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Sample records for caries background aims

  1. The VicGeneration study - a birth cohort to examine the environmental, behavioural and biological predictors of early childhood caries: background, aims and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dashper Stuart

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dental caries (decay during childhood is largely preventable however it remains a significant and costly public health concern, identified as the most prevalent chronic disease of childhood. Caries in children aged less than five years (early childhood caries is a rapid and progressive disease that can be painful and debilitating, and significantly increases the likelihood of poor child growth, development and social outcomes. Early childhood caries may also result in a substantial social burden on families and significant costs to the public health system. A disproportionate burden of disease is also experienced by disadvantaged populations. Methods/Design This study involves the establishment of a birth cohort in disadvantaged communities in Victoria, Australia. Children will be followed for at least 18 months and the data gathered will explore longitudinal relationships and generate new evidence on the natural history of early childhood caries, the prevalence of the disease and relative contributions of risk and protective biological, environmental and behavioural factors. Specifically, the study aims to: 1. Describe the natural history of early childhood caries (at ages 1, 6, 12 and 18 months, tracking pathways from early bacterial colonisation, through non-cavitated enamel white spot lesions to cavitated lesions extending into dentine. 2. Enumerate oral bacterial species in the saliva of infants and their primary care giver. 3. Identify the strength of concurrent associations between early childhood caries and putative risk and protective factors, including biological (eg microbiota, saliva, environmental (fluoride exposure and socio-behavioural factors (proximal factors such as: feeding practices and oral hygiene; and distal factors such as parental health behaviours, physical health, coping and broader socio-economic conditions. 4. Quantify the longitudinal relationships between these factors and the development and

  2. The VicGeneration study - a birth cohort to examine the environmental, behavioural and biological predictors of early childhood caries: background, aims and methods

    OpenAIRE

    Dashper Stuart; Gussy Mark; Calache Hanny; de Silva-Sanigorski Andrea M; Gibson Jane; Waters Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Dental caries (decay) during childhood is largely preventable however it remains a significant and costly public health concern, identified as the most prevalent chronic disease of childhood. Caries in children aged less than five years (early childhood caries) is a rapid and progressive disease that can be painful and debilitating, and significantly increases the likelihood of poor child growth, development and social outcomes. Early childhood caries may also result in a ...

  3. Aime

    OpenAIRE

    Vermeulen, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Code INSEE de la commune : 73006Lien Atlas (MCC) :http://atlas.patrimoines.culture.fr/atlas/trunk/index.php?ap_theme=DOM_2.01.02&ap_bbox=6.561;45.491;6.670;45.620 Le diagnostic réalisé à Aime, au lieu-dit Le Poëncet, rue du Prince, concerne une surface de 250 m2. Cette emprise est localisée en limite occidentale du forum antique d’Aime. Deux murs de facture grossière, perpendiculaires, orientés est-ouest et nord-sud ont été mis au jour. En l’absence de mobilier pour la dater, seule leur orien...

  4. Aime

    OpenAIRE

    Chemin, René; Feuillet, Marie-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Identifiant de l'opération archéologique : 9728 Date de l'opération : 2008 (SP) La création d'un lotissement au lieu-dit Les Chaudannes a suscité un diagnostic mené par P.-J. Rey dont les résultats ont conduit le service régional de l'Archéologie à prescrire un fouille. La commune d'Aime a déjà livré de nombreux vestiges pré et protohistoriques : occupation néolithique au Dos de Borgaz, à Saint-Sigismond, au Replat (nécropole de type Chamblandes) et à proximité du présent projet, occupation d...

  5. Microstructure and mechanical changes induced by Q-Switched pulse laser on human enamel with aim of caries prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apsari, R.; Pratomo, D. A.; Hikmawati, D.; Bidin, N.

    2016-03-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of Q-Switched Nd: YAG laser energy dose to human enamel caries. The specifications of Q-Switched Nd: YAG laser as followed: wavelength of 1064 nm and 6 ns pulse width. Caries enamel samples taken from human teeth molars of 17-35 ages and the type of media caries. Energy doses used in this study were 723.65 mJ/cm2, 767.72 mJ/cm2, and 1065.515 mJ/cm2; 5 Hz repetition rate, and 20 second exposure time. Samples characterized the surface morphology and the percentage of constituent elements, especially calcium/phosphorus (Ca/P) with FESEM-EDAX. The fraction volume and crystallinity percentage of hydroxyapatite (HA) with XRD and hardness value using Vickers Microhardness Test. The results indicated that exposure of Q-Switched Nd:YAG laser on enamel caries resulting cracks, holes, and melt due to plasma production effects in the surface. Plasma production effect also resulted in micro properties such as percentage of Ca/P was close to normal, the fraction volume and crystallinity percentage of HA went up but did not change the crystal structure (in terms of the lattice structure). The hardness value also rose as linear as exposure energy dose caused by phototermal effect. Based on the results, Q-Switched Nd:YAG laser can be used as contactless drill dental caries replacement candidate with the additional therapy effect such as localized caries in order to avoid the spread, the ratio of Ca/P approaching healthy teeth, the fraction volume and crystallinity percentage of HA rose and established stronger teeth with peak energy dose 1065.515 mJ/cm2.

  6. Impact of caries onset on number and distribution of new lesions in preschool children

    OpenAIRE

    Leroy, Roos; Declerck, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry 2012 Background.  Caries in preschool children remains an important public health issue. Aim.  To determine (i) which teeth and tooth surfaces are most susceptible to dental caries by age 3, (ii) where do caries lesions develop during 2-year follow-up, and (iii) to evaluate the impact of caries onset on the distribution of new caries experience. Design.  One thousand and fifty seven consecutively born children were recruited in Flanders (Belgium)....

  7. Palmistry: A tool for dental caries prediction!

    OpenAIRE

    Nidhi Madan; Arun Rathnam; Neeti Bajaj

    2011-01-01

    Background: Dermatoglyphics can prove to be an extremely useful tool for preliminary investigations in conditions with a suspected genetic base. Since caries is a multifactorial disease with the influence of genetic pattern, early prediction for high-risk children can help in using effective and efficient caries preventive measures that are a part of the pedodontist arsenal. Aims and Objectives: This study was done to determine the genetic aspect involved in the occurrence of dental carie...

  8. A 5-year retrospective study of rampant dental caries among adult patients in a Nigerian Teaching Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    M Ajayi Deborah; M F Abiodun-Solanke Iyabode; O Gbadebo Shakeerah

    2015-01-01

    Background: Rampant caries in adults has not been a focus of many researches unlike the childhood form of the disease. The disease is an interesting finding in an adult patient. When the condition occurs in children, it has been described as nursing bottle caries, baby bottle tooth decay, and the most recently adopted term, "early childhood caries". Aim: The aim was to determine the prevalence of rampant caries among adult patients. Materials and Methods: Cases of rampant caries were id...

  9. Evaluation of pH, buffering capacity, viscosity and flow rate levels of saliva in caries-free, minimal caries and nursing caries children: An in vivo study

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the pH, buffering capacity, viscosity and flow rate of saliva in caries free, minimal caries and nursing caries children and to evaluate the relationship of these on the caries activity of children. Materials and Methods: A total of 75 school children of age group between 4 and 12 years were selected and divided into three equal groups: Group I, Group II and Group III, consisting of 25 subjects each. Group I included caries-free...

  10. Caries risk assessment models in caries prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Amila Zukanović

    2013-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this research was to assess the efficiency of different multifactor models in caries prediction. Material and methods. Data from the questionnaire and objective examination of 109 examinees was entered into the Cariogram, Previser and Caries-Risk Assessment Tool (CAT) multifactor risk assessment models. Caries risk was assessed with the help of all three models for each patient, classifying them as low, medium or high-risk patients. The development of new caries lesions ...

  11. Caries remineralisation and arresting effect in children by professionally applied fluoride treatment – a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Sherry Shiqian; Zhang, Shinan; Mei, May Lei; Lo, Edward Chin-Man; Chu, Chun-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Background As a low-cost and easily operated treatment, the use of professionally applied topical fluoride was approved for preventing dental caries and remineralising early enamel caries or white spot lesions. It is also used to arrest dentine caries. The aim of this study is to investigate the clinical efficacy of professional fluoride therapy in remineralising and arresting caries in children. Method A systematic search of publications from 1948 to 2014 was conducted using four databases: ...

  12. Prevalence of candida albicans in dental plaque and caries lesion of early childhood caries (ECC) according to sampling site

    OpenAIRE

    Ghasempour, Maryam; Sefidgar, Seyed Ali Asghar; Eyzadian, Haniyeh; Gharakhani, Samaneh

    2011-01-01

    Background: Candida albicans may have cariogenic potential but its role in caries etiology has not been established. The aim of this study was to determine candida albicans in supragingival dental plaque and infected dentine of cervical and proximal in early childhood caries (ECC).

  13. Inequalities of caries experience in Nevada youth expressed by DMFT index vs. Significant Caries Index (SiC) over time

    OpenAIRE

    Mobley Connie; Dounis Georgia; Ditmyer Marcia; Schwarz Eli

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background With the increasingly polarized distribution of dental caries among children and adolescents, the usual DMFT measure has become a less meaningful population descriptor. To re-focus on identifying the high caries prevalence group the Significant Caries Index (SiC) was created. The aims of this study were to analyze the prevalence and severity of dental caries in Nevada youth over a period of eight years and to compare its expression by means of DMFT and SiC; analyze the car...

  14. Quantification and Correlation of Oral Candida with Caries Index Among Different Age Groups of School Children: A Case–Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Naidu, BV; Reginald, BA

    2016-01-01

    Background: Dental caries is the most common infectious disease affecting humans and is the predominant cause of tooth loss in children. Although Candida's role in dental caries has been studied extensively, limited homogenous studies have been conducted and none have been found, that associate Candida with dental caries, while correlating it to different age groups. Aim: The study aimed to quantify oral Candida in school children and correlate candidal carriage to the caries index and furthe...

  15. European network for promoting the physical health of residents in psychiatric and social care facilities (HELPS): background, aims and methods

    OpenAIRE

    Marginean Roxana; Lucas Ramona; Lech Katarzyna; Larsen Jens; Lai Taavi; Hjorth Peter; Henderson John; Halis Ulaş; Germanavicius Arunas; Genova Aneta; Friedrich Fabian; Freidl Marion; Dragomirecka Eva; Dernovsek Mojca; Burton Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background People with mental disorders have a higher prevalence of physical illnesses and reduced life expectancy as compared with the general population. However, there is a lack of knowledge across Europe concerning interventions that aim at reducing somatic morbidity and excess mortality by promoting behaviour-based and/or environment-based interventions. Methods and design HELPS is an interdisciplinary European network that aims at (i) gathering relevant knowledge on physical il...

  16. European network for promoting the physical health of residents in psychiatric and social care facilities (HELPS): background, aims and methods

    OpenAIRE

    Weiser, P.; Becker, T; Losert, C.; Altpekin, K.; Berti, L.; Burti, L.; Burton, A

    2009-01-01

    Background People with mental disorders have a higher prevalence of physical illnesses and reduced life expectancy as compared with the general population. However, there is a lack of knowledge across Europe concerning interventions that aim at reducing somatic morbidity and excess mortality by promoting behaviour-based and/or environment-based interventions. Methods and design HELPS is an interdisciplinary European network that aims at (i) gathering relevant knowledge on physical ...

  17. Caries risk estimation in children regarding values of saliva buffer system components and carboanhydrase activity

    OpenAIRE

    Šurdilović Dušan; Stojanović Ivana 1; Apostolović Mirjana

    2008-01-01

    Background/Aim. One of the preconditions for efficacious systematic reduction of caries prevalence and prophylaxis is the determination of risks of this disease appearance. The aim of this study was to prove the significance of salivary carboanhydrase activity determination in estimation of caries risk in children. Methods. The study included 123 children of average age of 13.4±0.3 years and permanent dentition. The children were divided into two groups according to caries risk (low and high ...

  18. A qualitative study of the views of adolescents on their caries risk and prevention behaviours

    OpenAIRE

    Hall-Scullin, Emma; Goldthorpe, Joanna; Milsom, Keith; Tickle, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to explore the attitudes and beliefs of adolescents towards dental caries and their use or non-use of caries prevention regimens. Methods Adolescents aged 16 years from four state-funded secondary schools in North West of England (n = 19). Purposive sampling strategically selected participants with characteristics to inform the study aims (gender, ethnicity, and caries status). Semi-structured interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using a f...

  19. Quantitative detection of Streptococcus mutans and bacteria of dental caries and no caries groups in permanent teeth from a north China population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhan-yong; WANG Jian-qiu; ZHOU Yan; ZHAO Dong; XIAO Bai

    2012-01-01

    Background Streptococcus mutans (S.mutans) is the prime pathogen of dental caries.There are few reports that studied the relationship between S.mutans,bacteria and dental caries in permanent teeth when compared to those in primary teeth.This study aimed to detect S.mutans and bacteria of dental caries and non-caries groups in permanent teeth from a north China population by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and compare the relationship between the number of these bacteria and the prevalence of dental caries in permanent teeth.Methods Human saliva samples were collected from 142 subjects with permanent teeth.According to their dental tooth (DT),142 subjects were divided into a dental caries group (DT≥1) and a non-caries group (DT=0).With specific primers for S.mutans and 16S rRNA,the total number of S.mutans and total bacteria of 142 saliva samples were detected by real-time PCR and statistically analyzed.Results There was no significant difference between the detection rates of S.mutans (P=0.118) and medians of S.mutans (P=0.115).The ratio of S.mutans to total bacteria in people with dental caries was significantly higher than in those without caries (P <0.001),but the total number of bacteria in people with dental caries was significantly lower than in those without caries (P <0.001).Conclusions S.mutans had different effects on caries in the permanent teeth of several individuals from a north China population.The ratios of S.mutans to total bacteria in saliva detected by real-time PCR with Sm479F/R and 16S RNA primers were closely associated with the prevalence of dental caries in the same population.These assays may be useful for the assessment of an individual's risk of dental caries.

  20. Early childhood caries in Switzerland: a marker of social inequalities

    OpenAIRE

    Baggio, Stéphanie; Abarca, Marcelo; Bodenmann, Patrick; Gehri, Mario; Madrid, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Background Early childhood caries (ECC) is a marker of social inequalities worldwide because disadvantaged children are more likely to develop caries than their peers. This study aimed to define the ECC prevalence among children living in French-speaking Switzerland, where data on this topic were scarce, and to assess whether ECC was an early marker of social inequalities in this country. Methods The study took place between 2010 and 2012 in the primary care facility of Lausanne Children’s Ho...

  1. Association of Environmental Cadmium Exposure with Pediatric Dental Caries

    OpenAIRE

    Arora, Manish; Weuve, Jennifer Lynn; Schwartz, Joel David; Wright, Robert O.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Although animal experiments have shown that cadmium exposure results in severe dental caries, limited epidemiologic data are available on this issue. Objectives: We aimed to examine the relationship between environmental cadmium exposure and dental caries in children 6–12 years of age. Methods: We analyzed cross-sectional data, including urine cadmium concentrations and counts of decayed or filled tooth surfaces, from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We ...

  2. [Dental caries of the developmental age as a civilization disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójcicka, Anna; Zalewska, Magdalena; Czerech, Ewa; Jabłoński, Robert; Grabowska, Stanisława Zyta; Maciorkowska, Elzbieta

    2012-01-01

    According to the definition of the World Health Organization (WHO), dental caries is a local pathological process of the extrasomatic background, leading to enamel decalcification, decomposition of dental hard tissue, and in consequence to formation of a dental cavity. Morbidity of dental caries increases with age, reaching 100% of children, aged from 6 to 7. Poland is one of few European countries where the incidence of dental caries in children did not decrease, despite recommendations of WHO for 2000 year, aimed at the decrease in the incidence of dental caries among 6-year-old children to the level of 50%. The recommendation of WHO for 2015 year is to reduce the incidence of dental caries to 30% among 6-year-olds, i.e., 70% of 6 year-old children should be free of dental caries. Apart from genetic conditioning, inappropriate health behaviors, nutritional habits and gastroesophageal reflux disease influence the development of dental caries. Consumption of 'fast food' and drinking sweetened beverages of low pH contribute markedly to the development of dental caries, decreasing simultaneously consumption of pro healthy foods, including milk and cereals. Taking into consideration perspective clinical examinations of children and adolescents, evaluating the relationship between dental caries and nutritional habits as well as environmental conditioning, the study shows current data about factors, contributing to the incidence of dental caries in children, collected from the literature. The attention was paid to the relationship between dental caries and gastroesophageal reflux disease and the necessity of its early diagnostics and proper treatment. PMID:23484402

  3. Prevalence of root caries among elders living in residential homes of Bengaluru city, India

    OpenAIRE

    Kumara-Raja, Balasubramanian; Radha, Gubbihal

    2016-01-01

    Background Among the various oral ailments which have been observed in elderly, root caries is a significant one. Tooth loss is chief oral health-related negative variable to the quality of life in elderly and root caries is the major cause of tooth loss in them. It has been reported about a third of older population bears most of the root caries burden, so the present study aimed to assess the prevalence of root caries among older individuals residing in residential homes of Bengaluru city I...

  4. Prevalence of root caries among elders living in residential homes of Bengaluru city, India

    OpenAIRE

    Kumara-Raja, Balasubramanian; G. Radha

    2016-01-01

    Background: Among the various oral ailments which have been observed in elderly, root caries is a significant one. Tooth loss is chief oral health-related negative variable to the quality of life in elderly and root caries is the major cause of tooth loss in them. It has been reported about a third of older population bears most of the root caries burden, so the present study aimed to assess the prevalence of root caries among older individuals residing in residential homes of Ben...

  5. Early Childhood Caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumiko Kawashita

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is one of the most common childhood diseases, and people continue to be susceptible to it throughout their lives. Although dental caries can be arrested and potentially even reversed in its early stages, it is often not self-limiting and progresses without proper care until the tooth is destroyed. Early childhood caries (ECC is often complicated by inappropriate feeding practices and heavy infection with mutans streptococci. Such children should be targeted with a professional preventive program that includes oral hygiene instructions for mothers or caregivers, along with fluoride and diet counseling. However, these strategies alone are not sufficient to prevent dental caries in high-risk children; prevention of ECC also requires addressing the socioeconomic factors that face many families in which ECC is endemic. The aim of this paper is to systematically review information about ECC and to describe why many children are suffering from dental caries.

  6. European network for promoting the physical health of residents in psychiatric and social care facilities (HELPS: background, aims and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marginean Roxana

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People with mental disorders have a higher prevalence of physical illnesses and reduced life expectancy as compared with the general population. However, there is a lack of knowledge across Europe concerning interventions that aim at reducing somatic morbidity and excess mortality by promoting behaviour-based and/or environment-based interventions. Methods and design HELPS is an interdisciplinary European network that aims at (i gathering relevant knowledge on physical illness in people with mental illness, (ii identifying health promotion initiatives in European countries that meet country-specific needs, and (iii at identifying best practice across Europe. Criteria for best practice will include evidence on the efficacy of physical health interventions and of their effectiveness in routine care, cost implications and feasibility for adaptation and implementation of interventions across different settings in Europe. HELPS will develop and implement a "physical health promotion toolkit". The toolkit will provide information to empower residents and staff to identify the most relevant risk factors in their specific context and to select the most appropriate action out of a range of defined health promoting interventions. The key methods are (a stakeholder analysis, (b international literature reviews, (c Delphi rounds with experts from participating centres, and (d focus groups with staff and residents of mental health care facilities. Meanwhile a multi-disciplinary network consisting of 15 European countries has been established and took up the work. As one main result of the project they expect that a widespread use of the HELPS toolkit could have a significant positive effect on the physical health status of residents of mental health and social care facilities, as well as to hold resonance for community dwelling people with mental health problems. Discussion A general strategy on health promotion for people with mental

  7. Geo-mapping of time trends in childhood caries risk - a method for assessment of preventive care

    OpenAIRE

    Strömberg Ulf; Holmn Anders; Magnusson Kerstin; Twetman Svante

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Dental caries is unevenly distributed within populations with a higher burden in low socio-economy groups. Several attempts have been made to allocate resources to those that need them the most; there is a need for convenient approaches to population-based monitoring of caries risk over time. The aim of this study was to develop the geo-map concept, addressing time trends in caries risk, and demonstrate the novel approach by analyzing epidemiological data from preschool re...

  8. Efficacy of three-tone disclosing agent as an adjunct in caries risk assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mungara Jayanthi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Today, most approaches to caries viewed that catastrophic change in normal plaque biofilm is responsible for the disease. The behavior and composition of the biofilm are a reflection of the oral environment; the caries is a reflection of adverse changes occurring in that environment. Thus, it is important to identify the pathogenicity of the plaque biofilm so as to predict the caries risk. The recently developed three-tone plaque disclosing agent was used to test its ability in identifying the pathogenicity of plaque. Aim: To assess the efficacy of three-tone plaque disclosing agent in identifying the plaque pathogenicity and correlate with the clinical caries status and microbiological findings. Materials and Methods: Sixty children of 6-13 years age group of both sexes were clinically examined for caries and plaque scores, and then disclosing agent was applied; the color stained plaque samples were collected and cultured for microbiological assessment, and the data were analyzed based on the caries status of the children. Results: There was a significant difference between the pathological plaque of caries active and caries free group (P < 0.05. The pathological plaque scores and the total colony counts, Streptococcus counts and mutans streptococci counts increased with the increase in caries. Conclusion: Three-tone plaque disclosing agent was effective in identifying pathological plaque and can be used as one of the chairside adjuvants in caries risk assessment.

  9. Association of parental stress and early childhood caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ebrahim Jabbarifar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background:Little research has been carried out on whether the parental stress affects children′s oral health in general and dental caries in particular. This study aimed to investigate the association be-tween parental stress and early childhood caries (ECC. Methods: A cross-sectional study was designed that included 250 children of 4-6 year-old; 127 ones attended the pediatric department of Isfahan School of Dentistry who had early childhood caries and a comparison group of 123 caries free children attended five kindergartens and pre-schools in Isfahan city. Clinical examinations were conducted to evaluate the caries status. The parents of the two study groups completed the self-administrated long form of the Parenting Stress Index questionnaire. De-tails of their socio-demographic status were gathered too. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS version 11.5. The nonparametric Mantel-Haenszel test for correlation statistics was used to determine bivariate associations between total parenting stress and their domains scores in the two groups; i.e., those with early childhood caries and the caries free group. Results: Mean score of PSI in the early childhood caries and caries free group were 286.66 ± 66.26 and 273.87 ± 31.03, respectively. There was not any significant relationship between total parental stress and ECC. The scores of the following domains of PSI demonstrated significant differences between ECC and CF groups: child reinforcement, child distractibility, child deficit attention, life stress and relationship with spouse (P = 0.01, 0.01, 0.001, 0.005 respectively. Conclusion: Findings of this study did not show any significant association between total parenting stress score and prevalence of early childhood caries.

  10. Effect of caries preventive measures directed to expectant mothers on caries experience in their children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanata, Régia Luzia; Navarro, Maria Fidela de Lima; Pereira, José Carlos; Franco, Eduardo Batista; Lauris, José Roberto P; Barbosa, Sílvia Helena

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to determine the effectiveness of caries preventive measures started during pregnancy on the caries experience of first-time mothers and their infants. Eighty-one pregnant women with low social background were selected on the basis of the presence of active carious lesions and were randomly divided into control (38) and experimental (43) groups. The initial dental status (DMFS and white spot lesions) was established through clinical examination. The prophylactic measures were repeated during pregnancy and 6 and 12 months after delivery. Both groups received primary care intervention. They were instructed in relation to the etiologic factors of dental caries and received oral hygiene kits. Oral hygiene instructions were reinforced through interactive brushing. The experimental group also received antimicrobial treatment (topical application of NaF and iodine solution immediately after prophylaxis and 3 and 5 days later) and restorative care using glass ionomer cement. By the time the children were 2 years of age, 33.3% of the infants in the control group and 14.7% in the experimental group had caries activity. A significant difference in caries prevalence was observed between children with and without visible dental plaque. The mean number of tooth surfaces with carious lesions (including areas of demineralization) was higher among the children in the control group compared to the experimental group (6.3 x 3.2), however, with no statistical significance. Maternal caries increase was a significant factor influencing the caries experience of the children. These data support the evidence of an association between caries prevalence in young children and clinical (dental plaque) and maternal factors. PMID:12964648

  11. Caries risk assessment models in caries prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amila Zukanović

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this research was to assess the efficiency of different multifactor models in caries prediction. Material and methods. Data from the questionnaire and objective examination of 109 examinees was entered into the Cariogram, Previser and Caries-Risk Assessment Tool (CAT multifactor risk assessment models. Caries risk was assessed with the help of all three models for each patient, classifying them as low, medium or high-risk patients. The development of new caries lesions over a period of three years [Decay Missing Filled Tooth (DMFT increment = difference between Decay Missing Filled Tooth Surface (DMFTS index at baseline and follow up], provided for examination of the predictive capacity concerning different multifactor models. Results. The data gathered showed that different multifactor risk assessment models give significantly different results (Friedman test: Chi square = 100.073, p=0.000. Cariogram is the model which identified the majority of examinees as medium risk patients (70%. The other two models were more radical in risk assessment, giving more unfavorable risk –profiles for patients. In only 12% of the patients did the three multifactor models assess the risk in the same way. Previser and CAT gave the same results in 63% of cases – the Wilcoxon test showed that there is no statistically significant difference in caries risk assessment between these two models (Z = -1.805, p=0.071. Conclusions. Evaluation of three different multifactor caries risk assessment models (Cariogram, PreViser and CAT showed that only the Cariogram can successfully predict new caries development in 12-year-old Bosnian children.

  12. Supragingival plaque microbial analysis in reflection to caries experience

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    Mannaa Alaa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dental caries develops as a result of the metabolism of carbohydrates by cariogenic bacteria present in a complex biofilm. The present study aimed to examine if bacteria in pooled supragingival plaque samples quantified using a “checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization” based panel of caries-related bacteria, could reflect the caries experience in a manner similar to saliva samples analysed using a chair-side method in a previous investigation. Methods A total of 86 mothers and their children aged 4–6 years and 12–16 years old participated. Caries experience (DMFT/dmft; Decayed, Missing and Filled Teeth for permanent and primary teeth was registered clinically and radiographically. Caries was recorded at the D3 level (caries into dentine. The D/d component was divided into three categories. A pooled supragingival plaque sample per participant was obtained from posterior approximal sites. Analyses of 15 bacterial species were performed using the checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridisation technique. Results No significant relationships were found between the bacterial scores and DMFT/dmft nor D/d groups. Conclusions Unlike the saliva samples and the chair-side method, interproximal pooled plaque samples analysed using the “checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization technique” did not reveal any significant relations between the bacterial counts and the caries experience.

  13. Rampant Caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman-Armstrong, Sandra

    2005-01-01

    Although dental caries in the pediatric and adolescent population has consistently declined in the United States, it is still the most common childhood disease. Dental problems are the number one reason for missing school next to the common cold. Dental caries are an infectious, communicable disease resulting in destruction of tooth structure by…

  14. Dental Fluorosis and Dental Caries Prevalence among 12 and 15-Year-Old School Children in Nalgonda District, Andhra Pradesh, India

    OpenAIRE

    Sukhabogi, JR; Parthasarathi, P; Anjum, S.; Shekar, BRC; Padma, CM; Rani, AS

    2014-01-01

    Background: Fluoride is a double edged sword. The assessment of dental caries and fluorosis in endemic fluoride areas will facilitate in assessing the relation between fluoride concentrations in water with dental caries, dental fluorosis simultaneously. Aim: The objective of the following study is to assess the dental caries and dental fluorosis prevalence among 12 and 15-year-old school children in Nalgonda district, Andhra Pradesh, India. Subjects and Methods: This was a cross-sectional stu...

  15. Current possibilities in occlusal caries management

    OpenAIRE

    Hrvoje Jurić

    2013-01-01

    Dental caries is a multifactorial disease that affects most populations throughout the world and it is still the primary cause of oral pain and tooth loss. The occlusal surfaces of posterior teeth are the most vulnerable sites for dental caries due to their anatomy. Therefore, the aim of the following article is to summarize current knowledge on occlusal caries development and the possibilities of its prevention. Although the overall caries rate today has fallen for populations in industriali...

  16. Non-operative anti-caries agents and dental caries increment among adults at high caries risk: a retrospective cohort study

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    Chaffee, Benjamin W.; Cheng, Jing; Featherstone, John DB

    2015-01-01

    Background Consensus guidelines support non-operative preventives for dental caries management; yet, their use in practice is far from universal. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of non-operative anti-caries agents in caries prevention among high caries risk adults at a university clinic where risk-based caries management is emphasized. Methods This retrospective observational study drew data from the electronic patient records of non-edentulous adult patients deeme...

  17. Association of severe early childhood caries with iron deficiency anemia

    OpenAIRE

    Kalpana Bansal; Meetu Goyal; Renuka Dhingra

    2016-01-01

    Background: Severe tooth decay is known to affect the health and well-being of young children. However, there has been minimal research showing the association of severe early childhood caries (S-ECC) and iron deficiency anemia (IDA). Aims: The primary aim of this study was to investigate an association between S-ECC with IDA. The secondary objective was to find an association between severe caries and body weight of the child. The oral health-related quality of life of children with S-ECC wa...

  18. Caries diagnosis using laser fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanin, Fatima A. A.; Pinheiro, Antonio L. B.; Souza-Campos, Dilma H.; Brugnera, Aldo, Jr.; Pecora, Jesus D.

    2000-03-01

    Caries prevention is a goal to be achieved by dentist in order to promote health. There are several methods used to detect dental caries each one presenting advantages and disadvantages, especially regarding hidden occlusal caries. The improvement of laser technology has permitted the use of laser fluorescence for early diagnosis of hidden occlusal caries. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of the use of 655 nm laser light on the detection of hidden occlusal caries. Forty molar teeth from patients of both sexes which ages ranging from 10 - 18 years old were used on this study. Following manufacture's instructions regarding the use of the equipment, the teeth had their occlusal surface examined with the DIAGNOdent. Twenty six of 40 teeth had hidden occlusal caries detected by the DIAGNOdent. However only 17 of these 26 teeth showed radiographic signs of caries the other 9 teeth showed no radiological signs of the lesion. Radiographic examination was able to identify 34,61% of false negative cases. This means that many caries would be left untreated due to the lack of diagnosis using both visual and radiographic examination. The use of the DIAGNOdent was effective in successfully detecting hidden occlusal caries.

  19. Improved ability of biological and previous caries multimarkers to predict caries disease as revealed by multivariate PLS modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Ericson Thorild; Källestål Carina; Johansson Ingegerd; Nordlund Åke; Sjöström Michael; Strömberg Nicklas

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Dental caries is a chronic disease with plaque bacteria, diet and saliva modifying disease activity. Here we have used the PLS method to evaluate a multiplicity of such biological variables (n = 88) for ability to predict caries in a cross-sectional (baseline caries) and prospective (2-year caries development) setting. Methods Multivariate PLS modelling was used to associate the many biological variables with caries recorded in thirty 14-year-old children by measuring the ...

  20. Measuring Dental Caries in the Mixed Dentition by ICDAS

    OpenAIRE

    Mare Saag; Tero Vahlberg; Jana Olak; Sisko Honkala; Riina Runnel; Eino Honkala; Kauko K. Mäkinen

    2011-01-01

    Caries has traditionally been assessed with WHO criteria including only obvious caries lesions. ICDAS has been developed to detect also the enamel caries lesions. This study aims to study caries and the associations of the number of caries lesions between the permanent and primary molars with ICDAS in the mixed dentition of the first and second grade primary school children. The clinical examinations of 485 children were conducted by four examiners with high reproducibility (inter- and intrae...

  1. Exploring the relation between body mass index, diet, and dental caries among 6-12-year-old children

    OpenAIRE

    A Elangovan; J Mungara; Joseph, E

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aim: Childhood overweight and obesity are becoming a major public health concern all over the world. Change in lifestyles and economic growth have led to sedentary lifestyle and altered dietary patterns. There are conflicting reports in the literature regarding the association between body mass index (BMI) and dental caries from various parts of the world. The aim of the present study was to determine if there is an association between BMI-for-age and dental caries in children ...

  2. Inequalities of caries experience in Nevada youth expressed by DMFT index vs. Significant Caries Index (SiC over time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mobley Connie

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the increasingly polarized distribution of dental caries among children and adolescents, the usual DMFT measure has become a less meaningful population descriptor. To re-focus on identifying the high caries prevalence group the Significant Caries Index (SiC was created. The aims of this study were to analyze the prevalence and severity of dental caries in Nevada youth over a period of eight years and to compare its expression by means of DMFT and SiC; analyze the caries trends in the population and their underlying factors, and determine whether Nevada youth were at risk for significantly high levels of dental caries. Methods Retrospective data was analyzed from a series of sequential, standardized oral health surveys across eight years (2001/2002-2008/2009 that included over 62,000 examinations of adolescents 13-19 years of age, attending public/private Nevada schools. Mean Decayed-Missing-Filled Teeth index (DMFT and Significant Caries Index (SiC were subsequently computed for each academic year. Descriptive statistics were reported for analysis of comparative DMFT and SiC scores in relation to age, gender, racial background, and residence in a fluoridated/non-fluoridated community. Logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the differential impact of the variables on the probability of being in the high caries prevalence group. Results Comparison of students' mean DMFT to National (NHANES data confirmed that dental caries remains a common chronic disease among Nevada youth, presenting higher prevalence rates and greater mean scores than the national averages. Downward trends were found across all demographics compared between survey years 1 and 6 with the exception of survey year 3. An upward trend began in survey year six. Over time, the younger group displayed an increasing proportion of cariesfree individuals while a decreasing proportion was found among older examinees. As expected, the mean SiC score was

  3. Fluoride varnishes and enamel caries

    OpenAIRE

    De Bruyn, Hugo

    1987-01-01

    Topical fluoride applications have the aim of increasing the fluoride uptake in enamel and consequently reducing caries. In the early ‘60s fluoride varnishes were introduced because they had a long contact period with the enamel which resulted in a higher fluoride uptake than from other topical applications. Recently the importance of small amounts of fluoride in caries prevention and remineralization has been stressed and the importance of large arnounts of fluoride acquired in the teeth is ...

  4. Comparative studies of modern methods for caries detection and quantification

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Xie-Qi

    2001-01-01

    In clinical dentistry proper treatment of caries lesions is highly dependent on diagnostic accuracy. Aim The present dissertation aimed at the evaluation and comparisons between several modem methods for caries detection and quantification. Methods The employed methods for detection and quantification of caries lesions may be divided into two categories, namely laser fluorescence based methods and radiographic methods. Laser fluorescence The performance of the...

  5. Dental caries and associated factors among primary school children in Bahir Dar city: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Mulu, Wondemagegn; Demilie, Tazebew; Yimer, Mulat; Meshesha, Kassaw; Abera, Bayeh

    2014-01-01

    Background Dental caries is the most common chronic infectious disease of childhood caused by the interaction of bacteria, mainly Streptococcus mutans and sugary foods on tooth enamel. This study aimed at determining the prevalence and associated factors of dental caries among primary school children at Bahir Dar city. Methods A school based cross-sectional study was conducted at Bahir Dar city from October 2013 to January 2014. Systematic random sampling technique was used to select the chil...

  6. Failure on all fronts: general dental practitioners’ views on promoting oral health in high caries risk children- a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Aljafari, Ahmad K; Gallagher, Jennifer Elizabeth; Hosey, Marie Therese

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite overall improvements in oral health, a large number of children in United Kingdom (UK) are affected by dental caries; and the implementation of oral health promotion in some families remains a challenge. As such, children from those families suffer high caries rates, and are frequently referred for tooth extraction under General Anaesthesia (GA), one of the commonest reasons for paediatric hospital admissions. The aim of this investigation is to explore referring primary ca...

  7. Evaluation of non-microbial salivary caries activity parameters and salivary biochemical indicators in predicting dental caries

    OpenAIRE

    A. Kaur; K S Kwatra; Kamboj, P.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the present study was the evaluation of non-microbial salivary caries activity parameters and salivary biochemical indicators in predicting dental caries. Materials and Methods: The present study was carried out on 60 children, aged 4-6 years, selected from the schools of Panchkula district, Haryana, on the basis of their caries status. Level of hydration, flow rate, pH, buffering capacity, relative viscosity, calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase levels in caries-free ...

  8. A retrospective analysis of caries treatment and development in relation to assessed caries risk in an adult population in Sweden.

    OpenAIRE

    Söderström, Ulf; Johansson, Ingegerd; Sunnegårdh-Grönberg, Karin

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Public Dental Service of Västerbotten County (Sweden) recommends using population-based prevention strategies combined with an individual strategy for high-risk patients to manage caries. To facilitate this management strategy, all patients are evaluated for their risk of developing caries in the coming year using defined criteria. Using caries risk scoring over a seven-year period, the present study evaluates prophylactic measures, caries development, and non-operative treatm...

  9. The Frequency of Streptococcus Mutans and Lactobacillus spp.in 3-5-year- old Children with and without Dental Caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moulana, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground and Objective: The high occurrence of early childhood caries (ECC is one of the most common problems in children dentistry. Streptococcus mutans and lactobacilli.spp are closely associated with the development of early childhood caries (ECC. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of streptococcus mutans and lactobacilli.spp in 3-5 –year- old children with and without dental caries.Material and Methods: This case-control study was conducted on 60 children aged 3 -5-years, without any history of systemic disease, who had not received any antibiotic therapy and fluoride usage during the last month. The cases were divided into three groups of early childhood caries, usual caries and caries-free. The infected dentin samples were collected from cervical and proximal in ECC and usual caries group, respectively. Also in all the three groups, the samples of dental plaque from buccal surfaces were collected and immediately immersed into Brain Heart Infusion (BHI broth medium. After that, the diluted sample was plated onto MitisSalivarius agar (Difco for detecting streptococcus mutans and Rogosa agar (Difco for detecting lactobacilli.spp. Data were analyzed by Chi- Square and ANOVA.Results: of the samples taken from dental plaque, S. mutans is observed in 90% of ECC, 80% of proxymolcarries and in 25% of caries-free individuals. Based on the results, the presence of S.mutans in the group of caries is significantly higher than that of without caries, but there is no significant difference between the two groups of caries. In addition, lactobacill.spp is isolated from 60% ofthe samples, but there is no significant difference between two groups of caries and caries-free. The average of decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT index in the group with early childhood caries (6.95±1.572 and usual caries (5.80±1.105 is different significantly. Pearson correlation test shows that there is a significant relationship

  10. Early caries naked-eyed examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In view of its potential for dental diagnostics, noninvasive optical methods have been the object of research for the last years. Different techniques (spectroscopy, microscopy, and tomography) are used to discriminate between caries and sound enamel. The main aim of this paper is to determine a simple way to see incipient caries with the naked eye

  11. Comparison of mechanical and chemomechanical methods of caries removal in deciduous and permanent teeth: A SEM study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Avinash

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mechanical method of caries removal is associated with the removal of sound tooth structure, production of pain, heat, annoying sounds, and vibrations. Chemomechanical caries removal method is based on removal of only carious dentin leaving sound dentin intact. Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of mechanical and chemomechanical methods of caries removal in deciduous and permanent teeth. Study Design: A total of 30 carious teeth including 15 deciduous and 15 permanent teeth having dentinal caries selected randomly and cut into two halves through center of the lesion, were subjected to caries removal by mechanical (Group A, and chemomechanical methods (Group B. Time taken for removal of caries was noted with stopwatch. Samples were prepared and seen under the scanning electron microscope for the presence of bacterial colonies. Data were analyzed using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS Software. Results: No significant difference was found for the presence of bacterial colonies in both groups of deciduous and permanent teeth; however, time taken for caries removal by the chemomechanical method was twice than the mechanical method. Conclusion: despite the insignificant presence of bacterial colonies and twice time taken as compared to mechanical method, chemomechanical method was easy to introduce, was painless, did not form smear layer and conserved the sound tooth structure.

  12. Total antioxidant capacity of saliva and dental caries

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmadi Motamayel, Fatemeh; Goodarzi, Mohammad Taghi; Hendi, Seyedeh Sareh; Kasraei, Shahin; Moghimbeigi, Abbas

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Dental caries is one of the most common infectious diseases worldwide. Saliva has many functions in the oral cavity and is the first line defense against dental caries. Oxidative stress can affect initiation and progression of many inflammatory and infectious diseases such as dental caries. Thus the aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of saliva and dental caries. Study Design: 100 healthy high school students (50 female and 50...

  13. Salivary Antimicrobial Peptide Expression and Dental Caries Experience in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Tao, Renchuan; Jurevic, Richard J.; Coulton, Kimberly K.; Tsutsui, Marjorie T.; Roberts, Marilyn C.; Kimball, Janet R.; Wells, Norma; Berndt, Jeffery; Dale, Beverly A.

    2005-01-01

    Dental caries is a major worldwide oral disease problem in children. Although caries are known to be influenced by dietary factors, the disease results from a bacterial infection; thus, caries susceptibility may be affected by host factors such as salivary antimicrobial peptides. This study aimed to determine a possible correlation between caries prevalence in children and salivary concentrations of the antimicrobial peptides human beta-defensin-3 (hBD-3), the cathelicidin LL37, and the alpha...

  14. Microbial Risk Markers for Childhood Caries in Pediatricians’ Offices

    OpenAIRE

    Kanasi, E.; Johansson, I; Lu, S.C.; Kressin, N.R.; Nunn, M.E.; Kent, R; Tanner, A.C.R.

    2010-01-01

    Dental caries in pre-school children has significant public health and health disparity implications. To determine microbial risk markers for this infection, this study aimed to compare the microbiota of children with early childhood caries with that of caries-free children. Plaque samples from incisors, molars, and the tongue from 195 children attending pediatricians’ offices were assayed by 74 DNA probes and by PCR to Streptococcus mutans. Caries-associated factors included visible plaque, ...

  15. Current possibilities in occlusal caries management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrvoje Jurić

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is a multifactorial disease that affects most populations throughout the world and it is still the primary cause of oral pain and tooth loss. The occlusal surfaces of posterior teeth are the most vulnerable sites for dental caries due to their anatomy. Therefore, the aim of the following article is to summarize current knowledge on occlusal caries development and the possibilities of its prevention. Although the overall caries rate today has fallen for populations in industrialized countries, the rate of occlusal surface caries has not decreased. This may be explained with fact that topically applied fluorides and their mode of action prevent caries better on smooth than on occlusal surfaces. As we know, tooth decay of first permanent molars causes a great deal of different short and long term difficulties for patients. Therefore, there is a continuous need for implementation of programs for caries prevention in permanent teeth. Nowadays, we like to treat our patients by minimally invasive methods. A very important step in our effective preventive treatment is sealing pits and fissures as a cornerstone of occlusal caries management. Reliable assessment of caries activity is also very important for defining treatment needs and plans. A very important decision, which should be made during occlusal caries management, is the selection of restorative material according to the treatment plan. Conclusion. Current possibilities in occlusal caries prevention and management are very effective. Therefore, dentists today do not have any excuse for avoiding the philosophy of Minimally Invasive Dentistry, especially when we talk about caries management of occlusal surfaces in permanent molars.

  16. Poverty, social exclusion and dental caries of 12-year-old children: a cross-sectional study in Lima, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernabé Eduardo

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Socioeconomic differences in oral health have been reported in many countries. Poverty and social exclusion are two commonly used indicators of socioeconomic position in Latin America. The aim of this study was to explore the associations of poverty and social exclusion with dental caries experience in 12-year-old children. Methods Ninety families, with a child aged 12 years, were selected from 11 underserved communities in Lima (Peru, using a two-stage cluster sampling. Head of households were interviewed with regard to indicators of poverty and social exclusion and their children were clinically examined for dental caries. The associations of poverty and social exclusion with dental caries prevalence were tested in binary logistic regression models. Results Among children in the sample, 84.5% lived in poor households and 30.0% in socially excluded families. Out of all the children, 83.3% had dental caries. Poverty and social exclusion were significantly associated with dental caries in the unadjusted models (p = 0.013 and 0.047 respectively. In the adjusted model, poverty remained significantly related to dental caries (p = 0.008, but the association between social exclusion and dental caries was no longer significant (p = 0.077. Children living in poor households were 2.25 times more likely to have dental caries (95% confidence interval: 1.24; 4.09, compared to those living in non-poor households. Conclusion There was support for an association between poverty and dental caries, but not for an association between social exclusion and dental caries in these children. Some potential explanations for these findings are discussed.

  17. Caries risk assessment in chilean adolescents and adults and its association with caries experience

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Andrés Giacaman; Paulina Miranda Reyes; Valeria Bravo León

    2013-01-01

    Cariogram is a computer program that uses an algorithm to assess caries risk. Although the use of Cariogram has recently increased, little information is available regarding its effectiveness in adults. This study aimed to determine whether caries risk from Cariogram relates to caries experience in adults. One hundred and eighty Cariogram files were completed from patients aged ten to fifty-six years (mean: 23.28 years). Seven factors from the software were included from patient records to co...

  18. Caries-risk profiles in Italian adults using computer caries assessment system and ICDAS

    OpenAIRE

    Carta, Giovanna; Cagetti, Maria Grazia; Cocco, Fabio; Sale, Silvana; Lingström, Peter; Campus, Guglielmo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the correlation among socio-behavioral factors, caries status and caries risk, calculated through Cariogram, in an adult population. Four hundred eighty subjects (mean age 40.73, SE ± 0.33) randomly selected from the municipal electoral registry consented to participate in the survey. Subjects were examined, and the International Caries Detection Assessment System (ICDAS) index was registered. A highly structured questionnaire was submitted to investigate ...

  19. Caries preventive efficiency of therapeutic complex accomponying orthodontic treatment of children with initial dental caries.

    OpenAIRE

    Denga A.E.

    2013-01-01

    The use of orthodontic non-removable appliance in orthodontic treatment inter¬feres with the process of teeth mineralization, worsens level of oral cavity hygiene, stimulates development of caries process. The situation is complicated when a patient has an initial tooth decay. The aim of this study was to determine genetic characteristics of children with initial caries and clinical evaluation of effectiveness of the developed caries preventive therapeutic complex accompanying treatment of j...

  20. Caries risk assessment in chilean adolescents and adults and its association with caries experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Andrés Giacaman

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Cariogram is a computer program that uses an algorithm to assess caries risk. Although the use of Cariogram has recently increased, little information is available regarding its effectiveness in adults. This study aimed to determine whether caries risk from Cariogram relates to caries experience in adults. One hundred and eighty Cariogram files were completed from patients aged ten to fifty-six years (mean: 23.28 years. Seven factors from the software were included from patient records to complete the Cariogram: caries experience, diet (content and frequency, stimulated salivary flow, hygiene index, related diseases and fluoride usage. The percentages of "chances of avoiding new lesions" (caries risk were obtained from Cariogram, and the subjects were classified into five risk groups. Results were compared for each variable with ANOVA, and a correlation between caries and Cariogram variables was calculated by Pearson's correlation coefficient. A multivariate regression model was also used. Only three patients were classified as low risk, and none were classified as very low risk. Thus, only the four upper quintiles were considered for the analysis, and the lower quintile was not considered in the study. Neither DMFT nor the number of lesions were significantly different among the Cariogram's risk categories (p > 0.05. Only diet content was significantly correlated with caries experience (p = 0.006. Caries lesions failed to correlate with any Cariogram variable (p > 0.05. Age, not sex or caries risk scores, showed a strong and positive association with DMFT (p < 0.01. Caries risk from Cariogram appears to be unrelated with caries experience or caries lesions in a high-caries adult population.

  1. Comparing caries risk profiles between 5- and 10- year-old children with cleft lip and/or palate and non-cleft controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundell, Anna Lena; Ullbro, Christer; Marcusson, Agneta;

    2015-01-01

    cleft lip and/or palate (CL(P)) children with non-cleft controls in the same age using a computerized caries risk assessment model. METHODS: The study group consisted of 133 children with CL(P) (77 subjects aged 5 years and 56 aged 10 years) and 297 non-cleft controls (133 aged 5 years and 164 aged 10......BACKGROUND: Previous studies have suggested that children with oral clefts may have higher caries prevalence in comparison with non-cleft controls but the relative importance of the potential risk factors is not clear. The aim of this study was to compare the caries risk profiles in a group of...

  2. Comparing caries risk profiles between 5- and 10- year-old children with cleft lip and/or palate and non-cleft controls

    OpenAIRE

    Lena Sundell, Anna; Ullbro, Christer; Marcusson, Agneta; Twetman, Svante

    2015-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have suggested that children with oral clefts may have higher caries prevalence in comparison with non-cleft controls but the relative importance of the potential risk factors is not clear. The aim of this study was to compare the caries risk profiles in a group of cleft lip and/or palate (CL(P)) children with non-cleft controls in the same age using a computerized caries risk assessment model. Methods: The study group consisted of 133 children with CL(P) (77 subj...

  3. Reliability of self-reported toothbrushing frequency as an indicator for the assessment of oral hygiene in epidemiological research on caries in adolescents: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Gil, Giovana S; Morikava, Francine S; Santin, Gabriela C; Pintarelli, Tatiana P; Fraiz, Fabian C; Ferreira, Fernanda M.

    2015-01-01

    Background In the present state of knowledge regarding the etiology of dental caries, it is unacceptable for studies addressing factors associated with this outcome to disregard oral hygiene. Simple, valid methods are needed for the assessment of oral hygiene in adolescents to allow this condition to be properly investigated in epidemiological studies on caries and assist in the establishment of health promotion measures. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that the self-r...

  4. Dental plaque, preventive care, and tooth brushing associated with dental caries in primary teeth in schoolchildren ages 6–9 years of Leon, Nicaragua

    OpenAIRE

    del Socorro Herrera, Miriam; Medina-Solis, Carlo Eduardo; Minaya-Sánchez, Mirna; Pontigo-Loyola, América Patricia; Villalobos-Rodelo, Juan José; Islas-Granillo, Horacio; de la Rosa-Santillana, Rubén; Maupomé, Gerardo

    2013-01-01

    Background Our study aimed to evaluate the effect of various risk indicators for dental caries on primary teeth of Nicaraguan children (from Leon, Nicaragua) ages 6 to 9, using the negative binomial regression model. Material/Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out to collect clinical, demographic, socioeconomic, and behavioral data from 794 schoolchildren ages 6 to 9 years, randomly selected from 25 schools in the city of León, Nicaragua. Clinical examinations for dental caries (dmft...

  5. Effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit of a single annual professional intervention for the prevention of childhood dental caries in a remote rural Indigenous community

    OpenAIRE

    Lalloo, Ratilal; Kroon, Jeroen; Tut, Ohnmar; Kularatna, Sanjeewa; Jamieson, Lisa M; Wallace, Valda; Boase, Robyn; Fernando, Surani; Cadet-James, Yvonne; Paul A. Scuffham; Johnson, Newell W

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of the study is to reduce the high prevalence of tooth decay in children in a remote, rural Indigenous community in Australia, by application of a single annual dental preventive intervention. The study seeks to (1) assess the effectiveness of an annual oral health preventive intervention in slowing the incidence of dental caries in children in this community, (2) identify the mediating role of known risk factors for dental caries and (3) assess the cost-effectiveness and c...

  6. Dental caries and erosion status of 12-year-old Hong Kong children

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Shinan; Chau, Alex MH; Lo, Edward CM; Chu, Chun-Hung

    2014-01-01

    Background This study aimed to assess the dental caries and erosion status of 12-year-old Hong Kong children and study the determinants of dental caries and dental erosion of these children. Methods The survey was performed from 2011 to 2012 with ethics approval. Stratified random sampling was adopted to select 12-year-old children in 7 primary schools in Hong Kong. The participating parents were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire concerning their children’s diet and oral hea...

  7. The Predisposing Factors between Dental Caries and Deviations from Normal Weight

    OpenAIRE

    Amandeep Chopra; Nanak Chand Rao; Nidhi Gupta; Shelja Vashisth; Manav Lakhanpal

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dental caries and deviations from normal weight are two conditions which share several broadly predisposing factors. So it′s important to understand any relationship between dental state and body weight if either is to be managed appropriately. Aims: The study was done to find out the correlation between body mass index (BMI), diet, and dental caries among 12-15-year-old schoolgoing children in Panchkula District. Materials and Methods: A multistage sample of 12-15-year-old school...

  8. Quantification and Correlation of Oral Candida with Caries Index Among Different Age Groups of School Children: A Case–Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidu, BV; Reginald, BA

    2016-01-01

    Background: Dental caries is the most common infectious disease affecting humans and is the predominant cause of tooth loss in children. Although Candida's role in dental caries has been studied extensively, limited homogenous studies have been conducted and none have been found, that associate Candida with dental caries, while correlating it to different age groups. Aim: The study aimed to quantify oral Candida in school children and correlate candidal carriage to the caries index and further analyze an age association. Subjects and Methods: Decayed-Filled teeth/Decayed-Missing-Filled Teeth (dft/DMFT) index scores of 150 subjects were evaluated, and concentrated oral rinse samples were collected from each participant for mycologic investigation. Based on the age and caries activity, the participants were categorized into three groups consisting of 50 each such as Group-I (caries active participants of 6–12 years age), Group-II (caries active participants in 13–18 years age), and Group-III (caries-free participants in 6–18 years age); CHROMagar™ was used as a primary culture medium for candidal growth. The data was statistically analyzed using Unpaired t-test, Chi-square test and Spearman's rank order. Results: The results demonstrated that as age increases, the dft/DMFT scores as well as the candidal growth decreased. In addition, the oral candidal carriage levels were found to be low in caries-free group (Group-III) when compared to the study groups. Conclusion: The presence of Candida was directly related to the caries status and inversely proportional to the age. PMID:27213089

  9. Dental caries vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    Shivakumar K; Vidya S; Chandu G

    2009-01-01

    Dental caries is one of the most common diseases in humans. In modern times, it has reached epidemic proportions. Dental caries is an infectious microbiologic disease of the teeth that results in localized dissolution and destruction of the calcified tissue. Dental caries is a mulitifactorial disease, which is caused by host, agent, and environmental factors. The time factor is important for the development and progression of dental caries. A wide group of microorganisms are identified from c...

  10. PRIMARY CARIES: AN OVERVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Gaurav Solanki

    2012-01-01

    Primary caries is an initial lesions produced by direct extension from an external surface. Dental caries is called as tooth decay or a cavity is a disease in which bacterial processes changes carbohydrate to acid which than dematerializes the hard tooth structure like enamel, dentin and cementum. Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus are the bacteria responsible for the dental caries by acid production. This article throws light on the dental caries disease, its sign and symptoms, treatment...

  11. Early Childhood Caries and Caries Experience in Permanent Dentition: A 15-year Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, A Rainer; Becker, Natascha; Jöhren, Hans-Peter; Zimmer, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    In Germany, caries of young people has been declining since the late 1980s, while the prevalence of early childhood caries has remained steady. Data from a number of regional studies suggest a current prevalence between 10% and 15%. However, there is a dearth of longitudinal observational study data on the risk of caries in the permanent teeth of persons who as children had to undergo comprehensive treatment for caries under intubation general anesthesia. The aim of this study was to compare caries experience in the permanent teeth of patients who had to undergo surgical treatment under general anesthesia as a result of non-compliance with caries treatment in early childhood with the experience of patients who did not develop caries at a young age. Analysis of the data revealed that severe caries experience during early childhood resulted in a more severe caries experience during adulthood (difference: 14.8 DMFS; p = 0.001). This increase in caries experience applied to both untreated and treated carious surfaces, and was also apparent in relation to tooth extractions. When compared with persons whose first teeth had been caries-free, patients with severe childhood caries experience tended to show poorer dental hygiene in relation to smooth (p < 0.06) and interproximal (p < 0.04) surfaces. Patients who had been non-compliant as young children were not found to suffer from dental anxiety as young adults. Patients in the treatment and control groups differed with regard to dental health. Aside from being statistically relevant, these differences also have implications for clinical dental practice. PMID:26915485

  12. Evaluation of non-microbial salivary caries activity parameters and salivary biochemical indicators in predicting dental caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Kaur

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the present study was the evaluation of non-microbial salivary caries activity parameters and salivary biochemical indicators in predicting dental caries. Materials and Methods: The present study was carried out on 60 children, aged 4-6 years, selected from the schools of Panchkula district, Haryana, on the basis of their caries status. Level of hydration, flow rate, pH, buffering capacity, relative viscosity, calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase levels in caries-free and caries-active children were evaluated. Results: Results showed that 90% of subjects in the caries-free group and 30% of subjects in the caries-active group had normal level of hydration value of less than 60 s and the difference was found to be statistically very highly significant. Normal flow rate of stimulated saliva was found in 90% of the subjects in caries-free group and 33.3% subjects in the caries active group and difference was found to be statistically very highly significant. Adequate salivary pH was found in 100% subjects in caries-free group and 30% in caries-active group and the difference was statistically very highly significant. Conclusion: To conclude, within limitations of this study, it became clear that normal level of hydration and higher values for flow rate, pH, buffering capacity of saliva lead to good oral health and a reduced caries occurrence. Increased salivary viscosity plays a role in increasing caries incidence. Salivary biochemical indicators like calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase also play their respective role in determining caries susceptibility of an individual. These salivary parameters can be used as diagnostic tool for caries risk assessment.

