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Sample records for caries detection methods

  1. Adjunct methods for caries detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, Svante; Axelsson, Susanna Bihari; Dahlén, Gunnar

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective. To assess the diagnostic accuracy of adjunct methods used to detect and quantify dental caries. Study design. A systematic literature search for relevant papers was conducted with pre-determined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Abstracts and full text articles were assessed i...

  2. Need for new caries detection methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Douglas A.; Featherstone, John D. B.

    1999-05-01

    Dental caries (tooth decay) continues to be a major problems for adults as well as children, even though great advances have been made in preventive methods in the last 20 years. New methods for the management of caries will work best if lesions can be detected at an early stage and chemical rather than physical intervention can take place, thereby preserving the natural tooth structure and helping the saliva to heal, or remineralize, the areas of early decay. Clinical detection of caries in the US relies on visual examination, tactile with hand held explorer, and conventional radiographs, all of which are inadequate for the occlusal (biting) surfaces of the teeth where most of the decay now occurs. The dentist often has to explore by drilling with a dental bur to confirm early decay in these areas. New method that can determine the extent and degree of subsurface lesions in these surfaces non-destructively are essential for further advances in the clinical management of dental caries. Optical methods, which exploit the differences between sound and carious enamel and dentin, show great promise for the accurate detection of these lesions. Two or three- dimensional images, which include a measure of severity will be needed.

  3. DIAGNOdent: an optical method for caries detection.

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    Lussi, A; Hibst, R; Paulus, R

    2004-01-01

    The onset of caries is characterized by demineralization of dental hard tissues. Optimal fluoridation with respective oral hygiene habits and diet may stop the progression of a lesion and even allow for its remineralization. The aim of modern dentistry must be a preventive approach rather than invasive repair of the disease. This is possible only with early detection and respective preventive measures. Some of today's diagnostic tools are not sensitive enough to detect this early onset of destruction. Tools based on fluorescence could have the possibility to overcome this problem. This overview will focus on today's knowledge of one possible tool, the DIAGNOdent.

  4. Comparison of two different methods of detecting residual caries

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    Kütük, Zeynep Bilge; Ergin, Esra; Yalçın Çakır, Filiz; Gürgan, Sevil

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of the fluorescence-aided caries excavation (FACE) device to detect residual caries by comparing conventional methods in vivo. Materials and Methods A total of 301 females and 202 males with carious teeth participated in this study. The cavity preparations were done by grade 4 (Group 1, 154 teeth), grade 5 (Group 2, 176 teeth), and postgraduate (Group 3, 173 teeth) students. After caries excavation using a handpiece and hand instruments, the presence of residual caries was evaluated by 2 investigators who were previously calibrated for visual-tactile assessment with and without magnifying glasses and trained in the use of a FACE device. The tooth number, cavity type, and presence or absence of residual caries were recorded. The data were analyzed using the Chi-square test, the Fisher's Exact test, or the McNemar test as appropriate. Kappa statistics was used for calibration. In all tests, the level of significance was set at p = 0.05. Results Almost half of the cavities prepared were Class II (Class I, 20.9%; Class II, 48.9%; Class III, 20.1%; Class IV, 3.4%; Class V, 6.8%). Higher numbers of cavities left with caries were observed in Groups 1 and 2 than in Group 3 for all examination methods. Significant differences were found between visual inspection with or without magnifying glasses and inspection with a FACE device for all groups (p < 0.001). More residual caries were detected through inspection with a FACE device (46.5%) than through either visual inspection (31.8%) or inspection with a magnifying glass (37.6%). Conclusions Within the limitations of this study, the FACE device may be an effective method for the detection of residual caries. PMID:28194364

  5. A Comparison of Different Methods for Fissure Caries Detection

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    Peycheva K.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to compare the diagnostic capabilities of three different diagnostic methods: Quantitative Laser Fluorescence (QLF − DIAGNOdent Classic (DD, Light-Induced Fluorescence (LIF − SoproLife daylight and blue fluorescence, and their relevance to ICDAS II system in detection of fissure caries lesions in permanent molars. Permanent molars (n = 45 are divided in two groups: 1 third molars, n = 35; 2 first and second molars, n = 10. They are examined by 2 examiners with and without magnification x5 using ICDAS II, SoproLife “day light” and “blue light” (405nm, LIF, DIAGNOdent Classic − emitting laser light on 655nm, QLF. The results are proven with histological bucco-lingual or mesio-distal sections through the body of the lesion with diamond blade rinsed with water. Photos of all occlusal surfaces of the molars are taken before and after the sections. The lowest overdiagnosis rate is found with SoproLife camera. When visual examination is applied overdiagnoses are fewer than with DD. DD is not capable to differentiate white and brown spots from a caries lesion. Soprolife is not capable to differentiate brown spots from a caries lesion. The most accurate method in this in vitro study for diagnosis of fissure caries is LIF (SoproLife − 75.6% of the teeth are correctly diagnosed, followed by ICDAS (57.8% and QLF (DIAGNOdent (40%.

  6. An in vitro comparison between two methods of electrical resistance measurement for occlusal caries detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuhnisch, J; Heinrich-Weltzien, R; Tabatabaie, M; Stosser, L; Huysmans, MCDNJM

    2006-01-01

    Because of different measurement techniques and the easier design of the CRM prototype, this in vitro study aimed to compare the diagnostic performance and reproducibility of two electrical methods (Electronic Caries Monitor III, ECM and Cariometer 800, CRM) for occlusal caries detection, and to eva

  7. Evaluating performance of dental caries detection methods among third-year dental students

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Reliable caries detection is a cornerstone in the modern caries treatment schema. This study aimed to evaluate adopting traditional and new caries detection methods by third-year dental students. Methods Fifty-seven students were given lectures on caries detection, after which they evaluated 27 extracted carious teeth using traditional clinical assessment (CE), Nyvad’s, and ICDAS methods. On three teeth they also performed DIAGNOdent pen® (LF) scanning. Histological scores of the sectioned teeth (ICDAS, LF) and activity estimations of the lesions by the supervisors were used as golden standards (Nyvad, CE). For the ICDAS method , sensitivity and specificity were calculated using dentine caries (D3) as a cut-off point. Mean ICC and kappa values were calculated to evaluate interexaminer agreement for all lesions and methods. Spearman’s correlation coefficient evaluated LF scanning. Results ICDAS method presented good sensitivity (0.78) and specificity (0.87). The inter-examiner agreement for different methods was fair or good (CE ICC = 0.69, κ = 0.53; Nyvad’s method ICC = 0.68, κ = 0.48, ICDAS ICC = 0.66, κ = 0.47). Variation in LF values was the greatest with lesions extending to middle third of dentin. In that case, the Spearman’s correlation coefficient was also the weakest. Conclusions To follow the guidelines by the European Core Curriculum on Cariology, the third year dental students are introduced to methods for detecting lesion depth and assessing lesion activity as well as using new caries detection methods. Their performance in estimating lesion depth is good, and fair to good in estimating lesion activity even after basic training only. PMID:24314305

  8. Spectroscopic Detection of Caries Lesions

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    Mika Ruohonen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. A caries lesion causes changes in the optical properties of the affected tissue. Currently a caries lesion can be detected only at a relatively late stage of development. Caries diagnosis also suffers from high interobserver variance. Methods. This is a pilot study to test the suitability of an optical diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for caries diagnosis. Reflectance visible/near-infrared spectroscopy (VIS/NIRS was used to measure caries lesions and healthy enamel on extracted human teeth. The results were analysed with a computational algorithm in order to find a rule-based classification method to detect caries lesions. Results. The classification indicated that the measured points of enamel could be assigned to one of three classes: healthy enamel, a caries lesion, and stained healthy enamel. The features that enabled this were consistent with theory. Conclusions. It seems that spectroscopic measurements can help to reduce false positives at in vitro setting. However, further research is required to evaluate the strength of the evidence for the method’s performance.

  9. Caries detection methods : Can they aid decision making for invasive sealant treatment?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pereira, AC; Verdonschot, EH; Huysmans, MCDNJM

    2001-01-01

    The decision to place sealants is a difficult one, and it has been suggested that in a low risk population it may be efficient to wait until caries is detected in the fissure. An invasive sealant technique with fissure preparation may then be indicated. The diagnostic method used in the indication o

  10. Detection method of proximal caries using line profile in digital intra-oral radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yong Suk; Kim, Gyu Tae; Hwang, Eui Hwan; Lee, Min Ja; Choi, Sam Jin; Park, Hun Kuk [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry and Institute of Oral Biology, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jeong Hoon [Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how to detect proximal caries using line profile and validate linear measurements of proximal caries lesions by basic digital manipulation of radiographic images. The X-ray images of control group (15) and caries teeth (15) from patients were used. For each image, the line profile at the proximal caries-susceptible zone was calculated. To evaluate the contrast as a function of line profile to detect proximal caries, a difference coefficient (D) that indicates the relative difference between caries and sound dentin or intact enamel was measured. Mean values of D were 0.0354 {+-} 0.0155 in non-caries and 0.2632 {+-} 0.0982 in caries (p<0.001). The mean values of caries group were higher than non-caries group and there was correlation between proximal dental caries and D. It is demonstrated that the mean value of D from caries group was higher than that of control group. From the result, values of D possess great potentiality as a new detection parameter for proximal dental caries.

  11. Early dental caries detection by method of PNC-diagnostics: comparison with visual and x-ray methods

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    Masychev, Victor I.; Sokolovsky, Alexander A.; Kesler, Gaby; Alexandrov, Michail T.

    2000-03-01

    In this research results of approbation of the optical PNC- method in dental clinic are presented. The PNC-method was used for diagnostics stages of caries (initial, moderate and deep). The variant of the PNC-method adapted for dental diagnosis is based on simultaneous analyses the following parameters by special algorithms: backscattering and probing radiation, stimulated (endogenous) autofluorescence of caries induced batteries. Analyze of informational signals show good correlation with tooth morphological structure and concentration of anaerobic microflora in hearth of caries lesion. Investigation was performed in vivo on 101 tooth in conditions of typical dental clinic. Comparison of the PNC- method with visual and X-ray ones, which are widely used in clinical practice was made. Preliminary results showed high potential of usage the PNC-method in clinical practice and more high probability of initial caries detection (up to 100%) in comparison with X-ray method (approximately 75%). In cases when X-ray diagnosed absence of initial caries, more sensitive the PNC-method detected initial caries in stage 'white lesion.'

  12. Children's discomfort in assessments using different methods for approximal caries detection

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    Tatiane Fernandes Novaes

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Because discomfort caused by different approximal caries detection methods can influence their performance, the assessment of this discomfort is important. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the discomfort reported by children after the use of different diagnostic methods to detect approximal caries lesions in primary teeth: visual inspection, bitewing radiography, laser fluorescence (DIAGNOdent pen - LFpen and temporary separation with orthodontic rubbers. Seventy-six children aged 4 to 12 years were examined using these methods. Their discomfort was assessed using the Wong-Baker scale and compared among the methods. Visual inspection caused less discomfort than did other methods. Radiography and the LFpen presented similar levels of discomfort. Older children reported higher discomfort using temporary separation, whereas younger children reported less discomfort with the LFpen. In conclusion, radiographic, temporary separation and LFpen methods provoke higher discomfort than visual inspection.

  13. An In Vitro Comparison of Different Diagnostic Methods in Detection of Residual Dentinal Caries

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    Nimet Unlu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the efficiency of different diagnostic methods in detection of residual dentinal caries in excavated cavities. Fifty extracted molar with deep dentinal carious lesions were excavated using a slow-speed handpiece. All cavities were assessed by laser fluorescence(LF device, electronic caries monitor(ECM, and caries detector dye(CDD by three independent observers blindly. The measurements were repeated after two weeks. Specimens containing dentin slices 150 μm in thickness were prepared for histological analyses. The existence and absence of carious dentin was determined using a lightmicroscope. The average intraobserver accuracy was 1.00 (perfect agreement for CDD, 0.86 (excellent agreement for ECM, and 0.50 (good agreement for LF. The average interobserver accuracy values were 0.92 (excellent agreement, (0.36 marginal agreement and 0.48 (good agreement, for CDD, ECM, and LF, respectively. The average specificity was 0.60 for CDD, 73% for ECM, and 0.50 for LF. The average sensitivity was 0.55 for CDD, 0.85 for LF, and 0.47 for ECM. The average accuracy values were 0.53, 0.51, and 0.81 for CDD, ECM, and LF, respectively. LF had the greatest sensitivity and accuracy values of any of the methods tested. As a conclusion, LF device is appeared to most reliable method in detection of remain caries in cavity. However, because of its technical sensitivity it may susceptible to variations in measurements. To pay attention to the rule of usage and repeated measurements can minimize such variations in clinical practice. It was concluded that LF is an improvement on the currently available aids for residual caries detection.

  14. Method for detection of dental caries and periodontal disease using optical imaging

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    Nathel, Howard (Albany, CA); Kinney, John H. (Danville, CA); Otis, Linda L. (San Francisco, CA)

    1996-01-01

    A method for detecting the presence of active and inactive caries in teeth and diagnosing periodontal disease uses non-ionizing radiation with techniques for reducing interference from scattered light. A beam of non-ionizing radiation is divided into sample and reference beams. The region to be examined is illuminated by the sample beam, and reflected or transmitted radiation from the sample is recombined with the reference beam to form an interference pattern on a detector. The length of the reference beam path is adjustable, allowing the operator to select the reflected or transmitted sample photons that recombine with the reference photons. Thus radiation scattered by the dental or periodontal tissue can be prevented from obscuring the interference pattern. A series of interference patterns may be generated and interpreted to locate dental caries and periodontal tissue interfaces.

  15. Method for detection of dental caries and periodontal disease using optical imaging

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    Nathel, H.; Kinney, J.H.; Otis, L.L.

    1996-10-29

    A method is disclosed for detecting the presence of active and inactive caries in teeth and diagnosing periodontal disease uses non-ionizing radiation with techniques for reducing interference from scattered light. A beam of non-ionizing radiation is divided into sample and reference beams. The region to be examined is illuminated by the sample beam, and reflected or transmitted radiation from the sample is recombined with the reference beam to form an interference pattern on a detector. The length of the reference beam path is adjustable, allowing the operator to select the reflected or transmitted sample photons that recombine with the reference photons. Thus radiation scattered by the dental or periodontal tissue can be prevented from obscuring the interference pattern. A series of interference patterns may be generated and interpreted to locate dental caries and periodontal tissue interfaces. 7 figs.

  16. Visual Inspection for Caries Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimenez, T; Piovesan, C; Braga, M M

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to perform a systematic review including a meta-analysis to evaluate the overall accuracy of visual methods for detecting carious lesions and to identify possible sources of heterogeneity among the studies included. Two reviewers searched PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and other sources through...... July 2014 to identify published and nonpublished studies in English. Studies of visual inspection were included that 1) assessed accuracy of the method in detecting caries lesions; 2) were performed on occlusal, proximal, or free smooth surfaces in primary or permanent teeth; 3) had a reference...... (from 5,808 articles initially identified) and 1 abstract (from 168) met the inclusion criteria. In general, the analysis demonstrated that the visual method had good accuracy for detecting caries lesions. Although laboratory and clinical studies have presented similar accuracy, clinically obtained...

  17. An In Vivo Comparison of Two Diagnostic Methods in Secondary Caries Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamishaki, Kazem Saber; Chiniforush, Nasim; Monzavi, Abbas; Khazarazifard, Mohammad Javad

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the level of agreement between four operators with different levels of experience for two methods of detecting secondary enamel and dentin carious lesions in composite restored teeth. Materials and Methods: Sixty teeth of 40 patients with with secondary carious lesions in the composite resin were selected. The teeth were examined by two methods; visual inspection and a laser fluorescence device (DIAGNO dent pen 2190) by four operators including an undergraduate student, a dentist with 5 years of clinical experience, a general dentist with 12 years of clinical experience and an oral and maxillofacial radiologist. Cohen's kappa statistic was applied in order to assess the agreement between the diagnoses performed by the four operators with each diagnostic method. Results: The diagnosis performed by different operators achieved an excellent agreement with high ICC. Conclusion: DIAGNOdent can be a useful device for secondary caries detection in posterior teeth as an adjunct to visual examination. PMID:24910672

  18. An in vivo comparison of two diagnostic methods in secondary caries detection.

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    Kazem Saber Hamishaki

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the level of agreement between four operators with different levels of experience for two methods of detecting secondary enamel and dentin carious lesions in composite restored teeth.Sixty teeth of 40 patients with with secondary carious lesions in the composite resin were selected. The teeth were examined by two methods; visual inspection and a laser fluorescence device (DIAGNO dent pen 2190 by four operators including an undergraduate student, a dentist with 5 years of clinical experience, a general dentist with 12 years of clinical experience and an oral and maxillofacial radiologist. Cohen's kappa statistic was applied in order to assess the agreement between the diagnoses performed by the four operators with each diagnostic method.The diagnosis performed by different operators achieved an excellent agreement with high ICC.DIAGNOdent can be a useful device for secondary caries detection in posterior teeth as an adjunct to visual examination.

  19. Validity and reliability of methods for the detection of secondary caries around amalgam restorations in primary teeth

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    Mariana Minatel Braga

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Secondary caries has been reported as the main reason for restoration replacement. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the performance of different methods - visual inspection, laser fluorescence (DIAGNOdent, radiography and tactile examination - for secondary caries detection in primary molars restored with amalgam. Fifty-four primary molars were photographed and 73 suspect sites adjacent to amalgam restorations were selected. Two examiners evaluated independently these sites using all methods. Agreement between examiners was assessed by the Kappa test. To validate the methods, a caries-detector dye was used after restoration removal. The best cut-off points for the sample were found by a Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC analysis, and the area under the ROC curve (Az, and the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the methods were calculated for enamel (D2 and dentine (D3 thresholds. These parameters were found for each method and then compared by the McNemar test. The tactile examination and visual inspection presented the highest inter-examiner agreement for the D2 and D3 thresholds, respectively. The visual inspection also showed better performance than the other methods for both thresholds (Az = 0.861 and Az = 0.841, respectively. In conclusion, the visual inspection presented the best performance for detecting enamel and dentin secondary caries in primary teeth restored with amalgam.

  20. Proximal caries detection using digital subtraction radiography in the artificial caries activity model

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    Park, Jong Hoon; Lee, Gi Ja; Choi, Sam Jin; Park, Young Ho; Kim, Kyung Soo; Jin, Hyun Seok; Hong, Kyung Won; Oh, Berm Seok; Park, Hun Kuk [Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Yong Suk; Hwang, Eui Hwan [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Institute of Oral Biology, School of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-03-15

    The purpose of the experiment was to evaluating the diagnostic ability of dental caries detection using digital subtraction in the artificial caries activity model. Digital radiographs of five teeth with 8 proximal surfaces were obtained by CCD sensor (Kodak RVG 6100 using a size no.2). The digital radiographic images and subtraction images from artificial proximal caries were examined and interpreted. In this study, we proposed novel caries detection method which could diagnose the dental proximal caries from single digital radiographic image. In artificial caries activity model, the range of lesional depth was 572-1,374 {mu}m and the range of lesional area was 36.95-138.52 mm{sup 2}. The lesional depth and the area were significantly increased with demineralization time (p<0.001). Furthermore, the proximal caries detection using digital subtraction radiography showed high detection rate compared to the proximal caries examination using simple digital radiograph. The results demonstrated that the digital subtraction radiography from single radiographic image of artificial caries was highly efficient in the detection of dental caries compared to the data from simple digital radiograph.

  1. Bio-Photonic Detection and Quantitative Evaluation Method for the Progression of Dental Caries Using Optical Frequency-Domain Imaging Method

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    Wijesinghe, Ruchire Eranga; Cho, Nam Hyun; Park, Kibeom; Jeon, Mansik; Kim, Jeehyun

    2016-01-01

    The initial detection of dental caries is an essential biomedical requirement to barricade the progression of caries and tooth demineralization. The objective of this study is to introduce an optical frequency-domain imaging technique based quantitative evaluation method to calculate the volume and thickness of enamel residual, and a quantification method was developed to evaluate the total intensity fluctuation in depth direction owing to carious lesions, which can be favorable to identify the progression of dental caries in advance. The cross-sectional images of the ex vivo tooth samples were acquired using 1.3 μm spectral domain optical coherence tomography system (SD-OCT). Moreover, the advantages of the proposed method over the conventional dental inspection methods were compared to highlight the potential capability of OCT. As a consequence, the threshold parameters obtained through the developed method can be used as an efficient investigating technique for the initial detection of demineralization. PMID:27929440

  2. Detection activity assessment and diagnosis of dental caries lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braga, Mariana M; Mendes, Fausto M; Ekstrand, Kim R

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the current methods for detection and assessment of caries lesions focusing on applicability for daily clinical practice. The end point is to arrive at a diagnosis for each caries lesion. Visual inspection aided by a ball-ended probe is essential for caries lesions assessment...... and the method must be used for all patients. Use of indices, for example, the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS), can improve the performance of this method. Using visual inspection, the clinician must decide about the presence, severity and activity of lesions. After this process...

  3. Introducing a Dental Caries Marking Software and Evaluate Radiologists’ Disagreement in Caries Detection Using this Software

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    Baseri H

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Bitewing radiograph is the main reference for diagnosis of proximal and recurrent caries. There is no software for gathering and analyzing radiologists’ opinion in the field of caries detection on digital bitewing radiograph (DBR. Objectives: The main aim of this study is to introduce the first windows application that could be used for marking caries on DBR. This software is called Dental Caries Marking Software (DCMS. The second aim is to create the first DBR caries dataset to be used for future software development projects in the field of automatic caries detection; also gathering and documenting the disagreements and critiques regarding DCMS. Materials and Methods: DCMS has been designed and implemented by the researchers of this study. This software is divided into two parts. The first part is DCMS writer that is used for gathering the user’s opinion and The second part is DCMS analyzer that is used for reading and analyzing the user’s opinion file. Eight radiologists with different experiences used DCMS for marking dental caries on 200 DBR, 50 of which were repeated twice for assessing the accuracy of each radiologist. Results: A total of 3833 points were marked by 8 users on 150 non repetitive DBR. Only 35 points were marked similarly by 8 users; in other words, 8 users totally agreed with 4% of the caries points. According to 50 repetitive DBR, the maximum accuracy of users was 69% and the minimum was 50%. Conclusions: There is significant debate over the diagnosis of caries on DBR; therefore, for unifying the radiologist’s opinions, the need for intelligent caries detection software is apparent. DCMS is useful software for gathering caries data. Moreover, the use of conventional display monitor has negative impacts on accurate diagnosis of caries on DBR.

  4. Detection of early stages of dental caries by optical PNC diagnostics: comparison with visual inspection, dental probe, and x-ray methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masychev, Victor I.; Sokolovsky, Alexander A.; Kesler, Gaby

    2000-11-01

    In this research results of approbation of the optical PNC-method in dental clinic are presented. The PNC-method was used for diagnostics stages of caries (initial, moderate and deep). The variant of the PNC-method adapted for dental diagnosis is based on simultaneous analyses the following parameters by special algorithms: probing radiation, stimulated backscattering and autofluorescence of caries induced batteries. Analyze of informational signals show good correlation with tooth morphological structure and concentration of anaerobic microflora in hearth of caries lesion. Investigation was performed in vivo on 101 tooth in conditions of typical dental clinic. Comparison of the PNC-methods with visual inspection, dental probe and X-ray ones, which are widely used in clinical practice was made. Preliminary results showed high potential of usage of the PNC-method in clinical practice and more high probability of initial caries detection (up to 100%) in comparison with X-ray method (approximately 75%). In cases when X-ray diagnosed absence of initial caries, more sensitive the PNC-method detected initial caries in stage white lesion.

  5. Detection activity assessment and diagnosis of dental caries lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Mariana M; Mendes, Fausto M; Ekstrand, Kim R

    2010-07-01

    This article reviews the current methods for detection and assessment of caries lesions focusing on applicability for daily clinical practice. The end point is to arrive at a diagnosis for each caries lesion. Visual inspection aided by a ball-ended probe is essential for caries lesions assessment and the method must be used for all patients. Use of indices, for example, the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS), can improve the performance of this method. Using visual inspection, the clinician must decide about the presence, severity and activity of lesions. After this process, additional methods could aid the dentist in reaching a more appropriate treatment decision in some cases. The ICDAS, including the activity assessment system or the Nyvad system, seems to be the best option to reach final diagnoses for managing lesions. The radiographic method is the most recommended additional method available for daily clinical practice.

  6. Comparison of validity of DIAGNOdent with conventional methods for detection of occlusal caries in primary molars using the histological gold standard: An in vivo study

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    Goel A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was conducted to compare the in vivo effectiveness of DIAGNOdent with other conventional methods (visual, tactile and bitewing radiographs for the detection of occlusal caries in primary molars. Another objective of the study was to calculate new cut-off limits for the detection of caries by DIAGNOdent in primary teeth. Materials and Methods: Eighty-four primary molars in 52 children (aged 8-12 years, which were indicated for extraction, were selected and evaluated for dental caries using DIAGNOdent, visual and tactile examination and bitewing radiographs. Histological examination of the sections, prepared subsequent to extraction of the teeth, served as the gold standard for comparison of the above-mentioned methods. Results: When considering enamel caries, values obtained for sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 48.15, 100 and 49.40% for visual examination, 48.15, 100.00 and 49.40% for tactile examination, 49.38, 50.00 and 49.40% for bitewing radiographs, 85.19, 50.00 and 84.34% for DIAGNOdent scores interpreted according to manufacturer′s cut-off limits and 81.48, 100.00 and 81.93% for DIAGNOdent scores interpreted according to newly formulated cut-off limits, respectively. At dentin caries cut-off levels, the values of sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for visual examination were 52.78, 89.36 and 73.49%; 50.00, 91.49 and 73.49% for tactile examination; 30.56, 82.98 and 60.24% for bitewing radiographs; 72.22, 76.60 and 74.70% for DIAGNOdent scores when interpreted according to manufacturer′s cut-off limits and 77.48, 74.47 and 75.90%, respectively, for the DIAGNOdent scores when interpreted according to the newly formulated cut-off limits. Conclusions: DIAGNOdent showed higher sensitivity and accuracy as compared with other conventional methods for detection of enamel caries, whereas for detection of dentinal caries, even though the sensitivity was high, accuracy of the DIAGNOdent device was similar to other

  7. An artifical neural network for detection of simulated dental caries

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    Kositbowornchai, S. [Khon Kaen Univ. (Thailand). Dept. of Oral Diagnosis; Siriteptawee, S.; Plermkamon, S.; Bureerat, S. [Khon Kaen Univ. (Thailand). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Chetchotsak, D. [Khon Kaen Univ. (Thailand). Dept. of Industrial Engineering

    2006-08-15

    Objects: A neural network was developed to diagnose artificial dental caries using images from a charged-coupled device (CCD)camera and intra-oral digital radiography. The diagnostic performance of this neural network was evaluated against a gold standard. Materials and methods: The neural network design was the Learning Vector Quantization (LVQ) used to classify a tooth surface as sound or as having dental caries. The depth of the dental caries was indicated on a graphic user interface (GUI) screen developed by Matlab programming. Forty-nine images of both sound and simulated dental caries, derived from a CCD camera and by digital radiography, were used to 'train' an artificial neural network. After the 'training' process, a separate test-set comprising 322 unseen images was evaluated. Tooth sections and microscopic examinations were used to confirm the actual dental caries status.The performance of neural network was evaluated using diagnostic test. Results: The sensitivity (95%CI)/specificity (95%CI) of dental caries detection by the CCD camera and digital radiography were 0.77(0.68-0.85)/0.85(0.75-0.92) and 0.81(0.72-0.88)/0.93(0.84-0.97), respectively. The accuracy of caries depth-detection by the CCD camera and digital radiography was 58 and 40%, respectively. Conclusions: The model neural network used in this study could be a prototype for caries detection but should be improved for classifying caries depth. Our study suggests an artificial neural network can be trained to make the correct interpretations of dental caries. (orig.)

  8. High-frequency heterodyne lock-in thermography (HeLIT): A highly sensitive method to detect early caries

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    Wang, Fei; Liu, Jun-yan; Yang, Jun-han; Oliullah, Md.; Wang, Xiao-chun; Wang, Yang

    2016-10-01

    In this letter, a nonlinear photothermal characteristic of dental tissues has been verified by photothermal radiometry at a given frequency with changing of the laser intensity. Subsequently, the high-frequency heterodyne lock-in thermography (HeLIT) scheme has been introduced to overcome shortages of the low infrared camera frame rate and the poor signal-noise ratio. The smooth surface tooth was artificially demineralized at a different time, and then it was detected by HeLIT, Results illustrated that the phase delay increases with the extension of the demineralized treatment time. The comparison experiments between HeLIT and the homodyne lock-in thermography for detecting artificial caries were carried out. Experimental results illustrated that the HeLIT has the merits of high sensitivity and specificity in detecting early caries.

  9. RECENT ADVANCES IN DETECTION AND DIAGNOSIS OF DENTAL CARIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prachi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries , a progressive bacterial damage to teeth , is one of the most commondiseases that affects 95% of the population and is still a major cause of tooth loss.Recent years have seen an increase in research activity surrounding diagnostic methods , particularly in the assessment of early caries lesions. The use of technologi es as adjunct to clinical visual examination for caries diagnosis will facilitate preventive care in dentistry to lower treatment cost as well as reduce the cost and time for testing potential anticaries agents. This article describes the various technolog ies available to aid the dental practitioners in detecting and diagnosis ofdental caries at the earliest stage of its formation , assessing the activities of the detected carious lesion , and quantitatively or qualitatively monitoring of the lesion over time .

  10. Early detection of dental caries using photoacoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K.; Witte, R.; Koh, I.; Ashkenazi, S.; O'Donnell, M.

    2006-02-01

    For decades, visual, tactile and radiographic examinations have been the standard for diagnosing caries. Nonetheless, the extent of variation in the diagnosis of dental caries is substantial among dental practitioners using these traditional techniques. Therefore, a more reliable standard for detecting incipient caries would be desirable. Using photoacoustics, near-infrared (NIR) optical contrast between sound and carious dental tissues can be relatively easily and accurately detected at ultrasound resolution. In this paper, a pulsed laser (Nd:YAG, Quanta-Ray) was used to probe extracted human molars at different disease stages determined from periapical radiographs. Both fundamental (1064nm) and first harmonic (532nm) pulses (15ns pulse length, 100mJ at fundamental and 9mJ at first harmonic , 10Hz pulse repetition rate) were used to illuminate the occlusal surface of tooth samples placed in a water tank. The photoacoustic signal was recorded with an unfocused wideband single-element piezoelectric transducer (centered at 12 MHz, bandwidth 15 MHz) positioned at small angle (less than 30 degrees) to the laser beam close to the occlusal surface. At the fundamental wavelength, total photoacoustic energy increases from normal to incipient stage disease by as much as a factor of 10. Differences between photoacoustic energy at the fundamental and first harmonic wavelength further indicate spectral absorption changes of the underlying structure with disease progression. Using a focused laser beam, an extracted molar with suspected incipient caries was scanned along the occulusal surface to help localize the caries inside enamel and dentin. The significantly increasing photoacoustic signal at a specific scan line both at fundamental and first harmonic indicates the local development of the incipient caries. The photoacoustic results compare well with visual inspection after layer by layer dissection. Preliminary results demonstrate the feasibility of detecting incipient

  11. Deciduous teeth occlusal caries detection with 655-nm diode laser confirmed by surface scanning electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Danilo; Fonseca, Yara P. C.; Zanin, Fatima A. A.; Brugnera, Aldo, Jr.

    2000-03-01

    The morphological complexity of the occlusal surface of deciduous molar teeth is considered as a factor to increase vulnerability to caries lesion. Occlusal surface of these teeth shows sulcus, pits and fissures which allow retention of both micro-organisms and food debris which make them more susceptible to caries. In the last decades there was a significant reduction on caries of smooth surface but not on the occlusal surface where dentinal caries develops under fissures which are apparently caries-free under eye observation. This is known as a hidden caries. The occlusal surface of sound extracted deciduous molar teeth were examined using a 655 nm diode laser (DIAGNOdent - KaVo) in order to detect hidden caries. When there was indication of a hidden caries, the area was examined using SEM and confirm or not the diagnosis. The authors concludes that the diagnosis of caries using 655 diode laser is reliable and precise method.

  12. A Review on Traditional Caries Diagnostic Systems and Introduction of New International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malek Mohammadi T.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is a chronic infection disease that manifests itself through demineralization of dental tissues and cavitations in the tooth structure. The diagnosis of dental caries poses challenges due to the complex interaction of multiple endogenous causal factors. Naturally, visual and visual-tactile examinations have been the most commonly used diagnostic aids in caries examination for many years. A major drawback in common dental examination was the use of varied diagnostic criteria by various authors. Some extensive reviews regarding this have emphasized the need for a unique system for the diagnosis of such caries. Thus, International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS emerged as a benchmark for detection and assessment of dental caries. The main objective of the new system is to improve the level of information to help make informed decision about diagnosis, prognosis, and clinical management of caries at both individual and public health levels.This study aimed to review traditional caries diagnosis methods and also describe the philosophy of the new ICDAS system for diagnosis and assessment of caries and also demonstrate how it can serve as a basis and benchmark for clinical and epidemiological research.

  13. 21 CFR 872.1740 - Caries detection device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Caries detection device. 872.1740 Section 872.1740...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 872.1740 Caries detection device. (a) Identification. The caries detection device is a device intended to show the existence of decay in a patient's...

  14. 21 CFR 872.1745 - Laser fluorescence caries detection device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Laser fluorescence caries detection device. 872... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 872.1745 Laser fluorescence caries detection device. (a) Identification. A laser fluorescence caries detection device is a laser,...

  15. Visual Inspection Displays Good Accuracy for Detecting Caries Lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, Svante

    2015-01-01

    ARTICLE TITLE AND BIBLIOGRAPHIC INFORMATION: Visual inspection for caries detection: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Gimenez T, Piovesan C, Braga MM, Raggio DP, Deery C, Ricketts DN, Ekstrand DR, Mendes FM. J Dent Res 2015;94(7):895-904. REVIEWER: Svante Twetman, DDS, PhD, Odont Dr PURPOSE....../QUESTION: To evaluate the overall accuracy of visual methods for detecting caries lesions. SOURCE OF FUNDING: Brazilian government (Process 2012/17888-1). TYPE OF STUDY/DESIGN: Systematic review with meta-analysis of data LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 1: Good-quality, patient-oriented evidence STRENGTH OF RECOMMENDATION...

  16. Diagnostic value of DIAGNOdent in detecting caries under composite restorations of primary molars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ava Vali Sichani

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: DIAGNOdent showed a greater accuracy in detecting secondary caries under primary molar restorations, compared to radiographs. Although DIAGNOdent is an effective method for detecting caries under composite restorations, it is better to be used as an adjunctive method alongside other detecting procedures.

  17. Quantitative detection of Streptococcus mutans and bacteria of dental caries and no caries groups in permanent teeth from a north China population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhan-yong; WANG Jian-qiu; ZHOU Yan; ZHAO Dong; XIAO Bai

    2012-01-01

    Background Streptococcus mutans (S.mutans) is the prime pathogen of dental caries.There are few reports that studied the relationship between S.mutans,bacteria and dental caries in permanent teeth when compared to those in primary teeth.This study aimed to detect S.mutans and bacteria of dental caries and non-caries groups in permanent teeth from a north China population by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and compare the relationship between the number of these bacteria and the prevalence of dental caries in permanent teeth.Methods Human saliva samples were collected from 142 subjects with permanent teeth.According to their dental tooth (DT),142 subjects were divided into a dental caries group (DT≥1) and a non-caries group (DT=0).With specific primers for S.mutans and 16S rRNA,the total number of S.mutans and total bacteria of 142 saliva samples were detected by real-time PCR and statistically analyzed.Results There was no significant difference between the detection rates of S.mutans (P=0.118) and medians of S.mutans (P=0.115).The ratio of S.mutans to total bacteria in people with dental caries was significantly higher than in those without caries (P <0.001),but the total number of bacteria in people with dental caries was significantly lower than in those without caries (P <0.001).Conclusions S.mutans had different effects on caries in the permanent teeth of several individuals from a north China population.The ratios of S.mutans to total bacteria in saliva detected by real-time PCR with Sm479F/R and 16S RNA primers were closely associated with the prevalence of dental caries in the same population.These assays may be useful for the assessment of an individual's risk of dental caries.

  18. Caries detection in primary teeth is less challenging than in permanent teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto M Mendes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Most studies about caries detection methods have been performed using permanent teeth. Primary teeth, however, present significant differences from permanent teeth; hence findings of these studies with permanent teeth cannot be extrapolated. The Hypothesis: Our hypothesis is that the caries diagnosis process in primary teeth is less challenging than in permanent teeth. This assertion is based on the fact that primary enamel is thinner and the caries process progresses faster in this type of teeth when compared to permanent teeth. For these reasons, the majority of caries lesions in primary teeth would be more evident and therefore, easily detected through visual inspection. Only a few number of caries lesions would be missed by visual inspection. Thus, adjunct diagnostic methods, such as radiographs, would be unnecessary for primary teeth. Evaluation of the Hypothesis: To evaluate this hypothesis, researchers should conduct studies about the performance of the caries detection methods avoiding selection bias and defining appropriate settings. Clinical trials randomizing the diagnostic strategies would be worthwhile. The evidence supporting the benefits of adjunct methods in detecting caries lesions in primary lesions is limited. However, clinical guidelines have recommended the use of the radiographic method to detect caries in primary teeth in all symptomless children. The confirmation of our hypothesis would lead to the need to re-evaluate such guidelines.

  19. An in vitro comparison of a combined FOTI/Visual examination of occlusal caries with other caries diagnostic methods and the effect of stain on their diagnostic performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekstrand, K.R.; Côrtes, D.F.; Ellwood, R.P.

    2003-01-01

    Occlusal caries, detection, fibre optic transillumination, visual inspection, DIAGNOdent, laser fluorescence, electrical caries monitor, electrical resistance, stain......Occlusal caries, detection, fibre optic transillumination, visual inspection, DIAGNOdent, laser fluorescence, electrical caries monitor, electrical resistance, stain...

  20. The Marketplace for New Caries Management Products: Dental Caries Detection and Caries Management by Risk Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Berg Joel H

    2006-01-01

    Abstract The number of new technologies emerging each year in the realm of dental caries management is growing at an exponential rate. Examining the patent literature, one can see that this growth rate will likely continue, with the outcome that dentistry will see an expanded growth in managing dental caries by risk assessment with medicinal therapeutic interventions. Restorative dentistry solutions, treating the results of dental caries, will continue to grow, while technologies to identify ...

  1. Influence of contact points on the performance of caries detection methods in approximal surfaces of primary molars: an in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Apoena A; Purger, Flávia; Rodrigues, Jonas A; Oliveira, Patrícia R A; Lussi, Adrian; Monteiro, Antonio Henrique; Alves, Haimon D L; Assis, Joaquim T; Vasconcellos, Adalberto B

    2015-01-01

    This in vivo study aimed to evaluate the influence of contact points on the approximal caries detection in primary molars, by comparing the performance of the DIAGNOdent pen and visual-tactile examination after tooth separation to bitewing radiography (BW). A total of 112 children were examined and 33 children were selected. In three periods (a, b, and c), 209 approximal surfaces were examined: (a) examiner 1 performed visual-tactile examination using the Nyvad criteria (EX1); examiner 2 used DIAGNOdent pen (LF1) and took BW; (b) 1 week later, after tooth separation, examiner 1 performed the second visual-tactile examination (EX2) and examiner 2 used DIAGNOdent again (LF2); (c) after tooth exfoliation, surfaces were directly examined using DIAGNOdent (LF3). Teeth were examined by computed microtomography as a reference standard. Analyses were based on diagnostic thresholds: D1: D 0 = health, D 1 –D 4 = disease; D2: D 0 , D 1 = health, D 2 –D 4 = disease; D3: D 0 –D 2 = health, D 3 , D 4 = disease. At D1, the highest sensitivity/specificity were observed for EX1 (1.00)/LF3 (0.68), respectively. At D2, the highest sensitivity/ specificity were observed for LF3 (0.69)/BW (1.00), respectively. At D3, the highest sensitivity/specificity were observed for LF3 (0.78)/EX1, EX2 and BW (1.00). EX1 showed higher accuracy values than LF1, and EX2 showed similar values to LF2. We concluded that the visual-tactile examination showed better results in detecting sound surfaces and approximal caries lesions without tooth separation. However, the effectiveness of approximal caries lesion detection of both methods was increased by the absence of contact points. Therefore, regardless of the method of detection, orthodontic separating elastics should be used as a complementary tool for the diagnosis of approximal noncavitated lesions in primary molars.

  2. In vitro performance of a pen-type laser fluorescence device and bitewing radiographs for approximal caries detection in permanent and primary teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Feltrin de Souza

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: LFpen presented better reproducibility for primary and permanent teeth and higher accuracy in detecting caries lesions at D1 threshold than BW for permanent teeth. LFpen should be used as an adjunct method for approximal caries detection.

  3. Brief communication: a pilot study: smooth surface early caries (caries incipiens) detection with KaVo DIAGNODent in historical material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomczyk, Jacek; Komarnitki, Iulian; Olczak-Kowalczyk, Dorota

    2013-03-01

    In many odontological studies concerning archeological material, there is no analysis of early caries lesions (caries incipiens) that manifest as a carious spot. At this stage of caries, the enamel is still hard, and thus, it is impossible to diagnose caries by visual methods. We assessed the usefulness of the DIAGNODent pen (DD laser) in analyzing noncavity lesions on the smooth surface sites of crowns from historical populations. Twenty-seven individuals were examined: 18 from Radom (Poland), and nine from Tell Masaikh and Terqa (Syria). A total of 562 teeth were characterized. The series represented different climatic zones, but were dated from the similar period, 18th to 19th century AD. We used four diagnostic techniques: visual, DD laser, radiographic, and histological as the gold standard. DD laser showed that the mean values of healthy enamel in both series did not exceed 15 units. The mean values of smooth and rough spots in the Syrian population were significantly higher than those from Poland. This study showed that all the noncarious spots from the Radom series did not exceed 30 units. In the Syrian samples, this limit was higher at 44 units. These results were confirmed by histology and radiography. The DD laser provided good results in detecting dentine carious lesions in historical material, but its efficiency in diagnosing early caries (caries incipiens) remains uncertain based on the presented series.

  4. Accuracy of digital panoramic regarding interproximal caries detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goodarzi Pour D

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aims: Conventional radiological equipments in our country are going to be converted to digital system using computed radiology (CR technology. If we know the accuracy of digital panoramic radiography for detection of small defects in tooth, it will be useful in cases with difficulty for taking the intraoral radiographs. The aim of this study was to evaluate sensitivity and specificity of digital panoramic radiography for detection of proximal caries compared with the bitewing radiography."nMaterials and Methods: One-hundred patients who had been ordered for taking both bitewing and panoramic radiography were included in this study. Panoramic and then bitewing radiographs were observed by a maxillofacial radiologist and interproximal caries were recorded. Sensitivity and specificity of digital panoramic radiography (CI=95% was calculated compared with the bitewing radiography as a gold standard."nResults: This study showed that the values for sensitivity and specificity were 62.7% (CI 95%=57.7%-67.5% and 91.0% (CI 95%=89.2%-92.5%, respectively."nConclusion: Sensitivity of digital panoramic is less than bitewing radiography even with processing before printing. Therefore, bitewing radiography is superior for detection of inter proximal caries.

  5. Comparison of caries detection methods using varying numbers of intra-oral digital photographs with visual examination for epidemiology in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boye Uriana

    2013-01-01

    -olds. Conclusions The photographic assessment method, particularly assessment of 8 intra-oral digital photographs is comparable to the visual examination method in the primary dentition. With the additional benefits of archiving, remote scoring, allowing multiple scorers to score images and enabling longitudinal analysis, the photographic assessment method may be used as an alternative caries detection method in the primary dentition in situations where the visual examination method may not be applicable such as when examiner blinding is required and in practice based randomised controlled trials (RCTs.

  6. Detection of early caries by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasazawa, Shuhei; Kakino, Satoko; Matsuura, Yuji

    2015-07-01

    To improve sensitivity of dental caries detection by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) analysis, it is proposed to utilize emission peaks in the ultraviolet. We newly focused on zinc whose emission peaks exist in ultraviolet because zinc exists at high concentration in the outer layer of enamel. It was shown that by using ratios between heights of an emission peak of Zn and that of Ca, the detection sensitivity and stability are largely improved. It was also shown that early caries are differentiated from healthy part by properly setting a threshold in the detected ratios. The proposed caries detection system can be applied to dental laser systems such as ones based on Er:YAG-lasers. When ablating early caries part by laser light, the system notices the dentist that the ablation of caries part is finished. We also show the intensity of emission peaks of zinc decreased with ablation with Er:YAG laser light.

  7. The Comparison between Two Different Digital Panoramic Radiography Techniques in the Detection of Proximal Caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Hoseini Zarch

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Although proximal dental caries are very common, clinical examinations cannot detect them all. Panoramic radiography has been widely used in dentistry for both diagnosis and screening. This study aimed to investigate and compare the efficacy of two digital panoramic radiography techniques in the diagnosis of proximal caries. Methods: A total number of 60 patients referred to a dental radiology center, all had complete dental system and bitewing radiographies, were included. The patients were randomly divided into two groups of 30 patients. For the first and second groups, CR and DR images were obtained respectively. Images were obtained from the distal of the third tooth to the distal of the eighth. Bitewing images were compared with CR and DR images regarding the detection of caries. Kappa index and chi-squared statistics were employed to analyze the results. Results: There was a high agreement rate between bitewing images and CR (Kappa=0.775 and DR (Kappa=o.762 images in detecting caries. Also no significant difference was shown between CR and DR techniques in the detection of caries (0.543. However, DR and CR images are not efficient enough to be prescribed as the sole imaging technique to detect proximal caries. Conclusion: DR and CR techniques could be good imaging techniques for the detection of dental caries as a companion to clinical examinations

  8. Comparison between Two Digital Panoramic Radiography Techniques for Proximal Caries Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Shafagh Motlagh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Although proximal dental caries are very common, clinical examinations cannot detect them all. Panoramic radiography has been widely used in dentistry for both diagnosis and screening. This study aimed to investigate and compare the efficacy of two digital panoramic radiography techniques in the diagnosis of proximal caries. Methods: A total number of 60 patients referred to a dental radiology center, all had complete dental system and bitewing radiographies, were included. The patients were randomly divided into two groups of 30 patients. For the first and second groups, CR and DR images were obtained respectively. Images were obtained from the distal of the third tooth to the distal of the eighth. Bitewing images were compared with CR and DR images regarding the detection of caries. Kappa index and chi-squared statistics were employed to analyze the results. Results: There was a high agreement rate between bitewing images and CR (Kappa=0.775 and DR (Kappa=o.762 images in detecting caries. Also no significant difference was shown between CR and DR techniques in the detection of caries (0.543. However, DR and CR images are not efficient enough to be prescribed as the sole imaging technique to detect proximal caries. Conclusion: DR and CR techniques could be good imaging techniques for the detection of dental caries as a companion to clinical examinations.

  9. A novel LED-based device for occlusal caries detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktan, Ali Murat; Cebe, Mehmet Ata; Ciftçi, Mehmet Ertuğrul; Sirin Karaarslan, Emine

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this in-vitro study was to compare the performance of laser-based (DIAGNOdent, KaVo, Biberach, Germany) and LED-based (Midwest Caries I.D., DENTSPLY Professional, New York, USA) caries detectors in the detection of occlusal caries in permanent molars. The study consisted of 129 visually sound or non-cavitated pits or fissures in 82 extracted permanent human molar teeth. Two trained examiners used the laser-based and LED-based caries detectors to examine the fissures for caries. The teeth were then sectioned at the surfaces suspected of containing occlusal caries and histologically evaluated using stereomicroscopy as a gold standard. Inter-examiner reliability of the caries detector examination was assessed using Cohen's Kappa statistics. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy in diagnosing occlusal caries using the two devices were calculated according to appropriate cut-off scores. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were also determined to compare the diagnostic performance of the devices in occlusal caries diagnosis. The cut-off level of significance was taken as p = 0.005. Cohen's Kappa showed substantial agreement for the laser-based caries detector (0.74), and almost perfect agreement for the LED-based (0.89) caries detector. The specificity of the laser-based device varied from 0.49 to 0.97 at T1 and T2. Its sensitivity varied from 0.33 to 0.65 at T1 and T2. The specificity of the LED-based device varied from 0.48 to 0.56 at T1 and T2. Its sensitivity varied from 0.65 to 0.84 at T1 and from 0.80 to 0.84 at T2. Taking the limitations of the current study into consideration, the DIAGNOdent laser pen was more accurate in determining when teeth were free of occlusal caries than was the Midwest Caries I.D. LED-based device, although the Midwest Caries I.D. device more often revealed the presence of occlusal caries than did the DIAGNOdent pen.

  10. The influence of interdental spacing on the detection of proximal caries lesions in primary teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane Fernandes Novaes

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of interdental spacing on the performance of proximal caries detection methods in primary molars. In addition, aspects related to temporary tooth separation with orthodontic separators were evaluated. The proximal spaces between the posterior primary teeth (n = 344 of 76 children (4-12 years old were evaluated before and after temporary separation. Stainless steel strips with different standardized thicknesses were used to measure the presence of biological spacing and the spacing obtained after temporary separation with orthodontic rubber rings. First, the presence of proximal caries lesions was assessed by visual inspection, bitewing radiographs and a pen-type laser fluorescence device (DIAGNOdent pen. Visual inspection after temporary separation with separators was the reference standard method in checking the actual presence of caries. Multilevel analyses were performed considering different outcomes: the performance of the methods in detecting caries lesions and the spacing after temporary separation. The spacing did not influence the performance of the caries detection methods. The maximum spacing obtained with temporary tooth separation was 0.80 mm (mean ± standard deviation = 0.46 ± 0.13 mm. The temporary separation was more effective in the upper arch and less effective when an initial biological interdental spacing was present. The biological interdental spacing does not influence the performance of proximal caries detection methods in primary molars, and temporary tooth separation provides spacing narrower than 1.0 mm.

  11. A comparative evaluation of DIAGNOdent with visual and radiography for detection of occlusal caries: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sridhar N

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The diagnosis of dental caries is fundamental to the practice of dentistry. Despite the fact that dental caries has declined considerably, it is still a problem of great importance. The reduction in caries prevalence has not occurred uniformly for all the surfaces. The greatest reduction was observed at lesions located on smooth surfaces, so that occlusal caries are most common in children. Aim: The purpose of this study is to determine the clinical efficacy of DIAGNOdent in detecting occlusal caries. Materials and Methods: A total number of 50 teeth were subjected for visual, radiographic, and DIAGNOdent examinations. All the three methods were compared to histology which is a gold standard. Results: The result obtained showed that DIAGNOdent is superior to visual and radiographic methods in diagnosing occlusal caries.

  12. Economic aspects of the detection of occlusal dentine caries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norlund, Anders; Axelsson, Susanna; Dahlen, Gunnar

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the cost of true-positive occlusal dentine caries detection in permanent molars assessed by: (I) visual-tactile examination, (II) visual-tactile examination combined with bitewing radiographs, and (III) selective radiographic examination of patients with lesions detected cl...

  13. Early caries detection: comparison of two procedures. A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Guerra

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Caries is one of the most common chronic diseases and the main cause of tooth loss. Early detection provides a better evaluation of the disease and improves the chances to succeed of prevention strategies. This pilot study aims to compare the effectiveness of ICDAS-II system (International Caries Detection and Assessment System and the fluorescence terminal (Proof of VistaCam iX intraoral camera, in the early diagnosis and assessment of caries in permanent teeth. Results shows a fair correlation between ICDAS II and VistaCam iX Proof; intraoral camera proved to be a useful support to the ICDAS II visual / tactile monitoring of carious lesions in occlusal surfaces.

  14. Caries detection and quantification with DIAGNOdent: prospects for occlusal and root caries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haak, R; Wicht, M J

    2004-10-01

    A possible consequence of light absorption as the interaction of electromagnetic radiation with molecules of the tooth's hard substances is, apart from the emission of heat, fluorescence. It was demonstrated that the emission spectra of enamel, dentin, and caries look alike upon excitation with red light; however, fluorescence increases with the process of carious destruction. Based on that, the DIAGNOdent System was developed, which simultaneously injects red light into the tooth surface and detects the resulting fluorescence. Due to this design, clinical application is currently limited to accessible occlusal and smooth surfaces. For occlusal caries detection, it was shown that validity and reproducibility could be optimized over classical diagnostic tests for deep dentin lesions with seemingly intact surfaces. The detection of root caries does not play a relevant role in the directly accessible areas, but estimation of the lesion's activity and progression rate is a prerequisite for differentiated lesion management Excellent reproducibility of the laser fluorescence measurements was confirmed for this scenario. Lesions with a soft surface texture show significantly higher fluorescence values than leathery or hard lesions, and values also increase with increasing cavity depth. DIAGNOdent offers the potential to improve follow-ups and estimation of the prognosis and to support clinical management of primary carious lesions.

  15. Clinical relevance of studies on the accuracy of visual inspection for detecting caries lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimenez, Thais; Piovesan, Chaiana; Braga, Mariana M;

    2015-01-01

    Although visual inspection is the most commonly used method for caries detection, and consequently the most investigated, studies have not been concerned about the clinical relevance of this procedure. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review in order to perform a critical evaluation considering...... the clinical relevance and methodological quality of studies on the accuracy of visual inspection for assessing caries lesions. Two independent reviewers searched several databases through July 2013 to identify papers/articles published in English. Other sources were checked to identify unpublished literature....... The eligible studies were those which (1) assessed the accuracy of the visual method for detecting caries lesions on occlusal, approximal or smooth surfaces, in primary or permanent teeth, (2) used a reference standard, and (3) reported data about sample size and accuracy of the methods. Aspects related...

  16. Detection of early dental caries with short pulse laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okubo, Nahoko; Goto, Shigeru [Osada Research Inst., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Tanaka, Hiroshi; Ohzu, Akira; Arisawa, Takashi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Kansai Research Establishment, Advanced Photon Research Center, Kyoto (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    Differences in the optical properties of polarization and photoluminescence between caries lesion and noncaries (sound) enamel have been investigated by focusing a pulsed Nd:YAG laser of 532 nm on the surface of teeth. Significant difference in the polarization property of the scattered light from the surface can be observed with some carious samples. For photoluminescence spectral lines which appear at around 650 nm, the intensity of caries lesion has been approximately two times higher than that of sound one. A discussion is presented in which early are potentially detectable by the pulsed laser. (author)

  17. First step toward translation of thermophotonic lock-in imaging to dentistry as an early caries detection technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojaghi, Ashkan; Parkhimchyk, Artur; Tabatabaei, Nima

    2016-09-01

    Early detection of the most prevalent oral disease worldwide, i.e., dental caries, still remains as one of the major challenges in dentistry. The current dental standard of care relies on caries detection methods, such as visual inspection and x-ray radiography, which lack the sufficient specificity and sensitivity to detect caries at early stages of formation when they can be healed. We report on the feasibility of early caries detection in a clinically and commercially viable thermophotonic imaging system. The system incorporates intensity-modulated laser light along with a low-cost long-wavelength infrared (LWIR; 8 to 14 μm) camera, providing diagnostic contrast based on the enhanced light absorption of early caries. The LWIR camera is highly suitable for integration into clinical platforms because of its low weight and cost. In addition, through theoretical modeling, we show that LWIR detection enhances the diagnostic contrast due to the minimal LWIR transmittance of enamel and suppression of the masking effect of the direct thermal Planck emission. Diagnostic performance of the system and its detection threshold are experimentally evaluated by monitoring the inception and progression of artificially induced occlusal and smooth surface caries. The results are suggestive of the suitability of the developed LWIR system for detecting early dental caries.

  18. Detection and monitoring of early caries lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pretty, I A; Ekstrand, K R

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To review the current evidence base of detecting and monitoring early carious lesions in children and adolescents and a rationale proposed to ensure that such lesions are identified and appropriately managed. METHODS: The systematic literature search identified initially a review by Gomez...... of existing visible and radiographical systems to monitor lesions over time. Using low-cost intra-oral cameras facilitates the recording of lesion appearance in the patient record and may be of significant benefit in monitoring early lesions over time following their detection. This benefit extends...

  19. Secondary caries detection by DIAGNOdent and radiography: a comparative in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamzahim, Mohammad; Shi, Xie-Qi; Angmar-Månsson, Birgit

    2004-02-01

    DIAGNOdent is now well documented for detection of primary occlusal caries, but not as yet for secondary caries. The aim of this study was to investigate the application of DIAGNOdent for in vitro detection of secondary caries. The material comprised 66 extracted teeth: 48 with amalgam restorations and 18 with tooth-colored restorations. Digital images of occlusal surfaces were captured for each specimen. The teeth were mounted in groups of 3 or 4 in plaster blocks simulating their anatomical positions. Bitewing radiographs of each block were assessed for secondary caries by 5 observers. The margins of each restoration were carefully scanned with DIAGNOdent; the site of the highest reading was localized in digital images; and the corresponding values were registered. Marginal integrity and staining were also documented. The restorations were then removed and the teeth were hemi-sectioned. For verification, two observers working together examined all the cavities under a stereomicroscope at 16 x magnification followed by probing. Sensitivity and specificity for DIAGNOdent and conventional radiography were 0.77/0.81 and 0.65/0.81, respectively. Regarding ROC analyses, the Az values were 0.89 and 0.72 for DIAGNOdent and radiography. For DIAGNOdent, the false-positive fraction included only stained teeth. Cohen's kappa statistics disclosed moderate agreement between the 2 methods, with an agreement of 56%. DIAGNOdent tended to give more positive diagnoses than bitewing radiography. The results indicate that DIAGNOdent may be a helpful tool for detecting secondary caries.

  20. Performance of laser fluorescence devices and visual examination for the detection of occlusal caries in permanent molars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rechmann, Peter; Charland, Daniel; Rechmann, Beate M. T.; Featherstone, John D. B.

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic capabilities of a laser fluorescence tool DIAGNOdent (KaVo, Biberach, Germany) and two light-emitting diode fluorescence tools--Spectra Caries Detection Aid (AIR TECHNIQUES, Melville, NY), and SOPROLIFE light-induced fluorescence evaluator in daylight and blue florescence mode (SOPRO, ACTEON Group, La Ciotat, France)--in comparison to the caries detection and assessment system (ICDAS-II) in detection of caries lesions. In 100 subjects (age 23.4+/-10.6 years), 433 posterior permanent unrestored teeth were examined. On the occlusal surfaces, up to 1066 data points for each assessment method were available for statistical evaluation, including 1034 ICDAS scores (intra-examiner kappa=0.884). For the SOPROLIFE tool, a new caries-scoring system was developed. Per assessment tool each average score for one given ICDAS code was significantly different from the one for another ICDAS code. Normalized data linear regression revealed that both SOPROLIFE assessment tools allowed for best caries score discrimination followed by DIAGNOdent and Spectra Caries Detection Aid. The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve calculations showed the same grading sequence when cutoff point ICDAS codes 0-1-2 were grouped together. Sensitivity and specificity values at the same cutoff were calculated (DIAGNOdent 87/66, Spectra Caries Detection Aid 93/37, SOPROLIFE 93/63, SOPROLIFE blue fluorescence 95/55.)

  1. Occlusal caries detection and quantification by DIAGNOdent and Electronic Caries Monitor: in vitro comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamzahim, Mohammad; Shi, Xie-Qi; Angmar-Månsson, Birgit

    2002-12-01

    The Electronic Caries Monitor (ECM) and the recently introduced laser-based KaVo DIAGNOdent have been developed as clinical diagnostic aids in the detection and quantification of occlusal carious lesions. The aim of this in vitro study was to compare their reproducibility and validity. The ability of DIAGNOdent to retrieve sites of occlusal carious lesions without reference to photographs or drawings from previous assessments was also tested. The material comprised 87 premolar teeth: the occlusal surfaces were sound or exhibited non-cavity carious lesions of varying severity. All were photographed and measured by DIAGNOdent and ECM on 2 occasions, 2 weeks apart. The teeth were then sectioned into 300 microm thick slices. Two observers independently classified the sections according to the histopathology, into 5 categories, ranging from sound to dentinal caries in the inner part of the dentin. Statistical analysis comprised intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) to test reproducibility and regression analysis of validity. Sensitivity and specificity were also calculated for detection of D3 lesions for both devices. DIAGNOdent recorded maximum readings at identical sites on both occasions in 89% of the teeth. The ICC for readings on 2 separate occasions was 0.97 for DIAGNOdent and 0.71 for ECM. The correlations with histology were r = 0.93 and 0.83, for DIAGNOdent and ECM, respectively. For detection of D3 lesions, the sensitivity and specificity were 0.8 and 1 for DIAGNOdent and 0.75 and 0.88 for ECM. In this in vitro study, DIAGNOdent was superior to ECM for occlusal caries detection.

  2. Detection and Proportion of Very Early Dental Caries in Independent Living Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtzman, Jennifer S.; Kohanchi, Daniel; Biren-Fetz, John; Fontana, Margherita; Ramchandani, Manisha; Osann, Kathryn; Hallajian, Lucy; Mansour, Stephanie; Nabelsi, Tasneem; Chung, Na Eun; Wilder-Smith, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Dental caries is an important healthcare challenge in adults over 65 years of age. Integration of oral health screening into non-dental primary care practice may improve access to preventive dental care for vulnerable populations such as the elderly. Such integration would require easy, fast, and accurate early caries detection tools. Primary goal of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging for detecting very early caries in the elderly living in community-based settings. The International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) served as gold standard. Secondary goal of this study was to provide baseline prevalence data of very early caries lesions in independent living adults aged 65+ years. Materials and Methods Seventy-two subjects were recruited from three sites in Southern California: a retirement community, a senior health fair, and a convalescent hospital. Clinical examination was performed using the ICDAS visual criteria and this was followed by OCT imaging. The two-dimensional OCT images (B-scan) were analyzed with simple software. Locations with a log of back-scattered light intensity (BSLI) below 2.9 were scored as sound, and areas equaling or exceeding 2.9 BSLI were considered carious. Diagnostic performance of OCT imaging was compared with ICDAS score. Results OCT-based diagnosis demonstrated very good sensitivity (95.1%) and good specificity (85.8%). 54.7% of dentate subjects had at least one tooth with very early coronal caries. Conclusions Early coronal decay is prevalent in the unrestored pits and fissures of coronal surfaces of teeth in independent living adults aged 65+ years. Though OCT imaging coupled with a simple diagnostic algorithm can accurately detect areas of very early caries in community-based settings, existing devices are expensive and not well-suited for use by non-dental health care providers. Simple, inexpensive, fast, and accurate tools

  3. Caries assessment: establishing mathematical link of clinical and benchtop method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaechi, Bennett T.

    2009-02-01

    It is well established that the development of new technologies for early detection and quantitative monitoring of dental caries at its early stage could provide health and economic benefits ranging from timely preventive interventions to reduction of the time required for clinical trials of anti-caries agents. However, the new technologies currently used in clinical setting cannot assess and monitor caries using the actual mineral concentration within the lesion, while a laboratory-based microcomputed tomography (MCT) has been shown to possess this capability. Thus we envision the establishment of mathematical equations relating the measurements of each of the clinical technologies to that of MCT will enable the mineral concentration of lesions detected and assessed in clinical practice to be extrapolated from the equation, and this will facilitate preventitive care in dentistry to lower treatment cost. We utilize MCT and the two prominent clinical caries assessment devices (Quantitative Light-induced Fluorescence [QLF] and Diagnodent) to longitudinally monitor the development of caries in a continuous flow mixed-organisms biofilm model (artificial mouth), and then used the collected data to establish mathematical equation relating the measurements of each of the clinical technologies to that of MCT. A linear correlation was observed between the measurements of MicroCT and that of QLF and Diagnodent. Thus mineral density in a carious lesion detected and measured using QLF or Diagnodent can be extrapolated using the developed equation. This highlights the usefulness of MCT for monitoring the progress of an early caries being treated with therapeutic agents in clinical practice or trials.

