in permanent teeth. Human saliva samples were collected from 142 subjects with permanent teeth. According to their dental tooth (DT), 142 subjects were divided into a dental caries group (DT ≥ 1) and a non-caries group (DT = 0). With specific primers for S. mutans and 16S rRNA, the total number of S. mutans and total bacteria of 142 saliva samples were detected by real-time PCR and statistically analyzed. There was no significant difference between the detection rates of S. mutans (P = 0.118) and medians of S. mutans (P = 0.115). The ratio of S. mutans to total bacteria in people with dental caries was significantly higher than in those without caries (P dental caries was significantly lower than in those without caries (P caries in the permanent teeth of several individuals from a north China population. The ratios of S. mutans to total bacteria in saliva detected by real-time PCR with Sm479F/R and 16S RNA primers were closely associated with the prevalence of dental caries in the same population. These assays may be useful for the assessment of an individual's risk of dental caries.

  20. Dental students’ and lecturers’ perception of the degree of difficulty of caries detection associated learning topics in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Sebastian Lara

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: It aimed to explore the degree of difficulty of caries-detection-associated-topics perceived by dental students and lecturers as pedagogical step in the development of learning objects for e-learning. Methods: A convenience sample comprising ninety-eight subjects from different academic levels (undergraduate/graduate students and pediatric dentistry lecturers participated. Two spreadsheets (isolated/relative were created considering key topics in the caries detection process. The isolated evaluation intended to explore each topic in an isolated way, while the relative intended to classify, comparatively, the participants’ perceived difficulty per topic. Afterwards, data were analyzed. All values on spreadsheets were combined obtaining the subject’s final perception. Associations between the subjects’ degree of the perceived difficulty and academic level were estimated. ANOVA was used to determine differences regarding the perception among evaluated topics in distinct groups. Results: Caries histopathology and detection of proximal carious lesions were the topics perceived as the most difficult in the process of caries detection by both students and lecturers. Differentiation between an extrinsic pigmentation and a brown-spot (caries lesion as well as differential diagnosis between caries and enamel developmental defects or non-carious lesions were considered as more difficult by undergraduates in comparison to graduates/lecturers (regression-coefficient=14.54; Standard Error=3.34; P<0.001 and 8.40, 3.31, and 0.01 respectively. Conclusion: Topics as histopathology and detection of proximal caries lesions were identified as the most difficult despite the academic level. However, some topics are differently perceived according to the group. These results are useful for developing pedagogical material, based on the students real learning needs/expectations.

  1. The reliability and accuracy of two methods for proximal caries detection and depth on directly visible proximal surfaces: an in vitro study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekstrand, K R; Alloza, Alvaro Luna; Promisiero, L

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the reliability and accuracy of the ICDAS and radiographs in detecting and estimating the depth of proximal lesions on extracted teeth. The lesions were visible to the naked eye. Three trained examiners scored a total of 132 sound/carious proximal surfaces from 106...... primary teeth and 160 sound/carious proximal surfaces from 140 permanent teeth. The selected surfaces were first scored visually, using the 7 classes in the ICDAS. They were then assessed on radiographs using a 5-point classification system. Reexaminations were conducted with both scoring systems. Teeth...... and the radiographs. The associations between the 2 detection methods were measured to be moderate. In particular, the ICDAS was accurate in predicting lesion depth (histologically) confined to the enamel/outer third of the dentine versus deeper lesions. This study shows that when proximal lesions are open...

  2. Detection of proximal caries with high-resolution and standard resolution digital radiographic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkhout, W E R; Verheij, J G C; Syriopoulos, K; Li, G; Sanderink, G C H; van der Stelt, P F

    2007-05-01

    The aim of this study was to: (1) compare the diagnostic accuracy of the high-resolution and standard resolution settings of four digital imaging systems for caries diagnosis and (2) compare the effect on the diagnostic accuracy of reducing the high-resolution image sizes to the standard resolution dimensions, and vice versa. 90 extracted human premolars were mounted in groups of 5 in plaster blocks, containing 4 test teeth and 1 non-test tooth. Two blocks at a time were placed in a jig to simulate a bitewing radiograph. Radiographs were taken using four digital systems (Planmeca Dixi 2; Gendex Visualix HDI; Dürr Vistascan; Digora Optime), each at two resolution settings. Next, the teeth were sectioned and a total of 65 surfaces were incorporated in the study. Additionally, the bicubic interpolation method was applied to reduce the high-resolution original images and to enlarge the standard resolution images. The original, reduced and enlarged images were randomly shown to five observers in two random sessions. The observers were asked to assess caries depth on a 4-point scale. The observers' scores were compared with the results from a histological examination. Data were analysed using the statistical theory for multivariate discrete data. Cohen's kappa was used to determine the agreement with the gold standard. None of the comparisons between the spatial resolution settings, or the comparisons between increased or reduced image size and the original image sizes, showed significant differences in the probability of caries detection (chi2=26.59, df=26, P approximately 0.50). The four digital systems used in this study differ significantly in the probability of caries detection (chi2=41.55, df=24, PCaries diagnosis does not improve when using high-resolution settings compared with the standard settings. The use of bicubic convolution interpolation for zooming has no detectable effect on caries diagnosis and therefore is recommended to use when enlarging or reducing

  3. Intraoral versus extraoral bitewing radiography in detection of enamel proximal caries: an ex vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu El-Ela, Walaa Hussein; Farid, Mary Medhat; Mostafa, Mostafa Saad El-Din

    2016-01-01

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy of digital intraoral and extraoral bitewing (EO BW) radiography in the detection of enamel proximal caries regardless of their ability to separate contacts. Artificial caries with different degrees of decalcification was induced in 80 human sound premolars and molars using formic acid. Intraoral radiographs were taken with photostimulable phosphor plate (PSP) and complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS), using the paralleling bitewing technique. Extraoral bitewing radiographs were obtained using Sirona digital panoramic X-ray unit (Sirona Siemens, Bensheim, Germany). In total, 160 proximal surfaces were assessed by 2 observers twice. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (Az) values for each image type, observer and reading were compared using z-tests, with a significance level of p ≤ 0.05. Sensitivity, specificity, positive-predictive value and negative-predictive value for each observer and reading were calculated. Spearman's test showed a strong positive correlation between the duration of demineralization and histological grading of carious teeth surfaces. For the three radiographic techniques, intraobserver reliability was strong to excellent. Moreover, interobserver agreement was strong. The differences between all detection methods were not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Intraoral bitewing using CMOS sensor had the highest sensitivity while EO BW had the highest specificity in the detection of incipient proximal caries. Within the limits of the ex vivo design, the difference in diagnostic accuracy between the three radiographic techniques was not significant. EO BW could be used in the detection of enamel proximal caries with results comparable with intraoral bitewing with PSP plate and CMOS sensor.

  4. Assessing the Performance of the Laser Fluorescence Technique in Detecting Proximal Caries Cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Akbari

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diagnosing the necessity of cavity preparation and restoration in demineralized proximal areas is always considered as a challenge in restorative treatment planning. The purpose of this study was to assess the performance of the laser fluorescence (LF technique in detection of proximal cavities.Materials & Methods: In this clinical trial, 44 proximal surfaces in 38 dental students were evaluated. The selected patients had radiolucent proximal lesions restricted to inner half of enamel or outer third of dentine in bitewing radiographs (BW. DIAGNOdent pen (LF pen device was used to determine the presence or absence of caries cavities in suspected proximal surfaces. Orthodontic elastic separators were then placed in the contact areas to provide enough space for direct visual and tactile examination. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the laser fluorescence technique were calculated versus the reference standard. The ROC curve was drawn and the best cut-off to determine the presence or absence of proximal cavities was determined.Results: Using DIAGNOdent pen, the optimal cut-off for detecting proximal cavities was 18. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of DIAGNOdent pen for diagnosing proximal caries cavities were 100 per cent, 97.3 per cent and 97.7 per cent, respectively. Conclusion: Due to the high diagnostic accuracy of DIAGNOdent pen in detecting proximal caries cavities, it can be used as a valuable supplement in restorative treatment planning.

  5. [Establishment and evaluation of a computer-based software system for detection of initial approximal caries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun; Ye, Wei-ping; Li, Yu-jing; Yu, Yang

    2006-03-01

    To establish and evaluate a computer-based software system (caries diagnosing system, CDS): CDS for better detection of initial approximal caries based on the performance of radiography. A total of 190 approximal surfaces from 95 extracted posterior teeth were examined by bite-wing radiography. After analysing and extracting the approximal lesion's characteristics of X-ray performance, using Matlab and VC language, the CDS was established. Then the proximal surfaces of these teeth were detected automatically by CDS, and scored by naked eyes of 8 experienced dentists for the extent of lesions. The histological appearance of sectioned teeth was used as the gold standard to assess sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and reproducibility. The sensitivity of CDS was 0.728, Pearson's correlation was 0.722, better than that of optic estimation. The reproducibility of CDS was good too. The CDS can report the lesion site and extension, its diagnostic level is better than that of optic estimation, it is an reasonably sensitive and accurate method for the detection of initial approximal caries in present clinic practice, and a tool of providing objective data.

  6. A simple dental caries detection system using full spectrum of laser-induced fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha-Cabral, Renata Maciel; Mendes, Fausto Medeiros; Maldonado, Edison Puig; Zezell, Denise Maria

    2015-06-01

    Objectives: to develop an apparatus for the detection of early caries lesions in enamel using the full extent of the tooth fluorescence spectrum, through the integration of a laser diode, fiber optics, filters and one portable spectrometer connected to a computer, all commercially available; to evaluate the developed device in clinical and laboratory tests, and compare its performance with commercial equipment. Methods: clinical examinations were performed in patients with indication for exodontics of premolars. After examinations, the patients underwent surgery and the teeth were stored individually. The optical measurements were repeated approximately two months after extraction, on the same sites previously examined, then histological analysis was carried out. Results: the spectral detector has presented high specificity and moderate sensitivity when applied to differentiate between healthy and damaged tissues, with no significant differences from the performance of the commercial equipment. The developed device is able to detect initial damages in enamel, with depth of approximately 300 μm. Conclusions: we successfully demonstrated the development of a simple and portable system based in laser-induced fluorescence for caries detection, assembled from common commercial parts. As the spectral detector acquires a complete recording of the spectrum from each tissue, it is possible to use it for monitoring developments of caries lesions.

  7. The reliability and accuracy of two methods for proximal caries detection and depth on directly visible proximal surfaces: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekstrand, K R; Luna, L E; Promisiero, L; Cortes, A; Cuevas, S; Reyes, J F; Torres, C E; Martignon, S

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the reliability and accuracy of the ICDAS and radiographs in detecting and estimating the depth of proximal lesions on extracted teeth. The lesions were visible to the naked eye. Three trained examiners scored a total of 132 sound/carious proximal surfaces from 106 primary teeth and 160 sound/carious proximal surfaces from 140 permanent teeth. The selected surfaces were first scored visually, using the 7 classes in the ICDAS. They were then assessed on radiographs using a 5-point classification system. Reexaminations were conducted with both scoring systems. Teeth were then sectioned and the selected surfaces histologically classified using a stereomicroscope (×5). Intrareproducibility values (weighted kappa statistics) for the ICDAS for both primary and permanent teeth were >0.9, and for the radiographs between 0.6 and 0.8. Interreproducibility values for the ICDAS were >0.85, for the radiographs >0.6. For both primary and permanent teeth, the accuracy of each examiner (Spearman's correlation coefficient) for the ICDAS was ≥0.85, and for the radiographs ≥0.45. Corresponding data were achieved when using pooled data from the 3 examiners for both the ICDAS and the radiographs. The associations between the 2 detection methods were measured to be moderate. In particular, the ICDAS was accurate in predicting lesion depth (histologically) confined to the enamel/outer third of the dentine versus deeper lesions. This study shows that when proximal lesions are open for inspection, the ICDAS is a more reliable and accurate method than the radiograph for detecting and estimating the depth of the lesion in both primary and permanent teeth. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Detecting and treating occlusal caries lesions: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwendicke, F; Stolpe, M; Meyer-Lueckel, H; Paris, S

    2015-02-01

    The health gains and costs resulting from using different caries detection strategies might not only depend on the accuracy of the used method but also the treatment emanating from its use in different populations. We compared combinations of visual-tactile, radiographic, or laser-fluorescence-based detection methods with 1 of 3 treatments (non-, micro-, and invasive treatment) initiated at different cutoffs (treating all or only dentinal lesions) in populations with low or high caries prevalence. A Markov model was constructed to follow an occlusal surface in a permanent molar in an initially 12-y-old male German patient over his lifetime. Prevalence data and transition probabilities were extracted from the literature, while validity parameters of different methods were synthesized or obtained from systematic reviews. Microsimulations were performed to analyze the model, assuming a German health care setting and a mixed public-private payer perspective. Radiographic and fluorescence-based methods led to more overtreatments, especially in populations with low prevalence. For the latter, combining visual-tactile or radiographic detection with microinvasive treatment retained teeth longest (mean 66 y) at lowest costs (329 and 332 Euro, respectively), while combining radiographic or fluorescence-based detections with invasive treatment was the least cost-effective (700 Euro). In populations with high prevalence, combining radiographic detection with microinvasive treatment was most cost-effective (63 y, 528 Euro), while sensitive detection methods combined with invasive treatments were again the least cost-effective (690 Euro). The suitability of detection methods differed significantly between populations, and the cost-effectiveness was greatly influenced by the treatment initiated after lesion detection. The accuracy of a detection method relative to a "gold standard" did not automatically convey into better health or reduced costs. Detection methods should be

  9. Detecting Secondary Caries Lesions: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, F; Askar, H; Paris, S; Schwendicke, F

    2016-02-01

    Secondary caries lesions are the main late complication of dental restorations, limiting their life span and generating costs by repeated reinterventions. Accurate detection of secondary lesions is crucial for estimating the true burden of the disease and allocating appropriate treatments. We aimed to assess the accuracy of detection methods for secondary caries lesions. Clinical or in vitro studies were included that investigated the accuracy of 5 detection methods--visual, tactile, radiography, laser fluorescence, quantitative light-induced fluorescence--of natural or artificially induced secondary lesions, as verified against an established reference test. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratios, as well as diagnostic odds ratios were calculated and publication bias assessed. From 1,179 screened studies, 23 were included. Most studies were performed in vitro, on permanent posterior teeth, and had high risk of bias or applicability concerns. Lesions were on proximal (14 studies) or other surfaces and adjacent to amalgam (16 studies) or tooth-colored materials. Visual (n = 11), radiographic (n = 13), and laser fluorescence detection (n = 8) had similar sensitivities (0.50 to 0.59) and specificities (0.78 to 0.83), with visual and laser fluorescence assessment being more accurate on nonproximal surfaces and adjacent to composites, respectively. Tactile assessment (n = 7) had low accuracy. Light-induced fluorescence (n = 3) was sensitive on nonproximal surfaces but had low specificities. Most analyses seemed to suffer from publication bias. Despite being a significant clinical and dental public health problem, detection of secondary caries lesions has been assessed by only a few studies with limited validity and applicability. Visual, radiographic and laser-fluorescence detection might be useful to detect secondary lesions. The validity of tactile assessment and quantitative light-induced fluorescence remains unclear at present.

  10. Validation of DIAGNOdent laser fluorescence and the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) in diagnosis of occlusal caries in permanent teeth: an in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilho, Lia S; Cotta, Fernanda V M D; Bueno, Audrey C; Moreira, Allyson N; Ferreira, Efigênia F; Magalhães, Cláudia S

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this in vivo study was to validate the DIAGNOdent laser fluorescence method and the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) for caries classification against the gold standard, histological examination, for detecting occlusal caries on permanent molars; the thresholds used were the outer enamel (D1), the inner enamel and outer third of the dentine (D2), and the inner two-thirds of the dentine (D3). Patients with non-impacted third molars (n = 43) were recruited from a university clinic. A trained examiner performed the examinations. After the teeth were extracted, the histological criterion was used to determine the severity of the lesions. Intra-examiner agreement (weighted kappa) for ICDAS was 0.60 and reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient) for DIAGNOdent was 0.968. The correlations with the histological reference were weak for DIAGNOdent (rs = 0.369) and moderate for ICDAS (rs = 0.515). The areas under the receiver-operating characteristics (ROC) curve at D1, D2, and D3 were 0.60, 0.69, and 0.91, respectively, for ICDAS and 0.55, 0.65, and 0.92, respectively, for DIAGNOdent. ICDAS and DIAGNOdent proved to be reproducible methods with similar performance in the detection of occlusal carious lesions in dentine. The ability of DIAGNOdent to detect initial enamel lesions was higher than that of ICDAS, but with low specificity. The usefulness of DIAGNOdent as an adjunct method for assessment of initial occlusal caries in permanent molars is questionable. © 2016 Eur J Oral Sci.

  11. Visual Inspection for Caries Detection: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimenez, T; Piovesan, C; Braga, M M; Raggio, D P; Deery, C; Ricketts, D N; Ekstrand, K R; Mendes, F M

    2015-07-01

    We aimed to perform a systematic review including a meta-analysis to evaluate the overall accuracy of visual methods for detecting carious lesions and to identify possible sources of heterogeneity among the studies included. Two reviewers searched PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and other sources through July 2014 to identify published and nonpublished studies in English. Studies of visual inspection were included that 1) assessed accuracy of the method in detecting caries lesions; 2) were performed on occlusal, proximal, or free smooth surfaces in primary or permanent teeth; 3) had a reference standard; and 4) reported sufficient data about sample size and accuracy of methods. The data were used to calculate the pooled sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic odds ratio, and summary receiver operating characteristics curve. Heterogeneity of the studies was also assessed. A total of 102 manuscripts (from 5,808 articles initially identified) and 1 abstract (from 168) met the inclusion criteria. In general, the analysis demonstrated that the visual method had good accuracy for detecting caries lesions. Although laboratory and clinical studies have presented similar accuracy, clinically obtained specificity was higher. We also observed moderate to high heterogeneity and evidence of publication bias in most papers. Moreover, studies employing widely recognized visual scoring systems presented significantly better accuracy as compared to studies that used their own criteria. In conclusion, visual caries detection method has good overall performance. Furthermore, although the identified studies had high heterogeneity and risk of bias, the use of detailed and validated indices seems to improve the accuracy of the method. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2015.

  12. Using laser fluorescence (DIAGNOdent) in surveys for the detection of noncavitated occlusal dentine caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rando-Meirelles, M P M; de Sousa, M da Luz Rosário

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of the DIAGNOdent system in epidemiological studies to detect noncavitated occlusal caries lesions, and compare the results with those found in radiographic examinations. The sample consisted of 1,290 occlusal surfaces of permanent molars, examined in 179 schoolchildren aged 12-15 years. The methods used were: visual inspection, radiographic examination and DIAGNOdent exam, with radiographic examination being considered the gold standard, and noncavitated caries lesions identified in dentin under sound enamel. The inclusion criterion of this study was to have sound occlusal surfaces on visual inspection. The sensitivity and specificity, positive and negative predictive values were used for statistical analysis. Of the 1,290 surfaces examined during visual inspection, 918 were scored as clinically sound. Of these, 789 were examined by radiographic examination and DIAGNOdent, considering that in more than half of them (410) there were coincident results in the absence of noncavitated lesion in both methods (radiographic examination by DIAGNOdent), with specificity of 74% and negative predictive values of 82% and 155 coincident surfaces with presence of caries, with sensitivity of 64% and positive predictor values of 53% for DIAGNOdent. These results suggest that although DIAGNOdent is not a substitute method for the radiographic examination in surveys, it may be an alternative as an auxiliary to visual inspection.

  13. Diagnosis of Proximal Caries in Primary Molars with DIAGNOdent pen

    OpenAIRE

    Ermler, Romy

    2010-01-01

    Proximal surfaces, together with fissures, are the areas where most primary caries occur. Due to the anatomy of the deciduous molars, proximal caries cannot be detected at an early stage in crowded teeth by simply using a mirror and probe. Therefore, additional methods to find early proximal caries have to be used. KaVo uses laser fluorescence to detect caries. Originally, the DIAGNOdent devices were able to detect only occlusal caries (56, 61, 62, 65, 66). New results are now also available ...

  14. The use of the X-ray investigation for dental caries diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecetkova, A.; Ondrasovicova, J.

    2008-01-01

    Caries is defect of the hard dental tissue which is cause by cariogenic microorganisms in the oral cavity. New classification of caries is D1, D2, D3 and D4. D1 is caries in the first layer of enamel. D2 is caries in the second layer of enamel till the margin of dentine ( caries superficial ). D3 is caries in the first layer of dentine ( caries media ).D4 is caries on the top of pulp chamber ( caries pulpae proxima ). One of the most frequently used methods of radiography to detect of caries is bitewing ( BTW ) radiography. (authors)

  15. Diagnostic Value of Senior Dental Students in Yazd About of Detection the Proximal Caries on Panoramic Radiographs Compared to Detection of Experts in 1394

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Romoozi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tooth decay is the most common chronic disease of man in the world and dentists should receive the capability to accurately diagnose of tooth decay during the training courses. In addition to clinical examination, the panoramic view and intraoral radiography is usually used for the caries detection. Therefore, the detection of caries on X-ray images can have a role in treatment planning. Methods: In this analytical study, 10 panoramic radiographies that randomly selected, separately given to 30 senior dental students and 2 professors (in order to determine the gold standard. Data were analyzed using SPSS 17 software, diagnostic tables and indexes were prepared and the results were analyzed by Kappa test. Moreover, in order to determine the agreement between the professors and students about the depth of the decay the weighted kappa coefficient was used. Results: The kappa value about detection of presence or absence of proximal caries between professors and students's diagnosis was 0.428 (P value=0.001. Diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value obtained by students in caries detection were %47, %91.9, %63 and %85.3, respectively. Coefficient of agreement in detection of depth diagnosis obtained by professors and students was 0.361(p value=0.000. Conclusion: The diagnostic capability of senior dental students about caries detection was fair and depth diagnosis was slight.

  16. In vitro assessment of cone beam local computed tomography for proximal caries detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalathingal, Sajitha M; Mol, André; Tyndall, Donald A; Caplan, Daniel J

    2007-11-01

    To compare the accuracy of local computed tomography (LCT) and conventional radiography for proximal caries detection and depth assessment. An in vitro model was used consisting of 20 extracted posterior teeth with 18 caries lesions. Local computed tomography slices were reconstructed in axial and parasagittal planes from 100 basis projections. Conventional radiographs were also acquired. Eight observers determined the presence and depth of caries lesions. Receiver operating characteristic analysis and weighted kappa statistics were used. Local computed tomography had a mean A(z) score of 0.82 (SD = 0.07) and conventional radiography of 0.79 (SD = 0.08; analysis of variance: P > .05). Interobserver agreement was moderate. The mean kappa for depth assessment was 0.68 (SD = 0.06) for LCT and 0.47 (SD = 0.08) for conventional radiography (analysis of variance: P proximal caries detection. Local computed tomography was more accurate for assessing caries lesion depth.

  17. Laboratorial training of examiners for using a visual caries detection system in epidemiological surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piovesan, Chaiana; Moro, Bruna Lp; Lara, Juan S; Ardenghi, Thiago M; Guedes, Renata S; Haddad, Ana E; Braga, Mariana M; Mendes, Fausto M

    2013-10-03

    In epidemiological surveys, a good reliability among the examiners regarding the caries detection method is essential. However, training and calibrating those examiners is an arduous task because it involves several patients who are examined many times. To facilitate this step, we aimed to propose a laboratory methodology to simulate the examinations performed to detect caries lesions using the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) in epidemiological surveys. A benchmark examiner conducted all training sessions. A total of 67 exfoliated primary teeth, varying from sound to extensive cavitated, were set in seven arch models to simulate complete mouths in primary dentition. Sixteen examiners (graduate students) evaluated all surfaces of the teeth under illumination using buccal mirrors and ball-ended probe in two occasions, using only coronal primary caries scores of the ICDAS. As reference standard, two different examiners assessed the proximal surfaces by direct visual inspection, classifying them in sound, with non-cavitated or with cavitated lesions. After, teeth were sectioned in the bucco-lingual direction, and the examiners assessed the sections in stereomicroscope, classifying the occlusal and smooth surfaces according to lesion depth. Inter-examiner reproducibility was evaluated using weighted kappa. Sensitivities and specificities were calculated at two thresholds: all lesions and advanced lesions (cavitated lesions in proximal surfaces and lesions reaching the dentine in occlusal and smooth surfaces). Regarding the reproducibility, the mean (range) of kappa values was 0.781 (0.529-0.927) for occlusal surfaces, 0.568 (0.191-0.881) for smooth surfaces, and 0.844 (0.698-0.971) for proximal surfaces. Considering all lesions, sensitivity and specificity mean values were respectively 0.724 and 0.844 for occlusal, 0.635 and 0.943 for smooth and 0.658 and 0.927 for proximal surfaces. For detecting advanced lesions, sensitivities and

  18. Detection of proximal caries using digital radiographic systems with different resolutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikneshan, Sima; Abbas, Fatemeh Mashhadi; Sabbagh, Sedigheh

    2015-01-01

    Dental radiography is an important tool for detection of caries and digital radiography is the latest advancement in this regard. Spatial resolution is a characteristic of digital receptors used for describing the quality of images. This study was aimed to compare the diagnostic accuracy of two digital radiographic systems with three different resolutions for detection of noncavitated proximal caries. Diagnostic accuracy. Seventy premolar teeth were mounted in 14 gypsum blocks. Digora; Optime and RVG Access were used for obtaining digital radiographs. Six observers evaluated the proximal surfaces in radiographs for each resolution in order to determine the depth of caries based on a 4-point scale. The teeth were then histologically sectioned, and the results of histologic analysis were considered as the gold standard. Data were entered using SPSS version 18 software and the Kruskal-Wallis test was used for data analysis. P proximal caries (P > 0.05). RVG access system had the highest specificity (87.7%) and Digora; Optime at high resolution had the lowest specificity (84.2%). Furthermore, Digora; Optime had higher sensitivity for detection of caries exceeding outer half of enamel. Judgment of oral radiologists for detection of the depth of caries had higher reliability than that of restorative dentistry specialists. The three resolutions of Digora; Optime and RVG access had similar accuracy in detection of noncavitated proximal caries.

  19. Diagnosis of occlusal caries using laser fluorescence versus conventional methods in permanent posterior teeth: a clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinanoglu, Alper; Ozturk, Elif; Ozel, Emre

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this in vivo study was to compare three different caries detection methods [laser fluorescence (LFE), visual examination (VE), and radiological examination (RE)] for the detection of occlusal caries in permanent posterior teeth. Early diagnosis of caries is critical in the management of dental caries. Two examiners assessed the occlusal surfaces of 217 teeth by visual, radiographic, and laser fluorescence (DIAGNOdent Pen) examination methods. After a 1 week interval, randomly selected patients were recalled. Each measurement was repeated by two examiners before the cases were selected for operative intervention to classify lesion depths. Statistical analysis of the data was performed using SPSS and Stata IC. The intra- and inter-examiner reliabilities and reproducibilities of the VE, RE, and LFE were calculated using Cohen's κ statistics. The sensitivities and specificities were plotted in receiver operating characteristic curves. The differences between LFE scores were analyzed using the nonparametric Mann-Whitney U and Wilcoxon tests (α=0.05). The VE method exhibited the highest sensitivity, accuracy, and κ values among the diagnostic groups in terms of inter-examiner agreement. With regard to the sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratios for the two examiners, significant differences were found between sensitivity and specificity for examiner 1, whereas no statistically significant differences were noted between sensitivity and specificity for examiner 2 for the LFE scores. The DIAGNOdent pen is useful for the detection of dentinal caries of occlusal surfaces in permanent posterior teeth. Combination with other diagnostic conventional methods may enhance the reliability of this tool.

  20. Light-emitting diode and laser fluorescence-based devices in detecting occlusal caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Jonas A.; Hug, Isabel; Neuhaus, Klaus W.; Lussi, Adrian

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the performance of two light-emitting diode (LED)- and two laser fluorescence-based devices in detecting occlusal caries in vitro. Ninety-seven permanent molars were assessed twice by two examiners using two LED- (Midwest Caries - MID and VistaProof - VP) and two laser fluorescence-based (DIAGNOdent 2095 - LF and DIAGNOdent pen 2190 - LFpen) devices. After measuring, the teeth were histologically prepared and classified according to lesion extension. At D1 the specificities were 0.76 (LF and LFpen), 0.94 (MID), and 0.70 (VP); the sensitivities were 0.70 (LF), 0.62 (LFpen), 0.31 (MID), and 0.75 (VP). At D3 threshold the specificities were 0.88 (LF), 0.87 (LFpen), 0.90 (MID), and 0.70 (VP); the sensitivities were 0.63 (LF and LFpen), 0.70 (MID), and 0.96 (VP). Spearman's rank correlations with histology were 0.56 (LF), 0.51 (LFpen), 0.55 (MID), and 0.58 (VP). Inter- and intraexaminer ICC values were high and varied from 0.83 to 0.90. Both LF devices seemed to be useful auxiliary tools to the conventional methods, presenting good reproducibility and better accuracy at D3 threshold. MID was not able to differentiate sound surfaces from enamel caries and VP still needs improvement on the cut-off limits for its use.

  1. All-optical photoacoustic imaging and detection of early-stage dental caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampathkumar, Ashwin; Hughes, David A.; Longbottom, Chris; Kirk, Katherine J.

    2015-02-01

    Dental caries remain one of the most common oral diseases in the world. Current detection methods, such as dental explorer and X-ray radiography, suffer from poor sensitivity and specificity at the earliest (and reversible) stages of the disease because of the small size (tooth decay. This AOPAI system provides a non-contact, non-invasive and non-ionizing means of detecting early-stage dental caries. Ex-vivo teeth exhibiting early-stage, white-spot lesions were imaged using AOPAI. Experimental scans targeted each early-stage lesion and a reference healthy enamel region. Photoacoustic (PA) signals were generated in the tooth using a 532-nm pulsed laser and the light-induced broadband ultrasound signal was detected at the surface of the tooth with an optical path-stabilized Michelson interferometer operating at 532 nm. The measured time-domain signal was spatially resolved and back-projected to form 2D and 3D maps of the lesion using k-wave reconstruction methods. Experimental data collected from areas of healthy and diseased enamel indicate that the lesion generated a larger PA response compared to healthy enamel. The PA-signal amplitude alone was able to detect a lesion on the surface of the tooth. However, time- reversal reconstructions of the PA scans also quantitatively depicted the depth of the lesion. 3D PA reconstruction of the diseased tooth indicated a sub-surface lesion at a depth of 0.6 mm, in addition to the surface lesion. These results suggest that our AOPAI system is well suited for rapid clinical assessment of early-stage dental caries. An overview of the AOPAI system, fine-resolution PA and histology results of diseased and healthy teeth will be presented.

  2. Grey-scale reversed radiographic display in the detection of approximal caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haak, Rainer; Wicht, Michael J

    2005-01-01

    Purpose of this study was to determine the influence of grey-scale reversal of digital radiographic images on the detection of proximal caries. Five observers assessed digital bitewing radiographs (Sidexis((R)), Sirona) of 320 unrestored surfaces of extracted posterior teeth embedded in 20 models, simulating pairing of maxillary and mandibular arches, using a six-category caries rating scale. Images were displayed in normal [N] and inverse [IN] mode at different image sizes (display ratio: 1:1, 1:2, 1:7) on a cathode-ray tube monitor (Nokia 446 XS) and a TFT display (Panasonic LC 50 S). Validation standard was defined as histological lesion depth. Validity was expressed as areas under receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC) calculated for two levels of histological caries penetration: presence of caries and presence of a dentine lesion. The factors 'inverse display', 'image size on-screen' 'display type' and 'disease cut-off' were analysed by repeated measures ANOVA. Inverse image display significantly influenced the diagnostic validity (P=0.014), but a reduced accuracy was only seen at the lowest image size (AUC (SE): [N] 0.64 (0.02); [IN] 0.62 (0.02)). At the validation threshold 'dentine caries' approximal caries detection deteriorated when using grey-scale reversal (AUC (SE): [N] 0.71 (0.02); [IN] 0.69 (0.02)). In conclusion, grey-scale reversal of digital radiographs did not optimise approximal caries detection and aggravated the detectability of dentinal lesions.

  3. Diagnostic Value of Conventional and Digital Radiography for Detection of Cavitated and Non-Cavitated Proximal Caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdieh Dehghani

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to assess the diagnostic value of conventional and digital radiography for detection of cavitated and non-cavitated proximal caries.Materials and Methods: Fifty extracted human premolars and molars were mounted in a silicone block. Charge-coupled device (CCD and photostimulable phosphor plate (PSP receptors and intra-oral films were exposed with 60 and 70 kVp with parallel technique. Two observers interpreted the radiographs twice with a two-week interval using a 5-point scale. Teeth were then serially sectioned in mesiodistal direction and evaluated under a stereomicroscope (gold standard. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy were calculated.Results: Sensitivity of all three receptors for detection of enamel lesions was low (5.5-44.4% but it was higher for dentin lesions (42.8-62.8%; PSP with 70 kVp and 0.03s exposure time had the highest sensitivity for enamel lesions, but the difference among receptors was not statistically significant (P>0.05. Sensitivity of all three receptors for detection of non-cavitated lesions was lower than that for cavitated lesions; PSP with 60 kVp and 0.07s exposure time had higher sensitivity and lower patient radiation dose for detection of cavitated and non-cavitated lesions, but the difference was not significant (P>0.05.Conclusions: Digital radiography using PSP receptor with 70 kVp is recommended to detect initial enamel caries. For detection of non-cavitated and cavitated dentin caries, PSP with 60 kVp is more appropriate. Change in kVp did not affect the diagnostic accuracy for detection of caries, and type of receptor was a more important factor.Keywords: Dental Caries; Diagnostic Imaging; Radiography, Dental, Digital

  4. The effect of image enhancements and dual observers on proximal caries detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Benjamin M; Mol, Andre; Zandona, Andrea; Tyndall, Don

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if the use of certain image enhancements and dual observers had an effect on the detection of caries, dentin extension, and cavitation. Seven observers viewed unenhanced and enhanced images taken on photostimulable phosphor plates (PSP) and Schick 33 sensors and were asked to determine whether proximal caries lesions, dentin extension, and cavitation were present. Pairs of observers also evaluated the unenhanced PSP images and recorded their confidence. Micro-computed tomography was used as the gold standard. For caries lesion detection, PSP outperformed Schick sensors, although the differences are most likely not clinically significant. Observers (single and dual) and filters had no effect on any of the diagnostic tasks. Schick sensors and unfiltered images were more specific for dentin extension. Caries detection was statistically greater with the PSP plate, but both detectors allowed for high accuracy. Expensive software or time-consuming consultations did not improve outcomes. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Diagnostic accuracy of five different techniques for detection of approximal caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Defne Yalçın Yeler

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of five different radiographic methods for the detection of approximal caries on posterior teeth. Materials and Method: Seventy-two extracted posterior teeth with and without caries were studied. Intraoral bitewing radiographs were taken with film and a storage phosphor-plate system. Extraoral panoramic images were obtained by using the bitewing, orthogonal and standard programs of a digital panoramic radiography device. Images were evaluated by two observers. Intra- and inter-observer weighted-kappa coefficients were calculated. Scores obtained from the five techniques were compared against the histological gold standard using receiver operating characteristics (ROC curve analysis. Az values for each image type were compared using z-test and the level of statistical significance was set at 0.05. Sensitivity, specificity and false-positive rates were calculated for each method. Results: Intra- and inter-observer agreement κ values were between 0.59-0.88 and 0.54-0.87, respectively. The Az value was greatest with conventional bitewing (0.760 and phosphor plate bitewing (0.756 and lowest with standard panoramic image program (0.639. The standard panoramic image program was significantly inferior to the other diagnostic methods (p<0.05. Sensitivity and specificity values were 0.64 and 0.85 for conventional bitewing, 0.64 and 0.87 for phosphor plate bitewing, 0.40 and 0.87 for standard program, 0.56 and 0.85 for orthogonal program, and 0.59 and 0.90 for extraoral bitewing program, respectively. Conclusion: In this study, conventional and phosphor plate bitewing images were found to confer similar diagnostic accuracy. Orthogonal and extraoral bitewing programs on panoramic devices were effective for reducing superimpositions. The diagnostic sensitivity of the studied methods for approximal caries was found to be low at the level of enamel.

  6. In vitro evaluation of laser fluorescence devices for caries detection through stereomicroscopic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oancea, Roxana; Podariu, Angela Codruţa; Vasile, Liliana; Sava-Roşianu, Ruxandra; Folescu, Roxana

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the diagnostic accuracy and reproducibility of the laser fluorescence device (LF), and the relationship between laser fluorescence readings taken at the entrance of the fissure, ICDAS visual examination caries detection system and the histological depth of the lesion. Two hundred and forty teeth (122 human third molars and 118 bicuspids) were selected from 62 patients enrolled in the study. Visual and LF examinations (Diagnodent, Kavo, Biberach, Germany) of the occlusal surfaces were performed in vivo. After tooth extraction, histological sections were evaluated by stereomicroscopy in vitro. Statistical analysis was performed using multiple statistical methods (SPSS ver. 17). Intra-examiner reproducibility for the LF measurements was excellent: intra-class-correlation coefficient (ICC) for LF was 0.957. Kappa values for each examiner's reproducibility were 0.74-0.82. The diagnostic performance of the LF device gave a good overall diagnostic accuracy according to ICDAS II codes and histological values as indicated by the area under the ROC curve of 0.707 and 0.709 respectively. The results of the study showed acceptable diagnostic accuracy for the laser fluorescence device. This supports the view that dentists can be site specific in applying fluorescence-based devices to multiple discrete sites within the same surface. In conclusion, these diagnostic methods have different characteristics, indications and limitations for use. In order to detect caries on occlusal surfaces thoroughly, a combination of methods would be the best practice moderated by clinical knowledge and experience.

  7. The influence of display modalities on proximal caries detection and treatment decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Véra L S A; Gonzaga, Amanda K G; Pontual, Andrea A; Bento, Patrícia M; Ramos-Perez, Flávia M M; Filgueira, Pedro T D; Melo, Daniela P

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of digital radiographic display on caries detection and choice of treatment among undergraduate students. Forty images of extracted human teeth were acquired using a PSP digital system. The proximal surfaces were evaluated for the presence of proximal caries and choice of treatment by 36 undergraduate students, divided into three groups according to the semester they were taking. The images were evaluated in two forms of image display: laptop, and printed on acetate viewed on a lightbox. The accuracy of the different forms of image display on caries detection was evaluated by means of ROC curve analysis and its effect by mixed linear regression. Residue analysis was used to verify the adequacy of the treatment of choice for the chosen diagnosis. There was no significant effect either for the display modalities (p=0.058) or for the different undergraduate student groups (p=0.991). The Az was 0.539 for printed images and 0.516 for laptop. The decisions based on treatment of choice were consistent with the scores achieved for caries detection. Accuracy of caries detection using a laptop was comparable to accuracy using printed images. Treatment decision was not affected by image display modality. The semester of the dentistry course that undergraduate students were taking did not significantly increase the accuracy of their proximal caries detection.

  8. Clinical performance of ICDAS II, radiovisiography, and alternating current impedance spectroscopy device for the detection and assessment of occlusal caries in primary molars

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    Rohit Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the clinical performance of International Caries Detection and Assessment System II (ICDAS II (a ranked visual scale, radiovisiography (RVG (a digital radiography device, and an alternating current impedance spectroscopy (ACIS device for the detection and assessment of occlusal caries in primary teeth. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five molars were assessed using all three systems under standardized in vivo conditions. They were then extracted and also assessed by examiners in vitro. Downer′s histological scoring criterion was the validation gold standard. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratios, and area under the receiver-operator curves were calculated for enamel caries and dentine caries. Repeatability was analyzed using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC. The performances of the systems between in vivo and in vitro settings by the same examiner were also compared. Statistical Analysis: SPSS version 17.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA was used to analyze the data. Comparison of the performance of all three systems for all caries and dentine caries using receiver operating characteristic curves was calculated using a range of cutoffs. Reliability was assessed using ICC method. Results: ICDAS II system showed the highest validity and repeatability for assessing occlusal caries in the primary molars. RVG was less accurate than the ICDAS II for detecting caries lesions confined to enamel. However, when dentine was involved, RVG was found to be as effective as ICDAS II. Conclusion: Within the limitations of the study, the in vivo results of ICDAS II and RVG were satisfactory and comparable to those obtained in vitro, with ICDAS II performing better. The ACIS device was least accurate among the three systems for caries assessment.

  9. Detection of occlusal caries in primary teeth using swept source optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Yukie; Shimada, Yasushi; Sadr, Alireza; Wada, Ikumi; Miyashin, Michiyo; Takagi, Yuzo; Tagami, Junji; Sumi, Yasunori

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) as a detecting tool for occlusal caries in primary teeth. At the in vitro part of the study, 38 investigation sites of occlusal fissures (noncavitated and cavitated) were selected from 26 extracted primary teeth and inspected visually using conventional dental equipment by six examiners without any magnification. SS-OCT cross-sectional images at 1330-nm center wavelength were acquired on the same locations. The teeth were then sectioned at the investigation site and directly viewed under a confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) by two experienced examiners. The presence and extent of caries were scored in each observation. The results obtained from SS-OCT and conventional visual inspections were compared with those of CLSM. Consequently, SS-OCT could successfully detect both cavitated and noncavitated lesions. The magnitude of sensitivity for SS-OCT was higher than those for visual inspection (sensitivity of visual inspection and SS-OCT, 0.70 versus 0.93 for enamel demineralization, 0.49 versus 0.89 for enamel cavitated caries, and 0.36 versus 0.75 for dentin caries). Additionally, occlusal caries of a few clinical cases were observed using SS-OCT in vivo. The results indicate that SS-OCT has a great detecting potential for occlusal caries in primary teeth.

  10. Diagnostic agreement between radiologists, dentists and dental students for radiographic detection of approximal caries.

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    Sergio E Uribe

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess intraobserver and interobserver agreement for radiographic detection of approximal caries among radiologists, dentists and senior dental students. Materials and methods: 75 standardized bitewing radiographs were examined by four maxillofacial radiologists, four dentists and four senior dental students. Iinterobserver agreement was calculated using a weighted Kappa Cohen test. Two weeks later, the examiners re-evaluated 10% of the sample under the same conditions and intraobserver agreement weighted Kappa Cohen test was calculated. Results: The interobserver Kappa value was 0.68 (good for the dentist-student pair, 0.51 (moderate for the student-radiologist and 0.62 (good for the dentist-radiologist pair. All these differences were significant. The intraobserver agreement Kappa values obtained were 0.56 (moderate for students (p=0.46, 0.46 (moderate for dentists (p<0.05 and 0.68 (good for radiologists. Conclusion: The agreement for proximal caries detection by dental students, dentists and radiologists was moderate to good.

  11. Evaluation of diagnostic ability of CCD digital radiography in the detection of incipient dental caries

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    Lee, Wan; Lee, Byung Do [Wonkwang University College of Medicine, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-03-15

    The purpose of this experiment was to evaluate the diagnostic ability of a CCD-based digital system (CDX-2000HQ) in the detection of incipient dental caries. 93 extracted human teeth with sound proximal surfaces and interproximal artificial cavities were radiographed using 4 imaging methods. Automatically processed No.2 Insight film (Eastman Kodak Co., U.S.A.) was used for conventional radiography, scanned images of conventional radiograms for indirect digital radiography were used. For the direct digital radiography, the CDX-2000HQ CCD system (Biomedisys Co. Korea) was used. The subtraction images were made from two direct digital images by Sunny program in the CDX-2000HQ system. Two radiologists and three endodontists examined the presence of lesions using a five-point confidence scale and compared the diagnostic ability by ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) analysis and one way ANOVA test. The mean ROC areas of conventional radiography, indirect digital radiography, direct digital radiography, and digital subtraction radiography were 0.9093, 0.9102, 0.9184, and 0.9056, respectively. The diagnostic ability of direct digital radiography was better than the other imaging modalities, but there were no statistical differences among these imaging modalities (p>0.05). These results indicate that new CCD-based digital systems (CDX-2000HQ) have the potential to serve as an alternative to conventional radiography in the detection of incipient dental caries.

  12. Evaluation of diagnostic ability of CCD digital radiography in the detection of incipient dental caries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Wan; Lee, Byung Do

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to evaluate the diagnostic ability of a CCD-based digital system (CDX-2000HQ) in the detection of incipient dental caries. 93 extracted human teeth with sound proximal surfaces and interproximal artificial cavities were radiographed using 4 imaging methods. Automatically processed No.2 Insight film (Eastman Kodak Co., U.S.A.) was used for conventional radiography, scanned images of conventional radiograms for indirect digital radiography were used. For the direct digital radiography, the CDX-2000HQ CCD system (Biomedisys Co. Korea) was used. The subtraction images were made from two direct digital images by Sunny program in the CDX-2000HQ system. Two radiologists and three endodontists examined the presence of lesions using a five-point confidence scale and compared the diagnostic ability by ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) analysis and one way ANOVA test. The mean ROC areas of conventional radiography, indirect digital radiography, direct digital radiography, and digital subtraction radiography were 0.9093, 0.9102, 0.9184, and 0.9056, respectively. The diagnostic ability of direct digital radiography was better than the other imaging modalities, but there were no statistical differences among these imaging modalities (p>0.05). These results indicate that new CCD-based digital systems (CDX-2000HQ) have the potential to serve as an alternative to conventional radiography in the detection of incipient dental caries.

  13. Performance of RVGui sensor and Kodak Ektaspeed Plus film for proximal caries detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, M; Mol, A; Ludlow, J B

    2001-03-01

    A high-resolution charge-coupled device was used to compare the diagnostic performances obtained with Trophy's new RVGui sensor and Kodak Ektaspeed Plus film with respect to caries detection. Three acquisition modes of the Trophy RVGui sensor were compared with Kodak Ektaspeed Plus film. Images of the proximal surfaces of 40 extracted posterior teeth were evaluated by 6 observers. The presence or absence of caries was scored by means of a 5-point confidence scale. The actual caries status of each surface was determined through ground-section histology. Responses were evaluated by means of receiver operating characteristic analysis. Areas under receiver operating characteristic curves (A(Z)) were assessed through analysis of variance. The mean A(Z) scores were 0.85 for film, 0.84 for the high-resolution caries mode, and 0.82 for both the low resolution caries mode and the high-resolution periodontal mode. These differences were not statistically significant (P =.70). The differences among observers also were not statistically significant (P =.23). The performance of the RVGui sensor in high- and low-resolution modes for proximal caries detection is comparable to that of Ektaspeed Plus film.

