WorldWideScience

Sample records for caricatures

  1. Targeted caricatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Dennis G

    2009-10-01

    The original Vanity Fair was an English weekly magazine from 1868 to 1914. It offered its readers articles on fashion, current events, reviews of the theater, new books, reports on social events (and the latest scandals), and other trivia.Today, the old Vanity Fair is best known for its glorious caricature prints. Over 2,000 of these caricatures were printed, varying on at least 67 subjects. One category, doctors and scientists, presents four otolaryngologists. These four well known personalities will be presented with their satirical biographies, along with a brief historical account for each of their life after Vanity Fair.

  2. Vocal caricatures reveal signatures of speaker identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Sabrina; Riera, Pablo; Assaneo, María Florencia; Eguía, Manuel; Sigman, Mariano; Trevisan, Marcos A.

    2013-12-01

    What are the features that impersonators select to elicit a speaker's identity? We built a voice database of public figures (targets) and imitations produced by professional impersonators. They produced one imitation based on their memory of the target (caricature) and another one after listening to the target audio (replica). A set of naive participants then judged identity and similarity of pairs of voices. Identity was better evoked by the caricatures and replicas were perceived to be closer to the targets in terms of voice similarity. We used this data to map relevant acoustic dimensions for each task. Our results indicate that speaker identity is mainly associated with vocal tract features, while perception of voice similarity is related to vocal folds parameters. We therefore show the way in which acoustic caricatures emphasize identity features at the cost of loosing similarity, which allows drawing an analogy with caricatures in the visual space.

  3. The Reverse-Caricature Effect Revisited: Familiarization With Frontal Facial Caricatures Improves Veridical Face Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    RODRÍGUEZ, JOBANY; Bortfeld, Heather; RUDOMÍN, ISAAC; HERNÁNDEZ, BENJAMÍN; GUTIÉRREZ-OSUNA, RICARDO

    2009-01-01

    Prior research suggests that recognition of a person's face can be facilitated by exaggerating the distinctive features of the face during training. We tested if this ‘reverse-caricature effect’ would be robust to procedural variations that created more difficult learning environments. Specifically, we examined whether the effect would emerge with frontal rather than three-quarter views, after very brief exposure to caricatures during the learning phase and after modest rotations of faces dur...

  4. Anti-Semitism in American Caricature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, John; Appel, Selma

    1986-01-01

    Caricatures produced between the end of the Civil War and World War II--cartoons in humor and satire weeklies, newspaper comics, posters, advertising, book illustrations, etc.--sanctioned ethnic and racial slurs. Jews were presented as negative stereotypes, characterized most often by stealth and derision. (LHW)

  5. Caracter y caricature, virtual and real

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Hables Gray

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Character, as personality, is formed through biology and culture. But the influence these forces have and the actual processes involved are not really known. Technology, as an important and always changing part of culture, offers us a window on the construction of character especially in that strange new place: cyberspace. The virtual world allows people to play with their character in ways that are very difficult “in real life.” This play reveals a great deal about what is biologically immutable and what isn’t after all. In particular gender, race, and embodiment in general are treated quite differently on-line then in the flesh. And character/caricature formation in the MUDS and MOOS and other cyber-places throws light on the processes of character, such as the roles of evocative technologies, the feedback loops of will and non-will (addiction, and the potentiality of fantasies actualized. In particular political participation on the internet reveals the limits of what real character can be manifested in a simulated environment. It seems cyborgian character is more plastic in some ways than most observers would have predicted; but character, as integrity, will still determine how far the role of caricature will go in supplanting character .

  6. Manifold Constrained Transfer of Facial Geometric Knowledge for 3D Caricature Reconstruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-Fa Liu; Wen-Jing He; Tao Chen; Yi-Qiang Chen

    2013-01-01

    3D caricatures are important attractive elements of the interface in virtual environment such as online game.However,very limited 3D caricatures exist in the real world.Meanwhile,creating 3D caricatures manually is rather costly,and even professional skills are needed.This paper proposes a novel and effective manifold transfer algorithm to reconstruct 3D caricatures according to their original 2D caricatures.We first manually create a small dataset with only 100 3D caricature models and use them to initialize the whole 3D dataset.After that,manifold transfer algorithm is carried out to refine the dataset.The algorithm comprises of two steps.The first is to perform manifold alignment between 2D and 3D caricatures to get a "standard" manifold map; the second is to reconstruct all the 3D caricatures based on the manifold map.The proposed approach utilizes and transfers knowledge of 2D caricatures to the target 3D caricatures well.Comparative experiments show that the approach reconstructs 3D caricatures more effectively and the results conform more to the styles of the original 2D caricatures than the Principal Components Analysis (PCA) based method.

  7. 3rd International Caricature Art Competition, Beijing, China

    OpenAIRE

    Mumberson, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    One of ten medal winners of the 3rd International Caricature Art Competition, Beijing,China on the theme Dachuan Xia -Chinese Cartoonist,Illustrator and Academic. I was one of only two European artists selected and the only British artist selected. The fellow winners came from Turkey, Egypt, Iran and China. The competition was organized by RedManArt, Beijing,China

  8. Effect of Use of Caricatures on Teaching Vocabulary in Teaching Turkish as Foreign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topal, Yakup

    2015-01-01

    Teaching vocabulary in teaching Turkish as Foreign language is important. Different methods are employed in teaching vocabulary. In this study the pre- and post-test results of experimental group where caricatures were used to teach vocabulary and control group where vocabulary items were taught without use of caricatures when teaching Turkish…

  9. Parodying Mao’s Image: Caricaturing in Contemporary Chinese Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minna Valjakka

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Although Chinese contemporary artists are often criticized for creating superficial works that parody Chairman Mao without any deeper meaning, the employment of parody is a far more complex phenomenon. Instead of being representatives of Jamesonian pastiche, many artists employ varying methods of trans-contextual parody to express their mixed and even controversial intentions and notions. With a detailed structural analysis of the art works, and taking into account the socio-cultural context and the artists’ own intentions, I will show that the common assumptions—that parodying Mao is equivalent to political pop or that political pop represents pastiche—are oversimplifications of this complex phenomenon, especially when caricaturing is used as a method to violate the visual norms.

  10. Automatic Generation of 3D Caricatures Based on Artistic Deformation Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Lyndsey; Chen, Min; Mora, Benjamin

    2011-06-01

    Caricatures are a form of humorous visual art, usually created by skilled artists for the intention of amusement and entertainment. In this paper, we present a novel approach for automatic generation of digital caricatures from facial photographs, which capture artistic deformation styles from hand-drawn caricatures. We introduced a pseudo stress-strain model to encode the parameters of an artistic deformation style using "virtual" physical and material properties. We have also developed a software system for performing the caricaturistic deformation in 3D which eliminates the undesirable artifacts in 2D caricaturization. We employed a Multilevel Free-Form Deformation (MFFD) technique to optimize a 3D head model reconstructed from an input facial photograph, and for controlling the caricaturistic deformation. Our results demonstrated the effectiveness and usability of the proposed approach, which allows ordinary users to apply the captured and stored deformation styles to a variety of facial photographs.

  11. Effects of Caricaturing in Shape or Color on Familiarity Decisions for Familiar and Unfamiliar Faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itz, Marlena L; Schweinberger, Stefan R; Kaufmann, Jürgen M

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that while reflectance information (including color) may be more diagnostic for familiar face recognition, shape may be more diagnostic for unfamiliar face identity processing. Moreover, event-related potential (ERP) findings suggest an earlier onset for neural processing of facial shape compared to reflectance. In the current study, we aimed to explore specifically the roles of facial shape and color in a familiarity decision task using pre-experimentally familiar (famous) and unfamiliar faces that were caricatured either in shape-only, color-only, or both (full; shape + color) by 15%, 30%, or 45%. We recorded accuracies, mean reaction times, and face-sensitive ERPs. Performance data revealed that shape caricaturing facilitated identity processing for unfamiliar faces only. In the ERP data, such effects of shape caricaturing emerged earlier than those of color caricaturing. Unsurprisingly, ERP effects were accentuated for larger levels of caricaturing. Overall, our findings corroborate the importance of shape for identity processing of unfamiliar faces and demonstrate an earlier onset of neural processing for facial shape compared to color.

  12. Caricature as a type of propaganda during World War I (as illustrated by materials published in the Ogoniok magazine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyubov G. Polyakova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes caricature as a propaganda instrument utilized during World War I. The source used includes caricatures published in Ogoniok, a Russian magazine, in 1914–1916. The systematization principle, applied in the study into the caricatures, helped to identify main topics that were a subject for debate in the periodical press. Importantly, the researcher also remains as neutral in their interpretation and assessment of the actual material in the study as possible. At the end, the author concludes that the Ogoniok magazine focused its caricatures on the topic of Germany during World War I, while allies of Germany – Austria-Hungary and Turkey – were paid much less attention. The propaganda usually portrayed German allies in as dependent countries which were subordinate to Germany. In addition to the Entente's enemies, the caricature genre highlighted the military topic and the subject of the issued society faced in the rear.

  13. Les regalia au crible de la caricature du XVIe au XVIIIe siècle Regalia as seen in caricatures from the 16th to 18th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie Duprat

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Cet article a pour objet de montrer comment les attributs de la monarchie, les regalia, sont employés de façon dépréciative dans les images polémiques et les caricatures depuis le xvie siècle. À travers l’exemple de trois rois de France (Henri III, Louis XIV et Louis XVI s’ébauche une histoire de la propagande en images.The purpose of this article is to show how the attributes of the monarchy, also named regalia, are used in a negative way in polemical images and caricatures since the sixteenth century. These engravings represent an important part of the history of propaganda in France. They will be discussed through the analysis of three examples: Henry III, Louis XIV and Louis XVI.