  13. A literature review of the relationship between breastfeeding and early childhood caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narjes Amiri TehraniZadeh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Improper feeding is one of the most important etiologic factors in early childhood caries (ECC. In some clinical trials, breast feeding (BF is mentioned as a causing factor in ECC. Results in this topic are different or even controversial. It is vital that all general advices given out are consistent with general health education messages. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review on the relationship between breast feeding and early childhood caries. Materials and Methods: Articles, guidelines, related books, and specific databases such as SID, PubMed, Scirus, Elsevier, American Association of Pediatric Dentistry (AAPD, American Association of Pediatrics (AAP and American Dental Association (ADA were searched for related topics cited since 1990. Early childhood caries definition, breast feeding and other variables such as sample size, study location and study design were analyzed.Results: According to data analysis, there was a lack of methodological consistency and inconsistent definitions of ECC and BF in the literature making it difficult to draw conclusions. Results about relationship between prolonged BF and ECC were inconclusive. There was a positive relationship between nocturnal BF and ECC. A history of BF did not have any effect on the caries incidence.Conclusion: Because of the role of breast feeding in children's health, it is important to inform the parents about the possibility of dental caries due to nocturnal breast feeding.

  14. Ameloglyphics and predilection of dental caries

    OpenAIRE

    H C Girish; Sanjay Murgod; C J Manasa Ravath; Hegde, Ramesh B

    2013-01-01

    Background: Dental caries is an infectious disease of microbiologic origin resulting in destruction and loss of tooth structure and is related to every speciality of dentistry. Many studies have been carried out to identify the causative factors, methods of prevention, and treatment of dental caries. Ameloglyphics is the study of enamel rod end patterns. These patterns have been found to be unique to individual teeth of the same individual and also to different individuals. A possible correla...

  15. Clinical consequences of untreated dental caries evaluated using PUFA index in orphanage children from India

    OpenAIRE

    Shanbhog, Raghavendra; Godhi, Brinda S; Nandlal, Bhojraj; Kumar, Shruti S; Raju, Veena; S Rashmi

    2013-01-01

    Background: To determine the prevalence and severity of oral condition related to untreated dental caries with PUFA index and to relate period of institutional stay, oral hygiene practice and diet of orphan children to caries experience ratio.

  16. Aims & Scope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine(APJTB)aims to set up and provide an international academic communication platform for physicians,medical scientists,allied health scientists and public health workers,especially those in the Asian Pacific region and worldwide on tropical biomedicine,infectious diseases and public health,and to meet the growing challenges

  17. PRIMARY CARIES: AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Solanki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary caries is an initial lesions produced by direct extension from an external surface. Dental caries is called as tooth decay or a cavity is a disease in which bacterial processes changes carbohydrate to acid which than dematerializes the hard tooth structure like enamel, dentin and cementum. Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus are the bacteria responsible for the dental caries by acid production. This article throws light on the dental caries disease, its sign and symptoms, treatment and prevention of it. A review of some patents on dental caries is also provided that summarizes the recent technical advancements taken place in this area.

  18. Prevalence, risk surfaces and inter-municipality variations in caries experience in Danish children and adolescents in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nørrisgaard, Pia Elisabeth; Qvist, Vibeke; Ekstrand, Kim

    2016-05-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to describe the caries experience, prevalence and distribution related to tooth type and surfaces in the primary and permanent dentition in children and adolescents in Denmark in 2012. In addition, to examine if explanatory factors influence the inter-municipality variation in caries experience. Materials and methods Data was collected in the public Child Dental Health Service. In total, 5636 caries registrations on 3-, 9-, 15- and 18-year-olds were collected in 35 of the 98 Danish municipalities. Caries experience was expressed by mean def-s/DMF-S and caries prevalence by def-s = 0/DMF-S = 0. Inter-municipality variations were illustrated. Multivariate regression analyses were applied to assess the influence of fluoride concentration in drinking water, proportion of immigrants and personal income on the inter-municipality variation in mean def-s/DMF-S. Results Only 4.6% of 3-year-olds had def-s (mean = 0.25), compared to 44.9% of 9-year-olds (mean = 3.07), primarily located occlusally and interproximally on the primary molars. Mean DMF-S for the 9-, 15- and 18-year-olds were 0.27, 1.97 and 4.40, respectively. Caries were primarily located occlusally and in pits on the permanent molars, which also showed high frequencies of sealings. Mean def-s/DMF-S showed substantial inter-municipality variations, while the caries location in both dentitions was rather stable. The three background factors explained less than 25% of the variation in mean def-s/DMF. Conclusions The caries distribution within the primary and permanent dentition among 3-, 9-, 15- and 18-year-olds followed definite patterns concerning location on teeth and surfaces. Background factors only explained a minor part of the variation. PMID:26651538

  19. Aims & Scope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine(APJTB)aims to set up and provide an international academic communication platform for physicians,medical scientists,allied health scientists and public health workers,especially those in the Asian Pacific region and worldwide on tropical biomedicine,infectious diseases and public health,and to meet the growing challenges of understanding,preventing and controlling the dramatic global emergence and reemergence of infectious diseases in the Asian Pacific region.

  20. Aims & Scope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    <正>Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine(APJTB)aims to set up and provide an international academic communication platform for physicians,medical scientists,allied health scientists and public health workers,especially those in the Asian Pacific region and worldwide on tropical biomedicine,infectious diseases and public health,and to meet the growing challenges of understanding,preventing and controlling the dramatic global emergence and reemergence of infectious diseases in the Asian Pacific region.

  1. The Prevalence of Early Childhood Caries among 24 to 36 Months Old Children of Iran: Using the Novel ICDAS-II Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hediyeh Toutouni

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Statement of the Problem: Early childhood caries is an important oral health issue. Finding its prevalence would predict the need for oral health promotion disciplines for specific age groups. Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the caries experience of children living in Tehran, Iran. It also would evaluate the impact of gender, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status (SES on this oral condition. Materials and Method: This epidemiological cross-sectional study was based upon stratified cluster random sampling. The samples consisted of 239 children (2- to 3- years old registered in Tehran’s public healthcare centers for “Healthy Child Program”. Mothers of the recruited children were interviewed for the background data; then children were examined for the oral health status according to ICDAS-II (International Caries Detection and Assessment System and WHO (World Health Organization criteria. Statistical analyses were conducted using STATA.11 for SES classification considering six socioeconomic variables, and SPSS.21 for descriptive/analytical analyses. Results: Primary Component Analysis (PCA demonstrated five classes of SES ranging from the lowest to the highest. The distribution of caries-free (CF children was 10.87%, non-cavitated enamel caries (codes 01-02 were 28.03%, and about 61.1% had cavitated caries (codes 03-06. There was no significant difference in caries experience between the two genders. Cavitated lesions were more prevalent among Kurdish, who also had the least CF children. Caries prevalence, especially code 02, was more among children from 3rd class SES (moderate level. Gender, ethnicity, or SES had no impact on the CF status of the children; however, ethnicity showed significant impact on the prevalence of extensive caries (codes 05-06. Conclusion: The result of the present study is indicative of high caries prevalence among 2 to 3 years old children residing in Tehran. It highlights the need for comprehensive oral

  2. Exploring the relation between body mass index, diet, and dental caries among 6-12-year-old children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Elangovan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Childhood overweight and obesity are becoming a major public health concern all over the world. Change in lifestyles and economic growth have led to sedentary lifestyle and altered dietary patterns. There are conflicting reports in the literature regarding the association between body mass index (BMI and dental caries from various parts of the world. The aim of the present study was to determine if there is an association between BMI-for-age and dental caries in children and to find out the role of diet with respect to BMI-for-age and dental caries. Materials and Methods: Demographics and anthropometric measurements were obtained for 600 children and BMI-for-age was calculated. Clinical examination for dental caries was carried out following WHO criteria. A diet recording sheet was prepared and children/parents were asked to record the dietary intake for 3 days. Data obtained were statistically analyzed using Chi-square, analysis of variance (ANOVA, and multiple linear regression. Results: After excluding improperly filled diet recording sheets, 510 children were included in the study. Caries prevalence was more in obese children than in other BMI groups. Caries scores increased as BMI-for-age increased, though this was not statistically significant. Consumption of fatty foods and snacks was more with obese children compared to other groups. A correlation was found between caries and snacks. Conclusion: Dental caries scores showed no relationship between BMI-for-age in children. Both snacks and fatty food items were consumed more by obese children, which seeks attention.

  3. Sugar sweetened beverages and childhood dental caries : a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Yuerong; 杜月蓉

    2014-01-01

    Background Dental caries on primary and permanent teeth is a common chronic disease worldwide with negative effects on children`s quality of life, both in the present and future. Sugar intake is a risk factor for caries. However, the association between sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and dental caries is unclear. Methods A systematic review of relevant literature was performed in PubMed, Cochrane Library and ScienceDirect to locate every journal article in English assessing the as...

  4. Lactotransferrin Gene Polymorphism Associated with Caries Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doetzer, Andrea D; Brancher, João A; Pecharki, Giovana D; Schlipf, Nina; Werneck, Renata; Mira, Marcelo T; Riess, Olaf; Bauer, Peter; Trevilatto, Paula Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries is a common multifactorial disease, resulting from the interaction of biofilm, cariogenic diet and host response over time. Lactotransferrin (LTF) is a main salivary glycoprotein, which modulates the host immune-inflammatory and antibacterial response. Although a genetic component for caries outcome has been identified, little is known over the genetic aspects underlying its susceptibility. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the association between LTF polymorphisms and caries susceptibility. Six hundred seventy seven 12-year-old students were selected: 346 with (DMFT ≥ 1) and 331 without caries experience (DMFT = 0). Also, individuals concentrating higher levels of disease (polarization group, DMFT ≥ 2, n = 253) were tested against those with DMFT ≤ 1 (n = 424). Along with clinical parameters, three representative LTF tag SNPs (rs6441989, rs2073495, rs11716497) were genotyped and the results were evaluated using univariate and multivariate analyses. Allele A for tag SNP rs6441989 was found to be significantly less frequent in the polarization group, conferring a protective effect against caries experience [AA + AG × GG (OR: 0.710, 95% CI: 0.514-0.980, p = 0.045)], and remained significantly associated with caries protection in the presence of gingivitis (p = 0.020) and plaque (p = 0.035). These results might contribute to the understanding of the genetic control of caries susceptibility in humans. PMID:25998152

  5. Association between knowledge of caries preventive practices, preventive oral health habits of parents and children and caries experience in children resident in sub-urban Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Folayan, Morenike O; Kolawole, Kikelomo A; Oyedele, Titus; Chukumah, Nneka M; Onyejaka, Nneka; Agbaje, Hakeem; Oziegbe, Elizabeth O; Osho, Olusegun V

    2014-01-01

    Background The objectives of this study were to assess the association between children and parents’ knowledge of caries preventive practices, the parents’ caries preventive oral health behaviours and children’s caries preventive oral health behaviour and caries experience. Method Three hundred and twenty four participants aged 8–12 years, 308 fathers and 318 mothers were recruited through a household survey conducted in Suburban Nigeria. A questionnaire was administered to generate informati...

  6. Genotypic Diversity of Streptococcus mutans in Caries-Free and Caries-Active Preschool Children

    OpenAIRE

    R.C. Poli-Frederico; Garcia, J.E.; Ferreira, F. B. A.; Maciel, S. M.; Segura, V. G.; M.R. Rodrigues; Pieralisi, F. J. S.

    2010-01-01

    Aim. The aim of the present paper was to evaluate the genotypic diversity of S. mutans in caries-free and caries-active preschool children in Brazil. Design. Twenty-eight preschool children were examined regarding caries experience by the dmft index. DNA from 280 isolates of S. mutans was extracted. S. mutans evaluated using to the PCR method, with primers for the glucosyltransferase gene. The genetic diversity of S. mutans isolates was analyzed by arbitrary primed-PCR (AP-PCR) reactions. The...

  7. Enamel remineralization: controlling the caries disease or treating early caries lesions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Aparecido Cury

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The emphasis currently given to new technologies for enamel remineralization suggests that the changes in the understanding of the dental caries disease, which occurred in the last century, were either not yet adopted or were forgotten. Just like in the past, when the disease was "treated" by restoring cavities, there is presently a misunderstanding on the concept of incipient lesion remineralization. The aim of this paper was to review some concepts about caries, the natural phenomenon of enamel remineralization and the effect of fluoride (F on it, and also to discuss the clinical relevance of remineralizing products recently launched in the marketplace aiming to "treat early caries lesions".

  8. Studies on strains of Streptococcus mutans isolated from caries-active and caries-free individuals in Iceland

    OpenAIRE

    Holbrook, W. Peter; Magnúsdóttir, Margrét O.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Dental caries has been strongly associated with mutans streptococci, particularly Streptococcus mutans and S. sobrinus. Many studies have linked these organisms to the carious process and counts of mutans streptococci have been used to monitor caries risk. The high levels of caries generally found in Iceland have enabled several studies to be performed on the variation within strains of S. mutans. Methods: This paper reports some studies showing phenotypic differences between stra...

  9. Dental caries characteristics in the first permanent molar in school age children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoel González Beriau

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental caries is one of the main health problems in children. The first permanent molar presents caries more frequently than any other. Objective: To describe the characteristics of dental caries in the first permanent molars in children between 6 and 13 years-old, and to assess oral hygiene and knowledge about the subject in all the patients treated in the stomatology consultation Barrio adentro “El Guapo”, from November 2005 to March 2006. Methods: A descriptive, transversal study showed that most of the patients had dental caries. It was proved that many of them had, at least, on of the first molars affected by dental caries. The quotient first molar affected/ patient was higher than one. Results: There was a decrease in the percentage of healthy permanent first molars. Poor oral hygiene prevailed, with a medium knowledge level on the subject. Most of the parents didn´t know about the first molar dental cavity. Conclusions: It was needed to perform educative tasks aimed at this age group to avoid further damage to this important tooth, central for the development of the stomatognathic system.

  10. Effect of Long-Term Consumption of Lactobacillus paracasei SD1 on Reducing Mutans streptococci and Caries Risk: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawee Teanpaisan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: A previous study revealed Lactobacillus paracasei SD1, a probiotic strain, could reduce mutans streptococci (MS. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term effects of L. paracasei SD1 on the colonization of MS, and whether caries lesions developed. Methods: After informed consent, 122 children were recruited and randomly assigned to the probiotic or control groups. The probiotic group received milk-powder containing L. paracasei SD1 and the control group received standard milk-powder once daily for six months. Salivary MS and lactobacilli were enumerated using differential culture at baseline and at three-month intervals for 12 months. The persistence of L. paracasei SD1 was investigated using AP-PCR for DNA-fingerprinting. Oral health was examined at baseline and at the end of the study according to WHO criteria. Results: The long-term consumption could prolong colonization of L. paracasei SD1. Significantly reduced MS counts and increased lactobacilli levels were found among children in the probiotic group. There were less caries lesions in the probiotic group at the end of the study. A significant reduction of the development of new caries lesions (4.5 times was observed in the high caries risk group but not in the low caries risk group. Conclusions: Results demonstrate that the long-term daily ingestion of the human-derived probiotic L. paracasei SD1 significantly reduces the number of MS and caries risk in the high caries group.

  11. Dental caries among children visiting a mobile dental clinic in South Central Kentucky: a pooled cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Dawkins, Erika; Michimi, Akihiko; Ellis-Griffith, Gregory; Peterson, Tina; Carter, Daniel; English, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Background Dental caries is one of the most common chronic childhood diseases affecting a large portion of children in the United States. The prevalence of childhood dental caries in Kentucky is among the highest in the nation. The purposes of this study are to (1) compare sociodemographic differences between caries and no caries groups and (2) investigate factors associated with untreated dental caries among children who visited a mobile dental clinic in South Central Kentucky. Methods Study...

  12. Caries prevalence in skeletal series: is it possible to compare?

    OpenAIRE

    Veronica Wesolowski

    2006-01-01

    Because of the relationship with subsistence, dental caries is a central issue in paleopathological research. Usually, comparisons between caries prevalence exhibited in different skeletal series are made. Dietary variation is the most common explanation for cavities prevalence. The aim of this paper is to verify if it is possible to compare caries prevalence reported on papers for archaeological skeletal series. Another goal is to determine if other factors besides diet are implicated in den...

  13. Early Childhood Caries

    OpenAIRE

    Kawashita, Yumiko; Kitamura, Masayasu; Saito, Toshiyuki

    2011-01-01

    Dental caries is one of the most common childhood diseases, and people continue to be susceptible to it throughout their lives. Although dental caries can be arrested and potentially even reversed in its early stages, it is often not self-limiting and progresses without proper care until the tooth is destroyed. Early childhood caries (ECC) is often complicated by inappropriate feeding practices and heavy infection with mutans streptococci. Such children should be targeted with a professional ...

  14. Association of severe early childhood caries with iron deficiency anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalpana Bansal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Severe tooth decay is known to affect the health and well-being of young children. However, there has been minimal research showing the association of severe early childhood caries (S-ECC and iron deficiency anemia (IDA. Aims: The primary aim of this study was to investigate an association between S-ECC with IDA. The secondary objective was to find an association between severe caries and body weight of the child. The oral health-related quality of life of children with S-ECC was also assessed. Materials and Methods: Following the ethical approval, 60 children aged 2-6 years (30 with S-ECC and 30 controls with caries status <2 were recruited for this cross-sectional association study. Each child received a clinical examination for dental caries status using deft index and a blood investigation to determine various parameters; hemoglobin (Hb, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, and packed cell volume (PCV. Children underwent venipuncture after due parental consent, and 2.5 mL blood was collected from each child to evaluate the above parameters. Following this, the parents filled up a 10 point questionnaire to determine the child′s quality of life. Data were then analyzed by t-test and Fischer′s exact t-test. Result: On comparison of percentage of children with IDA in S-ECC and control group, it was found that children with S-ECC were more likely to have IDA odds ratio (95% confidence interval: 10.77 (2.0, 104.9, (P = 0.001. In addition to this, S-ECC children were significantly more likely to have low Hb, MCV, and PCV levels (P < 0.001 which imply that S-ECC may be a risk marker for the development of anemia. More children (93% with severe caries were found to have less body weight than ICMR standard weight for age as compared to children with low caries (P < 0.05%. Conclusion: S-ECC is strongly associated with the anemia due to iron deficiency, and efforts should be made toward the preventive

  15. Comparative evaluation of predictive value of three caries activity tests-snyder, lactobacillus count and cariostat in mixed dentition children with and without caries

    OpenAIRE

    Ramesh, Krishnan; Kunjappan, Shiji; Ramesh, Maya; Shankar, S.; Reddy, Subba

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Dental caries is a disease with multifactorial etiology. Early detection and preventive measures are essential for caries control. Caries activity tests are one of the methods of early detection, but all these are based on microbiological study. Aims: Compare the sensitivity and specificity of Snyder test (ST), lactobacillus count (LBC) and Cariostat in mixed dentition children with and without caries. Materials and Methods: 90 healthy mixed dentition children (79 boys and 11 gi...

  16. Inhibition of salivary amylase by black tea in high-caries and low-caries index children: A comparative in vivo study

    OpenAIRE

    Arya, Vishal; Taneja, Lavina

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Dental caries is a universal disease. Dietary modification is important in reducing the occurrence of dental caries. Tea which is so frequently consumed with cariogenic starch rich food is proposed to have anticariogenic potential. The various mechanism has been proposed for same and one being inhibition of salivary amylase activity. Aim: To determine the effect of 1.5% black tea decoction on salivary amylase activity in children with high caries and no caries. Materials and Met...

  17. Genetic mapping of high caries experience on human chromosome 13

    OpenAIRE

    Erika C Küchler; Deeley, Kathleen; Ho, Bao; Linkowski, Samantha; Meyer, Chelsea; Noel, Jacqueline; Kouzbari, M Zahir; Bezamat, Mariana; José M Granjeiro; Antunes, Leonardo S; Antunes, Livia Azeredo; de Abreu, Fernanda Volpe; Marcelo C. Costa; Tannure, Patricia N; SEYMEN, Figen

    2013-01-01

    Background Our previous genome-wide linkage scan mapped five loci for caries experience. The purpose of this study was to fine map one of these loci, the locus 13q31.1, in order to identify genetic contributors to caries. Methods Seventy-two pedigrees from the Philippines were studied. Caries experience was recorded and DNA was extracted from blood samples obtained from all subjects. Sixty-one single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 13q31.1 were genotyped. Association between caries experie...

  18. Caries Prevalence and Caries Associated Measures in Children Living in a Rural Romanian Village

    OpenAIRE

    Kaveh, Babak; Witkowska, Emilia

    2014-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was performed with the aim to investigate the caries prevalence and associated factors in 6 to 15 year old school children living in a village outside Cluj-Napoca, Romania. All children were offered to be included and examined for dental caries according to World Health Organisation (WHO) criteria. Caries was scored at the tooth and surface levels D/d=decayed, M/m=missing, F/f=filled, T/t=tooth, S/s=surface (DMFT/DMFS/dmft/dmfs) for the permanent and deciduous dentitio...

  19. Childhood caries in the state of Kentucky, USA: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Kandel Elizabeth A; Richards Jenna M; Binkley Catherine J

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Untreated dental caries afflicts almost one third of school-aged children in the United States and many of them are from disadvantaged families. This cross-sectional study was undertaken to investigate the prevalence of untreated caries in north central Kentucky, USA and to examine the relationships between the available demographic variables and untreated childhood caries as reported on the forms from the Smile Kentucky! program. Methods During the fall of 2008, caries st...

  20. Caries risk assessment in school children using a reduced Cariogram model without saliva tests

    OpenAIRE

    Twetman Svante; Isberg Per-Erik; Petersson Gunnel

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background To investigate the caries predictive ability of a reduced Cariogram model without salivary tests in schoolchildren. Methods The study group consisted of 392 school children, 10-11 years of age, who volunteered after informed consent. A caries risk assessment was made at baseline with aid of the computer-based Cariogram model and expressed as "the chance of avoiding caries" and the children were divided into five risk groups. The caries increment (ΔDMFS) was extracted from ...

  1. Dental Caries and Their Treatment Needs in 3-5 Year Old Preschool Children in a Rural District of India

    OpenAIRE

    Devanand Gupta; Rizwan K Momin; Ayush Mathur; Kavuri Teja Srinivas; Ankita Jain; Neelima Dommaraju; Deepak Ranjan Dalai; Rajendra Kumar Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dental problems in the preschool children are neglected by their parents as the deciduous teeth are going to shed off, and hence considered to be of no importance and more of economic burden if attended to them. Aims: This study was to determine the caries prevalence in preschool children (3-5-year-old) of rural Moradabad district, to analyze the specific pattern of dental caries experience in this population and to assess the treatment needs among them. Material and Methods: Chil...

  2. Geo-mapping of caries risk in children and adolescents - a novel approach for allocation of preventive care

    OpenAIRE

    Holmén Anders; Magnusson Kerstin; Strömberg Ulf; Twetman Svante

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Dental caries in children is unevenly distributed within populations with a higher burden in low socio-economy groups. Thus, tools are needed to allocate resources and establish evidence-based programs that meet the needs of those at risk. The aim of the study was to apply a novel concept for presenting epidemiological data based on caries risk in the region of Halland in southwest Sweden, using geo-maps. Methods The study population consisted of 46,536 individuals between...

  3. Geo-mapping of time trends in childhood caries risk a method for assessment of preventive care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strömberg Ulf

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dental caries is unevenly distributed within populations with a higher burden in low socio-economy groups. Several attempts have been made to allocate resources to those that need them the most; there is a need for convenient approaches to population-based monitoring of caries risk over time. The aim of this study was to develop the geo-map concept, addressing time trends in caries risk, and demonstrate the novel approach by analyzing epidemiological data from preschool residents in the region of Halland, Sweden. Methods The study population consisted of 9,973 (2006 and 10,927 (2010 children between 3 to 6years of age (~77% of the eligible population from whom caries data were obtained. Reported dmfs>0 for a child was considered as the primary caries outcome. Each study individual was geo-coded with respect to his/her residence parish (66 parishes in the region. Smoothed caries risk geo-maps, along with corresponding statistical certainty geo-maps, were produced by using the free software Rapid Inquiry Facility and the ESRI ArcGIS system. Parish-level socioeconomic data were available. Results The overall proportion of caries-free (dmfs=0 children improved from 84.0% in 2006 to 88.6% in 2010. The ratio of maximum and minimum (parish-level smoothed relative risks (SmRRs increased from 1.76/0.44=4.0 in 2006 to 2.37/0.33=7.2 in 2010, which indicated an increased geographical polarization of early childhood caries in the population. Eight parishes showed evidential, positional changes in caries risk between 2006 and 2010; their corresponding SmRRs and statistical certainty ranks changed markedly. No considerable parallel changes in parish-level socioeconomic characteristics were seen during the same time period. Conclusion Geo-maps based on caries risk can be used to monitor changes in caries risk over time. Thus, geo-mapping offers a convenient tool for evaluating the effectiveness of tailored health promotion and preventive

  4. Cariësmanagement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C.M. van Gemert-Schriks; J.P. van Amerongen

    2010-01-01

    Within modern dentistry, a change from invasive to non-invasive strategies for the treatment of dental caries seems to be apparent. The foundation of non-invasive care is old, but is now interpreted differently as a result of new insights. Caries is a dynamic and multi-factorial process that takes p

  5. Caries og drikkevandets kvalitet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvin, Erik; Bardow, Allan; Bruvo, Maja;

    2011-01-01

    Drikkevandskvaliteten har stor betydning for forekomsten af caries blandt 15 årige skolebørn, også selv om de bruger fluoridholdigt tandpasta. Ud over den kendte effekt af fluorid har vi vist, at calcium også har en væsentlig betydning. Begge ioner forebygger caries. Denne viden har væsentlig...

  6. Prevotella intermedia and Porphyromonas gingivalis in dental caries with periapical granuloma

    OpenAIRE

    Risya Cilmiaty; Afiono Agung Prasetyo; Khilyat Ulin Nur Zaini; Mandojo Rukmo; Suhartono Taat Putra; Widya Asmara

    2013-01-01

    Background: Dental caries with necrotic pulp is a multifactorial disease that attacks enamel involving tooth pulp. The anaerobic bacteria infection in the pulp chamber could induce the formation of periapical granuloma. However, the presence of the most frequently anaerobic bacteria identified in apical periodontitis, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia, in periapical granuloma have not been confirmed. Purpose: The aims of study were to determine the presence of Porphyromonas g...

  7. Dental Caries Status and Oral Hygiene Practices of Lock Factory Workers in Aligarh City

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Mala; Ingle, Navin Anand; Kaur, Navpreet; Yadav, Pramod; Ingle, Ekta; Charania, Zohara

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim was to evaluate the oral hygiene practices and dental caries status of lock factory workers in Aligarh city. Materials and Methods: WHO Oral Health Assessment form (2013) was used to collect data from each subject. A total of 850 subjects constituted the final sample size. Information was obtained regarding the oral hygiene practices and clinical examinations were conducted. Descriptive analysis was done and the data were analyzed using Chi-square test. Results: The preval...

  8. The evidence base for professional and self-care prevention - caries, erosion and sensitivity

    OpenAIRE

    Twetman, Svante

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this conference paper was to examine the evidence base for primary and secondary prevention of dental caries, erosions and dentin hypersensitivity through professional and self-care measures. Methods A mapping of systematic reviews (SR) of literature was carried out in PubMed and the Cochrane library through April 2014 using established MeSH-terms and disease-related search words in various combinations. The search was restricted to SR's published in English or Scandinav...

  9. The Effect of Topical Iodine and Fluoride Varnish Combination in Preventing Early Childhood Caries: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Hashemi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Early Childhood Caries (ECC in the earliest stage is preventable. The studies indicate oral bacteria play an important role in pathogenesis of dental caries. According to high prevalence of ECC, alternative therapies should be explored in order to reduce the occurrence of it. Aim: This study aims to assess the effectiveness of a product containing Povidone Iodine 10% and Sodium Fluoride 0.2% as a supplementary intervention for preventing ECC.Materials and Methods: Thirty-seven children aged 4 to 6 year-old were recruited. Maxillary incisors on each side of the mouth were selected either as a test or control group. Early caries detection examinations were conducted using International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS clinically and photographically. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study, a product containing a mixture of  Povidone Iodine 10%  and Sodium Fluoride 0.2%  was applied to the designated incisors of the test group participants. This application was performed every week for a 3-month. The control group participants received a placebo mixture during the same time interval. The caries detection examinations were conducted again after 6 months and the results were compared. The data was analyzed with SPSS V.18, using McNemar test.Results: The incidence of carious lesions increased for the control group while it decreased in the test group (P

  10. Impact of dental caries on preschool children's quality of life: an update

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Bönecker; Jenny Abanto; Gustavo Tello; Luciana Butini Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    The literature reports that dental caries can cause functional, physical and aesthetic impairment, often with repercussions on children's general health at an early age. Moreover, recent studies have investigated how caries lesions can compromise children's quality of life. This paper aims to describe the current situation of dental caries prevalence in children and how this oral health disease can impact their quality of life.

  11. BREASTFEEDING AND EARLY CHILDHOOD CARIES (ECC) SEVERITY OF CHILDREN UNDER THREE YEARS OLD IN DKI JAKARTA

    OpenAIRE

    Risqa Rina Darwita; Herwati Djoharnas; Febriana Setiawati Sugito

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence and severity of caries in children under three years old are constantly increasing. One of the cause is the increase consumption of cariogenic carbohydrate. Breast milk have buffer capacity that eventually able to prevent caries. The aims of this research are to discover the correlation between breastfeeding with the severity of Early Childhood Caries (ECC) in children under three years old, to provide information on prevalence and severity of caries in children under three yea...

  12. Caries risk assessment in schoolchildren - a form based on Cariogram® software

    OpenAIRE

    CABRAL, Renata Nunes; Leandro Augusto HILGERT; Faber, Jorge; Soraya Coelho LEAL

    2014-01-01

    Identifying caries risk factors is an important measure which contributes to best understanding of the cariogenic profile of the patient. The Cariogram® software provides this analysis, and protocols simplifying the method were suggested. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine whether a newly developed Caries Risk Assessment (CRA) form based on the Cariogram® software could classify schoolchildren according to their caries risk and to evaluate relationships between caries risk an...

  13. Iron Deficiency in Young Children: A Risk Marker for Early Childhood Caries

    OpenAIRE

    Iranna Koppal, Pushpa; Sakri, Mohan Ravishankar; Akkareddy, Basavaprabhu; Hinduja, Dharam M; Gangolli, Raviraj Annayya; Patil, Basanagouda C

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aim: Evaluate the coexistence of iron deficiency and early childhood caries. Evaluate whether iron deficiency can be considered as a risk marker for early childhood caries. Estimate the incidence of iron deficiency in children with early childhood caries. To evaluate and compare the iron status of children with and without severe early childhood caries. Materials and methods: Sixty children of age 2 to 6 years in whom blood investigations are advised by pediatricians are selected for...

  14. Laser-induced fluorescence as a method of early caries diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielczarek, Agnieszka; Wiewior, Piotr

    2001-07-01

    Use of lasers in dentistry dates back 20 years but is still not fully exploited, especially when concerning the hard dental tissues. Over the past many efforts and actions have been involved in testing and developing new methods for caries diagnosis. The implementation of these methods in general dental practice is unfortunately still limited because too little scientific evidence exists to support them. One of the age-old concerns for dentists is that decay is often discovered too late. Dentists commonly use x-ray imaging for early caries detection, but this method cannot reveal decay at a sufficiently early stage to avoid restorative methods. Generally, if a caries lesion si detected by x-ray, the mineral loss within the tooth is normally very high and will need invasive treatment. Several laser based techniques, as also other optical methods of detecting caries lesions at an early stage seem to be very promising. Fluorescence of tooth structure is observed when hard tissues are illuminated using laser light. Decayed areas appear dark and provide a contrast against the healthy background surrounding them, so discriminating sound and carious tissues. The aim of this study was to present the possibilities of using laser induced fluorescence in the diagnosis of early caries lesions. The current state-of-the-art is presented, as well as results of our investigations. In our studies an argon ion laser was used to illuminate the teeth and the fluorescence pictures were captured with a CCD camera and then analyzed. Results confirmed that laser induced fluorescence can be used as a sensitive method of caries diagnosis.

  15. Caries activity indicators. A review.

    OpenAIRE

    Wyne A; Guile E

    1993-01-01

    Caries activity is the sum total of new carious lesions and the enlargement of existing cavities during a given time. An objective evaluation of caries activity requires clinical examination of quantification of factors associated with the pathogenesis of caries. Caries activity tests have been in use in dental research and clinical dentistry for years. They are useful in establishing categories of risk for caries, and for targeting specific preventive measures to these groups. They are even ...

  16. Caries Risk Assessment and Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    SJ Pourhashemi

    2000-01-01

    Over 20 years, several analytical approaches have been designed to predict caries in children."nCaries Risk Assessment is a recently developed technique concern to caries prediction."nThis procedure involves three stages as follows:"n1- Determination and assessment of the dental caries risk factors."n2- Examination and evaluation of each individual child to be specifically diagnosed the level of 3- caries risk e.g. high, moderate and low risk."n3- Recommendation of pr...

  17. Abstract: Probiotics and dental caries

    OpenAIRE

    Söderling, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Caries is one of the most common infectious diseases in the world. Dental caries can be defined as destruction of the tissues of the tooth by bacterial fermentation of dietary carbohydrates. In this respect, some bacteria are considered more caries-promoting than others, as an example Streptococcus mutans. A common feature for caries-promoting bacteria is that they are acidogenic and aciduric. The most common bacteria used as probiotics, lactobacilli and bifidobacteria, are, in theory, caries...

  18. Infiltration and sealing versus fluoride treatment of occlusal caries lesions in primary molar teeth. 2-3 years results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakhshandeh, Azam; Ekstrand, Kim

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies examining the efficacy of sealing occlusal caries lesions in the primary dentition are limited, and no studies have so far examined the efficacy of infiltrating occlusal lesions on primary molar teeth. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of infiltrating, seal...

  19. The relative diagnostic yields of clinical, FOTI and radiographic examinations for the detection of approximal caries in youngsters

    OpenAIRE

    Mialhe Fabio; Pereira Antonio; Meneghim Marcelo; Ambrosano Glaucia; Pardi Vanessa

    2009-01-01

    Background: The detection of carious lesions in the initial stages of development is very important in order to prevent the occurrence of cavitation. Aims and Objectives: The aim of the present study was to compare three methods-visual examination, FOTI, and bitewing radiographic examination-for the detection of noncavitated and cavitated approximal carious lesions. Materials and Methods: Seventy students (mean age 14 years) with low caries prevalence were examined by three examiners. ...

  20. Fluoride Importance in Controlling Caries and Fluorosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Solanki

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of fluorides for oral health has always involved a balance between the protective benefit against dental caries and the risk of developing fluorosis. The link between fluoride and dental health was established to determining the causes of dental fluorosis or enamel mottling. Fluorosis in Indian children was highly prevalent in the early 1990s. Policy were introduced to control fluoride exposure and to reduce the prevalence of fluorosis. The study aimed of describing the prevalence, severity and risk factors for fluorosis, and to describe the trend of fluorosis among Indian children. The study also aimed of exploring the effect of the change in fluoride exposure on dental fluorosis and caries. Establishing an appropriate use of fluoride toothpaste could be successful in reducing fluorosis without a significant increase in caries experience.

  1. The association between social deprivation and the prevalence and severity of dental caries and fluorosis in populations with and without water fluoridation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGrady Michael G

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine the association between social deprivation and the prevalence of caries (including caries lesions restricted to enamel and enamel fluorosis in areas that are served by either fluoridated or non-fluoridated drinking water using clinical scoring, remote blinded, photographic scoring for caries and fluorosis. The study also aimed to explore the use of remote, blinded methodologies to minimize the effect of examiner bias. Methods Subjects were male and female lifetime residents aged 11–13 years. Clinical assessments of caries and fluorosis were performed on permanent teeth using ICDAS and blind scoring of standardized photographs of maxillary central incisors using TF Index (with cases for fluorosis defined as TF > 0. Results Data from 1783 subjects were available (910 Newcastle, 873 Manchester. Levels of material deprivation (Index of Multiple Deprivation were comparable for both populations (Newcastle mean 35.22, range 2.77-78.85; Manchester mean 37.04, range 1.84-84.02. Subjects in the fluoridated population had significantly less caries experience than the non-fluoridated population when assessed by clinical scores or photographic scores across all quintiles of deprivation for white spot lesions: Newcastle mean DMFT 2.94 (clinical; 2.51 (photo, Manchester mean DMFT 4.48 (clinical; 3.44 (photo and caries into dentine (Newcastle Mean DMFT 0.65 (clinical; 0.58 (photo, Manchester mean DMFT 1.07 (clinical; 0.98 (photo. The only exception being for the least deprived quintile for caries into dentine where there were no significant differences between the cities: Newcastle mean DMFT 0.38 (clinical; 0.36 (photo, Manchester mean DMFT 0.45 (clinical; 0.39 (photo. The odds ratio for white spot caries experience (or worse in Manchester was 1.9 relative to Newcastle. The odds ratio for caries into dentine in Manchester was 1.8 relative to Newcastle. The odds ratio for developing fluorosis in Newcastle was 3.3 relative

  2. Association of Child Temperament with Early Childhood Caries

    OpenAIRE

    Jabin, Zohra; Chaudhary, Seema

    2014-01-01

    Background: Psychological variable may affect early childhood caries (ECC), but this aspect has not been explored satisfactorily. This study evaluates the child temperament as a risk predictor for ECC.

  3. Diagnostic Accuracy of Digital and Conventional Radiography in the Detection of Non-Cavitated Approximal Dental Caries

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    Farida Abesi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Radiography plays an important role in the detection of interproximal caries.Objectives: The aim of the present study was to determine diagnostic accuracy of chargecoupled devices (CCD, Photo Stimulable Phosphor (PSP and film radiography in detecting non-cavitated caries.Patients and Methods: Seventy-two non-cavitated approximal surfaces of extracted human posterior teeth were radiographed under standardized conditions using three intraoral modalities: CCD Dixi3 (Planmeca, Finland, PSP Digora PCT (Soredex, Finland, and E-speed film (Kodak, USA. Radiographs were interpreted by four observers and caries lesions were classified as sound (R0, restricted to enamel (R1, reaching the dentinoenamel junction (DEJ and the outer half of the dentin (R2 and the inner half of the dentin (R3. The teeth were subsequently sectioned for histological analysis which served as the gold standard for radiographic examination.Results: Microscopic examinations showed that the distribution of caries were 63.9% sound, 18.1% enamel, 9.7% DEJ and outer half of the dentin and 8.3% into the inner half of the dentin.The sensitivity and specificity of film, CCD and PSP for the detection of enamel caries were 38% and 98%; 15% and 96 %; and 23% and 98%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of film, CCD and PSP for the detection of both dentin and enamel caries were 55% and 100%; 45% and 100% ; and 55% and 100%, respectively.Conclusions: The results demonstrated that the diagnostic accuracy of digital images is similar to that of conventional film radiography in the detection of non-cavitated approximal caries.

  4. Xilitol and dental caries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, Marten Titus

    1987-01-01

    Dental caries is a widespread multifactoral disease. The main sympthons are minaral loss from tooth enemal and dentine, eventually leading to total destruction of the teeth, pain, impairment of mastication and problems with facial esthetics. ... Zie: Summary

  5. Family related factors associated with caries prevalence in the primary dentition of five-year-old children

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    Amrita Sujlana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Habits formed in childhood dictate lifestyle choices made as adults. These encompass both oral hygiene and dietary habits which in turn affect dental caries status. Children largely acquire these habits from modeling/observing parents and other family members. Aim: The purpose of this study was to assess the caries status of 5-year-olds, and evaluate associations between dental caries and family-related factors. Materials and Methods: A cohort of 400 children were examined for dental caries using the WHO criteria. Parents were interviewed using a self-structured questionnaire to collect data with regard to variables under evaluation. Statistical analysis: Collected data was subjected to descriptive analysis using the SPSS 12.0 version. Risk factor association with dental caries was investigated using a stepwise logistic regression analysis with P-values 0 were: Mother with low basic education (OR = 1.3, higher number of siblings (OR = 1.4, high snacking frequency (OR = 2.0, parental inability to control sugar consumption (OR = 1.0 parental laxness about the child′s tooth brushing (OR = 1.5, parents brushing their own teeth less than twice daily (OR= 2.0 and unassisted brushing by the child (OR = 1.8. Conclusion: It is thus mandatory to focus on parents′ education level, attitudes and family-structure when planning preventive programs for young children.

  6. Fluoride and dental caries

    OpenAIRE

    Camilleri, George E.

    1998-01-01

    Fluorine was probably discovered by the chemist Scheele in 1771, and eventually isolated in 1886 by Moissan. Its presence in bones and teeth was initially disputed but eventually confirmed in the middle of the eighteenth century. In this article the author discusses the few epidemiological studies which confirm the relationship between fluoride concentration in drinking water, mottled enamel and the incidence of dental caries and also describes the Maltese scene in regards the caries level in...

  7. The predisposing factors between dental caries and deviations from normal weight

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    Amandeep Chopra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental caries and deviations from normal weight are two conditions which share several broadly predisposing factors. So it′s important to understand any relationship between dental state and body weight if either is to be managed appropriately. Aims: The study was done to find out the correlation between body mass index (BMI, diet, and dental caries among 12-15-year-old schoolgoing children in Panchkula District. Materials and Methods: A multistage sample of 12-15-year-old school children (n = 810 in Panchkula district, Haryana was considered. Child demographic details and diet history for 5 days was recorded. Data regarding dental caries status was collected using World Health Organization (1997 format. BMI was calculated and categorized according to the World Health Organization classification system for BMI. The data were subjected to statistical analysis using chi-square test and binomial regression developed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS 20.0. Results: The mean Decayed Missing Filled Teeth (DMFT score was found to be 1.72 with decayed, missing, and filled teeth to be 1.22, 0.04, and 0.44, respectively. When the sample was assessed based on type of diet, it was found that vegetarians had higher mean DMFT (1.72 as compared to children having mixed diet. Overweight children had highest DMFT (3.21 which was followed by underweight (2.31 and obese children (2.23. Binomial regression revealed that females were 1.293 times at risk of developing caries as compared to males. Fair and poor Simplified-Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S showed 3.920 and 4.297 times risk of developing caries as compared to good oral hygiene, respectively. Upper high socioeconomic status (SES is at most risk of developing caries. Underweight, overweight, and obese are at 2.7, 2.5, and 3 times risk of developing caries as compared to children with normal BMI, respectively. Conclusion: Dental caries and deviations from normal weight are two

  8. Visual Inspection for Caries Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimenez, T; Piovesan, C; Braga, M M;

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to perform a systematic review including a meta-analysis to evaluate the overall accuracy of visual methods for detecting carious lesions and to identify possible sources of heterogeneity among the studies included. Two reviewers searched PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and other sources through...... July 2014 to identify published and nonpublished studies in English. Studies of visual inspection were included that 1) assessed accuracy of the method in detecting caries lesions; 2) were performed on occlusal, proximal, or free smooth surfaces in primary or permanent teeth; 3) had a reference...

  9. Caries experience in schoolchildren in Bucharest, Romania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funieru, Cristian; Twetman, Svante; Funieru, Elena;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the prevalence and experience of dental caries among children from public middle schools in Bucharest in relation to socioeconomic status and access to school-based dental care. METHODS: Clinical data were collected from 1,595 schoolchild...

  10. Radiation caries - an evil eye of radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although radiotherapy plays an important role in the management of patients with head and neck cancer, it is also associated with several undesired side effects such as radiation caries which is a common, yet serious, complication. The radiotherapy field of exposure frequently includes the salivary glands, oral mucosa, and jaws, thus, leading to various side effects including hyposalivation, mucositis, and taste loss. Irradiated patients are also at increased risk for the development of a rapid, rampant carious process known as radiation caries. Lesions tend to develop four weeks after completion of radiotherapy and affect atypical areas of teeth, such as the lingual surface, incisal edges, and cusp tips. The aim of this paper is to review the clinical features, prevention and management of radiation caries. (author)

  11. Caries prevalence in skeletal series: is it possible to compare?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Wesolowski

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Because of the relationship with subsistence, dental caries is a central issue in paleopathological research. Usually, comparisons between caries prevalence exhibited in different skeletal series are made. Dietary variation is the most common explanation for cavities prevalence. The aim of this paper is to verify if it is possible to compare caries prevalence reported on papers for archaeological skeletal series. Another goal is to determine if other factors besides diet are implicated in dental cavity prevalence explanation. Twenty six papers about dental health with caries prevalences published from 1999 to 2004 were analyzed for completeness. This assessment includes carious lesion diagnosis and characteristics, age, sex and size characteristics of samples, and prevalence calculation method. The majority of the analyzed papers do not provide adequate information in the topics listed above. Only very few implicated factors other than diet as a contributor to caries lesions development.

  12. Evaluation of Flow Rate, pH, Buffering Capacity, Calcium, Total Protein and Total Antioxidant Levels of Saliva in Caries Free and Caries Active Children—An In Vivo Study

    OpenAIRE

    Prabhakar, AR; Dodawad, Reshma; OS, Raju

    2009-01-01

    Background and objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the physicochemical properties of saliva such as flow rate, pH, buffering capacity, calcium level, total protein and total antioxidant levels in caries free and caries active children. Materials and methods: The present study included one hundred and twenty healthy children who were divided into two groups and subdivided according to gender. They were further divided into caries free and caries activ...

  13. Predictors of Dental caries among children 7–14 years old in Northwest Ethiopia: a community based cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Ayele Fenta A; Taye Belaynew W; Ayele Tadesse A; Gelaye Kassahun A

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Dental caries in children remains a significant public health problem. It is a disease with multifactorial causes. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence and associated factors of dental caries among children between 7 to 14 years old. Methods A community based cross-sectional study was conducted in Gondar town from June 2011 to September 2011. A total of 842 children were involved in the study. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to select the children. Pre...

  14. How do dental students determine patients' caries risk level using the Caries Management By Risk Assessment (CAMBRA) system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doméjean, Sophie; Léger, Stéphanie; Rechmann, Peter; White, Joel M; Featherstone, John D B

    2015-03-01

    Research has demonstrated the validation of specific caries risk assessment (CRA) systems, but little is known about how dental practitioners assign a caries risk level to their patients. The aim of this study was to explore dental students' decision making in caries risk assignment when using the Caries Management By Risk Assessment (CAMBRA) system. Multiple correspondence analysis and chi-squared automated interaction detector analysis were performed on data collected retrospectively for a period of six years (2003-09) at the University of California, San Francisco predoctoral dental clinic. The study population consisted of 12,952 patients from six years of age through adult who received a baseline CRA during the period, were new to CAMBRA, and had not received any prior CAMBRA recommendations. The results showed variation in decision making and risk level assignment, illustrated by the range of percentages for the three scores (low, moderate, and high/extreme caries risk) when CRA was assigned for the first time. For those first-time CRAs, decision making was mainly based on four factors: cavities or caries lesions into dentin on radiograph, restorations during the last three years due to caries, visible heavy plaque, and interproximal lesions into enamel (by radiographs). This study's findings provide important data regarding one group of CAMBRA users and thus contribute to the development of knowledge about the implementation of caries risk assessment in contemporary dental practice. PMID:25729021

  15. Caries Experience Evidenced in Children having Dental Fluorosis

    OpenAIRE

    A, Tuli; U, Rehani; A, Aggrawal

    2009-01-01

    Background and objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of caries in children aged 8-13 years having dental fluorosis and to determine the correlation between the grades of dental fluorosis and caries. Material and methods: 451 school children in the age group of 8-13 years were selected for the study and were divided into six age groups. The children were assessed for dental fluorosis according to Dean’s criteria Index of fluorosis, and dental caries according to WHO...

  16. The Microfloral Analysis of Secondary Caries Biofilm around Class I and Class II Composite and Amalgam Fillings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mo Si-su

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Secondary caries is responsible for 60 percent of all replacement restorations in the typical dental practice. The diversity of the bacterial sources and the different types of filling materials could play a role in secondary caries. The aim of this study was to determine and compare the microbial spectrum of secondary caries biofilms around amalgam and composite resin restorations. Methods Clinical samples were collected from freshly extracted teeth diagnosed with clinical secondary caries. Samples were categorized into four groups according to the types of restoration materials and the classification of the cavity. Biofilms were harvested from the tooth-restoration interface using a dental explorer and after dilution were incubated on special agars. The bacteria were identified using the biochemical appraisal system. Statistical calculations were carried out using SPSS11.5 software to analyze the prevalence of the bacteria involved in secondary caries. Results Samples from a total of four groups were collected: two groups were collected from amalgam restorations, each had 21 samples from both Class I and Class II caries; and the other two groups were from composite resin restorations, each had 13 samples from both class I and class II caries. Our results showed: (1 Anaerobic species were dominant in both restoration materials. (2 In terms of the types of individual bacteria, no significant differences were found among the four groups according to the geometric mean of the detected bacteria (P > 0.05. However, there were significant differences among the detected bacteria within each group (P 0.05, but showed significant differences among the detected bacteria in each group (P 0.05, however, the detection rate of each bacterium within each group was statistically different among the detected bacteria (P Conclusions The proportion of obligatory anaerobic species was much greater than the facultative anaerobic species in the

  17. Geo-mapping of caries risk in children and adolescents - a novel approach for allocation of preventive care

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    Holmén Anders

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dental caries in children is unevenly distributed within populations with a higher burden in low socio-economy groups. Thus, tools are needed to allocate resources and establish evidence-based programs that meet the needs of those at risk. The aim of the study was to apply a novel concept for presenting epidemiological data based on caries risk in the region of Halland in southwest Sweden, using geo-maps. Methods The study population consisted of 46,536 individuals between 3-19 years of age (75% of the eligible population from whom caries data were reported in 2010. Reported dmfs/DMFS>0 for an individual was considered as the primary caries outcome. Each study individual was geo-coded with respect to his/her residence parish. A parish-specific relative risk (RR was calculated as the observed-to-expected ratio, where the expected number of individuals with dmfs/DMFS>0 was obtained from the age- and sex-specific caries (dmfs/DMFS>0 rates for the total study population. Smoothed caries risk geo-maps, along with corresponding statistical certainty geo-maps, were produced by using the free software Rapid Inquiry Facility and the ESRI® ArcGIS system. Results The geo-maps of preschool children (3-6 years, schoolchildren (7-11 years and adolescents (12-19 years displayed obvious geographical variations in caries risk, albeit most marked among the preschoolers. Among the preschool children the smoothed relative risk (SmRR varied from 0.33 to 2.37 in different parishes. With increasing age, the contrasts seemed to diminish although the gross geographical risk pattern persisted also among the adolescents (SmRR range 0.75-1.20. Conclusion Geo-maps based on caries risk may provide a novel option to allocate resources and tailor supportive and preventive measures within regions with sections of the population with relatively high caries rates.

  18. Evaluation of Symmetrical or Asymmetrical Pattern of Nursing Caries in 3-5 Year-Old Children at Kindergartens in Tehran During 2009-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Pourtalebi Firozabadi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Nursing Caries (NC is a destructive form of caries because of incorrect nutritional habits in infants that affects deciduous teeth after eruption. Familiarity with the pattern of this type of caries and evaluation of its symmetrical or asymmetrical pattern is necessary for effective and scientific diagnosis and treatment. The aim was to assess the symmetrical or asymmetrical aspects of Nursing Caries in children between3-5 years old.Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 10 kindergartens were randomly selected by the TehranWelfare Organization. 115 children with NC caries entered to study after examination. Written consents were obtained from the parents. The dmfs in upper primary incisors and upper and lower primary canines, as well as the first primary molars were assessed and the caries pattern in terms of symmetrical or asymmetrical aspects wasevaluated. The data were analyzed by ANOVA, LSD, Chi-square and Fisher tests.Results: In 53.9% of the children with NC, the anterior teeth were affected symmetrically, while 46.1% indicated an asymmetrical pattern. In general, 32.2% of the teeth were affected in a symmetrical pattern and 67.8% of them in an asymmetrical pattern. About the relationship between the breastfeeding from the right or left breast and the symmetrical pattern of the NC, 51% of the children were equally breastfed from both breasts. However, in the asymmetrical NC pattern with more impact in the right side of dentition, 50% of the children had been breastfed from the left side and in children with more caries in the left side of dentition, 50% of them had been breastfed rom the right side (P=0.01.Conclusion: NC has symmetrical and asymmetrical patterns. Direction of mother for breastfeeding affects the symmetrical and asymmetrical pattern of NC.

  19. Improved ability of biological and previous caries multimarkers to predict caries disease as revealed by multivariate PLS modelling

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    Ericson Thorild

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dental caries is a chronic disease with plaque bacteria, diet and saliva modifying disease activity. Here we have used the PLS method to evaluate a multiplicity of such biological variables (n = 88 for ability to predict caries in a cross-sectional (baseline caries and prospective (2-year caries development setting. Methods Multivariate PLS modelling was used to associate the many biological variables with caries recorded in thirty 14-year-old children by measuring the numbers of incipient and manifest caries lesions at all surfaces. Results A wide but shallow gliding scale of one fifth caries promoting or protecting, and four fifths non-influential, variables occurred. The influential markers behaved in the order of plaque bacteria > diet > saliva, with previously known plaque bacteria/diet markers and a set of new protective diet markers. A differential variable patterning appeared for new versus progressing lesions. The influential biological multimarkers (n = 18 predicted baseline caries better (ROC area 0.96 than five markers (0.92 and a single lactobacilli marker (0.7 with sensitivity/specificity of 1.87, 1.78 and 1.13 at 1/3 of the subjects diagnosed sick, respectively. Moreover, biological multimarkers (n = 18 explained 2-year caries increment slightly better than reported before but predicted it poorly (ROC area 0.76. By contrast, multimarkers based on previous caries predicted alone (ROC area 0.88, or together with biological multimarkers (0.94, increment well with a sensitivity/specificity of 1.74 at 1/3 of the subjects diagnosed sick. Conclusion Multimarkers behave better than single-to-five markers but future multimarker strategies will require systematic searches for improved saliva and plaque bacteria markers.

  20. Can coffee prevent caries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anila Namboodiripad P

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine the anti-carious effect of coffee in humans. Coffee represents one of the most consumed products by the population. Materials and Methods: A random sample of 1000 individuals, of both sexes, who consumed only coffee as a beverage and who visited the Out-Patient Department of KLE Society′s Institute of Dental Sci-ences, with a dental complaint and no history of any major illness, were considered as subjects. The patients′ histories with regard to the coffee intake, such as, period of consumption, frequency of consumption, whether taken with milk or wihout milk, with sugar or without sugar, and the brand make, was noted. History of the type of diet, consumption of sweets, periodic-ity of brushing, and whether they had undergone fluoride applications were also noted. A thousand patients who consumed beverages other than coffee were taken as the control. Results: The results showed that coffee most consumed was roasted coffee, and the frequency on an average was about three cups per day, for an average period of 35 years. The Decayed/Missing/Filled Surface (DMFS scores varied from 2.9, in subjects who drank black coffee, to 5.5 in subjects who consumed coffee together with sweeteners and creaming agents. The DMFS score was 3.4 in subjects who consumed coffee together with milk but no sugar. The DMFS score of the control subjects was 4, indicating that coffee if consumed alone had anticaries action, but in the presence of additives the antibacterial and anticaries action was totally minimized. Conclusion: Thus coffee can help in prevention of dental caries if consumed without additives.