  14. In vitro study of caries detection through sound dentin using a laser fluorescence device, DIAGNOdent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwami, Yukiteru; Shimizu, Ayako; Yamamoto, Hiroko; Hayashi, Mikako; Takeshige, Fumio; Ebisu, Shigeyuki

    2003-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of proximal surface caries detection using a laser fluorescence device, DIAGNOdent, through the sound dentin surrounding the cavity wall after removal of occlusal caries. Extracted sound human molars were ground to prepare horizontal and vertical dentin plates 1.4 mm thick. Extracted carious human molars were reduced in thickness horizontally from the occlusal surfaces until exposure of the dentin caries. The dentin plate was placed on the carious tooth. Before and after gradual thinning of the dentin plate from approximately 1.4 mm to 0.2 mm thick, the dentin caries was measured 10 times through the plate by the laser fluorescence device with a cone-shaped tip or a broad tip. When the dentin plate was reduced to less than 0.3 mm thick (using a combination of a horizontal plate and cone-shaped tip) or 0.2 mm thick (using the other combinations), the values measured with the laser fluorescence device were significantly larger than the values before reducing the thickness of the dentin. Based on these results, the device offers potential use as one of the screening tests for proximal surface caries detection through sound dentin when the sound dentin between tip and caries is thin.

  15. Multivariate image analysis of laser-induced photothermal imaging used for detection of caries tooth

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sherif, Ashraf F.; Abdel Aziz, Wessam M.; El-Sharkawy, Yasser H.

    2010-08-01

    Time-resolved photothermal imaging has been investigated to characterize tooth for the purpose of discriminating between normal and caries areas of the hard tissue using thermal camera. Ultrasonic thermoelastic waves were generated in hard tissue by the absorption of fiber-coupled Q-switched Nd:YAG laser pulses operating at 1064 nm in conjunction with a laser-induced photothermal technique used to detect the thermal radiation waves for diagnosis of human tooth. The concepts behind the use of photo-thermal techniques for off-line detection of caries tooth features were presented by our group in earlier work. This paper illustrates the application of multivariate image analysis (MIA) techniques to detect the presence of caries tooth. MIA is used to rapidly detect the presence and quantity of common caries tooth features as they scanned by the high resolution color (RGB) thermal cameras. Multivariate principal component analysis is used to decompose the acquired three-channel tooth images into a two dimensional principal components (PC) space. Masking score point clusters in the score space and highlighting corresponding pixels in the image space of the two dominant PCs enables isolation of caries defect pixels based on contrast and color information. The technique provides a qualitative result that can be used for early stage caries tooth detection. The proposed technique can potentially be used on-line or real-time resolved to prescreen the existence of caries through vision based systems like real-time thermal camera. Experimental results on the large number of extracted teeth as well as one of the thermal image panoramas of the human teeth voltanteer are investigated and presented.

  16. Efficacy of Application of Pseudocolor Filters in the Detection of Interproximal Caries

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    Maryam Zangooei Booshehry

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. The aim of the present study was to compare the effect of application of an image processing mode of a colorizer on the efficacy of the detection of interproximal carious lesions viewed in direct digital radiography. Materials and methods. A total of 102 proximal surfaces of extracted human premolars on direct digital images were evaluated by three observers with and without the application of pseudocolor filter. The teeth were sectioned and viewed microscopically to determine the gold standard. The kappa value agreement ratios were calculated. Results. Sensitivity and specificity values for normal digital and colorized images were 66.7%, 60%, 80.5%, and 50%, respectively. However, there were no statistically significant differences between the two types of images (P = 0.12. Conclusion. In this study application of pseudocolor filter on digital radiographic images failed to result in significantly improved caries detection.

  17. Accuracy of Digital Bitewing Radiography versus Different Views of Digital Panoramic Radiography for Detection of Proximal Caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdinian, Mehrdad; Razavi, Sayed Mohammad; Faghihian, Reyhaneh; Samety, Amir Abbas; Faghihian, Elham

    2015-04-01

    Dental caries are common and have a high incidence among populations. Radiographs are essential for detecting proximal caries. The best technique should be recognized for accurate detection of caries. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of detection of proximal caries using intraoral bitewing, extraoral bitewing, improved interproximal panoramic, improved orthogonality panoramic and conventional panoramic radiographs. In this descriptive cross sectional study, 100 extracted human teeth with and without proximal caries were used. Intra and extraoral radiographs were taken. Images were evaluated and scored by two observers. Scores were compared with the histological gold standard. The diagnostic accuracy of radiographs was assessed by means of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis (Ppanoramic and extraoral bitewing radiographs were superior to conventional panoramic radiography for detection of proximal caries ex vivo and should be considered for patients with contraindications for intraoral radiographs.

  18. Diagnostic Values of Laser Fluorescence Device with Other Techniques in Occlusal Caries Detection

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    A. Chehresaz

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the present study was to compare the performance of laser fluorescence (LF method with other conventional diagnostic techniques in detection of smallocclusal caries in permanent teeth.Materials and Methods: Prior to this in vitro diagnostic study, a pilot study assessed intra-examiner reliability and reproducibility. The occlusal surfaces of 90 extracted human premolars were examined with four diagnostic methods: probing, visual inspection, bitewing(BW radiographs, and LF. The teeth were then sectioned for the purpose of histological examination. The data were analyzed using SPSS 15 software, and sensitivity,specificity and other diagnostic criteria of the techniques were calculated.Results: The intra-examiner reproducibility for probing and also radiographic techniques was 100%. The corresponded figure for LF (88% was more than visual inspection (82%.The highest level of validity of the examiner turned out to be in probing technique(76.9%. Sensitivity of visual inspection, probing, and LF methods was 54.5% and that of BW radiography was 27.5%. Specificity and efficiency of LF method were 84.8% and 81.1%, respectively. Probing and visual inspection showed the highest specificity (97.5% and 94.9, respectively and efficiency (92.2% and 90%, respectively among the methods.Conclusion: Specificity and efficiency of LF method were lower compared to those of other methods. Among all the investigated methods, the most efficient methods in the diagnosis of small occlusal caries in permanent teeth were probing and visual inspection,respectively.

  19. COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF FIVE METHODS FOR EARLY DIAGNOSIS OF OCCLUSAL CARIES LESIONS – in vitro study.

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    Mirela Marinova-Takorova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the presented in vitro study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the device DIAGNOcam and the laser fluorescence device DIAGNOdent for early diagnosis of occlusal caries and to compare it with three traditional methods – visual and tactile, dye and radiographic examination. Material and methods: The sample consisted of 60 extracted human teeth. Three clinicians diagnosed independently the presence or absence of early occlusal surface caries with the visible tactile method,DIAGNOcam andDIAGNOdent. Then X-rays were taken and the dentists viewed them separately, without magnification.Fuchsine was applied for 30 sec. and then washed under running water for 20 min. Places where dye was present were registered. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS package of Windows. Results: The results showed high level of correspondence between the authors for all the diagnostic methods. Concerning different methods applied for caries diagnosis there was a correlation between the methods, but it was diverging for the different methods. No correlation between radiographic exam and data obtained with DIAGNOdent and dye staining was observed. Conclusions: Based on the obtained results we may conclude that the least sensitive method for fissure caries diagnosis was the dye staining, followed by the radiographic exam. The results, obtained by DIAGNOdent and DIAGNOcam were very close, but DIAGNOcams’ data was better correlating with the clinical results.DIAGNOcam procedure can be judged as equivalent in the detection of occlusal dentine lesions when compared to clinical results.

  20. Ex vivo evaluation of new 2D and 3D dental radiographic technology for detecting caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaalaas, Laurence; Tyndall, Donald; Mol, André; Everett, Eric T; Bangdiwala, Ananta

    2016-01-01

    Proximal dental caries remains a prevalent disease with only modest detection rates by current diagnostic systems. Many new systems are available without controlled validation of diagnostic efficacy. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of three potentially promising new imaging systems. This study evaluated the caries detection efficacy of Schick 33 (Sirona Dental, Salzburg, Austria) intraoral digital detector images employing an advanced sharpening filter, Planmeca ProMax(®) (Planmeca Inc., Helsinki, Finland) extraoral "panoramic bitewing" images and Sirona Orthophos XG3D (Sirona Dental) CBCT images with advanced artefact reduction. Conventional photostimulable phosphor images served as the control modality. An ex vivo study design using extracted human teeth, ten expert observers and micro-CT ground truth was employed. Receiver operating characteristic analysis indicated similar diagnostic efficacy of all systems (ANOVA p > 0.05). The sensitivity of the Schick 33 images (0.48) was significantly lower than the other modalities (0.53-0.62). The specificity of the Planmeca images (0.86) was significantly lower than Schick 33 (0.96) and XG3D (0.97). The XG3D showed significantly better cavitation detection sensitivity (0.62) than the other modalities (0.48-0.57). The Schick 33 images demonstrated reduced caries sensitivity, whereas the Planmeca panoramic bitewing images demonstrated reduced specificity. XG3D with artefact reduction demonstrated elevated sensitivity and specificity for caries detection, improved depth accuracy and substantially improved cavitation detection. Care must be taken to recognize potential false-positive caries lesions with Planmeca panoramic bitewing images. Use of CBCT for caries detection must be carefully balanced with the presence of metal artefacts, time commitment, financial cost and radiation dose.

  1. [Research methods in dentistry. 6. In vivo and in vitro methods for studying caries lesion progression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huysmans, M.C.; Thomas, R.Z.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes some of the most used methods for caries lesion progression measurement in in vivo and in vitro research. Clinical measurements are usually limited to visual inspection. Currently available scoring systems and statistical analyses, making use of changes in lesion stage, have the

  2. Comparison of The Canary System and DIAGNOdent for the in vitro detection of caries under opaque dental sealants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvertown, Josh D; Wong, Bonny P Y; Abrams, Stephen H; Sivagurunathan, Koneswaran S; Mathews, Sapna M; Amaechi, Bennett T

    2017-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the ability of operators using The Canary System and DIAGNOdent to detect natural pit and fissure caries under four commonly-used opaque dental sealants. Mixed sound and carious pits/fissures (N = 105) selected from 40 human teeth were randomly assigned (10 teeth/group) to one of four opaque sealant groups (Delton, Embrace WetBond, Helioseal F, UltraSeal XT Plus). Selected pits/fissures sites on occlusal surfaces were scanned with The Canary System and DIAGNOdent, sealed, re-scanned, and subjected to polarized light microscopy to confirm whether the scanned regions were sound or carious. Sensitivities and specificities for each detection method before and after sealant placement were calculated. The Canary System and DIAGNOdent were able to distinguish between sound and carious tissue beneath opaque sealants with an accuracy of 76% and 59%, respectively. The Canary System can serve as a clinical tool to aid dental professionals to detect and monitor the status of caries lesions and tooth structure underneath sealant. The increased likelihood of false-positive diagnoses with DIAGNOdent due to intrinsic auto-fluorescence of sealant filler and opacifying agents might limit its usefulness as an aid to detect caries underneath opaque sealants. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  3. Detection of in vitro proximal caries in storage phosphor plate radiographs scanned with different resolutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, G; Berkhout, W E R; Sanderink, G C H; Martins, M; van der Stelt, P F

    2008-09-01

    To investigate the effect of the scanning resolution of storage phosphor plate (SPP) radiographs on the detection of proximal caries lesions. 10 dentists evaluated 72 proximal surfaces of premolars with respect to caries from SPP radiographs scanned with theoretical spatial resolutions of: (1) the Digora FMX at 7.8 lp mm(-1); (2) the Digora Optime at both 7.8 lp mm(-1) and 12.5 lp mm(-1); and (3) the Dürr VistaScan at 10 lp mm(-1) and 20 lp mm(-1), respectively. The lesions were validated by histological examination. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was employed. The A(z) value for the radiographs scanned with the Dürr VistaScan at 10 lp mm(-1) is significantly lower than those for the other series of radiographs (P = 0.000). For SPP radiographs, an increased theoretical spatial resolution per se is not related to an improved detection of proximal caries.

  4. In Vitro Comparison of Diagnostic Accuracy of DIAGNOdent and Digital Radiography for Detection of Secondary Proximal Caries Adjacent to Composite Restorations

    OpenAIRE

    Ghoncheh, Zahra; Zonouzy, Zahra; Kiomarsi, Nazanin; Kharazifar, Mohammad Javad; Chiniforush, Nasim

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Early detection of secondary proximal caries is critical for the preservation of tooth vitality. This study sought to assess and compare the diagnostic accuracy of DIAGNOdent and digital radiography for detection of secondary proximal caries adjacent to composite restorations.

  5. Accuracy of extraoral tuned aperture computed tomography (TACT) for proximal caries detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harase, Yuichi; Araki, Kazuyuki; Okano, Tomohiro

    2006-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to compare the difference in the accuracy of proximal caries detection by extraoral tuned aperture computed tomography (TACT), intraoral TACT, and film radiographs. Eighty proximal surfaces of 40 extracted human maxillary teeth were used. A digital sensor was the image receptor for TACT. Film radiographs were acquired using Insight film. Nine basis images were acquired to reconstruct TACT slices. Seven observers scored the presence or absence of proximal caries using the 3 imaging modalities. The true presence of caries and its depth were determined using the sectional images obtained by micro CT. Among the image modalities and observers, possible differences in the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve were assessed by analysis of variance (ANOVA). ANOVA indicated no statistically significant differences between observers (P = .845), modalities (P = .657), and observer-modality combinations (P = .593). Within the limited range of this study, extraoral TACT was not statistically different from intraoral TACT or film radiographs for proximal caries detection. This suggests that extraoral TACT may have some clinical utility for caries diagnosis and that further study may be warranted.

  6. Elastomeric impression as a diagnostic method of cavitation in proximal dentin caries in primary molars

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    Adriela Azevedo Souza Mariath

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to validate the elastomeric impression after temporary tooth separation as a method of cavitation detection in proximal caries lesions in primary molars with outer half dentin radiolucency. Fifty-one children (4-10 years old, presenting radiolucency in the outer half of the dentin at the proximal surfaces of primary molars and proximal anatomic contact with the adjacent tooth (without restoration/cavitated caries lesion were enrolled in the study. Temporary tooth separation was performed with an orthodontic rubber ring placed around the contact point during 2-3 days. Thereafter, impression of the proximal surfaces was made. The elastomeric impressions were classified as "non-cavitated" or "cavitated" surfaces. Visual inspection after tooth separation was considered as the gold standard. Examiner reliability of visual inspection after tooth separation was determined (kappa 0.92. Impression examination was repeated every 5 participants to evaluate the reproducibility of the method. The frequency of cavitated lesions was 65%, and 67% of those were inactive. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were 0.88% (95%CI 0.73-0.95, 0.89% (95%CI 0.67-0.97, 0.94% (95%CI 0.79-0.98 and 0.80% (95%CI 0.58-0.92, respectively. Impression examination showed total agreement regarding cavitation. The evaluation of elastomeric impression after tooth separation is a useful clinical resource in cavitation detection for clinicians and researchers when visual inspection is doubtful.

  7. Influence of moisture and plaque on the performance of a laser fluorescence device in detecting caries lesions in primary teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittar, Daniela G; Gimenez, Thaís; Morais, Caroline C; De Benedetto, Monique S; Braga, Mariana M; Mendes, Fausto Medeiros

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of dental plaque and moisture on performance of a laser fluorescence device in detecting occlusal and proximal caries lesions in primary teeth. Fifty-five occlusal and 58 proximal sites on primary molars were evaluated using a DIAGNOdent pen (LFpen) device. For the drying time study, the evaluations were performed in: (I) moist teeth; (II) teeth dried for 3 s, or (III) dried for 15 s. For the plaque study, the evaluations were done in sites: (I) without plaque; (II) with plaque, and (III) after cleaning. Evaluation of the teeth sections in stereomicroscope was the reference standard method. LF pen values, sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were compared. The values obtained after 15 s of drying were higher than those obtained with moist teeth or dried for 3 s at both occlusal and proximal surfaces. However, there was no change in the performance in detecting caries lesions. With regard to the presence of plaque, there was no significant change in the readings of the device, but specificity was decreased in occlusal surfaces with plaque. At proximal surfaces, however, no significant differences were observed. In conclusion, the moisture conditions do not influence significantly the performance of the LFpen, but the presence of plaque can affect its performance in detecting occlusal caries lesions in primary teeth.

  8. Evaluation of Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT System: Comparison with Intraoral Periapical Radiography in Proximal Caries Detection

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    Solmaz Valizadeh

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. With the introduction of Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT in dentistry, a question has been raised whether the technique significantly increases the diagnostic accuracy in comparison with other techniques or not. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to assess the accuracy of CBCT modality in detecting proximal carious lesions as compared to conventional periapical radiographs. Materials and methods. This diagnostic study was carried out on 84 human extracted molars and premolars. The teeth were mounted and divided in 28 blocks of 3 teeth. Periapical and CBCT images of teeth were obtained. Five observers scored the images for the detection of proximal carious lesions using a 2-point scale (caries, present; caries, absent. The gold standard was determined by histopathologic sections. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and receiver operating characteristics (ROC curves were traced for observers in both systems. The results were analyzed by paired t-test. Results. The area under the ROC curve, sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive and negative predictive values of CBCT images were 0.568, 0.835, 0.637, 0.714, 0.598 and 0.856, respectively. These parameters were 0.432, 0.837, 0.722, 0.77, 0.687 and 0.858 for the periapical conventional technique, respectively. Conclusion. The CBCT images did not enhance detection of proximal caries in comparison with periapical images.

  9. Detection and proportion of very early dental caries in independent living older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtzman, Jennifer S; Kohanchi, Daniel; Biren-Fetz, John; Fontana, Margherita; Ramchandani, Manisha; Osann, Kathryn; Hallajian, Lucy; Mansour, Stephanie; Nabelsi, Tasneem; Chung, Na Eun; Wilder-Smith, Petra

    2015-11-01

    Dental caries is an important healthcare challenge in adults over 65 years of age. Integration of oral health screening into non-dental primary care practice may improve access to preventive dental care for vulnerable populations such as the elderly. Such integration would require easy, fast, and accurate early caries detection tools. Primary goal of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging for detecting very early caries in the elderly living in community-based settings. The International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) served as gold standard. Secondary goal of this study was to provide baseline prevalence data of very early caries lesions in independent living adults aged 65+ years. Seventy-two subjects were recruited from three sites in Southern California: a retirement community, a senior health fair, and a convalescent hospital. Clinical examination was performed using the ICDAS visual criteria and this was followed by OCT imaging. The two-dimensional OCT images (B-scan) were analyzed with simple software. Locations with a log of back-scattered light intensity (BSLI) below 2.9 were scored as sound, and areas equaling or exceeding 2.9 BSLI were considered carious. Diagnostic performance of OCT imaging was compared with ICDAS score. OCT-based diagnosis demonstrated very good sensitivity (95.1%) and good specificity (85.8%). 54.7% of dentate subjects had at least one tooth with very early coronal caries. Early coronal decay is prevalent in the unrestored pits and fissures of coronal surfaces of teeth in independent living adults aged 65+ years. Though OCT imaging coupled with a simple diagnostic algorithm can accurately detect areas of very early caries in community-based settings, existing devices are expensive and not well-suited for use by non-dental health care providers. Simple, inexpensive, fast, and accurate tools for early caries detection by field health care providers working in

  10. Evaluation of Accuracy of DIAGNOdent in Diagnosis of Primary and Secondary Caries in Comparison to Conventional Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nokhbatolfoghahaie, Hanieh; Alikhasi, Marzieh; Chiniforush, Nasim; Khoei, Farzaneh; Safavi, Nassimeh; Yaghoub Zadeh, Behnoush

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Today the prevalence of teeth decays has considerably decreased. Related organizations and institutions mention several reasons for it such as improvement of decay diagnostic equipment and tools which are even capable of detecting caries in their initial stages. This resulted in reduction of costs for patients and remarkable increase in teeth life span. There are many methods for decay diagnostic, like: visual and radiographic methods, devices with fluorescence such as Quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF), Vista proof, Laser fluorescence (LF or DIAGNOdent), Fluorescence Camera (FC) and Digital radiography. Although DIAGNOdent is considered a valuable device for decay diagnostic ,there are concerns regarding its efficacy and accuracy. Considering the sensitivity of decaydiagnosis and the exorbitant annual expenses supported by government and people for caries treatment, finding the best method for early caries detection is of the most importance. Numerous studies were performed to compare different diagnostic methods with conflicting results. The objective of this study is a comparative review of the efficiency of DIAGNOdent in comparison to visual methods and radiographic methods in the diagnostic of teeth occlusal surfaces. Methods: Search of PubMed, Google Scholar electronic resources was performed in order to find clinical trials in English in the period between 1998 and 2013. Full texts of only 35 articles were available. Conclusion: Considering the sensitivity and specificity reported in the different studies, it seems that DIAGNOdent is an appropriate modality for caries detection as a complementary method beside other methods and its use alone to obtain treatment plan is not enough. PMID:25606325

  11. Optical-fiber-based laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for detection of early caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasazawa, Shuhei; Kakino, Satoko; Matsuura, Yuji

    2015-06-01

    A laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) system targeting for the in vivo analysis of tooth enamel is described. The system is planned to enable real-time analysis of teeth during laser dental treatment by utilizing a hollow optical fiber that transmits both Q-switched Nd:YAG laser light for LIBS and infrared Er:YAG laser light for tooth ablation. The sensitivity of caries detection was substantially improved by expanding the spectral region under analysis to ultraviolet (UV) light and by focusing on emission peaks of Zn in the UV region. Subsequently, early caries were distinguished from healthy teeth with accuracy rates above 80% in vitro.

  12. Optical-fiber-based laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for detection of early caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasazawa, Shuhei; Kakino, Satoko; Matsuura, Yuji

    2015-06-01

    A laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) system targeting for the in vivo analysis of tooth enamel is described. The system is planned to enable real-time analysis of teeth during laser dental treatment by utilizing a hollow optical fiber that transmits both Q-switched Nd:YAG laser light for LIBS and infrared Er:YAG laser light for tooth ablation. The sensitivity of caries detection was substantially improved by expanding the spectral region under analysis to ultraviolet (UV) light and by focusing on emission peaks of Zn in the UV region. Subsequently, early caries were distinguished from healthy teeth with accuracy rates above 80% in vitro.

  13. Pen-type laser fluorescence device versus bitewing radiographs for caries detection on approximal surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizhang, M; Wollenweber, N; Singh-Hüsgen, P; Danesh, G; Zimmer, S

    2016-11-04

    The accurate detection of approximal caries is generally difficult. The aim of this study was to assess the ability of the pen-type laser fluorescence device (LF pen) to detect approximal carious lesions in comparison to bitewing radiographs (BW). Three hundred forty-one tooth surfaces were diagnosed in 20 patients with an average age of 26.70 (±2.82) years. Each test tooth was sequentially assessed by a single calibrated examiner using visual inspection, BW, and the LF pen. Radiographs were used as the gold standard to calculate an appropriate cut-off. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy values for cut-off limits of 15, measured by the LF pen were compared using the chi 2 test (McNemar test). For approximal caries at D3 level, the highest values of specificity and sensitivity were observed for the LF pen at a cut-off value of 15 (96.8 and 83.0 %) and for visual inspection (99.3 and 4.3 %). Within the limitations of this study, dentin caries on approximal surfaces could be detected equally well by the LF pen as by the bitewing radiographs. Therefore, the LF pen can be recommended as an alternative to radiographs for the detection of approximal caries in a regular dental practice setting. DRKS00004817 on DRKS on 12 th March 2013.

  14. COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THREE METHODS FOR PROXIMAL CARIES DIAGNOSIS – A CLINICAL STUDY.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Marinova-Takorova

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the presented study is to compare the effectiveness of the diagnosis with a dental microscope, laser fluorescence (DIAGNOcam and X-ray examination in proximal caries diagnosis. Material and methods: Thirty-eight adult patients were examined. They were first examined with a dental mirror and a probe, under magnification 6.4 times. After that a diagnosis with DIAGNOcam was performed. Bitewing X-ray images were administered. The data from the three diagnostic methods was compared using SPSS 16 package of Windows. The lesions that were diagnosed as involving dentin were then excavated which served as a confirmation of the diagnosis. Results: The results of the study showed that dentinal lesions were detected with a high degree of correlation with all three diagnostic methods. The visual examination seriously underestimated lesions involving only enamel. In these cases there was a good correlation between laser fluorescence and X-ray data. Conclusions: Based on the conducted study we could conclude that the diagnosis of proximal caries with DIAGNOcam is equivalent to X-ray, both being more accurate in cases with early lesions, compared to visual diagnosis.

  15. Effect of Filtration and Thickness of Cross-Sections of Cone Beam Computed Tomography Images on Detection of Proximal Caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Abdinian

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: When a patient has cone beam computed tomography (CBCT images based on the treatment plan, it is possible to use these images for evaluation of caries, and there is no need for new radiographs, according to the "as low as reasonably achievable" (ALARA principle. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of filtration and thickness of CBCT cross-sections on detection of proximal caries.Materials and Methods: In this in-vitro study, 100 teeth were placed in the dental sockets of a dry skull, and were fixed in normal proximal contacts. CBCT images were taken and were evaluated by two observers on the panoramic view at 1-, 3- and 5-mm-thick cross-sections, with the use of filtrations 0, 1 and 2. Afterwards, the samples were sectioned and underwent a histological evaluation. McNemar’s test was used to compare the findings on CBCT images and histological evaluation. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves and logistic regression were used to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of different cross-sections.Results: The maximum AZ-value was achieved at 3-mm thickness/filtration 2. However, the differences between 1-mm thickness/filtration 2 and 1-mm thickness/filtration 1 were not significant (P=0.728 and 0.868, respectively. The minimum AZ-value was achieved at 5-mm thickness/filtration 0.Conclusions: Although CBCT is not sufficiently effective in detecting caries, the best cross-sections for detection of proximal caries were achieved at 3-mm thickness/filtration 2, 1-mm thickness/filtration 2 and 1-mm thickness/filtration 1.

  16. Secondary caries detection with a novel fluorescence-based camera system in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brede, Olivier; Wilde, Claudia; Krause, Felix; Frentzen, Matthias; Braun, Andreas

    2010-02-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the ability of a fluorescence based optical system to detect secondary caries. The optical detecting system (VistaProof) illuminates the tooth surfaces with blue light emitted by high power GaN-LEDs at 405 nm. Employing this almost monochromatic excitation, fluorescence is analyzed using a RGB camera chip and encoded in color graduations (blue - red - orange - yellow) by a software (DBSWIN), indicating the degree of caries destruction. 31 freshly extracted teeth with existing fillings and secondary caries were cleaned, excavated and refilled with the same kind of restorative material. 19 of them were refilled with amalgam, 12 were refilled with a composite resin. Each step was analyzed with the respective software and analyzed statistically. Differences were considered as statistically significant at p0.05). There was a significant difference between baseline measurements of the teeth primarily filled with composite resins and the refilled situation (p=0.014). There was also a significant difference between the non-excavated and the excavated group (Composite p=0.006, Amalgam p=0.018). The in vitro study showed, that the fluorescence based system allows detecting secondary caries next to composite resin fillings but not next to amalgam restorations. Cleaning of the teeth is not necessary, if there is no visible plaque. Further studies have to show, whether the system shows the same promising results in vivo.

  17. Diagnostic accuracy of digital images for detection of artificial chemical proximal caries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Geum Mee; Nah, Kyung Soo [Pusan National University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-06-15

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy of proximal caries detection between Kodak Insight film and the Biomedisys CDX2000HQ digital (CCD) sensor. 156 proximal surfaces of extracted teeth, 78 of which had chemical artificial caries, were used in this study. Four observers interpreted the radiographs using a five-point confidence rating scale to record their diagnoses. The results were analyzed by receiver operating characteristic curves, ANOVA and Kappa values. Analysis using receiver operating characteristic curves revealed the areas under each curve which indicated a diagnostic accuracy of 0.951 in Insight and 0.952 in CDX2000HQ digital sensor. ANOVA revealed no significant differences between the two images with respect to caries detection. Kappa values indicated that the mean intra-observer agreement was 0.85 and inter-observer agreement 0.71 in conventional radiography. In digital radiography, the mean intra-observer agreement was 0.84 and inter-observer agreement 0.72. The results suggest that no significant difference exists between the two modalities for artificial caries detection and that CDX2000HQ was as good as Insight film for this purpose.

  18. Diagnostic accuracy of digital images for detection of artificial chemical proximal caries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Geum Mee; Nah, Kyung Soo

    2003-01-01

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy of proximal caries detection between Kodak Insight film and the Biomedisys CDX2000HQ digital (CCD) sensor. 156 proximal surfaces of extracted teeth, 78 of which had chemical artificial caries, were used in this study. Four observers interpreted the radiographs using a five-point confidence rating scale to record their diagnoses. The results were analyzed by receiver operating characteristic curves, ANOVA and Kappa values. Analysis using receiver operating characteristic curves revealed the areas under each curve which indicated a diagnostic accuracy of 0.951 in Insight and 0.952 in CDX2000HQ digital sensor. ANOVA revealed no significant differences between the two images with respect to caries detection. Kappa values indicated that the mean intra-observer agreement was 0.85 and inter-observer agreement 0.71 in conventional radiography. In digital radiography, the mean intra-observer agreement was 0.84 and inter-observer agreement 0.72. The results suggest that no significant difference exists between the two modalities for artificial caries detection and that CDX2000HQ was as good as Insight film for this purpose.

  19. The Efficiency of Operating Microscope Compared with Unaided Visual Examination, Conventional and Digital Intraoral Radiography for Proximal Caries Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilkay Peker

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of operating microscope compared with unaided visual examination, conventional and digital intraoral radiography for proximal caries detection. Materials and Methods. The study was based on 48 extracted human posterior permanent teeth. The teeth were examined with unaided visual examination, operating microscope, conventional bitewing and digital intraoral radiographs. Then, true caries depth was determined by histological examination. The extent of the carious lesions was assessed by three examiners independently. One way variance of analysis (ANOVA and Scheffe test were performed for comparison of observers, and the diagnostic accuracies of all systems were assessed from the area under the ROC curve (Az. Results. Statistically significant difference was found between observers (P<.01. There was a statistically significant difference between operating microscope-film radiography, operating microscope-RVG, unaided visual examination-film radiography, and unaided visual examination-RVG according to pairwise comparison (P<.05. Conclusion. The efficiency of operating microscope was found statistically equal with unaided visual examination and lower than radiographic systems for proximal caries detection.

  20. Clinical performance of two visual scoring systems in detecting and assessing activity status of occlusal caries in primary teeth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braga, M M; Ekstrand, K R; Martignon, S

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the clinical performance of two sets of visual scoring criteria for detecting caries severity and assessing caries activity status in occlusal surfaces. Two visual scoring systems--the Nyvad criteria (NY) and the ICDAS-II including an adjunct system for lesion activity...

  1. Comparison of three diagnostic techniques for detecting occlusal dental caries in primary molars: An in vivo study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhin Katge

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: This study showed low sensitivity but substantial specificity with visual inspection. Bitewing radiography performed poorly overall when compared with the other two systems. The CarieScan PRO technique gave the highest overall combination of sensitivity and specificity for detection of occlusal caries.

  2. Dental caries and periodontal disease (prevention and control methods).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan, S P

    1999-01-01

    There is a compelling need to apply preventive programs in both private and community practice of dentistry. This is to maintain improvements in oral health in developed and industrialized countries, and to stem increases in oral diseases in underserved and developing ones. At the outset, the terms prevention and control must be understood. The former is considered to mean a procedure or course of action that prevents the onset of disease, whereas the latter, implies reversing or stabilizing disease conditions. To be more precise, prevention will refer to the pre-pathologic or pre-clinical stage encompassing the promotive and specific protection levels--primary prevention stage. On the other hand, control will encompass early diagnosis and prompt treatment, disability limitation and rehabilitation levels-termed also collectively, as pathologic, clinical and final stages, or secondary and tertiary prevention. Community-based programs are usually structured to compliment therapeutic interventions of oral diseases, as well as prevention. In this era, and towards the next millennium, preventive and control programs are given high priorities in order to minimize the need for curative, restorative and therapeutic management of oral diseases. This review of the literature will give emphasis on established methods and programs for the prevention and control of the two most common oral diseases, dental caries and periodontal disease. The problems, background, and oral health objectives for the year 2000 as proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Federation Dentaire Internationale (FDI), as well as the recent advances in oral health relative to these diseases will be discussed. Finally, to better improve the efficacy of existing prevention and control methods, research needs and areas of concern relative to these diseases will be given consideration.

  3. Inter- and intraexaminer reliability of bitewing radiography and near-infrared light transillumination for proximal caries detection and assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litzenburger, Friederike; Heck, Katrin; Pitchika, Vinay; Neuhaus, Klaus W; Jost, Fabian N; Hickel, Reinhard; Jablonski-Momeni, Anahita; Welk, Alexander; Lederer, Alexander; Kühnisch, Jan

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the inter- and intraexaminer reliability of digital bitewing (DBW) radiography and near-infrared light transillumination (NIRT) for proximal caries detection and assessment in posterior teeth. From a pool of 85 patients, 100 corresponding pairs of DBW and NIRT images (~1/3 healthy, ~1/3 with enamel caries and ~1/3 with dentin caries) were chosen. 12 dentists with different professional status and clinical experience repeated the evaluation in two blinded cycles. Two experienced dentists provided a reference diagnosis after analysing all images independently. Statistical analysis included the calculation of simple (κ) and weighted Kappa (wκ) values as a measure of reliability. Logistic regression with a backward elimination model was used to investigate the influence of the diagnostic method, evaluation cycle, type of tooth, and clinical experience on reliability. Altogether, inter- and intraexaminer reliability exhibited good to excellent κ and wκ values for DBW radiography (Inter: κ = 0.60/ 0.63; wκ = 0.74/0.76; Intra: κ = 0.64; wκ = 0.77) and NIRT (Inter: κ = 0.74/0.64; wκ = 0.86/0.82; Intra: κ = 0.68; wκ = 0.84). The backward elimination model revealed NIRT to be significantly more reliable than DBW radiography. This study revealed a good to excellent inter- and intraexaminer reliability for proximal caries detection using DBW and NIRT images. The logistic regression analysis revealed significantly better reliability for NIRT. Additionally, the first evaluation cycle was more reliable according to the reference diagnoses.

  4. Methods for the evaluation of caries preventing agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herkströter, Franciscus Maria

    1990-01-01

    Dental caries, or tooth decay, is a pathological process of localized destruction of tooth tissues by micro-organisms present in the so-called plaque. The destruction, caused by acids formed in the plague,Ieads to mineral loss (demineralization) from the hard tissues. A demineralized tooth can also

  5. Film tomography compared with film and digital bitewing radiography for proximal caries detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peker, I; Toraman Alkurt, M; Altunkaynak, B

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of conventional tomography for proximal caries detection compared with conventional bitewing and digital intraoral radiography. In this study, 48 extracted human posterior permanent teeth were used. Conventional bitewing radiographs, digital intraoral radiographs and conventional tomograms were obtained of the teeth. The presence or absence of caries was scored according to a five-point scale by two oral and maxillofacial radiologists. True caries depth was determined by histological examination. The diagnostic accuracy of each radiographic system was assessed by means of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. The mean of areas under the ROC curve (A(z)) was analysed by pairwise comparison of ROC curve. The interobserver agreement was evaluated using a t-test. The statistical analysis of A(z) scores has shown no significant difference for three imaging modalities (P>0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between interobserver agreement (P>0.05). This study has demonstrated that the diagnostic accuracy of conventional tomograms is comparable to that of conventional bitewing and digital intraoral radiographs for proximal caries detection.

  6. Near-infrared hyperspectral imaging of water evaporation dynamics for early detection of incipient caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usenik, Peter; Bürmen, Miran; Fidler, Aleš; Pernuš, Franjo; Likar, Boštjan

    2014-10-01

    Incipient caries is characterized as demineralization of the tooth enamel reflecting in increased porosity of enamel structure. As a result, the demineralized enamel may contain increased amount of water, and exhibit different water evaporation dynamics than the sound enamel. The objective of this paper is to assess the applicability of water evaporation dynamics of sound and demineralized enamel for detection and quantification of incipient caries using near-infrared hyperspectral imaging. The time lapse of water evaporation from enamel samples with artificial and natural caries lesions of different stages was imaged by a near-infrared hyperspectral imaging system. Partial least squares regression was used to predict the water content from the acquired spectra. The water evaporation dynamics was characterized by a first order logarithmic drying model. The calculated time constants of the logarithmic drying model were used as the discriminative feature. The conducted measurements showed that demineralized enamel contains more water and exhibits significantly faster water evaporation than the sound enamel. By appropriate modelling of the water evaporation process from the enamel surface, the contrast between the sound and demineralized enamel observed in the individual near infrared spectral images can be substantially enhanced. The presented results indicate that near-infrared based prediction of water content combined with an appropriate drying model presents a strong foundation for development of novel diagnostic tools for incipient caries detection. The results of the study enhance the understanding of the water evaporation process from the sound and demineralized enamel and have significant implications for the detection of incipient caries by near-infrared hyperspectral imaging. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Detection of proximal caries using quantitative light-induced fluorescence-digital and laser fluorescence: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hyung-In; Yoo, Min-Jeong; Park, Eun-Jin

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the in vitro validity of quantitative light-induced fluorescence-digital (QLF-D) and laser fluorescence (DIAGNOdent) for assessing proximal caries in extracted premolars, using digital radiography as reference method. A total of 102 extracted premolars with similar lengths and shapes were used. A single operator conducted all the examinations using three different detection methods (bitewing radiography, QLF-D, and DIAGNOdent). The bitewing x-ray scale, QLF-D fluorescence loss (ΔF), and DIAGNOdent peak readings were compared and statistically analyzed. Each method showed an excellent reliability. The correlation coefficient between bitewing radiography and QLF-D, DIAGNOdent were -0.644 and 0.448, respectively, while the value between QLF-D and DIAGNOdent was -0.382. The kappa statistics for bitewing radiography and QLF-D had a higher diagnosis consensus than those for bitewing radiography and DIAGNOdent. The QLF-D was moderately to highly accurate (AUC = 0.753 - 0.908), while DIAGNOdent was moderately to less accurate (AUC = 0.622 - 0.784). All detection methods showed statistically significant correlation and high correlation between the bitewing radiography and QLF-D. QLF-D was found to be a valid and reliable alternative diagnostic method to digital bitewing radiography for in vitro detection of proximal caries.

  8. Proximal surface caries detection with direct-exposure and rare earth screen/film imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundeen, R.C.; McDavid, W.D.; Barnwell, G.M.

    1988-01-01

    This laboratory study compared five imaging systems for their diagnostic accuracy in detection of proximal surface dental caries. Ten viewers provided data on radiographic detectability of carious lesions. The diagnostic accuracy of each system was determined with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves by comparing viewer data with the true state of the teeth as determined microscopically. D-speed film marginally outperformed the other four systems, but the three screen/film systems matched the diagnostic accuracy of E-speed film. Radiation reductions between 62% and 92% were achieved with the screen/film systems when compared to the two conventional dental films. The feasibility of designing a screen/film bite-wing cassette was shown, but the poor diagnostic accuracy of the present bite-wing system indicated a need for a new technology in caries detection

  9. Proximal surface caries detection with direct-exposure and rare earth screen/film imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundeen, R.C.; McDavid, W.D.; Barnwell, G.M.

    1988-12-01

    This laboratory study compared five imaging systems for their diagnostic accuracy in detection of proximal surface dental caries. Ten viewers provided data on radiographic detectability of carious lesions. The diagnostic accuracy of each system was determined with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves by comparing viewer data with the true state of the teeth as determined microscopically. D-speed film marginally outperformed the other four systems, but the three screen/film systems matched the diagnostic accuracy of E-speed film. Radiation reductions between 62% and 92% were achieved with the screen/film systems when compared to the two conventional dental films. The feasibility of designing a screen/film bite-wing cassette was shown, but the poor diagnostic accuracy of the present bite-wing system indicated a need for a new technology in caries detection.

  10. Diagnostic accuracy of different display types in detection of recurrent caries under restorations by using CBCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltacıoĝlu, İsmail H; Eren, Hakan; Yavuz, Yasemin; Kamburoğlu, Kıvanç

    To assess the in vitro diagnostic ability of CBCT images using seven different display types in the detection of recurrent caries. Our study comprised 128 extracted human premolar and molar teeth. 8 groups each containing 16 teeth were obtained as follows: (1) Black Class I (Occlusal) amalgam filling without caries; (2) Black Class I (Occlusal) composite filling without caries; (3) Black Class II (Proximal) amalgam filling without caries; (4) Black Class II (Proximal) composite filling without caries; (5) Black Class I (Occlusal) amalgam filling with caries; (6) Black Class I (Occlusal) composite filling with caries; (7) Black Class II (Proximal) amalgam filling with caries; and (8) Black Class II (Proximal) composite filling with caries. Teeth were imaged using 100 × 90 mm field of view at three different voxel sizes of a CBCT unit (Planmeca ProMax(®) 3D ProFace™; Planmeca, Helsinki, Finland). CBCT TIFF images were opened and viewed using custom-designed software for computers on different display types. Intra- and interobserver agreements were calculated. The highest area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (Az) values for each image type, observer, reading and restoration were compared using z-tests against Az = 0.5. The significance level was set at p = 0.05. We found poor and moderate agreements. In general, Az values were found when software and medical diagnostic monitor were utilized. For Observer 2, Az values were statistically significantly higher when software was used on medical monitor [p = 0.036, p = 0.015 and p = 0.002, for normal-resolution mode (0.200 mm(3) voxel size), high-resolution mode (0.150 mm(3) voxel size) and low-resolution mode (0.400 mm(3) voxel size), respectively]. No statistically significant differences were found among other display types for all modes (p > 0.05). In general, no difference was found among 3 different voxel sizes (p > 0.05). In general, higher Az values were

  11. Diagnostic accuracy of different caries risk assessment methods. A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senneby, Anna; Mejàre, Ingegerd; Sahlin, Nils-Eric; Svensäter, Gunnel; Rohlin, Madeleine

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of different methods used to identify individuals with increased risk of developing dental coronal caries. Studies on following methods were included: previous caries experience, tests using microbiota, buffering capacity, salivary flow rate, oral hygiene, dietary habits and sociodemographic variables. QUADAS-2 was used to assess risk of bias. Sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, and likelihood ratios (LR) were calculated. Quality of evidence based on ≥3 studies of a method was rated according to GRADE. PubMed, Cochrane Library, Web of Science and reference lists of included publications were searched up to January 2015. From 5776 identified articles, 18 were included. Assessment of study quality identified methodological limitations concerning study design, test technology and reporting. No study presented low risk of bias in all domains. Three or more studies were found only for previous caries experience and salivary mutans streptococci and quality of evidence for these methods was low. Evidence regarding other methods was lacking. For previous caries experience, sensitivity ranged between 0.21 and 0.94 and specificity between 0.20 and 1. Tests using salivary mutans streptococci resulted in low sensitivity and high specificity. For children with primary teeth at baseline, pooled LR for a positive test was 3 for previous caries experience and 4 for salivary mutans streptococci, given a threshold ≥10(5) CFU/ml. Evidence on the validity of analysed methods used for caries risk assessment is limited. As methodological quality was low, there is a need to improve study design. Low validity for the analysed methods may lead to patients with increased risk not being identified, whereas some are falsely identified as being at risk. As caries risk assessment guides individualized decisions on interventions and intervals for patient recall, improved performance based on best evidence is greatly needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd

  12. In Vitro Comparison of D and F Speed Intraoral Radiographic Films in the Detection of Proximal Caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliehsadat Javadzadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The use of fast films is one of the major factors contributing to dose reduction. However, the diagnostic ability of fast film must be determined before current use of the films. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficiency of D and F speed films in the diagnosis of proximal caries.Materials & Methods: Eighty proximal surfaces in 40 extracted unrestored premolars were undergone radiography in standardized conditions using D- and F-speed flowdental intraoral films. True caries diagnosis was based on histological assessment of the surfaces after sectioning the teeth. Two observers read the radiographs using a four-point scale to record their diagnosis. Observer responses were evaluated using ROC analysis and areas under the ROC Curves (Az was microscopical assessed by pairwise comparison of ROC Curve.Results: D and F speed films had a mean Az of 0.934 and 0.920 respectively. The difference was not statistically significant (P=0.548 Difference between observers was also not statistically significant.Conclusion: The efficiency of the new F-Speed films was not statistically different from that D Speed films in caries detection. This film shows the ability of reducing patient’s dose while maintaining diagnostic quality.

  13. Detection of occlusal caries with impedance spectroscopy and laser fluorescence before and after placement of fissure sealants: An in vitro study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Diana; Ekstrand, Kim; Twetman, Svante

    2016-01-01

    , and (3) validate all methods against radiographs and histological hemi-sectioning. Methods : 102 permanent molars were randomly selected to represent different stages of occlusal caries, from clinically sound to minor cavities. The teeth were examined by one trained examiner and scored with CarieScan PRO......Purposes : To (1) investigate the influence of fissure sealants on impedance spectroscopy (ACIS) and laser fluorescence (LF) readings, (2) compare the performance of the ACIS device with the LF technique and visual inspection (ICDAS) in permanent molars with various degrees of occlusal caries...... depth but visual inspection displayed the best correlation with radiographs and histology. The ACIS technology displayed high sensitivity and specificity for detecting extensive occlusal lesions...

  14. Real-time porphyrin detection in plaque and caries: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timoshchuk, Mari-Alina I.; Ridge, Jeremy S.; Rugg, Amanda L.; Nelson, Leonard Y.; Kim, Amy S.; Seibel, Eric J.