  14. Image Based Hair Segmentation Algorithm for the Application of Automatic Facial Caricature Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yehu Shen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hair is a salient feature in human face region and are one of the important cues for face analysis. Accurate detection and presentation of hair region is one of the key components for automatic synthesis of human facial caricature. In this paper, an automatic hair detection algorithm for the application of automatic synthesis of facial caricature based on a single image is proposed. Firstly, hair regions in training images are labeled manually and then the hair position prior distributions and hair color likelihood distribution function are estimated from these labels efficiently. Secondly, the energy function of the test image is constructed according to the estimated prior distributions of hair location and hair color likelihood. This energy function is further optimized according to graph cuts technique and initial hair region is obtained. Finally, K-means algorithm and image postprocessing techniques are applied to the initial hair region so that the final hair region can be segmented precisely. Experimental results show that the average processing time for each image is about 280 ms and the average hair region detection accuracy is above 90%. The proposed algorithm is applied to a facial caricature synthesis system. Experiments proved that with our proposed hair segmentation algorithm the facial caricatures are vivid and satisfying.

  15. Cutting the cake : the Congress of Vienna in British, French and German political caricature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gabriëls, A.J.C.M.

    2016-01-01

    Although the Congress of Vienna was not a main topic for political caricature, it was anything but ignored. During the first five months of 1815, while monarchs and diplomats were deliberating on Europe’s future, caricaturists in Great Britain, France and the German-speaking states depicted the Cong

  16. Information Censorship: A Comparative Analysis of Newspaper Coverage of the "Jyllands-Posten" Editorial Caricatures in Cross-Cultural Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Julie George

    2010-01-01

    The identification and examination of cultural information strategies and censorship patterns used to propagate the controversial issue of the caricatures in two separate cultural contexts was the aim of this dissertation. It explored discourse used for the coverage of this topic by one newspaper in a restrictive information context and two…

  17. Du caricatural dans l’art du xxe siècle

    OpenAIRE

    Tillier, Bertrand

    2014-01-01

    L’histoire de l’art n’a que tardivement intégré la caricature du xxe siècle dans son champ d’étude, en dépit de sa diffusion croissante. Cet objet a longtemps passé pour partisan et utilitaire, ingrat et régressif, sans grande valeur artistique. Les historiens – des sensibilités et de la culture –, les sociologues, les anthropologues, les politistes et les sémiologues ont donc été les premiers à l’interroger comme archive ou document, mais sans toujours s’intéresser à sa structure graphique o...

  18. Producing Parsons' reputation: early critiques of Talcott Parsons' social theory and the making of a caricature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, B Robert

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the critical responses to Talcott Parsons' first major work, The Structure of Social Action (1937), and his two subsequent books, Toward a General Theory of Action and The Social System (both 1951). Because Parsons' work was the subject of such virulent debate, we cannot fully understand Parsons' impact on the discipline of sociology without understanding the source and nature of those early criticisms. I trace the responses to Parsons, first through book reviews and private letters and then in the more substantial statements of C. Wright Mills, George Homans, and Alvin Gouldner, from the largely positive but superficial reception of Structure to the polemics that followed Parsons' 1951 works. In the late 1930s and 1940s, Parsons' reputation grew steadily but there remained no careful reception of Structure, fostering resentment toward Parsons in some quarters while precluding a sophisticated understanding of his work. After 1951, a few critics capitalized on that tension, writing sweeping rejections of Parsons' work that spoke to a much broader audience of sociologists. That dynamic, coupled with Parsons' own indifference toward his harshest critics, produced a situation in which many sociologists simply chose not to read Parsons in the 1950s and 1960s, reinforcing a caricature and distorting perceptions of Parsons' place in mid-twentieth-century American sociology.

  19. The image of the censor in a magazine caricature of Russia XIX – early XX century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena S. Sonina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on a study of 17 thin illustrated humorous and satirical magazines and a number of several digests the author investigates about 30 cartoons of 1847-1917 years dedicated to the censor of the Russian Empire (in addition, selectively – censors France, Germany, Denmark and Sweden. The author isolates the main types depicted censors. More often the Russian censors were depicted in the form of an old woman, a functionary, in the form of "pointing finger" with the amplification means at hand – a red pencil, scissors and paint. The censor’s appearance transformed especially during the First Russian Revolution. The author analyzes the cartoons with a life-like portraits and abstract images of those who are professionally limited the freedom of the press. The censorship conditions (e.g. an urgency of the work or a depending on the political situation in the country are demonstrated. All of the examples noted the prevailing negative connotations of satirical images. Of the 30 cartoons only one picture presents a censor helping writers to pass a difficult way to the Temple of Literature (1847. All other images highlight of obstructive censor’s labor. It was difficult to publish a caricature of censorship and censorship. The article presents facts from the Russian State Historical Archive about mass prohibition satirical images. Painters invented the different tricks against the vigilant guards, but it did not help. At the end of the article author makes a conclusion about the inevitability of a small number of published satirical drawings by virtue of censorship illustrated periodicals.

  20. François Bœspflug, Caricaturer Dieu ? Pouvoirs et dangers de l’image

    OpenAIRE

    Voyé, Liliane

    2007-01-01

    Paru début 2006, c’est-à-dire quelques mois après « l’affaire » des caricatures de Mahomet, le livre de F.B. veut inviter à la réflexion sur « les dangers et les pouvoirs de l’image ». Pour cela, deux démarches s’imposent : un travail de définition, d’abord, auquel l’A. s’attelle dans le premier chapitre et ce, avec un souci pédagogique sensible tout au long des pages, ainsi que dans le lexique placé en fin d’ouvrage et les abondantes références bibliographiques : la polysémie de la notion d’...

  1. Le 18 Brumaire en Grande-Bretagne : le témoignage de la presse et des caricatures

    OpenAIRE

    Dupuy, Pascal

    2006-01-01

    Le coup d’État du 18 Brumaire est rapidement connu en Angleterre. La presse l’évoque dès le 16 novembre. Les événements sont relatés, détaillés et s’inscrivent dans un contexte d’intérêt renouvelé pour les affaires françaises. L’opinion publique anglaise, les journaux et les caricatures, relèvent le caractère brusque de la mise en place du régime consulaire mais surtout se gaussent d’une énième constitution mise en place par un tyran. The coup d'État of 18 Brumaire in Great Britain as view...

  2. Pilot studying about the role of anti-drug addiction documentary movies and caricature in changing the views of Tehran’s 7th disrict high school male/female students toward drug addiction as well as comparing them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the effect of movie and caricature on students’ attitude toward drug addiction is measured.124 students(61 male and 63 female from Tehran’s 7th district high schools were selected by using muli-stage cluster sampling method. The samples were randomly distibuted in three 21-member groups including control group, caricature group and documentary movie. All groups were pre-tested by using addiction attitude measuring scale (Form A. Then, the test goups were represented with dependent variables of movie and caricature but the control group received no variable. After two weeks, all groups were post-tesed by using addiction attitude measuring scale (Form B. The assumptions were analyzed by applying correlated t-tests , two-way variance analysis and Tucki’s pursuance test The results indicated that movie and caricature are effective in changing students’ attitudes toward addiction, the effects of movie differed from the effects of caricature but there was no difference between them in changing the attitude of male and female students.

  3. Research on the Application of Motion Perception in Caricature and Animation Creation%论运动知觉在动漫创作中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄唯

    2012-01-01

    在动漫创作中,创作者如果忽视对“运动知觉”的一些基本原理的应用,必然会影响动画片制作的效率和质量。文章结合电影心理学的相关理论,通过实例比较和分析,探讨“运动知觉”这一原理在漫画、二维动画片及三维动画片创作中的应用及其意义。%The neglect of some basic principles of "motion perception" will influence the efficiency and quality of the creators" caricature and animation creation. Based on the related theories of film psychol- ogy, and by means of case comparison and analysis, this paper discusses the application of the "motion perception" in the creation of caricature, two-dimensional and three-dimensional animations and its significance.

  4. Un contexte danois caricatural

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojsen, Heidi; Malki Jepsen, Johan

    2006-01-01

    Artikel om baggrunden for reaktionerne på Islam i Danmark og på publiceringen af karikaturtegningerne af Muhammed i Jyllandsposten i 2005. Om forholdet mellem social status, magt og ytringsfrihed...

  5. Balzac à la charge. Ecriture journalistique et théorie de la caricature en marge dela Comédie humaine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Lo Feudo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Come la maggior parte degli autori a lui contemporanei, il giovane Balzac cerca di farsi conoscere al grande pubblico e di guadagnarsi da vivere attraverso il giornalismo non politico - la cosiddetta petite presse -. Tra le numerose testate che hanno visto la sua partecipazione nel periodo che va dal 1824 al 1830, i settimanali La Silhouette e La Caricature si distinguono per forma e sostanza, fornendo indicazioni interessanti sulle scelte estetiche dell’autore in quegli anni: Balzac decide, infatti, di aderire a un tipo di pubblicazione innovativo e poco legittimato per l’epoca, possibile grazie alla recente diffusione della litografia. La Silhouette e la Caricature, fondate a cavallo della Rivoluzione di Luglio, basano in effetti la loro linea editoriale sulla sinergia fra testo e immagine come strumento per il racconto dell’attualità culturale e sulla centralità della satira visiva come codice espressivo privilegiato, inaugurando l’âge d’or della caricatura parigina portata in auge dai giornali di Philipon e dalle tavole di Grandville, Daumier e Cham. Attraverso l’analisi dei testi pubblicati da Balzac all’interno dei periodici in questione, si cercherà di capire se l’esperienza giornalistica, e in particolare il confronto con i linguaggi satirico-caricaturali, inducono l’autore a una riflessione sulla propria scrittura nel periodo in cui il progetto della Comédie humaine comincia a prendere forma. Un’esperienza, quella di Balzac, sicuramente pionieristica e capace di fornire spunti di riflessione per comprendere il rapporto tra letteratura e caricatura nell’Ottocento in Francia, rapporto che sarà rinnovato, nei decenni successivi, da autori come Gautier, Baudelaire, Champfleury e Vallès.