  1. Adolescent rampant caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namita

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Adolescent rampant caries is a new and growing challenge in Conservative Dentistry. It has the same etiology and pattern as that of nursing bottle syndrome. Herein, a case is presented in which the main cause of rampant caries is the patient′s habit of keeping cariogenic food in her mouth and going to sleep. Educating this etiology and introduction of preventive strategies not only assists in meeting the special oral needs of the adolescent population, but also helps to establish lifelong healthful habits.

  2. Genetics and caries: prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Rezende Vieira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Caries remains the most prevalent non-contagious infectious disease in humans. It is clear that the current approaches to decrease the prevalence of caries in human populations, including water fluoridation and school-based programs, are not enough to protect everyone. The scientific community has suggested the need for innovative work in a number of areas in cariology, encompassing disease etiology, epidemiology, definition, prevention, and treatment. We have pioneered the work on genetic studies to identify genes and genetic markers of diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic value. This paper summarizes a presentation that elaborated on these initial findings.

  3. Fluoridated salt for caries prevention and control - a 2-year field study in a disadvantaged community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wennhall, Inger; Hajem, Samara; Ilros, Susanna;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Salt fluoridation is considered a cost-effective community strategy for reducing caries. AIM: To evaluate the effect of school-based and domestic distribution of F-salt to schoolchildren residing in a disadvantaged community. DESIGN: Seven hundred and thirty-three schoolchildren (12......-14 years), attending two public schools, were enrolled; one was assigned to intervention (IS), whereas the other served as reference (RS). Subjects in IS were given access to F-salt (250 ppm F) in marked jars at school lunch and through free supply for domestic use. The 2-year caries increment and...... progression rate, assessed from bitewing radiographs, was scored. Information on diet, oral hygiene, and fluoride exposure was collected through a baseline questionnaire. RESULTS: The dropout rate was high (IS 27%; RS 18%). At baseline, the IS children displayed more unfavourable risk factors and a higher...

  4. Social and Behavioral Determinants for Early Childhood Caries among Preschool Children in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Mitali; Namdev, Ritu; Bodh, Meenakshi; Dutta, Samir; Singhal, Parul; Kumar, Arun

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. Early Childhood Caries (ECC) is a public health problem with biological, social and behavioural determinants and the notion that the principal etiology is inappropriate feeding modalities is no longer tenable. Hence this study was undertaken to assess the relationship between ECC and socio-demographic factors, dietary habits, oral hygiene habits and parental characteristics. Materials and methods. The study involved a dental examination of 1400 children aged 0-71 months, recording caries using Gruebbel's deft index and a structured questionnaire to interview parents or caretakers. The tabulated data was statistically analyzed using t-test and ANOVA at 5% level of significance. Results. The variables significantly associated with ECC were age (PPPPPPPPP>0.05). Conclusion. ECC is preventable and manageable with proper information and skills. It is important for healthcare professionals, family physicians and parents to be cognizant of the involved risk factors as their preventive efforts represent the first line of defense. PMID:26236439

  5. Do the more caries in early primary dentition indicate the more caries in permanent dentition? Results of a 5-years follow-up study in rural-district

    OpenAIRE

    Dülgergil, C. T.; Çolak, H.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: In the deprived communities with high caries incidence, determination of high-risk children in early age is a valuable tool to apply the individual and/or community-level preventive measures. The purpose of this 5-years follow-up study was to examine the relationship between early caries occurrence on primary incisors and the future caries occurrence on both first permanent molars and all permanent dentition in the children living in rural Turkey. Materials and Methods: Total 34 children...

  6. Influence of the Display Monitor on Observer Performance in Detection of Dental Caries

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Background and aims Digital imaging continues to gain acceptance in dentistry and video display used for this becomes important. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of the display monitor on observer performance on caries detection. Materials and methods Artificial enamel lesions were created in 40 extracted teeth at random using 1/4 and 1/2 round burs. Teeth were mounted in dental stone blocks to simulate a hemi-dentition. Approximate exposures were recorded at 70 kVp using a P...

  7. Caries-risk profiles in Italian adults using computer caries assessment system and ICDAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna CARTA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the correlation among socio-behavioral factors, caries status and caries risk, calculated through Cariogram, in an adult population. Four hundred eighty subjects (mean age 40.73, SE ± 0.33 randomly selected from the municipal electoral registry consented to participate in the survey. Subjects were examined, and the International Caries Detection Assessment System (ICDAS index was registered. A highly structured questionnaire was submitted to investigate (1 personal data (i.e., age, gender, educational level, job categorization, (2 life-style behavior (i.e., smoking and dietary habits, and (3 oral health behavior (i.e., tooth brushing, use of fluoride and dental check-up frequency. An evaluation of the mutans streptococci concentration in saliva was also performed. Information on caries-related factors was entered into the Cariogram in order to generate an individual caries risk profile for each subject. Multinomial logistic regression was performed using Cariogram levels as the dependent variable. The possible correlated variables were analyzed using the principal component analysis (PCA. Considering ICDAS scores, 5.62% of the sample had at least an initial decay (ICDAS = 1-2, whereas 40.83% of the sample presented at least one moderate decay (ICDAS = 3-4 and 17.08% a severe decay (ICDAS = 5-6. Decay at ICDAS levels 5-6 and more than 5 missing teeth were statistically associated with Cariogram scores (OR = 2.36, 95%CI = 1.83–3.03 and OR = 1.43, 95%CI = 1.13–1.82, respectively. The results suggest that the Cariogram model was able to identify caries-related factors in an adult population. A direct association among the risk categories from Cariogram, the caries status and some socio-behavioral variables was verified.

  8. Caries-risk profiles in Italian adults using computer caries assessment system and ICDAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carta, Giovanna; Cagetti, Maria Grazia; Cocco, Fabio; Sale, Silvana; Lingström, Peter; Campus, Guglielmo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the correlation among socio-behavioral factors, caries status and caries risk, calculated through Cariogram, in an adult population. Four hundred eighty subjects (mean age 40.73, SE ± 0.33) randomly selected from the municipal electoral registry consented to participate in the survey. Subjects were examined, and the International Caries Detection Assessment System (ICDAS) index was registered. A highly structured questionnaire was submitted to investigate (1) personal data (i.e., age, gender, educational level, job categorization), (2) life-style behavior (i.e., smoking and dietary habits), and (3) oral health behavior (i.e., tooth brushing, use of fluoride and dental check-up frequency). An evaluation of the mutans streptococci concentration in saliva was also performed. Information on caries-related factors was entered into the Cariogram in order to generate an individual caries risk profile for each subject. Multinomial logistic regression was performed using Cariogram levels as the dependent variable. The possible correlated variables were analyzed using the principal component analysis (PCA). Considering ICDAS scores, 5.62% of the sample had at least an initial decay (ICDAS = 1-2), whereas 40.83% of the sample presented at least one moderate decay (ICDAS = 3-4) and 17.08% a severe decay (ICDAS = 5-6). Decay at ICDAS levels 5-6 and more than 5 missing teeth were statistically associated with Cariogram scores (OR = 2.36, 95%CI = 1.83-3.03 and OR = 1.43, 95%CI = 1.13-1.82, respectively). The results suggest that the Cariogram model was able to identify caries-related factors in an adult population. A direct association among the risk categories from Cariogram, the caries status and some socio-behavioral variables was verified. PMID:26892361

  9. Milk fluoridation for the prevention of dental caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolán Bánóczy

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review is to give an overview of 55 years experience of milk fluoridation and draw conclusions about the applicability of the method. Fluoridated milk was first investigated in the early 1950s, almost simultaneously in Switzerland, the USA and Japan. Stimulated by the favourable results obtained from these early studies, the establishment of The Borrow Dental Milk Foundation (subsequently The Borrow Foundation in England gave an excellent opportunity for further research, both clinical and non-clinical, and a productive collaboration with the World Health Organization which began in the early 1980s. Numerous peer-reviewed publications in international journals showed clearly the bioavailability of fluoride in various types of milk. Clinical trials were initiated in the 1980s – some of these can be classed as randomised controlled trials, while most of the clinical studies were community preventive programmes. Conclusion. These evaluations showed clearly that the optimal daily intake of fluoride in milk is effective in preventing dental caries. The amount of fluoride added to milk depends on background fluoride exposure and age of the children: commonly in the range 0.5 to 1.0 mg per day. An advantage of the method is that a precise amount of fluoride can be delivered under controlled conditions. The cost of milk fluoridation programmes is low, about € 2 to 3 per child per year. Fluoridation of milk can be recommended as a caries preventive measure where the fluoride concentration in drinking water is suboptimal, caries experience in children is significant, and there is an existing school milk programme.

  10. Comparative evaluation of predictive value of three caries activity tests-snyder, lactobacillus count and cariostat in mixed dentition children with and without caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnan Ramesh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dental caries is a disease with multifactorial etiology. Early detection and preventive measures are essential for caries control. Caries activity tests are one of the methods of early detection, but all these are based on microbiological study. Aims: Compare the sensitivity and specificity of Snyder test (ST, lactobacillus count (LBC and Cariostat in mixed dentition children with and without caries. Materials and Methods: 90 healthy mixed dentition children (79 boys and 11 girls were selected and were divided into two groups, one with Decayed missing filled teeth (DMFT 0 and another group with DMFT 3-5. The salivary samples were collected for ST and LBC and plaque samples were collected for Cariostat. Caries activity was assessed. Results: The data obtained were analyzed for sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and over all accuracy. Conclusions: Our present study showed that the LBC was found to have a higher correlation in caries as the caries increased the count also increased with positive caries activity. A good correlation was found between Snyder and LBC for the caries activity 1, 2 and 3. But no correlation was seen for score 0. To conclude, a combination of all these tests was found to be good for assessing caries risk groups.

  11. Correlation between dental anxiety, sense of coherence (SOC) and dental caries in school children from Bangalore North: A cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Deepak Viswanath; Anumula Vamsi Krishna

    2015-01-01

    Background: Very few publications report on the relationship between ′salutogenesis′, as measured by the concept of Sense of Coherence (SOC), and generally speaking an individual′s overall oral health- related quality of life (OHRQL). To add to this, there is even lesser information regarding the behavioral aspect of dental anxiety. Aim: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between dental anxiety, SOC and dental caries in school children from Bangalore North. Material...

  12. Prevalence of dental caries among school children of Bharatpur city, India

    OpenAIRE

    Ingle, Navin Anand; Dubey, Harsh Vardhan; Kaur, Navpreet; Gupta, Rahul

    2014-01-01

    Background: Healthy teeth and oral tissues and the need for oral health care are important for any section of society. Dental caries is an infectious microbial disease of multifactorial origin in which diet, host, and microbial flora interacts over a period of time in such a way so as to encourage demineralization of the tooth enamel with resultant caries formation. Dental caries, the product of man's progress towards civilization, has a very high morbidity potential and thus, is coming into ...

  13. Design of the Xylitol for Adult Caries Trial (X-ACT)

    OpenAIRE

    Amaechi Bennett T; Gilbert Gregg H; Gullion Christina M; Vollmer William M; Shugars Daniel A; Bader James D; Brown John P

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Dental caries incidence in adults is similar to that in children and adolescents, but few caries preventive agents have been evaluated for effectiveness in adults populations. In addition, dentists direct fewer preventive services to their adult patients. Xylitol, an over-the-counter sweetener, has shown some potential as a caries preventive agent, but the evidence for its effectiveness is not yet conclusive and is based largely on studies in child populations. Methods/Des...

  14. Caries risk assessment in young adults: a 3 year validation of the Cariogram model

    OpenAIRE

    Petersson, Gunnel Hänsel; Twetman, Svante

    2015-01-01

    Background To validate baseline caries risk classifications according to the Cariogram model with the actual caries development over a 3-year period in a group of young adults living in Sweden. Methods The study group consisted of 1,295 19-year-old patients that completed a comprehensive clinical baseline examination, including radiographs and salivary tests. An individual caries risk profile was computed and the patient was placed in one of five risk categories. After 3 years, 982 patients (...

  15. Dental caries prevalence, oral health knowledge and practice among indigenous Chepang school children of Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Prasai Dixit, Lonim; Shakya, Ajay; Shrestha, Manash; Shrestha, Ayush

    2013-01-01

    Background Chepang communities are one of the most deprived ethnic communities in Nepal. According to the National Pathfinder Survey, dental caries is a highly prevalent childhood disease in Nepal. There is no data concerning the prevalence of caries along with knowledge, attitude and oral hygiene practices among Chepang schoolchildren. The objectives of this study were to 1) record the prevalence of dental caries 2) report experience of dental pain 3) evaluate knowledge, attitude and prevent...

  16. Is there an association between early childhood caries and serum iron and serum ferritin levels?

    OpenAIRE

    Mostafa Sadeghi; Reza Darakhshan; Ali Bagherian

    2012-01-01

    Background: Early childhood caries (ECC) is a virulent form of dental caries that can destroy the primary dentition of preschool children. The purpose of this study was to investigate a possible association between ECC with serum iron and serum ferritin levels. Materials and Methods: Following the ethical approval, 204 children aged 24–71 months were recruited for a double-blind, randomized cross-sectional study. Each child was examined clinically for dental caries using the World Health Orga...

  17. Efficacy of three-tone disclosing agent as an adjunct in caries risk assessment

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background: Today, most approaches to caries viewed that catastrophic change in normal plaque biofilm is responsible for the disease. The behavior and composition of the biofilm are a reflection of the oral environment; the caries is a reflection of adverse changes occurring in that environment. Thus, it is important to identify the pathogenicity of the plaque biofilm so as to predict the caries risk. The recently developed three-tone plaque disclosing agent was used to test its ability in id...

  18. Risk factors for dental caries in children with developmental disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braúna, Ana Paula Vasques Sales; Abreu, Mauro Henrique Nogueira Guimarães de; Resende, Vera Lúcia Silva; Castilho, Lia Silva de

    2016-06-14

    The aim of the present study was to investigate risk factors for dental caries in children with developmental disabilities who were treated at a clinical reference service for patients with special needs in Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil. This is a retrospective cohort study that evaluated 401 dental charts of individuals without dental caries or restorations in their first dental appointment. The dependent variable was the time of occurrence of new dental caries or restorations and was measured in months. Gender, age, International Code of Diseases (ICD), mother´s education, sugar consumption, use of fluoride toothpaste, oral hygiene, mouth breathing, reports of xerostomia, gingival status, use of psychotropic or asthma drugs, and history of asthma were covariates. The Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to estimate the raw and adjusted hazard ratios and their respective 95% confidence intervals. The average time that individuals remained free of dental caries/restoration was equal to 107.46 months (95%CI 95.41 to 119.51), with a median of caries-free children up to 94 months. For each point increase in the scale of sucrose consumption, the increase in caries risk was 1.07 (95%CI 1.01 to 1.15). Sucrose consumption was the only risk factor for dental caries found in this group of individuals with developmental disabilities. PMID:27305514

  19. Efficiency of caries risk assessment in young adults using Cariogram

    OpenAIRE

    Celik, Esra Uzer; Gokay, Necmi; Ates, Mustafa

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aims of this study were to: (1) evaluate the caries risk in young adults using Cariogram and (2) compare the efficiency of Cariogram with the regression risk models created using the same variables in Cariogram by examining the actual caries progression over a 2-year period. Methods: This study included 100 subjects that were either twenty or twenty-one years-old. Data on general health, diet, oral hygiene and use of fluoride were obtained. Saliva analyses were performed, includ...

  20. Occlusal Caries Depth Measurements Obtained by Five Different Imaging Modalities

    OpenAIRE

    Kamburoğlu, Kıvanç; Hakan KURT; Kolsuz, Eray; ÖZTAŞ, Bengi; Tatar, İlkan; Çelik, Hakan Hamdi

    2010-01-01

    The study aimed to assess the accuracy and reproducibility of occlusal caries depth measurements obtained from different imaging modalities. The study comprised 21 human mandibular molar teeth with occlusal caries. Teeth were imaged using film, CCD, two different cone-beam computerized tomography (CBCT) units and a microcomputer tomography (micro-CT). Thereafter, each tooth was serially sectioned, and the section with the deepest carious lesion was scanned using a high-resolution scanner. Eac...

  1. Predictors of Dental caries among children 7–14 years old in Northwest Ethiopia: a community based cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayele Fenta A

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dental caries in children remains a significant public health problem. It is a disease with multifactorial causes. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence and associated factors of dental caries among children between 7 to 14 years old. Methods A community based cross-sectional study was conducted in Gondar town from June 2011 to September 2011. A total of 842 children were involved in the study. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to select the children. Pretested and structured questionnaires were used to collect data from mothers. Clinical examination of children was done using dental caries criteria set by world health organization. Data were entered, cleaned and edited using EPI Info version 3.5.1 and exported to SPSS version 16.0 for analysis. Binary multiple logistic regression analyses was applied to test the association. Results Four hundred sixty three (55% children were females. The prevalence of dental caries was 306(36.3%.The educational status of children’s father (AOR=0.3, 95%CI, 0.17, 0.80, monthly household income (AOR=0.59, 95%CI, 0.01, 0.45, regular teeth brushing (AOR=0.08, 95% CI, 0.03, 0.20 and using mouth rinsing (AOR=0.40, 95% CI, 0.2, 0.80 were found statistically significantly associated with dental caries. Conclusions Dental caries were high among children in Gondar town. Low socioeconomic status and poor oral hygiene practices were the influencing factors for dental caries. Oral hygiene, dietary habits and access to dental care services are supreme important for the prevention of the problem.

  2. Effect of Nutritional Habits on Dental Caries in Permanent Dentition among Schoolchildren Aged 10–12 Years: A Zero-Inflated Generalized Poisson Regression Model Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    ALMASI, Afshin; RAHIMIFOROUSHANI, Abbas; ESHRAGHIAN, Mohammad Reza; MOHAMMAD, Kazem; PASDAR, Yahya; TARRAHI, Mohammad Javad; MOGHIMBEIGI, Abbas; AHMADI JOUYBARI, Touraj

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to assess the associations between nutrition and dental caries in permanent dentition among schoolchildren. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was undertaken on 698 schoolchildren aged 10 to 12 yr from a random sample of primary schools in Kermanshah, western Iran, in 2014. The study was based on the data obtained from the questionnaire containing information on nutritional habits and the outcome of decayed/missing/filled teeth (DMFT) index. The association between predictors and dental caries was modeled using the Zero Inflated Generalized Poisson (ZIGP) regression model. Results: Fourteen percent of the children were caries free. The model was shown that in female children, the odds of being in a caries susceptible sub-group was 1.23 (95% CI: 1.08–1.51) times more likely than boys (P=0.041). Additionally, mean caries count in children who consumed the fizzy soft beverages and sweet biscuits more than once daily was 1.41 (95% CI: 1.19–1.63) and 1.27 (95% CI: 1.18–1.37) times more than children that were in category of less than 3 times a week or never, respectively. Conclusions: Girls were at a higher risk of caries than boys were. Since our study showed that nutritional status may have significant effect on caries in permanent teeth, we recommend that health promotion activities in school should be emphasized on healthful eating practices; especially limiting beverages containing sugar to only occasionally between meals. PMID:27141498

  3. Caries risk assessment in schoolchildren - a form based on Cariogram® software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Nunes CABRAL

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Identifying caries risk factors is an important measure which contributes to best understanding of the cariogenic profile of the patient. The Cariogram® software provides this analysis, and protocols simplifying the method were suggested. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine whether a newly developed Caries Risk Assessment (CRA form based on the Cariogram® software could classify schoolchildren according to their caries risk and to evaluate relationships between caries risk and the variables in the form. Material and Methods: 150 schoolchildren aged 5 to 7 years old were included in this survey. Caries prevalence was obtained according to International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS II. Information for filling in the form based on Cariogram® was collected clinically and from questionnaires sent to parents. Linear regression and a forward stepwise multiple regression model were applied to correlate the variables included in the form with the caries risk. Results: Caries prevalence, in primary dentition, including enamel and dentine carious lesions was 98.6%, and 77.3% when only dentine lesions were considered. Eighty-six percent of the children were classified as at moderate caries risk. The forward stepwise multiple regression model result was significant (R2=0.904; p<0.00001, showing that the most significant factors influencing caries risk were caries experience, oral hygiene, frequency of food consumption, sugar consumption and fluoride sources. Conclusion: The use of the form based on the Cariogram® software enabled classification of the schoolchildren at low, moderate and high caries risk. Caries experience, oral hygiene, frequency of food consumption, sugar consumption and fluoride sources are the variables that were shown to be highly correlated with caries risk.

  4. Nature vs. nurture in dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, I D

    1994-10-01

    Why are some people more resistant to dental caries than others? Certainly diet plays a part, but are there hereditary factors that affect caries development? This report explores genetic components that appear related to caries resistance and susceptibility. PMID:7844299

  5. Caries detection in dental radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caries, or the decay of teeth are difficult to automatically detect in dental radiographs because of the small area of the image that is occupied by the decay. Images of dental radiographs has distinct regions of homogeneous gray levels, and therefore naturally lead to a segmentation based automatic caries detection algorithm. This paper describes a method for caries detection based on a multiclass, area independent thresholding and segmenting scheme. This multiclass thresholding algorithm is an extension of the uniform error threshold, an area independent, distribution free thresholding method used for images of only two classes of objects. The authors first consider the problem of caries detection and the image features that characterize the presence of caries. Next, the uniform error threshold is reviewed, and the general multiclass uniform error threshold algorithm is presented. This algorithm is used to automatically detect caries in dental radiographs

  6. Natural products and caries prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Lei; Li, Jiyao; He, Libang; Zhou, Xuedong

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries is considered as the most common polymicrobial oral disease in the world. With the aim of developing alternative approaches to reduce or prevent the decay, numerous papers showed the potential anticaries activity of a number of natural products. The natural products with anticaries effects are selected from e.g. food, beverages, flowers or traditional herbs. Most of the effective components are proven to be polyphenol compounds. Many of the natural products are studied as antibacterial agents, while some of them are found to be effective in shifting the de-/remineralization balance. However, the mechanisms of the anticaries effects are still unclear for most of the natural products. In the future, more efforts need to be made to seek novel effective natural products via in vitro experiment, animal study and in situ investigations, as well as to enhance their anticaries effects with the help of novel technology like nanotechnology. PMID:25871417

  7. Family Matters. The role of parental and family-related psychosocial factors in childhood dental caries

    OpenAIRE

    Loveren, van, C.; Verrips, G.H.W.; Duijster, D.

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries is common childhood disease with children from lower socioeconomic status experiencing disproportionately higher levels of the disease. Parents and the broader family environment may play an important role in the development of childhood dental caries as mediators / moderators of risk. Therefore, the aim of this thesis was to explore parental and family-related determinants of childhood dental caries, and their potential role in socioeconomic inequalities in children’s dental he...

  8. Subjectivity and examiner experience in diagnosis of residual caries--an in vitro study

    OpenAIRE

    Lennon, A. M.; Wiegand, A.; Buchalla, W.; Wahl, B.; Werner, C.; Betke, H; Hannig, C.; Rödig, T; Attin, T.

    2007-01-01

    The aim was to evaluate subjectivity (using inter- and intraexaminer repeatability), the effect of examiner experience, and residual caries diagnostic accuracy with visual tactile (VT) criteria and using a caries disclosing agent (CD). Thirty teeth with occlusal caries were excavated by a single operator not involved in the diagnostic part of the study. A test area was marked in each cavity. Four dentists with more than five and five dentists with less than five years' experience rated the ma...

  9. The use of probiotic strains in caries prevention : a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Guglielmo Campus; Peter Lingström; Fabio Cocco; Egle Milia; Maria Grazia Cagetti; Stefano Mastroberardino

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to provide a systematic review of the caries-prevention effect of probiotics in human. The hypothesis was that the administration of probiotic strains might play a role in caries lesion prevention and in the control of caries-related risk factors. The main relevant databases (Medline, Embase) were searched. Quality of the Randomized Clinical Trials (RCTs) was classified using the “Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials” (CONSORT) checklist and the Impact Factor (IF) value ...

  10. A randomized clinical trial on arresting dentin caries in preschool children by topical fluorides

    OpenAIRE

    Duangthip, Duangporn

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Silver diammine fluoride (SDF) has been found to be effective in preventing and arresting dental caries in children. The annual or semi-annual application of SDF may not be practical in migratory populations or effective high caries risk patients. So far, no data are available about the effectiveness of intensive fluoride treatment in arresting dental caries in primary teeth. Objectives: This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of three topical fluoride application prot...

  11. Patient caries risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, Svante; Fontana, Margherita

    2009-01-01

    Risk assessment is an essential component in the decision-making process for the correct prevention and management of dental caries. Multiple risk factors and indicators have been proposed as targets in the assessment of risk of future disease, varying sometimes based on the age group at which they...... are targeted. Multiple reviews and systematic reviews are available in the literature on this topic. This chapter focusses primarily on results of reviews based on longitudinal studies required to establish the accuracy of caries risk assessment. These findings demonstrate that there is a strong body...... for prediction purposes, as measured until now in the literature, is at best questionable in schoolchildren, adolescents and adults. That is not to say these additional factors should not be assessed to help understand the strength of their associations with the disease experience in a particular...

  12. Laser methods of caries prophylaxis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunin, Anatoly A.; Dergunova, Elvira I.; Kazmina, Svetlana G.

    1996-01-01

    Low intensive laser irradiation is widely used for the treatment of many stomatological diseases. The caries static activity of HNL light and infrared lasers, its influence on the activation of microcirculation of the pulp enzyme system and on the increase of enamel permeability became clear. These data allow us to suppose that the low intensive laser irradiation may potent the activity of the initial caries by the increase of teeth stability to the factors provoking the caries.

  13. Effect of Nutritional Habits on Dental Caries in Permanent Den¬tition among Schoolchildren Aged 10-12 Years: A Zero-In-flated Generalized Poisson Regression Model Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin ALMASI

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to assess the associations between nutrition and dental caries in permanent dentition among schoolchildren.Methods: A cross-sectional survey was undertaken on 698 schoolchildren aged 10 to 12 yr from a random sample of primary schools in Kermanshah, western Iran, in 2014. The study was based on the data obtained from the questionnaire containing information on nutritional habits and the outcome of decayed/missing/filled teeth (DMFT index. The association between predictors and dental caries was modeled using the Zero Inflated Generalized Poisson (ZIGP regression model.Results: Fourteen percent of the children were caries free. The model was shown that in female children, the odds of being in a caries susceptible sub-group was 1.23(95% CI: 1.08-1.51 times more likely than boys (P=0.041. Additionally, mean caries count in children who consumed the fizzy soft beverages and sweet biscuits more than once daily was 1.41(95% CI: 1.19-1.63 and 1.27 (95% CI: 1.18-1.37 times more than children that were in category of less than 3 times a week or never, respectively.Conclusions: Girls were at a higher risk of caries than boys were. Since our study showed that nutritional status may have significant effect on caries in permanent teeth, we recommend that health promotion activities in school should be emphasized on healthful eating practices; especially limiting beverages containing sugar to only occasionally between meals. Keywords: Nutritional habits, Dental caries, Zero Inflated Generalized Poisson regression model, Schoolchildren

  14. Indicators for root caries in Danish persons with recently diagnosed Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellefsen, Birita; Morse, Douglas E; Waldemar, Gunhild; Holm-Pedersen, Poul

    2012-01-01

    doi: 10.1111/j.1741-2358.2011.00560.x Indicators for root caries in Danish persons with recently diagnosed Alzheimer's disease Objective:  To identify indicators of root caries among persons with newly diagnosed Alzheimer's disease (AD). Background:  Few studies have investigated dental caries in...... older adults with AD. Previously we found that persons with AD had significantly more root caries compared to persons with dementia other than AD. Methods:  Participants were recruited from two university hospital clinics in Copenhagen, Denmark. A team of neurologists/geriatricians carried out the...

  15. Dental caries: Therapeutic possibilities

    OpenAIRE

    Perić Tamara; Marković Dejan; Živković Slavoljub

    2008-01-01

    Contemporary tendencies in dentistry are based on the concept of maximal protection of healthy tooth tissues. Caries removal has been done traditionally with mechanical rotary instruments that are fast and precise. However, conventional cavity preparation has potential adverse effects to the pulp due to heat, pressure and vibrations. Moreover, drilling often causes pain and requires local anaesthesia, and these procedures are frequently perceived as unpleasant. Etiology, development and preve...

  16. Caries prevalence among schoolchildren in Zagreb, Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Dukić, Walter; Delija, Barbara; Lulić Dukić, Olga

    2011-01-01

    Aim To investigate the prevalence of dental caries and treatment needs in schoolchildren aged 7-14 years from Zagreb. Methods Dental examinations based on the World Health Organization criteria were performed on 1168 children in the period 2009-2010. The teeth were clinically examined with standard dental instruments using visual-tactile method under standard dental light. We recorded the clinical indexes of decayed, missed, and filled teeth (DMFT and dmft; upper-case letters refer to permane...

  17. Caries risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejàre, I; Axelsson, S; Dahlén, G;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the ability of multivariate models and single factors to correctly identify future caries development in pre-school children and schoolchildren/adolescents. STUDY DESIGN: A systematic literature search for relevant papers was conducted with pre-determined inclusion criteria. ...... hampered the synthesis of results. There is a great need to standardize study design, outcome measures and reporting of data in studies on caries risk assessment. The accuracy of prediction models should be validated in at least one independent population.......OBJECTIVE: To assess the ability of multivariate models and single factors to correctly identify future caries development in pre-school children and schoolchildren/adolescents. STUDY DESIGN: A systematic literature search for relevant papers was conducted with pre-determined inclusion criteria....... Abstracts and full-text articles were assessed independently by two reviewers. The quality of studies was graded according to the QUADAS tool. The quality of evidence of models and single predictors was assessed using the GRADE approach. RESULTS: Ninety original articles fulfilled the inclusion criteria...

  18. Dietary habits and dental caries in a population of Spanish schoolchildren with low levels of caries experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra Majem, L; García Closas, R; Ramón, J M; Manau, C; Cuenca, E; Krasse, B

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between current dietary habits and dental caries in schoolchildren from an area of Spain on which the prevalence of caries was low. The results of an epidemiological study conducted on a random sample of 893 children from the cities of Girona and Figueres are presented. The method of dietary interview consisted of a food-frequency questionnaire. This showed a positive relationship between dental caries and consumption of ice cream, pastries, cakes, sliced bread, on the one hand, and sugar-free chewing gum and sugar-free candies, on the other. A protective effect of skimmed milk and artificial sweeteners was also observed. Results reflect the role of certain foods in caries development, but also the outcome of selective dietary counseling to high-risk children. PMID:8281564

  19. Inhibition of salivary amylase by black tea in high-caries and low-caries index children: A comparative in vivo study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Vishal; Taneja, Lavina

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Dental caries is a universal disease. Dietary modification is important in reducing the occurrence of dental caries. Tea which is so frequently consumed with cariogenic starch rich food is proposed to have anticariogenic potential. The various mechanism has been proposed for same and one being inhibition of salivary amylase activity. Aim: To determine the effect of 1.5% black tea decoction on salivary amylase activity in children with high caries and no caries. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 children in the age group of 12–15 years were selected for the study. They were further grouped based on their decayed missing filled surface (DMFS) score into high-caries group (DMFS above 10) and no-caries group (DMFS = 0). After 2 h of fasting, subjects consumed two salted crackers for 60 s following which they rinsed with water and then with black tea decoction (1.5%) the very next day. Retained food particles were recovered salivary amylase activity was noted as maltose to sucrose ratio via chromatography. Results: The average ratio of maltose to sucrose ratio percentage reduction in high-caries group was 43.63% and 41.17% in no caries group which was highly significant (P children with high- and no-caries index. PMID:27313414

  20. The Marketplace for New Caries Management Products: Dental Caries Detection and Caries Management by Risk Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Berg Joel H

    2006-01-01

    Abstract The number of new technologies emerging each year in the realm of dental caries management is growing at an exponential rate. Examining the patent literature, one can see that this growth rate will likely continue, with the outcome that dentistry will see an expanded growth in managing dental caries by risk assessment with medicinal therapeutic interventions. Restorative dentistry solutions, treating the results of dental caries, will continue to grow, while technologies to identify ...

  1. Caries induced cytokine network in the odontoblast layer of human teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horst Jeremy A

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Immunologic responses of the tooth to caries begin with odontoblasts recognizing carious bacteria. Inflammatory propagation eventually leads to tooth pulp necrosis and danger to health. The present study aims to determine cytokine gene expression profiles generated within human teeth in response to dental caries in vivo and to build a mechanistic model of these responses and the downstream signaling network. Results We demonstrate profound differential up-regulation of inflammatory genes in the odontoblast layer (ODL in human teeth with caries in vivo, while the pulp remains largely unchanged. Interleukins, chemokines, and all tested receptors thereof were differentially up-regulated in ODL of carious teeth, well over one hundred-fold for 35 of 84 genes. By interrogating reconstructed protein interaction networks corresponding to the differentially up-regulated genes, we develop the hypothesis that pro-inflammatory cytokines highly expressed in ODL of carious teeth, IL-1β, IL-1α, and TNF-α, carry the converged inflammatory signal. We show that IL1β amplifies antimicrobial peptide production in odontoblasts in vitro 100-fold more than lipopolysaccharide, in a manner matching subsequent in vivo measurements. Conclusions Our data suggest that ODL amplifies bacterial signals dramatically by self-feedback cytokine-chemokine signal-receptor cycling, and signal convergence through IL1R1 and possibly others, to increase defensive capacity including antimicrobial peptide production to protect the tooth and contain the battle against carious bacteria within the dentin.

  2. Dental caries experience among indigenous children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Érica M; Cavalcanti, Laysa C; Firmino, Ramon T; Ribeiro, Gustavo L; Granville-Garcia, Ana F; Menezes, Valdenice A

    2015-06-01

    Investigations into the oral health status of indigenous populations are scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate caries experience and associated factors among 342 indigenous children and adolescents aged 5-15 years of the Xukuru community in the municipality of Pesqueira, Brazil. A cross-sectional census study was carried out using the criteria of the World Health Organization to determine caries experience. Examinations were performed by two calibrated dentists and a questionnaire was administered to parents/caregivers addressing socio-demographic data, diet and oral hygiene habits. Logistic regression analysis were performed, with dmft and DMFT as the dependent variables (P Caries experience (dmft/DMFT) was high in both the primary and permanent dentition (75.6% and 62.9%, respectively). Mean dmft and DMFT indices were 3.11 and 2.21, respectively. Caries experience in the primary dentition was associated with children residing in villages far from urban areas (P = 0.016), while caries in the permanent dentition was associated with older children (P caries experience, which was associated with age and group of villages. Public policies are needed to improve the oral health status of this population. PMID:26062861

  3. Community water fluoridation and caries prevention: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzo, Giuseppe; Piscopo, Maria R; Pizzo, Ignazio; Giuliana, Giovanna

    2007-09-01

    The aim of this paper was to critically review the current role of community water fluoridation in preventing dental caries. Original articles and reviews published in English language from January 2001 to June 2006 were selected through MEDLINE database. Other sources were taken from the references of the selected papers. For the past 50 years community water fluoridation has been considered the milestone of caries prevention and as one of the major public health measures of the 20th century. However, it is now accepted that the primary cariostatic action of fluoride occurs after tooth eruption. Moreover, the caries reduction directly attributable to water fluoridation have declined in the last decades as the use of topical fluoride had become more widespread, whereas enamel fluorosis has been reported as an emerging problem in fluoridated areas. Several studies conducted in fluoridated and nonfluoridated communities suggested that this method of delivering fluoride may be unnecessary for caries prevention, particularly in the industrialized countries where the caries level has became low. Although water fluoridation may still be a relevant public health measure in poor and disadvantaged populations, the use of topical fluoride offers an optimal opportunity to prevent caries among people living in both industrialized and developing countries. PMID:17333303

  4. Nutrition and dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobley, Connie C

    2003-04-01

    Promotion of sound dietary practices is an essential component of caries management, along with fluoride exposure and oral hygiene practices. Scientific discoveries have lead to better understanding of the caries process, the ever-expanding food supply, and the interaction between the two. Fermentable carbohydrates interact dynamically with oral bacteria and saliva, and these foods will continue to be a major part of a healthful diet. Dental health professionals can serve their patients and the public by providing comprehensive oral health care and by promoting lifestyle behaviors to improve oral and general health within the time constraints of their practice. Dietary advice given should not contradict general health principles when providing practical guidance to reduce caries risk. The following principles should guide messages: * Encourage balanced diets based on moderation and variety as depicted by the Food Guide Pyramid and the Dietary Guidelines for Americans to provide a sound approach. Avoid references to "bad" foods and focus on "good" diets that include a variety of foods. * Give examples of how combining and sequencing foods can enhance mastication, saliva production, and oral clearance at each eating occasion. Combining dairy foods with sugary foods, raw foods with cooked, and protein-rich foods with acidogenic foods are all good examples. Suggest that eating and drinking be followed by cariostatic foods such as xylitol chewing gum. * Drink water to satisfy thirst and hydration needs as often as possible. Restrict consumption of sweetened beverages to meal and snack times when they can be combined with other cariostatic foods. * When a patient reports excessive dietary intake of a fermentable carbohydrate to the point of displacing other important foods in the diet, identify alternatives that will help the patient maintain or achieve a healthy body weight, oral health status, and a nutrient-dense intake. PMID:12699234

  5. Design of the Xylitol for Adult Caries Trial (X-ACT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Dental caries incidence in adults is similar to that in children and adolescents, but few caries preventive agents have been evaluated for effectiveness in adults populations. In addition, dentists direct fewer preventive services to their adult patients. Xylitol, an over-the-counter sweetener, has shown some potential as a caries preventive agent, but the evidence for its effectiveness is not yet conclusive and is based largely on studies in child populations. Methods/Design X-ACT is a three-year, multi-center, placebo controlled, double-blind, randomized clinical trial that tests the effects of daily use of xylitol lozenges versus placebo lozenges on the prevention of adult caries. The trial has randomized 691 participants (ages 21-80) to the two arms. The primary outcome is the increment of cavitated lesions. Discussion This trial should help resolve the overall issue of the effectiveness of xylitol in preventing caries by contributing evidence with a low risk of bias. Just as importantly, the trial will provide much-needed information about the effectiveness of a promising caries prevention agent in adults. An effective xylitol-based caries prevention intervention would represent an easily disseminated method to extend caries prevention to individuals not receiving caries preventive treatment in the dental office. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.Gov NCT00393055 PMID:20920261

  6. Design of the Xylitol for Adult Caries Trial (X-ACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaechi Bennett T

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dental caries incidence in adults is similar to that in children and adolescents, but few caries preventive agents have been evaluated for effectiveness in adults populations. In addition, dentists direct fewer preventive services to their adult patients. Xylitol, an over-the-counter sweetener, has shown some potential as a caries preventive agent, but the evidence for its effectiveness is not yet conclusive and is based largely on studies in child populations. Methods/Design X-ACT is a three-year, multi-center, placebo controlled, double-blind, randomized clinical trial that tests the effects of daily use of xylitol lozenges versus placebo lozenges on the prevention of adult caries. The trial has randomized 691 participants (ages 21-80 to the two arms. The primary outcome is the increment of cavitated lesions. Discussion This trial should help resolve the overall issue of the effectiveness of xylitol in preventing caries by contributing evidence with a low risk of bias. Just as importantly, the trial will provide much-needed information about the effectiveness of a promising caries prevention agent in adults. An effective xylitol-based caries prevention intervention would represent an easily disseminated method to extend caries prevention to individuals not receiving caries preventive treatment in the dental office. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.Gov NCT00393055

  7. The evidence base for professional and self-care prevention - caries, erosion and sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this conference paper was to examine the evidence base for primary and secondary prevention of dental caries, erosions and dentin hypersensitivity through professional and self-care measures. Methods A mapping of systematic reviews (SR) of literature was carried out in PubMed and the Cochrane library through April 2014 using established MeSH-terms and disease-related search words in various combinations. The search was restricted to SR's published in English or Scandinavian and all age groups were considered. The reference lists of the selected papers were hand-searched for additional review articles of potential interest. Meta-analyses, guidelines and treatment recommendations were considered only when SR's were lacking. In the event of updates or multiple systematic reviews covering the same topic, only the most recent article was included. No quality assessment of the systematic reviews was carried out. The quality of evidence was rated in four levels according to the GRADE scale. Results In total, 39 SR were included. For primary caries prevention, the quality of evidence was high for the use of fluoride toothpaste (with and without triclosan) and moderate for fluoride varnish and fissure sealants. The quality of evidence for fluoride gel, fluoride mouth rinse, xylitol gums and silver diamine fluoride (SDF) was rated as low. For secondary caries prevention and caries arrest, only fluoride interventions and SDF proved consistent benefits, although the quality of evidence was low. Likewise, the GRADE score for preventing erosions located in the enamel with fluoride supplements was low. The quality of evidence for various professional and self-care methods to prevent and manage dentine hypersensitivity was very low. Conclusions There are knowledge gaps in many domains of cariology and preventive dentistry that must be addressed and bridged through clinical research of good quality. PMID:26392204

  8. Pulp and plaque microbiotas of children with severe early childhood caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia I. Chalmers

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: Bacterial invasion into pulps of primary teeth can lead to infection and premature tooth loss in children. This pilot study aimed to explore whether the microbiota of carious exposures of dental pulps resembles that of carious dentin or that of infected root canals. Design: Children with severe early childhood caries were studied. Children were consented and extent of caries, plaque, and gingivitis measured. Bacteria were sampled from carious lesion biofilms and vital carious exposures of pulps, and processed by anaerobic culture. Isolates were characterized from partial sequences of the 16S rRNA gene and identified by comparison with taxa in the Human Oral Microbiome Database (http://www.HOMD.org. The microbiotas of carious lesions and dental pulps were compared using univariate and multivariate approaches. Results: The microbiota of cariously exposed pulps was similar in composition to that of carious lesion biofilms except that fewer species/taxa were identified from pulps. The major taxa identified belonged to the phyla Firmicutes (mainly streptococci and Actinobacteria (mainly Actinomyces species. Actinomyces and Selenomonas species were associated with carious lesions whereas Veillonella species, particularly Veillonella dispar was associated with pulps. Other bacteria detected in pulps included Streptococcus mutans, Parascardovia denticolens, Bifidobacterium longum, and several Lactobacillus and Actinomyces species. By principal, component analysis pulp microbiotas grouped together, whereas those in caries biofilms were widely dispersed. Conclusions: We conclude that the microbiota of cariously exposed vital primary pulps is composed of a subset of species associated with carious lesions. Vital primary pulps had a dominant Firmicutes and Actinobacteria microbiota which contrasts with reports of endodontic infections which can harbor a gram-negative microbiota. The microbiota of exposed primary pulps may provide

  9. Differentiation of salivary bacterial profiles of subjects with periodontitis and dental caries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belstrøm, Daniel; Fiehn, Nils-Erik; Nielsen, Claus H; Klepac-Ceraj, Vanja; Paster, Bruce J; Twetman, Svante; Holmstrup, Palle

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial profiles of saliva in subjects with periodontitis and dental caries have been demonstrated to differ from that of oral health. The aim of this comparative analysis of existing data generated by the Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray (HOMIM) from 293 stimulated saliva samples was...... to compare bacterial profiles of saliva in subjects with periodontitis and dental caries....

  10. Caries preventive efficiency of therapeutic complex accomponying orthodontic treatment of children with initial dental caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denga A.E.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of orthodontic non-removable appliance in orthodontic treatment inter¬feres with the process of teeth mineralization, worsens level of oral cavity hygiene, stimulates development of caries process. The situation is complicated when a patient has an initial tooth decay. The aim of this study was to determine genetic characteristics of children with initial caries and clinical evaluation of effectiveness of the developed caries preventive therapeutic complex accompanying treatment of jaw facial anomalies (JFA. 47 children aged 12-14 with initial tooth decay participated in the examination. Complex diagnostics, including molecular genetic studies was carried out. Therapeutic complex for children, of the main group included remineralizing, adaptogenic, biogenic agents, which increase non-specific resistance, as well as infiltration ICON therapy before fixing braces. Caries preventive complex accompanying JFA treatment in children with primary tooth decay developed with regard to revealed genetic disorders of amelogenesis, 2-nd of phase detoxification, collagen formation, functional responses in the oral cavity, state of hard tissues of teeth and periodontal tissues enabled to preserve existing carious process, normalize periodontal and hygienic indices at all stages of treatment.

  11. Dental caries characteristics in the first permanent molar in school age children. Comportamiento de la caries dental en el primer molar permanente en escolares.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Gloria Vázquez de León

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental caries is one of the main health problems in children. The first permanent molar presents caries more frequently than any other. Objective: To describe the characteristics of dental caries in the first permanent molars in children between 6 and 13 years-old, and to assess oral hygiene and knowledge about the subject in all the patients treated in the stomatology consultation Barrio adentro “El Guapo”, from November 2005 to March 2006. Methods: A descriptive, transversal study showed that most of the patients had dental caries. It was proved that many of them had, at least, on of the first molars affected by dental caries. The quotient first molar affected/ patient was higher than one. Results: There was a decrease in the percentage of healthy permanent first molars. Poor oral hygiene prevailed, with a medium knowledge level on the subject. Most of the parents didn´t know about the first molar dental cavity. Conclusions: It was needed to perform educative tasks aimed at this age group to avoid further damage to this important tooth, central for the development of the stomatognathic system.Fundamento: La caries dental continúa siendo el principal problema de salud de la población infantil. El diente

  12. Assessment of caries prevalence among children below 5 years old

    OpenAIRE

    Prabhu, Poornima; Rajajee, K. T. S. S.; Sudheer, K. A.; Jesudass, G.

    2014-01-01

    Context: In the current scenario of developing countries, dental caries has been a long-standing challenge in the oral health issue and still on the rise. Aim: The aim of the following study is to estimate the caries prevalence in the primary dentition among children below 5 years of age. Meterials and Methods: Study population included both boys and girls below 5 years old attending KGF Dental College and Hospital, Karnataka. A simple random sampling method was used. A total of 672 children ...

  13. Incidence of dental caries in chronic urticaria

    OpenAIRE

    Kaur Surrinder; Ghosh Srabani; Kanwar A; Gauba A

    1991-01-01

    Three hundred patients of chronic urticaria were screened for dental affections. Sixty two (20.66%) patients were detected to have dental caries. Among the control group which com-prised of 100 patients, 20% had dental caries. There was thus no increased incidence of dental caries among patients with urticaria. Only 2 patients had remission of urticaria following treat-ment of caries. Dental caries therefore is probably not a cause of chronic urticaria.

  14. Effect of a Brazilian regional basic diet on the prevalence of caries in rats

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    Pinheiro J.T.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of a regional basic diet (RBD on the prevalence of caries in the molar teeth of rats of both sexes aged 23 days. The animals were divided into six groups of 10 rats each receiving the following diets for 30 and 60 days after weaning: RBD, a cariogenic diet, and a commercial diet. The prevalence and penetration of caries in the molar teeth of the rats was then analyzed. The RBD produced caries in 37.5% of the teeth of animals fed 30 days, and in 83.4% of animals fed 60 days, while the cariogenic diet produced caries in 72.5% and 77.5% of the teeth of animals fed 30 and 60 days, respectively. Rats fed the RBD for 30 days had caries in the enamel in 38% of their teeth, 48% had superficial dentin caries, and 7.5% moderate dentin caries. The effect of the RBD did not differ significantly from that of the cariogenic diet in terms of the presence of caries in rats fed 60 days. The penetration depth of the caries produced by the RBD was the same as that produced by the cariogenic diet. Our results show that the RBD has the same cariogenic potential as the cariogenic diet. Since the RBD is the only option for the low-income population, there should be a study of how to compensate for the cariogenicity of this diet.

  15. The psychosocial effects of severe caries in 4-year-old children in Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Feitosa

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the psychosocial effects of severe caries in 4-year-old children in Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. The clinical examination was conducted by a single examiner in order to select children with severe caries and caries-free (kappa = 1. Of the 861 children examined, 77 (8.1% had severe caries and 225 (23.6% were caries-free. Data were collected by applying validated questionnaires answered by the parents or guardians. Most of the parents or guardians of children with severe caries reported that their children complained of toothache (72.7%, and a significant portion stated that their children had problems eating certain kinds of food (49.4% and missed school (26.0% because of their teeth. Most of the parents or guardians of children with severe caries (68.8% stated that oral health affects their children's life, while the same was stated by 9.8% of the parents or guardians of the caries-free children. Severe caries was found to have a negative impact on children's oral health-related quality of life.

  16. Metatranscriptomics reveals overall active bacterial composition in caries lesions

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    Aurea Simón-Soro

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Identifying the microbial species in caries lesions is instrumental to determine the etiology of dental caries. However, a significant proportion of bacteria in carious lesions have not been cultured, and the use of molecular methods has been limited to DNA-based approaches, which detect both active and inactive or dead microorganisms. Objective: To identify the RNA-based, metabolically active bacterial composition of caries lesions at different stages of disease progression in order to provide a list of potential etiological agents of tooth decay. Design: Non-cavitated enamel caries lesions (n=15 and dentin caries lesions samples (n=12 were collected from 13 individuals. RNA was extracted and cDNA was constructed, which was used to amplify the 16S rRNA gene. The resulting 780 bp polymerase chain reaction products were pyrosequenced using Titanium-plus chemistry, and the sequences obtained were used to determine the bacterial composition. Results: A mean of 4,900 sequences of the 16S rRNA gene with an average read length of 661 bp was obtained per sample, giving a comprehensive view of the active bacterial communities in caries lesions. Estimates of bacterial diversity indicate that the microbiota of cavities is highly complex, each sample containing between 70 and 400 metabolically active species. The composition of these bacterial consortia varied among individuals and between caries lesions of the same individuals. In addition, enamel and dentin lesions had a different bacterial makeup. Lactobacilli were found almost exclusively in dentin cavities. Streptococci accounted for 40% of the total active community in enamel caries, and 20% in dentin caries. However, Streptococcus mutans represented only 0.02–0.73% of the total bacterial community. Conclusions: The data indicate that the etiology of dental caries is tissue dependent and that the disease has a clear polymicrobial origin. The low proportion of mutans streptococci

  17. Assessment of dental caries predictors in 6-year-old school children - results from 5-year retrospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Masood Mohd; Yusof Norashikin; Hassan Mohamed Ibrahim; Jaafar Nasruddin

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background This was a retrospective cohort study undertaken to assess the rate and pattern of dental caries development in 6-year-old school children followed-up for a period of 5 years, and to identify baseline risk factors that were associated with 5 years caries experience in Malaysian children. Methods This 5-years retrospective cohort study comprised primary school children initially aged 6 years in 2004. Caries experience of each child was recorded annually using World Health O...

  18. Early childhood feeding practices and dental caries in preschool children: a multi-centre birth cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Schwarz Eli; Do Loc; Bhole Sameer; Scott Jane A; Arora Amit; Blinkhorn Anthony S

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Dental caries (decay) is an international public health challenge, especially amongst young children. Early Childhood Caries is a rapidly progressing disease leading to severe pain, anxiety, sepsis and sleep loss, and is a major health problem particularly for disadvantaged populations. There is currently a lack of research exploring the interactions between risk and protective factors in the development of early childhood caries, in particular the effects of infant feedin...

  19. Acidogenicity and acidurance of dental plaque and saliva sediment from adults in relation to caries activity and chlorhexidine exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Sotirios, Kalfas; Georgios, Andreadis; Vassiliki, Topitsoglou

    2015-01-01

    Background: The ecological plaque hypothesis for the etiopathogenesis of caries implies a microbial shift towards a more aciduric dental plaque microbiota, due to a frequent carbohydrate intake. Acid tolerance has been suggested as an important property of the caries-associated bacteria and several in vitro studies with mixed cultures indicated that a low pH rather than the carbohydrate availability is responsible for microbiota shifts associated with the development of dental caries.Objectiv...

  20. Fluoride use in Controlling Dental Caries and Fluorosis

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    Gaurav Solanki

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Policy were introduced to control fluoride exposure and to reduce the prevalence of fluorosis. The study aimed of describing the prevalence, severity and risk factors for fluorosis, and to describe the trend of fluorosis among Indian children. The study also aimed of exploring the effect of the change in fluoride exposure on dental fluorosis and caries. Establishing an appropriate use of fluoride toothpaste could be successful in reducing fluorosis without a significant increase in caries experience. The use of fluorides for oral health has always involved a balance between the protective benefit against dental caries and the risk of developing fluorosis. The link between fluoride and dental health was established to determining the causes of dental fluorosis or enamel mottling. Fluorosis in Indian children was highly prevalent in the early 1990s.

  1. Gene-environment Interactions in the Etiology of Dental Caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, G; Ermis, R B; Calapoglu, N S; Celik, E U; Türel, G Y

    2016-01-01

    Dental caries is a multifactorial disease that can be conceptualized as an interaction between genetic and environmental risk factors. The aim of this study is to examine the effects of AMELX, CA6, DEFB1, and TAS2R38 gene polymorphism and gene-environment interactions on caries etiology and susceptibility in adults. Genomic DNA was extracted from the buccal mucosa, and adults aged 20 to 60 y were placed into 1 of 2 groups: low caries risk (DMFT ≤ 5; n = 77) and high caries risk (DMFT ≥ 14; n = 77). The frequency of AMELX (+522), CA6 (T55M), DEFB1 (G-20A), and TAS2R38 (A49P) single-nucleotide polymorphisms was genotyped with the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Environmental risk factors examined in the study included plaque amount, toothbrushing frequency, dietary intake between meals, saliva secretion rate, saliva buffer capacity, mutans streptococci counts, and lactobacilli counts. There was no difference between the caries risk groups in relation to AMELX (+522) polymorphism (χ(2) test, P > 0.05). The distribution of CA6 genotype and allele frequencies in the low caries risk group did not differ from the high caries risk group (χ(2) test, P > 0.05). Polymorphism of DEFB1 (G-20A) was positively associated, and TAS2R38 (A49P) negatively associated, with caries risk (χ(2) test, P = 0.000). There were significant differences between caries susceptibility and each environmental risk factor, except for the saliva secretion rate (Mann-Whitney U test, P = 0.000). Based on stepwise multiple linear regression analyses, dental plaque amount, lactobacilli count, age, and saliva buffer capacity, as well as DEFB1 (G-20A), TAS2R38 (A49P), and CA6 (T55M) gene polymorphism, explained a total of 87.8% of the variations in DMFT scores. It can be concluded that variation in CA6 (T55M), DEFB1 (G-20A), and TAS2R38 (A49P) may be associated with caries experience in Turkish adults with a high level of dental plaque, lactobacilli count

  2. The relative diagnostic yields of clinical, FOTI and radiographic examinations for the detection of approximal caries in youngsters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mialhe Fabio

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The detection of carious lesions in the initial stages of development is very important in order to prevent the occurrence of cavitation. Aims and Objectives: The aim of the present study was to compare three methods-visual examination, FOTI, and bitewing radiographic examination-for the detection of noncavitated and cavitated approximal carious lesions. Materials and Methods: Seventy students (mean age 14 years with low caries prevalence were examined by three examiners. The tooth surfaces judged as having caries by at least one examiner or one diagnostic method were scheduled for tooth separation. Results: The results showed that the incorporation of FOTI and radiographic examination represented an additional diagnostic yield of 50% and about 110%, respectively, compared to clinical examination alone. Conclusion: We conclude that FOTI or radiographic examination, or both, used as adjuncts to clinical examination, could improve the detection of noncavitated and cavitated approximal carious lesions. Although FOTI should not replace bitewing radiographic examination, it does seem to have additional value for the detection of carious lesions on approximal surfaces of the posterior teeth in school children with low caries prevalence.