    2015-02-01

    An ultrathin scanning fiber endoscope, originally developed for cancer diagnosis, was used in a case study to locate plaque and caries. The imaging system incorporated software mitigation of background auto-fluorescence (AF). In conventional fluorescence imaging, varying AF across a tooth surface can mask low-level porphyrin signals. Laser-induced auto-fluorescence signals of dental tissue excited using a 405-nm laser typically produce fluorescence over a wavelength range extending from 440-nm to 750-nm. Anaerobic bacterial metabolism produces various porphyrin species (eg. protoporphyrin IX) that are located in carious enamel, dentin, gingivitis sites, and plaque. In our case study, these porphyrin deposits remained as long as one day after prophylaxis. Imaging the tooth surface using 405-nm excitation and subtracting the natural AF enhances the image contrast of low-level porphyrin deposits, which would otherwise be masked by the high background AF. In a case study, healthy tissues as well as sites of early and advanced caries formations were scanned for visual and quantitative signs of red fluorescence associated with porphyrin species using a background mitigation algorithm. Initial findings show increasing amplitudes of red fluorescence as caries severity increases from early to late stages. Sites of plaque accumulation also displayed red fluorescence similar to that found in carious dental tissue. The use of real-time background mitigation of natural dental AF can enhance the detection of low porphyrin concentrations that are indicators of early stage caries formation.

  15. A clinical study comparing digital radiography and near-infrared transillumination in caries detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Stephen C; Stahl, Jonathan Miles; Lien, Wen; Slack, Casey M; Vandewalle, Kraig S

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of detecting proximal carious lesions utilizing a new near-infrared transillumination (NIRTI) system (CariVu, Dexis) to traditional digital bitewing radiography (BWXR). Thirty patients received four posterior BWXRs and all premolars and molars were individually imaged with the NIRTI device. Sixty-seven proximal carious lesions were classified based on their depth into enamel or dentin for both BWXR and NIRTI images. The caries depth classification between the two systems were strongly correlated (r s  = 0.66; Spearman range: 0.60-0.79 = strong) and significant (P proximal caries. The NIRTI system could serve as an adjunct diagnostic system that could be used in high-caries risk programs where patients are closely monitored with regimented follow-up appointments. NIRTI could also be beneficial with pregnant or pediatric patients, and in situations where radiography may not be available such as remote humanitarian missions. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. The detection accuracies for proximal caries by cone-beam computerized tomography, film, and phosphor plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-ling; Qu, Xing-min; Li, Gang; Zhang, Zu-yan; Ma, Xu-chen

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of cone-beam computerized tomography (CBCT) for the detection of noncavitated proximal caries and to compare the detection accuracies of 2 CBCT imaging systems with those based on plain-film radiographs and phosphor-plate images. Test radiographs of 39 noncavitated unrestored human permanent teeth were obtained with film, phosphor-plate, ProMax 3D, and Kodak 9000 3D imaging systems. Seven observers used a 5-level scale to evaluate test images for the presence of proximal caries. With histologic examination serving as the reference standard, observer performances were assessed with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, and the areas under the ROC curves (A(z) values) for the observers, and modalities were analyzed with a repeated-measures analysis of variance. The mean A(z) values for film, phosphor plates, ProMax 3D, and Kodak 9000 3D imaging systems were 0.541, 0.523, 0.528, and 0.525, respectively (P = .763). For detecting subtle noncavitated proximal caries, the detection accuracy with the CBCT images was little better than chance performance and was similar to that with phosphor plate- and film-based intraoral images. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Caries detection and diagnostics with near-infrared light transillumination: clinical experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söchtig, Friederike; Hickel, Reinhard; Kühnisch, Jan

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this paper was to present the function and potential of diagnosing caries lesions using a recently introduced near-infrared (NIR) transillumination technique (DIAGNOcam, KaVo). The study included 130 adolescents and adults with complete permanent dentition (age > 12). All patients underwent visual examination and, if necessary, bitewing radiographs. Proximal and occlusal surfaces, which had not yet been restored, were photographed by a NIR transillumination camera system using light with a wavelength of 780 nm rather than ionizing radiation. Of the study patients, 85 showed 127 proximal dentin caries lesions that were treated operatively. A cross table shows the correlation of radiography and NIR transillumination. Based on our practical clinical experiences to date, a possible classifi cation of diagnosis is introduced. The main result of our study was that NIR light was able to visualize caries lesions on proximal and occlusal surfaces. The study suggests that NIR transillumination is a method that may help to avoid bitewing radiographs for diagnosis of caries in everyday clinical practice.

  18. Clinical evaluation of near-infrared light transillumination (NIRT as an interproximal caries detection tool in a large sample of patients in a private practice

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    Russotto F

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: A study has been carried out in order to evaluate in vivo the diagnostic performance of near-infrared light transillumination (NIRT compared to digital radiographic examination (RE in the detection of class II carious lesions. Methods: A total of 114 patients were included, and 2957 proximal surfaces were considered. Surfaces were imaged by means of NIRT and radiographed with a photostimulable phosphor system. NIRT and radiographic images were observed by two blinded operators. Their diagnoses were compared with those made while visiting the patients, when visual-tactile, radiographic and NIRT data were matched by expert operators to obtain the reference diagnoses. Sensitivity, specificity and inter-observer consistency were calculated. Results: Throughout the visits, 395 caries were detected. When investigating without clinical information and in a blind manner, RE performed significantly better than NIRT regarding sensitivity analysis (0.591 vs. 0.456, p<0.001, and NIRT performed significantly better than RE regarding specificity analysis (0.980 vs 0.933, p<0.001. However, NIRT showed sensitivity similar to RE when only enamel caries were concerned. With regard to the agreement between the two observers, NIRT performed significantly better than RE (0.901 for RE analysis, 0.989 for NIRT analysis, P<0.001. A high probability of false positives for enamel caries (95% from 0.699 to 0.791 was observed in RE. NIRT was very likely to detect and correct the erroneous positive diagnosis of enamel carious lesions obtained using RE (95% CI for probability from 0.938 to 0.979. Conclusions: NIRT should be used in caries diagnosis in combination with radiographic images. In fact, NIRT can help to correct a false positive diagnosis of enamel caries. Furthermore, NIRT could be used to detect caries in patients for whom non-urgent radiographic exposition is contraindicated and to monitor enamel caries in medically treated patients. Finally, thanks

  19. Task-specific enhancement filters in storage phosphor images from the Vistascan system for detection of proximal caries lesions of known size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiter-Neto, Francisco; Casanova, Marcia Spinelli; Frydenberg, Morten; Wenzel, Ann

    2009-01-01

    The aim was to compare original 8-bit images from the Vistascan storage phosphor plate system with images enhanced with specific filters for detection of proximal caries lesions and, further, to analyze the mutual sensitivity of the filtered images for different lesion sizes. One hundred sixty approximal noncavitated surfaces were radiographed using the Vistascan storage phosphor plate system. Original and enhanced (Fine, Caries1, and Caries2 filters) images were assessed by 6 observers who recorded the presence/absence of proximal carious lesions. Microscopy served to detect and measure true lesion size. One hundred one surfaces were sound, and 59 had lesions. The sensitivity of the Fine filter images was significantly higher than the Caries1 and Caries2 filter modalities (P Caries1 and Caries2 modalities. Both the Fine filter and the original images had a significantly higher specificity than the Caries2 modality (P Caries2 modality (P Caries1 modality (P detection of shallow carious lesion, because it showed less observer variability. The task-specific enhancement filters, Caries1 and Caries2, were less accurate than the original and Fine filter images and cannot be recommended for detection of the lesion sizes included in this study.

  20. Detection accuracy of proximal caries by phosphor plate and cone-beam computerized tomography images scanned with different resolutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jun-Ge; Zhang, Zhi-Ling; Wang, Xiao-Yan; Zhang, Zu-Yan; Ma, Xu-Chen; Li, Gang

    2012-08-01

    This study was carried out to assess whether the spatial resolution has an impact on the detection accuracy of proximal caries in flat panel CBCT (cone beam computerized tomography) images and if the detection accuracy can be improved by flat panel CBCT images scanned with high spatial resolution when compared to digital intraoral images. The CBCT test images of 45 non-restored human permanent teeth were respectively scanned with the ProMax 3D and the DCT Pro scanners at different resolutions. Digital images were obtained with a phosphor plate imaging system Digora Optime. Eight observers evaluated all the test images for carious lesion within the 90 proximal surfaces. With the histological examination serving as the reference standard, observer performances were evaluated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. The areas under the ROC curves were analyzed with two-way analysis of variance. No significant differences were found among the CBCT images and between CBCT and digital images when only proximal enamel caries was detected (p = 0.989). With respect to the detection of proximal dentinal caries, significant difference was found between CBCT and digital images (p proximal caries in flat panel CBCT images. The flat panel CBCT images scanned with high spatial resolution did not improve the detection accuracy of proximal enamel caries compared to digital intraoral images. CBCT images scanned with high spatial resolutions could not be used for proximal caries detection.

  1. Comparison of diagnostic ability of storage phosphor plate in detecting proximal caries with direct measurement by stereomicroscope: a pilot study

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    Velayudhannair Vivek

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Radiography plays an important role in detection of interproximal caries. The aim of study is to compare diagnostic ability of photo stimulable phosphor (PSP with direct measurement using stereomicroscope in detecting proximal caries. Hundred proximal surfaces of 50 extracted human posterior teeth were radiographed with dental X-ray unit. The image receptors used was storage phosphor plate Vista scan (size 2, (time of exposure 0.4 s. Radiographs were interpreted and caries lesions were classified on a 4-point scale suggested by Abesi et al. The teeth were sectioned with diamond disc and were examined under a stereomicroscope with 20x magnification. Diagnostic accuracy of digital image is similar to that observed with stereomicroscope. The PSP plate digital X ray system can effectively be employed for detecting proximal caries as compared to direct observation by stereomicroscope. Further study with more number of observer/evaluator and large sample size is recommended.

  2. Comparison of Diagnostic Ability of Storage Phosphor Plate in Detecting Proximal Caries with Direct Measurement by Stereomicroscope: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivek, Velayudhannair; Thomas, Sunila; Nair, Bindu J; Vineet, Alex Daniel; Thomas, Jincy; Ranimol, Prasanna; Vijayan, Aswathy K

    2015-09-28

    Radiography plays an important role in detection of interproximal caries. The aim of study is to compare diagnostic ability of photo stimulable phosphor (PSP) with direct measurement using stereomicroscope in detecting proximal caries. Hundred proximal surfaces of 50 extracted human posterior teeth were radiographed with dental X-ray unit. The image receptors used was storage phosphor plate Vista scan (size 2), (time of exposure 0.4 s). Radiographs were interpreted and caries lesions were classified on a 4-point scale suggested by Abesi et al. The teeth were sectioned with diamond disc and were examined under a stereomicroscope with 20x magnification. Diagnostic accuracy of digital image is similar to that observed with stereomicroscope. The PSP plate digital X ray system can effectively be employed for detecting proximal caries as compared to direct observation by stereomicro-scope. Further study with more number of observer/evaluator and large sample size is recommended.

  3. Evaluation of diagnostic tests using information theory for multi-class diagnostic problems and its application for the detection of occlusal caries lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Umut; Karaağaoğlu, Ergun; Özkan, Gökhan; Kanlı, Aydan

    2014-09-01

    Several methods are available to evaluate the performance of the tests when the purpose of the diagnostic test is to discriminate between two possible disease states. However multi-class diagnostic problems frequently appear in many areas of medical science. Hence, there is a need for methods which will enable us to characterize the accuracy of diagnostic tests when there are more than two possible disease states. To show that two information theory measures, information content (IC) and proportional reduction in diagnostic uncertainty (PRDU), can be used for the evaluation of the performance of diagnostic tests for multi-class diagnostic problems that may appear in different areas of medical science. Diagnostic accuracy study. Sixty freshly extracted permanent human molar and pre-molar teeth suspected to have occlusal caries lesions were selected for the study and were assessed by two experienced examiners. Each examiner performed two evaluations. Histological examination was used as the gold standard. The scores of the histological examination were defined as sound (n=11), enamel caries (n=22) and dentin caries (n=27). Diagnostic performance of i) visual inspection, ii) radiography, iii) laser fluorescence (LF) and iv) micro-computed tomography (M-CT) caries detection methods was evaluated by calculating IC and PRDU. Micro-computed tomography examination was the best method among the diagnostic techniques for the diagnosis of occlusal caries in terms of both IC and PRDU. M-CT examination supplied the maximum diagnostic information about the diagnosis of occlusal caries in the first (IC: 1.056; ptest performance when multiple disease states are being evaluated.

  4. Influence of the number of basis images and projection array on caries detection using tuned aperture computed tomography (TACT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, M; Tyndall, D A; Ludlow, J B; Nortjé, C J

    2002-01-01

    to determine if the number of basis images and spatial distribution of the projection array used for TACT slice generation influence observer performance in caries detection. In the first experiment, 2, 4, 8 and 12 basis projections of each of 40 teeth were acquired using a CMOS digital radiography sensor. Projections were distributed radially in space using a 20 degree angular disparity. TACT slices were generated from the four subgroups of images, presented to eight observers, and viewed on a high-resolution monitor. Observers scored the presence/absence of caries using a 5-point confidence scale. Gold standard was histological examination of tooth sections. ROC curves measured observer diagnostic performance. ANOVA tested for significant differences between observers and experimental conditions. In the second experiment, the number of basis projections judged to be satisfactory for TACT slice generation was used. Horizontal and vertical linear arrays of projections were compared to the circular projection array. There was a statistically significant difference between the numbers of basis projections in the detection of both occlusal (P=0.006) and proximal caries (P=0.005). No significant difference was found between projection arrays in the detection of either occlusal (P=0.065) or proximal (P=0.515) caries. The number of TACT basis projections significantly influences caries detection. Eight or more images should be used. Either linear-vertical, linear-horizontal or circular arrays of basis projections may be used for TACT slice generation in caries detection tasks.

  5. Diagnosis of Dentin Caries – Ultraviolet Fluorescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzunov Ts.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The technology advance in recent years determines the need of construction of modern appliances for early diagnosis of dental caries, which are categorized by great precision, non-invasiveness, easy usage and wide availability. Such non-invasive and accurate tool for diagnostics of caries is Caries Detector (LED, Bulgarian product by “Optica Laser”. The detector emits a specific wavelength of near ultraviolet light, which causes fluorescence to porphyrins - metabolic products of the life cycle of caries-inducing bacteria. The purpose of the study is piloting a new diagnostic tool for detection and monitoring of caries excavation based on fluorescence - LED UV caries detector of company “Optica laser”. Subjected to examination by caries indicator dye and UV caries detector were sixty permanent teeth with deep dentine caries. Two methods were used to assess the dentin caries - UV fluorescence detector of “Optica Laser” and staining with caries indicator - dye (Sable ™ Seek®. It was found that among all sixty teeth, the fields, closed by margins of carious process overlap. Fifty-four of tested teeth has shown bigger field of images with staining method and six - smaller in comparison to the fluorescent method. Ultraviolet fLuorescence caries detector of “Optica Laser” company is affordable and easy applicable method for controlled excavation of dentine caries. The detector can be used in daily dental practice equally with other methods. The unit has a number of advantages - non-invasiveness, lack of interaction with tooth structures, speed, reliability, efficiency, predictability and repeatability of results.

  6. In situ and in vitro comparison of laser fluorescence with visual inspection in detecting occlusal caries lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula, Andréia Bolzan; Campos, Juliana Alvares Duarte Bonini; Diniz, Michele Baffi; Hebling, Josimeri; Rodrigues, Jonas Almeida

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the in situ and in vitro performances of a laser fluorescence (LF) device (DIAGNOdent 2095) with visual inspection for the detection of occlusal caries in permanent teeth. Sixty-four sites were selected, and visual inspection and LF assessments were carried out, in vitro, three times by two independent examiners, with a 1-week interval between evaluations. Afterwards, the occlusal surfaces were mounted on the palatal portion of removable acrylic orthodontic appliances and placed in six volunteers. Assessments were repeated and validated by histological analysis of the tooth sections under a stereomicroscope. For both examiners, the highest intra-examiner values were observed for the visual inspection when in vitro and in situ evaluations were compared. The inter-examiner reproducibility varied from 0.61 to 0.64, except for the in vitro assessment using LF, which presented a lower value (0.43). The methods showed high specificity at the D(1) threshold (considering enamel and dentin caries as disease). In vitro evaluations showed the highest values of sensitivity for both methods when compared to the in situ evaluations at D(1) and D(2) (considering only dentinal caries as the disease) thresholds. For both methods, the results of sensitivity (at D(1) and D(2)) and accuracy (at D(1)) showed significant differences between in vitro and in situ conditions. However, the sensitivity (at D(1) and D(2)), specificity and accuracy (both at D(1)) of the methods were not significantly different when the same condition was considered. It can be concluded that visual inspection and LF showed better performance in vitro than in situ.

  7. The effect of delayed scanning of storage phosphor plates on occlusal caries detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogur, E; Baksi, B G; Mert, A

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine (1) the effect of various scan delays on pixel intensity measurements and (2) the diagnostic accuracy of occlusal caries detection. 72 non-cavitated extracted human permanent molar teeth with sound and carious occlusal surfaces were radiographed using the DIGORA® storage phosphor plates (SPPs) (Soredex Corporation, Helsinki, Finland). Plates were scanned immediately and 10 min, 30 min, 60 min and 120 min after exposure. Three different plates were used for each scan delay. An aluminium (Al) wedge was used to evaluate the change in mean grey values (MGVs) for scan delays. Diagnostic accuracy for occlusal caries detection was performed by scoring all the digital images. The true presence of caries was determined by stereomicroscopy. Comparison of MGVs of the Al wedge for immediate and delayed scans was made using repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey-Kramer tests. The accuracy was expressed as the area under the receiver operating characteristics curves (A(z)). A(z)s were compared using two-way ANOVA and t-tests. Kappa was used to measure inter and intraobserver agreement. The mean A(z)s of immediately scanned plates were higher than the A(z)s of plates scanned with four different delays (p 0.05). MGVs of immediately scanned plates were significantly higher than the plates scanned with four different delays (p < 0.05). Agreement decreased with increasing scan delays. Scanning of DIGORA SPPs should not be delayed beyond 30 min for accurate occlusal caries diagnosis.

  8. Detection of proximal secondary caries at cervical class II-amalgam restoration margins in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhaus, K W; Rodrigues, J A; Seemann, R; Lussi, A

    2012-06-01

    To compare the performance of LFpen (DIAGNOdent pen) with two different wedge-shaped tips to conventional bitewing radiography (BW) for detecting proximal secondary caries at the cervical margin of amalgam restorations in vitro. Seventy-five molars with class II amalgam restorations were selected. Depending on the marginal filling extension, data was subdivided into a crown group (C), when the filling ended in enamel, and into a root group (R), when the filling ended beyond the cementum-enamel junction. Bayesian analysis including calculation of the area under the receiver operating curve (AUC) was performed. Furthermore, Spearman correlations between caries and cofactors, such as presence of plaque or stain, occlusal ditching, marginal gap size, filling overhangs, and shortfalls, were calculated. Additionally, for group R the correlation coefficient between LFpen measurements and lesion depth was calculated. Histology served as gold standard. In group C both at the D1 and D3 levels, LFpen with two different tips showed a better performance than bitewing radiography (AUC at D1: 0.83/0.79 (LFpen) and 0.63 (BW); at D3: 0.66/0.66 (LFpen) and 0.53 (BW)). In group R, the respective AUC values were 0.53/0.56 (LF) and 0.59 (BW). A significant medium correlation was observed for occlusal ditching and proximal caries. Stain accumulation at the restoration margins especially in combination with filling overhangs interfered with LFpen readings, resulting in false positive measurements. Compared to BW, LFpen enhances the detection of secondary caries lesions at the cervical margin of amalgam restorations that do not extend below the cementum-enamel junction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Chemomechanical caries removal method versus mechanical caries removal methods in clinical and community-based setting: A comparative in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, K V K Santosh; Prasad, M Ghanashyam; Sandeep, R Venkata; Reddy, S Pavani; Divya, D; Pratyusha, K

    2016-01-01

    To compare the effectiveness of various caries removal techniques in mandibular primary molars using Smart Burs, atraumatic restorative technique (ART) (mechanical caries removal) and Carie-care (chemomechanical caries removal [CMCR]) among primary school children in clinical and community-based settings. A total of 80 carious primary mandibular molars were selected for the study from the dental clinic and community. They were equally assigned to four groups according to caries removal technique and also by the operating site. In Group 1, caries was removed using Carie-care in the dental clinic and in Group 2, with Smart Burs in the dental clinic. In Group 3, caries was removed using Carie-care in the field and in Group 4, with the ART in the field. The time taken for caries removal, the efficacy of caries removal and patient acceptance were evaluated with different caries removal techniques. The obtained data were subjected to statistical analysis by ANOVA test. In clinical settings, Carie-care was time-consuming but was more efficient with increased acceptance than Smart Burs and the result was found to be significant statistically (P Carie-care was more efficient, less time consuming, and showed an increased acceptance when compared to atraumatic restorative treatment and the result was found to be significant statistically (P caries removal technique in primary teeth among school children in terms of time, efficacy, and acceptance in both clinical- and community-based settings.

  10. Radiographic detection of approximal caries: a comparison between senior dental students and senior dental hygiene students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtowicz, Patricia A; Brooks, Sharon L; Hasson, Hana; Kerschbaum, Wendy E; Eklund, Stephen A

    2003-01-01

    Dental hygienists do not legally (or definitively) diagnose caries, but they often are responsible for preliminary interpretation of bitewing (BW) radiographs taken during prophylaxis appointments. Given this custom of practice, it is important to understand whether there is a difference between the capabilities of dental hygienists and dentists in interpreting BWs based on education and clinical experience. This study compared proximal carious lesion classification from BWs by senior dental students and senior dental hygiene students. Volunteers (40 dental [D] and 54 dental hygiene [DH] students) classified proximal carious lesions from BWs of 96 extracted teeth, which were mounted in wax to simulate quadrants of the mouth. A soft tissue equivalent was placed in front of the mounted teeth before x-ray exposure. Films were developed automatically and mounted into six sets point scale. The teeth were sectioned vertically and evaluated clinically at 5x magnification with an explorer. The "gold standard" of carious lesion classification was then compared to the students' classifications. All students detected 54% of the carious lesions and correctly identified lack of caries 80.5% of the time. There were no differences between the two groups of students in terms of sensitivity, but dental students showed higher specificity (p = 0.0006). Permitting dental hygienists to make preliminary interpretations of caries from BWs in the dental office appears to be an acceptable practice.

  11. The efficacy of the reverse contrast mode in digital radiography for the detection of proximal dentinal caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miri, Shimasadat; Mehralizadeh, Sandra; Sadri, Donya; Motamedi, Mahmood Reza Kalantar; Soltani, Parisa

    2015-09-01

    This study evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of the reverse contrast mode in intraoral digital radiography for the detection of proximal dentinal caries, in comparison with the original digital radiographs. Eighty extracted premolars with no clinically apparent caries were selected, and digital radiographs of them were taken separately in standard conditions. Four observers examined the original radiographs and the same radiographs in the reverse contrast mode with the goal of identifying proximal dentinal caries. Microscopic sections 5 µm in thickness were prepared from the teeth in the mesiodistal direction. Four slides prepared from each sample used as the diagnostic gold standard. The data were analyzed using SPSS (α=0.05). Our results showed that the original radiographs in order to identify proximal dentinal caries had the following values for sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy, respectively: 72.5%, 90%, 87.2%, 76.5%, and 80.9%. For the reverse contrast mode, however, the corresponding values were 63.1%, 89.4%, 87.1%, 73.5%, and 78.8%, respectively. The sensitivity of original digital radiograph for detecting proximal dentinal caries was significantly higher than that of reverse contrast mode (p0.05). The sensitivity of the original digital radiograph for detecting proximal dentinal caries was significantly higher than that of the reversed contrast images. However, no statistically significant differences were found between these techniques regarding specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, or accuracy.

  12. Maryland dental hygienists' knowledge, opinions and practices regarding dental caries prevention and early detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clovis, Joanne B; Horowitz, Alice M; Kleinman, Dushanka V; Wang, Min Qi; Massey, Meredith

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess Maryland dental hygienists' knowledge, practices and opinions regarding dental caries prevention and early detection. A 30 item survey was mailed to 1,258 Maryland dental hygienists. Two follow-up mailings and email reminders were sent. The response rate was 43% (n=540). Nearly all respondents were female (98%), and 58% practiced in solo settings. Knowledge and certainty of knowledge were moderate: sealants are needed regardless of topical fluoride use (55% certain, 40% less certain), newly erupted permanent molars are the best candidates for sealants (54%, 36%) and professionally applied fluorides are desirable in areas without fluoridated water (55%, 36%). Fewer were certain that incipient lesions can be remineralized before cavitation (23%, 69%), and dilute, frequently administered fluorides are more effective in caries prevention than concentrated, less frequently administered fluorides (6%, 24%). Opinions regarding effectiveness of protocols for 2 age groups from 6 months to 6 years, the challenges of early childhood caries (ECC), prevention practices regarding sealant and topical fluoride applications varied widely. Eighty-nine percent reported routinely assessing dental caries risk factors of child patients and 90% were interested in continuing education courses. There were no significant differences between different types of practice settings, year of graduation, race/ethnicity or gender. Knowledge of recommended guidelines for fluoride and sealant application support clinical decision-making and self-care counseling. Misinformation and lack of understanding of current research and recommendations identify a need for educational interventions in undergraduate dental hygiene programs and through continuing education for practicing hygienists.

  13. In Vitro Comparison of Diagnostic Accuracy of DIAGNOdent and Digital Radiography for Detection of Secondary Proximal Caries Adjacent to Composite Restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoncheh, Zahra; Zonouzy, Zahra; Kiomarsi, Nazanin; Kharazifar, Mohammad Javad; Chiniforush, Nasim

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Early detection of secondary proximal caries is critical for the preservation of tooth vitality. This study sought to assess and compare the diagnostic accuracy of DIAGNOdent and digital radiography for detection of secondary proximal caries adjacent to composite restorations. Methods: Sixty extracted molars including 30 teeth with carious lesions and 30 sound teeth were randomly selected. Class II cavities were prepared in all teeth and carious dentin was intentionally left in the gingival floor of cavities in 30 carious teeth. All cavities were restored with composite resin. The teeth were mounted in wax blocks (three teeth per block) and examined for caries using (DIAGNOdent kaVo Dental, Biberach, Germany). Digital radiographs using DIGORA photostimulable phosphor (PSP) plates (Soredex Corporation, Helsinki, Finland) were obtained from all teeth using the parallel technique and were evaluated by 4 observers. Repeated measure analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied to calculate sensitivity and specificity values of the two diagnostic techniques. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was plotted for DIAGNOdent results and based on that, the cutoff points were determined. Results: The sensitivity and specificity values at the cut-off point of 10.5 were 0.622±0.038 and 0.822±0.077 for DIAGNOdent and 0.591±0.093 and 0.891±0.083 for digital radiography, respectively. The area under the ROC curve was 0.7 for DIAGNOdent. Weighted kappa revealed moderate to almost perfect intra-observer agreement (0.46-0.99). Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for DIAGNOdent was calculated to be 0.88. Conclusion: No statistically significant difference was noted in diagnostic accuracy of DIAGNOdent and digital radiography for detection of secondary proximal caries adjacent to composite restorations. Thus, DIAGNOdent may be used as an adjunct diagnostic tool for detection of secondary proximal caries beneath composite restorations.

  14. The effect of caries excavation methods on the bond strength of etch-and-rinse and self-etch adhesives to caries affected dentine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, V; Singla, M; Yadav, S; Yadav, H

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of chemomechanical caries removal and conventional caries excavation on the microtensile bond strength of three different dentine adhesive systems. Thirty extracted human mandibular molars with radiographic signs of dental caries extending up to the middle third of dentine were sectioned longitudinally through the centre of the carious lesion in a buccolingual direction to yield two sections. One half of each tooth was excavated by tungsten carbide bur and the other half was chemomechanically treated with Carisolv(®) . Three dentine bonding systems: an etch-and-rinse single bottle adhesive (Single Bond, 3M ESPE); a two bottle, two-step self-etch bonding system (One Coat Self Etching Bond, Coltene Whaledent); and a single-step, single bottle self-etch adhesive (Adper Easy Bond Self-Etch Adhesive, 3M ESPE) were applied and composite build-up was done. The specimens were tested for microtensile bond strength. Data were analysed using two-way analysis of variance and pair-wise multiple comparisons were done using the Holm-Sidak method. The etch-and-rinse adhesive and two bottle self-etch system showed significantly higher bond strength than the single bottle self-etch system. Caries excavation method had no influence on bond strength values. Carisolv(®) did not affect the microtensile bond strength values of different adhesive systems tested to the caries affected dentine. © 2013 Australian Dental Association.

  15. Laser fluorescence of caries detection in permanent teeth in vitro: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Maria I; Schambeck, Vilson S; Dondossola, Eduardo R; Alexandre, Maria Cm; Tuon, Lisiane; Grande, Antonio J; Hugo, Fernando

    2016-11-01

    The detection of dental caries in the early stages, particularly on the occlusal surfaces, has become a mainstay of contemporary clinical practice. The objective of the study was to verify the accuracy of laser fluorescence for caries detection. A comprehensive search of the MEDLINE (PubMed), EMBase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, IBECS, BIOSIS, Web of Science, SCOPUS, Congress Abstracts, and Grey literature databases was undertaken from 1980 through January 2016. We included cross-sectional studies that evaluated laser fluorescence in caries diagnoses in vitro and compared them with histological analyses. A total of 39 articles were included in the meta-analysis, which included 2082 caries sites. The pooled sensitivity was 0.71 (0.69, 0.73), and the specificity was 0.81 (0.73, 0.82). The diagnostic odds ratio was 14.93 (11.2, 19.9). A summary receiver operating characteristic curve was constructed. The area under the curve was 0.865. This meta-analysis showed that laser fluorescence in vitro had the ability to diagnose occlusal caries lesions in permanent teeth and enamel and dentin caries. © 2016 Chinese Cochrane Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  16. Molecular detection of bacteria associated to dental caries in 4-12-year-old Tunisian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouidhi, Bochra; Fdhila, Kais; Ben Slama, Rihab; Mahdouani, Kacem; Hentati, Hajer; Najjari, Fayrouz; Bakhrouf, Amina; Chaieb, Kamel

    2014-01-01

    The occurrence of several microbial species in the oral cavity of 4-12-year-old Tunisian children was investigated. Samples were taken from 158 children (81 caries actives and 77 caries free). Genomic DNA was extracted and analyzed for the presence of 17 microbial species using a polymerase chain reaction assay. All samples were positive for at least one of the target microbial strains. Streptococcus mutans was the most prevalent species (76.5%) detected in genomic DNA collected from carious lesions. Other prevalent species were Candida spp (63%), Streptococcus salivarius (59%) and Streptococcus oralis (42%). The frequency of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Lactobacillus casei-group in caries lesions was 29.5%, 34.5% and 22% respectively. Pathogenic bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus was found in 28.5% of carious lesion samples compared to 15.5% in the control. Frequency of Porphyromonas endodontali, Actinomyces radicidentis and Treponema denticola recovery did not differ significantly between origins of samples. PCR analysis of genomic DNA detect various oral bacteria that differ between caries actives and caries-free children. In addition, the association of same aciduric bacteria (S. mutans, S. salivarius, L. acidophilus) and caries formation was noticed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A comparison of film and 3 digital imaging systems for natural dental caries detection: CCD, CMOS, PSP and film

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    Han, Won Jeong [Dankook University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-03-15

    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of occlusal and proximal caries detection using CCD, CMOS, PSP and film system. 32 occlusal and 30 proximal tooth surfaces were radiographed under standardized conditions using 3 digital systems; CCD (CDX-2000HQ, Biomedysis Co., Seoul, Korea), CMOS (Schick, Schick Inc., Long Island, USA), PSP (Digora FMX, Orion Co./Soredex, Helsinki, Finland) and 1 film system (Kodak Insight, Eastman Kodak, Rochester, USA). 5 observers examined the radiographs for occlusal and proximal caries using a 5-point confidence scale. The presence of caries was validated histologically and radiographically. Diagnostic accuracy was evaluated using ROC curve areas (AZ). Analysis using ROC curves revealed the area under each curve which indicated a diagnostic accuracy. For occlusal caries, Kodak Insight film had an Az of 0.765, CCD one of 0.730, CMOS one of 0.742 and PSP one of 0.735. For proximal caries, Kodak Insight film had an Az of 0.833, CCD one of 0.832, CMOS one of 0.828 and PSP one of 0.868. No statistically significant difference was noted between any of the imaging modalities. CCD, CMOS, PSP and film performed equally well in the detection of occlusal and proximal dental caries. CCD, CMOS and PSP-based digital images provided a level of diagnostic performance comparable to Kodak Insight film.

  18. Diagnostic accuracy of direct digital radiography and conventional radiography for proximal caries detection in primary teeth: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivakumar Nuvvula

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study was conducted to uncover the diagnostic accuracy of digital versus conventional radiographic methods for the detection of proximal caries in primary teeth. Methods: Two researchers independently involved in the search process to explore Medical Subject Heading terms "dental digital radiography," "dental radiography," "bitewing," "dental caries," and "primary teeth" using PubMed, Cochrane Library, Ovid SP, and SIGLE databases. Search was confined to the articles published in English language only, with time period limit January 1996 to April 2014 and a hand search was performed to retrieve additional citations. Explicit inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied to eliminate undesired studies. Critical appraisal of the retrieved articles was done using the quality rating based on Bader and co-workers criteria. Results: A total of 129 articles were retrieved, among which 4 articles were included. All the four studies included were in vitro, of which two studies attained a high-quality score, whereas the other two attained average, and low scores based on Bader et al.′s criteria. Conclusions: A big lacuna exists in the literature, regarding the evaluation of radiographic systems in primary teeth, suggesting an immediate need for well conducted in vivo studies. The quality of available evidence can be regarded as fair but cannot be suggested to set a baseline, indicating a need to perform high-quality studies in a randomized sample to find out the accuracy of digital and conventional radiographs.

  19. Dental students' and lecturers' perception of the degree of difficulty of caries detection associated learning topics in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Juan Sebastian; Braga, Mariana Minatel; Shitsuka, Caleb; Wen, Chao Lung; Haddad, Ana Estela

    2015-01-01

    It aimed to explore the degree of difficulty of caries-detection-associated-topics perceived by dental students and lecturers as pedagogical step in the development of learning objects for e-learning. A convenience sample comprising ninety-eight subjects from different academic levels (undergraduate/graduate students and pediatric dentistry lecturers) participated. Two spreadsheets (isolated/relative) were created considering key topics in the caries detection process. The isolated evaluation intended to explore each topic in an isolated way, while the relative intended to classify, comparatively, the participants' perceived difficulty per topic. Afterwards, data were analyzed. All values on spreadsheets were combined obtaining the subject's final perception. Associations between the subjects' degree of the perceived difficulty and academic level were estimated. ANOVA was used to determine differences regarding the perception among evaluated topics in distinct groups. Caries histopathology and detection of proximal carious lesions were the topics perceived as the most difficult in the process of caries detection by both students and lecturers. Differentiation between an extrinsic pigmentation and a brown-spot (caries lesion) as well as differential diagnosis between caries and enamel developmental defects or non-carious lesions were considered as more difficult by undergraduates in comparison to graduates/lecturers (regression-coefficient=14.54; Standard Error=3.34; Pdetection of proximal caries lesions were identified as the most difficult despite the academic level. However, some topics are differently perceived according to the group. These results are useful for developing pedagogical material, based on the students real learning needs/expectations.

  20. Influence of the Display Monitor on Observer Performance in Detection of Dental Caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Kaviani

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and aims. Digital imaging continues to gain acceptance in dentistry and video display used for this becomes important. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of the display monitor on observer performance on caries detection.

    Materials and methods. Artificial enamel lesions were created in 40 extracted teeth at random using 1/4 and 1/2 round burs. Teeth were mounted in dental stone blocks to simulate a hemi-dentition. Approximate exposures were recorded at 70 kVp using a Planmeca (Planmeca Co, Helsinki, Finland digital imaging system. Three oral and maxillofacial radiologists rated each image on a five-point scale for the presence or absence of lesion. Radiographic images were viewed on the following monitors: (1 LG Flatron 700p (LG Electronics Co., South Korea; (2 Samsung Magicgreen (Samsung Electronics Corp., South Korea; (3 Hansol 710p (Hansol Electronics Corp., South Korea and (4 Toshiba satellite laptop (Toshiba Computer Corp., Philippines. Examiners were allowed to magnify and adjust density and contrast of each image at will. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC analysis was performed. Data was subjected to repeated measures analysis of variance and ordinal logistic regression to test for significance between variables and to determine odds ratios.

    Results. Mean ROC curve areas ranged from 0.8728 for the LG monitor to 0.8395 for the Samsung. Repeated measures analysis of variance showed significant differences between observers (P< 0.0001, lesion size (P< 0.0001, examiner/monitor interaction (P< 0.033 and examiner/block interaction (P< 0.013. However, no significant difference was found between monitors.

    Conclusion. This study suggests that observer performance is independent of the visual characteristics of the display monitor.

  1. Diagnostic accuracy of direct digital radiography and conventional radiography for proximal caries detection in primary teeth: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuvvula, Sivakumar; Bhumireddy, Jayachandra Reddy; Kamatham, Rekhalakshmi; Mallineni, Sreekanth Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to uncover the diagnostic accuracy of digital versus conventional radiographic methods for the detection of proximal caries in primary teeth. Two researchers independently involved in the search process to explore Medical Subject Heading terms "dental digital radiography," "dental radiography," "bitewing," "dental caries," and "primary teeth" using PubMed, Cochrane Library, Ovid SP, and SIGLE databases. Search was confined to the articles published in English language only, with time period limit January 1996 to April 2014 and a hand search was performed to retrieve additional citations. Explicit inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied to eliminate undesired studies. Critical appraisal of the retrieved articles was done using the quality rating based on Bader and co-workers criteria. A total of 129 articles were retrieved, among which 4 articles were included. All the four studies included were in vitro, of which two studies attained a high-quality score, whereas the other two attained average, and low scores based on Bader et al.'s criteria. A big lacuna exists in the literature, regarding the evaluation of radiographic systems in primary teeth, suggesting an immediate need for well conducted in vivo studies. The quality of available evidence can be regarded as fair but cannot be suggested to set a baseline, indicating a need to perform high-quality studies in a randomized sample to find out the accuracy of digital and conventional radiographs.

  2. Diagnostic ability of the periapical radiographs and digital image in the detection of the artificial proximal caries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heo, Min Suk; You, Dong Soo [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-08-15

    Recently, the digital image was introduced into radiological image. The digital image has the power of contrast enhancement, histogram control, and other digitally enhancement. At the point of the resolution, periapical radiograph is superior to the digital image, but enhanced digital procedure improves the diagnostic ability of the digital image. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic ability of artificial proximal caries in conventional radiographs, digital radiographs and enhanced digital radiographs (histogram specification). ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) analysis and paired t-test were used for the evaluation of detectability, and following results were acquired: 1. The mean ROC area of conventional radiographs was 0.9274. 2. The mean ROC area of unenhanced digital image was 0.9168. 3. The mean ROC area of enhanced digital image was 0.9339. 4. The diagnostic ability of three imaging methods was not significant difference (p>0.05). So, the digital images had similar diagnostic ability of artificial proximal caries to conventional radiographs. If properly enhanced digital image, it may be superior to conventional radiographs.

  3. Diagnostic ability of the periapical radiographs and digital image in the detection of the artificial proximal caries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heo, Min Suk; You, Dong Soo

    1994-01-01

    Recently, the digital image was introduced into radiological image. The digital image has the power of contrast enhancement, histogram control, and other digitally enhancement. At the point of the resolution, periapical radiograph is superior to the digital image, but enhanced digital procedure improves the diagnostic ability of the digital image. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic ability of artificial proximal caries in conventional radiographs, digital radiographs and enhanced digital radiographs (histogram specification). ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) analysis and paired t-test were used for the evaluation of detectability, and following results were acquired: 1. The mean ROC area of conventional radiographs was 0.9274. 2. The mean ROC area of unenhanced digital image was 0.9168. 3. The mean ROC area of enhanced digital image was 0.9339. 4. The diagnostic ability of three imaging methods was not significant difference (p>0.05). So, the digital images had similar diagnostic ability of artificial proximal caries to conventional radiographs. If properly enhanced digital image, it may be superior to conventional radiographs.

  4. Comparing the performance of storage phosphor plate and Insight film images for the detection of proximal caries depth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crombie, K; Parker, M E; Nortje, C J; Sanderink, G C H

    2009-11-01

    To compare proximal caries depth between conventional film images, unenhanced and enhanced storage phosphor plate images. Bitewing radiographs were taken on 100 patients presenting for Conservative and Periodontal treatment. Only one bitewing was taken on a patient either the right or left hand side of the patient A DenOptics storage phosphor plate and size 3 Kodak Insight film were simultaneously placed into a Rinn bitewing holder. The Insight film was placed behind the phosphor plate. Both were simultaneously exposed to radiation. The unenhanced phosphor plate images were copied four times. Contrast and brightness were either increased or decreased on the copied images. A five point scale was chosen for proximal caries depth: 0--sound, 1--caries in enamel, 2--caries reaching dentino-enamel junction, 3--caries into dentine, 4--caries in a restored area. The bitewing images were evaluated by 4 clinicians. Images with technical errors were excluded from the study. Altogether 1848 tooth surfaces were evaluated of which 136 surfaces were excluded due to technical errors. The results show that for the detection of proximal caries there is no significant difference in accuracy between unenhanced storage phosphor plate and Kodak Insight film images (p > 0.001). When decreasing both contrast and brightness there was no significant difference in diagnostic accuracy (p > 0.001) between unenhanced and enhanced storage phosphor plate images. More surfaces were analyzed for caries into the dentine on the enhanced images when both contrast and brightness were increased. Although contrast-enhanced and brightness-enhanced images retween conventional film, unenhanced and enhanced images.

  5. Influence of the condition of the adjacent tooth surface on fluorescence measurements for the detection of approximal caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lussi, A; Zimmerli, B; Hellwig, E; Jaeggi, T

    2006-12-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether the status of the adjacent tooth surface has an influence on the signal of a new laser fluorescence (LF) device for the detection of approximal caries. Seventy-eight teeth were selected from a pool of extracted permanent human molars, frozen at -20 degrees C until use. Before being measured the teeth were defrosted, cleaned, and any calculus removed. As a control, a defined approximal surface of each tooth was measured with the LF device holding the tip with the detecting- and the reverse-side on it, but without a neighboring tooth contacting the surface. The proximal site under examination was then placed adjacent to a tooth, which had deep dentinal caries, a composite restoration, a provisional ZnO-Eugenol restoration, or a ceramic restoration. The adjacent tooth with the ZnO-Eugenol restoration, the composite restoration, and the dentinal caries all demonstrated a statistically significant increase of LF readings on sound tooth surfaces. Teeth with enamel or dentinal caries were only slightly (and not statistically significantly) influenced by the different types of neighboring surfaces compared with the control LF readings. It can be concluded that caries detection of approximal tooth surfaces with the new LF system might be influenced by the condition of the adjacent tooth surface.

  6. Effect of data compression on proximal caries detection: observer performance with DenOptix photostimulable phosphor images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabla, T; Ludlow, J B; Tyndall, D A; Platin, E; Abreu, M

    2003-01-01

    To study the effect of lossy image compression on caries detection. Null hypothesis states no difference in caries detection efficacy among observers using original digital images versus images compressed at various rates of compression. Digital images of 41 extracted posterior teeth were obtained with a storage phosphor DenOptix (Gendex DenOptix Imaging system) system. Images were exported in Tagged Image File Format (TIFF) and compressed with Joint Photographic Experts Group File Interchange Format (JFIF), as provided by the software of the imaging system. The compressions options JFIF100%, JFIF75% and JFIF50% resulted in reducing the image size to 1:2, 1:11 and 1:16, respectively. Eight observers evaluated the presence or absence of caries on a 5-point confidence scale. The actual caries status of each proximal surface was determined by ground section histology. Responses were evaluated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Areas under the curves (Az) were assessed using analysis of variance (ANOVA). The mean Az scores were 0.85 for original/uncompressed images, and 0.89 for JFIF100%, 0.88 for JFIF75% and 0.88 for JFIF50% images. These differences were not statistically significant (P = 0.26). Differences between observers were also not statistically significant (P = 0.12). JFIF compression at the level of 1:16 can be used without significant deterioration in diagnostic accuracy for proximal caries detection.

  7. The effect of distance and tooth structure on laser fluorescence caries detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitz, K; Stenvall, R M; Graye, M

    2012-01-01

    The DIAGNOdent, a device used in caries detection, uses a laser to excite fluorescence from pigments in carious tooth structure. In clinical use assessing occlusal surfaces, distance and tooth structure may separate the instrument's tip from the fluorescent source.The aim of this in vitro study was to examine the effect of distance and tooth structure on laser fluorescence (LF) readings.In one set of experiments, a porphyrin pigmentin oil suspension was used as a LF signal source. Thin slices of enamel and dentin were obtained from extracted molars. Pigment-induced LF readings were obtained when these slices were placed between the porphyrin pigment and the LF instrument's tip. The effect of either demineralized or intact tooth tissue on pigment-induced LF readings was assessed.In other experiments on extracted molars with small occlusal caries, LF readings were taken from pit/fissure sites before and after removal of the occlusal surface.LF readings are proportional to pigment con-centration and inversely proportional to the distance between the suspension and the instrument's tip. Enamel, demineralized enamel,dentin, and demineralized dentin all caused significant reductions in LF signal, all readings being taken with the same tip-pigment distance. Demineralized enamel (white with intact surface) caused the most reduction.After sectioning of carious teeth, there was a significant increase in LF readings.The results of this study indicate that distance and the presence of tooth structure between the carious lesion and the instrument's tip reduce LF readings. These results indicate that anatomic factors interfere with the LF device's ability to assess occlusal caries. DIAGNOdent readings should not be relied on when making diagnostic decisions.