  6. De l’usure au pouvoir de l’argent : les métamorphoses d’un mythe antijuif à travers la caricature en Angleterre From Usury to High Finance: The Metamorphosis of an AntiJewish Myth viewed through English Caricatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucienne Germain

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available “Jewish Money Power”, the “Wandering Jew” and the “Blood Libel” (ritual murder myths are the three pillars of the anti-Semitic iconography which developed during the Middle Ages. Throughout the centuries, their evolution has continuously reflected the beliefs and tastes of the various societies which have used them to stereotype Jewish otherness. Far from being exhaustive, the intent of this article, based on a limited number of caricatures, is to stress the changes which took place over the centuries in numerous and varied portrayals of the “Jewish Money Power”: from the Jew in his capacity as money lender to the Jew as stockbroker, to more contemporary images of the Jewish banker and international financier, monopolising high finance, insinuating himself in all fields and plotting to dominate and destroy the Christian world. Having explained the various transformations in context, this analysis of selected Jewish graphic portrayals will also highlight the constant use of physical features and characteristics that have contributed to creating a misleading image of the Jews and encouraged anti-Semitism.

  7. 反拿破仑之“冷战”在文学和漫画中的表现%The Manifestation of the "Cold War" against Napoleon in Literature and Caricature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    越野刚; 米慧

    2012-01-01

    " Cold" is not only a term in meteorology, but it also obtains its "national" identity and cuhural connotation in Russian folk literature and caricature. This paper offers an analysis of the "cold" image based on the war cartoons and essays about war printed during the Russian Patriotic War of 1812.%"严寒"不仅是一个气候学词汇,在俄罗斯民间文学和漫画中同样也可获得"民族"身份和文化内涵。本文依据1812年俄国卫国战争时期印发的战争漫画和关于战争的散文作品,对"严寒"形象予以分析。

  8. Do (invisível ao risível: o negro e a "raça nacional" na criação caricatural da Primeira República

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Capanema Almeida

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A partir de caricaturas e de textos de humor publicados nas revistas ilustradas cariocas na Primeira República - sobretudo entre 1898 e 1918 -, o artigo analisa o lugar do negro e a reatualização da ideia de "raça nacional". Discute-se em que medida o humor é capaz de evidenciar mecanismos pouco visíveis, repercutindo o preconceito racial da época e revelando ao mesmo tempo a emergência de novas tradições culturais de origem africana e estratégias de resistência. À luz da historiografia recente sobre o período, demonstra-se como também no universo caricatural se tecia uma imagem da "raça brasileira" apoiada na mestiçagem. Essa busca de uma identidade brasileira mestiça é renovada no contexto da Primeira Guerra Mundial, quando os caricaturistas insistem na representação da decadência dos países tidos como civilizados e se interrogam sobre o lugar do Brasil no mundo.

  9. Darwin and Religion: Correcting the Caricatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooke, John Hedley

    2010-01-01

    Much has been written on the subject of Darwinism and religion, but rather less on the development of Darwin's own thinking on religious matters and how it changed over time. What were his religious, or anti-religious, beliefs? Did he believe that his theory of evolution by natural selection was incompatible with belief in a Creator? Was it his…

  10. Caricature freedom of expression in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renán Vega Cantor

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article we will present a sample of the way in France, the acclaimed birthplace and home of freedom of expression, censored, persecuted, and even imprisons those who dare to criticize the Israel lobby or their positions are not in tune with the thought “warm” right, the academic and cultural world

  11. « C’est eux contre nous » ou « Qui a peur de qui ? » : la rhétorique post-11 septembre de l’administration américaine vue par la caricature de presse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique CADINOT

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Dans les mois qui suivent les attentats du 11 septembre 2001, face aux douleurs encore vives et à la phobie anti-terroriste qui gagne du terrain, rares sont ceux qui s’interrogent sur le caractère liberticide de l’arsenal juridique mis en place par l’administration Bush. Encore plus rares sont les observateurs qui choisissent de jouer la carte de l’humour et de la dérision. Pourtant, en dépit du contexte, le 15 décembre 2001, soit trois mois après les attentats, le quotidien d’Atlanta en Géorgie, The Atlanta Journal-Constitution, fait paraître un dessin humoristique de Mike Luckovich caricaturant la politique du ministre de la justice John Ashcroft. De prime abord, l’auteur de la caricature dénonce la diabolisation de l’ennemi interne que forme alors la communauté américaine de culture arabe ou islamique. Dans son dessin, Luckovich met en effet clairement en cause la pratique du profilage racial et le caractère artificiel de la division dichotomique mise en avant par l’administration fédérale. Cependant, le choix de caricaturer John Ashcroft, représentant notoire de la droite religieuse, nous porte à croire que c’est en fait la délicate problématique des relations entre pouvoir et religion qui est au cœur du message adressé par l’auteur.Le dessin humoristique constituant un instrument de lecture privilégié d’une époque, cette analyse sera l’occasion de mettre en évidence les sentiments d’une catégorie d’Américains qui, dans les mois ayant suivi la réaction des agences fédérales, se sont opposés aux manœuvres visant à réduire le patriotisme aux seules convictions religieuses.In the months following the September 11 attacks on New York and Washington when the anti-terrorist phobia was at its peak, very few Americans dared voice criticism of the Bush administration’s assault on civil liberties. Even fewer commentators dared to use humor in dealing with the tragedy. However, despite the

  12. Economic man as model man: Ideal types, idealization and caricatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morgan, M.S.

    2006-01-01

    Economics revolves around a central character: "economic man." As historians, we are all familiar with various episodes in the history of this character, and we appreciate his ever-changing aspect even while many of our colleagues in economics think the rational economic agent of neoclassical econom

  13. Representing Uncertain Geographical Information with Algorithmic Map Caricatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunsdon, Chris

    2016-04-01

    A great deal of geographical information - including the results ion data analysis - is imprecise in some way. For example the the results of geostatistical interpolation should consist not only of point estimates of the value of some quantity at points in space, but also of confidence intervals or standard errors of these estimators. Similarly, mappings of contour lines derived form such interpolations will also be characterised by uncertainty. However, most computerized cartography tools are designed to provide 'crisp' representations of geographical information, such as sharply drawn lines, or clearly delineated areas. In this talk, the use of 'fuzzy' or 'sketchy' cartographic tools will be demonstrated - where maps have a hand-drawn appearance and the degree of 'roughness' and other related characteristics can be used to convey the degree of uncertainty associated with estimated quantities being mapped. The tools used to do this are available as an R package, which will be described in the talk.

  14. Three scientific discoveries episodes: from the empirical caricature to another history

    OpenAIRE

    Silveira, Fernando Lang da; UFRGS - Rio Grande do Sul; Peduzzi, Luiz Orlando de Quadro; UFSC - Santa Catarina

    2008-01-01

    The hole of experimentation in the genesis of knowledge concerning three episodes of the scientific discovery is examined: Galileu s physics, special theory of relativity and Bohr s atomic model. The insufficiency of the empiricist epistemology in the approach of these contents is showed by doing a contrast between the empiricist history and another history much richer, dynamic and complex. In didactic terms , the contemporary philosophy of science opens new and still not explo...

  15. Breaking up the crowd: the litterary caricature from the French "Physiologies" to Collodi’s "Fisiologie"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pina Paone

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Il presente saggio vuole mettere a fuoco un particolare genere letterario nato nella Francia di metà Ottocento: le Physiologies. Si chiariranno innanzitutto le diverse fasi di diffusione del genere: in un primo momento con la Physiologie du gout di Brillat-Savarin e la Physiologie du mariage di Balzac, poi sui petits journaux degli anni ’30, e infine con il ‘boom fisiologico’ degli anni 1840-42, in cui la struttura si standardizza in piccoli libretti con lo scopo di categorizzare la società parigina, unendo la parodia delle scienze naturali alle tecniche di descrizione caricaturale. L’ansia classificatoria mostrata da questi libretti, e in generale da tutta la “letteratura panoramica”, sarà messa in relazione con gli epocali cambiamenti socio-politici in atto nel contesto metropolitano parigino dell’epoca moderna. Infine sarà studiato il passaggio di questa moda letteraria nell’Italia di metà Ottocento, e in particolare nei giornali umoristici, con rilievi tratti soprattutto da Lo Scaramuccia e Il Lampione, importanti fogli fondati da Collodi. Sarà quindi analizzata, considerando la diversità dei contesti, la differenza tra i due modelli e la peculiarità della proposta collodiana, focalizzandosi soprattutto sulle tecniche e i procedimenti di scrittura caricaturale connesse alla complessità con cui in questo genere veniva intesa l’idea di tipo.

  16. Feature Level Fusion of Biometrics Cues: Human Identification with Doddingtons Caricature

    CERN Document Server

    Kisku, Dakshina Ranjan; Sing, Jamuna Kanta

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a multimodal biometric system of fingerprint and ear biometrics. Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) descriptor based feature sets extracted from fingerprint and ear are fused. The fused set is encoded by K-medoids partitioning approach with less number of feature points in the set. K-medoids partition the whole dataset into clusters to minimize the error between data points belonging to the clusters and its center. Reduced feature set is used to match between two biometric sets. Matching scores are generated using wolf-lamb user-dependent feature weighting scheme introduced by Doddington. The technique is tested to exhibit its robust performance.

  17. Näitus "Eesti kirjanik karikatuuris" = Exhibition "Estonian writers in caricature"

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Välinäitus pälvis Eesti Sisearhitektide Liidu 2010. a. näituse ja installatsiooni kujunduse preemia. Autorid: Kaarel Vahtramäe, Liina Jakobson, Mart Lankots, Janno Siimar (Velvet Creative Alliance)

  18. Sufism Caricatured in Orhan Pamuk’s “The New Life”

    OpenAIRE

    Mansur, Visam

    2015-01-01

    Yeni Hayat, Sûfi deneyimi ile alay etmektedir. Tasavvufun temel konuları, romanda mevcut olarak görülmektedir. Osman, Canan ve meleği bulmayı umut ettiği yolculuğuna bir Sûfi Dervişi gibi başlar. Tasavvuf edebiyatında, kadın (aşk) varoluşu ve Tanrıyı simgelemektedir, ancak, Osman'ın Canan'a olan aşkı, ruhani olmaktan çok bedenseldir. Yolculuk ilerledikçe, Pamuk, Tanrıyı aramaktan çok intikam peşinde koşan bir yolcuyu alaycılıkla gösterir. Sûfi geleneğiyle alay etmek, yeni hayatın ar...