  3. Radiation caries: a therapeutical option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is showed a clinical report about radiation caries. As the tooth destruction was, mainly, of the majority of the teeth, was made a therapy where, besides avoiding the osteoradiomielite, also is possible to reability the patient. (author)

  4. [The impact of childhood caries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrid, Carlos; Abarca, Marcelo; Bouferrache, Kahina; Gehri, Mario; Bodenmann, Patrick; Pop, Sabina

    2012-04-01

    The early childhood caries affect primary dentition before the eruption of the permanent teeth. It is set to extended use of a bottle containing fermentable carbohydrates. The early childhood caries is not only a dental disease: it is a social, cultural and behavioral condition that reflects the practices and beliefs around the child. Swiss data indicate that in aged 2 children, one of for could be affected by this devastating oral disease, mainly in vulnerable populations. The primary care physician has an important role in the screening of preschool children, in determining the risk level of the child for early childhood caries. Physicians can advise families, especially pregnant women, about preventive measures and behavior, leading to a dramatic drop of early childhood caries prevalence. PMID:22545498

  5. A New Dietary Intake Measure and Its Relationship to Caries Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Malek Mohammadi

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim the main aim of this study was to examine the usability of a new dietary measure among a high caries population and examine whether reported food intake, when weighted by frequency and cariogenicity, was associated with increased caries rates within a high caries population. Key method Two hundred and eighteen children with caries were examined using standard caries diagnostic criteria. The examinations were carried out by a single calibrated dental examiner. A food frequency table was completed by the parents of each participant and this was analysed by weighting foods’ cariogenic potential by the frequency of consumption, and summing the product. The total cariogenicity score for each child was then plotted against its dmft and dt and correlation coefficients were calculated. Result the mean cariogenicity score using this new measure was 71.02, with a range of 31.96 to 135.24. The standard deviation was 16.72. Total cariogenicity scores using the new measure and dmft were weakly correlated, with the Pearson correlation co-efficient being 0.130 and for dt 0.131. These correlations did not reach significance. Conclusion The study has demonstrated that in children with caries, reported food intake (when weighted by frequency and cariogenicity and caries are only weakly and non-significantly associated. Dietary intake, when measured in a way, which takes account of all food groups, was therefore not strongly associated with caries when measured on an individual level.

  6. Dermatoglyphics: A genetic marker of early childhood caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Anitha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is an accepted fact that genetics plays an important role in determination of palmar dermatoglyphic patterns. Since caries is a multifactorial disease with the influence of genetic pattern, this study was undertaken to explore the possibility of dermatoglyphics as a noninvasive and early predictor of dental caries in children, so as to initiate preventive oral health measures at an early age. Materials and Methods: The study group comprised of 200 children aged between 4 and 5 years. The dmfs score was evaluated. The experimental group (Group 1, comprised of 100 children with early childhood caries (ECC with dmfs >5. The control group (Group 2 comprised of 100 children with dmfs score of 0. Results: An increased frequency of ulnar loops in caries-free children and whorls in children with ECC was observed. Low mean atd angle and low mean. Total ridge count was observed in the ECC group. Conclusion: There is definite variation in dermatoglyphics between the ECC and caries-free group, indicating that dermatoglyphic patterns can be used as a predictive tool for children with ECC.

  7. Salivary biomarkers for dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiaoli; Jiang, Shan; Koh, David; Hsu, Chin-Ying Stephen

    2016-02-01

    As a highly prevalent multifactorial disease, dental caries afflicts a large proportion of the world's population. As teeth are constantly bathed in saliva, the constituents and properties of this oral fluid play an essential role in the occurrence and progression of dental caries. Various inorganic (water and electrolytes) and organic (proteins and peptides) components may protect teeth from dental caries. This occurs via several functions, such as clearance of food debris and sugar, aggregation and elimination of microorganisms, buffering actions to neutralize acid, maintaining supersaturation with respect to tooth mineral, participation in formation of the acquired pellicle and antimicrobial defense. Modest evidence is available on the associations between dental caries and several salivary parameters, including flow rate, buffering capacity and abundance of mutans streptococci. Despite some controversial findings, the main body of the literature supports an elevated caries prevalence and/or incidence among people with a pathologically low saliva flow rate, compromised buffering capacity and early colonization or high titer of mutans streptococci in saliva. The evidence remains weak and/or inconsistent on the association between dental caries and other saliva parameters, such as other possible cariogenic species (Lactobacillus spp., Streptococcus sanguis group, Streptococcus salivarius, Actinomyces spp. and Candida albicans), diversity of saliva microbiomes, inorganic and organic constituents (electrolytes, immunoglobulins, other proteins and peptides) and some functional properties (sugar clearance rate, etc.). The complex interactions between salivary components and functions suggest that saliva has to be considered in its entirety to account for its total effects on teeth. PMID:26662487

  8. Caries selective ablation: the handpiece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennig, Thomas; Rechmann, Peter; Holtermann, Andreas

    1995-05-01

    Caries selective ablation is fixed to a window of fluences predicted by the ablation thresholds of carious and healthy dentin, respectively. The aim of the study was to develop a dental handpiece which guarantees homogeneous fluence at the irradiated tooth surface. Furthermore the point of treatment should be cooled down without energy losses due to the cooling system. We suggest the direct coupling of the laser radiation into a laminar stream of liquid, which acts in turn as a lengthened beam guide. The impacts of the laser radiation and of the cooling medium fall exactly into the same point. Hot ablation debris is removed out of the crater by the flush of the water jet. Fluences are constant if the handpiece is used in contact mode or at a distance. Normally the surface of a bare fiber working in contact mode is destroyed after a few shots. Coupling the laser radiation into a stream of liquid prevents this destruction. Putting together the benefits of this special handpiece short overall treatment times seem to be possible. High average power can be applied to the tooth without the threat of thermal damage. Furthermore no time consuming cutting of the fiber prolongs the treatment time.

  9. Precision disablement aiming system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monda, Mark J.; Hobart, Clinton G.; Gladwell, Thomas Scott

    2016-02-16

    A disrupter to a target may be precisely aimed by positioning a radiation source to direct radiation towards the target, and a detector is positioned to detect radiation that passes through the target. An aiming device is positioned between the radiation source and the target, wherein a mechanical feature of the aiming device is superimposed on the target in a captured radiographic image. The location of the aiming device in the radiographic image is used to aim a disrupter towards the target.

  10. Dental caries characteristics in the first permanent molar in school age children. Comportamiento de la caries dental en el primer molar permanente en escolares.

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Gloria Vázquez de León; Antonia Francisco Local; Nora Sexto Delgado; Yoel González Beriau

    2009-01-01

    Background: Dental caries is one of the main health problems in children. The first permanent molar presents caries more frequently than any other. Objective

  11. The distribution of burden of dental caries in schoolchildren: a critique of the high-risk caries prevention strategy for populations

    OpenAIRE

    Sheiham Aubrey; Batchelor Paul A

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background The 'high-risk approach' is a commonly adopted strategy recommended for the prevention of dental caries in populations. The scientific basis for the strategy has been questioned. The objective of this study is to assess the contribution that children identified at 'high-risk' made towards the total of new caries lesions over a 4-year period, by analysing the distribution of new lesions per 100 children. Methods Data are from the National Preventive Dentistry Demonstration ...

  12. Comparison of Diagnostic Ability of Storage Phosphor Plate in Detecting Proximal Caries with Direct Measurement by Stereomicroscope: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Velayudhannair Vivek; Sunila Thomas; Nair, Bindu J.; Alex Daniel Vineet; Jincy Thomas; Prasanna Ranimol; Vijayan, Aswathy K.

    2015-01-01

    Radiography plays an important role in detection of interproximal caries. The aim of study is to compare diagnostic ability of photo stimulable phosphor (PSP) with direct measurement using stereomicroscope in detecting proximal caries. Hundred proximal surfaces of 50 extracted human posterior teeth were radiographed with dental X-ray unit. The image receptors used was storage phosphor plate Vista scan (size 2), (time of exposure 0.4 s). Radiographs were interpreted and caries lesions were cla...

  13. Background Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zandersen, Marianne; Hyytiäinen, Kari; Saraiva, Sofia;

    2016-01-01

    This document serves as a background material to the BONUS Pilot Scenario Workshop, which aims to develop harmonised regional storylines of socio-ecological futures in the Baltic Sea region in a collaborative effort together with other BONUS projects and stakeholders.......This document serves as a background material to the BONUS Pilot Scenario Workshop, which aims to develop harmonised regional storylines of socio-ecological futures in the Baltic Sea region in a collaborative effort together with other BONUS projects and stakeholders....

  14. A Comparative Study on Dental Caries Prevalence in Diabetic Children in Isfahan in the Summer of 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Samimi

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a relationship between dental caries and high blood sugar. This study was designed to investigate the prevalence of dental caries among diabetic children in Isfahan, Iran. Methods: Diabetic children from pediatric ward of hospitals were compared to a control healthy group of children. Results: The mean DMFT was significantly higher in diabetic children compared to the control group. Conclusion: The result of this study confirms previous researches on prevalence of dental caries in children. Keywords: Dental Caries, Diabetes Mellitus, Pediatrics

  15. Oratest: A new concept to test caries activity

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    S Saxena

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Caries activity tests are based on the concept of a specific odontogenic infection, the principle causative organism being streptococci mutans. Their predominance is attributed to its acidogenic and aciduric nature after a selective growth advantages over the other non- acid tolerant organisms. Many studies on caries activity are aimed at finding relevant microorganisms. Till date, the ideal method to evaluate in terms of sensitivity, specialization and reliability has not been found. Many of these caries activity tests require extensive work up time and additional equipment. Rosenberg et al. in 1989 developed Oratest, a simple, economical, non- invasive and less time-consuming test for estimating the oral microbial level. The test is simple and consists of rinsing the mouth with 10 ml of sterile milk, 3 ml of which is mixed with 0.12 ml of 0.1% methylene blue dye and observed for colour change. The present study sample consists of twenty five children with dental caries and twenty five controls, free of caries, gingivitis and other oral ailments. This study is being conducted in the department of Oral Pathology & Microbiology and is in the preliminary phase so further results are awaited.

  16. Influence of social environment on caries prevalence in early childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Tušek Ivan; Carević Momir; Tušek Jasmina

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. Early childhood caries (ECC) is a special form of caries that affects decideous teeth with rapid progression and numerous complications. Objective. The aim of the study was to define the prevalence of ECC in children of the South Bačka area, the importance of social environment for the prevalence and severity of ECC, and define the model for its prevention. Methods. The survey was the cross-sectional analytical study in the 10% sample of children, aged 13-64 months, differ...

  17. Calcium-phosphate-osteopontin particles for caries control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlafer, Sebastian

    Oftentimes caries lesions develop in protected sites that are difficult to access by self-performed mechanical tooth cleaning. At present, there is a growing interest in chemical adjuncts to mechanical procedures of oral hygiene that aim at biofilm control rather than biofilm eradication. Calcium...... drops to 6 or below and release buffering phosphate ions that stabilize biofilm pH above the critical level for enamel dissolution. With that twofold approach, calcium-phosphate-osteopontin particles may make a relevant contribution to clinical caries control....

  18. Early Childhood Dental Caries: A Rising Dental Public Health Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Grace Felix

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article is to examine the literature and review the risk factors and disparities contributing to early childhood caries (ECC), which is a major health problem among preschoolers in the United States of America. A search was conducted using MEDLINE, PubMed, Google Scholar, and the Cochrane Library databases and the key terms…

  19. CARIES PREVENTIVE MEASURES AMONG RAJASTHANI ORTHODONTISTS: A QUESTIONNAIRE STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Ruchi; Anil Kumar; Vijay

    2014-01-01

    : INTRODUCTION: Patients undergoing fixed orthodontic therapy are at high risk of developing decalcification, caries and white spot lesions. AIM: As little information is available about preventive measures taken by orthodontists, this study surveyed the measures used by orthodontists those practicing in Rajasthan in prevention of such problems. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A questionnaire regarding preventive measures undertaken before, during and after the orthodontic treatmen...

  20. New methodology for studying the structural ecology of occlusal caries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dige, Irene; Grønkjær, Lene; Nyvad, Bente

    Microbiological studies of occlusal dental biofilms have hitherto been hampered by inaccessibility to the sampling site and demolition of the original biofilm architecture. The aim of the present study was to explore the spatial distribution of bacterial taxa in vivo at various stages of occusal...... caries, applying a new methodology involving preparation of embedded hard dental tissue slices for fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and confocal microscopy. 11 extracted teeth were included in the study and classified according to their occlusal caries status (active/inactive/sound; cavitated...... related to histological features of lesion penetration. The sites showed distinct differences in the bacterial composition and fluorescence intensity between different ecological niches in occlusal caries. Biofilm observed along the entrance of fissures showed an inner layer of microorganisms organized in...

  1. Root caries, root surface restorations and lifestyle factors in adult Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lisa Bøge; Jensen, Allan Bardow; Ekstrand, Kim;

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate selected lifestyle factors in relation to active caries and restored root surface lesions in adults. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Based on clinical examinations and questionnaires, data on root caries, socioeconomic status, body mass index, dietary habits, alcohol consumption, tobacco...... restored root surface lesions, respectively. RESULTS: The prevalence of active root caries was 4%, while 26% displayed restored root surfaces. The sugar intake was not related to root caries. A multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that, in subjects aged 45 or over, smoking and wearing...... consumption, as well as wearing dentures, were significantly associated with the occurrence of untreated caries and restored root surface lesions, especially in persons over 45. Thus, such lifestyle factors should be taken into consideration, identifying persons with a need of preventive dental services. In...

  2. Conceptualization of dental caries by undergraduate dental students from the first to the last year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira-Nóbilo, Naiara de Paula; Sousa, Maria da Luz Rosário de; Cury, Jaime Aparecido

    2014-01-01

    Dental caries, still one of the most common diseases affecting people around the world, has a multifactorial nature encompassing necessary (biofilm accumulation), determinant (exposure to sugars and fluoride) and modulating factors (biological and social). The concepts about caries learned at dental schools may directly influence the conduct of the future dentists regarding the control and treatment of this disease. The aim of this study was to determine the concept that students at the Piracicaba Dental School, University of Campinas, Brazil, have about dental caries. In this cross-sectional descriptive study, 274 students answered the discursive question "Conceptualize dental caries". Students' answers were analyzed by a content analysis technique that allowed the creation of response categories and classification of the concepts in categories. Frequencies were expressed as absolute numbers and percentages. Differences between the responses according to the students' class years were tested by the chi-square test. Differences with pdental caries. PMID:24789294

  3. Risk of initial and moderate caries lesions in primary teeth to progress to dentine cavitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guedes, Renata S; Piovesan, Chaiana; Floriano, Isabela; Emmanuelli, Bruno; Braga, Mariana M; Ekstrand, Kim R; Ardenghi, Thiago M; Mendes, Fausto M

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the risk of sound surfaces, and initial and moderate caries lesions to progress to dentine cavitation in preschool children. DESIGN: A cohort study was designed with 639 children (12-59 months old) who had been examined by visual inspection during a survey in 2010. After 2 years...... lesions at baseline had higher risk of having a sound surface or a non-cavitated caries lesion progressing to cavitation when compared with caries-free children; however, this increased risk was not observed in children with only initial caries lesions. CONCLUSIONS: Initial caries lesions present a low......, 469 children were re-examined regarding the presence of dentine cavitations. The probability of progression was calculated for sound and carious (initial and moderate lesions) surfaces. Relative risk of progression and 95% confidence intervals for each condition compared with sound surfaces were...

  4. Assessment of dental caries predictors in 6-year-old school children - results from 5-year retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masood Mohd

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This was a retrospective cohort study undertaken to assess the rate and pattern of dental caries development in 6-year-old school children followed-up for a period of 5 years, and to identify baseline risk factors that were associated with 5 years caries experience in Malaysian children. Methods This 5-years retrospective cohort study comprised primary school children initially aged 6 years in 2004. Caries experience of each child was recorded annually using World Health Organization criteria. The rates of dental caries were recorded in prevalence and incidence density of carious lesions from baseline to final examination. Risk assessment was done to assess relative risk for caries after 5 years in children with baseline caries status. Simple and multiple logistic regression analysis were performed to identify significant independent risk factors for caries. Results The sample consisted of 1830 school children. All components of DMFT showed significant differences between baseline and final examination. Filled teeth (FT component of the DMFT showed the greatest increases. Results revealed the initial baseline caries level in permanent dentition was a strong predictor for future caries after 5 years (RR=3.78, 95% CI=3.48-4.10, P0.001. Logistic regression analysis showed significant association between caries occurrence and residence (urban/rural (OR=1.80, Pp observed from baseline and after 5 years was 5.80 persons/100 person-year of observation. The rate of new caries-affected tooth (IDt in the period from baseline and after 5-years was 0.76 teeth/100 teeth-year of observation. Conclusion The majority of 12-year-old school children (70% were caries-free and most of the caries were concentrated in only a small proportion (30% of them. We found that the presence of caries in permanent teeth at the age of 6 years was a strong predictor of future caries development in this population. The strong evidence of early permanent teeth

  5. Association of Dermatoglyphic Peculiarities with Dental Caries in Preschool Children of Lucknow, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Sabyasachi; Jagannath, GV; Singh, Sanjay; Saha, Sonali; Garg, Nishita

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Dermatoglyphics refers to study of the intricate dermal ridge configurations on the skin covering the palmar and plantar surfaces of hand and feet. The basis of considering dermatoglyphic patterns as genetic marker for dental caries is that the epithelium of finger buds as well as enamel has ectodermal origin, and both develop at the same time of intrauterine life. Aim: To assess the relationship between fingerprint patterns and dental caries among preschool children of Lucknow city. Study design: This study was of cross-sectional design. Materials and methods: The study group comprised 512 preschool children 2-6 years of age. The prevalence of caries was recorded using "Dentition status and treatment needs" (WHO basic oral health assessment form, 1997). They were divided into three groups as follows: Group I (dmft score = 0-2), group II (dmft score = 3-4) and group III (dmft score ≥5). The handprints of each child were taken using a stamp pad. The fingertip patterns were analyzed according to the classical method and were classified according to the topological method. The frequency of occurrence of type of dermatoglyphic pattern on fingertip of each digit was noted. Statistics: Chi-square test was used to test the significant difference in proportions. Means were compared using Student’s t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) or F-test. Results: Subjects belonging to groups II and III showed maximum occurrence of whorl pattern on all digits. Group I subjects had maximum occurrence of arch pattern. All the variables had statistically significant value, with a degree of divergence of specific dermatoglyphic patterns among all three groups. Conclusion: The dental caries susceptibility of an individual increased with incidence of whorl pattern and it decreased with incidence of arch pattern. How to cite this article: Singh E, Saha S, Jagannath GV, Singh S, Saha S, Garg N. Association of Dermatoglyphic Peculiarities with Dental Caries in

  6. Assessing the Relationship between Dental Caries and Anthropometric Indices in 9-11-Year-old Primary School Children of Shiraz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SR Khosravani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and aim: Dental caries is the most prevalent chronic childhood disease that has a profound impact on the health of both the individual and community health. On the other, the overweight and underweight in children is a major public health concern influenced by common factors with dental caries. The aim of the present study was to assess the relationship between DMFT (Decay-Missing-Filled-permanent teeth and anthropometry indices in 9-11 year old primary school children of the city of Shiraz, Iran-2012. Methods: The present cross-sectional study was conducted on primary school children, aged 9 to 11 years, selected by cluster random sampling in four areas of Shiraz city, in 2012. The prevalence of children with dental caries was calculated by measuring the number of teeth decayed, missing or filled duo to caries (DMFT indices using the WHO screening standards. Weight, height, and sitting height were measured and body mass index (BMI and leg height were calculated. The association between Anthropometry and DMFT were examined using bivariate correlation and linear regression tests by the SPSS software. The difference mean DMFT index between five groups of BMI was evaluated by ANOVA and post hoc Tukey tests. Results: A total of 974 pupils were studied. Mean DMFT was 0.94±1.46. There were significant association between DMFT and BMI (r=-0/91 p=0/005. Mean DMFT was significantly reduced from underweight children to obese children (p=0/027. Conclusion: Underweight children have a higher risk of developing caries in their permanent teeth. Key words: Body Mass Index, Anthropometry, DMF Index

  7. INCIDENCE OF SECONDARY ROOT CARIES LESIONS IN PATIENTS REFERRED FOR TREATMENT IN THE FACULTY OF DENTAL MEDICINE – SOFIA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Marinova-Takorova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the presented study was to determine the incidence of secondary root caries lesions in patients referred for treatment in the Faculty of Dental Medicine – Sofia. Material/Methods: The subjects who took part in the study were patients referred for treatment of caries lesions in the Faculty of Dental Medicine, Sofia. They were interviewed for smoking, presence of systematic diseases and medications and debris and plaque were removed from natural teeth prior to examination. Dental examination was carried out with a dental mirror and a probe. Decayed, missed and filled teeth (DMFT were recorded. Root caries lesions, restorations of those lesions and secondary caries lesions were recorded separately. Results: A total number of 603 patients were examined. The frequency of appearance of root caries in the investigated population was 33.5% (202 patients. The whole number of root caries lesions was 857. Three hundred forty three (41.4% of those lesions were restored. Presence of secondary caries lesions was observed in 138 cases (39.1%. Conclusions: Based on the data obtained from the presented study it may be concluded that most of the root caries lesions remain untreated (58.8%. Secondary carious was diagnosed in 39.1% of the root caries restorations. The patients with secondary caries lesions presented with higher incidence of concomitant diseases and lower incidence of smoking.

  8. Health promotion and dental caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Maltz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The central idea of the Brazilian health system is to prevent the establishment of disease or detect it as early as possible. Prevention and treatment of dental caries are related to behavioral factors, including dietary and oral hygiene habits, which are related to many chronic diseases. Dental health promotion therefore should be fully integrated into broadly based health-promoting strategies and actions such as food and health policies, and general hygiene (including oral hygiene, among others. For decades, a linear relationship between sugar consumption and caries has been observed. Recent data has indicated that this relationship is not as strong as it used to be before the widespread use of fluoride. However, diet is still a key factor acting in the carious process. Oral hygiene is a major aspect when it comes to caries, since dental biofilm is its etiological factor. Oral hygiene procedures are effective in controlling dental caries, especially if plaque removal is performed adequately and associated with fluoride. An alternative to a more efficient biofilm control in occlusal areas is the use of dental sealants, which are only indicated for caries-active individuals. If a cavity is formed as a consequence of the metabolic activity of the biofilm, a restorative material or a sealant can be placed to block access of the biofilm to the oral environment in order to prevent caries progress. The prevention of dental caries based on common risk-factor strategies (diet and hygiene should be supplemented by more disease-specific policies such as rational use of fluoride, and evidence-based dental health care.

  9. Prevalence of Dental Caries among School Children in Chennai, Based on ICDAS II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arangannal, Ponnudurai; Jayaprakash, Jeevarathan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Dental caries is a common dental disease, which occurs during childhood and continues to be a major public health problem. The prevalence of dental caries was associated with oral hygiene practice, sugar consumption and implementation of the preventive oral health program. Aim The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of dental caries in school children aged between 6-14 years using the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS II). Materials and Methods The study population consisted of 2796 school children living in Pallikkaranai, Chennai, India and studying in government recognized schools. Each student was examined by a single examiner using ICDAS system under natural light during normal school hours. Results The prevalence of dental caries was 68.8% in the total surveyed population. The gender-wise prevalence of dental caries shows, females to have slightly higher prevalence than male. The prevalence of dental caries at the age group of 6 years was 57%, seven year 67%, eight year 63%, nine year 74%, 10 year 76%, 11 year 74%, 12 year 69%, 13 year 71%, and 14 year 69%. The distribution of CARS (Caries associated with Sealants and Restorations) in the surveyed population was only 1.4% Conclusion The distribution of non-cavitated/early enamel lesions was higher in the studied population and indicated a requirement of a sustained dental health preventive program targeting specific segments of the population. PMID:27190939

  10. Salivary Biomarkers for Caries Risk Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Lihong; Shi, Wenyuan

    2013-01-01

    Saliva contains various microbes and host biological components that could be used for caries risk assessment. This review focuses on the research topics that connect dental caries with saliva, including both the microbial and host components within saliva.

  11. Association between Dairy Intake and Caries among Children and Adolescents. Results from the Danish EYHS Follow-Up Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merete Lempert, Susanne; Christensen, Lisa Bøge; Froberg, Karsten ; Raymond, Kyle; Heitmann, Berit

    2015-01-01

    incidence. This study found that previous dairy intake, as well as milk intake or intake of dairy components, may be a predictor of future risk of caries measured by the DMFS count level. This relationship was inverse, meaning that a high intake of dairy products was associated with less future caries......The aim of this paper was to investigate associations between the intake of dairy products and the development in caries (DMFS, decayed, missing and filled surfaces) among children/adolescents over a period of 3 and 6 years, and to investigate whether dairy intake protects against caries incidence....... A total of 68.9% of the children were caries free at the age of 9 compared with 34.0% of the adolescents at the age of 15 (measured as DMFS = 0). A larger percentage of children/adolescents with a dairy intake above the mean were caries free compared with the group of children/adolescents with an...

  12. The Effect of Food Hardness on the Development of Dental Caries in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Yutaka Nakahara; Tomoya Sano; Yasushi Kodama; Kiyokazu Ozaki; Tetsuro Matsuura

    2013-01-01

    We have previously shown that dental caries may be produced in diabetic rodent models fed with noncariogenic standard diets; however, many studies usually add large amounts of sugar to the diet to induce dental caries. Moreover, the physical properties of cariogenic diets have been reported as an important factor in the formation of caries. The aim of this study was to clarify the effect of the hardness of non-cariogenic diets on the development of dental caries in diabetic rodents. Seven-wee...

  13. Disparities in Early Childhood Caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronzio Cynthia R

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Despite remarkable reduction in the prevalence of dental caries in the United States, dental caries is still a highly prevalent disease among children who are socially disadvantaged (racial/ethnic minority, poor, rural, immigrants. Consequently, caries sequelae such as dental pain, need for dental treatment under general anesthesia, and future orthodontic treatment, are also concentrated among the most socially disadvantaged children. To make the situation more appalling, those children who need treatment the most are the ones least likely to visit the dentist. Low income children are less likely to visit the dentist in part because of family's competing needs for limited resources, shortage of pediatric dentists, and dentists not taking uninsured or publicly insured patients. In the same vein, if these children do not have access to dental care, they are deprived from effective caries preventive measures that are dentist-dependent such as sealants and professionally applied fluoride. Dentistry has done well at devising caries preventive and treatment strategies; but these strategies have missed the most needed segment of society: disadvantaged children. The challenge now is to develop innovative strategies to reach these children.

  14. On the initial propagation of dental caries

    OpenAIRE

    Fabregas, Rene; Rubinstein, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    A multi-dimensional model for dental caries is applied to study the shape of caries lesions in a realistic tooth geometry and to examine the rate of progress of caries. An upgraded model, taking into account the outer prismless enamel layer, is derived and solved. The model demonstrates the importance of this layer in delaying the onset of caries. The conclusions are discussed in light of experimental results.

  15. Early prevention of dental caries in children

    OpenAIRE

    Lebedeva S.N.; Kharitonova T.L.; Kazakova L.N.

    2011-01-01

    Early prevention of dental caries in children plays an important role in the preservation of dental health. This article explains the necessity of early prevention of dental caries in children. The most effective methods of prevention of dental caries are beginning hygiene care and respect for the recommendations dentist since the first teeth. It is shown that the use of conservative therapy is very effective in the treatment of early forms of dental caries

  16. The Dental Caries Pandemic and Disparities Problem

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Understanding caries etiology and distribution is central to understanding potential opportunities for and likely impact of new biotechnologies and biomaterials to reduce the caries burden worldwide. This review asserts the appropriateness of characterizing caries as a "pandemic" and considers static and temporal trend reports of worldwide caries distribution. Oral health disparities within and between countries are related to sugar consumption, fluoride usage, dental care, and social determi...

  17. International Caries Detection and Assessment System: A new paradigm in detection of dental caries

    OpenAIRE

    Shivakumar K; Prasad Sumanth; Chandu G

    2009-01-01

    A new emphasis on caries measurement and management is required for the dental community. The dental professionals need new approaches in caries detection, its assessment, and management. The future of research, practice, and education in Cariology requires the development of an integrated definition of dental caries, and uniform systems for measuring the caries process. Keeping this in view, the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) has presented a new paradigm for the...

  18. Caries Resistance as a Function of Age in an Initially Caries-free Population

    OpenAIRE

    Wen, A.; Goldberg, D.; Marrs, C F; Weyant, R. J.; Marazita, M.L.; SRINIVASAN, U.; Zhang, L; Crout, R.; McNeil, D.W.; Foxman, B.

    2012-01-01

    Using data from the Center for Oral Health Research in Appalachia Study, we examined variability in susceptibility to dental caries among children and adolescents in rural Appalachia. Among 210 participants who were caries-free at the initial visit, age at the baseline visit can be used as a proxy for the degree of caries resistance; probability of caries development at the tooth level decreased as age at the baseline visit increased. Participants who stayed caries-free for a longer period du...

  19. The prevalence of questionable occlusal caries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makhija, Sonia K; Gilbert, Gregg H; Funkhouser, Ellen;

    2012-01-01

    Questionable occlusal caries (QOC) can be defined as clinically suspected caries with no cavitation or radiographic evidence of occlusal caries. To the authors' knowledge, no one has quantified the prevalence of QOC, so this quantification was the authors' objective in conducting this study...

  20. Caries og de nye nationale indkaldeintervaller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekstrand, Kim; Bruun, Gitte; Bakhshandeh, Azam

    2015-01-01

    obligatorisk at gøre under de nye retningslinjer. Det gennemgås, hvilke behandlinger der er relevante for patienten i forhold til de tre cariesdiagnoser: Caries dentalis progressiva superficialis (CS), Caries dentalis progressiva media (CM) og Caries dentalis progressiva profunda (CP). Diagnoserne angiver...

  1. A Predictive Model for Root Caries Incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, André V; Preisser, John S; Puranik, Chaitanya P; Chung, Yunro; Bader, James D; Shugars, Daniel A; Makhija, Sonia; Vollmer, William M

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to find the set of risk indicators best able to predict root caries (RC) incidence in caries-active adults utilizing data from the Xylitol for Adult Caries Trial (X-ACT). Five logistic regression models were compared with respect to their predictive performance for incident RC using data from placebo-control participants with exposed root surfaces at baseline and from two study centers with ancillary data collection (n = 155). Prediction performance was assessed from baseline variables and after including ancillary variables [smoking, diet, use of removable partial dentures (RPD), toothbrush use, income, education, and dental insurance]. A sensitivity analysis added treatment to the models for both the control and treatment participants (n = 301) to predict RC for the control participants. Forty-nine percent of the control participants had incident RC. The model including the number of follow-up years at risk, the number of root surfaces at risk, RC index, gender, race, age, and smoking resulted in the best prediction performance, having the highest AUC and lowest Brier score. The sensitivity analysis supported the primary analysis and gave slightly better performance summary measures. The set of risk indicators best able to predict RC incidence included an increased number of root surfaces at risk and increased RC index at baseline, followed by white race and nonsmoking, which were strong nonsignificant predictors. Gender, age, and increased number of follow-up years at risk, while included in the model, were also not statistically significant. The inclusion of health, diet, RPD use, toothbrush use, income, education, and dental insurance variables did not improve the prediction performance. PMID:27160516

  2. Nd:YAG laser in caries prevention: a clinical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The caries prevention by using laser irradiation has been investigated during the last 30 years. The Nd: YAG laser associated with acidulated phosphate fluoride has been shown as a very promising technique for enamel caries prevention. The aim of this work was to clinically evaluate the efficiency of Nd: YAG laser associated with acidulated phosphate fluoride in pit and fissure caries prevention of children and adolescents. In this work it was determined the dye that enhance the effect of Nd: YAG laser in enamel. It was selected 242 pre-molar and molar teeth from 33 children and adolescents, aged from 7 to 15 years old. The selected teeth were free from caries or decalcification marks (active white marks) to the clinical and radiographic exams. The teeth were divided into two groups: the first group was laser irradiated and their homologous remained as a control. The right side teeth were dye-assisted Nd:YAG laser irradiated. The dye solution was a moisture of dust coal and equal parts of water and alcohol. The irradiation conditions were 60 mJ/10 Hz, optical fiber in contact mode, with diameter of 300 μm, resulting in an energy density of 84,9 J/cm2. The oclusal surface of the teeth was completely irradiated, specially on the slopes and in the deepest part of the pits and fissures. This procedure was repeated three times. In the sequence it was applied the acidulated phosphate fluoride for 4 minutes. On the left side teeth - control group- only acidulated phosphate fluoride was applied for the same time. The final examination considered the presence of caries and active white marks after a period of one year. There were statistical significant differences (p < 0.01) between the lased + fluoride group and the non irradiated group. The present study concluded that the technique used in this work can be an alternative clinical method for caries prevention. (author)

  3. Dental caries and their treatment needs in 3-5 year old preschool children in a Rural District of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devanand Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental problems in the preschool children are neglected by their parents as the deciduous teeth are going to shed off, and hence considered to be of no importance and more of economic burden if attended to them. Aims: This study was to determine the caries prevalence in preschool children (3-5-year-old of rural Moradabad district, to analyze the specific pattern of dental caries experience in this population and to assess the treatment needs among them. Material and Methods: Children within the age group of 3-5 years attending Anganwadi centers of rural Moradabad district were included in the study. Caries diagnosis was based on decayed, extracted, filled surface (defs and the treatment needs were recorded using World Health Organization (WHO oral health assessment form 1997. Results: Out of 1,500 children examined, 48.7% males and 52.6% females did not require any treatment. The mean decayed, extracted, filled teeth (deft value was found to be significantly high in 5-year-old participants when compared to 3-year-old participants (P < 0.01. Majority of the children required one surface filling followed by two surface fillings, caries arresting sealant care, extraction, crown bridge element, pulp care, and space maintainer. Conclusion: The most common pattern was pit and fissure, then maxillary anterior pattern, posterior proximal pattern, and posterior buccal lingual smooth surface pattern. The mean deft value was higher in males as compared to females. There is a greater need for oral health education among parents and teachers.

  4. Dairy products and calcium intake during pregnancy and dental caries in children

    OpenAIRE

    Tanaka Keiko; Miyake Yoshihiro; Sasaki Satoshi; Hirota Yoshio

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Maternal nutrition status during pregnancy may affect fetal tooth development, formation, and mineralization, and may affect dental caries susceptibility in children. We investigated the association between maternal intake of dairy products and calcium during pregnancy and the risk of childhood dental caries. Methods Subjects were 315 Japanese mother-child pairs. Data on maternal intake during pregnancy were assessed through a diet history questionnaire. Outcome data was c...

  5. The relationship between dental caries and obesity among primary school children aged 5 to 14 years

    OpenAIRE

    Yao Yingshui; Ren Xiaohua; Song Xiuli; He Lianping; Jin Yuelong; Chen Yan; Lu Wei; Guo Daoxia; Ding Lingling; Tang Hui; Wei Ningkai; Qiu Shenwei; Li Chaopin

    2014-01-01

    Background: Previous study revealed that the link between dental caries and obesity has been controversial. The purpose of this research is to investigate the association between dental caries and obesity among primary school children in Wannan area, China. Methods: A cross-sectional study was designed to collect the routine health screening data for primary school children aged 5-14 years inWannan area,China, Overweight and obesity status were determined using the International Obesity Task ...

  6. Dental caries in 14- and 15-year-olds in New South Wales, Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Skinner, John; Johnson, George; Phelan, Claire; Blinkhorn, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Background Dental caries remains one of the most common chronic diseases of adolescents. In Australia there have been few epidemiological studies of the caries experience of adolescents with most surveys focusing on children. The New South Wales (NSW) Teen Dental Survey 2010 is the second major survey undertaken by the Centre for Oral Health Strategy. The survey is part of a more systematic and efficient approach to support State and Local Health District dental service planning and will also...

  7. Children's acceptance of milk with xylitol or sorbitol for dental caries prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Castillo Ramon; Coldwell Susan E; Milgrom Peter; Castillo Jorge L; Lazo Rocio

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Xylitol, a polyol sugar, has been shown to reduce dental caries when mixed with food or chewing gum. This study examines the taste acceptability of xylitol in milk as a first step toward measuring the effectiveness of xylitol in milk for the reduction of dental caries in a public health program. Methods Three different types of milk (Ultra High Temperature (UHT), powder and evaporated) were tested for acceptability by 75 Peruvian children (25 per milk group, ages 4 to 7 ye...

  8. Cross-cultural validity of a dietary questionnaire for studies of dental caries risk in Japanese

    OpenAIRE

    Shinga-Ishihara, Chikako; Nakai, Yukie; Milgrom, Peter; Murakami, Kaori; Matsumoto-Nakano, Michiyo

    2014-01-01

    Background Diet is a major modifiable contributing factor in the etiology of dental caries. The purpose of this paper is to examine the reliability and cross-cultural validity of the Japanese version of the Food Frequency Questionnaire to assess dietary intake in relation to dental caries risk in Japanese. Methods The 38-item Food Frequency Questionnaire, in which Japanese food items were added to increase content validity, was translated into Japanese, and administered to two samples. The fi...

  9. Soluble toll like receptor 2 (TLR-2) is increased in saliva of children with dental caries

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Alyssa; Blackburn, Corinne; Chin, Judith; Srinivasan, Mythily

    2014-01-01

    Background Dental caries is the most common microbial disease affecting mankind. Caries risk assessment methods, identification of biomarkers and vaccine development strategies are being emphasized to control the incidence of the largely preventable disease. Pattern recognition receptors such as the toll like receptors (TLR) have been implicated as modulators of host-microbial interactions. Soluble TLR-2 and its co-receptor, CD14 identified in saliva can bind the cell wall components of cario...

  10. Protocol for assessing maternal, environmental and epigenetic risk factors for dental caries in children

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando, Surani; Speicher, David J; Bakr, Mahmoud M.; Benton, Miles C.; Lea, Rodney A.; Scuffham, Paul A; Mihala, Gabor; Johnson, Newell W.

    2015-01-01

    Background Expenditure on dental and oral health services in Australia is $3.4 billion AUD annually. This is the sixth highest health cost and accounts for 7 % of total national health expenditure. Approximately 49 % of Australian children aged 6 years have caries experience in their deciduous teeth and this is rising. The aetiology of dental caries involves a complex interplay of individual, behavioural, social, economic, political and environmental conditions, and there is increasing intere...

  11. [Factors that modify de- and remineralization in dental enamel from the aspect of caries susceptibility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buczkowska-Radlińska, J

    1999-01-01

    The course of caries depends on an equilibrium between de- and remineralization of enamel. Epidemiologic studies performed during recent years in Poland have demonstrated a high incidence and severity of caries in children and teenagers. Therefore, the actual program of caries prevention covering the whole population of children and teenagers has not performed to the expectations, possibly because the program protocol does not discriminate between children susceptible and resistant to caries. The aims of this work included: 1. Analysis of tooth groups and surfaces as to their susceptibility to caries; 2. Evaluation of the influence of de- and remineralization modifying factors such as: a) dental plaque and sugars, b) caries-causing bacteria, c) enamel resistance to acids, d) biochemical properties of saliva--on the susceptibility to caries; 3. Evaluation of the uptake of fluorides from chewing gum by enamel in relationship to caries susceptibility. An initial clinical examination of permanent teeth was performed in 292 children aged 12 years. Subsequently, two groups were formed: one with 45 children free from caries and another with 77 children at high risk of caries. Control examinations of permanent teeth in both groups were carried out after one and three years from the initial examination. The clinical examination included a check-up of secondary dentition, counting of erupted teeth, sealed teeth, evaluation of oral hygiene status, gingivae, abnormalities in mineralization and measurement of the rate of microdemineralization. The biochemical analysis of saliva was done to measure the content of fluorides, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium, as well as pH. Microsamples of enamel were collected using acid biopsy and the content of calcium and fluorine in the superficial and underlying layer was assayed. The thickness of both layers obtained by biopsy was also measured. Commercial test kits--Dentocult SM and Dentocult LB, served to determine the amount of caries

  12. Effect of a Brazilian regional basic diet on the prevalence of caries in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Pinheiro J.T.; Couto G.B.L.; Vasconcelos M.M.V.B.; Melo M.M.D.C.; Guedes R.C.A.; Cordeiro M.A.C.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of a regional basic diet (RBD) on the prevalence of caries in the molar teeth of rats of both sexes aged 23 days. The animals were divided into six groups of 10 rats each receiving the following diets for 30 and 60 days after weaning: RBD, a cariogenic diet, and a commercial diet. The prevalence and penetration of caries in the molar teeth of the rats was then analyzed. The RBD produced caries in 37.5% of the teeth of animals fed 30 day...

  13. A literature review on the diagnosis and non-invasive treatment of small caries lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsen, Bo Wold; Lund Olsen, Marius

    2012-01-01

    Diagnosis and treatment of the caries disease and post-treatment follow-up are interconnected concepts. The aim of the study was to map out the diagnostic methods available for early caries lesions, the existing non-invasive caries treatment, and in what way the follow-ups of these treatments are conducted. The selection of articles was based on a primary search using the PubMed search engine, including search words associated with the topic. The papers which the primary search yielded we...

  14. Caries experience in a child population in a deprived area of Brazil, using ICDAS II

    OpenAIRE

    de Amorim, Rodrigo Guedes; Figueiredo, Maria José; Leal, Soraya Coelho; Mulder, Jan; FRENCKEN, Jo. E.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the caries experience of children aged 6 to 7 years old in a socially deprived suburban area of Brazil’s Federal District, using the ICDAS II system and to investigate determinants of dental caries. The survey was carried out in six public schools by three calibrated examiners, on a sample of 835 children. ICDAS II codes had to be converted into dmf/DMF components at surface and tooth levels, resulting in unfamiliar caries variables, to enable some m...

  15. A pedoprosthetic rehabilitation in patients with severe early childhood caries (S-ECC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Apurva; Pandey, Ramesh; Pandey, Neelisha; Jain, Eesha

    2013-01-01

    Early childhood caries (ECC) is a rapid form of dental caries. ECC is the most common chronic childhood disease that can compromise a child's self-esteem, nutritional intake, oral development and quality of life, subsequently leading to malocclusion and psychological problems. The restoration of severely decayed primary teeth is often a difficult procedure that offers a great challenge to paediatric dentists. The present case series document the clinical management of patients suffering from severe early childhood caries using removable partial prosthesis restoring their masticatory function and aesthestics. The ultimate aim of the treatment was to improve psychological and physiological development leading to better functioning of the stomatognathic system. PMID:23843409

  16. Effects of Xylitol Wipes on Cariogenic Bacteria and Caries in Young Children

    OpenAIRE

    Zhan, L.; Cheng, J.; P. Chang; Ngo, M.; DenBesten, P.K.; Hoover, C.I.; Featherstone, J.D.B.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the efficacy of the use of xylitol-containing tooth-wipes in preventing dental caries in young children. In a double-blinded randomized controlled clinical trial, 44 mothers with active caries and their 6- to 35-month-old children were randomized to xylitol-wipe or placebo-wipe groups. The children’s caries scores were recorded at baseline and 1 year. Salivary levels of mutans streptococci and lactobacilli were enumerated at baseline, 3, 6, and 12 month...

  17. Early childhood caries and dental plaque among 1-3-year-olds in Tehran, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohebbi, Simin Z; Virtanen, Jorma I; Vahid-Golpayegani, Mojtaba; Vehkalahti, Miira M

    2006-12-01

    The association between plaque and caries in older children and adults has been poor, however, some studies show that there may be a relationship in younger children. The aim was to study the relationships between dental caries and dental plaque among 12-36-month-olds in Tehran, Iran. A cross-sectional study among a stratified random sample of 504 children aged one to three years from 18 public health centres in Tehran. Mothers were interviewed about their child's date and order of birth, gender, primary caregiver, the mother's age and the educational level of both parents. Dental examination was carried out according to the WHO criteria. Early childhood caries (ECC) was defined as the presence of any dmf teeth. Dental plaque was visually inspected on the labial surfaces of upper central incisors. Data analysis included Chi-square test, t -test, anova and logistic regression modelling. The prevalence of ECC ranged from 3 to 33% depending on age group, with a mean dt of 1.1 for 26- to 36-month-olds. No gender-differences existed in ECC prevalence and mean dt. Dental plaque was visible on at least one index tooth for 65-75% of the children. Presence of ECC was related to the presence of dental plaque (OR = 1.5; 95% CI 1.0-2.3) when controlling for background factors by means of logistic regression. The high occurrence of visible plaque and rather high ECC prevalence call for improvement in oral health promotion programs of the children. PMID:17183180

  18. [Cause of secondary caries and prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiping

    2014-04-01

    Secondary caries is a disease that occurs on the tooth after the filling has been used for a period of time. Secondary caries is also the main reason for the replacement of dental restorations. Regardless of the material used for fillings, secondary caries cannot be completely avoided. The proportion of secondary caries is very high after filling in permanent teeth or primary teeth. Secondary caries mainly occurs because of the formation of micro cracks after filling. When the micro crack width exceeds 50 microm, saliva will enter the micro cracks between the filling and tooth tissue. The cariogenic bacteria in the saliva will grow when the environment of micro cracks is appropriate, thereby producing secondary caries. The prevention of secondary caries includes micro crack control, fluoride use, teeth cleaning, tooth decay and gum disease treatment, and regular checkups. PMID:24881200

  19. Validation of Visual Caries Activity Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guedes, R S; Piovesan, C; Ardenghi, T M;

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the predictive and construct validity of a caries activity assessment system associated with the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) in primary teeth. A total of 469 children were reexamined: participants of a caries survey performed 2 yr before (follow-up rate...... of 73.4%). At baseline, children (12-59 mo old) were examined with the ICDAS and a caries activity assessment system. The predictive validity was assessed by evaluating the risk of active caries lesion progression to more severe conditions in the follow-up, compared with inactive lesions. We also...... assessed if children with a higher number of active caries lesions were more likely to develop new lesions (construct validity). Noncavitated active caries lesions at occlusal surfaces presented higher risk of progression than inactive ones. Children with a higher number of active lesions and with higher...

  20. Results from the Xylitol for Adult Caries Trial (X-ACT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, James D.; Vollmer, William M.; Shugars, Daniel A.; Gilbert, Gregg H.; Amaechi, Bennett T.; Brown, John P.; Laws, Reesa L.; Funkhouser, Kimberly A.; Makhija, Sonia K.; Ritter, André V.; Leo, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Although caries is prevalent in adults, few preventive therapies have been tested in adult populations. This randomized clinical trial evaluated the effectiveness of xylitol lozenges in preventing caries in elevated caries-risk adults. Methods X-ACT was a three-site placebo-controlled randomized trial. Participants (n=691) ages 21–80 consumed five 1.0 g xylitol or placebo lozenges daily for 33 months. Clinical examinations occurred at baseline, 12, 24 and 33 months. Results Xylitol lozenges reduced the caries increment 11%. This reduction, which represented less than one-third of a surface per year, was not statistically significant. There was no indication of a dose-response effect. Conclusions Daily use of xylitol lozenges did not result in a statistically or clinically significant reduction in 33-month caries increment among elevated caries-risk adults. Clinical Implications These results suggest that xylitol used as a supplement in adults does not significantly reduce their caries experience. PMID:23283923

  1. Sociobehavioral Factors Associated with Caries Increment: A Longitudinal Study from 24 to 36 Months Old Children in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Peltzer

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate sociobehavioral risk factors from the prenatal period until 36 months of age, and the caries increment from 24 to 36 months of the child in Thailand. The data utilized in this study come from the prospective cohort study of Thai children (PCTC from prenatal to 36 months of the child in Mueang Nan district, Northern Thailand. The total sample size recruited was 783 infants. The sample size with dental caries data was 603 and 597, at 24 months and at 36 months, respectively. The sample size of having two assessment points with a dental examination (at 24 months and at 36 months was 597. Results indicate that the caries increment was 52.9%, meaning from 365 caries free children at 24 months 193 had developed dental caries at 36 months. The prevalence of dental caries was 34.2% at 24 months (n = 206 and 68.5% at 36 months of age (n = 409. In bivariate analysis, higher education of the mother, lower household income, bottle feeding of the infant, frequent sweet candy consumptions, and using rain or well water as drinking water were associated with dental caries increment, while in multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis lower household income, higher education of the mother, and using rain or well water as drinking water remained associated with dental caries increment. In conclusion, a very significant increase in caries development was observed, and oral health may be influenced by sociobehavioural risk factors.

  2. Fluoride Varnish for Caries Prevention: Efficacy and Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonetti, Debbie; Clarkson, Jan E

    2016-01-01

    Many reviews support fluoride varnish (FV) as a caries-inhibitory agent. Evidence from 6 Cochrane systematic reviews involving 200 trials and more than 80,000 participants further confirms the effectiveness of FV, applied professionally 2-4 times a year, for preventing dental caries in both primary and permanent teeth. The relative benefit of FV application seems to occur irrespective of baseline caries risk, baseline caries severity, background exposure to fluorides, use of fluoride toothpaste and application features such as prior prophylaxis, concentration of fluoride or frequency of application. While the efficacy of FV is acknowledged in clinical practice guidelines globally, the implementation of this recommendation may still be an issue. Factors that may facilitate FV application in the USA include Medicaid eligibility, relationships with dentists/community centers and strong cooperation and communication between physicians and support staff. Barriers include insufficient time to integrate oral health services into well-child visits, difficulty in applying FV (lack of skills/training) and resistance among colleagues and staff. Research in the UK/Scotland also suggests encouraging clinicians in their motivation to perform this treatment and addressing professional and parental concerns relating to possible negative consequences may be influential. Further research targeting cost-effectiveness and how FV in routine care may fit in with political agendas relating to, for example, inequalities in health care provision and access will also play a key part in stakeholder decisions to put resources into this issue. PMID:27100219

  3. Nanotechnology, Aims, and Values

    OpenAIRE

    Lorusso, Ludovica

    2013-01-01

    This paper seeks to understand the importance of adopting an ethical framework based on values in the socio-ethical discussion on nanotechnology and generally on emerging technologies. In particular, within such framework it is introduced a distinction between two ideal types of science, defined on the basis of their different aims. Such distinction is considered to be a useful guide in the ethical debate on the technological development of our society, because it may help to understand what ...

  4. Design of the Prevention of Adult Caries Study (PACS: A randomized clinical trial assessing the effect of a chlorhexidine dental coating for the prevention of adult caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snyder John J

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dental caries is one of the primary causes of tooth loss among adults. It is estimated to affect a majority of Americans aged 55 and older, with a disproportionately higher burden in disadvantaged populations. Although a number of treatments are currently in use for caries prevention in adults, evidence for their efficacy and effectiveness is limited. Methods/Design The Prevention of Adult Caries Study (PACS is a multicenter, placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized clinical trial of the efficacy of a chlorhexidine (10% w/v dental coating in preventing adult caries. Participants (n = 983 were recruited from four different dental delivery systems serving four diverse communities, including one American Indian population, and were randomized to receive either chlorhexidine or a placebo treatment. The primary outcome is the net caries increment (including non-cavitated lesions from baseline to 13 months of follow-up. A cost-effectiveness analysis also will be considered. Discussion This new dental treatment, if efficacious and approved for use by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA, would become a new in-office, anti-microbial agent for the prevention of adult caries in the United States. Trial Registration Number NCT00357877

  5. Arresting rampant dental caries with silver diamine fluoride in a young teenager suffering from chronic oral graft versus host disease post-bone marrow transplantation: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, Chun-Hung; Lee, Angeline Hui-Cheng; Zheng, Liwu; Mei, May Lei; Chan, Godfrey Chi-fung

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Rampant caries is an advanced and severe dental disease that affects multiple teeth. This case describes the management of rampant caries in a young teenager suffering from chronic oral graft versus host disease after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. CASE PRESENTATION: A 14-year-old Chinese boy suffering from beta-thalassemia major was referred to the dental clinic for the management of rampant dental caries. An oral examination revealed pale conjunctiva, bruising of lips, ...

  6. Dental caries prevalence in individual tooth in primary and permanent dentition among 6-12-year-old school children in Shimla, Himachal Pradesh

    OpenAIRE

    Vinay Kumar Bhardwaj

    2014-01-01

    Background: Prevalence of dental caries not only varies according to age, gender, and arch but also according to the involvement of individual tooth. The study on individual tooth will help in providing incremental dental care and reducing burden of dental caries in this group of population. Objective: To find out the prevalence of dental caries in individual tooth among 6-12-year-old school children in Shimla city, Himachal Pradesh. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted among 1,200...

  7. Effects of Xylitol Wipes on Cariogenic Bacteria and Caries in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, L.; Cheng, J.; Chang, P.; Ngo, M.; DenBesten, P.K.; Hoover, C.I.; Featherstone, J.D.B.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the efficacy of the use of xylitol-containing tooth-wipes in preventing dental caries in young children. In a double-blinded randomized controlled clinical trial, 44 mothers with active caries and their 6- to 35-month-old children were randomized to xylitol-wipe or placebo-wipe groups. The children’s caries scores were recorded at baseline and 1 year. Salivary levels of mutans streptococci and lactobacilli were enumerated at baseline, 3, 6, and 12 months. Data were analyzed by intent-to-treat modeling with imputation for caries lesions and a linear mixed-effect model for bacterial levels. Significantly fewer children in the xylitol-wipe group had new caries lesions at 1 year compared with those in the placebo-wipe group (P < 0.05). No significant differences between the two groups were observed in levels of mutans streptococci and lactobacilli at all time-points. Daily xylitol-wipe application significantly reduced the caries incidence in young children as compared with wipes without xylitol, suggesting that the use of xylitol wipes may be a useful adjunct for caries control in infants (Clinicaltrials.gov registration number CT01468727). PMID:22699675

  8. Effect of changing the kilovoltage peak on radiographic caries assessment in digital and conventional radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of changing the kilovoltage peak (kVp) on the radiographic assessment of dental caries. Seventy-five extracted posterior teeth with proximal caries or apparently sound proximal surfaces were radiographed with conventional E-speed films and a photostimulable phosphor system using 60 kVp and 70 kVp for the caries assessment. The images were evaluated by three oral radiologists and compared with the results of the stereomicroscope analysis. No statistically significant difference was found between 60 kVp and 70 kVp for the caries detection, determination of caries extension into dentin, and caries severity in either the conventional or the digital images. Good to very good inter-observer and intra-observer agreements were found for both kilovoltage values on the conventional and digital images. Changing the kilovoltage between 60 kVp and 70 kVp had no obvious effect on the detection of proximal caries or determination of its extension or severity.

  9. Caries prevalence and risk factors among children aged 0 to 36 months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Ana Paula Pires dos

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of caries and risk factors in outpatients of the Pediatric Ambulatory of the Pedro Ernesto University Hospital aging up to 36 months. After signing informed consent forms, the parents answered a structured questionnaire in order to evaluate risk factors for dental caries, including socioeconomic status, oral hygiene and dietary habits. A single investigator carried out the dental examination which assessed the presence of caries, biofilm and gingival bleeding. The data were analyzed by means of the Epi Info program, utilizing the chi-squared test. The children?s mean age was 22.9 months. The prevalence of caries, including white spot lesions, was 41.6%, and the mean def-s was 1.7 (± 2.5. The most affected teeth were the maxillary incisors, and the most common lesion was the white spot. No significant associations were found between the prevalence of caries and socioeconomic status, frequency of oral hygiene, nocturnal bottle- and breast-feeding or cariogenic food and beverage intake during the day. However, the association between caries and oral hygiene quality (dental biofilm was statistically significant (p < 0.001. The results suggest that the presence of a thick biofilm was the most important factor for the occurrence of early childhood caries in the evaluated sample.