  8. Proximal caries detection accuracy using intraoral bitewing radiography, extraoral bitewing radiography and panoramic radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamburoglu, K; Kolsuz, E; Murat, S; Yüksel, S; Ozen, T

    2012-09-01

    To compare proximal caries detection using intraoral bitewing, extraoral bitewing and panoramic radiography. 80 extracted human premolar and molar teeth with and without proximal caries were used. Intraoral radiographs were taken with Kodak Insight film (Eastman Kodak Co., Rochester, NY) using the bitewing technique. Extraoral bitewing and panoramic images were obtained using a Planmeca Promax Digital Panoramic X-ray unit (Planmeca Inc., Helsinki, Finland). Images were evaluated by three observers twice. In total, 160 proximal surfaces were assessed. Intra- and interobserver kappa coefficients were calculated. Scores obtained from the three techniques were compared with the histological gold standard using receiver operating characteristic analysis. Az values for each image type, observer and reading were compared using z-tests, with a significance level of α = 0.05. Kappa coefficients ranged from 0.883 to 0.963 for the intraoral bitewing, from 0.715 to 0.893 for the extraoral bitewing, and from 0.659 to 0.884 for the panoramic radiography. Interobserver agreements for the first and second readings for the intraoral bitewing images were between 0.717 and 0.780, the extraoral bitewing readings were between 0.569 and 0.707, and the panoramic images were between 0.477 and 0.740. The Az values for both readings of all three observers were highest for the intraoral bitewing. Az values for the extraoral bitewing images were higher than those of the panoramic images without statistical significance (p > 0.05). Intraoral bitewing radiography was superior to extraoral bitewing and panoramic radiography in diagnosing proximal caries of premolar and molar teeth ex vivo. Similar intra- and interobserver coefficients were calculated for extraoral bitewing and panoramic radiography.

  9. Comparison of proximal caries detection in primary teeth between laser fluorescence and bitewing radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virajsilp, V; Thearmontree, A; Aryatawong, S; Paiboonwarachat, D

    2005-01-01

    The purposes of this in vitro study were to: (1) compare the accuracy of a laser fluorescence system (DIAGNOdent) in proximal caries diagnosis in primary teeth with that of bitewing radiography, using the histological examination as a gold standard; and (2) evaluate the reliability of the DIAGNOdent examination. Included were 107 extracted primary molars without obvious cavities on proximal surfaces. The teeth were examined by 2 examiners using DIAGNOdent directly on the lesions (without contact; ie, proximal surfaces were not in contact with other teeth) and indirectly (with contact; ie, proximal surfaces were in contact with adjacent teeth). To simulate contacting teeth, the studied surface was set adjacent to a sound surface in a wax base. The contacting teeth were also diagnosed using bitewing radiography. Results of the diagnoses were compared with a histological gold standard. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated for each diagnostic system. Inter- and intraexaminer reliabilities of DIAGNOdent were calculated using intraclass correlation (ICC). At the dentine caries (D3) level, the sensitivities of bitewing radiography (with contacting teeth) and DIAGNOdent with and without contacting teeth (direct application) were 0.41, 0.85 and 0.93, respectively, and the specificities were 1, 0.89, and 0.87, respectively. Both inter- and intraexaminer reliabilities using DIAGNOdent with and without contacting teeth (direct application) were very high (ICC=0.97 to 0.99). The reliability of DIAGNOdent is very high and its diagnostic validity (sum of sensitivity and specificity) is higher than that of bitewing radiography for proximal caries detection in primary teeth.

  10. Efficacy of application of pseudocolor filters in the detection of interproximal caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangooei Booshehry, Maryam; Davari, Abdolrahim; Ezoddini Ardakani, Fatemeh; Rashidi Nejad, Mohammad Reza

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the effect of application of an image processing mode of a colorizer on the efficacy of the detection of interproximal carious lesions viewed in direct digital radiography. A total of 102 proximal surfaces of extracted human premolars on direct digital images were evaluated by three observers with and without the application of pseudocolor filter. The teeth were sectioned and viewed microscopically to determine the gold standard. The kappa value agreement ratios were calculated. Sensitivity and specificity values for normal digital and colorized images were 66.7%, 60%, 80.5%, and 50%, respectively. However, there were no statistically significant differences between the two types of images (P = 0.12). In this study application of pseudocolor filter on digital radiographic images failed to result in significantly improved caries detection.

  11. Comparison of cone - beam computed tomography and intraoral radiography in detection of recurrent caries under composite restorations

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    Kasraei, Shahin; Shokri, Abbas; Poorolajal, Jalal; Rahmani, Hamid, E-mail: Dr.a.shokri@gmail.com [Hamadan University of Medical Sciences Hamadan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khajeh, Samira [Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    Secondary caries is the most common cause of dental restoration failures. This study aimed to compare the diagnostic accuracy of conventional and digital intraoral radiography and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) for detection of recurrent caries around composite restorations mesio-occluso-distal (MOD) cavities were prepared using bur on 45 extracted sound human molar teeth. The teeth were divided into 3 groups. In the control group, cavities were restored with composite resin after etching and bonding (n=15). In Group 2, 500-μm thick wax was placed over the buccal, lingual and gingival walls and the cavities were restored with composite resin. Group 3 specimens were subjected to pH cycling and artificial caries were created on the buccal, lingual and gingival walls. The cavities were restored with composite. Conventional and digital photo-stimulable phosphor (PSP; Optime) radiographs and two CBCTs images (NewTom 3G and Cranex 3D) were obtained from them. Presence or absence of caries in the cavity walls was assessed on these images. Data were analyzed using Kappa statistic. The diagnostic accuracy of CBCT was significantly higher than that of digital and conventional intraoral radiography (p<0.05). The accuracy was 0.83, 0.78, 0.55 and 0.49 for CBCT Cranex 3D, CBCT NewTom 3G, conventional and digital intraoral radiography, respectively. CBCT has a higher diagnostic accuracy than digital and conventional intraoral radiography for detection of secondary caries around composite restorations. (author)

  12. Comparison of cone - beam computed tomography and intraoral radiography in detection of recurrent caries under composite restorations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasraei, Shahin; Shokri, Abbas; Poorolajal, Jalal; Rahmani, Hamid; Khajeh, Samira

    2017-01-01

    Secondary caries is the most common cause of dental restoration failures. This study aimed to compare the diagnostic accuracy of conventional and digital intraoral radiography and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) for detection of recurrent caries around composite restorations mesio-occluso-distal (MOD) cavities were prepared using bur on 45 extracted sound human molar teeth. The teeth were divided into 3 groups. In the control group, cavities were restored with composite resin after etching and bonding (n=15). In Group 2, 500-μm thick wax was placed over the buccal, lingual and gingival walls and the cavities were restored with composite resin. Group 3 specimens were subjected to pH cycling and artificial caries were created on the buccal, lingual and gingival walls. The cavities were restored with composite. Conventional and digital photo-stimulable phosphor (PSP; Optime) radiographs and two CBCTs images (NewTom 3G and Cranex 3D) were obtained from them. Presence or absence of caries in the cavity walls was assessed on these images. Data were analyzed using Kappa statistic. The diagnostic accuracy of CBCT was significantly higher than that of digital and conventional intraoral radiography (p<0.05). The accuracy was 0.83, 0.78, 0.55 and 0.49 for CBCT Cranex 3D, CBCT NewTom 3G, conventional and digital intraoral radiography, respectively. CBCT has a higher diagnostic accuracy than digital and conventional intraoral radiography for detection of secondary caries around composite restorations. (author)

  13. Assessment of a new infrared laser transillumination technology (808 nm) for the detection of occlusal caries-an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussaneli, D G; Restrepo, M; Boldieri, T; Pretel, H; Mancini, M W; Santos-Pinto, L; Cordeiro, R C L

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to evaluate in vitro performance of near-infrared laser transillumination (NIR-LTI) for detecting early occlusal caries in permanent teeth and compare it with quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF), DIAGNOdent Pen (DDPen), and conventional radiography (CR). Ninety-four occlusal surfaces presenting International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) scores ranging from 0 to 3 were selected. For the NIR-LTI examination, images were captured using a prototype, which consists of a laser beam (808 nm) and an infrared CCD camera. One occlusal site on each tooth was assessed twice by two examiners. The teeth were prepared histologically and assessed for the presence of early caries. The intraexaminer correlation showed no difference between the NIR-LTI, DDPen, and QLF analytical methods, but all these methods differed from CR. Interexaminer reproducibility was moderate for NIR-LTI, which showed sensitivity (0.68), specificity (0.85), accuracy (0.73), and area under the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve (0.76) similar to those of the fluorescence method and different from those of the CR. In conclusion, the performance of NIR-LTI was comparable to that of DDPen and QLF and may therefore be considered a valid and reliable alternative for the diagnosis of incipient lesions on the occlusal surface of permanent teeth.

  14. Effect of Different Tube Potential Settings on Caries Detection using PSP Plate and Conventional Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Melo, Daniela Pita; Cruz, Adriana Dibo; Melo, Saulo Leonardo Sousa; De Farias, Julyanna Filgueiras GonçAlves; Haiter-Neto, Francisco; De Almeida, Solange Maria

    2015-04-01

    To compare intraoral Phosphor Stimulable Plate digital system and intraoral film using different tube settings on incipient proximal caries detection. Five blocks, with five teeth each, were radiographically examined using phosphor plates and F-speed films. The images were acquired in 07 different tube potentials from 50-80 kV. The films were digitized. Three oral radiologists scored the images for the presence of caries using a 5-point rating scale. The areas under ROC curve were calculated. The influence of tube kilovoltage was verified by ANOVA and pair wise comparisons performed using Tukey test. Mean ROC curve areas varied from 0.446-0.628 for digital images and 0.494-0.559 for conventional images. The tube setting of 70 kV presented the best result both for digital and conventional images. Considering the image type separately, 70 kV scored highest followed by 75 and 65 kV for digital images (p=0.084). For conventional image modality, even though 70 kV presented the best result, it did not differ significantly from 80 kV, not differing from 60 and 55 kV, which did not differ from 75, 65 and 50 kV (p=0.53). Phosphor plate digital images seem to be more susceptible to tube setting potential variations then digitized film images.

  15. A comparative evaluation of Oratest with the microbiological method of assessing caries activity in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakshi Sundaram

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim of this study is to find out whether Oratest can be used as a diagnostic tool in assessing the caries activity by evaluating its relationship to the existing caries status and the salivary streptococcus mutans level. Materials and Methods: The study sample consists of 90 students divided into two groups. Group I (test group and Group II (control group consisting of 30 children for control group and 60 children for test group. The sampling of unstimulated saliva for the estimation of streptococcus mutans was done as per the method suggested by Kohler and Bratthall. The plates were then incubated. Rough surface colonies were identified as streptococcus mutans on a pre-determined area of the tip (approximately 1.5 cm 2 were counted for each side of spatula pressed against mitis salivarius bacitracin agar using digital colony counter. The results were expressed in colony forming units (CFU. Oratest was carried out in the same patients after the collection of salivary sample for the microbiological method to evaluate the relationship between the two tests. Statistical Analysis Used: The tests used were ANOVA, Pearson Chi-square test, Pearson′s correlation analysis, Mann-Whitney U test and Student′s independent t-test. Results: In the control group and test group, when the streptococcus mutans count (CFU and Oratest time (minutes were correlated using Pearson′s correlation analysis, the streptococcus mutans counts was found to be in a statistically significant negative linear relationship with the Oratest time. When the caries status of the children, participated in the test group were correlated with mutans count (CFU and Oratest time, caries status were found to be in a statistically significant positive linear relationship with streptococcus mutans count and in a significant negative linear relationship with Oratest time. Conclusions: The test proved to be a simple, inexpensive and rapid technique for assessing caries activity

  16. In vitro performance of a pen-type laser fluorescence device and bitewing radiographs for approximal caries detection in permanent and primary teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Juliana Feltrin; Diniz, Michele Baffi; Boldieri, Thalita; Rodrigues, Jonas Almeida; Lussi, Adrian; de Cássia Loiola Cordeiro, Rita

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the performance of a pen‑type laser fluorescence device (DIAGNOdent 2190; LFpen, KaVo, Germany) and bitewing radiographs (BW) for approximal caries detection in permanent and primary teeth. A total of 246 anterior approximal surfaces (102 permanent and 144 primary) were selected. Contact points were simulated using sound teeth. Two examiners assessed all approximal surfaces using LFpen and BW. The teeth were histologically assessed for the reference standard. Optimal cut‑off limits were calculated for LFpen for primary and permanent teeth. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (Az) were calculated for D1 (enamel and dentin lesions) and D3 (dentin lesions) thresholds. The reproducibility was assessed by intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Cohen's weighted kappa values. For permanent teeth, the LFpen cut‑off were 0-27 (sound), 28-33 (enamel caries) and >33 (dentin caries). For primary teeth, the LFpen cut‑off were 0-7 (sound), 8- 32 (enamelcaries) and >32 (dentin caries). The LFpen presented higher sensitivity values than BW for primary teeth (0.58 vs. 0.32 at D1 and 0.80 vs. 0.47 at D3) and permanent teeth (0.80 vs. 0.57 at D1 and 0.94 vs. 0.51 at D3). Specificity did not show a significant difference between the methods. Rank correlations with histology were 0.59 and 0.83 (LFpen) and 0.36 and 0.70 (BW) for primary and permanent teeth, respectively, considering all lesions. ICC values for LFpen were 0.71 (inter) and 0.86 (intra) for permanent teeth and 0.94 (inter) and 0.90/0.99 for primary teeth. Kappa values for BW were 0.69 (inter) and 0.68/0.90 (intra) for permanent teeth and 0.64 (inter) and 0.89/0.89 for primary teeth. LFpen presented better reproducibility for primary and permanent teeth and higher accuracy in detecting caries lesions at D1 threshold than BW for permanent teeth. LFpen should be used as an adjunct method for approximal caries detection.

  17. The efficacy of the reverse contrast mode in digital radiography for the detection of proximal dentinal caries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miri, Shimasadat [Dept. of Endodontics, School of Dentistry, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mehrailzadeh, Sandra; Sadri, Donya [School of Dentistry, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Motamedi, Mahmood Reza Kalantar [Dept. of Research, School of Dentistry, Isfahan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Soltani, Parisa [Dental Students Research Center, School of Dentistry, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    This study evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of the reverse contrast mode in intraoral digital radiography for the detection of proximal dentinal caries, in comparison with the original digital radiographs. Eighty extracted premolars with no clinically apparent caries were selected, and digital radiographs of them were taken separately in standard conditions. Four observers examined the original radiographs and the same radiographs in the reverse contrast mode with the goal of identifying proximal dentinal caries. Microscopic sections 5 µm in thickness were prepared from the teeth in the mesiodistal direction. Four slides prepared from each sample used as the diagnostic gold standard. The data were analyzed using SPSS (α=0.05). Our results showed that the original radiographs in order to identify proximal dentinal caries had the following values for sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy, respectively: 72.5%, 90%, 87.2%, 76.5%, and 80.9%. For the reverse contrast mode, however, the corresponding values were 63.1%, 89.4%, 87.1%, 73.5%, and 78.8%, respectively. The sensitivity of original digital radiograph for detecting proximal dentinal caries was significantly higher than that of reverse contrast mode (p<0.05). However, no statistically significant differences were found regarding specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, or accuracy (p>0.05). The sensitivity of the original digital radiograph for detecting proximal dentinal caries was significantly higher than that of the reversed contrast images. However, no statistically significant differences were found between these techniques regarding specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, or accuracy.

  18. Comparison between RVG UI sensor and Kodak InSight film for detection of incipient proximal caries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, Yukiko; Hanazawa, Tomomi; Seki, Kenji; Araki, Kazuyuki; Okano, Tomohiro [Showa Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Dentistry

    2002-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of the four combination modes of Trophy Radio Visio Graphy (RVG) UI sensor (Trex-Trophy Radiology Inc., Marne-la-Valee, France) and Kodak InSight film (Eastman Kodak Co., Rochester, NY) for detecting proximal dental caries. Thirty extracted human upper premolars were selected. Of 60 surfaces, 25 had carious lesions in the form of small cavities, and the rest showed no evidence of caries as verified by a micro computed tomogram (micro CT; XCT Research SA+, Stratec Medizintechnik GmbH, Pforzheim, Germany). All teeth were radiographed with the paralleling technique (60 kV, 40 cm focus-to-sensor distance). Four combination modes (high-resolution caries mode-HRC; high-sensitivity caries mode-HSC; high-resolution periodontal mode-HRP; and high-resolution endo mode-HRE) were used. Exposure was set at 0.12 sec for HRC, 0.08 sec for HSC, 0.16 sec for HRP, 0.12 sec for HRE, and 0.16 sec for the Kodak InSight film. The resulting images were evaluated by three oral radiologists. The same three observers evaluated the digital images, and were allowed to use the contrast and brightness controls in doing so. Possible differences in receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve areas among image modalities were assessed by the Friedman test. The mean ROC curve areas were 0.66{+-}0.11 for HRC, 0.78{+-}0.02 for HSC, 0.76{+-}0.04 for HRE, 0.77{+-}0.04 for HRP, and 0.71{+-}0.09 for the Kodak InSight film. There were no statistically significant differences between HRC, HSC, HRE, HRP and the Kodak InSight film in terms of proximal caries detection. The four modes of RVG UI system are each a viable alternative to intraoral film for the detection of incipient dental caries. (author)

  19. A comparative study of high-resolution cone beam computed tomography and charge-coupled device sensors for detecting caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, S M; Lee, J T; Hodges, R J; Chang, T-L; Elashoff, D A; White, S C

    2009-10-01

    Conventional radiographic imaging of teeth underestimates the presence of caries. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of high-resolution cone beam CT (CBCT) images and conventional charge-coupled device (CCD) images for detecting proximal and occlusal caries. Non-restored, extracted human permanent premolar and molar teeth were mounted and then imaged with a 3DX Accuitomo and a CCD. We selected 92 occlusal and 100 proximal surfaces for raters to score. Of these, 36 and 25, respectively, had lesions extending into dentin. Using a five-step confidence scale, eight practising dentists evaluated the images for the presence of caries in dentin using both modalities. Actual presence and extent of caries was established with microCT imaging. For proximal surface lesions extending into dentin, the average sensitivity score using 3DX images (0.61) was almost twice that of CCD images (0.33) and the difference was significant. The specificity values for both systems were high and not significantly different from each other. For occlusal surfaces, raters detected significantly more lesions in the enamel or dentin when using the 3DX images than when using CCD images. However, the raters also had significantly lower average specificity scores for the 3DX images compared with the CCD images for lesions at both depths. Practising dentists were able to improve their detection of proximal-surface caries extending into the dentin, but not occlusal caries, using 3DX high-resolution cone beam CT images compared with CCD images.

  20. The efficacy of the reverse contrast mode in digital radiography for the detection of proximal dentinal caries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miri, Shimasadat; Mehrailzadeh, Sandra; Sadri, Donya; Motamedi, Mahmood Reza Kalantar; Soltani, Parisa

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of the reverse contrast mode in intraoral digital radiography for the detection of proximal dentinal caries, in comparison with the original digital radiographs. Eighty extracted premolars with no clinically apparent caries were selected, and digital radiographs of them were taken separately in standard conditions. Four observers examined the original radiographs and the same radiographs in the reverse contrast mode with the goal of identifying proximal dentinal caries. Microscopic sections 5 µm in thickness were prepared from the teeth in the mesiodistal direction. Four slides prepared from each sample used as the diagnostic gold standard. The data were analyzed using SPSS (α=0.05). Our results showed that the original radiographs in order to identify proximal dentinal caries had the following values for sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy, respectively: 72.5%, 90%, 87.2%, 76.5%, and 80.9%. For the reverse contrast mode, however, the corresponding values were 63.1%, 89.4%, 87.1%, 73.5%, and 78.8%, respectively. The sensitivity of original digital radiograph for detecting proximal dentinal caries was significantly higher than that of reverse contrast mode (p<0.05). However, no statistically significant differences were found regarding specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, or accuracy (p>0.05). The sensitivity of the original digital radiograph for detecting proximal dentinal caries was significantly higher than that of the reversed contrast images. However, no statistically significant differences were found between these techniques regarding specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, or accuracy

  1. Resin infiltration of natural proximal caries lesions regarding different stages of disease in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Büchting, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Resin infiltration provides a treatment option for non-cavitated proximal caries lesions. Although further demineralisation of early non-cavitated lesions can be hampered by this treatment, it is uncertain; weather caries infiltration of cavitated lesions is possible. Thus, this in vitro study aimed to evaluate the performance of resin infiltration regarding proximal caries lesions (n=72) differing in International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) codes. METHOD...

  2. Diagnostic performance of cone-beam computed tomography on detection of mechanically-created artificial secondary caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charuakkra, Arnon; Prapayasatok, Sangsom; Janhom, Apirum; Pongsiriwet, Surawut; Verochana, Karune; Mahasantipiya, Phattaranant

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images and bitewing images in detection of secondary caries. One hundred and twenty proximal slots of Class II cavities were randomly prepared on human premolar and molar teeth, and restored with amalgam (n=60) and composite resin (n=60). Then, artificial secondary caries lesions were randomly created using round steel No. 4 bur. The teeth were radiographed with a conventional bitewing technique and two CBCT systems; Pax-500ECT and Promax 3D. All images were evaluated by five observers. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (A(z)) was used to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy. Significant difference was tested using the Friedman test (p valuedetection of secondary caries.

  3. Comparison of direct digital and conventional radiography for the detection of proximal surface caries in the mixed dentition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uprichard, K K; Potter, B J; Russell, C M; Schafer, T E; Adair, S; Weller, R N

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the performance of direct digital radiography and traditional dental radiography for the detection of proximal surface dental caries in the mixed dentition. 15 quadrants of extracted teeth, arranged from the primary canine to permanent first molar, were imaged using direct digital (Schick Technologies, Long Island City, NY, USA) and conventional films (D-speed and E-speed Plus; Eastman Kodak Co., Rochester, NY, USA). Five pediatric dentists viewed the images and scored the 270 proximal surfaces for presence of caries on a 5 point scale and extent of caries on a 4 point scale. The teeth were sectioned and viewed microscopically to determine the gold standard. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to evaluate the viewer's performance for detecting proximal caries using the 3 different image receptor types. Experienced examiners were significantly more accurate in diagnosis of proximal surface caries using either D-speed or E-speed Plus films than they were using the direct digital receptor. The mean areas under the ROC curve (Az) for the viewers were 0.7595 for D-speed film, 0.7557 for E-speed Plus film, and 0.5928 for the direct digital receptor. The results also indicated that selected viewers' accuracy increased when viewing the direct digital images a second time. CCD based direct digital radiography was not as accurate as conventional film images for the purpose of diagnosing proximal surface caries in the mixed dentition. However, the results imply that with increased experience, direct digital images may be as accurate as conventional film based images for diagnosis.

  4. Clinical trial for detection of dental caries using laser-induced fluorescence ratio reference standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Shiny Sara; Mohanty, Soumyakant; Jayanthi, J. L.; Varughese, Jolly Mary; Balan, Anitha; Subhash, Narayanan

    2010-03-01

    We present the clinical applicability of fluorescence ratio reference standard (FRRS) to discriminate different stages of dental caries. Toward this, laser-induced autofluorescence emission spectra are recorded in vivo in the 400- to 800-nm spectral range on a miniature fiber optic spectrometer from 65 patients, with a 404-nm diode laser as the excitation source. Autofluorescence spectra of sound teeth consist of a broad emission at 500 nm that is typical of natural enamel, whereas in caries teeth additional peaks are seen at 635 and 680 nm due to emission from porphyrin compounds in oral bacteria. Scatter plots are developed to differentiate sound teeth from enamel caries, sound teeth from dentinal caries, and enamel caries from dentinal caries using the mean fluorescence intensity (FI) and ratios F500/F635 and F500/F680 measured from 25 sites of sound teeth and 65 sites of carious teeth. The sensitivity and specificity of both the FI and FRRS are determined. It is observed that a diagnostic algorithm based on FRRS scatter plots is able to discriminate enamel caries from sound teeth, dentinal caries from sound teeth, and enamel from dentinal caries with overall sensitivities of 85, 100, and 88% and specificities of 90, 100, and 77%, respectively.

  5. Evaluation of the Efficiency and Effectiveness of Three Minimally Invasive Methods of Caries Removal: An in vitro Study

    OpenAIRE

    Boob, Ankush Ramnarayan; Manjula, M; Reddy, E Rajendra; Srilaxmi, N; Rani, Tabitha

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Many chemomechanical caries removal (CMCR) agents have been introduced and marketed since 1970s, with each new one being better and effective than the previously introduced. Papacarie and Carisolv are new systems in the field of CMCR techniques. These are reportedly minimally invasive methods of removing carious dentin while preserving sound dentin. Aim: To compare the Efficiency (time taken for caries removal) and effectiveness (Knoop hardness number of the remaining den...

  6. A Study on the Diagnostic Detection Ability of the Artificial Proximal Caries by Digora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Kyung Ran; Choi, Eui Hwan; Kim, Jae Duck [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Chosun University, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-08-15

    Digora system is an intraoral indirect digital radiography system utilizing storage phosphor image plate. It has wide dynamic range which allows it to decrease the patient's exposure time and may increase diagnostic ability through image processing (such as edge enhancement, grey scale conversion, brightness change, and contrast enhancement). And also, it can transmit and storage image information. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic ability of artificial proximal caries between Conventional radiograph and Digora images (unenhanced image, brightness and contrast controlled image, and edge enhanced image). ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) analysis, paired t-tests, and F-tests were done for the statistical evaluation of detectability. The following results were acquired: 1. In Grade I lesions, the mean ROC areas of Conventional radiograph, Digora unenhanced image, Digora controlled image, and Digora edge enhanced image were 0.953, 0.933, 0.965, 0.978 (p>0.05). 2. In Grade II lesions, the mean ROC areas of Conventional radiograph, Digora unenhanced image, Digora controlled image, and Digora edge enhanced image were 0.969, 0.964, 0.988, 0.994. Among theses areas, there was just statistical significance between Diagnostic abilities of Digora edge enhanced image and Conventional radiograph (p<0.05). 3. In the Interobserver variability, the ROC curve areas of Digora edge enhanced image was lowerest in these areas, regardless of the Carious lesion depths. In conclusion, intraoral indirect digital system, Digora system, has the potential possibility as an alternative of Conventional radiograph in the diagnosis of proximal caries.

  7. A Study on the Diagnostic Detection Ability of the Artificial Proximal Caries by Digora

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Kyung Ran; Choi, Eui Hwan; Kim, Jae Duck

    1998-01-01

    Digora system is an intraoral indirect digital radiography system utilizing storage phosphor image plate. It has wide dynamic range which allows it to decrease the patient's exposure time and may increase diagnostic ability through image processing (such as edge enhancement, grey scale conversion, brightness change, and contrast enhancement). And also, it can transmit and storage image information. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic ability of artificial proximal caries between Conventional radiograph and Digora images (unenhanced image, brightness and contrast controlled image, and edge enhanced image). ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) analysis, paired t-tests, and F-tests were done for the statistical evaluation of detectability. The following results were acquired: 1. In Grade I lesions, the mean ROC areas of Conventional radiograph, Digora unenhanced image, Digora controlled image, and Digora edge enhanced image were 0.953, 0.933, 0.965, 0.978 (p>0.05). 2. In Grade II lesions, the mean ROC areas of Conventional radiograph, Digora unenhanced image, Digora controlled image, and Digora edge enhanced image were 0.969, 0.964, 0.988, 0.994. Among theses areas, there was just statistical significance between Diagnostic abilities of Digora edge enhanced image and Conventional radiograph (p<0.05). 3. In the Interobserver variability, the ROC curve areas of Digora edge enhanced image was lowerest in these areas, regardless of the Carious lesion depths. In conclusion, intraoral indirect digital system, Digora system, has the potential possibility as an alternative of Conventional radiograph in the diagnosis of proximal caries.

  8. Effect of tube potential and image receptor on the detection of natural proximal caries in primary teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogur, Elif; Baksı, B Güniz; Orhan, Kaan; Paksoy, S Candan; Dogan, Salih; Erdal, Yılmaz S; Mert, Ali

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the detection of proximal caries in primary teeth at three different tube potentials using Ektaspeed films, storage phosphor plates (SPPs), and a charge-coupled device (CCD). Fifty-three extracted human primary molars with natural proximal caries were radiographed with three different imaging modalities--Digora Optime SPP system, RVGui CCD system, and Ektaspeed films--at 50-, 65-, and 70-kV tube potentials. Three observers scored the resultant images for the presence or absence of caries. The definitive diagnosis was determined by stereomicroscopic assessment. The diagnostic accuracy for each imaging modality was expressed as the area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (A(z)). Differences among the A(z) values were assessed using two-way ANOVA and t tests. Kappa was used to measure inter- and intra-observer agreement. Higher accuracy was found for SPPs compared to film and CCD images at all tube potentials. Accuracy was significantly different only at 50-kV tube setting in favor of SPPs (p proximal caries since further advantages include the elimination of chemical processing, image enhancement, and a better low-contrast detectability performance.

  9. In vitro comparison of four different dental X-ray films and direct digital radiography for proximal caries detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkurt, Meryem Torman; Peker, Ilkay; Bala, Oya; Altunkaynak, Bulent

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the efficiency of different speeds of conventional intraoral films and a direct digital system for proximal caries detection. In this study, 48 extracted human posterior permanent teeth were used. Conventional bitewing radiographs and direct digital radiographs were obtained from the teeth. Three observers independently assessed 96 proximal surfaces, each observer had 10 years of experience. The presence or absence of caries was scored according to a five-point scale. True caries depth was determined by histological examination. The diagnostic accuracy of each radiographic system was assessed by means of a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. The mean of areas under the ROC curve (Az) was analyzed by pairwise comparison of ROC curve. The interobserver agreement was evaluated by using ANOVA analysis. The statistical analysis of Az scores exhibited no significant difference for the five imaging modalities (p > 0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between interobserver agreements (p > 0.05). The results of this study showed that the diagnostic performance of E- and F-speed films and direct digital radiography are similar for proximal caries detection.

  10. Discriminant validity of the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) and comparability with World Health Organization criteria in a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Fausto Medeiros; Braga, Mariana Minatel; Oliveira, Luciana Butini; Antunes, José Leopoldo Ferreira; Ardenghi, Thiago Machado; Bönecker, Marcelo

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study in preschool children was to assess the ability of International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) in discriminating socioeconomic factors associated with the presence of caries lesions at both noncavitated and cavitated thresholds and to compare with the standard World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. The study was carried out in Amparo, Brazil, during the National Day of Children's Vaccination including 252 children aged 36-59 months. The same child was independently examined by two calibrated examiners, one using the ICDAS and the other using WHO criteria. Socioeconomic information was also recorded. Associations between socioeconomic factors and presence of caries assessed as binary (caries prevalence) and count outcome (actual dmfs values) obtained by WHO criteria and by ICDAS at noncavitated and cavitated thresholds were evaluated by Poisson regression analysis with robust variance. Some covariates were significantly associated with the presence of caries evaluated by the WHO criteria and by ICDAS (using score 3 as cut-off point). When noncavitated scores of ICDAS were used to calculate the presence of caries, the discriminant power decreased. When dmfs values were used as outcome, no differences in the associations were observed between two systems or using noncavitated caries lesions. Cavitated scores of ICDAS present similar discriminant validity compared with WHO criteria when presence of caries is used as outcome; however, when actual dmfs values are used, no differences are observed in using noncavitated or cavitated caries lesions. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  11. [Validity of a new caries indicator dye in detection of carious, infected dentine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knabben, A.P.; Waard, E.A. de; Verdonschot, E.H.A.M.

    2001-01-01

    During cavity excavation diagnostic test are used to prevent any unnecessary removal of sound dentine. In this study the validity of a newly introduced blue dye (Quadrant CariTest) was investigated. Twenty-five carious teeth were collected immediately after extraction. The caries lesions were

  12. Diagnostic Value of Conventional and Digital Radiography for Detection of Cavitated and Non-Cavitated Proximal Caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghani, Mahdieh; Barzegari, Rasool; Tabatabai, Hosein; Ghanea, Sahar

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the diagnostic value of conventional and digital radiography for detection of cavitated and non-cavitated proximal caries. Fifty extracted human premolars and molars were mounted in a silicone block. Charge-coupled device (CCD) and photostimulable phosphor plate (PSP) receptors and intra-oral films were exposed with 60 and 70 kVp with parallel technique. Two observers interpreted the radiographs twice with a two-week interval using a 5-point scale. Teeth were then serially sectioned in mesiodistal direction and evaluated under a stereomicroscope (gold standard). Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy were calculated. Sensitivity of all three receptors for detection of enamel lesions was low (5.5-44.4%) but it was higher for dentin lesions (42.8-62.8%); PSP with 70 kVp and 0.03s exposure time had the highest sensitivity for enamel lesions, but the difference among receptors was not statistically significant (P>0.05). Sensitivity of all three receptors for detection of non-cavitated lesions was lower than that for cavitated lesions; PSP with 60 kVp and 0.07s exposure time had higher sensitivity and lower patient radiation dose for detection of cavitated and non-cavitated lesions, but the difference was not significant (P>0.05). Digital radiography using PSP receptor with 70 kVp is recommended to detect initial enamel caries. For detection of non-cavitated and cavitated dentin caries, PSP with 60 kVp is more appropriate. Change in kVp did not affect the diagnostic accuracy for detection of caries, and type of receptor was a more important factor.

  13. Caries-preventive methods used for children and adolescents in Denmark, Iceland, Norway and Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Källestål, C; Wang, N J; Petersen, P E; Arnadottir, I B

    1999-04-01

    Denmark, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden have all had a similar decline in dental caries during the last 20 years, although the decline has come later in Iceland. The purpose of this study was to compare the caries-preventive methods used for children and adolescents in these four countries. Questionnaires were sent to random samples of dentists, dental hygienists, and dental nurses working with children during 1995 and 1996. The results showed that the use of preventive methods was generally consistent between the countries. Nevertheless there were differences between the countries concerning the choice of preventive strategy for risk patients and also in how prevention was implemented. Danish dental care providers chose oral hygiene education as the priority, which they put into practice. Apart from fluoride varnish for some patients, most of them did not use or recommend fluoride except fluoride toothpaste. The Norwegian and Icelandic dental care providers chose both oral hygiene education and the use of fluoride as priorities, while most Swedish dental care providers preferred to provide dietary advice and oral hygiene education, and additional fluoride for risk patients. The differences could not be explained by other variables than nationality, implying that there are differences between the dental cultures in the four countries. The informational basis of decisions on preventive strategies varied between the different dental professionals in each country as well as between the countries, indicating that national professional cultures are being shaped differently. Despite the differences in choice of preventive methods, the dental health of children varies little across the frontiers. This raises the question of the significance of the choice of preventive methods to the decline of dental caries and points towards an urgent need to develop evidence-based preventive strategies.

  14. Evaluation of the Efficiency and Effectiveness of Three Minimally Invasive Methods of Caries Removal: An in vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boob, Ankush Ramnarayan; Manjula, M; Reddy, E Rajendra; Srilaxmi, N; Rani, Tabitha

    2014-01-01

    Many chemomechanical caries removal (CMCR) agents have been introduced and marketed since 1970s, with each new one being better and effective than the previously introduced. Papacarie and Carisolv are new systems in the field of CMCR techniques. These are reportedly minimally invasive methods of removing carious dentin while preserving sound dentin. To compare the Efficiency (time taken for caries removal) and effectiveness (Knoop hardness number of the remaining dentin) of caries removal by three minimally invasive methods, i.e. hand excavation and chemomechanical caries removal using Carisolv and Papacarie. Thirty recently extracted human permanent molars with occlusal carious lesions were divided randomly in three equal groups and bisected through the middle of the lesion mesiodistally and excavated by two methods on each tooth. Statistically significant difference was present among three methods with respect to time and knoop hardness values (KHN) of the remaining dentin. The Efficiency of Hand method is better compared to CMCR techniques and effectiveness of CMCR techniques is better than Hand method in terms of dentin preservation so the chances of maintaining vitality of the pulp will be enhanced. How to cite this article: Boob AR, Manjula M, Reddy ER, Srilaxmi N, Rani T. Evaluation of the Efficiency and Effectiveness of Three Minimally Invasive Methods of Caries Removal: An in vitro Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(1):11-18.

  15. Geo-mapping of time trends in childhood caries risk a method for assessment of preventive care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strömberg Ulf

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dental caries is unevenly distributed within populations with a higher burden in low socio-economy groups. Several attempts have been made to allocate resources to those that need them the most; there is a need for convenient approaches to population-based monitoring of caries risk over time. The aim of this study was to develop the geo-map concept, addressing time trends in caries risk, and demonstrate the novel approach by analyzing epidemiological data from preschool residents in the region of Halland, Sweden. Methods The study population consisted of 9,973 (2006 and 10,927 (2010 children between 3 to 6years of age (~77% of the eligible population from whom caries data were obtained. Reported dmfs>0 for a child was considered as the primary caries outcome. Each study individual was geo-coded with respect to his/her residence parish (66 parishes in the region. Smoothed caries risk geo-maps, along with corresponding statistical certainty geo-maps, were produced by using the free software Rapid Inquiry Facility and the ESRI ArcGIS system. Parish-level socioeconomic data were available. Results The overall proportion of caries-free (dmfs=0 children improved from 84.0% in 2006 to 88.6% in 2010. The ratio of maximum and minimum (parish-level smoothed relative risks (SmRRs increased from 1.76/0.44=4.0 in 2006 to 2.37/0.33=7.2 in 2010, which indicated an increased geographical polarization of early childhood caries in the population. Eight parishes showed evidential, positional changes in caries risk between 2006 and 2010; their corresponding SmRRs and statistical certainty ranks changed markedly. No considerable parallel changes in parish-level socioeconomic characteristics were seen during the same time period. Conclusion Geo-maps based on caries risk can be used to monitor changes in caries risk over time. Thus, geo-mapping offers a convenient tool for evaluating the effectiveness of tailored health promotion and preventive

  16. Profiling of Oral Microbiota in Early Childhood Caries Using Single-Molecule Real-Time Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan; Zhang, Jie; Chen, Xi; Jiang, Wen; Wang, Sa; Xu, Lei; Tu, Yan; Zheng, Pei; Wang, Ying; Lin, Xiaolong; Chen, Hui

    2017-01-01

    Background: Alterations of oral microbiota are the main cause of the progression of caries. The goal of this study was to characterize the oral microbiota in childhood caries based on single-molecule real-time sequencing. Methods: A total of 21 preschoolers, aged 3-5 years old with severe early childhood caries, and 20 age-matched, caries-free children as controls were recruited. Saliva samples were collected, followed by DNA extraction, Pacbio sequencing, and phylogenetic analyses of the oral microbial communities. Results: Eight hundred and seventy six species derived from 13 known bacterial phyla and 110 genera were detected from 41 children using Pacbio sequencing. At the species level, 38 species, including Veillonella spp., Streptococcus spp., Prevotella spp., and Lactobacillus spp., showed higher abundance in the caries group compared to the caries-free group ( p free micro-ecological niche. At follow-up, oral examinations 6 months after sample collection, development of new dental caries was observed in 5 children (the transitional group) among the 21 caries free children. Compared with the caries-free children, in the transitional and caries groups, 6 species, which were more abundant in the caries-free group, exhibited a relatively low abundance in both the caries group and the transitional group ( p < 0.05). We conclude that Abiotrophia spp., Neisseria spp., and Veillonella spp., might be associated with healthy oral microbial ecosystem. Prevotella spp., Lactobacillus spp., Dialister spp., and Filifactor spp. may be related to the pathogenesis and progression of dental caries.

  17. High contrast optical imaging methods for image guided laser ablation of dental caries lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMantia, Nicole R.; Tom, Henry; Chan, Kenneth H.; Simon, Jacob C.; Darling, Cynthia L.; Fried, Daniel

    2014-02-01

    Laser based methods are well suited for automation and can be used to selectively remove dental caries to minimize the loss of healthy tissues and render the underlying enamel more resistant to acid dissolution. The purpose of this study was to determine which imaging methods are best suited for image-guided ablation of natural non-cavitated carious lesions on occlusal surfaces. Multiple caries imaging methods were compared including near-IR and visible reflectance and quantitative light fluorescence (QLF). In order for image-guided laser ablation to be feasible, chemical and physical modification of tooth surfaces due to laser irradiation cannot greatly reduce the contrast between sound and demineralized dental hard tissues. Sound and demineralized surfaces of 48 extracted human molar teeth with non-cavitated lesions were examined. Images were acquired before and after laser irradiation using visible and near-IR reflectance and QLF at several wavelengths. Polarization sensitive-optical coherence tomography was used to confirm that lesions were present. The highest contrast was attained at 1460-nm and 1500-1700-nm, wavelengths coincident with higher water absorption. The reflectance did not decrease significantly after laser irradiation for those wavelengths.

  18. Vroegdiagnostiek van cariës

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Strijp, A.J.P.

    2010-01-01

    Early detection of carious lesions enables the dental p rofessional to interfere in caries development. Visual inspection in combination with bitewing radiographs p erformed better than new quantitative methods in detecting early non-cavitated carious lesions. Once a lesion has been detected

  19. Comparative evaluation of microshear bond strength of the caries-affected dentinal surface treated with conventional method and chemomechanical method (papain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittem, Jyothi; Sajjan, Girija S; Varma, Kanumuri Madhu

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing interest in chemomechanical excavation (papain) in permanent molar teeth. There are several studies dealing with primary molar teeth. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of conventional method and Carie-care (chemomechanical method) on the microshear bond strength (μSBS) and the type of failure of an adhesive system to caries-affected dentin of permanent molar teeth. Twenty permanent molar teeth with carious lesions extending into the dentin were selected. Through the center of the carious lesion, teeth were sectioned mesiodistally and divided into two groups based on the method of caries excavation (conventional and chemomechanical method). The time required for the completion of excavation procedure was noted. Samples were again divided into two subgroups in each according to the method of restoration (Ketac N100 and Filtek Z350 composite). The bonded interface was subjected to μSBS testing in a universal testing machine. Fractured surfaces were examined under a stereomicroscope, and representative specimens were examined under scanning electron microscope for the type of failure. It was achieved with unpaired t-test and Kruskal-Wallis H-test at 5% level of significance. The μSBS values of Carie-care groups were similar to that of the conventional method. The μSBSs of resin composite were significantly (P caries excavation. A papain-based chemomechanical agent can be used safely as a method for caries removal when employing conventional adhesive systems.

  20. Comparison between RVG UI sensor and Kodak InSight film for detection of incipient proximal caries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Yukiko; Hanazawa, Tomomi; Seki, Kenji; Araki, Kazuyuki; Okano, Tomohiro

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of the four combination modes of Trophy Radio Visio Graphy (RVG) UI sensor (Trex-Trophy Radiology Inc., Marne-la-Valee, France) and Kodak InSight film (Eastman Kodak Co., Rochester, NY) for detecting proximal dental caries. Thirty extracted human upper premolars were selected. Of 60 surfaces, 25 had carious lesions in the form of small cavities, and the rest showed no evidence of caries as verified by a micro computed tomogram (micro CT; XCT Research SA+, Stratec Medizintechnik GmbH, Pforzheim, Germany). All teeth were radiographed with the paralleling technique (60 kV, 40 cm focus-to-sensor distance). Four combination modes (high-resolution caries mode-HRC; high-sensitivity caries mode-HSC; high-resolution periodontal mode-HRP; and high-resolution endo mode-HRE) were used. Exposure was set at 0.12 sec for HRC, 0.08 sec for HSC, 0.16 sec for HRP, 0.12 sec for HRE, and 0.16 sec for the Kodak InSight film. The resulting images were evaluated by three oral radiologists. The same three observers evaluated the digital images, and were allowed to use the contrast and brightness controls in doing so. Possible differences in receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve areas among image modalities were assessed by the Friedman test. The mean ROC curve areas were 0.66±0.11 for HRC, 0.78±0.02 for HSC, 0.76±0.04 for HRE, 0.77±0.04 for HRP, and 0.71±0.09 for the Kodak InSight film. There were no statistically significant differences between HRC, HSC, HRE, HRP and the Kodak InSight film in terms of proximal caries detection. The four modes of RVG UI system are each a viable alternative to intraoral film for the detection of incipient dental caries. (author)

  1. A clinical study of a laser fluorescence device for the detection of approximal caries in primary molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianghao; Qin, Man; Ma, Wenli; Ge, Lihong

    2012-03-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of laser fluorescence (LF) device in detecting approximal caries in primary molars. Two hundred and sixteen primary molars from 96 children were inspected visually to identify possible caries with contact approximal surfaces. Target molars and their contralateral molars were examined using bitewing radiographs (BR) and LF. Depending on the examination findings, invasive treatments were performed on molars to identify the presence of cavitation. Of 256 surfaces evaluated from 216 primary molars, 128 were intact, 39 had white spots, and 89 had cavities. At the white-spot threshold, sensitivity and specificity, respectively, were 2.56% and 94.87% for visual inspection (VI); 64.10% and 97.43% for BR; and 56.41% and 94.87% for LF. At the cavity threshold, sensitivity and specificity, respectively, were 70.79% and 95.51% for VI; 97.75% and 93.26% for BR; and 92.14% and 97.75% for LF. Significant differences between intact surfaces and white spots, and white spots and cavities were shown through LF readings. Both LF and BR can detect cavitations on approximal surfaces of primary molars. LF could be an alternative to radiographs in detecting approximal caries in primary molars. © 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry © 2011 BSPD, IAPD and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. A comparative microbiological study to assess caries excavation by conventional rotary method and a chemo-mechanical method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh T Anegundi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study was aimed to determine the effectiveness of Papacαrie® for caries removal as compared to the conventional method with respect to microbial flora, time, the amount of tissue removal, child′s behavior, pain perception, and preference of treatment. Materials and Methods: Sixty primary molars of 30 children of age 4-9 years were selected randomly and divided into two groups of 30 teeth each: Group A treated by conventional method and group B with Papacαrie® method. Results: Comparatively, no statistical difference was seen in microbial growth, total bacterial count, and lactobacilli count in both the groups ( P = 0.36. The mean cavity entrance size with group A was 0.98133 mm and group B was 0.26083 mm ( P < 0.001. The mean preparation time for group A was 4.7 Mins (minutes and group B was 17.96 min s ( P < 0.001. Majority of kids of both group A and B scored 3 (Frankl Behavior Rating Scale before and after the treatment showing no statistical difference in their behavioral score ( P = 1. In group A 50% of children experienced no pain as compared to 86.7% in group B ( P = 0.01. There was no statistical difference in the preference of treatment ( P = 0.12. Conclusion: Thus, the Chemo mechanical caries removal method can be considered as an effective method to control pain and preserve sound tooth structure during caries excavation.