  4. Laser-induced fluorescence as a method of early caries diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielczarek, Agnieszka; Wiewior, Piotr

    2001-07-01

    Use of lasers in dentistry dates back 20 years but is still not fully exploited, especially when concerning the hard dental tissues. Over the past many efforts and actions have been involved in testing and developing new methods for caries diagnosis. The implementation of these methods in general dental practice is unfortunately still limited because too little scientific evidence exists to support them. One of the age-old concerns for dentists is that decay is often discovered too late. Dentists commonly use x-ray imaging for early caries detection, but this method cannot reveal decay at a sufficiently early stage to avoid restorative methods. Generally, if a caries lesion si detected by x-ray, the mineral loss within the tooth is normally very high and will need invasive treatment. Several laser based techniques, as also other optical methods of detecting caries lesions at an early stage seem to be very promising. Fluorescence of tooth structure is observed when hard tissues are illuminated using laser light. Decayed areas appear dark and provide a contrast against the healthy background surrounding them, so discriminating sound and carious tissues. The aim of this study was to present the possibilities of using laser induced fluorescence in the diagnosis of early caries lesions. The current state-of-the-art is presented, as well as results of our investigations. In our studies an argon ion laser was used to illuminate the teeth and the fluorescence pictures were captured with a CCD camera and then analyzed. Results confirmed that laser induced fluorescence can be used as a sensitive method of caries diagnosis.

  5. Clinical evaluation of diagnodent in detection of occlusal caries in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmez, Aysegül; Tuna, Dilek; Oznurhan, Fatih

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this in vivo study was to evaluate the effectiveness of DIAGNOdent, visual and radiographic examination in detecting non-invasive diagnosis of occlusal caries in children. In this study, 92 untreated molars with sound occlusal surface or enamel and/or dentin caries were selected from 28 healthy patients, aged 7-17 years. All teeth were examined by two researchers using each of three diagnostic system (DIAGNOdent, visual, radiographic). Interpretation of the DIAGNOdent value and the radiolucency on the bitewing film were combined with the visual examination to decide where the teeth had to be opened. Depth of caries was recorded. Sensitivities and specificities were calculated for each diagnostic method using the biopsy scores as gold standard. Intra- and inter-examiner reproducibility for each method was assessed by calculating Cohen's kappa. The kappa value of inter-examiner reproducibilty was highest for visual examination (0.935), and lowest for DIAGNOdent measurements (0.698). Intra-examiner reproducibilty of DIAGNOdent mesurements was also good (0.745 and 0.665). Sensitivity and specificity for DIAGNOdent, visual examination and bitewing radiography were 0.86/0.80, 0.69/1.00 and 0.36/1.00, respectively. It was concluded that Diagnodent with a high sensitivity may be useful adjunct to visual examination with a high specificity in detecting occlusal caries.

  6. Visual Inspection for Caries Detection: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimenez, T; Piovesan, C; Braga, M M; Raggio, D P; Deery, C; Ricketts, D N; Ekstrand, K R; Mendes, F M

    2015-07-01

    We aimed to perform a systematic review including a meta-analysis to evaluate the overall accuracy of visual methods for detecting carious lesions and to identify possible sources of heterogeneity among the studies included. Two reviewers searched PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and other sources through July 2014 to identify published and nonpublished studies in English. Studies of visual inspection were included that 1) assessed accuracy of the method in detecting caries lesions; 2) were performed on occlusal, proximal, or free smooth surfaces in primary or permanent teeth; 3) had a reference standard; and 4) reported sufficient data about sample size and accuracy of methods. The data were used to calculate the pooled sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic odds ratio, and summary receiver operating characteristics curve. Heterogeneity of the studies was also assessed. A total of 102 manuscripts (from 5,808 articles initially identified) and 1 abstract (from 168) met the inclusion criteria. In general, the analysis demonstrated that the visual method had good accuracy for detecting caries lesions. Although laboratory and clinical studies have presented similar accuracy, clinically obtained specificity was higher. We also observed moderate to high heterogeneity and evidence of publication bias in most papers. Moreover, studies employing widely recognized visual scoring systems presented significantly better accuracy as compared to studies that used their own criteria. In conclusion, visual caries detection method has good overall performance. Furthermore, although the identified studies had high heterogeneity and risk of bias, the use of detailed and validated indices seems to improve the accuracy of the method.

  7. A comparison of periapical radiographs and their digital images for the detection of dental caries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Byung Cheol [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Chonnam National University, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-02-15

    In summary, it has been demonstrated by this study that the detection rate of definite large proximal surface caries (C2) on the digital images was good and the detection rate of the first stage caries (C1) was somewhat inferior to film based images. It has been demonstrated by this study and others that the detection of proximal surface caries by present clinical methodologies is still poor. Every effort should be made to develop new means to improve digitizing process.

  8. Development of a New Diagnosis Method for Incipient Caries in Human Teeth Based on Thermal Images under Pulse Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakagami, Takahide; Kubo, Shiro; Naganuma, Takeshi; Inoue, Tomoyasu; Matsuyama, Kazumasa; Nakashima, Shoji; Kaneko, Kenji

    A new noninvasive diagnosis method based on the pulse heating thermographic NDT was proposed for incipient caries of human teeth. Experiments were conducted to study the applicability of the proposed method to the quantitative evaluation of location and shape of the incipient caries as well as the quantitative diagnosis of the degree of incipient caries. The incipient caries were artificially introduced to the extracted human teeth with various severities. Impulse heat flux by the xenon flash lamp was applied to the surface of the tooth and sequential thermal images were taken by the high-speed infrared thermography. It was found that the caries were clearly identified as the localized high temperature region in the sequential thermal images. A coefficient of the temperature descent was obtained from sequential thermal images. It was found that the degree of the demineralization, i. e. the degree of incipient caries was evaluated from the temperature descent coefficient. Further the proposed technique was applied to the detection of natural incipient caries in an extracted human molar tooth. It was found that natural incipient caries was also clearly identified in the thermal images.

  9. Comparison of different DIAGNOdent cut-off limits for in vivo detection of occlusal caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich-Weltzien, Roswitha; Kühnisch, J; Oehme, T; Ziehe, A; Stösser, L; García-Godoy, F

    2003-01-01

    This study tested recently recommended cut-off limits for the laser fluorescence based device DIAGNOdent (KaVo) for detection of occlusal caries. Two hundred and forty-eight permanent molars from 94 patients (mean age 19.2 years) of a general dental practice were included. After professional tooth cleaning, the teeth were examined visually and by the laser fluorescence method. The extent of occlusal lesions (gold standard) was determined after minimal operative intervention. Upon fissure opening, 24 teeth had enamel caries and 224 teeth revealed dentin caries, of which 58 and 166, respectively, were up to or beyond half the dentin. The optimal cut-off limits based on the highest kappa-values (0.51 and 0.54) were > 18 for superficial dentinal caries (D3) and > 37 for deep dentinal caries (D4). The comparison with DIAGNOdent cut-offs given by the manufacturer (n = 4) and those based on clinical trials with in vivo validation (n = 4) and in vitro studies with histological validation (n = 3) revealed a considerable variation in performance. Recommended cut-offs between 17 and 21 for superficial dentin lesions were in the same order of magnitude (0.48-0.51). On the D4 level, only the manufacturer's cut-off of > 34 achieved the best performance (0.51). According to the highest kappa-values and the area under the ROC curves (D3: A(z) = 0.903; D4: A(z) = 0.830), the agreement between the extent of validated caries and laser fluorescence value is still unsatisfactory.

  10. Quantitative method to assess caries via fluorescence imaging from the perspective of autofluorescence spectral analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Q. G.; Zhu, H. H.; Xu, Y.; Lin, B.; Chen, H.

    2015-08-01

    A quantitative method to discriminate caries lesions for a fluorescence imaging system is proposed in this paper. The autofluorescence spectral investigation of 39 teeth samples classified by the International Caries Detection and Assessment System levels was performed at 405 nm excitation. The major differences in the different caries lesions focused on the relative spectral intensity range of 565-750 nm. The spectral parameter, defined as the ratio of wavebands at 565-750 nm to the whole spectral range, was calculated. The image component ratio R/(G + B) of color components was statistically computed by considering the spectral parameters (e.g. autofluorescence, optical filter, and spectral sensitivity) in our fluorescence color imaging system. Results showed that the spectral parameter and image component ratio presented a linear relation. Therefore, the image component ratio was graded as 1.62 to quantitatively classify sound, early decay, established decay, and severe decay tissues, respectively. Finally, the fluorescence images of caries were experimentally obtained, and the corresponding image component ratio distribution was compared with the classification result. A method to determine the numerical grades of caries using a fluorescence imaging system was proposed. This method can be applied to similar imaging systems.

  11. Detection accuracy of in vitro approximal caries by cone beam computed tomography images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu Xingmin, E-mail: quxingmin@bjmu.edu.cn [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, 22 Zhongguancun Nandajie, Hai Dian District, Beijing 100081 (China); Li Gang, E-mail: kqgang@bjmu.edu.cn [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, 22 Zhongguancun Nandajie, Hai Dian District, Beijing 100081 (China); Zhang Zuyan, E-mail: zhangzy-bj@vip.sina.com [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, 22 Zhongguancun Nandajie, Hai Dian District, Beijing 100081 (China); Ma Xuchen, E-mail: kqxcma@bjmu.edu.cn [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, 22 Zhongguancun Nandajie, Hai Dian District, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2011-08-15

    Aims: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of approximal carious lesions among five CBCT systems and to assess the effect of detector types employed by different CBCT systems on the accuracy of approximal caries diagnosis. Materials and methods: Thirty-nine extracted non-cavitated human permanent teeth were employed in the study. Seven observers evaluated 78 approximal surfaces of the teeth with respect to caries by the images from the following five CBCT systems: (1) NewTom 9000; (2) Accuitomo 3DX; (3) Kodak 9000 3D; (4) ProMax 3D; and (5) DCT PRO, respectively. The lesions were validated by histological examination. The area under receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (A{sub z}) was used to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy. Results: Microscopy of approximal surfaces found 47.4% sound, 39.8% enamel and 12.8% dentin lesions. The differences of A{sub z} values among the five CBCT systems were not statistically significant (p = 0.348). No significant difference was found between the two detector types of CBCT systems (p = 0.47). Conclusions: The five CBCT systems employed in the study showed no significant difference in the in vitro approximal caries detection. Neither the detector nor the FOV employed by the CBCT systems has an impact on the detection accuracy of approximal caries.

  12. Using laser fluorescence (DIAGNOdent) in surveys for the detection of noncavitated occlusal dentine caries

    OpenAIRE

    Rando-Meirelles, MPM; de Sousa, MDR

    2011-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of the DIAGNOdent system in epidemiological studies to detect noncavitated occlusal caries lesions, and compare the results with those found in radiographic examinations. Methods The sample consisted of 1,290 occlusal surfaces of permanent molars, examined in 179 schoolchildren aged 12-15 years. The methods used were: visual inspection, radiographic examination and DIAGNOdent exam, with radiographic examination being considered the gold ...

  13. Accuracy of Digital Bitewing Radiography versus Different Views of Digital Panoramic Radiography for Detection of Proximal Caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdinian, Mehrdad; Razavi, Sayed Mohammad; Samety, Amir Abbas; Faghihian, Elham

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Dental caries are common and have a high incidence among populations. Radiographs are essential for detecting proximal caries. The best technique should be recognized for accurate detection of caries. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of detection of proximal caries using intraoral bitewing, extraoral bitewing, improved interproximal panoramic, improved orthogonality panoramic and conventional panoramic radiographs. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive cross sectional study, 100 extracted human teeth with and without proximal caries were used. Intra and extraoral radiographs were taken. Images were evaluated and scored by two observers. Scores were compared with the histological gold standard. The diagnostic accuracy of radiographs was assessed by means of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis (P<0.05). Results: Microscopic evaluation of proximal surfaces revealed that 54.8% of the surfaces were sound and 45.2% were carious (with different depths). The differences in the area under the ROC curve (Az value) among the five techniques were not statistically significant. Conclusion: Improved interproximal panoramic and extraoral bitewing radiographs were superior to conventional panoramic radiography for detection of proximal caries ex vivo and should be considered for patients with contraindications for intraoral radiographs. PMID:26622284

  14. Chemomechanical caries removal method versus mechanical caries removal methods in clinical and community-based setting: A comparative in vivo study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, K. V. K. Santosh; Prasad, M. Ghanashyam; Sandeep, R. Venkata; Reddy, S. Pavani; Divya, D.; Pratyusha, K.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effectiveness of various caries removal techniques in mandibular primary molars using Smart Burs, atraumatic restorative technique (ART) (mechanical caries removal) and Carie-care (chemomechanical caries removal [CMCR]) among primary school children in clinical and community-based settings. Materials and Methods: A total of 80 carious primary mandibular molars were selected for the study from the dental clinic and community. They were equally assigned to four groups according to caries removal technique and also by the operating site. In Group 1, caries was removed using Carie-care in the dental clinic and in Group 2, with Smart Burs in the dental clinic. In Group 3, caries was removed using Carie-care in the field and in Group 4, with the ART in the field. The time taken for caries removal, the efficacy of caries removal and patient acceptance were evaluated with different caries removal techniques. Statistical Analysis: The obtained data were subjected to statistical analysis by ANOVA test. Results: In clinical settings, Carie-care was time-consuming but was more efficient with increased acceptance than Smart Burs and the result was found to be significant statistically (P < 0.05). In community-based settings, Carie-care was more efficient, less time consuming, and showed an increased acceptance when compared to atraumatic restorative treatment and the result was found to be significant statistically (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The CMCR technique was superior to the mechanical caries removal technique in primary teeth among school children in terms of time, efficacy, and acceptance in both clinical- and community-based settings. PMID:27403059

  15. Evaluation of a new fluorescence-based device in the detection of incipient occlusal caries lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achilleos, Eva-Eleni; Rahiotis, Christos; Kakaboura, Afrodite; Vougiouklakis, George

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the performance of various contemporary detection tools at incipient occlusal caries. Thirty eight freshly extracted posterior teeth with non-cavitated occlusal caries were subjected to clinical examination and coding according to ICDAS criteria (n = 38). Standardized fluorescence images were taken with VistaProof (Dürr Dental, Bietigheim-Bissingen, Germany). Furthermore, the teeth were calculated with a laser fluorescence pen device (DIAGNOdent pen, Kavo, Biberach, Germany). In all detection methods, assessment of caries was performed twice (with 1-week interval) by two calibrated examiners. Finally, the caries lesions were validated in tooth sections by histological examination. The intra-examiner and inter-examiner kappa coefficient, sensitivity, and specificity were determined for all detection methods at enamel lesions (D1 threshold). Degrees of agreement of each method with the histological status were calculated using receiver operating characteristic statistics and the area under curve (Az values). The kappa intra-examiner/inter-examiner coefficient values (mean ± SD) were 0.74 ± 0.04/0.73 ± 0.07, 0.87 ± 0.04/0.82 ± 0.07, and 0.91 ± 0.06/0.83 ± 0.08 for clinical examination, DIAGNOdent pen, and VistaProof, respectively. The sensitivity for ICDAS was 0.80-0.86, for DIAGNOdent pen was 0.66-0.75, and for the VistaProof device was 0.97. The specificity for all the detection methods were 0.5 (0.02-0.99). The accuracy value for ICDAS was 0.76-0.81, for DIAGNOdent pen 0.66-0.71, and for the VistaProof device 0.92-0.95. The Az values (mean ± SD) were 0.431 ± 0.187, 0.583 ± 0.215, and 0.486 ± 0.207 for ICDAS, DIAGNOdent pen, and VistaProof examination, respectively. No significant differences in Az values were noted among the methods. All detection methods were presented with high inter-examiner and intra-examiner agreement. The new VistaProof device showed the best sensitivity, while DIAGNOdent pen

  16. Diagnostic Accuracy of Digital and Conventional Radiography in the Detection of Non-Cavitated Approximal Dental Caries

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    Farida Abesi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Radiography plays an important role in the detection of interproximal caries.Objectives: The aim of the present study was to determine diagnostic accuracy of chargecoupled devices (CCD, Photo Stimulable Phosphor (PSP and film radiography in detecting non-cavitated caries.Patients and Methods: Seventy-two non-cavitated approximal surfaces of extracted human posterior teeth were radiographed under standardized conditions using three intraoral modalities: CCD Dixi3 (Planmeca, Finland, PSP Digora PCT (Soredex, Finland, and E-speed film (Kodak, USA. Radiographs were interpreted by four observers and caries lesions were classified as sound (R0, restricted to enamel (R1, reaching the dentinoenamel junction (DEJ and the outer half of the dentin (R2 and the inner half of the dentin (R3. The teeth were subsequently sectioned for histological analysis which served as the gold standard for radiographic examination.Results: Microscopic examinations showed that the distribution of caries were 63.9% sound, 18.1% enamel, 9.7% DEJ and outer half of the dentin and 8.3% into the inner half of the dentin.The sensitivity and specificity of film, CCD and PSP for the detection of enamel caries were 38% and 98%; 15% and 96 %; and 23% and 98%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of film, CCD and PSP for the detection of both dentin and enamel caries were 55% and 100%; 45% and 100% ; and 55% and 100%, respectively.Conclusions: The results demonstrated that the diagnostic accuracy of digital images is similar to that of conventional film radiography in the detection of non-cavitated approximal caries.

  17. Assessing the Performance of the Laser Fluorescence Technique in Detecting Proximal Caries Cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Akbari

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diagnosing the necessity of cavity preparation and restoration in demineralized proximal areas is always considered as a challenge in restorative treatment planning. The purpose of this study was to assess the performance of the laser fluorescence (LF technique in detection of proximal cavities.Materials & Methods: In this clinical trial, 44 proximal surfaces in 38 dental students were evaluated. The selected patients had radiolucent proximal lesions restricted to inner half of enamel or outer third of dentine in bitewing radiographs (BW. DIAGNOdent pen (LF pen device was used to determine the presence or absence of caries cavities in suspected proximal surfaces. Orthodontic elastic separators were then placed in the contact areas to provide enough space for direct visual and tactile examination. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the laser fluorescence technique were calculated versus the reference standard. The ROC curve was drawn and the best cut-off to determine the presence or absence of proximal cavities was determined.Results: Using DIAGNOdent pen, the optimal cut-off for detecting proximal cavities was 18. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of DIAGNOdent pen for diagnosing proximal caries cavities were 100 per cent, 97.3 per cent and 97.7 per cent, respectively. Conclusion: Due to the high diagnostic accuracy of DIAGNOdent pen in detecting proximal caries cavities, it can be used as a valuable supplement in restorative treatment planning.

  18. A simple dental caries detection system using full spectrum of laser-induced fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha-Cabral, Renata Maciel; Mendes, Fausto Medeiros; Maldonado, Edison Puig; Zezell, Denise Maria

    2015-06-01

    Objectives: to develop an apparatus for the detection of early caries lesions in enamel using the full extent of the tooth fluorescence spectrum, through the integration of a laser diode, fiber optics, filters and one portable spectrometer connected to a computer, all commercially available; to evaluate the developed device in clinical and laboratory tests, and compare its performance with commercial equipment. Methods: clinical examinations were performed in patients with indication for exodontics of premolars. After examinations, the patients underwent surgery and the teeth were stored individually. The optical measurements were repeated approximately two months after extraction, on the same sites previously examined, then histological analysis was carried out. Results: the spectral detector has presented high specificity and moderate sensitivity when applied to differentiate between healthy and damaged tissues, with no significant differences from the performance of the commercial equipment. The developed device is able to detect initial damages in enamel, with depth of approximately 300 μm. Conclusions: we successfully demonstrated the development of a simple and portable system based in laser-induced fluorescence for caries detection, assembled from common commercial parts. As the spectral detector acquires a complete recording of the spectrum from each tissue, it is possible to use it for monitoring developments of caries lesions.

  19. Validation of DIAGNOdent laser fluorescence and the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) in diagnosis of occlusal caries in permanent teeth: an in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilho, Lia S; Cotta, Fernanda V M D; Bueno, Audrey C; Moreira, Allyson N; Ferreira, Efigênia F; Magalhães, Cláudia S

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this in vivo study was to validate the DIAGNOdent laser fluorescence method and the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) for caries classification against the gold standard, histological examination, for detecting occlusal caries on permanent molars; the thresholds used were the outer enamel (D1), the inner enamel and outer third of the dentine (D2), and the inner two-thirds of the dentine (D3). Patients with non-impacted third molars (n = 43) were recruited from a university clinic. A trained examiner performed the examinations. After the teeth were extracted, the histological criterion was used to determine the severity of the lesions. Intra-examiner agreement (weighted kappa) for ICDAS was 0.60 and reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient) for DIAGNOdent was 0.968. The correlations with the histological reference were weak for DIAGNOdent (rs = 0.369) and moderate for ICDAS (rs = 0.515). The areas under the receiver-operating characteristics (ROC) curve at D1, D2, and D3 were 0.60, 0.69, and 0.91, respectively, for ICDAS and 0.55, 0.65, and 0.92, respectively, for DIAGNOdent. ICDAS and DIAGNOdent proved to be reproducible methods with similar performance in the detection of occlusal carious lesions in dentine. The ability of DIAGNOdent to detect initial enamel lesions was higher than that of ICDAS, but with low specificity. The usefulness of DIAGNOdent as an adjunct method for assessment of initial occlusal caries in permanent molars is questionable.

  20. Diagnostic Value of Senior Dental Students in Yazd About of Detection the Proximal Caries on Panoramic Radiographs Compared to Detection of Experts in 1394

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Romoozi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tooth decay is the most common chronic disease of man in the world and dentists should receive the capability to accurately diagnose of tooth decay during the training courses. In addition to clinical examination, the panoramic view and intraoral radiography is usually used for the caries detection. Therefore, the detection of caries on X-ray images can have a role in treatment planning. Methods: In this analytical study, 10 panoramic radiographies that randomly selected, separately given to 30 senior dental students and 2 professors (in order to determine the gold standard. Data were analyzed using SPSS 17 software, diagnostic tables and indexes were prepared and the results were analyzed by Kappa test. Moreover, in order to determine the agreement between the professors and students about the depth of the decay the weighted kappa coefficient was used. Results: The kappa value about detection of presence or absence of proximal caries between professors and students's diagnosis was 0.428 (P value=0.001. Diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value obtained by students in caries detection were %47, %91.9, %63 and %85.3, respectively. Coefficient of agreement in detection of depth diagnosis obtained by professors and students was 0.361(p value=0.000. Conclusion: The diagnostic capability of senior dental students about caries detection was fair and depth diagnosis was slight.

  1. Light-emitting diode and laser fluorescence-based devices in detecting occlusal caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Jonas A.; Hug, Isabel; Neuhaus, Klaus W.; Lussi, Adrian

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the performance of two light-emitting diode (LED)- and two laser fluorescence-based devices in detecting occlusal caries in vitro. Ninety-seven permanent molars were assessed twice by two examiners using two LED- (Midwest Caries - MID and VistaProof - VP) and two laser fluorescence-based (DIAGNOdent 2095 - LF and DIAGNOdent pen 2190 - LFpen) devices. After measuring, the teeth were histologically prepared and classified according to lesion extension. At D1 the specificities were 0.76 (LF and LFpen), 0.94 (MID), and 0.70 (VP); the sensitivities were 0.70 (LF), 0.62 (LFpen), 0.31 (MID), and 0.75 (VP). At D3 threshold the specificities were 0.88 (LF), 0.87 (LFpen), 0.90 (MID), and 0.70 (VP); the sensitivities were 0.63 (LF and LFpen), 0.70 (MID), and 0.96 (VP). Spearman's rank correlations with histology were 0.56 (LF), 0.51 (LFpen), 0.55 (MID), and 0.58 (VP). Inter- and intraexaminer ICC values were high and varied from 0.83 to 0.90. Both LF devices seemed to be useful auxiliary tools to the conventional methods, presenting good reproducibility and better accuracy at D3 threshold. MID was not able to differentiate sound surfaces from enamel caries and VP still needs improvement on the cut-off limits for its use.

  2. The reliability and accuracy of two methods for proximal caries detection and depth on directly visible proximal surfaces: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekstrand, K R; Luna, L E; Promisiero, L; Cortes, A; Cuevas, S; Reyes, J F; Torres, C E; Martignon, S

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the reliability and accuracy of the ICDAS and radiographs in detecting and estimating the depth of proximal lesions on extracted teeth. The lesions were visible to the naked eye. Three trained examiners scored a total of 132 sound/carious proximal surfaces from 106 primary teeth and 160 sound/carious proximal surfaces from 140 permanent teeth. The selected surfaces were first scored visually, using the 7 classes in the ICDAS. They were then assessed on radiographs using a 5-point classification system. Reexaminations were conducted with both scoring systems. Teeth were then sectioned and the selected surfaces histologically classified using a stereomicroscope (×5). Intrareproducibility values (weighted kappa statistics) for the ICDAS for both primary and permanent teeth were >0.9, and for the radiographs between 0.6 and 0.8. Interreproducibility values for the ICDAS were >0.85, for the radiographs >0.6. For both primary and permanent teeth, the accuracy of each examiner (Spearman's correlation coefficient) for the ICDAS was ≥0.85, and for the radiographs ≥0.45. Corresponding data were achieved when using pooled data from the 3 examiners for both the ICDAS and the radiographs. The associations between the 2 detection methods were measured to be moderate. In particular, the ICDAS was accurate in predicting lesion depth (histologically) confined to the enamel/outer third of the dentine versus deeper lesions. This study shows that when proximal lesions are open for inspection, the ICDAS is a more reliable and accurate method than the radiograph for detecting and estimating the depth of the lesion in both primary and permanent teeth.

  3. Detection of Non-Cavitated Occlusal Caries with Impedance Spectroscopy and Laser Fluorescence: an In Vitro Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Diana; Dannemand, Katrine; Twetman, Svante; Keller, Mette Kirstine

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the performance of an impedance spectroscopy technology for detecting non-cavitated occlusal caries lesions in permanent teeth in vitro. The method was compared with a commonly used laser fluorescence device and validated against histology. Material and Methodology: A non-cavitated sample of 100 extracted posterior teeth was randomly selected and assessed for caries on enamel and dentin level with aid of CarioScan PRO (ACIS) and DIAGNOdent pen (LF pen) by three examiners. After the measurements, the extension of the lesion was histologically determined as gold standard. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and receiver-operating curves were calculated. Intra- and inter-examiner reproducibility was expressed by intra class correlation coefficients. Results: The histological caries prevalence was 99% and 41% exhibited dentin caries. The ACIS technique displayed high specificities but almost negligible sensitivities at readings >50. A similar pattern was noted for the LF pen at readings >30. The intra- and inter-examiner reproducibility varied between 0.47 and 0.98 and the values were generally lower for the ACIS technique than for the LF pen. The inter-examiner agreement reached excellent levels with both methods. Conclusions: In vitro,the ACIS technique showed a low ability to disclose occlusal caries lesions in the enamel and/or dentin of non-cavitated permanent molars. However, further in vivo studies of permanent occlusal surfaces are needed to mirror the clinical situation. PMID:24799965

  4. Clinical relevance of studies on the accuracy of visual inspection for detecting caries lesions: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimenez, Thais; Piovesan, Chaiana; Braga, Mariana M; Raggio, Daniela P; Deery, Chris; Ricketts, David N; Ekstrand, Kim R; Mendes, Fausto Medeiros

    2015-01-01

    Although visual inspection is the most commonly used method for caries detection, and consequently the most investigated, studies have not been concerned about the clinical relevance of this procedure. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review in order to perform a critical evaluation considering the clinical relevance and methodological quality of studies on the accuracy of visual inspection for assessing caries lesions. Two independent reviewers searched several databases through July 2013 to identify papers/articles published in English. Other sources were checked to identify unpublished literature. The eligible studies were those which (1) assessed the accuracy of the visual method for detecting caries lesions on occlusal, approximal or smooth surfaces, in primary or permanent teeth, (2) used a reference standard, and (3) reported data about sample size and accuracy of the methods. Aspects related to clinical relevance and the methodological quality of the studies were evaluated. 96 of the 5,578 articles initially identified met the inclusion criteria. In general, most studies failed in considering some clinically relevant aspects: only 1 included study validated activity status of lesions, no study considered its prognosis, 79 studies did not consider a clinically relevant outcome, and only 1 evaluated a patient-centred outcome. Concerning methodological quality, the majority of the studies presented a high risk of bias in sample selection. In conclusion, studies on the accuracy of the visual method for caries detection should consider clinically relevant outcomes besides accuracy; moreover, they should be conducted with higher methodological quality, mainly regarding sample selection.

  5. All-optical photoacoustic imaging and detection of early-stage dental caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampathkumar, Ashwin; Hughes, David A.; Longbottom, Chris; Kirk, Katherine J.

    2015-02-01

    Dental caries remain one of the most common oral diseases in the world. Current detection methods, such as dental explorer and X-ray radiography, suffer from poor sensitivity and specificity at the earliest (and reversible) stages of the disease because of the small size (dental caries. Ex-vivo teeth exhibiting early-stage, white-spot lesions were imaged using AOPAI. Experimental scans targeted each early-stage lesion and a reference healthy enamel region. Photoacoustic (PA) signals were generated in the tooth using a 532-nm pulsed laser and the light-induced broadband ultrasound signal was detected at the surface of the tooth with an optical path-stabilized Michelson interferometer operating at 532 nm. The measured time-domain signal was spatially resolved and back-projected to form 2D and 3D maps of the lesion using k-wave reconstruction methods. Experimental data collected from areas of healthy and diseased enamel indicate that the lesion generated a larger PA response compared to healthy enamel. The PA-signal amplitude alone was able to detect a lesion on the surface of the tooth. However, time- reversal reconstructions of the PA scans also quantitatively depicted the depth of the lesion. 3D PA reconstruction of the diseased tooth indicated a sub-surface lesion at a depth of 0.6 mm, in addition to the surface lesion. These results suggest that our AOPAI system is well suited for rapid clinical assessment of early-stage dental caries. An overview of the AOPAI system, fine-resolution PA and histology results of diseased and healthy teeth will be presented.

  6. Comparison between a laser fluorescence device and visual examination in the detection of occlusal caries in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouchaji, Chaza

    2012-01-01

    Occlusal surfaces of molars are especially susceptible to the development of caries due to the features, such as pits and deep fissures, of their anatomical structure. Aim To evaluate the efficiency of DIAGNOdent laser fluorescence measurements in comparison with visual examination for occlusal caries detection for first permanent molars in children. Methods The study involved 156 permanent molar teeth in 40 children aged 7–12 years. A relatively new technology, the fluorescence laser DIAGNOdent pen, was used for detecting and diagnosing caries on the occlusal surfaces of molars. The visual examination of fissures was based on the Ekstrand classification system. Results The results showed a strong relationship between examination with the DIAGNOdent and visual inspection. DIAGNOdent’s sensitivity and specificity were 97% and 52%, respectively, indicating that the laser fluorescence DIAGNOdent pen is a reproducible and accurate diagnostic tool that may be very helpful in conjunction with visual examination in the detection of occlusal caries in permanent molars in children. PMID:23960547

  7. Development of fibre-optic confocal microscopy for detection and diagnosis of dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, C; Poland, S; Girkin, J M; Hall, A F; Whitters, C J

    2007-01-01

    We report on the development of a fibre-optics-based confocal imaging system for the detection and potential diagnosis of early dental caries. A novel optical instrument, capable of recording axial profiles through caries lesions using single-mode optical fibres, has been developed. The practical study illustrates that miniature confocal devices based around single-mode optical fibres may provide additional diagnostic information for the general dental practitioner.

  8. Detection of occlusal caries in primary teeth using swept source optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Yukie; Shimada, Yasushi; Sadr, Alireza; Wada, Ikumi; Miyashin, Michiyo; Takagi, Yuzo; Tagami, Junji; Sumi, Yasunori

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) as a detecting tool for occlusal caries in primary teeth. At the in vitro part of the study, 38 investigation sites of occlusal fissures (noncavitated and cavitated) were selected from 26 extracted primary teeth and inspected visually using conventional dental equipment by six examiners without any magnification. SS-OCT cross-sectional images at 1330-nm center wavelength were acquired on the same locations. The teeth were then sectioned at the investigation site and directly viewed under a confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) by two experienced examiners. The presence and extent of caries were scored in each observation. The results obtained from SS-OCT and conventional visual inspections were compared with those of CLSM. Consequently, SS-OCT could successfully detect both cavitated and noncavitated lesions. The magnitude of sensitivity for SS-OCT was higher than those for visual inspection (sensitivity of visual inspection and SS-OCT, 0.70 versus 0.93 for enamel demineralization, 0.49 versus 0.89 for enamel cavitated caries, and 0.36 versus 0.75 for dentin caries). Additionally, occlusal caries of a few clinical cases were observed using SS-OCT in vivo. The results indicate that SS-OCT has a great detecting potential for occlusal caries in primary teeth.

  9. Detection of occlusal caries in primary teeth using swept source optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Yukie; Shimada, Yasushi; Sadr, Alireza; Wada, Ikumi; Miyashin, Michiyo; Takagi, Yuzo; Tagami, Junji; Sumi, Yasunori

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) as a detecting tool for occlusal caries in primary teeth. At the in vitro part of the study, 38 investigation sites of occlusal fissures (noncavitated and cavitated) were selected from 26 extracted primary teeth and inspected visually using conventional dental equipment by six examiners without any magnification. SS-OCT cross-sectional images at 1330-nm center wavelength were acquired on the same locations. The teeth were then sectioned at the investigation site and directly viewed under a confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) by two experienced examiners. The presence and extent of caries were scored in each observation. The results obtained from SS-OCT and conventional visual inspections were compared with those of CLSM. Consequently, SS-OCT could successfully detect both cavitated and noncavitated lesions. The magnitude of sensitivity for SS-OCT was higher than those for visual inspection (sensitivity of visual inspection and SS-OCT, 0.70 versus 0.93 for enamel demineralization, 0.49 versus 0.89 for enamel cavitated caries, and 0.36 versus 0.75 for dentin caries). Additionally, occlusal caries of a few clinical cases were observed using SS-OCT in vivo. The results indicate that SS-OCT has a great detecting potential for occlusal caries in primary teeth.

  10. Caries diagnosis using laser fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanin, Fatima A. A.; Pinheiro, Antonio L. B.; Souza-Campos, Dilma H.; Brugnera, Aldo, Jr.; Pecora, Jesus D.

    2000-03-01

    Caries prevention is a goal to be achieved by dentist in order to promote health. There are several methods used to detect dental caries each one presenting advantages and disadvantages, especially regarding hidden occlusal caries. The improvement of laser technology has permitted the use of laser fluorescence for early diagnosis of hidden occlusal caries. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of the use of 655 nm laser light on the detection of hidden occlusal caries. Forty molar teeth from patients of both sexes which ages ranging from 10 - 18 years old were used on this study. Following manufacture's instructions regarding the use of the equipment, the teeth had their occlusal surface examined with the DIAGNOdent. Twenty six of 40 teeth had hidden occlusal caries detected by the DIAGNOdent. However only 17 of these 26 teeth showed radiographic signs of caries the other 9 teeth showed no radiological signs of the lesion. Radiographic examination was able to identify 34,61% of false negative cases. This means that many caries would be left untreated due to the lack of diagnosis using both visual and radiographic examination. The use of the DIAGNOdent was effective in successfully detecting hidden occlusal caries.

  11. The reliability and accuracy of two methods for proximal caries detection and depth on directly visible proximal surfaces: an in vitro study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekstrand, K R; Alloza, Alvaro Luna; Promisiero, L;

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the reliability and accuracy of the ICDAS and radiographs in detecting and estimating the depth of proximal lesions on extracted teeth. The lesions were visible to the naked eye. Three trained examiners scored a total of 132 sound/carious proximal surfaces from 106 p...

  12. Occlusal caries detection with KaVo DIAGNOdent and radiography: an in vitro comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, X Q; Welander, U; Angmar-Månsson, B

    2000-01-01

    A new laser fluorescence method, KaVo DIAGNOdent, was tested with respect to reproducibility and validity and compared with radiography regarding accuracy in the detection of occlusal caries. Seventy-six extracted premolar and molar teeth were measured twice with DIAGNOdent under both wet and dry conditions, at an interval of 2 weeks. Conventional film radiographs were exposed. Microradiographic analysis of sections of the teeth served as the gold standard. Intra-class correlation coefficient and Pearson's correlation coefficient were used to assess the reproducibility and the validity of the method, respectively. The influence of time and varying humidities on DIAGNOdent readings were analysed by two-way repeated measure ANOVA. ROC curves were plotted for DIAGNOdent readings and radiographic registration of caries by 6 observers, and the areas under the curves were compared using Student's t test. Under both wet and dry conditions, the reproducibility of the DIAGNOdent method was excellent: R = 0.97 and 0.96, respectively. The diagnostic accuracy of DIAGNOdent was significantly better than that of radiography (pDIAGNOdent method was superior to that of radiography.

  13. [DNA-technologies application for early detection of caries predisposition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbunova, I L

    2006-01-01

    In the paper the possible use of modern DNA-technologies for estimation of gene pool, dental hard tissue resistance to caries prognosis, hereditary predisposition to the main oral diseases diagnosis are presented. Application potentialities of DNA-markers for multiple testing in population are identified. Today very little information is available concerning Russia gene pool characteristics in genome polymorphism, DNA-markers-allelic gene variants, related to the caries predisposition. These characteristics are needed to solve the problems concerning dental diseases prophylaxis and treatment.

  14. Diagnostic agreement between radiologists, dentists and dental students for radiographic detection of approximal caries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio E Uribe

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess intraobserver and interobserver agreement for radiographic detection of approximal caries among radiologists, dentists and senior dental students. Materials and methods: 75 standardized bitewing radiographs were examined by four maxillofacial radiologists, four dentists and four senior dental students. Iinterobserver agreement was calculated using a weighted Kappa Cohen test. Two weeks later, the examiners re-evaluated 10% of the sample under the same conditions and intraobserver agreement weighted Kappa Cohen test was calculated. Results: The interobserver Kappa value was 0.68 (good for the dentist-student pair, 0.51 (moderate for the student-radiologist and 0.62 (good for the dentist-radiologist pair. All these differences were significant. The intraobserver agreement Kappa values obtained were 0.56 (moderate for students (p=0.46, 0.46 (moderate for dentists (p<0.05 and 0.68 (good for radiologists. Conclusion: The agreement for proximal caries detection by dental students, dentists and radiologists was moderate to good.

  15. Evaluation of diagnostic ability of CCD digital radiography in the detection of incipient dental caries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Wan; Lee, Byung Do [Wonkwang University College of Medicine, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-03-15

    The purpose of this experiment was to evaluate the diagnostic ability of a CCD-based digital system (CDX-2000HQ) in the detection of incipient dental caries. 93 extracted human teeth with sound proximal surfaces and interproximal artificial cavities were radiographed using 4 imaging methods. Automatically processed No.2 Insight film (Eastman Kodak Co., U.S.A.) was used for conventional radiography, scanned images of conventional radiograms for indirect digital radiography were used. For the direct digital radiography, the CDX-2000HQ CCD system (Biomedisys Co. Korea) was used. The subtraction images were made from two direct digital images by Sunny program in the CDX-2000HQ system. Two radiologists and three endodontists examined the presence of lesions using a five-point confidence scale and compared the diagnostic ability by ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) analysis and one way ANOVA test. The mean ROC areas of conventional radiography, indirect digital radiography, direct digital radiography, and digital subtraction radiography were 0.9093, 0.9102, 0.9184, and 0.9056, respectively. The diagnostic ability of direct digital radiography was better than the other imaging modalities, but there were no statistical differences among these imaging modalities (p>0.05). These results indicate that new CCD-based digital systems (CDX-2000HQ) have the potential to serve as an alternative to conventional radiography in the detection of incipient dental caries.

  16. In vitro study of caries detection through sound dentin using a laser fluorescence device, DIAGNOdent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwami, Yukiteru; Shimizu, Ayako; Yamamoto, Hiroko; Hayashi, Mikako; Takeshige, Fumio; Ebisu, Shigeyuki

    2003-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of proximal surface caries detection using a laser fluorescence device, DIAGNOdent, through the sound dentin surrounding the cavity wall after removal of occlusal caries. Extracted sound human molars were ground to prepare horizontal and vertical dentin plates 1.4 mm thick. Extracted carious human molars were reduced in thickness horizontally from the occlusal surfaces until exposure of the dentin caries. The dentin plate was placed on the carious tooth. Before and after gradual thinning of the dentin plate from approximately 1.4 mm to 0.2 mm thick, the dentin caries was measured 10 times through the plate by the laser fluorescence device with a cone-shaped tip or a broad tip. When the dentin plate was reduced to less than 0.3 mm thick (using a combination of a horizontal plate and cone-shaped tip) or 0.2 mm thick (using the other combinations), the values measured with the laser fluorescence device were significantly larger than the values before reducing the thickness of the dentin. Based on these results, the device offers potential use as one of the screening tests for proximal surface caries detection through sound dentin when the sound dentin between tip and caries is thin.

  17. Multivariate image analysis of laser-induced photothermal imaging used for detection of caries tooth

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sherif, Ashraf F.; Abdel Aziz, Wessam M.; El-Sharkawy, Yasser H.

    2010-08-01

    Time-resolved photothermal imaging has been investigated to characterize tooth for the purpose of discriminating between normal and caries areas of the hard tissue using thermal camera. Ultrasonic thermoelastic waves were generated in hard tissue by the absorption of fiber-coupled Q-switched Nd:YAG laser pulses operating at 1064 nm in conjunction with a laser-induced photothermal technique used to detect the thermal radiation waves for diagnosis of human tooth. The concepts behind the use of photo-thermal techniques for off-line detection of caries tooth features were presented by our group in earlier work. This paper illustrates the application of multivariate image analysis (MIA) techniques to detect the presence of caries tooth. MIA is used to rapidly detect the presence and quantity of common caries tooth features as they scanned by the high resolution color (RGB) thermal cameras. Multivariate principal component analysis is used to decompose the acquired three-channel tooth images into a two dimensional principal components (PC) space. Masking score point clusters in the score space and highlighting corresponding pixels in the image space of the two dominant PCs enables isolation of caries defect pixels based on contrast and color information. The technique provides a qualitative result that can be used for early stage caries tooth detection. The proposed technique can potentially be used on-line or real-time resolved to prescreen the existence of caries through vision based systems like real-time thermal camera. Experimental results on the large number of extracted teeth as well as one of the thermal image panoramas of the human teeth voltanteer are investigated and presented.

  18. COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF FIVE METHODS FOR EARLY DIAGNOSIS OF OCCLUSAL CARIES LESIONS – in vitro study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Marinova-Takorova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the presented in vitro study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the device DIAGNOcam and the laser fluorescence device DIAGNOdent for early diagnosis of occlusal caries and to compare it with three traditional methods – visual and tactile, dye and radiographic examination. Material and methods: The sample consisted of 60 extracted human teeth. Three clinicians diagnosed independently the presence or absence of early occlusal surface caries with the visible tactile method,DIAGNOcam andDIAGNOdent. Then X-rays were taken and the dentists viewed them separately, without magnification.Fuchsine was applied for 30 sec. and then washed under running water for 20 min. Places where dye was present were registered. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS package of Windows. Results: The results showed high level of correspondence between the authors for all the diagnostic methods. Concerning different methods applied for caries diagnosis there was a correlation between the methods, but it was diverging for the different methods. No correlation between radiographic exam and data obtained with DIAGNOdent and dye staining was observed. Conclusions: Based on the obtained results we may conclude that the least sensitive method for fissure caries diagnosis was the dye staining, followed by the radiographic exam. The results, obtained by DIAGNOdent and DIAGNOcam were very close, but DIAGNOcams’ data was better correlating with the clinical results.DIAGNOcam procedure can be judged as equivalent in the detection of occlusal dentine lesions when compared to clinical results.

  19. Diagnostic Values of Laser Fluorescence Device with Other Techniques in Occlusal Caries Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Chehresaz

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the present study was to compare the performance of laser fluorescence (LF method with other conventional diagnostic techniques in detection of smallocclusal caries in permanent teeth.Materials and Methods: Prior to this in vitro diagnostic study, a pilot study assessed intra-examiner reliability and reproducibility. The occlusal surfaces of 90 extracted human premolars were examined with four diagnostic methods: probing, visual inspection, bitewing(BW radiographs, and LF. The teeth were then sectioned for the purpose of histological examination. The data were analyzed using SPSS 15 software, and sensitivity,specificity and other diagnostic criteria of the techniques were calculated.Results: The intra-examiner reproducibility for probing and also radiographic techniques was 100%. The corresponded figure for LF (88% was more than visual inspection (82%.The highest level of validity of the examiner turned out to be in probing technique(76.9%. Sensitivity of visual inspection, probing, and LF methods was 54.5% and that of BW radiography was 27.5%. Specificity and efficiency of LF method were 84.8% and 81.1%, respectively. Probing and visual inspection showed the highest specificity (97.5% and 94.9, respectively and efficiency (92.2% and 90%, respectively among the methods.Conclusion: Specificity and efficiency of LF method were lower compared to those of other methods. Among all the investigated methods, the most efficient methods in the diagnosis of small occlusal caries in permanent teeth were probing and visual inspection,respectively.

  20. Micro CT settings for caries detection: how to optimize.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaiben CL

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Some important items that can influence micro CT image were reviewed in this study. Different settings were optimized for the assessment of early caries lesions. There are several researches on bone using micro CT but not too much on dental hard tissues when assessing mineral loss. Different kinds of micro CT devices and technologies are taking place today, each requiring unique settings, and this consists one of the greatest obstacles for the use of micro CT on dental hard tissues. Achieving the settings for an ideal dental image is therefore a challenge. The purpose of this study was to evaluate different micro CT settings to optimize the assessment of early caries lesions aiming the integrity of the dental specimen thus, making possible to reuse it for further studies. Three teeth with early caries lesions were submitted to different micro CT settings and different reconstruction settings, aiming a better image. The final image was compared visually through different densities and attenuation coefficients. The best setting for teeth tissues was achieved regarding contrast, definition, noise reduction and the larger difference between sound enamel and early lesions attenuation coefficient.

  1. Comparison of chemomechanical caries removal using Papacárie versus conventional method in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merve Erkmen Almaz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical efficacy of chemomechanical caries removal (Papacárie, compared with the conventional method. Materials and Methods: The study consisted of 50 primary molars selected from 25 healthy children (mean age 7.6 ± 1.1. Each patient had at least two primary molars with approximately equal-size caries lesions. Both treatments were carried out in the same session. Before and after treatment, fluorescence values were obtained using DIAGNOdent Pen and time needed for caries removal was recorded. Each patient was asked whether he/she felt any pain, requested for local anesthesia, which treatment he/she preferred, and behavior of the patient during caries removal was assessed. Data were analyzed using McNemar, Wilcoxon signed rank, and Mann–Whitney U-test. Results: The clinical evaluation revealed that all the cavities were caries free after both techniques. Comparison of the difference in fluorescence values showed that readings were lower after conventional method (P 0.05. Conclusion: Chemomechanical caries removal and conventional method exhibited similar efficacy in caries removal.

  2. High contrast optical imaging methods for image guided laser ablation of dental caries lesions

    OpenAIRE

    LaMantia, Nicole R.; Tom, Henry; Chan, Kenneth H.; Simon, Jacob C.; Darling, Cynthia L.; Fried, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Laser based methods are well suited for automation and can be used to selectively remove dental caries to minimize the loss of healthy tissues and render the underlying enamel more resistant to acid dissolution. The purpose of this study was to determine which imaging methods are best suited for image-guided ablation of natural non-cavitated carious lesions on occlusal surfaces. Multiple caries imaging methods were compared including near-IR and visible reflectance and quantitative light fluo...

  3. Diagnostic agreement between radiologist, dentist and dental students for radiographic detection of approximal caries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio E Uribe

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Aim: To assess intraobserver and interobserver agreement for radiographic detection of approximal caries among dentists, senior’s dental students and radiologists. Materials and methods: 75 standardized bitewing radiographs were examined by four maxillofacial radiologist, four dentist and four senior dental students. Interobserver agreement was calculated using a weighted Kappa Cohen test. Two weeks later, the examiners re-evaluated 10% of the sample under the same conditions and intraobserver agreement weighted Kappa Cohen test were calculated.Results: The interobserver Kappa value was 0.68 (good for the dentist-student pair, 0.51 (moderate for the student-radiologist and 0.62 (good for the dentist-radiologist pair. All these differences were significant. The intraobserver agreement Kappa values obtained were 0.56 (moderate for students (p=0.46, 0.46 (moderate for dentist (p

  4. A Review on Traditional Caries Diagnostic Systems and Introduction of New International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS)

    OpenAIRE

    Malek Mohammadi T.; Hajizamani A.

    2011-01-01

    Dental caries is a chronic infection disease that manifests itself through demineralization of dental tissues and cavitations in the tooth structure. The diagnosis of dental caries poses challenges due to the complex interaction of multiple endogenous causal factors. Naturally, visual and visual-tactile examinations have been the most commonly used diagnostic aids in caries examination for many years. A major drawback in common dental examination was the use of varied diagnostic criteria by v...

  5. Diagnosis of occlusal caries: Part I. Conventional methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McComb, D; Tam, L E

    2001-09-01

    Accurate diagnosis of the presence or absence of disease is a fundamental requirement in health care. The diagnosis of non-overt occlusal decay is challenging and can be highly subjective, and its inherent uncertainties can lead to widely differing treatment decisions. The development of more sensitive, specific and reproducible diagnostic tools for occlusal surfaces would contribute greatly to more precise planning of preventive and operative therapy. The purpose of this 2-part paper is to review current knowledge concerning conventional and new diagnostic methods for occlusal caries. Part I looks at established diagnostic methods for occlusal surfaces. Conventional visual, tactile and radiographic examinations provide less-than-ideal diagnostic sensitivity. Neither fissure discolouration (black or brown) nor the use of an explorer has been shown to improve diagnostic accuracy. However, the combination of careful visual examination with optimal radiographic examination affords better diagnostic performance. The best visual indicators involve precise features associated with the presence of disease, such as opaque fissure demineralization and the presence and extent of localized breakdown of the enamel. For best results, teeth should be clean, thoroughly dry and well illuminated. Part II will examine new and emerging technologies, including the DIAGNOdent laser fluorescence device, which are being developed for the diagnosis of occlusal decay.

  6. Optical-fiber-based laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for detection of early caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasazawa, Shuhei; Kakino, Satoko; Matsuura, Yuji

    2015-06-01

    A laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) system targeting for the in vivo analysis of tooth enamel is described. The system is planned to enable real-time analysis of teeth during laser dental treatment by utilizing a hollow optical fiber that transmits both Q-switched Nd:YAG laser light for LIBS and infrared Er:YAG laser light for tooth ablation. The sensitivity of caries detection was substantially improved by expanding the spectral region under analysis to ultraviolet (UV) light and by focusing on emission peaks of Zn in the UV region. Subsequently, early caries were distinguished from healthy teeth with accuracy rates above 80% in vitro.

  7. COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THREE METHODS FOR PROXIMAL CARIES DIAGNOSIS – A CLINICAL STUDY.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Marinova-Takorova

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the presented study is to compare the effectiveness of the diagnosis with a dental microscope, laser fluorescence (DIAGNOcam and X-ray examination in proximal caries diagnosis. Material and methods: Thirty-eight adult patients were examined. They were first examined with a dental mirror and a probe, under magnification 6.4 times. After that a diagnosis with DIAGNOcam was performed. Bitewing X-ray images were administered. The data from the three diagnostic methods was compared using SPSS 16 package of Windows. The lesions that were diagnosed as involving dentin were then excavated which served as a confirmation of the diagnosis. Results: The results of the study showed that dentinal lesions were detected with a high degree of correlation with all three diagnostic methods. The visual examination seriously underestimated lesions involving only enamel. In these cases there was a good correlation between laser fluorescence and X-ray data. Conclusions: Based on the conducted study we could conclude that the diagnosis of proximal caries with DIAGNOcam is equivalent to X-ray, both being more accurate in cases with early lesions, compared to visual diagnosis.

  8. Clinical performance of two visual scoring systems in detecting and assessing activity status of occlusal caries in primary teeth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braga, M M; Ekstrand, K R; Martignon, S

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the clinical performance of two sets of visual scoring criteria for detecting caries severity and assessing caries activity status in occlusal surfaces. Two visual scoring systems--the Nyvad criteria (NY) and the ICDAS-II including an adjunct system for lesion activity...

  9. Comparison of three diagnostic techniques for detecting occlusal dental caries in primary molars: An in vivo study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhin Katge

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: This study showed low sensitivity but substantial specificity with visual inspection. Bitewing radiography performed poorly overall when compared with the other two systems. The CarieScan PRO technique gave the highest overall combination of sensitivity and specificity for detection of occlusal caries.

  10. Secondary caries detection with a novel fluorescence-based camera system in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brede, Olivier; Wilde, Claudia; Krause, Felix; Frentzen, Matthias; Braun, Andreas

    2010-02-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the ability of a fluorescence based optical system to detect secondary caries. The optical detecting system (VistaProof) illuminates the tooth surfaces with blue light emitted by high power GaN-LEDs at 405 nm. Employing this almost monochromatic excitation, fluorescence is analyzed using a RGB camera chip and encoded in color graduations (blue - red - orange - yellow) by a software (DBSWIN), indicating the degree of caries destruction. 31 freshly extracted teeth with existing fillings and secondary caries were cleaned, excavated and refilled with the same kind of restorative material. 19 of them were refilled with amalgam, 12 were refilled with a composite resin. Each step was analyzed with the respective software and analyzed statistically. Differences were considered as statistically significant at p0.05). There was a significant difference between baseline measurements of the teeth primarily filled with composite resins and the refilled situation (p=0.014). There was also a significant difference between the non-excavated and the excavated group (Composite p=0.006, Amalgam p=0.018). The in vitro study showed, that the fluorescence based system allows detecting secondary caries next to composite resin fillings but not next to amalgam restorations. Cleaning of the teeth is not necessary, if there is no visible plaque. Further studies have to show, whether the system shows the same promising results in vivo.

  11. Diagnostic accuracy of digital images for detection of artificial chemical proximal caries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Geum Mee; Nah, Kyung Soo [Pusan National University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-06-15

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy of proximal caries detection between Kodak Insight film and the Biomedisys CDX2000HQ digital (CCD) sensor. 156 proximal surfaces of extracted teeth, 78 of which had chemical artificial caries, were used in this study. Four observers interpreted the radiographs using a five-point confidence rating scale to record their diagnoses. The results were analyzed by receiver operating characteristic curves, ANOVA and Kappa values. Analysis using receiver operating characteristic curves revealed the areas under each curve which indicated a diagnostic accuracy of 0.951 in Insight and 0.952 in CDX2000HQ digital sensor. ANOVA revealed no significant differences between the two images with respect to caries detection. Kappa values indicated that the mean intra-observer agreement was 0.85 and inter-observer agreement 0.71 in conventional radiography. In digital radiography, the mean intra-observer agreement was 0.84 and inter-observer agreement 0.72. The results suggest that no significant difference exists between the two modalities for artificial caries detection and that CDX2000HQ was as good as Insight film for this purpose.

  12. Methods for the evaluation of caries preventing agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herkströter, Franciscus Maria

    1990-01-01

    Dental caries, or tooth decay, is a pathological process of localized destruction of tooth tissues by micro-organisms present in the so-called plaque. The destruction, caused by acids formed in the plague,Ieads to mineral loss (demineralization) from the hard tissues. A demineralized tooth can also

  13. Sweetness Preferences and Caries detection in Schoolchildren of Hamedan/Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Mojarrad

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Despite the strong relationship between sugars, mutans streptococcilevels and caries, relatively, little research has been carried out on one of the factors that may influ-ence sugar intake; namely sweet preference. The objective of the present study was to ex-plore the association between sweet preference and the levels of dental caries in 6-12 year-old schoolchildren in Hamedan.Materials and Methods: Samples of both sexes (n=362 were randomly selected. Chil-dren's preference for sugar was measured using a modified version of the Sweet Prefer-ence Iventory, which assessed their preference for 5 different concentration of freshly pre-pared sucrose/tea solution: 0.075M, 0.15M, 0.3M, 0.6M, and 0.9M. Five thermos flasks were filled with the five different concentrations of tea and color-coded. The children were asked to taste, one after another and select the most palatable solution. Then, caries ex-perience was assessed according to WHO guidelines. Socio-demographic information was collected based on a simple questionnaire.Results: Three hundreds and twentyof the children completed all aspects of the research. 64 of them were permanent teeth caries free and 51 were milky teeth caries free. Mean DMFT was 0.61 (SD=1.14 and dmft 3.9 (SD=3.12. The majority of the children (41.4% preferred the two highest concentrations (0.6, 0.9 and 15% of them preferred the highest sweetness level (0.9M.The moderately sweet solution (0.3M, was selected by 30.9% and only 12.4% and 15.3% preferred the less sweet solutions respectively (0.075M, 0.15M.Conclusion: There was no statistical relationship between sweet preference and dental caries.

  14. Proximal surface caries detection with direct-exposure and rare earth screen/film imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundeen, R.C.; McDavid, W.D.; Barnwell, G.M.

    1988-12-01

    This laboratory study compared five imaging systems for their diagnostic accuracy in detection of proximal surface dental caries. Ten viewers provided data on radiographic detectability of carious lesions. The diagnostic accuracy of each system was determined with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves by comparing viewer data with the true state of the teeth as determined microscopically. D-speed film marginally outperformed the other four systems, but the three screen/film systems matched the diagnostic accuracy of E-speed film. Radiation reductions between 62% and 92% were achieved with the screen/film systems when compared to the two conventional dental films. The feasibility of designing a screen/film bite-wing cassette was shown, but the poor diagnostic accuracy of the present bite-wing system indicated a need for a new technology in caries detection.

  15. Clinical study of the use of the laser fluorescence device DIAGNOdent for detection of occlusal caries in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anttonen, V; Seppä, L; Hausen, H

    2003-01-01

    Diagnosis of non-cavitated occlusal caries is generally considered problematic. The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of the laser fluorescence device DIAGNOdent as part of routine dental check-ups in children. A total of 613 occlusal surfaces on permanent molars and 436 surfaces on primary molars in children aged 7-8 (n = 55) and 13-14 years (n = 54) were examined visually, using DIAGNOdent and for most 13- to 14-year-olds also using radiographs. The teeth were not cleaned professionally before examination. To provide a gold standard for carious teeth, the depth of the caries lesion was determined in those lesions that were judged visually to need opening by drilling (51 teeth). The higher the visual score, the higher were the mean DIAGNOdent values, but in each visual category the variation among values was large. The presence of a clear sealant did not affect DIAGNOdent measurements. The values for permanent and primary molars differed slightly. For permanent teeth, Youden's index value was highest (60%) at a cut-off value of 30, which indicates that the overall performance for DIAGNOdent in detecting dentinal caries was best at this point. Using this cut-off, sensitivity was 92% and specificity 69% with visual examination for validation, while sensitivity was 92% and specificity 82% with validation by fissure opening. Of the three methods, radiographic examination was the least accurate. In routine dental check-ups of children, DIAGNOdent appears to be useful as an adjunct to visual examination.

  16. Diagnosis of Dentin Caries – Ultraviolet Fluorescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzunov Ts.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The technology advance in recent years determines the need of construction of modern appliances for early diagnosis of dental caries, which are categorized by great precision, non-invasiveness, easy usage and wide availability. Such non-invasive and accurate tool for diagnostics of caries is Caries Detector (LED, Bulgarian product by “Optica Laser”. The detector emits a specific wavelength of near ultraviolet light, which causes fluorescence to porphyrins - metabolic products of the life cycle of caries-inducing bacteria. The purpose of the study is piloting a new diagnostic tool for detection and monitoring of caries excavation based on fluorescence - LED UV caries detector of company “Optica laser”. Subjected to examination by caries indicator dye and UV caries detector were sixty permanent teeth with deep dentine caries. Two methods were used to assess the dentin caries - UV fluorescence detector of “Optica Laser” and staining with caries indicator - dye (Sable ™ Seek®. It was found that among all sixty teeth, the fields, closed by margins of carious process overlap. Fifty-four of tested teeth has shown bigger field of images with staining method and six - smaller in comparison to the fluorescent method. Ultraviolet fLuorescence caries detector of “Optica Laser” company is affordable and easy applicable method for controlled excavation of dentine caries. The detector can be used in daily dental practice equally with other methods. The unit has a number of advantages - non-invasiveness, lack of interaction with tooth structures, speed, reliability, efficiency, predictability and repeatability of results.

  17. Real-time porphyrin detection in plaque and caries: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timoshchuk, Mari-Alina I.; Ridge, Jeremy S.; Rugg, Amanda L.; Nelson, Leonard Y.; Kim, Amy S.; Seibel, Eric J.

    2015-02-01

    An ultrathin scanning fiber endoscope, originally developed for cancer diagnosis, was used in a case study to locate plaque and caries. The imaging system incorporated software mitigation of background auto-fluorescence (AF). In conventional fluorescence imaging, varying AF across a tooth surface can mask low-level porphyrin signals. Laser-induced auto-fluorescence signals of dental tissue excited using a 405-nm laser typically produce fluorescence over a wavelength range extending from 440-nm to 750-nm. Anaerobic bacterial metabolism produces various porphyrin species (eg. protoporphyrin IX) that are located in carious enamel, dentin, gingivitis sites, and plaque. In our case study, these porphyrin deposits remained as long as one day after prophylaxis. Imaging the tooth surface using 405-nm excitation and subtracting the natural AF enhances the image contrast of low-level porphyrin deposits, which would otherwise be masked by the high background AF. In a case study, healthy tissues as well as sites of early and advanced caries formations were scanned for visual and quantitative signs of red fluorescence associated with porphyrin species using a background mitigation algorithm. Initial findings show increasing amplitudes of red fluorescence as caries severity increases from early to late stages. Sites of plaque accumulation also displayed red fluorescence similar to that found in carious dental tissue. The use of real-time background mitigation of natural dental AF can enhance the detection of low porphyrin concentrations that are indicators of early stage caries formation.

  18. Near-infared hyperspectral imaging of teeth for dental caries detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakian, Christian; Pretty, Iain; Ellwood, Roger

    2009-11-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) is preferred for caries detection compared to visible light imaging because it exhibits low absorption by stain and deeper penetration into teeth. Hyperspectral images from 1000 to 2500 nm have been obtained for a total of 12 extracted teeth (premolars and molars) with different degrees of natural lesion. Analysis of the reflectance spectra suggests that light scattering by porous enamel and absorption by water in dentin can be used to quantify the lesion severity and generate a NIR caries score. Teeth were ground for histological examination after the measurements. The NIR caries score obtained correlates significantly (Spearman's correlation of 0.89, p99% and a specificity of 87.5% for enamel lesions and a sensitivity of 80% and a specificity >99% for dentine lesions. The nature of the technique offers significant advantages, including the ability to map the lesion distribution rather than obtaining single-point measurements, it is also noninvasive, noncontact, and stain insensitive. These results suggest that NIR spectral imaging is a potential clinical technique for quantitative caries diagnosis and can determine the presence of occlusal enamel and dentin lesions.

  19. Dye-enhanced laser fluorescence detection of caries lesions around brackets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alencar, Cássio José Fornazari; Braga, Mariana Minatel; de Oliveira, Elisabeth; Nicolau, José; Mendes, Fausto Medeiros

    2009-11-01

    The aim was to evaluate the performance of DIAGNOdent [laser fluorescence(LF) and LFpen] devices enhanced by fluorescent dye in detecting mineral loss around brackets and comparing the inhibitory effect of bonding material on artificial demineralization, and to verify whether LF methods show the same trends of mineral loss. Brackets were bonded to premolar halves with Fuji Ortho LC, Transbond XT, and Ortho Glass LC cements (n = 15). The teeth were soaked in demineralizing solution (pH = 4.8) for 16 days. Mineral loss was calculated by atomic emission spectrometry, and lesions were measured with LF devices with dye [tetrakis N-methylpyridyl porphyrin (TMPyP)]. Groups were compared with regard to LF readings and mineral loss, and performance of caries detection was calculated. Higher mineral loss and LF-TMPyP values occurred in the resin group. LFpen-TMPyP readings were significantly higher in the demineralized groups. Correlation was observed between mineral loss and LF measurements. LF methods are capable of identifying lower demineralization around brackets bonded with resin-modified glass ionomer cements.