  19. Journalism, Caricature and Satirical Drawings in Early Picasso (1891–1895: The Awakening of Pablo Ruiz’s Critical Consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Antón Castro

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In Pablo Picasso’s formative period in A Coruña (1891–1895, where he was born as an artist, the child and pre-adolescent who at that time signed himself as Pablo Ruiz, already knowing he was a genius, pursued an intense programme of creative activity while devoting himself to drawing and painting. Making use of his facility for reproducing the world around him in images, he also proved to be an incipient devotee of journalism as an instrument of communication and social awareness, a satirical draughtsman and caricaturist, seeking to give his version of events, in line with the magazines and newspapers of the period, and displaying a critical ability unusual in a child, a committed gaze, not devoid of humour and sarcasm, which prefigures the later Picasso with his progressive views, acute intelligence, meta-ironic approach and support for great causes.

  20. 《快乐驿站》中电视漫画的创新探索%Innovations of TV Caricature in Merry Dak

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐佳

    2005-01-01

    2004年10月8日,央视综艺频道(CCTV-3)携一批全新改版电视精品栏目盛装亮相。改版后,综艺频道推出的《快乐驿站》新栏目,通过演播室主持人“说”漫画、“画”漫画的手段,实现栏目“讽刺背后的关怀,辛辣背后的温情”的宗旨,使观众感受到生活中的智慧和快乐。

  1. Sarcasm and humor Bitter irony--Felling artistic language of caricature%寓庄于谐一针见血--体会漫画艺术语言

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    迟伟艳

    2004-01-01

    漫画作为一种独特的艺术形式,以其直抒胸臆、讽刺诙谐的独特格调被人们所喜爱,相对于绘画领域的其他艺术门类来说有着不可比拟的优越性,"剔透辛辣"是对其贴切的阐述.值得其他门类在艺术语言方面进行创新与借鉴.

  2. On "White Supremacy" and Caricaturing, Misrepresenting and Dismissing Marx and Marxism: A Response to David Gillborn's "Who's Afraid of Critical Race Theory in Education".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Mike

    2009-01-01

    In this journal in 2007, the author and Alpesh Maisuria critiqued two central tenets of Critical Race Theory (CRT) from a Marxist perspective (Cole and Maisuria, 2007). These are its primacy of "race" over class, and its concept of "white supremacy". Part of the critique focused on the work of leading UK Critical Race Theorist,…

  3. Caricatura y Perfomance en los dialogos interculturales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Guerrero

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the role of caricature in performances by contemporary artists James Luna, Guillermo Gómez Peña, and Roberto Sifuentes. The aim is to highlight caricatures and suggest how they be a central axis of analysis within intercultural studies. These performances demonstrate how caricatures, not just done to intercultural subjects but also by them, makes confession and testimony key dynamics that makes it possible for this subject to be a mediator in intercultural dialogues.

  4. 论日本动漫对中国古典文学名著的改编——以日本漫画版《封神演义》为中心%The adaptation of Japan catoon and caricature from classical Chinese literary masterpieces ---In the Japanese manga edition "Fengshen Kingdoms" as the center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄蓉; 吴慧

    2012-01-01

    日本动漫中大量存在着中国传统文学的元素,它对中国古典文学名著的改编,集传承与颠覆于一体。日本漫画版《封神演义》虽大尺度颠覆了中国古代同名原著小说,在情节布局、人物形象塑造及思想内涵等方面各有不同,但某种程度上又很好地传承了原著天马行空的丰富想象、游戏精神等内在神韵。日本动漫业运用的“戏仿”艺术手法,是对中国古典文化资源的一次“经典再生产”。%In the Japanese animation,there are a lot of Chinese traditional literary elements which is directly de- rived from Chinese mythology and Chinese classical literature works. The adaptation of Japan eatoon and carica- ture from classical Chinese literary masterpieces is a collection of inheritance and subversion. Although the Japa- nese manga Fengshen Kingdoms " are large scale subversion of the ancient Chinese original fiction in the plot arrangement, the character image mold and ideological connotation , to some extent, it is also very good inherit- ance of the original a powerful and unconstrained style rich imagination, deconstruction of sacred and solemn spirit of the game the intrinsic charm. The Japanese animation industry using the " Parody" of art, is the Chinese clas- sical culture resources of a " classic reproduction " .

  5. Muri per comunicare, mura da difendere nella caricatura italiana del 1848-1849

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Torelli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Il saggio propone un percorso iconografico attraverso alcune caricature pubblicate sulle principali riviste satiriche italiane del 1848-1849 nelle quali il muro riveste di volta in volta un diverso ruolo simbolico.

  6. Cognitive Processes in Intelligence Analysis: A Descriptive Model and Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    mechanisms approach outlined irt Section 6.1.1 compares the fenerion mehanisms appro raw sensory Input for similarity witih filtering from the viewpoint of...Incomplete data. of consolidation. Mental rehearsal of an The caricature effect Is a special "no experience, rumination about an experi- new Information...rehearsal and rumination , and deemphasize various aspects of the conditions for predicting and con- the memory of that experience, trolling the caricature

  7. High and low performers differ in the use of shape information for face recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Jürgen M; Schulz, Claudia; Schweinberger, Stefan R

    2013-06-01

    Previous findings demonstrated that increasing facial distinctiveness by means of spatial caricaturing improves face learning and results in modulations of event-related-potential (ERP) components associated with the processing of typical shape information (P200) and with face learning and recognition (N250). The current study investigated performance-based differences in the effects of spatial caricaturing: a modified version of the Bielefelder famous faces test (BFFT) was applied to subdivide a non-clinical group of 28 participants into better and worse face recognizers. Overall, a learning benefit was seen for caricatured compared to veridical faces. In addition, for learned faces we found larger caricaturing effects in response times, inverse efficiency scores as well as in P200 and N250 amplitudes in worse face recognizers, indicating that these individuals profited disproportionately from exaggerated idiosyncratic face shape. During learning and for novel faces at test, better and worse recognizers showed similar caricaturing effects. We suggest that spatial caricaturing helps better and worse face recognizers accessing critical idiosyncratic shape information that supports identity processing and learning of unfamiliar faces. For familiarized faces, better face recognizers might depend less on exaggerated shape and make better use of texture information than worse recognizers. These results shed light on the transition from unfamiliar to familiar face processing and may also be relevant for developing training-programmes for people with difficulties in face recognition.

  8. GIVING YOURSELF A GOOD BEATING: APPRAISAL, ATTRIBUTION, RUMINATION, AND COUNTERFACTUAL THINKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Dray

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available How individuals respond to adversity is one component of mental toughness and athletes may manage the adversity of a defeat in very different ways. In this article we focus on four types of cognition (appraisal, attribution, counterfactual thinking, and rumination that athletes may exhibit in the immediate aftermath of a competitive defeat. In particular we define each of these terms and present a "caricature" of each of the respective literatures, focussing on the prevailing trends and substantive findings. These caricatures assist in the identification of several areas in which literature on athletes' retrospective cognition about defeat may be advanced. We use combat sports as a vehicle to illustrate our propositions

  9. Face Detection and Modeling for Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    facial components show the important role of hair and face outlines in human face recognition. . . 8 1.6 Caricatures of (a) Vincent Van Gogh ; (b) Jim... Vincent Van Gogh ; (b) Jim Carrey; (c) Arnold Schwarzenegger; (d) Einstein; (e) G. W. Bush; and (f) Bill Gates. Images are down- loaded from [9], [10

  10. The Sage for the Ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Mike

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses two approaches to teaching: "a guide on the side" and "a sage on the stage." He juxtaposes Alison King's heavy-handed characterization of the traditional college lecturer, and offers his own characterization of self-styled stage-hog professors to offset King's caricature. He also presents a composite picture…

  11. Preface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mindaugas Briedis

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The contributors to this volume, who practice phenomenology in six countries in Europe and North America, all agree that these questions are to be answered with a clear and resounding No. The readers of this volume are bound to find out that this common critique of phenomenology is more of a caricature than its accurate description.

  12. Student-Centered Education and Constructivism: Challenges, Concerns, and Clarity for Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krahenbuhl, Kevin S.

    2016-01-01

    Constructivism is undoubtedly one of the most influential philosophies in education in the twenty-first century. It is, however, one that is frequently misunderstood, has diverse meanings ascribed to it, and is often used by advocates to caricature other approaches inaccurately. The learning theory of constructivism and pedagogical theory of…

  13. A Non-oedipal Psychoanalysis? Clinical Anthropology of Hysteria in the works of Freud and Lacan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haute, P.I.M.M. van; Geyskens, T.A.L.

    2012-01-01

    The different psychopathologic syndromes show in an exaggerated and caricatural manner the basic structures of human existence. These structures not only characterize psychopathology, but they also determine the highest forms of culture. This is the credo of Freud's anthropology. This anthropology i

  14. Creating Conversations: Finding Ways to Promote Humanities in Large Medical School Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holleman, Warren

    2006-01-01

    Since the publication of Samuel Shem's "House of God," medical students and residents have been famous for their cynical conversations about patients and life on the wards. This image is largely a caricature, yet peer pressure, medical machismo, stressful working conditions, and house staff subculture do foster negative attitudes and…

  15. Beware the 'Loughborough School' of Social Psychology? Interaction and the politics of intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokoe, Elizabeth; Hepburn, Alexa; Antaki, Charles

    2012-09-01

    The authors explain the attractions of applying discursive psychology (DP) and conversation analysis (CA) by reporting three different examples of their engagement with practitioners and clients. Along the way, a case is made for separating DP/CA from other kinds of qualitative analysis in social psychology, and for deconstructing some commonly held misunderstandings and caricatures of DP/CA.