  3. Effect of Filtration and Thickness of Cross-Sections of Cone Beam Computed Tomography Images on Detection of Proximal Caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdinian, Mehrdad; Nazeri, Rahman; Ghaiour, Marzieh

    2017-07-01

    When a patient has cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images based on the treatment plan, it is possible to use these images for evaluation of caries, and there is no need for new radiographs, according to the "as low as reasonably achievable" (ALARA) principle. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of filtration and thickness of CBCT cross-sections on detection of proximal caries. In this in-vitro study, 100 teeth were placed in the dental sockets of a dry skull, and were fixed in normal proximal contacts. CBCT images were taken and were evaluated by two observers on the panoramic view at 1-, 3- and 5-mm-thick cross-sections, with the use of filtrations 0, 1 and 2. Afterwards, the samples were sectioned and underwent a histological evaluation. McNemar's test was used to compare the findings on CBCT images and histological evaluation. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and logistic regression were used to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of different cross-sections. The maximum AZ-value was achieved at 3-mm thickness/filtration 2. However, the differences between 1-mm thickness/filtration 2 and 1-mm thickness/filtration 1 were not significant (P=0.728 and 0.868, respectively). The minimum AZ-value was achieved at 5-mm thickness/filtration 0. Although CBCT is not sufficiently effective in detecting caries, the best cross-sections for detection of proximal caries were achieved at 3-mm thickness/filtration 2, 1-mm thickness/filtration 2 and 1-mm thickness/filtration 1.

  4. Caries, views and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratthall, D

    1992-02-01

    This paper describes some advances in caries research in the last century. A tremendous body of knowledge about the disease as well as several possibilities for caries prevention and treatment have been obtained. This knowledge is not used by people in developing countries and certain obstacles for implementation of the procedures under such conditions are identified. Research aimed at finding practical means and methods that can help prevent caries and other oral diseases for the majority of the world's population must be intensified.

  5. Diagnostic performance of cone-beam computed tomography on detection of mechanically-created artificial secondary caries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charuakkra, Arnon; Prapayasatok, Sangsom; Janhom, Apirum; Pongsirwet, Surawut; Verochana, Karune; Mahasantipiya, Phattaranant

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images and bitewing images in detection of secondary caries. One hundred and twenty proximal slots of Class II cavities were randomly prepared on human premolar and molar teeth, and restored with amalgam (n=60) and composite resin (n=60). Then, artificial secondary caries lesions were randomly created using round steel No. 4 bur. The teeth were radiographed with a conventional bitewing technique and two CBCT systems; Pax-500ECT and Promax 3D. All images were evaluated by five observers. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (Az) was used to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy. Significant difference was tested using the Friedman test (p value<0.05). The mean Az values for bitewing, Pax-500ECT, and Promax 3D imaging systems were 0.882, 0.995, and 0.978, respectively. Significant differences were found between the two CBCT systems and film (p=0.007). For CBCT systems, the axial plane showed the greatest Az value. Based on the design of this study, CBCT images were better than bitewing radiographs in detection of secondary caries.

  6. Diagnostic performance of cone-beam computed tomography on detection of mechanically-created artificial secondary caries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charuakkra, Arnon; Prapayasatok, Sangsom; Janhom, Apirum; Pongsirwet, Surawut; Verochana, Karune; Mahasantipiya, Phattaranant [Faculty of Dentistry, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai (Thailand)

    2011-12-15

    The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images and bitewing images in detection of secondary caries. One hundred and twenty proximal slots of Class II cavities were randomly prepared on human premolar and molar teeth, and restored with amalgam (n=60) and composite resin (n=60). Then, artificial secondary caries lesions were randomly created using round steel No. 4 bur. The teeth were radiographed with a conventional bitewing technique and two CBCT systems; Pax-500ECT and Promax 3D. All images were evaluated by five observers. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (Az) was used to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy. Significant difference was tested using the Friedman test (p value<0.05). The mean Az values for bitewing, Pax-500ECT, and Promax 3D imaging systems were 0.882, 0.995, and 0.978, respectively. Significant differences were found between the two CBCT systems and film (p=0.007). For CBCT systems, the axial plane showed the greatest Az value. Based on the design of this study, CBCT images were better than bitewing radiographs in detection of secondary caries.

  7. Error detection method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Eric J.

    2013-06-11

    An apparatus, program product, and method that run an algorithm on a hardware based processor, generate a hardware error as a result of running the algorithm, generate an algorithm output for the algorithm, compare the algorithm output to another output for the algorithm, and detect the hardware error from the comparison. The algorithm is designed to cause the hardware based processor to heat to a degree that increases the likelihood of hardware errors to manifest, and the hardware error is observable in the algorithm output. As such, electronic components may be sufficiently heated and/or sufficiently stressed to create better conditions for generating hardware errors, and the output of the algorithm may be compared at the end of the run to detect a hardware error that occurred anywhere during the run that may otherwise not be detected by traditional methodologies (e.g., due to cooling, insufficient heat and/or stress, etc.).

  8. Effect of Different Contact Materials on Approximal Caries Detection by Laser Fluorescence and Light-Emitting Diode Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozsevik, A Semih; Kararslan, Emine Sirin; Aktan, Ali Murat; Bozdemir, Esin; Cebe, Fatma; Sarı, Fatih

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the influence of the adjacent tooth surface on pen type laser fluorescence (LFpen) and light-emitting diode (LED) device readings in detecting approximal caries lesions in permanent teeth. Early detection of noncavitated dental caries is important, because disease progression can be easily halted at this stage with certain applications, such as fluoride therapy, antibacterial therapy, dietary changes, or low-intensity laser irradiation. A total of 87 permanent molars with 156 approximal surfaces were assessed with LED- and LF-based devices in contact with sound tooth surfaces (the control group) as well as approximal amalgam, composite, zirconia, and full ceramic restorations. All teeth were assessed once by one trained examiner. After the LF and LED assessments, the teeth were histologically evaluated using stereomicroscopy as the gold standard. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and area under the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve were calculated according to the appropriate thresholds (T1, sound surface or enamel caries; T2, dentin caries). For the LFpen device, higher sensitivity and accuracy was found when the adjacent surface was sound at the T1 threshold and no significant differences were found among accuracy at the T2 threshold. For the LED-based device, no significant differences were found among sensitivities at the T1 threshold. At the T2 threshold, specificity was higher when the adjacent tooth had a zirconia restoration. It was found that both devices could be used effectively for evaluating approximal surfaces with adjacent restored teeth, regardless of the different kinds of restorative materials.

  9. Impact of a Tutored Theoretical-Practical Training to Develop Undergraduate Students’ Skills for the Detection of Caries Lesions: Study Protocol for a Multicenter Controlled Randomized Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Fernanda Rosche; Mendes, Fausto Medeiros; Raggio, Daniela Prócida; Imparato, José Carlos; Bonecker, Marcelo; Magalhães, Ana Carolina; Wang, Linda; Rios, Daniela; Pessan, Juliano Pelim; Duque, Cristiane; Rebelo, Maria Augusta Bessa; Alves Filho, Ary Oliveira; Lima, Marina De Deus Moura; Moura, Marcoeli Silva; De Carli, Alessandro Diogo; Sanabe, Mariane Emi; Cenci, Maximiliano Sergio; Oliveira, Elenara Ferreira; Correa, Marcos Britto; Rocha, Rachel Oliveira; Zenkner, Julio Eduardo; Murisí, Pedroza Uribe; Martignon, Stefania; Lara, Juan Sebastian; Aquino, Fatima Gabriela; Carrillo, Alfredo; Chu, Chun Hung; Deery, Chris; Ricketts, David; Melo, Paulo; Antunes, José Leopoldo Ferreira; Ekstrand, Kim Rud

    2017-01-01

    Background Tutored laboratorial activities could be a manner of improving the competency development of students. However, its impact over conventional theoretical classes has not yet been tested. Additionally, different university contexts could influence this issue and should be explored. Objective To assess the impact of a tutored theoretical-practical training for teaching undergraduate students to detect caries lesions as compared with theoretical teaching activities. The impact of these teaching/learning activities will be assessed in terms of efficacy, cost/benefit, retention of knowledge/acquired competences, and student acceptability. Methods Sixteen centers (7 centers from Brazil and 9 centers from other countries throughout the world) are involved in the inclusion of subjects for this protocol. A randomized controlled study with parallel groups will be conducted. One group (control) will be exposed to a 60- to 90-minute conventional theoretical class and the other group (test) will be exposed to the same theoretical class and also a 90-minute laboratory class, including exercises and discussions based on the evaluation of a pool of images and extracted teeth. The mentioned outcomes will be evaluated immediately after the teaching activities and also in medium- and long-term analyses. To compare the long-term outcomes, students who enrolled in the university before the participating students will be interviewed for data collection and these data will be used as a control and compared with the trained group. This stage will be a nonrandomized phase of this study, nested in the main study. Appropriate statistical analysis will be performed according to the aims of this study. Variables related to the centers will also be analyzed and used to model adjustment as possible sources of variability among results. Results This ongoing study is funded by a Brazilian national funding agency (CNPq- 400736/2014-4). We expect that the tutored theoretical

  10. Diagnostic performance of the visual caries classification system ICDAS II versus radiography and micro-computed tomography for proximal caries detection: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitropoulos, P; Rahiotis, C; Stamatakis, H; Kakaboura, A

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this study was: (a) to compare the visual caries classification system ICDAS II with conventional (CR) and digital radiography (DR) for diagnosis of non-cavitated caries on free proximal surfaces, (b) to examine the potential of micro-computed tomography (MCT) to substitute histological examination for the in vitro caries assessment. Both proximal surfaces of 20 teeth received classification separately by two examiners by means of the diagnostic modalities examined. The teeth were sectioned and assessed for depth of the lesion. The modalities were compared in terms of degree of inter-examiner agreement, sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive and negative predictive value and validity. Two diagnostic thresholds were applied: no caries versus all caries scores (D1), and no dentin caries versus dentin caries (D3). The weighted kappa values for inter-examiner reproducibility for all diagnostic modalities were 0.51-0.81. Visual examination (ICDAS II) reached significant higher sensitivity (0.92-0.96) and negative predictive value (0.9-1) than radiography. Likewise, the radiographic modalities presented significantly higher specificity (0.93-1) and positive predictive values (0.92-1) than the ICDAS II criteria. The overall accuracy performance of radiographic modalities was related to the diagnostic threshold. MCT did not agree with histological validation at each disease severity scale. The ICDAS II criteria are a promising tool for caries diagnosis on free proximal surfaces. DR and CR radiography present comparable performance. Furthermore, MCT is not capable of constituting a reliable alternative to histological examination for caries research. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Influence of the display monitor on observer performance in detection of dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeili, Farzad; Balaei, Esrafil; Pouralibaba, Firoz; Kaviani, Farzaneh; Kashefimehr, Atabak

    2007-01-01

    Digital imaging continues to gain acceptance in dentistry and video display used for this becomes important. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of the display monitor on observer performance on caries detection. Artificial enamel lesions were created in 40 extracted teeth at random using 1/4 and 1/2 round burs. Teeth were mounted in dental stone blocks to simulate a hemi-dentition. Approximate exposures were recorded at 70 kVp using a Planmeca (Planmeca Co, Helsinki, Finland) digital imaging system. Three oral and maxillofacial radiologists rated each image on a five-point scale for the presence or absence of lesion. Radiographic images were viewed on the following monitors: (1) LG Flatron 700p (LG Electronics Co., South Korea); (2) Samsung Magicgreen (Samsung Electronics Corp., South Korea); (3) Hansol 710p (Hansol Electronics Corp., South Korea) and (4) Toshiba satellite laptop (Toshiba Computer Corp., Philippines). Examiners were allowed to magnify and adjust density and contrast of each image at will. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed. Data was subjected to repeated measures analysis of variance and ordinal logistic regression to test for significance between variables and to determine odds ratios. Mean ROC curve areas ranged from 0.8728 for the LG monitor to 0.8395 for the Samsung. Repeated measures analysis of variance showed significant differences between observers (P<0.0001), lesion size (P<0.0001), examiner/monitor interaction (P<0.033) and examiner/block interaction (P<0.013). However, no significant difference was found between monitors. This study suggests that observer performance is independent of the visual characteristics of the display monitor.

  12. Alternative erasing times of the DenOptix system plate: performance on the detection of proximal caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Daniela P; Pontual, Andrea A; Almeida, Solange M; Campos, Paulo F; Tosoni, Guilherme M

    2009-01-01

    Our aim was to investigate the DenOptix system for detection of proximal caries using alternative erasing times for the photostimulable phosphor plates. Human teeth were X-rayed with phosphor plates using different erasing times. Five observers evaluated the images for the presence of caries by scoring the proximal surfaces of each tooth. Mean pixel intensity analyses were also carried out. The erasing times were evaluated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Analysis of variance for differences among erasing times and pixel intensity values was performed, followed by linear regression analysis for correlation between these variables. The mean ROC curve for each erasing time varied from 0.61 to 0.66 (not significant). Analysis of variance did not show any significant effect of the erasing times on the pixel intensity values of the images (P > .05). Erasing times for DenOptix phosphor plates from 20 to 130 s were satisfactory for diagnosis of proximal caries, and their use is therefore feasible in clinical practice.

  13. A NEW METHOD FOR IN-VIVO QUANTIFICATION OF CHANGES IN INITIAL ENAMEL CARIES WITH LASER FLUORESCENCE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEJONG, EDJ; SUNDSTROM, F; WESTERLING, H; TRANAEUS, S; TENBOSCH, JJ; ANGMARMANSSON, B

    1995-01-01

    A new method for the in vivo assessment of changes in initial enamel caries lesions was developed and tested. A CCD camera equipped with a high-pass filter (lambda > 520 nm) collects the fluorescence image of carious teeth, illuminated intraorally with diffuse laser light (lambda = 488 nm).

  14. Comparison of behavioral response to caries removal methods: A randomised controlled cross over trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P R Geetha Priya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The issue of dental fear and anxiety still poses a significant problem in treating children. Various caries management protocols have been tried to make the dental visit more compatible to the child patients. Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate and compare the behavioral and physiological responses to chemo-mechanical caries removal (CMCR and conventional drilling method (CDM. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 children with an age range of 7 to 11 years with bilateral frank carious lesions were included in this study. They were randomized into two groups: Group A - treated with CDM first followed by CMCR and Group B - treated with CMCR first followed by CDM. The physiological signs (pulse, blood pressure and oxygen saturation were noted prior to treatment, during treatment, post treatment and 5 min after treatment. The behavioral responses were assessed by face, legs, activity, cry, and consolability scale and facial image scale. The participants were interviewed about pain, discomfort, taste, smell, preference and overall experience after every procedure. The pediatric dentist filled in details about patient behavior, time utilized and need for local anesthesia. The results were statistically analyzed using t-test and Chi-square test appropriately (SPSS version 11. Results: There was no significant difference in any of the physiological parameters assessed between the two groups. Discomfort was significantly more (P < 0.025 in the CDM group than CMCR group. The time taken by the dentist was significantly lesser (P < 0.01 in the CDM group. Conclusion: Techniques which enhance the behavioral response in children should be considered for a better pediatric dental practice.

  15. Detection of proximal caries with high-resolution and standard resolution digital radiographic systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhout, W.E.R.; Verheij, H.G.C.; Syriopoulos, K.; Li, G.; Sanderink, G.C.H.; van der Stelt, P.F.

    2007-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study was to: (1) compare the diagnostic accuracy of the high-resolution and standard resolution settings of four digital imaging systems for caries diagnosis and (2) compare the effect on the diagnostic accuracy of reducing the high-resolution image sizes to the standard

  16. Performance of laser fluorescence for the detection of enamel caries in non-cavitated occlusal surfaces: clinical study with total validation of the sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abalos, Camilo; Mendoza, Asunción; Jimenez-Planas, Amparo; Guerrero, Elena; Chaparro, Antonio; Garcia-Godoy, Franklin

    2012-02-01

    To evaluate the clinical performance of a laser fluorescence device in detecting enamel caries in non-cavitated occlusal surfaces. The sample included 96 first and second permanent molars, selected according to the criteria of Ekstrand: 44 not suspected of having dentin caries (score: 0-2) and 52 under suspicion (score: 3-4). Once measured by laser fluorescence, all teeth were validated by fissurotomy (gold standard). To avoid ethical questions, the 44 teeth (score: 0-2) used were to serve as abutments for a fixed dental prostheses. Following fissurotomy, the 52 teeth with suspected caries were treated with resin composite restorations. Kruskall-Wallis statistical analysis (PLaser fluorescence showed an area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve of Az = 0.803 for enamel caries. The cut-off point with the highest sensitivity and specificity was 15, with a sensitivity and specificity of 0.97 and 0.63, respectively. Values under 10 indicated healthy teeth.

  17. The effects of noise reduction, sharpening, enhancement, and image magnification on diagnostic accuracy of a photostimulable phosphor system in the detection of non-cavitated approximal dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajan, Zahra Dalili; Tayefeh Davalloo, Reza; Tavangar, Mayam; Valizade, Fatemeh

    2015-06-01

    Contrast, sharpness, enhancement, and density can be changed in digital systems. The important question is to what extent the changes in these variables affect the accuracy of caries detection. Forty eight extracted human posterior teeth with healthy or proximal caries surfaces were imaged using a photostimulable phosphor (PSP) sensor. All original images were processed using a six-step method: (1) applying "Sharpening 2" and "Noise Reduction" processing options to the original images; (2) applying the "Magnification 1:3" option to the image obtained in the first step; (3) enhancing the original images by using the "Diagonal/" option; (4) reviewing the changes brought about by the third step of image processing and then, applying "Magnification 1:3"; (5) applying "Sharpening UM" to the original images; and (6) analyzing the changes brought about by the fifth step of image processing, and finally, applying "Magnification 1:3." Three observers evaluated the images. The tooth sections were evaluated histologically as the gold standard. The diagnostic accuracy of the observers was compared using a chi-squared test. The accuracy levels irrespective of the image processing method ranged from weak (18.8%) to intermediate (54.2%), but the highest accuracy was achieved at the sixth image processing step. The overall diagnostic accuracy level showed a statistically significant difference (p=0.0001). This study shows that the application of "Sharpening UM" along with the "Magnification 1:3" processing option improved the diagnostic accuracy and the observer agreement more effectively than the other processing procedures.

  18. Waveguide disturbance detection method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korneev, Valeri A.; Nihei, Kurt T.; Myer, Larry R.

    2000-01-01

    A method for detection of a disturbance in a waveguide comprising transmitting a wavefield having symmetric and antisymmetric components from a horizontally and/or vertically polarized source and/or pressure source disposed symmetrically with respect to the longitudinal central axis of the waveguide at one end of the waveguide, recording the horizontal and/or vertical component or a pressure of the wavefield with a vertical array of receivers disposed at the opposite end of the waveguide, separating the wavenumber transform of the wavefield into the symmetric and antisymmetric components, integrating the symmetric and antisymmetric components over a broad frequency range, and comparing the magnitude of the symmetric components and the antisymmetric components to an expected magnitude for the symmetric components and the antisymmetric components for a waveguide of uniform thickness and properties thereby determining whether or not a disturbance is present inside the waveguide.

  19. Performance of laser fluorescence devices, visual and radiographic examination for the detection of occlusal caries in primary molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhaus, Klaus W; Rodrigues, Jonas Almeida; Hug, Isabel; Stich, Herman; Lussi, Adrian

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to compare the performance of two laser fluorescence devices (LF, LFpen), conventional visual criteria (VE), ICDAS and radiographic examination on occlusal surfaces of primary teeth. Thirty-seven primary human molars were selected from a pool of extracted teeth, which were stored frozen at -20 °C until use. Teeth were assessed twice by two experienced examiners using laser fluorescence devices (LF and LFpen), conventional visual criteria, ICDAS and bitewing radiographs, with a 2-week interval between measurements. After measurement, the teeth were histologically prepared and assessed for caries extension. The highest sensitivity was observed for ICDAS at D(1) and D(3) thresholds, with no statistically significant difference when compared to the LF devices, except at the D(3) threshold. Bitewing radiographs presented the lowest values of sensitivity. Specificity at D(1) was higher for LFpen (0.90) and for VE at D(3) (0.94). When VE was combined with LFpen the post-test probabilities were the highest (94.0% and 89.2% at D(1) and D(3) thresholds, respectively). High values were observed for the combination of ICDAS and LFpen (92.0% and 80.0%, respectively). LF and LFpen showed the highest values of ICC for interexaminer reproducibility. However, regarding ICDAS, BW and VE, intraexaminer reproducibility was not the same for the two examiners. After primary visual inspection using ICDAS or not, the use of LFpen may aid in the detection of occlusal caries in primary teeth. Bitewing radiographs may be indicated only for approximal caries detection.

  20. Effect of Caries Removal Methods on the Shear Bond Strength of Resin and Glass IonomerAdhesives to Primary Dentin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadi N

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: There is no enough published data about the shear bond strength of resin modified glass ionomer adhesives on caries-affected primary tooth dentin excavated using minimally invasive systems. Objectives: To evaluate the shear bond strength of 2 different adhesives (one resin modified glass ionomer and one resin using two caries removal tech- niques on healthy and caries-affected primary dentin. Materials and Methods: Two caries removal methods including mechanical (handpiece and chemomechanical (Carisolv techniques and two types of ad- hesives including one resin adhesive (Clearfil SE Bond; CSEB, Kuraray and one resin-modified glass ionomer adhesive (Riva Bond LC; RBLC, SDI were used in this study. Ten extracted healthy primary teeth were used for the control group. The teeth were sectioned bucco-lingually and mesio-distally in order to obtain four specimens from each tooth. Thirty suitable specimens were selected as the “control” and randomly divided into two groups of “sound dentin” based on the type of the adhesive used. Sixty extracted caries affected teeth were used for the carious group; sectioned as mentioned above and sixty suitable specimens were selected as the “treatment”. Then the specimens were arbitrarily divided into four groups based on caries removal techniques and the type of ad- hesive used (n = 15. After bonding with either CSEB or RBLC, the specimens were restored with a resin composite by means of PVC tubes and subjected to the shear bond strength test. The data was analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey’s test. Results: The specimens in Carisolv group bonded with CSEB (11.68 ± 3.1 showed a statistically significant higher mean bond strength followed by those in handpiece group bonded with CSEB (9.4 ± 2.7, which exhibited higher mean values than those groups with RBLC (p < 0.05. Shear bond strength values for Clearfil SE Bond was not significantly higher than Riva Bond LC when used in sound

  1. Photoacoustic imaging of hidden dental caries by using a fiber-based probing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Takuya; Kakino, Satoko; Matsuura, Yuji

    2017-04-01

    Photoacoustic method to detect hidden dental caries is proposed. It was found that high frequency ultrasonic waves are generated from hidden carious part when radiating laser light to occlusal surface of model tooth. By making a map of intensity of these high frequency components, photoacoustic images of hidden caries were successfully obtained. A photoacoustic imaging system using a bundle of hollow optical fiber was fabricated for using clinical application, and clear photoacoustic image of hidden caries was also obtained by this system.

  2. Detection of occlusal caries lesions using fluorescence: correlation between histology and obtained results for Diagnodent and spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha-Cabral, Renata Maciel

    2006-01-01

    The aims of this study were to develop and test a method to detect caries lesions in vivo and in vitro, using a portable spectrometer (PS); to analyze the performance of PS as well as the commercial device Diagnodent (Dd); correlate them with the gold standard, their transversal section areas and lesions depth and between themselves. 66 occlusal pre-molars sites were examined in vivo with Dd. Sequentially, fluorescence (λexc ∼ 657 nm) was collected by an optical fiber, conducted to PS and then analyzed as spectra, which were normalized and had calculated the Ratios of their Areas Under the Curves (RAUC) of carious and sound tissues. Experiments were conducted in vitro in the same sites. Gold Standard was obtained by polarized light microscopy. Pearson correlation was used to compare the devices with transversal section area, lesions depth and between themselves. The area under ROC curve, sensitivity, specificity as well as accuracy were calculated and verified with McNemar test. Dd and RAUC showed statistically significant correlation with gold standard (p < 0.01 for Dd and p < 0.05 for RAUC) and between themselves (r = 0,83 in vivo and r = 0,87 in vitro). Although it was significant, the devices showed low correlation with depth of lesions in vivo and in vitro (r = ∼ 0.43). The transversal section area of the lesion had no influence on readings in both devices. Dd showed higher sensitivity (0.76) than PS (0.60) in vivo (p < 0.05), though this fact was not able to improve its performance. In turn, PS showed higher sensitivity (0.88) than Dd (0.79) in vitro, but this difference was not significantly. The other parameters did not show statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) between methods. PS showed positive correlation with Dd, equal correlation with lesions depth and higher ability of detecting the disease in vitro, what suggests that if accompanied with a conic and an angulated probe and a dedicated software, the PS method could be useful in clinics

  3. New diagnostic technology and hidden pits and fissures caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Guerra

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The accuracy in pits and fissures caries detection is of paramount importance in dental caries primary and secondary prevention. A combination of visual examination and probing is currently the mainstay of occlusal caries diagnosis. Unfortunately, these types of inspection alone may leave a certain number of pit and fissure caries undetected. The Vista Cam iX fluorescence camera (Durr Dental, Bietigheim-Bissingen, Germany is a novel dental diagnostic tool for quantitative assessment of dental caries with high specificity for carious lesions detection. In the presented cases photographic images, representing the visual diagnostic approach, are applied as integration to VistaCam iX Proof images. A step-by-step sequence of inspection and assessment of operative treatment need is presented in a case of hidden pit and fissure caries on a permanent molar. Based on the reported case, it could be observed that VistaCam iX Proof shows promising results in hidden pits and fissures caries detection and could be considered a non-invasive examination method that facilitate the detection of early lesions and a potential diagnostic aid.

  4. Detection of proximal caries in conventional and digital radiographs: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockenbach, Maria Ivete; Veeck, Elaine Bauer; da Costa, Nilza Pereira

    2008-01-01

    To compare digital images to conventional film radiography in the diagnosis of proximal caries. Fifty-one molars and 24 premolars were studied and divided in groups of three teeth. They were fixed in silicone and radiographed using InSight film (Kodak) and the digital systems Digora (Soredex), DenOptix (Gendex) and CygnusRay MPS (Progeny). Twenty-five radiographs were obtained in each modality and four proximal surfaces were analyzed in each radiograph. Radiographs were interpreted individually by one observer at three different sessions for each imaging modality. Caries lesions were classified according to their depth: (0) absent; (1) restricted to enamel; (2) reaching the dentino-enamel junction; and (3) reaching the dentin. The teeth were sectioned and ground in order to obtain the gold standard and were examined histologically by stereomicroscopy. The Kendall test was employed and showed a good intra-observer agreement among the three evaluations implemented. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were all calculated, and there were no significant differences observed among the four imaging modalities studied (ANOVA, pdetection of proximal caries.

  5. Caries risk assessment in schoolchildren - a form based on Cariogram® software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Nunes CABRAL

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Identifying caries risk factors is an important measure which contributes to best understanding of the cariogenic profile of the patient. The Cariogram® software provides this analysis, and protocols simplifying the method were suggested. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine whether a newly developed Caries Risk Assessment (CRA form based on the Cariogram® software could classify schoolchildren according to their caries risk and to evaluate relationships between caries risk and the variables in the form. Material and Methods: 150 schoolchildren aged 5 to 7 years old were included in this survey. Caries prevalence was obtained according to International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS II. Information for filling in the form based on Cariogram® was collected clinically and from questionnaires sent to parents. Linear regression and a forward stepwise multiple regression model were applied to correlate the variables included in the form with the caries risk. Results: Caries prevalence, in primary dentition, including enamel and dentine carious lesions was 98.6%, and 77.3% when only dentine lesions were considered. Eighty-six percent of the children were classified as at moderate caries risk. The forward stepwise multiple regression model result was significant (R2=0.904; p<0.00001, showing that the most significant factors influencing caries risk were caries experience, oral hygiene, frequency of food consumption, sugar consumption and fluoride sources. Conclusion: The use of the form based on the Cariogram® software enabled classification of the schoolchildren at low, moderate and high caries risk. Caries experience, oral hygiene, frequency of food consumption, sugar consumption and fluoride sources are the variables that were shown to be highly correlated with caries risk.

  6. Detection of questionable occlusal carious lesions using an electrical bioimpedance method with fractional electrical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morais, A. P.; Pino, A. V.; Souza, M. N.

    2016-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the diagnostic performance of an alternative electric bioimpedance spectroscopy technique (BIS-STEP) detect questionable occlusal carious lesions. Six specialists carried out the visual (V), radiography (R), and combined (VR) exams of 57 sound or non-cavitated occlusal carious lesion teeth classifying the occlusal surfaces in sound surface (H), enamel caries (EC), and dentinal caries (DC). Measurements were based on the current response to a step voltage excitation (BIS-STEP). A fractional electrical model was used to predict the current response in the time domain and to estimate the model parameters: Rs and Rp (resistive parameters), and C and α (fractional parameters). Histological analysis showed caries prevalence of 33.3% being 15.8% hidden caries. Combined examination obtained the best traditional diagnostic results with specificity = 59.0%, sensitivity = 70.9%, and accuracy = 60.8%. There were statistically significant differences in bioimpedance parameters between the H and EC groups (p = 0.016) and between the H and DC groups (Rs, p = 0.006; Rp, p = 0.022, and α, p = 0.041). Using a suitable threshold for the Rs, we obtained specificity = 60.7%, sensitivity = 77.9%, accuracy = 73.2%, and 100% of detection for deep lesions. It can be concluded that BIS-STEP method could be an important tool to improve the detection and management of occlusal non-cavitated primary caries and pigmented sites.

  7. Detection of questionable occlusal carious lesions using an electrical bioimpedance method with fractional electrical model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morais, A. P. [Biomedical Engineering Program, COPPE, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Salgado de Oliveira University, Marechal Deodoro Street, 217 – Centro, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Pino, A. V. [Biomedical Engineering Program, COPPE, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Souza, M. N. [Biomedical Engineering Program, COPPE, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Electronics Department at Polytechnic School, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Centro de Tecnologia Bloco H sala 217, Ilha do Fundão, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2016-08-15

    This in vitro study evaluated the diagnostic performance of an alternative electric bioimpedance spectroscopy technique (BIS-STEP) detect questionable occlusal carious lesions. Six specialists carried out the visual (V), radiography (R), and combined (VR) exams of 57 sound or non-cavitated occlusal carious lesion teeth classifying the occlusal surfaces in sound surface (H), enamel caries (EC), and dentinal caries (DC). Measurements were based on the current response to a step voltage excitation (BIS-STEP). A fractional electrical model was used to predict the current response in the time domain and to estimate the model parameters: Rs and Rp (resistive parameters), and C and α (fractional parameters). Histological analysis showed caries prevalence of 33.3% being 15.8% hidden caries. Combined examination obtained the best traditional diagnostic results with specificity = 59.0%, sensitivity = 70.9%, and accuracy = 60.8%. There were statistically significant differences in bioimpedance parameters between the H and EC groups (p = 0.016) and between the H and DC groups (Rs, p = 0.006; Rp, p = 0.022, and α, p = 0.041). Using a suitable threshold for the Rs, we obtained specificity = 60.7%, sensitivity = 77.9%, accuracy = 73.2%, and 100% of detection for deep lesions. It can be concluded that BIS-STEP method could be an important tool to improve the detection and management of occlusal non-cavitated primary caries and pigmented sites.

  8. Dentine microhardness after different methods for detection and removal of carious dentine tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Brandão Mollica

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available There are several methods for identifying carious dentinal tissue aiming to avoid removal of healthy dentinal tissue. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to test different methods for the detection of carious dentinal tissue regarding the amount of carious tissue removed and the remaining dentin microhardness after caries removal. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The dentin surfaces of 20 bovine teeth were exposed and half of the surface was protected with nail polish. Cariogenic challenge was performed by immersion in a demineralizing solution for 14 days. After transverse cross-section of the crown, the specimens were divided into four groups (n=10, according to the method used to identify and remove the carious tissue: "Papacárie", Caries-detector dye, DIAGNOdent and Tactile method. After caries removal, the cross-sectional surface was included in acrylic resin and polished. In a microhardness tester, the removed dentin thickness and the Vickers microhardness of the following regions were evaluated: remaining dentin after caries removal and superficial and deep healthy dentin. RESULTS: ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=0.05 were performed, except for DIAGNOdent, which did not detect the presence of caries. Results for removed dentin thickness were: "Papacárie" (424.7±105.0; a, Caries-detector dye (370.5±78.3; ab, Tactile method (322.8±51.5; bc. Results for the remaining dentin microhardness were: "Papacárie" (42.2±10.5; bc, Caries-detector dye (44.6±11.8; abc, Tactile method (24.3±9.0; d. CONCLUSIONS: DIAGNOdent did not detect the presence of carious tissue; Tactile method and "Papacárie" resulted in the least and the most dentinal thickness removal, respectively; Tactile method differed significantly from "Papacárie" and Caries-detector dye in terms of the remaining dentin microhardness, and Tactile method was the one which presented the lowest microhardness values.

  9. Profiling of Oral Microbiota in Early Childhood Caries Using Single-Molecule Real-Time Sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alterations of oral microbiota are the main cause of the progression of caries. The goal of this study was to characterize the oral microbiota in childhood caries based on single-molecule real-time sequencing.Methods: A total of 21 preschoolers, aged 3–5 years old with severe early childhood caries, and 20 age-matched, caries-free children as controls were recruited. Saliva samples were collected, followed by DNA extraction, Pacbio sequencing, and phylogenetic analyses of the oral microbial communities.Results: Eight hundred and seventy six species derived from 13 known bacterial phyla and 110 genera were detected from 41 children using Pacbio sequencing. At the species level, 38 species, including Veillonella spp., Streptococcus spp., Prevotella spp., and Lactobacillus spp., showed higher abundance in the caries group compared to the caries-free group (p < 0.05. The core microbiota at the genus and species levels was more stable in the caries-free micro-ecological niche. At follow-up, oral examinations 6 months after sample collection, development of new dental caries was observed in 5 children (the transitional group among the 21 caries free children. Compared with the caries-free children, in the transitional and caries groups, 6 species, which were more abundant in the caries-free group, exhibited a relatively low abundance in both the caries group and the transitional group (p < 0.05. We conclude that Abiotrophia spp., Neisseria spp., and Veillonella spp., might be associated with healthy oral microbial ecosystem. Prevotella spp., Lactobacillus spp., Dialister spp., and Filifactor spp. may be related to the pathogenesis and progression of dental caries.

  10. Nonlinear Multiantenna Detection Methods

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    Chen Sheng

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A nonlinear detection technique designed for multiple-antenna assisted receivers employed in space-division multiple-access systems is investigated. We derive the optimal solution of the nonlinear spatial-processing assisted receiver for binary phase shift keying signalling, which we refer to as the Bayesian detector. It is shown that this optimal Bayesian receiver significantly outperforms the standard linear beamforming assisted receiver in terms of a reduced bit error rate, at the expense of an increased complexity, while the achievable system capacity is substantially enhanced with the advent of employing nonlinear detection. Specifically, when the spatial separation expressed in terms of the angle of arrival between the desired and interfering signals is below a certain threshold, a linear beamformer would fail to separate them, while a nonlinear detection assisted receiver is still capable of performing adequately. The adaptive implementation of the optimal Bayesian detector can be realized using a radial basis function network. Two techniques are presented for constructing block-data-based adaptive nonlinear multiple-antenna assisted receivers. One of them is based on the relevance vector machine invoked for classification, while the other on the orthogonal forward selection procedure combined with the Fisher ratio class-separability measure. A recursive sample-by-sample adaptation procedure is also proposed for training nonlinear detectors based on an amalgam of enhanced -means clustering techniques and the recursive least squares algorithm.

  11. Imaging and detection of early stage dental caries with an all-optical photoacoustic microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, D A; Kirk, K J; Sampathkumar, A; Longbottom, C

    2015-01-01

    Tooth decay, at its earliest stages, manifests itself as small, white, subsurface lesions in the enamel. Current methods for detection in the dental clinic are visual and tactile investigations, and bite-wing X-ray radiographs. These techniques suffer from poor sensitivity and specificity at the earliest (and reversible) stages of the disease due to the small size (<100μm) of the lesion. A fine-resolution (600 nm) ultra-broadband (200 MHz) all-optical photoacoustic microscopy system was is used to image the early signs of tooth decay. Ex-vivo tooth samples exhibiting white spot lesions were scanned and were found to generate a larger (one order of magnitude) photoacoustic (PA) signal in the lesion regions compared to healthy enamel. The high contrast in the PA images potentially allows lesions to be imaged and measured at a much earlier stage than current clinical techniques allow. PA images were cross referenced with histology photographs to validate our experimental results. Our PA system provides a noncontact method for early detection of white-spot lesions with a high detection bandwidth that offers advantages over previously demonstrated ultrasound methods. The technique provides the sensing depth of an ultrasound system, but with the spatial resolution of an optical system

  12. Imaging and detection of early stage dental caries with an all-optical photoacoustic microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, D. A.; Sampathkumar, A.; Longbottom, C.; Kirk, K. J.

    2015-01-01

    Tooth decay, at its earliest stages, manifests itself as small, white, subsurface lesions in the enamel. Current methods for detection in the dental clinic are visual and tactile investigations, and bite-wing X-ray radiographs. These techniques suffer from poor sensitivity and specificity at the earliest (and reversible) stages of the disease due to the small size (tooth decay. Ex-vivo tooth samples exhibiting white spot lesions were scanned and were found to generate a larger (one order of magnitude) photoacoustic (PA) signal in the lesion regions compared to healthy enamel. The high contrast in the PA images potentially allows lesions to be imaged and measured at a much earlier stage than current clinical techniques allow. PA images were cross referenced with histology photographs to validate our experimental results. Our PA system provides a noncontact method for early detection of white-spot lesions with a high detection bandwidth that offers advantages over previously demonstrated ultrasound methods. The technique provides the sensing depth of an ultrasound system, but with the spatial resolution of an optical system.

  13. Caries Assessment Spectrum and Treatment (CAST): A Novel Epidemiological Instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leal, S.C.; Ribeiro, A.P.D.; Frencken, J.E.F.M.

    2017-01-01

    Caries detection is fundamental to understanding the oral health status of a population and is the basis for caries diagnosis for individual patients. Although different caries detection/diagnosis criteria are available, none of them include the total spectrum of dental caries (which ranges from a

  14. Reducing dental plaque formation and caries development. A review of current methods and implications for novel pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalesinskas, Povilas; Kačergius, Tomas; Ambrozaitis, Arvydas; Pečiulienė, Vytautė; Ericson, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Dental caries is an oral disease, which has a high worldwide prevalence despite the availability of various prophylactic means, including the daily use of fluoride toothpastes, water fluoridation, dental sealants, oral health educational programs and various antiseptic mouth-rinses. One important reason for this is uncontrolled increase in consumption of foods containing considerable sucrose concentration, especially among children. Sucrose is easily metabolized by oral bacteria (mostly streptococci) to acids and, subsequently, causing tooth decay or dental caries. In the oral ecosystem, streptococci principally reside on tooth surfaces forming biofilm. Important structural and binding materials of biofilm are glucan polymers synthesized by several isoforms of glucosyltransferase enzyme present in certain species of oral bacteria, including mutans group streptococci - Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus, which preferably colonize humans. Thus, there is a constant need to develop the methods and chemotherapeutics for improving oral health care and decreasing teeth decay through the suppression of cariogenic biofilm formation in the oral cavity. The aim of this paper was to review literature related to the pathogenesis of dental caries as well as currently existing and experimental pharmaceutical substances used for prevention of this process.

  15. Caries risk assessment models in caries prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amila Zukanović

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this research was to assess the efficiency of different multifactor models in caries prediction. Material and methods. Data from the questionnaire and objective examination of 109 examinees was entered into the Cariogram, Previser and Caries-Risk Assessment Tool (CAT multifactor risk assessment models. Caries risk was assessed with the help of all three models for each patient, classifying them as low, medium or high-risk patients. The development of new caries lesions over a period of three years [Decay Missing Filled Tooth (DMFT increment = difference between Decay Missing Filled Tooth Surface (DMFTS index at baseline and follow up], provided for examination of the predictive capacity concerning different multifactor models. Results. The data gathered showed that different multifactor risk assessment models give significantly different results (Friedman test: Chi square = 100.073, p=0.000. Cariogram is the model which identified the majority of examinees as medium risk patients (70%. The other two models were more radical in risk assessment, giving more unfavorable risk –profiles for patients. In only 12% of the patients did the three multifactor models assess the risk in the same way. Previser and CAT gave the same results in 63% of cases – the Wilcoxon test showed that there is no statistically significant difference in caries risk assessment between these two models (Z = -1.805, p=0.071. Conclusions. Evaluation of three different multifactor caries risk assessment models (Cariogram, PreViser and CAT showed that only the Cariogram can successfully predict new caries development in 12-year-old Bosnian children.

  16. Caries risk assessment in schoolchildren - a form based on Cariogram® software

    Science.gov (United States)

    CABRAL, Renata Nunes; HILGERT, Leandro Augusto; FABER, Jorge; LEAL, Soraya Coelho

    2014-01-01

    Identifying caries risk factors is an important measure which contributes to best understanding of the cariogenic profile of the patient. The Cariogram® software provides this analysis, and protocols simplifying the method were suggested. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine whether a newly developed Caries Risk Assessment (CRA) form based on the Cariogram® software could classify schoolchildren according to their caries risk and to evaluate relationships between caries risk and the variables in the form. Material and Methods 150 schoolchildren aged 5 to 7 years old were included in this survey. Caries prevalence was obtained according to International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) II. Information for filling in the form based on Cariogram® was collected clinically and from questionnaires sent to parents. Linear regression and a forward stepwise multiple regression model were applied to correlate the variables included in the form with the caries risk. Results Caries prevalence, in primary dentition, including enamel and dentine carious lesions was 98.6%, and 77.3% when only dentine lesions were considered. Eighty-six percent of the children were classified as at moderate caries risk. The forward stepwise multiple regression model result was significant (R2=0.904; prisk were caries experience, oral hygiene, frequency of food consumption, sugar consumption and fluoride sources. Conclusion The use of the form based on the Cariogram® software enabled classification of the schoolchildren at low, moderate and high caries risk. Caries experience, oral hygiene, frequency of food consumption, sugar consumption and fluoride sources are the variables that were shown to be highly correlated with caries risk. PMID:25466473

  17. Effects of various cone-beam computed tomography settings on the detection of recurrent caries under restorations in extracted primary teeth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamburoglu, Kivanc; Sonmez, Gul; Kurt, Hakan; Berktas, Zeynep Serap [Dept. of Dentomaxillofacial Radiology, Faculty of Dentistry, Ankara University, Ankara (Turkmenistan); Ozen, Dogukan [Dept. of Biostatistics, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ankara University, Ankara (Turkmenistan)

    2017-06-15

    The aim of this study was to assess the ex vivo diagnostic ability of 9 different cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) settings in the detection of recurrent caries under amalgam restorations in primary teeth. Fifty-two primary teeth were used. Twenty-six teeth had dentine caries and 26 teeth did not have dentine caries. Black class II cavities were prepared and restored with amalgam. In the 26 carious teeth, recurrent caries were left under restorations. The other 26 intact teeth that did not have caries served as controls. Teeth were imaged using a 100×90-mm field of view and a 0.2-mm voxel size with 9 different CBCT settings. Four observers assessed the images using a 5-point scale. Kappa values were calculated to assess observer agreement. CBCT settings were compared with the gold standard using a receiver operating characteristic analysis. The area under the curve (AUC) values for each setting were compared using the chi-square test, with a significance level of α=.05. Intraobserver kappa values ranged from 0.366 to 0.664 for observer 1, from 0.311 to 0.447 for observer 2, from 0.597 to 1.000 for observer 3, and from 0.869 to 1 for observer 4. Furthermore, interobserver kappa values among the observers ranged from 0.133 to 0.814 for the first reading and from 0.197 to 0.805 for the second reading. The highest AUC values were found for setting 5 (0.5916) and setting 3 (0.5886), and were not found to be statistically significant (P>.05). Variations in tube voltage and tube current did not affect the detection of recurrent caries under amalgam restorations in primary teeth.

  18. Effects of various cone-beam computed tomography settings on the detection of recurrent caries under restorations in extracted primary teeth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamburoglu, Kivanc; Sonmez, Gul; Kurt, Hakan; Berktas, Zeynep Serap; Ozen, Dogukan

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the ex vivo diagnostic ability of 9 different cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) settings in the detection of recurrent caries under amalgam restorations in primary teeth. Fifty-two primary teeth were used. Twenty-six teeth had dentine caries and 26 teeth did not have dentine caries. Black class II cavities were prepared and restored with amalgam. In the 26 carious teeth, recurrent caries were left under restorations. The other 26 intact teeth that did not have caries served as controls. Teeth were imaged using a 100×90-mm field of view and a 0.2-mm voxel size with 9 different CBCT settings. Four observers assessed the images using a 5-point scale. Kappa values were calculated to assess observer agreement. CBCT settings were compared with the gold standard using a receiver operating characteristic analysis. The area under the curve (AUC) values for each setting were compared using the chi-square test, with a significance level of α=.05. Intraobserver kappa values ranged from 0.366 to 0.664 for observer 1, from 0.311 to 0.447 for observer 2, from 0.597 to 1.000 for observer 3, and from 0.869 to 1 for observer 4. Furthermore, interobserver kappa values among the observers ranged from 0.133 to 0.814 for the first reading and from 0.197 to 0.805 for the second reading. The highest AUC values were found for setting 5 (0.5916) and setting 3 (0.5886), and were not found to be statistically significant (P>.05). Variations in tube voltage and tube current did not affect the detection of recurrent caries under amalgam restorations in primary teeth

  19. A clinical comparison of extraoral panoramic and intraoral radiographic modalities for detecting proximal caries and visualizing open posterior interproximal contacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Glenn L; Noujeim, Marcel; Langlais, Robert P; Moore, William S; Prihoda, Thomas J

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare extraoral panoramic bitewings (BWs) to intraoral photostimulable phosphor (PSP) plate BWs for the detection of proximal surface caries and to establish if there was any difference between extraoral BWs, intraoral BWs and panoramic radiographs in visualizing open posterior interproximal contacts. Extraoral panoramic and intraoral BW images were acquired on each of 20 patients, resulting in 489 total non-restored, readable surfaces that were evaluated by 4 observers. The ANOVA analysis to determine diagnostic variability between and within each subject was utilized. The surfaces included in the study extended from the distal of each canine to the last posterior contact in each arch with non-readable proximal surfaces excluded (i.e.surfaces where over half the enamel layer was overlapped or where those surfaces were not visible in one or both modalities). The statistical analysis indicated that the overall mean area under the receiver operating characteristic curves across all observers for the intraoral BWs and extraoral panoramic BWs were 0.832 and 0.827, respectively, and the difference of 0.005 was not significant at p = 0.7781. The percentage of non-readable proximal surfaces across the three modalities was 4.1% for intraoral BWs, 18.3% for extraoral panoramic BWs and 51.5% for the standard panoramic images. The investigators concluded there was no significant difference in posterior proximal surface caries detection between the modalities. Extraoral panoramic BWs were much better than panoramic radiographs in visualizing open posterior interproximal contacts, 81.7% vs 48.5%, but below the 95.9% value for intraoral BWs.