  20. Computer-automated caries detection in digital bitewings: consistency of a program and its influence on observer agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, A

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a decision-support, caries detection program and its influence on observer agreement in caries diagnosis. 130 patients were examined by digital bitewing radiography (RVG XL sensor, Trophy Radiologie Inc.). Fifty-four approximal surfaces (27 in premolars and 27 in molars) were selected by the author: 24 surfaces (9 in molars and 15 in premolars) scored as sound, 16 surfaces (9 in molars and 7 in premolars) scored as carious in enamel, and 14 surfaces (9 in molars and 5 in premolars) scored as carious in dentine. The Logicon Caries Detector (LCD) program (Logicon Inc., USA) was assessed by repeating the automated analysis ten times for each surface. The two most varying outcomes for lesion probability (Lp(min) and Lp(max)) were saved. Five observers scored the 54 surfaces independently as sound, caries in enamel or caries in dentine before and after the use of LCD. In more than one third of all surfaces the program indicated different lesion probability, from sound at Lp(min) to the presence of a carious lesion at Lp(max). The 5 observers changed their caries score after the use of LCD in a total of 31 surfaces (only 2 of these were in the same surface). Mean kappa value for inter-observer agreement for caries scores before the use of LCD was 0.47 (range 0. 39-0.61) and after LCD 0.48 (range 0.37-0.69). It was concluded that the automated caries detection program was not very consistent and provided different opinions on the caries status in a surface. Inter-observer agreement in caries diagnosis did not improve using the program.

  1. Development of a new diagnosis method for caries in human teeth based on thermal images under pulse heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakagami, Takahide; Kubo, Shiro; Naganuma, Takeshi; Inoue, Tomoyasu; Matsuyama, Kazumasa; Kaneko, Kenji

    2001-03-01

    A new diagnosis method based on the pulse heating thermographic NDT was proposed for the incipient caries of human teeth. Experimental study was made on the applicability of the proposed method to the quantitative evaluation of location and shape of the incipient caries as well as the quantitative diagnosis of the degree of incipient caries. The incipient caries were artificially introduced to the extracted human teeth in various severities. Impulse heat flux by the xenon flash lamp was applied to the surface of the tooth and sequential thermal images were taken by the high-speed infrared thermography. It was found that the caries were clearly identified as the localized high temperature region in the sequential thermal images. Coefficients of the temperature descent were obtained from sequential thermal images. It was found that the degree of the demineralization, i.e. the degree of incipient caries was evaluated from temperature descent coefficients.

  2. Early dental caries detection using a fibre-optic coupled polarization-resolved Raman spectroscopic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Alex C-T; Hewko, Mark; Sowa, Michael G; Dong, Cecilia C S; Cleghorn, Blaine; Choo-Smith, Lin-P'ing

    2008-04-28

    A new fibre-optic coupled polarization-resolved Raman spectroscopic system was developed for simultaneous collection of orthogonally polarized Raman spectra in a single measurement. An application of detecting incipient dental caries based on changes observed in Raman polarization anisotropy was also demonstrated using the developed fibre-optic Raman spectroscopic system. The predicted reduction of polarization anisotropy in the Raman spectra of caries lesions was observed and the results were consistent with those reported previously with Raman microspectroscopy. The capability of simultaneous collection of parallel- and cross-polarized Raman spectra of tooth enamel in a single measurement and the improved laser excitation delivery through fibre-optics demonstrated in this new design illustrates its future clinical potential.

  3. Development, Methodology and Potential of the New Universal Visual Scoring System (UniViSS for Caries Detection and Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Oehme

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Given the limitations of adjunct caries detection and diagnostic tools, e.g., imperfect validity and reproducibility, as well as the difficulties in controlling all possible confounding factors, the need for an objective visual caries detection and diagnosis system has become evident. Our work has therefore aimed at systematizing caries lesions with the Universal Visual Scoring System (UniViSS for occlusal and smooth surface lesions, which can be used for primary and permanent teeth, as well as under clinical, epidemiological, public health and laboratory conditions. Besides the description of the development and methodology of UniViSS, it is shown that UniViSS allows an accurate and reproducible classification of caries lesions on occlusal surfaces.

  4. Evaluation of cross-polarized near infrared hyperspectral imaging for early detection of dental caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usenik, Peter; Bürmen, Miran; Fidler, Aleš; Pernuš, Franjo; Likar, Boštjan

    2012-01-01

    Despite major improvements in dental healthcare and oral hygiene, dental caries remains one of the most prevalent oral diseases and represents the primary cause of oral pain and tooth loss. The initial stages of dental caries are characterized by demineralization of enamel crystals and are difficult to diagnose. Near infrared (NIR) hyperspectral imaging is a new promising technique for detection of early changes in the surfaces of carious teeth. This noninvasive imaging technique can characterize and differentiate between the sound tooth surface and initial or advanced tooth caries. The absorbing and scattering properties of dental tissues reflect in distinct spectral features, which can be measured, quantified and used to accurately classify and map different dental tissues. Specular reflections from the tooth surface, which appear as bright spots, mostly located around the edges and the crests of the teeth, act as a noise factor which can significantly interfere with the spectral measurements and analysis of the acquired images, degrading the accuracy of the classification and diagnosis. Employing cross-polarized imaging setup can solve this problem, however has yet to be systematically evaluated, especially in broadband hyperspectral imaging setups. In this paper, we employ cross-polarized illumination setup utilizing state-of-the-art high-contrast broadband wire-grid polarizers in the spectral range from 900 nm to 1700 nm for hyperspectral imaging of natural and artificial carious lesions of various degrees.

  5. Comparison of methods for controlling dental caries in the classical medicine and alternative medical practices and future prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabbani Khorasgani Mohammad

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is a multi-factorial disease and the most common human infection that annually are spent millions dollars to control and treat it. Several methods have been proposed so far to control it. The most important control methods it is now include : dental hygiene, proper nutrition , fluoride therapy , the use of non- cariogenic sweeteners . Also, the use of probiotics , nanomaterials , bacteriophages , antimicrobial peptides and anti- caries vaccines can be considered as new perspective of human in the dental caries control field. In addition, the use of complementary and alternative therapies , especially herbal drug therapy recently has been considered . Demonstrating the efficacy of complementary medicine against dental caries and its use in combination with conventional medicine or trial of new methods for decline of dental caries in the future would be hopeful.

  6. A comparison of film and 3 digital imaging systems for natural dental caries detection: CCD, CMOS, PSP and film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Won Jeong [Dankook University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-03-15

    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of occlusal and proximal caries detection using CCD, CMOS, PSP and film system. 32 occlusal and 30 proximal tooth surfaces were radiographed under standardized conditions using 3 digital systems; CCD (CDX-2000HQ, Biomedysis Co., Seoul, Korea), CMOS (Schick, Schick Inc., Long Island, USA), PSP (Digora FMX, Orion Co./Soredex, Helsinki, Finland) and 1 film system (Kodak Insight, Eastman Kodak, Rochester, USA). 5 observers examined the radiographs for occlusal and proximal caries using a 5-point confidence scale. The presence of caries was validated histologically and radiographically. Diagnostic accuracy was evaluated using ROC curve areas (AZ). Analysis using ROC curves revealed the area under each curve which indicated a diagnostic accuracy. For occlusal caries, Kodak Insight film had an Az of 0.765, CCD one of 0.730, CMOS one of 0.742 and PSP one of 0.735. For proximal caries, Kodak Insight film had an Az of 0.833, CCD one of 0.832, CMOS one of 0.828 and PSP one of 0.868. No statistically significant difference was noted between any of the imaging modalities. CCD, CMOS, PSP and film performed equally well in the detection of occlusal and proximal dental caries. CCD, CMOS and PSP-based digital images provided a level of diagnostic performance comparable to Kodak Insight film.

  7. Diagnostic accuracy of direct digital radiography and conventional radiography for proximal caries detection in primary teeth: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivakumar Nuvvula

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study was conducted to uncover the diagnostic accuracy of digital versus conventional radiographic methods for the detection of proximal caries in primary teeth. Methods: Two researchers independently involved in the search process to explore Medical Subject Heading terms "dental digital radiography," "dental radiography," "bitewing," "dental caries," and "primary teeth" using PubMed, Cochrane Library, Ovid SP, and SIGLE databases. Search was confined to the articles published in English language only, with time period limit January 1996 to April 2014 and a hand search was performed to retrieve additional citations. Explicit inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied to eliminate undesired studies. Critical appraisal of the retrieved articles was done using the quality rating based on Bader and co-workers criteria. Results: A total of 129 articles were retrieved, among which 4 articles were included. All the four studies included were in vitro, of which two studies attained a high-quality score, whereas the other two attained average, and low scores based on Bader et al.′s criteria. Conclusions: A big lacuna exists in the literature, regarding the evaluation of radiographic systems in primary teeth, suggesting an immediate need for well conducted in vivo studies. The quality of available evidence can be regarded as fair but cannot be suggested to set a baseline, indicating a need to perform high-quality studies in a randomized sample to find out the accuracy of digital and conventional radiographs.

  8. Effect of drying on the reproducibility of DIAGNOdent to detect caries-like lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Camila; Loffredo, Leonor de Castro Monteiro; Serra, Mônica Campos

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the drying effect on the reproducibility of DIAGNOdent (Dd) devices to detect caries-like lesions. Three areas were created in each of the 34 bovine incisors: sound (S), demineralized (DE) and remineralized (RE). One examiner measured each area with two Dd devices (denominated X and Y), twice under humid, and twice under dry condition. Intra-rater agreement according each device and inter-device agreement were estimated by kappa statistics (k). Intra-rater agreement for device Y was substantial under humid (κ (DE)=0.68 and κ (RE+S)=0.68) and dry condition (k DE=0.64 and k RE+S=0.67). For device X, it was substantial under humid condition (k DE=0.57 and k RE+S=0.49), and it was almost perfect after air drying (κ (DE)=1.0 and κ (RE+S)=1.0). Inter-device agreement was slight (k =0.17) under humid condition, and it was substantial under dry condition (k =0.62). As reproducibility increased under dry condition, drying is advised to detect caries-like lesions on free smooth surfaces when different devices are used.

  9. COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THREE METHODS FOR PROXIMAL CARIES DIAGNOSIS – A CLINICAL STUDY.

    OpenAIRE

    Mirela Marinova-Takorova; Radostina Anastasova; Vladimir E. Panov; Spartak Yanakiev

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the presented study is to compare the effectiveness of the diagnosis with a dental microscope, laser fluorescence (DIAGNOcam) and X-ray examination in proximal caries diagnosis. Material and methods: Thirty-eight adult patients were examined. They were first examined with a dental mirror and a probe, under magnification 6.4 times. After that a diagnosis with DIAGNOcam was performed. Bitewing X-ray images were administered. The data from the three diagnostic methods was comp...

  10. Prevention, diagnosis and minimally invasive treatment of dental caries

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Gianfranco

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Study the news overtures to prevention, diagnosis and therapy of caries disease. Methods: We conducted one randomized controlled clinical trial (RCT), one cross-sectional study and one systematic review with meta-analysis. The RCT evaluated the efficacy of the Carisolv and CeraBur. In the cross-sectional study we evaluated the efficacy of a new device to detect caries lesions: DIAGNOcam. The systematic review of the literature was conducted to evaluate efficacy of polyols in caries pr...

  11. COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF FIVE METHODS FOR EARLY DIAGNOSIS OF OCCLUSAL CARIES LESIONS – in vitro study.

    OpenAIRE

    Mirela Marinova-Takorova; Radostina Anastasova; Vladimir E. Panov

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the presented in vitro study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the device DIAGNOcam and the laser fluorescence device DIAGNOdent for early diagnosis of occlusal caries and to compare it with three traditional methods – visual and tactile, dye and radiographic examination. Material and methods: The sample consisted of 60 extracted human teeth. Three clinicians diagnosed independently the presence or absence of early occlusal surface caries with the visible tactile met...

  12. The efficacy of the reverse contrast mode in digital radiography for the detection of proximal dentinal caries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miri, Shimasadat [Dept. of Endodontics, School of Dentistry, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mehrailzadeh, Sandra; Sadri, Donya [School of Dentistry, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Motamedi, Mahmood Reza Kalantar [Dept. of Research, School of Dentistry, Isfahan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Soltani, Parisa [Dental Students Research Center, School of Dentistry, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    This study evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of the reverse contrast mode in intraoral digital radiography for the detection of proximal dentinal caries, in comparison with the original digital radiographs. Eighty extracted premolars with no clinically apparent caries were selected, and digital radiographs of them were taken separately in standard conditions. Four observers examined the original radiographs and the same radiographs in the reverse contrast mode with the goal of identifying proximal dentinal caries. Microscopic sections 5 µm in thickness were prepared from the teeth in the mesiodistal direction. Four slides prepared from each sample used as the diagnostic gold standard. The data were analyzed using SPSS (α=0.05). Our results showed that the original radiographs in order to identify proximal dentinal caries had the following values for sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy, respectively: 72.5%, 90%, 87.2%, 76.5%, and 80.9%. For the reverse contrast mode, however, the corresponding values were 63.1%, 89.4%, 87.1%, 73.5%, and 78.8%, respectively. The sensitivity of original digital radiograph for detecting proximal dentinal caries was significantly higher than that of reverse contrast mode (p<0.05). However, no statistically significant differences were found regarding specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, or accuracy (p>0.05). The sensitivity of the original digital radiograph for detecting proximal dentinal caries was significantly higher than that of the reversed contrast images. However, no statistically significant differences were found between these techniques regarding specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, or accuracy.

  13. Evaluation of Diagnostic Tests Using Information Theory for Multi-Class Diagnostic Problems and its Application for the Detection of Occlusal Caries Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Umut; Karaağaoğlu, Ergun; Özkan, Gökhan; Kanlı, Aydan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Several methods are available to evaluate the performance of the tests when the purpose of the diagnostic test is to discriminate between two possible disease states. However multi-class diagnostic problems frequently appear in many areas of medical science. Hence, there is a need for methods which will enable us to characterize the accuracy of diagnostic tests when there are more than two possible disease states. Aims: To show that two information theory measures, information content (IC) and proportional reduction in diagnostic uncertainty (PRDU), can be used for the evaluation of the performance of diagnostic tests for multi-class diagnostic problems that may appear in different areas of medical science. Study Design: Diagnostic accuracy study. Methods: Sixty freshly extracted permanent human molar and pre-molar teeth suspected to have occlusal caries lesions were selected for the study and were assessed by two experienced examiners. Each examiner performed two evaluations. Histological examination was used as the gold standard. The scores of the histological examination were defined as sound (n=11), enamel caries (n=22) and dentin caries (n=27). Diagnostic performance of i) visual inspection, ii) radiography, iii) laser fluorescence (LF) and iv) micro-computed tomography (M-CT) caries detection methods was evaluated by calculating IC and PRDU. Results: Micro-computed tomography examination was the best method among the diagnostic techniques for the diagnosis of occlusal caries in terms of both IC and PRDU. M-CT examination supplied the maximum diagnostic information about the diagnosis of occlusal caries in the first (IC: 1.056; p<0.05), (PRDU: 70.5%) and second evaluation (IC: 1.105; p<0.05), (PRDU: 73.8%) for the first examiner. M-CT examination was the best method among the diagnostic techniques for the second examiner in both the first (IC:1.105; p<0.05), (PRDU:73.8%) and second evaluation (IC:1.061; p<0.05), (PRDU:70.8%). IC and PRDU were

  14. Application of two fluorescence methods for detection and quantification of smooth surface carious lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Aljehani, Abdulaziz Saad

    2006-01-01

    Early diagnosis of carious lesions is a key factor in prevention and management of dental caries. With non-invasive, quantitative diagnostic methods it should be possible to detect lesions at an initial stage and subsequently monitor lesion changes over time during which preventive measures are introduced. Conventional methods are inadequate for a modern approach to clinical caries management. The need for objective and quantitative methods for detecting and monitoring progr...

  15. A Study on the Diagnostic Detection Ability of the Artificial Proximal Caries by Digora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Kyung Ran; Choi, Eui Hwan; Kim, Jae Duck [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Chosun University, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-08-15

    Digora system is an intraoral indirect digital radiography system utilizing storage phosphor image plate. It has wide dynamic range which allows it to decrease the patient's exposure time and may increase diagnostic ability through image processing (such as edge enhancement, grey scale conversion, brightness change, and contrast enhancement). And also, it can transmit and storage image information. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic ability of artificial proximal caries between Conventional radiograph and Digora images (unenhanced image, brightness and contrast controlled image, and edge enhanced image). ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) analysis, paired t-tests, and F-tests were done for the statistical evaluation of detectability. The following results were acquired: 1. In Grade I lesions, the mean ROC areas of Conventional radiograph, Digora unenhanced image, Digora controlled image, and Digora edge enhanced image were 0.953, 0.933, 0.965, 0.978 (p>0.05). 2. In Grade II lesions, the mean ROC areas of Conventional radiograph, Digora unenhanced image, Digora controlled image, and Digora edge enhanced image were 0.969, 0.964, 0.988, 0.994. Among theses areas, there was just statistical significance between Diagnostic abilities of Digora edge enhanced image and Conventional radiograph (p<0.05). 3. In the Interobserver variability, the ROC curve areas of Digora edge enhanced image was lowerest in these areas, regardless of the Carious lesion depths. In conclusion, intraoral indirect digital system, Digora system, has the potential possibility as an alternative of Conventional radiograph in the diagnosis of proximal caries.

  16. Geo-mapping of time trends in childhood caries risk a method for assessment of preventive care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strömberg Ulf

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dental caries is unevenly distributed within populations with a higher burden in low socio-economy groups. Several attempts have been made to allocate resources to those that need them the most; there is a need for convenient approaches to population-based monitoring of caries risk over time. The aim of this study was to develop the geo-map concept, addressing time trends in caries risk, and demonstrate the novel approach by analyzing epidemiological data from preschool residents in the region of Halland, Sweden. Methods The study population consisted of 9,973 (2006 and 10,927 (2010 children between 3 to 6years of age (~77% of the eligible population from whom caries data were obtained. Reported dmfs>0 for a child was considered as the primary caries outcome. Each study individual was geo-coded with respect to his/her residence parish (66 parishes in the region. Smoothed caries risk geo-maps, along with corresponding statistical certainty geo-maps, were produced by using the free software Rapid Inquiry Facility and the ESRI ArcGIS system. Parish-level socioeconomic data were available. Results The overall proportion of caries-free (dmfs=0 children improved from 84.0% in 2006 to 88.6% in 2010. The ratio of maximum and minimum (parish-level smoothed relative risks (SmRRs increased from 1.76/0.44=4.0 in 2006 to 2.37/0.33=7.2 in 2010, which indicated an increased geographical polarization of early childhood caries in the population. Eight parishes showed evidential, positional changes in caries risk between 2006 and 2010; their corresponding SmRRs and statistical certainty ranks changed markedly. No considerable parallel changes in parish-level socioeconomic characteristics were seen during the same time period. Conclusion Geo-maps based on caries risk can be used to monitor changes in caries risk over time. Thus, geo-mapping offers a convenient tool for evaluating the effectiveness of tailored health promotion and preventive

  17. In-vivo quantification of natural incipient caries lesions using the quantitative light-induced fluoroscence method: a reproducibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranaeus, Sofia; Shi, Xie-Qi; Trollsas, Karin; Lindgren, Lars-Erik; Angmar-Mansson, Birgit

    2000-03-01

    A new method for detection and quantification of natural incipient caries lesions, the Quantitative Light-induced Fluorescence method (QLF), has recently been developed. The aim of this study was to test the repeatability and reproducibility of the analytical part of the method. In vivo captured images (CCD-video camera, Panasonic WV-KS 152, with an argon ion laser as light source) of 15 different incipient caries lesions on smooth surfaces were analyzed by three analysts. The images were analyzed three times in a randomized order, twice for the first reconstructed area (P1A1 and P1A2), and then once for a second one (P2A1). Three parameters were measured, lesion area (mm2), average change in fluorescence (%), and maximum change in fluorescence (%) in the lesion. Repeated measures ANOVA were used to calculate the intra-, and inter-examiner reliability. Intra-examiner reliability for all three analysts showed an intra-class correlation coefficient, R, between 0.93 and 0.99 (for the analyses with the first patch, P1A1 and P1A2, as well as between the first and the second patch, P1A1 and P2A1). Inter-examiner reliability showed an inter-class correlation coefficient, R, between 0.95 and 0.99 (for analyses P1A1, P1A2 and P2A1). It was concluded that the Quantitative Light- induced fluorescence method showed excellent repeatability and reproducibility concerning the analytical part of the method.

  18. High contrast optical imaging methods for image guided laser ablation of dental caries lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMantia, Nicole R.; Tom, Henry; Chan, Kenneth H.; Simon, Jacob C.; Darling, Cynthia L.; Fried, Daniel

    2014-02-01

    Laser based methods are well suited for automation and can be used to selectively remove dental caries to minimize the loss of healthy tissues and render the underlying enamel more resistant to acid dissolution. The purpose of this study was to determine which imaging methods are best suited for image-guided ablation of natural non-cavitated carious lesions on occlusal surfaces. Multiple caries imaging methods were compared including near-IR and visible reflectance and quantitative light fluorescence (QLF). In order for image-guided laser ablation to be feasible, chemical and physical modification of tooth surfaces due to laser irradiation cannot greatly reduce the contrast between sound and demineralized dental hard tissues. Sound and demineralized surfaces of 48 extracted human molar teeth with non-cavitated lesions were examined. Images were acquired before and after laser irradiation using visible and near-IR reflectance and QLF at several wavelengths. Polarization sensitive-optical coherence tomography was used to confirm that lesions were present. The highest contrast was attained at 1460-nm and 1500-1700-nm, wavelengths coincident with higher water absorption. The reflectance did not decrease significantly after laser irradiation for those wavelengths.

  19. [Detection of mutans streptococci by latex agglutination test and its application as a caries-activity test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takei, T

    1990-06-01

    The number of mutans streptococci in saliva and dental plaque has been reported to correlate with the incidence of dental caries. This report describes a simple and rapid diagnostic method for the detection of mutans streptococci in dental plaque using latex agglutination (LA) test. Latex particles (0.876 microns, diameter) were sensitized with partially purified antibodies against whole cells of Streptococcus mutans MT8148 (c), MT703R (e) and OMZ175 (f) and Streptococcus sobrinus B13 (d) and 6715 (g). Whole cells of mutans streptococci or dental plaque was extracted with a mixture of 8M sodium nitrite (5 microliters) and 2M acetic acid (5 microliters) for five minutes and neutralized with 2M sodium hydroxide (10 microliters), and the extract and the sensitized latex suspension (20 microliters) were mixed and the grade of agglutination reaction was read macroscopically after ten minutes standing at room temperature. The LA tests could detect 1.0 10ng of purified serotype antigen and 10(5)-10(6) CFU of live cells of mutans streptococci and specifically distinguish not only the mutans streptococci from the other streptococci but also S. mutans from S. sobrinus. However, cross-reactions were still observed among the serotypes c, e and f of S. mutans or between the serotypes d and g of S. sobrinus. Plaque samples were collected from 168 children (2 to 12 years of age) and the 0.1 mg (wet weight) were applied to the LA tests. At the same time, the total number of mutans streptococci in plaque and the serotypes of each isolate were determined. The results of LA reaction correlated significantly with the number of mutans streptococci in plaque (chi-square analysis; p less than 0.0001). The LA tests discriminated between S. mutans and S. sobrinus in dental plaque. It was found that the latex particles sensitized with anti-serotype c and/or e S. mutans antibodies were most effective in demonstrating mutans streptococci, and they were used in the following studies. The

  20. Are mutans streptococci detected in preschool children a reliable predictive factor for dental caries risk? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thenisch, N L; Bachmann, L M; Imfeld, T; Leisebach Minder, T; Steurer, J

    2006-01-01

    Research suggests that mutans streptococci play an important role in cariogenesis in children but the usefulness of bacterial testing in risk assessment is unknown. Our objective was to summarize the literature assessing the association of mutans streptococci and dental caries in preschool children, (Pre)Medline (1966-2003), Embase (1980-2003), the Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials (2003, issue 3), and reference lists of included studies were searched. All abstracts found by the electronic searches (n = 981) were independently scrutinized by 2 reviewers. Minimal requirements for inclusion were assessment of preschool children without caries at baseline, reporting of mutans streptococci present in saliva or plaque at baseline and assessment of caries presence after a minimum of 6 months of follow-up. Participants' details, test methods, methodological characteristics and findings were extracted by one reviewer and cross-checked by another. Homogeneity was tested using chi2 tests. Results of plaque and saliva testing were pooled separately using a fixed effects model. Methodological quality of reports was low. Out of 9 studies included, data from 3 reports on plaque test assessment alone (n = 300) and from 4 reports on saliva test assessment alone (n = 451) were available for pooled analysis. The pooled risk ratio (95% CI) was 3.85 (2.48-5.96) in studies using plaque tests and 2.11 (1.47-3.02) in those using saliva testing. Presence of mutans streptococci, both in plaque or saliva of young caries-free children, appears to be associated with a considerable increase in caries risk. Lack of adjustment for potential confounders in the original studies, however, limits the extent to which interpretations for practice can be made.

  1. Diagnostic performance of cone-beam computed tomography on detection of mechanically-created artificial secondary caries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charuakkra, Arnon; Prapayasatok, Sangsom; Janhom, Apirum; Pongsirwet, Surawut; Verochana, Karune; Mahasantipiya, Phattaranant [Faculty of Dentistry, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai (Thailand)

    2011-12-15

    The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images and bitewing images in detection of secondary caries. One hundred and twenty proximal slots of Class II cavities were randomly prepared on human premolar and molar teeth, and restored with amalgam (n=60) and composite resin (n=60). Then, artificial secondary caries lesions were randomly created using round steel No. 4 bur. The teeth were radiographed with a conventional bitewing technique and two CBCT systems; Pax-500ECT and Promax 3D. All images were evaluated by five observers. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (Az) was used to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy. Significant difference was tested using the Friedman test (p value<0.05). The mean Az values for bitewing, Pax-500ECT, and Promax 3D imaging systems were 0.882, 0.995, and 0.978, respectively. Significant differences were found between the two CBCT systems and film (p=0.007). For CBCT systems, the axial plane showed the greatest Az value. Based on the design of this study, CBCT images were better than bitewing radiographs in detection of secondary caries.

  2. Incidence of dental caries in chronic urticaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaur Surrinder

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Three hundred patients of chronic urticaria were screened for dental affections. Sixty two (20.66% patients were detected to have dental caries. Among the control group which com-prised of 100 patients, 20% had dental caries. There was thus no increased incidence of dental caries among patients with urticaria. Only 2 patients had remission of urticaria following treat-ment of caries. Dental caries therefore is probably not a cause of chronic urticaria.

  3. Detecting short-term changes in the activity of caries lesions with the aid of new technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.H. van der Veen

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of new technologies for the assessment of caries and more in particular changes in caries activity. Over the past decades, we have seen a shift from restorative treatment caries to a prevention-driven approach. Also there is a need for shorter and less expensive caries c

  4. Research progress on early caries detection with optical coherence tomography%光学相干层析技术用于早期龋检测的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚雪

    2012-01-01

    Early detection of caries and timely correct intervention can reverse caries process, which can preser-vate tooth structures as possible and reduce traumatic treatment. Therefore, the early accurate diagnosis appears very important. Currently, the conventional methods cannot detect early caries objectively and effectively, and also cannot monitor caries process quantitatively, which often makes patients lose the optimal opportunity of conservative treatment. So, we need a safe, accurate and quantifiable technology to detect and monitor early caries. Recent years, there are several noninvasive and quantitative methods of early caries detection. This review was focused on the research progress of early caries detection with optical coherence tomography.%早期发现龋损病变并进行及时正确地干预可以逆转龋病的进程,最大限度地保存牙齿,减少创伤性治疗;因此,龋病的早期准确诊断就显得非常重要.目前,临床上使用的常规检测龋病的方法无法客观、有效地检测早期龋,更不能对龋损进程进行定量监测,这就往往使患者丧失了保守治疗的最佳时机:因此,迫切需要安全、准确、可量化的技术来检测早期龋并对治疗干预措施进行监控.近年已开发出一系列检测早期龋的无创、定量检测新技术,本文就光学相干层析技术(OCT)用于检测早期光滑面釉质龋、早期牙骨质龋、早期窝沟龋等方面的研究作一综述.

  5. Evaluation of visual, explorer, and a laser device for detection of early occlusal caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Housseiny, A A; Jamjoum, H

    2001-01-01

    Reliable early diagnosis represents the keystone in modern dental care. This study aimed at disclosing a correlation between length of experience by the dentist and accuracy of caries diagnosis, by traditional clinical technique, that included visual and explorer examination, and evaluating the accuracy of the DIAGNOdent laser device. Histological sections confirmed clinical data obtained. Results showed that a reverse relationship between length of experience and accuracy of caries diagnosis i.e. younger dentist could achieve more accurate diagnosis. Laser diagnosis was superior to clinical diagnosis, whether by vision or explorer. It is concluded that DIAGNOdent laser is a promising instrument that can represent a valuable contribution to the dental practice.

  6. ON THE UTILITY OF SOME SALIVARY TESTS FOR THE DETECTION AND MONITORIZATION OF DENTAL CARIES RISK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Luminița ICHIM

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries represents a destructive condition of the hard dental tissue.The occurrence and advance of carious lesions is a complex phenomenon, involving the interaction of the microbial factor (the action of bacteria upon the tooth with the factors related to the host, alimentary regime, time factor. For an as correct as possible appreciation of the cariogenic risk of an individual, several tests, based on different (microbiological, clinical, epidemiological principles, are usually recommended [1]. Also, especially important is to check up the existence of a possible statistical association between the prevalence of dental caries and the results of the salivary tests performed on the experimental group [2].

  7. Comparison of behavioral response to caries removal methods: A randomised controlled cross over trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P R Geetha Priya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The issue of dental fear and anxiety still poses a significant problem in treating children. Various caries management protocols have been tried to make the dental visit more compatible to the child patients. Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate and compare the behavioral and physiological responses to chemo-mechanical caries removal (CMCR and conventional drilling method (CDM. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 children with an age range of 7 to 11 years with bilateral frank carious lesions were included in this study. They were randomized into two groups: Group A - treated with CDM first followed by CMCR and Group B - treated with CMCR first followed by CDM. The physiological signs (pulse, blood pressure and oxygen saturation were noted prior to treatment, during treatment, post treatment and 5 min after treatment. The behavioral responses were assessed by face, legs, activity, cry, and consolability scale and facial image scale. The participants were interviewed about pain, discomfort, taste, smell, preference and overall experience after every procedure. The pediatric dentist filled in details about patient behavior, time utilized and need for local anesthesia. The results were statistically analyzed using t-test and Chi-square test appropriately (SPSS version 11. Results: There was no significant difference in any of the physiological parameters assessed between the two groups. Discomfort was significantly more (P < 0.025 in the CDM group than CMCR group. The time taken by the dentist was significantly lesser (P < 0.01 in the CDM group. Conclusion: Techniques which enhance the behavioral response in children should be considered for a better pediatric dental practice.

  8. New diagnostic technology and hidden pits and fissures caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Guerra

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The accuracy in pits and fissures caries detection is of paramount importance in dental caries primary and secondary prevention. A combination of visual examination and probing is currently the mainstay of occlusal caries diagnosis. Unfortunately, these types of inspection alone may leave a certain number of pit and fissure caries undetected. The Vista Cam iX fluorescence camera (Durr Dental, Bietigheim-Bissingen, Germany is a novel dental diagnostic tool for quantitative assessment of dental caries with high specificity for carious lesions detection. In the presented cases photographic images, representing the visual diagnostic approach, are applied as integration to VistaCam iX Proof images. A step-by-step sequence of inspection and assessment of operative treatment need is presented in a case of hidden pit and fissure caries on a permanent molar. Based on the reported case, it could be observed that VistaCam iX Proof shows promising results in hidden pits and fissures caries detection and could be considered a non-invasive examination method that facilitate the detection of early lesions and a potential diagnostic aid.

  9. Caries risk assessment in schoolchildren - a form based on Cariogram® software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Nunes CABRAL

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Identifying caries risk factors is an important measure which contributes to best understanding of the cariogenic profile of the patient. The Cariogram® software provides this analysis, and protocols simplifying the method were suggested. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine whether a newly developed Caries Risk Assessment (CRA form based on the Cariogram® software could classify schoolchildren according to their caries risk and to evaluate relationships between caries risk and the variables in the form. Material and Methods: 150 schoolchildren aged 5 to 7 years old were included in this survey. Caries prevalence was obtained according to International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS II. Information for filling in the form based on Cariogram® was collected clinically and from questionnaires sent to parents. Linear regression and a forward stepwise multiple regression model were applied to correlate the variables included in the form with the caries risk. Results: Caries prevalence, in primary dentition, including enamel and dentine carious lesions was 98.6%, and 77.3% when only dentine lesions were considered. Eighty-six percent of the children were classified as at moderate caries risk. The forward stepwise multiple regression model result was significant (R2=0.904; p<0.00001, showing that the most significant factors influencing caries risk were caries experience, oral hygiene, frequency of food consumption, sugar consumption and fluoride sources. Conclusion: The use of the form based on the Cariogram® software enabled classification of the schoolchildren at low, moderate and high caries risk. Caries experience, oral hygiene, frequency of food consumption, sugar consumption and fluoride sources are the variables that were shown to be highly correlated with caries risk.

  10. Effect of Caries Removal Methods on the Shear Bond Strength of Resin and Glass IonomerAdhesives to Primary Dentin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadi N

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: There is no enough published data about the shear bond strength of resin modified glass ionomer adhesives on caries-affected primary tooth dentin excavated using minimally invasive systems. Objectives: To evaluate the shear bond strength of 2 different adhesives (one resin modified glass ionomer and one resin using two caries removal tech- niques on healthy and caries-affected primary dentin. Materials and Methods: Two caries removal methods including mechanical (handpiece and chemomechanical (Carisolv techniques and two types of ad- hesives including one resin adhesive (Clearfil SE Bond; CSEB, Kuraray and one resin-modified glass ionomer adhesive (Riva Bond LC; RBLC, SDI were used in this study. Ten extracted healthy primary teeth were used for the control group. The teeth were sectioned bucco-lingually and mesio-distally in order to obtain four specimens from each tooth. Thirty suitable specimens were selected as the “control” and randomly divided into two groups of “sound dentin” based on the type of the adhesive used. Sixty extracted caries affected teeth were used for the carious group; sectioned as mentioned above and sixty suitable specimens were selected as the “treatment”. Then the specimens were arbitrarily divided into four groups based on caries removal techniques and the type of ad- hesive used (n = 15. After bonding with either CSEB or RBLC, the specimens were restored with a resin composite by means of PVC tubes and subjected to the shear bond strength test. The data was analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey’s test. Results: The specimens in Carisolv group bonded with CSEB (11.68 ± 3.1 showed a statistically significant higher mean bond strength followed by those in handpiece group bonded with CSEB (9.4 ± 2.7, which exhibited higher mean values than those groups with RBLC (p < 0.05. Shear bond strength values for Clearfil SE Bond was not significantly higher than Riva Bond LC when used in sound

  11. Validity of a laser fluorescence system (DIAGNOdent) for detection of occlusal caries in third molars: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Başeren, N M; Gokalp, S

    2003-12-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the validity of the measurements of the laser fluorescence device, KaVo DIAGNOdent, with the result of polarized light microscopy in the detection of occlusal fissure caries in extracted third molars. Ten impacted, surgically removed, and 25 extracted third molars with macroscopically intact occlusal surfaces were selected. The DIAGNOdent measurements of the occlusal test site were recorded by two observers at intervals of 2 days. The teeth were then sectioned at the specified test sites for histological examinations. Prepared specimens were evaluated under the polarized light microscopy and all images were scored with the caries classification of D1 (sound and fissure lesion in the half of the outer enamel), D2 (enamel decay) and D3 (dentin decay) level (gold standard). The kappa value for the inter-observer repeatability was calculated and the value 0.83 for the first measurements and 0.67 for the second measurement were obtained,respectively. Inter-observer correct classification percentages were 88.5 and 77.1 for the first and second measurements, respectively. The kappa value for intra-observer repeatability was 0.79 for the first observer and 0.75 for the second observer. Intra-observer correct classification percentage values were 85.7 and 82.8 for the first and second observer, respectively. Value of specificity for the detection of enamel caries at D1 level was 0.74 and sensitivity values at D2 and D3 levels were 0.66 and 1.00, respectively. The present study indicates that the DIAGNOdent provides not only almost perfect agreement but also sufficient repeatability at D1, D2, D3 levels and better specificity at D1 level as well as lower sensitivity at D2 level and excellent sensitivity at D3 level.

  12. Chemomechanical versus drilling methods for caries removal: an in vitro study

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    Kemporn KITSAHAWONG

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the performance of chemomechanical caries removal (CMCR with that of conventional drilling for efficacy of caries removal, time spent, morphological changes and microhardness of surface dentin, and microleakage of subsequent restorations. Forty-six carious deciduous molars were randomly divided into two groups: one each for caries removal by (1 CMCR and by (2 drilling. The completeness of caries removal was evaluated by visual and tactile criteria and a caries detector device. Twenty teeth in each group were restored with glass ionomer (GI and subjected to thermocycling before undergoing microleakage and microhardness tests. In each group, three restored teeth were used for polarized light microscopic analysis, and three unrestored teeth for scanning electron microscopy (SEM. There was no significant difference in the completeness of caries removal between groups. However, time spent for caries removal by CMCR was significantly longer than that required for drilling. Restorations in the CMCR group had significantly more microleakage than those in the drilling group. Dentin hardness of the cavity floor after CMCR was also significantly lower. Microscopic analyses showed roughened and irregular dentin surfaces in the CMCR group, unlike the smooth surfaces observed in the drilling group. In conclusion, CMCR was as efficacious as drilling in term of completeness of caries removal, but required longer excavation times and resulted in lower microhardness of residual dentin as well as more microleakage after restorations with GI. Further laboratory and clinical evaluations on the efficiency and performance of CMCR for the durability of subsequent restorations are required.

  13. An in vitro comparison of diagnostic accuracy of cone beam computed tomography and phosphor storage plate to detect simulated occlusal secondary caries under amalgam restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahidi, Shoaleh; Zadeh, Nahal Kazerooni; Sharafeddin, Farahnaz; Shahab, Shahriar; Bahrampour, Ehsan; Hamedani, Shahram

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study was aimed to compare the diagnostic accuracy and feasibility of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) with phosphor storage plate (PSP) in detection of simulated occlusal secondary caries. Materials and Methods: In this in vitro descriptive-comparative study, a total of 80 slots of class I cavities were prepared on 80 extracted human premolars. Then, 40 teeth were randomly selected out of this sample and artificial carious lesions were created on these teeth by a round diamond bur no. 1/2. All 80 teeth were restored with amalgam fillings and radiographs were taken, both with PSP system and CBCT. All images were evaluated by three calibrated observers. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was used to compare the diagnostic accuracy of two systems. SPSS (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) was adopted for statistical analysis. The difference between Az value of bitewing and CBCT methods were compared by pairwise comparison method. The inter- and intra-operator agreement was assessed by kappa analysis (P < 0.05). Results: The mean Az value for bitewings and CBCT was 0.903 and 0.994, respectively. Significant differences were found between PSP and CBCT (P = 0.010). The kappa value for inter-observer agreement was 0.68 and 0.76 for PSP and CBCT, respectively. The kappa value for intra-observer agreement was 0.698 (observer 1, P = 0.000), 0.766 (observer 2, P = 0.000) and 0.716 (observer 3, P = 0.000) in PSP method, and 0.816 (observer 1, P = 0.000), 0.653 (observer 2, P = 0.000) and 0.744 (observer 3, P = 0.000) in CBCT method. Conclusion: This in vitro study, with a limited number of samples, showed that the New Tom VGI Flex CBCT system was more accurate than the PSP in detecting the simulated small secondary occlusal caries under amalgam restoration. PMID:25878682

  14. Caries risk assessment models in caries prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amila Zukanović

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this research was to assess the efficiency of different multifactor models in caries prediction. Material and methods. Data from the questionnaire and objective examination of 109 examinees was entered into the Cariogram, Previser and Caries-Risk Assessment Tool (CAT multifactor risk assessment models. Caries risk was assessed with the help of all three models for each patient, classifying them as low, medium or high-risk patients. The development of new caries lesions over a period of three years [Decay Missing Filled Tooth (DMFT increment = difference between Decay Missing Filled Tooth Surface (DMFTS index at baseline and follow up], provided for examination of the predictive capacity concerning different multifactor models. Results. The data gathered showed that different multifactor risk assessment models give significantly different results (Friedman test: Chi square = 100.073, p=0.000. Cariogram is the model which identified the majority of examinees as medium risk patients (70%. The other two models were more radical in risk assessment, giving more unfavorable risk –profiles for patients. In only 12% of the patients did the three multifactor models assess the risk in the same way. Previser and CAT gave the same results in 63% of cases – the Wilcoxon test showed that there is no statistically significant difference in caries risk assessment between these two models (Z = -1.805, p=0.071. Conclusions. Evaluation of three different multifactor caries risk assessment models (Cariogram, PreViser and CAT showed that only the Cariogram can successfully predict new caries development in 12-year-old Bosnian children.

  15. Ability of laser fluorescence device associated with fluorescent dyes in detecting and quantifying early smooth surface caries lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Fausto M.; de Oliveira, Elisabeth; de Faria, Dalva L. A.; Nicolau, José

    2006-03-01

    A laser fluorescence (LF) device is a portable tool, but it does not measure minor mineral changes. Our in vitro study aim is to propose the association of an LF with two fluorescent dyes and to evaluate the performance in detecting and quantifying early demineralization. Artificial caries lesions are created in 40 primary canine teeth using a demineralizing solution (pH=4.8) for 12, 24, 48, and 96 h. LF measurements are performed with DIAGNOdent after demineralization in these samples and in 20 sound primary teeth. Measurements with LF with 0.2-mM tetrakis(N-methylpyridyl)porphyrin (LF TMPyP) and with 4-mM protoporphyrin IX (LF PPIX) are made. The amount of calcium loss is determined by atomic emission spectrometry. A correlation between LF and LF with dyes and mineral loss and receiver operating characteristics analysis are performed, as well as comparisons of sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy values. Significant correlation is obtained with LF TMPyP and mineral loss of lesions demineralized for 24, 48, and 96 h. Better performance is achieved with LF TMPyP for all parameters than with LF alone. LF PPIX does not present good results. In conclusion, LF TMPyP provides good performance in detecting and quantifying very early enamel caries lesions.

  16. The Effect of Combining Radiographs and DIAGNOdent With Visual Examination on Detection and Treatment Decisions of Noncavitated Occluso-dentinal Caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alomari, Q D; Qudeimat, M A; Qudiemat, M; Khalaf, M E; Al-Tarakemah, Y

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this laboratory study was to evaluate the effectiveness of incorporating radiographic examination and DIAGNOdent with visual examination for the detection and treatment of noncavitated occluso-dentinal caries. Four examiners examined the occlusal surfaces of 160 extracted posterior teeth. Teeth were examined three times with a one-month interval in between. The first examination was visual (V), the second examination was visual with radiograph (VR), and the third examination was visual with radiograph and DIAGNOdent (VRD). Examiners were asked to detect the presence of caries (if any) and identify the extent of caries (if present; ie, enamel or dentin). The examiners were also asked to choose a treatment for each tooth. The examined teeth were later sectioned, and the presence of caries was charted as 0 = no caries, 1 = caries confined to enamel, 2 = caries in the outer dentin, and 3 = caries in the inner dentin. Sensitivity, specificity, area under the curve (Az values), rank correlation coefficient, interexaminer reproducibility, and McNemar χ(2) tests were calculated. VR had statistically higher specificity and lower sensitivity than V and VRD. The means of Az values ranged from 0.58 to 0.63, with no statistical difference between the three examinations (p>0.05). The means of the rank correlation coefficients with histology for detection of dentinal caries were 0.48, 0.23, and 0.44 using V, VR, and VRD, respectively. Interexaminer reproducibility was best for V alone. The percentages of teeth indicated for restorative treatment were 31%, 33%, and 41% using V, VR, and VRD, respectively. The percentages of teeth correctly treated according to histology were 69.4%, 70.0%, and 67.5% using V, VR, and VRD, respectively. There was no difference in the accuracy of treatment decisions between the three examination points (p>0.05). The addition of radiographs and DIAGNOdent to visual examination did not have a significant effect on the improvement of the

  17. Rampant Caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman-Armstrong, Sandra

    2005-01-01

    Although dental caries in the pediatric and adolescent population has consistently declined in the United States, it is still the most common childhood disease. Dental problems are the number one reason for missing school next to the common cold. Dental caries are an infectious, communicable disease resulting in destruction of tooth structure by…

  18. Dental caries: Therapeutic possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perić Tamara

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary tendencies in dentistry are based on the concept of maximal protection of healthy tooth tissues. Caries removal has been done traditionally with mechanical rotary instruments that are fast and precise. However, conventional cavity preparation has potential adverse effects to the pulp due to heat, pressure and vibrations. Moreover, drilling often causes pain and requires local anaesthesia, and these procedures are frequently perceived as unpleasant. Etiology, development and prevention of dental caries are better understood today and new restorative materials that bond micromechanically and/or chemically to dental tissues have been introduced. Thus, development of a new, less destructive caries removal technique is allowed. In the last decades, many alternative methods have been introduced in an attempt to replace rotary instruments. These are claimed to be efficient and selective for diseased tissues and to offer comfortable treatment to the patients. New methods include air abrasion, air polishing, ultrasonic, polymer burs, enzymes, systems for chemo-mechanical caries removal, and lasers. The aim of this paper was to discuss various caries removal techniques and possibilities of their use in clinical practice. Based on the literature review it can be concluded that none of the new caries removal methods can completely replace conventional rotary instruments.

  19. Validation of Visual Caries Activity Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guedes, R S; Piovesan, C; Ardenghi, T M

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the predictive and construct validity of a caries activity assessment system associated with the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) in primary teeth. A total of 469 children were reexamined: participants of a caries survey performed 2 yr before (follow-up ra...

  20. Evaluation of Interproximal Caries with Using of Bitewing Radiography in Dental Student of Islamic Azad University

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    S. Sahba

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Dental caries is one of the common diseases in the world. It is an infective disease which is caused by loss of minerals and destruction of dental tissues. One of the most effective ways to diagnose the interproximal caries is radiography. Bitewing radiography is the best way for caries diagnosis.Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of the interproximal caries in dental students of Islamic Azad University.Materials and Methods: This research was a cross sectional study that was conducted on 89 students of the Azad University consisting of 48 females and 41 males who were selected by random sampling. For each individual student left and right posterior bitewing radiographs were taken with a standard method (the interproximal spaces were between 6-7,5,6 and 4,5. Thus 12 interproximal spaces were examined in each individual. The most proximal cavitation surfaces were detected in the upper Jaw.Results: Results revealed that 6 individuals (6.7% were totally caries free and 83 individuals (93.3% showed interproxmal caries. Out of 1068 proximal spaces which had been studied 794 Spaces (73.4% were caries free and 274 surfaces (25.7% had caries.Conclusion: The high incidence of proximal caries and the possibility of missing them in the routine examinations make the bitewing radiographs an effective procedure for diagnosis.

  1. Detection of Dental Secondary Caries Using Frequency-Domain Infrared Photothermal Radiometry (PTR) and Modulated Luminescence (LUM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J.; Mandelis, A.; Matvienko, A.; Abrams, S.; Amaechi, B. T.

    2012-11-01

    The ability of frequency-domain photothermal radiometry (PTR) and modulated luminescence (LUM) to detect secondary caries is presented. Signal behavior upon sequential demineralization and remineralization of a spot (diameter ~1 mm) on a vertical wall of sectioned tooth samples was investigated experimentally. From these studies, it was found that PTR-LUM signals change, showing a certain pattern upon progressive demineralization and remineralization. PTR amplitudes slightly decreased upon progressive demineralization and slightly increased upon subsequent remineralization. The PTR phase increased during both demineralization and remineralization. LUM amplitudes exhibit a decreasing trend at excitation/probe distances larger than 200 μm away from the edge for both demineralization and remineralization; however, at locations close to the edge (up to ~200 μm), LUM signals slightly decrease upon demineralization and slightly increase during subsequent remineralization.

  2. Genetic sensitivity to bitter taste of 6-n Propylthiouracil: A useful diagnostic aid to detect early childhood caries in pre-school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghavendra Pidamale

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Genetic factor to bitter taste perception appears to be largely mediated by the TAS2R38 gene. The insensitivity to bitter compounds like 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP is mediated by this gene. PROP, a pharmacological drug used in treatment of Graves′ disease, proved to be useful tool in determining the genetic sensitivity levels to bitter and sweet taste. The purpose of this study is to show much simpler PROP sensitivity technique for the clinical examiner and its application as a diagnostic aid in Early Childhood Caries (ECC detection among preschool children. Materials and Methods: A total of 119 children belonging to the age group of 36 to 71 months of both sexes, were recruited from A. J. Institute of Dental Sciences, Mangalore (Karnataka. PROP sensitivity test was carried out to determine the inherent genetic ability to taste a bitter or sweet substance. This study used simpler scaling method to find out genetic sensitivity to bitter taste; one who tasted bitter as taster and one who was not able to differentiate/tasted like paper as non-taster. A questionnaire was provided to evaluate their dietary habits and caries experience was recorded. Collected data were tabulated and subjected to statistical analysis. Results: In the total of 119 children the mean dmfs was definitely higher in non-taster children compared to tasters. The tasters had a mean dmfs value of 9.5120 (S.D. 7.0543 and non-tasters had a value of 7.7250 (S.D. 8.33147, which was statistically significant. The results suggested that there was increase in caries experience among the group of non-tasters as compared to tasters. Tasters tended to be sweet dislikers and non-tasters tended to be sweet likers. On the whole, tasters had a bad dentition as compared to non tasters. Conclusion: The PROP sensitivity test (filter paper test proved to be a useful diagnostic tool in determining the genetic sensitivity levels of bitter taste. The knowledge of a child′s taste

  3. The effects of noise reduction, sharpening, enhancement, and image magnification on diagnostic accuracy of a photostimulable phosphor system in the detection of non-cavitated approximal dental caries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajan, Zahra Dalili; Davalloo, Reza Tayefeh; Tavangar, Mayam; Valizade, Fatemeh [Faculty of Dentistry, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Contrast, sharpness, enhancement, and density can be changed in digital systems. The important question is to what extent the changes in these variables affect the accuracy of caries detection. Forty eight extracted human posterior teeth with healthy or proximal caries surfaces were imaged using a photostimulable phosphor (PSP) sensor. All original images were processed using a six-step method: (1) applying 'Sharpening 2' and 'Noise Reduction' processing options to the original images; (2) applying the 'Magnification 1:3' option to the image obtained in the first step; (3) enhancing the original images by using the 'Diagonal/' option; (4) reviewing the changes brought about by the third step of image processing and then, applying 'Magnification 1:3'; (5) applying 'Sharpening UM' to the original images; and (6) analyzing the changes brought about by the fifth step of image processing, and finally, applying 'Magnification 1:3.' Three observers evaluated the images. The tooth sections were evaluated histologically as the gold standard. The diagnostic accuracy of the observers was compared using a chi-squared test. The accuracy levels irrespective of the image processing method ranged from weak (18.8%) to intermediate (54.2%), but the highest accuracy was achieved at the sixth image processing step. The overall diagnostic accuracy level showed a statistically significant difference (p=0.0001). This study shows that the application of 'Sharpening UM' along with the 'Magnification 1:3' processing option improved the diagnostic accuracy and the observer agreement more effectively than the other processing procedures.

  4. Soybean allergen detection methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mona H; Holzhauser, Thomas; Bisson, Caroline

    2008-01-01

    Soybean containing products are widely consumed, thus reliable methods for detection of soy in foods are needed in order to make appropriate risk assessment studies to adequately protect soy allergic patients. Six methods were compared using eight food products with a declared content of soy...

  5. Prevalence of dental caries in fluorosis areas of Shantou City Guangdong Province after water improvement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏源

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyse the relationship between children urine fluoride level,time of water supply improvement and detection rate of dental caries in fluorosis areas after water supply improvement.Methods The following

  6. Exoplanet Detection Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Wright, Jason T

    2012-01-01

    This chapter reviews various methods of detecting planetary companions to stars from an observational perspective, focusing on radial velocities, astrometry, direct imaging, transits, and gravitational microlensing. For each method, this chapter first derives or summarizes the basic observable phenomena that are used to infer the ex- istence of planetary companions, as well as the physical properties of the planets and host stars that can be derived from the measurement of these signals. This chapter then outlines the general experimental requirements to robustly detect the signals us- ing each method, by comparing their magnitude to the typical sources of measurement uncertainty. This chapter goes on to compare the various methods to each other by outlining the regions of planet and host star parameter space where each method is most sensitive, stressing the complementarity of the ensemble of the methods at our disposal. Finally, there is a brief review of the history of the young exoplanet field, from the f...

  7. Imaging and detection of early stage dental caries with an all-optical photoacoustic microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, D. A.; Sampathkumar, A.; Longbottom, C.; Kirk, K. J.

    2015-01-01

    Tooth decay, at its earliest stages, manifests itself as small, white, subsurface lesions in the enamel. Current methods for detection in the dental clinic are visual and tactile investigations, and bite-wing X-ray radiographs. These techniques suffer from poor sensitivity and specificity at the earliest (and reversible) stages of the disease due to the small size (<100μm) of the lesion. A fine-resolution (600 nm) ultra-broadband (200 MHz) all-optical photoacoustic microscopy system was is used to image the early signs of tooth decay. Ex-vivo tooth samples exhibiting white spot lesions were scanned and were found to generate a larger (one order of magnitude) photoacoustic (PA) signal in the lesion regions compared to healthy enamel. The high contrast in the PA images potentially allows lesions to be imaged and measured at a much earlier stage than current clinical techniques allow. PA images were cross referenced with histology photographs to validate our experimental results. Our PA system provides a noncontact method for early detection of white-spot lesions with a high detection bandwidth that offers advantages over previously demonstrated ultrasound methods. The technique provides the sensing depth of an ultrasound system, but with the spatial resolution of an optical system.

  8. Methods of Endotoxin Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Wenqiong; Ding, Xianting

    2015-08-01

    Endotoxin, present in the outer membrane of all gram-negative bacteria, can pose serious risks to human health, from irreversible shock to death. Therefore, it is essential to develop sensitive, accurate, and rapid methods for its detection. The rabbit pyrogen test is the first standard technique for endotoxin detection and, nowadays, has been replaced by the Limulus Amoebocyte Lysate test, which is the most popular detection technique for endotoxin. With in-depth understanding of endotoxin, biosensors based on endotoxin-sensing components are promising alternatives to pursue in developing low-cost, easy-operation, and fast-response endotoxin detection techniques. This article summarizes the recent advances of endotoxin detection methods with a particular emphasis on optical and electrochemical biosensors based on various sensing elements ranging from nature biomolecules to artificial materials. As the research and technological revolution continues, the highly integrated and miniaturized commercial devices for sensitively and reliably detecting endotoxin will provide a wide range of applications in people's daily life.

  9. Detection of questionable occlusal carious lesions using an electrical bioimpedance method with fractional electrical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, A. P.; Pino, A. V.; Souza, M. N.

    2016-08-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the diagnostic performance of an alternative electric bioimpedance spectroscopy technique (BIS-STEP) detect questionable occlusal carious lesions. Six specialists carried out the visual (V), radiography (R), and combined (VR) exams of 57 sound or non-cavitated occlusal carious lesion teeth classifying the occlusal surfaces in sound surface (H), enamel caries (EC), and dentinal caries (DC). Measurements were based on the current response to a step voltage excitation (BIS-STEP). A fractional electrical model was used to predict the current response in the time domain and to estimate the model parameters: Rs and Rp (resistive parameters), and C and α (fractional parameters). Histological analysis showed caries prevalence of 33.3% being 15.8% hidden caries. Combined examination obtained the best traditional diagnostic results with specificity = 59.0%, sensitivity = 70.9%, and accuracy = 60.8%. There were statistically significant differences in bioimpedance parameters between the H and EC groups (p = 0.016) and between the H and DC groups (Rs, p = 0.006; Rp, p = 0.022, and α, p = 0.041). Using a suitable threshold for the Rs, we obtained specificity = 60.7%, sensitivity = 77.9%, accuracy = 73.2%, and 100% of detection for deep lesions. It can be concluded that BIS-STEP method could be an important tool to improve the detection and management of occlusal non-cavitated primary caries and pigmented sites.

  10. Dermatoglyphic patterns and salivary pH in subjects with and without dental caries: A cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamunadevi, Andamuthu; Dineshshankar, Janardhanam; Banu, Safeena; Fathima, Nilofar; Ganapathy; Yoithapprabhunath, Thukanayakanpalayam Ragunathan; Maheswaran, Thangadurai; Ilayaraja, Vadivel

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dermatoglyphic patterns, which are regularly used in judicial and legal investigations, can be valuable in the diagnosis of many diseases associated with genetic disorders. Dental caries although of infectious origin, may have a genetic predisposition. Hence, we evaluated the correlation between dental caries and dermatoglyphic patterns among subjects with and without dental caries and evaluated its association with environmental factors such as salivary pH. Materials and Methods: Totally, 76 female students within the age group of 18-23 years were clinically examined, and their decayed, missing, filled teeth (DMFT) score and oral hygiene index-simplified were recorded. Based on their DMFT score, they were divided into following three groups; group I (n = 16, DMFT score = 0), group II (n = 30, DMFT score Dermatoglyphic pattern distribution in caries-free group showed more ulnar loops than high caries group (group III) while high caries group showed more whorl patterns. Presence of whorl with double loop, whorl within a loop was associated with high DMFT score. The total finger ridge count was lower in caries group. The mean salivary pH was higher in caries-free group than high caries group. Thus, we conclude that dermatoglyphic patterns may be potential diagnostic tool for detecting patients prone to develop dental caries. PMID:26283816

  11. Efficacy of Two Caries Detector Dyes in the Diagnosis of Dental Caries

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    Sh. Etemad-Moghadam

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of two caries detector dyes in the diagnosis of dental caries.Materials and Methods: Twenty extracted human posterior teeth without pulpal exposure were sectioned mesiodistally through the center of the lesions using a water-cooled disk.The tooth halves were randomly divided into two groups and treated with Caries Detector (CD and Caries Check (CC detector dyes. Access cavities were prepared followed by caries removal and dye application. All cavities were arbitrarily divided into two right and left sections and excavation of the stained areas was performed on the left parts, while the right sections remained untouched. Bacterial penetration into dentinal tubules was evaluated using Gram-stained decalcified sections under light microscopy. Sensitivity and specificity of both dyes were calculated.Results: The sensitivity of CD and CC were 74% and 71%,respectively. The specificity obtained for both dyes was 100%.Conclusion: Considering the low sensitivity of the dyes evaluated in the present study, it seems that they may not be reliable when used as the sole diagnostic technique for detection of carious lesions in posterior teeth.

  12. The curative effect observation of children dental caries early intervention methods to prevent dental caries%儿童龋病早期干预方法预防龋病的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田立革

    2015-01-01

    ]Objective To observe the curative effect of intervention methods for early childhood caries prevention of dental caries, for clinical reference.Methods Selected in our hospital from March 2010 to 2013 years 6 months from children with caries 320 cases as the object of study, using randomized children were divided into a, B, C, D group four groups, 80 cases in each. In the A group, the B group was treated with the group, the C group was treated with fl uoride coating. The D group was treated with the combination of fl uoride and fl uoride coating.Results The incidence of dental caries in A, B and C groups was compared with that of P, A,, B, D, three and C, and the difference was statistically signifi cant (P<0.05).Conclusion For children with caries using any early intervention methods can effectively prevent the occurrence of dental caries, worthy of promotion.%目的:观察儿童龋病早期干预方法预防龋病的疗效,为临床提供参考。方法选取我院2010年3月~2013年6月收治的龋病患儿320例作为研究对象,采用随机分组的方式将患儿分成A、B、C、D组四组,各80例。A组采取窝沟封闭术进行干预,B组采取含氟涂料进行干预,C组采取窝沟封闭术联合含氟涂料进行干预,D组不采取任何干预措施,随访2年,观察比较四组患儿的龋齿发生率。结果 A、B、C组的龋齿发生率比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),A、B、C三组与D组比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论对龋病患儿采用任何早期干预方法均能有效预防龋齿的发生,值得推广。

  13. Prognosis of caries increment with past caries experience variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Palenstein Helderman, W H; van't Hof, M A; van Loveren, C

    2001-01-01

    This study aimed to select past caries experience variables as caries predictors and to compare their prognostic accuracy with the variables used in a method of caries prognosis developed in a Swiss child population. The data used for the analyses originated from an 8-year longitudinal study starting in 1980 on caries of 7.5-year-old Dutch children. Stepwise logistic regression analyses provided predictor variables. The newly introduced variables D23fi, D(123)i and D23pifi were interchangeable and the most powerful caries predictors. For the sake of uniformity and ease of application, D23fi (number of fissures of the permanent first molar with non-cavitated or cavitated caries lesions) was chosen as the first variable in the logistic regression equations. The gain in accuracy of the second and third predictor variables (number of sound primary molars and the number of buccal and lingual smooth surfaces of the permanent first molar with non-cavitated or cavitated caries) in the regression equations was limited. The D1 condition of surfaces could be omitted from the prediction models. The present forced three-predictor-regression equations for 7.5-, 9.5- and 11.5-year-old children were evaluated to assess their prognostic performance by using the area under the ROC curve as a measure of prognostic quality. For the present regression equations, the area under the ROC curve was 81-87%, which was higher compared to the Swiss regression equations for caries prognosis.