  10. Determinant Factors of Untreated Dental Caries and Lesion Activity in Preschool Children Using ICDAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto-Sarmento, Tássia Cristina de Almeida; Abreu, Mauro Henrique; Gomes, Monalisa Cesarino; Costa, Edja Maria Melo de Brito; Martins, Carolina Castro; Granville-Garcia, Ana Flávia; Paiva, Saul Martins

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate determinant factors associated with the presence of dental caries and lesion activity in preschool children. A population-based, cross-sectional study was carried out with 843 children of aged three to five years enrolled at public and private preschools in the city of Campina Grande, Brazil. A questionnaire addressing socio-demographic data and oral health care was self-administered by parents/caregivers. Three dentists previously calibrated examined the children for the diagnosis of dental caries and lesion activity using the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS). Nutritional status was evaluated based on the body mass index. Logistic regression analysis for complex samples was performed (α = 5%). The prevalence of dental caries was 66.3%. Among the children with caries, 88.0% had active lesions. Dental caries was more prevalent in girls (OR = 1.53, 95%CI: 1.05-2.23), in children from families with a monthly household income ≤US$312.50 (OR = 2.38, 95%CI: 1.65-3.43) and those whose mothers had up to eight years of schooling (OR = 1.55, 95%CI: 1.07-2.23). Lesion activity was significantly associated with mother's schooling ≤ 8 years (OR = 2.15, 95%CI: 1.15-4.00). The prevalence rates of dental caries and lesion activity were high and mainly associated with a lower socioeconomic status and mother's schooling. PMID:26900846

  11. Determinant Factors of Untreated Dental Caries and Lesion Activity in Preschool Children Using ICDAS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tássia Cristina de Almeida Pinto-Sarmento

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate determinant factors associated with the presence of dental caries and lesion activity in preschool children. A population-based, cross-sectional study was carried out with 843 children of aged three to five years enrolled at public and private preschools in the city of Campina Grande, Brazil. A questionnaire addressing socio-demographic data and oral health care was self-administered by parents/caregivers. Three dentists previously calibrated examined the children for the diagnosis of dental caries and lesion activity using the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS. Nutritional status was evaluated based on the body mass index. Logistic regression analysis for complex samples was performed (α = 5%. The prevalence of dental caries was 66.3%. Among the children with caries, 88.0% had active lesions. Dental caries was more prevalent in girls (OR = 1.53, 95%CI: 1.05-2.23, in children from families with a monthly household income ≤US$312.50 (OR = 2.38, 95%CI: 1.65-3.43 and those whose mothers had up to eight years of schooling (OR = 1.55, 95%CI: 1.07-2.23. Lesion activity was significantly associated with mother's schooling ≤ 8 years (OR = 2.15, 95%CI: 1.15-4.00. The prevalence rates of dental caries and lesion activity were high and mainly associated with a lower socioeconomic status and mother's schooling.

  12. Impact of oral health behaviors on dental caries in children with intellectual disabilities in Guangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zifeng; Yu, Dongsheng; Luo, Wei; Yang, Jing; Lu, Jiaxuan; Gao, Shuo; Li, Wenqing; Zhao, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Dental care is consistently reported as one of the primary medical needs of children with disabilities (IDC). The aim of the present study was to explore the influence of oral health behaviors on the caries experience in children with intellectual disabilities in Guangzhou, China. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 477 intellectually disabled children, 12 to 17 years old, who were randomly selected from special educational schools in Guangzhou. A self-administered parental questionnaire was used to collect data on socio-demographic characteristics and oral health behavior variables, and 450 valid questionnaires were returned. Multiple regression analysis was used to examine the factors associated with dental caries. The average age of those in the sample was 14.6 years (SD = 1.3), 68.4% of whom were male, and the caries prevalence rate was 53.5% (DMFT = 1.5 ± 2.0). The factors significantly affecting the development of dental caries in IDC included gender, the presence or absence of cerebral palsy, and the frequency of dental visits and toothbrushing. In conclusion, the presence of cerebral palsy contributed to an increase risk of caries experience in intellectually disabled children, while toothbrushing more than twice a day and routine dental visits were caries-protective factors. Oral health promotion action may lead to a reduction in dental caries levels in IDC. PMID:25340906

  13. Impact of Oral Health Behaviors on Dental Caries in Children with Intellectual Disabilities in Guangzhou, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zifeng Liu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Dental care is consistently reported as one of the primary medical needs of children with disabilities (IDC. The aim of the present study was to explore the influence of oral health behaviors on the caries experience in children with intellectual disabilities in Guangzhou, China. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 477 intellectually disabled children, 12 to 17 years old, who were randomly selected from special educational schools in Guangzhou. A self-administered parental questionnaire was used to collect data on socio-demographic characteristics and oral health behavior variables, and 450 valid questionnaires were returned. Multiple regression analysis was used to examine the factors associated with dental caries. The average age of those in the sample was 14.6 years (SD = 1.3, 68.4% of whom were male, and the caries prevalence rate was 53.5% (DMFT = 1.5 ± 2.0. The factors significantly affecting the development of dental caries in IDC included gender, the presence or absence of cerebral palsy, and the frequency of dental visits and toothbrushing. In conclusion, the presence of cerebral palsy contributed to an increase risk of caries experience in intellectually disabled children, while toothbrushing more than twice a day and routine dental visits were caries-protective factors. Oral health promotion action may lead to a reduction in dental caries levels in IDC.

  14. Effect of changing the kilovoltage peak on radiographic caries assessment in digital and conventional radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zayet, Mohamed Khalifa; Helaly, Yara Rabee; Eiid, Salma Belal [Dept. of Oral Radiology, Faculty of Oral and Dental Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo (Egypt)

    2014-09-15

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of changing the kilovoltage peak (kVp) on the radiographic assessment of dental caries. Seventy-five extracted posterior teeth with proximal caries or apparently sound proximal surfaces were radiographed with conventional E-speed films and a photostimulable phosphor system using 60 kVp and 70 kVp for the caries assessment. The images were evaluated by three oral radiologists and compared with the results of the stereomicroscope analysis. No statistically significant difference was found between 60 kVp and 70 kVp for the caries detection, determination of caries extension into dentin, and caries severity in either the conventional or the digital images. Good to very good inter-observer and intra-observer agreements were found for both kilovoltage values on the conventional and digital images. Changing the kilovoltage between 60 kVp and 70 kVp had no obvious effect on the detection of proximal caries or determination of its extension or severity.

  15. The relationship between dental caries and obesity among primary school children aged 5 to 14 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Yingshui

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous study revealed that the link between dental caries and obesity has been controversial. The purpose of this research is to investigate the association between dental caries and obesity among primary school children in Wannan area, China. Methods: A cross-sectional study was designed to collect the routine health screening data for primary school children aged 5-14 years inWannan area,China, Overweight and obesity status were determined using the International Obesity Task Force standard (IOTF BMI cut-off points. Caries status was recorded based on WHO recommendations. Results: Our results revealed that the overall caries prevalence of the subjects was 44.9%, Maximum number of caries affected children belonged to underweight and normal group, followed by overweight, and the least number was obesity. These differences were statistically significant (chi-square test, P < 0.001. Children with obesity were 1.908 times (OR =1.908; CI95%=1.750, 2.079 more likely have caries than children with underweight or health weight. Overweight children were 1.547 times (OR = 1.547; CI95% = 1.479, 1.618 more likely to have caries than children with underweight or health weight. After adjusted the gender and age, a statistically significant association was also observed between body mass index categories and caries. Conclusions: Obesity may have a significant effect on caries prevalence of primary school children in Wannan area, China. The importance of obesity should not only be emphasized with respect to general diseases but also with regard to carious lesions.

  16. PREVALENCE OF EARLY CHILDHOOD CARIES AMONG ANGANWADI SCHOOL CHILDREN IN RURAL AREAS OF THIRUVALLUR DISTRICT

    OpenAIRE

    Sriram Chandramohan; Priyanka Mandava

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To assess the prevalence of early childhood caries (ECC) among Anganwadi school children in rural areas of Thiruvallur district. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was carries out among 75, 24-72 months old children attending various Anganwadi centers in Thiruvallur district were selected. Caries experience was recorded using DMFT index & crude odds ratio has been reported and considered null hypothesis to be significant if P- Value is < 0.05 which is level...

  17. Caries risk profile of 12 year old school children in an Indian city using Cariogram

    OpenAIRE

    Hebbal, Mamata; Ankola, Anil V.; Metgud, Sharada

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The present study was conducted with an aim to assess the caries profile of 12 year old Indian children using Cariogram. Study design: Hundred children were interviewed to record any illness, oral hygiene practices and fluoride exposure after obtaining a three day diet diary. Examination was done to record plaque and dental caries status. Stimulated saliva was collected and salivary flow rate, salivary buffering capacity, Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus were assessed. The i...

  18. The effect of oral hygiene on the caries prevalence among schoolchildren in Foča

    OpenAIRE

    Davidović Bojana; Ivanović Mirjana; Janković Svjetlana; Lečić Jelena

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Caries and periodontal disease are the most common diseases afflicting oral tissues. Insufficient knowledge of the causes of these diseases leads to inappropriate behavior of patients towards their own oral health. The aim of this study was to determine the level of oral hygiene and its effect on the prevalence of dental caries in schoolchildren in Foča. Material and Methods. The study included 239 schoolchildren, 12 years old of both genders,...

  19. High Birth Weight Is a Risk Factor of Dental Caries Increment during Adolescence in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Annika Julihn; Ulrika Molund; Emma Drevsäter; Thomas Modéer

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to assess whether birth weight is associated with dental caries during the teenage period. In this register-based cohort study, all children of 13 years of age (n = 18,142) who resided in the county of Stockholm, Sweden, in 2000, were included. The cohort was followed until individuals were 19 years of age. Information regarding dental caries was collected from the Public Health Care Administration in Stockholm. Data concerning prenatal and perinatal factors and parental soci...

  20. Evaluation of caries in deciduous second molar and adjacent permanent molar in mixed dentition

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivasan, Daya; Louis, C. Joe

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study was done to evaluate association of caries in deciduous second molar and adjacent permanent first molar, tooth surface more involved in permanent first molar and to assess the parental awareness regarding the eruption of permanent first molar. Subjects and Methods: Three hundred and ten children (160 boys, 150 girls) of mixed dentition aged between 6 and 11 years were included. Presence or absence of paired association of caries in primary second molar and adjacent permanent f...

  1. Treatment decisions on approximal caries and longevity of Class II restorations

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Placing restorations due to dental caries is still a commonly performed treatment by dental practitioners in Norway. The aim of this thesis was to explore dentists’ treatment decisions on approximal caries and to assess the longevity of approximal restorations in posterior teeth and reasons for their failure. The research employed a questionnaire and included a practice-based study. The questionnaire revealed that, in 2009, 7% of Norwegian dentists would restore approximal lesions confined to...

  2. Candida albicans in oral biofilms could prevent caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, Hubertine Marjoleine; Kos, Kevin; Jabra-Rizk, Mary Ann; Krom, Bastiaan P

    2016-07-01

    Streptococcus mutans is a Gram-positive bacterium involved in development to caries, the most common infectious disease of our time. Streptococcus mutans interacts with other microbes, like the fungus Candida albicans and both are commonly isolated from patients with caries. Since the role of C. albicans in caries remains unknown, our aim was to unravel this using an in vitro dual-species cariogenic oral biofilm model. Biofilms were grown for 24-72 h on glass cover slips or hydroxyapatite (HA) disks to mimic the surface of teeth. Medium pH, lactic acid production capacity and calcium release from HA disks were determined. All 24-h biofilms had external pH values below the critical pH of 5.5 where enamel dissolves. In contrast, 72-h dual-species biofilms had significantly higher pH (above the critical pH) and consequently decreased calcium release compared to single-species S. mutans biofilms. Counter intuitively, lactic acid production and growth of S. mutans were increased in 72-h dual-species biofilms. Candida albicans modulates the pH in dual-species biofilms to values above the critical pH where enamel dissolves. Our results suggest that C. albicans is not by definition a cariogenic microorganism; it could prevent caries by actively increasing pH preventing mineral loss. PMID:27129365

  3. Validation of Visual Caries Activity Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, R.S.; Piovesan, C.; Ardenghi, T.M.; Emmanuelli, B.; Braga, M.M.; Ekstrand, K.R.; Mendes, F.M.

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the predictive and construct validity of a caries activity assessment system associated with the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) in primary teeth. A total of 469 children were reexamined: participants of a caries survey performed 2 yr before (follow-up rate of 73.4%). At baseline, children (12-59 mo old) were examined with the ICDAS and a caries activity assessment system. The predictive validity was assessed by evaluating the risk of active caries lesion progression to more severe conditions in the follow-up, compared with inactive lesions. We also assessed if children with a higher number of active caries lesions were more likely to develop new lesions (construct validity). Noncavitated active caries lesions at occlusal surfaces presented higher risk of progression than inactive ones. Children with a higher number of active lesions and with higher caries experience presented higher risk of developing new lesions. In conclusion, the caries activity system associated with the ICDAS presents predictive and construct validity in primary teeth in the assessment of occlusal caries lesions, but predictive validity was not observed in smooth surfaces. PMID:24713370

  4. Diagnosis of Dentin Caries – Ultraviolet Fluorescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzunov Ts.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The technology advance in recent years determines the need of construction of modern appliances for early diagnosis of dental caries, which are categorized by great precision, non-invasiveness, easy usage and wide availability. Such non-invasive and accurate tool for diagnostics of caries is Caries Detector (LED, Bulgarian product by “Optica Laser”. The detector emits a specific wavelength of near ultraviolet light, which causes fluorescence to porphyrins - metabolic products of the life cycle of caries-inducing bacteria. The purpose of the study is piloting a new diagnostic tool for detection and monitoring of caries excavation based on fluorescence - LED UV caries detector of company “Optica laser”. Subjected to examination by caries indicator dye and UV caries detector were sixty permanent teeth with deep dentine caries. Two methods were used to assess the dentin caries - UV fluorescence detector of “Optica Laser” and staining with caries indicator - dye (Sable ™ Seek®. It was found that among all sixty teeth, the fields, closed by margins of carious process overlap. Fifty-four of tested teeth has shown bigger field of images with staining method and six - smaller in comparison to the fluorescent method. Ultraviolet fLuorescence caries detector of “Optica Laser” company is affordable and easy applicable method for controlled excavation of dentine caries. The detector can be used in daily dental practice equally with other methods. The unit has a number of advantages - non-invasiveness, lack of interaction with tooth structures, speed, reliability, efficiency, predictability and repeatability of results.

  5. Reemergencia de la caries dental en adolescentes Re-emerging of dental caries in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Franco Cortés

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: las inequidades en la cobertura de los programas preventivos y en el acceso a la atención podrían afectar los indicadores de salud bucal de los adolescentes. Objetivo: El propósito de este estudio descriptivo fue determinar la prevalencia y la historia de caries de los adolescentes de Medellín; evaluar la tendencia de los indicadores y en consecuencia evaluar una posible reemergencia de este problema. Materiales y métodos: Los datos se obtuvieron mediante un examen clínico dental en una muestra estratificada aleatoria de 1292 adolescentes en el año 2005; los examinadores fueron previamente entrenados y calibrados (Kappa > 0,65. Se realizaron pruebas chi cuadrado, Kruskal - Wallis y de Mann - Whitney (α = 5%. Resultados y Conclusiones: Los valores promedio y desviación estándar del índice CPOD y el Índice Significante de Caries fueron 4,5±2,8 y 2,8±3,3 y 11,3 y 6,2 en los jóvenes de 17 años de colegios públicos y privados respectivamente. Estos resultados indican un incremento en la prevalencia de caries para este grupo poblacional y además de ello la polarización del problema en un grupo reducido de jóvenes cuyas características deben estudiarse cuidadosamente. Las autoridades de salud deberán enfocar la atención y la intervención sobre ambos problemas.Introduction: inequities in coverage of preventive programs and access to care may affect the indicators of oral health of adolescents. Objective: The aim of this descriptive study was to determine the prevalence and history of dental caries among adolescents of Medellin; to evaluate the tendency of the indicators, and to evaluate possible re-emerging of these problem. Materials and methods: Data were obtained from dental examinations of a stratified randomized sample of 1292 students in 2005, performed by trained and calibrated examiners (Kappa > 0.65. Chi - square, Kruskal - Wallis, and Mann - Whitney tests were used (α = 5%. Results and conclusions: The

  6. Effect of Family Structure and Behavioral and Eyesight Problems on Caries Severity in Pupils by Using an Ordinal Logistic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazem Mohammad

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental caries is one of the most preventable yet prevalent chronic diseases worldwide. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of family structure and behavioral and eyesight problems as they relate to caries severity in schoolchildren.Methods: This research was carried out on 845 primary schoolchildren aged 9 yr in Kerman, Iran, in 2012. Ten variables, including health records, family structure information and a dmft/DMFT index, were collected. Children were categorized into three groups based on the WHO caries severity classification. Low caries level was defined as dmft/DMFT4.4. The Cochran–Armitage test and ordinal logistic regression were employed for data analysis.Results: Almost half of pupils had moderate or high caries severity. The odds of being in a higher caries severity category in pupils with behavioral problems (OR=2.37, 95% CI: 1.29-4.38 and girls (OR=1.6, 95% CI: 1.22-2.06 were higher than in other categories. In addition, pupils with eyesight problems (OR=0.58, 95% CI: 0.37-0.90 and overweight pupils (OR=0.46, 95% CI: 0.31-0.71 had lower caries severity than others. The effects of parents’ education, birth rank, living with parents and consanguineous relationship between parents were not significant on caries severity (P>0.05.Conclusions: Female pupils with behavioral problems were at a higher risk of caries severity than other pupils. These pupils need to be educated and coached on proper dental care. In addition, overweight pupils and those with eyesight problems had less caries severity than others. Family structure in this study did not have an effect on the severity of dental caries.

  7. Sugar Consumption and Changes in Dental Caries from Childhood to Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, M A; Sheiham, A; Liu, P; Demarco, F F; Silva, A E R; Assunção, M C; Menezes, A M; Barros, F C; Peres, K G

    2016-04-01

    There are no prospective studies investigating the effects of sugar-related feeding practices on changes in dental caries from early childhood to young adulthood. The aim of this study was to assess whether sugar-related feeding practices affect dental caries between the ages of 6 and 18 y. This birth cohort study was initiated in 1993 in Pelotas, Brazil. There were 3 dental clinical assessments; at ages 6 y (n = 359), 12 y (n = 339), and 18 y (n = 307). Sugar-related feeding practices were assessed at ages 4, 15, and 18 y. Covariates included sex and life course variables, such as family income, breast-feeding, mother's education, regularity of dental visit, and child's toothbrushing habits. Group-based trajectory analysis was performed to characterize trajectories of time-varying independent variables that had at least 3 time points. We fitted a generalized linear mixed model assuming negative binomial distribution with log link function on 3-time repeated dental caries assessments. One in 5 participants was classified as "high" sugar consumers, and nearly 40% were "upward consumers." "Low consumers" accounted for >40% of the sample. High and upward sugar consumers had higher dental caries prevalence and mean DMFT in all cohort waves when compared with low sugar consumers. Caries occurred at a relatively constant rate over the period of study, but in all sugar consumption groups, the increment of dental caries was slightly higher between ages 6 and 12 y than between 12 and 18 y. Adjusted analysis showed that dental caries increment ratio between ages 6 and 18 y was 20% and 66% higher in upward and high sugar consumer groups as compared with low consumers. The higher the sugar consumption along the life course, the higher the dental caries increment. Even the low level of sugar consumption was related to dental caries, despite the use of fluoride. PMID:26758380

  8. Caries management by risk assessment: A review on current strategies for caries prevention and management

    OpenAIRE

    Maheswari, S. Uma; Raja, Jacob; Kumar, Arvind; Seelan, R. Gnana

    2015-01-01

    The current trend in treating dental caries is using nondestructive risk-based caries management strategies rather than focusing on the restorative treatment alone. Currently, there have been many changes in understanding of the multifaceted nature of caries process and its management. Caries Management by Risk Assessment (CAMBRA) which is an evidence-based approach focuses on determining many factors causing the expression of disease and take corrective action. The clinicians can ascertain w...

  9. Caries risk assessment in young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersson, Gunnel Hänsel; Twetman, Svante

    2015-01-01

    impaired specificities. No combinations proved clinically useful values according to Yuoden's index. CONCLUSIONS: Within the limitations of the present study, the computer-based Cariogram did not perform better than a caries risk assessment scheme based on past caries experience and caries progression...... baseline examination, including radiographs and salivary tests. An individual caries risk profile was computed and the patient was placed in one of five risk categories. After 3 years, 982 patients (75.8%) were re-examined and caries increment for each patient was calculated. The outcome was expressed as...... sensitivity, specificity and predictive values and compared with a risk assessment scheme used in Public Dental Service. RESULTS: The drop-outs displayed more risk factors and a significantly higher caries burden at baseline compared with those that remained in the project (p < 0.05). There was a strong...

  10. Caries prevention with fluoride toothpaste in children: an update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, S

    2009-01-01

    AIM: The aim was to examine recent literature and review the caries-preventive effect of fluoride toothpaste in children. METHODS: Based on three comprehensive systematic reviews published in 2003, a broad search of the PubMed and Cochrane library databases was conducted for papers published 2002...... significant caries-preventive effect in children compared with placebo (prevented fraction 24%). The effect was boosted by supervised tooth brushing, increased brushing frequency to twice daily, and use of a toothpaste concentration of 1,500 ppm fluoride. There were few studies of high quality reporting...... findings from the primary dentition. There were no studies available, and therefore insufficient evidence, on when to commence brushing with fluoride toothpaste as well as on the post-brushing behaviour. The use of "adult" toothpaste in very young children seemed to increase the risk for mild dental...

  11. Caries risk assessment in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, S

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To summarise the findings of recent systematic reviews (SR) covering caries risk assessment in children, updated with recent primary studies. METHODS: A search for relevant papers published 2012-2014 was conducted in electronic databases. The systematic reviews were quality assessed with......, while the rest displayed a high risk of bias. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the present summary of literature, it may be concluded: (1) a caries risk assessment should be carried out at the child's first dental visit and reassessments should be done during childhood (D); (2) multivariate models display a better...... the AMSTAR tool and the primary publications according to the Cochrane handbook. The quality was rated as low, moderate, or high risk of bias. The findings were descriptively synthesised and the quality of evidence was graded according to GRADE. For the recommendations of practice, the SIGN scores...

  12. Parity & Untreated Dental Caries in US Women

    OpenAIRE

    Russell, S.L.; Ickovics, J.R.; Yaffee, R.A.

    2010-01-01

    While parity (number of children) reportedly is related to tooth loss, the relationship between parity and dental caries has not been extensively investigated. We used path analysis to test a theoretical model that specified that parity influences dental caries levels through dental care, psycho- social factors, and dental health damaging behaviors in 2635 women selected from the NHANES III dataset. We found that while increased parity was not associated with a greater level of total caries (...

  13. Snacking Habits and Caries in Young Children

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, I; Lif Holgerson, P.; Kressin, N.R.; Nunn, M.E.; Tanner, A C

    2010-01-01

    Dental caries is caused by a combination of infection and diet. This disease, if left untreated, may lead to pain, and impair the quality of life, nutritional status and development of young children. The objective was to investigate the association between snacking and caries in a population at high risk of dental caries. American preschool children (n = 1,206) were recruited in the offices of paediatricians. Data on sociodemographic characteristics, oral hygiene, breast-feeding, use of bott...

  14. Early childhood caries: a New Zealand perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Bach K; Manton DJ

    2014-01-01

    Dental caries, primarily a preventable disease, remains the most common chronic disease of childhood and one of the most common reasons for hospital admissions for children in New Zealand. The most vulnerable children are shouldering the burden of the disease, with Maori and Pacific children having greater experience and severity of dental caries. Early childhood caries has deleterious effects on a child’s oral and general health and significant numbers of preschool-aged children experience p...

  15. Vitamin D and Dental Caries in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroth, R J; Rabbani, R; Loewen, G; Moffatt, M E

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between vitamin D status and dental caries in Canadian school-aged children participating in the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS). The CHMS was a national cross-sectional study involving physical assessments, laboratory analysis, and interviews. Analysis was restricted to data for 1,017 children 6 to 11 y of age. Outcome variables included the presence of caries and overall total caries score (dmft/DMFT index). Levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) were measured from serum samples obtained from participants. Bivariate analysis, logistic regression for the presence of caries, and multiple linear regression for total caries scores were used. Significance was set at P ≤ 0.05. Overall, 56.4% of children experienced caries, and the mean dmft/DMFT score was 2.47 (95% CI 2.09 to 2.84). The unadjusted odds of children with 25(OH)D levels ≥75 nmol/L having experienced caries was 0.57 (95% CI 0.39 to 0.82), while the odds for caries at the ≥50 nmol/L level was 0.56 (95% CI 0.39 to 0.89). After controlling for other covariates, backward logistic regression revealed that the presence of caries was significantly associated with 25(OH) levels caries scores were also associated with 25(OH)D concentrations caries and lower serum vitamin D. Improving children's vitamin D status may be an additional preventive consideration to lower the risk for caries. PMID:26553883

  16. Caries risk assessment: why, when and how?

    OpenAIRE

    Antonsen, Grethe Marie; Hunstad, Marie Nøvik

    2011-01-01

    This literature study reviewed papers on caries risk assessment on patients` above 18 years published between 2000 and 2010. In the present study three different methods are discussed: The Cariogram, CAMBRA ( Caries Management By Risk Assessment) and the UIT – method (University of Tromsø). The purpose of caries risk assessments are to find out which risk level the patient has and try to lower the risk. By evaluating the protective and pathologic factors involved in the carious disease the de...

  17. Laser prophylaxis and treatment of primary caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazmina, Svetlana G.; Kunin, Anatoly A.; Dergunova, Elvira I.

    1995-04-01

    The light of He-Ne laser is widely used for the treatment of many stomatological diseases. The caries static activity of a helium-neon laser (HNL) light, its influence ont he activation of microcirculation of the pulpenzyme system and on the increase of enamel permeability became clear nowadays. These data allow to suppose that the Ne-Ne light may potent the activity of the initial caries by the increase of teeth stability to the factors provoking the caries.

  18. Dental caries prevalence and risk factors among 12-year old schoolchildren from Baghdad, Iraq

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Nibras A M; Astrøm, Anne N; Skaug, Nils;

    2007-01-01

    were 1.7 and 1.3. The rate of caries experience (DMFT > 0) was 62%. DMFT increased significantly with higher education of the mother, not being embarrassed to smile, missing school due to dental pain and between-meals mode of drinking. Increased sugar consumption was associated with being a boy, having......AIM: To examine the prevalence of dental caries in 12-year-old schoolchildren from Baghdad after the end of the United Nations' economic sanctions and to investigate related dental caries risk factors including gender, socio-demographic factors, oral hygiene and sugar intake. DESIGN: A cross......-sectional dental caries examination and questionnaire survey was conducted in 10 schools from west Baghdad. METHODS: Dental examinations based on WHO criteria and questionnaire surveys were performed on 392 children. Water samples were collected and fluoride concentration assessed. RESULTS: The mean DMFT and DF...

  19. A reappraisal of the quantitative relationship between sugar intake and dental caries: the need for new criteria for developing goals for sugar intake

    OpenAIRE

    Sheiham, A.; James, W P

    2014-01-01

    Background There is a clear relation between sugars and caries. However, no analysis has yet been made of the lifetime burden of caries induced by sugar to see whether the WHO goal of 10% level is optimum and compatible with low levels of caries. The objective of this study was to re-examine the dose-response and quantitative relationship between sugar intake and the incidence of dental caries and to see whether the WHO goal for sugar intake of 10% of energy intake (E) is optimum for low leve...

  20. Health promotion and dental caries

    OpenAIRE

    Marisa Maltz; Juliana Jobim Jardim; Luana Severo Alves

    2010-01-01

    The central idea of the Brazilian health system is to prevent the establishment of disease or detect it as early as possible. Prevention and treatment of dental caries are related to behavioral factors, including dietary and oral hygiene habits, which are related to many chronic diseases. Dental health promotion therefore should be fully integrated into broadly based health-promoting strategies and actions such as food and health policies, and general hygiene (including oral hygiene), among o...

  1. Risk factors in dental caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Emamie

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available   Since 3 decades ago, dental equipments and technologies as well as materials have been greatly improved and numerous effective treatment modalities have been discovered. As a result, the number of survived teeth have been greatly increased and many studies have been conducted in this regard. Fluride therapy is found as an effective treatment modality and can reduce dental caries up to 60%, due to recent evidences.

  2. Restorative treatment thresholds for occlusal primary caries among dentists in the dental practice-based research network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gordan, Valeria V; Bader, James D; Garvan, Cynthia W;

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. The authors report on a study aimed at quantifying the carious lesion depths at which dentists intervene surgically for cases of varying caries penetration and caries risk. They also aimed to identify characteristics that are associated with surgical intervention. METHODS: The investi......OBJECTIVES. The authors report on a study aimed at quantifying the carious lesion depths at which dentists intervene surgically for cases of varying caries penetration and caries risk. They also aimed to identify characteristics that are associated with surgical intervention. METHODS......: The investigators surveyed dentists enrolled in a dental practice-based research network who reported performing at least some restorative dentistry. In the survey, dentists were asked to indicate whether they would intervene surgically in a series of cases involving occlusal caries. Each case presentation included...... a photograph of an occlusal surface displaying typical characteristics of caries penetration and a written description of a patient at a specific level of risk of developing caries. Using logistic regression, the authors analyzed associations between surgical treatment with dentists' and practices...

  3. The relationship between diet and Dental Caries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dental caries is a disease of multifactorial etiology and results from a complex interaction between both cariogenic and protective influences acting on the teeth. Though diet plays a major role in the causation of dental caries it has been a common mistake to over-simplify the relationship. Dietary manipulation is also extremely difficult to achieve thus limiting its role in the prevention of caries. Accordingly, alternative preventive measures such as the use of fissure sealants and fluoride which enhance the resistance of the host to disease and are of proven efficacy are more likely to be successful in the control and prevention of dental caries. (author)

  4. Dental Caries Vaccine – A Possible Option?

    OpenAIRE

    KT, Shanmugam; KMK, Masthan; N, Balachander; Jimson, Sudha; R, Sarangarajan

    2013-01-01

    Dental caries is an irreversible microbial disease of the calcified tissues of the teeth and it has a multifactorial origin. In India, the dental caries prevalence in 35-44 year olds was reported to be 80-95% in a DCI survey. Among the elderly in the 65-74 years age group, the DCI survey reported the caries prevalence to be about 70%, while the present survey reported it to be 51- 95% in various states. Surveys which were done on school children in India showed a carie prevalence of approxima...

  5. Dental Caries Vaccine – A Possible Option?

    Science.gov (United States)

    KT, Shanmugam; KMK, Masthan; N, Balachander; Jimson, Sudha; R, Sarangarajan

    2013-01-01

    Dental caries is an irreversible microbial disease of the calcified tissues of the teeth and it has a multifactorial origin. In India, the dental caries prevalence in 35-44 year olds was reported to be 80-95% in a DCI survey. Among the elderly in the 65-74 years age group, the DCI survey reported the caries prevalence to be about 70%, while the present survey reported it to be 51- 95% in various states. Surveys which were done on school children in India showed a carie prevalence of approximately 58%.Among the U.S. population, a survey showed an incidence of 93.8% in adults with either past or present coronal caries and an incidence of 45.3% in children 23. In countries like Brazil and China, it is reaching epidemic proportions. Thus, more effective public-health measures are needed to combat dental caries. Mutans streptococci is one of the main microorganisms which are associated with the aetiology of dental caries. Preclinical studies of immunological interventions have shown that the disease can be interrupted. Clinical trials have indicated that a mucosal immune response to Streptococcus mutans crucial antigens can influence the pathogenesis of dental caries. The dental caries vaccine, when it is used in appropriate individuals at the appropriate time, can reduce the reemergence of the disease. PMID:23905153

  6. [Aiming for zero blindness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Toru

    2015-03-01

    -independent factors, as well as our investigation of ways to improve the clinical evaluation of the disease. Our research was prompted by the multifactorial nature of glaucoma. There is a high degree of variability in the pattern and speed of the progression of visual field defects in individual patients, presenting a major obstacle for successful clinical trials. To overcome this, we classified the eyes of glaucoma patients into 4 types, corresponding to the 4 patterns of glaucomatous optic nerve head morphology described: by Nicolela et al. and then tested the validity of this method by assessing the uniformity of clinical features in each group. We found that in normal tension glaucoma (NTG) eyes, each disc morphology group had a characteristic location in which the loss of circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (cpRNFLT; measured with optical coherence tomography: OCT) was most likely to occur. Furthermore, the incidence of reductions in visual acuity differed between the groups, as did the speed of visual field loss, the distribution of defective visual field test points, and the location of test points that were most susceptible to progressive damage, measured by Humphrey static perimetry. These results indicate that Nicolela's method of classifying eyes with glaucoma was able to overcome the difficulties caused by the diverse nature of the disease, at least to a certain extent. Building on these findings, we then set out to identify sectors of the visual field that correspond to the distribution of retinal nerve fibers, with the aim of detecting glaucoma progression with improved sensitivity. We first mapped the statistical correlation between visual field test points and cpRNFLT in each temporal clock-hour sector (from 6 to 12 o'clock), using OCT data from NTG patients. The resulting series of maps allowed us to identify areas containing visual field test points that were prone to be affected together as a group. We also used a similar method to identify visual

  7. Prevalence, risk surfaces and inter-municipality variations in caries experience in Danish children and adolescents in 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørrisgaard, Pia Elisabeth; Qvist, Vibeke; Ekstrand, Kim

    2016-01-01

    -municipality variation in caries experience. Materials and methods Data was collected in the public Child Dental Health Service. In total, 5636 caries registrations on 3-, 9-, 15- and 18-year-olds were collected in 35 of the 98 Danish municipalities. Caries experience was expressed by mean def-s/DMF-S and caries...... prevalence by def-s = 0/DMF-S = 0. Inter-municipality variations were illustrated. Multivariate regression analyses were applied to assess the influence of fluoride concentration in drinking water, proportion of immigrants and personal income on the inter-municipality variation in mean def-s/DMF-S. Results......Objective The aim of this study was to describe the caries experience, prevalence and distribution related to tooth type and surfaces in the primary and permanent dentition in children and adolescents in Denmark in 2012. In addition, to examine if explanatory factors influence the inter...

  8. Efficacy of Miswak (Salvadorapersica in Prevention of Dental Caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Ezoddini

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: The rate of tooth decay and periodontal diseases today is still high, regardless of progress in oral and dental hygiene. The traditional toothbrush or chewing stick called "Miswak" has been used since ancient times. Many significant effects of Miswak such as antibacterial, anti-caries and antiperiopathic effects have been recognized today. Tooth care is a very important issue and both prevention and treatment of dental caries could be very helpful in maintaining good personal health. In this research, the efficacy of natural toothbrush or Miswak in prevention of dental caries was investigated and compared with the efficacy of ordinary toothbrush and toothpaste. Aim: Miswak was introduced for preventing dental caries by the Holy Prophet Mohammad (S.A.W 1400 years ago and has been used since then in many Islamic countries. In this research, the efficacy of Miswak in prevention of dental caries was investigated and compared with the efficacy of ordinary toothbrush. Methods: This analytical and clinical trial was performed in a high school student population (girls and boys in the city of Yazd, Iran in 2001-2002. Twelve high schools were randomly chosen. From these high schools, 380 second year students (190 cases and 190 controls were enrolled and their teeth condition such as the number of decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMF were recorded in a specific questionnaire. The degrees of decay in the decayed teeth were recorded as well. Then, Miswak sticks were distributed to the case group and required dental training was given to both groups. After one year, the examinations were repeated and findings recorded in the same questionnaires. For analyzing the data, one-way variance analysis, Chi square, Paired t-test and two variable analyses were used. Results: At the start of the study, there were no significant differences between the two groups (case and control with regards to their dental condition and the frequency of

  9. Teeth Caries Decay in MR Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray based visualization techniques were for many years the only way to asses structure and state of the human teeth. MRI has been used in the research of the healthy and decayed teeth during last decade. Several papers were presented showing usefulness of spin echo and gradient echo imaging, Single Point Imaging, SPRITE and STRAFI techniques for visualization of the dental surface geometry as well as for distinction between soft tissue (pulp) and mineralized tissue (enamel, dentine and root cement) in the extracted teeth. Recently, MRI was used for estimation of the facial bone structure, in preparation to implantation, localization of the tumor in the facial bone tissue, and in detection of the osteoporosis. The aim of this work was to investigate potential of MRI for detection and estimation of the caries, on the level of laboratory pre-clinical tests. This work was done within the project to develop original, MRI based diagnostic technique for dentistry needs. MRI experiments were performed on the 5 decayed extracted human teeth (impossible conservative therapy), obtained at Dept. of Dental Surgery MUS. After extraction teeth were stored in saline. MRI measurements were done in MR Tomography Lab INP. Prior to the experiment, tooth was degassed to minimize magnetic susceptibility artifacts. A 3D spin echo pulse sequence on the 4.7 T research MRI system, equipped with Maran DRX console, and dedicated home-built probe head, was used to obtain three dimensional (256x128x128) images of the teeth. Corresponding resolution was 60x120x160 mm3. High intensity signal from water penetrated into the porous decayed regions of tooth, contrasted with lack of signal from mineralized tooth tissue, allow for visualization of the presence and extent of caries. Among the 5 measured teeth, MRI allows for detection of the caries in two most decayed tooth. High intensity signal from water penetrated into the porous decayed regions of tooth, contrasted with lack of signal from

  10. Caries-preventive effect of glass ionomer and resin-based fissure sealants on permanent teeth: An update of systematic review evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Yengopal Veerasamy; Mickenautsch Steffen

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background This article constitutes a partial update of the original systematic review evidence by Yengopal et al. from 15 January 2008 (published in the Journal of Oral Science in 2009) with primary focus on research quality in regard to bias risk in trials. Its aim is to update the existing systematic review evidence from the English literature as to whether caries occurrence on pits and fissures of teeth sealed with either GIC or resin is the same. Methods In addition to the 12 tr...

  11. Can coffee prevent caries?

    OpenAIRE

    Anila Namboodiripad P; Kori Sumathi

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To determine the anti-carious effect of coffee in humans. Coffee represents one of the most consumed products by the population. Materials and Methods: A random sample of 1000 individuals, of both sexes, who consumed only coffee as a beverage and who visited the Out-Patient Department of KLE Society′s Institute of Dental Sci-ences, with a dental complaint and no history of any major illness, were considered as subjects. The patients′ histories with regard to the coffee inta...

  12. Innate immunity glycoprotein gp-340 variants may modulate human susceptibility to dental caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johansson Ingegerd

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacterial adhesion is an important determinant of colonization and infection, including dental caries. The salivary scavenger receptor cysteine-rich glycoprotein gp-340, which mediates adhesion of Streptococcus mutans (implicated in caries, harbours three major size variants, designated gp-340 I to III, each specific to an individual saliva. Here we have examined the association of the gp-340 I to III polymorphisms with caries experience and adhesion of S. mutans. Methods A case-referent study was performed in 12-year-old Swedish children with high (n = 19 or low (n = 19 caries experiences. We measured the gp-340 I to III saliva phenotypes and correlated those with multiple outcome measures for caries experience and saliva adhesion of S. mutans using the partial least squares (PLS multivariate projection technique. In addition, we used traditional statistics and 2-year caries increment to verify the established PLS associations, and bacterial adhesion to purified gp-340 I to III proteins to support possible mechanisms. Results All except one subject were typed as gp-340 I to III (10, 23 and 4, respectively. The gp-340 I phenotype correlated positively with caries experience (VIP = 1.37 and saliva adhesion of S. mutans Ingbritt (VIP = 1.47. The gp-340 II and III phenotypes tended to behave in the opposite way. Moreover, the gp-340 I phenotype tended to show an increased 2-year caries increment compared to phenotypes II/III. Purified gp-340 I protein mediated markedly higher adhesion of S. mutans strains Ingbritt and NG8 and Lactococcus lactis expressing AgI/II adhesins (SpaP or PAc compared to gp-340 II and III proteins. In addition, the gp-340 I protein appeared over represented in subjects positive for Db, an allelic acidic PRP variant associated with caries, and subjects positive for both gp-340 I and Db tended to experience more caries than those negative for both proteins. Conclusion Gp-340 I behaves as a caries

  13. Multimodal imaging system for dental caries detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Rongguang; Wong, Victor; Marcus, Michael; Burns, Peter; McLaughlin, Paul

    2007-02-01

    Dental caries is a disease in which minerals of the tooth are dissolved by surrounding bacterial plaques. A caries process present for some time may result in a caries lesion. However, if it is detected early enough, the dentist and dental professionals can implement measures to reverse and control caries. Several optical, nonionized methods have been investigated and used to detect dental caries in early stages. However, there is not a method that can singly detect the caries process with both high sensitivity and high specificity. In this paper, we present a multimodal imaging system that combines visible reflectance, fluorescence, and Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) imaging. This imaging system is designed to obtain one or more two-dimensional images of the tooth (reflectance and fluorescence images) and a three-dimensional OCT image providing depth and size information of the caries. The combination of two- and three-dimensional images of the tooth has the potential for highly sensitive and specific detection of dental caries.

  14. Palmistry: A tool for dental caries prediction!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Madan

    2011-01-01

    Results and Conclusion: Handprints of caries-free children, especially females, showed maximum ulnar loops. The caries group showed maximum occurrence of whorls (r=2:1, which were more prevalent in females on the left hand 3rd digit than in males where the whorls were found on the right hand 3 rd digit, and also low total ridge count, especially in males.

  15. Prevalence of sealants in relation to dental caries on the permanent molars of 12 and 15-year-old Greek adolescents. A national pathfinder survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamai-Homata Eleni

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of sealants as an effective measure for the prevention of pit and fissure caries in children has been well documented by several studies; either they are used on an individual or on a public health basis. In order to plan and establish a national preventive program with sealants in a community, it is mandatory to know the epidemiological pattern of caries along with other variables influencing their use and effectiveness. Aims: To assess the utilization and distribution pattern of pit and fissure sealants on the first and second permanent molars of Greek adolescents and to evaluate whether the existing usage of sealants and some socio-demographic factors are correlated to caries prevalence on the population examined Methods A stratified cluster sample of 2481 Greek adolescents was selected according to WHO guidelines (1224 twelve and 1,257 fifteen-year-old, living in urban and rural areas in 11 districts within the country. Five calibrated examiners carried out clinical examinations, recording caries experience at the dentine threshold (BASCD criteria and presence or absence of sealants along with Socio-demographic indicators associated with oral health. Mann Whitney and Pearson's chi-square non parametric tests were utilized for assessing the data. The level of significance was p Results Sealants utilization varied considerably within the different districts, with 8,3% of the 12 and 8,0% of the 15-year-old adolescents having at least one sealed molar. Sealants reduced DMFS scores by 11% in the 12-year-olds and by 24% in the 15-year-olds, while 15-year-old adolescents from rural areas had a statistically significant (p = 0.002 less chance of having sealants (71% compared to children from urban areas. Girls had higher chance to receive sealants in both age groups (26% for the 12 and 19% for the 15-year-old as well as patients that visited the dentist for prevention compared to those visiting the dentist because they

  16. Micro CT settings for caries detection: how to optimize.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaiben CL

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Some important items that can influence micro CT image were reviewed in this study. Different settings were optimized for the assessment of early caries lesions. There are several researches on bone using micro CT but not too much on dental hard tissues when assessing mineral loss. Different kinds of micro CT devices and technologies are taking place today, each requiring unique settings, and this consists one of the greatest obstacles for the use of micro CT on dental hard tissues. Achieving the settings for an ideal dental image is therefore a challenge. The purpose of this study was to evaluate different micro CT settings to optimize the assessment of early caries lesions aiming the integrity of the dental specimen thus, making possible to reuse it for further studies. Three teeth with early caries lesions were submitted to different micro CT settings and different reconstruction settings, aiming a better image. The final image was compared visually through different densities and attenuation coefficients. The best setting for teeth tissues was achieved regarding contrast, definition, noise reduction and the larger difference between sound enamel and early lesions attenuation coefficient.

  17. Economic aspects of the detection of occlusal dentine caries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norlund, Anders; Axelsson, Susanna; Dahlen, Gunnar;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the cost of true-positive occlusal dentine caries detection in permanent molars assessed by: (I) visual-tactile examination, (II) visual-tactile examination combined with bitewing radiographs, and (III) selective radiographic examination of patients with lesions detected...... clinically. A second aim was to analyse the different strategies when the costs of the subsequent restorative care are considered. METHODS: A model analysis was applied owing to the lack of original articles. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated from a systematic review and included in vitro and in...... most beneficial by up to 26% savings per true-positive diagnosis. However, with this selective strategy, more cases of true-positive dentine caries were assumed would remain undetected as compared with the combined strategy with visual-tactile examination and radiographs for all. CONCLUSIONS: The cost...

  18. Detection of occlusal caries in primary teeth using swept source optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Yukie; Shimada, Yasushi; Sadr, Alireza; Wada, Ikumi; Miyashin, Michiyo; Takagi, Yuzo; Tagami, Junji; Sumi, Yasunori

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) as a detecting tool for occlusal caries in primary teeth. At the in vitro part of the study, 38 investigation sites of occlusal fissures (noncavitated and cavitated) were selected from 26 extracted primary teeth and inspected visually using conventional dental equipment by six examiners without any magnification. SS-OCT cross-sectional images at 1330-nm center wavelength were acquired on the same locations. The teeth were then sectioned at the investigation site and directly viewed under a confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) by two experienced examiners. The presence and extent of caries were scored in each observation. The results obtained from SS-OCT and conventional visual inspections were compared with those of CLSM. Consequently, SS-OCT could successfully detect both cavitated and noncavitated lesions. The magnitude of sensitivity for SS-OCT was higher than those for visual inspection (sensitivity of visual inspection and SS-OCT, 0.70 versus 0.93 for enamel demineralization, 0.49 versus 0.89 for enamel cavitated caries, and 0.36 versus 0.75 for dentin caries). Additionally, occlusal caries of a few clinical cases were observed using SS-OCT in vivo. The results indicate that SS-OCT has a great detecting potential for occlusal caries in primary teeth.

  19. Update on nonsurgical, ultraconservative approaches to treat effectively non-cavitated caries lesions in permanent teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Boniek Castillo Dutra; de Souza Borges, Juliane; de Araujo, Larissa Sgarbosa Napoleao; Machado, Claudia Tavares; Dos Santos, Alex Jose Souza; de Assunçao Pinheiro, Isauremi Vieira

    2011-04-01

    Dental caries on tooth surfaces is still a problem in many industrialized countries. For many years, dentistry was influenced by a mechanical approach characterized by the use of high-speed rotary cutting instruments, and dentists predominantly used surgical methods to address caries. This included radical removal of diseased portions of the tooth, along with material-driven geometric extensions to areas that were assumed to be caries-resistant. This concept of extension for prevention was introduced by G. V. Black and influenced dentists for more than 120 years. Recently, a new paradigm of operative conservatism, sometimes referred to as "minimally invasive dentistry," has gained popularity. This paradigm is designed to promote maximum preservation of healthy dental structures over a lifetime. The aim of this review is to discuss the efficacy of current nonsurgical treatments for non-cavitated caries lesions in permanent teeth. Based on results obtained from clinical trials, this review evaluates treatments such as consumption of CPP-ACP added gums, resin infiltration and fissure sealing. Although in a few cases an invasive approach is needed to arrest caries progression, the non-surgical approach generally provides potential benefits that include conserving structure by delaying intervention or minimizing the operative procedure. All current non-invasive methods are effective in treating non-cavitated caries lesions. The adoption of non-invasive approaches in the management of these lesions can preserve dental tissues, thus increasing tooth longevity. PMID:21494394

  20. Knowledge and attitude of parents or caretakers regarding transmissibility os caries disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivien T. Sakai

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is a transmissible infectious disease in which mutans streptococci are generally considered to be the main etiological agents. Although the transmissibility of dental caries is relatively well established in the literature, little is known whether information regarding this issue is correctly provided to the population. The present study aimed at evaluating, by means of a questionnaire, the knowledge and usual attitude of 640 parents and caretakers regarding the transmissibility of caries disease. Most interviewed adults did not know the concept of dental caries being an infectious and transmissible disease, and reported the habit of blowing and tasting food, sharing utensils and kissing the children on their mouth. 372 (58.1% adults reported that their children had already been seen by a dentist, 264 (41.3% answered that their children had never gone to a dentist, and 4 (0.6% did not know. When the adults were asked whether their children had already had dental caries, 107 (16.7% answered yes, 489 (76.4% answered no, and 44 (6.9% did not know. Taken together, these data reinforce the need to provide the population with some important information regarding the transmission of dental caries in order to facilitate a more comprehensive approach towards the prevention of the disease.

  1. The Shape of the Dose-Response Relationship between Sugars and Caries in Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernabé, E; Vehkalahti, M M; Sheiham, A; Lundqvist, A; Suominen, A L

    2016-02-01

    Dental caries is considered a diet-mediated disease, as sugars are essential in the caries process. However, some gaps in knowledge about the sugars-caries relationship still need addressing. This longitudinal study aimed to explore 1) the shape of the dose-response association between sugars intake and caries in adults, 2) the relative contribution of frequency and amount of sugars intake to caries levels, and 3) whether the association between sugars intake and caries varies by exposure to fluoride toothpaste. We used data from 1,702 dentate adults who participated in at least 2 of 3 surveys in Finland (Health 2000, 2004/05 Follow-up Study of Adults' Oral Health, and Health 2011). Frequency and amount of sugars intake were measured with a validated food frequency questionnaire. The DMFT index was the repeated outcome measure. Data were analyzed with fractional polynomials and linear mixed effects models. None of the 43 fractional polynomials tested provided a better fit to the data than the simpler linear model. In a mutually adjusted linear mixed effects model, the amount of, but not the frequency of, sugars intake was significantly associated with DMFT throughout the follow-up period. Furthermore, the longitudinal association between amount of sugars intake and DMFT was weaker in adults who used fluoride toothpaste daily than in those using it less often than daily. The findings of this longitudinal study among Finnish adults suggest a linear dose-response relationship between sugars and caries, with amount of intake being more important than frequency of ingestion. Also, daily use of fluoride toothpaste reduced but did not eliminate the association between amount of sugars intake and dental caries. PMID:26553884

  2. Bonding to sound vs caries-affected dentin using photo- and dual-cure adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Say, Esra Can; Nakajima, Masatoshi; Senawongse, Pisol; Soyman, Mübin; Ozer, Füsun; Tagami, Junji

    2005-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the microtensile bond strength (microTBS) of photo- and dual-cure adhesives to sound and caries-affected dentin using total- and self-etch techniques. Human third molars with occlusal caries were prepared as previously described by Nakajima and others (1995). Dentin surfaces were bonded with Optibond Solo Plus (Kerr; photo-cure adhesive) or Optibond Solo Plus + Dual-cure activator (Kerr; dual-cure adhesive) with total- and self-etch technique. Clearfil AP-X (Kuraray) was used for composite buildups. Following storage in distilled water at 37 degrees C for 24 hours, the teeth were sectioned into 0.7-mm thick slices to obtain sound and caries-affected dentin slabs, then trimmed to form hour glass shapes with a 1 mm2 cross-sectional area. The specimens were subjected to microtensile testing using EZ-test (Shimadzu) at 1 mm/minute. Data were analyzed using three-way ANOVA and Student's t-Test (p<0.05). Bond strengths to sound dentin with photo- and dual-cure adhesives using total- and self-etch techniques were significantly higher than those to caries-affected dentin. Dual-cure adhesive significantly decreased bond strengths both to sound and caries-affected dentin. The total-etch technique showed no beneficial effect on caries-affected dentin compared with the self-etch technique. Scanning electron microscopic observation of the resin-dentin interfaces revealed that hybrid layers in caries-affected dentin were thicker than those observed in sound dentin with photo- and dual-cure adhesives. Resin infiltration into dentinal tubules of caries-affected dentin was hampered by the presence of mineral deposits. PMID:15765963

  3. The role of chlorhexidine in caries prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autio-Gold, Jaana

    2008-01-01

    The use of chlorhexidine for caries prevention has been a controversial topic among dental educators and clinicians. In several reviews, it has been concluded that the most persistent reduction of mutans streptococci have been achieved by chlorhexidine varnishes, followed by gels and, lastly, mouth rinses. Also, the evidence for using different chlorhexidine modes or a combination of chlorhexidine-fluoride therapy for caries prevention has been "suggestive but incomplete". Variable study designs and lack of data in high-risk children and adults support the need to continue conducting randomized, well-controlled clinical trials and to search for a practical, effective mode of antimicrobial treatment that augments the known effect of fluoride treatments. Currently, the only chlorhexidine-containing products marketed in the United States (US) are mouthrinses containing 0.12 percent chlorhexidine. Based on the available reviews, chlorhexidine rinses have not been highly effective in preventing caries, or at least the clinical data are not convincing. Due to the current lack of long-term clinical evidence for caries prevention and reported side effects, chlorhexidine rinses should not be recommended for caries prevention. Due to the inconclusive literature and sparse clinical data on gels and varnishes, their use for caries prevention should also be studied further to develop evidence-based recommendations for their clinical role in caries prevention. Since dental caries is a disease with a multifactoral etiology, it is currently more appropriate to use other established, evidence-based prevention methods, such as fluoride applications, diet modifications and good oral hygiene practices. Recent findings also indicate that the effect of an antimicrobial agent for reducing the levels of mutans streptococci or plaque reduction may not always correlate with eventual caries reduction. The clinically important outcome is proven reductions in caries. Many advances in the

  4. An in vitro comparison of a combined FOTI/Visual examination of occlusal caries with other caries diagnostic methods and the effect of stain on their diagnostic performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekstrand, K.R.; Côrtes, D.F.; Ellwood, R.P.

    Occlusal caries, detection, fibre optic transillumination, visual inspection, DIAGNOdent, laser fluorescence, electrical caries monitor, electrical resistance, stain......Occlusal caries, detection, fibre optic transillumination, visual inspection, DIAGNOdent, laser fluorescence, electrical caries monitor, electrical resistance, stain...

  5. Inter-relationship of intelligence-quotient and self-concept with dental caries amongst socially handicapped orphan children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PKS Virk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context : India has been the focus of many health surveys among normal, physically, and mentally handicapped children. However, the data, concerning oral health conditions of socially handicapped children living in orphanages, are scanty. Aims: To study the effect of parental inadequacy, environmental deprivation, and emotional disturbances on dental caries through intelligence quotient (IQ and self-concept in orphan children and also to co-relate dental caries with different levels of IQ and self-concept. Settings and Design: The study was carried out amongst socially handicapped children living in orphanages. Patients and Methods: 100 children in the age group of 10-14 years from orphanages were selected. Malin′s Intelligence Scale for Indian Children (MISIC was used to assess the intelligence quotient; self-concept questionnaire to assess self-concept of the child and recording of dental caries status of children was done as per WHO Index (1997. StatisticaL Analysis Used : To assess the relationship of dental caries with IQ, student′s unpaired t-test was used and; to find the relationship between self-concept and dental caries, Karl-Pearson′s coefficient of co-relation was applied. Results: the children in orphanages had a lower IQ and high caries experience but had an above average self-concept. There was also no co-relation between dental caries and self-concept. Conclusions: Orphan children, being socially handicapped, are at an increased risk for dental caries due to a lower IQ level, parental deprivation, and institutionalization. Moreover, lack of co-relation between dental caries and self-concept could be explained by the fact that dental caries is a lifelong process whereas different dimensions of self-concept are in a state of constant flux.

  6. Validation of self-reported information on dental caries in a birth cohort at 18 years of age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Emidio Ribeiro Silva

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Estimate the prevalence of dental caries based on clinical examinations and self-reports and compare differences in the prevalence and effect measures between the two methods among 18-year-olds belonging to a 1993 birth cohort in the city of Pelotas, Brazil. METHOD: Data on self-reported caries, socio-demographic aspects and oral health behaviour were collected using a questionnaire administered to adolescents aged 18 years (n = 4041. Clinical caries was evaluated (n = 1014 by a dentist who had undergone training and calibration exercises. Prevalence rates of clinical and self-reported caries, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, absolute and relative bias, and inflation factors were calculated. Prevalence ratios of dental caries were estimated for each risk factor. RESULTS: The prevalence of clinical and self-reported caries (DMFT>1 was 66.5% (95%CI: 63.6%-69.3% and 60.3% (95%CI: 58.8%-61.8%, respectively. Self-reports underestimated the prevalence of dental caries by 9.3% in comparison to clinical evaluations. The analysis of the validity of self-reports regarding the DMFT index indicated high sensitivity (81.8%; 95%CI: 78.7%-84.7% and specificity (78.1%; 95%CI: 73.3%-82.4% in relation to the gold standard (clinical evaluation. Both the clinical and self-reported evaluations were associated with gender, schooling and self-rated oral health. Clinical dental caries was associated with visits to the dentist in the previous year. Self-reported dental caries was associated with daily tooth brushing frequency. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the present findings, self-reported information on dental caries using the DMFT index requires further studies prior to its use in the analysis of risk factors, but is valid for population-based health surveys with the aim of planning and monitoring oral health actions directed at adolescents.