  20. The influence of amalgam fillings on the detection of approximal caries by cone beam CT: in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulczyk, T; Dyszkiewicz Konwińska, M; Owecka, M; Krzyżostaniak, J; Surdacka, A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this CBCT investigation on the detection of caries was to assess the influence of artefacts produced by the presence of amalgam fillings located in the vicinity. 102 non-cavitated pre-molar and molar teeth were placed in blocks of silicone with approximal contacts consisting of 3 sound or carious teeth and 1 mesial-occlusal-distal amalgam-filled tooth in-between. Radiographs of all the teeth were recorded using the CBCT system (NewTom™ 3G; QR Srl, Verona, Italy; field of view, 9 inches). Data from the CBCT unit were reconstructed and sectioned in the mesiodistal tooth plane. Images were evaluated twice by two observers, using a five-step confidence scale. After the CBCT examination, the teeth were individually sectioned in the mesiodistal direction with a diamond saw. Using a light microscope at ×40 magnification, the true morphological status of all approximal surfaces was established. Sensitivity of the CBCT for the detection of caries on surfaces located proximally and distally to an amalgam filing ranged from 0.27 to 0.30 for enamel and from 0.47 to 0.56 for dentin. Specificity values for enamel proximal and distal lesions were 0.48 and 0.53, respectively, for enamel and 0.33 to 0.38, respectively, for proximal and distal dentin cases. Intra-observer reliability was 0.84, and interobserver reliability was 0.49. Owing to its low specificity, scans from a CBCT examination should not be used to determine the presence of demineralization of the tooth surface when amalgam fillings are present in the region of interest.

  1. The effects of noise reduction, sharpening, enhancement, and image magnification on diagnostic accuracy of a photostimulable phosphor system in the detection of non-cavitated approximal dental caries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajan, Zahra Dalili; Davalloo, Reza Tayefeh; Tavangar, Mayam; Valizade, Fatemeh [Faculty of Dentistry, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Contrast, sharpness, enhancement, and density can be changed in digital systems. The important question is to what extent the changes in these variables affect the accuracy of caries detection. Forty eight extracted human posterior teeth with healthy or proximal caries surfaces were imaged using a photostimulable phosphor (PSP) sensor. All original images were processed using a six-step method: (1) applying 'Sharpening 2' and 'Noise Reduction' processing options to the original images; (2) applying the 'Magnification 1:3' option to the image obtained in the first step; (3) enhancing the original images by using the 'Diagonal/' option; (4) reviewing the changes brought about by the third step of image processing and then, applying 'Magnification 1:3'; (5) applying 'Sharpening UM' to the original images; and (6) analyzing the changes brought about by the fifth step of image processing, and finally, applying 'Magnification 1:3.' Three observers evaluated the images. The tooth sections were evaluated histologically as the gold standard. The diagnostic accuracy of the observers was compared using a chi-squared test. The accuracy levels irrespective of the image processing method ranged from weak (18.8%) to intermediate (54.2%), but the highest accuracy was achieved at the sixth image processing step. The overall diagnostic accuracy level showed a statistically significant difference (p=0.0001). This study shows that the application of 'Sharpening UM' along with the 'Magnification 1:3' processing option improved the diagnostic accuracy and the observer agreement more effectively than the other processing procedures.

  2. Rampant Caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman-Armstrong, Sandra

    2005-01-01

    Although dental caries in the pediatric and adolescent population has consistently declined in the United States, it is still the most common childhood disease. Dental problems are the number one reason for missing school next to the common cold. Dental caries are an infectious, communicable disease resulting in destruction of tooth structure by…

  3. Dental caries: Therapeutic possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perić Tamara

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary tendencies in dentistry are based on the concept of maximal protection of healthy tooth tissues. Caries removal has been done traditionally with mechanical rotary instruments that are fast and precise. However, conventional cavity preparation has potential adverse effects to the pulp due to heat, pressure and vibrations. Moreover, drilling often causes pain and requires local anaesthesia, and these procedures are frequently perceived as unpleasant. Etiology, development and prevention of dental caries are better understood today and new restorative materials that bond micromechanically and/or chemically to dental tissues have been introduced. Thus, development of a new, less destructive caries removal technique is allowed. In the last decades, many alternative methods have been introduced in an attempt to replace rotary instruments. These are claimed to be efficient and selective for diseased tissues and to offer comfortable treatment to the patients. New methods include air abrasion, air polishing, ultrasonic, polymer burs, enzymes, systems for chemo-mechanical caries removal, and lasers. The aim of this paper was to discuss various caries removal techniques and possibilities of their use in clinical practice. Based on the literature review it can be concluded that none of the new caries removal methods can completely replace conventional rotary instruments.

  4. Caries risk assessment in schoolchildren--a form based on Cariogram software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Renata Nunes; Hilgert, Leandro Augusto; Faber, Jorge; Leal, Soraya Coelho

    2014-01-01

    Identifying caries risk factors is an important measure which contributes to best understanding of the cariogenic profile of the patient. The Cariogram software provides this analysis, and protocols simplifying the method were suggested. The aim of this study was to determine whether a newly developed Caries Risk Assessment (CRA) form based on the Cariogram software could classify schoolchildren according to their caries risk and to evaluate relationships between caries risk and the variables in the form. 150 schoolchildren aged 5 to 7 years old were included in this survey. Caries prevalence was obtained according to International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) II. Information for filling in the form based on Cariogram was collected clinically and from questionnaires sent to parents. Linear regression and a forward stepwise multiple regression model were applied to correlate the variables included in the form with the caries risk. Caries prevalence, in primary dentition, including enamel and dentine carious lesions was 98.6%, and 77.3% when only dentine lesions were considered. Eighty-six percent of the children were classified as at moderate caries risk. The forward stepwise multiple regression model result was significant (R2=0.904; prisk were caries experience, oral hygiene, frequency of food consumption, sugar consumption and fluoride sources. The use of the form based on the Cariogram software enabled classification of the schoolchildren at low, moderate and high caries risk. Caries experience, oral hygiene, frequency of food consumption, sugar consumption and fluoride sources are the variables that were shown to be highly correlated with caries risk.

  5. Validation of Visual Caries Activity Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guedes, R S; Piovesan, C; Ardenghi, T M

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the predictive and construct validity of a caries activity assessment system associated with the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) in primary teeth. A total of 469 children were reexamined: participants of a caries survey performed 2 yr before (follow-up ra...

  6. Ability of optical coherence tomography to detect caries beneath commonly used dental sealants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtzman, Jennifer S; Osann, Kathryn; Pharar, Jessica; Lee, Kenneth; Ahn, Yeh-Chan; Tucker, Travis; Sabet, Sharareh; Chen, Zhongping; Gukasyan, Ripsik; Wilder-Smith, Petra

    2010-10-01

    The onset and progression of early tooth decay is often preventable with dental sealants. However, occasionally decay progresses underneath the sealant. Current technology does not permit monitoring of potential lesion progression or arrest. Dental sealants themselves mask the visual cues that identify early tooth decay, and radiographs are not sufficiently sensitive. Therefore, clinicians can be reluctant to use dental sealant. The objective of this ex vivo study was to evaluate the ability of dentists to detect decay beneath commonly used dental sealants using optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging. STUDY DESIGNS/MATERIALS/METHODS: Forty extracted teeth were divided into equal groups of carious and non-carious teeth, as determined by visual inspection. After radiographs and OCT imaging, teeth were randomly assigned for sealant placement with one of four commonly purchased dental sealants: Clinpro™, Fuji Triage™, Embrace Wet Bond™, and Delton™.Following sealant placement, teeth were radiographed, imaged with OCT, sectioned, examined histologically, and scored as healthy/not healthy. OCT and radiographic images were scored separately. The gold standard was histopathological diagnosis from the serial sections.Cohen's kappa, sensitivity, negative predictive value, and positive predictive value were computed for all measures. After 90 minutes training, pre-standardized dentists were able to detect tooth decay more accurately using OCT than with visual or radiographic examination. Detection using OCT was somewhat better prior to sealant placement than afterwards. This effect varied in size depending on the type of sealant used. Radiographic diagnosis was also less accurate after sealant placement. Of the four dental sealants, Delton provided excellent positive predictive value and the best post-sealant negative predictive values. In this ex vivo study, dentists were able to detect tooth decay beneath four commonly used dental sealants based on OCT images

  7. An in vitro comparison of diagnostic accuracy of cone beam computed tomography and phosphor storage plate to detect simulated occlusal secondary caries under amalgam restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoaleh Shahidi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was aimed to compare the diagnostic accuracy and feasibility of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT with phosphor storage plate (PSP in detection of simulated occlusal secondary caries. Materials and Methods: In this in vitro descriptive-comparative study, a total of 80 slots of class I cavities were prepared on 80 extracted human premolars. Then, 40 teeth were randomly selected out of this sample and artificial carious lesions were created on these teeth by a round diamond bur no. 1/2. All 80 teeth were restored with amalgam fillings and radiographs were taken, both with PSP system and CBCT. All images were evaluated by three calibrated observers. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was used to compare the diagnostic accuracy of two systems. SPSS (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA was adopted for statistical analysis. The difference between Az value of bitewing and CBCT methods were compared by pairwise comparison method. The inter- and intra-operator agreement was assessed by kappa analysis (P < 0.05. Results: The mean A z value for bitewings and CBCT was 0.903 and 0.994, respectively. Significant differences were found between PSP and CBCT (P = 0.010. The kappa value for inter-observer agreement was 0.68 and 0.76 for PSP and CBCT, respectively. The kappa value for intra-observer agreement was 0.698 (observer 1, P = 0.000, 0.766 (observer 2, P = 0.000 and 0.716 (observer 3, P = 0.000 in PSP method, and 0.816 (observer 1, P = 0.000, 0.653 (observer 2, P = 0.000 and 0.744 (observer 3, P = 0.000 in CBCT method. Conclusion: This in vitro study, with a limited number of samples, showed that the New Tom VGI Flex CBCT system was more accurate than the PSP in detecting the simulated small secondary occlusal caries under amalgam restoration.

  8. Dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, Nigel B; Zero, Domenick T; Marsh, Phil D; Ekstrand, Kim; Weintraub, Jane A; Ramos-Gomez, Francisco; Tagami, Junji; Twetman, Svante; Tsakos, Georgios; Ismail, Amid

    2017-05-25

    Dental caries is a biofilm-mediated, sugar-driven, multifactorial, dynamic disease that results in the phasic demineralization and remineralization of dental hard tissues. Caries can occur throughout life, both in primary and permanent dentitions, and can damage the tooth crown and, in later life, exposed root surfaces. The balance between pathological and protective factors influences the initiation and progression of caries. This interplay between factors underpins the classification of individuals and groups into caries risk categories, allowing an increasingly tailored approach to care. Dental caries is an unevenly distributed, preventable disease with considerable economic and quality-of-life burdens. The daily use of fluoride toothpaste is seen as the main reason for the overall decline of caries worldwide over recent decades. This Primer aims to provide a global overview of caries, acknowledging the historical era dominated by restoration of tooth decay by surgical means, but focuses on current, progressive and more holistic long-term, patient-centred, tooth-preserving preventive care.

  9. Evaluation of Interproximal Caries with Using of Bitewing Radiography in Dental Student of Islamic Azad University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sahba

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Dental caries is one of the common diseases in the world. It is an infective disease which is caused by loss of minerals and destruction of dental tissues. One of the most effective ways to diagnose the interproximal caries is radiography. Bitewing radiography is the best way for caries diagnosis.Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of the interproximal caries in dental students of Islamic Azad University.Materials and Methods: This research was a cross sectional study that was conducted on 89 students of the Azad University consisting of 48 females and 41 males who were selected by random sampling. For each individual student left and right posterior bitewing radiographs were taken with a standard method (the interproximal spaces were between 6-7,5,6 and 4,5. Thus 12 interproximal spaces were examined in each individual. The most proximal cavitation surfaces were detected in the upper Jaw.Results: Results revealed that 6 individuals (6.7% were totally caries free and 83 individuals (93.3% showed interproxmal caries. Out of 1068 proximal spaces which had been studied 794 Spaces (73.4% were caries free and 274 surfaces (25.7% had caries.Conclusion: The high incidence of proximal caries and the possibility of missing them in the routine examinations make the bitewing radiographs an effective procedure for diagnosis.

  10. A Voltage Quality Detection Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Wei, Mu

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a voltage quality detection method based on a phase-locked loop (PLL) technique. The technique can detect the voltage magnitude and phase angle of each individual phase under both normal and fault power system conditions. The proposed method has the potential to evaluate vario...... power quality disturbances, such as interruptions, sags and imbalances. Simulation studies have been performed. The effectiveness of the proposed method has been demonstrated under the simulated typical power disturbances.......This paper presents a voltage quality detection method based on a phase-locked loop (PLL) technique. The technique can detect the voltage magnitude and phase angle of each individual phase under both normal and fault power system conditions. The proposed method has the potential to evaluate various...

  11. Detection methods for irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, M.H.

    1993-01-01

    The plenary lecture gives a brief historical review of the development of methods for the detection of food irradiation and defines the demands on such methods. The methods described in detail are as follows: 1) Physical methods: As examples of luminescence methods, thermoluminescence and chermoluminescence are mentioned; ESR spectroscopy is discussed in detail by means of individual examples (crustaceans, frutis and vegetables, spieces and herbs, nuts). 2) Chemical methods: Examples given for these are methods that make use of alterations in lipids through radiation (formation of long-chain hydrocarbons, formation of 2-alkyl butanones), respectively radiation-induced alterations in the DNA. 3) Microbiological methods. An extensive bibliography is appended. (VHE) [de

  12. A comparison of Kodak Ultraspeed and Ektaspeed plus dental X-ray films for the detection of dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, A; Monsour, P A; Moule, A J; Basford, K E

    2002-03-01

    Using the fastest dental X-ray film available is an easy way of reducing exposure to ionizing radiation. However, the diagnostic ability of fast films for the detection of proximal surface caries must be demonstrated before these films will become universally accepted. Extracted premolar and molar teeth were arranged to simulate a bitewing examination and radiographed using Ultraspeed and Ektaspeed Plus dental X-ray films. Three different exposure times were used for each film type. Six general dentists were used to determine the presence and depth of the decay in the proximal surfaces of the teeth radiographed. The actual extent of the decay in the teeth was determined by sectioning the teeth and examining them under a microscope. There was no significant difference between the two films for the mean correct diagnosis. However, there was a significant difference between the means for the three exposure times used for Ultraspeed film. The practitioners used were not consistent in their ability to make a correct diagnosis, or for the film for which they got the highest correct diagnosis. Ektaspeed Plus dental X-ray film is just as reliable as Ultraspeed dental X-ray film for the detection of proximal surface decay. The effect of underexposure was significant for Ultraspeed, but not for Ektaspeed Plus. Patient exposure can be reduced significantly with no loss of diagnostic ability by changing from Ultraspeed X-ray film to Ektaspeed Plus X-ray film.

  13. Dental caries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pitts, Nigel B; Zero, Domenick T; Marsh, Phil D

    2017-01-01

    Dental caries is a biofilm-mediated, sugar-driven, multifactorial, dynamic disease that results in the phasic demineralization and remineralization of dental hard tissues. Caries can occur throughout life, both in primary and permanent dentitions, and can damage the tooth crown and, in later life......, acknowledging the historical era dominated by restoration of tooth decay by surgical means, but focuses on current, progressive and more holistic long-term, patient-centred, tooth-preserving preventive care.......Dental caries is a biofilm-mediated, sugar-driven, multifactorial, dynamic disease that results in the phasic demineralization and remineralization of dental hard tissues. Caries can occur throughout life, both in primary and permanent dentitions, and can damage the tooth crown and, in later life......, exposed root surfaces. The balance between pathological and protective factors influences the initiation and progression of caries. This interplay between factors underpins the classification of individuals and groups into caries risk categories, allowing an increasingly tailored approach to care. Dental...

  14. Review of leak detection methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choumoff, S.; Le Pavec, M.

    The development of the leak-tightness concept and the industrial sectors mainly concerned are reviewed, after which the various methods of leak detection are outlined briefly. The extent to which gases such as ammonia, freon, sulfur hexafluoride and helium are used, generally involving the use of specific detectors, leads to considerations on the principles of leak detection by tracer gas. Practical applications are discussed with regard to criteria of choice, sensitivity required and cost price. Finally the possibilities of using detection methods for industrial purposes are pointed out. They imply that equipment called on to fulfil tightness criteria can be designed to account for certain factors necessary for successful application of the detection methods chosen [fr

  15. Detection of occlusal caries lesions using fluorescence: correlation between histology and obtained results for Diagnodent and spectroscopy; Deteccao de lesoes de carie por fluorescencia: correlacao entre a histologia e os resultados obtidos com o Diagnodent e a espectroscopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha-Cabral, Renata Maciel

    2006-07-01

    The aims of this study were to develop and test a method to detect caries lesions in vivo and in vitro, using a portable spectrometer (PS); to analyze the performance of PS as well as the commercial device Diagnodent (Dd); correlate them with the gold standard, their transversal section areas and lesions depth and between themselves. 66 occlusal pre-molars sites were examined in vivo with Dd. Sequentially, fluorescence ({lambda}exc {approx} 657 nm) was collected by an optical fiber, conducted to PS and then analyzed as spectra, which were normalized and had calculated the Ratios of their Areas Under the Curves (RAUC) of carious and sound tissues. Experiments were conducted in vitro in the same sites. Gold Standard was obtained by polarized light microscopy. Pearson correlation was used to compare the devices with transversal section area, lesions depth and between themselves. The area under ROC curve, sensitivity, specificity as well as accuracy were calculated and verified with McNemar test. Dd and RAUC showed statistically significant correlation with gold standard (p < 0.01 for Dd and p < 0.05 for RAUC) and between themselves (r = 0,83 in vivo and r = 0,87 in vitro). Although it was significant, the devices showed low correlation with depth of lesions in vivo and in vitro (r = {approx} 0.43). The transversal section area of the lesion had no influence on readings in both devices. Dd showed higher sensitivity (0.76) than PS (0.60) in vivo (p < 0.05), though this fact was not able to improve its performance. In turn, PS showed higher sensitivity (0.88) than Dd (0.79) in vitro, but this difference was not significantly. The other parameters did not show statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) between methods. PS showed positive correlation with Dd, equal correlation with lesions depth and higher ability of detecting the disease in vitro, what suggests that if accompanied with a conic and an angulated probe and a dedicated software, the PS method could be

  16. Caries management by risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Douglas A; Featherstone, John D B

    2013-02-01

    Caries disease is multifactorial. Whether caries disease will be expressed and damage dental hard tissue is dependent on the patient's own unique make-up of pathogenic risk factors and protective factors. Objectives This manuscript will review the science of managing caries disease based on assessing caries risk. Methods The caries balance/imbalance model and a practical caries risk assessment procedure for patients aged 6 years through adult will illustrate how treatment options can be based on caries risk. Results Neither the forms nor the clinical protocols are meant to imply there is currently only one correct way this can be achieved, rather are used in this manuscript as examples only. Conclusions It is important to have the forms and protocols simple and easy to understand when implementing caries management by risk assessment into clinical practice. The science of CAMBRA based on the caries balance/imbalance model was reviewed and an example protocol was presented. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. The VicGeneration study - a birth cohort to examine the environmental, behavioural and biological predictors of early childhood caries: background, aims and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Dental caries (decay) during childhood is largely preventable however it remains a significant and costly public health concern, identified as the most prevalent chronic disease of childhood. Caries in children aged less than five years (early childhood caries) is a rapid and progressive disease that can be painful and debilitating, and significantly increases the likelihood of poor child growth, development and social outcomes. Early childhood caries may also result in a substantial social burden on families and significant costs to the public health system. A disproportionate burden of disease is also experienced by disadvantaged populations. Methods/Design This study involves the establishment of a birth cohort in disadvantaged communities in Victoria, Australia. Children will be followed for at least 18 months and the data gathered will explore longitudinal relationships and generate new evidence on the natural history of early childhood caries, the prevalence of the disease and relative contributions of risk and protective biological, environmental and behavioural factors. Specifically, the study aims to: 1. Describe the natural history of early childhood caries (at ages 1, 6, 12 and 18 months), tracking pathways from early bacterial colonisation, through non-cavitated enamel white spot lesions to cavitated lesions extending into dentine. 2. Enumerate oral bacterial species in the saliva of infants and their primary care giver. 3. Identify the strength of concurrent associations between early childhood caries and putative risk and protective factors, including biological (eg microbiota, saliva), environmental (fluoride exposure) and socio-behavioural factors (proximal factors such as: feeding practices and oral hygiene; and distal factors such as parental health behaviours, physical health, coping and broader socio-economic conditions). 4. Quantify the longitudinal relationships between these factors and the development and progression of early

  18. The VicGeneration study - a birth cohort to examine the environmental, behavioural and biological predictors of early childhood caries: background, aims and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dashper Stuart

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dental caries (decay during childhood is largely preventable however it remains a significant and costly public health concern, identified as the most prevalent chronic disease of childhood. Caries in children aged less than five years (early childhood caries is a rapid and progressive disease that can be painful and debilitating, and significantly increases the likelihood of poor child growth, development and social outcomes. Early childhood caries may also result in a substantial social burden on families and significant costs to the public health system. A disproportionate burden of disease is also experienced by disadvantaged populations. Methods/Design This study involves the establishment of a birth cohort in disadvantaged communities in Victoria, Australia. Children will be followed for at least 18 months and the data gathered will explore longitudinal relationships and generate new evidence on the natural history of early childhood caries, the prevalence of the disease and relative contributions of risk and protective biological, environmental and behavioural factors. Specifically, the study aims to: 1. Describe the natural history of early childhood caries (at ages 1, 6, 12 and 18 months, tracking pathways from early bacterial colonisation, through non-cavitated enamel white spot lesions to cavitated lesions extending into dentine. 2. Enumerate oral bacterial species in the saliva of infants and their primary care giver. 3. Identify the strength of concurrent associations between early childhood caries and putative risk and protective factors, including biological (eg microbiota, saliva, environmental (fluoride exposure and socio-behavioural factors (proximal factors such as: feeding practices and oral hygiene; and distal factors such as parental health behaviours, physical health, coping and broader socio-economic conditions. 4. Quantify the longitudinal relationships between these factors and the development and

  19. Secondary caries and microleakage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokstad, Asbjørn

    2016-01-01

    To critically appraise experimental ex vivo research that has focused on secondary caries, and to offer possible explanations for the seemingly poor correlation to clinical observations. The literature relating to the etiopathogenesis or prevention of secondary caries gained from experimental ex vivo research was reviewed, with particular emphasis on microleakage and artificial caries-like lesions. It is doubtful whether a caries wall lesion can exist independently of an outer enamel caries lesion. Microleakage experiments apparently continue to emerge regardless of multiple reviews questioning the reliability and validity of the method. Several of the approaches used to generate artificial caries-like lesions are very aggressive. Remarkably little discussion has evolved about how these aggressive approaches create microenvironments that do not occur in reality. Corrosion- and biodegradation products may influence the biofilm qualitatively and quantitatively and it is difficult to replicate these variables in any ex vivo environment. Clinical data sampling method, patient demography as well as study methodology influences the incidence and prevalence estimates of secondary caries. Clinical results based on clinical work in settings where cost per unit time is of nominal concern do not provide any indications on how the restorative material will perform when placed by the average dentists in the mouths of their spectrum of patients during a busy workday. The term "wall lesion" including its variants is ill defined, has been, and is still being used indiscriminately. Stakeholders should avoid using this ambiguous label due to its connotation to an entity that does not exist per se. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effectiveness of near-infrared transillumination in early caries diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Marinova-Takorova

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Early caries detection is essential for minimal intervention dentistry, since it could give the opportunity to reverse the process and eliminate or at least postpone the surgical treatment. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of near-infrared transillumination in early caries diagnosis for both occlusal and proximal lesions. Thirty-eight adult patients were included in the study. The results from the visual, radiological and near-infrared transillumination examination for proximal caries lesions were compared. The diagnostic abilities of these methods for occlusal lesions were assayed on 60 teeth. The three methods showed a very high level of correlation when there were caries lesions involving the enamel and dentin. Concerning proximal caries involving only the enamel, the visual--tactile diagnosis proved to be insufficiently sensitive even with the use of magnification. Radiographic examination and near-infrared transillumination correlated significantly, but the latter was more sensitive. Radiographic examination proved to be insufficiently sensitive for occlusal lesions. The results obtained with the near-infrared fluorescence correlated most with the visual–tactile examination. These results suggest that near-infrared transillumination is an effective method for diagnosis of lesions both involving only the enamel and involving the enamel and dentin. It could be used for both occlusal and proximal caries lesions and it could eventually substitute radiographic bitewings, especially in children and pregnant women, due to its efficiency as a diagnostic tool and the absence of radiation.

  1. Near-IR transillumination and reflectance imaging at 1,300 nm and 1,500-1,700 nm for in vivo caries detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Jacob C; Lucas, Seth A; Staninec, Michal; Tom, Henry; Chan, Kenneth H; Darling, Cynthia L; Cozin, Matthew J; Lee, Robert C; Fried, Daniel

    2016-11-01

    Several studies suggest that near-IR imaging methods at wavelengths longer than 1,300 nm have great potential for caries detection. In this study, the diagnostic performance of both near-IR transillumination and near-IR reflectance was assessed on teeth scheduled for extraction due to orthodontic treatment (n = 109 teeth on 40 test subjects). Three intra-oral near-IR imaging probes were fabricated for the acquisition of in vivo images using a high definition InGaAs camera and near-IR broadband light sources. Two transillumination probes provided occlusal and approximal images using 1,300 nm light which manifests the highest transparency in enamel. A third reflectance probe utilized cross-polarization and operated at wavelengths greater than 1,500 nm where water absorption is higher which reduces the reflectivity of sound tissues, significantly increasing lesion contrast. Teeth were collected after extraction and sectioned and examined with polarized light microscopy and microradiography which served as the gold standard. In addition, radiographs were taken of the teeth and the diagnostic performance of near-IR imaging was compared with radiography. Near-IR imaging was significantly more sensitive (P IR imaging methods are ideally suited for screening all tooth surfaces for carious lesions. Lasers Surg. Med. 48:828-836, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Detection of proximal caries in vitro using standard and task-specific enhanced images from a storage phosphor plate system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, G; Sanderink, G C H; Berkhout, W E R; Syriopoulos, K; van der Stelt, P F

    2007-01-01

    Eight dentists evaluated 72 proximal surfaces of premolars with respect to all caries lesions and to lesions into dentine in digital images from a storage phosphor plate system. The images were processed in four different ways: (1) the default algorithm of the standard imaging system (DF); (2) an algorithm correcting for attenuation and visual response (AV), and two proprietary caries-specific enhancement algorithms (3) K1, and (4) K2, respectively. The lesions were validated by histological examination. There were no significant differences in the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves between differently processed radiographs for the categories of all caries lesions and caries into dentine. Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. In-vitro detection of artificial caries on vertical dental cavity walls using infrared photothermal radiometry and modulated luminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungho; Mandelis, Andreas; Abrams, Stephen H.; Vu, Jaclyn T.; Amaechi, Bennett T.

    2012-12-01

    The main objective of the study was to investigate the ability of frequency-domain photothermal radiometry (PTR) and modulated luminescence (LUM) to detect secondary caries lesions on the walls of restorations (wall lesions). Changes in experimental PTR-LUM signals due to sequential demineralization on entire vertical walls of sectioned tooth samples were investigated. In addition, transverse micro-radiography (TMR) analysis (used as a gold standard) was conducted to measure the degree of demineralization that occurred in each sample. Statistical correlation between TMR results and PTR-LUM signals was determined using Pearson's correlation coefficient. LUM signals were found to be dominated by the scattered component of the incident laser beam. The more clinically relevant cases of localized demineralization and remineralization on vertical walls were also investigated to examine whether PTR-LUM signals are sensitive to demineralization and remineralization of much smaller areas. The overall results demonstrated that PTR-LUM is sensitive to progressive demineralization and remineralization on vertical walls of sectioned tooth samples.

  4. Clinical performance of a new laser fluorescence device for detection of occlusal caries lesions in permanent molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huth, K C; Neuhaus, K W; Gygax, M; Bücher, K; Crispin, A; Paschos, E; Hickel, R; Lussi, A

    2008-12-01

    To determine the clinical performance of a laser fluorescence device (DIAGNOdent pen, KaVo) to discriminate between different occlusal caries depths (D(0)-D(1-4); D(0-2)-D(3,4)) in permanent molars. In this prospective, randomized two-centre-study 120 sound/uncavitated carious sites in 120 patients were measured after visual and radiographic caries assessment. In cases of operative intervention (n=86), the lesion depths after caries removal were recorded (reference). In cases of preventive intervention (n=34), the sites were reassessed visually/radiographically after 12 months to verify the status assessed before (reference). The discrimination performance was determined statistically (Mann-Whitney test, Spearman's rho coefficient, and areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs)). Sensitivities (SE) and specificities (SP) were plotted as a function of the measured values and cut-off values for the mentioned thresholds suggested. Sound sites (n=13) had significantly minor fluorescence values than carious sites (n=107) (Pcaries (n=63) compared to dentinal caries (n=57). The AUCs for the same discriminations were 0.92 and 0.78 (Pcaries depths was calculated (rho=+0.57, P=0.01). Within this study, the device's discrimination performance for different caries depths was moderate to very good and it may be recommended as adjunct tool in the diagnosis of occlusal caries.

  5. Efficacy of Two Caries Detector Dyes in the Diagnosis of Dental Caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Etemad-Moghadam

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of two caries detector dyes in the diagnosis of dental caries.Materials and Methods: Twenty extracted human posterior teeth without pulpal exposure were sectioned mesiodistally through the center of the lesions using a water-cooled disk.The tooth halves were randomly divided into two groups and treated with Caries Detector (CD and Caries Check (CC detector dyes. Access cavities were prepared followed by caries removal and dye application. All cavities were arbitrarily divided into two right and left sections and excavation of the stained areas was performed on the left parts, while the right sections remained untouched. Bacterial penetration into dentinal tubules was evaluated using Gram-stained decalcified sections under light microscopy. Sensitivity and specificity of both dyes were calculated.Results: The sensitivity of CD and CC were 74% and 71%,respectively. The specificity obtained for both dyes was 100%.Conclusion: Considering the low sensitivity of the dyes evaluated in the present study, it seems that they may not be reliable when used as the sole diagnostic technique for detection of carious lesions in posterior teeth.

  6. Association between obesity and dental caries in Chinese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ligeng; Chang, Rui; Mu, Ying; Deng, Xiuli; Wu, Fei; Zhang, Shasha; Zhou, Dongyan

    2013-01-01

    The study sought to analyze the association between dental caries and obesity in Chinese children, and to investigate the protective and risk factors of dental caries. A total of 280 children aged 7-12 years voluntarily answered the caries examination and questionnaire. Caries was measured using the International Caries Detection and Assessment System. According to the Chinese body mass index, the participants were grouped overweight or normal-weight. The logistic regression model showed no correlation between dental caries and obesity. Drinking yogurt and chewing gum are protective factors, whereas oral breathing and genetic predisposition to caries are risk factors. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography detection method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colston, B W; DaSilva, L B; Everett, M J; Featherstone, J D B; Fried, D; Ragadio, J N; Sathyam, U S.

    1999-01-01

    This study demonstrates the potential of polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) for non-invasive in vivo detection and characterization of early, incipient caries lesions. PS-OCT generates cross-sectional images of biological tissue while measuring the effect of the tissue on the polarization state of incident light. Clear discrimination between regions of normal and demineralized enamel is first shown in PS-OCT images of bovine enamel blocks containing well-characterized artificial lesions. High-resolution, cross-sectional images of extracted human teeth are then generated that clearly discriminate between the normal and carious regions on both the smooth and occlusal surfaces. Regions of the teeth that appeared to be demineralized in the PS-OCT images were verified using histological thin sections examined under polarized light microscopy. The PS-OCT system discriminates between normal and carious regions by measuring the polarization state of the back-scattered 1310 nm light, which is affected by the state of demineralization of the enamel. Demineralization of enamel increases the scattering coefficient, thus depolarizing the incident light. This study shows that PS-OCT has great potential for the detection, characterization, and monitoring of incipient caries lesions

  8. Caries progression in non-cavitated fissures after infiltrant application: a 3-year follow-up of a randomized controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camillo ANAUATE-NETTO

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To evaluate the efficacy of a conservative treatment to prevent the progression of caries using an infiltrant on non-cavitated pit and fissures. Material and Methods This controlled clinical trial selected 23 volunteers with clinically and radiographically non-cavitated occlusal caries among patients presenting a “rather low” to “very high” caries risk. Eighty-six teeth were randomly divided into two experimental groups: teeth receiving a commercial pit-and-fissure sealant (Alpha Seal-DFL and contralateral teeth receiving Icon infiltrant (DMG. Caries progression was monitored by clinical (laser fluorescence caries detection and radiographic examination at 12-month intervals over a period of 3 years of monitored caries progression. Probing the sealing materials to detect areas of retention was also used to evaluate marginal integrity. Results Statistical analysis showed no difference in caries progression using laser fluorescence caries detection when both materials were compared, regardless of the evaluation times (p>0.05. No significance was observed when the marginal sealant integrity of both materials was compared, regardless of the evaluation time (p0.05. SEM analysis exhibited a more homogeneous sealing for the infiltrant than obtained by the sealant. Conclusions The infiltrant was effective to prevent the caries progression in non-cavitated pit-and-fissures after 3 years of clinical evaluation, comparable with the conventional sealant. The infiltrant also presented better results in terms of caries progression at the 3-year evaluation time using the radiographic analysis.

  9. Detection methods for irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyakova, A.; Tsvetkova, E.; Nikolova, R.

    2005-01-01

    In connection with the ongoing world application of irradiation as a technology in Food industry for increasing food safety, it became a need for methods of identification of irradiation. It was required to control international trade of irradiated foods, because of the certain that legally imposed food laws are not violated; supervise correct labeling; avoid multiple irradiation. Physical, chemical and biological methods for detection of irradiated foods as well principle that are based, are introducing in this summary

  10. Detection of artificial occlusal caries in a phosphor imaging plate system with two types of LCD monitors versus three different films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilgüy, Mehmet; Dinçer, Semanur; Ilgüy, Dilhan; Bayirli, Gündüz

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine diagnostic performance of a storage phosphor plate system Digora Optime (Soredex, Helsinki, Finland) with two types of LCD monitor in the detection of artificial caries when compared to Ultraspeed (D), Ektaspeed Plus (E), and Insight (F) radiographic films. Seventy extracted human molars-with artificial caries-were radiographed under identical standardized conditions using (1) a storage phosphor plate system Digora (Soredex, Helsinki, Finland), (2) Insight, (3) Ektaspeed Plus, and (4) Ultraspeed (Carestream Health Inc, Rochester, NY). All digital images and radiographs were examined by three observers for the presence or absence of artificial caries using a five-point confidence scale. Digital images were evaluated both on a LCD computer monitor (Philips 170S, Holland) and medical monitor-3 megapixel monochrome display (Me355i2, Totoku, Tokyo)-with brightness and contrast enhancement. Observer responses were evaluated using ROC analysis and other measurements for diagnostic accuracy. Storage phosphor images with medical monitor demonstrated higher mean A (z) values (0.70 +/- 0.08) than digital images with computer monitor and conventional films. Storage phosphor images with medical monitor presented the highest score, 0.97, 0.90, 0.94, for each observer, respectively. Also, true positive observations (0.82) and positive likelihood ratios (2.71) were higher in enhanced storage phosphor images with medical monitor. Caries detection of mechanically created lesions by experienced radiologists is roughly comparable when examining D-speed film images and Digora images on both the computer and medical LCD monitors, and appears to be poorer on E- and F-speed film images.

  11. [Optimization of initial dental caries diagnostics and treatment in patients infected with herpes virus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreeva, Iu V; Bulgakova, A I

    2012-01-01

    The article presents the results of examination and treatment of patients with initial caries (K02.0), infected with herpes virus. Technologies and methods used by most dentists are not sensitive enough to detect caries at early stages, while the remineralizing therapy can be very effective. The method of laser fluorescence spectroscopy with DIAGNOdent pen device (KaVo) was used for diagnostic of dental caries at early stages. Treatment was carried out with HealOzon device (KaVo), which is used in oral medicine to produce ozone.

  12. Geo-mapping of time trends in childhood caries risk--a method for assessment of preventive care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strömberg, Ulf; Holmn, Anders; Magnusson, Kerstin

    2012-01-01

    Dental caries is unevenly distributed within populations with a higher burden in low socio-economy groups. Several attempts have been made to allocate resources to those that need them the most; there is a need for convenient approaches to population-based monitoring of caries risk over time...

  13. Method of detecting failed fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizaki, Hideaki; Suzumura, Takeshi.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To enable the settlement of the temperature of an adequate filling high temperature pure water by detecting the outlet temperature of a high temperature pure water filling tube to a fuel assembly to control the heating of the pure water and detecting the failed fuel due to the sampling of the pure water. Method: A temperature sensor is provided at a water tube connected to a sipping cap for filling high temperature pure water to detect the temperature of the high temperature pure water at the outlet of the tube, and the temperature is confirmed by a temperature indicator. A heater is controlled on the basis of this confirmation, an adequate high temperature pure water is filled in the fuel assembly, and the pure water is replaced with coolant. Then, it is sampled to settle the adequate temperature of the high temperature coolant used for detecting the failure of the fuel assembly. As a result, the sipping effect does not decrease, and the failed fuel can be precisely detected. (Yoshihara, H.)

  14. The diagnostic accuracy of a laser fluorescence device and digital radiography in detecting approximal caries lesions in posterior permanent teeth: an in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menem, R; Barngkgei, I; Beiruti, N; Al Haffar, I; Joury, Easter

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this in vivo study was to test the diagnostic accuracy of a pen-type laser fluorescence (LFpen) device in detecting approximal caries lesions, in posterior permanent teeth, at the cavitation and non-cavitation thresholds, and compare it with that of digital bitewing radiography. Thirty patients (aged 18-37), who attended the Faculty of Dentistry at Damascus University for a dental examination, were consecutively screened. Ninety approximal surfaces of posterior permanent teeth without frank cavitations, enamel hypoplasia or restorations were selected and examined using the LFpen (DIAGNOdent pen) and digital bitewing radiography. The reference standard was the visual-tactile inspection, after performing temporary tooth separation, using orthodontic rubber rings, placed for 7 days. The status of included approximal surfaces was recorded as intact/sound, with white/brown spots or cavitated. One trained examiner performed all examinations. There were statistically significant differences in LFpen readings between the three types of approximal surface status (P caries lesions in posterior permanent teeth were >16 and 8 at the cavitation and non-cavitation thresholds respectively. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy (measured by the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve) were 100, 85 and 95 and 92, 90 and 95% at the cavitation and non-cavitation thresholds respectively. The intra-class correlation coefficient for intra-examiner reliability was 0.95. The diagnostic accuracy of the LFpen was significantly higher than that of digital bitewing radiography (P caries lesions, in posterior permanent teeth.

  15. The effect of wavelet and discrete cosine transform compression of digital radiographs on the detection of subtle proximal caries. ROC analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, R K W; Richter, A; d'Hoedt, B

    2008-01-01

    The study compared diagnostic performances of 2 different image compression methods: JPEG (discrete cosine transform; Joint Photographic Experts Group compression standard) versus JPEG2000 (discrete wavelet transform), both at a compression ratio of 12:1, from the original uncompressed TIFF radiograph with respect to the detection of non-cavitated carious lesions. Therefore, 100 approximal surfaces of 50 tooth pairs were evaluated on the radiographs by 10 experienced observers using a 5-point confidence scale. Observations were carried out on a standardized viewing monitor under subdued light conditions. The proportion of diseased surfaces was balanced to approximately 50% to avoid bias. True caries status was assessed by serial ground sectioning and microscopic evaluation. A non-parametric receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed non-significant differences between the 3 image modalities, as computed from the critical ratios z not exceeding +/-2 (JPEG/JPEG2000, z = -0.0339; TIFF/JPEG2000, z = 0.251;TIFF/JPEG, z = 0.914). The mean area beneath the curve was highest for TIFF (0.604) followed by JPEG2000 (0.593) and JPEG (0.591). Both intra-rater and inter-rater agreement were significantly higher for TIFF (kappa(intra) = 0.52; kappa(inter) = 0.40) and JPEG2000 images (kappa(intra) = 0.49; kappa(inter) = 0.38) than for JPEG images (kappa(intra) = 0.33; kappa(inter) = 0.35). Our results indicate that image compression with typical compression algorithms at rates yielding storage sizes of around 50 kB is sufficient even for the challenging task of radiographic detection of non-cavitated carious approximal lesions. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Specifics of proximal caries and their diagnostics in posterior teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojcik-Checinska Ilona

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Proximal surfaces are the second in turn after the occlusal surfaces, as being the most exposed places to the carious process. The specificity of changes and location makes the diagnostic of approximal cavities difficult. The aim of the study was to collect information on possibilities of detection, monitoring and assessment of carious lesions located on proximal surfaces, starting from the early stage. On the base of current literature, chosen methods of diagnosis, from conventional, to advanced technologies were presented. Current literature also suggests that none of the diagnostic methods exclude the possibility of misdiagnosis of proximal caries. Therefore, during the diagnosing of doubtful cases, it is advisable to employ several methods of assessment, with simultaneous individual appraisal of caries risk factors, such as oral hygiene, frequency of eating sweets or the number of active caries foci.

  17. Hyperspectral laser-induced autofluorescence imaging of dental caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bürmen, Miran; Fidler, Aleš; Pernuš, Franjo; Likar, Boštjan

    2012-01-01

    Dental caries is a disease characterized by demineralization of enamel crystals leading to the penetration of bacteria into the dentine and pulp. Early detection of enamel demineralization resulting in increased enamel porosity, commonly known as white spots, is a difficult diagnostic task. Laser induced autofluorescence was shown to be a useful method for early detection of demineralization. The existing studies involved either a single point spectroscopic measurements or imaging at a single spectral band. In the case of spectroscopic measurements, very little or no spatial information is acquired and the measured autofluorescence signal strongly depends on the position and orientation of the probe. On the other hand, single-band spectral imaging can be substantially affected by local spectral artefacts. Such effects can significantly interfere with automated methods for detection of early caries lesions. In contrast, hyperspectral imaging effectively combines the spatial information of imaging methods with the spectral information of spectroscopic methods providing excellent basis for development of robust and reliable algorithms for automated classification and analysis of hard dental tissues. In this paper, we employ 405 nm laser excitation of natural caries lesions. The fluorescence signal is acquired by a state-of-the-art hyperspectral imaging system consisting of a high-resolution acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) and a highly sensitive Scientific CMOS camera in the spectral range from 550 nm to 800 nm. The results are compared to the contrast obtained by near-infrared hyperspectral imaging technique employed in the existing studies on early detection of dental caries.

  18. LIGHT-PROPAGATION THROUGH TEETH CONTAINING SIMULATED CARIES LESIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VAARKAMP, J; TENBOSCH, JJ; VERDONSCHOT, EH

    The methods currently utilized in dentistry to detect caries lesions have their limitations and alternatives are being investigated. A promising option is tooth transillumination which is based on an increase of light scattering or light absorption in the affected tissue region. In this study

  19. Optical Assessment of Caries Lesion Structure and Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Robert Chulsung

    New, more sophisticated diagnostic tools are needed for the detection and characterization of caries lesions in the early stages of development. It is not sufficient to simply detect caries lesions, methods are needed to assess the activity of the lesion and determine if chemical or surgical intervention is needed. Previous studies have demonstrated that polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) can be used to nondestructively image the subsurface lesion structure and measure the thickness of the highly mineralized surface zone. Other studies have demonstrated that the rate of dehydration can be correlated with the lesion activity and that the rate can be measured using optical methods. The main objective of this work was to test the hypothesis that optical methods can be used to assess lesion activity on tooth coronal and root surfaces. Simulated caries models were used to develop and validate an algorithm for detecting and measuring the highly mineralized surface layer using PS-OCT. This work confirmed that the algorithm was capable of estimating the thickness of the highly mineralized surface layer with high accuracy. Near-infrared (NIR) reflectance and thermal imaging methods were used to assess activity of caries lesions by measuring the state of lesion hydration. NIR reflectance imaging performed the best for artificial enamel and natural coronal caries lesion samples, particularly at wavelengths coincident with the water absorption band at 1460-nm. However, thermal imaging performed the best for artificial dentin and natural root caries lesion samples. These novel optical methods outperformed the conventional methods (ICDAS II) in accurately assessing lesion activity of natural coronal and root caries lesions. Infrared-based imaging methods have shown potential for in-vivo applications to objectively assess caries lesion activity in a single examination. It is likely that if future clinical trials are a success, this novel imaging

  20. Caries risk assessment in young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersson, Gunnel Hänsel; Twetman, Svante

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To validate baseline caries risk classifications according to the Cariogram model with the actual caries development over a 3-year period in a group of young adults living in Sweden. METHODS: The study group consisted of 1,295 19-year-old patients that completed a comprehensive clinical...... baseline examination, including radiographs and salivary tests. An individual caries risk profile was computed and the patient was placed in one of five risk categories. After 3 years, 982 patients (75.8%) were re-examined and caries increment for each patient was calculated. The outcome was expressed...... of impaired specificities. No combinations proved clinically useful values according to Yuoden's index. CONCLUSIONS: Within the limitations of the present study, the computer-based Cariogram did not perform better than a caries risk assessment scheme based on past caries experience and caries progression...