  14. Dentine microhardness after different methods for detection and removal of carious dentine tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    MOLLICA, Fernanda Brandão; TORRES, Carlos Rocha Gomes; GONÇALVES, Sergio Eduardo de Paiva; MANCINI, †Maria Nadir Gasparoto

    2012-01-01

    There are several methods for identifying carious dentinal tissue aiming to avoid removal of healthy dentinal tissue. Objectives The purpose of this study was to test different methods for the detection of carious dentinal tissue regarding the amount of carious tissue removed and the remaining dentin microhardness after caries removal. Material and methods The dentin surfaces of 20 bovine teeth were exposed and half of the surface was protected with nail polish. Cariogenic challenge was performed by immersion in a demineralizing solution for 14 days. After transverse cross-section of the crown, the specimens were divided into four groups (n=10), according to the method used to identify and remove the carious tissue: "Papacárie", Caries-detector dye, DIAGNOdent and Tactile method. After caries removal, the cross-sectional surface was included in acrylic resin and polished. In a microhardness tester, the removed dentin thickness and the Vickers microhardness of the following regions were evaluated: remaining dentin after caries removal and superficial and deep healthy dentin. Results ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=0.05) were performed, except for DIAGNOdent, which did not detect the presence of caries. Results for removed dentin thickness were: "Papacárie" (424.7±105.0; a), Caries-detector dye (370.5±78.3; ab), Tactile method (322.8±51.5; bc). Results for the remaining dentin microhardness were: "Papacárie" (42.2±10.5; bc), Caries-detector dye (44.6±11.8; abc), Tactile method (24.3±9.0; d). Conclusions DIAGNOdent did not detect the presence of carious tissue; Tactile method and "Papacárie" resulted in the least and the most dentinal thickness removal, respectively; Tactile method differed significantly from "Papacárie" and Caries-detector dye in terms of the remaining dentin microhardness, and Tactile method was the one which presented the lowest microhardness values. PMID:23032207

  15. Dentine microhardness after different methods for detection and removal of carious dentine tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Brandão Mollica

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available There are several methods for identifying carious dentinal tissue aiming to avoid removal of healthy dentinal tissue. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to test different methods for the detection of carious dentinal tissue regarding the amount of carious tissue removed and the remaining dentin microhardness after caries removal. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The dentin surfaces of 20 bovine teeth were exposed and half of the surface was protected with nail polish. Cariogenic challenge was performed by immersion in a demineralizing solution for 14 days. After transverse cross-section of the crown, the specimens were divided into four groups (n=10, according to the method used to identify and remove the carious tissue: "Papacárie", Caries-detector dye, DIAGNOdent and Tactile method. After caries removal, the cross-sectional surface was included in acrylic resin and polished. In a microhardness tester, the removed dentin thickness and the Vickers microhardness of the following regions were evaluated: remaining dentin after caries removal and superficial and deep healthy dentin. RESULTS: ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=0.05 were performed, except for DIAGNOdent, which did not detect the presence of caries. Results for removed dentin thickness were: "Papacárie" (424.7±105.0; a, Caries-detector dye (370.5±78.3; ab, Tactile method (322.8±51.5; bc. Results for the remaining dentin microhardness were: "Papacárie" (42.2±10.5; bc, Caries-detector dye (44.6±11.8; abc, Tactile method (24.3±9.0; d. CONCLUSIONS: DIAGNOdent did not detect the presence of carious tissue; Tactile method and "Papacárie" resulted in the least and the most dentinal thickness removal, respectively; Tactile method differed significantly from "Papacárie" and Caries-detector dye in terms of the remaining dentin microhardness, and Tactile method was the one which presented the lowest microhardness values.

  16. The VicGeneration study - a birth cohort to examine the environmental, behavioural and biological predictors of early childhood caries: background, aims and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dashper Stuart

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dental caries (decay during childhood is largely preventable however it remains a significant and costly public health concern, identified as the most prevalent chronic disease of childhood. Caries in children aged less than five years (early childhood caries is a rapid and progressive disease that can be painful and debilitating, and significantly increases the likelihood of poor child growth, development and social outcomes. Early childhood caries may also result in a substantial social burden on families and significant costs to the public health system. A disproportionate burden of disease is also experienced by disadvantaged populations. Methods/Design This study involves the establishment of a birth cohort in disadvantaged communities in Victoria, Australia. Children will be followed for at least 18 months and the data gathered will explore longitudinal relationships and generate new evidence on the natural history of early childhood caries, the prevalence of the disease and relative contributions of risk and protective biological, environmental and behavioural factors. Specifically, the study aims to: 1. Describe the natural history of early childhood caries (at ages 1, 6, 12 and 18 months, tracking pathways from early bacterial colonisation, through non-cavitated enamel white spot lesions to cavitated lesions extending into dentine. 2. Enumerate oral bacterial species in the saliva of infants and their primary care giver. 3. Identify the strength of concurrent associations between early childhood caries and putative risk and protective factors, including biological (eg microbiota, saliva, environmental (fluoride exposure and socio-behavioural factors (proximal factors such as: feeding practices and oral hygiene; and distal factors such as parental health behaviours, physical health, coping and broader socio-economic conditions. 4. Quantify the longitudinal relationships between these factors and the development and

  17. The Algorithm of Image Edge Detection on Panoramic Dental X-Ray using Multiple Morphological Gradient (mMG Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jufriadif Na`am

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries are tooth decay caused by bacterial infections . It is commonly known as cavities. This infection causes demineralization and hence destruction of the hard tissues of the teeth. Diagnosis of dental caries is conventionally carried out with the help of radiographic films. This research aims to develop some algorithm of the mMG method in identifying dental caries based using digital panoramic dental x-ray images. This paper presents an algorithm of using digital panoramic dental x-ray images to detect dental caries.  Type of algorithm used in this study is normal mMG, Enhancement mMG, and Smooth mMG.  This study makes use of MATLAB and it performs dental caries detection in three algorithms. A dataset of 225 digital panoramic dental x-ray images  in .png format is used to edge detection of the object in dental. The results are helpful to identify such caries from the tooth.

  18. Method for detecting biomolecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Qisheng; Liu, Jun

    2008-08-12

    A method for detecting and measuring the concentration of biomolecules in solution, utilizing a conducting electrode in contact with a solution containing target biomolecules, with a film with controllable pore size distribution characteristics applied to at least one surface of the conducting electrode. The film is functionalized with probe molecules that chemically interact with the target biomolecules at the film surface, blocking indicator molecules present in solution from diffusing from the solution to the electrode, thereby changing the electrochemical response of the electrode

  19. Detection of occlusal caries lesions using fluorescence: correlation between histology and obtained results for Diagnodent and spectroscopy; Deteccao de lesoes de carie por fluorescencia: correlacao entre a histologia e os resultados obtidos com o Diagnodent e a espectroscopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha-Cabral, Renata Maciel

    2006-07-01

    The aims of this study were to develop and test a method to detect caries lesions in vivo and in vitro, using a portable spectrometer (PS); to analyze the performance of PS as well as the commercial device Diagnodent (Dd); correlate them with the gold standard, their transversal section areas and lesions depth and between themselves. 66 occlusal pre-molars sites were examined in vivo with Dd. Sequentially, fluorescence ({lambda}exc {approx} 657 nm) was collected by an optical fiber, conducted to PS and then analyzed as spectra, which were normalized and had calculated the Ratios of their Areas Under the Curves (RAUC) of carious and sound tissues. Experiments were conducted in vitro in the same sites. Gold Standard was obtained by polarized light microscopy. Pearson correlation was used to compare the devices with transversal section area, lesions depth and between themselves. The area under ROC curve, sensitivity, specificity as well as accuracy were calculated and verified with McNemar test. Dd and RAUC showed statistically significant correlation with gold standard (p < 0.01 for Dd and p < 0.05 for RAUC) and between themselves (r = 0,83 in vivo and r = 0,87 in vitro). Although it was significant, the devices showed low correlation with depth of lesions in vivo and in vitro (r = {approx} 0.43). The transversal section area of the lesion had no influence on readings in both devices. Dd showed higher sensitivity (0.76) than PS (0.60) in vivo (p < 0.05), though this fact was not able to improve its performance. In turn, PS showed higher sensitivity (0.88) than Dd (0.79) in vitro, but this difference was not significantly. The other parameters did not show statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) between methods. PS showed positive correlation with Dd, equal correlation with lesions depth and higher ability of detecting the disease in vitro, what suggests that if accompanied with a conic and an angulated probe and a dedicated software, the PS method could be

  20. Diagnosis of dental caries using quantitative light-induced fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaechi, Bennett T.; Higham, Susan M.

    2001-10-01

    Current dental diagnostic methods can detect caries but cannot quantify the mineral status of the lesion. Quantitative Light-induced Fluorescence (QLF) measures the percentage fluorescence radiance change of demineralised enamel with respect to surround sound enamel, and related it directly to the amount of mineral lost during demineralisation. Demineralisation of teeth to produce caries-like lesions and the subsequent remineralisation of the lesions were monitored quantitatively and longitudinally with QLF. The influence of factors such as presence of plaque or saliva, lesion staining, lesion magnification, tooth thickness and developmental hypomineralisation, on the reproducibility of QLF imaging and analysis were investigated, Results showed that the integrated fluorescence change (hence the mineral loss) increased linearly with demineralisation time and decreased with increasing remineralisation time. Caries detection was limited by saliva or plaque, but enhanced by staining. QLF could not discriminate between developmental hypomineralisation and caries. Neither the variation in tooth thickness nor lesion magnification within the limit of a sharp image made a significant difference in QLF analysis. It was concluded that QLF could detect and quantitatively monitor the mineral changes in an incipient caries on a longitudinal basis, however detection may be limited by the presence of saliva or plaque or enhanced by staining.

  1. An in vitro comparison of the ability of fibre-optic transillumination, visual inspection and radiographs to detect occlusal caries and evaluate lesion dept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekstrand, K.R.; Côrtes, D.F.; Elias-Boneta, A.R.

    2000-01-01

    Occlusal caries, diagnosis, fibre-optic transillumination, bite-wing radiograph, visual inspection......Occlusal caries, diagnosis, fibre-optic transillumination, bite-wing radiograph, visual inspection...

  2. Clinical evaluation of the laser fluorescence device for detection of approximal caries in primary molars%激光龋蚀检测仪在乳磨牙邻面龋早期诊断中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马文利; 杨彩红; 秦满

    2009-01-01

    目的 评估激光龋蚀检测仪(间接法)应用于乳磨牙邻面龋早期诊断的可行性.比较该方法检查结果与临床检查及(牙合)翼片的一致性.方法 乳磨牙邻面龋可疑位点为187个.同时使用临床检查(视诊+探诊)、X线检查((牙合)翼片)、激光龋蚀检测仪(DIAGNODent,间接法)对乳磨牙邻面龋进行诊断.DIAGNODent检测的可疑位点均设置对照组.通过统计分析,对各种检查结果的一致性进行比较.结果 DIAGNODent(间接法)检测乳磨牙邻面龋的可重复性较高,同一检测者两次检查相关系数为0.963.可疑位点DIAGNODent测量值与对照位点比较,差异有显著性(P<0.01).DIAGNODent的诊断结果与临床诊断具有高度的一致性.但DIAGNODent检测值与临床分度指数相关性不高(γ=0.304),低于(牙合)翼片分度与临床分度的相关系数0.688.结论 激光荧光龋蚀检测仪(间接法)可以作为临床检查和X线检查的有效补充,应用于乳磨牙邻面龋的早期诊断.%Objective To evaluate the performance of laser fluorescence device DIAGNOdent for detection and quantification of approximal caries (indirect method) in primary molars.Methods Totally 187 suspicious sites of primary molars were selected from 115 children, aged 5 to 11 years. The suspicious surfaces were in contact with adjacent teeth. The questionable teeth were evaluated by visual inspection and bitewing radiography. The suspicious sites were also detected twice with DIAGNOdent from occlusal surface of the marginal ridge indirectly by one examiner. Three contrast sites were measured in one testee. The result of three diagnostic methods was compared each other. Descriptive and correlating analysis was used.Results The reproducibility of DIAGNOdent used in detecting the approximal caries (indirect method) was higher. The intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was 0.963. The difference between the DIAGNOdent value of suspicious sites and contrast sites was

  3. Implications of caries diagnostic strategies for clinical management decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baelum, Vibeke; Hintze, Hanne; Wenzel, Ann;

    2012-01-01

    in a low-caries population. METHODS: Each of four examiners independently examined preselected contacting interproximal surfaces in 53 dental students aged 20-37 years using a visual-tactile examination and bitewing radiography. The visual-tactile examination distinguished between noncavitated......OBJECTIVES: In clinical practice, a visual-tactile caries examination is frequently supplemented by bitewing radiography. This study evaluated strategies for combining visual-tactile and radiographic caries detection methods and determined their implications for clinical management decisions......-specificity) were calculated for each diagnostic strategy. RESULTS: Visual-tactile examination provided a true-positive rate of 34.2% and a false-positive rate of 1.5% for the detection of a cavity. The combination of a visual-tactile and a radiographic examination using the lesion in dentin threshold...

  4. In-vitro detection of artificial caries on vertical dental cavity walls using infrared photothermal radiometry and modulated luminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungho; Mandelis, Andreas; Abrams, Stephen H.; Vu, Jaclyn T.; Amaechi, Bennett T.

    2012-12-01

    The main objective of the study was to investigate the ability of frequency-domain photothermal radiometry (PTR) and modulated luminescence (LUM) to detect secondary caries lesions on the walls of restorations (wall lesions). Changes in experimental PTR-LUM signals due to sequential demineralization on entire vertical walls of sectioned tooth samples were investigated. In addition, transverse micro-radiography (TMR) analysis (used as a gold standard) was conducted to measure the degree of demineralization that occurred in each sample. Statistical correlation between TMR results and PTR-LUM signals was determined using Pearson's correlation coefficient. LUM signals were found to be dominated by the scattered component of the incident laser beam. The more clinically relevant cases of localized demineralization and remineralization on vertical walls were also investigated to examine whether PTR-LUM signals are sensitive to demineralization and remineralization of much smaller areas. The overall results demonstrated that PTR-LUM is sensitive to progressive demineralization and remineralization on vertical walls of sectioned tooth samples.

  5. Early caries detection by laser induced fluorescence spectrum%早期龋齿的激光感生荧光光谱探测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘莉; 唐静; 李颂战

    2009-01-01

    A non-invasive method adapted for optical diagnosis of early caries by using low-power He-Ne laser (λ=632.8 nm, 2.0±0.1 mW) was represented, and the comparison with the dental explorer, Photon undulatory Non-linear Conversion (PNC) method and DIAGNodent was given. This method without light filter, differed from the DIAGNodent and PNC method in its ability for registering fluorescence spectrum. The characteristic spectrum of dental tissue contained rich information such as dental components, structure, spatial conformation. The research was conducted in vitro. Three parts of characteristic spectrum including backscattering, reflection and auto-fluorescence were analyzed. It enables not only to evaluate chemical changes in tooth by analyzing characteristic frequencies of auto-fluorescence spectrum, but also to estimate structure and morphological changes in tissue by means of anti -stoke's fluorescence spectrum. Preliminary results show that this method has a potential application in the quantitive diagnosis of various stages of dental caries and is more sensitive for detecting early caries and the surface damage of health enamel.%提出了一种利用低功率He.Ne laser(λ=632.8mm,2.0±0.1 mW)光学无损诊断早期龋齿的方法,并与探诊方法、光子波动非线性转换方法(PNC)以及DIAGNodent龋齿诊断仪进行了比较.这种探测方法不使用滤光片,采集荧光光谱的能力与PNC方法和DIAGNodent龋齿诊断仪不同,所获得的牙齿特征光谱含有大量的关于牙齿成分、结构、空间构象等的信息.该项研究在离体牙齿上进行.牙齿的特征光谱由后向散射光、反射光、自体荧光3个部分组成,对自体荧光光谱的特征频率进行分析可以确定牙齿化学成分的改变,而对反斯托克斯荧光光谱进行分析则可以评价牙齿组织结构和形态学的变化.初步研究结果表明:文中方法在定量诊断各种龋齿方面极具应用潜力,对于探测早期龋齿、

  6. Are distinctive risk indicators associated with different stages of caries in children? A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Grazia Cagetti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Actual caries figures emphasize the need to identify the risk indicators involved in the disease’s development. The hypothesis that certain risk indicators might affect the dynamic evolution of the caries process was assessed; to clarify this premise, a cross-sectional survey was performed in school children. Methods A total of 390 subjects aged 6–8 years old were randomly selected. Caries was assessed, and the subjects were stratified as follows: i highest caries score; ii most prevalent caries score; and iii number of affected teeth. Parents/guardians completed a questionnaire regarding vital statistics, socio-economic indicators, dietary habits, oral hygiene habits and oral health behaviours. Results Caries was detected in 42.31% of the subjects. Maternal nationality, parental education level, use of a sweetened pacifier at night, intake of lactose-free milk and toothbrushing frequency were statistically significant associated (p < 0.05 with subjects stratified according to the highest caries score. Parental educational level, maternal occupational status and use of a sweetened pacifier at night were associated (p < 0.05 with affected children stratified according to the most prevalent caries score. Maternal educational level and intake of lactose-free milk were associated with subjects with moderate caries stages compared to being caries-free (p = 0.01 and p = 0.02, respectively. Maternal nationality (p < 0.01 and toothbrushing frequency (p = 0.01 were associated with subjects affected by extensive lesions compared to caries-free children. In subjects affected by initial lesions as the most prevalent figure, gender (male and paternal occupation status (unemployed were statistically significant associated (p = 0.03 and p = 0.04, respectively compared to those affected by highest prevalence of extensive caries lesions. In children with the highest prevalence of moderate caries lesions

  7. Detection of artificial occlusal caries in a phosphor imaging plate system with two types of LCD monitors versus three different films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilgüy, Mehmet; Dinçer, Semanur; Ilgüy, Dilhan; Bayirli, Gündüz

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine diagnostic performance of a storage phosphor plate system Digora Optime (Soredex, Helsinki, Finland) with two types of LCD monitor in the detection of artificial caries when compared to Ultraspeed (D), Ektaspeed Plus (E), and Insight (F) radiographic films. Seventy extracted human molars-with artificial caries-were radiographed under identical standardized conditions using (1) a storage phosphor plate system Digora (Soredex, Helsinki, Finland), (2) Insight, (3) Ektaspeed Plus, and (4) Ultraspeed (Carestream Health Inc, Rochester, NY). All digital images and radiographs were examined by three observers for the presence or absence of artificial caries using a five-point confidence scale. Digital images were evaluated both on a LCD computer monitor (Philips 170S, Holland) and medical monitor-3 megapixel monochrome display (Me355i2, Totoku, Tokyo)-with brightness and contrast enhancement. Observer responses were evaluated using ROC analysis and other measurements for diagnostic accuracy. Storage phosphor images with medical monitor demonstrated higher mean A (z) values (0.70 +/- 0.08) than digital images with computer monitor and conventional films. Storage phosphor images with medical monitor presented the highest score, 0.97, 0.90, 0.94, for each observer, respectively. Also, true positive observations (0.82) and positive likelihood ratios (2.71) were higher in enhanced storage phosphor images with medical monitor. Caries detection of mechanically created lesions by experienced radiologists is roughly comparable when examining D-speed film images and Digora images on both the computer and medical LCD monitors, and appears to be poorer on E- and F-speed film images.

  8. Specifics of proximal caries and their diagnostics in posterior teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojcik-Checinska Ilona

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Proximal surfaces are the second in turn after the occlusal surfaces, as being the most exposed places to the carious process. The specificity of changes and location makes the diagnostic of approximal cavities difficult. The aim of the study was to collect information on possibilities of detection, monitoring and assessment of carious lesions located on proximal surfaces, starting from the early stage. On the base of current literature, chosen methods of diagnosis, from conventional, to advanced technologies were presented. Current literature also suggests that none of the diagnostic methods exclude the possibility of misdiagnosis of proximal caries. Therefore, during the diagnosing of doubtful cases, it is advisable to employ several methods of assessment, with simultaneous individual appraisal of caries risk factors, such as oral hygiene, frequency of eating sweets or the number of active caries foci.

  9. Metatranscriptomics reveals overall active bacterial composition in caries lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurea Simón-Soro

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Identifying the microbial species in caries lesions is instrumental to determine the etiology of dental caries. However, a significant proportion of bacteria in carious lesions have not been cultured, and the use of molecular methods has been limited to DNA-based approaches, which detect both active and inactive or dead microorganisms. Objective: To identify the RNA-based, metabolically active bacterial composition of caries lesions at different stages of disease progression in order to provide a list of potential etiological agents of tooth decay. Design: Non-cavitated enamel caries lesions (n=15 and dentin caries lesions samples (n=12 were collected from 13 individuals. RNA was extracted and cDNA was constructed, which was used to amplify the 16S rRNA gene. The resulting 780 bp polymerase chain reaction products were pyrosequenced using Titanium-plus chemistry, and the sequences obtained were used to determine the bacterial composition. Results: A mean of 4,900 sequences of the 16S rRNA gene with an average read length of 661 bp was obtained per sample, giving a comprehensive view of the active bacterial communities in caries lesions. Estimates of bacterial diversity indicate that the microbiota of cavities is highly complex, each sample containing between 70 and 400 metabolically active species. The composition of these bacterial consortia varied among individuals and between caries lesions of the same individuals. In addition, enamel and dentin lesions had a different bacterial makeup. Lactobacilli were found almost exclusively in dentin cavities. Streptococci accounted for 40% of the total active community in enamel caries, and 20% in dentin caries. However, Streptococcus mutans represented only 0.02–0.73% of the total bacterial community. Conclusions: The data indicate that the etiology of dental caries is tissue dependent and that the disease has a clear polymicrobial origin. The low proportion of mutans streptococci

  10. Optical Assessment of Caries Lesion Structure and Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Robert Chulsung

    New, more sophisticated diagnostic tools are needed for the detection and characterization of caries lesions in the early stages of development. It is not sufficient to simply detect caries lesions, methods are needed to assess the activity of the lesion and determine if chemical or surgical intervention is needed. Previous studies have demonstrated that polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) can be used to nondestructively image the subsurface lesion structure and measure the thickness of the highly mineralized surface zone. Other studies have demonstrated that the rate of dehydration can be correlated with the lesion activity and that the rate can be measured using optical methods. The main objective of this work was to test the hypothesis that optical methods can be used to assess lesion activity on tooth coronal and root surfaces. Simulated caries models were used to develop and validate an algorithm for detecting and measuring the highly mineralized surface layer using PS-OCT. This work confirmed that the algorithm was capable of estimating the thickness of the highly mineralized surface layer with high accuracy. Near-infrared (NIR) reflectance and thermal imaging methods were used to assess activity of caries lesions by measuring the state of lesion hydration. NIR reflectance imaging performed the best for artificial enamel and natural coronal caries lesion samples, particularly at wavelengths coincident with the water absorption band at 1460-nm. However, thermal imaging performed the best for artificial dentin and natural root caries lesion samples. These novel optical methods outperformed the conventional methods (ICDAS II) in accurately assessing lesion activity of natural coronal and root caries lesions. Infrared-based imaging methods have shown potential for in-vivo applications to objectively assess caries lesion activity in a single examination. It is likely that if future clinical trials are a success, this novel imaging

  11. [Dental caries--therapeutic possibilities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perić, Tamara; Marković, Dejan; Zivković, Slavoljub

    2008-01-01

    Contemporary tendencies in dentistry are based on the concept of maximal protection of healthy tooth tissues. Caries removal has been done traditionally with mechanical rotary instruments that are fast and precise. However, conventional cavity preparation has potential adverse effects to the pulp due to heat, pressure and vibrations. Moreover, drilling often causes pain and requires local anaesthesia, and these procedures are frequently perceived as unpleasant. Etiology, development and prevention of dental caries are better understood today and new restorative materials that bond micromechanically and/or chemically to dental tissues have been introduced. Thus, development of a new, less destructive caries removal technique is allowed. In the last decades, many alternative methods have been introduced in an attempt to replace rotary instruments. These are claimed to be efficient and selective for diseased tissues and to offer comfortable treatment to the patients. New methods include air abrasion, air polishing, ultrasonic, polymer burs, enzymes, systems for chemo-mechanical caries removal, and lasers. The aim of this paper was to discuss various caries removal techniques and possibilities of their use in clinical practice. Based on the literature review it can be concluded that none of the new caries removal methods can completely replace conventional rotary instruments.

  12. Geo-mapping of time trends in childhood caries risk--a method for assessment of preventive care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strömberg, Ulf; Holmn, Anders; Magnusson, Kerstin;

    2012-01-01

    Dental caries is unevenly distributed within populations with a higher burden in low socio-economy groups. Several attempts have been made to allocate resources to those that need them the most; there is a need for convenient approaches to population-based monitoring of caries risk over time. The....... The aim of this study was to develop the geo-map concept, addressing time trends in caries risk, and demonstrate the novel approach by analyzing epidemiological data from preschool residents in the region of Halland, Sweden....

  13. 唾液中放线菌与儿童龋病相关性的定量检测研究%Quantitative detection study of the interaction between actinomyces in saliva and caries in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明博; 仪虹; 尹丽雪; 孟玲娜; 寻颖

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study aims to establish a RT-PCR method to detect Actinomyces naeslundii (An) and Actinomyces odontolyticus (Ao) and inquire into the relationship between Colonization quantity of An and Ao in saliva and dmfs. Methods We take 59 Cary Children's aliva samples, including 19 caries-free individuals (dmfs=zero), 21 mid-caries individuals (dmfs=4~6) and 19 caries-active individuals (dmfs>8). We isolate genomic DNA from bacterium, apply RT-PCR technology of SYBR Green Ⅱ to detect An and Ao in saliva and use SAS9.2 software to carry out the data processing and analyses. Results The percentage of An in three groups is quite different (P0.05); The percentage of Ao in three groups is not significantly different (P>0.05). Conclusion There is significant correlation between the amount of An in children's saliva and the onset and development of caries: and there is no significant correlation between the amount of Ao in children's saliva and the onset and development of caries.%目的 建立检测内氏放线菌(Actinomyces naeslundii,An)与龋齿放线菌(Actinomyces odontolyticus,Ao)的实时荧光定量PCR(RT-PCR).方法 探讨An和Ao在唾液中的定植数量与乳牙龋失补牙面指数(dmfs)的关系.方法 分别采集59名不同患龋状况儿童唾液样本,其中无龋组(dmfs=0) 19名、中龋组(dmfs=4~6)21名和高龋组(dmfs>8)19名.提取细菌总基因组DNA,应用SYBR GreenⅡ模式的实时荧光定量PCR技术,对唾液中的内氏放线菌及龋齿放线菌进行定量检测,所得数据应用SAS9.2统计软件进行统计学分析.结果 内氏放线菌占总菌的比例在三组中有显著差异(P<0.05),在高龋组中显著高于中龋组( P<0.0001),在中龋组与无龋组间无显著差异(P>0.05);龋齿放线菌占总菌的比例在三组中无显著差异(P>0.05).结论 儿童唾液中内氏放线菌的数量与龋病的发生发展过程有明显相关性;龋齿放线菌与儿童龋病的发生发展无明显相关性.

  14. Comparison of the clinical examination with the panoramic radiography in the diagnosis of dental caries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hang Moon [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology and Dental Research Institute, College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-02-15

    The objective of this study was to compare clinical examination of of dental caries and secondary caries with panoramic examination, and to examine bone lesions and dental anomaly of unerupted state. In this study, clinical records and panoramic radiographs were available for 89 first grade students in elementary school. Dental caries of occlusal surfaces, proximal surfaces, and buccolingual surfaces were examined. Secondary caries was examined too. In addition, the central lesion and dental anomaly of unerupted state were examined in panoramic radiographs. The obtained results were as followed :1. Carious detectability of clinical examination in occlusal and buccolingual surface was higher than that of panoramic examination, but it is statistically insignificant (p>0.05). In proximal surface, carious detectability of panoramic examination was higher than that of clinical examination, and it is statistically significant (p<0.01). 2. In contrast to clinical examination only, when the two examination methods were combined, there was additional detection of dental caries (26.7% in occlusal surface, 48.2% in proximal surface, 33.3% in buccolingual surface, and 38.3% totally). 3. In detection of secondary caries, panoramic examination had lower ability than clinical examination in all three surfaces, but in case that both methods were combined, totally 36.0% extra carious lesions were detected. 4. In panoramic examination, detectability of secondary caries in upper teeth is lower than lower teeth. 5. In panoramic examination, it was possible to detect the central lesions and dental anomalies of unerupted state which cannot be detected in clinical examination. It is useful to combine the panoramic examination with clinical examination in order to increase carious detectability and to evaluate the central lesions and dental anomalies of unerupted state.

  15. Enhancing the detection of hidden occlusal caries lesions with OCT using high index liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hobin; Darling, Cynthia L.; Fried, Daniel

    2014-02-01

    In a previous study, we investigated the influence of several high refractive index fluids on the performance of polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT). That study showed that these liquids can increase the effective imaging depth and lesion contrast. Other in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that OCT can be used to show whether occlusal lesions have penetrated to the dentinal-enamel junction (DEJ) and spread laterally under the enamel. The purpose of this study was to determine if high index fluids can enhance the ability of OCT to detect hidden occlusal lesions and show if these lesions have penetrated through the enamel into the underlying dentin. Ten extracted teeth with occlusal lesions were imaged using OCT after the application of water, glycerol, BABB (33% Benzyl Alcohol + 67% Benzyl Benzoate) and a Cargille Liquid (Cedar Grove, NJ) (hydrogenated terphenyl 1- bromo-naphthalene) with a refractive index of 1.61. The intensity of the reflectance from the underlying lesion area for each sample was compared with the reflectance of the sound tooth surface for each fluid. The use of high index fluids significantly (P< 0.0001) increased the reflectivity of subsurface occlusal lesions under the surrounding sound enamel.

  16. Methods dentists use to diagnose primary caries lesions prior to restorative treatment: findings from The Dental PBRN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindal, D Brad; Gordan, Valeria V; Litaker, Mark S;

    2010-01-01

    To (1) quantify the diagnostic techniques used by Dental Practice-Based Research Network (DPBRN) dentists before they decide to treat primary caries lesions surgically and (2) examine whether certain dentist, practice, and patient characteristics are associated with their use.......To (1) quantify the diagnostic techniques used by Dental Practice-Based Research Network (DPBRN) dentists before they decide to treat primary caries lesions surgically and (2) examine whether certain dentist, practice, and patient characteristics are associated with their use....

  17. The Frequency of Streptococcus Mutans and Lactobacillus spp.in 3-5-year- old Children with and without Dental Caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moulana, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground and Objective: The high occurrence of early childhood caries (ECC is one of the most common problems in children dentistry. Streptococcus mutans and lactobacilli.spp are closely associated with the development of early childhood caries (ECC. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of streptococcus mutans and lactobacilli.spp in 3-5 –year- old children with and without dental caries.Material and Methods: This case-control study was conducted on 60 children aged 3 -5-years, without any history of systemic disease, who had not received any antibiotic therapy and fluoride usage during the last month. The cases were divided into three groups of early childhood caries, usual caries and caries-free. The infected dentin samples were collected from cervical and proximal in ECC and usual caries group, respectively. Also in all the three groups, the samples of dental plaque from buccal surfaces were collected and immediately immersed into Brain Heart Infusion (BHI broth medium. After that, the diluted sample was plated onto MitisSalivarius agar (Difco for detecting streptococcus mutans and Rogosa agar (Difco for detecting lactobacilli.spp. Data were analyzed by Chi- Square and ANOVA.Results: of the samples taken from dental plaque, S. mutans is observed in 90% of ECC, 80% of proxymolcarries and in 25% of caries-free individuals. Based on the results, the presence of S.mutans in the group of caries is significantly higher than that of without caries, but there is no significant difference between the two groups of caries. In addition, lactobacill.spp is isolated from 60% ofthe samples, but there is no significant difference between two groups of caries and caries-free. The average of decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT index in the group with early childhood caries (6.95±1.572 and usual caries (5.80±1.105 is different significantly. Pearson correlation test shows that there is a significant relationship

  18. Clinical evaluation of Krimidanta Pratishedha (anti-caries) activity of Triphaladi Gandusha in high risk dental caries patients

    OpenAIRE

    Atara, Achyuta G.; Manjusha, R.; Shukla, Vinay J.; Vaghela, Dharmendra B.; Rooparalia, Brijesh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Dental caries is the most common complaint encountered in clinical practice. Virtually every adult in the world has experience of dental caries. It affects almost 80% of the population. It is now being viewed in dual perspective- “caries as a disease” and “caries as a lesion”. Aims: To evaluate the efficacy of Triphaladi Gandusha for its anti-caries activity and improvement in Oral Hygiene Index in high risk patients of dental caries and to compare the efficacy of prevalent method...

  19. Nonlinear Multiantenna Detection Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Sheng

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A nonlinear detection technique designed for multiple-antenna assisted receivers employed in space-division multiple-access systems is investigated. We derive the optimal solution of the nonlinear spatial-processing assisted receiver for binary phase shift keying signalling, which we refer to as the Bayesian detector. It is shown that this optimal Bayesian receiver significantly outperforms the standard linear beamforming assisted receiver in terms of a reduced bit error rate, at the expense of an increased complexity, while the achievable system capacity is substantially enhanced with the advent of employing nonlinear detection. Specifically, when the spatial separation expressed in terms of the angle of arrival between the desired and interfering signals is below a certain threshold, a linear beamformer would fail to separate them, while a nonlinear detection assisted receiver is still capable of performing adequately. The adaptive implementation of the optimal Bayesian detector can be realized using a radial basis function network. Two techniques are presented for constructing block-data-based adaptive nonlinear multiple-antenna assisted receivers. One of them is based on the relevance vector machine invoked for classification, while the other on the orthogonal forward selection procedure combined with the Fisher ratio class-separability measure. A recursive sample-by-sample adaptation procedure is also proposed for training nonlinear detectors based on an amalgam of enhanced -means clustering techniques and the recursive least squares algorithm.

  20. Comparative study of a wireless digital system and 2 PSP digital systems on proximal caries detection and pixel values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Anjos Pontual, Andrea; de Melo, Daniela Pita; Pontual, Maria Luiza dos Anjos; de Almeida, Solange Maria; Haiter-Neto, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    This study compared the radiographic image quality of 2 photostimulable phosphor (PSP) plate systems with a radiographic system against a complementary metal oxide silicon (CMOS) system. Using the 3 digital systems, 160 approximal surfaces were radiographed under standardized conditions. Using a 5-point scale, 6 observers scored the resulting images for the presence of caries. The presence of caries was validated histologically, and the image receptors were evaluated using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. The digital systems were used to take radiographs of an aluminum step wedge for objective analysis with pixel density measurements. The mean pixel values were analyzed statistically using the Kruskal-Wallis test and Dunn multiple comparison test (P system was comparable to the PSP plate systems and radiographic film.

  1. Health promotion and dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltz, Marisa; Jardim, Juliana Jobim; Alves, Luana Severo

    2010-01-01

    The central idea of the Brazilian health system is to prevent the establishment of disease or detect it as early as possible. Prevention and treatment of dental caries are related to behavioral factors, including dietary and oral hygiene habits, which are related to many chronic diseases. Dental health promotion therefore should be fully integrated into broadly based health-promoting strategies and actions such as food and health policies, and general hygiene (including oral hygiene), among others. For decades, a linear relationship between sugar consumption and caries has been observed. Recent data has indicated that this relationship is not as strong as it used to be before the widespread use of fluoride. However, diet is still a key factor acting in the carious process. Oral hygiene is a major aspect when it comes to caries, since dental biofilm is its etiological factor. Oral hygiene procedures are effective in controlling dental caries, especially if plaque removal is performed adequately and associated with fluoride. An alternative to a more efficient biofilm control in occlusal areas is the use of dental sealants, which are only indicated for caries-active individuals. If a cavity is formed as a consequence of the metabolic activity of the biofilm, a restorative material or a sealant can be placed to block access of the biofilm to the oral environment in order to prevent caries progress. The prevention of dental caries based on common risk-factor strategies (diet and hygiene) should be supplemented by more disease-specific policies such as rational use of fluoride, and evidence-based dental health care.

  2. Health promotion and dental caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Maltz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The central idea of the Brazilian health system is to prevent the establishment of disease or detect it as early as possible. Prevention and treatment of dental caries are related to behavioral factors, including dietary and oral hygiene habits, which are related to many chronic diseases. Dental health promotion therefore should be fully integrated into broadly based health-promoting strategies and actions such as food and health policies, and general hygiene (including oral hygiene, among others. For decades, a linear relationship between sugar consumption and caries has been observed. Recent data has indicated that this relationship is not as strong as it used to be before the widespread use of fluoride. However, diet is still a key factor acting in the carious process. Oral hygiene is a major aspect when it comes to caries, since dental biofilm is its etiological factor. Oral hygiene procedures are effective in controlling dental caries, especially if plaque removal is performed adequately and associated with fluoride. An alternative to a more efficient biofilm control in occlusal areas is the use of dental sealants, which are only indicated for caries-active individuals. If a cavity is formed as a consequence of the metabolic activity of the biofilm, a restorative material or a sealant can be placed to block access of the biofilm to the oral environment in order to prevent caries progress. The prevention of dental caries based on common risk-factor strategies (diet and hygiene should be supplemented by more disease-specific policies such as rational use of fluoride, and evidence-based dental health care.

  3. Current possibilities in occlusal caries management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrvoje Jurić

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is a multifactorial disease that affects most populations throughout the world and it is still the primary cause of oral pain and tooth loss. The occlusal surfaces of posterior teeth are the most vulnerable sites for dental caries due to their anatomy. Therefore, the aim of the following article is to summarize current knowledge on occlusal caries development and the possibilities of its prevention. Although the overall caries rate today has fallen for populations in industrialized countries, the rate of occlusal surface caries has not decreased. This may be explained with fact that topically applied fluorides and their mode of action prevent caries better on smooth than on occlusal surfaces. As we know, tooth decay of first permanent molars causes a great deal of different short and long term difficulties for patients. Therefore, there is a continuous need for implementation of programs for caries prevention in permanent teeth. Nowadays, we like to treat our patients by minimally invasive methods. A very important step in our effective preventive treatment is sealing pits and fissures as a cornerstone of occlusal caries management. Reliable assessment of caries activity is also very important for defining treatment needs and plans. A very important decision, which should be made during occlusal caries management, is the selection of restorative material according to the treatment plan. Conclusion. Current possibilities in occlusal caries prevention and management are very effective. Therefore, dentists today do not have any excuse for avoiding the philosophy of Minimally Invasive Dentistry, especially when we talk about caries management of occlusal surfaces in permanent molars.

  4. Comprehensive Implementation of the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS in a Dental School and University Oral Health Centre: A Stepwise Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Ahlawat

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available ICDAS (the International Caries Detection and Assessment System is a new approach to the detection and classification of dental caries, starting with the stage showing the earliest visual changes. Methodology: This article describes the implementation of the ICDAS at the School of Dentistry, International Medical University, and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia in a step-by-step systematically planned process. Beginning with the setting up of a Task Force in 2011 for the evaluation and preparation of the training resources and the running of exploratory training exercises, it finally culminated in carrying out training workshops for the entire staff and students. After the internal processes had been completed, an international expert (KE was invited to evaluate the process and conduct another workshop using the resources developed within the University, including a reference set of carious teeth. The overall time taken was one and a half years. Conclusions: The implementation of the ICDAS has been comprehensively set into motion within the context of our local curriculum and oral healthcare delivery arrangements. However, this will be an ongoing process with further quality assurance measures being required clinically together with the continuing training of new staff. Sharing this ‘framework’ of the ICDAS implementation process should considerably ease the path and reduce the time period of future implementations by other dental teaching institutions.

  5. Evaluation of pH, buffering capacity, viscosity and flow rate levels of saliva in caries-free, minimal caries and nursing caries children: An in vivo study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwitha Animireddy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the pH, buffering capacity, viscosity and flow rate of saliva in caries free, minimal caries and nursing caries children and to evaluate the relationship of these on the caries activity of children. Materials and Methods: A total of 75 school children of age group between 4 and 12 years were selected and divided into three equal groups: Group I, Group II and Group III, consisting of 25 subjects each. Group I included caries-free subjects, Group II included subjects with minimal caries and Group III included subjects with nursing caries. Saliva samples were collected from all subjects and were estimated for flow rate, pH, buffering capacity and viscosity. Results: There was a significant decrease in the mean salivary flow rate, salivary ph and salivary buffer capacity and a significant increase in the salivary viscosity among caries-free subjects, subjects with minimal caries and subjects with nursing caries. Conclusion: The physicochemical properties of saliva, such as salivary flow rate, pH, buffering capacity and viscosity, has a relation with caries activity in children and act as markers of caries activity.

  6. Caries risk assessment in young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersson, Gunnel Hänsel; Twetman, Svante

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To validate baseline caries risk classifications according to the Cariogram model with the actual caries development over a 3-year period in a group of young adults living in Sweden. METHODS: The study group consisted of 1,295 19-year-old patients that completed a comprehensive clinical...

  7. Diagnosis and Prevention Strategies for Dental Caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yoon

    2013-01-01

    Dental caries is one of the oldest and most common diseases found in humans. With the recent shift from the surgical model, which emphasized restorative treatment, to a medical model of disease management, newer strategies emphasize disease prevention and conservation of tooth structure. For early detection and monitoring of caries, rather than waiting until a cavity is formed and restorative treatment is needed, devices such as DIAGNOdent, Digital Imaging Fiber-Optic Transillumination, quantitative light-induced fluorescence, and the Electronic Caries Monitor have been introduced. For caries prevention, oral hygiene measures, fluoride application, pit-and-fissure sealants, the use of xylitol, the development of a dental caries vaccine, and the role of the primary caregiver for infants are briefly discussed. PMID:26064846

  8. Dental caries: A complete changeover (Part II- Changeover in the diagnosis and prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carounanidy Usha

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Realization that dental caries is a reversible, dynamic biochemical event at a micron level has changed the way the profession recognizes the caries disease and the caries lesion. The diagnosis of dental caries poses challenges due to the complex interaction of multiple endogenous causal factors. The most appropriate diagnostic aid for this purpose is the risk model of caries risk assessment. The analyses of the biological determinants provide clues to the dominant causal factor. The detection of a carious lesion has undergone a rigorous revision and revolution in order to identify the earliest mineral change so that it can be controlled without resorting to invasive management options. Apart from detection, it became mandatory to assess the extent of the lesion (noncavitated/cavitated, assess the activity status of the lesion (active/arrested, monitor the lesion progress (progression/regression over a period of time, and finally to predict the prognosis of the lesion as well as the disease. The prognosis of the disease can be best assessed by analyzing the predictor factors in caries risk assessment. The ultimate objective of such a meticulous and methodical approach aids in devising a tailor-made treatment plan, using preventing measures precisely and restorative measures minimally. This ensures the best oral health outcome of the patient.

  9. Local method for detecting communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagrow, James P.; Bollt, Erik M.

    2005-10-01

    We propose a method of community detection that is computationally inexpensive and possesses physical significance to a member of a social network. This method is unlike many divisive and agglomerative techniques and is local in the sense that a community can be detected within a network without requiring knowledge of the entire network. A global application of this method is also introduced. Several artificial and real-world networks, including the famous Zachary karate club, are analyzed.

  10. A Voltage Quality Detection Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Wei, Mu

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a voltage quality detection method based on a phase-locked loop (PLL) technique. The technique can detect the voltage magnitude and phase angle of each individual phase under both normal and fault power system conditions. The proposed method has the potential to evaluate various...... power quality disturbances, such as interruptions, sags and imbalances. Simulation studies have been performed. The effectiveness of the proposed method has been demonstrated under the simulated typical power disturbances....

  11. Evaluation of pH, buffering capacity, viscosity and flow rate levels of saliva in caries-free, minimal caries and nursing caries children: An in vivo study

    OpenAIRE

    Dwitha Animireddy; Venkata Thimma Reddy Bekkem; Pranitha Vallala; Sunil Babu Kotha; Swetha Ankireddy; Noorjahan Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the pH, buffering capacity, viscosity and flow rate of saliva in caries free, minimal caries and nursing caries children and to evaluate the relationship of these on the caries activity of children. Materials and Methods: A total of 75 school children of age group between 4 and 12 years were selected and divided into three equal groups: Group I, Group II and Group III, consisting of 25 subjects each. Group I included caries-free...

  12. Caries risk assessment in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, S

    2016-01-01

    displayed a high risk of bias. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the present summary of literature, it may be concluded: (1) a caries risk assessment should be carried out at the child's first dental visit and reassessments should be done during childhood (D); (2) multivariate models display a better accuracy than......PURPOSE: To summarise the findings of recent systematic reviews (SR) covering caries risk assessment in children, updated with recent primary studies. METHODS: A search for relevant papers published 2012-2014 was conducted in electronic databases. The systematic reviews were quality assessed...... the use of single predictors and this is especially true for preschool children (C); (3) there is no clearly superior method to predict future caries and no evidence to support the use of one model, program, or technology before the other (C); and (4) the risk category should be linked to appropriate...

  13. Research on optical properties of dental enamel for early caries diagnostics using a He-Ne laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jing; Liu, Li; Li, Song-zhan

    2008-12-01

    A new and non-invasive method adapted for optical diagnosis of early caries is proposed by researching on the interaction mechanism of laser with dental tissue and relations of remitted light with optical properties of the tissue. This method is based on simultaneous analyses of the following parameters: probing radiation, backscattering and auto-fluorescence. Investigation was performed on 104 dental samples in vitro by using He-Ne laser (λ=632.8nm, 2.0+/-0.1mW) as the probing. Spectrums of all samples were obtained. Characteristic spectrums of dental caries in various stages (intact, initial, moderate and deep) were given. Using the back-reflected light to normalize the intensity of back-scattering and fluorescence, a quantitative diagnosis standard for different stages of caries is proposed. In order to verify the test, comparison research was conducted among artificial caries, morphological damaged enamel, dental calculus and intact tooth. Results show that variations in backscattering characteristic changes in bio-tissue morphological and the quantity of auto-fluorescence is correlated with concentration of anaerobic microflora in hearth of caries lesion. This method poses a high potential of diagnosing various stages of dental caries, and is more reliability to detect early caries, surface damage of health enamel and dental calculus.

  14. Dental caries vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivakumar K

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is one of the most common diseases in humans. In modern times, it has reached epidemic proportions. Dental caries is an infectious microbiologic disease of the teeth that results in localized dissolution and destruction of the calcified tissue. Dental caries is a mulitifactorial disease, which is caused by host, agent, and environmental factors. The time factor is important for the development and progression of dental caries. A wide group of microorganisms are identified from carious lesions of which S. mutans , Lactobacillus acidophilus , and Actinomyces viscosus are the main pathogenic species involved in the initiation and development of dental caries. In India, surveys done on school children showed caries prevalence of approximately 58%. Surveys among the U.S. population showed an incidence of 45.3% in children and 93.8% in adults with either past or present coronal caries. Huge amounts of money and time are spent in treating dental caries. Hence, the prevention and control of dental caries is the main aim of public health, eventually the ultimate objective of public health is the elimination of the disease itself. Recently, dental caries vaccines have been developed for the prevention of dental caries. These dental caries vaccines are still in the early stages.

  15. Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography detection method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Everett, M J; Sathyam, U S; Colston, B W; DaSilva, L B; Fried, D; Ragadio, J N; Featherstone, J D B

    1999-05-12

    This study demonstrates the potential of polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) for non-invasive in vivo detection and characterization of early, incipient caries lesions. PS-OCT generates cross-sectional images of biological tissue while measuring the effect of the tissue on the polarization state of incident light. Clear discrimination between regions of normal and demineralized enamel is first shown in PS-OCT images of bovine enamel blocks containing well-characterized artificial lesions. High-resolution, cross-sectional images of extracted human teeth are then generated that clearly discriminate between the normal and carious regions on both the smooth and occlusal surfaces. Regions of the teeth that appeared to be demineralized in the PS-OCT images were verified using histological thin sections examined under polarized light microscopy. The PS-OCT system discriminates between normal and carious regions by measuring the polarization state of the back-scattered 1310 nm light, which is affected by the state of demineralization of the enamel. Demineralization of enamel increases the scattereing coefficient, thus depolarizing the incident light. This study shows that PS-OCT has great potential for the detection, characterization, and monitoring of incipient caries lesions.

  16. PRIMARY CARIES: AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Solanki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary caries is an initial lesions produced by direct extension from an external surface. Dental caries is called as tooth decay or a cavity is a disease in which bacterial processes changes carbohydrate to acid which than dematerializes the hard tooth structure like enamel, dentin and cementum. Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus are the bacteria responsible for the dental caries by acid production. This article throws light on the dental caries disease, its sign and symptoms, treatment and prevention of it. A review of some patents on dental caries is also provided that summarizes the recent technical advancements taken place in this area.

  17. An in-vitro comparison of visual inspection, bite-wing radiography, and laser fluorescence methods for the diagnosis of occlusal caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pourhashemi S

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare accuracy and reproducibility of visual inspection (VI, bitewing (BW radiography, and laser fluorescence (LF, DIANOdent methods in the diagnosis of occlusal caries. Materials and Methods: The study was done on 80 extracted permanent premolars that seem to be intact or with primary caries in fissures. Three trained dentist examined the teeth in four stages: VI, BW radiography, LF, and histologic examination. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy of all methods were calculated and compared. For the LF method, using ROC curve and counterpart points on it, we determined upper and lower limits and calculated the parameters. Results: The estimated accuracy was 58.9% for VI and 45.1% for BW radiography methods. Kappa coefficient for interexaminer reproducibility was 57% and 34.1% in VI and BW radiography, respectively. Inter- and intraexaminer reproducibility coefficients of LF methods were 78.4% and 83.6%, respectively. The mean intraexaminer reproducibility coefficient in the VI method was 61.2%. Conclusion: Although accuracy and reproducibility of the LF method were higher than those of the VI and BW radiography, it is better to use this method together with other methods to reduce diagnostic faults.

  18. [[Streptococcus mutans Acquisition and Dental Caries Development in First-Born Children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noce, Erica; Rubira, Cassia Maria Fischer; da Silva Rosa, Odila Pereira; da Silva, Salete Moura Bonifácio; Bretz, Walter Antonio

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the moment of streptococcus mutans (SM) acquisition, caries development and their associate variables along 23 months, in first-born children of low socioeconomic status families, starting at 7 months of age. METHOD: The sample was chosen based on highly SM-colonized mothers, including all members of 14 families living in the same houses. The study included 14 mothers, 14 fathers and 14 first-borns and 8 relatives (mostly grandparents). Initial clinical examinations and radiographs determined the caries indices and periodontal conditions of the adults. SM count in all adults was made in the first 2 visits. The children were examined for SM count, number of teeth and number of carious lesions, in 4 visits. RESULTS: SM prevalence was high in the adults, being absent in only one of the parents. SM was found in 1, 2, 3 and 10 children in the first, second, third and fourth visits. Dental caries was detected in only 3 children in the last visit (at 30 months), who presented significantly higher SM scores than the children without caries in the same visit. CONCLUSION: A low income social condition and mothers highly colonized by SM do not mean necessarily early SM colonization and high caries activity in children with oral homecare. Caries development is significantly associated with high SM scores in the children.

  19. Dietary pattern of Finnish children with low high caries experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleemola-Kujala, E; Räsänen, L

    1979-08-01

    The correlations between dietary patterns and caries were studied in a series consisting of 534, 5-, 9- and 13-year-old Finnish rural children from low-fluoride areas (0.10-0.46 parts/10(6)). The food consumption of the children was assessed by the 24-hour recall method. The consumption of sweets was estimated by the dietary history method. Caries was diagnosed by clinical inspection. Children with a low and children with a high caries experience were compared with regard to food and nutrient intakes per 1000 kcal. The intakes of most foods and nutrients were similar in the low-caries and in the high-caries groups. However, the diet of the high-caries groups of 5- and 13-year-olds contained less iron, thiamine and ascorbic acid than the diet of the low-caries groups. The intake of sugar and sugar-containing products per unit of energy was higher in the high-caries groups. This was true for soft drinks in particular. Among the 9-year-olds the proportion of sugar consumed as such was greater in the high-caries than in the low-caries children. With regard to the total monthly consumption of sweets no significant differences were observed between the high- and low-caries groups. Analysis of the energy-standardized consumption of food and nutrients thus showed that the relative proportion of sugar and sugar-containing products was somewhat greater in the diet of the high-caries children than in the diet of the low-caries children, but not as high as could be expected. These products replaced foods with a higher nutritive value with the result that the diet of the high-caries groups was on the whole more refined than the diet of the low-caries groups.

  20. The VicGeneration study - a birth cohort to examine the environmental, behavioural and biological predictors of early childhood caries: background, aims and methods

    OpenAIRE

    Dashper Stuart; Gussy Mark; Calache Hanny; de Silva-Sanigorski Andrea M; Gibson Jane; Waters Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Dental caries (decay) during childhood is largely preventable however it remains a significant and costly public health concern, identified as the most prevalent chronic disease of childhood. Caries in children aged less than five years (early childhood caries) is a rapid and progressive disease that can be painful and debilitating, and significantly increases the likelihood of poor child growth, development and social outcomes. Early childhood caries may also result in a ...

  1. Efficacy of chemomechanical caries removal in reducing cariogenic microbiota: a randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Mikhael AMMARI

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of chemochemical methods (Carisolv™ and Papacárie® versus the manual method (excavators in reducing the cariogenic microbiota in dentine caries of primary teeth. Forty-six healthy children (5 to 9 years old having at least one primary tooth with a cavitated dentine carious lesion were included in the study. The teeth presented no clinical or radiographic signs of pulpal involvement. The sample of 74 teeth was randomly divided into three different groups: Papacárie® (n = 25, Carisolv™ (n = 27 and Manual (n = 22. Samples of carious and sound dentine were collected with sterile excavators before and after caries removal in the three groups. The dentine samples were transferred to glass tubes containing a 1mL thioglycollate medium used as a carrier and enriched for microbiological detection of mutans streptococci and Lactobacillus spp, after incubation for 6h at room temperature. The minimum detection value for colony forming units (CFU was 3.3 x 102 CFU/ml, and the results were converted into scores from 0 to 4. A significant difference was observed in relation to the microbiological scores before and after caries removal for all methods (Wilcoxon test; p < 0.001. The use of chemomechanical methods for caries removal did not improve the reduction of cariogenic microorganisms in dentine caries lesions, in comparison with manual excavation.

  2. A new vehicle detection method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zebbara Khalid

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new vehicle detection method from images acquired by cameras embedded in a moving vehicle. Given the sequence of images, the proposed algorithms should detect out all cars in realtime. Related to the driving direction, the cars can be classified into two types. Cars drive in the same direction as the intelligent vehicle (IV and cars drive in the opposite direction. Due to the distinct features of these two types, we suggest to achieve this method in two main steps. The first one detects all obstacles from images using the so-called association combined with corner detector. The second step is applied to validate each vehicle using AdaBoost classifier. The new method has been applied to different images data and the experimental results validate the efficacy of our method.

  3. Study of validity of autofluorescence-based incipient occlusal caries detection in vitro compared to DIAGNOdent pen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, H. H.; Chen, Q. G.; Lin, B.; Chen, H.

    2012-03-01

    The validity of laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy for early diagnosis of occlusal caries irradiated by 403 nm diode laser compared to commercial device DIAGNOdent pen was investigated. The quantitative evaluation parameter based on the fluorescence intensity area ratio of different bands F(440-480 nm)/F(540-700 nm) was built. And the linear correlation analysis between fluorescence result and corresponding DIAGNOdent reading is performed to be r = -0.9085. Moreover, the factors of irradiation laser power and excited site influencing the fluorescence distribution was experimentally investigated. The result shows that the fluorescence spectra at different site of sound occlusal surface is different and the higher laser power will lower the sensitivity of evaluation parameter based on the red fluorescence region increasing. The work is of great significance for practical application of laser induced fluorescence at 403 nm.

  4. A closer look at diagnosis in clinical dental practice: part 5. Emerging technologies for caries detection and diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretty, Iain A; Maupomé, Gerardo

    2004-09-01

    Parts 5 and 6 of this series examine innovations in diagnostic and management procedures and assess their potential to become everyday tools of the dental clinician. This paper examines some of the diagnostic tools supporting a philosophical shift in mainstream dental practice from concern with extensively decayed teeth to a focus on detecting incipient demineralized tissues. With the latter approach, the incipient carious process can be reversed by promoting enamel remineralization and thus eliminating the need for restorative intervention. Numerous methods and devices have been developed to detect, diagnose and monitor such lesions, and several have been produced in versions that may appeal to dental practitioners. This paper considers 3 of these methods and devices: the DIAGNODent laser device, quantitative light-induced fluorescence and the Digital Imaging Fiber-Optic Transillumination device. Each technique is illustrated, the research on its effectiveness is assessed to determine usefulness to the practitioner, and the comparative advantages of the 3 adjunct tools are discussed.

  5. A systematic approach to deep caries removal end points: the peripheral seal concept in adhesive dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alleman, David S; Magne, Pascal

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this article is to present evidence-based protocols for the diagnosis and treatment of deep caries lesions in vital teeth. These protocols combine caries-detecting dye with anatomical and histologic knowledge to arrive at ideal caries removal end points for adhesive restorations. DIAGNOdent laser fluorescence technology can also be used to confirm these end points. These ideal caries removal end points generate a peripheral seal zone that can support long-term biomimetic restorations. A review of the published literature since 1980 on caries, caries diagnosis, and caries treatments and their relationships to adhesive bonding techniques was carried out. Combining anatomical measurements and pathologic and histologic knowledge with caries-detecting dye and DIAGNOdent laser fluorescence technologies can produce ideal caries removal end points for adhesive dentistry without exposing vital pulps.

  6. Sugar Alcohols, Caries Incidence, and Remineralization of Caries Lesions: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kauko K. Mäkinen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Remineralization of minor enamel defects is a normal physiological process that is well known to clinicians and researchers in dentistry and oral biology. This process can be facilitated by various dietary and oral hygiene procedures and may also concern dentin caries lesions. Dental caries is reversible if detected and treated sufficiently early. Habitual use of xylitol, a sugar alcohol of the pentitol type, can be associated with significant reduction in caries incidence and with tooth remineralization. Other dietary polyols that can remarkably lower the incidence of caries include erythritol which is a tetritol-type alditol. Based on known molecular parameters of simple dietary alditols, it is conceivable to predict that their efficacy in caries prevention will follow the homologous series, that is, that the number of OH-groups present in the alditol molecule will determine the efficacy as follows: erythritol≥xylitol>sorbitol. The possible difference between erythritol and xylitol must be confirmed in future clinical trials.

  7. Prevalence of candida albicans in dental plaque and caries lesion of early childhood caries (ECC) according to sampling site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasempour, Maryam; Sefidgar, Seyed Ali Asghar; Eyzadian, Haniyeh; Gharakhani, Samaneh

    2011-01-01

    Background: Candida albicans may have cariogenic potential but its role in caries etiology has not been established. The aim of this study was to determine candida albicans in supragingival dental plaque and infected dentine of cervical and proximal in early childhood caries (ECC). Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out on 6o children aged 2-5 years, which were divided into 3 groups: children with at least one cervical caries; children with at least one proximal caries and caries-free. The infected dentine was collected from cervical and proximal caries lesions and plaque samples were collected from the three groups in order to compare the frequency of candida albicans in the collected sites. All samples were cultured in Sabouraud and CHROMagar medium and the cases that were positive for candida albicans were cultured in germ tube. Data were collected and analyzed. Results: The mean age of the children was 3.9 years. From 100 samples, candida albicans samples were isolated in 55%, mold fungi were found in 29% cases and there was no fungal growth in 16% of the samples. In plaque samples, candida albicans were found in 15% of caries-free samples, 20% of the proximal and 80% of the cervical caries. In samples extracted from the caries, candida albicans were found in 60% of the proximal and 100% of the cervical caries. Mothers with university educational level had children with more cervical decays, caries free and proximal caries, respectively. Conclusion: The results showed that prevalence of Candida albicans in dental plaque and caries lesions of children with early childhood caries were relatively high and the prevalence was higher in cervical caries group. PMID:24551436

  8. Evaluation of non-microbial salivary caries activity parameters and salivary biochemical indicators in predicting dental caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Kaur

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the present study was the evaluation of non-microbial salivary caries activity parameters and salivary biochemical indicators in predicting dental caries. Materials and Methods: The present study was carried out on 60 children, aged 4-6 years, selected from the schools of Panchkula district, Haryana, on the basis of their caries status. Level of hydration, flow rate, pH, buffering capacity, relative viscosity, calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase levels in caries-free and caries-active children were evaluated. Results: Results showed that 90% of subjects in the caries-free group and 30% of subjects in the caries-active group had normal level of hydration value of less than 60 s and the difference was found to be statistically very highly significant. Normal flow rate of stimulated saliva was found in 90% of the subjects in caries-free group and 33.3% subjects in the caries active group and difference was found to be statistically very highly significant. Adequate salivary pH was found in 100% subjects in caries-free group and 30% in caries-active group and the difference was statistically very highly significant. Conclusion: To conclude, within limitations of this study, it became clear that normal level of hydration and higher values for flow rate, pH, buffering capacity of saliva lead to good oral health and a reduced caries occurrence. Increased salivary viscosity plays a role in increasing caries incidence. Salivary biochemical indicators like calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase also play their respective role in determining caries susceptibility of an individual. These salivary parameters can be used as diagnostic tool for caries risk assessment.

  9. Method for detecting biological toxins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ligler, F.S.; Campbell, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    Biological toxins are indirectly detected by using polymerase chain reaction to amplify unique nucleic acid sequences coding for the toxins or enzymes unique to toxin synthesis. Buffer, primers coding for the unique nucleic acid sequences and an amplifying enzyme are added to a sample suspected of containing the toxin. The mixture is then cycled thermally to exponentially amplify any of these unique nucleic acid sequences present in the sample. The amplified sequences can be detected by various means, including fluorescence. Detection of the amplified sequences is indicative of the presence of toxin in the original sample. By using more than one set of labeled primers, the method can be used to simultaneously detect several toxins in a sample.

  10. Comparison of visual, impedance spectroscopy and laser fluorescence methods in detecting early carious lesions on occlusal surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalas Renata

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The diagnostic management is a very important and integral part of the entire treatment process and has a direct influence on the decision-taking on the choice of the most appropriate form of therapy consistent with current knowledge. Knowledge of the morphology of hard dental tissues lesions has led to the development of quantitative methods for diagnosis and monitoring of dental caries, which enabled the implementation of appropriate treatments aimed at repairing than replacing damaged tissue. The aim of the study was to compare selected diagnostic methods: visual (ICDAS, impedance spectroscopy (CarieScan PRO and laser fluorescence (Diagnodent Pen in detecting caries in grooves on the chewing surfaces of molars and premolars. The obtained results indicated a high concordance of measurements performed with the Diagnodent Pen with the results of visual examination and a lower compliance of visual examination with the results obtained using the CarieScan PRO. A combination of visual and tactile method with tests using advanced technology provides greater opportunity to confirm the diagnosis of carious lesions requiring medical intervention.

  11. Caries status in young Colombian children expressed by the ICCMS™ visual/radiographic combined caries staging system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortes, Andrea; Ekstrand, Kim Rud; Gamboa, Luis Fernando;

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To report (1) the caries experience prevalence and mean, and the caries severity and distribution patterns, expressed clinically and combined with radiographs with the conventional and ICCMS™ systems in young children from Bogotá, Colombia; (2) the contribution of including radiographs...... to the clinical caries scoring and (3) in which surfaces the radiograph adds to the clinical caries registration. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Six hundred children from kindergartens/schools were enrolled: Cohort A: 2-year (n = 200), Cohort B: 4-year (n = 200) and Cohort C: 6-year (n = 200) olds. Radiographs were taken...... of the 4- and 6- year olds. Children were examined clinically using the Clinical (C) and Radiographic (R) ICCMS™-epi Caries Scoring Systems, staging caries lesions (d) as: Initial (Cepi/RA), Moderate (CM/RB) or Extensive (CE/RC). Caries experience including missing (m) and filled (f) surfaces was expressed...