  7. Effectiveness of the bucco-lingual technique within a school-based supervised toothbrushing program on preventing caries: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frazão Paulo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Supervised toothbrushing programs using fluoride dentifrice have reduced caries increment. However there is no information about the effectiveness of the professional cross-brushing technique within a community intervention. The aim was to assess if the bucco-lingual technique can increase the effectiveness of a school-based supervised toothbrushing program on preventing caries. Methods A randomized double-blinded controlled community intervention trial to be analyzed at an individual level was conducted in a Brazilian low-income fluoridated area. Six preschools were randomly assigned to the test and control groups and 284 five-year-old children presenting at least one permanent molar with emerged/sound occlusal surface participated. In control group, oral health education and dental plaque dying followed by toothbrushing with fluoride dentifrice supervised directly by a dental assistant, was developed four times per year. At the remaining school days the children brushed their teeth under indirect supervising of the teachers. In test group, children also underwent a professional cross-brushing on surfaces of first permanent molar rendered by a specially trained dental assistant five times per year. Enamel and dentin caries were recorded on buccal, occlusal and lingual surfaces of permanent molars during 18-month follow-up. Exposure time of surfaces was calculated and incidence density ratio was estimated using Poisson regression model. Results Difference of 21.6 lesions per 1,000 children between control and test groups was observed. Among boys whose caries risk was higher compared to girls, incidence density was 50% lower in test group (p = 0.016. Conclusion Modified program was effective among the boys. It is licit to project a relevant effect in a larger period suggesting in a broader population substantial reduction of dental care needs. Trial registration ISRCTN18548869.

  8. Caries experience in the primary dentition and presence of plaque in 7-year-old Chinese children: A 4-year time-lag study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, X.; Fan, M.; Mulder, J.; Frencken, J.E.F.M.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that dental caries prevalence and caries experience in primary dentitions has increased over 4 years and to compare the presence of plaque on permanent teeth in child cohorts over 4 years. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A time-lag study des

  9. Dental caries and oral health practices among 12 year old children in Nairobi West and Mathira West Districts, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Gathecha, Gladwell; Makokha, Anselimo; Wanzala, Peter; Omolo, Jared; Smith, Perry

    2012-01-01

    Background Dental caries is a common disease in children which causes pain with resultant effect on various physiological and social functions. The main objective of the study was to determine the association between dental caries and oral health knowledge and practice among children in Nairobi West and Mathira West Districts. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 639 children aged 12 years attending public primary schools in Nairobi West and Mathira West districts between Augus...

  10. Association between iron status, iron deficiency anaemia, and severe early childhood caries: a case–control study

    OpenAIRE

    Schroth Robert J; Levi Jeremy; Kliewer Eleonore; Friel James; Moffatt Michael EK

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Severe tooth decay is known to affect the health and well-being of young children. However, little is known about the influence of Severe Early Childhood Caries (S-ECC) on childhood nutritional status. The purpose of this study was to contrast ferritin and haemoglobin levels between preschoolers with S-ECC and caries-free controls. Methods Children were recruited as part of a larger case–control study examining differences in nutritional status between those with and witho...

  11. An oral health education video game for high caries risk children: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Aljafari, Ahmad; Rice, Colm; Gallagher, Jennifer Elizabeth; Hosey, Marie Therese

    2015-01-01

    Background Tooth decay is the most common chronic disease of childhood in the world. Many children develop caries early in their lives, and go on to develop further caries and sepsis as they grow up, indicating failure in prevention. As a result, many end up requiring general anaesthesia to undergo treatment for a disease that is completely preventable. Previous studies have suggested that the families of these children need better oral health education as well as better support in implementi...

  12. Effect of fluoride varnish on Streptococcus mutans counts in plaque of caries-free children using dentocult SM strip mutans test: A randomized controlled triple blind study

    OpenAIRE

    Jeevarathan J; Deepti A; Muthu M; Rathna Prabhu V; Chamundeeswari G

    2007-01-01

    Dental caries is one of the most prevalent infectious diseases and although of multifactorial origin, Streptococcus mutans is considered the chief pathogen in its development. Fluoride is one of the most effective agents used for the reduction of dental caries apart from oral hygiene maintenance. Aims: The aim of this study was to estimate the counts of Streptococcus mutans and to evaluate the effect of Fluor Protector fluoride varnish on these counts in the plaque of caries-free childr...

  13. Proximal caries detection using digital subtraction radiography in the artificial caries activity model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the experiment was to evaluating the diagnostic ability of dental caries detection using digital subtraction in the artificial caries activity model. Digital radiographs of five teeth with 8 proximal surfaces were obtained by CCD sensor (Kodak RVG 6100 using a size no.2). The digital radiographic images and subtraction images from artificial proximal caries were examined and interpreted. In this study, we proposed novel caries detection method which could diagnose the dental proximal caries from single digital radiographic image. In artificial caries activity model, the range of lesional depth was 572-1,374 μm and the range of lesional area was 36.95-138.52 mm2. The lesional depth and the area were significantly increased with demineralization time (p<0.001). Furthermore, the proximal caries detection using digital subtraction radiography showed high detection rate compared to the proximal caries examination using simple digital radiograph. The results demonstrated that the digital subtraction radiography from single radiographic image of artificial caries was highly efficient in the detection of dental caries compared to the data from simple digital radiograph.

  14. Proximal caries detection using digital subtraction radiography in the artificial caries activity model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong Hoon; Lee, Gi Ja; Choi, Sam Jin; Park, Young Ho; Kim, Kyung Soo; Jin, Hyun Seok; Hong, Kyung Won; Oh, Berm Seok; Park, Hun Kuk [Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Yong Suk; Hwang, Eui Hwan [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Institute of Oral Biology, School of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-03-15

    The purpose of the experiment was to evaluating the diagnostic ability of dental caries detection using digital subtraction in the artificial caries activity model. Digital radiographs of five teeth with 8 proximal surfaces were obtained by CCD sensor (Kodak RVG 6100 using a size no.2). The digital radiographic images and subtraction images from artificial proximal caries were examined and interpreted. In this study, we proposed novel caries detection method which could diagnose the dental proximal caries from single digital radiographic image. In artificial caries activity model, the range of lesional depth was 572-1,374 {mu}m and the range of lesional area was 36.95-138.52 mm{sup 2}. The lesional depth and the area were significantly increased with demineralization time (p<0.001). Furthermore, the proximal caries detection using digital subtraction radiography showed high detection rate compared to the proximal caries examination using simple digital radiograph. The results demonstrated that the digital subtraction radiography from single radiographic image of artificial caries was highly efficient in the detection of dental caries compared to the data from simple digital radiograph.

  15. Validity of scoring caries and primary molar hypomineralization (DMH) on intraoral photographs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.E.C. Elfrink; J.S.J. Veerkamp; I.H.A. Aartman; H.A. Moll; J.M. ten Cate

    2009-01-01

    AIM: The aims of this study were to assess whether intraoral photographs could be used to score caries and hypomineralization on primary molars (Using adapted Molar Incisor Hypomineralization (MIH)-criteria), and also to assess the reliability and validity in 3-7 year-old Dutch children of these sco

  16. Geo-mapping of time trends in childhood caries risk--a method for assessment of preventive care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strömberg, Ulf; Holmn, Anders; Magnusson, Kerstin; Twetman, Svante

    2012-01-01

    Dental caries is unevenly distributed within populations with a higher burden in low socio-economy groups. Several attempts have been made to allocate resources to those that need them the most; there is a need for convenient approaches to population-based monitoring of caries risk over time. The...... aim of this study was to develop the geo-map concept, addressing time trends in caries risk, and demonstrate the novel approach by analyzing epidemiological data from preschool residents in the region of Halland, Sweden....

  17. Caries Epidemiology and Community Dentistry: Chances for Future Improvements in Caries Risk Groups. Outcomes of the ORCA Saturday Afternoon Symposium, Greifswald, 2014. Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Splieth, Christian H; Christiansen, Jette; Foster Page, Lyndie A

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews the first part of the outcomes of the ORCA Saturday Afternoon Symposium 2014 dealing with 'caries epidemiology and community dentistry: chances for future improvements in caries risk groups'. After the caries decline in many countries, there are remaining pockets of higher caries levels, mostly in the primary dentition and/or linked to a low socio-economic status (SES). The review into the evidence of caries-preventive measures clearly points to the use of fluorides, especially toothbrushing with fluoridated toothpaste and collective measures such as water fluoridation. In contrast to several unsuccessful high-risk approaches, community and public health programmes seem to be able to ensure a population-wide access and compliance in risk groups. Their simple and evidence-based measures mostly combine regular plaque removal and fluoride applications via toothbrushing, at least for children and adolescents. For the future, the common risk factor approach which addresses associations between oral health, social deprivation, diet, hygiene, smoking, alcohol use and stress should lead to combined efforts with other community health and education specialists. Further engagement with public policy, community leaders and administration is needed in order to strengthen healthy choices and behaviour, e.g. in 'healthy' schools and kindergartens. It seems advisable that these population programmes also aim at improving upstream factors. PMID:26752628

  18. Early childhood caries and dental plaque among 1-3-year-olds in Tehran,Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohebbi Simin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The association between plaque and caries in older children and adults has been poor, however, some studies show that there may be a relationship in younger children. The aim was to study the relationships between dental caries and dental plaque among 12-36-month-olds in Tehran, Iran. A cross-sectional study among a stratified random sample of 504 children aged one to three years from 18 public health centres in Tehran. Mothers were interviewed about their child′s date and order of birth, gender, primary caregiver, the mother′s age and the educational level of both parents. Dental examination was carried out according to the WHO criteria. Early childhood caries (ECC was defined as the presence of any dmf teeth. Dental plaque was visually inspected on the labial surfaces of upper central incisors. Data analysis included Chi-square test, t -test, anova and logistic regression modelling. The prevalence of ECC ranged from 3 to 33% depending on age group, with a mean dt of 1.1 for 26- to 36-month-olds. No gender-differences existed in ECC prevalence and mean dt. Dental plaque was visible on at least one index tooth for 65-75% of the children. Presence of ECC was related to the presence of dental plaque (OR=1.5; 95% CI 1.0-2.3 when controlling for background factors by means of logistic regression. The high occurrence of visible plaque and rather high ECC prevalence call for improvement in oral health promotion programs of the children.

  19. Molecular Analysis of Bacterial Species Associated with Childhood Caries

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, Mitzi R.; Paster, Bruce J.; Leys, Eugene J.; Moeschberger, Melvin L.; Kenyon, Sarah G.; Galvin, Jamie L.; Boches, Susan K.; Dewhirst, Floyd E.; Griffen, Ann L.

    2002-01-01

    Although substantial epidemiologic evidence links Streptococcus mutans to caries, the pathobiology of caries may involve more complex communities of bacterial species. Molecular methods for bacterial identification and enumeration now make it possible to more precisely study the microbiota associated with dental caries. The purpose of this study was to compare the bacteria found in early childhood caries (ECC) to those found in caries-free children by using molecular identification methods. C...

  20. Snacking habits and caries in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, I; Holgerson, P Lif; Kressin, N R; Nunn, M E; Tanner, A C

    2010-01-01

    Dental caries is caused by a combination of infection and diet. This disease, if left untreated, may lead to pain, and impair the quality of life, nutritional status and development of young children. The objective was to investigate the association between snacking and caries in a population at high risk of dental caries. American preschool children (n = 1,206) were recruited in the offices of paediatricians. Data on sociodemographic characteristics, oral hygiene, breast-feeding, use of bottle and snacking were collected by questionnaire. Plaque presence, the number of teeth and their caries status (deft) were scored. The children sampled were 61% Black, 27% White and 10% Asian. Of the 1- to 2-, 2- to 3- and 3- to 4-year-old children, 93.8, 82.4 and 77.3% were caries free, and their mean caries scores were 0.16, 0.58 and 0.93, respectively. Multivariate partial least squares (PLS) modelling revealed plaque presence, lowest income, descriptors for tooth exposure time (number of teeth and age) and cariogenic challenge (total intake of sugar-containing snacks and chips/crisps, and chips intake with a sugar-containing drink) to be associated with more caries. These differences were also found in univariate analyses; in addition, children who continued breast-feeding after falling asleep had significantly higher deft values than those who did not. PLS modelling revealed that eating chips clustered with eating many sweet snacks, candies, popcorn and ice cream. We conclude that, in addition to the traditional risk indicators for caries - presence of plaque, sugar intake and socioeconomic status -, consumption of chips was associated with caries in young children. PMID:20720422

  1. Caries dental en escolares del Distrito Federal

    OpenAIRE

    IRIGOYEN-CAMACHO MARÍA ESTHER

    1997-01-01

    Objetivo. Presentar las estimaciones de la prevalencia y la severidad de caries dental, así como las necesidades de tratamiento de la población escolar del Distrito Federal examinada en la encuesta de caries dental que se llevó a cabo en 1988 con la finalidad de obtener datos basales sobre caries en los escolares al inicio del Programa Nacional de Fluoruración de la Sal en México. Material y métodos. La población de estudio fue seleccionada empleando un marco muestral basado en el listado de ...

  2. Contemporary aspects of caries prevention in children

    OpenAIRE

    Alimani - Jakupi, Jetmire; Iljovska, Snezana; Pavlevska, Meri; Naskova, Sanja

    2012-01-01

    The analysis of the trends of the caries dispersion in the developed countries in the last 40 years, show signifi cantly diminished values of CIA (caries index average) from11 to 4. But, the situati on in the developing countries is completely diff erent. The caries goes upwards, and CIA is increased for 5 points in the last 20 years. (WHO 2000) The purposel of our study would be to suggest a strategy for preventive dental protecti on which will be applied on the whole territory of the countr...

  3. Sugar Alcohols, Caries Incidence, and Remineralization of Caries Lesions: A Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Mäkinen, Kauko K.

    2010-01-01

    Remineralization of minor enamel defects is a normal physiological process that is well known to clinicians and researchers in dentistry and oral biology. This process can be facilitated by various dietary and oral hygiene procedures and may also concern dentin caries lesions. Dental caries is reversible if detected and treated sufficiently early. Habitual use of xylitol, a sugar alcohol of the pentitol type, can be associated with significant reduction in caries incidence and with tooth remi...

  4. Dairy products and calcium intake during pregnancy and dental caries in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanaka Keiko

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal nutrition status during pregnancy may affect fetal tooth development, formation, and mineralization, and may affect dental caries susceptibility in children. We investigated the association between maternal intake of dairy products and calcium during pregnancy and the risk of childhood dental caries. Methods Subjects were 315 Japanese mother-child pairs. Data on maternal intake during pregnancy were assessed through a diet history questionnaire. Outcome data was collected at 41–50 months of age. Children were classified as having dental caries if one or more primary teeth had decayed or been filled. Results Higher maternal cheese intake during pregnancy was significantly inversely associated with the risk of dental caries in children, showing a clear inverse dose–response relationship; the adjusted odds ratio (OR in comparison of the highest tertile with the lowest was 0.37 (95 % confidence interval [CI]: 0.17-0.76, P for trend = 0.01. The inverse associations between maternal intake of total dairy products, yogurt, and calcium during pregnancy and the risk of childhood dental caries were of borderline significance: the adjusted ORs for the highest tertile of total dairy products, yogurt, and calcium were 0.51 (95 % CI: 0.23-1.09, P for trend = 0.07, 0.51 (95 % CI: 0.23-1.10, P for trend = 0.07, and 0.50 (95 % CI: 0.23-1.07, P for trend = 0.08, respectively. There was no evident relationship between maternal milk intake and the risk of childhood dental caries. Conclusion These data suggested that high intake of maternal cheese during pregnancy may reduce the risk of childhood dental caries.

  5. Performance of laser fluorescence devices and visual examination for the detection of occlusal caries in permanent molars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rechmann, Peter; Charland, Daniel; Rechmann, Beate M. T.; Featherstone, John D. B.

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic capabilities of a laser fluorescence tool DIAGNOdent (KaVo, Biberach, Germany) and two light-emitting diode fluorescence tools--Spectra Caries Detection Aid (AIR TECHNIQUES, Melville, NY), and SOPROLIFE light-induced fluorescence evaluator in daylight and blue florescence mode (SOPRO, ACTEON Group, La Ciotat, France)--in comparison to the caries detection and assessment system (ICDAS-II) in detection of caries lesions. In 100 subjects (age 23.4+/-10.6 years), 433 posterior permanent unrestored teeth were examined. On the occlusal surfaces, up to 1066 data points for each assessment method were available for statistical evaluation, including 1034 ICDAS scores (intra-examiner kappa=0.884). For the SOPROLIFE tool, a new caries-scoring system was developed. Per assessment tool each average score for one given ICDAS code was significantly different from the one for another ICDAS code. Normalized data linear regression revealed that both SOPROLIFE assessment tools allowed for best caries score discrimination followed by DIAGNOdent and Spectra Caries Detection Aid. The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve calculations showed the same grading sequence when cutoff point ICDAS codes 0-1-2 were grouped together. Sensitivity and specificity values at the same cutoff were calculated (DIAGNOdent 87/66, Spectra Caries Detection Aid 93/37, SOPROLIFE 93/63, SOPROLIFE blue fluorescence 95/55.)

  6. Comparison of linear and zero-inflated negative binomial regression models for appraisal of risk factors associated with dental caries

    OpenAIRE

    Manu Batra; Aasim Farooq Shah; Prashant Rajput; Ishrat Aasim Shah

    2016-01-01

    Context: Dental caries among children has been described as a pandemic disease with a multifactorial nature. Various sociodemographic factors and oral hygiene practices are commonly tested for their influence on dental caries. In recent years, a recent statistical model that allows for covariate adjustment has been developed and is commonly referred zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB) models. Aim: To compare the fit of the two models, the conventional linear regression (LR) model and ZINB ...

  7. Dietary intake of non-milk extrinsic sugars and caries experience of 12-13 year old schoolchildren

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Dipesh Kaushik

    2011-01-01

    The emergence of clinical care pathways within dentistry has placed renewed emphasis on the caries risk assessment of patients to help predict further disease and guide future prevention and intervention strategies. With dietary intake of non-milk extrinsic sugars (NMES) a key aetiological factor in the development of caries, the predictive level of risk posed by some dietary habits is questioned. Therefore the aim of this study was to investigate the influence of dietary habits on the preval...

  8. Geo-mapping of caries risk in children and adolescents - a novel approach for allocation of preventive care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strömberg, Ulf; Magnusson, Kerstin; Holmén, Anders;

    2011-01-01

    Dental caries in children is unevenly distributed within populations with a higher burden in low socio-economy groups. Thus, tools are needed to allocate resources and establish evidence-based programs that meet the needs of those at risk. The aim of the study was to apply a novel concept for...... presenting epidemiological data based on caries risk in the region of Halland in southwest Sweden, using geo-maps....

  9. Real-time porphyrin detection in plaque and caries: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timoshchuk, Mari-Alina I.; Ridge, Jeremy S.; Rugg, Amanda L.; Nelson, Leonard Y.; Kim, Amy S.; Seibel, Eric J.

    2015-02-01

    An ultrathin scanning fiber endoscope, originally developed for cancer diagnosis, was used in a case study to locate plaque and caries. The imaging system incorporated software mitigation of background auto-fluorescence (AF). In conventional fluorescence imaging, varying AF across a tooth surface can mask low-level porphyrin signals. Laser-induced auto-fluorescence signals of dental tissue excited using a 405-nm laser typically produce fluorescence over a wavelength range extending from 440-nm to 750-nm. Anaerobic bacterial metabolism produces various porphyrin species (eg. protoporphyrin IX) that are located in carious enamel, dentin, gingivitis sites, and plaque. In our case study, these porphyrin deposits remained as long as one day after prophylaxis. Imaging the tooth surface using 405-nm excitation and subtracting the natural AF enhances the image contrast of low-level porphyrin deposits, which would otherwise be masked by the high background AF. In a case study, healthy tissues as well as sites of early and advanced caries formations were scanned for visual and quantitative signs of red fluorescence associated with porphyrin species using a background mitigation algorithm. Initial findings show increasing amplitudes of red fluorescence as caries severity increases from early to late stages. Sites of plaque accumulation also displayed red fluorescence similar to that found in carious dental tissue. The use of real-time background mitigation of natural dental AF can enhance the detection of low porphyrin concentrations that are indicators of early stage caries formation.

  10. Enhanced efficacy of CTLA-4 fusion anti-caries DNA vaccines in gnotobiotic hamsters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng ZHANG; Yu-hong LI; Ming-wen FAN; Rong JIA; Qing-an XU; Ji-hua GUO; Fei YU; Qi-wei TIAN

    2007-01-01

    Aim:To evaluate the comparative immunogenicity and protective efficacy of the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte.associated antigen 4(CTLA-4)fusion anti-caries DNA vaccines pGJA-P/VAX1,pGJA-P,and non-fusion anti-caries DNA construct pGLUA-P in hamsters.In addition,the ability of CTLA-4 to target pGJA-P/VAX1-encoding antigen to dendritic cells was tested in vitro.Methods:All DNA constructs contain genes encoding the A-P regions of a cell surface protein(PAc) and the glucan binding(GLU) domain of glucosyltransferases(GTFs)of cari-ogenic organism Streptococcus mutans.Human dendritic cells were mixed with the CTLA-4-Ig-GLU-A-P protein expressed by pGJA-P/VAX1-transfected cells and analyzed by flow cytometry.Gnotobiotic hamsters were immunized with anti-caries DNA vaccines by intramuscular injection or intranasal administration.Antibody responses to a representative antigen PAc were assayed by ELlSA,and caries protection was evaluated by Keyes caries scores.Results:A flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that CTLA-4-Ig-GLU-A-P protein was capable of bind-ing to human dendritic cells.pGJA-P/VAX1 and pGJA-P induced significantly higher specific salivary and serum anti-PAc antibody responses than pGLUA-R.Significantly fewet caries lesions were alSO observed in hamsters immunized with pGJA-P/VAX1 and pGJA-p There was no significant difference in the anti-PAC antibody level or caries scores between pGJA-P/VAX1 and pGJA-P-immunized groups.Conclusion:Antigen encoded by CTLA-4 fusion anti-caries DNA vac-cine pGJA-P/VAX1 could specifically bind to human dendritic cells through the interaction of CTLA-4 and B7 molecules.Fusing antigen to CTLA-4 has been proven to greatly enhance the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of anti-caries DNA vaccines.

  11. Probiotic Compared with Standard Milk for High-caries Children: A Cluster Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, G; Ruiz, B; Faleiros, S; Vistoso, A; Marró, M L; Sánchez, J; Urzúa, I; Cabello, R

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare milk supplemented with probiotic lactobacilli with standard milk for the increment of caries in preschool children after 10 mo of intervention. The study was a triple-blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial. Participants were children aged 2 and 3 y (n = 261) attending 16 nursery schools in a metropolitan region in Chile. Nursery schools were randomly assigned to 2 parallel groups: children in the intervention group were given 150 mL of milk supplemented with Lactobacillus rhamnosus SP1 (10(7) CFU/mL), while children in the control group were given standard milk. Interventions took place on weekdays for 10 mo. Data were collected through a clinical examination of participants. The primary outcome measure was the increment of caries in preschool children. This was assessed using the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS). The dropout rate was 21%. No differences in caries prevalence were detected between the groups at baseline (P = 0.68). After 10 mo of probiotic intake, the caries prevalence was 54.4% in the probiotic group and 65.8% in the control group. The percentage of new individuals who developed cavitated lesions (ICDAS 5-6) in the control group (24.3%) was significantly higher than that in the probiotic group (9.7%). The increment of dental caries showed an odds ratio of 0.35 (P < 0.05) in favor of the probiotic group. At the cavitated lesion level, the increment of new caries lesions within the groups showed 1.13 new lesions per child in the probiotic group compared with 1.75 lesions in the control group (P < 0.05). The probiotic group showed an increment of 0.58 ± 1.17 new lesions compared with 1.08 ± 1.70 new lesions observed in the control group. The difference in caries increment was significant at the cavitated lesion level (P < 0.01). In conclusion, the regular long-term intake of probiotic-supplemented milk may reduce caries development in high-caries preschool children (Clinical

  12. Effect of milk and yogurt on streptococcus sobrinus counts and caries score in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam Ghasempour; Ramazam Rajabnia; Manouchehr Ashrafpour; Atiyyeh Ehsani; Ali Akbar Moghadamnia; Samane Gharekhani; Elaheh Ferdosi Shahandashti; Meghdad Bagheri

    2015-01-01

    Background: An anti-cariogenic diet containing probiotics can be effective in caries prevention. This animal study compared the effects of milk and yogurt on Streptococcus sobrinus counts and caries score. Materials and Methods: A total of 36 male rats were infected with S. sobrinus (27,607) and divided into three groups. Group A and B received 200 mL of milk and 100 g of yogurt per day, respectively, and a control group received 2.5 mL of NCP number 2 diet twice daily for 21 days. After ...

  13. Factors associated with inter-municipality differences in dental caries experience among Danish adolescents. An ecological study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekstrand, K R; Christiansen, M E C; Qvist, V;

    2009-01-01

    fluoride concentrations in the water supply and DMF-S values diminished in both years at a level above 0.35 ppm. The structured interview disclosed that municipalities with significant improvement in mean DMFS from 1999 to 2004 had established goals and were committed to the prevention of dental caries at...... children and adolescents in Denmark has declined significantly over the last 30 years. Our first analysis in 1999, however, disclosed huge inter-municipality disparities in mean DMFS values as well as in prevalence of caries on Danish children; that fluoride in the water supply and the length of the......Ekstrand KR, Christiansen MEC, Qvist V, Ismail A. Factors associated with inter-municipality differences in dental caries experience among Danish adolescents. An ecological study. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2009; 00: 000-000. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons A/SAbstract - Background: Caries on...

  14. Assessing caries increments in elderly patients with and without dementia A one-year follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellefsen, B.; Holm-Pedersen, P.; Morse, D.E.; Schroll, M.; Andersen, B.B.; Waldemar, G.

    2009-01-01

    all participants, and the number was highest for the OD group. The one-year adjusted caries and filling increments (ADJCIs) were high for participants with and without dementia but were highest for participants in the AD and OD groups. Baseline risk factors for developing elevated coronal and root...... ADJCIs included having caries, having many teeth and being older than 80 years. onclusions. Elderly people referred to a memory clinic were at an elevated risk of developing high levels of coronal and root-surface caries during the first year after referral, and those with a dementia diagnosis other than......Background The authors conducted. a study to determine one-year, coronal and root caries increments in patients newly diagnosed as having Alzheimer disease (AD), other dementia (OD) or no dementia. Methods. The authors recruited patients from two hospital memory clinics in Copenhagen. The oral...

  15. Assessing caries increments in elderly patients with and without dementia: a one-year follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellefsen, Birita; Holm-Pedersen, Poul; Morse, Douglas E; Schroll, Marianne; Andersen, Birgitte Bo; Waldemar, Gunhild

    2009-01-01

    all participants, and the number was highest for the OD group. The one-year adjusted caries and filling increments (ADJCIs) were high for participants with and without dementia but were highest for participants in the AD and OD groups. Baseline risk factors for developing elevated coronal and root...... ADJCIs included having caries, having many teeth and being older than 80 years. CONCLUSIONS: Elderly people referred to a memory clinic were at an elevated risk of developing high levels of coronal and root-surface caries during the first year after referral, and those with a dementia diagnosis other......BACKGROUND: The authors conducted a study to determine one-year coronal and root caries increments in patients newly diagnosed as having Alzheimer disease (AD), other dementia (OD) or no dementia. METHODS: The authors recruited patients from two hospital memory clinics in Copenhagen. The oral...

  16. Adjunct methods for caries detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, Svante; Axelsson, Susanna Bihari; Dahlén, Gunnar;

    2012-01-01

    scientific evidence for diagnostic accuracy regarding fiber-optic methods and quantitative light-induced fluorescence (+OOO). The electrical methods and laser fluorescence could be useful adjuncts to visual-tactile and radiographic examinations, especially on occlusal surfaces in permanent and primary molars......Abstract Objective. To assess the diagnostic accuracy of adjunct methods used to detect and quantify dental caries. Study design. A systematic literature search for relevant papers was conducted with pre-determined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Abstracts and full text articles were assessed...... independently by two reviewers. The study characteristics were compiled in tables and quality graded according to the QUADAS tool. The level of evidence for each diagnostic technology (fiber-optic methods, fluorescence methods, electrical methods) was based on studies of high or moderate quality according to...

  17. Probiotics in the prevention of dental caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johany Duque de Estrada Riverón

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics have the potential to provide significant benefits to human health, so we decided to investigate the probiotics species that may have preventive action against dental caries mainly in children in order to determine if there can be created a preventive medicine, made from probiotics found in the oral cavity. Oral probiotics that have shown promising activities in the prevention of dental caries are: Streptococcus salivarius (strain K12, BGH01 Lactobacillus salivarius, BGH089 gasseri Lactobacillus, Streptococcus sanguinis and Streptococcus oligofermentans. In vitro studies on the use of probiotics for the prevention of dental caries have shown interesting results, but in vivo they are not very encouraging. It is necessary to deepen in the therapeutic effects of probiotics strains already discovered in order to obtain from them an effective preventive agent against dental caries and so ensuring a better quality of life, especially in children.

  18. Dental caries and the associated factors influencing it in tribal, suburban and urban school children of Tamil Nadu, India: a cross sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    J Baby John; Sharath Asokan; Aswanth KP; P R Geetha Priya; A.K. Shanmugaavel

    2015-01-01

    Background The study was planned to assess the prevalence of dental caries among tribal, suburban and urban children of Tiruchengode and Erode of Tamil Nadu state, India. The objective of the study was to assess the association of dental caries with family background, dental service availability, transportation and knowledge on preventive dental measures among these three groups Design and methods Cross-sectional study. A total of 1028 school children in the age range of 9-12 years from vario...

  19. Socio-behavioral factors influence prevalence and severity of dental caries in children with primary dentition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloisa Carvalho Borges

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of socio-behavioral variables on the prevalence and severity of dental caries in 4- to 6-year-old children. A cross-sectional study was performed on a sample of 1993 children enrolled in 58 public preschools from Araçatuba City, São Paulo State, Brazil, during 2010. The exams were made using the decayed, missing, and filled teeth index (World Health Organization methodology and detection criteria for non-cavitated lesions. A tested, self-administered questionnaire was sent to parents to obtain information about their socio-behavioral characteristics. Standardization was performed to verify concordance among examiners (kappa = 0.84. The prevalence of cavitated caries lesions was 41.2% (821, and the prevalence of both, cavitated and non-cavitated caries lesions, was 43.9% (875. The means ± standard deviations of the decayed, missing, and filled teeth index for children aged 4, 5, and 6 years were 1.18 ± 2.45, 1.65 ± 2.67, and 1.73 ± 2.77, respectively. Caries were significantly more prevalent in children from families with low incomes and low educational levels. The presence of dental caries was associated with access to dental services (p < 0.05. The associations between both, cavitated and non-cavitated dental caries lesions, and the frequency of oral hygiene were statistically significant. The prevalence of dental caries in preschoolers was strongly associated with factors related to the children's parents. Therefore, information about parents' socio-economic status, behaviors, and attitudes in relation to oral health should be considered when planning prevention and educational programs for the oral health of preschool children.

  20. Incidence of Caries in Babies After 15 Months of an Educative/Preventive Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice KUHN

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate an educative/preventive program to control caries disease in 160 babies, ages ranging from 1 to 21 months. Method: The selected children, healthy and without caries, were examined once every three months during 15 months. In each appointment, the biofilm was removed with gauze and a baby’s toothbrush, according to the child’s age. After visual examination, the number of teeth and eventual alterations were recorded. Mothers were guided to perform suitable preventive activities through personal orientation, posters and slides. There were educational lectures at the beginning of the research, as well as every six months. The oral examination and the hygiene training of the mothers were conducted at the health units, community centers and a university. Aiming to verify the changes in the feeding and hygiene habits, questionnaires were applied at the beginning of the study and 12 months later. Results: The majority of the mothers hadn’t completed elementary school and the family income ranged from 1 to 3 minimum salaries. After 15 months, the drop-out rate was 23.8%. The incidence of caries, which was 7.3% in the 122 babies, evaluated with an average of 0.25 teeth with caries. Including the black spots, the incidence of caries was 9.8%, with an average of 0.4 teeth with caries. Conclusion: The educative/preventive program contributed to a lower caries incidence, and it stimulated the adoption of healthier habits. There was a decrease of 33% in night time bottle-feeding, and an increase of 20.9% in oral hygiene.

  1. Antimicrobial effects of Citrus sinensis peel extracts against dental caries bacteria: An in vitro study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Sapna B.; Mahin-Syed-Ismail, Prabu; Varghese, Shaji; Thomas-George, Bibin; Kandathil- Thajuraj, Pathinettam; Baby, Deepak; Haleem, Shaista; Sreedhar, Sreeja

    2016-01-01

    Background Ethnomedicine is gaining admiration since years but still there is abundant medicinal flora which is unrevealed through research. The study was conducted to assess the in vitro antimicrobial potential and also determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Citrus sinensis peel extracts with a view of searching a novel extract as a remedy for dental caries pathogens. Material and Methods Aqueous and ethanol (cold and hot) extracts prepared from peel of Citrus sinensis were screened for in vitro antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus, using agar well diffusion method. The lowest concentration of every extract considered as the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were determined for both test organisms. One way ANOVA with Post Hoc Bonferroni test was applied for statistical analysis. Confidence level and level of significance were set at 95% and 5% respectively. Results Dental caries pathogens were inhibited most by hot ethanolic extract of Citrus sinensispeel followed by cold ethanolic extract. Aqueous extracts were effective at very high concentrations. Minimum inhibitory concentration of hot and cold ethanolic extracts of Citrus sinensis peel ranged between 12-15 mg/ml against both the dental caries pathogens. Conclusions Citrus sinensispeels extract was found to be effective against dental caries pathogens and contain compounds with therapeutic potential. Nevertheless, clinical trials on the effect of these plants are essential before advocating large-scale therapy. Key words:Agar well diffusion, antimicrobial activity, dental caries, Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus acidophilus. PMID:26855710

  2. Best clinical practice guidance for management of early caries lesions in children and young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kühnisch, J; Ekstrand, K R; Pretty, I;

    2016-01-01

    -invasively in the majority of cases. The spectrum of measures includes a low cariogenicity tooth-friendly diet, daily and appropriate management of the biofilm, home and within the dental office/surgery usage of fluorides as well as sealing techniques. CONCLUSION: The detection and management of non......BACKGROUND: The European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry (EAPD) encourages prevention and arrest of active dental caries. Therefore, the present guidance provides evidence- and clinically-based recommendations for detecting and diagnosing early/non-cavitated caries lesions, risk assessment and...... statements were agreed upon and, furthermore, gaps in our knowledge were identified. RESULTS: Following the systematic reviews and outcomes of the seminars, it was concluded that visual and radiographic caries detection should be utilised as a basic diagnostic approach to locate, assess and monitor non...

  3. The Microbial Ecology of Dental Caries

    OpenAIRE

    Bowden, G. H. W.

    2011-01-01

    The microbial ecology of caries is complex and incorporates mechanisms common to the natural colonization of the host and to plaque accumulation at sites that do not develop caries lesions. It is not simply accumulation of plaque in the oral cavity but also the ecology of oral bacteria among the host population and the ecology of organisms in the lesion. In these three habitats odontopathogens and other oral bacteria can undergo genotypic change, which may produce phenotypes more virulent or ...

  4. Caries in Portuguese children with Down syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Maria Areias; Benedita Sampaio-Maia; Hercilia Guimaraes; Paulo Melo; David Andrade

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Oral health in Down syndrome children has some peculiar aspects that must be considered in the follow-up of these patients. This study focuses on characterizing the environmental and host factors associated with dental caries in Portuguese children with and without Down syndrome. METHODS: A sibling-matched, population-based, cross-sectional survey was performed. RESULTS: Down syndrome children presented a significantly greater percentage of children without caries, 78% vs. 58% of ...

  5. Dental caries - A complete changeover (Part I)

    OpenAIRE

    Usha Carounanidy; Sathyanarayanan R

    2009-01-01

    In spite of a knowledge explosion in cariology science, dental caries still remains a misunderstood phenomenon by the clinicians. In order to effectively use the wide range of preventive and management strategies, it is imperative to look beyond those black and white spots that manifest on the tooth surfaces. This paper focuses on the revised versions of the etiopathogenesis and definition of dental caries disease in the present century.

  6. Dental caries - A complete changeover (Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usha Carounanidy

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In spite of a knowledge explosion in cariology science, dental caries still remains a misunderstood phenomenon by the clinicians. In order to effectively use the wide range of preventive and management strategies, it is imperative to look beyond those black and white spots that manifest on the tooth surfaces.This paper focuses on the revised versions of the etiopathogenesis and definition of dental caries disease in the present century.

  7. Association of cardiometabolic risk factors and dental caries in a population-based sample of youths

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    Kelishadi Roya

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors begin from early life and track onto adulthood. Oral and dental diseases share some risk factors with CVD, therefore by finding a clear relation between dental diseases and cardiometabolic risk factors; we can then predict the potential risk of one based on the presence of the other. This study aimed to compare the prevalence of dental caries between two groups of age-matched adolescents with and without CVD risk factors. Methods In this case-control study, the decayed, missing and filled surfaces (DMFS, based on the criteria of the World Health Organization, were compared in two groups of equal number (n = 61 in each group of population-based sample of adolescents with and without CVD risk factors who were matched for sex and age group. Results The study participants had a median age 13 y 5 mo, age range 11 y 7 mo to 16 y 1 mo, with male-to-female proportion of 49/51. We found significant difference between the mean values of DMFS, body mass index, waist and hip circumferences, as well as serum lipid profile in the case and control groups. Significant correlations were documented for DMFS with TC (r = 0.54, p = 0.02, LDL-C (r = 0.55, p = 0.01 and TG (r = 0.52, p = 0.04 in the case group; with LDL-C (r = 0.47, p = 0.03 in the whole study participants and with TC in control s(r = 0.45, p = 0.04. Conclusions Given the significant associations between dental caries and CVD risk factors among adolescents, more attention should be paid to oral health, as one of the topics to be taken into account in primordial/primary prevention of cardiometabolic disorders.

  8. Pragmatic RCT on the Efficacy of Proximal Caries Infiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer-Lueckel, H; Balbach, A; Schikowsky, C; Bitter, K; Paris, S

    2016-05-01

    Proximal caries infiltration has been shown to be efficacious in hampering caries lesion progression when performed by dentists working in a university setting. The aim of this randomized split-mouth, placebo-controlled clinical trial was to assess the efficacy of resin infiltration of proximal caries lesions being performed by several dentists in private practices, in combination with individualized oral hygiene plus noninvasive measures compared with these alone. In this study, 87 children and young adults (with 238 pairs of proximal caries lesions radiographically extending into the inner half of the enamel [E2] or the outer third of the dentin [D1]) were randomly allocated to either 1 of 2 treatments. Test lesions were infiltrated, and a mock treatment was performed in control lesions by 5 German private practitioners. All patients received instructions for a noncariogenic diet, flossing and fluoridation, and individualized noninvasive interventions. The primary outcome was radiographic lesion progression (pairwise comparison) evaluated independently by 2 evaluators who were blinded to treatment allocation. After approximately 10 mo (mean ± SD 307 ± 43 d), 92 of 148 lesion pairs in 24 of 38 treated patients who were at high caries risk could be re-evaluated clinically as well as radiographically using individualized bitewing holders, as at baseline; 186 of 204 lesion pairs in 70 of 77 patients (35 of 38 high-risk patients) could be evaluated after 18 mo (mean 542 ± 110 d). No unwanted effects were observed. After 10 mo, progression was recorded in 2 of 92 test lesions (2%) and in 22 of 92 control lesions (24%) (P= 0.001, McNemar/Obuchowski test; relative risk reduction, 91; 95% confidence interval, 62%-98%). After 18 mo, lesion progression was recorded in all included patients in 10 of 186 test lesions (5%) and in 58 of 186 control lesions (31%) (P< 0.001; relative risk reduction, 83; 95% confidence interval, 67%-91%). Thus, resin infiltration seems to be

  9. Caries prevalence and risk factors among children aged 0 to 36 months Prevalência de cárie e fatores de risco em crianças de 0 a 36 meses

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Paula Pires dos Santos; Vera Mendes Soviero

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of caries and risk factors in outpatients of the Pediatric Ambulatory of the Pedro Ernesto University Hospital aging up to 36 months. After signing informed consent forms, the parents answered a structured questionnaire in order to evaluate risk factors for dental caries, including socioeconomic status, oral hygiene and dietary habits. A single investigator carried out the dental examination which assessed the presence of caries, biofilm and ...

  10. Microbiota of Severe Early Childhood Caries before and after Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Tanner, A.C.R.; Kent, R.L.; Holgerson, P. Lif; Hughes, C. V.; Loo, C. Y.; Kanasi, E.; Chalmers, N. I.; Johansson, I.

    2011-01-01

    Severe early childhood caries (ECC) is difficult to treat successfully. This study aimed to characterize the microbiota of severe ECC and evaluate whether baseline or follow-up microbiotas are associated with new lesions post-treatment. Plaque samples from 2- to 6-year-old children were analyzed by a 16S rRNA-based microarray and by PCR for selected taxa. Severe-ECC children were monitored for 12 months post-therapy. By microarray, species associated with severe-ECC (n = 53) compared with car...

  11. Pediatric medicines and their relationship to dental caries

    OpenAIRE

    Valdenice Aparecida de Menezes; Gabriela Cavalcanti; Cristiana Mora; Ana Flávia Granville Garcia; Rossana Barbosa Leal

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate mothers' knowledge about the cariogenic potential of pediatric medicines. A total of 111 mothers were interviewed using a standardized form containing 15 questions relating to the association of pediatric drug use with dental caries and oral hygiene care. Descriptive and inferential statistics (Chi-square test and Fisher's exact) were used at a significance of 5%. Most of the mothers were aged 40 years or under (77.4%), high school educated (30.6%) and no...

  12. Comparison of Diagnostic Ability of Storage Phosphor Plate in Detecting Proximal Caries with Direct Measurement by Stereomicroscope: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivek, Velayudhannair; Thomas, Sunila; Nair, Bindu J; Vineet, Alex Daniel; Thomas, Jincy; Ranimol, Prasanna; Vijayan, Aswathy K

    2015-09-28

    Radiography plays an important role in detection of interproximal caries. The aim of study is to compare diagnostic ability of photo stimulable phosphor (PSP) with direct measurement using stereomicroscope in detecting proximal caries. Hundred proximal surfaces of 50 extracted human posterior teeth were radiographed with dental X-ray unit. The image receptors used was storage phosphor plate Vista scan (size 2), (time of exposure 0.4 s). Radiographs were interpreted and caries lesions were classified on a 4-point scale suggested by Abesi et al. The teeth were sectioned with diamond disc and were examined under a stereomicroscope with 20x magnification. Diagnostic accuracy of digital image is similar to that observed with stereomicroscope. The PSP plate digital X ray system can effectively be employed for detecting proximal caries as compared to direct observation by stereomicro-scope. Further study with more number of observer/evaluator and large sample size is recommended. PMID:26664712

  13. Comparison of diagnostic ability of storage phosphor plate in detecting proximal caries with direct measurement by stereomicroscope: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velayudhannair Vivek

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Radiography plays an important role in detection of interproximal caries. The aim of study is to compare diagnostic ability of photo stimulable phosphor (PSP with direct measurement using stereomicroscope in detecting proximal caries. Hundred proximal surfaces of 50 extracted human posterior teeth were radiographed with dental X-ray unit. The image receptors used was storage phosphor plate Vista scan (size 2, (time of exposure 0.4 s. Radiographs were interpreted and caries lesions were classified on a 4-point scale suggested by Abesi et al. The teeth were sectioned with diamond disc and were examined under a stereomicroscope with 20x magnification. Diagnostic accuracy of digital image is similar to that observed with stereomicroscope. The PSP plate digital X ray system can effectively be employed for detecting proximal caries as compared to direct observation by stereomicroscope. Further study with more number of observer/evaluator and large sample size is recommended.

  14. Development, Methodology and Potential of the New Universal Visual Scoring System (UniViSS for Caries Detection and Diagnosis

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    Thomas Oehme

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Given the limitations of adjunct caries detection and diagnostic tools, e.g., imperfect validity and reproducibility, as well as the difficulties in controlling all possible confounding factors, the need for an objective visual caries detection and diagnosis system has become evident. Our work has therefore aimed at systematizing caries lesions with the Universal Visual Scoring System (UniViSS for occlusal and smooth surface lesions, which can be used for primary and permanent teeth, as well as under clinical, epidemiological, public health and laboratory conditions. Besides the description of the development and methodology of UniViSS, it is shown that UniViSS allows an accurate and reproducible classification of caries lesions on occlusal surfaces.

  15. Genetic sensitivity to the bitter taste of 6-n propylthiouracil: A new risk determinant for dental caries in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupesh S

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the present study were to contrast the prevalence of dental caries in children with different genetic sensitivity levels to the bitter taste of 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP and to determine the taste quality and taste intensity preferences of food products among the taster and nontaster groups. Overall caries experience (dmfs/DMFS was significantly higher for nontasters than tasters. Caries experience on the available surfaces (dfs/DFS was found to be significantly higher in nontasters than in medium tasters and in medium tasters than in supertasters (r=-0.41, P P < 0.001. After all associated factors (age, gender, race, number of teeth and OHI-S were controlled; multiple linear regression analyses revealed that taste was the only variable significantly related to overall caries experience.

  16. Influence of First-Time Mothers' Early Employment on Severe Early Childhood Caries in Their Child

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    Kamila Plutzer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To examine whether mothers' early employment status is related to the development of severe early childhood caries in their child. Methods. Questionnaire survey of 429 first-time mothers in metropolitan Adelaide, South Australia, and dental examinations of their child at 20 months of age. Results. At months of age, 5.6% of children exhibited caries defined as one or more demineralized or cavitated lesions on the upper incisors. Of the mothers, 52.2% had no paid employment, 39.6% were part-time and 8.2% full-time employed. Overall, mothers' participation in the workforce had no influence on the frequency of severe early childhood caries in their child, but there was a significant interaction with family structure. For mothers without employment there was no difference between single, and two-parent families, but children with an employed single mother more frequently had caries than those with a working mother in a two-parent family (. However, there were no significant differences in children's reported general health. Conclusions. The data indicate a need to explore strategies that may assist single mothers and especially those in the workforce to prevent severe early childhood caries in their child.

  17. Maternal risk behavior and caries incidence in children with sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Felipe Fagundes; Cangussu, Maria Cristina Teixeira; Vianna, Maria Isabel Pereira; Rossi, Thais Regis Aranha; Carvalho, Anderson Santos; Brito, Maria Goretti Silva

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the incidence of caries, in relation to maternal risk behaviors and clinical conditions representing different levels of sickle cell disease severity. A total of 295 children aged 6 to 60 months participated in this cohort conducted from August 2007 to December 2008. They were diagnosed and monitored by the referral service of the state. Interviews were made with families to identify sociodemographic variables, and an oral exam was performed to determine dental caries. The SRQ (Self Report Questionnaire) scale was used to diagnose the presence of common mental disorders, and the CAGE (Cut down, Annoyed, Guilty and Eye opener) was applied to determine abusive use of alcohol. The absolute and relative frequencies of the variables of interest were analyzed by Chi-square and Mann-Whitney, with a 5% significance level. The incidence variables were analyzed according to the logistic regression model, with a confidence interval of 95%. Caries incidence (1.98; SD = 4.68) was higher in the HbSS genotype. There was a statistically significant association between caries incidence and both abusive use of alcohol (32.43%, RR = 1.99; 1.05-3.78; 95%CI) and common mental disorders (8.77% RR = 0.37; 0.15-0.93; 95%CI). There was also an association between caries incidence and maternal risk behavior, indicating that the care network should be expanded to include patients with sickle cell disease. PMID:26676194

  18. Efficacy of chemomechanical caries removal in reducing cariogenic microbiota: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammari, Michelle Mikhael; Moliterno, Luiz Flávio Martins; Hirata Júnior, Raphael; Séllos, Mariana Canano; Soviero, Vera Mendes; Coutinho Filho, Wagner Pereira

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of chemochemical methods (Carisolv™ and Papacárie®) versus the manual method (excavators) in reducing the cariogenic microbiota in dentine caries of primary teeth. Forty-six healthy children (5 to 9 years old) having at least one primary tooth with a cavitated dentine carious lesion were included in the study. The teeth presented no clinical or radiographic signs of pulpal involvement. The sample of 74 teeth was randomly divided into three different groups: Papacárie® (n = 25), Carisolv™ (n = 27) and Manual (n = 22). Samples of carious and sound dentine were collected with sterile excavators before and after caries removal in the three groups. The dentine samples were transferred to glass tubes containing a 1mL thioglycollate medium used as a carrier and enriched for microbiological detection of mutans streptococci and Lactobacillus spp, after incubation for 6h at room temperature. The minimum detection value for colony forming units (CFU) was 3.3 x 102 CFU/ml, and the results were converted into scores from 0 to 4. A significant difference was observed in relation to the microbiological scores before and after caries removal for all methods (Wilcoxon test; p < 0.001). The use of chemomechanical methods for caries removal did not improve the reduction of cariogenic microorganisms in dentine caries lesions, in comparison with manual excavation. PMID:25141016

  19. Caries prevalence and socioeconomic factors in children with sickle cell anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cláudia Alves e Luna

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate caries prevalence and socioeconomic factors in children with sickle cell anemia. This study was conducted in 160 children with sickle cell anemia aged 3 to 12 years attending the Center for Hematology in Recife, Brazil . Data collection included interviews with guardians concerning social factors and oral examinations to determine the caries prevalence. Statistical analyses were performed using the Kruskal-Wallis and Pearson's chi-square tests at a 5% significance level. The caries prevalence was 55.0%. The dmft index was 2.12, and the DMFT index was 1.50. Income significantly influenced dmft; the mean dmft was 4.57 in children whose family income was less than the Brazilian minimum wage (BMW, whereas in children with a family income three times the BMW or higher, the mean dmft was 2.27. No statistically positive association was found between the educational level of parents and guardians and the caries indices. A statistically significant association was found between dental caries prevalence and family income.

  20. Efficacy of chemomechanical caries removal in reducing cariogenic microbiota: a randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Mikhael AMMARI

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of chemochemical methods (Carisolv™ and Papacárie® versus the manual method (excavators in reducing the cariogenic microbiota in dentine caries of primary teeth. Forty-six healthy children (5 to 9 years old having at least one primary tooth with a cavitated dentine carious lesion were included in the study. The teeth presented no clinical or radiographic signs of pulpal involvement. The sample of 74 teeth was randomly divided into three different groups: Papacárie® (n = 25, Carisolv™ (n = 27 and Manual (n = 22. Samples of carious and sound dentine were collected with sterile excavators before and after caries removal in the three groups. The dentine samples were transferred to glass tubes containing a 1mL thioglycollate medium used as a carrier and enriched for microbiological detection of mutans streptococci and Lactobacillus spp, after incubation for 6h at room temperature. The minimum detection value for colony forming units (CFU was 3.3 x 102 CFU/ml, and the results were converted into scores from 0 to 4. A significant difference was observed in relation to the microbiological scores before and after caries removal for all methods (Wilcoxon test; p < 0.001. The use of chemomechanical methods for caries removal did not improve the reduction of cariogenic microorganisms in dentine caries lesions, in comparison with manual excavation.

  1. Histological validation of near-infrared reflectance multispectral imaging technique for caries detection and quantification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salsone, Silvia; Taylor, Andrew; Gomez, Juliana; Pretty, Iain; Ellwood, Roger; Dickinson, Mark; Lombardo, Giuseppe; Zakian, Christian

    2012-07-01

    Near infrared (NIR) multispectral imaging is a novel noninvasive technique that maps and quantifies dental caries. The technique has the ability to reduce the confounding effect of stain present on teeth. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a quantitative NIR multispectral imaging system for caries detection and assessment against a histological reference standard. The proposed technique is based on spectral imaging at specific wavelengths in the range from 1000 to 1700 nm. A total of 112 extracted teeth (molars and premolars) were used and images of occlusal surfaces at different wavelengths were acquired. Three spectral reflectance images were combined to generate a quantitative lesion map of the tooth. The maximum value of the map at the corresponding histological section was used as the NIR caries score. The NIR caries score significantly correlated with the histological reference standard (Spearman's Coefficient=0.774, penamel, and 82% and 69% for lesions in dentin were found. These results suggest that NIR spectral imaging is a novel and promising method for the detection, quantification, and mapping of dental caries.

  2. Ex vivo imaging of early dental caries within the interproximal space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo-Smith, Lin-P'ing; Hewko, Mark D.; Dufour, Marc L.; Fulton, Crystal; Qiu, Pingli; Gauthier, Bruno; Padioleau, Christian; Bisaillon, Charles-Etienne; Dong, Cecilia; Cleghorn, Blaine M.; Lamouche, Guy; Sowa, Michael G.

    2009-02-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is emerging as a technology that can potentially be used for the detection and monitoring of early dental enamel caries since it can provide high-resolution depth imaging of early lesions. To date, most caries detection optical technologies are well suited for examining caries at facial, lingual, incisal and occlusal surfaces. The approximal surfaces between adjacent teeth are difficult to examine due to lack of visual access and limited space for these new caries detection tools. Using a catheter-style probe developed at the NRC-Industrial Materials Institute, the probe was inserted into the interproximal space to examine the approximal surfaces with OCT imaging at 1310 nm. The probe was rotated continuously and translated axially to generate depth images in a spiral fashion. The probe was used in a mock tooth arch model consisting of extracted human teeth mounted with dental rope wax in their anatomically correct positions. With this ex vivo model, the probe provided images of the approximal surfaces revealing morphological structural details, regions of calculus, and especially regions of early dental caries (white spot lesions). Results were compared with those obtained from OCT imaging of individual samples where the approximal surfaces of extracted teeth are accessible on a lab-bench. Issues regarding access, regions of interest, and factors to be considered in an in vivo setting will be discussed. Future studies are aimed at using the probe in vivo with patient volunteers.

  3. In vitro comparison of intraoral films and four image plate systems in radiographic caries diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Erçalık Yalçınkaya, Şebnem; Künzel, Andreas; Becker, Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Detecting early caries lesion on a radiograph may be a difficult task. The aim of this study was to compare four image plate and two film-based systems by evaluating the accuracy of caries detection under standard conditions. Methods: Two hundred teeth were attached in groups of five onto plastic Lego®blocks. Radiographs were taken from each block under standard bitewing conditions with an X-ray device. Phosphor plates (Dentsply DenOptics®, Dürr Vistascan II®, Soredex Digora FMX®,...

  4. Influence of First-Time Mothers' Early Employment on Severe Early Childhood Caries in Their Child

    OpenAIRE

    Kamila Plutzer; Keirse, Marc J N C

    2012-01-01

    Aim. To examine whether mothers' early employment status is related to the development of severe early childhood caries in their child. Methods. Questionnaire survey of 429 first-time mothers in metropolitan Adelaide, South Australia, and dental examinations of their child at 20 months of age. Results. At 20 ± 2.5 months of age, 5.6% of children exhibited caries defined as one or more demineralized or cavitated lesions on the upper incisors. Of the mothers, 52.2% had no paid employment, 39.6%...