  1. Innovative technology for caries detection and validation histologically to support restorative dentists and researchers' decision-making in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manal Rahma Alammari

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: QLF is a useful instrument to support the level of dental caries involvement into histological sections of dental tissue, and hence, it will help in clinical diagnosis. Moreover, it can be used as an educational tool for undergraduate dental students as well as in future research.

  2. Are distinctive risk indicators associated with different stages of caries in children? A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Grazia Cagetti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Actual caries figures emphasize the need to identify the risk indicators involved in the disease’s development. The hypothesis that certain risk indicators might affect the dynamic evolution of the caries process was assessed; to clarify this premise, a cross-sectional survey was performed in school children. Methods A total of 390 subjects aged 6–8 years old were randomly selected. Caries was assessed, and the subjects were stratified as follows: i highest caries score; ii most prevalent caries score; and iii number of affected teeth. Parents/guardians completed a questionnaire regarding vital statistics, socio-economic indicators, dietary habits, oral hygiene habits and oral health behaviours. Results Caries was detected in 42.31% of the subjects. Maternal nationality, parental education level, use of a sweetened pacifier at night, intake of lactose-free milk and toothbrushing frequency were statistically significant associated (p < 0.05 with subjects stratified according to the highest caries score. Parental educational level, maternal occupational status and use of a sweetened pacifier at night were associated (p < 0.05 with affected children stratified according to the most prevalent caries score. Maternal educational level and intake of lactose-free milk were associated with subjects with moderate caries stages compared to being caries-free (p = 0.01 and p = 0.02, respectively. Maternal nationality (p < 0.01 and toothbrushing frequency (p = 0.01 were associated with subjects affected by extensive lesions compared to caries-free children. In subjects affected by initial lesions as the most prevalent figure, gender (male and paternal occupation status (unemployed were statistically significant associated (p = 0.03 and p = 0.04, respectively compared to those affected by highest prevalence of extensive caries lesions. In children with the highest prevalence of moderate caries lesions

  3. Correlation of dental caries and dermatoglyphics in pediatric cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakruti H Sanghani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental caries is a multifactorial disease, and its etiology has been advocated to various environmental and genetic factors. Dermatoglyphics is the study of dermal ridges on the palmar and plantar surfaces of hands and feet. It is genetic in nature and is unique to each individual. Enamel as well as finger buds are ectodermal in origin and develop during the same time of intrauterine life; therefore, factors affecting dental caries may cause peculiarities in dermal ridge patterns. Aim: To find a correlation between dermatoglyphic pattern and dental caries in pediatric cases. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed on 200 children (100 caries-active and 100 caries-free between the age range of 6–13 years. The decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT score was recorded for caries-active children having a score range of 3–6 and under each score there were 25 cases. Midlo and Cummins method (1943 of recording palm prints was used using Indiana Ink (stamp pad, roller and printing papers. The prints were inspected with the help of magnifying lens and whorls and loops in each hand were recorded. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software 14.00, and Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis of collected data. Results: The number of whorls was found to be more in caries-active children with increased number of whorls in children with a higher DMFT whereas the number of loops was more in caries-free children. There was a statistically significant difference between the groups (P < 0.05. The number of whorls and loops was found to be more on the right hand as compared to the left hand. Conclusion: The results of the study indicate that there is a definite correlation between the number of whorls and loops and the presence of dental caries in children. Hence, dermatoglyphics can be used as a screening method to provide adequate preventive treatment to children showing a higher

  4. Metatranscriptomics reveals overall active bacterial composition in caries lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurea Simón-Soro

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Identifying the microbial species in caries lesions is instrumental to determine the etiology of dental caries. However, a significant proportion of bacteria in carious lesions have not been cultured, and the use of molecular methods has been limited to DNA-based approaches, which detect both active and inactive or dead microorganisms. Objective: To identify the RNA-based, metabolically active bacterial composition of caries lesions at different stages of disease progression in order to provide a list of potential etiological agents of tooth decay. Design: Non-cavitated enamel caries lesions (n=15 and dentin caries lesions samples (n=12 were collected from 13 individuals. RNA was extracted and cDNA was constructed, which was used to amplify the 16S rRNA gene. The resulting 780 bp polymerase chain reaction products were pyrosequenced using Titanium-plus chemistry, and the sequences obtained were used to determine the bacterial composition. Results: A mean of 4,900 sequences of the 16S rRNA gene with an average read length of 661 bp was obtained per sample, giving a comprehensive view of the active bacterial communities in caries lesions. Estimates of bacterial diversity indicate that the microbiota of cavities is highly complex, each sample containing between 70 and 400 metabolically active species. The composition of these bacterial consortia varied among individuals and between caries lesions of the same individuals. In addition, enamel and dentin lesions had a different bacterial makeup. Lactobacilli were found almost exclusively in dentin cavities. Streptococci accounted for 40% of the total active community in enamel caries, and 20% in dentin caries. However, Streptococcus mutans represented only 0.02–0.73% of the total bacterial community. Conclusions: The data indicate that the etiology of dental caries is tissue dependent and that the disease has a clear polymicrobial origin. The low proportion of mutans streptococci

  5. Bacteria detection instrument and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, W.; Fealey, R. D. (Inventor)

    1972-01-01

    A method and apparatus for screening a sample fluid for bacterial presence are disclosed wherein the fluid sample is mixed with culture media of sufficient quantity to permit bacterial growth in order to obtain a test solution. The concentration of oxygen dissolved in the test solution is then monitored using the potential difference between a reference electrode and a noble metal electrode which are in contact with the test solution. The change in oxygen concentration which occurs during a period of time as indicated by the electrode potential difference is compared with a detection criterion which exceeds the change which would occur absent bacteria.

  6. Ameloglyphics and predilection of dental caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girish, HC; Murgod, Sanjay; Ravath, CJ Manasa; Hegde, Ramesh B

    2013-01-01

    Background: Dental caries is an infectious disease of microbiologic origin resulting in destruction and loss of tooth structure and is related to every speciality of dentistry. Many studies have been carried out to identify the causative factors, methods of prevention, and treatment of dental caries. Ameloglyphics is the study of enamel rod end patterns. These patterns have been found to be unique to individual teeth of the same individual and also to different individuals. A possible correlation between the type of enamel rod end pattern and the occurrence of dental caries might help in predicting caries susceptibility of an individual and implementation of preventive measures. This is a simple and easy method cutting short elaborate methods currently in use and can be invaluable in caries prevention. Objective: This study is aimed at ascertaining the possibility of a correlation between enamel rod end patterns and occurrence of dental caries, which might help in identifying predisposition to dental caries. Materials and Methods: Thirty carious and 30 noncarious teeth were used to obtain enamel rod end patterns. Occurrence of any particular pattern in either of the study groups, which might affect the predisposition of teeth to dental caries was analyzed. Results: No particular rod end pattern was found in teeth affected by dental caries. Also, no particular pattern was found to be unique to teeth not affected by dental caries. PMID:24250075

  7. Method for acoustic signal detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blalock, S.E.

    1980-01-01

    The disclosure relates to a method and apparatus for acoustic signal detection, adapted for use in acoustic velocity well logging to measure the difference in transit times of an acoustic signal between a transmitter and two or more receivers. In a preferred embodiment of the present invention two timing measurements of the signal arriving at each of two receivers may be made by activating zero crossing detectors at the arrival of the first negative and first positive half-cycles at each receiver. A transit time is calculated from the zero crossing times following the first negative half-cycle. This first transit time may be checked for accuracy by comparing the first transit time with a second transit time calculated from zero crossing times following the first positive half-cycles, by comparing the first transit time to a previously measured transit time and/or by detecting the order of arrival of the negative and positive half-cycles to determine whether the half-cycles have been detected out of sequence at either receiver. Should the first transit time be determined to be inaccurate, the previously measured transit time or the second transit time may be substituted therefor

  8. NEW DATA ON THE CLINICAL AND THERAPEUTIC MANAGEMENT OF OCCLUSAL CARIES (III)

    OpenAIRE

    Sorin ANDRIAN; Andrei GEORGESCU; Simona STOLERIU; Emilia DÎMBU

    2017-01-01

    In the control of occlusal caries, the major challenges are related not only to the detection of non-cavitary lesions, but also to the establishment of the treatment strategies to be subsequently applied. Considering the objective of each treatment, that of helping the patient, it is essential to control the progression of carious lesions by means of nonsurgical, preventive/therapeutical methods, whenever necessary. The new strategies applied in caries management are b...

  9. Methods dentists use to diagnose primary caries lesions prior to restorative treatment: findings from The Dental PBRN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindal, D Brad; Gordan, Valeria V; Litaker, Mark S

    2010-01-01

    To (1) quantify the diagnostic techniques used by Dental Practice-Based Research Network (DPBRN) dentists before they decide to treat primary caries lesions surgically and (2) examine whether certain dentist, practice, and patient characteristics are associated with their use....

  10. Geo-mapping of time trends in childhood caries risk--a method for assessment of preventive care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strömberg, Ulf; Holmn, Anders; Magnusson, Kerstin; Twetman, Svante

    2012-06-11

    Dental caries is unevenly distributed within populations with a higher burden in low socio-economy groups. Several attempts have been made to allocate resources to those that need them the most; there is a need for convenient approaches to population-based monitoring of caries risk over time. The aim of this study was to develop the geo-map concept, addressing time trends in caries risk, and demonstrate the novel approach by analyzing epidemiological data from preschool residents in the region of Halland, Sweden. The study population consisted of 9,973 (2006) and 10,927 (2010) children between 3 to 6 years of age (~77% of the eligible population) from whom caries data were obtained. Reported dmfs>0 for a child was considered as the primary caries outcome. Each study individual was geo-coded with respect to his/her residence parish (66 parishes in the region). Smoothed caries risk geo-maps, along with corresponding statistical certainty geo-maps, were produced by using the free software Rapid Inquiry Facility and the ESRI® ArcGIS system. Parish-level socioeconomic data were available. The overall proportion of caries-free (dmfs=0) children improved from 84.0% in 2006 to 88.6% in 2010. The ratio of maximum and minimum (parish-level) smoothed relative risks (SmRRs) increased from 1.76/0.44=4.0 in 2006 to 2.37/0.33=7.2 in 2010, which indicated an increased geographical polarization of early childhood caries in the population. Eight parishes showed evidential, positional changes in caries risk between 2006 and 2010; their corresponding SmRRs and statistical certainty ranks changed markedly. No considerable parallel changes in parish-level socioeconomic characteristics were seen during the same time period. Geo-maps based on caries risk can be used to monitor changes in caries risk over time. Thus, geo-mapping offers a convenient tool for evaluating the effectiveness of tailored health promotion and preventive care in child populations.

  11. Comparison of the clinical examination with the panoramic radiography in the diagnosis of dental caries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hang Moon

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare clinical examination of of dental caries and secondary caries with panoramic examination, and to examine bone lesions and dental anomaly of unerupted state. In this study, clinical records and panoramic radiographs were available for 89 first grade students in elementary school. Dental caries of occlusal surfaces, proximal surfaces, and buccolingual surfaces were examined. Secondary caries was examined too. In addition, the central lesion and dental anomaly of unerupted state were examined in panoramic radiographs. The obtained results were as followed :1. Carious detectability of clinical examination in occlusal and buccolingual surface was higher than that of panoramic examination, but it is statistically insignificant (p>0.05). In proximal surface, carious detectability of panoramic examination was higher than that of clinical examination, and it is statistically significant (p<0.01). 2. In contrast to clinical examination only, when the two examination methods were combined, there was additional detection of dental caries (26.7% in occlusal surface, 48.2% in proximal surface, 33.3% in buccolingual surface, and 38.3% totally). 3. In detection of secondary caries, panoramic examination had lower ability than clinical examination in all three surfaces, but in case that both methods were combined, totally 36.0% extra carious lesions were detected. 4. In panoramic examination, detectability of secondary caries in upper teeth is lower than lower teeth. 5. In panoramic examination, it was possible to detect the central lesions and dental anomalies of unerupted state which cannot be detected in clinical examination. It is useful to combine the panoramic examination with clinical examination in order to increase carious detectability and to evaluate the central lesions and dental anomalies of unerupted state.

  12. Comparison of the clinical examination with the panoramic radiography in the diagnosis of dental caries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hang Moon [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology and Dental Research Institute, College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-02-15

    The objective of this study was to compare clinical examination of of dental caries and secondary caries with panoramic examination, and to examine bone lesions and dental anomaly of unerupted state. In this study, clinical records and panoramic radiographs were available for 89 first grade students in elementary school. Dental caries of occlusal surfaces, proximal surfaces, and buccolingual surfaces were examined. Secondary caries was examined too. In addition, the central lesion and dental anomaly of unerupted state were examined in panoramic radiographs. The obtained results were as followed :1. Carious detectability of clinical examination in occlusal and buccolingual surface was higher than that of panoramic examination, but it is statistically insignificant (p>0.05). In proximal surface, carious detectability of panoramic examination was higher than that of clinical examination, and it is statistically significant (p<0.01). 2. In contrast to clinical examination only, when the two examination methods were combined, there was additional detection of dental caries (26.7% in occlusal surface, 48.2% in proximal surface, 33.3% in buccolingual surface, and 38.3% totally). 3. In detection of secondary caries, panoramic examination had lower ability than clinical examination in all three surfaces, but in case that both methods were combined, totally 36.0% extra carious lesions were detected. 4. In panoramic examination, detectability of secondary caries in upper teeth is lower than lower teeth. 5. In panoramic examination, it was possible to detect the central lesions and dental anomalies of unerupted state which cannot be detected in clinical examination. It is useful to combine the panoramic examination with clinical examination in order to increase carious detectability and to evaluate the central lesions and dental anomalies of unerupted state.

  13. Caries risk assessment: why, when and how?

    OpenAIRE

    Antonsen, Grethe Marie; Hunstad, Marie Nøvik

    2011-01-01

    This literature study reviewed papers on caries risk assessment on patients` above 18 years published between 2000 and 2010. In the present study three different methods are discussed: The Cariogram, CAMBRA ( Caries Management By Risk Assessment) and the UIT – method (University of Tromsø). The purpose of caries risk assessments are to find out which risk level the patient has and try to lower the risk. By evaluating the protective and pathologic factors involved in the carious disease the de...

  14. Comparative study of a wireless digital system and 2 PSP digital systems on proximal caries detection and pixel values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Anjos Pontual, Andrea; de Melo, Daniela Pita; Pontual, Maria Luiza dos Anjos; de Almeida, Solange Maria; Haiter-Neto, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    This study compared the radiographic image quality of 2 photostimulable phosphor (PSP) plate systems with a radiographic system against a complementary metal oxide silicon (CMOS) system. Using the 3 digital systems, 160 approximal surfaces were radiographed under standardized conditions. Using a 5-point scale, 6 observers scored the resulting images for the presence of caries. The presence of caries was validated histologically, and the image receptors were evaluated using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. The digital systems were used to take radiographs of an aluminum step wedge for objective analysis with pixel density measurements. The mean pixel values were analyzed statistically using the Kruskal-Wallis test and Dunn multiple comparison test (P < 0.01). The performance of the new CMOS system was comparable to the PSP plate systems and radiographic film.

  15. In vivo performance of a laser fluorescence device for the approximal detection of caries in permanent molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huth, K C; Lussi, A; Gygax, M; Thum, M; Crispin, A; Paschos, E; Hickel, R; Neuhaus, K W

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this randomised clinical trial was to investigate if a laser fluorescence device is able to discriminate between sound and carious approximal sites and between enamel and dentinal lesions, as well as to find appropriate cut-off values. One hundred and seventeen sound or uncavitated carious sites in permanent molars were visually and radiographically examined, then either opened or not, after which their laser fluorescence was measured. Forty-three lesions were opened, the caries removed and the clinically identified caries depths were registered in addition to the radiographical scoring. Seventy-four sites were radiographically deemed sound or had enamel caries and were not opened. Here, the radiographical scorings were registered. Taking the radiographic scoring as gold standard for all investigated approximal sites, sound sites (D(0), n=40) showed significantly lower laser fluorescence measurements than carious sites (D(1-4), n=77) (Mann-Whitney test, Plaser fluorescence values and radiographical scoring was found (rho=+0.47, Plaser fluorescence values (rho=+0.34, P=0.03) and a moderately strong correlation to the radiographic scoring (rho=+0.67, Pcaries along with established procedures. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A construction of standardized near infrared hyper-spectral teeth database: a first step in the development of reliable diagnostic tool for quantification and early detection of caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bürmen, Miran; Usenik, Peter; Fidler, Aleš; Pernuš, Franjo; Likar, Boštjan

    2011-03-01

    Dental caries is a disease characterized by demineralization of enamel crystals leading to the penetration of bacteria into the dentin and pulp. If left untreated, the disease can lead to pain, infection and tooth loss. Early detection of enamel demineralization resulting in increased enamel porosity, commonly known as white spots, is a difficult diagnostic task. Several papers reported on near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy to be a potentially useful noninvasive spectroscopic technique for early detection of caries lesions. However, the conducted studies were mostly qualitative and did not include the critical assessment of the spectral variability of the sound and carious dental tissues and influence of the water content. Such assessment is essential for development and validation of reliable qualitative and especially quantitative diagnostic tools based on NIR spectroscopy. In order to characterize the described spectral variability, a standardized diffuse reflectance hyper-spectral database was constructed by imaging 12 extracted human teeth with natural lesions of various degrees in the spectral range from 900 to 1700 nm with spectral resolution of 10 nm. Additionally, all the teeth were imaged by digital color camera. The influence of water content on the acquired spectra was characterized by monitoring the teeth during the drying process. The images were assessed by an expert, thereby obtaining the gold standard. By analyzing the acquired spectra we were able to accurately model the spectral variability of the sound dental tissues and identify the advantages and limitations of NIR hyper-spectral imaging.

  17. Comprehensive Implementation of the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS in a Dental School and University Oral Health Centre: A Stepwise Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Ahlawat

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available ICDAS (the International Caries Detection and Assessment System is a new approach to the detection and classification of dental caries, starting with the stage showing the earliest visual changes. Methodology: This article describes the implementation of the ICDAS at the School of Dentistry, International Medical University, and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia in a step-by-step systematically planned process. Beginning with the setting up of a Task Force in 2011 for the evaluation and preparation of the training resources and the running of exploratory training exercises, it finally culminated in carrying out training workshops for the entire staff and students. After the internal processes had been completed, an international expert (KE was invited to evaluate the process and conduct another workshop using the resources developed within the University, including a reference set of carious teeth. The overall time taken was one and a half years. Conclusions: The implementation of the ICDAS has been comprehensively set into motion within the context of our local curriculum and oral healthcare delivery arrangements. However, this will be an ongoing process with further quality assurance measures being required clinically together with the continuing training of new staff. Sharing this ‘framework’ of the ICDAS implementation process should considerably ease the path and reduce the time period of future implementations by other dental teaching institutions.

  18. [Dental caries--therapeutic possibilities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perić, Tamara; Marković, Dejan; Zivković, Slavoljub

    2008-01-01

    Contemporary tendencies in dentistry are based on the concept of maximal protection of healthy tooth tissues. Caries removal has been done traditionally with mechanical rotary instruments that are fast and precise. However, conventional cavity preparation has potential adverse effects to the pulp due to heat, pressure and vibrations. Moreover, drilling often causes pain and requires local anaesthesia, and these procedures are frequently perceived as unpleasant. Etiology, development and prevention of dental caries are better understood today and new restorative materials that bond micromechanically and/or chemically to dental tissues have been introduced. Thus, development of a new, less destructive caries removal technique is allowed. In the last decades, many alternative methods have been introduced in an attempt to replace rotary instruments. These are claimed to be efficient and selective for diseased tissues and to offer comfortable treatment to the patients. New methods include air abrasion, air polishing, ultrasonic, polymer burs, enzymes, systems for chemo-mechanical caries removal, and lasers. The aim of this paper was to discuss various caries removal techniques and possibilities of their use in clinical practice. Based on the literature review it can be concluded that none of the new caries removal methods can completely replace conventional rotary instruments.

  19. Outlier Detection Method Use for the Network Flow Anomaly Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rimas Ciplinskas

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available New and existing methods of cyber-attack detection are constantly being developed and improved because there is a great number of attacks and the demand to protect from them. In prac-tice, current methods of attack detection operates like antivirus programs, i. e. known attacks signatures are created and attacks are detected by using them. These methods have a drawback – they cannot detect new attacks. As a solution, anomaly detection methods are used. They allow to detect deviations from normal network behaviour that may show a new type of attack. This article introduces a new method that allows to detect network flow anomalies by using local outlier factor algorithm. Accom-plished research allowed to identify groups of features which showed the best results of anomaly flow detection according the highest values of precision, recall and F-measure.

  20. Prevalence of dental caries among 12–14 year old children in Qatar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Darwish, Mohammed; El Ansari, Walid; Bener, Abdulbari

    2014-01-01

    Background To ensure the oral health of a population, clinicians must deliver appropriate dental services, and local communities need to have access to dental care facilities. However, establishment of this infrastructure must be based on reliable information regarding disease prevalence and severity in the target population. Objectives The aims of this study were to measure the incidence of dental caries in school children aged 12–14 throughout Qatar, including the influence of socio-demographic factors. Materials and methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in Qatar from October 2011 to March 2012. A total of 2113 children aged 12–14 were randomly selected from 16 schools located in different geographic areas. Three calibrated examiners using World Health Organization (WHO) criteria to diagnose dental caries performed the clinical examinations. Data analyses were subsequently conducted. Results The mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth index values were respectively 4.62 (±3.2), 4.79 (±3.5), and 5.5 (±3.7), for 12, 13, and 14 year-old subjects. Caries prevalence was 85%. The mandibular incisors and canines were least affected by dental caries, while maxillary and mandibular molars exhibited the highest incidence of dental caries. Dental caries were affected by socio-demographic factors; significant differences were detected between female and male children, where more female children showed dental caries than male children. In addition, children residing in semi-urban areas showed more dental caries than in urban areas. Conclusion Results indicated that dental caries prevalence among school children in Qatar has reached critical levels, and is influenced by socio-demographic factors. The mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth values obtained in this study were the second highest detected in the Eastern Mediterranean region. PMID:25057232

  1. New diagnostic technology and hidden pits and fissures caries

    OpenAIRE

    Fabrizio Guerra; Marta Mazur; Francesca Rinaldo; Denise Corridore; Daniele Salvi; Debora Pasqualotto; Gianna Maria Nardi; Livia Ottolenghi

    2015-01-01

    The accuracy in pits and fissures caries detection is of paramount importance in dental caries primary and secondary prevention. A combination of visual examination and probing is currently the mainstay of occlusal caries diagnosis. Unfortunately, these types of inspection alone may leave a certain number of pit and fissure caries undetected. The Vista Cam iX fluorescence camera (Durr Dental, Bietigheim-Bissingen, Germany) is a novel dental diagnostic tool for quantitative assessment of denta...

  2. Low reproducibility between oral radiologists and general dentists with regards to radiographic diagnosis of caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakbaznejad Esmaeili, Elmira; Pakkala, Tuomas; Haukka, Jari; Siukosaari, Päivi

    2018-04-12

    Early clinical and radiological diagnosis of dental caries is one of the fundamental objectives of clinical dentistry because of the high frequency of the disease and severe complications if caries remains untreated, especially among the elderly and patients with immunodeficiency. Dental panoramic tomography (DPT) is a common radiographic method for evaluating dentition when indicated, especially in an adult population. The aim of this study was to assess the reproducibility of diagnosis between specialists in oral radiology and general dentists with regards to caries lesions based on DPTs of adults. One-hundred DPTs taken from adult patients (average age 35) and then analyzed and reported on by 42 general dentists were then analyzed independently by two specialists in oral radiology with respect to caries lesions in the premolar and molar areas using radiographic criteria established for caries diagnosis. The general dentists versus oral radiologists were not calibrated before. Level of agreement between specialists and general dentists was measured using Cohen's kappa. Comparison between observations of general dentists and specialists in oral radiology showed that 61% of the caries lesions on proximal surfaces of premolars and molars observed by specialists went unobserved by general dentists. Cohen's kappa value for specialists was 0.85 (p < .001) and for each specialist and general dentists 0.48 (p < .001) and 0.44 (p < .001). The reproducibility between specialists in oral radiology and general dentists for detecting caries in DPTs was low.

  3. Validation of swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) for the diagnosis of smooth surface caries in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Hisaichi; Sadr, Alireza; Shimada, Yasushi; Tagami, Junji; Sumi, Yasunori

    2013-01-01

    An accurate evaluation of the extent of dental caries and possible progress of the lesion from enamel into dentin is very important in clinical dentistry. Dentists need an imaging technology that can noninvasively and reliably quantify the extent of caries. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of non-polarized swept source optical coherence tomography (OCT) in evaluating the extent of caries on smooth enamel surfaces. One-hundred and twenty-seven investigation sites on the enamel surfaces of 93 extracted teeth were selected randomly and examined visually. The presence and extent of caries were scored by experienced and inexperienced dentists using each observation method (0: no caries; 1: enamel demineralization without surface breakdown; 2: enamel breakdown due to caries; 3: deep caries involving the dentin). The same locations were then examined using OCT, following which the teeth were sectioned using a diamond saw and viewed directly under a confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM). Sensitivity and specificity indices for OCT and VI were calculated and compared. The results were analysed statistically using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Enamel and dentin caries were outlined by a visible boundary on the cross-sectional OCT images. The modality showed superior results for the detection of dentinal caries; higher sensitivity and Az values could be obtained in the ROC curves, especially by experienced dentists. Cross-sectional imaging of the natural caries lesions on smooth enamel surface by OCT enables efficient diagnosis of the lesion type, extent and dentin involvement. SS-OCT can demonstrate the cross-sectional image of smooth surface enamel caries as highlighted zone in tomogram. It is crucial to determine the extent of the lesion, whether it reaches beyond DEJ or not by a non-invasive and safe technique. OCT can give clinicians information about internal tooth structure and will help clinical decision making on surgical

  4. Patient-reported negative experiences related to caries and its treatment among Swedish adult patients

    OpenAIRE

    Flink, H?kan; Tegelberg, ?ke; Arnetz, Judith E.; Birkhed, Dowen

    2017-01-01

    Background It has been suggested that dental caries should be regarded as a chronic disease as many individuals repeatedly develop new caries lesions. How this is perceived by caries active patients is unclear. The aim of this study was to measure patient-reported attitudes and negative experiences related to caries and dental treatment. Methods A questionnaire was mailed to 134 caries active (CA) and 40 caries inactive (CI) adult patients treated at a Swedish public dental service clinic. Th...

  5. Comparison of visual, impedance spectroscopy and laser fluorescence methods in detecting early carious lesions on occlusal surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalas Renata

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The diagnostic management is a very important and integral part of the entire treatment process and has a direct influence on the decision-taking on the choice of the most appropriate form of therapy consistent with current knowledge. Knowledge of the morphology of hard dental tissues lesions has led to the development of quantitative methods for diagnosis and monitoring of dental caries, which enabled the implementation of appropriate treatments aimed at repairing than replacing damaged tissue. The aim of the study was to compare selected diagnostic methods: visual (ICDAS, impedance spectroscopy (CarieScan PRO and laser fluorescence (Diagnodent Pen in detecting caries in grooves on the chewing surfaces of molars and premolars. The obtained results indicated a high concordance of measurements performed with the Diagnodent Pen with the results of visual examination and a lower compliance of visual examination with the results obtained using the CarieScan PRO. A combination of visual and tactile method with tests using advanced technology provides greater opportunity to confirm the diagnosis of carious lesions requiring medical intervention.

  6. Intercomparison of salivary nitric oxide as a biomarker of dental caries risk between caries-active and caries-free children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, M; Sachdev, V; Chopra, R

    2016-08-01

    To determine the efficacy of salivary nitric oxide as a biomarker for dental caries risk in children and to compare the salivary nitric oxide levels in caries-active and caries-free children. One hundred children aged 6-12 years were selected and were divided into two groups according to DMFT index: as caries-free consisting of 50 individuals (DMFT/dmft = 0) and caries-active group (DMFT/dmft ≥3) consisting of 50 individuals. The saliva collected was estimated for nitric oxide level by Griess reaction method. Paired t test was used to correlate the difference of mean salivary nitric oxide levels between caries-active and caries-free groups. The mean level of nitric oxide in saliva of the control group was 581.3 ± 134.6 μg/mL and that of caries-active group was 335.4 ± 111.1 μg/mL, respectively. The mean salivary level of nitric oxide was higher in the caries-free group as compared with the caries-active group which was statistically significant (p = 0.000). Salivary nitric oxide was higher in the caries-free group as compared to the caries-active group which suggests that increased production of nitric oxide in the oral cavity may contribute to lower caries incidence in children.

  7. Health promotion and dental caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Maltz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The central idea of the Brazilian health system is to prevent the establishment of disease or detect it as early as possible. Prevention and treatment of dental caries are related to behavioral factors, including dietary and oral hygiene habits, which are related to many chronic diseases. Dental health promotion therefore should be fully integrated into broadly based health-promoting strategies and actions such as food and health policies, and general hygiene (including oral hygiene, among others. For decades, a linear relationship between sugar consumption and caries has been observed. Recent data has indicated that this relationship is not as strong as it used to be before the widespread use of fluoride. However, diet is still a key factor acting in the carious process. Oral hygiene is a major aspect when it comes to caries, since dental biofilm is its etiological factor. Oral hygiene procedures are effective in controlling dental caries, especially if plaque removal is performed adequately and associated with fluoride. An alternative to a more efficient biofilm control in occlusal areas is the use of dental sealants, which are only indicated for caries-active individuals. If a cavity is formed as a consequence of the metabolic activity of the biofilm, a restorative material or a sealant can be placed to block access of the biofilm to the oral environment in order to prevent caries progress. The prevention of dental caries based on common risk-factor strategies (diet and hygiene should be supplemented by more disease-specific policies such as rational use of fluoride, and evidence-based dental health care.

  8. An in-vitro comparison of visual inspection, bite-wing radiography, and laser fluorescence methods for the diagnosis of occlusal caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pourhashemi S

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare accuracy and reproducibility of visual inspection (VI, bitewing (BW radiography, and laser fluorescence (LF, DIANOdent methods in the diagnosis of occlusal caries. Materials and Methods: The study was done on 80 extracted permanent premolars that seem to be intact or with primary caries in fissures. Three trained dentist examined the teeth in four stages: VI, BW radiography, LF, and histologic examination. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy of all methods were calculated and compared. For the LF method, using ROC curve and counterpart points on it, we determined upper and lower limits and calculated the parameters. Results: The estimated accuracy was 58.9% for VI and 45.1% for BW radiography methods. Kappa coefficient for interexaminer reproducibility was 57% and 34.1% in VI and BW radiography, respectively. Inter- and intraexaminer reproducibility coefficients of LF methods were 78.4% and 83.6%, respectively. The mean intraexaminer reproducibility coefficient in the VI method was 61.2%. Conclusion: Although accuracy and reproducibility of the LF method were higher than those of the VI and BW radiography, it is better to use this method together with other methods to reduce diagnostic faults.

  9. Current possibilities in occlusal caries management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrvoje Jurić

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is a multifactorial disease that affects most populations throughout the world and it is still the primary cause of oral pain and tooth loss. The occlusal surfaces of posterior teeth are the most vulnerable sites for dental caries due to their anatomy. Therefore, the aim of the following article is to summarize current knowledge on occlusal caries development and the possibilities of its prevention. Although the overall caries rate today has fallen for populations in industrialized countries, the rate of occlusal surface caries has not decreased. This may be explained with fact that topically applied fluorides and their mode of action prevent caries better on smooth than on occlusal surfaces. As we know, tooth decay of first permanent molars causes a great deal of different short and long term difficulties for patients. Therefore, there is a continuous need for implementation of programs for caries prevention in permanent teeth. Nowadays, we like to treat our patients by minimally invasive methods. A very important step in our effective preventive treatment is sealing pits and fissures as a cornerstone of occlusal caries management. Reliable assessment of caries activity is also very important for defining treatment needs and plans. A very important decision, which should be made during occlusal caries management, is the selection of restorative material according to the treatment plan. Conclusion. Current possibilities in occlusal caries prevention and management are very effective. Therefore, dentists today do not have any excuse for avoiding the philosophy of Minimally Invasive Dentistry, especially when we talk about caries management of occlusal surfaces in permanent molars.

  10. Cancer Detection and Diagnosis Methods - Annual Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early cancer detection is a proven life-saving strategy. Learn about the research opportunities NCI supports, including liquid biopsies and other less-invasive methods, for detecting early cancers and precancerous growths.

  11. Early caries naked-eyed examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakhmutov, D; Gonchukov, S; Voytenok, O; Kharchenko, O; Zubov, B

    2008-01-01

    In view of its potential for dental diagnostics, noninvasive optical methods have been the object of research for the last years. Different techniques (spectroscopy, microscopy, and tomography) are used to discriminate between caries and sound enamel. The main aim of this paper is to determine a simple way to see incipient caries with the naked eye

  12. Study of validity of autofluorescence-based incipient occlusal caries detection in vitro compared to DIAGNOdent pen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, H. H.; Chen, Q. G.; Lin, B.; Chen, H.

    2012-03-01

    The validity of laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy for early diagnosis of occlusal caries irradiated by 403 nm diode laser compared to commercial device DIAGNOdent pen was investigated. The quantitative evaluation parameter based on the fluorescence intensity area ratio of different bands F(440-480 nm)/F(540-700 nm) was built. And the linear correlation analysis between fluorescence result and corresponding DIAGNOdent reading is performed to be r = -0.9085. Moreover, the factors of irradiation laser power and excited site influencing the fluorescence distribution was experimentally investigated. The result shows that the fluorescence spectra at different site of sound occlusal surface is different and the higher laser power will lower the sensitivity of evaluation parameter based on the red fluorescence region increasing. The work is of great significance for practical application of laser induced fluorescence at 403 nm.

  13. Caries experience variables as indicators in caries risk assessment in 6-7-year-old Chinese children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Q.; Palenstein Helderman, W.H. van

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study is to investigate variables of the past caries experience as indicators of future caries in a Chinese child population. METHODS: Caries was recorded at baseline and 2 years later in 433, 6-7-year-old Chinese children. Correlation coefficients between

  14. Caries risk assessment in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, S

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To summarise the findings of recent systematic reviews (SR) covering caries risk assessment in children, updated with recent primary studies. METHODS: A search for relevant papers published 2012-2014 was conducted in electronic databases. The systematic reviews were quality assessed...... displayed a high risk of bias. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the present summary of literature, it may be concluded: (1) a caries risk assessment should be carried out at the child's first dental visit and reassessments should be done during childhood (D); (2) multivariate models display a better accuracy than...... the use of single predictors and this is especially true for preschool children (C); (3) there is no clearly superior method to predict future caries and no evidence to support the use of one model, program, or technology before the other (C); and (4) the risk category should be linked to appropriate...

  15. Implications of caries diagnostic strategies for clinical management decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baelum, Vibeke; Hintze, Hanne; Wenzel, Ann

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In clinical practice, a visual-tactile caries examination is frequently supplemented by bitewing radiography. This study evaluated strategies for combining visual-tactile and radiographic caries detection methods and determined their implications for clinical management decisions...... that the visual-tactile method alone was the superior strategy, resulting in most correct clinical management decisions and most correct decisions regarding the choice of treatment.......-specificity) were calculated for each diagnostic strategy. RESULTS: Visual-tactile examination provided a true-positive rate of 34.2% and a false-positive rate of 1.5% for the detection of a cavity. The combination of a visual-tactile and a radiographic examination using the lesion in dentin threshold...

  16. Dental caries vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivakumar K

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is one of the most common diseases in humans. In modern times, it has reached epidemic proportions. Dental caries is an infectious microbiologic disease of the teeth that results in localized dissolution and destruction of the calcified tissue. Dental caries is a mulitifactorial disease, which is caused by host, agent, and environmental factors. The time factor is important for the development and progression of dental caries. A wide group of microorganisms are identified from carious lesions of which S. mutans , Lactobacillus acidophilus , and Actinomyces viscosus are the main pathogenic species involved in the initiation and development of dental caries. In India, surveys done on school children showed caries prevalence of approximately 58%. Surveys among the U.S. population showed an incidence of 45.3% in children and 93.8% in adults with either past or present coronal caries. Huge amounts of money and time are spent in treating dental caries. Hence, the prevention and control of dental caries is the main aim of public health, eventually the ultimate objective of public health is the elimination of the disease itself. Recently, dental caries vaccines have been developed for the prevention of dental caries. These dental caries vaccines are still in the early stages.

  17. Efficacy of chemomechanical caries removal in reducing cariogenic microbiota: a randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Mikhael AMMARI

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of chemochemical methods (Carisolv™ and Papacárie® versus the manual method (excavators in reducing the cariogenic microbiota in dentine caries of primary teeth. Forty-six healthy children (5 to 9 years old having at least one primary tooth with a cavitated dentine carious lesion were included in the study. The teeth presented no clinical or radiographic signs of pulpal involvement. The sample of 74 teeth was randomly divided into three different groups: Papacárie® (n = 25, Carisolv™ (n = 27 and Manual (n = 22. Samples of carious and sound dentine were collected with sterile excavators before and after caries removal in the three groups. The dentine samples were transferred to glass tubes containing a 1mL thioglycollate medium used as a carrier and enriched for microbiological detection of mutans streptococci and Lactobacillus spp, after incubation for 6h at room temperature. The minimum detection value for colony forming units (CFU was 3.3 x 102 CFU/ml, and the results were converted into scores from 0 to 4. A significant difference was observed in relation to the microbiological scores before and after caries removal for all methods (Wilcoxon test; p < 0.001. The use of chemomechanical methods for caries removal did not improve the reduction of cariogenic microorganisms in dentine caries lesions, in comparison with manual excavation.

  18. Comparison of Methods for Oscillation Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Trangbæk, Klaus

    2006-01-01

    This paper compares a selection of methods for detecting oscillations in control loops. The methods are tested on measurement data from a coal-fired power plant, where some oscillations are occurring. Emphasis is put on being able to detect oscillations without having a system model and without u...

  19. The biology, prevention, diagnosis and treatment of dental caries: scientific advances in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zero, Domenick T; Fontana, Margherita; Martínez-Mier, E Angeles; Ferreira-Zandoná, Andréa; Ando, Masatoshi; González-Cabezas, Carlos; Bayne, Stephen

    2009-09-01

    Scientific advances in cariology in the past 150 years have led to the understanding that dental caries is a chronic, dietomicrobial, site-specific disease caused by a shift from protective factors favoring tooth remineralization to destructive factors leading to demineralization. Epidemiologic data indicate that caries has changed in the last century; it now is distributed unequally in the U.S. population. People who are minorities, homeless, migrants, children with disabilities and of lower socioeconomic status suffer from the highest prevalence and severity of dental caries. Scientific advances have led to improvements in the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of dental caries, but there is a need for new diagnostic tools and treatment methods. and Future management of dental caries requires early detection and risk assessment if the profession is to achieve timely and cost-effective prevention and treatment for those who need it most. Dental professionals look forward to the day when people of all ages and backgrounds view dental caries as a disease of the past.

  20. [[Streptococcus mutans Acquisition and Dental Caries Development in First-Born Children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noce, Erica; Rubira, Cassia Maria Fischer; da Silva Rosa, Odila Pereira; da Silva, Salete Moura Bonifácio; Bretz, Walter Antonio

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the moment of streptococcus mutans (SM) acquisition, caries development and their associate variables along 23 months, in first-born children of low socioeconomic status families, starting at 7 months of age. METHOD: The sample was chosen based on highly SM-colonized mothers, including all members of 14 families living in the same houses. The study included 14 mothers, 14 fathers and 14 first-borns and 8 relatives (mostly grandparents). Initial clinical examinations and radiographs determined the caries indices and periodontal conditions of the adults. SM count in all adults was made in the first 2 visits. The children were examined for SM count, number of teeth and number of carious lesions, in 4 visits. RESULTS: SM prevalence was high in the adults, being absent in only one of the parents. SM was found in 1, 2, 3 and 10 children in the first, second, third and fourth visits. Dental caries was detected in only 3 children in the last visit (at 30 months), who presented significantly higher SM scores than the children without caries in the same visit. CONCLUSION: A low income social condition and mothers highly colonized by SM do not mean necessarily early SM colonization and high caries activity in children with oral homecare. Caries development is significantly associated with high SM scores in the children.

  1. PRIMARY CARIES: AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Solanki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary caries is an initial lesions produced by direct extension from an external surface. Dental caries is called as tooth decay or a cavity is a disease in which bacterial processes changes carbohydrate to acid which than dematerializes the hard tooth structure like enamel, dentin and cementum. Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus are the bacteria responsible for the dental caries by acid production. This article throws light on the dental caries disease, its sign and symptoms, treatment and prevention of it. A review of some patents on dental caries is also provided that summarizes the recent technical advancements taken place in this area.

  2. Rapid methods for detection of bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corfitzen, Charlotte B.; Andersen, B.Ø.; Miller, M.

    2006-01-01

    Traditional methods for detection of bacteria in drinking water e.g. Heterotrophic Plate Counts (HPC) or Most Probable Number (MNP) take 48-72 hours to give the result. New rapid methods for detection of bacteria are needed to protect the consumers against contaminations. Two rapid methods: Measu......: Measurements of Adosine Triphosphate and BactiQuantTM have shown promising results as new monitoring tools, which gives the result within minutes/hours....

  3. The role of chlorhexidine in caries prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autio-Gold, Jaana

    2008-01-01

    The use of chlorhexidine for caries prevention has been a controversial topic among dental educators and clinicians. In several reviews, it has been concluded that the most persistent reduction of mutans streptococci have been achieved by chlorhexidine varnishes, followed by gels and, lastly, mouth rinses. Also, the evidence for using different chlorhexidine modes or a combination of chlorhexidine-fluoride therapy for caries prevention has been "suggestive but incomplete". Variable study designs and lack of data in high-risk children and adults support the need to continue conducting randomized, well-controlled clinical trials and to search for a practical, effective mode of antimicrobial treatment that augments the known effect of fluoride treatments. Currently, the only chlorhexidine-containing products marketed in the United States (US) are mouthrinses containing 0.12 percent chlorhexidine. Based on the available reviews, chlorhexidine rinses have not been highly effective in preventing caries, or at least the clinical data are not convincing. Due to the current lack of long-term clinical evidence for caries prevention and reported side effects, chlorhexidine rinses should not be recommended for caries prevention. Due to the inconclusive literature and sparse clinical data on gels and varnishes, their use for caries prevention should also be studied further to develop evidence-based recommendations for their clinical role in caries prevention. Since dental caries is a disease with a multifactoral etiology, it is currently more appropriate to use other established, evidence-based prevention methods, such as fluoride applications, diet modifications and good oral hygiene practices. Recent findings also indicate that the effect of an antimicrobial agent for reducing the levels of mutans streptococci or plaque reduction may not always correlate with eventual caries reduction. The clinically important outcome is proven reductions in caries. Many advances in the

  4. Improved GLR method to instrument failure detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Hak Yeoung; Chang, Soon Heung

    1985-01-01

    The generalized likehood radio(GLR) method performs statistical tests on the innovations sequence of a Kalman-Buchy filter state estimator for system failure detection and its identification. However, the major drawback of the convensional GLR is to hypothesize particular failure type in each case. In this paper, a method to solve this drawback is proposed. The improved GLR method is applied to a PWR pressurizer and gives successful results in detection and identification of any failure. Furthmore, some benefit on the processing time per each cycle of failure detection and its identification can be accompanied. (Author)

  5. GMDD: a database of GMO detection methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Wei; Yang, Litao; Shen, Kailin; Kim, Banghyun; Kleter, Gijs A; Marvin, Hans J P; Guo, Rong; Liang, Wanqi; Zhang, Dabing

    2008-06-04

    Since more than one hundred events of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) have been developed and approved for commercialization in global area, the GMO analysis methods are essential for the enforcement of GMO labelling regulations. Protein and nucleic acid-based detection techniques have been developed and utilized for GMOs identification and quantification. However, the information for harmonization and standardization of GMO analysis methods at global level is needed. GMO Detection method Database (GMDD) has collected almost all the previous developed and reported GMOs detection methods, which have been grouped by different strategies (screen-, gene-, construct-, and event-specific), and also provide a user-friendly search service of the detection methods by GMO event name, exogenous gene, or protein information, etc. In this database, users can obtain the sequences of exogenous integration, which will facilitate PCR primers and probes design. Also the information on endogenous genes, certified reference materials, reference molecules, and the validation status of developed methods is included in this database. Furthermore, registered users can also submit new detection methods and sequences to this database, and the newly submitted information will be released soon after being checked. GMDD contains comprehensive information of GMO detection methods. The database will make the GMOs analysis much easier.