  12. 全光纤OCT量化检出早期釉质龋的研究%Quantification detecting artificial early enamel caries with all All-fiber-OCT system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚晖; 李燕妮; 王冠华; 姚晓天; 孟卓; 靳书凤; 梁燕; 张林朴; 刘铁根

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the sensibility of All-fiber opficM coherence tomography(An-fiberOCT)system for early quantification detecting of artificial caries in vitro.Methods Prepared 2 min×3 mm experimental windows in adamant slippery surfaces of 7 fresh uprooted permanent teeth,demineralized the teeth surfacesin the windows area to ereat early stage of artificial caries mould,by aciding the experimental teeth surfaces of 0~120 hours with demineralized liquid(pH4.5)in vitro.Detected the demineralized changes on the experimental teeth surfaces by dental All-fiber-OCT system,which were newly developed by our research group,and compared the detecting resuhs with clinical diotal photomicrography(DPM)and polarimicroscopy(PMS)on the same tooth sample,to checkout the sensibility and feasibility of All-fiber-OGT for early quantification detecting of artificial caries in vitro.Results Our All-fiber-OCT system could accurately detect surface demineralization changes on the experimental windows of artificial dental caries as earlyas 12haciding treatment,earlier than the survey results obtained by DPM;the surface Integrity of the experimental windows decrease progressively with the increasing Aciding hours,while the demineralized depth increased progressively with the increasing aciding hours.It was shown that quantification detectingdata by OCT has hish correlation to those by PMS,There are no significant differences between data obtained from OCT and PMS(P>0.05).Conclusion All-fiber-OCT system could accurately detect early artificial dental caries without trauma in our model.Quantification detecting data of demineralized depth by OCT has hiigh correlation to those by PMS.It has shown exact detection efficacy on enamel early cariesin our experiment and might become a potential new optical detecting technique for early diagnosis,quantifieation process monitoring and early intervention of dental carles in vivo after the All-fiber OCT system further being consummated

  13. Detection accuracy of proximal caries by cone-beam CT and digital intraoral radiography%数字口内X线片和口腔颌面锥形束CT对邻面龋诊断准确性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程俊歌; 张智玲; 王晓燕; 李刚; 张祖燕; 马绪臣

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compare the accuracy of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and digital intraoral radiography in the detection of proximal caries.Methods Forty-five non-restored human premolars or molars were selected for the study.The teeth,4 or 5 as a group,were mounted in 11 plaster blocks.The CBCT images of the tooth blocks were acquired with the ProMax 3D and the DCT Pro imaging systems,while the digital intraoral radiographs were obtained by a digital imaging system Digora Optime.Five postgraduates evaluated all the images for carious lesion in the 90 proximal surfaces using a five-level scale.With the histological examination serving as the reference standard,observers' performances were evaluated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves.Results Fifty-eight proximal surfaces were sound,18 had enamel caries and 14 had dentine caries.No significant differences was found among the three modalities for the proximal caries detection ( P =0.186 ).When only the dentine caries was analyzed,significant difference was found between CBCT and digital intraoral radiography (P =0.004).No significant difference was noted when only enamel caries was analyzed (P =0.885 ).Conclusions Although CBCT was better than digital intraoral radiography in the detection accuracy of proximal caries,however,considering the relatively higher radiation dose,CBCT should not be used routinely to diagnose proximal caries in clinic.%目的 比较锥形束CT( cone beam computed tomography,CBCT)与数字口内X线片对邻面龋诊断的准确性,为临床提供适宜的检查手段.方法 5名观察者对45颗离体牙CBCT图像和数字口内片影像进行评估后得出受试者工作特征(receiver operating characteristic,ROC)曲线.结果 邻面龋(牙釉质+牙本质)诊断中CBCT与数字口内片比较,差异无统计学意义(P =0.186);单纯分析牙本质龋:CBCT与数字口内片比较差异有统计学意义(P =0.004);单纯分析牙釉质龋:CBCT与数字口内片比

  14. Best clinical practice guidance for management of early caries lesions in children and young adults: an EAPD policy document.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Derek

    2016-06-01

    Scope and purposeThe guidance provides evidence- and clinically-based recommendations for detecting and diagnosing early/non-cavitated caries lesions, risk assessment and disease management.MethodologyThe guidance development is based on three reviews(1,2,3) and an interim seminar and workshop organised by the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry in Brussels in May 2015.Review and updatingNo indication of a review or update schedule is given.RecommendationsSeven recommendations on caries detection and diagnosis, four recommendations on caries risk assessment and 11 on the management of the early carious lesion were made and they are briefly summarised in the table below.Research RecommendationsCaries detection and diagnosisThere is a need for more research in the primary dentition because most of the available studies consider only the permanent dentitionRadiograph subtraction studies need to be conductedOngoing evaluation of new methods and devicesThere is a need for well-designed prevention studies on early childhood caries which will provide sufficient and strong evidence of the cost-effectivenessThere is a significant need to bring the knowledge and learning to regular dental practice, to all the paediatric health care providers, the children and their parents.Caries risk assessmentClinical trials to assess the validity of models and single risk factors, as well as the role of confounding factors (eg age, lifestyle, socio-economy and socio-demography), for predicting caries.Further quantitative and qualitative health professional and parents would be helpful to identify perceptions and barriers to carrying out a CRA and to deliver a risk-based preventive care that could bridge the social inequalities in dental health.More research on the implementation of risk-based caries prevention and to establish the cost-effectiveness of such strategies.

  15. Terahertz pulsed imaging study of dental caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagoz, Burcu; Altan, Hakan; Kamburoglu, Kıvanç

    2015-07-01

    Current diagnostic techniques in dentistry rely predominantly on X-rays to monitor dental caries. Terahertz Pulsed Imaging (TPI) has great potential for medical applications since it is a nondestructive imaging method. It does not cause any ionization hazard on biological samples due to low energy of THz radiation. Even though it is strongly absorbed by water which exhibits very unique chemical and physical properties that contribute to strong interaction with THz radiation, teeth can still be investigated in three dimensions. Recent investigations suggest that this method can be used in the early identification of dental diseases and imperfections in the tooth structure without the hazards of using techniques which rely on x-rays. We constructed a continuous wave (CW) and time-domain reflection mode raster scan THz imaging system that enables us to investigate various teeth samples in two or three dimensions. The samples comprised of either slices of individual tooth samples or rows of teeth embedded in wax, and the imaging was done by scanning the sample across the focus of the THz beam. 2D images were generated by acquiring the intensity of the THz radiation at each pixel, while 3D images were generated by collecting the amplitude of the reflected signal at each pixel. After analyzing the measurements in both the spatial and frequency domains, the results suggest that the THz pulse is sensitive to variations in the structure of the samples that suggest that this method can be useful in detecting the presence of caries.

  16. Genotypic diversity and virulence factors of Streptococcus mutans in caries-free and caries-active individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Miula Portelinha Braga; Augusta Piovesan; Natália Valarini; Sandra Mara Maciel; Flaviana Bombarda de Andrade; Regina Célia Poli-Frederico

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the genotypic diversity, frequency of serotypes and the detection of mutacins from Streptococcus mutans isolates in caries-free and caries-active individuals.A total of 260 S. mutans isolated from 28 individuals with and without dental caries were subjected to AP-PCR and PCR screening of glucosyltransferase B, mutacin and serotype genes, which showed the presence of. 70 different genotypes. There was no statistically significant association between t...

  17. Dental Calculus Arrest of Dental Caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Paul H.; Rams, Thomas E.

    2016-01-01

    Background An inverse relationship between dental calculus mineralization and dental caries demineralization on teeth has been noted in some studies. Dental calculus may even form superficial layers over existing dental caries and arrest their progression, but this phenomenon has been only rarely documented and infrequently considered in the field of Cariology. To further assess the occurrence of dental calculus arrest of dental caries, this study evaluated a large number of extracted human teeth for the presence and location of dental caries, dental calculus, and dental plaque biofilms. Materials and methods A total of 1,200 teeth were preserved in 10% buffered formal saline, and viewed while moist by a single experienced examiner using a research stereomicroscope at 15-25× magnification. Representative teeth were sectioned and photographed, and their dental plaque biofilms subjected to gram-stain examination with light microscopy at 100× magnification. Results Dental calculus was observed on 1,140 (95%) of the extracted human teeth, and no dental carious lesions were found underlying dental calculus-covered surfaces on 1,139 of these teeth. However, dental calculus arrest of dental caries was found on one (0.54%) of 187 evaluated teeth that presented with unrestored proximal enamel caries. On the distal surface of a maxillary premolar tooth, dental calculus mineralization filled the outer surface cavitation of an incipient dental caries lesion. The dental calculus-covered carious lesion extended only slightly into enamel, and exhibited a brown pigmentation characteristic of inactive or arrested dental caries. In contrast, the tooth's mesial surface, without a superficial layer of dental calculus, had a large carious lesion going through enamel and deep into dentin. Conclusions These observations further document the potential protective effects of dental calculus mineralization against dental caries. PMID:27446993

  18. Survey of Anomaly Detection Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, B

    2006-10-12

    This survey defines the problem of anomaly detection and provides an overview of existing methods. The methods are categorized into two general classes: generative and discriminative. A generative approach involves building a model that represents the joint distribution of the input features and the output labels of system behavior (e.g., normal or anomalous) then applies the model to formulate a decision rule for detecting anomalies. On the other hand, a discriminative approach aims directly to find the decision rule, with the smallest error rate, that distinguishes between normal and anomalous behavior. For each approach, we will give an overview of popular techniques and provide references to state-of-the-art applications.

  19. Analysis of primary tooth caries and caries activity in early childhood%低龄儿童乳牙龋病流行病学及龋活跃性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李姮; 王文梅; 俞少玲; 文秦; 周宇翔; 姚江江

    2011-01-01

    目的:调查3~6 岁儿童乳牙龋病的流行情况,研究龋活跃性与患龋严重程度的关系.方法:纳入南京市6 所幼儿园1 375 名3~6 岁儿童进行口腔检查和龋活跃性试验.结果:3~6 岁儿童平均患龋率和龋均分别为50.48%和2.13,龋齿充填率6.93%,其中5 岁年龄组患龋率和龋均分别为61.42%和2.92.龋活跃性各分值之间的患龋率及龋均差异显著(P<0.01).龋活跃性与患龋率及龋均呈高度正相关(P<0.01).结论:3~6 岁年龄段儿童的患龋情况严重,且治疗率十分低,应加强口腔健康教育,开展多种防龋措施.龋活跃性检测结果能够真实反映患龋现状,有助于筛选龋易感者.%Objective: To investigate the prevalence of primary tooth caries and caries activity in 3 -6 year old children.Methods: Dental caries examination and caries activity test were conducted in 1 375 children aged 3 -6 year old from six kindergartens in Nanjing.Results: The caries prevalence and the mean dmft were 50.48% and 2.13 respectively.The fired rate of deciduous teeth was 6.93%.There were significant difference in caries prevalence and mean dmft among caries activity test scores( P <0.01 ).The caries activity was significantly correlated with caries prevalence and mean dmft( P <0.01 ).Conclusion: The prevalence of primary tooth caries and the mean dmft in children aged of 3 -6 year old are high, and the filled rate of deciduous teeth is low according to the standard of WHO.Caries activity test is valuable in detection of caries susceptible population.

  20. INDICATION OF CARIES FREE PREVALENCE AMONG 12 YEARS OLD STUDENTS IN IZEH CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M MOUSAVINASAB

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Caries is a factor of teeth missing and its prevalence and also its expenditure are very light in Iran. Treatment ways need a lot of time, but they have little success, so it is important to prevent caries. Now if we want to have a successful model, having person's statistics is important and useful for our Research purposes. This research was done to detect caries free prevalence in students twelve year of age in Izeh city and it contained 2groups of girls and boys. It was done to indicate the connection between caries free prevalence and individual oral hygiene with brushing times, numbers during 24 hours. Methods: This research is a kind of epidemiological and descriptive study. It was done in Izeh city in 78-79 educational years. Its only document, was selection the 12 years old students. Informations collected by clinical inspections and interrogatory J method Sample volume was 400 students according to this formula N=Z2(1-p/ d2. We use Chi-square statistics test and also its soft disk (SPSS or statitistics program was about social science. Conclusion: Caries free prevalence within the whole sample was 16.5%and it was 17.5% within the girls and 15-5% within boys. According to brushing times numbers, 25% brushed once a day, 47% brushed twice and 5.5% brushed three time a day and 22.5% never brushed their teeth. Discussin and conclusion: According to the obtained dates, caries prevalence related to sex difference was meaningless and they had no connection with each other there was a meaningful connection between brushing times, numbers and oral hygiene situation which caries free developed by increasing anyone of them.

  1. Caries og drikkevandets kvalitet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvin, Erik; Bardow, Allan; Bruvo, Maja;

    2011-01-01

    Drikkevandskvaliteten har stor betydning for forekomsten af caries blandt 15 årige skolebørn, også selv om de bruger fluoridholdigt tandpasta. Ud over den kendte effekt af fluorid har vi vist, at calcium også har en væsentlig betydning. Begge ioner forebygger caries. Denne viden har væsentlig...

  2. Early Childhood Caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumiko Kawashita

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is one of the most common childhood diseases, and people continue to be susceptible to it throughout their lives. Although dental caries can be arrested and potentially even reversed in its early stages, it is often not self-limiting and progresses without proper care until the tooth is destroyed. Early childhood caries (ECC is often complicated by inappropriate feeding practices and heavy infection with mutans streptococci. Such children should be targeted with a professional preventive program that includes oral hygiene instructions for mothers or caregivers, along with fluoride and diet counseling. However, these strategies alone are not sufficient to prevent dental caries in high-risk children; prevention of ECC also requires addressing the socioeconomic factors that face many families in which ECC is endemic. The aim of this paper is to systematically review information about ECC and to describe why many children are suffering from dental caries.

  3. Effects of Autolog Saliva on Biofilm Formation of Streptococcus mutans Isolated from Caries and Caries-free Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicia Paramita

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Saliva and Streptococcus mutans play role in biofilm formation. Saliva and S.mutans virulence are different between subjects with and without caries. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of autolog saliva on biofilm formation of S. mutans isolated from caries and caries-free subjects. Materials and Methods: Saliva and plaque samples are obtained from caries and caries-free subjects. Plaque samples were cultured on TYS20B for 3 days. Selected colonies were picked and cultured on TSB for 3 days. After colony counting, biofilm assay was conducted and inoculated for one day. The biofilm was tested using crystal violet binding assay and quantified by measuring the optical density at 655 nm wavelength. Result: The optical density of S. muttans biofilm isolated from subjects with caries were different from taste with no caries. Biofilm formation of S. muttans isolated from caries and caries-free subjects with and without the presence of autolog saliva were different. Conclusion: Autolog saliva influences S. mutans biofilm formation and there is a tendency that is higher than those from subjects with no caries.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v17i2.48

  4. Modern approaches to caries management of the primary dentition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innes, N P T; Evans, D J P

    2013-06-01

    When prevention of dental caries fails, and a child is exposed to the risk of pain and infection, the disease must be managed to reduce this risk. There is growing evidence supporting more 'biological' and fewer 'surgical' approaches to managing dental caries in primary teeth. These biological methods include partial and stepwise caries removal procedures, as well as techniques where no caries is removed. An overview of clinical trials comparing these biological methods to complete caries removal shows that they perform as well as traditional methods and have the advantage of reducing the incidence of iatrogenic pulpal exposures. The Hall Technique is one biological approach to managing caries in primary molars which involves sealing caries beneath preformed metal (stainless steel) crowns. The crown is cemented over the tooth without caries removal, tooth preparation or use of local anaesthesia. The clinical steps for the Hall Technique are straightforward but, as with all dental care provision, appropriate treatment planning for the procedure requires skill. The Hall Technique offers another method of managing early to moderately advanced, active carious lesions in primary molars, with good evidence of effectiveness and acceptability. This evidence aligns with the positive findings of other studies on biological strategies for managing caries in primary teeth.

  5. Comparison of QLF and DIAGNOdent for quantification of smooth surface caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, X Q; Tranaeus, S; Angmar-Månsson, B

    2001-01-01

    The aim was to compare the detection and quantification of smooth surface caries by KaVo DIAGNOdent and quantitative laser/light-induced fluorescence (QLF) using a laser and a lamp as two different light sources. On 40 premolar teeth extracted from adolescents, 71 non-cavitated approximal surfaces were assessed. For QLF, both mean and maximum fluorescence losses were registered. To provide a gold standard for verification, the teeth were then sectioned and lesion depth, stratified on a five-point scale, was determined by histopathology and microradiography. The correlation between the gold standard and the two methods was assessed by Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. The sensitivity and specificity of the methods for detection of smooth surface caries at D(3) level were also assessed. For lesion depth, correlation with the gold standard was similar for QLF and DIAGNOdent: about 0.85. With respect to dentinal caries detection, sensitivity for DIAGNOdent was 0.75 and specificity 0.96, with a cut-off point of 9. The corresponding values for QLF were 0.94 and 1, with a cut-off value of 20% of fluorescence loss. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients for enamel mineral loss and QLF and DIAGNOdent, respectively, were 0.76 and 0.67. It was concluded that for quantification of smooth surface caries, the methods are of equal merit, but for scientific purposes, QLF offers the advantage of closer correlation with changes in mineral content.

  6. Occlusal Caries: Biological Approach for Its Diagnosis and Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christina Carvalho, Joana; Dige, Irene; Machiulskiene, Vita

    2016-01-01

    process on occlusal surfaces. In addition, it considers the whole spectrum of the caries process on occlusal surfaces, ranging from the molecular ecology of occlusal biofilms to the management of deep occlusal caries lesions. Studies using molecular methods with focus on biofilms in relation to occlusal...... caries should explore the relationship between the function and the structural composition of these biofilms to understand the role of occlusal biofilms in caries development. State-of-the-art measures to evaluate risk for occlusal caries lesion activity, caries incidence, and progression should include...... the assessment of the occlusal biofilm and the stage of tooth eruption. Careful clinical examination of non-cavitated lesions, including assessment of the lesion activity status, remains the major tool to determine the immediate treatment need and to follow on the non-operative treatment outcome. Even medium...

  7. Early diagnosis of incipient caries based on non-invasive lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velescu, A.; Todea, C.; Vitez, B.

    2016-03-01

    AIM: The aim of this study is to detect incipient caries and enamel demineralization using laser fluorescence.This serves only as an auxilary aid to identify and to monitor the development of these lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 6 patients were involved in this study, three females and three male. Each patient underwent a professional cleaning, visual examination of the oral cavity, and then direct inspection using DiagnoCam and DIAGNOdent. After data recording each patient was submitted to retro-alveolar X-ray on teeth that were detected with enamel lesions. All data was collected and analyzed statistically. RESULTS: Of 36 areas considered in clinically healthy, 24 carious surfaces were found using laser fluorescence, a totally non-invasive method for detecting incipient carious lesions compared with the radiographic examination. CONCLUSIONS: This method has good applicability for patients because it improves treatment plan by early detection of caries and involves less fear for anxious patients and children.

  8. An in vitro comparison of diagnostic abilities of conventional radiography, storage phosphor, and cone beam computed tomography to determine occlusal and approximal caries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kayipmaz, Saadettin, E-mail: kayipmaz@ktu.edu.tr [Karadeniz Technical University, Faculty of Dentistry, Department of Oral Diagnosis and Radiology, Farabi, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Sezgin, Omer Said, E-mail: omersaidsezgin@gmail.com [Karadeniz Technical University, Faculty of Dentistry, Department of Oral Diagnosis and Radiology, Farabi, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Saricaoglu, Senem Tugra, E-mail: senem_tugra@hotmail.com [Karadeniz Technical University, Faculty of Dentistry, Department of Oral Diagnosis and Radiology, Farabi, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Can, Gamze, E-mail: gcanktu@yahoo.com [Karadeniz Technical University Faculty of Medicine Department of Public Health (Turkey)

    2011-11-15

    Aim: The aim of this study was to compare conventional radiography, storage phosphor plate, and cone beam computed tomography for in vitro determination of occlusal and approximal caries. Methods: A total of 72 extracted human premolar and molar teeth were selected. Teeth were radiographed with conventional intraoral radiography, a storage phosphor plate system, and cone beam computed tomography and evaluated by two observers. The teeth were then separated and examined with a stereomicroscope and a scanner at approximately 8x magnification. Results: CBCT was statistically superior to conventional radiography and phosphor plate for determining occlusal caries. No significant difference from CBCT, conventional radiography and the phosphor plate system for determining approximal caries was found. Conclusion: The CBCT system may be used as an auxiliary method for the detection of caries.

  9. Increment of Dental Caries in Infants from the City of Feira de Santana, BA, Brazil: 3-Year-Follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Isabel Fonseca SCAVUZZI

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To investigate the increment of dental caries and potential clinical risk factors for this increase within a 3-year-period (1998-2001.Method: A prospective longitudinal study on dental caries was performed between 1998 a 2001 in a sample of 136 children aged 12 years and 30 months, in the city of Feira de Santana, BA. The city has fluoridated water supply and the children were evaluated at three different moments: baseline, after 1 year and after 3 years. At the three moments, intraoral examination was performed for detection of dental caries (dmf-t index, dental plaque and white spot lesions on the buccal surfaces of maxillary incisors and presence of molars. Data were analyzed by distribution of absolute and relative frequencies, means, median and standard deviation, and use of chi-square, Wilcoxon test of signalized posts, Mc-Nemar and Fisher’s tests. Significance level was set at 5%. Results: The prevalence of dental caries in the baseline examination was 5.9%, 18.4% after 1 year and 40.4% after 3 years, denoting an increment of 39.7%. It was confirmed the significant association between the variables white spot lesions, visible plaque and previous caries experience with the increment of dental caries after 3 years. There was no association with the presence of primary molars. Conclusions: The prevalence of dental caries after 3 years was approximately 7 times higher than that of the baseline examination and twice as higher as that of the baseline examination. The clinical risk factors identified in this study are important indicators of the increment of dental caries in very young children.

  10. Dental caries among children visiting a mobile dental clinic in South Central Kentucky: a pooled cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Background Dental caries is one of the most common chronic childhood diseases affecting a large portion of children in the United States. The prevalence of childhood dental caries in Kentucky is among the highest in the nation. The purposes of this study are to (1) compare sociodemographic differences between caries and no caries groups and (2) investigate factors associated with untreated dental caries among children who visited a mobile dental clinic in South Central Kentucky. Methods Study...

  11. Xilitol and dental caries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, Marten Titus

    1987-01-01

    Dental caries is a widespread multifactoral disease. The main sympthons are minaral loss from tooth enemal and dentine, eventually leading to total destruction of the teeth, pain, impairment of mastication and problems with facial esthetics. ... Zie: Summary

  12. The Effect of Topical Iodine and Fluoride Varnish Combination in Preventing Early Childhood Caries: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Hashemi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Early Childhood Caries (ECC in the earliest stage is preventable. The studies indicate oral bacteria play an important role in pathogenesis of dental caries. According to high prevalence of ECC, alternative therapies should be explored in order to reduce the occurrence of it. Aim: This study aims to assess the effectiveness of a product containing Povidone Iodine 10% and Sodium Fluoride 0.2% as a supplementary intervention for preventing ECC.Materials and Methods: Thirty-seven children aged 4 to 6 year-old were recruited. Maxillary incisors on each side of the mouth were selected either as a test or control group. Early caries detection examinations were conducted using International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS clinically and photographically. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study, a product containing a mixture of  Povidone Iodine 10%  and Sodium Fluoride 0.2%  was applied to the designated incisors of the test group participants. This application was performed every week for a 3-month. The control group participants received a placebo mixture during the same time interval. The caries detection examinations were conducted again after 6 months and the results were compared. The data was analyzed with SPSS V.18, using McNemar test.Results: The incidence of carious lesions increased for the control group while it decreased in the test group (P

  13. Outlier Detection Method Use for the Network Flow Anomaly Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rimas Ciplinskas

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available New and existing methods of cyber-attack detection are constantly being developed and improved because there is a great number of attacks and the demand to protect from them. In prac-tice, current methods of attack detection operates like antivirus programs, i. e. known attacks signatures are created and attacks are detected by using them. These methods have a drawback – they cannot detect new attacks. As a solution, anomaly detection methods are used. They allow to detect deviations from normal network behaviour that may show a new type of attack. This article introduces a new method that allows to detect network flow anomalies by using local outlier factor algorithm. Accom-plished research allowed to identify groups of features which showed the best results of anomaly flow detection according the highest values of precision, recall and F-measure.

  14. Imaging simulated secondary caries lesions with cross polarization OCT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Jonathan; Kang, Hobin; Fried, Daniel

    2010-02-01

    The clinical diagnosis of secondary caries has been found to account for the replacement of the majority of intra-coronal restorations. Current methods to diagnose the presence of these lesions at early stages are considered insufficient due to their low sensitivity. Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) imaging studies have confirmed its effectiveness for imaging carious subsurface lesions in enamel and dentin. The objective of this study was to determine if PS-OCT can be used to nondestructively image demineralization through resin restorations on extracted teeth with both simulated and natural lesions. Simulated secondary caries lesions were created by exposing cavity preparations made in extracted human teeth to a demineralizing solution for 48 hours and subsequently restoring with resin. Negative control restorations were also prepared on each tooth. Optical changes in demineralized versus control preparations beneath restorations were measured as a function of depth using PS-OCT. PS-OCT images indicated that a significant increase in reflectivity and depth occurred in the simulated lesions compared with the control preparations. This study suggests that PS-OCT is well-suited to nondestructively detect early caries lesions in enamel beneath composite restorations.

  15. Caries-related factors and bacterial composition of supragingival plaques in caries free and caries active Algerian adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amina Hoceini; Nihel Klouche Khelil; Ilhem Ben-Yelles; Amine Mesli; Sara Ziouani; Lotfi Ghellai; Nadia Aissaoui; Fatima Nas; Mounia Arab

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To compare oral hygiene practices, education and social background, food intake and oral malodor of Algerian adults suffering from dental caries with normal controls, and to determine and compare the bacterial composition of the supragingival plaques from the above-mentioned groups.Methods: Participants completed a questionnaire and were clinically examined for dental caries using decayed, missing and filled teeth index according to the criteria laid down by the World Health Organization. Supragingival plaque samples were collected from 50 caries-free adults(CF) and 50 caries-active adults(CA). Standard procedures of culture and identification of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria were used. Data were analyzed using Chi-square test.Results: A total of 117 bacterial strains were isolated from supragingival plaques in CF group subjects, 76(64.96%) of them belonged to 9 aerobic genera, and 41(35.04%) to 9anaerobic genera(P < 0.05). While in the second group, 199 strains were isolated, 119(59.80%) of the strains belonged to 10 aerobic genera and 80(40.20%) to 10 anaerobic bacteria(P < 0.05). Streptococcus mutans, Enterococcus faecium, Aerococcus viridans,Actinomyces meyeri, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Eubacterium limosum showed a significantly higher prevalence in the CA group(P < 0.05). The findings revealed that CA group had a high sugar intake(80%). A significantly higher frequency of tooth brushing(P < 0.000) and a significantly less self-reported oral malodor(P < 0.000) and tooth pain(P < 0.000) were found in CF group, while there was no association of socioeconomic levels and intake of meal snacks with dental caries.Conclusions: This study confirms the association of some aciduric bacteria with caries formation, and a direct association of sugar intake and cultural level with dental caries.Furthermore, oral hygiene practices minimize the prevalence of tooth decay.

  16. Caries remineralisation and arresting effect in children by professionally applied fluoride treatment – a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Sherry Shiqian; Zhang, Shinan; Mei, May Lei; Lo, Edward Chin-Man; Chu, Chun-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Background As a low-cost and easily operated treatment, the use of professionally applied topical fluoride was approved for preventing dental caries and remineralising early enamel caries or white spot lesions. It is also used to arrest dentine caries. The aim of this study is to investigate the clinical efficacy of professional fluoride therapy in remineralising and arresting caries in children. Method A systematic search of publications from 1948 to 2014 was conducted using four databases: ...

  17. Detection of early interproximal caries in vitro using laser fluorescence, dye-enhanced laser fluorescence and direct visual examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggertsson, H; Analoui, M; van der Veen, M; González-Cabezas, C; Eckert, G; Stookey, G

    1999-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the use of laser fluorescence (LF) for the detection of early interproximal carious lesions and whether the detection could be enhanced using a fluorescent dye (DELF). Direct visual examination (DV) was used for comparison. Eighty extracted teeth were used, arranged in 20 blocks, each block having 2 premolars and 2 molars, lined up in a simulated sextant situation. After cleaning with a microabrasion kit, a subcontact window on half of the surfaces (60) was exposed to Carbopol white-spot solution for 5 days. The teeth were remounted in stone and examined by three independent examiners. For LF and DELF an argon laser was used (mixed wavelength of 488 and 514 nm) viewed through glasses (excluding wavelength DELF a sodium fluorescein dye (0. 075%) was applied before examination. A clinical examination light was used for DV. The approximal surfaces were scored for lesion presence or absence. To verify lesion presence, the subcontact area was cut perpendicularly to the surface, stained with rhodamine B, and images were taken using a confocal microscope. The images were analyzed using a histogram program for lesion depth and image area. Lesions were present in 62 out of 120 approximal surfaces, with an average depth of 60 microm (range 17-190 microm). Sensitivity ranges for LF, DELF and DV were 56-74, 61-79 and 58-74%, and specificity ranges 67-78, 86-98 and 83-97%, respectively. With this model DELF compared favorably with DV and LF in sensitivity, but specificity was better for DELF and DV than for LF.

  18. Genotypic diversity and virulence factors of Streptococcus mutans in caries-free and caries-active individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miula Portelinha Braga

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the genotypic diversity, frequency of serotypes and the detection of mutacins from Streptococcus mutans isolates in caries-free and caries-active individuals.A total of 260 S. mutans isolated from 28 individuals with and without dental caries were subjected to AP-PCR and PCR screening of glucosyltransferase B, mutacin and serotype genes, which showed the presence of. 70 different genotypes. There was no statistically significant association between the presence of genes for serotypes and mutacins with dental caries. However, there was a statistically significant and a strong association between the higher genotypic diversity in the subjects with caries (r = 0.72, p = 0.001. There was an increase in the number of genotypes with increasing age (p <0.01.

  19. Fluorescence methods (VistaCam iX proof and DIAGNODent pen) for the detection of occlusal carious lesions in teeth recovered from archaeological context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomczyk, Jacek; Komarnitki, Julian; Zalewska, Marta; Lekszycki, Tomasz; Olczak-Kowalczyk, Dorota

    2014-08-01

    Diagnosis of occlusal enamel caries in archaeologically derived collections remains a controversial problem because the accumulation of contaminants in fissures can interfere with diagnosis. Certain novel light-induced fluorescence methods, such as the DIAGNODent pen 2190 (DD) and VistaCam iX Proof (VC), have been used to detect dental caries in clinical settings. In this study, the abilities of DD and VC to detect initial enamel caries in archaeologically derived material is determined and compared with those of other methods (visual inspection, X-ray, histology, and micro-CT). Dental material encompassing the remains of 58 individuals, including a total of 380 teeth from each of three historical periods: modern Islamic (AD 1850-1950), Islamic (AD 600-1200) and late Roman (AD 200-400), obtained from two archaeological sites (Terqa and Tell Masaikh) located in the Middle Euphrates valley (Syria), were analyzed. VC was found to have excellent sensitivity (98), while DD obtained lower sensitivity (76) in detecting dental caries in its early stages. The results obtained by VC and micro-CT, considered the most reliable imaging technique, were not statistically significant (P = 0.3068). By contrast, results obtained by DD and micro-CT results, and DD and VC results were statistically significant (P < 0.0001, P = 0.0015, respectively). However the presence of dirt, stain, calculus, and plaque in the pits and fissures of the occlusal surface compromise correct diagnosis of caries by VC and DD. Consequently, for teeth recovered from archaeological contexts where staining, calculus and plaque are present, the best solution remains micro-CT.

  20. Optical coherence tomography and its application in the detection of occlusal caries%光学相干断层成像技术及其在窝沟龋检测中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    代晓华; 姚晖

    2016-01-01

    窝沟龋的早期发现和及时诊疗仍是口腔临床亟待解决的问题。光学相干断层成像技术(OCT)是一种新型非侵入性、高分辨率的光学诊断技术,可提供早期龋损的形态学和深度信息,且受釉质钙化不全及着色等因素影响较小。由于窝沟脱矿区域孔隙度增加,所以OCT利用低相干干涉原理在微孔中形成增强的微界面引起反射和多重散射,检测窝沟不同深度层面对入射低相干光的反射或背向散射信号,生成窝沟早期釉质龋及牙本质龋的二维或三维图像,通过计算集成反射率等进行龋损程度的量化分析,在窝沟龋诊断、抗龋治疗效果评估和辅助选择性清除脱矿牙体组织等方面具有良好的应用前景。本文着重就常规OCT、偏振敏感OCT、扫频OCT和交叉偏振OCT以及窝沟龋OCT成像与量化分析、OCT的窝沟龋诊断效能和OCT对窝沟龋疗效监测等研究进展作一综述。%The early detection and diagnosis of caries in pits and fissures remain major problems in clinical dentistry. Optical coherence tomography(OCT) is an emerging, non-invasive, high-resolution, optical diagnostic technique. This approach can provide information on morphology and depth of early caries without the interference of enamel hypocalcification and stain. As the porosity of demineralized dental tissue increases, micro-interfaces within the micropores augment reflection and multiple scattering. Based on low-coherence interferometry, OCT can detect the reflected or backscattered signals to the incident beam at various vertical extents. OCT can also generate 2D/3D images of early enamel caries and dentine caries on the occlusal surface, and quantify lesion severity by calculating the integrated reflectivity. OCT is a promising prospect for the diagnosis of occlusal caries, anti-caries efficacy estimation, and assistance in the selective removal of demineralized tooth tissue by laser. This review

  1. Dental biothermophotonics: How photothermal methods are winning the race with X-rays for dental caries diagnostic needs of clinical dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandelis, A.; Jeon, R.; Matvienko, A.; Abrams, S. H.; Amaechi, B. T.

    2008-01-01

    Recent trends in biothermophotonics of teeth are presented. The presentation is centered on the development of clinical-level frequency-domain photothermal radiometry and modulated luminescence to address issues associated with the early diagnosis of demineralization caries in human teeth. Biothermophotonic principles and applications to the detection of the carious state in human teeth as embodied by laser photothermal radiometry are presented and further supported by modulated luminescence. The emphasis is on recent developments with regard to abilities of these techniques to diagnose interproximal lesions between teeth, etching with phosphoric acid and with an artificial demineralization gel in order to simulate early demineralization, as well as demineralization and remineralization of dental crown enamel and root dentin. These are lesions which normally go undetected by X-ray radiographs. Comparisons with X rays, Micro-Computed Tomography (μ-CT) and Transverse Micro-Radiography (TMR) are discussed. A theoretical model involving coupled diffuse photon density and thermal-wave fields is developed and applied to frequency scans from demineralized artificial lesions to produce quantitative values for optical and thermophysical parameters of teeth as well as the thickness of the induced lesion.

  2. Risk factors for caries - control and prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melida Hasanagić

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To investigate a prevalence of caries, filled permanentand extracted permanent teeth, as well as caries risk factors inschool children aged 7, 9 and 11.Methods. The survey included 800 children (296 children aged7; 254 children aged 9 and 250 children aged 11 from the MostarMunicipality, 400 of them living in both rural and urban areas.A dental mirror and standard light of dental chair were used forexamination. The DMF index (Dental Caries, Missing Teeth andFilled Teeth was determined, as well as failure in keeping teethhygiene, sugar intake with food, and incidence of oral cavity infection.Results. The dental state of permanent teeth in children aged 7and 9 has shown significant difference between the children fromrural and urban areas (p < 0,001. Out of 2,698 and 2,790 permanentteeth in children aged 11 from rural and urban areas, 1,086(40,25 % and 884 (31.68 % had caries, respectively (p < 0.01.The difference between these groups of children has been foundin relation to the index of oral hygiene too (p < 0.05.Conclusion. An identification of risk groups for getting caries wasvery important and could help health and social structures to maintaintheir programs in order to improve oral health.

  3. The Hormonal Fingerprints and BMI: Implications for Risk Factors in Dental Caries and Malocclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyanka, Goguladinne Naga Deepthi; Radhakrishna, Ambati Naga; Ramakrishna, Juvva; Jyothi, Velagapudi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The hormonal fingerprint is the ratio between 2nd and 4th digit lengths. It was evidenced in the medical scenario that it can be used as an indirect marker in many diseases like Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) and metabolic syndromes. As far as dentistry is concerned very few studies in the literature have been done to evaluate the influence of hormonal fingerprint on oral health, thus provoking us to formulate new method for predicting dental caries and malocclusion and its association with Body Mass Index (BMI). Aim The purpose of this retrospective study was to highlight the role of new biological marker–Hormonal fingerprints in the early detection of malocclusion, caries, the influence of BMI on malocclusion and caries. We also attempted to study the correlation of BMI with hormonal fingerprints. Materials and Methods A total of 300 children were randomly selected from both sexes of age group 10-15 years. The hormonal fingerprint was made by measuring the length ratio of the index and ring finger with the help of digital Vernier caliper. Anthropometric measures (weight in kilograms and height in metres) for the calculation of BMI were recorded. Caries assessment was done using standard mouth mirrors and Community Periodontal Index probes. DMFT index was followed for assessment of caries according to the WHO assessment form, 1997. Occlusal characteristics of the children evaluated were molar relation, anterior and posterior cross bite, open bite, deep bite, lower anterior crowding. All the factors were recorded by two investigators. Results The results of the study showed that majority of the children among study population were having 2D:4D <1. The rate of occurrence of malocclusion was increasing with increase in the value of 2D:4D ratio with a statistically significant p-value of <0.001. Higher BMI values were associated with normal occlusal conditions (p= 0.041) and lower 2D:4D ratio (p= 0.037). High caries experience was noticed in children with

  4. Co-Relationships between Glandular Salivary Flow Rates and Dental Caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Guillory, Carolina Diaz; Schoolfield, John D; Johnson, Dorthea; Yeh, Chih-Ko; Chen, Shuo; Cappelli, David P; Bober-Moken, Irene G; Dang, Howard

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study was designed to evaluate the relationship of age, gender, ethnicity and salivary flow rates on dental caries in an adult population using data collected from the Oral Health San Antonio Longitudinal Study of Aging (OH:SALSA). Background Saliva is essential to maintain a healthy oral environment and diminished output can result in dental caries. Although gender and age play a role in the quantity of saliva, little is known about the interaction of age, gender and ethnicity on dental caries and salivary flow rates. Materials and Methods Data from the 1,147 participants in the OH: SALSA was analyzed. The dependent variables were the number of teeth with untreated coronal caries, number of teeth with root caries, and the number of coronal and root surfaces with untreated caries. The independent variables were stimulated and unstimulated glandular salivary flow rates along with the age, sex, and ethnicity (e.g. European or Mexican ancestry) of the participants. Results Coronal caries experience was greater in younger participants while root surface caries experience was greater in the older participants. Coronal caries was lower in the older age groups while the root caries experience increased. Men had a statistically significant (p<0.02) higher experience of root caries than women. Values for unstimulated and stimulated parotid salivary flow rates showed no age difference and remained constant with age, whereas the age differences in the unstimulated and stimulated submandibular/sublingual salivary flow rates were significant. The mean number of teeth with coronal and root caries was higher in Mexican-Americans than in European-Americans. Conclusions Over one-fourth of the adults between the ages of 60 and 79 have untreated root caries over one-third having untreated coronal caries. Lower salivary flow rates play a significant role in the both the number of teeth and the number of surfaces developing caries in these adults. Women and individuals

  5. Genetics and caries: prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Rezende Vieira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Caries remains the most prevalent non-contagious infectious disease in humans. It is clear that the current approaches to decrease the prevalence of caries in human populations, including water fluoridation and school-based programs, are not enough to protect everyone. The scientific community has suggested the need for innovative work in a number of areas in cariology, encompassing disease etiology, epidemiology, definition, prevention, and treatment. We have pioneered the work on genetic studies to identify genes and genetic markers of diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic value. This paper summarizes a presentation that elaborated on these initial findings.

  6. A New Phase Noise Detection Method

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Gangfeng

    2015-01-01

    Phase noise is one of the most important parameters in many oscillators. Detecting accurately phase noise for oscillators has importance significance. In this paper, based on correlation operation detection phase noise for oscillators was proposed. This method not only can save a high precision reference oscillator, but also can detect accurately the phase noise of measured oscillator in theory. Detected phase noise of oscillators using this method has very strong utility value.

  7. Caries-preventive Effect of Supervised Toothbrushing and Sealants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilgert, L A; Leal, S C; Mulder, J; Creugers, N H J; Frencken, J E

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of 3 caries-preventive measures on high- and low-caries risk occlusal surfaces of first permanent molars over 3 y. This cluster-randomized controlled clinical trial covered 242 schoolchildren, 6 to 7 y old, from low socioeconomic areas. At baseline, caries risk was assessed at the tooth surface level, through a combination of ICDAS II (International Caries Detection and Assessment System) and fissure depth codes. High-caries risk occlusal surfaces were treated according to daily supervised toothbrushing (STB) at school and 2 sealants: composite resin (CR) and atraumatic restorative treatment-high-viscosity glass-ionomer cement (ART-GIC). Low-caries risk occlusal surfaces received STB or no intervention. Evaluations were performed after 0.5, 1, 2, and 3 y. A cavitated dentine carious lesion was considered a failure. Data were analyzed according to the proportional hazard rate regression model with frailty correction, Wald test, analysis of variance, and t test, according to the jackknife procedure for calculating standard errors. The cumulative survival rates of cavitated dentine carious lesion-free, high-caries risk occlusal surfaces were 95.6%, 91.4%, and 90.2% for STB, CR, and ART-GIC, respectively, over 3 y, which were not statistically significantly different. For low-caries risk occlusal surfaces, no statistically significant difference was observed between the cumulative survival rate of the STB group (94.8%) and the no-intervention group (92.1%) over 3 y. There was neither a difference among STB, CR, and ART-GIC on school premises in preventing cavitated dentine carious lesions in high-caries risk occlusal surfaces of first permanent molars nor a difference between STB and no intervention for low-caries risk occlusal surfaces of first permanent molars over 3 y.

  8. Prevention of dental caries: A review of effective treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicca, Claudio; Bobbio, Elena; Quartuccio, Natale; Nicolò, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Background The objective of this study is to review medical and non medical treatments for prevention of caries. Material and Methods A comprehensive literature search of the most relevant and updated published studies from 01/01/2002 through December 2015 in PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase and Scopus databases regarding the efficacy of strategies and treatments aiming to prevent the development of caries was performed selecting papers on the basis of the Evidence-based Medicine Criteria. Results We identified thirty systematic reviews on prevention of caries. Analyzing the data the retrieved literature, performance of prevention treatments seems to be high. Conclusions Prevention treatments may have a relevant impact on the avoiding the development of caries planning. Key words:Dental caries, prevention, fluoride. PMID:27957278

  9. Rapid methods for detection of bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corfitzen, Charlotte B.; Andersen, B.Ø.; Miller, M.

    2006-01-01

    Traditional methods for detection of bacteria in drinking water e.g. Heterotrophic Plate Counts (HPC) or Most Probable Number (MNP) take 48-72 hours to give the result. New rapid methods for detection of bacteria are needed to protect the consumers against contaminations. Two rapid methods...

  10. Novelty Detection Methods and Novel Fault Class Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jiafan; HUANG Zhichu; WANG Xiaoming

    2006-01-01

    The ability to detect a new fault class can be a useful feature for an intelligent fault classification and diagnosis system. We adopt two novelty detection methods, the support vector data description (SVDD) and the Parzen density estimation, to represent known fault class samples, and to detect new fault class samples. The experiments on real multi-class bearing fault data show that the SVDD can give both high novelty detection rate and target recognition rate, respectively for the prescribed 'unknown' fault samples and the known fault samples by choosing the appropriate SVDD algorithm parameters; but the Parzen density estimation only give a better novelty detection rate in our experiments.

  11. Caries-risk profiles in Italian adults using computer caries assessment system and ICDAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna CARTA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the correlation among socio-behavioral factors, caries status and caries risk, calculated through Cariogram, in an adult population. Four hundred eighty subjects (mean age 40.73, SE ± 0.33 randomly selected from the municipal electoral registry consented to participate in the survey. Subjects were examined, and the International Caries Detection Assessment System (ICDAS index was registered. A highly structured questionnaire was submitted to investigate (1 personal data (i.e., age, gender, educational level, job categorization, (2 life-style behavior (i.e., smoking and dietary habits, and (3 oral health behavior (i.e., tooth brushing, use of fluoride and dental check-up frequency. An evaluation of the mutans streptococci concentration in saliva was also performed. Information on caries-related factors was entered into the Cariogram in order to generate an individual caries risk profile for each subject. Multinomial logistic regression was performed using Cariogram levels as the dependent variable. The possible correlated variables were analyzed using the principal component analysis (PCA. Considering ICDAS scores, 5.62% of the sample had at least an initial decay (ICDAS = 1-2, whereas 40.83% of the sample presented at least one moderate decay (ICDAS = 3-4 and 17.08% a severe decay (ICDAS = 5-6. Decay at ICDAS levels 5-6 and more than 5 missing teeth were statistically associated with Cariogram scores (OR = 2.36, 95%CI = 1.83–3.03 and OR = 1.43, 95%CI = 1.13–1.82, respectively. The results suggest that the Cariogram model was able to identify caries-related factors in an adult population. A direct association among the risk categories from Cariogram, the caries status and some socio-behavioral variables was verified.

  12. Caries-risk profiles in Italian adults using computer caries assessment system and ICDAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carta, Giovanna; Cagetti, Maria Grazia; Cocco, Fabio; Sale, Silvana; Lingström, Peter; Campus, Guglielmo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the correlation among socio-behavioral factors, caries status and caries risk, calculated through Cariogram, in an adult population. Four hundred eighty subjects (mean age 40.73, SE ± 0.33) randomly selected from the municipal electoral registry consented to participate in the survey. Subjects were examined, and the International Caries Detection Assessment System (ICDAS) index was registered. A highly structured questionnaire was submitted to investigate (1) personal data (i.e., age, gender, educational level, job categorization), (2) life-style behavior (i.e., smoking and dietary habits), and (3) oral health behavior (i.e., tooth brushing, use of fluoride and dental check-up frequency). An evaluation of the mutans streptococci concentration in saliva was also performed. Information on caries-related factors was entered into the Cariogram in order to generate an individual caries risk profile for each subject. Multinomial logistic regression was performed using Cariogram levels as the dependent variable. The possible correlated variables were analyzed using the principal component analysis (PCA). Considering ICDAS scores, 5.62% of the sample had at least an initial decay (ICDAS = 1-2), whereas 40.83% of the sample presented at least one moderate decay (ICDAS = 3-4) and 17.08% a severe decay (ICDAS = 5-6). Decay at ICDAS levels 5-6 and more than 5 missing teeth were statistically associated with Cariogram scores (OR = 2.36, 95%CI = 1.83-3.03 and OR = 1.43, 95%CI = 1.13-1.82, respectively). The results suggest that the Cariogram model was able to identify caries-related factors in an adult population. A direct association among the risk categories from Cariogram, the caries status and some socio-behavioral variables was verified.

  13. Caries risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejàre, I; Axelsson, S; Dahlén, G

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the ability of multivariate models and single factors to correctly identify future caries development in pre-school children and schoolchildren/adolescents. STUDY DESIGN: A systematic literature search for relevant papers was conducted with pre-determined inclusion criteria. ...

  14. A comparative in vitro efficacy of conventional rotatory and chemomechanical caries removal: Influence on cariogenic flora, microhardness, and residual composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene Garcia-Contreras

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chemomechanical caries removal system is part of the minimal invasive dentistry; the aim of the study was to compare the amount of bacteria after caries removal with chemomechanical system and conventional rotatory instruments and to test the Vickers microhardness and micro-RAMAN analysis of residual dentin after excavation. Materials and Methods: Molars were induced for demineralization, confirmed with DIAGNOdent; Streptococcus mutans were inoculated into the cavities and filled. Caries removal was performed with rotatory instruments and chemomechanical system; surviving bacteria were cultured for 24 and 48 hours at 37΀C. Vickers microhardness and micro-RAMAN analysis were tested after excavation. Data were analyzed with Wilcoxon, continuity correction, odds ratio, ANOVA post hoc Tukey test, and Spearman correlation. Results: Demineralization was significantly detectable at 240 hours of incubation; conventional rotatory instruments and chemomechanical caries removal were effective in 19.4%-22.6% and 25.8%-32.3%, respectively. Vickers microhardness of chemomechanical system was higher (P < 0.0001 than conventional rotatory instruments and comparable to healthy dentin. Micro-RAMAN analysis showed that healthy dentin is correlated to chemomechanical system (R 2 = 0.683, P < 0.00001 and drilling with burs (R 2 = 0.139, P < 0.00001. Conclusion: The chemomechanical system is effective for caries elimination, comparable to conventional rotatory instruments; the remaining Vickers microhardness and composition surface tissue are similar to healthy dentin.

  15. A comparative in vitro efficacy of conventional rotatory and chemomechanical caries removal: Influence on cariogenic flora, microhardness, and residual composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Contreras, Rene; Scougall-Vilchis, Rogelio Jose; Contreras-Bulnes, Rosalia; Sakagami, Hiroshi; Morales-Luckie, Raul Alberto; Nakajima, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Chemomechanical caries removal system is part of the minimal invasive dentistry; the aim of the study was to compare the amount of bacteria after caries removal with chemomechanical system and conventional rotatory instruments and to test the Vickers microhardness and micro-RAMAN analysis of residual dentin after excavation. Materials and Methods: Molars were induced for demineralization, confirmed with DIAGNOdent; Streptococcus mutans were inoculated into the cavities and filled. Caries removal was performed with rotatory instruments and chemomechanical system; surviving bacteria were cultured for 24 and 48 hours at 37°C. Vickers microhardness and micro-RAMAN analysis were tested after excavation. Data were analyzed with Wilcoxon, continuity correction, odds ratio, ANOVA post hoc Tukey test, and Spearman correlation. Results: Demineralization was significantly detectable at 240 hours of incubation; conventional rotatory instruments and chemomechanical caries removal were effective in 19.4%-22.6% and 25.8%-32.3%, respectively. Vickers microhardness of chemomechanical system was higher (P < 0.0001) than conventional rotatory instruments and comparable to healthy dentin. Micro-RAMAN analysis showed that healthy dentin is correlated to chemomechanical system (R2 = 0.683, P < 0.00001) and drilling with burs (R2 = 0.139, P < 0.00001). Conclusion: The chemomechanical system is effective for caries elimination, comparable to conventional rotatory instruments; the remaining Vickers microhardness and composition surface tissue are similar to healthy dentin. PMID:25506140

  16. Caries experience in schoolchildren in Bucharest, Romania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funieru, Cristian; Twetman, Svante; Funieru, Elena;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the prevalence and experience of dental caries among children from public middle schools in Bucharest in relation to socioeconomic status and access to school-based dental care. METHODS: Clinical data were collected from 1,595 schoolchild...

  17. Comparison of Methods for Oscillation Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Trangbæk, Klaus

    2006-01-01

    This paper compares a selection of methods for detecting oscillations in control loops. The methods are tested on measurement data from a coal-fired power plant, where some oscillations are occurring. Emphasis is put on being able to detect oscillations without having a system model and without u...... using process knowledge. The tested methods show potential for detecting the oscillations, however, transient components in the signals cause false detections as well, motivating usage of models in order to remove the expected signals behavior....

  18. Association of parental stress and early childhood caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ebrahim Jabbarifar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background:Little research has been carried out on whether the parental stress affects children′s oral health in general and dental caries in particular. This study aimed to investigate the association be-tween parental stress and early childhood caries (ECC. Methods: A cross-sectional study was designed that included 250 children of 4-6 year-old; 127 ones attended the pediatric department of Isfahan School of Dentistry who had early childhood caries and a comparison group of 123 caries free children attended five kindergartens and pre-schools in Isfahan city. Clinical examinations were conducted to evaluate the caries status. The parents of the two study groups completed the self-administrated long form of the Parenting Stress Index questionnaire. De-tails of their socio-demographic status were gathered too. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS version 11.5. The nonparametric Mantel-Haenszel test for correlation statistics was used to determine bivariate associations between total parenting stress and their domains scores in the two groups; i.e., those with early childhood caries and the caries free group. Results: Mean score of PSI in the early childhood caries and caries free group were 286.66 ± 66.26 and 273.87 ± 31.03, respectively. There was not any significant relationship between total parental stress and ECC. The scores of the following domains of PSI demonstrated significant differences between ECC and CF groups: child reinforcement, child distractibility, child deficit attention, life stress and relationship with spouse (P = 0.01, 0.01, 0.001, 0.005 respectively. Conclusion: Findings of this study did not show any significant association between total parenting stress score and prevalence of early childhood caries.

  19. Noninvasive cross-sectional imaging of proximal caries using swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Yasushi; Nakagawa, Hisaichi; Sadr, Alireza; Wada, Ikumi; Nakajima, Masatoshi; Nikaido, Toru; Otsuki, Masayuki; Tagami, Junji; Sumi, Yasunori

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of swept-source optical coherent tomography (SS-OCT) in detecting and estimating the depth of proximal caries in posterior teeth in vivo. SS-OCT images and bitewing radiographs were obtained from 86 proximal surfaces of 53 patients. Six examiners scored the locations according to a caries lesion depth scale (0-4) using SS-OCT and the radiographs. The results were compared with clinical observations obtained after the treatment. SS-OCT could detect the presence of proximal caries in tomograms that were synthesized based on the backscatter signal obtained from the proximal carious lesion through occlusal enamel. SS-OCT showed significantly higher sensitivity and larger area under the receiver operating characteristic curve than radiographs for the detection of cavitated enamel lesions and dentin caries (Student's t -test, p SS-OCT appears to be a more reliable and accurate method than bitewing radiographs for the detection and estimation of the depth of proximal lesions in the clinical environment.

  20. Microarray Analysis of the Microflora of Root Caries in Elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preza, Dorita; Olsen, Ingar; Willumsen, Tiril; Boches, Susan K.; Cotton, Sean L.; Grinde, Bjørn; Paster, Bruce J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose The present study used a new 16S rRNA-based microarray with probes for over 300 bacterial species better define the bacterial profiles of healthy root surfaces and root caries (RC) in the elderly. Materials Supragingival plaque was collected from 20 healthy subjects (Controls) and from healthy and carious roots and carious dentin from 21 RC subjects (Patients). Results Collectively, 179 bacterial species and species groups were detected. A higher bacterial diversity was observed in the Controls as compared to Patients. Lactobacillus casei/paracasei/rhamnosus and Pseudoramibacter alactolyticus were notably associated with most root caries samples. Streptococcus mutans was detected more frequently in the infected dentin than in the other samples, but the difference was not significant. Actinomyces were found more frequently in Controls. Conclusion Actinomyces and S. mutans may play a limited role as pathogens of RC. The results from this study were in agreement with those of our previous study based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing with 72% of the species being detected with both methods. PMID:19039610

  1. Relation Between Past and Present Dietary Sugar Intake and Dental Caries in A High Caries Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Malek Mohammadi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The main objective of this study was to investigate relationship between re-ported dietary habits and dental caries in five and six-year-old children referred for dental extractions.Materials and Methods: Two hundred children were examined using standard caries di-agnostic criteria. The numbers of decayed, missing and filled deciduous teeth were re-corded. A food frequency table was completed by the parents of each child and analyzedthrough weighting the cariogenic potentialby the frequency of consumption, and summing the two scores.Results: The mean number of decayed, missing and filled teeth (dmft was 7.1 (SD=3.29. There was no statistically significant correlation between the reported dietary intake and the caries rate in the study population P=0.07.Use of bottles with sugared drinks during infancy was associated with increased caries levels (P<0.01.Conclusion: Poor infant feeding practices promote caries in childhood. A method of diet assessment which would evaluate diet-related health education is required.

  2. A cross sectional study of dermatoglyphics and dental caries in Bengalee children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asok bijoy sengupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Dermatoglyphic is the permanent imprint found in hands. Variations of dermatoglyphic patterns among the individuals have been noted. Aims: To find out the dermatoglyphic pattern variations in dental caries between study group and the control group. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study was done on 300 Bengalee children of Kolkata between the age group of 4-14 years. Materials and Methods: The samples were divided into two groups; study group and control group. Dental caries were detected clinically using mouth mirror and probe in daylight. Ink was applied on palm and finger by pressure pad. Bilateral palm and finger prints were taken by placing the palm and fingers over glazed paper and applying pressure over palm. Finger and palm prints obtained were inspected by magnifying glass for the study of different dermatoglyphic parameters. Statistical analysis used: Analytical statistical method with the help of student′s t-test was used to determine mean values and gender differences in the findings using SPSS version 11.0. Results: The characteristic feature which shows significant increase in caries sample group were increased total finger ridge count (TRFC and absolute finger ridge count (AFRC on fingers, representing pattern size and types. ab count and tr count were significantly lower in male and female caries sample group compared with the control group. Conclusions: There was a significant difference between caries and control group in different patterns and number of "tri radii on fingers" in fingers, the percentage of patterns on all palmar areas, total number of triradii on palm and main line index. Perhaps more systematic larger samples consisting of different genetic population are necessary to verify the conclusion.

  3. Drugs that promote dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Dental caries result from erosion of tooth enamel or cementum by acidic substances produced by bacteria found in dental plaque. Caries can lead to pulp necrosis and tooth loss. Risk factors include certain dietary habits, poor oral hygiene, and dry mouth. Diabetes and Sjogren's syndrome can also promote dental caries. Psychotropic substances such as cocaine, methamphetamine, heroin and cannabis can promote dental caries. Many medicinal drugs facilitate the formation of dental caries, through various mechanisms; they include formulations with a high sugar content; drugs that cause dry mouth (especially antimuscarinics); drugs that lower the buccal pH (inhaled powders, etc.); and drugs that cause demineralisation (tetracyclines, etc.). In practice, patients (and parents) should be informed that some drugs can increase the risk of dental caries. They should be encouraged to adapt and reinforce dental hygiene, and advised to visit a dentist regularly.

  4. Nature vs. nurture in dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, I D

    1994-10-01

    Why are some people more resistant to dental caries than others? Certainly diet plays a part, but are there hereditary factors that affect caries development? This report explores genetic components that appear related to caries resistance and susceptibility.

  5. [Microabrasive tooth preparation for early caries prevention and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitrova, A G; Kulakov, A A; Vinnichenko, Iu A; Monastyreva, E G

    2011-01-01

    Based on the 4-year experience with the method of air-abrasion treatment on the stages of treatment and prevention of dental caries in the article provides data on the indications for its use, benefits and complications.

  6. In-vivo fluorescence detection and imaging of porphyrin-producing bacteria in the human skin and in the oral cavity for diagnosis of acne vulgaris, caries, and squamous cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Karsten; Schneckenburger, Herbert; Hemmer, Joerg; Tromberg, Bruce J.; Steiner, Rudolf W.

    1994-05-01

    Certain bacteria are able to synthesize metal-free fluorescent porphyrins and can therefore be detected by sensitive autofluorescence measurements in the red spectral region. The porphyrin-producing bacterium Propionibacterium acnes, which is involved in the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris, was localized in human skin. Spectrally resolved fluorescence images of bacteria distribution in the face were obtained by a slow-scan CCD camera combined with a tunable liquid crystal filter. The structured autofluorescence of dental caries and dental plaque in the red is caused by oral bacteria, like Bacteroides or Actinomyces odontolyticus. `Caries images' were created by time-gated imaging in the ns-region after ultrashort laser excitation. Time-gated measurements allow the suppression of backscattered light and non-porphyrin autofluorescence. Biopsies of oral squamous cell carcinoma exhibited red autofluorescence in necrotic regions and high concentrations of the porphyrin-producing bacterium Pseudomonas aerigunosa. These studies suggest that the temporal and spectral characteristics of bacterial autofluorescence can be used in the diagnosis and treatment of a variety of diseases.

  7. GMDD: a database of GMO detection methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Rong

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since more than one hundred events of genetically modified organisms (GMOs have been developed and approved for commercialization in global area, the GMO analysis methods are essential for the enforcement of GMO labelling regulations. Protein and nucleic acid-based detection techniques have been developed and utilized for GMOs identification and quantification. However, the information for harmonization and standardization of GMO analysis methods at global level is needed. Results GMO Detection method Database (GMDD has collected almost all the previous developed and reported GMOs detection methods, which have been grouped by different strategies (screen-, gene-, construct-, and event-specific, and also provide a user-friendly search service of the detection methods by GMO event name, exogenous gene, or protein information, etc. In this database, users can obtain the sequences of exogenous integration, which will facilitate PCR primers and probes design. Also the information on endogenous genes, certified reference materials, reference molecules, and the validation status of developed methods is included in this database. Furthermore, registered users can also submit new detection methods and sequences to this database, and the newly submitted information will be released soon after being checked. Conclusion GMDD contains comprehensive information of GMO detection methods. The database will make the GMOs analysis much easier.

  8. Bioluminescent bioreporter integrated circuit detection methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, Michael L.; Paulus, Michael J.; Sayler, Gary S.; Applegate, Bruce M.; Ripp, Steven A.

    2005-06-14

    Disclosed are monolithic bioelectronic devices comprising a bioreporter and an OASIC. These bioluminescent bioreporter integrated circuit are useful in detecting substances such as pollutants, explosives, and heavy-metals residing in inhospitable areas such as groundwater, industrial process vessels, and battlefields. Also disclosed are methods and apparatus for detection of particular analytes, including ammonia and estrogen compounds.

  9. Detecting sulphate aerosol geoengineering with different methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Y. T. Eunice; Charlton-Perez, Andrew J.; Lott, Fraser C.; Highwood, Eleanor J.

    2016-12-01

    Sulphate aerosol injection has been widely discussed as a possible way to engineer future climate. Monitoring it would require detecting its effects amidst internal variability and in the presence of other external forcings. We investigate how the use of different detection methods and filtering techniques affects the detectability of sulphate aerosol geoengineering in annual-mean global-mean near-surface air temperature. This is done by assuming a future scenario that injects 5 Tg yr‑1 of sulphur dioxide into the stratosphere and cross-comparing simulations from 5 climate models. 64% of the studied comparisons would require 25 years or more for detection when no filter and the multi-variate method that has been extensively used for attributing climate change are used, while 66% of the same comparisons would require fewer than 10 years for detection using a trend-based filter. This highlights the high sensitivity of sulphate aerosol geoengineering detectability to the choice of filter. With the same trend-based filter but a non-stationary method, 80% of the comparisons would require fewer than 10 years for detection. This does not imply sulphate aerosol geoengineering should be deployed, but suggests that both detection methods could be used for monitoring geoengineering in global, annual mean temperature should it be needed.

  10. Dental caries among children visiting a mobile dental clinic in South Central Kentucky: a pooled cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Dental caries is one of the most common chronic childhood diseases affecting a large portion of children in the United States. The prevalence of childhood dental caries in Kentucky is among the highest in the nation. The purposes of this study are to (1) compare sociodemographic differences between caries and no caries groups and (2) investigate factors associated with untreated dental caries among children who visited a mobile dental clinic in South Central Kentucky. Methods Study subjects were children aged 6 to 15 years who participated in the school-based dental sealant program through the mobile dental clinic operated by the Institute for Rural Health at Western Kentucky University between September 2006 and May 2011 (n = 2,453). Descriptive statistics were calculated for sociodemographic factors (age, gender, race/ethnicity, insurance status, and urban versus rural residential location) and caries status. We used chi-square tests to compare sociodemographic differences of children stratified by caries and no caries status as well as three levels of caries severity. We developed a logistic regression model to investigate factors associated with untreated dental caries while controlling for sociodemographic characteristics. Results The proportion of children having untreated dental caries was 49.7% and the mean number of untreated dental caries was 2.0. The proportion of untreated dental caries was higher in older children, children with no insurance and living in rural residential locations, and caries severity was also higher in these groups. Odds ratio indicated that older ages, not having private insurance (having only public, government-sponsored insurance or no insurance at all) and rural residential location were associated with having untreated dental caries after controlling for sociodemographic characteristics of children. Conclusions Untreated dental caries was more likely to be present in older children living in rural areas without

  11. Developments in caries diagnosis and their relationship to treatment decisions and quality of care - ORCA Saturday Afternoon Symposium 1997

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdonschot, EH; Angmar-Mansson, B; ten Bosch, JJ; Deery, CH; Huysmans, MCDNJM; Pitts, NB; Waller, E

    1999-01-01

    This symposium report evaluates the achievements made in caries diagnostic research since the previous symposium held in 1992. The symposium aimed at presenting the state of the art of caries diagnostic methods, on presenting the links between caries diagnosis and subsequent treatment decisions and

  12. New Eavesdropper Detection Method in Quantum Cryptograph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin Anghel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available ecurity of quantum cryptographic algorithms is one of the main research directions in quantum cryptography. Security growth of the quantum key distribution systems can be realized by detecting the eavesdropper quickly, precisely and without letting any secret information in the hands of the enemy. This paper proposes a new method, named QBTT, to detect the enemy who try to tap the communication channel. The QBTT method can be implemented in every type of quantum key distribution scheme.