  16. This is Not About Sex?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Else Marie Wiberg

    2011-01-01

    This article engages the understanding of love and grace in Bernard's and Luther's theologies. Taking as a point of departure Anders Nygren's dichotomy of love in agape and eros, Wiberg Pedersen outlines some of the issues raised by Nygren's thesis. Arguing against Nygren's caricature of Bernard...

  17. Drawing (Past, Present, and Future) Together: A (Graphic) Look at the Reconceptualization of Art Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, B. Stephen, II; Tavin, Kevin M.

    2010-01-01

    In this graphic representation, two characters/caricatures discuss, contemplate, and fantasize the history of the field of art education, its current state, and future manifestations. The conversation is illustrated around the possible reconceptualization of art education. Through text and visual metaphors, the philosophical beliefs, theoretical…

  18. Strategic Studies Quarterly. Volume 5, Number 3. Fall 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    new media freelancing and cafe politics––where the bulk of protesters take breathers—tests the pulse of the national mood, caricatures the...Bangladesh, Egypt, Indonesia, Jordan, Lebanon, Malaysia , Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Thailand, United Kingdom 2 Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Lebanon, Mali, Saudi Arabia

  19. Old Glory and the Jolly Roger: The Cultural Constraints and Strategic Imperatives of Modern Piracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    Piracy Until recently, the phrase maritime piracy conjured up romanticized caricatures of seventeenth and eighteenth century Caribbean pirates enshrined... theatres of war as Napoleon could, "seasoned judgment and an instinct born of long experience" are no less necessary in today’s world.28 Further

  20. Liberalism, Multiculturalism, and the Welfare State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Selamé G.

    Full Text Available This article examines whether the politics of difference is consistent with the politics of redistribution that characterizes the welfare state. The paper also explains why Brian Barry’s version of multiculturalism is a caricature, and inquires whether the dichotomy between liberalism and multiculturalism allows for any conciliation. Finally, it revises the pertinence and relevance of the thesis that upholds the compatibility between multiculturalism and the welfare state.

  1. Worldwide Report, Arms Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    There is a serious amount of money involved here, and as a consequence American industry is furiously raking in the orders. It is not only industry...role in our security. At first glance, West European government leaders and heads of state are not entirely happy with SDI. Once again it presents...caricatured as a trigger- happy cowboy, is moved by the prospect of a nuclear-free world as described by Mr Gorbachev. This dream is part of his puritan

  2. Casting Net Assessment: Andrew W. Marshall and the Epistemic Community of the Cold War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    age took its toll and exacted enough simi- larities to make the irreverent moniker Yoda stick, and before the legend and caricature of Andy Marshall...experienced officials and defense intellectuals from Ivy League schools and leading think tanks, particularly RAND. Collectively branded the Whiz Kids...White House to the Kremlin— though the phone was red, not purple. In the immediate aftermath of the Cuban missile crisis, former RAND col- league Henry

  3. McNamara, Clifford, and the Burdens of Vietnam, 1965-1969 (Secretaries of Defense Historical Series, Volume 6)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Stetson." He could no more shake that distinctive persona than he could change his lanky frame, so often caricatured in the political cartoons of the...introduce a U.S. Army brigade to Bien Hoa to protect U.S. bases and conduct counterin- surgency operations. The third would deploy battalion-size or...election, Viet Cong forces attacked Bien Hoa Air Base. Johnson chose to ignore calls for retaliation, but in December he approved a policy of enhanced

  4. Clausewitz and the Soviets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-26

    materialism. Likewise, in A Caricature of Marxism and Imperialist Economism, August-October 1916, he wrote, How then, can the ’real nature’ of a war be...differences between the Marxist- Leninist understanding of war and that of Clausewitz is that Marxism added a materialistic content and that Marxist...Thus Marxism -Leninism would assimilate mass participa- tion in revolutionary warfare and create a proletarian military theory which fulfilled the

  5. Les jetons de l’Abbé Gaultier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.L. Olivier

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available On peut penser que l’aspect caricatural, pour notre époque, de l’enseignement de la géographie, qui se dégage des manuels rédigés en terme de demanderéponse au XIXe siècle, était tempéré par l’usage de la carte, point de départ et d’aboutissement, tout au moins pour certains pédagogues comme l’Abbé Gaultier.

  6. Hammers and Nails: A response to Lindstrøm and Olsen & Witmore

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Tim Flohr

    2016-01-01

    to caricature symmetrical archaeology as ‘old wine in new bags’. Third, even though Olsen and Witmore’s defence offers helpful clarifications, I believe that their contribution invites us to discuss the vocabulary of symmetrical archaeology, scrutinizing why there is an apparent tendency to misunderstand its...... by Lindstrøm and by Olsen and Witmore: first of all, I challenge Lindstrøm’s representation of object agency, which I believe is in need of corrections. Second, I contend that Lindstrøm fails to identify a number of fundamental contributions within the framework of symmetrical archaeology, thus allowing her...

  7. Vida y muerte del Espíritu del 12 de febrero. El fracaso del último intento reformista del franquismo en el humor gráfico de la prensa diaria (1974-1975

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Segado Boj

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the vision of daily press graphic humor regarding the last aperturist attempt of Franco's dictatorship, known as the Espíritu del 12 de febrero. To do this, the article analyzes strips published between February, 1974 and November, 1975 (date of the death of Francisco Franco by the main Spanish newspapers of the time (Abc, El Alcázar, Informaciones, La Vanguardia, and Ta. The conclusion is that the reformist initiative was greeted with a generally skeptical attitude in political caricatures published in these newspapers.

  8. The stereotype as a mechanism of the national identity desintegration. The case of My big fat Greek wedding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Félix GÓNZALEZ SÁNCHEZ

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The cultural industry takes advantage of the evocative power of the stereotype to construct discourses easily identified with the public. The audiovisual machinery, especially Hollywood, employs this narrative mechanism to disintegrate the cultural features that shape the identity of a social group. Positive ethnic characteristics are quickly integrated into its culture; however, negative aspects are converted into stereotypes that serve to caricature the donor nation. This affront to the peripheral cultures tries at the same time to reinforce and consolidate the weak North American identity.

  9. [Human nature and the enhancement of human beings in the light of the transhumanist program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffi, Jean-Yves

    2011-01-01

    There are three main approaches about the question of Human Nature. essentialists consider that there exists a permanent Human Nature, shared by every human being. Existentialists consider that there is no such thing as human nature, but inescapable modes of being in the world. A moderate approach would consider that Human Nature can be modified within the limits of anthropological invariants. Transhumanists are conservative in that they think that there is a Human Nature; but they are radical in that they believe that it can (and must) be transcended by bio-technnologies and computer technologies. This project is evaluated as a caricature of suitable human enhancement.

  10. Globalization and democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEEPAK NAYYAR

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe gathering momentum of globalization in the world economy has coincided with the spread of political democracy across countries. Economies have become global. But politics remains national. This essay explores the relationship between globalization and democracy, which is neither linear nor characterized by structural rigidities. It seeks to analyze how globalization might constrain degrees of freedom for nation states and space for democratic politics, and how political democracy within countries might exercise some checks and balances on markets and globalization. The essential argument is that the relationship between globalization and democracy is dialectical and does not conform to ideological caricatures.

  11. Soldiers Under Threat: An Exploration of the Effect of Real Threat on Soldier’s Perceptions, Attitudes and Morale

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    used” to death. However, - as famous Turkish aut- hor Orhan Pamuk (1983: 68-69) lets his fictional character Selahattin Darwinoğlu (“Darwin’s son...Westerners. Of course this is a caricature, but it is not without a trace of reality. An illustration of what Pamuk is trying to say here is that personal...of Orhan Pamuk’s fictional character, Selahattin Darwinoğlu, whom we met before. To give one illustration of this operational style: after one of the

  12. Lie integrable cases of the simplified multistrain/two-stream model for tuberculosis and dengue fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nucci, M. C.; Leach, P. G. L.

    2007-09-01

    We apply the techniques of Lie's symmetry analysis to a caricature of the simplified multistrain model of Castillo-Chavez and Feng [C. Castillo-Chavez, Z. Feng, To treat or not to treat: The case of tuberculosis, J. Math. Biol. 35 (1997) 629-656] for the transmission of tuberculosis and the coupled two-stream vector-based model of Feng and Velasco-Hernandez [Z. Feng, J.X. Velasco-Hernandez, Competitive exclusion in a vector-host model for the dengue fever, J. Math. Biol. 35 (1997) 523-544] to identify the combinations of parameters which lead to the existence of nontrivial symmetries. In particular we identify those combinations which lead to the possibility of the linearization of the system and provide the corresponding solutions. Many instances of additional symmetry are analyzed.

  13. Larry Semon

    OpenAIRE

    Couderc, Jean-Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Lawrence Semon naquit le 16 juillet 1889 à West Point (Missouri) où son père était en tournéeCe dernier était un artiste assez connu dans le monde du spectacle : Zera Lemon, dit Zera le Grand, était célèbre à la fois comme illusionniste, ventriloque et acrobate. Le grand-père de Larry lui-même était magicien et connu sous le nom de Herman le Grand. Le jeune Lawrence, doué pour le dessin humoristique et la caricature, fait des études dans une école d’art à Savannah (Géorgie). Il possède aussi ...

  14. Fashion pictures and women pictures in French women magazine. Normatives parades or strategic masquerade?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justine MARILLONNET

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes to study the fashion pictures within a representative sample of French women magazines. Based on the method of “sémiologie des indices”, used to analyze a corpus of woman’s body and fashion staged, this paper addresses the issue of new functions granted to the stereotyping process. Starting to the assumption of a contract between audience and media, this analysis shows that the gender stereotype may be prescribed, up to a caricature of the womanhood, to the female readers identified as co-producers of the media discourse. Demonstrating both the co-existence of a plurality of gender representations in its pictures and their variability, this work proposes the concept of strategic masquerade to apprehend the possible new functions for the process of gender stereotyping in media.