  6. The evaluation of effect of developer age in the detection of approximal caries using three speed dental x-ray films: an in-vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madalli, Vijaylaxmi B; Annigeri, Rajeshwari G; Basavaraddi, Shrinivas M

    2014-03-01

    Ever since the first radiograph was taken in 1895, radiographs have become an essential part of dental practice. Since radiation exposure for the patients is a major concern, it is important for us to reduce the radiation exposure to the patient and surrounding environment, without compromising the quality of image. Since improper film processing is one of the major causes of poor image quality, it is very important to test dental films under a variety of processing conditions. So this study was conducted to compare the diagnostic accuracy between Kodak Ultraspeed, Ektaspeed and Agfa Dentus M2 Comfort films for the detection of approximal caries in fresh as well as in aged processing solution. Hundred extracted unrestored maxillary and mandibular teeth were aligned in a group of five teeth in each plaster model. Total of 20 plaster models were constructed and only 3 teeth in the middle were utilized for the study. The final sample consisted of 60 teeth in the study. The exposure time for Ultraspeed film was standardized at 0.5 seconds and for Ektaspeed and Agfa Dentus M2 films, the exposure time was 0.32 seconds. For each radiograph two blocks were used simulating bitewing radiograph. All 20 plaster blocks were exposed using three film types at standardized exposure timings with 30 radiographs each week. The procedure was repeated every week until 6 weeks. Radiographs were evaluated by an observer and assessed by following four point scale 0- sound tooth, 1- lesion in enamel, 2- lesion in amelodentinal junction, 3- dentinal lesion. Only distal surfaces were assessed. Thereafter all the teeth were subjected for histological study and actual depth of the lesion was recorded which acted as gold standard and this reading was subtracted in observer readings after radiographic examination. All data collected were analyzed statistically using ANOVA, paired and unpaired t-tests. Ektaspeed and Agfa films required less exposure compared to Ultraspeed film. With respect to

  7. A systematic approach to deep caries removal end points: the peripheral seal concept in adhesive dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alleman, David S; Magne, Pascal

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this article is to present evidence-based protocols for the diagnosis and treatment of deep caries lesions in vital teeth. These protocols combine caries-detecting dye with anatomical and histologic knowledge to arrive at ideal caries removal end points for adhesive restorations. DIAGNOdent laser fluorescence technology can also be used to confirm these end points. These ideal caries removal end points generate a peripheral seal zone that can support long-term biomimetic restorations. A review of the published literature since 1980 on caries, caries diagnosis, and caries treatments and their relationships to adhesive bonding techniques was carried out. Combining anatomical measurements and pathologic and histologic knowledge with caries-detecting dye and DIAGNOdent laser fluorescence technologies can produce ideal caries removal end points for adhesive dentistry without exposing vital pulps.

  8. Illness perceptions amongst individuals with dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mafla, A C; Villalobos-Galvis, F H; Heft, M W

    2018-03-01

    To assess individuals' perception of dental caries, in order to explain how illness representations might influence their coping with the disease. Cross-sectional questionnaire study. 520 consecutive patients (aged ≥18 years) of the General Dentistry Clinic at Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia, Pasto, Colombia who had experienced dental caries. Illness perception of dental caries was assessed using the Illness Perception Questionnaire Revised (IPQ-R). The most frequent self-reported symptoms associated with dental caries were "toothache" (56.2%), "tooth sensitivity" (53.8%) and "mild to sharp pain when eating or drinking" (51.2%). The dimensions of illness perception were related to socio-economic status (SES). Symptoms of "loose or separating teeth" and "pus in your tooth" were associated with dental caries by low SES participants, while "bleeding while brushing, flossing or eating hard food" and "mild to sharp pain when eating or drinking something sweet, hot or cold" were related more to higher SES. Perceptions of caries were related to socioeconomic status. Interventions to promote health literacy in order to improve the capacity to obtain, process and understand basic oral health information could increase an early detection of caries. Copyright© 2018 Dennis Barber Ltd.

  9. Detecting sulphate aerosol geoengineering with different methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Y. T. Eunice; Charlton-Perez, Andrew J.; Lott, Fraser C.; Highwood, Eleanor J.

    2016-12-01

    Sulphate aerosol injection has been widely discussed as a possible way to engineer future climate. Monitoring it would require detecting its effects amidst internal variability and in the presence of other external forcings. We investigate how the use of different detection methods and filtering techniques affects the detectability of sulphate aerosol geoengineering in annual-mean global-mean near-surface air temperature. This is done by assuming a future scenario that injects 5 Tg yr-1 of sulphur dioxide into the stratosphere and cross-comparing simulations from 5 climate models. 64% of the studied comparisons would require 25 years or more for detection when no filter and the multi-variate method that has been extensively used for attributing climate change are used, while 66% of the same comparisons would require fewer than 10 years for detection using a trend-based filter. This highlights the high sensitivity of sulphate aerosol geoengineering detectability to the choice of filter. With the same trend-based filter but a non-stationary method, 80% of the comparisons would require fewer than 10 years for detection. This does not imply sulphate aerosol geoengineering should be deployed, but suggests that both detection methods could be used for monitoring geoengineering in global, annual mean temperature should it be needed.

  10. Sugar Alcohols, Caries Incidence, and Remineralization of Caries Lesions: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kauko K. Mäkinen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Remineralization of minor enamel defects is a normal physiological process that is well known to clinicians and researchers in dentistry and oral biology. This process can be facilitated by various dietary and oral hygiene procedures and may also concern dentin caries lesions. Dental caries is reversible if detected and treated sufficiently early. Habitual use of xylitol, a sugar alcohol of the pentitol type, can be associated with significant reduction in caries incidence and with tooth remineralization. Other dietary polyols that can remarkably lower the incidence of caries include erythritol which is a tetritol-type alditol. Based on known molecular parameters of simple dietary alditols, it is conceivable to predict that their efficacy in caries prevention will follow the homologous series, that is, that the number of OH-groups present in the alditol molecule will determine the efficacy as follows: erythritol≥xylitol>sorbitol. The possible difference between erythritol and xylitol must be confirmed in future clinical trials.

  11. Methods dentists use to diagnose primary caries lesions prior to restorative treatment: findings from The Dental PBRN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rindal, D Brad; Gordan, Valeria V; Litaker, Mark S; Bader, James D; Fellows, Jeffrey L; Qvist, Vibeke; Wallace-Dawson, Martha C; Anderson, Mary L; Gilbert, Gregg H

    2010-12-01

    To (1) quantify the diagnostic techniques used by Dental Practice-Based Research Network (DPBRN) dentists before they decide to treat primary caries lesions surgically and (2) examine whether certain dentist, practice, and patient characteristics are associated with their use. A total of 228 DPBRN dentists recorded information on 5676 consecutive restorations inserted due to primary caries lesions on 3751 patients. Practitioner-investigators placed a mean of 24.9 (SD=12.4) restorations. Lesions were categorised as posterior proximal, anterior proximal, posterior occlusal, posterior smooth, or anterior smooth. Techniques used to diagnose the lesion were categorised as clinical assessment, radiographs, and/or optical. Statistical analysis utilised generalised mixed-model ANOVA to account for the hierarchical structure of the data. By lesion category, the diagnostic technique combinations used most frequently were clinical assessment plus radiographs for posterior proximal (47%), clinical assessment for anterior proximal (51%), clinical assessment for posterior occlusal (46%), clinical assessment for posterior smooth (77%), and clinical assessment for anterior smooth (80%). Diagnostic technique was significantly associated with lesion category after adjusting for clustering in dentists (p<0.0001). These results - obtained during actual clinical procedures rather than from questionnaire-based hypothetical scenarios - quantified the diagnostic techniques most commonly used during the actual delivery of routine restorative care. Diagnostic technique varied by lesion category and with certain practice and patient characteristics. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Caries prevalence and enamel defects in 5- and 10-year-old children with cleft lip and/or palate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundell, Anna Lena; Nilsson, Anna-Karin; Ullbro, Christer

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of dental caries and enamel defects in 5- and 10-year-old Swedish children with cleft lip and/or palate (CL(P)) in comparison to non-cleft controls. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study group consisted of 139 children with CL(P) (80 subjects aged 5 years and 59...... prevalence of enamel defects was found in CL(P) children of both age groups and anterior permanent teeth were most commonly affected. CONCLUSIONS: Preschool children with cleft lip and/or palate seem to have more caries in the primary dentition than age-matched non-cleft controls. Enamel defects were more...... aged 10 years) and 313 age-matched non-cleft controls. All children were examined by one of two calibrated examiners. Caries was scored according to the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS-II) and enamel defects as presence and frequency of hypoplasia and hypomineralization...

  13. Evaluation of Chair-Side Assays in High Microbiological Caries-Risk Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravia, Marta Estela; Silva, Lea Assed Bezerra; Silva, Raquel Assed Bezerra; Lucisano, Marília Pacífico; Echevarría, Andrea Uribe; Echevarría, Jorge Uribe; Nelson-Filho, Paulo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the commercial chair-side assays Saliva-Check Mutans and ClinproTM Cario L-PopTM in high microbiological caries-risk dental students compared with conventional semi-quantitative colony counting culture-based technique as the reference method. Saliva samples from 93 subjects of both sexes aged 18-26 years were seeded (Köhler and Bratthall method) on plates containing SB-20M culture medium method and 12 subjects with high caries risk were selected. These 12 individuals were subjected to determination of caries risk using two commercial rapid detection chair-side assays (Saliva-Check Mutans and ClinproTM Cario L-PopTM) according to the manufacturers' instructions. The results were analyzed by the Kappa correlation test using SAS statistical software. There was a perfect agreement (Kappa=1) among the three caries risk evaluation methods - chair-side assays and semi-quantitative CFU count (control) - in all subjects. The results suggest that the commercial chair-side assays evaluated in this study may be practical and useful to identify high microbiological caries-risk subjects.

  14. Terahertz pulsed imaging for the monitoring of dental caries: a comparison with x-ray imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagoz, Burcu; Kamburoglu, Kıvanc; Altan, Hakan

    2017-07-01

    Dental caries in sliced samples are investigated using terahertz pulsed imaging. Frequency domain terahertz response of these structures consistent with X-ray imaging results show the potential of this technique in the detection of early caries.

  15. Terahertz pulsed imaging study of dental caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagoz, Burcu; Altan, Hakan; Kamburoglu, Kıvanç

    2015-07-01

    Current diagnostic techniques in dentistry rely predominantly on X-rays to monitor dental caries. Terahertz Pulsed Imaging (TPI) has great potential for medical applications since it is a nondestructive imaging method. It does not cause any ionization hazard on biological samples due to low energy of THz radiation. Even though it is strongly absorbed by water which exhibits very unique chemical and physical properties that contribute to strong interaction with THz radiation, teeth can still be investigated in three dimensions. Recent investigations suggest that this method can be used in the early identification of dental diseases and imperfections in the tooth structure without the hazards of using techniques which rely on x-rays. We constructed a continuous wave (CW) and time-domain reflection mode raster scan THz imaging system that enables us to investigate various teeth samples in two or three dimensions. The samples comprised of either slices of individual tooth samples or rows of teeth embedded in wax, and the imaging was done by scanning the sample across the focus of the THz beam. 2D images were generated by acquiring the intensity of the THz radiation at each pixel, while 3D images were generated by collecting the amplitude of the reflected signal at each pixel. After analyzing the measurements in both the spatial and frequency domains, the results suggest that the THz pulse is sensitive to variations in the structure of the samples that suggest that this method can be useful in detecting the presence of caries.

  16. Evaluation of non-microbial salivary caries activity parameters and salivary biochemical indicators in predicting dental caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Kaur

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the present study was the evaluation of non-microbial salivary caries activity parameters and salivary biochemical indicators in predicting dental caries. Materials and Methods: The present study was carried out on 60 children, aged 4-6 years, selected from the schools of Panchkula district, Haryana, on the basis of their caries status. Level of hydration, flow rate, pH, buffering capacity, relative viscosity, calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase levels in caries-free and caries-active children were evaluated. Results: Results showed that 90% of subjects in the caries-free group and 30% of subjects in the caries-active group had normal level of hydration value of less than 60 s and the difference was found to be statistically very highly significant. Normal flow rate of stimulated saliva was found in 90% of the subjects in caries-free group and 33.3% subjects in the caries active group and difference was found to be statistically very highly significant. Adequate salivary pH was found in 100% subjects in caries-free group and 30% in caries-active group and the difference was statistically very highly significant. Conclusion: To conclude, within limitations of this study, it became clear that normal level of hydration and higher values for flow rate, pH, buffering capacity of saliva lead to good oral health and a reduced caries occurrence. Increased salivary viscosity plays a role in increasing caries incidence. Salivary biochemical indicators like calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase also play their respective role in determining caries susceptibility of an individual. These salivary parameters can be used as diagnostic tool for caries risk assessment.

  17. Caries status in young Colombian children expressed by the ICCMS™ visual/radiographic combined caries staging system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortes, Andrea; Ekstrand, Kim Rud; Gamboa, Luis Fernando

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To report (1) the caries experience prevalence and mean, and the caries severity and distribution patterns, expressed clinically and combined with radiographs with the conventional and ICCMS™ systems in young children from Bogotá, Colombia; (2) the contribution of including radiographs...... to the clinical caries scoring and (3) in which surfaces the radiograph adds to the clinical caries registration. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Six hundred children from kindergartens/schools were enrolled: Cohort A: 2-year (n = 200), Cohort B: 4-year (n = 200) and Cohort C: 6-year (n = 200) olds. Radiographs were taken...... of the 4- and 6- year olds. Children were examined clinically using the Clinical (C) and Radiographic (R) ICCMS™-epi Caries Scoring Systems, staging caries lesions (d) as: Initial (Cepi/RA), Moderate (CM/RB) or Extensive (CE/RC). Caries experience including missing (m) and filled (f) surfaces was expressed...

  18. EARLY CHILDHOOD CARIES: CAN YOU PREVENT IT?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. B. Miloserdova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The probability of the caries development largely depends on the oral microflora imbalance. This imbalance can be corrected with probiotics. The article analyzes the results of studies on the use of adapted milk formulas with probiotics to prevent caries in early childhood. It shows that the use of adapted formulas with probiotics is accompanied by a decrease in the frequency of releasing cariogenic streptococci and actinomycetes with a simultaneous increase in the frequency of detecting bacterial antagonists of the cariogenic flora, normalization of sIgA concentration in saliva, and decrease in the severity of the caries process. The survey results will contribute to the development of effective approaches to prevention of dental caries in children.

  19. Immunization against dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, Toshihiko; Oho, Takahiko; Shimazaki, Yoshihiro; Nakano, Yoshio

    2002-05-15

    Dental caries is one of the most common infectious diseases. Of the oral bacteria, mutans streptococci, such as Streptococcus mutans and S. sobrinus, are considered to be causative agents of dental caries in humans. There have been numerous studies of the immunology of mutans streptococci. To control dental caries, dental caries vaccines have been produced using various cell-surface antigens of these organisms. Progress in recombinant DNA technology and peptide synthesis has been applied to the development of recombinant and synthetic peptide vaccines to control dental caries. Significant protective effects against dental caries have been shown in experimental animals, such as mice, rats and monkeys, which have been subcutaneously, orally, or intranasally immunized with these antigens. Only a few studies, however, have examined the efficacy of dental caries vaccines in humans. Recently, local passive immunization using murine monoclonal antibodies, transgenic plant antibodies, egg-yolk antibodies, and bovine milk antibodies to antigens of mutans streptococci have been used to control the colonization of the organisms and the induction of dental caries in human. Such immunization procedures may be a safer approach for controlling human dental caries than active immunization.

  20. INDICATION OF CARIES FREE PREVALENCE AMONG 12 YEARS OLD STUDENTS IN IZEH CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M MOUSAVINASAB

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Caries is a factor of teeth missing and its prevalence and also its expenditure are very light in Iran. Treatment ways need a lot of time, but they have little success, so it is important to prevent caries. Now if we want to have a successful model, having person's statistics is important and useful for our Research purposes. This research was done to detect caries free prevalence in students twelve year of age in Izeh city and it contained 2groups of girls and boys. It was done to indicate the connection between caries free prevalence and individual oral hygiene with brushing times, numbers during 24 hours. Methods: This research is a kind of epidemiological and descriptive study. It was done in Izeh city in 78-79 educational years. Its only document, was selection the 12 years old students. Informations collected by clinical inspections and interrogatory J method Sample volume was 400 students according to this formula N=Z2(1-p/ d2. We use Chi-square statistics test and also its soft disk (SPSS or statitistics program was about social science. Conclusion: Caries free prevalence within the whole sample was 16.5%and it was 17.5% within the girls and 15-5% within boys. According to brushing times numbers, 25% brushed once a day, 47% brushed twice and 5.5% brushed three time a day and 22.5% never brushed their teeth. Discussin and conclusion: According to the obtained dates, caries prevalence related to sex difference was meaningless and they had no connection with each other there was a meaningful connection between brushing times, numbers and oral hygiene situation which caries free developed by increasing anyone of them.

  1. Measuring Dental Caries in the Mixed Dentition by ICDAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eino Honkala

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Caries has traditionally been assessed with WHO criteria including only obvious caries lesions. ICDAS has been developed to detect also the enamel caries lesions. This study aims to study caries and the associations of the number of caries lesions between the permanent and primary molars with ICDAS in the mixed dentition of the first and second grade primary school children. The clinical examinations of 485 children were conducted by four examiners with high reproducibility (inter- and intraexaminer kappas >0.9. The mean number of caries lesions—especially dentine caries—seemed to be higher in the second primary molars than in the first permanent molars. There were significant correlations between the number of lesions on occlusal and lingual surfaces between the primary and permanent molars. Enamel caries lesions, restorations, and caries experience did not increase according to age. Therefore, caries might be increasing in this population. As a conclusion, ICDAS recording seems to give appropriate information from the occurrence of caries lesions and its correlations between the primary and permanent teeth and surfaces.

  2. Caries-related factors and bacterial composition of supragingival plaques in caries free and caries active Algerian adults

    OpenAIRE

    Amina Hoceini; Nihel Klouche Khelil; Ilhem Ben-Yelles; Amine Mesli; Sara Ziouani; Lotfi Ghellai; Nadia Aissaoui; Fatima Nas; Mounia Arab

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To compare oral hygiene practices, education and social background, food intake and oral malodor of Algerian adults suffering from dental caries with normal controls, and to determine and compare the bacterial composition of the supragingival plaques from the above-mentioned groups. Methods: Participants completed a questionnaire and were clinically examined for dental caries using decayed, missing and filled teeth index according to the criteria laid down by the World Health Or...

  3. Dental Calculus Arrest of Dental Caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Paul H.; Rams, Thomas E.

    2016-01-01

    Background An inverse relationship between dental calculus mineralization and dental caries demineralization on teeth has been noted in some studies. Dental calculus may even form superficial layers over existing dental caries and arrest their progression, but this phenomenon has been only rarely documented and infrequently considered in the field of Cariology. To further assess the occurrence of dental calculus arrest of dental caries, this study evaluated a large number of extracted human teeth for the presence and location of dental caries, dental calculus, and dental plaque biofilms. Materials and methods A total of 1,200 teeth were preserved in 10% buffered formal saline, and viewed while moist by a single experienced examiner using a research stereomicroscope at 15-25× magnification. Representative teeth were sectioned and photographed, and their dental plaque biofilms subjected to gram-stain examination with light microscopy at 100× magnification. Results Dental calculus was observed on 1,140 (95%) of the extracted human teeth, and no dental carious lesions were found underlying dental calculus-covered surfaces on 1,139 of these teeth. However, dental calculus arrest of dental caries was found on one (0.54%) of 187 evaluated teeth that presented with unrestored proximal enamel caries. On the distal surface of a maxillary premolar tooth, dental calculus mineralization filled the outer surface cavitation of an incipient dental caries lesion. The dental calculus-covered carious lesion extended only slightly into enamel, and exhibited a brown pigmentation characteristic of inactive or arrested dental caries. In contrast, the tooth's mesial surface, without a superficial layer of dental calculus, had a large carious lesion going through enamel and deep into dentin. Conclusions These observations further document the potential protective effects of dental calculus mineralization against dental caries. PMID:27446993

  4. Early diagnosis of incipient caries based on non-invasive lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velescu, A.; Todea, C.; Vitez, B.

    2016-03-01

    AIM: The aim of this study is to detect incipient caries and enamel demineralization using laser fluorescence.This serves only as an auxilary aid to identify and to monitor the development of these lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 6 patients were involved in this study, three females and three male. Each patient underwent a professional cleaning, visual examination of the oral cavity, and then direct inspection using DiagnoCam and DIAGNOdent. After data recording each patient was submitted to retro-alveolar X-ray on teeth that were detected with enamel lesions. All data was collected and analyzed statistically. RESULTS: Of 36 areas considered in clinically healthy, 24 carious surfaces were found using laser fluorescence, a totally non-invasive method for detecting incipient carious lesions compared with the radiographic examination. CONCLUSIONS: This method has good applicability for patients because it improves treatment plan by early detection of caries and involves less fear for anxious patients and children.

  5. Minimal intervention dentistry: part 6. Caries inhibition by resin infiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasfargues, J J; Bonte, E; Guerrieri, A; Fezzani, L

    2013-01-01

    Resin infiltration has made possible an innovative way of treating initial carious lesions that fits perfectly with the concept of minimal intervention dentistry. Infiltration of carious lesions represents a new approach to the treatment of non-cavitated lesions of proximal and smooth surfaces of deciduous and permanent teeth. The major advantage of this method is that it is a non-invasive treatment, preserving tooth structure and that it can be achieved in a single visit. While this therapy can rightly be categorised as minimum intervention dentistry, clinical experience is limited and further controlled clinical trials are required to assess its long-term results. The inhibition of caries progression by resin infiltration should now be considered an alternative to invasive restorations, but involves early detection of lesions and does not allow for appropriate monitoring of the caries risk.

  6. Novel methods for detecting buried explosive devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kercel, S.W.; Burlage, R.S.; Patek, D.R.; Smith, C.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Hibbs, A.D.; Rayner, T.J. [Quantum Magnetics, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Quantum Magnetics, Inc. (QM) are exploring novel landmine detection technologies. Technologies considered here include bioreporter bacteria, swept acoustic resonance, nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR), and semiotic data fusion. Bioreporter bacteria look promising for third-world humanitarian applications; they are inexpensive, and deployment does not require high-tech methods. Swept acoustic resonance may be a useful adjunct to magnetometers in humanitarian demining. For military demining, NQR is a promising method for detecting explosive substances; of 50,000 substances that have been tested, none has an NQR signature that can be mistaken for RDX or TNT. For both military and commercial demining, sensor fusion entails two daunting tasks, identifying fusible features in both present-day and emerging technologies, and devising a fusion algorithm that runs in real-time on cheap hardware. Preliminary research in these areas is encouraging. A bioreporter bacterium for TNT detection is under development. Investigation has just started in swept acoustic resonance as an approach to a cheap mine detector for humanitarian use. Real-time wavelet processing appears to be a key to extending NQR bomb detection into mine detection, including TNT-based mines. Recent discoveries in semiotics may be the breakthrough that will lead to a robust fused detection scheme.

  7. Caries og drikkevandets kvalitet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvin, Erik; Bardow, Allan; Bruvo, Maja

    2011-01-01

    Drikkevandskvaliteten har stor betydning for forekomsten af caries blandt 15 årige skolebørn, også selv om de bruger fluoridholdigt tandpasta. Ud over den kendte effekt af fluorid har vi vist, at calcium også har en væsentlig betydning. Begge ioner forebygger caries. Denne viden har væsentlig...

  8. Quantitative boron detection by neutron transmission method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okka, M.; Genceli, M.; Eren, E.; Bayulken, A.

    2008-01-01

    //Quantitative boron detection is mainly performed by chemical methods like colorimetric titration. High neutron absorption cross section of natural boron makes attractive its detection by absorption measurements. This work is an extension of earlier investigations where neutron radiography technique was used for boron detection. In the present investigation, the neutron absorption rate of boron containing solutions is the way to measure quantitatively the boron content of the solutions. The investigation was carried out in Istanbul TRIGA Mark-II reactor. In the end of the experiments, it was observed that even |ppw| grade boron in aqueous solution can be easily detected. The use of this method is certainly very useful for boron utilizing industries like glass and steel industries.The major disadvantage of the method is the obligation to use always aqueous solutions to be able to detect homogeneously the boron content. Then, steel or glass samples have to be put first in an appropriate solution form. The irradiation of steel samples can give the distribution of boron by the help of a imaging and this suggested method will give its quantitative measurement. The superiority of this method are its quick response time and its accuracy. To test this accuracy, a supposed unknown , solution of boric acid is irradiated and then calculated by the help of the calibration curve. The measured value of boric acid was 0.89 mg and the calculated value was found to be 0.98 mg which gives an accuracy of 10 %. It was also seen that the method is more accurate for low concentration. (authors)

  9. Radioimmunoassay method for detection of gonorrhea antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    A novel radioimmunoassay for the detection of gonorrhea antibodies in serum is described. A radionuclide is bound to gonorrhea antigens produced by a growth culture. In the presence of gonorrhea antibodies in the serum, an antigen-antibody conjugate is formed, the concentration of which can be measured with conventional radiometric methods. The radioimmunoassay is highly specific

  10. A method for detecting hydrophobic patches protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lijnzaad, P.; Berendsen, H.J.C.; Argos, P.

    1996-01-01

    A method for the detection of hydrophobic patches on the surfaces of protein tertiary structures is presented, it delineates explicit contiguous pieces of surface of arbitrary size and shape that consist solely of carbon and sulphur atoms using a dot representation of the solvent-accessible surface,

  11. GMDD: a database of GMO detection methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dong, W.; Yang, L.; Shen, K.; Kim, B.; Kleter, G.A.; Marvin, H.J.P.; Guo, R.; Liang, W.; Zhang, D.

    2008-01-01

    Since more than one hundred events of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) have been developed and approved for commercialization in global area, the GMO analysis methods are essential for the enforcement of GMO labelling regulations. Protein and nucleic acid-based detection techniques have been

  12. Correlation between caries prevalence and chronic perodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Entezari

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Periodontitis and dental caries may be synergistically associated, negatively associated, or completely independent.The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between these two diseases and investigate the prevalence of dental caries in periodontitis. Methods: This cross- sectional study has been performed in 180 samples in two groups: periodontal and control group during 2012-2013 in Babol Dental School.All 180 patients were divided into two groups, including 90 cases with chronic periodontitis as the periodontal group (PG and 90 cases with healthy gums as the control group ( probing depth between 2- 3 mm (HG.Clinical measurments including Gingival Index ( GI, Bleeding Index( BI, Clinical Attachment Loss (CAL, Periodontal Pocket Depth (PPD were used to assess the severity of periodontal disease . The clinical features of control group were healthy gums , probing less than 3 mm in depth, and CAL< 1mm . The examination to measure AL was conducted using a Williams’s periodontal probe .In chronic periodontitis group , the patients had GI≥1 and CAL ≥ 1 .The assessment of caries of patients was conducted using bitewing radiography for proximal caries detection , dent on the use of explorer and direct observation. A p-value≤0.05 is considered as significant. Results: The results of this study showed that the mean number of decayed and filled teeth (DFT in periodontal group was 4.32 ± 0.17, and in healthy group was 2.16 ± 0.17.DFT in males with periodontitis was 4.85 ± 0.17 and in females was 4.3 ± 0.17 ,while the healthy males was 2.54 ± 0.17, and females was 2.25 ± 0.17 therefore, the mean DFT in the periodontal group was more than the healthy group (p≤0.05 . Conclusion : Based on our findings, in patients with periodontitis, more dental carries were more significant than the healthy group.

  13. An in vitro comparison of diagnostic abilities of conventional radiography, storage phosphor, and cone beam computed tomography to determine occlusal and approximal caries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kayipmaz, Saadettin, E-mail: kayipmaz@ktu.edu.tr [Karadeniz Technical University, Faculty of Dentistry, Department of Oral Diagnosis and Radiology, Farabi, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Sezgin, Omer Said, E-mail: omersaidsezgin@gmail.com [Karadeniz Technical University, Faculty of Dentistry, Department of Oral Diagnosis and Radiology, Farabi, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Saricaoglu, Senem Tugra, E-mail: senem_tugra@hotmail.com [Karadeniz Technical University, Faculty of Dentistry, Department of Oral Diagnosis and Radiology, Farabi, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Can, Gamze, E-mail: gcanktu@yahoo.com [Karadeniz Technical University Faculty of Medicine Department of Public Health (Turkey)

    2011-11-15

    Aim: The aim of this study was to compare conventional radiography, storage phosphor plate, and cone beam computed tomography for in vitro determination of occlusal and approximal caries. Methods: A total of 72 extracted human premolar and molar teeth were selected. Teeth were radiographed with conventional intraoral radiography, a storage phosphor plate system, and cone beam computed tomography and evaluated by two observers. The teeth were then separated and examined with a stereomicroscope and a scanner at approximately 8x magnification. Results: CBCT was statistically superior to conventional radiography and phosphor plate for determining occlusal caries. No significant difference from CBCT, conventional radiography and the phosphor plate system for determining approximal caries was found. Conclusion: The CBCT system may be used as an auxiliary method for the detection of caries.

  14. An in vitro comparison of diagnostic abilities of conventional radiography, storage phosphor, and cone beam computed tomography to determine occlusal and approximal caries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kayipmaz, Saadettin; Sezgin, Omer Said; Saricaoglu, Senem Tugra; Can, Gamze

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to compare conventional radiography, storage phosphor plate, and cone beam computed tomography for in vitro determination of occlusal and approximal caries. Methods: A total of 72 extracted human premolar and molar teeth were selected. Teeth were radiographed with conventional intraoral radiography, a storage phosphor plate system, and cone beam computed tomography and evaluated by two observers. The teeth were then separated and examined with a stereomicroscope and a scanner at approximately 8x magnification. Results: CBCT was statistically superior to conventional radiography and phosphor plate for determining occlusal caries. No significant difference from CBCT, conventional radiography and the phosphor plate system for determining approximal caries was found. Conclusion: The CBCT system may be used as an auxiliary method for the detection of caries.

  15. Detection of early interproximal caries in vitro using laser fluorescence, dye-enhanced laser fluorescence and direct visual examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggertsson, H; Analoui, M; van der Veen, M; González-Cabezas, C; Eckert, G; Stookey, G

    1999-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the use of laser fluorescence (LF) for the detection of early interproximal carious lesions and whether the detection could be enhanced using a fluorescent dye (DELF). Direct visual examination (DV) was used for comparison. Eighty extracted teeth were used, arranged in 20 blocks, each block having 2 premolars and 2 molars, lined up in a simulated sextant situation. After cleaning with a microabrasion kit, a subcontact window on half of the surfaces (60) was exposed to Carbopol white-spot solution for 5 days. The teeth were remounted in stone and examined by three independent examiners. For LF and DELF an argon laser was used (mixed wavelength of 488 and 514 nm) viewed through glasses (excluding wavelength stained with rhodamine B, and images were taken using a confocal microscope. The images were analyzed using a histogram program for lesion depth and image area. Lesions were present in 62 out of 120 approximal surfaces, with an average depth of 60 microm (range 17-190 microm). Sensitivity ranges for LF, DELF and DV were 56-74, 61-79 and 58-74%, and specificity ranges 67-78, 86-98 and 83-97%, respectively. With this model DELF compared favorably with DV and LF in sensitivity, but specificity was better for DELF and DV than for LF.

  16. NEW DATA ON THE CLINICAL AND THERAPEUTIC MANAGEMENT OF OCCLUSAL CARIES (III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin ANDRIAN

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the control of occlusal caries, the major challenges are related not only to the detection of non-cavitary lesions, but also to the establishment of the treatment strategies to be subsequently applied. Considering the objective of each treatment, that of helping the patient, it is essential to control the progression of carious lesions by means of nonsurgical, preventive/therapeutical methods, whenever necessary. The new strategies applied in caries management are based on the evaluation and predictibility of possible risks, a major aspect in the daily taking of therapeutical decisions. The management plan should include: (I patient’s level of risk, (II patient’s activity level and (III severity of the lesion. Various strategies for a most efficient management of patient’s problems, as well as of the carious lesions, have been elaborated by specialized medical organisms, such as: strategies established within ICDAS, CAMBRA, strategies of the caries management system (SMC and protocols indicated by the system of caries classification according to ADA (American Dental Association. The mission of any new model of caries management is first of all to preserve the dental tissues, and to restore them when only recommended – an idea to guide the decisions of practitioners, starting with the moment of anamnesis, clinical examination and estabishment of diagnosis, until the end of the treatment

  17. Intrusion detection using pattern recognition methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Nan; Yu, Li

    2007-09-01

    Today, cyber attacks such as worms, scanning, active attackers are pervasive in Internet. A number of security approaches are proposed to address this problem, among which the intrusion detection system (IDS) appears to be one of the major and most effective solutions for defending against malicious users. Essentially, intrusion detection problem can be generalized as a classification problem, whose goal is to distinguish normal behaviors and anomalies. There are many well-known pattern recognition algorithms for classification purpose. In this paper we describe the details of applying pattern recognition methods to the intrusion detection research field. Experimenting on the KDDCUP 99 data set, we first use information gain metric to reduce the dimensionality of the original feature space. Two supervised methods, the support vector machine as well as the multi-layer neural network have been tested and the results display high detection rate and low false alarm rate, which is promising for real world applications. In addition, three unsupervised methods, Single-Linkage, K-Means, and CLIQUE, are also implemented and evaluated in the paper. The low computational complexity reveals their application in initial data reduction process.

  18. [Preventive dentistry 5. Secondary caries].

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollanders, A.C.C.; Kuper, N.K.; Opdam, N.J.M.; Huysmans, M.C.D.N.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Secondary caries is reported as one of the most important reasons for replacing restorations. The patient's general caries risk plays an important role in the development of secondary caries. The connection, at the patient level, between various factors, the risk of caries and restoration factors,

  19. A novel method for detection of apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zagariya, Alexander M., E-mail: zagariya@uic.edu

    2012-04-15

    There are two different Angiotensin II (ANG II) peptides in nature: Human type (ANG II) and Bovine type (ANG II*). These eight amino acid peptides differ only at position 5 where Valine is replaced by Isoleucine in the Bovine type. They are present in all species studied so far. These amino acids are different by only one atom of carbon. This difference is so small, that it will allow any of ANG II, Bovine or Human antibodies to interact with all species and create a universal method for apoptosis detection. ANG II concentrations are found at substantially higher levels in apoptotic, compared to non-apoptotic, tissues. ANG II accumulation can lead to DNA damage, mutations, carcinogenesis and cell death. We demonstrate that Bovine antiserum can be used for universal detection of apoptosis. In 2010, the worldwide market for apoptosis detection reached the $20 billion mark and significantly increases each year. Most commercially available methods are related to Annexin V and TUNNEL. Our new method based on ANG II is more widely known to physicians and scientists compared to previously used methods. Our approach offers a novel alternative for assessing apoptosis activity with enhanced sensitivity, at a lower cost and ease of use.

  20. Molecular methods for the detection of mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, C; Marcelino, L A; Conde, A R; Saraiva, C; Giphart-Gassler, M; De Nooij-van Dalen, A G; Van Buuren-van Seggelen, V; Van der Keur, M; May, C A; Cole, J; Lehmann, A R; Steinsgrimsdottir, H; Beare, D; Capulas, E; Armour, J A

    2000-01-01

    We report the results of a collaborative study aimed at developing reliable, direct assays for mutation in human cells. The project used common lymphoblastoid cell lines, both with and without mutagen treatment, as a shared resource to validate the development of new molecular methods for the detection of low-level mutations in the presence of a large excess of normal alleles. As the "gold standard, " hprt mutation frequencies were also measured on the same samples. The methods under development included i) the restriction site mutation (RSM) assay, in which mutations lead to the destruction of a restriction site; ii) minisatellite length-change mutation, in which mutations lead to alleles containing new numbers of tandem repeat units; iii) loss of heterozygosity for HLA epitopes, in which antibodies can be used to direct selection for mutant cells; iv) multiple fluorescence-based long linker arm nucleotides assay (mf-LLA) technology, for the detection of substitutional mutations; v) detection of alterations in the TP53 locus using a (CA) array as the target for the screening; and vi) PCR analysis of lymphocytes for the presence of the BCL2 t(14:18) translocation. The relative merits of these molecular methods are discussed, and a comparison made with more "traditional" methods.

  1. A novel method for detection of apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagariya, Alexander M.

    2012-01-01

    There are two different Angiotensin II (ANG II) peptides in nature: Human type (ANG II) and Bovine type (ANG II*). These eight amino acid peptides differ only at position 5 where Valine is replaced by Isoleucine in the Bovine type. They are present in all species studied so far. These amino acids are different by only one atom of carbon. This difference is so small, that it will allow any of ANG II, Bovine or Human antibodies to interact with all species and create a universal method for apoptosis detection. ANG II concentrations are found at substantially higher levels in apoptotic, compared to non-apoptotic, tissues. ANG II accumulation can lead to DNA damage, mutations, carcinogenesis and cell death. We demonstrate that Bovine antiserum can be used for universal detection of apoptosis. In 2010, the worldwide market for apoptosis detection reached the $20 billion mark and significantly increases each year. Most commercially available methods are related to Annexin V and TUNNEL. Our new method based on ANG II is more widely known to physicians and scientists compared to previously used methods. Our approach offers a novel alternative for assessing apoptosis activity with enhanced sensitivity, at a lower cost and ease of use.

  2. Metagenomic Detection Methods in Biopreparedness Outbreak Scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Oskar Erik; Hansen, Trine; Knutsson, Rickard

    2013-01-01

    In the field of diagnostic microbiology, rapid molecular methods are critically important for detecting pathogens. With rapid and accurate detection, preventive measures can be put in place early, thereby preventing loss of life and further spread of a disease. From a preparedness perspective...... of a clinical sample, creating a metagenome, in a single week of laboratory work. As new technologies emerge, their dissemination and capacity building must be facilitated, and criteria for use, as well as guidelines on how to report results, must be established. This article focuses on the use of metagenomics......, from sample collection to data analysis and to some extent NGS, for the detection of pathogens, the integration of the technique in outbreak response systems, and the risk-based evaluation of sample processing in routine diagnostics labs. The article covers recent advances in the field, current debate...

  3. Hough transform methods used for object detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qussay A Salih; Abdul Rahman Ramli; Md Mahmud Hassan Prakash

    2001-01-01

    The Hough transform (HT) is a robust parameter estimator of multi-dimensional features in images. The HT is an established technique which evidences a shape by mapping image edge points into a parameter space. The HT is technique which is used to isolate curves of a give shape in an image. The classical HT requires that the curve be specified in some parametric from and, hence is most commonly used in the detection of regular curves. The HT has been generalized so that it is capable of detecting arbitrary curved shapes. The main advantage of this transform technique is that it is very tolerant of gaps in the actual object boundaries the classical HT for the detection of line , we will indicate how it can be applied to the detection of arbitrary shapes. Sometimes the straight line HT is efficient enough to detect features such as artificial curves. The HT is an established technique for extracting geometric shapes based on the duality definition of the points on a curve and their parameters. This technique has been developed for extracting simple geometric shapes such as lines, circles and ellipses as well as arbitrary shapes. The HT provides robustness against discontinuous or missing features, points or edges are mapped into a partitioned parameter of Hough space as individual votes where peaks denote the feature of interest represented in a non-analytically tabular form. The main drawback of the HT technique is the computational requirement which has an exponential growth of memory space and processing time as the number of parameters used to represent a primitive increases. For this reason most of the research on the HT has focused on reducing the computational burden for extracting of arbitrary shapes under more general transformations include a overview of describing the methods for the detection image processing programs are frequently required to detect and particle classification in an industrial setting, a standard algorithms for this detection lines

  4. Effectiveness of chemomechanical caries removal agents Papacarie® and Carie-Care™ in primary molars: An in vitro study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahana, Suzan; Vasa, Aron Arun Kumar; Geddam, Divya; Reddy, Vamsi Krishna; Nalluri, Sowjanya; Velagapudi, Nagajyothi

    2016-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: The chemomechanical caries removal system is made presently available containing a natural proteolytic enzyme for ease in the excavation of infected dentin. The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy and efficiency of caries removal using Papacarie® and Carie-Care™. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 extracted deciduous molars with proximal caries were collected, and each tooth was sectioned mesiodistally in the center of the carious lesion so that the two halves (buccal and lingual or palatal) have similar carious lesions, thus 30 teeth yielded 60 specimens. The specimens from each tooth were divided alternatively into two groups for caries excavation either using Papacarie® or Carie-Care™ so as to avoid selection bias. Paired t-test was used to compare mean time taken for caries removal and Fischer's exact test was done for comparing bacterial remnants after caries excavation. Results: Mean time taken for caries removal was significantly higher for Carie-Care™ (427.13 s) when compared to Papacarie® (385.8 s). Papacarie® was found to be significantly more efficient in caries removal with marked reduction in the bacterial remnants following excavation. However, both gels were found to be conservative as dentinal tubule destruction was not evident in either of them. Conclusion: Both Papacarie® and Carie-Care™ were found to be conservative in caries removal. Papacarie® was more efficient in removing bacteria in lesser time from the infected carious lesion. PMID:27195222

  5. Lifting wavelet method of target detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jun; Zhang, Chi; Jiang, Xu; Wang, Fang; Zhang, Jin

    2009-11-01

    Image target recognition plays a very important role in the areas of scientific exploration, aeronautics and space-to-ground observation, photography and topographic mapping. Complex environment of the image noise, fuzzy, all kinds of interference has always been to affect the stability of recognition algorithm. In this paper, the existence of target detection in real-time, accuracy problems, as well as anti-interference ability, using lifting wavelet image target detection methods. First of all, the use of histogram equalization, the goal difference method to obtain the region, on the basis of adaptive threshold and mathematical morphology operations to deal with the elimination of the background error. Secondly, the use of multi-channel wavelet filter wavelet transform of the original image de-noising and enhancement, to overcome the general algorithm of the noise caused by the sensitive issue of reducing the rate of miscarriage of justice will be the multi-resolution characteristics of wavelet and promotion of the framework can be designed directly in the benefits of space-time region used in target detection, feature extraction of targets. The experimental results show that the design of lifting wavelet has solved the movement of the target due to the complexity of the context of the difficulties caused by testing, which can effectively suppress noise, and improve the efficiency and speed of detection.

  6. Radiographic diagnoses and treatment decisions on approximal caries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espelid, I.

    1987-01-01

    Mineral loss which represents a threshold value for radiographic diagnosis, cannot be defined exactly. For clinical use 10% mineral loss in the direction of the X-ray beam may constitute a border line lesion for radiographic detection, and caries lesions without cavitation seemed to be beyond this diagnostic threshold. The degree of caries estimated by using radiographs is fairly closely related to the depth of the tissue changes recorded in the prepared cavity. Radiographic examinations more often lead to underestimation than overestimation of the degree of caries. Radiographic caries diagnoses made at different degrees of penetration toward the pulp showed insignificant variations with respect to quality, but the observers were more confident of caries being present (used more strict criterion) when they scored caries in inner dentin. Consensus on diagnostic criteria and improved diagnostic quality are considerably more important to the quality of therapeutic decisions on approximal caries than viewing conditions and film density. A semi-radiopaque material in Class II fillings seems to offer advantages compared to amalgam in respect of the diagnosis of secondary caries and marginal defects. There is a danger that dentists will restore approximal caries lesions too early and before these can be diagnosed in dentin radiographically

  7. Research and Design of Rootkit Detection Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Leian; Yin, Zuanxing; Shen, Yuli; Lin, Haitao; Wang, Hongjiang

    Rootkit is one of the most important issues of network communication systems, which is related to the security and privacy of Internet users. Because of the existence of the back door of the operating system, a hacker can use rootkit to attack and invade other people's computers and thus he can capture passwords and message traffic to and from these computers easily. With the development of the rootkit technology, its applications are more and more extensive and it becomes increasingly difficult to detect it. In addition, for various reasons such as trade secrets, being difficult to be developed, and so on, the rootkit detection technology information and effective tools are still relatively scarce. In this paper, based on the in-depth analysis of the rootkit detection technology, a new kind of the rootkit detection structure is designed and a new method (software), X-Anti, is proposed. Test results show that software designed based on structure proposed is much more efficient than any other rootkit detection software.

  8. Detecting data anomalies methods in distributed systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosiej, Lukasz

    2009-06-01

    Distributed systems became most popular systems in big companies. Nowadays many telecommunications companies want to hold large volumes of data about all customers. Obviously, those data cannot be stored in single database because of many technical difficulties, such as data access efficiency, security reasons, etc. On the other hand there is no need to hold all data in one place, because companies already have dedicated systems to perform specific tasks. In the distributed systems there is a redundancy of data and each system holds only interesting data in appropriate form. Data updated in one system should be also updated in the rest of systems, which hold that data. There are technical problems to update those data in all systems in transactional way. This article is about data anomalies in distributed systems. Avail data anomalies detection methods are shown. Furthermore, a new initial concept of new data anomalies detection methods is described on the last section.

  9. Chemical detection system and related methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caffrey, Augustine J.; Chichester, David L.; Egger, Ann E.; Krebs, Kenneth M.; Seabury, Edward H.; Van Siclen, Clinton D.; Wharton, C. Jayson; Zabriskie, John M.

    2017-06-27

    A chemical detection system includes a frame, an emitter coupled to the frame, and a detector coupled to the frame proximate the emitter. The system also includes a shielding system coupled to the frame and positioned at least partially between the emitter and the detector, wherein the frame positions a sensing surface of the detector in a direction substantially parallel to a plane extending along a front portion of the frame. A method of analyzing composition of a suspect object includes directing neutrons at the object, detecting gamma rays emitted from the object, and communicating spectrometer information regarding the gamma rays. The method also includes presenting a GUI to a user with a dynamic status of an ongoing neutron spectroscopy process. The dynamic status includes a present confidence for a plurality of compounds being present in the suspect object responsive to changes in the spectrometer information during the ongoing process.

  10. A best practices approach to caries management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurlbutt, Michelle; Young, Douglas A

    2014-06-01

    Caries management by risk assessment represents best practices and is an evidence-based model that focuses on treating and preventing disease at the patient level rather than a surgical/restorative approach at the tooth level. Dental caries is a multifactorial, biofilm and pH mediated disease that affects people of all ages and disproportionally affects certain populations at epidemic proportions. Simply restoring cavitated teeth does nothing to resolve the disease. At the heart of the CAMBRA philosophy is identifying the patient's unique risk level for future caries disease. This can be done by completing a caries risk assessment (CRA). Several easy to use CRA questionnaires are available. Once the patient's unique risk level has been determined, preventive and therapeutic interventions, based on the specific risk level, can then be implemented. Landmark publications, original research, and systematic reviews are analyzed and reviewed to form the basis for this shift in patient care related to caries disease. Caries management by risk assessment has emerged as the new paradigm in patient care and represents an evidence-based, best practices approach with the potential for significant advantages over traditional methods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.