  5. Sugar alcohols, caries incidence, and remineralization of caries lesions: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkinen, Kauko K

    2010-01-01

    Remineralization of minor enamel defects is a normal physiological process that is well known to clinicians and researchers in dentistry and oral biology. This process can be facilitated by various dietary and oral hygiene procedures and may also concern dentin caries lesions. Dental caries is reversible if detected and treated sufficiently early. Habitual use of xylitol, a sugar alcohol of the pentitol type, can be associated with significant reduction in caries incidence and with tooth remineralization. Other dietary polyols that can remarkably lower the incidence of caries include erythritol which is a tetritol-type alditol. Based on known molecular parameters of simple dietary alditols, it is conceivable to predict that their efficacy in caries prevention will follow the homologous series, that is, that the number of OH-groups present in the alditol molecule will determine the efficacy as follows: erythritol >/= xylitol > sorbitol. The possible difference between erythritol and xylitol must be confirmed in future clinical trials. PMID:20339492

  6. Sugar Alcohols, Caries Incidence, and Remineralization of Caries Lesions: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kauko K. Mäkinen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Remineralization of minor enamel defects is a normal physiological process that is well known to clinicians and researchers in dentistry and oral biology. This process can be facilitated by various dietary and oral hygiene procedures and may also concern dentin caries lesions. Dental caries is reversible if detected and treated sufficiently early. Habitual use of xylitol, a sugar alcohol of the pentitol type, can be associated with significant reduction in caries incidence and with tooth remineralization. Other dietary polyols that can remarkably lower the incidence of caries include erythritol which is a tetritol-type alditol. Based on known molecular parameters of simple dietary alditols, it is conceivable to predict that their efficacy in caries prevention will follow the homologous series, that is, that the number of OH-groups present in the alditol molecule will determine the efficacy as follows: erythritol≥xylitol>sorbitol. The possible difference between erythritol and xylitol must be confirmed in future clinical trials.

  7. Fluoride and urea chewing gums in an intra-oral experimental caries model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sjogren, K; Ruben, J; Lingstrom, P; Lundberg, AB; Birkhed, D

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the effect of sugar-free chewing gums containing fluoride (F) and urea in an intra-oral experimental caries model. Placebo chewing gums (without any active ingredient) and no gum served as controls. Fifteen subjects participated in a cross-over, s

  8. The relationship between parenting, family interaction and childhood dental caries: A case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong-Lenters, M. de; Duijster, D.; Bruist, M.A.; Thijssen, J.; Ruiter, C. de

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this case-control study was to explore the relationship between parenting practices, parent-child interaction and childhood dental caries, using a sample of 5-8-year old children from the Netherlands. Cases were defined as children with four or more decayed, missing or filled teeth and co

  9. The relationship between parenting, family interaction and childhood dental caries: a case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. de Jong-Lenters; D. Duijster; M.A. Bruist; J. Thijssen; C. de Ruiter

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this case-control study was to explore the relationship between parenting practices, parent-child interaction and childhood dental caries, using a sample of 5-8-year old children from the Netherlands. Cases were defined as children with four or more decayed, missing or filled teeth and co

  10. Association between body mass index and caries among children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lempert, Susanne M; Froberg, Karsten; Christensen, Lisa;

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this article was to examine the relationship between childhood caries, body mass index (BMI) and subsequent changes in BMI over 6 years, and to investigate whether these associations were modified by social class. METHODS: Data were from the European Youth Heart Study (EYHS)...

  11. Quantitative diagnosis of small approximal caries lesions utilizing wavelength-dependent fiber-optic transillumination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaarkamp, J; TenBosch, JJ; Verdonschot, EH; Tranaeus, S

    1997-01-01

    The instruments clinically available for the diagnosis of approximal caries lesions are inadequate to detect lesions early and quantitatively. The aim of this study was to investigate whether wavelength-dependent light scattering and absorption of carious tissues may be utilized for the quantitative

  12. The distribution of burden of dental caries in schoolchildren: a critique of the high-risk caries prevention strategy for populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheiham Aubrey

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 'high-risk approach' is a commonly adopted strategy recommended for the prevention of dental caries in populations. The scientific basis for the strategy has been questioned. The objective of this study is to assess the contribution that children identified at 'high-risk' made towards the total of new caries lesions over a 4-year period, by analysing the distribution of new lesions per 100 children. Methods Data are from the National Preventive Dentistry Demonstration Programme (NPDDP in the United States. The analyses identified the distribution of new carious lesions over a 4-year period in four groups of 7 year-old children who received differing preventive regimes. Results The majority of new lesions occurred in those children classified at lowest caries risk at baseline. Irrespective of the preventive regime adopted and the initial caries levels, children classified as 'highest risk' contributed less than 6% of the total number of new lesions developing over 4 years. Conclusion These findings challenge the basis for the adoption of a high-risk strategy.

  13. The psychosocial effects of severe caries in 4-year-old children in Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil As repercussões psicossociais da cárie severa em crianças aos quatro anos de idade em Recife, Pernambuco, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Feitosa; Viviane Colares; Jimmy Pinkham

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the psychosocial effects of severe caries in 4-year-old children in Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. The clinical examination was conducted by a single examiner in order to select children with severe caries and caries-free (kappa = 1). Of the 861 children examined, 77 (8.1%) had severe caries and 225 (23.6%) were caries-free. Data were collected by applying validated questionnaires answered by the parents or guardians. Most of the parents or guardians of child...

  14. Caries prevention through the fluoridation of milk. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bánóczy, Jolán; Rugg-Gunn, Andrew J

    2007-10-01

    The aim of this review is to give an overview of 50 years experience of milk fluoridation and draw conclusions about the applicability of the method. Fluoridated milk was first investigated in the early 1950s, almost simultaneously in Switzerland, the USA and Japan. Stimulated by the favourable results obtained from these early studies, the establishment of The Borrow Dental Milk Foundation (subsequently The Borrow Foundation) in England gave an excellent opportunity for further research, both clinical and non-clinical, and a productive collaboration with the World Health Organization from the early 1980s onwards. Numerous peer-reviewed publications in international journals showed clearly the bioavailability of fluoride in milk, and increased concentrations of fluoride in saliva, dental plaque, dental enamel and dentine, and urine, after consumption of fluoridated milk. Clinical trials were initiated in the 1980s--some of these can be classed as randomised controlled trials, while most of the clinical studies were community preventive programs. These evaluations showed clearly that the optimal daily intake of fluoride in milk is effective in preventing dental caries. At present, milk fluoridation programs are running continuously in about ten countries of the world. Fluoridation of milk can be recommended as a caries preventive measure where the fluoride concentration in drinking water is suboptimal, caries experience in children is significant, and there is an existing school milk program. The program should aim to provide fluoridated milk for at least 200 days per year and should commence before the children are 4 years of age. PMID:18078140

  15. Factors associated with early childhood caries in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Hoffmeister

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The high prevalence of caries in this young group is concerning. The factors associated with caries identified in this study could help in the design of preventive interventions at early ages.

  16. Implications of caries diagnostic strategies for clinical management decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baelum, Vibeke; Hintze, Hanne; Wenzel, Ann;

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In clinical practice, a visual-tactile caries examination is frequently supplemented by bitewing radiography. This study evaluated strategies for combining visual-tactile and radiographic caries detection methods and determined their implications for clinical management decisions in a...

  17. Protocol for Northern Ireland Caries Prevention in Practice Trial (NIC-PIP) trial: a randomised controlled trial to measure the effects and costs of a dental caries prevention regime for young children attending primary care dental services

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tickle, Martin

    2011-10-10

    Abstract Background Dental caries is a persistent public health problem with little change in the prevalence in young children over the last 20 years. Once a child contracts the disease it has a significant impact on their quality of life. There is good evidence from Cochrane reviews including trials that fluoride varnish and regular use of fluoride toothpaste can prevent caries. The Northern Ireland Caries Prevention in Practice Trial (NIC-PIP) trial will compare the costs and effects of a caries preventive package (fluoride varnish, toothpaste, toothbrush and standardised dental health education) with dental health education alone in young children. Methods\\/Design A randomised controlled trial on children initially aged 2 and 3 years old who are regular attenders at the primary dental care services in Northern Ireland. Children will be recruited and randomised in dental practices. Children will be randomised to the prevention package of both fluoride varnish (twice per year for three years), fluoride toothpaste (1,450 ppm F) (supplied twice per year), a toothbrush (supplied twice a year) or not; both test and control groups receive standardised dental health education delivered by the dentist twice per year. Randomisation will be conducted by the Belfast Trust Clinical Research Support Centre ([CRSC] a Clinical Trials Unit). 1200 participants will be recruited from approximately 40 dental practices. Children will be examined for caries by independent dental examiners at baseline and will be excluded if they have caries. The independent dental examiners will examine the children again at 3 years blinded to study group. The primary end-point is whether the child develops caries (cavitation into dentine) or not over the three years. One secondary outcome is the number of carious surfaces in the primary dentition in children who experience caries. Other secondary outcomes are episodes of pain, extraction of primary teeth, other adverse events and costs which will

  18. Protocol for Northern Ireland Caries Prevention in Practice Trial (NIC-PIP trial: a randomised controlled trial to measure the effects and costs of a dental caries prevention regime for young children attending primary care dental services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noble Solveig

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dental caries is a persistent public health problem with little change in the prevalence in young children over the last 20 years. Once a child contracts the disease it has a significant impact on their quality of life. There is good evidence from Cochrane reviews including trials that fluoride varnish and regular use of fluoride toothpaste can prevent caries. The Northern Ireland Caries Prevention in Practice Trial (NIC-PIP trial will compare the costs and effects of a caries preventive package (fluoride varnish, toothpaste, toothbrush and standardised dental health education with dental health education alone in young children. Methods/Design A randomised controlled trial on children initially aged 2 and 3 years old who are regular attenders at the primary dental care services in Northern Ireland. Children will be recruited and randomised in dental practices. Children will be randomised to the prevention package of both fluoride varnish (twice per year for three years, fluoride toothpaste (1,450 ppm F (supplied twice per year, a toothbrush (supplied twice a year or not; both test and control groups receive standardised dental health education delivered by the dentist twice per year. Randomisation will be conducted by the Belfast Trust Clinical Research Support Centre ([CRSC] a Clinical Trials Unit. 1200 participants will be recruited from approximately 40 dental practices. Children will be examined for caries by independent dental examiners at baseline and will be excluded if they have caries. The independent dental examiners will examine the children again at 3 years blinded to study group. The primary end-point is whether the child develops caries (cavitation into dentine or not over the three years. One secondary outcome is the number of carious surfaces in the primary dentition in children who experience caries. Other secondary outcomes are episodes of pain, extraction of primary teeth, other adverse events and costs

  19. Association between enamel hypoplasia and dental caries in primary second molars and permanent first molars: A 3-year follow-up study

    OpenAIRE

    Sakeenabi Basha; Roshan Noor Mohamed; Hiremath Shivalinga Swamy

    2016-01-01

    Context: Enamel hypoplasia is a defect caused by disturbances during enamel formation. These defects in the enamel present important clinical significance as they predispose a tooth to dental caries. Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the longitudinal relationships between enamel hypoplasia and caries experience of primary second molars and permanent first molars. Materials and Methods: The study sample consisted of 765 subjects who underwent dental examinations at both ages 6 and 9 by ...

  20. Risk factors for caries - control and prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melida Hasanagić

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To investigate a prevalence of caries, filled permanentand extracted permanent teeth, as well as caries risk factors inschool children aged 7, 9 and 11.Methods. The survey included 800 children (296 children aged7; 254 children aged 9 and 250 children aged 11 from the MostarMunicipality, 400 of them living in both rural and urban areas.A dental mirror and standard light of dental chair were used forexamination. The DMF index (Dental Caries, Missing Teeth andFilled Teeth was determined, as well as failure in keeping teethhygiene, sugar intake with food, and incidence of oral cavity infection.Results. The dental state of permanent teeth in children aged 7and 9 has shown significant difference between the children fromrural and urban areas (p < 0,001. Out of 2,698 and 2,790 permanentteeth in children aged 11 from rural and urban areas, 1,086(40,25 % and 884 (31.68 % had caries, respectively (p < 0.01.The difference between these groups of children has been foundin relation to the index of oral hygiene too (p < 0.05.Conclusion. An identification of risk groups for getting caries wasvery important and could help health and social structures to maintaintheir programs in order to improve oral health.

  1. Restorative Treatment Thresholds for Proximal Caries in Dental PBRN

    OpenAIRE

    Kakudate, N.; Sumida, F.; Matsumoto, Y.; Manabe, K.; Yokoyama, Y.; Gilbert, G.H.; Gordan, V.V.

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess caries treatment thresholds among Japanese dentists and to identify characteristics associated with their decision to intervene surgically in proximal caries lesions within the enamel. Participants (n = 189) were shown radiographic images depicting interproximal caries and asked to indicate the lesion depth at which they would surgically intervene in both high- and low-caries-risk scenarios. Differences in treatment thresholds were then assessed via chi-squa...

  2. Influence of chemomechanical caries removal methods on dentine

    OpenAIRE

    Hamama, Hamdi Hosni Hamdan Eldesouki

    2014-01-01

    Chemomechanical caries excavation is an excellent example of conservative caries removal methods due to its ability to reliably preserve a greater thickness of caries-affected dentine (CAD). Chemomechanical caries removal (CMCR) agents dissolve the denatured collagen fibrils leaving the sound and partially degraded fibrils intact. Also, one of the main advantages of the CMCR method is its characteristic visual excavation end point sign, after this point, the solution fails to become turbid. C...

  3. Effect of milk and yogurt on streptococcus sobrinus counts and caries score in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Ghasempour

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: An anti-cariogenic diet containing probiotics can be effective in caries prevention. This animal study compared the effects of milk and yogurt on Streptococcus sobrinus counts and caries score. Materials and Methods: A total of 36 male rats were infected with S. sobrinus (27,607 and divided into three groups. Group A and B received 200 mL of milk and 100 g of yogurt per day, respectively, and a control group received 2.5 mL of NCP number 2 diet twice daily for 21 days. After killing the animals, their lower left jaws were removed and sonicated to quantify the colonies of S. sobrinus. Dental caries was scored using Keyes technique. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney and Wilcoxon-Signed Rank tests. Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results: The mean (±standard error of the mean of S. sobrinus colonies in the milk, yogurt and control groups were determined at 119666.67 (±20733, 46416.666 (±12846 and 163,250 (±33493, respectively. Microbial counts decreased in the yogurt group compared with the milk and control groups (P = 0.004 and P = 0.000; respectively. There were significant differences between caries scores of smooth surfaces in the milk and yogurt groups compared with the control group (P = 0.000 and P = 0.000, respectively. Both milk and yogurt significantly reduced caries score of fissured surfaces compared with controls (P = 0.004 and P = 0.000, respectively. Conclusion: Considering the limitations of this study, yogurt administration reduces S. sobrinus counts. In addition, yogurt and milk regimens reduce the caries scores of smooth and fissured surfaces.

  4. Evaluation of salivary interleukin-6 in children with early childhood caries after treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Medhini Madhavan; Balagopal, R. Varma; Sajitha, Krishnan; Parvathy, Kumaran; Sangeetha, G. Bhat; Arun, X. Mamachan; Sureshkumar, Janardhanan

    2016-01-01

    Background: The role of cytokines as a marker in the oral inflammatory process in ECC has not been fully explored before and after full mouth rehabilitation. Aims: The aim of this study was to assess the level of salivary interleukin-6 (IL-6) in children with ECC and to compare its levels before and after comprehensive full mouth rehabilitation. Methods and Materials: Saliva samples were collected from children with ECC prior to dental treatment and 3-month post treatment. The salivary IL-6 levels were analyzed using the ELISA method. The gingival index was also timely recorded. Oral health awareness sessions were conducted for children and their parents at regular intervals during the 3-month study period. Statistical analysis used: Wilcoxon Signed Rank test compared the levels of salivary IL-6 while, the paired t test compared the values of gingival index before and after treatment. Results: The mean level of salivary IL-6 before and 3 months after treatment had reduced and this reduction was statistically significant (P caries activity state, the level of inflammation (IL-6) can definitely be minimized and thereby improving the quality of life of affected children. PMID:27307667

  5. Concomitant caries and calculus formation from in situ dentin caries model [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/VnGedU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico B de Sousa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to test the possibility of the concomitant formation of calculus deposits and caries from in situ dentin caries model for short time periods. Six volunteers wore palatal removal appliances with four polished dentin specimens protected from intra-oral mechanical forces for up to 14 days. Each volunteer applied a 50% sucrose solution (four times a day on the specimens and performed a daily mouthwash with 0.05% NaF. Samples were removed after 2, 5, 9 and 14 days in situ. Demineralization was analyzed by stereomicroscopy and SEM (secondary electrons and backscattered electrons modes and calculus was analyzed by energy dispersive spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy. Seventeen samples, at least one sample from each volunteer, presented dental calculus on both carious and non-carious ones, detected in all time intervals. Ca/P ratios of dental calculus ranged from 1.1 to 1.7. Some large calculus deposits on carious surfaces were confirmed by fluorescence. In conclusion, concomitant caries and calculus formation can be found in dentin caries formed in situ. This has important repercussions on the study of surface phenomena on the interface between hard dental tissues and dental plaque.

  6. Equity in children’s dental caries before and after cessation of community water fluoridation: differential impact by dental insurance status and geographic material deprivation

    OpenAIRE

    McLaren, Lindsay; McNeil, Deborah A.; Potestio, Melissa; Patterson, Steve; Thawer, Salima; Faris, Peter; Shi, Congshi; Shwart, Luke

    2016-01-01

    Background One of the main arguments made in favor of community water fluoridation is that it is equitable in its impact on dental caries (i.e., helps to offset inequities in dental caries). Although an equitable effect of fluoridation has been demonstrated in cross-sectional studies, it has not been studied in the context of cessation of community water fluoridation (CWF). The objective of this study was to compare the socio-economic patterns of children’s dental caries (tooth decay) in Calg...

  7. 21 CFR 872.1740 - Caries detection device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Caries detection device. 872.1740 Section 872.1740...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 872.1740 Caries detection device. (a) Identification. The caries detection device is a device intended to show the existence of decay in a patient's...

  8. 21 CFR 872.1745 - Laser fluorescence caries detection device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Laser fluorescence caries detection device. 872... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 872.1745 Laser fluorescence caries detection device. (a) Identification. A laser fluorescence caries detection device is a laser,...

  9. Pattern of dental caries in Mulago Dental School clinic, Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Kutesa, Annet; Mwanika, Andrew; Wandera, Margaret

    2005-01-01

    Information on dental caries among patients attending Mulago Hospital is scarce. Yet knowledge of the pattern of caries can be used to plan preventive and treatment interventions. This study describes the pattern of dental caries (in terms of age group, tooth and tooth surface and gender) among patients attending the Public Health Dental Officers School Clinic, Mulago Hospital.

  10. The caries process and its effect on the pulp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørndal, Lars

    2008-01-01

    The understanding of the caries process and its effect on the pulp is presented in the context that caries does develop in various rates of progression. Early in the caries process, the pulp reflects changes within lesion activity. Thus, the early pulp response is reversible. Later, the rate of c...

  11. The Effect of Food Hardness on the Development of Dental Caries in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaka Nakahara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We have previously shown that dental caries may be produced in diabetic rodent models fed with noncariogenic standard diets; however, many studies usually add large amounts of sugar to the diet to induce dental caries. Moreover, the physical properties of cariogenic diets have been reported as an important factor in the formation of caries. The aim of this study was to clarify the effect of the hardness of non-cariogenic diets on the development of dental caries in diabetic rodents. Seven-week-old female F344 rats were divided into 4 groups: intact rats fed with a standard pelletized or powdered diet and alloxan-induced diabetic rats fed with a standard pelletized or powdered diet. All of the rats were sacrificed at 52 weeks of age for morphological examinations on their dental tissue. Dental caries had developed and extended to all the molars in the diabetic rats that were fed with both the pelletized and powdered diets. Moreover, the lesion was significantly enhanced in the powdered diet group compared to that in the pelletized diet group. In conclusion, food hardness is an important factor influencing the development of dental caries in diabetic rats.

  12. Association between Knowledge about Comprehensive Food Education and Increase in Dental Caries in Japanese University Students: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunitomo, Muneyoshi; Ekuni, Daisuke; Mizutani, Shinsuke; Tomofuji, Takaaki; Irie, Koichiro; Azuma, Tetsuji; Yamane, Mayu; Kataoka, Kota; Taniguchi-Tabata, Ayano; Mizuno, Hirofumi; Miyai, Hisataka; Iwasaki, Yoshiaki; Morita, Manabu

    2016-03-01

    In Japan, comprehensive food education (shokuiku) programs are carried out with the aim of improving dietary practices and thereby reducing the incidence of lifestyle-related diseases, including dental caries. The purpose of this prospective cohort study was to investigate the association between knowledge about shokuiku and the increase in dental caries among Japanese university students who had attended a shokuiku program while in junior/senior high school. A total of 562 students volunteered to undergo oral examinations over a three-year follow-up period, during which the number of cases of dental caries were recorded. Additional information was collected using a questionnaire survey regarding knowledge about shokuiku, dietary habits, and oral health behaviors. In logistic regression analysis, males who lacked knowledge about shokuiku had significantly higher odds for dental caries than those who did not (odds ratio (OR), 2.00; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.12-3.58; p = 0.019). On the other hand, among females, those who frequently consumed sugar-sweetened soft drinks had significantly higher odds for dental caries than those who did not (OR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.05-3.42; p = 0.035). These results suggest that having no knowledge about shokuiku is associated with a risk of increase in dental caries in Japanese male university students. PMID:26927163

  13. Association between Knowledge about Comprehensive Food Education and Increase in Dental Caries in Japanese University Students: A Prospective Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muneyoshi Kunitomo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In Japan, comprehensive food education (shokuiku programs are carried out with the aim of improving dietary practices and thereby reducing the incidence of lifestyle-related diseases, including dental caries. The purpose of this prospective cohort study was to investigate the association between knowledge about shokuiku and the increase in dental caries among Japanese university students who had attended a shokuiku program while in junior/senior high school. A total of 562 students volunteered to undergo oral examinations over a three-year follow-up period, during which the number of cases of dental caries were recorded. Additional information was collected using a questionnaire survey regarding knowledge about shokuiku, dietary habits, and oral health behaviors. In logistic regression analysis, males who lacked knowledge about shokuiku had significantly higher odds for dental caries than those who did not (odds ratio (OR, 2.00; 95% confidence interval (CI, 1.12–3.58; p = 0.019. On the other hand, among females, those who frequently consumed sugar-sweetened soft drinks had significantly higher odds for dental caries than those who did not (OR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.05–3.42; p = 0.035. These results suggest that having no knowledge about shokuiku is associated with a risk of increase in dental caries in Japanese male university students.

  14. Association between Knowledge about Comprehensive Food Education and Increase in Dental Caries in Japanese University Students: A Prospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunitomo, Muneyoshi; Ekuni, Daisuke; Mizutani, Shinsuke; Tomofuji, Takaaki; Irie, Koichiro; Azuma, Tetsuji; Yamane, Mayu; Kataoka, Kota; Taniguchi-Tabata, Ayano; Mizuno, Hirofumi; Miyai, Hisataka; Iwasaki, Yoshiaki; Morita, Manabu

    2016-01-01

    In Japan, comprehensive food education (shokuiku) programs are carried out with the aim of improving dietary practices and thereby reducing the incidence of lifestyle-related diseases, including dental caries. The purpose of this prospective cohort study was to investigate the association between knowledge about shokuiku and the increase in dental caries among Japanese university students who had attended a shokuiku program while in junior/senior high school. A total of 562 students volunteered to undergo oral examinations over a three-year follow-up period, during which the number of cases of dental caries were recorded. Additional information was collected using a questionnaire survey regarding knowledge about shokuiku, dietary habits, and oral health behaviors. In logistic regression analysis, males who lacked knowledge about shokuiku had significantly higher odds for dental caries than those who did not (odds ratio (OR), 2.00; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.12–3.58; p = 0.019). On the other hand, among females, those who frequently consumed sugar-sweetened soft drinks had significantly higher odds for dental caries than those who did not (OR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.05–3.42; p = 0.035). These results suggest that having no knowledge about shokuiku is associated with a risk of increase in dental caries in Japanese male university students. PMID:26927163

  15. Accuracy of Digital Bitewing Radiography versus Different Views of Digital Panoramic Radiography for Detection of Proximal Caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Abdinian

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Dental caries are common and have a high incidence among populations. Radiographs are essential for detecting proximal caries. The best technique should be recognized for accurate detection of caries. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of detection of proximal caries using intra oral bitewing, extra oral bitewing, improved interproximal panoramic, improved orthogonality panoramic and digital con- ventional panoramic radiographs.Materials and Methods: In this descriptive cross sectional study, 100 extracted human teeth with and without proximal caries were used. Intra and extra oral radiographs were taken. Images were evaluated and scored by two observers. Scores were compared with the histological gold standard. The diagnostic accuracy of radiographs was assessed by means of receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve analysis (P<0.05.Results: Microscopic evaluation of proximal surfaces revealed that 54.8% of the sur- faces were sound and 45.2% were carious (with different depths. The differences in the area under the ROC curve (Az value among the five techniques were not statisti- cally significant.Conclusion: Improved interproximal panoramic and extra oral bitewing radiographs were superior to conventional panoramic radiography for detection of proximal caries ex vivo and should be considered for patients with contraindications for intra oral radi- ographs.

  16. The Prevalence of Dental Caries in Primary Dentition in 4- to 5-Year-Old Preschool Children in Northern Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafer Azizi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To determine the prevalence of dental caries among a representative sample of preschool children (4-5 years old who were accompanied by their parents to the dental centre of the Arab American University in Jenin whether they come seeking dental treatment or as visitors with adult patients. Materials and Methods. 1376 children of both sexes were investigated by three calibrated and trained examiners for dental caries using the dmft index according to the WHO method. Results. 76% of the studied children have already experienced dental caries at the age of 4-5 years (1046 children. The mean dmft score was found to be 2.46 while the other 24% of children were caries-free. There was no significant difference in caries prevalence between boys and girls (77.2% versus 74.6%. Children of highly educated and college graduated mothers were found to have more fillings (restored teeth in comparison to those who belong to mothers who did not finish their secondary (high school education. Conclusion. The number of caries-free children in northern Palestine is still far from numbers found in developed countries. There is a real need to make improvements at the level of parents dental health education, application of preventive measures, and dietary habits among preschool children.

  17. Comparison Between Biofilm Production, Phospholipase and Haemolytic Activity of Different Species of Candida Isolated from Dental Caries Lesions in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoy, Neetha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction C.albicans is the most commonly isolated fungal pathogen in the oral cavity, but isolation of non-albicans Candida is increasing in recent years. We wish to demonstrate the virulence factors of Candida spp. isolated from the dental caries lesion of the children as presence of virulence factors determines the pathogenic potential of any microorganism. Aim To compare biofilm production, phospholipase and haemolytic activity of C.albicans with that of non-albicans species of Candida isolated from dental caries lesions of children to evaluate the role of non- albicans species of Candida in formation of dental caries. Materials and Methods Oral swabs were collected from caries lesion of 100 school children of age 5-10 years with dental caries. Candida isolates were tested for biofilm production, phospholipase and haemolytic activity. Statistical analysis was done by Chi-Square test and Mann-Whitney U test wherever applicable using SPSS version 11.5. Results Out of the 100 children with dental caries 37 were positive for Candida by smear or culture and 31 by culture. C.albicans was the most prevalent isolate followed by C.krusei, C.tropicalis and C.albicans. Out of 21 C.albicans isolates, 10 (47.6%) showed phospholipase activity and 18 (85.71%) produced biofilm. Of the 10 non-albicans strains, 5 (50%) showed phospholipase activity and 6 (60%) produced biofilm. All isolates of Candida produced haemolysin (100%). Conclusion There was no statistically relevant difference between the virulence factor production by C.albicans and non-albicans species of Candida. In other words, our study shows that both C.albicans and non-albicans species of Candida isolated from caries lesions of the children, produce these virulence factors. So we can say that non-albicans species of Candida also are involved in caries formation. PMID:27190803

  18. Association between dairy intake and caries among children and adolescents. results from the Danish EYHS follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lempert, Susanne M; Christensen, Lisa B; Froberg, Karsten; Raymond, Kyle; Heitmann, Berit L

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to investigate associations between the intake of dairy products and the development in caries (DMFS, decayed, missing and filled surfaces) among children/adolescents over a period of 3 and 6 years, and to investigate whether dairy intake protects against caries incidence. A total of 68.9% of the children were caries free at the age of 9 compared with 34.0% of the adolescents at the age of 15 (measured as DMFS = 0). A larger percentage of children/adolescents with a dairy intake above the mean were caries free compared with the group of children/adolescents with an intake below the mean (72.8 vs. 65.8% at age 9 and 41.1 vs. 30.7% at age 15). The results from the generalized estimation equation showed that dairy and milk intake, as well as intakes of components of dairy such as dairy calcium, whey and casein, was generally inversely associated with childhood/adolescent caries experience (measured as DMFS). With regard to caries incidence, the same inverse association was found for incidence over a period of 3 years and for incidence over 6 years, but the results were only statistically significant for the 3-year incidence and for the unadjusted models of the 6-year incidence. This study found that previous dairy intake, as well as milk intake or intake of dairy components, may be a predictor of future risk of caries measured by the DMFS count level. This relationship was inverse, meaning that a high intake of dairy products was associated with less future caries development. However, more studies on larger cohorts are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:25825159

  19. Probiotics for caries prevention and control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, S; Keller, M K

    2012-01-01

    Modulation of the microbiota for restoring and maintaining health is a growing issue in medical science. A search for relevant clinical trials on the use of probiotic bacteria as a potential and clinically applicable anti-caries measure was performed. According to predetermined criteria, papers...... were selected and key data on study design, sample size, intervention, duration, and results were extracted. Two animal and 19 human studies were retrieved. Most studies were short-term and restricted to microbiological endpoints, and only 3 human studies reported a caries endpoint. A high degree of...... heterogeneity among the included investigations hampered the analysis. Significant reductions of mutans streptococci in saliva or plaque following daily intake of probiotic lactobacilli or bifidobacteria were reported in 12 out of 19 papers, whereas 3 reported an increase of lactobacilli. Three caries trials in...

  20. Detection and monitoring of early caries lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pretty, I A; Ekstrand, K R

    2016-01-01

    co-workers from 2013 and this still represents the current state of the science in relation to caries detection and monitoring. The review described among others, visible detection systems, image-based detection systems and point-measurement approaches. RESULTS: The current evidence base suggests...... that while there are numerous devices or technology-enabled detection systems, the use of a careful, methodical visual inspection of clean, dry teeth, supplemented where indicated by radiographic views, remains the standard of care in caries detection and diagnostics. Further, it is possible by means...... to the clinician and the patient for whom it may be a useful educational and motivational tool. CONCLUSIONS: Recommendations are presented that can be adopted and adapted to local circumstances and that are both substantiated by evidence and promote a clear, simple and consistent approach to caries...

  1. Diet and Caries-associated Bacteria in Severe Early Childhood Caries

    OpenAIRE

    Palmer, C A; Kent, R.; Loo, C. Y.; Hughes, C. V.; Stutius, E.; Pradhan, N.; Dahlan, M.; Kanasi, E.; Arevalo Vasquez, S.S.; Tanner, A.C.R.

    2010-01-01

    Frequent consumption of cariogenic foods and bacterial infection are risk factors for early childhood caries (ECC). This study hypothesized that a short diet survey focused on frequency of foods, categorized by putative cariogenicity, would differentiate severe ECC (S-ECC) from caries-free children. Children’s diets were obtained by survey and plaque bacteria detected by PCR from 72 S-ECC and 38 caries-free children. S-ECC children had higher scores for between-meal juice (p < 0.01), solid-re...

  2. Asociación entre el consumo de macronutrientes de la dieta y caries en adultos y adultos mayores diabéticos tipo 2 Association between dietary macronutrients and caries in type 2 diabetic adults and elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RA Giacaman

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Se ha reportado una mayor tasa de caries en pacientes con diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (DM, probablemente debido a cambios en los patrones de dieta. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar si existe una asociación entre la composición de macronutrientes de la dieta y la caries en sujetos con DM. Métodos: Una muestra compuesta por 33 sujetos con DM y 37 controles sin la patología fue examinada para determinar la experiencia de caries mediante el índice COPD y la prevalencia de caries radiculares con ICDAS II. Se aplicó una encuesta de dieta de reporte de 24 horas. Para determinar la composición de la dieta, los alimentos fueron clasificados acorde al contenido de macronutrientes; carbohidratos, proteínas y lípidos (gramos/día, kilocalorías y porcentaje del nutriente/día. Resultados: Los resultados fueron analizados mediante Kruskal-Wallis y Mann-Whitney. Un análisis de correlación y un modelo de regresión lineal se utilizaron para analizar la asociación entre composición de macronutrientes y la tasa de caries coronales y radiculares, con un nivel de significancia del 95%. Resultados: Los pacientes diabéticos tipo 2 mostraron mayor número de dientes perdidos por caries, más dientes obturados y más caries radiculares (pObjectives: Higher caries rates have been reported for type 2 diabetes mellitus patients (DM. Changes in dietary patterns may be partly responsible. The aim of this study was to examine a potential association between dietary macronutrient composition and caries experience in DM patients. Methods: Thirty three adults with DM and thirty seven controls, not affected by DM, were examined to assess coronal caries through DMFT index and root caries by ICDAS II. A 24-hr diet recall survey was used to determine dietary macronutrient composition supplemented with standardized tables and expressed as grams /day, kilocalories/nutrient and percentage of nutrient/day. Results were compared using Kruskal-Wallis and

  3. Can child temperament be related to early childhood caries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminabadi, N A; Ghoreishizadeh, A; Ghoreishizadeh, M; Oskouei, S G; Ghojazadeh, M

    2014-01-01

    Beyond the biological risk factors of early childhood caries (ECC) is child temperament. This study aimed to investigate the relationship of ECC to different traits of child temperament, directly and indirectly through the nutritional and oral hygiene habits. Through a multi-stage sampling, 373 kindergarten children aged 18-36 months participated in this study. The primary caregivers filled in the Early Childhood Behaviour Questionnaire (ECBQ) and a checklist containing demographic data and the dietary and oral hygiene habits of the children. Children were examined for dental caries. The frequency of ECC was 41.14%. With 18 aspects of a child's temperament under consideration, attentional shifting, fear, frustration, low-intensity pleasure, sadness and shyness were significantly higher in the ECC group. Cuddliness, perceptual sensitivity, positive anticipation and soothability were significantly higher in caries-free children. Attentional shifting (p = 0.02), frustration (p = 0.02) and shyness (p = 0.03) were risk factors and cuddliness (p nutritional and oral hygiene habits, easily soothable children were 0.69 times less likely to use sweetened liquids frequently [odds ratio (OR) 0.69, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.49-0.97, p = 0.03], while sad children were 0.58 times less likely to brush (OR 0.58, 95% CI 0.36-0.94, p = 0.02). Considering temperament traits along with socioeconomic status, positive anticipation was the most significant determinant of ECC (OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.13-2.19, p = 0.007). However, considering temperament, socioeconomic measures and child habits among ECC risk factors, the most significant was the initiation of brushing habits (OR 5.41, 95% CI 2.81-12.98, p = 0.002). PMID:24216506

  4. Composite resin bond strength to caries-affected dentin contaminated with 3 different hemostatic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoroushi, Maryam; Hosseini-Shirazi, Moeen; Farahbod, Foroozan; Keshani, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Bonding of composite resins to sound and caries-affected dentin in cervical areas may necessitate the use of hemostatic agents to control sulcular fluid and hemorrhage. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the bond strengths of a self-etching adhesive system to sound and caries-affected dentin after the use of 3 different hemostatic agents. Composite resin cylinders were bonded to 48 caries-affected and 48 sound dentin surfaces in 8 groups. Groups 1-4 utilized caries-affected dentin: group 1, uncontaminated control; 2, ViscoStat; 3, ViscoStat Clear; and 4, trichloroacetic acid (TCA). Groups 5-8 utilized sound dentin: group 5, uncontaminated control; 6, ViscoStat; 7, ViscoStat Clear; and 8, TCA. The hemostatic agents were applied for 2 minutes and rinsed. After 500 rounds of thermocycling, shear bond strength tests were carried out. Data were analyzed with 1- and 2-way analyses of variance, t test, and post hoc Tukey tests at a significance level of P dentin type (F = 38.23; P = 0.0001) and hemostatic agent (F = 6.32; P = 0.001). Furthermore, groups 2 and 6 (ViscoStat) showed significantly lower bond strength values than the control groups (groups 1 and 5) in both affected and sound dentin (P = 0.043 and P = 0.009, respectively). Within the limitations of this study, the bond strength of composite resin to caries-affected dentin was significantly reduced compared to that with sound dentin. Among the studied hemostatic agents, ViscoStat resulted in a greater decrease in dentin bond strength. Contamination of both sound and caries-affected dentin with hemostatic agents decreased composite resin bond strength. Of the 3 hemostatic agents used, ViscoStat Clear appeared to have the least detrimental effect on bond strength. PMID:27367640

  5. Association between Dental Caries and Socioeconomic Factors in Schoolchildren - A Multilevel Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelmann, Janessa Luiza; Tomazoni, Fernanda; Oliveira, Marta Dutra Machado; Ardenghi, Thiago M

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to assess the association between dental caries, socioeconomic individual and contextual factors in 12-years-old children. A representative sample of 1,134 children enrolled in public schools from Santa Maria, RS, Brazil, was obtained from a multistage random sampling. Four calibrated dentists examined participants at schools. Data about dental caries (DMF-T index) and dental plaque (present or absent) were assessed. Children's parents or guardians answered questions regarding their demographics and socioeconomic status. Context variables were also collected from official publications of the city. Data analyses were performed using multilevel logistic regression models. Caries prevalence in this sample (DMF-T≥1) was 49.9% (95%CI: 45.05% - 54.77%), and mean DMF-T was 1.15 (95%CI: 1.01-1.29) with 0.068 standard error. Children of the 3rd and 2nd tertile of income represented by the rich and intermediate categories, showed, respectively, a 50% (OR 0.50: CI95 % 0.35-0.71) and 39% (OR 0.61: CI95% 0.45-0.82) lower chance to present untreated caries compared with the poorest portion of the sample represented by the 1st tertile of income. Regarding the context covariates, children from lower income neighborhood presented a higher chance for having untreated dental caries compared with their counterpart (OR 1.70: CI95% 1.19 to 2.43). Inequalities in the distribution of dental caries continue affecting children from poorer socioeconomic profiles. There is need for planning public interventions for oral health promotion that take into account individual and contextual socioeconomic characteristics. PMID:27007350

  6. BREASTFEEDING AND EARLY CHILDHOOD CARIES (ECC SEVERITY OF CHILDREN UNDER THREE YEARS OLD IN DKI JAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risqa Rina Darwita

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence and severity of caries in children under three years old are constantly increasing. One of the cause is the increase consumption of cariogenic carbohydrate. Breast milk have buffer capacity that eventually able to prevent caries. The aims of this research are to discover the correlation between breastfeeding with the severity of Early Childhood Caries (ECC in children under three years old, to provide information on prevalence and severity of caries in children under three years, and to explain factors influencing the incidence of ECC. This research designed cross sectionally and conducted upon 565 children aged 12-38 months, selected using multistage cluster random sampling. The ECC prevalence of children under three years in DKI Jakarta is 52.7%, with average score of def-t 2.85. Bivariate analysis showed that, variables which correlate with the level of ECC are; the way to deliver (p=0,012, frequency (p=0,002, duration (p=0,002, salivary buffer capacity (p=0.013, habitual consumption of sugary diet (p=0.005, child’s dental hygiene behavior (p=0.002, and mother’s education (p=0.001. Multivariate analysis showed that ECC can be explained by these variables: age, mother’s education, the way to deliver and frequency of breast milk complements/replacement of consumtions, child’s brushing habit, plaque pH, and salivary buffer capacity. Resulting determination coefficient 32.1%. There is no significant correlation between breastfeeding and the level of Early Childhood Caries (ECC. The role of protective qualities of breastfeeding are not shown because of bias in obtaining data influence the incidence of caries.

  7. Association among salivary flow rate, caries risk and nutritional status in pre-schoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Patricia N; Martínez Reinoso, Josefina; Gamba, Carlota A; Salgado, Pablo A; Mateo, María Teresa; Manto, María del Carmen; Molgatini, Susana L; Iglesias, Verónica; Argentieri, Ángela B

    2015-01-01

    Modeer T. et al.(2011) claim that there is association between decreased salivary flow rate and caries in obese adolescents. The aim of this study was to determine the association among nutritional status, salivary flow rate and caries risk in preschoolers. The study comprised 60 children aged 3 to 6 years attending kindergartens in areas immediately adjacent to Buenos Aires City, Argentina. Body weight and height of the children were determined. Body mass index was calculated and the population was classified anthropometrically according to the WHO 2007 (WHO Anthro. Program). Caries risk was determined. Saliva was collected in sterile graduated widemouth containers, without stimulation and without food restrictions. Salivary flow rate (SFR) was determined. Statistical analysis was performed using Pearson's test. It was found that 56.7% (IC95%: 37.7-74.0) of anthropometrically adequate children (Ad) and 37.0% (IC95%: 20.1-57.5) of overweight and obese children (OW/Ob) had caries. The odds ratio for caries (OR=3.78; IC95%: 1.2-11.8, p=0.02) was almost 4 times higher in adequate children than in the others. SFR was 0.534 0.318 ml/min in Ad and 0.439 } 0.234 ml/min in OW/Ob. Pearson's test showed no correlation between SFR and nutritional status (r= 0.004592, p= 0.5977). Although the presence of caries was lower in overweight and obese children, no correlation was found between nutritional status and salivary flow rate. PMID:26355891

  8. Association between Dental Caries and Down Syndrome: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deps, Tahyna Duda; Angelo, Gabriela Lopes; Martins, Carolina Castro; Paiva, Saul Martins; Pordeus, Isabela Almeida; Borges-Oliveira, Ana Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Scientific evidence of susceptibility to dental caries in the population with Down Syndrome (DS) is limited and conflicting, making it difficult to establish firm conclusions. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to obtain scientific evidence of the possible association between dental caries and individuals with DS, compared to individuals without DS (control). An electronic search of five databases was performed, with no language or publication date restrictions. The studies were selected by two independent reviewers (Kappa = 0.83). The systematic review included 13 studies, while eight studies were included in the meta-analysis. The studies are presumably all at risk of bias given their observational character. Two of these evaluated the presence or absence of caries in permanent and deciduous teeth, and six evaluated the mean DMFT index in permanent teeth. Combined odds ratios (OR), standard difference, standard error and a 95% confidence interval (CI) were obtained. The vast majority of the studies found that individuals from control groups had more carious lesions or caries experience than those with DS. The results were statistically significant in seven studies (p<0.05). Meta-analysis of two studies revealed that individuals with DS had a lower dental caries than those in the control group (OR = 0.36; 95% CI = 0.22-0.57). In six studies, individuals with DS had a significantly lower mean DMFT index than individuals from the control group (Sd = -0.18; SE = 0.09; 95% CI = -0.35--0.02). The quality of the studies varied and in general had a high risk of bias. Scientific evidence suggests that individuals with DS have fewer dental caries than individuals without DS. PMID:26086498

  9. Bacterial profile of dentine caries and the impact of pH on bacterial population diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nima Kianoush

    Full Text Available Dental caries is caused by the release of organic acids from fermentative bacteria, which results in the dissolution of hydroxyapatite matrices of enamel and dentine. While low environmental pH is proposed to cause a shift in the consortium of oral bacteria, favouring the development of caries, the impact of this variable has been overlooked in microbial population studies. This study aimed to detail the zonal composition of the microbiota associated with carious dentine lesions with reference to pH. We used 454 sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene (V3-V4 region to compare microbial communities in layers ranging in pH from 4.5-7.8 from 25 teeth with advanced dentine caries. Pyrosequencing of the amplicons yielded 449,762 sequences. Nine phyla, 97 genera and 409 species were identified from the quality-filtered, de-noised and chimera-free sequences. Among the microbiota associated with dentinal caries, the most abundant taxa included Lactobacillus sp., Prevotella sp., Atopobium sp., Olsenella sp. and Actinomyces sp. We found a disparity between microbial communities localised at acidic versus neutral pH strata. Acidic conditions were associated with low diversity microbial populations, with Lactobacillus species including L. fermentum, L. rhamnosus and L. crispatus, being prominent. In comparison, the distinctive species of a more diverse flora associated with neutral pH regions of carious lesions included Alloprevotella tanerrae, Leptothrix sp., Sphingomonas sp. and Streptococcus anginosus. While certain bacteria were affected by the pH gradient, we also found that ∼ 60% of the taxa associated with caries were present across the investigated pH range, representing a substantial core. We demonstrated that some bacterial species implicated in caries progression show selective clustering with respect to pH gradient, providing a basis for specific therapeutic strategies.

  10. Validity of sealant retention as surrogate for caries prevention--a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Mickenautsch

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION/AIM: To appraise the clinical literature in determining whether loss of complete sealant retention as surrogate endpoint is directly associated with caries occurrence on sealed teeth as its clinical endpoint and to apply the appraised evidence in testing the null-hypothesis that the retention/caries ratio between different types of sealant materials (resin and glass-ionomer cement is not statistically significant (= Prentice criterion for surrogate endpoint validity. METHODS: Databases searched PubMed/Medline, Directory of Open Access Journals; IndMed, Scielo. Systematic reviews were checked for suitable trials. The search terms: "fiss* AND seal*" and "fissure AND sealant" were used. Article selection criteria were: clinical trial reporting on the retention and caries occurrence of resin and/or glass-ionomer cement (GIC fissure sealed permanent molar teeth; minimum 24-month follow-up period; systematic review or meta-analysis. Datasets and information were extracted from accepted trials. The principle outcome measure was the ratio of Risk of loss of complete retention to the Risk of caries occurrence per sealant type (RCR. Risk of bias was assessed in trials and sensitivity analysis with regard to potential confounding factors conducted. The null-hypothesis was tested by graphical and statistical methods. RESULTS: The risk of loss of complete retention of sealant materials was associated with the risk of caries occurrence for resin but not for GIC based sealants. The difference between RCR values of the two sealant types was statistically significant (p<0.05. The null-hypothesis was rejected. CONCLUSIONS: The current clinical evidence suggests that complete retention of pit and fissure sealants may not be a valid surrogate endpoint for caries prevention as its clinical endpoint. Further research is required to corroborate the current results.

  11. Prevotella intermedia and Porphyromonas gingivalis in dental caries with periapical granuloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risya Cilmiaty

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental caries with necrotic pulp is a multifactorial disease that attacks enamel involving tooth pulp. The anaerobic bacteria infection in the pulp chamber could induce the formation of periapical granuloma. However, the presence of the most frequently anaerobic bacteria identified in apical periodontitis, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia, in periapical granuloma have not been confirmed. Purpose: The aims of study were to determine the presence of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia in dental caries with necrotic pulp and to determine its relation to periapical granuloma. Methods: Thirty-six patients of dental caries with necrotic pulp in Dr. Moewardi General Hospital in Surakarta, Indonesia were involved and classified into two groups, the group of patients with periapical granuloma and the group of patients without periapical granuloma. The caries tooth was extracted, and the chronic periapical tissue was swabbed and cultured on blood agar medium in anaerobic condition. The bacterial DNA was extracted from the positive cultures and subjected for Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR. Results: Periapical granuloma was more likely found in women (OR 5.5, 95% CI=1.277-23.693; RR 2.5, 95% CI= 1.025-6.100. Black colonies bacteria were associated with periapical granuloma (OR 2.2, 95% CI=0.517-9.594; RR 1.5, 95% CI=0.655-3.623. Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia were detected in group with or without periapical granuloma, however, only Prevotella intermedia was associated with periapical granuloma (OR 1.6, 95% CI=0.418-5.903; RR 1.3, 95% CI=0.653-2.393. Conclusion: The presence of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia in periapical granuloma were confirmed, however, only Prevotella intermedia were associated with periapical granuloma.Latar belakang: Karies gigi dengan pulpa nekrosis adalah penyakit multifaktorial yang menyerang enamel hingga ruang pulpa gigi. Infeksi bakteri anaerob

  12. Oral hygiene practices and dental caries prevalence among 12 & 15 years school children in Ambala, Haryana -A cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Goel, Richa; Vedi, Archita; Veeresha, Koratagere Lingappa; Sogi, Girish Malleshappa; Gambhir, Ramandeep Singh

    2015-01-01

    Background Dental caries and gum disease are a major public health problem predominantly affecting children worldwide. Therefore the present study was conducted to assess oral hygiene practices, prevalence of dental caries and periodontal diseases among 12 and 15 years old high school children in public and government schools of Ambala district, Haryana and to provide data for planning and evaluation of oral health care promotion programs. Material and Methods A cross-sectional descriptive su...

  13. Innovative interventions to promote positive dental health behaviors and prevent dental caries in preschool children: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Xiaoli; Lo, Edward Chin Man; McGrath, Colman; Ho, Samuel Mun Yin

    2013-01-01

    Background Dental caries (tooth decay) is highly prevalent and is largely attributable to unhealthy self-care behaviors (diet and oral hygiene). The conventional (health) education (CE), focusing on disseminating information and giving normative advice, often fails to achieve sustained behavioral changes. This study incorporates two innovative elements into CE: (i) motivational interviewing (MI), a client-centered counseling for changing behaviors, and (ii) an interactive caries risk assessme...

  14. Dental caries, oral-health-related quality of life and atraumatic restorative treatment (ART): a study of adolescents in Kilwa district of Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Mashoto, Kijakazi Obed

    2011-01-01

    Background: To effectively plan and implement oral-health education and treatment programs targeting school students, information on the social and behavioral correlations of caries and subsequent ailments is important. Such information is limited in developing countries in general and in Tanzania in particular. Objective: This study examined the prevalence of dental caries, its socio-behavioral distribution and its impact on daily life activities in adolescents attending prima...

  15. [Determinants of dental caries in Haitian schoolchildren and implications for public health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedos, C; Brodeur, J M

    2000-01-01

    This work was carried out as part of a community development project in North-West Haiti. The aim was to determine the prevalence of dental caries among young Haitians and to identify the principal determinants and risk factors. A total of 322 schoolchildren, all aged 12 years, participated in the study in March and April 1996. Demographic characteristics, hygiene and dietary habits were recorded. In parallel, a dentist assessed the amount of debris present on the teeth and investigated the children's history of caries. Almost two thirds of the children examined were free of caries. The mean number of decayed missing and filled teeth (DMFT index) was 0.93, which is low. However, a high-risk group was identified with a mean DMFT index of 3.8. This group is a source of some concern, particularly as the region's health services are often inaccessible resulting in dental caries frequently remaining untreated until tooth extraction is required. Logistic regression analysis showed that dental hygiene and, to a lesser extent, sugar intake, were the principal risk factors for dental caries. Adolescents who consume more than three meals per day and who, presumably, have a higher intake of cariogenic food, present more caries than those who consume less. These schoolchildren meet the objectives of the WHO for dental caries for 2000, but two courses of action are nonetheless necessary: caries prevention and improved access to dental health care. To prevent caries, techniques for increasing the resistance of teeth could be recommended, as in industrialized countries. However, such strategies would be difficult to implement in the rural context of a developing country. The addition of fluoride to drinking water, for example, is not practical as most of the inhabitants of rural areas do not have access to running water. The use of sealing agents, which protect against decay affecting the occlusal surfaces of molars, is also impractical, for financial reasons. Thus, basic

  16. Association between respiratory problems and dental caries in children with bruxism

    OpenAIRE

    Lara Jansiski Motta; Carolina Carvalho Bortoletto; Alyne Jacques Marques; Raquel Agnelli Mesquita Ferrari; Kristianne Porta Santos Fernandes; Sandra Kalil Bussadori

    2014-01-01

    Context: Bruxism is the habit of clenching or grinding one′s teeth in non-functional activities and affects both children and adults alike. Respiratory problems, such as asthma and upper airway infections, are reported to be the etiological factors of bruxism. Aims: The aim of the present study was to determine whether there is an association between respiratory problems and dental caries in children who exhibit the habit of bruxism. Setting and Design: An observational cross-sectiona...

  17. Understanding and managing dental caries: a medical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Steve

    2007-01-01

    This article has taken a medical approach toward the understanding and managing of dental caries. Caries has been defined as a point in a person's life when there is an imbalance between protective and pathologic factors such that the process of demineralization of tooth structure by acid from bacteria in the tooth biofilm exceeds the patient's ability to remineralized tooth structure. The patient diagnosed with caries is out of balance. Caries is a diagnosis of a person. People have caries, teeth have lesions. Caries lesion detection, classification, and analysis are done at the level of the tooth surface. Caries is a process in time. Today we establish a diagnosis. For the future we establish a prediction. Patients can be diagnosed as caries active, caries balanced, or caries undetermined. For an improved treatment plan, future risk and prognosis assessments are accomplished by classifying all patients as either low, moderate, or high risk. A combination of diagnosis and risk or prognosis assessment leads to five treatment groups, each with an appropriate protocol for managing the disease process. The five protocols follow from the use of the four-step medical model for caries management. In the end, there are two treatment plans for these patients: a restorative therapy plan that treats the holes and a disease management plan that treats the disease. Surgical treatment does not manage the disease. Today we are managing tooth decay with medicine instead of a drill. PMID:18051341

  18. Calcium-phosphate-osteopontin particles for caries control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlafer, Sebastian; Birkedal, Henrik; Olsen, Jakob;

    2016-01-01

    Caries is caused by acid production in biofilms on dental surfaces. Preventing caries therefore involves control of microorganisms and/or the acid produced. Here, calcium-phosphate-osteopontin particles are presented as a new approach to caries control. The particles are made by co-precipitation ......Caries is caused by acid production in biofilms on dental surfaces. Preventing caries therefore involves control of microorganisms and/or the acid produced. Here, calcium-phosphate-osteopontin particles are presented as a new approach to caries control. The particles are made by co......, and the pH always remained above 5.5. Hence, calcium-phosphate-osteopontin particles show potential for applications in caries control....

  19. Relation Between Past and Present Dietary Sugar Intake and Dental Caries in A High Caries Population

    OpenAIRE

    T Malek Mohammadi; Kay EJ; A Hajizamani

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The main objective of this study was to investigate relationship between re-ported dietary habits and dental caries in five and six-year-old children referred for dental extractions.Materials and Methods: Two hundred children were examined using standard caries di-agnostic criteria. The numbers of decayed, missing and filled deciduous teeth were re-corded. A food frequency table was completed by the parents of each child and analyzedthrough weighting the cariogenic potentialby the ...

  20. Diabetes Enhances Dental Caries and Apical Periodontitis in Caries-Susceptible WBN/KobSlc Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kodama, Yasushi; Matsuura, Masahiro; Sano, Tomoya; Nakahara, Yutaka; Ozaki, Kiyokazu; Narama, Isao; Matsuura, Tetsuro

    2011-01-01

    Many epidemiologic studies have suggested that diabetes may be an important risk factor for periodontal disease. To determine whether diabetes induces or enhances periodontal disease or dental caries, dental tissue from diabetic male and nondiabetic female WBN/KobSlc rats and male and female age-matched nondiabetic F344 rats was analyzed morphologically and morphometrically for these 2 types of lesions. Soft X-ray examination revealed that the incidence and severity of both molar caries and a...

  1. Antibody Response to Actinomyces Antigen and Dental Caries Experience: Implications for Caries Susceptibility

    OpenAIRE

    Levine, Martin; Owen, Willis L; Avery, Kevin T

    2005-01-01

    Fluoridated dentifrices reduce dental caries in subjects who perform effective oral hygiene. Actinomyces naeslundii increases in teeth-adherent microbial biofilms (plaques) in these subjects, and a well-characterized serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody response (Actinomyces antibody [A-Ab]) is also increased. Other studies suggest that a serum IgG antibody response to streptococcal d-alanyl poly(glycerophosphate) (S-Ab) may indicate caries experience associated strongly with gingival health...

  2. Future aims of biophysical models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present workshop has demonstrated, that it is easy to produce models, but frequently difficult to define their purposes and aims. A reliable prediction of future aims of biophysical modelling may be nearly impossible. It is less difficult to outline those uses of modelling that are unavailable for the pragmatic uses in radiation therapy and in radiation protection. The applications will also determine the general direction of development of the less empirical models that may facilitate the understanding of the mechanisms of radiation action and that may ultimately lead back to applications in radiation therapy and radiation protection. This paper addresses likely aims for modelling in the three areas of radiation therapy, radiation protection and cellular radiation effects. (author)

  3. PIXE analysis of caries related trace elements in tooth enamel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PIXE analysis has been applied to a set of twenty human teeth to determine trace element concentration in enamel from areas suceptible to dental caries (mesial and distal contact points) and in areas less susceptible to the disease (buccal surface), with the aim of determining the possible roles of trace elements in the carious process. The samples were caries-free anterior incisors extracted for periodontal reasons from subjects 10-30 years of age. Prior to extraction of the sample teeth, a detailed dental history and examination was carried out in each individual. PIXE analysis, using a 3 MeV proton beam of 1 mm diameter, allowed the determination of Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Sr and Pb above detection limits. As demonstrated in this work, the enhanced sensitivity of PIXE analysis over electron microprobe analysis, and capability of localised surface analysis compared with the pooled samples require for neutron activation analysis, makes it a powerful and useful technique in dental analysis. (orig.)