  15. Situating cognitive/socio-cognitive approaches to student learning in genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindfield, Ann C. H.

    2009-03-01

    In this volume, Furberg and Arnseth report on a study of genetics learning from a socio-cultural perspective, focusing on students' meaning making as they engage in collaborative problem solving. Throughout the paper, they criticize research on student understanding and conceptual change conducted from a cognitive/socio-cognitive perspective on several reasonable grounds. However, their characterization of work undertaken from this perspective sometimes borders on caricature, failing to acknowledge the complexities of the research and the contexts within which it has been carried out. In this commentary, I expand their characterization of the cognitive/socio-cognitive perspective in general and situate my own work on genetics learning so as to provide a richer view of the enterprise. From this richer, more situated view, I conclude that research from both perspectives and collaboration between those looking at learning from different perspectives will ultimately provide a more complete picture of science learning.

  16. The relationship between the state and humanistic sciences in Serbia at the beginning of the 21st century. Citation metrics as an attempted murder of Serbian anthropology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Kovačević

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In Serbia, the influence of the society on humanistic sciences is mainly perpetrated through state funding of scientific projects. Such funding currently involves valuation of the results of a scientific work by applying citation metrics methods, which are not acknowledged in Europe. Citation metrics in the USA, where it was created, lead to caricature forms of scientific products, composed of several pages of text and a great number of cited (quoted titles. Citation metrical-citation manic procedure can lead to the elimination of the domestic humanistic sciences and the implementation of third rate quoteres, who, along with hollow articles filled with mutually intertwined citations, fulfill requirements, unconsciously(? set by the authorized Ministry and University.

  17. Empiricist Interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Anders Kristian; Abrahamsson, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Recent papers by prominent scholars in science and technology studies (notably JohnLaw and Bruno Latour) have crystallized a fundamental disagreement about the scope and purpose of intervention in actor-network theory or what we here choose to bracket as empirical philosophy. While the precept...... crafting of an adequate account). A key point here is to challenge the impermeability of such a division and show how the strategic dispute, if to be taken seriously, invariably spills over to swamp the level of tactics. To illustrate this point, we draw upon materials from our recent doctoral research...... projects and to facilitate the discussion we make two deliberate caricatures: Firstly, we operate with a simplifi ed history of actor-network theory in which a strategy of epistemological critique has been replaced by two contending agendas for ontological intervention. Secondly, we address these two...

  18. I Show You How I Like You: Emotional Human-Robot Interaction through Facial Expression and Tactile Stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredslund, Jakob; Cañamero, Lola D.

    2001-01-01

    We report work on a LEGO robot capable of displaying several emo- tional expressions in response to physical contact. Our motivation has been to explore believable emotional exchanges to achieve plausible interaction with a simple robot. We have worked toward this goal in two ways. First......, acknowledging the importance of physical manipulation in children's inter- actions, interaction with the robot is through tactile stimulation; the various kinds of stimulation that can elicit the robot's emotions are grounded in a model of emotion activation based on different stimulation patterns. Sec- ond......, emotional states need to be clearly conveyed. We have drawn inspira- tion from theories of human basic emotions with associated universal facial expressions, which we have implemented in a caricaturized face. We have conducted experiments on both children and adults to assess the recogniz- ability...

  19. The Margins of Medieval Manuscripts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Kavčič

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Shortly after the mid-thirteenth century, various images began to fill the margins in both religious and secular texts. Many factors influenced the emergence of this type of manuscript decoration, but it has generally been attributed to the revived interest in nature and the Gothic inclination for humorous and anecdotic detail. After highlighting other possible reasons for the occurrence of marginal illumination, this paper introduces two manuscripts from the Archiepiscopal Archives in Ljubljana. The manuscripts show numerous facial drawings affixed to some of the letters. This article addresses how to interpret such drawings and stresses that they do not necessarily function as symbolic images or images with any specific didactic value. Quite the opposite, these drawings seem not to have any meaning and are oft en merely indications of an illuminator’s sense of humor. Because of their exaggerated facial expressions, these drawings could be perceived as the true predecessors of modern caricature.

  20. Some Preliminary Notes on an Empirical Test of Freud’s Theory on Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattias eDesmet

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A review of the literature indicates that empirical researchers have difficulty translating Freud’s theory on depression into appropriate research questions and hypotheses. In their attempt to do so, the level of complexity in Freud’s work is often lost. As a result, what is empirically tested is no more than a caricature of the original theory. To help researchers avoid such problems, this study presents a conceptual analysis of Freud’s theory of depression as it is presented in Mourning and Melancholia (Freud, 1917. In analyzing Freud’s theory on the etiology of depression, it is essential to differentiate between (1 an identification with the satisfying and frustrating aspects of the love object, (2 the inter- and an intrapersonal loss of the love object, and (3 conscious and unconscious dynamics. A schematic representation of the mechanism of depression is put forward and a research design by which this schema can be empirically investigated is outlined.

  1. La libertà di espressione e il rispetto dei sentimenti religios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Suárez Villega

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Freedom of speech ought to be interpreted as a value linked with different aims of a democratic society. It is not admissible to accept a freedom of speech which conceals harmful intentions against a single person or a social community. The historical defence of freedom of speech is based on the enlargement the debated of ideas, rather than on a subjective exercise of personal extravagance. To respect religious feelings and another personal aspects is an absolute limitation of freedom of speech. Because of that, we do not agree with the identification of Muslim religion with terrorism that has been published, trough Mahoma’s caricatures, in some European newspapers.

  2. Germ cell cancer and disorders of spermatogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skakkebaek, N E; Rajpert-De Meyts, E; Jørgensen, N;

    1998-01-01

    in research in the early stages of testicular cancer (carcinoma in situ testis (CIS)) allows us to begin to answer some of these questions. There is more and more evidence that the CIS cell is a gonocyte with stem cell potential, which explains why an adult man can develop a non-seminoma, which...... is a neoplastic caricature of embryonic growth. We consider the possibility that CIS cells may loose their stem cell potential with ageing. Along these lines, a seminoma is regarded a gonocytoma where the single gonocytes have little or no stem cell potential. The Sertoli and Leydig cells, which are activated......Why is there a small peak of germ cell tumours in the postnatal period and a major peak in young age, starting at puberty? And, paradoxically, small risk in old age, although spermatogenesis is a lifelong process? Why is this type of cancer more common in individuals with maldeveloped gonads...

  3. Post Civil War African American History: Brief Periods of Triumph, and Then Despair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Gilda

    2016-01-01

    During Reconstruction, which is often called the most progressive period in American history, African Americans made great strides. By 1868 African American men constituted a majority of registered voters in South Carolina and Mississippi, and by 1870 eighty-five percent of Mississippi's black jurors could read and write. However, Reconstruction was followed by approximately one hundred years of Jim Crow laws, lynching, disenfranchisement, sharecropping, unequal educational resources, terrorism, racial caricatures, and convict leasing. The Civil Rights Revolution finally ended that period of despair, but the era of mass incarceration can be understood as a reaction to the Civil Rights Movement. This article attempts to understand the persistence of racism in the United States from slavery's end until the present.

  4. A New Design Approach to game or play based learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lasse Juel

    game based learning system, but also confront aspects of modern learning theory especially the notion of reference between content of an assignment and the reality with which it should or could be connected (situated learning). The second idea promotes a way to tackle the common experience......Abstract: The present paper proposes a new design perspective for game based learning. The general idea is to abandon the long and sought after dream of designing a closed learning system, where students from elementary school to high school without teachers’ interference could learn whatever...... subject they wanted sitting in front of a computer. This dream is a caricature I know, but it still lurks in the background whenever we speak, read or write about learning with computer games. The entire field of learning with games is called serious games since they profoundly find themselves...

  5. Les mises en scène du passé au Palais-Bourbon (1815-1848). Aux origines d’une mémoire nationale.

    OpenAIRE

    Triomphe, Pierre

    2006-01-01

    L’actualité récente, avec notamment les débats récurrents sur la colonisation, ou la commémoration avortée de la bataille d’Austerlitz, souligne l’importance de l’histoire dans le débat politique. De telles discussions m’interpellent depuis que j’ai entamé des études historiques, car elles remettent en cause le postulat du jeune amateur d’histoire qui avait cru à « l’objectivité » de la science historique, avec la même naïveté qu’on attribue souvent, en le caricaturant, à Leopold von Ranke. E...

  6. LA CARICATURA Y SU USO DIDÁCTICO EN EL ESTUDIO DE LA PRIMERA GUERRA MUNDIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Sc. María Elena Del Valle de Villalba

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to describe the use that can be given to caricature as a teaching tool in addressing the First World War as historical fact. In the sameaccuratel y describes the application of this tool as input toe transdisciplinary approach to teaching world historyandas an approach to understanding historical moment as sensitive from a less orthodox.El presente artículo pretende describir el uso que puede dársele a la caricatura como herramienta didáctica en el abordaje de la Primera Guerra Mundial como hecho histórico. En el mismo se describe de manera precisa la aplicación de esta herramienta como aporte a un abordaje transdisciplinario de la enseñanza de la Historia Universal y como una aproximación a la comprensión de un momento histórico tan sensible desde una perspectiva menos ortodoxa.

  7. Chitrachanchala (pictures of unstable mind): mental health themes in Kannada cinema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Chillal Guru; Babu, Girish N; Chandra, Prabha S; Chaturvedi, Santosh K

    2009-06-01

    Regional movies in India play an important role in portraying mental illness and also depict awareness and attitudes of society towards people with mental health problems. Kannada (the language spoken by 50 million people from the state of Karnataka in South India) cinema has produced a range of movies depicting conditions ranging from psychosis to personality disorders. However, the descriptions of mental illness in several of these movies is vague and often stigmatizing. Some landmark films have involved psychiatrists in producing and directing the movies, including helping with the story line, which have added value to these films. Despite Karnataka being home to some of the important psychiatrists in the country and to some of the most famous and advanced mental health training and treatment centres, depictions of treatment and the portrayal of psychiatrists continues to be caricatured. As is true of many parts of India, treatment methods are often magico-religious, which is what Kannada cinema also reflects.