  13. Diet and the microbial aetiology of dental caries: new paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, David J; Lynch, Richard J M

    2013-12-01

    The microbial and dietary factors that drive caries have been studied scientifically for 120 years. Frequent and/or excessive sugar (especially sucrose) consumption has been ascribed a central role in caries causation, while Streptococcus mutans appeared to play the key role in metabolising sucrose to produce lactic acid, which can demineralise enamel. Many authors described caries as a transmissible infectious disease. However, more recent data have shifted these paradigms. Streptococcus mutans does not fulfil Koch's postulates - presence of the organism leading to disease, and absence of the organism precluding disease. Furthermore, molecular microbiological methods have shown that, even with a sugar-rich diet, a much broader spectrum of acidogenic microbes is found in dental plaque. While simple sugars can be cariogenic, cooked starches are also now recognised to be a caries threat, especially because such starches, while not 'sticky in the hand', can be highly retentive in the mouth. Metabolism of starch particles can yield a prolonged acidic challenge, especially at retentive, caries-prone sites. These changes in the paradigms of caries aetiology have important implications for caries control strategies. Preventing the transmission of S. mutans will likely be inadequate to prevent caries if a sufficiently carbohydrate-rich diet continues. Similarly, restriction of sucrose intake, although welcome, would be unlikely to be a panacea for caries, especially if frequent starch intake persisted. Instead, approaches to optimise fluoride delivery, to target plaque acidogenicity or acidogenic microbes, to promote plaque alkali generation, to increase salivary flow or replace fermentable carbohydrates with non-fermentable alternatives may be more promising.

  14. Heavy smoking and severe dental caries in Indonesian men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumartono, Wasis

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In Indonesia, the prevalence of dental caries is 85%–99% and 67.4% of males aged 15 years or older are current users of tobacco. The aim of this study was to examine the association between heavy smoking and severe dental caries. METHODS: The authors used secondary data from Basic Health Research 2007. Respondents were Indonesian males aged 45–54 years (n = 34 534. Decay, Missing, Filled Teeth (DMFT value was used to define severe dental caries with 31.4% of respondents having DMFT value ≥ 8, the cutoff point of severe dental caries in this study. In addition, the enumerators recorded socio-demographic characteristics (age, socio-economic status, education, and job, tooth brushing and smoking behavior of respondents. Chi-square test was used to compare the prevalence of severe dental caries between heavy smokers (defined as Brinkman Index or BI ≥ 400 and never smokers (BI = 0. The multivariable logistic regression model was used to estimate adjusted association between heavy smoking and dental caries severity. RESULTS: The prevalence of severe dental caries among never smokers, light smokers (BI 1-399 and heavy smokers was 24.9%, 32.5%, and 38.7% respectively (p < 0.005. Compared to never smokers, the adjusted ORs of having severe dental caries among light smokers and heavy smokers were 1.45 (95% CI: 1.37-1.53 and 1.70 (95% CI: 1.59 – 1.81, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking is a risk factor of severe dental caries in Indonesian men with dose-and-response association revealed between the exposure and the outcome. Indonesian dentists, individually and collectively, have to participate in smoking prevention and control more actively.

  15. Investigation of salivary function and oral microbiota of radiation caries-free people with nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyang Zhang

    Full Text Available Radiation caries have been reported to be correlated with radiotherapy-induced destruction of salivary function and changes in oral microbiota. There have been no published reports detailing patients who have remained radiation caries-free following radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between salivary function, oral microbiota and the absence of radiation caries. Twelve radiation caries-free patients and nine patients exhibiting radiation caries following irradiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma were selected. V40, the dose at which the volume of the contralateral parotid gland receives more than 40 Gy, was recorded. Stimulated saliva flow rate, pH values and buffering capacity were examined to assess salivary function. Stimulated saliva was used for molecular profiling by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis. Mutans streptococci and Lactobacilli in saliva were also cultivated. There were no significant differences in V40 between radiation caries-free individuals and those with radiation caries. Compared with normal values, the radiation caries-free group had significantly decreased simulated saliva flow rate, while there were no significant differences in the saliva pH value and buffering capacity. Similar results were observed in the radiation caries group. There was no statistical difference in microbial diversity, composition and log CFU counts in cultivation from the radiation caries-free group and the radiation caries group. Eleven genera were detected in these two groups, among which Streptococcus spp. and Neisseria spp. had the highest distribution. Our results suggest that changes in salivary function and in salivary microbiota do not explain the absence of radiation caries in radiation caries-free individuals.

  16. Imaging of occlusal dental caries (decay) with near-IR light at 1310-nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bühler, Christopher M.; Ngaotheppitak, Patara; Fried, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    Dental enamel manifests high transparency in the near-IR. Previous work demonstrated that near-IR light at 1310-nm is ideally suited for the transillumination of interproximal dental caries (dental decay in between teeth) [1]. However, most new dental decay occurs in the pits and fissures of the occlusal (biting) surfaces of posterior teeth. These caries lesions cannot be detected by x-rays during the early stages of decay due to the overlapping topography of the crown of the tooth. In this study, a near- IR imaging system operating at 1310-nm was used to acquire occlusal images by launching the near-IR light into the buccal surface of the tooth just above the gingival margin (gum-line). The near-IR light diffuses through the highly scattering dentin providing uniform back illumination of the enamel of the crowns allowing imaging of the occlusal surfaces. The near-IR images show high contrast between sound and demineralized areas. Demineralization (decay) can be easily differentiated from stains, pigmentation, and hypomineralization (fluorosis). Moreover, the high transparency of the enamel enables imaging at greater depth for the detection of subsurface decay hidden under the enamel. These early images suggest that the near-IR offers significant advantages over conventional visual, tactile and radiographic caries detection methods.

  17. Characterization of early dental caries by polarized Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo-Smith, Lin-P'ing; Ko, Alex C.-T.; Hewko, Mark D.; Dong, Cecilia C.; Cleghorn, Blaine M.; Sowa, Michael G.

    2006-02-01

    The early approximal caries lesion in enamel is observed clinically as a white spot and is difficult to detect and/or monitor with current methods available to dentists. New methods with high sensitivity and specificity are required to enable improved early dental caries diagnosis. Using unpolarized Raman spectroscopy to examine unsectioned teeth, peak intensity changes in the phosphate (PO 4 3-) vibrations (ν II, ν 3 and ν 4) were observed between spectra of sound and carious enamel. However, there is little change in the ν I vibration with this approach. In contrast, when tooth sections were examined by unpolarized Raman spectroscopy, marked changes in the ν I peak at 959 cm -1 were noted between healthy and carious enamel. These differences suggest that sampling orientation play a role in understanding the spectral changes. Using polarized Raman spectroscopy to examine unsectioned samples, cross polarized measurements from sound enamel exhibited significant reduction of the ν I peak compared with parallel polarized measurements. A similar reduction was observed with carious enamel, however, the reduction was not as prominent. By calculating the depolarization ratio of the area under the ν I peak, sound enamel can be clearly distinguished from demineralized regions. The spectral changes observed are attributed to changes in the structure and/or orientation of the apatite crystals as a result of the acid demineralization process.

  18. Role of sugar and sugar substitutes in dental caries: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Prahlad; Gupta, Nidhi; Pawar, Atish Prakash; Birajdar, Smita Shrishail; Natt, Amanpreet Singh; Singh, Harkanwal Preet

    2013-01-01

    Dental caries is a chronic disease which can affect us at any age. The term "caries" denotes both the disease process and its consequences, that is, the damage caused by the disease process. Dental caries has a multifactorial aetiology in which there is interplay of three principal factors: the host (saliva and teeth), the microflora (plaque), and the substrate (diet), and a fourth factor: time. The role of sugar (and other fermentable carbohydrates such as highly refined flour) as a risk factor in the initiation and progression of dental caries is overwhelming. Whether this initial demineralization proceeds to clinically detectable caries or whether the lesion is remineralized by plaque minerals depends on a number of factors, of which the amount and frequency of further sugars consumption are of utmost importance. This paper reviews the role of sugar and sugar substitutes in dental caries.

  19. Current status of dental caries diagnosis using cone beam computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Young Seok; Ahn, Jin Soo; Kwon, Ho Beom; Lee, Seung Pyo [School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    The purpose of this article is to review the current status of dental caries diagnosis using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). An online PubMed search was performed to identify studies on caries research using CBCT. Despite its usefulness, there were inherent limitations in the detection of caries lesions through conventional radiograph mainly due to the two-dimensional (2D) representation of caries lesions. Several efforts were made to investigate the three-dimensional (3D) image of lesion, only to gain little popularity. Recently, CBCT was introduced and has been used for diagnosis of caries in several reports. Some of them maintained the superiority of CBCT systems, however it is still under controversies. The CBCT systems are promising, however they should not be considered as a primary choice of caries diagnosis in everyday practice yet. Further studies under more standardized condition should be performed in the near future.

  20. EAPD interim seminar and workshop in Brussels May 9 2015 Non-invasive caries treatment

    OpenAIRE

    van Loveren, C.; van Palenstein Helderman, W.

    2016-01-01

    Aim This was to collect information for the 9th European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry Interim Seminar and Workshops to discuss the state of art on non-invasive caries therapy to be used if possible to formulate clinical guidelines by European experts in paediatric dentistry Methods Based on systematic reviews and additional papers were assessed for methods to prevent caries initiation and caries progression both in the state of pre-cavitation and cavitation without invasive technologies. R...

  1. A microfluidic based optical particle detection method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, James; Chen, Lu; Nayyar, Rakesh; Aitchison, Stewart

    2012-03-01

    An optical particle detection and analysis method is presented. This method combines the capillary microfluidics, integrated optics and novel image acquisition and analysis algorithms to form the basis of a portable or handheld cytometer instrument. Experimental results provided shows the testing results are closely matched with conventional flow cytometer data.

  2. On Analytical Methods in Neuroblastoma Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Martínez-Díaz

    2013-01-01

    quantitative and consistent methods of evaluation are needed to assess reponse to patient therapy. Whole-body I123-metaiodobenzylguanidine (mIBG scintigraphy is used as primary medical image modality to detect neuroblastoma tumours due to its high specificity and sensitivity. However, current oncological guidelines are based on qualitative observer-dependent analysis. This fact makes it difficult to compare results of scintigraphies taken at different moments during therapy or at different institutions. In this paper, we review analytical methods used in neuroblastoma detection and propose an observer-independent method to quantitatively analyse a I123-mIBG scintigraphy.

  3. Enzymes, Dentinogenesis and Dental Caries: a Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives Search in PubMed with keywords “enzymes, dentinogenesis, and dental caries” revealed only 4 items, but when combined with “enzymes, osteogenesis, and osteoporosis” as high as 404 items resulted. Dental caries was associated with an order of magnitude fewer studies than the chronic bone disease, osteoporosis. This observation motivated this review. Material and Methods A comprehensive review of the available literature on role of enzymes in dentinogenesis and dental caries ...

  4. Inner Crack Detection Method for Cantilever Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zheng; Zhang, Wei; Li, Yixuan; Su, Xianyue

    2008-02-01

    In this paper, continuous wavelet transform has been performed to extract the inner crack information from the guided waves in cantilever beams, and the location and size of crack can be detected exactly. Considering its best time-frequency property, Gabor continuous wavelet transform is employed to analyze the complicated flexible wave signals in cantilever beam, which is inspirited by an impact on the free end. Otherwise, in order to enhance the sensitivity of detection for some small cracks, an improved method is discussed. Here, both computational and experimental methods are carried out for comparing the influence of different crack location in beam. Therefore, the method proposed can be expected to expand to a powerful damage detection method in a broad engineering application.

  5. An enhanced Monte Carlo outlier detection method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liangxiao; Li, Peiwu; Mao, Jin; Ma, Fei; Ding, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Qi

    2015-09-30

    Outlier detection is crucial in building a highly predictive model. In this study, we proposed an enhanced Monte Carlo outlier detection method by establishing cross-prediction models based on determinate normal samples and analyzing the distribution of prediction errors individually for dubious samples. One simulated and three real datasets were used to illustrate and validate the performance of our method, and the results indicated that this method outperformed Monte Carlo outlier detection in outlier diagnosis. After these outliers were removed, the value of validation by Kovats retention indices and the root mean square error of prediction decreased from 3.195 to 1.655, and the average cross-validation prediction error decreased from 2.0341 to 1.2780. This method helps establish a good model by eliminating outliers. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. MEDICAL MANAGEMENT OF DENTAL CARIES: A CHANGE IN THERAPEUTIC APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Malhotra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is an infectious, communicable disease, which causes destruction of teeth by acid-forming bacteria found in dental plaque. Caries progression or reversal is determined by the balance between protective and pathological factors in the mouth. There have been revolutions in every field and dentistry is no exception to it, these changes have led to a change in concept from the conventional surgical approach of removing dental decay and cutting of tooth structure to the medical model which deals with interception of disease at different stages and possible reversal of the disease process. The key to medical paradigm is determination of caries risk in an individual and effective early detection of initial carious lesions. There are various equipments available in market which uses different principles for diagnosing caries susceptibility in an individual. In the years of thorough research different agents have been investigated for their role in caries prevention and reversal. There is a separate treatment plan for managing patients falling in different risk category. This article outlines the need for the medical management of dental caries and how it can be a viable option in dental decay management.

  7. Patient caries risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, Svante; Fontana, Margherita

    2009-01-01

    Risk assessment is an essential component in the decision-making process for the correct prevention and management of dental caries. Multiple risk factors and indicators have been proposed as targets in the assessment of risk of future disease, varying sometimes based on the age group at which...... for prediction purposes, as measured until now in the literature, is at best questionable in schoolchildren, adolescents and adults. That is not to say these additional factors should not be assessed to help understand the strength of their associations with the disease experience in a particular patient......, and aid in the development of an individualized and targeted preventive and management plan....

  8. Defectos del esmalte, caries en dentición primaria, fuentes de fluoruro y su relación con caries en dientes permanentes Enamel defects, caries in primary dentition and fluoride sources: relationship with caries in permanent teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Alicia Vallejos-Sánchez

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Explorar la relación entre la presencia de defectos del esmalte (DE, la experiencia de caries en la dentición temporal, y la exposición a diversas fuentes de fluoruros, con la presencia de caries en la dentición permanente de niños con dentición mixta. Material y métodos: Se realizó un estudio transversal en 713 sujetos de 6-9 años de edad de 4 escuelas de Campeche, México, mediante un cuestionario dirigido a las madres, y un examen clínico bucal a los niños. La variable dependiente fue la prevalencia de caries en la dentición permanente. Resultados: El promedio de dientes temporales cariados, extraídos y obturados (ceod y dientes permanentes cariados, perdidos y obturados (CPOD fue de 2,48 (2,82 (ceod > 0 = 58,9% y 0,40 (0,98 (CPOD > 0 = 18,2%, respectivamente. El índice SiC (índice de caries significativa, calculado en la dentición temporal fue de 5,85 para los niños de 6 años de edad. En el análisis de regresión logística multivariado permanecieron significativas, después de ajustar por variables de exposición a fluoruros, la mayor edad (odds ratio [OR] = 2,99, el ceod > 0 (OR = 5,46, la menor escolaridad de la madre (OR = 1,57 y una interacción entre sexo y defectos del esmalte. Conclusiones: Las caries en la dentición temporal y permanente fueron relativamente menores que las observaciones publicadas por otros estudios en México. Los resultados confirmaron que la caries en la dentición temporal se asoció fuertemente con la caries en la dentición permanente. No hubo una relación significativa entre las fuentes de fluoruro y la caries dental en la dentición permanente.Objective: To examine the relationship between the presence of enamel defects, dental caries in primary teeth, and exposure to various fluoride technologies and the presence of dental caries in permanent teeth in children with mixed dentition. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 713 children aged 6-9 years old

  9. Efficacy of three-tone disclosing agent as an adjunct in caries risk assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mungara Jayanthi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Today, most approaches to caries viewed that catastrophic change in normal plaque biofilm is responsible for the disease. The behavior and composition of the biofilm are a reflection of the oral environment; the caries is a reflection of adverse changes occurring in that environment. Thus, it is important to identify the pathogenicity of the plaque biofilm so as to predict the caries risk. The recently developed three-tone plaque disclosing agent was used to test its ability in identifying the pathogenicity of plaque. Aim: To assess the efficacy of three-tone plaque disclosing agent in identifying the plaque pathogenicity and correlate with the clinical caries status and microbiological findings. Materials and Methods: Sixty children of 6-13 years age group of both sexes were clinically examined for caries and plaque scores, and then disclosing agent was applied; the color stained plaque samples were collected and cultured for microbiological assessment, and the data were analyzed based on the caries status of the children. Results: There was a significant difference between the pathological plaque of caries active and caries free group (P < 0.05. The pathological plaque scores and the total colony counts, Streptococcus counts and mutans streptococci counts increased with the increase in caries. Conclusion: Three-tone plaque disclosing agent was effective in identifying pathological plaque and can be used as one of the chairside adjuvants in caries risk assessment.

  10. Ex vivo assessment of the potency of optical coherence tomography for the detection of early occlusal caries%光学相干断层成像检出早期窝沟龋效能的体外评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    代晓华; 姚晖; 连小丽; 李燕妮; 王英瑛; 刘晓斌; 邢路

    2016-01-01

    目的 比较光学相干断层成像技术(OCT)与临床探视诊对人牙窝沟早期釉质龋的检出效能.方法 获取77颗人离体恒磨牙(拾)面的97个可疑早期龋位点OCT二维图像,由3位临床医师双盲法分别通过OCT图像和探视诊方法 对这些位点进行评分,以偏光显微镜获取的组织学图像为金标准,评估OCT、临床探视诊检出早期窝沟龋的敏感度(SE)、特异度(SP)、阳性预测值(PPV)、阴性预测值(NPV)及其与组织学评分结果 的相关性;采用Kappa检验分析检测者间评分结果 的一致性,采用非参数法Z检验比较受试者工作特征(ROC)曲线下面积(AUC).结果 对于脱矿局限于釉质表层外1/2的窝沟早期龋,OCT检出率(14/25)明显优于探视诊(3/25).OCT检出窝沟早期釉质龋的SE、SP、PPV、NPV(0.83、0.64、0.87、0.57)均高于探视诊(0.79、0.60、0.85、0.50).OCT与探视诊检测窝沟早期龋的AUC(95%CI)分别为0.737(0.569~0.822)、0.696(0.614~0.859),二者间差异无统计学意义.OCT评分与组织学评分呈正相关(r=0.559,P<0.05),检测者间检测结果 的一致性为中等.结论 OCT能够敏感、无创、有效地检出早期窝沟龋,具有辅助临床探视诊检出早期窝沟龋的应用潜能.%Objective This study aimed to evaluate the potency of optical coherence tomography (OCT) to detect early occlusal caries compared with clinical visual examination.Methods Approximately 97 sites of occlusal fissures on 77 extracted accessional human teeth were scored by three examiners using conventional visual examination and OCT. Results of histolo-gical examination on these sites obtained by polarimicroscope served as a gold standard to analyze the sensitivity (SE), speci-ficity (SP), positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV). Results of the area under receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) by visual examination and OCT were also analyzed. The Spearman's rank correlation coefficient

  11. Caries Risk Assessment/Treatment Programs in U.S. Dental Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorty, Jack S.; Brown, K. Birgitta

    1999-01-01

    A survey of 42 U.S. dental schools was conducted to identify the number and characteristics of caries risk- assessment/treatment programs. Findings address lectures about caries risk, use of variable recall programs, categorization of risk level, early detection and treatment of lesions, and restoration of radiographically visible lesions. (DB)

  12. Best clinical practice guidance for management of early caries lesions in children and young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kühnisch, J; Ekstrand, K R; Pretty, I;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry (EAPD) encourages prevention and arrest of active dental caries. Therefore, the present guidance provides evidence- and clinically-based recommendations for detecting and diagnosing early/non-cavitated caries lesions, risk assessment and di...

  13. Novel methods for detecting buried explosive devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kercel, S.W.; Burlage, R.S.; Patek, D.R.; Smith, C.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Hibbs, A.D.; Rayner, T.J. [Quantum Magnetics, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Quantum Magnetics, Inc. (QM) are exploring novel landmine detection technologies. Technologies considered here include bioreporter bacteria, swept acoustic resonance, nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR), and semiotic data fusion. Bioreporter bacteria look promising for third-world humanitarian applications; they are inexpensive, and deployment does not require high-tech methods. Swept acoustic resonance may be a useful adjunct to magnetometers in humanitarian demining. For military demining, NQR is a promising method for detecting explosive substances; of 50,000 substances that have been tested, none has an NQR signature that can be mistaken for RDX or TNT. For both military and commercial demining, sensor fusion entails two daunting tasks, identifying fusible features in both present-day and emerging technologies, and devising a fusion algorithm that runs in real-time on cheap hardware. Preliminary research in these areas is encouraging. A bioreporter bacterium for TNT detection is under development. Investigation has just started in swept acoustic resonance as an approach to a cheap mine detector for humanitarian use. Real-time wavelet processing appears to be a key to extending NQR bomb detection into mine detection, including TNT-based mines. Recent discoveries in semiotics may be the breakthrough that will lead to a robust fused detection scheme.

  14. Caries prevention in high-risk preschool children in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Autio-Gold, J. (Jaana)

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Dental caries is a common infectious disease affecting young children living in low-income families in the United States. Efficacious, safe, feasible and cost-effective caries prevention methods for these children are essential. Several studies have shown the efficacy of fluoride varnish and xylitol to improve the oral health of children. The efficiency of caries prevention programs including the use of fluoride varnish or xylitol chewing gum in early childhood has not been w...

  15. Investigation of the N-terminal coding region of MUC7 alterations in dentistry students with and without caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koç Öztürk L

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Human low-molecular weight salivary mucin (MUC7 is a small, secreted glycoprotein coded by MUC7. In the oral cavity, they inhibit the colonization of oral bacteria, including cariogenic ones, by masking their surface adhesions, thus helping saliva to avoid dental caries. The N-terminal domain is important for low-molecular weight (MG2 mucins to contact with oral microorganisms. In this study, we aimed to identify the N-terminal coding region of the MUC7 gene between individuals with and without caries. Forty-four healthy dental students were enrolled in this study; 24 of them were classified to have caries [decayed, missing, filled-teeth (DMFT = 5.6] according to the World Health Organization (WHO criteria, and 20 of them were caries-free (DMFT = 0. Simplified oral hygiene index (OHI-S and gingival index (GI were used to determine the oral hygiene and gingival conditions. Total protein levels and salivary total protein levels and salivary buffer capacity (SBC were determined by Lowry and Ericsson methods. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood cells of all the participants and genotyping was carried out by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR-sequencing method. No statistical differences were found between two groups in the terms of salivary parameters, oral hygiene and gingival conditions. We detected one common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP that leads to a change of asparagine to lysine at codon 80. This substitution was found in 29.0 and 40.0%, respectively, of the groups with and without caries. No other sequence variations were detected. The SNP found in this study may be a specific polymorphism affecting the Turkish population. Further studies with extended numbers are necessary in order to clarify this finding.

  16. Investigation of the N-terminal coding region of MUC7 alterations in dentistry students with and without caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koç Öztürk, L; Yarat, A; Akyuz, S; Furuncuoglu, H

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human low-molecular weight salivary mucin (MUC7) is a small, secreted glycoprotein coded by MUC7. In the oral cavity, they inhibit the colonization of oral bacteria, including cariogenic ones, by masking their surface adhesions, thus helping saliva to avoid dental caries. The N-terminal domain is important for low-molecular weight (MG2) mucins to contact with oral microorganisms. In this study, we aimed to identify the N-terminal coding region of the MUC7 gene between individuals with and without caries. Forty-four healthy dental students were enrolled in this study; 24 of them were classified to have caries [decayed, missing, filled-teeth (DMFT) = 5.6] according to the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria, and 20 of them were caries-free (DMFT = 0). Simplified oral hygiene index (OHI-S) and gingival index (GI) were used to determine the oral hygiene and gingival conditions. Total protein levels and salivary total protein levels and salivary buffer capacity (SBC) were determined by Lowry and Ericsson methods. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood cells of all the participants and genotyping was carried out by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-sequencing method. No statistical differences were found between two groups in the terms of salivary parameters, oral hygiene and gingival conditions. We detected one common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) that leads to a change of asparagine to lysine at codon 80. This substitution was found in 29.0 and 40.0%, respectively, of the groups with and without caries. No other sequence variations were detected. The SNP found in this study may be a specific polymorphism affecting the Turkish population. Further studies with extended numbers are necessary in order to clarify this finding.

  17. Detection of oral streptococci in dental biofilm from caries-active and caries-free children Detecção de estreptococos orais em biofilme dental de crianças cárie-ativas e livres de cárie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Cristina Barbosa da Silva

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This work correlated the presence of oral streptococci in dental biofilm with clinical indexes of caries and oral hygiene in caries-active and caries-free children. S. mutans and/or S. sobrinus in the dental biofilm does not indicate a direct risk for developing dental caries.Este trabalho correlacionou a presença de estreptococos orais no biofilme dental com índices clínicos de cárie dentária e higiene oral em crianças com alta e baixa atividade de cárie. S. mutans e/ou S. sobrinus no biofilme dental não significa o imediato desenvolvimento de lesões cariosas.

  18. Flow cytometric detection method for DNA samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasarabadi,Shanavaz (Livermore, CA); Langlois, Richard G. (Livermore, CA); Venkateswaran, Kodumudi S. (Round Rock, TX)

    2011-07-05

    Disclosed herein are two methods for rapid multiplex analysis to determine the presence and identity of target DNA sequences within a DNA sample. Both methods use reporting DNA sequences, e.g., modified conventional Taqman.RTM. probes, to combine multiplex PCR amplification with microsphere-based hybridization using flow cytometry means of detection. Real-time PCR detection can also be incorporated. The first method uses a cyanine dye, such as, Cy3.TM., as the reporter linked to the 5' end of a reporting DNA sequence. The second method positions a reporter dye, e.g., FAM.TM. on the 3' end of the reporting DNA sequence and a quencher dye, e.g., TAMRA.TM., on the 5' end.

  19. A new approach for interexaminer reliability data analysis on dental caries calibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Videira Assaf

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: a to evaluate the interexaminer reliability in caries detection considering different diagnostic thresholds and b to indicate, by using Kappa statistics, the best way of measuring interexaminer agreement during the calibration process in dental caries surveys. Methods: Eleven dentists participated in the initial training, which was divided into theoretical discussions and practical activities, and calibration exercises, performed at baseline, 3 and 6 months after the initial training. For the examinations of 6-7-year-old schoolchildren, the World Health Organization (WHO recommendations were followed and different diagnostic thresholds were used: WHO (decayed/missing/filled teeth - DMFT index and WHO + IL (initial lesion diagnostic thresholds. The interexaminer reliability was calculated by Kappa statistics, according to WHO and WHO+IL thresholds considering: a the entire dentition; b upper/lower jaws; c sextants; d each tooth individually. Results: Interexaminer reliability was high for both diagnostic thresholds; nevertheless, it decreased in all calibration sections when considering teeth individually. Conclusion: The interexaminer reliability was possible during the period of 6 months, under both caries diagnosis thresholds. However, great disagreement was observed for posterior teeth, especially using the WHO+IL criteria. Analysis considering dental elements individually was the best way of detecting interexaminer disagreement during the calibration sections.

  20. GMDD: a database of GMO detection methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dong, W.; Yang, L.; Shen, K.; Kim, B.; Kleter, G.A.; Marvin, H.J.P.; Guo, R.; Liang, W.; Zhang, D.

    2008-01-01

    Since more than one hundred events of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) have been developed and approved for commercialization in global area, the GMO analysis methods are essential for the enforcement of GMO labelling regulations. Protein and nucleic acid-based detection techniques have been de

  1. A method for detecting hydrophobic patches protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lijnzaad, P.; Berendsen, H.J.C.; Argos, P.

    1996-01-01

    A method for the detection of hydrophobic patches on the surfaces of protein tertiary structures is presented, it delineates explicit contiguous pieces of surface of arbitrary size and shape that consist solely of carbon and sulphur atoms using a dot representation of the solvent-accessible surface,

  2. Radiographic assessment of proximal caries: A comparison between film-based and dexis digital imaging systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupama N Kalappanavar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compared Kodak Ektaspeed film and Dexis digital imaging systems for their diagnostic accuracy in detection of proximal canes in 210 proximal surfaces from 105 extracted human teeth (20 premolars and 85 molars, 129 of which were carious. Ground teeth were evaluated histologically. The images were assessed by an observer. ANOVA revealed that groups differ in scoring patterns with f-value of 26.72 and p < 0.01. The mean caries score by histologic assessment was significantly (p < 0.01 more when compared with the scores obtained by conventional and Dexis digital radiographic methods. The mean score for conventional radiographic method was slightly more than Dexis digital radiographic method, but the difference was statistically insignificant (p < 0.05. Both the radiographic methods were less accurate in detecting proximal canes confined to enamel, but as the lesion depth was increased to dentin, the rate of caries detection increased dramatically. It was concluded that both conventional and Dexis digital radiographic methods under estimated canes depth when compared with histologic method. Lastly, conventional film radiographs and Dexis digital radiographs did not perform significantly different from each other in the detection of canes.

  3. Prediction of dental caries activity

    OpenAIRE

    Crossner, Claes-Göran

    1980-01-01

    The aim of the present thesis was to find a test for prediction of caries activity which would be useful in routine clinical work.Correlations between oral health, general health, food habits and socioeconomic conditions were investigated in 4- and 8-year-old children. It was found that the salivary secretion rate and the prevalence of oral lactobacilli were factors which might be useful in caries prediction.In 5- and 8-year-old children negative correlations between caries frequency and secr...

  4. Early Childhood Caries with the Perspective of Pediatrician

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Bucak

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Early childhood caries are characterized by the presence of at least one or more decayed, missing or filled teeth surfaces in any primary tooth of a child 24-72 months of age. The prevalance of early childhood caries is variable among the world because of wide range of contributing aetiological factors. Aim of this study to determine the prevalance and aetiologic factors of early childhood caries, in South East Anatolia Region of Turkey and evaluated as a pediatrician view. Material and Method: Patients admitted to pediatric polyclinics for any reason, aging between 24 to 72 months, were enrolled in this study. The children who had dental caries and who had not were examined by a dentist. Families were requested to voluntarily answer questions asked by our staff who follow a questionnaire. This questionnaire contains breastfeeding, usage of vitamin D, multivitamin formulations, iron supplements, baby bottle and pacifier, as well as consumpion of yogurt, acidic drinks, in addition to health habits of brushing teeth, check up by the dentist, cigarette usage of parents (mother, father or both. Results: 553 patients were included the study. Early childhood caries was determined to be 33,1 %. As a result of this study, we found that pacifier usage, multiviamin supplements and acidic drinks were significantly contributing to early childhood caries. Discussion: We advise refrainment from pacifier usage and unnecesary consumption of multivitamin supplemantation, acidic drinks or at least brushing of teeth rightafter consumption of these foods in childhood.

  5. Factors Used for Caries Prediction in First Infancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Azeredo Alves ANTUNES

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the early presence of caries cavitation and active white spots (AWS in maxilary anterior teeth in the primary dentition associating them with other factors (diet, fluor exposure, precocious ocorrence of mutans streptococci, oral hygiene with the purpose of predict future caries lesion in posterior primary teeth. Method: The examination of the charts was done by the evaluation including anamnesis and clinical examination recorder in 250 files (young children with 18 - 36 months attended at the Pediatric Dentistry Clinic from a public University Dental School of Rio de Janeiro in 2000 - 2003. Results: After data analysis, the result agree with other studies: the early experience of caries in anterior primary teeth was the best predictor of caries cavitation in deciduos molares (74,49%, other risks factors also have been significance in the prediction. After carie, the second most important variable was anterior teeth with white spots (58,82%, followed by high consuption of sugar (54% and natural breastfeeding after 12 months of age (49,59%. Conclusion: This way this study could establish that dental caries is the best predictor, so preventive operatives shoud be done in early primary dentition.

  6. The effect of xylitol on dental caries and oral flora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayak PA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Prathibha Anand Nayak,1 Ullal Anand Nayak,2 Vishal Khandelwal3 1Department of Periodontics, NIMS Dental College and Hospital, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India; 2Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, NIMS Dental College and Hospital, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India; 3Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, Index Dental College and Hospital, Indore, Madhya Pradesh, India Abstract: Dental caries, the most chronic disease affecting mankind, has been in the limelight with regard to its prevention and treatment. Professional clinical management of caries has been very successful in cases of different severities of disease manifestations. However, tertiary management of this disease has been gaining attention, with numerous methods and agents emerging on a daily basis. Higher intake of nutritive sweeteners can result in higher energy intake and lower diet quality and thereby predispose an individual to conditions like obesity, cardiovascular disorders, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Non-nutritive sweeteners have gained popularity as they are sweeter and are required in substantially lesser quantities. Xylitol, a five-carbon sugar polyol, has been found to be promising in reducing dental caries disease and also reversing the process of early caries. This paper throws light on the role and effects of various forms of xylitol on dental caries and oral hygiene status of an individual. Keywords: xylitol, caries preventive effect, oral flora 

  7. Bayesian Methods for Radiation Detection and Dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Groer, Peter G

    2002-01-01

    We performed work in three areas: radiation detection, external and internal radiation dosimetry. In radiation detection we developed Bayesian techniques to estimate the net activity of high and low activity radioactive samples. These techniques have the advantage that the remaining uncertainty about the net activity is described by probability densities. Graphs of the densities show the uncertainty in pictorial form. Figure 1 below demonstrates this point. We applied stochastic processes for a method to obtain Bayesian estimates of 222Rn-daughter products from observed counting rates. In external radiation dosimetry we studied and developed Bayesian methods to estimate radiation doses to an individual with radiation induced chromosome aberrations. We analyzed chromosome aberrations after exposure to gammas and neutrons and developed a method for dose-estimation after criticality accidents. The research in internal radiation dosimetry focused on parameter estimation for compartmental models from observed comp...

  8. Intrusion detection using pattern recognition methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Nan; Yu, Li

    2007-09-01

    Today, cyber attacks such as worms, scanning, active attackers are pervasive in Internet. A number of security approaches are proposed to address this problem, among which the intrusion detection system (IDS) appears to be one of the major and most effective solutions for defending against malicious users. Essentially, intrusion detection problem can be generalized as a classification problem, whose goal is to distinguish normal behaviors and anomalies. There are many well-known pattern recognition algorithms for classification purpose. In this paper we describe the details of applying pattern recognition methods to the intrusion detection research field. Experimenting on the KDDCUP 99 data set, we first use information gain metric to reduce the dimensionality of the original feature space. Two supervised methods, the support vector machine as well as the multi-layer neural network have been tested and the results display high detection rate and low false alarm rate, which is promising for real world applications. In addition, three unsupervised methods, Single-Linkage, K-Means, and CLIQUE, are also implemented and evaluated in the paper. The low computational complexity reveals their application in initial data reduction process.

  9. Detection methods for centrifugal microfluidic platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burger, Robert; Amato, Letizia; Boisen, Anja

    2016-01-01

    Centrifugal microfluidics has attracted much interest from academia as well as industry, since it potentially offers solutions for affordable, user-friendly and portable biosensing. A wide range of so-called fluidic unit operations, e.g. mixing, metering, liquid routing, and particle separation......, have been developed and allow automation and integration of complex assay protocols in lab-on-a-disc systems. Besides liquid handling, the detection strategy for reading out the assay is crucial for developing a fully integrated system. In this review, we focus on biosensors and readout methods...... for the centrifugal microfluidics platform and cover optical as well as mechanical and electrical detection principles....

  10. Effect of Dental Caries on Children Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Malek Mohammadi

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The study examined the hypothesis that severe dental caries may affect growth and development in preschool children. Methods: The study examined 218 children with severe caries using standard diagnostic criteria. All children were weighed and measured and a food frequency questionnaire was completed for each. Six months subsequent to tooth extraction, 131 of the children were followed up and underwent repeat measurement of height, weight, dental health and food intake. For each child, body mass index (BMI was calculated, and all measurements were converted into standard deviation scores and compared to the UK 1990 growth reference. Results: In the six months period after having their decayed teeth extracted the children’s BMIs had increased by 0.654. Two-sided t-tests for paired data showed this difference to be significant (P< 0.01. Conclusion: Treatment of gross dental disease appears to promote "catch-up" growth and normalisation of body mass index.

  11. Bacteriocins in S. mutans strains isolated from children with and without dental caries: biotypes and sensitivity to antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamboa, Fredy; Chaves, Margarita; Estupiñan, Mabel; Galindo, Adriana

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the production of bacteriocins in the Streptococcus mutans strains isolated from children with and without dental caries. With this purpose the dmft index was determined and non-stimulated saliva was collected from 53 3- to 5-year-old children. The samples were cultured on Mitis Salivarius Bacitracin agar and incubated anaerobically for two days at 37 degrees C. The isolates were biotyped using the Api-ZYM enzymatic system (bioMérieux; Marcy-lE'toile, France). Bacteriocin was detected using the double layer onto brain heart infusion agar technique and the minimal inhibitory concentrations of the isolates were evaluated against penicillin, amoxycillin, cefazolin, erythromycin, clindamycin, imipenem and vancomycin using an agar dilution method. The dental caries experience in these children was 66% (35/53) and dmft index average was 3.2 (range 2-6). S. mutans was found in the saliva of 33 children (62%). In the 33 strains of S. mutans, 10 biotypes were found. Eight (24%) of the 33 strains evaluated produced bacteriocins, 6 of these strains came from patients with dental caries and the other two from patients without dental caries. All isolates were highly sensitive to the antibiotics tested.

  12. Root caries, root surface restorations and lifestyle factors in adult Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lisa Bøge; Jensen, Allan Bardow; Ekstrand, Kim

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate selected lifestyle factors in relation to active caries and restored root surface lesions in adults. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Based on clinical examinations and questionnaires, data on root caries, socioeconomic status, body mass index, dietary habits, alcohol consumption, tobacco...... dentures were significantly associated with presence of active root caries (p tobacco use and alcohol...... consumption, as well as wearing dentures, were significantly associated with the occurrence of untreated caries and restored root surface lesions, especially in persons over 45. Thus, such lifestyle factors should be taken into consideration, identifying persons with a need of preventive dental services...

  13. Surface Roughness of Initial Enamel Caries Lesions in Human Teeth After Resin Infiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Wolfgang H.; Meyer, Ann-Kathrin; Naumova, Ella A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Low viscosity resin infiltration of initial caries lesions is a modern microinvasive method to treat initial cries lesions. However, only scarce information is available about the long-term surface alterations of infiltrated lesions. Methods: Twenty-eight premolar teeth exhibiting non-cavitated initial caries lesions (International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS code 1&2)) were divided into two groups, one of which was infiltrated with resin, and the other remained untreated. The teeth underwent two thermocycling procedures. The surface roughness was determined quantitatively, and the results were evaluated statistically. In addition, the surfaces of the lesions were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the surface was analyzed visually with respect to surface irregularities. Results: The results showed a reduction in the surface roughness that was significant after 2500 thermocycles compared to the untreated surface. In the control specimens, no change in the surface roughness was found. The qualitative SEM data also showed a smooth surface after thermocycling, which supported the statistical findings. Conclusion: After thermocycling, resin-infiltrated enamel surfaces become smoother and had no additional risk for plaque accumulation. PMID:27733877

  14. Comparative diagnosis in the detection of decays involving conventional methods, laser, and digital x ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizarelli, Rosane F. Z.; Bregagnolo, Janete C.; Lizarelli, Renata Z.; Palhares, Juliana M. C.; Villa, Girlene E. P.; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.

    2000-03-01

    Occlusal surface caries are very difficult to diagnose at early stages, special difficulties are observed when the lesion is formed bilaterally in the pits and fissures walls. Preventive measures have been a constant concerning in the attempt to reduce the installation and progression of incipient occlusal decays. The early carious lesions detection through conventional diagnosis methods are questionable because they can end up with a risk of a false-positive or false-negative diagnosis. Using 22 teeth in vitro, premolars and molars, which suggested carious lesions, the exams were made by 3 examiners calibrated through pre-determined scores. The utilized methods were: GI -- visual inspection, GII -- tactile inspection (explorer probe), GIII -- conventional radiographic exam, GIV -- digital radiographic exam (Digora for Windows 1.51 and 1.51N, Soredex-orion Co.), GV -- low intensity laser for diagnosis (DIAGNOdent, KaVo, Germany; GVI -- histologic section. The examiners did not communicate among themselves during the exams. There were significant statistical difference among the evaluated methods. Under Friedman statistical test, GI, GIII and GIV were different from GV at the 0.1% level; when we have compared GII with GV, we observed statistical difference at the 1% level. In conclusion, GV was highly statistically different from the others groups, it means that the low intensity laser for diagnosis was the most sensible method to detect decayed tissue.

  15. Design of the Xylitol for Adult Caries Trial (X-ACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaechi Bennett T

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dental caries incidence in adults is similar to that in children and adolescents, but few caries preventive agents have been evaluated for effectiveness in adults populations. In addition, dentists direct fewer preventive services to their adult patients. Xylitol, an over-the-counter sweetener, has shown some potential as a caries preventive agent, but the evidence for its effectiveness is not yet conclusive and is based largely on studies in child populations. Methods/Design X-ACT is a three-year, multi-center, placebo controlled, double-blind, randomized clinical trial that tests the effects of daily use of xylitol lozenges versus placebo lozenges on the prevention of adult caries. The trial has randomized 691 participants (ages 21-80 to the two arms. The primary outcome is the increment of cavitated lesions. Discussion This trial should help resolve the overall issue of the effectiveness of xylitol in preventing caries by contributing evidence with a low risk of bias. Just as importantly, the trial will provide much-needed information about the effectiveness of a promising caries prevention agent in adults. An effective xylitol-based caries prevention intervention would represent an easily disseminated method to extend caries prevention to individuals not receiving caries preventive treatment in the dental office. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.Gov NCT00393055

  16. A novel method for detection of apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zagariya, Alexander M., E-mail: zagariya@uic.edu

    2012-04-15

    There are two different Angiotensin II (ANG II) peptides in nature: Human type (ANG II) and Bovine type (ANG II*). These eight amino acid peptides differ only at position 5 where Valine is replaced by Isoleucine in the Bovine type. They are present in all species studied so far. These amino acids are different by only one atom of carbon. This difference is so small, that it will allow any of ANG II, Bovine or Human antibodies to interact with all species and create a universal method for apoptosis detection. ANG II concentrations are found at substantially higher levels in apoptotic, compared to non-apoptotic, tissues. ANG II accumulation can lead to DNA damage, mutations, carcinogenesis and cell death. We demonstrate that Bovine antiserum can be used for universal detection of apoptosis. In 2010, the worldwide market for apoptosis detection reached the $20 billion mark and significantly increases each year. Most commercially available methods are related to Annexin V and TUNNEL. Our new method based on ANG II is more widely known to physicians and scientists compared to previously used methods. Our approach offers a novel alternative for assessing apoptosis activity with enhanced sensitivity, at a lower cost and ease of use.

  17. A comparative evaluation of dental caries status among hearing-impaired and normal children of Malda, West Bengal, evaluated with the Caries Assessment Spectrum and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudipta Kar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Dental caries is one of the major modern-day diseases of dental hard tissue. It may affect both normal and hearing-impaired children. Aims: This study is aimed to evaluate and compare the prevalence of dental caries in hearing-impaired and normal children of Malda, West Bengal, utilizing the Caries Assessment Spectrum and Treatment (CAST. Settings and Design: In a cross-sectional, case-control study of dental caries status of 6-12-year-old children was assessed. Subjects and Methods: Statistically significant difference was found in studied (hearing-impaired and control group (normal children. In the present study, caries affected hearing-impaired children found to be about 30.51% compared to 15.81% in normal children, and the result was statistically significant. Regarding individual caries assessment criteria, nearly all subgroups reflect statistically significant difference except sealed tooth structure group, internal caries-related discoloration in dentin, and distinct cavitation into dentine group, and the result is significant at P < 0.05. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was carried out utilizing Z-test. Results: Statistically significant difference was found in studied (hearing-impaired and control group (normal children. In the present study, caries effected hearing-impaired children found about 30.51% instead of 15.81% in normal children, and the result was statistically significant (P < 0.05. Regarding individual caries assessment criteria, nearly all subgroups reflect statistically significant difference except sealed tooth structure group, internal caries-related discoloration in dentin, and distinct cavitation into dentine group. Conclusions: Dental health of hearing-impaired children was found unsatisfactory than normal children when studied in relation to dental caries status evaluated with CAST.

  18. Diagnosis of occlusal caries: Part II. Recent diagnostic technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, L E; McComb, D

    2001-09-01

    Accurate diagnosis of the presence or absence of disease is a fundamental requirement in health care. The diagnosis of non-overt occlusal decay is challenging and can be highly subjective, and its inherent uncertainties can lead to widely differing treatment decisions. The purpose of this 2-part paper is to review current knowledge concerning conventional and new diagnostic methods for occlusal caries. Part I looked at established methods for diagnosing occlusal decay. These methods have several limitations, particularly in their ability to diagnose early carious lesions. Part II examines new and emerging technologies that are being developed for the diagnosis of occlusal decay. Electrical conductance measurements and quantitative laser- or light-induced fluorescence represent significant improvements over conventional diagnostic methods, especially for in vitro applications and particularly with regard to sensitivity and reproducibility. Proponents of the DIAGNOdent laser fluorescence system claim that it evaluates the fluorescence that develops when laser light is incident on areas of demineralization. This noninvasive device is simple to use and provides quantitative data. Studies supporting its validity are limited but do suggest good sensitivity and excellent reproducibility. However, the DIAGNOdent system requires more scientific scrutiny. Although it offers a high rate of disease detection, it has little ability to indicate the extent of decay. In all treatment decisions, clinicians must be aware of the limitations of the diagnostic methods that have been used. Clinical judgment based on the patient s case history, visual cues, review of radiographs and probability of disease is still the most important aspect of optimum patient care. New technologies may provide supplemental information, but they cannot yet replace established methods for the diagnosis of occlusal caries.

  19. Dental caries in HIV-seropositive women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, J A; Mulligan, R; Nelson, E; Brunelle, J; Alves, M E A F; Navazesh, M; Greenspan, D

    2004-11-01

    Reports that compare dental caries indices in HIV-seropositive (HIV+) subjects with HIV-seronegative (HIV-) subjects are rare. The objective of this study was to determine if there was an association between HIV infection and dental caries among women enrolled in the Women's Interagency HIV Study. Subjects included 538 HIV+ and 141 HIV- women at baseline and 242 HIV+ and 66 HIV- women at year 5. Caries indices included DMFS and DFS (coronal caries) and DFSrc (root caries). Cross-sectional analysis of coronal caries data revealed a 1.2-fold-higher caries prevalence among HIV+ women compared with HIV- women. Longitudinally, DMFS increased with increasing age and lower average stimulated salivary volume. Root caries results were not significant except for an overall increased DFSrc associated with smoking. Anti-retroviral therapy was not identified as a risk factor for dental caries.

  20. Computer Vision Method in Human Motion Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Li; FANG Shuai; XU Xin-he

    2007-01-01

    Human motion detection based on computer vision is a frontier research topic and is causing an increasing attention in the field of computer vision research. The wavelet transform is used to sharpen the ambiguous edges in human motion image. The shadow's effect to the image processing is also removed. The edge extraction can be successfully realized.This is an effective method for the research of human motion analysis system.

  1. 改良组织块酶消化法培养人龋损牙髓干细胞的实验研究%Culture of human caries dental pulp stem cells with combined explants method and enzymatic separation method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    麻丹丹; 高杰; 吴补领

    2011-01-01

    AIM; To compare the successfulness and the growth of human caries dental pulp stem cells(hCDPSCs) cultured with three different methods. METHODS: Twenty-five normal and caries human third molars were collected, the dental pulp tissues were cultured by the tissue explant method, tissue-explan collagenase digestion method and the combination of explant method and enzymatic separation method, respectively. The adherence of the explants, the morphology and quantity of cells were observed under a phase-contrast microscope. Culture duration was recorded. The clones were identified by expression of Stro-1 and CD90 and the growth curve of normal DPSCs and CDPSCs was drawn. RESULTS; Human normal DPSCs and CDPSCs could be cultured by all the three methods. A large number of human normal DPSCs and CDPSCs were cultured by the com hined explant method and enzymatic separation method in a shorter time, and these cells exhibited more vitality and more different morphologies. The growth rate of CDPSCs was higher than that of normal DPSCs . CONCLISION: The improved combination of explant method and enzymatic separation method is an ideal method for the primary culture of hCDPSCs in vitro, it may provide a methodological foundation for studying the mechanism of the formation of the tertiary dentine when the tooth was damaged.%目的:比较3种方法培养人龋损牙髓干细胞的成功率和细胞生长状态,以探求人龋损牙髓干细胞的最佳培养方法.方法:取18~22岁成人新鲜正常和龋损离体第三磨牙各25个,采用组织块法、酶消化法、改良组织块酶消化法培养牙髓干细胞.通过倒置显微镜观察组织块的贴壁以及细胞的形态和数量,并记录培养所需时间;有限稀释法纯化牙髓干细胞,流式细胞仪检测正常和龋损牙髓干细胞表面标记物Stro-1、CD 90的表达情况,绘制正常和龋损牙髓干细胞生长曲线.结果:组织块法、酶消化法和改良组织块酶消化法均可以培养

  2. Method for the detection of aquaretic compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    Disclosed is a method for detecting an aquaretic compound. In one embodiment, the method includes administering to a mammal a candidate compound that modulates a nociceptin receptor. Biological material is isolated from the mammal and expression of aquaporin-2 is measured. Modulation of the aquap...... of the aquaporin-2 is taken to be indicative of a candidate compound having aquaretic activity. The invention has a wide spectrum of uses including helping to identify new diuretics that spare unwanted loss of sodium and potassium ions....

  3. Improved method for detection of starch hydrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohawale, M.R.; Wilson, J.J.; Khachatourians, G.G.; Ingledew, W.M.

    1982-09-01

    A new starch hydrolysis detection method which does not rely on iodine staining or the use of color-complexed starch is described. A linear relationship was obtained with agar-starch plates when net clearing zones around colonies of yeasts were plotted against enzyme levels (semilogarithm scale) produced by the same yeast strains in liquid medium. A similar relationship between starch clearing zones and alpha-amylase levels from three different sources was observed. These observations suggest that the method is useful in mutant isolations, strain improvement programs, and the prediction of alpha-amylase activities in culture filtrates or column effluents. (Refs. 18).

  4. Improved method for detection of starch hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhawale, M R; Wilson, J J; Khachatourians, G G; Ingledew, W M

    1982-09-01

    A new starch hydrolysis detection method which does not rely on iodine staining or the use of color-complexed starch is described. A linear relationship was obtained with agar-starch plates when net clearing zones around colonies of yeasts were plotted against enzyme levels (semilogarithm scale) produced by the same yeast strains in liquid medium. A similar relationship between starch clearing zones and alpha-amylase levels from three different sources was observed. These observations suggest that the method is useful in mutant isolations, strain improvement programs, and the prediction of alpha-amylase activities in culture filtrates or column effluents.

  5. Obesity and dental caries: systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Emidio Ribeiro Silva

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE Identifying, through a systematic literature review, evidence of a possible association between obesity and dental caries. METHODS A search of articles published between 2005 and January 2012 was performed in the Medline/PubMed, LILACS and Web of Science databases. The quality of scientific evidence of the selected articles was assessed by the items proposed for observational studies in the Downs & Black instrument. RESULTS Initially, 537 references were found; after checking the titles and abstracts by two independent researchers, twenty-eight articles were selected for complete reading. Ten of them that assessed the primary and/or permanent dentition observed a positive association between obesity and dental caries and one study found an inverse association. According to the Downs & Black classification, thirteen articles with good scientific evidence were found. CONCLUSIONS The present review did not find sufficient evidence regarding the association between obesity and dental caries, and it did not clarify the possible role of diet and other possible effect modifiers on this association.

  6. Relation of salivary calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase with the incidence of dental caries in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayaprasad K

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to assess possible relationship of Calcium, Phosphorus and Alkaline-phophatase levels in saliva with incidence of caries in child patients. Settings and Design: Children (n=75 attending Department of Pedodontics, St. Joseph Dental college, Eluru, with and without caries were categorized in to Group I: Consisting of 25 children with non-rampant caries, Group II: Consisting of 25 children with rampant caries, Group III: Consisting of 25 children without caries. (Control group. Materials and Methods: The samples of saliva were collected one week after oral prophylaxis. Unstimulated directly expectorated whole saliva samples were collected in clean, dry, sterilized glass bottles and fitted with proper rubber stoppers immediately. The samples were subjected to biochemical assay for estimation of calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase levels. Statistical analysis used: ANOVA. Results: The alkaline Phosphatase activity for rampant caries group was 18.66 K.A, and control group was 4.68 K.A. The values of alkaline phosphatase activity for minimal caries group was 6.16 KA. Conclusion: Saliva could reflect a caries risk situation was supported by the fact that alkaline phosphatase activity was very much significantly higher in caries prone groups.

  7. Caries risk estimation in children regarding values of saliva buffer system components and carboanhydrase activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šurdilović Dušan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. One of the preconditions for efficacious systematic reduction of caries prevalence and prophylaxis is the determination of risks of this disease appearance. The aim of this study was to prove the significance of salivary carboanhydrase activity determination in estimation of caries risk in children. Methods. The study included 123 children of average age of 13.4±0.3 years and permanent dentition. The children were divided into two groups according to caries risk (low and high caries risk groups. Two samples of saliva - unstimulated and stimulated one were taken from each child. Salivary carboanhydrase activity, as well as pH value, bicarbonate and phosphate buffer levels were estimated in both group of saliva samples. Results. The investigation showed significantly higher carboanhydrase activity (p < 0.001 in both saliva samples in low caries risk group compared to high caries risk one. In children with low caries risk, both unstimulated and stimulated saliva show significantly higher bicarbonate and phosphate buffer concentrations (p < 0.001, as well as pH values. Conclusion. The lower caries incidence could be expected in children with high carboanhydrase activity and higher salivary buffer system parameters levels. The presented results suggest that salivary carboanhydrase activity represents the important marker of individual susceptibility for caries appearance in children.

  8. Analysis of the relationship between unilateral mastication and caries%习惯性偏侧咀嚼与龋病相关性调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛梦莹; 周玉乔; 陈谦明; 廖生

    2013-01-01

    目的 调查成都市青少年偏侧咀嚼习惯患病率、患龋率,并探讨偏侧咀嚼和龋病的关系.方法 对成都市3所初级中学部分学生(160名)进行标准口腔龋齿检测、偏侧咀嚼检查及问卷调查,分析偏侧咀嚼者、龋病患病率二者之间的相关性.结果 有偏侧咀嚼习惯时患龋率(60.71%)明显高于无偏侧咀嚼时患龋率(40.68%),偏侧咀嚼与龋齿患病之间显著正相关(Phi=0.198,P=0.018).结论 成都市青少年(14~15岁初中生)偏侧咀嚼者患龋率比非偏侧咀嚼者高,偏侧咀嚼和龋病存在一定相关性.在龋病预防发面,偏侧咀嚼的影响不可忽视.%OBJECTIVE The purpose is to investigate incidence of caries and unilateral mastication in adolescents, and to analyze the relationship between unilateral mastication and caries. METHODS By means of standard dental caries detection, unilateral mastication examination and questionnaire survey in students (160) among three junior middle schools in Chengdu, we analyzed the correlation between unilateral mastication and prevalence of dental caries. RESULTS According to the statistics, students with unilateral mastication had a 60.71% caries prevalence which was significantly higher than that of control group (40.68%). There was a significant positive correlation between unilateral mastication and dental caries prevalence (Phi = 0.198, P= 0.018). CONCLUSION Unilateral mastication and caries have a certain relevance, adolescents in Chengdu (14-15 year-old middle school students) with unilateral mastication have higher caries prevalence than that of none-unilateral-mastication. In the prevention of dental caries, the significance of preventing unilateral mastication should be highly valued.

  9. Waterborne Pathogens: Detection Methods and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flor Yazmín Ramírez-Castillo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Waterborne pathogens and related diseases are a major public health concern worldwide, not only by the morbidity and mortality that they cause, but by the high cost that represents their prevention and treatment. These diseases are directly related to environmental deterioration and pollution. Despite the continued efforts to maintain water safety, waterborne outbreaks are still reported globally. Proper assessment of pathogens on water and water quality monitoring are key factors for decision-making regarding water distribution systems’ infrastructure, the choice of best water treatment and prevention waterborne outbreaks. Powerful, sensitive and reproducible diagnostic tools are developed to monitor pathogen contamination in water and be able to detect not only cultivable pathogens but also to detect the occurrence of viable but non-culturable microorganisms as well as the presence of pathogens on biofilms. Quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA is a helpful tool to evaluate the scenarios for pathogen contamination that involve surveillance, detection methods, analysis and decision-making. This review aims to present a research outlook on waterborne outbreaks that have occurred in recent years. This review also focuses in the main molecular techniques for detection of waterborne pathogens and the use of QMRA approach to protect public health.

  10. Doppler method leak detection for LMFBR steam generators. Pt. 3. Investigation of detection sensitivity and method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumagai, Hiromichi; Kinoshita, Izumi [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Komae, Tokyo (Japan). Komae Research Lab

    2001-04-01

    To prevent the expansion of tube damage and to maintain structural integrity in the steam generators (SGs) of a fast breeder reactor (FBR), it is necessary to detect precisely and immediately any leakage of water from heat transfer tubes. Therefore, the Doppler method was developed. Previous studies have revealed that, in the SG full-sector model that simulates actual SGs, the Doppler method can detect bubbles of 0.4 l/s within a few seconds. However in consideration of the dissolution rate of hydrogen generated by a sodium-water reaction even from a small water leak, it is necessary to detect smaller leakages of water from the heat transfer tubes. The detection sensitivity of the Doppler method and the influence of background noise were experimentally investigated. In-water experiments were performed using the SG model. The results show that the Doppler method can detect bubbles of 0.01 l/s (equivalent to a water leak rate of about 0.01 g/s) within a few seconds and that the background noise has little effect on water leak detection performance. The Doppler method thus has great potential for the detection of water leakage in SGs. (author)

  11. The occurrence of dental caries is associated with atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Glodny

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have suggested that marginal periodontitis is a risk factor for developing atherosclerosis. The objective of this study was to determine whether caries may also be associated with atherosclerosis. METHODS: The computed tomography data sets of 292 consecutive patients, 137 women and 155 men with a mean age of 54.1±17.3 years, were analyzed. Caries were quantified based on the number of decayed surfaces of all the teeth, and periodontitis was quantified on the basis of the horizontal bone loss in the jaw. The presence of chronic apical periodontitis (CAP was assessed, and the aortic atherosclerotic burden was quantified using a calcium scoring method. RESULTS: The patients with <1 caries surfaces/tooth had a lower atherosclerotic burden (0.13±0.61 mL than patients with ≥1 caries surfaces/tooth. The atherosclerotic burden was greater in patients with a higher number of lesions with pulpal involvement and more teeth with chronic apical periodontitis. In the logistical regression models, age (Wald 49.3, number of caries per tooth (Wald 26.4, periodontitis (Wald 8.6, and male gender (Wald 11 were found to be independent risk factors for atherosclerosis. In the linear regression analyses, age and the number of decayed surfaces per tooth were identified as influencing factors associated with a higher atherosclerotic burden, and the number of restorations per tooth was associated with a lower atherosclerotic burden. CONCLUSION: Dental caries, pulpal caries, and chronic apical periodontitis are associated positively, while restorations are associated inversely, with aortic atherosclerotic burden. Prospective studies are required to confirm these observations and answer the question of possible causality.

  12. Caries en una población militar española Dental caries in a Spanish military population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Mombiedro Sandoval

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Evaluar la prevalencia de caries de la población militar española de la base "General Almirante" Marines, Valencia. Material y método: Estudio descriptivo transversal para el que se seleccionó una muestra de 387 militares para un IC del 95%. En el gabinete dental de la base se realizó la exploración oral siguiendo los criterios de la OMS (1997, 4ª edición. Un solo profesional experimentado con un explorador patrón llevó a cabo la encuesta entre diciembre del 2003 y julio del 2004. Resultados: El índice de dientes con caries, ausentes y obturados (CAO-D fue de 4,05. El 23% de la muestra estaba libre de caries. Presentaban caries sin tratar el 40% de los explorados, siendo significativamente superior el porcentaje en la tropa y en los que referían no cepillarse de forma regular. El índice de restauración (% O/ CAO-D fue del 60%. La población de tropa presentó con significación estadística mas caries y menos dientes con caries tratada (A,O que el grupo de oficiales y suboficiales. Conclusiones: Casi la mitad de la población encuestada precisa tratamiento por caries. Estrategias de asistencia basadas en políticas preventivas de diagnostico precoz y de asistencia personalizada en función del riesgo individual de caries, adaptadas al medio militar, pudieran ser la clave para poder desplegar en un futuro tropas que no ocasionen emergencias en futuras operaciones.Object: The target of this study was to assess the prevalence of caries in a population of Spanish military personnel at the "General Almirante " base at Marines (Valencia. Material and Method: A descriptive cross-sectional study was made of a sample of 387 military personnel, (95% CI. The oral examinations were conducted at the dental clinic at the base, in accordance with the WHO (1997, 4th ed. criteria, by a single dentist calibrated against an experienced examiner. The survey was conducted between December 2003 and July 2004. Results: The decayed, missed and

  13. Gene-environment Interactions in the Etiology of Dental Caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, G; Ermis, R B; Calapoglu, N S; Celik, E U; Türel, G Y

    2016-01-01

    Dental caries is a multifactorial disease that can be conceptualized as an interaction between genetic and environmental risk factors. The aim of this study is to examine the effects of AMELX, CA6, DEFB1, and TAS2R38 gene polymorphism and gene-environment interactions on caries etiology and susceptibility in adults. Genomic DNA was extracted from the buccal mucosa, and adults aged 20 to 60 y were placed into 1 of 2 groups: low caries risk (DMFT ≤ 5; n = 77) and high caries risk (DMFT ≥ 14; n = 77). The frequency of AMELX (+522), CA6 (T55M), DEFB1 (G-20A), and TAS2R38 (A49P) single-nucleotide polymorphisms was genotyped with the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Environmental risk factors examined in the study included plaque amount, toothbrushing frequency, dietary intake between meals, saliva secretion rate, saliva buffer capacity, mutans streptococci counts, and lactobacilli counts. There was no difference between the caries risk groups in relation to AMELX (+522) polymorphism (χ(2) test, P > 0.05). The distribution of CA6 genotype and allele frequencies in the low caries risk group did not differ from the high caries risk group (χ(2) test, P > 0.05). Polymorphism of DEFB1 (G-20A) was positively associated, and TAS2R38 (A49P) negatively associated, with caries risk (χ(2) test, P = 0.000). There were significant differences between caries susceptibility and each environmental risk factor, except for the saliva secretion rate (Mann-Whitney U test, P = 0.000). Based on stepwise multiple linear regression analyses, dental plaque amount, lactobacilli count, age, and saliva buffer capacity, as well as DEFB1 (G-20A), TAS2R38 (A49P), and CA6 (T55M) gene polymorphism, explained a total of 87.8% of the variations in DMFT scores. It can be concluded that variation in CA6 (T55M), DEFB1 (G-20A), and TAS2R38 (A49P) may be associated with caries experience in Turkish adults with a high level of dental plaque, lactobacilli count

  14. A new method for FMRI activation detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jianing; Talavage, Thomas M.; Pollak, Ilya

    2009-02-01

    The objective of fMRI data analysis is to detect the region of the brain that gets activated in response to a specific stimulus presented to the subject. We develop a new algorithm for activation detection in event-related fMRI data. We utilize a forward model for fMRI data acquisition which explicitly incorporates physiological noise, scanner noise and the spatial blurring introduced by the scanner. After slice-by-slice image restoration procedure that independently restores each data slice corresponding to each time index, we estimate the parameters of the hemodynamic response function (HRF) model for each pixel of the restored data. In order to enforce spatial regularity in our estimates, we model the prior distribution of the HRF parameters as a generalized Gaussian Markov random field (GGMRF) model. We develop an algorithm to compute the maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimates of the parameters. We then threshold the amplitude parameters to obtain the final activation map. We illustrate our algorithm by comparing it with the widely used general linear model (GLM) method. In synthetic data experiments, under the same probability of false alarm, the probability of correct detection for our method is up to 15% higher than GLM. In real data experiments, through anatomical analysis and benchmark testing using block paradigm results, we demonstrate that our algorithm produces fewer false alarms than GLM.