  4. Occlusal Caries Management: Preferences among Dentists in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopperud, Simen E; Tveit, Anne B; Opdam, Niek J M; Espelid, Ivar

    2016-01-01

    The aim was to measure variations in the threshold for operative treatment of occlusal caries in permanent teeth and the use of dental materials, compared with results from a similar study conducted in Norway in 1995. In 2009, a precoded questionnaire was sent electronically to 3,654 dentists with E-mail addresses in the member register of the Norwegian Dental Association. The questions were related to caries, treatment strategies and choice of dental materials. Replies were obtained from 61.3% respondents after two reminders. Restorative treatment of occlusal lesions confined to enamel was proposed by 12% of the dentists, compared with 18% in 1995 (p risk of restoring occlusal enamel lesions operatively. The authors conclude that especially young dentists appear to be more reluctant to remove tooth substance in 2009 compared with 1995. Composite is the dominating material of choice in 2009 and seems to have substituted the use of most other filling materials in occlusal restorations in permanent teeth. PMID:26839953

  5. CARIES PREVENTIVE MEASURES AMONG RAJASTHANI ORTHODONTISTS: A QUESTIONNAIRE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available : INTRODUCTION: Patients undergoing fixed orthodontic therapy are at high risk of developing decalcification, caries and white spot lesions. AIM: As little information is available about preventive measures taken by orthodontists, this study surveyed the measures used by orthodontists those practicing in Rajasthan in prevention of such problems. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A questionnaire regarding preventive measures undertaken before, during and after the orthodontic treatment was sent to 128 orthodontists, out of them 100 orthodontists replied to the questionnaire. All the data obtained from this questionnaire was tabulated and analyzed statistically using ANOVA test. RESULTS: Before starting the treatment, majority of orthodontists always prescribed oral hygiene instructions and recommended the use of fluoride rinses while chlorhexidine rinses and other cleansing aids were usually recommended. During the treatment when demineralization was seen developing, majority of orthodontists explained the consequences, gave extra oral hygiene instructions and recommended the use of fluoride rinses as well as other oral hygiene aids which was found to be statistically significant (p < 0.05. At the completion of treatment, majority of orthodontists always gave extra oral hygiene instructions and recommended the use of fluoride rinses as well as fluoride gel. Fluoride varnish, chlorhexidine rinses, oral hygiene aids like brushes and other measures such as polishing of white spot lesions were occasionally recommended which was also found to be statistically significant (p < 0.05. CONCLUSION: Rajasthani orthodontists undertake satisfactory measures to prevent demineralization and caries within practical limits.

  6. Clinical diagnosis of dental caries: a European perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, N B

    2001-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide a broad international perspective on aspects of the RTI/UNC systematic review, to introduce relevant literature not cited, and to make recommendations for clinical practice education and research suggested by the evidence. Clinical caries diagnosis represents the foundation on which the answers to most of the consensus questions will be based. This paper highlights needs for being clear about definitions and nomenclature; understanding the importance of the concepts underlying the D1 and D3 diagnostic thresholds used widely within the RTI/UNC Review; and appreciating that the diagnostic challenge now faced by clinicians is significant and is becoming more complex as the presentation and distribution of the disease changes over time and the range of preventive and operative treatment options expands. A series of recommendations informed by the evidence are made, including a rather contentious issue for many clinicians concerning the lack of evidence supporting the continued use of a sharp explorer as a diagnostic tool for primary caries diagnosis. This practice should be discontinued as it may cause some harm to the patient and yet fails to provide a significant balancing diagnostic benefit. Finally, it is suggested that dentistry should learn from the developing evidence base in medicine on how best to disseminate the findings of reviews and promote appropriate changes in clinical practice. PMID:11699999

  7. Dental caries from a molecular microbiological perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Nyvad; W. Crielaard; A. Mira; N. Takahashi; D. Beighton

    2013-01-01

    Dental caries results from an imbalance of the metabolic activity in the dental biofilm. The microbial communities of teeth have traditionally been studied by standard cultural approaches. More recently, cloning and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene have been used to characterize the microbial composi

  8. The oral microbiome in dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struzycka, Izabela

    2014-01-01

    Dental caries is one of the most common chronic and multifactorial diseases affecting the human population. The appearance of a caries lesion is determined by the coexistence of three main factors: acidogenic and acidophilic microorganisms, carbohydrates derived from the diet, and host factors. Socio-economic and behavioral factors also play an important role in the etiology of the disease. Caries develops as a result of an ecological imbalance in the stable oral microbiom. Oral microorganisms form dental plaque on the surfaces of teeth, which is the cause of the caries process, and shows features of the classic biofilm. Biofilm formation appears to be influenced by large scale changes in protein expression over time and under genetic control Cariogenic microorganisms produce lactic, formic, acetic and propionic acids, which are a product of carbohydrate metabolism. Their presence causes a decrease in pH level below 5.5, resulting in demineralization of enamel hydroxyapatite crystals and proteolytic breakdown of the structure of tooth hard tissues. Streptococcus mutans, other streptococci of the so-called non-mutans streptococci group, Actinomyces and Lactobacillus play a key role in this process. Dental biofilm is a dynamic, constantly active metabolically structure. The alternating processes of decrease and increase of biofilm pH occur, which are followed by the respective processes of de- and remineralisation of the tooth surface. In healthy conditions, these processes are in balance and no permanent damage to the tooth enamel surface occurs. PMID:25115106

  9. Declining caries trends: are we satisfied?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.D. Lagerweij; C. van Loveren

    2015-01-01

    WHO data suggest that all over the world the prevalence of caries has declined at the end of the previous and in the first decade of the present century. This decline started wherever the use of effective fluoride toothpaste became commonplace. Even though the decline is considerable with a 90 % red

  10. Need for new caries detection methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Douglas A.; Featherstone, John D. B.

    1999-05-01

    Dental caries (tooth decay) continues to be a major problems for adults as well as children, even though great advances have been made in preventive methods in the last 20 years. New methods for the management of caries will work best if lesions can be detected at an early stage and chemical rather than physical intervention can take place, thereby preserving the natural tooth structure and helping the saliva to heal, or remineralize, the areas of early decay. Clinical detection of caries in the US relies on visual examination, tactile with hand held explorer, and conventional radiographs, all of which are inadequate for the occlusal (biting) surfaces of the teeth where most of the decay now occurs. The dentist often has to explore by drilling with a dental bur to confirm early decay in these areas. New method that can determine the extent and degree of subsurface lesions in these surfaces non-destructively are essential for further advances in the clinical management of dental caries. Optical methods, which exploit the differences between sound and carious enamel and dentin, show great promise for the accurate detection of these lesions. Two or three- dimensional images, which include a measure of severity will be needed.

  11. Infiltrating/sealing proximal caries lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martignon, S; Ekstrand, K R; Gomez, J;

    2012-01-01

    significant differences in lesion progression between infiltration and placebo (P = 0.0012) and between sealing and placebo (P = 0.0269). The study showed that infiltration and sealing are significantly better than placebo treatment for controlling caries progression on proximal lesions. No significant...... difference was seen between infiltration and sealing (ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT01417832)....

  12. Acidogenicity and acidurance of dental plaque and saliva sediment from adults in relation to caries activity and chlorhexidine exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreadis Georgios

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The ecological plaque hypothesis for the etiopathogenesis of caries implies a microbial shift towards a more aciduric dental plaque microbiota, due to a frequent carbohydrate intake. Acid tolerance has been suggested as an important property of the caries-associated bacteria and several in vitro studies with mixed cultures indicated that a low pH rather than the carbohydrate availability is responsible for microbiota shifts associated with the development of dental caries. Objective: To examine 1 the acidogenic potential (amount lactate produced per mg plaque and minute, at pH 7.0 or pH 5.5 and the aciduric potential (acidogenic potential at pH 5.5/acidogenic potential at pH 7.0 of dental plaque and salivary sediment taken from caries-active or caries-free adults, and 2 the effect of a short-term chlorhexidine treatment on these potentials. Design: Dental plaque and saliva sediment samples were taken from caries-free and caries-active subjects and suspended in Ringer's solution containing 1% sucrose and buffered with 0.5 M 3-[N-morpholino]propanesulfonic acid (MOPS, pH 7.0, or 3-[N-morpholino]ethanesulfonic acid (MES, pH 5.5. After incubation at 37°C for 10–20 min, the concentration of lactic acid in the suspension was determined by an enzymatic assay. The acid production of dental plaque was also determined after a period of mouth rinsing with 0.2% chlorhexidine. Results: Both dental plaque and salivary sediment from caries-free subjects exhibited significantly lower acidogenic potentials at both pHs compared to caries-active volunteers. The opposite was observed with the aciduric potential. Chlorhexidine treatment significantly reduced all three potentials but had no effect on the relative proportion of bacteria grown on acidic agar. Conclusions: Caries-active adults have an oral microbiota characterised by an increased catabolic velocity for sugar. The increase is more pronounced at neutral than acidic pH. Exposure to

  13. An in vitro comparison of diagnostic abilities of conventional radiography, storage phosphor, and cone beam computed tomography to determine occlusal and approximal caries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kayipmaz, Saadettin, E-mail: kayipmaz@ktu.edu.tr [Karadeniz Technical University, Faculty of Dentistry, Department of Oral Diagnosis and Radiology, Farabi, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Sezgin, Omer Said, E-mail: omersaidsezgin@gmail.com [Karadeniz Technical University, Faculty of Dentistry, Department of Oral Diagnosis and Radiology, Farabi, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Saricaoglu, Senem Tugra, E-mail: senem_tugra@hotmail.com [Karadeniz Technical University, Faculty of Dentistry, Department of Oral Diagnosis and Radiology, Farabi, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Can, Gamze, E-mail: gcanktu@yahoo.com [Karadeniz Technical University Faculty of Medicine Department of Public Health (Turkey)

    2011-11-15

    Aim: The aim of this study was to compare conventional radiography, storage phosphor plate, and cone beam computed tomography for in vitro determination of occlusal and approximal caries. Methods: A total of 72 extracted human premolar and molar teeth were selected. Teeth were radiographed with conventional intraoral radiography, a storage phosphor plate system, and cone beam computed tomography and evaluated by two observers. The teeth were then separated and examined with a stereomicroscope and a scanner at approximately 8x magnification. Results: CBCT was statistically superior to conventional radiography and phosphor plate for determining occlusal caries. No significant difference from CBCT, conventional radiography and the phosphor plate system for determining approximal caries was found. Conclusion: The CBCT system may be used as an auxiliary method for the detection of caries.

  14. An in vitro comparison of diagnostic abilities of conventional radiography, storage phosphor, and cone beam computed tomography to determine occlusal and approximal caries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: The aim of this study was to compare conventional radiography, storage phosphor plate, and cone beam computed tomography for in vitro determination of occlusal and approximal caries. Methods: A total of 72 extracted human premolar and molar teeth were selected. Teeth were radiographed with conventional intraoral radiography, a storage phosphor plate system, and cone beam computed tomography and evaluated by two observers. The teeth were then separated and examined with a stereomicroscope and a scanner at approximately 8x magnification. Results: CBCT was statistically superior to conventional radiography and phosphor plate for determining occlusal caries. No significant difference from CBCT, conventional radiography and the phosphor plate system for determining approximal caries was found. Conclusion: The CBCT system may be used as an auxiliary method for the detection of caries.

  15. ROC analysis of acid demineralized artificial caries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study is designed to determine the artificial incipient proximal caries lesion detectability by dentists on Ektaspeed Plus film using ROC analysis. Sixteen premolars and 30 molars, which have 52 proximal caries-like demineralized lesions using acid-gel technique were added to 20 sound premolars and 30 sound molars to make 24 plaster blocks. Each block with 4 teeth and 6 contacting proximal surfaces was placed in an optical bench to take 12 bitewing radiographs with Ektaspeed Plus film. Thirty-six dentists acted as observers to evaluated the proximal lesions using five rating scales for ROC analysis. They were also asked to determine the presence or absence of the proximal caries. The true status of the proximal caries was established by the consensus of three oral and maxillofacila radiologists. For evaluation of intra-observer agreement, 9 dentist reread the radiographs at an interval of 1 month. The Pearson correlation coefficient for the intra-observer agreement was 0.746 (good agreement). Ten observer's data set were degenerated. The mean area under ROC curve from 26 observers was 0.806 and standard deviation was 0.061. The sensitivity and the specificity of the binary response were 0.17 (SD=0.11) and 0.78 (SD=0.17) respectively. The binary response only reveal a single values of sensitivity and the specificity. The ROC analysis to assess the diagnostic accuracy in caries detection, which producing estimates of sensitivities for all specifities, yield more comprehensive measures of diagnostic performance than single values for sensitivity and specificity.

  16. Caries dental en escolares del Distrito Federal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IRIGOYEN-CAMACHO MARÍA ESTHER

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Presentar las estimaciones de la prevalencia y la severidad de caries dental, así como las necesidades de tratamiento de la población escolar del Distrito Federal examinada en la encuesta de caries dental que se llevó a cabo en 1988 con la finalidad de obtener datos basales sobre caries en los escolares al inicio del Programa Nacional de Fluoruración de la Sal en México. Material y métodos. La población de estudio fue seleccionada empleando un marco muestral basado en el listado de las escuelas primarias y los jardines de niños registrados por la Secretaría de Educación Pública en 1988. En el examen de la cavidad bucal de los escolares se utilizaron los criterios diagnósticos señalados por la Organización Mundial de la Salud. Resultados. Un total de 4 475 escolares de 5 a 12 años de edad participaron en el estudio. La prevalencia de caries dental en la población alcanzó 90.5%. El índice de necesidades de tratamiento fue elevado (79.6%. El promedio de los índices de caries en los escolares de 12 años de edad fue CPOD= 4.42 (desviación estándar -DE- 3.2 y CPOS= 6.53 (DE 4.8. Conclusiones. Los resultados de la encuesta subrayan la pertinencia de un programa preventivo de amplia cobertura, como el de fluoruración de la sal. Además, muestran que se requiere elaborar estrategias para mejorar el acceso de la población escolar a los servicios odontológicos del sistema de salud en México.

  17. The prevalence of nursing caries in Davangere preschool children and its relationship with feeding practices and socioeconomic status of the family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyagi R

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to find the prevalence of nursing caries in Davangere preschool children and its relationship with feeding practices and socioeconomic status of the family. Materials and Methods: A total of 813 children aged 2-6 years were screened for the present study from randomly selected three kindergarten schools each from Government, Government aided, and private managements. Clinical examination was done inside the respective schools. At the time of examination, a proforma was filled for each child comprising of DFS index. The questionnaire by Winter et al. was modified and used in this study. The completed proformas were statistically analyzed to find if any correlation existed between the nursing caries to the feeding practices and socioeconomic status of the family. Results: Duration of breastfeeding increases the number of children with nursing caries and the mean DFS. There is a strong and significant relationship between the severity of nursing caries and the degree of feeding abuse. Children from low socioeconomic status have increased early childhood caries. Conclusion: The prevalence of nursing caries was 19.2% in Davangere preschool population. Nursing caries were more in children who were taking a feeding bottle to bed at night and were increasingly seen in large families and lower socioeconomic groups.

  18. Prevalence of dental caries, periodontitis, and oral hygiene status among 12-year-old schoolchildren having normal occlusion and malocclusion in Mathura city: A comparative epidemiological study

    OpenAIRE

    Geetika Arora; Sumit Bhateja

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim was to find the prevalence of dental caries, periodontitis, and oral hygiene index-simplified (OHI-S) among 12-year schoolchildren having normal occlusion and malocclusion in Mathura city. Materials and Methods: The present study was a cross-sectional study done among the 100 subjects who have been selected from 5 schools in four different geographical locations. The data regarding their socio-demographic characteristics, dental caries status, periodontitis status and o...

  19. Biomimetic Remineralization of Demineralized Dentine Using Scaffold of CMC/ACP Nanocomplexes in an In Vitro Tooth Model of Deep Caries

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Zhen; Cao, Shansong; Wang, Haorong; Li, Yanqiu; Kishen, Anil; Deng, Xuliang; Yang, Xiaoping; Wang, Yinghui; Cong, Changhong; Wang, Huajun; Zhang, Xu

    2015-01-01

    Currently, it is still a tough task for dentists to remineralize dentine in deep caries. The aim of this study was to remineralize demineralized dentine in a tooth model of deep caries using nanocomplexes of carboxymethyl chitosan/amorphous calcium phosphate (CMC/ACP) based on mimicking the stabilizing effect of dentine matrix protein 1 (DMP1) on ACP in the biomineralization of dentine. The experimental results indicate that CMC can stabilize ACP to form nanocomplexes of CMC/ACP, which is abl...

  20. Prevalence of early childhood caries and associated risk factors in preschool children of urban Bangalore, India: A cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Prakash, Prashanth; Subramaniam, Priya; Durgesh, B. H.; Konde, Sapna

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Early childhood caries (ECC) is a devastating form of dental decay with multi-factorial origin. The aim of this cross-sectional study is to investigate the prevalence and related risk factors of ECC in preschool children of urban Bangalore (India). Methods: A random sample of 1,500 children aged between 8 and 48 months were selected from various parts of urban Bangalore. The status of dental caries was recorded according to the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. Information...

  1. Effect of a sugar-free chewing gum containing Magnolia bark extract on the development of caries lesions in healthy adult volunteers: a randomized controlled intervention trial

    OpenAIRE

    Carta, Giovanna

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The effect of magnolia bark extract (MBE) on the development of caries lesions administered daily through sugar-free chewing gum was evaluated. A randomized double-blind intervention trial was performed. Methods: 480 subjects (mean age±40.72) were examined using ICDAS index. A self-compiled questionnaire was submitted. A caries risk profile was generated for each subject using Cariogram software. 271 subjects, presenting inclusion criteria, were enrolled and divided into three groups ...

  2. Assessment of the frequency of routine removal of dental plaque prior to caries diagnosis by dentists in three cities in southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Heitor Cunha Moreira; Julio Eduardo do Amaral Zenkner; Eduardo Machado; Rachel de Oliveira Rocha; Luciano Casagrande; Cassiano Kuchenbecker Rosing

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of routine use of dental prophylaxis prior to visual inspection, in order to diagnose caries, by dentists with different lapses of time after graduating time. One hundred and fifty one Brazilian dentists were interviewed in 3 Brazilian cities to determine if they usually remove dental plaque prior to visual inspection for caries diagnosis. The dentists were stratified according to year of graduation. The association between the lapse of time a...

  3. Can the development of new dental caries in Danish schoolchildren be predicted from surveillance data in the School Dental Service?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Berit Anna; Foldspang, Anders

    2006-01-01

    Background:  Dental screening programmes for Danish children generally target all children, irrespective of their individual caries risk. The standard screening interval is approximately 12 months. A valid systematic screening tool based on routine information sources is however indispensable, if...

  4. Elevated Incidence of Dental Caries in a Mouse Model of Cystic Fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Catalán, Marcelo A.; Kathleen Scott-Anne; Klein, Marlise I.; Hyun Koo; Bowen, William H.; Melvin, James E.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dental caries is the single most prevalent and costly infectious disease worldwide, affecting more than 90% of the population in the U.S. The development of dental cavities requires the colonization of the tooth surface by acid-producing bacteria, such as Streptococcus mutans. Saliva bicarbonate constitutes the main buffering system which neutralizes the pH fall generated by the plaque bacteria during sugar metabolism. We found that the saliva pH is severely decreased in a mouse m...

  5. Caries Risk Assessment Among School Children in Davangere City Using Cariogram

    OpenAIRE

    Umesh Kemparaj; Sangeeta Chavan; Nagesh Laxminarayan Shetty

    2014-01-01

    Background: To assess the caries risk among 12-years old children using the Cariogram and to evaluate it by comparing with the actual change in DMFT and DMFS over a period of two year. Methods: A two year prospective study was conducted among 12 years age group school going children in Davangere city. At the baseline relevant and required information regarding the oral hygiene, diet, fluoride usage were obtained using a specially prepared pro forma and the saliva samples were collected fr...

  6. The relationship of dental caries and dental fear in Malaysian adolescents: a latent variable approach

    OpenAIRE

    Esa, Rashidah; Leng Ong, Ali; Humphris, Gerald Michael; Freeman, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    This paper is funded by University Malaya. Background To investigate the role of geography (place of residence) as a moderator in the relationship between dental caries disease and treatment experience and dental fear in 16-year-olds living in Malaysia. Methods A multi-stage-stratified sampling method was employed. Five hundred and three, 16-year-olds from 6 government secondary schools participated in this study. The questionnaire examined participants' demographic profile and assessed th...

  7. Dental caries and treatment needs of Yemeni children with down syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Sadeq Al-Maweri; Ghadah Al-Sufyani

    2014-01-01

    Background: Oral health in Down syndrome (DS) children has some peculiar aspects that must be considered in the follow-up of these patients. The objective of the present study was to assess the prevalence of dental caries and treatment needs among children with DS in Yemen and also to investigate the association between these outcomes with various socio-demographic and clinical variables. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study involved 96 children with DS aged between 6 and 15 ...

  8. Breast feeding practices as cultural interventions for early childhood caries in Cree communities

    OpenAIRE

    Cidro, Jaime; Zahayko, Lynelle; Lawrence, Herenia P.; Folster, Samantha; McGregor, Margaret; McKay, Kristen

    2015-01-01

    Background Breastfeeding is a gift from mother to child and has a wide range of positive health, social and cultural impacts on infants. The link between bottle feeding and the prevalence of early childhood caries (ECC) is well documented. In Aboriginal communities, the higher rates of ECC are linked with low rates of breast feeding and inappropriate infant feeding of high sugar content liquids. Methods The Baby Teeth Talk Study (BTT) is one project that is exploring the use of four intervent...

  9. Dental pain, socioeconomic status, and dental caries in young male adults from southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Luiz Dornelles Bastos

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess dental pain prevalence and its association with dental caries and socioeconomic status in 18-year-old males from Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a random sample (n = 414 selected from the Brazilian Army conscription list in 2003. Dental pain during the 12 months prior to the interview was recorded as the outcome. Socioeconomic data were obtained through a questionnaire. Dental caries experience was registered according to the DMFT Index. Analyses included simple and multiple non-conditional logistic regression following a hierarchical approach. Response rate was 95.6%. High rates of inter-examiner agreement were achieved (kappa > 0.83. Dental pain prevalence was 21.2% (95%CI: 17.3-25.1. After adjustment, individuals with one or more untreated caries were 3.2 times more likely (95%CI: 1.7-5.8 to have dental pain compared to caries-free subjects. Conscripts with low family income were 1.8 times more likely (95%CI: 1.0-3.3 to have dental pain than those with higher income.

  10. Factors associated with dental caries in the primary dentition of children with cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Leal Roberto

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate factors associated with caries experience in the primary dentition of one- to five-year-old children with cerebral palsy. A total of 266 dental records were examined, and caries experience was measured by dmft. The following variables were also analyzed: gender, oral hygiene, history of gastroesophageal reflux, use of medications for gastroesophageal reflux, gingival status, sugar intake and reports of polyuria, excessive thirst and xerostomia. For analysis purposes, the individuals were categorized as those with and without caries experience and subcategorized into the following age groups: one year; two to three years; and four to five years. After bivariate analysis, variables with a p-value < 0.25 were selected for incorporation into the Poisson regression models. Considering the limitations of the protocol, the level of oral hygiene perceived on the first appointment was the only factor associated with caries experience among two-to-fiveyear-old children with cerebral palsy.

  11. Detection accuracy of in vitro approximal caries by cone beam computed tomography images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aims: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of approximal carious lesions among five CBCT systems and to assess the effect of detector types employed by different CBCT systems on the accuracy of approximal caries diagnosis. Materials and methods: Thirty-nine extracted non-cavitated human permanent teeth were employed in the study. Seven observers evaluated 78 approximal surfaces of the teeth with respect to caries by the images from the following five CBCT systems: (1) NewTom 9000; (2) Accuitomo 3DX; (3) Kodak 9000 3D; (4) ProMax 3D; and (5) DCT PRO, respectively. The lesions were validated by histological examination. The area under receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (Az) was used to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy. Results: Microscopy of approximal surfaces found 47.4% sound, 39.8% enamel and 12.8% dentin lesions. The differences of Az values among the five CBCT systems were not statistically significant (p = 0.348). No significant difference was found between the two detector types of CBCT systems (p = 0.47). Conclusions: The five CBCT systems employed in the study showed no significant difference in the in vitro approximal caries detection. Neither the detector nor the FOV employed by the CBCT systems has an impact on the detection accuracy of approximal caries.

  12. Secondary caries detection with a novel fluorescence-based camera system in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brede, Olivier; Wilde, Claudia; Krause, Felix; Frentzen, Matthias; Braun, Andreas

    2010-02-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the ability of a fluorescence based optical system to detect secondary caries. The optical detecting system (VistaProof) illuminates the tooth surfaces with blue light emitted by high power GaN-LEDs at 405 nm. Employing this almost monochromatic excitation, fluorescence is analyzed using a RGB camera chip and encoded in color graduations (blue - red - orange - yellow) by a software (DBSWIN), indicating the degree of caries destruction. 31 freshly extracted teeth with existing fillings and secondary caries were cleaned, excavated and refilled with the same kind of restorative material. 19 of them were refilled with amalgam, 12 were refilled with a composite resin. Each step was analyzed with the respective software and analyzed statistically. Differences were considered as statistically significant at p0.05). There was a significant difference between baseline measurements of the teeth primarily filled with composite resins and the refilled situation (p=0.014). There was also a significant difference between the non-excavated and the excavated group (Composite p=0.006, Amalgam p=0.018). The in vitro study showed, that the fluorescence based system allows detecting secondary caries next to composite resin fillings but not next to amalgam restorations. Cleaning of the teeth is not necessary, if there is no visible plaque. Further studies have to show, whether the system shows the same promising results in vivo.

  13. Detection accuracy of in vitro approximal caries by cone beam computed tomography images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu Xingmin, E-mail: quxingmin@bjmu.edu.cn [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, 22 Zhongguancun Nandajie, Hai Dian District, Beijing 100081 (China); Li Gang, E-mail: kqgang@bjmu.edu.cn [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, 22 Zhongguancun Nandajie, Hai Dian District, Beijing 100081 (China); Zhang Zuyan, E-mail: zhangzy-bj@vip.sina.com [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, 22 Zhongguancun Nandajie, Hai Dian District, Beijing 100081 (China); Ma Xuchen, E-mail: kqxcma@bjmu.edu.cn [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, 22 Zhongguancun Nandajie, Hai Dian District, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2011-08-15

    Aims: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of approximal carious lesions among five CBCT systems and to assess the effect of detector types employed by different CBCT systems on the accuracy of approximal caries diagnosis. Materials and methods: Thirty-nine extracted non-cavitated human permanent teeth were employed in the study. Seven observers evaluated 78 approximal surfaces of the teeth with respect to caries by the images from the following five CBCT systems: (1) NewTom 9000; (2) Accuitomo 3DX; (3) Kodak 9000 3D; (4) ProMax 3D; and (5) DCT PRO, respectively. The lesions were validated by histological examination. The area under receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (A{sub z}) was used to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy. Results: Microscopy of approximal surfaces found 47.4% sound, 39.8% enamel and 12.8% dentin lesions. The differences of A{sub z} values among the five CBCT systems were not statistically significant (p = 0.348). No significant difference was found between the two detector types of CBCT systems (p = 0.47). Conclusions: The five CBCT systems employed in the study showed no significant difference in the in vitro approximal caries detection. Neither the detector nor the FOV employed by the CBCT systems has an impact on the detection accuracy of approximal caries.

  14. Diagnosing dental caries in populations with different levels of dental fluorosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyvad, Bente; Machiulskiene, Vita; Fejerskov, Ole;

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the reliability of the Nyvad visual-tactile caries-diagnostic criteria when used among children who have been lifelong residents in areas with 'optimal' or low concentrations of fluoride in the drinking water. In each of two areas with drinking water fluoride...... concentrations of 0.3 and 1.1 ppm (0.3 and 1.1 mg/l) fluoride, respectively, 150 children were clinically examined twice, 2 wk apart, for dental fluorosis, using the Thylstrup-Fejerskov index (TF index), and for dental caries using the Nyvad visual-tactile caries criteria. The prevalence of dental fluorosis was...... 45% in the 1.1 ppm fluoride area and 21% in the 0.3 ppm fluoride area. When the results of the duplicate caries recordings were compared at the surface level, only minute differences were observed in the percentage agreement (91.7 and 90.7%, respectively) and in the kappa values (0.73 and 0...

  15. Dental caries and endemic dental fluorosis in rural communities, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone de Melo Costa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available It is observational, analytical and cross-sectional aimed to evaluate the association between severity and prevalence of fluorosis and dental caries in rural communities with endemic dental fluorosis in the north state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, with fluoride concentrations in water up to 4.8 mg/L. Data were collected by one examiner (intra-examiner kappa, 0.96 to 0,95 for caries and fluorosis after toothbrushing. The study included 511 individuals aged 7 - 22 years, categorized according to age: 7 - 9 years (n = 227, 10 to 12 years (n = 153, 13 to 15 years (n = 92, 16 to 22 years (n = 39. For the diagnosis of dental caries used the criteria of the World Health Organization to measure indices DMFT. For fluorosis used the index Thylstrup and Fejerskov (TF, dichotomized according to prevalence (TF = 0 and TF > 0 and severity (TF 5. In the two younger groups, the DMFT and its decay component were higher in the group with more severe fluorosis (p 0.05. The association was found between the conditions more severe fluorosis and caries in individuals under 12 years.

  16. Breaking the Chain of Early Childhood Caries Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxine Strickland

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Dental disease can have devas-tating effects on children who lack access to dental care. The US was shocked to learn of the recent death of a child from a caries related infection. The bio-logical basis of dental caries risk is usually considered interims of individual behavior. The role of the family and other more complex units of social organization in determining caries risk are not often appreciated. The transmission of caries causing bacteria from mothers (or other care givers having extensive contact with the child has been well docu-mented. In addition the age at which children are vulnerable to colonization with caries causing organisms is known. Despite the fact that the dental and scientific communities possess knowledge concerning the routs of caries transmission, efforts to implement preventive programs specifically targeting the reduction of caries transmission have been inconsistent. Working with and motivating families to prevent caries transmission should be the shared objective of researchers and clinicians. Armed with the available know-ledge, caries should not the thought of as an inevitable part of life. The goal of this essay is to challenge readers to empower people at risk to make decisions that enable them to break the chain of caries infection.

  17. Feeding Practices and Early Childhood Caries: A Cross-Sectional Study of Preschool Children in Kanpur District, India

    OpenAIRE

    Santhebachalli Prakasha Shrutha; Grandim Balarama Gupta Vinit; Kolli Yada Giri; Sarwar Alam

    2013-01-01

    Background. Early childhood caries (ECC) is a public health problem due to its impact on children's health, development, and wellbeing. The objective of this study was to assess the caries experience in 3–5-year-old children and to evaluate the relationship with their mothers' practices regarding feeding and oral hygiene habits in Kanpur. Method. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken on 2000 (974 boys and 1026 girls) children aged 3–5 years from a random sample of preschools in Kanpur distr...

  18. China Aims to Promote Import

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ting

    2010-01-01

    @@ With the theme of"An Opening Market and Global Trade",aim at promoting communications and exchanges among governments,industries and business to achieve mutual benefit and a win-win situation,nearly 300 representatives from the relevant departments of the Chinese government,foreign embassies in China,industrial associations and major enterprises,as well as well-known Chinese and foreign experts and scholars were invited to take part in the forum and share their iews on Chinese market and foreign trade policies.

  19. Effect of Comprehensive Dental Rehabilitation on Growth Parameters in Pediatric Patients with Severe Early Childhood Caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Kalpana; Chopra, Radhika

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Children who have severe early childhood caries (S-ECC) weigh significantly less than caries-free children. The association between S-ECC and weight suggests that its timely treatment at early stages may preserve general health, in addition to preventing pain and infection. Objective: This study was conducted to evaluate whether children with untreated S-ECC had lower weight and height as compared with children with low caries and to evaluate whether full mouth rehabilitation of children with S-ECC resulted in the phenomenon of catch-up growth. Materials and methods: The weight and height of children with noncontributory medical histories and S-ECC (3-6 years) were compared with caries-free children, before and 6 months after full mouth dental rehabilitation. Results: Prior to dental rehabilitation, children with S-ECC had significantly less weight and height than their comparison counterparts (p < 0.001). Following therapeutic intervention, the test group children exhibited catch-up growth in relation to weight, as there was no significant difference in the body weight of the test and control groups (p = 0.171). Conclusion: Comprehensive full mouth rehabilitation of children with S-ECC results in catch-up growth, thus improving the overall health of the child. How to cite this article: Sachdev J, Bansal K, Chopra R. Effect of Comprehensive Dental Rehabilitation on Growth Parameters in Pediatric Patients with Severe Early Childhood Caries. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(1):15-20. PMID:27274149

  20. Validation of a multifactorial risk factor model used for predicting future caries risk with nevada adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mobley Connie

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to measure the validity and reliability of a multifactorial Risk Factor Model developed for use in predicting future caries risk in Nevada adolescents in a public health setting. Methods This study examined retrospective data from an oral health surveillance initiative that screened over 51,000 students 13-18 years of age, attending public/private schools in Nevada across six academic years (2002/2003-2007/2008. The Risk Factor Model included ten demographic variables: exposure to fluoridation in the municipal water supply, environmental smoke exposure, race, age, locale (metropolitan vs. rural, tobacco use, Body Mass Index, insurance status, sex, and sealant application. Multiple regression was used in a previous study to establish which significantly contributed to caries risk. Follow-up logistic regression ascertained the weight of contribution and odds ratios of the ten variables. Researchers in this study computed sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PVP, negative predictive value (PVN, and prevalence across all six years of screening to assess the validity of the Risk Factor Model. Results Subjects' overall mean caries prevalence across all six years was 66%. Average sensitivity across all six years was 79%; average specificity was 81%; average PVP was 89% and average PVN was 67%. Conclusions Overall, the Risk Factor Model provided a relatively constant, valid measure of caries that could be used in conjunction with a comprehensive risk assessment in population-based screenings by school nurses/nurse practitioners, health educators, and physicians to guide them in assessing potential future caries risk for use in prevention and referral practices.

  1. The effect of right or left handedness on caries experience and oral hygiene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binali Çakur

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is an indisputable relationship between tooth decay and oral hygiene. Caries can only be prevented by keeping tooth decay at bay. In several prophylactic methods, brushing is the most important. Brushing efficiency is directly related to an individuals′ manual dexterity. Objective: To investigate whether there were differences in oral hygiene and caries prevalence between right- and left-handers. Materials and Methods: Forty-six elementary school students were included in the study. The subjects were 30 males and 16 females, ranging in age from 11 to 13 years. Handedness was ascertained by using the Edinburgh Handedness Scale. All students were examined intraorally. During this examination, the necessary values to determine oral hygiene status and to determine caries prevalence were recorded. Results: It was observed that subjects who used their right hands were in a better position in terms of oral hygiene than those using the left (P < 0.01. In terms of caries prevalence, however, averages for right-handed individuals were lower than those for left-handed subjects, although the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusions: It can be stated that the right-handed individuals have better oral hygiene and the lower incidence of caries because of their better manual dexterity and brush efficiency. So, dentists should consider better manual dexterity and brush efficiency in right-handed individuals before treatment planning. However, future well-designed neurologic studies involving larger numbers of subjects will be necessary to confirm the findings of this study and to understand more about the effects of handedness on oral hygiene performance.

  2. Evaluation of salivary nitric oxide level in children with early childhood caries

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    A R Senthil Eagappan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nitric oxide (NO, a highly reactive radical, participates in the nonspecific natural defense mechanism of the oral cavity. The present study was attempted to evaluate the salivary NO levels in 4–5 year-old children with early childhood caries (ECC. The objective of the present study was to assess the salivary NO concentration in children with different caries activity. Materials and Methods: The study included 120 healthy 4–5 year-old children and they were equally divided into three groups based on decayed, missing, filled surfaces (dmfs score; forty caries-free children (control group, forty children with dmfs 1–5 (ECC group, and forty with dmfs ≥6 (severe ECC group. Saliva collected was measured for NO concentration by Griess reaction method. The obtained data were analyzed by ANOVA and Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results: The mean level of NO in the saliva of the control group was 51.2 ± 8.3457 and that of ECC and severe ECC were 47.1 ± 5.2614 and 33.625 ± 4.6942, respectively. The mean salivary NO concentration was significantly higher in healthy controls when compared to children with ECC and severe ECC. Moreover, a negative correlation (r = −0.6658 was observed between the salivary NO level and the mean dmfs, suggesting that as the salivary NO level decreases, the caries incidence increases. Conclusion: The obtained results support the antimicrobial activity of salivary NO and also suggest that an increase in NO production might contribute to lower the caries occurrence in children.

  3. Comparison of linear and zero-inflated negative binomial regression models for appraisal of risk factors associated with dental caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manu Batra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Dental caries among children has been described as a pandemic disease with a multifactorial nature. Various sociodemographic factors and oral hygiene practices are commonly tested for their influence on dental caries. In recent years, a recent statistical model that allows for covariate adjustment has been developed and is commonly referred zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB models. Aim: To compare the fit of the two models, the conventional linear regression (LR model and ZINB model to assess the risk factors associated with dental caries. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 1138 12-year-old school children in Moradabad Town, Uttar Pradesh during months of February-August 2014. Selected participants were interviewed using a questionnaire. Dental caries was assessed by recording decayed, missing, or filled teeth (DMFT index. Statistical Analysis Used: To assess the risk factor associated with dental caries in children, two approaches have been applied - LR model and ZINB model. Results: The prevalence of caries-free subjects was 24.1%, and mean DMFT was 3.4 ± 1.8. In LR model, all the variables were statistically significant. Whereas in ZINB model, negative binomial part showed place of residence, father′s education level, tooth brushing frequency, and dental visit statistically significant implying that the degree of being caries-free (DMFT = 0 increases for group of children who are living in urban, whose father is university pass out, who brushes twice a day and if have ever visited a dentist. Conclusion: The current study report that the LR model is a poorly fitted model and may lead to spurious conclusions whereas ZINB model has shown better goodness of fit (Akaike information criterion values - LR: 3.94; ZINB: 2.39 and can be preferred if high variance and number of an excess of zeroes are present.

  4. Diagnostic Accuracy of Digital and Conventional Radiography in the Detection of Non-Cavitated Approximal Dental Caries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiography plays an important role in the detection of interproximal caries. The aim of the present study was to determine diagnostic accuracy of charge coupled devices, Photo Stimulable Phosphor and film radiography in detecting non-cavitated caries. Seventy-two non-cavitated approximal surfaces of extracted human posterior teeth were radiographed under standardized conditions using three intraoral modalities: charge coupled devices Dixi3 (Planmeca, Finland), PSP Digora PCT (Soredex, Finland), and E-speed film (Kodak, USA). Radiographs were interpreted by four observers and caries lesions were classified as sound (R0), restricted to enamel (R1), reaching the dentinoenamel junction and the outer half of the dentin (R2) and the inner half of the dentin (R3). The teeth were subsequently sectioned for histological analysis which served as the gold standard for radiographic examination. Microscopic examinations showed that the distribution of caries were 63.9% sound, 18.1% enamel, 9.7% dentinoenamel junction and outer half of the dentin and 8.3% into the inner half of the dentin. The sensitivity and specificity of film, charge coupled devices and Photo Stimulable Phosphor for the detection of enamel caries were 38% and 98%; 15% and 96%; and 23% and 98%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of film, charge coupled devices and Photo Stimulable Phosphor for the detection of both dentin and enamel caries were 55% and 100%; 45% and 100% ; and 55% and 100%, respectively. The results demonstrated that the diagnostic accuracy of digital images is similar to that of conventional film radiography in the detection of non-cavitated approximal caries.

  5. Influence of socioeconomic and working status of the parents on the incidence of their children's dental caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokhale, Niraj; Nuvvula, Sivakumar

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective: In the contemporary scenario of both parents employed, there seems to be limited focus on the dietary habits and dental health of their children. Hence, we attempted to correlate the socioeconomic and working status of the parents to the incidence of their children's dental caries. Materials and Methods: One thousand school children aged between 3 and 12 years were enrolled in the study. Socioeconomic and working status of their parents was obtained by a pretested questionnaire following which these children were examined for their dental caries status. The data collected were statistically analyzed using logistic regression analysis and calculation of odds ratio. Results: A significant correlation was observed between working status of the parents and dental caries status of their children. Though, the socioeconomic status and dental caries had a weak correlation, the odds ratio was high, indicating that the children of lower socioeconomic status or family with both parents employed were at a higher risk for dental caries. Conclusion: Efforts are needed to implement programs at the school level to enhance the oral and dental health among children, as parental responsibilities toward this maybe inadequate due to economic or time constraints. PMID:27433061

  6. China's educational aim and theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guang-Wei, Zou

    1985-12-01

    The aim and theory of Chinese socialist education is to provide scientific and technological knowledge so as to develop the productive forces and to meet the demands of the socialist cause. Since education is the main vehicle towards modernizing science and technology, any investment in education is viewed as being productive as it feeds directly into economics. Faced with the demands of industrial and agricultural production, training a technical as well as a labour force becomes crucial. This is made possible by the provision of two labour systems for workers both from rural as well as urban areas and by two kinds of educational systems for both urban and rural students. Chinese educational theory is seen as a fusion of principles from its own educational legacy with those of Marxist-Leninist principles.

  7. Caries preventive efficacy of silver diammine fluoride (SDF and ART sealants in a school-based daily fluoride toothbrushing program in the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monse Bella

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Occlusal surfaces of erupting and newly erupted permanent molars are particularly susceptible to caries. The objective of the study was to assess and compare the effect of a single application of 38% SDF with ART sealants and no treatment in preventing dentinal (D3 caries lesions on occlusal surfaces of permanent first molars of school children who participated in a daily school-based toothbrushing program with fluoride toothpaste. Methods The prospective community clinical trial in the Philippines was conducted over a period of 18 months and included 704 six- to eight-year-old school children in eight public elementary schools with a daily school-based fluoride toothpaste brushing program. Children were randomly assigned for SDF application or ART sealant treatment. Children from two of the eight schools did not receive SDF or ART sealant treatment and served as controls. SDF or ART sealant treatment was applied on sound occlusal surfaces of permanent first molars. Surfaces that were originally defined as sound at baseline but which changed to dentinal (D3 caries lesions were defined as surfaces with new caries (caries increment. Non-compliance to the daily toothbrushing program in three schools offered the opportunity to analyze the caries preventive effect of SDF and sealants separately in fluoride toothpaste brushing and in non-toothbrushing children. Results In the brushing group, caries increment in the SDF treatment group was comparable with the non-treatment group but caries increment in the sealant group was lower than in the non-treatment group with a statistically significant lower hazard ratio of 0.12 (0.02-0.61. In the non-brushing group, caries increment in the SDF treatment group and the sealant group was lower than the non-treatment group but the hazard ratio was only statistically significant for the sealant group (HR 0.33; 0.20-0.54. Caries increment was lower in toothbrushing children than in non

  8. Prevalence of dental caries and caries-related risk factors in premature and term children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Resende Nogueira Cruvinel

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the prevalence of enamel defects and dental caries and their risk factors on primary and permanent dentitions of prematurely-born children and term children. Eighty children were examined, 40 born prematurely (G1 and 40 born term (G2, in the age group between 5 and 10 years. The demographic variables, medical history and oral health behaviors were recorded on a questionnaire. The teeth were examined for presence of deficiencies of the enamel and caries that were registered. The caries were registered, focusing on the indices dmft (decayed, missing, and filled primary teeth and DMFT (decayed, missing, and filled permanent teeth. The results showed that 75% of the total sample had enamel defects. The logistic regression model showed that other risk factors such as per capita family income, educational level, dietary and hygiene habits, fluoride exposure, trauma, and diseases had no correlation with enamel defects and caries. A smaller value of total DMFT (0.95 was found in the group of premature children in comparison to the term children (2.07 p = 0.0164. There was no difference concerning the permanent dentition between the two groups (p = 0.9926. One concludes that prematurity can't be a predisposing factor for the presence of dental caries.

  9. Relation Between Past and Present Dietary Sugar Intake and Dental Caries in A High Caries Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Malek Mohammadi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The main objective of this study was to investigate relationship between re-ported dietary habits and dental caries in five and six-year-old children referred for dental extractions.Materials and Methods: Two hundred children were examined using standard caries di-agnostic criteria. The numbers of decayed, missing and filled deciduous teeth were re-corded. A food frequency table was completed by the parents of each child and analyzedthrough weighting the cariogenic potentialby the frequency of consumption, and summing the two scores.Results: The mean number of decayed, missing and filled teeth (dmft was 7.1 (SD=3.29. There was no statistically significant correlation between the reported dietary intake and the caries rate in the study population P=0.07.Use of bottles with sugared drinks during infancy was associated with increased caries levels (P<0.01.Conclusion: Poor infant feeding practices promote caries in childhood. A method of diet assessment which would evaluate diet-related health education is required.

  10. Dental caries status of Chinese children in Johannesburg, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInnes, P M; Vieira, E

    1979-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the dental health status of a representative sample of Johannesburg Chinese schoolchildren, all 250 attending the only Chinese school in the city. In 18 preschoolchildren, 3--5 years old, 16.7% were caries-free, mean dmft was 7.1 +/- 5.8 and labial caries was present in 33.3%. In 165 primary schoolchildren aged 5--16 years, the mean dmft was 590 +/- 3.2 with 20% of the primary dentition caries-free and the mean DMFT was 2.4 +/- 1.9 4.8% of the primary schoolchildren were caries-free. In 67 high school pupils of 11--17 years, 4.5% were caries-free and the mean DMFT score was 7.1 +/- 3.9. Caries prevalences among the Chinese were similar to corresponding groups of children of Chinese immigrants in the United Kingdom and Malaysia. PMID:287589

  11. National pathfinder survey on children's oral health in Italy: pattern and severity of caries disease in 4-year-olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campus, G; Solinas, G; Strohmenger, L; Cagetti, M G; Senna, A; Minelli, L; Majori, S; Montagna, M T; Reali, D; Castiglia, P

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the dental health status of Italian 4-year-olds in 2004/2005 and analyzes the association between caries in preschool children and some background characteristics in children and parents. Caries was recorded according to WHO criteria. 5,538 subjects were examined. Information on the children's and their parents' social, behavioral, ethnic and demographic status was obtained through a series of closed questions. Bivariate analysis was performed to investigate the association between caries and background characteristics. The probability of being an extra zero for the dmfs index was estimated via the zero-inflated negative binomial regression model (ZINB). 78.4% (95% CI = 77.2-79.6) of the children were caries-free. The national mean dmfs index was 1.36 (95% CI = 1.15-1.57), ranging from 1.22 (95% CI = 1.03-1.42) in the Italian North-East to 1.73 (95% CI = 0.83-2.63) in the South section. Significant bivariate associations between caries experience and risk factors were observed for parents' nationality (not Italian vs. Italian: p preterm birth (yes vs. no: p = 0.011), prolonged breastfeeding (13 months: p = 0.038) and early tooth eruption (fathers with a high educational level showed a probability of being an extra zero of 0.22. The results suggest a need to plan preventive programs to reduce oral health disparities among Italian preschool children, based on educational intervention with parents and children concerning oral health and caries prevention. PMID:19365120

  12. Early diagnosis of incipient caries based on non-invasive lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velescu, A.; Todea, C.; Vitez, B.

    2016-03-01

    AIM: The aim of this study is to detect incipient caries and enamel demineralization using laser fluorescence.This serves only as an auxilary aid to identify and to monitor the development of these lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 6 patients were involved in this study, three females and three male. Each patient underwent a professional cleaning, visual examination of the oral cavity, and then direct inspection using DiagnoCam and DIAGNOdent. After data recording each patient was submitted to retro-alveolar X-ray on teeth that were detected with enamel lesions. All data was collected and analyzed statistically. RESULTS: Of 36 areas considered in clinically healthy, 24 carious surfaces were found using laser fluorescence, a totally non-invasive method for detecting incipient carious lesions compared with the radiographic examination. CONCLUSIONS: This method has good applicability for patients because it improves treatment plan by early detection of caries and involves less fear for anxious patients and children.

  13. Good Manufacturing Practices production and analysis of a DNA vaccine against dental caries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-ping YANG; Yu-hong LI; Ai-hua ZHANG; Lan BI; Ming-wen FAN

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To prepare a clinical-grade anti-caries DNA vaccine pGJA-P/VAX and explore its immune effect and protective efficacy against a cariogenic bacterial challenge.Methods: A large-scale industrial production process was developed under Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) by combining and optimizing common unit operations such as alkaline lysis, precipitation, endotoxin removal and column chromatography. Quality controls of the purified bulk and final lyophilized vaccine were conducted according to authoritative guidelines. Mice and gnotobiotic rats were intranasally immunized with clinical-grade pGJA-P/VAX with chitosan. Antibody levels of serum IgG and salivary SlgA were assessed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and caries activity was evaluated by the Keyes method. pGJA-P/VAX and pVAX1 prepared by a laboratory-scale commercial kit were used as controls.Results: The production process proved to be scalable and reproducible. Impurities including host protein, residual RNA, genomic DNA and endotoxin in the purified plasmid were all under the limits of set specifications. Intranasal vaccination with clinical-grade pGJA-P/ VAX induced higher serum IgG and salivary SlgA in both mice and gnotobiotic rats. While in the experimental caries model, the enamel (E), dentinal slight (Ds), and dentinal moderate (Dm) caries lesions were reduced by 21.1%, 33.0%, and 40.9%, respectively. Conclusion: The production process under GMP was efficient in preparing clinical-grade pGJA-P/VAX with high purity and intended effectiveness, thus facilitating future clinical trials for the anti-caries DNA vaccine.

  14. Differences in dental caries experience between diabetic adolescents and healthy controls

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    Rusmira Fazlić

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: While the influence of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM on periodontal health is well established, results of previous studies regarding the association of this metabolic disease and caries experience are rather inconsistent. The aim of this study was to assess the differences between caries status of healthy and adolescents with T1DM, as well as to determine the differences in caries experience among diabetic patients in relation to their metabolic control.Methods: Assessment of caries status was performed using the DMFT index (decayed, missing, and filled teeth. The study group (Diabetic included 60 patients diagnosed with T1DM, aged 12-18 years, from Sarajevo Canton. This group was divided into two sub-groups: a sub-group Diabetic-W consisted of 30 patients with well-controlled glycaemia, while a subgroup Diabetic-P comprised of 30 patients with poorer glycemic control. The control group consisted of 30 age-matched metabolically healthy individuals.Results: The T1DM adolescents had a significantly higher (p < 0.01 mean DMFT score than the healthy subjects, 11.49 and 6.19 respectively. Statistically, the diabetic group had also significantly higher values of the D and M components. Concerning the metabolic control, mean DMFT score in the Diabetic-W subgroup was lower (10.57 than in the Diabetic-P subgroup (12.39, however the difference was not statistically significant.Conclusions: The results demonstrate that the T1DM patients have a higher caries experience, regardless of the degree of metabolic control. The level of untreated dental decay and missing teeth components among the diabetic adolescents indicates irregular dental attendance.

  15. Assessment of enamel-dentin caries lesions detection using bitewing PSP digital images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna Guanaes Gomes Torres

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the detection of enamel-dentin occlusal caries using photostimulable phosphor plates. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The ability to detect enamel-dentin occlusal caries in 607 premolars and molars from 47 patients between 10 and 18 years old, referred to the School of Dentistry of the Federal University of Bahia, Brazil, was evaluated based on clinical and radiographic examinations, using the criteria proposed in a previous study. A total of 156 bitewing digital images were obtained using Digora® (Soredex Medical Systems, Helsinki, Finland phosphor plates. The plates were scanned and the images were captured and displayed on a computer screen. Image evaluation was done using Digora® for Windows 2.1 software, Soredex®. The radiologists were allowed to use enhancement tools to obtain better visibility during scoring of the teeth based on the radiographic criteria proposed in a previous study. Descriptive analysis and chi-squared proportion tests were done at 5% significance level. RESULTS: The results of clinical examination showed a higher prevalence of teeth with a straight dark line or demineralization of the occlusal fissure (score 1 and a lower prevalence of sealed teeth (score 5. In the bitewing digital images, 47 teeth presented visible radiolucency, circumscribed, in dentin under occlusal enamel (enamel-dentin caries lesions. CONCLUSIONS: Correlating the clinical and radiographic findings, it was found that in the majority of teeth diagnosed by radiographic images as having enamel-dentin caries, no caries could be detected by clinical examination.

  16. Effect of Dental Caries on Children Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Malek Mohammadi

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The study examined the hypothesis that severe dental caries may affect growth and development in preschool children. Methods: The study examined 218 children with severe caries using standard diagnostic criteria. All children were weighed and measured and a food frequency questionnaire was completed for each. Six months subsequent to tooth extraction, 131 of the children were followed up and underwent repeat measurement of height, weight, dental health and food intake. For each child, body mass index (BMI was calculated, and all measurements were converted into standard deviation scores and compared to the UK 1990 growth reference. Results: In the six months period after having their decayed teeth extracted the children’s BMIs had increased by 0.654. Two-sided t-tests for paired data showed this difference to be significant (P< 0.01. Conclusion: Treatment of gross dental disease appears to promote "catch-up" growth and normalisation of body mass index.

  17. Inhibition of caries in hamsters treated with staphylococcin 1580.

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    Fitzgerald, R J; Morhart, R E; Marquez, C; Adams, B. O.

    1986-01-01

    Littermate hamsters were infected orally with cariogenic Streptococcus mutans NS-50S and maintained on a high-sucrose diet to induce dental caries. Individual groups of animals were treated by single daily instillation of staphylococcin 1580 (100 micrograms) in the cheek pouches. Other groups were treated similarly with bacitracin (60 or 120 U) or saline. After 35 days on the caries test regimen, animals treated with staphylococcin 1580 had 49 or 60% less caries than the saline controls in tw...

  18. School dietary habits and incidence of dental caries

    OpenAIRE

    Monteagudo S??nchez, Celia; T??llez, Francisco; Heras Gonz??lez, Leticia; Ib????ez-Peinado, Diana; Mariscal Arcas, Miguel; Olea Serrano, F??tima

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: healthy dietary habits are considered to improve oral health and tooth quality. Caries treatment comprises tooth restoration with dental composites and sealants, almost all (> 90%) of which contain bisphenol A (BPA). Study hypotheses were: a) breakfast and oral hygiene habits are important factors in dental caries development; and b) dental caries treatment with epoxy-resins entails a risk of oral exposure to monomers migrating from the polymeric material...

  19. GWAS of Dental Caries Patterns in the Permanent Dentition

    OpenAIRE

    Shaffer, J. R.; Feingold, E; Wang, X.; M. Lee; TCuenco, K.; Weeks, D E; Weyant, R.J.; Crout, R.; McNeil, D.W.; Marazita, M L

    2013-01-01

    The importance of susceptibility genes in the risk for dental caries has been clearly established. While many candidate caries genes have been proposed, to date, few of them have been rigorously validated through observational and experimental studies. Moreover, most genetic epidemiological studies have analyzed global caries phenotypes that ignore the possibility that genes may exert differential effects across tooth surfaces of the dentition. Therefore, we performed genome-wi...

  20. DENTAL CARIES- A WIDELY GROWING DISEASE OF TEETH

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Dental caries called as tooth decay is basically a disease in which bacterial processes changes carbohydrate to acid. This acid then dematerializes the hard tooth structure. They are produced when demineralization amount exceeds the remineralization amount. Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus are the bacteria responsible for the dental caries. This article throws light on the dental caries disease, its sign and symptoms, treatment, prevention and risk factors associated with it. A review o...