  8. ‘No, Thank You, Mr Stork!’: Voluntary Childlessness in Weimar and Contemporary Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Benninghaus

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Voluntary childlessness is often perceived as a contemporary phenomenon. This article traces its history by looking at demographic data and visual representations of childlessness from the 1920s and 1930s. At that time, childlessness was on the rise among Germany's young urban couples – a development that inspired concern and controversy. Caricatures, films, plays and other representations testify to the growing fascination with childlessness. Even images used in population propaganda appear as strangely ambivalent. While they were intended to criticise childlessness, they also insinuate the pleasures of a child-free existence. These, however, were time-specific. As comparisons with more recent images show that the "value of childlessness" as invoked by visual representations has shifted significantly.

  9. [The Danish psychiatrist and professor Daniel Jacobson (1861-1939) - as sketched by friends and patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permin, Henrik; Therkelsen, Jørgen

    2004-01-01

    One of the nerve specialists/psychiatrists of the first part of the 20th. century, Professor Daniel Jacobson (1861-1939), chief physician of the Psychiatric Department, Frederiksberg Hospital, was an outstanding person as regards both character and appearance. He was a tall man, and his artistic looks and charismatic authority made him a popular therapist in the Scandinavian Countries. His patients included not only many devoted females, but also several Nordic artists - among these the Norwegian painter, Edvard Munch. Munch was treated in Jacobsons private nerve clinic at Frederiksberg in 1908-09 and during his stay he painted the characteristic portrait of Jacobson. Here we present a new collection of drawing, caricatures, verse and humorous texts from patients, colleagues and friends.

  10. L’INSPIRATION ROMANTIQUE DE "GASPARD DE LA NUIT"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guacira Marcondes Machado

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available n this work, we intend to show that Aloysius Bertrand in “Gaspard de la Nuit” drew the inspiration to his poems in prose from its nearest context: that one of French Revolution and the revolt of the spirit against everything which would impose an exaggerated materialism. Thus, in the middle of Enlightenment, there were those who went in search of “mysterious realities” and a “sense of mystery” that the pre-romantic literature in Britain and in Germany would express in its poetry. It is also in the 18th century that some works about the “Commedia dell’arte” and caricature concede to the grotesque a significant part in the formation of art, extending it to the supernatural and the absurd.

  11. Nothing in the History of Spanish Anís Makes Sense, Except in the Light of Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Juan Antonio; Palma, Ricardo Luis

    2011-02-01

    We describe, discuss and illustrate a metaphoric parallel between the history of the most famous Spanish liqueur, " Anís del Mono" ( Anís of the Monkey), and the evolution of living organisms in the light of Darwinian theory and other biological hypotheses published subsequent to Charles Darwin's Origin of Species. Also, we report the use of a caricature of a simian Darwin with a positive connotation, perhaps the only one ever produced. We conclude that, like some species in the natural world, Anís of the Monkey has evolved, adapted, survived and become the fittest and most successful anís in the Spanish market and possibly the world. We hope this paper will contribute a new useful metaphor for the teaching of biological evolution.

  12. QUALITATIVE SURVEY OF PERCEPTION OF 9TH GRADERS WHO EXPERIENCED AN EARTHQUAKE TOWARDS THE CONCEPT “EARTHQUAKE”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bülent AKSOY

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study is carried out to determine the metaphors of 9th graders they have towards the concept "earthquake". 194 9th graders in Erciş, Van took part in the study in the academic year of 2012-2013. The data of the study is collected by students' completing the sentence "earthquake is like …, because …." and from the pictures and caricatures drawn by the students about their metaphors for the concept earthquake. The data is analyzed with content analysis method. According to the results of the study, the students produced 72 metaphors about the concept of "earthquake". These metaphors were categorized into 6 different conceptual groups according to their common features. As a result of the study, it was revealed that 5.04% of the students perceive the concept of "earthquake" as doomsday, 4.32% as fear, 3.60% as monster and cradle and 2.88% as death and disaster.

  13. Die Entstehung des „Judenbildes“ in den Alltagsmedien des 19. Jahrhunderts The Formation of Antisemitic Sterotypes in Press-Media of the 19th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ute Wrocklage

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available In der zweiten Hälfte des 19. Jahrhunderts beginnen, Illustratoren und Zeichner von Bildwitzen und Karikaturen das stereotype und in der Folge antisemitische Bild vom Juden herauszubilden. Es findet schnell Eingang in die illustrierten Zeitschriften und Bilderbögen der Zeit. In diesen drei untersuchten Bildmedien kennzeichnen neben der Physiognomie diskriminierende Attribute den Juden als Typus. Dieser Entwicklung und der Herausbildung der Stereotype zum antisemitischen Judenbild geht die Arbeit nach.The stereotypes of Jews are developed in visual jokes and caricatures in the second half of 19th century. Immediately they were copied in illustrated magazines and picture-sheets of that period. Within these three visual mediums some attributes characterise the Jewish figure beside its physiognomy. The book follows the stereotypes’ development and formation into the anti-Semitic picture.

  14. Feminism as Islamophobia: A review of misogyny charges against Islam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Mahmudul Hasan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available One important feature of Islamophobia is to caricaturize Islam as misogynistic and oppressive to women and thus to advance imperialist hegemony. This “gendered Islamophobia” stigmatizes the religion even though, compared to other world religions, its treatment of women is arguably preferable and more enlightened. Historically, one treasonous use of feminism has been to misappropriate it in order to serve colonial interests and support imperialist wars of occupation that repress subjugated people including women and children. This article argues that ignorance about, and prejudice against, Islam contribute to portraying it as a misogynistic creed. Wrong notions of Islam lead many feminists in Muslim societies to denigrate Islamic teachings and borrow Western ideas to advance women’s causes. Lampooning Islam and replicating Western feminist ideas in Muslim lands have served neither women nor feminism. Such feminist tendencies rather give a bad name to the women’s rights movement and fuel controversy, anger and resentment among Muslims.

  15. La France inchangée -Soumission de Houellebecq : roman de continuité

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clément Courteau

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Michel Houellebecq’s latest novel, Soumission, tells the story of a muslim’s party’s victory at the presidential elections in France. In the midst of the fear-laden solidarity that followed the events at Charlie Hebdo, the novel could be read as a confirmation of the danger Islam represents for the French republic. But in the story narrated by its hero François, the state’s, and later his, conversion to Islam are seen as positive events, that set up a social structure where their repressed desires can be openly pursued. By showing that the imagined, reified Islam which France fears, turns out to be a way of affirming and legitimizing its deepest desires, Houellebecq shows that far from being the radical alterity it is often depicted to be when seen through the lens of terrorism, Islam, as caricatured by islamophobia, is the next step in France’s civilisational development.

  16. La France inchangée -Soumission de Houellebecq : roman de continuité

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clément Courteau

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Michel Houellebecq’s latest novel, Soumission, tells the story of a muslim’s party’s victory at the presidential elections in France. In the midst of the fear-laden solidarity that followed the events at Charlie Hebdo, the novel could be read as a confirmation of the danger Islam represents for the French republic. But in the story narrated by its hero François, the state’s, and later his, conversion to Islam are seen as positive events, that set up a social structure where their repressed desires can be openly pursued. By showing that the imagined, reified Islam which France fears, turns out to be a way of affirming and legitimizing its deepest desires, Houellebecq shows that far from being the radical alterity it is often depicted to be when seen through the lens of terrorism, Islam, as caricatured by islamophobia, is the next step in France’s civilisational development.

  17. Comparison of ICM with TPF-LEP to Prevent MAC Spoof DoS Attack in Wireless Local Area Infrastructure Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Durairaj

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A Comparison of Integrated Central Manager (ICM and Traffic Pattern Filtering with Letter Envelop Protocol (TPF-LEP is done. Denial of Service (DoS attack is a biggest peril in wireless local area infrastructure network. It makes the resources unavailable for intended users which transpired through spoofing legitimate Client/AP's Medium Access Control (MAC address. MAC address are easily caricatured by the adversary clients, subsequently they are not encrypted. Since, the adversary sends the management frame, which is unencrypted, to the victim using spoofed MAC address. This study compares the performance of Integrated Central Manager (ICM and Traffic Pattern Filtering with Letter Envelop Protocol (TPF-LEP and evaluated the result using NS2. The attack scenario is simulated and effectiveness of the solutions is validated after the instigation of solutions in the attack consequences. Throughput, Packet Delivery Ratio and Packet Loss are measured and taken to endorse the performance of ICM and TPF-LEP.

  18. “Cooking with Gordon”: Food, Health, and the Elasticity of Evangelical Gender Roles (and Belt Sizes on The 700 Club

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis Warren Cooper

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article examines evangelical gender paradigms as expressed through a 700 Club cooking segment facilitated by Gordon Robertson, the son of Pat Robertson—founder of the Christian Broadcasting Network (CBN, The 700 Club, Christian Coalition, and one-time presidential candidate. Several themes converge within this cooking show, including health and nutrition, family ritual, and gender roles. Using the cooking segment as data, I draw on scholarship on body, gender, family and ritual to argue that evangelical discourses are labile in their responses to recent socio-cultural shifts and suggest that “Sunday Dinners: Cooking with Gordon” defies caricatures of evangelical gender formation and signals a possible shift to soft-patriarchy and quasi-egalitarianism, at least within public, visual discourse. “Sunday Dinners” underscores the centrality of the family in evangelical discourse—even as conceptions of gender are in flux—as it seeks to facilitate everyday rituals via cooking and eating together.