  15. 龋病早期诊断的现代理念与方法%New concept and moden high-teehes for early diagnosis of dental caries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚晖; 张林朴; 李燕妮; 徐延勇; 王冠华

    2009-01-01

    介绍龋病成因及其早期诊断的现代理念和诊断标准,客观叙述了光学相干断层成像(OCT)、定量光激发荧光法(QIF)、激光荧光技术(IF)、红外热成像(IHT)、超声成像(UIT)等新兴龋齿早期检测技术的研究进展、存在问题和临床应用前景.指出经不断探索完善后的快速、无创、量化的现代龋齿早期检测技术将会使未来的牙科医生能够高效精确地在亚临床水平早期诊断龋病并采取有效的干预措施及时遏制甚至逆转龋病进程,降低龋齿发病率,提高人体健康水平.%Introduce etiopathogenisis of odontosphacelism,ideal early diagnostic standard for detecting caries,as well as new concept and hish-teches for early diagnosis of dental caries.Recount objectively the great achivments obtained nowadays for early caries dictating with optical coherence tomography(OCT),quantitative light induced fluorescence(QLF),laser fluorescence methods(LF),ultrasonic imaging technique (UZT) and infrared heat imaging technique(IHT),also the remaining inadequacy and clinical perspective of all.Finally pointed that the improved moden high-teches for quantitively dictating early dental caries will provide dentist with new effective,precise and un-traumatic diagnostic methods to arrest decayed process preclinically and adopt early intervention to dental caries as soon as possible,so as to reduce the incidence of caries and keep the health of human body.

  16. Caries-related factors and bacterial composition of supragingival plaques in caries free and caries active Algerian adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amina Hoceini

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: This study confirms the association of some aciduric bacteria with caries formation, and a direct association of sugar intake and cultural level with dental caries. Furthermore, oral hygiene practices minimize the prevalence of tooth decay.

  17. The role of school-based dental programme on dental caries experience in Yogyakarta Province, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amalia, Rosa; Schaub, Rob M. H.; Widyanti, Niken; Stewart, Roy; Groothoff, Johan W.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To assess the effectiveness of a school-based dental programme (SBDP) in controlling caries by measuring the relationship between the SBDP performance and caries experience in children aged 12 in Yogyakarta Province, Indonesia, by taking into account influencing factors. Methods. A cross

  18. Microtensile bond strength of three simplified adhesive systems to caries-affected dentin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtanus, J.D.; Purwanta, K.; Dogan, N.; Kleverlaan, C.J.; Feilzer, A.J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to determine the microtensile bond strength of three different simplified adhesive systems to caries-affected dentin. Materials and Methods: Fifteen extracted human molars with primary carious lesions were ground flat until dentin was exposed. Soft caries-infect

  19. Microtensile Bond Strength of Three Simplified Adhesive Systems to Caries-affected Dentin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtanus, Johannes; Purwanta, Kenny; Dogan, Nilgun; Kleverlaan, Cees J.; Feilzer, Albert J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to determine the microtensile bond strength of three different simplified adhesive systems to caries-affected dentin. Materials and Methods: Fifteen extracted human molars with primary carious lesions were ground flat until dentin was exposed. Soft caries-infect

  20. Inequalities of caries experience in Nevada youth expressed by DMFT index vs. Significant Caries Index (SiC over time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mobley Connie

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the increasingly polarized distribution of dental caries among children and adolescents, the usual DMFT measure has become a less meaningful population descriptor. To re-focus on identifying the high caries prevalence group the Significant Caries Index (SiC was created. The aims of this study were to analyze the prevalence and severity of dental caries in Nevada youth over a period of eight years and to compare its expression by means of DMFT and SiC; analyze the caries trends in the population and their underlying factors, and determine whether Nevada youth were at risk for significantly high levels of dental caries. Methods Retrospective data was analyzed from a series of sequential, standardized oral health surveys across eight years (2001/2002-2008/2009 that included over 62,000 examinations of adolescents 13-19 years of age, attending public/private Nevada schools. Mean Decayed-Missing-Filled Teeth index (DMFT and Significant Caries Index (SiC were subsequently computed for each academic year. Descriptive statistics were reported for analysis of comparative DMFT and SiC scores in relation to age, gender, racial background, and residence in a fluoridated/non-fluoridated community. Logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the differential impact of the variables on the probability of being in the high caries prevalence group. Results Comparison of students' mean DMFT to National (NHANES data confirmed that dental caries remains a common chronic disease among Nevada youth, presenting higher prevalence rates and greater mean scores than the national averages. Downward trends were found across all demographics compared between survey years 1 and 6 with the exception of survey year 3. An upward trend began in survey year six. Over time, the younger group displayed an increasing proportion of cariesfree individuals while a decreasing proportion was found among older examinees. As expected, the mean SiC score was

  1. In-vitro near-infrared imaging of natural secondary caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Jacob C.; Lucas, Seth; Lee, Robert; Darling, Cynthia L.; Staninec, Michal; Vanderhobli, Ram; Pelzner, Roger; Fried, Daniel

    2015-02-01

    Secondary caries stands as the leading reason for the failure of composite restorations and dentists spend more time replacing existing restorations than placing new ones. Current clinical strategies, and even modern visible light methods designed to detect decay, lack the sensitivity to distinguish incipient lesions, are confounded by staining on the surface and within the tooth, or are limited to detecting decay on the tooth surface. Near-IR (NIR) imaging methods, such as NIR reflectance and transillumination imaging, and optical coherence tomography are promising strategies for imaging secondary caries. Wavelengths longer than 1300-nm avoid interference from stain and exploit the greater transparency of sound enamel and dental composites, to provide increased contrast with demineralized tissues and improved imaging depth. The purpose of this study was to determine whether NIR transillumination (λ=1300-nm) and NIR crosspolarized reflectance (λ=1500-1700-nm) images can serve as reliable indicators of demineralization surrounding composite restorations. Twelve composite margins (n=12) consisting of class I, II and V restorations were chosen from ten extracted teeth. The samples were imaged in vitro using NIR transillumination and reflectance, polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) and a high-magnification digital visible light microscope. Samples were serially sectioned into 200-μm slices for histological analysis using polarized light microscopy (PLM) and transverse microradiography (TMR). The results presented demonstrate the utility of NIR light for detecting recurrent decay and suggest that NIR images could be a reliable screening tool used in conjunction with PS-OCT for the detection and diagnosis of secondary caries.

  2. SCHOOL DIETARY HABITS AND INCIDENCE OF DENTAL CARIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteagudo, Celia; Téllez, Francisco; Heras-González, Leticia; Ibañez-Peinado, Diana; Mariscal-Arcas, Miguel; Olea-Serrano, Fatima

    2015-07-01

    Introducción: los hábitos alimentarios saludables influyen sobre la salud oral. El tratamiento de la caries comprende la restauración dental con selladores y composites dentales, la mayoría con bisfenol A (BPA). Hipótesis: a) el desayuno y hábitos de higiene oral son factores importantes en el desarrollo de caries; b) el tratamiento de la caries con epoxirresinas conlleva riesgo de exposición oral a monómeros plásticos. Objetivo: relacionar la ingesta del desayuno y los hábitos de higiene oral con la caries dental y determinar la presencia de selladores/composites como fuentes potenciales de exposición al BPA. Métodos: se analizaron 582 niños/as en edad escolar de Granada (sur de España) de 7 años de edad (7,55 [0,64] años). Se empleó un cuestionario de frecuencia de consumo de alimentos, 3 recordatorios de 24 h y variables de estilo de vida, incluyendo la higiene bucodental. La calidad del desayuno fue estimada con el Breakfast Quality Index (BQI). Resultados: se detectó un 21,7% de caries. El valor medio del BQI fue 5,18 (1,29). El 24% de la población realizó un desayuno con alimentos ricos en azúcares simples (> 5% de la energía total), asociado significativamente con la frecuencia de caries en el análisis de regresión logística. El 35,8% de los participantes tomaron galletas; asociado significativamente con la frecuencia de caries. La ingesta de productos de panadería, cereales y lácteos mostró una asociación inversamente significativa con la frecuencia de caries. Conclusión: se necesitan más investigaciones para aclarar el papel de la dieta en la caries y el riesgo de exposición a xenobióticos estrogénicos, como el BPA.

  3. Methods and Instruments for Fast Neutron Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, David V.; Reeder, Paul L.; Cooper, Matthew W.; McCormick, Kathleen R.; Peurrung, Anthony J.; Warren, Glen A.

    2005-05-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory evaluated the performance of a large-area (~0.7 m2) plastic scintillator time-of-flight (TOF) sensor for direct detection of fast neutrons. This type of sensor is a readily area-scalable technology that provides broad-area geometrical coverage at a reasonably low cost. It can yield intrinsic detection efficiencies that compare favorably with moderator-based detection methods. The timing resolution achievable should permit substantially more precise time windowing of return neutron flux than would otherwise be possible with moderated detectors. The energy-deposition threshold imposed on each scintillator contributing to the event-definition trigger in a TOF system can be set to blind the sensor to direct emission from the neutron generator. The primary technical challenge addressed in the project was to understand the capabilities of a neutron TOF sensor in the limit of large scintillator area and small scintillator separation, a size regime in which the neutral particle’s flight path between the two scintillators is not tightly constrained.

  4. Imaging caries lesions and lesion progression with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, Daniel; Xie, John; Shafi, Sahar; Featherstone, John D. B.; Breunig, Thomas; Le, Charles Q.

    2002-06-01

    New diagnostic tools are needed for the characterization of dental caries in the early stages of development. If carious lesions are detected early enough, they can be arrested without the need for surgical intervention. The objective of this study was to demonstrate that polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) can be used for the imaging of early caries lesions and for the monitoring of lesion progression over time. High-resolution polarization resolved images were acquired of natural caries lesions and simulated caries lesions of varying severity created over time periods of 1 to 14 days. Linearly polarized light was incident on the tooth samples and the reflected intensity in both orthogonal polarizations was measured. PS-OCT was invaluable for removing the confounding influence of surface reflections and native birefringence and for resolving the surface structure of caries lesions. This study demonstrated that PS-OCT is well suited for the resolution of interproximal and occlusal caries, early root caries, and secondary caries around composite fillings. Longitudinal measurements of lesion progression established a strong correlation (p<0.001) between the reflected light from the lesion area and the square root of time indicating that PS-OCT is well suited for monitoring changes in enamel mineralization over time.

  5. Genetic Association of MMP10, MMP14, and MMP16 with Dental Caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feingold, E.; Cooper, M.; Vanyukov, M. M.; Maher, B. S.; Slayton, R. L.; Willing, M. C.; Reis, S. E.; Crout, R. J.; Weyant, R. J.; Levy, S. M.; Marazita, M. L.

    2017-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), which degrade extracellular proteins as part of a variety of physiological processes, and their inhibitors have been implicated in the dental caries process. Here we investigated 28 genetic variants spanning the MMP10, MMP14, and MMP16 genes to detect association with dental caries experience in 13 age- and race-stratified (n = 3,587) samples from 6 parent studies. Analyses were performed separately for each sample, and results were combined across samples by meta-analysis. Two SNPs (rs2046315 and rs10429371) upstream of MMP16 were significantly associated with caries in an individual sample of white adults and via meta-analysis across 8 adult samples after gene-wise adjustment for multiple comparisons. Noteworthy is SNP rs2046315 (p = 8.14 × 10−8) association with caries in white adults. This SNP was originally nominated in a genome-wide-association study (GWAS) of dental caries in a sample of white adults and yielded associations in a subsequent GWAS of surface level caries in white adults as well. Therefore, in our study, we were able to recapture the association between rs2046315 and dental caries in white adults. Although we did not strengthen evidence that MMPs 10, 14, and 16 influence caries risk, MMP16 is still a likely candidate gene to pursue. PMID:28348596

  6. Caries prevention with fluoride toothpaste in children: an update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, S

    2009-01-01

    AIM: The aim was to examine recent literature and review the caries-preventive effect of fluoride toothpaste in children. METHODS: Based on three comprehensive systematic reviews published in 2003, a broad search of the PubMed and Cochrane library databases was conducted for papers published 2002...... fluorosis in low-caries communities but not in socially deprived high-caries populations. CONCLUSIONS: The results reinforced the outstanding role of fluoride toothpaste as an effective caries preventive measure in children.......AIM: The aim was to examine recent literature and review the caries-preventive effect of fluoride toothpaste in children. METHODS: Based on three comprehensive systematic reviews published in 2003, a broad search of the PubMed and Cochrane library databases was conducted for papers published 2002...... of the study. The targeted papers were critically assessed concerning design, methodology and performance according to a pre-determined checklist. RESULTS: The initial search revealed 179 papers of which 15 met the inclusion criteria. There was strong evidence that daily use of fluoride toothpaste has...

  7. Ozone therapy in the management and prevention of caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almaz, Merve Erkmen; Sönmez, Işıl Şaroğlu

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to assess the effectiveness of ozone therapy in the management and prevention of caries, reviewing clinical and in vitro studies. Ozone has proven to be effective against gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, viruses, and fungi. In dentistry, most of the published articles are based on ozone's antimicrobial effects and the treatment of caries. Most of the clinical studies reported ozone to be a promising alternative to conventional methods for caries management. However, a few studies have shown ozone to be insufficient for preventing caries and reducing microorganisms in open occlusal carious lesions. Ozone might be a useful tool to reduce and control oral infectious microorganisms in dental plaque and dental cavity. However, the results of in vitro studies are controversial; while some researchers reported that ozone therapy had a minimal or no effect on the viability of microorganisms, others suggested ozone to be highly effective in killing both gram-positive and gram-negative oral microorganisms. Therefore, more evidence is required before ozone can be accepted as an alternative to present methods for the management and prevention of caries.

  8. Lagrangian based methods for coherent structure detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allshouse, Michael R., E-mail: mallshouse@chaos.utexas.edu [Center for Nonlinear Dynamics and Department of Physics, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Peacock, Thomas, E-mail: tomp@mit.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    There has been a proliferation in the development of Lagrangian analytical methods for detecting coherent structures in fluid flow transport, yielding a variety of qualitatively different approaches. We present a review of four approaches and demonstrate the utility of these methods via their application to the same sample analytic model, the canonical double-gyre flow, highlighting the pros and cons of each approach. Two of the methods, the geometric and probabilistic approaches, are well established and require velocity field data over the time interval of interest to identify particularly important material lines and surfaces, and influential regions, respectively. The other two approaches, implementing tools from cluster and braid theory, seek coherent structures based on limited trajectory data, attempting to partition the flow transport into distinct regions. All four of these approaches share the common trait that they are objective methods, meaning that their results do not depend on the frame of reference used. For each method, we also present a number of example applications ranging from blood flow and chemical reactions to ocean and atmospheric flows.

  9. Comparison of detection methods for vaginal lactobacilli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smidt, I; Kiiker, R; Oopkaup, H; Lapp, E; Rööp, T; Truusalu, K; Štšepetova, J; Truu, J; Mändar, R

    2015-01-01

    Vaginal lactobacilli offer protection against microbiota imbalance and genitourinary tract infections. We compared vaginal lactobacilli in 50 Estonian women of child-bearing age applying culture-based methods, quantitative PCR and next-generation sequencing (NGS). The culture-based methods found three different lactobacilli: Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus jensenii and Lactobacillus gasseri. Using NGS revealed the presence of L. crispatus in 76%, Lactobacillus iners in 52%, L. jensenii in 47% and L. gasseri in 33% of the samples. According to qPCR, L. iners was present in 67% and L. crispatus in 64% of the samples. The proportions of L. crispatus revealed by qPCR and NGS were in good correlation (R=0.79, P0.05). Good concordance for L. crispatus was also found between the results of the culture-based method and qPCR. Finally, good overlap between the results of the culture-based method and NGS was revealed: in case of a positive NGS result for L. crispatus, the same species was isolated in 95% of samples. The corresponding percentages were 82% for L. jensenii and 86% for L. gasseri. Our data indicate fairly general concordance of the three methods for detecting vaginal lactobacilli, except for L. iners. This points out the importance of standardisation of techniques, and the respective studies should involve cultures applying a medium suitable for the fastidious L. iners.

  10. Nucleic acid detection system and method for detecting influenza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Hong; Song, Jian

    2015-03-17

    The invention provides a rapid, sensitive and specific nucleic acid detection system which utilizes isothermal nucleic acid amplification in combination with a lateral flow chromatographic device, or DNA dipstick, for DNA-hybridization detection. The system of the invention requires no complex instrumentation or electronic hardware, and provides a low cost nucleic acid detection system suitable for highly sensitive pathogen detection. Hybridization to single-stranded DNA amplification products using the system of the invention provides a sensitive and specific means by which assays can be multiplexed for the detection of multiple target sequences.

  11. Nutrition and Experimental Dental Caries

    OpenAIRE

    田村,俊吉; タムラ, シュンキチ; Shunkichi, TAMURA

    1983-01-01

    Nutrition is an effective factor for the inhibition of the development of dental caries. The constitution of diet has a strong bearing on the development of dental caries. However the theoretical background regarding the development of dental caries has not been sastifactorily established. Experimentally, we have clarified the relation of nutrition and dental caries in rats. Experimental animals used in this study were Wistar strain Albino rats (closed colony, Tamura, 1950). Young rats of 21 ...

  12. Observation on Clinical Efficacy of Four Methods for Repairing Root Caries in the Elderly%老年根面龋四种修复方法的临床疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱瑜蕾; 姜巧玲; 朱鹏

    2015-01-01

    目的:比较4种方法修复老年根面龋的临床疗效。方法:选择141例60岁及以上患者的240颗根面龋患牙分为4组,分别采用FX-Ⅱ玻璃离子直接充填(A组)、光固化纳米复合树脂直接充填(B组)及排龈后FX-Ⅱ玻璃离子充填(C组)、排龈后光固化纳米复合树脂充填(D组)4种方法修复根面龋,术后随访1年。结果:充填后1年A组、B组、C组和D组的成功率分别为83.3%、81.7%、86.7%和96.7%,其中D组显著高于前三组,差异有统计学意义(P0.05)。结论:对累及龈缘及龈下的老年根面龋用排龈后光固化纳米复合树脂充填修复效果好。%Objective:To compare the clinical efficacy of four methods for repairing root caries in the elderly.Method:240 teeth of 141 elderly patients(≥60 y) with root caries were randomly divided into 4 groups,group A was treated by FX-Ⅱglass ionomer(non-gingival retraction),group B was treated with light cured composite resin(non-gingival retraction),group C was treated with FX-Ⅱglass ionomer(gingival retraction),and group D was treated with light cured composite resin(gingival retraction),the patients were followed up for one year.Result:The successful rate of group A was 83.3%,group B was 81.7%, group C was 86.7%and group D was 96.7%after 1 year.Group D was significantly different from the other three groups(P0.05).Conclusion:Light cured composite resin with gingival retraction used in margin and subgingival root caries in the elderly is effective.

  13. Evolución de la prevalencia de caries y gingivitis en niños de 6 y 12 años de Peralillo, VI Región,entre el año 2000 y el 2010 Caries and gingivitis changes among 6 and 12 year-old children of Peralillo, Chile, between 2000 and 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Cárdenas Espinoza

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Dada la limitada información epidemiológica en Chile sobre las patologías orales más prevalentes y el efecto de los programas de salud instaurados, el objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar los cambios en la prevalencia de caries y gingivitis en una población de 6 y 12 años de la VI Región, entre los años 2000 y 2010. Sujetos y Métodos: 143 sujetos de 6 y 12 años atendidos en el CESFAM de Peralillo fueron examinados clínicamente para detectar caries y diagnosticar gingivitis. Las fichas clínicas de 134 niños de las mismas edades y procedencia atendidos el año 2000 fueron analizadas para comparar los indicadores. Se obtuvo el índice de caries mediante el COPD y el ceod, además del diagnóstico gingival mediante parámetros clínicos. Los resultados de ambos años fueron comparados estadísticamente y las diferencias consideradas significativas si pAim: Given the limited epidemiological information in Chile on the most common oral diseases and the effectiveness of the existent programs, the aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in caries and gingivitis prevalence in a 6 and 12 year-old children from the VI Region, between the years 2000 and 2010. Subjects and Methods: 143 6 and 12 year-old children treated at the CESFAM of Peralillo were clinically examined to detect and diagnose caries and gingivitis. Clinical records of 134 same ages children treated at the same service in the year 2000 were analyzed to compare the indexes. Caries index was obtained by DMFT and dmft and gingivitis was assessed by clinical parameters. Results obtained both years were compared and considered significant if p<0.05. Results: Caries prevalence decreased in the group of 6 year-olds from 89% to 65%, but only DMFT showed a significant reduction from 0.93 to 0.086. In the 12 year-old children, neither caries prevalence nor DMFT showed significant changes within the 10-year period. Conclusions: In spite of a slight decrease, caries

  14. Caries og de nye nationale indkaldeintervaller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekstrand, Kim; Bruun, Gitte; Bakhshandeh, Azam

    2015-01-01

    obligatorisk at gøre under de nye retningslinjer. Det gennemgås, hvilke behandlinger der er relevante for patienten i forhold til de tre cariesdiagnoser: Caries dentalis progressiva superficialis (CS), Caries dentalis progressiva media (CM) og Caries dentalis progressiva profunda (CP). Diagnoserne angiver...

  15. The prevalence of questionable occlusal caries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makhija, Sonia K; Gilbert, Gregg H; Funkhouser, Ellen;

    2012-01-01

    Questionable occlusal caries (QOC) can be defined as clinically suspected caries with no cavitation or radiographic evidence of occlusal caries. To the authors' knowledge, no one has quantified the prevalence of QOC, so this quantification was the authors' objective in conducting this study...

  16. Caries dental en escolares del Distrito Federal Dental caries in school children in Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARÍA ESTHER IRIGOYEN-CAMACHO

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Presentar las estimaciones de la prevalencia y la severidad de caries dental, así como las necesidades de tratamiento de la población escolar del Distrito Federal examinada en la encuesta de caries dental que se llevó a cabo en 1988 con la finalidad de obtener datos basales sobre caries en los escolares al inicio del Programa Nacional de Fluoruración de la Sal en México. Material y métodos. La población de estudio fue seleccionada empleando un marco muestral basado en el listado de las escuelas primarias y los jardines de niños registrados por la Secretaría de Educación Pública en 1988. En el examen de la cavidad bucal de los escolares se utilizaron los criterios diagnósticos señalados por la Organización Mundial de la Salud. Resultados. Un total de 4 475 escolares de 5 a 12 años de edad participaron en el estudio. La prevalencia de caries dental en la población alcanzó 90.5%. El índice de necesidades de tratamiento fue elevado (79.6%. El promedio de los índices de caries en los escolares de 12 años de edad fue CPOD= 4.42 (desviación estándar –DE– 3.2 y CPOS= 6.53 (DE 4.8. Conclusiones. Los resultados de la encuesta subrayan la pertinencia de un programa preventivo de amplia cobertura, como el de fluoruración de la sal. Además, muestran que se requiere elaborar estrategias para mejorar el acceso de la población escolar a los servicios odontológicos del sistema de salud en México.Objective. To estimate the prevalence and severity of dental caries and the dental treatment necessities of school children in Mexico City. The studied population was surveyed for dental caries in 1988 to obtain data necessary for the National Program of Salt Fluoridation in Mexico. Material and methods. The population was selected with a sample frame based on a list of Kindergardens and primary schools registered at the Ministry of Public Education in 1988. The oral cavity examination was based on diagnostic criteria marked by the

  17. Thermoluminescence method for detection of irradiated food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinnioja, S

    1998-12-31

    A method of thermoluminescence (TL) analysis was developed for the detection of irradiated foods. The TL method is based on the determination of thermoluminescence of adhering or contaminating minerals separated from foods by wet sieving and treatment with high density liquid. Carbon tetrachloride provided a suitable alternative for foods that form gels with water. Thermoluminescence response of minerals in a first TL measurement is normalised with a second TL measurement of the same mineral sample after calibration irradiation to a dose of 5 kGy. The decision about irradiation is made on the basis of a comparison of the two TL spectra: if the two TL glow curves match in shape and intensity the sample has been irradiated, and if they are clearly different it has not been irradiated. An attractive feature of TL analysis is that the mineral material itself is used for calibration; no reference material is required. Foods of interest in the investigation were herbs, spices, berries and seafood. The presence of minerals in samples is a criterion for application of the method, and appropriate minerals were found in all herbs, spices and berries. The most common minerals in terrestrial food were tecto-silicates - quartz and feldspars - which with their intense and stable thermoluminescence were well suited for the analysis. Mica proved to be useless for detection purposes, whereas carbonate in the form of calcite separated from intestines of seafood was acceptable. Fading of the TL signal is considerable in the low temperature part of the glow curve during a storage of several months after irradiation. However, spices and herbs could easily be identified as irradiated even after two years storage. Conditions for seafood, which is stored in a freezer, are different, and only slight fading was observed after one year. The effect of mineral composition and structure on TL was studied for feldspars. Feldspars originating from subtropical and tropical regions exhibit lower TL

  18. Childhood caries in the state of Kentucky, USA: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandel Elizabeth A

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Untreated dental caries afflicts almost one third of school-aged children in the United States and many of them are from disadvantaged families. This cross-sectional study was undertaken to investigate the prevalence of untreated caries in north central Kentucky, USA and to examine the relationships between the available demographic variables and untreated childhood caries as reported on the forms from the Smile Kentucky! program. Methods During the fall of 2008, caries status was assessed during the visual oral screening examination component of “SmileKentucky!”– a model of the American Dental Association’s Give Kids A Smile program. Parents had completed brief surveys concerning 3,488 elementary school children aged 5 to 13 years who participated in the program. A secondary analysis was conducted using univariate, bivariate and multivariate statistical methods. Results Untreated caries was reported in 33% of children. Bivariate and logistic regression analyses found that the most significant risk factors for having untreated caries were living in the metropolitan Louisville, Kentucky area, not having had a dental visit in the previous 3 years and not having any form of dental insurance. Conclusions Untreated caries in elementary school children is prevalent in north-central Kentucky despite efforts to improve access to care. The results suggest that additional family and community preventive initiatives are needed to reduce the development of childhood caries in this area of the United States.

  19. Oratest: A new concept to test caries activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Saxena

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Caries activity tests are based on the concept of a specific odontogenic infection, the principle causative organism being streptococci mutans. Their predominance is attributed to its acidogenic and aciduric nature after a selective growth advantages over the other non- acid tolerant organisms. Many studies on caries activity are aimed at finding relevant microorganisms. Till date, the ideal method to evaluate in terms of sensitivity, specialization and reliability has not been found. Many of these caries activity tests require extensive work up time and additional equipment. Rosenberg et al. in 1989 developed Oratest, a simple, economical, non- invasive and less time-consuming test for estimating the oral microbial level. The test is simple and consists of rinsing the mouth with 10 ml of sterile milk, 3 ml of which is mixed with 0.12 ml of 0.1% methylene blue dye and observed for colour change. The present study sample consists of twenty five children with dental caries and twenty five controls, free of caries, gingivitis and other oral ailments. This study is being conducted in the department of Oral Pathology & Microbiology and is in the preliminary phase so further results are awaited.

  20. Dermatoglyphics: A genetic marker of early childhood caries

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    C Anitha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is an accepted fact that genetics plays an important role in determination of palmar dermatoglyphic patterns. Since caries is a multifactorial disease with the influence of genetic pattern, this study was undertaken to explore the possibility of dermatoglyphics as a noninvasive and early predictor of dental caries in children, so as to initiate preventive oral health measures at an early age. Materials and Methods: The study group comprised of 200 children aged between 4 and 5 years. The dmfs score was evaluated. The experimental group (Group 1, comprised of 100 children with early childhood caries (ECC with dmfs >5. The control group (Group 2 comprised of 100 children with dmfs score of 0. Results: An increased frequency of ulnar loops in caries-free children and whorls in children with ECC was observed. Low mean atd angle and low mean. Total ridge count was observed in the ECC group. Conclusion: There is definite variation in dermatoglyphics between the ECC and caries-free group, indicating that dermatoglyphic patterns can be used as a predictive tool for children with ECC.

  1. Odour Detection Methods: Olfactometry and Chemical Sensors

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    Sara Lovascio

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of the odours issue arises from the sensory nature of smell. From the evolutionary point of view olfaction is one of the oldest senses, allowing for seeking food, recognizing danger or communication: human olfaction is a protective sense as it allows the detection of potential illnesses or infections by taking into account the odour pleasantness/unpleasantness. Odours are mixtures of light and small molecules that, coming in contact with various human sensory systems, also at very low concentrations in the inhaled air, are able to stimulate an anatomical response: the experienced perception is the odour. Odour assessment is a key point in some industrial production processes (i.e., food, beverages, etc. and it is acquiring steady importance in unusual technological fields (i.e., indoor air quality; this issue mainly concerns the environmental impact of various industrial activities (i.e., tanneries, refineries, slaughterhouses, distilleries, civil and industrial wastewater treatment plants, landfills and composting plants as sources of olfactory nuisances, the top air pollution complaint. Although the human olfactory system is still regarded as the most important and effective “analytical instrument” for odour evaluation, the demand for more objective analytical methods, along with the discovery of materials with chemo-electronic properties, has boosted the development of sensor-based machine olfaction potentially imitating the biological system. This review examines the state of the art of both human and instrumental sensing currently used for the detection of odours. The olfactometric techniques employing a panel of trained experts are discussed and the strong and weak points of odour assessment through human detection are highlighted. The main features and the working principles of modern electronic noses (E-Noses are then described, focusing on their better performances for environmental analysis. Odour emission monitoring

  2. A novel caries risk test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Paul C; Denny, Patricia A; Takashima, Jona; Galligan, Joyce; Navazesh, Mahvash

    2007-03-01

    A diagnostic test is particularly beneficial if it reveals the level of susceptibility prior to onset of a disease process. In the case of childhood caries, such a diagnostic test affords the opportunity for preventive measures to be implemented before caries begins. Salivary glycoproteins contain a wealth of individually specific oligosaccharide motifs. Depending on microbial compatibilities and individual genotypes, the glycoproteins that form the pellicle coating of teeth may provide attachment sites that foster colonization leading to cariogenesis. Alternatively, certain oligosaccharides, when present in nonpellicle glycoproteins, can interact with planktonic bacteria and lower their ability to interact with the tooth surface. We have found that in young adults the ratio of the two classes of oligosaccharides present in resting saliva exhibits a strong correlation with caries history (DFT: number of decayed and filled teeth). Oligosaccharide moieties associated with the test are quantitated in dried spots of whole saliva on nitrocellulose using commercially available biotinylated lectins with a variety of reporters. A combination of multiple linear regression and neural net analyses were used to develop the algorithms that describe the relationship between oligosaccharide patterns and DFT. During test development several different groups of adults and children have been studied. The correlation algorithms routinely exceed an R(2) (coefficient of determination) of 0.96. When the test is applied to the saliva of children, it yields a projection of their future caries history. Modifying the test result metric to reflect the groups of teeth with caries in young adults, the test identifies those teeth at risk for future caries in children. This test outcome can then be accompanied with suggested specific preventive measures for each tooth group-based risk level.

  3. SCREENING METHODS FOR THE DETECTION OF CARTELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihail BUŞU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available During their everyday activities, the economic operators conclude a multitude of agreements in tacit or written form, such as: contracts or conventions. Some of these arrangements are absolutely necessary for the development of their current activities. These are agreements which, by respecting the rules of competition, are able to bring benefits to consumers and to the entire economy, as a whole. On the other hand, the economic operators often conclude agreements which are harmful to the economy as well as to the consumers, violating the competition rules. Some examples in this respect are: operators’ agreements on price fixing, on market or customers sharing. Before investigating the violation of competition rules, the relevant authorities should identify the possibility of the existence of such illegalities. The theoretical models for detecting the cartels do represent a proactive tool concerning the antitrust activity of competition authorities. The present paper furnishes a review of the methods for detecting cartels as well as a part of their practical application.

  4. Liquid chromatography detection unit, system, and method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derenzo, Stephen E.; Moses, William W.

    2015-10-27

    An embodiment of a liquid chromatography detection unit includes a fluid channel and a radiation detector. The radiation detector is operable to image a distribution of a radiolabeled compound as the distribution travels along the fluid channel. An embodiment of a liquid chromatography system includes an injector, a separation column, and a radiation detector. The injector is operable to inject a sample that includes a radiolabeled compound into a solvent stream. The position sensitive radiation detector is operable to image a distribution of the radiolabeled compound as the distribution travels along a fluid channel. An embodiment of a method of liquid chromatography includes injecting a sample that comprises radiolabeled compounds into a solvent. The radiolabeled compounds are then separated. A position sensitive radiation detector is employed to image distributions of the radiolabeled compounds as the radiolabeled compounds travel along a fluid channel.

  5. Clinical performance of DIAGnodent in the detection of secondary carious lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamzahim, Mohammad; Aljehani, Abdulaziz; Shi, Xie-Qi

    2005-02-01

    The diagnostic value of DIAGNOdent in detecting primary occlusal caries has been investigated in many studies, although its use in in vivo detection of secondary caries remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of DIAGNOdent in in vivo detection of secondary caries on teeth with amalgam restorations. The material comprised 51 posterior teeth restored with amalgam material. Bitewing radiographs were taken of all teeth, in accordance with the standard clinical protocol, and analysed by five observers with respect to secondary caries. The restoration margins of each tooth were carefully scanned with DIAGNOdent and the site of the highest reading and its value were registered in a digital picture. The color (stained/unstained) of the restoration margins was also documented. The restoration material was removed and all cavities were examined carefully by two observers together, both visually and by probe. The results showed that the sensitivity and specificity of DIAGNOdent and conventional radiography in detecting secondary caries were 0.60/0.81 and 0.56/0.92, respectively. For DIAGNOdent, 100% of the teeth in the false-positive fraction had stains. Regarding receiver operating characteristic analyses, the Az values were 0.78 and 0.69 for DIAGNOdent and radiography, respectively. We conclude that DIAGNOdent may be used only as an adjunct to conventional methods in detecting secondary caries on teeth with amalgam restorations.

  6. INCIDENCE OF SECONDARY ROOT CARIES LESIONS IN PATIENTS REFERRED FOR TREATMENT IN THE FACULTY OF DENTAL MEDICINE – SOFIA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Marinova-Takorova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the presented study was to determine the incidence of secondary root caries lesions in patients referred for treatment in the Faculty of Dental Medicine – Sofia. Material/Methods: The subjects who took part in the study were patients referred for treatment of caries lesions in the Faculty of Dental Medicine, Sofia. They were interviewed for smoking, presence of systematic diseases and medications and debris and plaque were removed from natural teeth prior to examination. Dental examination was carried out with a dental mirror and a probe. Decayed, missed and filled teeth (DMFT were recorded. Root caries lesions, restorations of those lesions and secondary caries lesions were recorded separately. Results: A total number of 603 patients were examined. The frequency of appearance of root caries in the investigated population was 33.5% (202 patients. The whole number of root caries lesions was 857. Three hundred forty three (41.4% of those lesions were restored. Presence of secondary caries lesions was observed in 138 cases (39.1%. Conclusions: Based on the data obtained from the presented study it may be concluded that most of the root caries lesions remain untreated (58.8%. Secondary carious was diagnosed in 39.1% of the root caries restorations. The patients with secondary caries lesions presented with higher incidence of concomitant diseases and lower incidence of smoking.

  7. Assessment of dental caries predictors in 6-year-old school children - results from 5-year retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masood Mohd

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This was a retrospective cohort study undertaken to assess the rate and pattern of dental caries development in 6-year-old school children followed-up for a period of 5 years, and to identify baseline risk factors that were associated with 5 years caries experience in Malaysian children. Methods This 5-years retrospective cohort study comprised primary school children initially aged 6 years in 2004. Caries experience of each child was recorded annually using World Health Organization criteria. The rates of dental caries were recorded in prevalence and incidence density of carious lesions from baseline to final examination. Risk assessment was done to assess relative risk for caries after 5 years in children with baseline caries status. Simple and multiple logistic regression analysis were performed to identify significant independent risk factors for caries. Results The sample consisted of 1830 school children. All components of DMFT showed significant differences between baseline and final examination. Filled teeth (FT component of the DMFT showed the greatest increases. Results revealed the initial baseline caries level in permanent dentition was a strong predictor for future caries after 5 years (RR=3.78, 95% CI=3.48-4.10, P0.001. Logistic regression analysis showed significant association between caries occurrence and residence (urban/rural (OR=1.80, Pp observed from baseline and after 5 years was 5.80 persons/100 person-year of observation. The rate of new caries-affected tooth (IDt in the period from baseline and after 5-years was 0.76 teeth/100 teeth-year of observation. Conclusion The majority of 12-year-old school children (70% were caries-free and most of the caries were concentrated in only a small proportion (30% of them. We found that the presence of caries in permanent teeth at the age of 6 years was a strong predictor of future caries development in this population. The strong evidence of early permanent teeth

  8. Bionic restorative system: its potential value in caries therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, M M Hao; Zheng, M M Ren; Lin, M D Yinghe

    2009-07-01

    Dental defect caused by dental caries is usually restored by fillings, inlays or onlays at the present day. Although the therapeutic effects of these methods have already been confirmed, complications occasionally set in, such as pulp injury, fracture and secondary caries. Bionic dental organic center possesses similar functions of the natural dental organic center. So we put forward a hypothesis that bionic organic center can be transplanted onto the conditioned pulpal walls of the prepared cavity and a specific filling material, which the cavity will be filled with, provides oxygen, nutrition and raw materials for it to regenerate the lost odontal tissue in vivo. The regenerated odontal tissue which has similar properties of the healthy odontal tissue will restore the defect and it will be combined with the residual odontal tissue tightly, not only in physical structure but also in function. Then the teeth suffering from dental caries could live and function like healthy ones.

  9. Effect of changing the kilovoltage peak on radiographic caries assessment in digital and conventional radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zayet, Mohamed Khalifa; Helaly, Yara Rabee; Eiid, Salma Belal [Dept. of Oral Radiology, Faculty of Oral and Dental Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo (Egypt)

    2014-09-15

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of changing the kilovoltage peak (kVp) on the radiographic assessment of dental caries. Seventy-five extracted posterior teeth with proximal caries or apparently sound proximal surfaces were radiographed with conventional E-speed films and a photostimulable phosphor system using 60 kVp and 70 kVp for the caries assessment. The images were evaluated by three oral radiologists and compared with the results of the stereomicroscope analysis. No statistically significant difference was found between 60 kVp and 70 kVp for the caries detection, determination of caries extension into dentin, and caries severity in either the conventional or the digital images. Good to very good inter-observer and intra-observer agreements were found for both kilovoltage values on the conventional and digital images. Changing the kilovoltage between 60 kVp and 70 kVp had no obvious effect on the detection of proximal caries or determination of its extension or severity.

  10. A New Dietary Intake Measure and Its Relationship to Caries Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Malek Mohammadi

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim the main aim of this study was to examine the usability of a new dietary measure among a high caries population and examine whether reported food intake, when weighted by frequency and cariogenicity, was associated with increased caries rates within a high caries population. Key method Two hundred and eighteen children with caries were examined using standard caries diagnostic criteria. The examinations were carried out by a single calibrated dental examiner. A food frequency table was completed by the parents of each participant and this was analysed by weighting foods’ cariogenic potential by the frequency of consumption, and summing the product. The total cariogenicity score for each child was then plotted against its dmft and dt and correlation coefficients were calculated. Result the mean cariogenicity score using this new measure was 71.02, with a range of 31.96 to 135.24. The standard deviation was 16.72. Total cariogenicity scores using the new measure and dmft were weakly correlated, with the Pearson correlation co-efficient being 0.130 and for dt 0.131. These correlations did not reach significance. Conclusion The study has demonstrated that in children with caries, reported food intake (when weighted by frequency and cariogenicity and caries are only weakly and non-significantly associated. Dietary intake, when measured in a way, which takes account of all food groups, was therefore not strongly associated with caries when measured on an individual level.

  11. Dental caries prevalence among type II diabetic and nondiabetic adults attending a hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malvania, Ekta A.; Sheth, Sona A.; Sharma, Ashish S.; Mansuri, Saloni; Shaikh, Faizan; Sahani, Saloni

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common chronic metabolic disorder which affects millions of people. At present, India has the highest incidence of diabetes worldwide. Several oral lesions and conditions are associated with diabetes. However, there is a lack of consensus among researchers regarding the relationship between DM and dental caries. Hence, the present study was carried out to assess the dental caries prevalence among type II diabetic and nondiabetic adults attending a hospital in Ahmedabad city. Materials and Methods: A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted. One hundred and twenty diabetics individuals attending the diabetic Outpatient Department (OPD) and age and sex-matched 120 nondiabetic individuals from general OPD were included in the study. The data were gathered through semi-close-ended questionnaire and clinical examination. Dental caries was assessed by using the World Health Organization's 2013 proforma. Data was analyzed by applying Student's independent t-test or one-way analysis of variance. Results: Dental caries prevalence among the diabetic group was 73.33% and 33.33% among the nondiabetic group. Dental caries prevalence and mean dental caries was significantly higher among uncontrolled diabetic individuals than that among controlled diabetic individuals. Duration of the disease and dental caries prevalence did not show any significant difference. Conclusion: Dental caries prevalence was significantly high among diabetic individuals compared with nondiabetic individuals. Close collaboration between the patients, healthcare units, and oral health professionals could be a way of improving diabetic patients' general and oral health. PMID:28217542

  12. Caries prevalence and enamel defects in 5- and 10-year-old children with cleft lip and/or palate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundell, Anna Lena; Nilsson, Anna-Karin; Ullbro, Christer

    2016-01-01

    aged 10 years) and 313 age-matched non-cleft controls. All children were examined by one of two calibrated examiners. Caries was scored according to the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS-II) and enamel defects as presence and frequency of hypoplasia and hypomineralization...

  13. Laser-induced dental caries and plaque diagnosis on patients by sensitive autofluorescence spectroscopy and time-gated video imaging: preliminary studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Karsten; Schneckenburger, Herbert

    1994-09-01

    The laser-induced in vivo autofluorescence of human teeth was investigated by means of time- resolved/time-gated fluorescence techniques. The aim of these studies was non-contact caries and plaque detection. Carious lesions and dental plaque fluoresce in the red spectral region. This autofluorescence seems to be based on porphyrin-producing bacteria. We report on preliminary studies on patients using a novel method of autofluorescence imaging. A special device was constructed for time-gated video imaging. Nanosecond laser pulses for fluorescence excitation were provided by a frequency-doubled, Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. Autofluorescence was detected in an appropriate nanosecond time window using a video camera with a time-gated image intensifier (minimal time gate: 5 ns). Laser-induced autofluorescence based on porphyrin-producing bacteria seems to be an appropriate tool for detecting dental lesions and for creating `caries-images' and `dental plaque' images.

  14. Use of Diagnodent for diagnosis of non-cavitated occlusal dentin caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Ana Maria; Paula, Lilian Marly de; Bezerra, Ana Cristina Barreto

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of a laser fluorescence device for detection of occlusal caries in permanent teeth. One hundred and ninety-nine non-cavitated teeth from 26 patients aged 10 to 13 years were selected. After dental prophylaxis, two previously calibrated dentists examined the teeth. Visual inspection, radiographic examination and laser measurements were performed under standardized conditions. The validation method was cavity preparation with a small cone-shaped diamond bur, when the two examiners agreed about the presence of dentin caries. It was found that the laser detection method produced high values of sensitivity (0.93) and specificity (0.75) and a moderate positive predictive value (0.63). The laser device showed the lowest value of likelihood ratio (3.68). Kappa coefficient showed good repeatability for all methods. Although the laser device had an acceptable performance, this equipment should be used as an adjunct method to visual inspection to avoid false positive results.

  15. Use of diagnodentâ for diagnosis of non-cavitated occlusal dentin caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Costa

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of a laser fluorescence device for detection of occlusal caries in permanent teeth. One hundred and ninety-nine non-cavitated teeth from 26 patients aged 10 to 13 years were selected. After dental prophylaxis, two previously calibrated dentists examined the teeth. Visual inspection, radiographic examination and laser measurements were performed under standardized conditions. The validation method was cavity preparation with a small cone-shaped diamond bur, when the two examiners agreed about the presence of dentin caries. It was found that the laser detection method produced high values of sensitivity (0.93 and specificity (0.75 and a moderate positive predictive value (0.63. The laser device showed the lowest value of likelihood ratio (3.68. Kappa coefficient showed good repeatability for all methods. Although the laser device had an acceptable performance, this equipment should be used as an adjunct method to visual inspection to avoid false positive results.

  16. [Dietary habits and early childhood caries intensity among young children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagińska, Joanna; Stokowska, Wanda

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of a diet and the feeding method on caries intensity among children aged 36-48 months. Dental examination was carried out in 255 children and their mothers were asked about child's dietary habits. The population checked was divided into three groups: with dmf = 0, dmf 1-3 and dmf > or = 4. Statistically significant correlation between caries intensity and bottle feeding during sleep and frequency of eating cariogenic food were shown. Parents of young children should be educated about the influence of dietary habits on dental condition.

  17. Detection of Carious Lesions and Restorations Using Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naebi, Mohammad; Saberi, Eshaghali; Risbaf Fakour, Sirous; Naebi, Ahmad; Hosseini Tabatabaei, Somayeh; Ansari Moghadam, Somayeh; Bozorgmehr, Elham; Davtalab Behnam, Nasim; Azimi, Hamidreza

    2016-01-01

    Background/Purpose. In terms of the detection of tooth diagnosis, no intelligent detection has been done up till now. Dentists just look at images and then they can detect the diagnosis position in tooth based on their experiences. Using new technologies, scientists will implement detection and repair of tooth diagnosis intelligently. In this paper, we have introduced one intelligent method for detection using particle swarm optimization (PSO) and our mathematical formulation. This method was applied to 2D special images. Using developing of our method, we can detect tooth diagnosis for all of 2D and 3D images. Materials and Methods. In recent years, it is possible to implement intelligent processing of images by high efficiency optimization algorithms in many applications especially for detection of dental caries and restoration without human intervention. In the present work, we explain PSO algorithm with our detection formula for detection of dental caries and restoration. Also image processing helped us to implement our method. And to do so, pictures taken by digital radiography systems of tooth are used. Results and Conclusion. We implement some mathematics formula for fitness of PSO. Our results show that this method can detect dental caries and restoration in digital radiography pictures with the good convergence. In fact, the error rate of this method was 8%, so that it can be implemented for detection of dental caries and restoration. Using some parameters, it is possible that the error rate can be even reduced below 0.5%.

  18. Detection of Carious Lesions and Restorations Using Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Naebi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Purpose. In terms of the detection of tooth diagnosis, no intelligent detection has been done up till now. Dentists just look at images and then they can detect the diagnosis position in tooth based on their experiences. Using new technologies, scientists will implement detection and repair of tooth diagnosis intelligently. In this paper, we have introduced one intelligent method for detection using particle swarm optimization (PSO and our mathematical formulation. This method was applied to 2D special images. Using developing of our method, we can detect tooth diagnosis for all of 2D and 3D images. Materials and Methods. In recent years, it is possible to implement intelligent processing of images by high efficiency optimization algorithms in many applications especially for detection of dental caries and restoration without human intervention. In the present work, we explain PSO algorithm with our detection formula for detection of dental caries and restoration. Also image processing helped us to implement our method. And to do so, pictures taken by digital radiography systems of tooth are used. Results and Conclusion. We implement some mathematics formula for fitness of PSO. Our results show that this method can detect dental caries and restoration in digital radiography pictures with the good convergence. In fact, the error rate of this method was 8%, so that it can be implemented for detection of dental caries and restoration. Using some parameters, it is possible that the error rate can be even reduced below 0.5%.

  19. Salivary pH and Buffering Capacity as Risk Markers for Early Childhood Caries: A Clinical Study

    OpenAIRE

    D. Jayaraj; Ganesan, S.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: The diagnostic utility of saliva is currently being explored in various branches of dentistry, remarkably in the field of caries research. This study was aimed to determine if assessment of salivary pH and buffering capacity would serve as reliable tools in risk prediction of early childhood caries (ECC). Materials and methods: Paraffin-stimulated salivary samples were collected from 50 children with ECC (group I) and 50 caries free children (group II). Salivary pH and bu...

  20. [Dental caries in preschoolers and students in Monte Patria, region 4].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinteros Orrego, I

    1989-04-01

    An epidemiological study on caries prevalence was undertaken on school children and pre-school children aged from 2 to 14 years, of Monte Patria, a small city located in the North of Chile, following the criteria established by the World Health Organization. It was found that the 90.54% of the studied sample had caries, the 21% of the patients lost permanent teeth due to caries, and the presence of filled teeth was detected only in 1.75% of the children. DMFT index of the sample was 5.16 and dmft index was 4.60.

  1. Fluoride varnishes and enamel caries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruyn, Hugo de

    1987-01-01

    Topical fluoride applications have the aim of increasing the fluoride uptake in enamel and consequently reducing caries. In the early ‘60s fluoride varnishes were introduced because they had a long contact period with the enamel which resulted in a higher fluoride uptake than from other topical appl

  2. Bluetooth technology for prevention of dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolahi, Jafar; Fazilati, Mohamad

    2009-12-01

    Caries is caused when the pH at the tooth surface drops below 5.5. A miniaturized and autonomous pH monitoring nodes can be attached to the tooth surface, like a tooth jewel. This intelligent sensor includes three components: (a) digital micro pH meter, (b) power supply, (c) wireless communicating device. The micro pH meter facilitates long term tooth surface pH monitoring and providing real time feedback to the patients and dental experts. Power supply of this system will be microfabricated biocatalytic fuel cell (enzymatic micro-battery) using organic compounds (e.g. formate or glucose) as the fuel to generate electricity. When micro pH meter detects the pH lower than 5.5, wireless Bluetooth device sends a caution (e.g. "you are at risk of dental caries") to external monitoring equipment such as mobile phone or a hands-free heads. After reception of the caution, subjects should use routine brushing and flossing procedure or use a medicated chewing gum (e.g. chlorhexidine containing chewing gum) or rinse with a mouthwash.

  3. Radio frequency detection assembly and method for detecting radio frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cown, Steven H.; Derr, Kurt Warren

    2010-03-16

    A radio frequency detection assembly is described and which includes a radio frequency detector which detects a radio frequency emission produced by a radio frequency emitter from a given location which is remote relative to the radio frequency detector; a location assembly electrically coupled with the radio frequency detector and which is operable to estimate the location of the radio frequency emitter from the radio frequency emission which has been received; and a radio frequency transmitter electrically coupled with the radio frequency detector and the location assembly, and which transmits a radio frequency signal which reports the presence of the radio frequency emitter.

  4. Caries in Portuguese children with Down syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Maria Areias

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Oral health in Down syndrome children has some peculiar aspects that must be considered in the follow-up of these patients. This study focuses on characterizing the environmental and host factors associated with dental caries in Portuguese children with and without Down syndrome. METHODS: A sibling-matched, population-based, cross-sectional survey was performed. RESULTS: Down syndrome children presented a significantly greater percentage of children without caries, 78% vs. 58% of non-Down syndrome siblings. This difference in the DMFT index (number of decayed, missing and filled teeth essentially reflects data obtained from treated teeth, for which 91% of children with Down syndrome had never had a tooth treated vs. 67% of siblings. This result was statistically significant, whereas results for decayed and lost teeth did not differ between Down syndrome children and their unaffected siblings. Additionally, in Down syndrome children, a delayed eruption of the second molar occurs. Down syndrome children and their siblings have similar oral hygiene habits, but a higher percentage of Down syndrome children visit a dentist before the age of three years, in comparison to their siblings. Bruxism was also more common in Down syndrome children compared to their siblings. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that Portuguese children with Down syndrome have lower caries rates than children without Down syndrome. This reduced prevalence may be associated with the parents' greater concern about oral health care in Down syndrome children, resulting in their taking them sooner to visit a dentist, as well as to a higher bruxism prevalence and delayed tooth eruption.

  5. Genetic influences in caries and periodontal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassell, T M; Harris, E L

    1995-01-01

    Deciphering the relative roles of heredity and environmental factors ("nature vs. nurture") in the pathogenesis of dental caries and diseases of the periodontium has occupied clinical and basic researchers for decades. Success in the endeavor has come more easily in the case of caries; the complex interactions that occur between host-response mechanisms and putative microbiologic pathogens in periodontal disease have made elucidation of genetic factors in disease susceptibility more difficult. In addition, during the 30-year period between 1958 and 1987, only meager resources were targeted toward the "nature" side of the nature/nurture dipole in periodontology. In this article, we present a brief history of the development of genetic epistemology, then describe the three main research mechanisms by which questions about the hereditary component of diseases in humans can be addressed. A critical discussion of the evidence for a hereditary component in caries susceptibility is next presented, also from a historical perspective. The evolution of knowledge concerning possible genetic ("endogenous", "idiotypic") factors in the pathogenesis of inflammatory periodontal disease is initiated with an analysis of some foreign-language (primarily German) literature that is likely to be unfamiliar to the reader. We identify a turning point at about 1960, when the periodontal research community turned away from genetics in favor of microbiology research. During the past five years, investigators have re-initiated the search for the hereditary component in susceptibility to common adult periodontal disease; this small but growing body of literature is reviewed. Recent applications of in vitro methods for genetic analyses in periodontal research are presented, with an eye toward a future in which persons who are at risk--genetically predisposed--to periodontal disease may be identified and targeted for interventive strategies. Critical is the realization that genes and environment

  6. 表兄链球菌的检测与儿童猛性龋的关系%The relationship between Streptococcus sobrinus and rampant caries in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王云霞; 刘学军

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE:To explore the relations between Streptococcus sobrinus (S.Sobrinus) and rampant caries in children.METHODS:Based on previous investigation result for rampant caries in Zhengzhou city,66 children aged 3-5 years were selected by random sampling,and divided into 3 groups of rampant caries,high dental caries and no caries,22 cases in each group.The final identification of S.mutans and S.sobrinus were performed after using culture medium TYCSB to operate preliminary screening of Streptococcus mutans (S.Mutans) and S.Sobrinus with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) combined with physiological and biochemical identification.SPSS10.0 software package was used to compare the detection rate and mean values of S.mutans and S.sobrinus in the experimental group and the control group.RESULTS:It was found that single S.sobrinus without S.mutans was not detected from dental plaque in each group.The detection rate of S.mutans in group of rampant caries was higher than in group of high dental caries,but there was no significant difference (P>0.05).The difference of detection rate of S.sobrinus between the two groups and the detection rate of S.mutans between group of rampant caries and group without caries was significant (P<0.05).The difference of the detection rate of S.sobrinus between group of rampant caries and group without caries was also significant (P<0.01).The incidence of rampant caries,DMFT,DMFS,smooth-surface caries among the sample with both of S.sobrinus and S.mutans detected and the sample only with S.mutans and the sample without S.sobrinus and S.mutaus were significantly different (P<0.01).CONCLUSIONS:The main pathogenic bacteria of rampant caries in children are S.mutans and S.sobrinus.The incidence of rampant caries was related to S.sobrinus,which had synergic effect on the occurrence and development of rampant caries in children.%目的:探讨表兄链球菌(Streptococcus sobrinus,S.sobrinus)与儿童猛性龋的关系.方法:根据前期郑州市

  7. Development of detection methods for irradiated foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jae Seung; Nam, Hye Seon; Oh, Kyong Nam; Woo, Si Ho; Kim, Kyeung Eun; Yi, Sang Duk; Park, Jun Young; Kim, Kyong Su; Hwang, Keum Taek

    2000-04-01

    In 1999, we have been studied (1) on the detection of irradiated foods by ESR spectroscopy, by thermoluminescence, and by viscometry for physical measurements, (2) on the detection of hydrocarbons and 2-alkylcyclobutanones derived from fatty foods by GC/MS for chemical measurements, (3) on the screening and detection of irradiated foods by Comet assay and immunochemical (ELISA) technique for biological or biochemical measurements.

  8. Genetic susceptibility to dental caries differs between the sexes: a family-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, John R; Wang, Xiaojing; McNeil, Daniel W; Weyant, Robert J; Crout, Richard; Marazita, Mary L

    2015-01-01

    Many of the factors affecting susceptibility to dental caries are likely influenced by genetics. In fact, genetics accounts for up to 65% of inter-individual variation in dental caries experience. Sex differences in dental caries experience have been widely reported, with females usually exhibiting a higher prevalence and severity of disease across all ages. The cause for this sex bias is currently uncertain, although it may be partly due to the differential effects of genetic factors between the sexes: gene-by-sex interactions. In this family based study (N = 2,663; 740 families; ages 1-93 years), we assessed dental caries via intra-oral examination and generated six indices of caries experience (DMFS, dfs, and indices of both pit-and-fissure surface caries and smooth surface caries in both primary and permanent dentitions). We used likelihood-based methods to model the variance in caries experience conditional on the expected genetic sharing among relatives in our sample. This modeling framework allowed us to test two lines of evidence for gene-by-sex interactions: (1) whether the magnitude of the cumulative effect of genes differs between the sexes, and (2) whether different genes are involved. We observed significant evidence of gene-by-sex interactions for caries experience in both the primary and permanent dentitions. In the primary dentition, the magnitude of the effect of genes was greater in males than females. In the permanent dentition, different genes may play important roles in each of the sexes. Overall, this study provides the first direct evidence that sex differences in dental caries experiences may be explained, in part, by gene-by-sex interactions.

  9. A Comparative Study on Dental Caries Prevalence in Diabetic Children in Isfahan in the Summer of 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Samimi

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a relationship between dental caries and high blood sugar. This study was designed to investigate the prevalence of dental caries among diabetic children in Isfahan, Iran. Methods: Diabetic children from pediatric ward of hospitals were compared to a control healthy group of children. Results: The mean DMFT was significantly higher in diabetic children compared to the control group. Conclusion: The result of this study confirms previous researches on prevalence of dental caries in children. Keywords: Dental Caries, Diabetes Mellitus, Pediatrics

  10. Determinant Factors of Untreated Dental Caries and Lesion Activity in Preschool Children Using ICDAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto-Sarmento, Tássia Cristina de Almeida; Abreu, Mauro Henrique; Gomes, Monalisa Cesarino; Costa, Edja Maria Melo de Brito; Martins, Carolina Castro; Granville-Garcia, Ana Flávia; Paiva, Saul Martins

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate determinant factors associated with the presence of dental caries and lesion activity in preschool children. A population-based, cross-sectional study was carried out with 843 children of aged three to five years enrolled at public and private preschools in the city of Campina Grande, Brazil. A questionnaire addressing socio-demographic data and oral health care was self-administered by parents/caregivers. Three dentists previously calibrated examined the children for the diagnosis of dental caries and lesion activity using the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS). Nutritional status was evaluated based on the body mass index. Logistic regression analysis for complex samples was performed (α = 5%). The prevalence of dental caries was 66.3%. Among the children with caries, 88.0% had active lesions. Dental caries was more prevalent in girls (OR = 1.53, 95%CI: 1.05-2.23), in children from families with a monthly household income ≤US$312.50 (OR = 2.38, 95%CI: 1.65-3.43) and those whose mothers had up to eight years of schooling (OR = 1.55, 95%CI: 1.07-2.23). Lesion activity was significantly associated with mother's schooling ≤ 8 years (OR = 2.15, 95%CI: 1.15-4.00). The prevalence rates of dental caries and lesion activity were high and mainly associated with a lower socioeconomic status and mother's schooling.

  11. Determinant Factors of Untreated Dental Caries and Lesion Activity in Preschool Children Using ICDAS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tássia Cristina de Almeida Pinto-Sarmento

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate determinant factors associated with the presence of dental caries and lesion activity in preschool children. A population-based, cross-sectional study was carried out with 843 children of aged three to five years enrolled at public and private preschools in the city of Campina Grande, Brazil. A questionnaire addressing socio-demographic data and oral health care was self-administered by parents/caregivers. Three dentists previously calibrated examined the children for the diagnosis of dental caries and lesion activity using the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS. Nutritional status was evaluated based on the body mass index. Logistic regression analysis for complex samples was performed (α = 5%. The prevalence of dental caries was 66.3%. Among the children with caries, 88.0% had active lesions. Dental caries was more prevalent in girls (OR = 1.53, 95%CI: 1.05-2.23, in children from families with a monthly household income ≤US$312.50 (OR = 2.38, 95%CI: 1.65-3.43 and those whose mothers had up to eight years of schooling (OR = 1.55, 95%CI: 1.07-2.23. Lesion activity was significantly associated with mother's schooling ≤ 8 years (OR = 2.15, 95%CI: 1.15-4.00. The prevalence rates of dental caries and lesion activity were high and mainly associated with a lower socioeconomic status and mother's schooling.

  12. Salivary Microbiome Diversity in Caries-Free and Caries-Affected Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Jiang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries (tooth decay is an infectious disease. Its etiology is not fully understood from the microbiological perspective. This study characterizes the diversity of microbial flora in the saliva of children with and without dental caries. Children (3–4 years old with caries (n = 20 and without caries (n = 20 were recruited. Unstimulated saliva (2 mL was collected from each child and the total microbial genomic DNA was extracted. DNA amplicons of the V3-V4 hypervariable region of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene were generated and subjected to Illumina Miseq sequencing. A total of 17 phyla, 26 classes, 40 orders, 80 families, 151 genera, and 310 bacterial species were represented in the saliva samples. There was no significant difference in the microbiome diversity between caries-affected and caries-free children (p > 0.05. The relative abundance of several species (Rothia dentocariosa, Actinomyces graevenitzii, Veillonella sp. oral taxon 780, Prevotella salivae, and Streptococcus mutans was higher in the caries-affected group than in the caries-free group (p < 0.05. Fusobacterium periodonticum and Leptotrichia sp. oral clone FP036 were more abundant in caries-free children than in caries-affected children (p < 0.05. The salivary microbiome profiles of caries-free and caries-affected children were similar. Salivary counts of certain bacteria such as R. dentocariosa and F. periodonticum may be useful for screening/assessing children’s risk of developing caries.

  13. Salivary Microbiome Diversity in Caries-Free and Caries-Affected Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shan; Gao, Xiaoli; Jin, Lijian; Lo, Edward C. M.

    2016-01-01

    Dental caries (tooth decay) is an infectious disease. Its etiology is not fully understood from the microbiological perspective. This study characterizes the diversity of microbial flora in the saliva of children with and without dental caries. Children (3–4 years old) with caries (n = 20) and without caries (n = 20) were recruited. Unstimulated saliva (2 mL) was collected from each child and the total microbial genomic DNA was extracted. DNA amplicons of the V3-V4 hypervariable region of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene were generated and subjected to Illumina Miseq sequencing. A total of 17 phyla, 26 classes, 40 orders, 80 families, 151 genera, and 310 bacterial species were represented in the saliva samples. There was no significant difference in the microbiome diversity between caries-affected and caries-free children (p > 0.05). The relative abundance of several species (Rothia dentocariosa, Actinomyces graevenitzii, Veillonella sp. oral taxon 780, Prevotella salivae, and Streptococcus mutans) was higher in the caries-affected group than in the caries-free group (p < 0.05). Fusobacterium periodonticum and Leptotrichia sp. oral clone FP036 were more abundant in caries-free children than in caries-affected children (p < 0.05). The salivary microbiome profiles of caries-free and caries-affected children were similar. Salivary counts of certain bacteria such as R. dentocariosa and F. periodonticum may be useful for screening/assessing children’s risk of developing caries. PMID:27898021

  14. 采用氟化泡沫预防儿童乳牙龋的效果观察%Effect observation on use of fluoride foam in prevention of dental caries increment in primary teeth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷军; 金海菊; 叶飘; 何建勇; 周小燕

    2014-01-01

    [目的]观察氟化泡沫预防儿童乳牙龋病的效果,为有效开展儿童龋病防治提供依据。[方法]分层随机抽取丽水市的4所幼儿园小班335名儿童为实验组,每年2次应用1.23%氟化泡沫。另抽取4所幼儿园小班268名儿童为对照组,未采取任何干预措施。随访3年,观察两组儿童龋病检出情况、平均患龋均情况,评价防龋效果。[结果]两组儿童的龋病检出率随年龄的增长而增加,对照组3年后增加了34.05%,实验组增加了22.19%。实验组、对照组儿童的龋病检出率分别为55.62%、66.51%,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。实验组3年后平均龋均为3.4±4.38,对照组为4.7±4.80,两组差异有统计学意义( P<0.05)。[结论]1.23%氟化泡沫能有效预防儿童乳牙龋病的发生,值得在幼儿园中推广应用。%[Objective] To observe the effect of fluoride foam on dental caries increment in primary teeth, and provide the basis for prevention and control of children's dental caries. [ Methods] Three hundred and thirty-five children were included randomly from junior classes of 4 kindergartens as experi-mental group , and another 268 children from junior classes of another 4 kindergartens as control group .The experimental group used 1.23%fluoride foam twice a year , and the control group did not have any inter-ventions.The two groups of children were followed up for 3 years, and examined for the situation of their caries detection rate and average risk of caries , and for evaluation of the effect of fluoride foam in prevention of children's dental caries . [ Results] Caries detection rate in the two groups increased with age .After 3 years, caries detection rate in control group increased by 34.05%and in experimental group increased by 22. 19%.The use of fluoride foam reduced 10.89%caries disease for experimental group .Caries detection rates were 55.62%in experimental group and

  15. [Diagnosis of occlusal caries lesions using laser fluorescence measurements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naphausen, M T P; Riemersma, M; Verdonschot, E H

    2002-01-01

    Recently, a device for detecting occlusal caries lesions (DIAGNOdent) has been introduced. The reproducibility and validity of this laser-fluorescence device were investigated. In the in vivo part of the study, 45 sites at the occlusal surfaces of permanent molar teeth in 13 patients were measured by 2 observers using 2 DIAGNOdent devices, one produced in 1998 and one in 1999. The interobserver reliability between both devices and both observers was established. In the in vitro part of the study, 49 permanent molars were measured by 2 observers using 2 DIAGNOdent devices. In addition, visual inspection was performed. The teeth were sectioned to measure the histological depth and area of the caries lesions. The reproducibility of both DIAGNOdent devices was high, and so was the interobserver reliability. The correlation between DIAGNOdent measurements and the actual depth of the caries lesions was lower than that of visual inspection. The correlation with the enamel part of the lesion exceeded that of the dentine part. It was concluded that the validity of the DIAGNOdent, expressed as the area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve, was not statistically significantly different from that of visual inspection. Because of the high reproducibility, dental practitioners who wish to use the DIAGNOdent for monitoring caries lesions, this investigation indicates that an old device may be replaced by a new one, provided that the same tip will be used.

  16. Digital contrast subtraction radiography for proximal caries diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Byung Cheol; Yoon, Suk Ja [Department of Dental Radiology, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-06-15

    To determine whether subtraction images utilizing contrast media can improve the diagnostic performance of proximal caries diagnosis compared to conventional periapical radiographic images. Thirty-six teeth with 57 proximal surfaces were radiographied using a size no.2 RVG-ui sensor (Trophy Radiology, Marne-la-Vallee, France). The teeth immersed in water-soluble contrast media and subtraction images were taken. Each tooth was then sectioned for histologic examination. The digital radiographic images and subtraction images were examined and interpreted by three dentists for proximal caries. The results of the proximal caries diagnosis were then verified with the results of the histologic examination. The proximal caries sensitivity using digital subtraction radiography was significantly higher than simply examining a single digital radiograph. The sensitivity of the proximal dentinal carious lesion when analyzed with the subtraction radiograph and the radiograph together was higher than with the subtraction radiograph or the radiograph alone. The use of subtraction radiography with contrast media may be useful for detecting proximal dentinal carious lesions.

  17. Clinical diagnosis of fissure caries with conventional and laser-induced fluorescence techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, C. H.; Lo, E. C. M.; You, D. S. H.

    2010-01-01

    We studied the in vivo validity of dentinal fissure caries diagnosis by visual examination, bitewing radiography, and use of a laser-induced fluorescence device (DIAGNOdent). A total of 144 and second molars with macroscopically intact occlusal surfaces in 41 Chinese young adults were examined visually, by bitewing radiography, and by DIAGNOdent. Visual examination after pit and fissure opening was used as the reference standard. The sensitivity and specificity of detecting caries that had ex...

  18. Risk of caries and oral health: preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Gatti

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The incidence of injury cariosa remains high, despite the improvements achieved in the last years. Recent national epidemiological surveys, 4 years old children have healthy teeth in 80% of cases at 12 years the percentage is reduced to 50%. In Italy, the almost total absence on the territory of “dental services to the Community”, makes even more difficult to achieve a solution to the problem “caries.” To address this problem, the Ministry of Labor, Health and Social Policy in October 2008 adopted the national guidelines in order to make suggestions to the various professionals (pediatricians, dentists, microbiologists, dental hygienists, etc., making them interact to maintain and restore oral health. It was the first time that the Ministry of Health has addressed the problem by inserting the figure of the microbiologist in dentistry. Aims. The present study aim was to identify subjects at risk of caries by clinical microbiological testing of saliva and the index DMFT/dmft (Decayed, Missing and Filling Permanent Teeth in both adults and particularly children in order to take preventive measures early as reported in “National guidelines for the promotion of oral health and prevention of oral diseases in age of development”. The study began in June 2009 and will last one year with as goal to have, in 2010, 90% of children between 5 and 6 years caries free and 18 years with any lost tooth decay. Materials and methods. Recruited 164 patients were divided into three age groups: 124 adults aged between 20 and 40 years, 40 children which 21 till 5 years old and 19 till 12 years old. Microbiological testing was aimed by finding CFU / ml of saliva of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus spp., Slide CRT bacteria (Ivoclar. Clinically, intraoral examination was performed to evaluate the DMFT (Decayed teeth, Missing or Filling calculated over 28 permanent teeth and the dmft (decayed teeth, missing or filling calculated on 20

  19. Comparison of Unsupervised Anomaly Detection Methods

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Several different unsupervised anomaly detection algorithms have been applied to Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) data to serve the purpose of developing a...

  20. Glycemic control with insulin prevents progression of dental caries and caries-related periodontitis in diabetic WBN/KobSlc rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, Yutaka; Sano, Tomoya; Kodama, Yasushi; Ozaki, Kiyokazu; Matsuura, Tetsuro

    2013-07-01

    We have previously reported that dental caries progress in spontaneously and chemically induced diabetic rodent models. The aim of this study was to clarify the relationship between hyperglycemia and dental caries by evaluating the preventive effect of glycemic control with insulin on the progression of the lesions in diabetic rats. Male WBN/KobSlc rats aged 15 weeks were divided into groups of spontaneously diabetic rats (intact group), spontaneously diabetic rats with insulin treatment (INS group), alloxan-induced prolonged diabetic rats (AL group), and alloxan-induced prolonged diabetic rats with insulin treatment (AL + INS group). The animals were killed at 90 weeks of age, and their oral tissue was examined. Dental caries and periodontitis were frequently detected in the intact group, and the lesions were enhanced in the AL group (in which there was an increased duration of diabetes). Meanwhile, glycemic control with insulin reduced the incidence and severity of dental caries and periodontitis in the INS group, and the effects became more pronounced in the AL + INS group. In conclusion, glycemic control by insulin prevented the progression of dental caries and caries-related periodontitis in the diabetic rats.

  1. System and method for detecting cells or components thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, Marc D. (Ames, IA); Lipert, Robert J. (Ames, IA); Doyle, Robert T. (Ames, IA); Grubisha, Desiree S. (Corona, CA); Rahman, Salma (Ames, IA)

    2009-01-06

    A system and method for detecting a detectably labeled cell or component thereof in a sample comprising one or more cells or components thereof, at least one cell or component thereof of which is detectably labeled with at least two detectable labels. In one embodiment, the method comprises: (i) introducing the sample into one or more flow cells of a flow cytometer, (ii) irradiating the sample with one or more light sources that are absorbed by the at least two detectable labels, the absorption of which is to be detected, and (iii) detecting simultaneously the absorption of light by the at least two detectable labels on the detectably labeled cell or component thereof with an array of photomultiplier tubes, which are operably linked to two or more filters that selectively transmit detectable emissions from the at least two detectable labels.

  2. A comparative clinical study on the Carisolv caries removal method%Carisolv去腐方法的临床对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Afrodite Kakaboura; Costas Masouras; Olga Staikou; George Vougiouklakis; 陈小贤

    2004-01-01

    目的Carisolv是一种比较新的化学机械去腐方法.本研究的目的是比较Carisolv和传统的车针技术.材料和方法45名志愿者参加本实验,年龄18~55岁,每名志愿者有2个同颌同名的原发近中咬合面或远中咬合面牙冠龋洞,龋坏程度类似.由两名经校准的操作者进行所有的治疗.一名操作者在一次就诊时同时治疗2个龋损(一个用Carisolv,另外一个用车针去腐).在充填完成后,记录每名患者对每种去腐技术的感受.每个病例的操作者记录以下几项:在用Carisolv之外是否需辅助使用车针、去腐所需时间、麻醉的需要及牙龈对Carisolv凝胶的反应.结果患者反馈,和车针比较Carisolv治疗更舒适(82%);更倾向于使用Carisolv的占88%.40%用车针治疗的患者需要麻醉,而Carisolv仅8%.为完全去腐,在用Carisolv去腐的病损中10%需要辅助使用车针.Cari-solv不会引起牙龈反应.Carisolv比车针去腐时间明显长,分别是12.2±4.1分钟与6.8±2.8分钟.结论Carisolv技术是:(a)可被大多数患者所接受;(b)能有效去腐;(c)对牙科医生来讲更耗时;(d)对麻醉的需要较少.

  3. Laser induced fluorescence of dental caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albin, S.; Byvik, C. E.; Buoncristiani, A. M.

    1988-01-01

    Significant differences between the optical spectra taken from sound regions of teeth and carious regions have been observed. These differences appear both in absorption and in laser induced fluorescence spectra. Excitation by the 488 nm line of an argon ion laser beam showed a peak in the emission intensity around 553 nm for the sound dental material while the emission peak from the carious region was red-shifted by approximately 40 nm. The relative absorption of carious region was significantly higher at 488 nm; however its fluorescence intensity peak was lower by an order of magnitude compared to the sound tooth. Implications of these results for a safe, reliable and early detection of dental caries are discussed.

  4. Understanding Caries From the Oral Microbiome Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Anne C R; Kressirer, Christine A; Faller, Lina L

    2016-07-01

    Dental caries is a major disease of the oral cavity with profound clinical significance. Caries results from a transition of a healthy oral microbiome into an acidogenic community of decreased microbial diversity in response to excessive dietary sugar intake. Microbiological cultivation, molecular identification, gene expression and metabolomic analyses show the importance of the entire microbial community in understanding the role of the microbiome in the pathology of caries.

  5. Community Detection Based on Link Prediction Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Hui-Min

    2016-01-01

    Community detection and link prediction are both of great significance in network analysis, which provide very valuable insights into topological structures of the network from diffrent perspectives. In this paper, we propose a novel community detection algorithm with inclusion of link prediction, motivated by the question whether link prediction can be devoted to improve the accuracy of community partition. For link prediction, we propose two novel indices to compute the similarity between each pair of nodes, one of which aims to add missing links, and the other tries to remove spurious edges. Extensive experiments are conducted on benchmark data sets, and the results of our proposed algorithm are compared with two classes of baselines. In conclusion, our proposed algorithm is competitive, revealing that link prediction does improve the precision of community detection.

  6. Reemergencia de la caries dental en adolescentes Re-emerging of dental caries in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Franco Cortés

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: las inequidades en la cobertura de los programas preventivos y en el acceso a la atención podrían afectar los indicadores de salud bucal de los adolescentes. Objetivo: El propósito de este estudio descriptivo fue determinar la prevalencia y la historia de caries de los adolescentes de Medellín; evaluar la tendencia de los indicadores y en consecuencia evaluar una posible reemergencia de este problema. Materiales y métodos: Los datos se obtuvieron mediante un examen clínico dental en una muestra estratificada aleatoria de 1292 adolescentes en el año 2005; los examinadores fueron previamente entrenados y calibrados (Kappa > 0,65. Se realizaron pruebas chi cuadrado, Kruskal - Wallis y de Mann - Whitney (α = 5%. Resultados y Conclusiones: Los valores promedio y desviación estándar del índice CPOD y el Índice Significante de Caries fueron 4,5±2,8 y 2,8±3,3 y 11,3 y 6,2 en los jóvenes de 17 años de colegios públicos y privados respectivamente. Estos resultados indican un incremento en la prevalencia de caries para este grupo poblacional y además de ello la polarización del problema en un grupo reducido de jóvenes cuyas características deben estudiarse cuidadosamente. Las autoridades de salud deberán enfocar la atención y la intervención sobre ambos problemas.Introduction: inequities in coverage of preventive programs and access to care may affect the indicators of oral health of adolescents. Objective: The aim of this descriptive study was to determine the prevalence and history of dental caries among adolescents of Medellin; to evaluate the tendency of the indicators, and to evaluate possible re-emerging of these problem. Materials and methods: Data were obtained from dental examinations of a stratified randomized sample of 1292 students in 2005, performed by trained and calibrated examiners (Kappa > 0.65. Chi - square, Kruskal - Wallis, and Mann - Whitney tests were used (α = 5%. Results and conclusions: The

  7. Laser-induced fluorescence in diagnosis of dental caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drakaki, Eleni A.; Makropoulou, Mersini I.; Khabbaz, Maruan; Serafetinides, Alexandros A.

    2003-09-01

    The autofluorescence spectra of hard dental tissues, both in normal and pathological areas were investigated in this study. The measurements were performed both on the intact hard tissues of the examined teeth, such as enamel, dentine, cementum, and root canal, and on the tissues pathologically affected by caries (superficial, intermediate, and deep). Various laser wavelengths (337 nm, 488 nm, and 514 nm) were used to irradiate the dental surfaces and a computer-controlled spectrograph captured the fluorescent spectra. The emission signals were stored, measured, analyzed and quantified in terms of wavelength distribution and the relative photon intensity. Results indicated that the fluorescent spectra from healthy enamel, dentine, and cementum were almost identical in form, depending on the excitation wavelength. The intact and affected hard tissues were greatly different in the integral fluorescent intensity. Healthy areas were found to produce the most pronounced fluorescent intensity, whereas the carious regions produced the weaker fluorescent intensity. Independently of the laser excitation wavelength, dentin regions were found to produce the most pronounced fluorescent intensity than any other dental component. The fluorescence signal of carious affected dental structure revealed a reed shifted spectral curve, more pronounced after 488 nm excitation. There was a pronounced red shift for deep caries (crown -- root caries), after ultraviolet laser excitation. Excitation with visible wavelengths did not produce such differences between intact and cervical, deep carious affected tissue. Using a monochromatic light source without any light output at the wavelengths of fluorescence, e.g. a laser with the appropriate filters, the difference in fluorescence between intact and carious enamel was generally easy to observe. Finally, we found that the blue line of an argon ion laser is preferable for superficial caries detection, while the ultraviolet emitting nitrogen

  8. Variations among dentists in visual and radiographic diagnosis of occlusal caries

    OpenAIRE

    Pourhashemi J.; Mohandes F; AR. Talaeipour

    2008-01-01

    "nBackground and Aim: Diagnosis of occlusal caries in early stages is more difficult than other types, and  needs practical proficiency and accuracy as well as application of advanced and modern equipments. The aim of this study was to evaluate the variations among dentists in diagnosis of occlusal caries. "nMaterials and Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, 6 permanent first molar teeth of 8-10 years old children with occlusal caries of 1, 2 and 3 degrees we...

  9. 刍议儿童龋齿发生的原因及预防措施%Talking About the Causes and Prevention of Dental Caries in Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁淑华

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the incidence of dental caries in children causes and preventive measures to reduce the incidence of realization, promote children's dental health. Methods From January 2014-January 2015 the city 743 cas-es of children with medical information, Determinants of dental caries in children. Results 743 cases of children, 225 cases of children suffering from dental caries, dental caries rate of 30.28%. Snacking dental caries in children was significantly higher than the children do not eat snacks (P<0.05), proper brushing dental caries in children was significantly lower than brushing method is not correct by (P<0.05). Conclusion Eat snacks, good brushing habits are the main reason for children suffering from dental caries, in everyday life, we should strengthen the training of children to establish good eating, brushing habits, regular dental check, so that early detection and early treatment.%目的:探讨儿童龋齿的发生原因及预防措施,以降低发生率,促进儿童牙齿健康。方法选取2014年1月-2015年1月该市743例儿童的体检资料,统计分析儿童龋齿的影响因素。结果743例儿童中,225例儿童患龋齿,患龋齿率达30.28%。爱吃零食儿童龋齿率明显高于不爱吃零食儿童(P<0.05),正确刷牙儿童龋齿率明显低于刷牙方法不正确者(P<0.05)。结论爱吃零食、刷牙习惯不好是儿童患龋齿的主要原因,在日常生活中,要加强培养儿童建立良好饮食、刷牙习惯,定期检查口腔,做到早发现早治疗。

  10. Parents and nursing-bottle caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Everdingen, T; Eijkman, M A; Hoogstraten, J

    1996-01-01

    In this study, the role of the parent in the phenomenon of nursing bottle caries is investigated. The main goal is to try to assess whether differences exist between parents and their children who suffer from nursing bottle caries and parents and children who are not affected by this form of dental decay. To this purpose, a questionnaire was constructed. Results showed that, in contrast to parents of non-caries children, more parents of caries children give a bottle straight from birth. These bottles more often contain sugared drinks and are given during daytime as well as at night. Children with caries and non-caries children differ in two respects: caries children on the whole are older and they have been sick more often than non-caries children. Finally, habit seems to be the major factor contributing to the use of a bottle to a relatively high age. Discussion focuses on the characterization of "typical" caries parents and their children and the implication for educational programs such a characterization could have.

  11. Ultrasound Imaging Methods for Breast Cancer Detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozmen, N.

    2014-01-01

    The main focus of this thesis is on modeling acoustic wavefield propagation and implementing imaging algorithms for breast cancer detection using ultrasound. As a starting point, we use an integral equation formulation, which can be used to solve both the forward and inverse problems. This thesis c

  12. Use of laser fluorescence in dental caries diagnosis: a fluorescence x biomolecular vibrational spectroscopic comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Fabíola Bastos de; Barbosa, Artur Felipe Santos; Zanin, Fátima Antonia Aparecida; Brugnera Júnior, Aldo; Silveira Júnior, Landulfo; Pinheiro, Antonio Luiz Barbosa

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to verify the existence of correlation between Raman spectroscopy readings of phosphate apatite (~960 cm-1), fluoridated apatite (~575 cm-1) and organic matrix (~1450 cm-1) levels and Diagnodent® readings at different stages of dental caries in extracted human teeth. The mean peak value of fluorescence in the carious area was recorded and teeth were divided in enamel caries, dentin caries and sound dental structure. After fluorescence readings, Raman spectroscopy was carried out on the same sites. The results showed significant difference (ANOVA, pcaries. There was significant negative correlation (pcaries. It may be concluded that the higher the fluorescence detected by Diagnodent the lower the peaks of phosphate apatite and fluoridated apatite. As the early diagnosis of caries is directly related to the identification of changes in the inorganic tooth components, Raman spectroscopy was more sensitive to variations of these components than Diagnodent.

  13. Prevalence of nursing caries and its relationship with feeding practices among preschool children of Lucknow City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridhi Narang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess the prevalence of nursing caries and its relationship with feeding practices in preschool children of Lucknow city. Materials & Method: A sample of 512 preschool going children was selected through multistage cluster random sampling. Mothers provided information regarding demographic data and feeding practices. Dental caries experience was recorded using Dentition status and treatment needs (WHO Basic Oral Health Survey 1997. Association between 2 variables was obtained using chi square test. One way ANOVA was used for multiple group comparisons. Results: The prevalence of nursing caries was 33.1%. Children having mixed type of feeding practices had statistically highly significant (p<0.001 caries experience than those children solely fed on bottle or breast. Also, children who were breast fed at night had a highly significant (p<0.001 caries experience than those who were not breast fed. Conclusions: The prevalence of nursing caries was high and was significantly associated with mixed type of feeding practices and who were breastfed or bottlefed at night. nursing caries, bottle feeding, breast feeding, preschool

  14. DENTINE CARIES: ACID-TOLERANT MICROORGANISMS AND ASPECTS ON COLLAGEN DEGRADATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lager, Anders Hedenbjörk

    2014-01-01

    Dental caries is a common disease all over the world, despite the fact that it can be both effectively prevented and treated. It is driven by acids produced by oral microorganisms as a consequence of their metabolism of dietary carbohydrates. Given enough acid challenge, eventually the tooth enamel barrier will be broken down, and the carious lesion will extend into underlying hard tissue, forming a macroscopic cavity in the dentine. In comparison to biofilm on enamel, a dentine carious lesion provides a vastly different environment for the residing microorganisms. The environment influences the types and numbers of microorganisms that can colonize the dentine caries lesion. The overall aims for this thesis are to enumerate and further study microorganisms found in established dentine caries lesions and also to illuminate how host-derived proteolytic enzymes might contribute to this degradation, not only to better understand the caries process in dentine but also to find incitements for new methods to influence the natural progression of caries lesions. In Paper I, the numbers of remaining viable microorganisms after completed excavation using two excavation methods were investigated. Samples of carious dentine tissue were collected before and after excavation and cultivated on different agar media in different atmospheres. Analysis was performed by counting the number of colony-forming units (CFUs). Key findings: The number of remaining microorganisms after excavation was low for both methods, but some microorganisms always remained in the cavity floors even when the cavities were judged as caries free using normal clinical criteria. In Paper II, the acid tolerant microbiota in established dentine caries lesions was investigated. Samples were taken as in Paper I, but on three levels (superficial, center of lesion, floor of lesion after completed excavation). The samples were cultivated in anaerobic conditions on solid pH-selective agar media of different acidity

  15. Are we ready for caries prevention through bacteriotherapy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svante Twetman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent insights in medical science indicate that human biofilms play an important role in health and well-being, and have put microbiota modulation through bacteriotherapy into focus. In dentistry, bacterial interference with probiotic bacteria to support the stability and diversity of oral biofilms has gained similar interest. Investigations in vitro into metabolic activity, co-aggregation, growth inhibition, bacteriocin production, and adhesion have collectively suggested a potential role for probiotic lactobacilli and bifidobacteria to modulate the oral microbial ecology. Likewise, short-term clinical studies with intermediate microbial endpoints indicate that interference with caries-associated bacteria seems possible through probiotic dairy products, tablets, lozenges and chewing gum in various dose regimens. Few randomized controlled clinical trials with caries outcomes are available, but three studies with preschool children and the elderly have demonstrated preventive fractions between 21% and 75%, following regular intake of milk supplemented with probiotic lactobacilli. However, further large-scale trials with orally derived anti-caries candidates are needed before we can say that we are ready for bacteriotherapy as an adjunct to complement the existing evidence-based methods for preventing and controlling caries in daily practice.

  16. Computer-aided proximal caries diagnosis: correlation with clinical examination and histology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Byung Cheol [Chonnam University, School of Dentistry, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Scheetz, James P.; Aarman, Allan G. [University of Louisville, School of Dentistry, Louisville (United States)

    2002-09-15

    To evaluate the performance of the LOGICON Caries Detector using RVG-4 and RVG-ui sensors, by comparing results of each detector to the results of clinical and histological examinations. Pairs of extracted teeth were radiographed, and a total of 57 proximal surfaces, which included both carious and non-carious situations, were analyzed. The RVG-4 produced 8-bit images, while the RVG-ui unit produced 12-bit images, which were taken in the high sensitivity mode. The images produced by the LOGICON were evaluated by a trained observer using both automated and manual caries detection software modes. Ground sections of the teeth established the actual absence or existence of caries. LOGICON-aided caries detection and depth discrimination of the RVG-4 and RVG-ui sensors were equally inconsistent irrespective of whether the LOGICON software was set to the automated or manual mode. Sensitivity ranged from 50% to 57% for caries penetration of the enamel-dentin junction. Care needs to be taken when using LOGICON in conjunction with RVG images as an adjunct for treatment planning dental caries. Even when applied by a trained observer, substantial discrepancies exist between the results of the LOGICON software-guided evalutation using RVG images and histologic examination.

  17. Two-Dimensional Change Detection Methods Remote Sensing Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ilsever, Murat

    2012-01-01

    Change detection using remotely sensed images has many applications, such as urban monitoring, land-cover change analysis, and disaster management. This work investigates two-dimensional change detection methods. The existing methods in the literature are grouped into four categories: pixel-based, transformation-based, texture analysis-based, and structure-based. In addition to testing existing methods, four new change detection methods are introduced: fuzzy logic-based, shadow detection-based, local feature-based, and bipartite graph matching-based. The latter two methods form the basis for a

  18. Rapid method for detection of salmonella in meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention relates to a rapid method for the detection of Salmonella in meat as well as to a kit for performing said method. The method provides a time-to-result of less than 8 hours.......The present invention relates to a rapid method for the detection of Salmonella in meat as well as to a kit for performing said method. The method provides a time-to-result of less than 8 hours....

  19. Restorative treatment thresholds for occlusal primary caries among dentists in the dental practice-based research network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gordan, Valeria V; Bader, James D; Garvan, Cynthia W

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. The authors report on a study aimed at quantifying the carious lesion depths at which dentists intervene surgically for cases of varying caries penetration and caries risk. They also aimed to identify characteristics that are associated with surgical intervention. METHODS: The investi...

  20. Standardized Methods for Detection of Poliovirus Antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldon, William C; Oberste, M Steven; Pallansch, Mark A

    2016-01-01

    Testing for neutralizing antibodies against polioviruses has been an established gold standard for assessing individual protection from disease, population immunity, vaccine efficacy studies, and other vaccine clinical trials. Detecting poliovirus specific IgM and IgA in sera and mucosal specimens has been proposed for evaluating the status of population mucosal immunity. More recently, there has been a renewed interest in using dried blood spot cards as a medium for sample collection to enhance surveillance of poliovirus immunity. Here, we describe the modified poliovirus microneutralization assay, poliovirus capture IgM and IgA ELISA assays, and dried blood spot polio serology procedures for the detection of antibodies against poliovirus serotypes 1, 2, and 3.

  1. Anomaly-based Network Intrusion Detection Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Nevlud

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with detection of network anomalies. Network anomalies include everything that is quite different from the normal operation. For detection of anomalies were used machine learning systems. Machine learning can be considered as a support or a limited type of artificial intelligence. A machine learning system usually starts with some knowledge and a corresponding knowledge organization so that it can interpret, analyse, and test the knowledge acquired. There are several machine learning techniques available. We tested Decision tree learning and Bayesian networks. The open source data-mining framework WEKA was the tool we used for testing the classify, cluster, association algorithms and for visualization of our results. The WEKA is a collection of machine learning algorithms for data mining tasks.

  2. Frequency, biofilm formation and acid susceptibility of streptococcus mutans and streptococcus sobrinus in saliva of preschool children with different levels of caries activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Ghasempour

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of the causative factors in development of dental caries is microorganisms. Two species of Mutans streptococci including Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus are associated with dental caries in human beings. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of S. mutans and S. sobrinus in saliva of children with different caries activity and ability to form biofilm and acid susceptibility of these microorganisms. Materials and Methods: This analytical case-control study was performed on 83 preschool children, 4-6 years old. Children were divided into two groups including 41 caries-active and 42 caries-free children. Non-stimulated saliva samples were collected and culture and polymerase chain reaction techniques were used. Statistical analysis was performed using t-test, Chi-square, ANOVA, and Kappa tests. Results: S. mutans and S. sobrinus were found in 65% and 21.6% of the samples respectively. S. mutans was isolated from 75.6% of caries-active and 54.8% of caries-free children. Figures for S. sobrinus were 29.2% and 14.3% respectively. Acid susceptibility of microorganisms isolated from saliva was 87.43 in caries-active children and 94.30 for caries-free children. Biofilm formation of microorganisms in caries-active and caries-free children was 0.77 and 0.73, respectively. Conclusion: Frequency of S. mutans in caries-active children was significantly higher than caries-free children, but the difference in frequency of S. sobrinus was not significant. Acid susceptibility of microorganisms in caries-active children was significantly lower, but the ability to form biofilm was not significantly different in two groups.

  3. Development of detection methods for irradiated foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jae Seung; Kim, Chong Ki; Lee, Hae Jung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Insitiute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyong Su [Chosun University, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-04-01

    To identify irradiated foods, studies have been carried out with electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy on bone containing foods, such as chicken, pork, and beef. The intensity of the signal induced in bones increased linearly with irradiation doses in the range of 1.0 kGy to 5.0 kGy, and it was possible to distinguish between samples given low and high doses of irradiation. The signal stability for 6 weeks made them ideal for the quick and easy identification of irradiated meats. The analysis of DNA damage made on single cells by agarose gel electrophoresis (DNA 'comet assay') can be used to detect irradiated food. All the samples irradiated with over 0.3 kGy were identified to detect post-irradiation by the tail length of their comets. Irradiated samples showed comets with long tails, and the tail length of the comets increased with the dose, while unirradiated samples showed no or very short tails. As a result of the above experiment, the DNA 'comet assay' might be applied to the detection of irradiated grains as a simple, low-cost and rapid screening test. When fats are irradiated, hydrocarbons contained one or two fewer carbon atoms are formed from the parent fatty acids. The major hydrocarbons in irradiated beef, pork and chicken were 1,7-hexadecadiene and 8-heptadecene originating from leic acid. 1,7 hexadecadiene was the highest amount in irradiated beef, pork and chicken. Eight kinds of hydrocarbons were identified from irradiated chicken, among which 1,7-hexadecadiene and 8-heptadecen were detected as major compounds. The concentration of radiation-induced hydrocarbons was relatively constant during 16 weeks.

  4. Novel Methods for Detecting Buried Explosive Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-10

    bullets. The present practice is to detect the presence of metal with an ANPSS-12 metal detector , and then probe with a short stick to identify the...experiment” describing how fusion operates is derived from considering how a soldier actually uses a metal detector . It is argued that the audible...a serious alternative to a stick, when used in concert with a metal detector . Recent breakthroughs in NQR physics, receiver design, and signal

  5. Nuclear and Atomic Methods of Mine Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-11-01

    has been developing various applications of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and nuclear quadrupole resonance ( NQR ) in which the ultra-sensitive...and specific detection of military explosives and proposed that the technique of longitudinal magnetic resonance, in which the NMR and NQR resonances...magnetic fields, and the development of very fast gas chromatography and tandem mass spectrometers has had a major, impact on the potential for rapid

  6. Maturation of Oral Microbiota in Children with or without Dental Caries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pernilla Lif Holgerson

    Full Text Available The aim of this longitudinal study was to evaluate the oral microbiota in children from age 3 months to 3 years, and to determine the association of the presence of caries at 3 years of age.Oral biofilms and saliva were sampled from children at 3 months (n = 207 and 3 years (n = 155 of age, and dental caries was scored at 3 years of age. Oral microbiota was assessed by culturing of total lactobacilli and mutans streptococci, PCR detection of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus, 454 pyrosequencing and HOMIM (Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray microarray detection of more then 300 species/ phylotypes. Species richness and taxa diversity significantly increased from 3 months to 3 years. Three bacterial genera, present in all the 3-month-old infants, persisted at 3 years of age, whereas three other genera had disappeared by this age. A large number of new taxa were also observed in the 3-year-olds. The microbiota at 3 months of age, except for lactobacilli, was unrelated to caries development at a later age. In contrast, several taxa in the oral biofilms of the 3-year-olds were linked with the presence or absence of caries. The main species/phylotypes associated with caries in 3-year-olds belonged to the Actinobaculum, Atopobium, Aggregatibacter, and Streptococcus genera, whereas those influencing the absence of caries belonged to the Actinomyces, Bergeyella, Campylobacter, Granulicatella, Kingella, Leptotrichia, and Streptococcus genera.Thus, during the first years of life, species richness and taxa diversity in the mouth increase significantly. Besides the more prevalent colonization of lactobacilli, the composition of the overall microbiota at 3 months of age was unrelated to caries development at a later age. Several taxa within the oral biofilms of the 3-year-olds could be linked to the presence or absence of caries.

  7. A method of detecting radio transients

    CERN Document Server

    Fridman, P A

    2010-01-01

    Radio transients are sporadic signals and their detection requires that the backends of radio telescopes be equipped with the appropriate hardware and software to undertake this. Observational programs to detect transients can be dedicated or they can piggy-back on observations made by other programs. It is the single-dish single-transient (non-periodical) mode which is considered in this paper. Because neither the width of a transient nor the time of its arrival is known, a sequential analysis in the form of a cumulative sum (cusum) algorithm is proposed here. Computer simulations and real observation data processing are included to demonstrate the performance of the cusum. The use of the Hough transform is here proposed for the purpose of non-coherent de-dispersion. It is possible that the detected transients could be radio frequency interferences (RFI) and a procedure is proposed here which can distinguish between celestial signals and man-made RFI. This procedure is based on an analysis of the statistical...

  8. Electric Insulation Detection Method for High-voltage Insulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jiajun

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The principle of partial discharge detection is that through partial bridged discharge under high voltage electric field, it detects the inner air-filled cavity of high-voltage insulators. And it is a nondestructive detection method based on discharge magnitude to judge the insulation quality. The detecting system that adopts the partial discharge detection is more rigorous than testing system for electricity products, which must have small discharge capacity and higher sensitivity. This paper describes the principles of partial discharge detection and analysis insulation detection.

  9. Method of detecting and counting bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picciolo, G. L.; Chappelle, E. W. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    An improved method is provided for determining bacterial levels, especially in samples of aqueous physiological fluids. The method depends on the quantitative determination of bacterial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in the presence of nonbacterial ATP. The bacterial ATP is released by cell rupture and is measured by an enzymatic bioluminescent assay. A concentration technique is included to make the method more sensitive. It is particularly useful where the fluid to be measured contains an unknown or low bacteria count.

  10. The relationship between dental caries and obesity among primary school children aged 5 to 14 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Yingshui

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous study revealed that the link between dental caries and obesity has been controversial. The purpose of this research is to investigate the association between dental caries and obesity among primary school children in Wannan area, China. Methods: A cross-sectional study was designed to collect the routine health screening data for primary school children aged 5-14 years inWannan area,China, Overweight and obesity status were determined using the International Obesity Task Force standard (IOTF BMI cut-off points. Caries status was recorded based on WHO recommendations. Results: Our results revealed that the overall caries prevalence of the subjects was 44.9%, Maximum number of caries affected children belonged to underweight and normal group, followed by overweight, and the least number was obesity. These differences were statistically significant (chi-square test, P < 0.001. Children with obesity were 1.908 times (OR =1.908; CI95%=1.750, 2.079 more likely have caries than children with underweight or health weight. Overweight children were 1.547 times (OR = 1.547; CI95% = 1.479, 1.618 more likely to have caries than children with underweight or health weight. After adjusted the gender and age, a statistically significant association was also observed between body mass index categories and caries. Conclusions: Obesity may have a significant effect on caries prevalence of primary school children in Wannan area, China. The importance of obesity should not only be emphasized with respect to general diseases but also with regard to carious lesions.

  11. Method for detecting software anomalies based on recurrence plot analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Michał Mosdorf

    2012-01-01

    Presented paper evaluates method for detecting software anomalies based on recurrence plot analysis of trace log generated by software execution. Described method for detecting software anomalies is based on windowed recurrence quantification analysis for selected measures (e.g. Recurrence rate - RR or Determinism - DET). Initial results show that proposed method is useful in detecting silent software anomalies that do not result in typical crashes (e.g. exceptions).

  12. Method for detecting software anomalies based on recurrence plot analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Mosdorf

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Presented paper evaluates method for detecting software anomalies based on recurrence plot analysis of trace log generated by software execution. Described method for detecting software anomalies is based on windowed recurrence quantification analysis for selected measures (e.g. Recurrence rate - RR or Determinism - DET. Initial results show that proposed method is useful in detecting silent software anomalies that do not result in typical crashes (e.g. exceptions.

  13. Direct Path Detection Method in Indoor Location

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUA Hu; LI Zheng

    2006-01-01

    A search algorithm for the detection of a direct path signal in the presence of dense multipath in indoor environment using UWB is Proposed. This algorithm is based on signal correlation and differential coefficient. Statistical analysis of the algorithm is given out and computer simulation results are presented to validate the effectiveness of the algorithm.The results based on the algorithm proposed are compared with those based on Maximum Likelihood Estimator(MLE)and Peak Tracking(PT)in the simulation which shows that this algorithm achieves the highest accuracy in most cases and gives out relatively stable results in different Signal Noise Ratio(SNR).

  14. Correlation studies on surface particle detection methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Ronald V.; White, James C.

    1988-01-01

    The accurate determination of dust levels on optical surfaces is necessary to assess sensor system performance. A comparison study was made on several particle measurement methods including those based on direct imaging and light scattering. The effectiveness of removing the particles from the surface prior to determining particle size distributions was also assessed. These studies revealed that some methods, especially those requiring particle removal before analysis, are subject to large systematic errors affecting particle size distributions. Thus, an understanding of the particle measurement methods employed is necessary before any surface cleanliness or obstruction value assignments are accepted as true representations of an optical surface contamination condition.

  15. Antibodies against Streptococcus mutans and glucosyltransferases in caries-free and caries-active military recruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hus in 't Veld, J; Bannet, D; Van Palenstein Helderman, W; Camargo, P S; Backer-Dirks, O

    1978-01-01

    1) Plaque samples from caries-active recruits showed a higher incidence of S. mutans than plaque samples from caries-free recruits. The persistance of the S. mutans serotypes in the individual plaque samples attested to the consistency of S. mutans in human dental plaque. 2) S. mutans serotype d is predominantly present in approximal plaque of caries-active subjects. 3) Serum antibody titers against S. mutans are higher in caries-active individuals. 4) Sera from caries-free or caries-active individuals inhibit the insoluble glucan synthesis by the cellbound GTF to the same extent. 5) It is unlikely that antibodies against S. mutans in parotid saliva or serum play a major role in the protection against dental caries in Dutch military recruits.

  16. Correlation methods in fingerprint detection studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santer, B.D.; Wigley, T.M.L.; Jones, P.D. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States))

    1993-07-01

    This investigation addresses two general issues regarding the role of pattern similarity statistics in greenhouse warming detection studies: normalization, and the relative merits of centered versus uncentered statistics. A pattern correlation statistic is used to search for the greenhouse warming signals predicted by five different models in the observed records of land and ocean surface temperature changes. Two forms of this statistic were computed: R(t), which makes use of non-normalized data, and R(t), which employs point-wise normalized data in order to focus the search on regions where the signal-to-noise ratio is large. While there are no trends in the R(t) time series, the time series of R(t) show large positive trends. However, it is not possible to infer from the R(t) results that the observed pattern of temperature change is, in fact, becoming increasingly similar to the model-predicted signal. It is shown that trends in R(t) must arise almost completely from the observed data, and cannot be an indicator of increasing observed data/signal similarity. The most informative pattern correlation statistic for detection purposes is R(t), the standard product-moment correlation coefficient between the observed and model fields. Our failure to find meaningful trends in R(t) may be due to the fact that the signal is being obscured by the background noise of natural variability, and/or because of incorrect model signals or sensitivities.

  17. Caries Diagnosis in the Mixed Dentition Using ICDAS II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Simone dos Santos Souza

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the dental caries prevalence with ICDAS II in the mixed dentition, 40 children aged 7 to 11 years old, participating in a social program, whose parents and/or guardians signed a informed consent form. Material and Methods: Clinical examination was carried out after brushing. A single researcher performed the examination and the diagnosis consistency was obtained by Kappa coefficient in 12% of the sample. All dental surfaces were examined receiving a two-digit code. The first one refers to the presence of restoration/sealant and the second, the severity of carious lesions. The data was processed at SPSS software version 10.0 and analyzed using descriptive statistics (absolute distribution, percentage, mean and standard deviation. Results: The coefficient intra-examiner agreement was 0,83. Caries prevalence was considered high because 100% of the children had some surface with non-cavitated caries lesion. ICDAS II can be easily transformed to dmf-s or DMF-S without compromising its integrity. For dmf-s/DMF-S decayed surfaces were considered ICDAS codes 3 to 6, resulting in a dmf-s = 6,57 where 11 children (27,5% presented no decayed deciduous teeth surface. DMF-S = 2,0 showed that 15 children (37,5% had none decayed permanent surface, determining a underestimation of the caries disease when using dmf-d/dmf-s and DMF-S indexes. Conclusion: A careful viewing of initial caries lesions makes ICDAS II usefull in evaluating the health promotion actions impact, supporting the planning process, implementation and evaluation of program activities.

  18. History of dental caries and need for dental treatment of children with visual disabilities, Chile, 2014.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Guidotti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Objetivo: Determinar la historia de caries y la necesidad de tratamiento odontológico de niños con discapacidad visual entre 6-12 años, pertenecientes a Escuelas Especiales de Chile, el año 2014. Material y método: Estudio observacional descriptivo de corte transversal. Se examinaron niños con discapacidad visual de escuelas especiales en Chile, según los criterios de la OMS, para obtener el ceod, COPD y la necesidad de tratamiento. Se registraron las lesiones de esmalte clínicamente detectables en superficies cavitadas y no cavitadas. Los resultados se analizaron mediante estadística descriptiva. Resultados: 94 niños fueron examinados, pertenecientes a 7 escuelas especiales. El ceod promedio fue 2,05 (SD ± 2,6 y el COPD fue de 0,96 (SD ± 1,3. A los 6 años el ceod/COPD fue de 3/0 respectivamente. A los 12 años el ceod fue 0,17 y COPD fue 1,42. La prevalencia de caries fue de 56,3%. El 95% necesita sellantes, el 50% necesita a lo menos una restauración de una cara, y el 29% una restauración de 2 o más superficies. En cuanto a las lesiones de esmalte, el 34% de los niños presentaban al menos una lesión no cavitada y un 48% de ellos tenían una lesión cavitada.Conclusión: La historia de caries es similar a lo descrito en la población general, sin embargo, existe una alta necesidad de tratamiento preventivo. Es necesario realizar más investigaciones que permitan esclarecer si poseen un mayor riesgo cariogénico debido a su alteración visual, para así establecer estrategias promocionales/preventivas efectivas. Abstract: Objective: To determine the history of dental caries and the need for dental treatment of children with visual disabilities 6-12 years, belonging to Chile Special Schools, 2014.Material and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional observational study. The target population was children with visual disabilities in special schools in Chile. A clinical examination was performed to obtain a deft, DMFT and

  19. Detection of Outliers methods in medical studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babaee Gh

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available   Background: An outlier is an observation that lies an abnormal distance from other values in a random sample from a population. Outliers sometimes deal with to abnormality in obtained results from collected data and information. known outlier data by researchers, physicians and other persons that work in medical fields and sciences is important and they must control data before getting result about outlier data, effect of them in information bias and how to remove & control to obtain minimum bias and exact data .in this paper we had trying by known technique and tests to control them and minimized the errors related to them.Methods: This paper has been done on 30 student's height in Tarbiat Modares University that measured by meter in smoothing area. We applied some methods such as; Z-test, Grub test and graphical methods to determine outliers. In this paper the advantage and disadvantage of methods were evaluated and finally compares with each other.Results: The above tests showed that the data values 153, 110 among collected data were outliers. All of the methods showed that the above data were outliers. Calculation quartiles and intermediate quartiles showed that the observations under 125 and upper 141 were mind outliers and if the observation under 119 and upper 147 is the sever outliers. According to upper situations the amounts of 110 and 153 is the sever outliers and resulted from all methods.Conclusion: The results showed that all methods were useful in determine outlier data and between them Quartiles were important to known severe and mild outliers. Also Grub test with p-Value is very useful to report outliers.

  20. Thermal History Devices, Systems For Thermal History Detection, And Methods For Thermal History Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Caraveo Frescas, Jesus Alfonso

    2015-05-28

    Embodiments of the present disclosure include nanowire field-effect transistors, systems for temperature history detection, methods for thermal history detection, a matrix of field effect transistors, and the like.

  1. Efficacy of Miswak (Salvadorapersica in Prevention of Dental Caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Ezoddini

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: The rate of tooth decay and periodontal diseases today is still high, regardless of progress in oral and dental hygiene. The traditional toothbrush or chewing stick called "Miswak" has been used since ancient times. Many significant effects of Miswak such as antibacterial, anti-caries and antiperiopathic effects have been recognized today. Tooth care is a very important issue and both prevention and treatment of dental caries could be very helpful in maintaining good personal health. In this research, the efficacy of natural toothbrush or Miswak in prevention of dental caries was investigated and compared with the efficacy of ordinary toothbrush and toothpaste. Aim: Miswak was introduced for preventing dental caries by the Holy Prophet Mohammad (S.A.W 1400 years ago and has been used since then in many Islamic countries. In this research, the efficacy of Miswak in prevention of dental caries was investigated and compared with the efficacy of ordinary toothbrush. Methods: This analytical and clinical trial was performed in a high school student population (girls and boys in the city of Yazd, Iran in 2001-2002. Twelve high schools were randomly chosen. From these high schools, 380 second year students (190 cases and 190 controls were enrolled and their teeth condition such as the number of decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMF were recorded in a specific questionnaire. The degrees of decay in the decayed teeth were recorded as well. Then, Miswak sticks were distributed to the case group and required dental training was given to both groups. After one year, the examinations were repeated and findings recorded in the same questionnaires. For analyzing the data, one-way variance analysis, Chi square, Paired t-test and two variable analyses were used. Results: At the start of the study, there were no significant differences between the two groups (case and control with regards to their dental condition and the frequency of

  2. Development of detection methods for irradiated foods - Detection method for radiolytic products of irradiated foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyong Su; Kim, Sun Min; Park, Eun Ryong; Lee, Hae Jung; Kim, Eun Ah; Jo, Jung Ok [Chosun University, Kwangju (Korea)

    1999-04-01

    Meat (beef, pork, chicken) and nut (sesame, perilla, black sesame, peanut) were irradiated with /sup 60/Co gamma-ray. A process to detect radiation-induced hydrocarbons and 2-alkylcyclobutanones includes the extraction of fat from meat and nut, separation of hydrocarbons and 2-alkylcyclobutanones with a florisil column and identification of GC/MS methods. Concentrations of the produced hydrocarbons and 2-alkylcyclobutanones tended to increase linearly with the dose levels of irradiation in beef, pork and chicken, while concentrations of radiation-induced hydrocarbons were different individually at the same dose level. In meat, hydrocarbons and 2-alkylcyclobutanones originated from oleic acid were found in a large amount. The concentrations of radiation-induced hydrocarbons were relatively constant during 16 weeks. In nut, hydrocarbons originated from oleic acid and linoleic acid were the major compounds whereas results of perilla was similar to meat. Radiation-induced hydrocarbons were increased linearly with the irradiation dose and remarkably detected at 0.5 kGy and over. 44 refs., 30 figs., 14 tabs. (Author)

  3. Palmistry: A tool for dental caries prediction!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Madan

    2011-01-01

    Results and Conclusion: Handprints of caries-free children, especially females, showed maximum ulnar loops. The caries group showed maximum occurrence of whorls (r=2:1, which were more prevalent in females on the left hand 3rd digit than in males where the whorls were found on the right hand 3 rd digit, and also low total ridge count, especially in males.

  4. Methods for detection of ataxia telangiectasia mutations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gatti, Richard A.

    2005-10-04

    The present invention is directed to a method of screening large, complex, polyexonic eukaryotic genes such as the ATM gene for mutations and polymorphisms by an improved version of single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) electrophoresis that allows electrophoresis of two or three amplified segments in a single lane. The present invention also is directed to new mutations and polymorphisms in the ATM gene that are useful in performing more accurate screening of human DNA samples for mutations and in distinguishing mutations from polymorphisms, thereby improving the efficiency of automated screening methods.

  5. Plaque bacterial microbiome diversity in children younger than 30 months with or without caries prior to eruption of second primary molars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Xu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Our primary objective is to phylogenetically characterize the supragingival plaque bacterial microbiome of children prior to eruption of second primary molars by pyrosequencing method for studying etiology of early childhood caries. METHODS: Supragingival plaque samples were collected from 10 caries children and 9 caries-free children. Plaque DNA was extracted, used to generate DNA amplicons of the V1-V3 hypervariable region of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene, and subjected to 454-pyrosequencing. RESULTS: On average, over 22,000 sequences per sample were generated. High bacterial diversity was noted in the plaque of children with caries [170 operational taxonomical units (OTU at 3% divergence] and caries-free children (201 OTU at 3% divergence with no significant difference. A total of 8 phyla, 15 classes, 21 orders, 30 families, 41 genera and 99 species were represented. In addition, five predominant phyla (Firmicute, Fusobacteria, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria and seven genera (Leptotrichia, Streptococcus, Actinomyces, Prevotella, Porphyromonas, Neisseria, and Veillonella constituted a majority of contents of the total microbiota, independent of the presence or absence of caries. Principal Component Analysis (PCA presented that caries-related genera included Streptococcus and Veillonella; while Leptotrichia, Selenomonas, Fusobacterium, Capnocytophaga and Porphyromonas were more related to the caries-free samples. Neisseria and Prevotella presented approximately in between. In both groups, the degree of shared organism lineages (as defined by species-level OTUs among individual supragingival plaque microbiomes was minimal. CONCLUSION: Our study represented for the first time using pyrosequencing to elucidate and monitor supragingival plaque bacterial diversity at such young age with second primary molar unerrupted. Distinctions were revealed between caries and caries-free microbiomes in terms of microbial community

  6. Method of Detecting Coliform Bacteria from Reflected Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Robert K. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of detecting coliform bacteria in water from reflected light, and also includes devices for the measurement, calculation and transmission of data relating to that method.

  7. The Value of Periapical Radiograph in the Diagnosis of Interproximal Caries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KIm, Young Hee; Kang, Byung Chul [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Chonnam National University, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-03-15

    To compare the diagnostic performance of clinical and radiologic examination for the interproximal caries on intraoral periapical radiographs and to evaluate the value of periapical radiographs. One hundred seven dental patients were examined clinically, with a mouth mirror and an explorer, by a dentist at the department of oral medicine, and the presence or absence of interproximal caries lesion was recorded. The patients were prescribed one or more dental periapical radiographs. Radiographs were assessed for the presence of interproximal caries by three radiologists independently. Two thousand sixty interproximal surfaces were included in this study. The diagnostic accuracies of clinical and radiologic examinations for interproximal caries were calculated. To assess the degree of agreement between clinical and radiologic examinations, Cohen's coefficient of agreement was computed. The specificity of clinical and radiologic examination was 0.991, 0.997 and the sensitivity was 0.279, 0.985 respectively. The diagnostic accuracy of radiologic examination was statistically significantly higher than that of clinical examination (P<0.05). Cohen's kappa value of clinical and radiologic examination was 0.335, 0.942 respectively. These results suggested that clinical examination show only fair agreement, whereas radiologic examination show perfect agreement. The diagnostic performance of the dental periapical radiographs on interproximal caries were higher than that of clinical examination, thus this study showed the validity of periapical radiographs for detecting interproximal caries lesion without bitewing radiograph.

  8. Dental caries in the primary dentition of a Colombian population according to the ICDAS criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Saldarriaga Cadavid

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the results of a cross-sectional study conducted with a randomized sample of 447 low-income children between 2.5 and 4 years of age selected from the files of a health institution in Medellin, Colombia. The patients were examined in 2007 using the modified criteria of the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS; the first caries code was not used. Clinical examination was carried out by three examiners previously trained in the ICDAS. The inter-examiner agreement was rated as good (kappa 0.73 - 0.82. The prevalence of untreated caries was 74.7% (335 with a mean of 9.7 ± 9.4 affected surfaces. The prevalence of caries (treated and untreated was 74.9% (335. The mean dmf-s was 7.6 ± 9.7. The prevalence of non-cavitated lesions on at least one tooth surface was 73.4%. Cavitated lesions were more frequent on smooth surfaces than on occlusal surfaces (respectively 64.7% and 46.8%; p value < 0.001. Only 25.1% (112.5 of the children had no clinical signs of caries according to the ICDAS criteria. It was concluded that dental caries is a highly prevalent condition in this Colombian population, the main contributor being non-cavitated lesions. There was an association between caries and oral hygiene practices, such as the amount of toothpaste used, and also between caries and the occurrence of a previous dental visit (p value < 0.00. Eating habits constituted no statistically significant association.

  9. New Atomic Methods for Dark Matter Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Benjamin; Stadnik, Yevgeny; Dzuba, Vladimir; Flambaum, Victor; Leefer, Nathan; Budker, Dmitry

    2015-05-01

    We propose to exploit P and T violating effects in atoms, nuclei, and molecules to search for dark matter (eg axions) and various other cosmic fields. We perform calculations of electric dipole moments (EDMs) that a dark matter field would induce in atoms. Crucially, the effects we consider here are linear in the small parameter that quantifies the dark matter interaction strength; most current searches rely on effects that are at least quadratic in this parameter. The induced oscillating EDMs have the potential to be measured with very high accuracy, and experimental techniques in this field are evolving fast. Pairs of closely spaced opposite parity levels that are found in diatomic molecules will also lead to a significant enhancement in these effects. We are also interested in a possible explanation for the anomalous DAMA dark matter detection results based on DM-electron scattering. Our calculations may provide a possible mechanism for dark matter induced ionisation modulations that are not ruled out by other experiments. Alternatively, they could further reduce the available parameter space for certain dark matter models.

  10. Analysis of caries susceptibility factors during transition from caries-free to caries in three-year-old children%3岁儿童患龋过程中龋易感因素的相关分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝文婧; 徐赫; 陈霄迟; 周琼; 张萍; 秦满

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the changes of caries susceptibility factors during the transition from caries-free to caries in three-year-old children.Methods The study included 144 caries-free children aged 34-38 months.All participants underwent clinical examination and full-mouth supragingival plaque collection.Survey of children's oral health behaviors involving feeding habits and oral health care was also taken from children' s parents of all participants.The children were reexamined 6 and 12 months later.According to the potential changes of caries status in twelve months follow up,all the participants were divided into three groups:caries-free group (caries free children in twelve months follow up),caries at 6-month group(children who were found with caries or cavities fillings at six months review) and caries at 12-month group(children who were caries free at six months but found with caries or cavities fillings at twelve months).Streptococcus mutans (Sm)and Streptococcus sobrinus (Ss) loads were compared among the three groups by real time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (FQ-PCR).Results One hundred and thirty children completed twelve months review,the dropout rate was 9.7% (14/144).At the end of twelve months follow up,the number of children in caries-free group,caries at 6-month group and caries at 12-month group was 58,44 and 28 respectively.The changes of oral behavioral habits in caries-free group,caries at 6-month group and caries at 12-month group during twelve months follow up were not significantly different(P >0.05).At baseline,the frequency of sweets consumption and eating sweets before sleeping in caries-free group was significantly lower than that in caries at 6-month group and caries at 12-month group (P < 0.001).At baseline,the quantity of Sm and Ss in caries at 6-month group [copy number of Sm:(6.33 ± 2.21) × 103,copy number of Ss:(1.99 ±0.45) × 103] was significantly higher than that in the caries-free group [copy

  11. A NEW METHOD OF MOVING OBJECT DETECTION AND SHADOW REMOVING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Fuyuan; Zhang Yanning; Yao Lan; Sun Jinqiu

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an adaptive method of objects and shadows detection in video streams.Models of background are firstly set up and adaptively updated in Hue Saturation Intensity (HSI)color space to detect motion regions. Then, detection errors are dealt with by motion continuity and velocity consistency. Finally, cast shadows are removed by the generic properties of luminance,chrominance and gradient density. Experimental results and their evaluation are presented to verify the effectiveness of this new method.

  12. Localized surface plasmon resonance mercury detection system and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, Jay; Lucas, Donald; Crosby, Jeffrey Scott; Koshland, Catherine P.

    2016-03-22

    A mercury detection system that includes a flow cell having a mercury sensor, a light source and a light detector is provided. The mercury sensor includes a transparent substrate and a submonolayer of mercury absorbing nanoparticles, e.g., gold nanoparticles, on a surface of the substrate. Methods of determining whether mercury is present in a sample using the mercury sensors are also provided. The subject mercury detection systems and methods find use in a variety of different applications, including mercury detecting applications.

  13. A correlation method of detecting and estimating interactions of QTLs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    More and more studies demonstrate that a great deal of interactions among the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) are far more than those detected by single markers. A correlation method was proposed for estimating the interactions of multiple QTLs detected by multi-markers in several mapping populations. Genetic implication of this method and usage were discussed.

  14. Dental status and dental caries in 85-year-old Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilstrup, Lene; Holm-Pedersen, Poul; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study reports findings on the dental status and the prevalence of dental caries among a group of 85-year-old Danes from the Glostrup 1914 Cohort, Denmark. The purpose of the study was to analyse whether caries experience was related to number of teeth and to indicators...... and cognitive impairment tended to have more active caries than 85-year-olds with no impairment. CONCLUSIONS: A substantial proportion of 85-year-old individuals had retained a natural dentition; however, active dental caries is a problem of concern among the most elderly....... of functional ability and cognitive function. METHODS: A total of 191 individuals (78 men and 113 women) participated in a cross-sectional population study conducted in 2000. Using mobile dental equipment, a clinical oral examination and an interview were administered to all participants in their homes...

  15. Dental caries and treatment needs of children (6-10 years in rural Udaipur, Rajasthan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhar Vineet

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : This study was done to examine caries prevalence and corresponding treatment needs in school children of rural areas of Udaipur, Rajasthan. Materials and Methods : A total of 750 children of rural areas in the age group of 6-10 years were examined, using WHO index, to record the prevalence of dental caries and treatment needs. The results were subjected to statistical analysis using chi square test. Results : Dental caries was found in 63.20% children, and 85.07% children needed dental treatment. The highest need was of one surface filling (85.73% followed by sealant (51.20%. Conclusion : Dental caries showed to be a significant health issue in the rural population requiring immediate attention.

  16. Method for detecting trace impurities in gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, S.M.; Maier, W.B. II; Holland, R.F.; Beattie, W.H.

    A technique for considerably improving the sensitivity and specificity of infrared spectrometry as applied to quantitative determination of trace impurities in various carrier or solvent gases is presented. A gas to be examined for impurities is liquefied and infrared absorption spectra of the liquid are obtained. Spectral simplification and number densities of impurities in the optical path are substantially higher than are obtainable in similar gas-phase analyses. Carbon dioxide impurity (approx. 2 ppM) present in commercial Xe and ppM levels of Freon 12 and vinyl chloride added to liquefied air are used to illustrate the method.

  17. Delamination detection using methods of computational intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihesiulor, Obinna K.; Shankar, Krishna; Zhang, Zhifang; Ray, Tapabrata

    2012-11-01

    Abstract Reliable delamination prediction scheme is indispensable in order to prevent potential risks of catastrophic failures in composite structures. The existence of delaminations changes the vibration characteristics of composite laminates and hence such indicators can be used to quantify the health characteristics of laminates. An approach for online health monitoring of in-service composite laminates is presented in this paper that relies on methods based on computational intelligence. Typical changes in the observed vibration characteristics (i.e. change in natural frequencies) are considered as inputs to identify the existence, location and magnitude of delaminations. The performance of the proposed approach is demonstrated using numerical models of composite laminates. Since this identification problem essentially involves the solution of an optimization problem, the use of finite element (FE) methods as the underlying tool for analysis turns out to be computationally expensive. A surrogate assisted optimization approach is hence introduced to contain the computational time within affordable limits. An artificial neural network (ANN) model with Bayesian regularization is used as the underlying approximation scheme while an improved rate of convergence is achieved using a memetic algorithm. However, building of ANN surrogate models usually requires large training datasets. K-means clustering is effectively employed to reduce the size of datasets. ANN is also used via inverse modeling to determine the position, size and location of delaminations using changes in measured natural frequencies. The results clearly highlight the efficiency and the robustness of the approach.

  18. Method And Apparatus For Detecting Chemical Binding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM); Havrilla, George J. (Los Alamos, NM); Miller, Thomasin C. (Los Alamos, NM); Wells, Cyndi A. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2005-02-22

    The method for screening binding between a target binder and potential pharmaceutical chemicals involves sending a solution (preferably an aqueous solution) of the target binder through a conduit to a size exclusion filter, the target binder being too large to pass through the size exclusion filter, and then sending a solution of one or more potential pharmaceutical chemicals (preferably an aqueous solution) through the same conduit to the size exclusion filter after target binder has collected on the filter. The potential pharmaceutical chemicals are small enough to pass through the filter. Afterwards, x-rays are sent from an x-ray source to the size exclusion filter, and if the potential pharmaceutical chemicals form a complex with the target binder, the complex produces an x-ray fluorescence signal having an intensity that indicates that a complex has formed.

  19. Method and apparatus for detecting chemical binding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM); Havrilla, George J. (Los Alamos, NM); Miller, Thomasin C. (Los Alamos, NM); Wells, Cyndi A. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2007-07-10

    The method for screening binding between a target binder and potential pharmaceutical chemicals involves sending a solution (preferably an aqueous solution) of the target binder through a conduit to a size exclusion filter, the target binder being too large to pass through the size exclusion filter, and then sending a solution of one or more potential pharmaceutical chemicals (preferably an aqueous solution) through the same conduit to the size exclusion filter after target binder has collected on the filter. The potential pharmaceutical chemicals are small enough to pass through the filter. Afterwards, x-rays are sent from an x-ray source to the size exclusion filter, and if the potential pharmaceutical chemicals form a complex with the target binder, the complex produces an x-ray fluorescence signal having an intensity that indicates that a complex has formed.

  20. OPGW Corrosion Detection Using Nondestructive Test Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, J.K.; Yoon, G.G.; Kang, J.W.; Yang, H.W. [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-02-01

    This paper deals with some characteristics of a nondestructive eddy current detector to measure OPGW(composite overhead ground wire with optical fiber) corrosion. This detector is designed to automatically run on OPGW and to continuously inspect the corrosion of the line. The impedance of the eddy coil changing by any corrosion phenomenon of OPGW is analyzed. Several performances of the detector are described and experimental procedures and test results are also given. As a result, it is shown that the implemented detector can be measured some quantitative data for crack, broken wires or severe deteriorations in OPGW. This nondestructive test method would be applied to improve the reliability and efficiency of transmission lines in service. (author). 5 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Candida albicans Carriage in Children with Severe Early Childhood Caries (S-ECC) and Maternal Relatedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jin; Moon, Yonghwi; Li, Lihua; Rustchenko, Elena; Wakabayashi, Hironao; Zhao, Xiaoyi; Feng, Changyong; Gill, Steven R.; McLaren, Sean; Malmstrom, Hans; Ren, Yanfang; Quivey, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Candida albicans has been detected together with Streptococcus mutans in high numbers in plaque-biofilm from children with early childhood caries (ECC). The goal of this study was to examine the C. albicans carriage in children with severe early childhood caries (S-ECC) and the maternal relatedness. Methods Subjects in this pilot cross-sectional study were recruited based on a convenient sample. DMFT(S)/dmft(s) caries and plaque scores were assessed during a comprehensive oral exam. Social-demographic and related background information was collected through a questionnaire. Saliva and plaque sample from all children and mother subjects were collected. C. albicans were isolated by BBL™ CHROMagar™ and also identified using germ tube test. S. mutans was isolated using Mitis Salivarius with Bacitracin selective medium and identified by colony morphology. Genetic relatedness was examined using restriction endonuclease analysis of the C. albicans genome using BssHII (REAG-B). Multilocus sequence typing was used to examine the clustering information of isolated C. albicans. Spot assay was performed to examine the C. albicans Caspofungin susceptibility between S-ECC children and their mothers. All statistical analyses (pow