  19. Mad, Bad, and Dangerous to Know? The Strange Allure and Elusive Reality of North Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Lie

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sandra Fahy, Marching Through Suffering: Loss and Survival in North Korea. New York: Columbia University Press, 2015. 272 pp. $40 (cloth/e-book. Hazel Smith, North Korea: Markets and Military Rule. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015. 394 pp. $90 (cloth, $33 (paper, $26 (e-book. Lady Caroline Lamb famously called Lord Byron “mad, bad, and dangerous to know.” In describing North Korea, Hazel Smith replaces “dangerous to know” with “sad,” but she, like Sandra Fahy, seeks to recuperate the ultimate humanity of North Koreans. Both Smith and Fahy have spent considerable time in North Korea or with North Koreans, and they convey the contemporary dynamics of North Korea without relying on the ready-made caricatures and stereotypes that dominate in the West (and the rest...

  20. Biotechnology regulation: limiting or contributing to biotech development?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Grethe

    2001-01-01

    that regulation and debate changed the rate and direction of new biotechnology development, contributing to technology acceptance, without however ensuring it. The paper thus questions the caricatured assumptions in economics and industrial policy that regulation restrict techno-economic growth. The paper further...... to the European arena, their role and extension are still an issue. In this paper, the often anticipated innovation-inhibiting effects of regulation are questioned by giving an account of regulations and debates in Denmark. An account which includes the shifting positions of industry, the research community...... states regulation and controversies to have contributed actively to the specific technology development, but also states the difficulties in setting radically different technology development agendas....

  1. Le sentiment religieux dans le Jeu de Saint Nicolas

    OpenAIRE

    Rey-Flaud, Henri

    2014-01-01

    Le Jeu de saint Nicolas est un miracle, c'est même le premier miracle dramatisé en français. Il appartient donc de fait au théâtre religieux, au théâtre qui "relie" les hommes entre eux, les hommes au groupe, les hommes à la divinité. La religion dans le Jeu de saint Nicolas, ce sont d'abord les dieux païens, incarnés par Tervagan qui sont comme une caricature de la divinité selon Bodel. Le dieu païen est coupé des hommes. Il s'adresse à eux par l'oracle ambigu au Roi (v. 183). D'emblée, il n...

  2. Fasting, justification, and self-righteousness in Luke 18:9–14: A social-scientific interpretation as response to Friedrichson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven H. Mathews

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a social-scientific interpretation of the role of fasting in Jesus’ parable of the Pharisee and the tax collector in Luke 18:9–14. Specifically, the article considers such social realia as honour and shame, collectivism, and purity in the interpretation of the text. The textual and social contexts of the text are considered. It is contended that in the parable Jesus presents a caricature of both the Pharisee and the tax collector to make a larger point, in which fasting is not a major consideration. The article also evaluates Friedrichson’s interpretation of this text, which depicts the Pharisee as fasting vicariously, resulting in the justification of the tax collector. Finally, the significance of this text in a holistic theology of fasting in the New Testament is considered.

  3. Sex, violence and learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lieberoth, Andreas; Wellnitz, Kaare Bro; Aagaard, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    affect us. And we all want to prove our claims. But how do we test the impact of games? In this chapter, we discuss empirical logics and approaches known from large- to small-scale effect studies as traditionally found in educational, political, and biological sciences. There are two premises......Sometimes stories about games make their way into the media. Around the year 2000 they were usually about how games turns mild-mannered suburban kids into desensitized high school-shooters-in-training. But things have changed. Warnings about aggressive emotions, caricatured gender images......, and detrimental effects of time spent in front of a screen now compete with claims about gamification as a magic key to business success and utopist visions of a better game-based tomorrow for education, citizenship, and science participation. The claims are many – but they all seem to agree on one thing: Games...

  4. The immune response in SAPHO syndrome: deficiency, hyper- responsiveness, or both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayem, Gilles; Hurtado-Nedelec, Margarita; Chollet-Martin, Sylvie

    2013-01-01

    The pathophysiology of SAPHO syndrome still remains to be determined. However, like in other forms of spondylarthritides, this rare condition seems to result from the combination of genetic, environmental and immunological factors. Surely, SAPHO syndrome cannot be simply regarded as the adult form of the 'caricatural' DIRA (deficiency in interleukin-1 receptor antagonist) syndrome, although this purely genetic disease also causes multiple osteomyelitis and pustular rashes. An initial bacterial trigger, mainly represented by the cutaneous saprophyte Propionibacterium acnes, could take advantage of a selective deficiency of the innate immunity, implicating neutrophils. This could elicit thereafter a 'hyperimmune' reaction, as in other chronic inflammatory conditions like reactive arthritis, Crohn's disease or hidradenitis suppurativa. The reported efficacy of either longterm antibiotic regimens (especially with azithromycin) or immunomodulatory biologic agents targetting TNF-α or IL-1 supports the concept of a post- or para-infectious hyperresponsiveness disorder, with a convincing rationale for 'hybrid' therapies.

  5. The importance of being Ernst: a reassessment of E. H. Gombrich’s relationship with psychoanalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Dedman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to explore and counter the assumption that Prof. Ernst Gombrich was wary, and even dismissive, of psychoanalysis as a discipline. Though renowned for his interest in the psychology of viewing, new research suggests that, from his earliest career, Gombrich’s work was also crucially psychoanalytically-inflected. An unpublished dialogue from the 1980s, between Gombrich and Dr Joseph Sandler, a distinguished psychoanalyst, is considered here. Archival research reveals that Gombrich was for many years a member of the Imago Group – a monthly conference of psychoanalysts. Furthermore, Gombrich’s relationship with Ernst Kris, and the unpublished manuscript on caricature and regression they developed together, is reviewed alongside later works tracing a sustained interest in psychoanalytic issues. Ultimately, the article is an attempt to rehabilitate psychoanalysis into Gombrich’s reputation and prove that, though his engagement with psychoanalysis was not universally positive, it was sensitive, nuanced, consistent and, ultimately, underestimated.

  6. Probing the face-space of individuals with prosopagnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Mayu; Doyle, Jaime; Humphreys, Kate; Behrmann, Marlene

    2010-05-01

    A useful framework for understanding the mental representation of facial identity is face-space (Valentine, 1991), a multi-dimensional cognitive map in which individual faces are coded relative to the average of previously encountered faces, and in which the distance among faces represents their perceived similarity. We examined whether individuals with prosopagnosia, a disorder characterized by an inability to recognize familiar faces despite normal visual acuity and intellectual abilities, evince behavior consistent with this underlying representational schema. To do so, we compared the performance of 6 individuals with congenital prosopagnosia (CP), with a group of age- and gender-matched control participants in a series of experiments involving judgments of facial identity. We used digital images of male and female faces and morphed them to varying degrees relative to an average face, to create caricatures, anti-caricatures, and anti-faces (i.e. faces of the opposite identity). Across 5 behavioral tasks, CP individuals' performance was similar to that of the control group and consistent with the face-space framework. As a test of the sensitivity of our measures in revealing face processing abnormalities, we also tested a single acquired prosopagnosic (AP) individual, whose performance on the same tasks deviated significantly from the control and CP groups. The findings suggest that, despite an inability to recognize individual identities, CPs perceive faces in a manner consistent with norm-based coding of facial identity, although their representation is likely supported by a feature-based strategy. We suggest that the apparently normal posterior cortical regions, including the fusiform face area, serve as the neural substrate for at least a coarse, feature-based face-space map in CP and that their face recognition impairment arises from the disconnection between these regions and more anterior cortical sites.

  7. Unpopular, overweight, and socially inept: reconsidering the stereotype of online gamers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowert, Rachel; Festl, Ruth; Quandt, Thorsten

    2014-03-01

    Online gaming has become an activity associated with a highly specific, caricatured, and often negative image. This "stereotype" has permeated the collective consciousness, as online gamers have become common caricatures in popular media. A lack of comprehensive demographic inquiries into the online gaming population has made it difficult to dispute these stereotypical characteristics and led to rising concerns about the validity of these stereotypes. The current study aims to clarify the basis of these negative characterizations, and determine whether online video game players display the social, physical, and psychological shortcomings stereotypically attributed them. Sampling and recruiting was conducted using a two-stage approach. First, a representative sample of 50,000 individuals aged 14 and older who were asked about their gaming behavior in an omnibus telephone survey. From this sample, 4,500 video game players were called for a second telephone interview, from which the current data were collected. Only those participants who completed all of the questions relating to video game play were retained for the current analysis (n=2,550). Between- and within-group analyses were enlisted to uncover differences between online, offline, and nongame playing communities across varying degrees of involvement. The results indicate that the stereotype of online gamers is not fully supported empirically. However, a majority of the stereotypical attributes was found to hold a stronger relationship with more involved online players than video game players as a whole, indicating an empirical foundation for the unique stereotypes that have emerged for this particular subgroup of video game players.

  8. El fin de la sencillez: sobre el pasaje del humor visual impreso al de la imagen móvil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Steimberg

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Ligado inicialmente ao desenho humorí­stico e a ilustração infantil, o desenho animado se desenvolveu durante os primeiros oitenta anos de cinema, especialmente em seu segundo perí­odo, o disneyano, dentro da vertente de um esquematismo herdado da caricatura, como foi observado por Gombrich. A partir dos anos sessenta, e sobretudo, desde os oitenta, o desenho animado cresce em complexidade, variedade visual e narrativa, privilegia o componente hipertextual e metadiscursivo e elege o público infantil como alvo por causa da ausência de restrições estáveis, semânticas ou sintáticas que definam essa orientação. Palavras-chave desenho animado, caricatura, estilo de época, esquematismo, complexidade, metadiscurso Abstract Linked initially to the comic strip and children’s illustration, the animated cartoon was developed during the first eighty years of cinema, specially in its second period, the Disney era, primarily inside a schematism inherited from the caricature, according to Gombrich. From the 60’s on and specially since the 80’s, we notice a growth in complexity, visual variety and narrative, emphasis on the hypertextual component and on metadiscourse and a choice for the child public as the cartoon’s target group because of the lack of stable, semantical or syntactic restrictions that define this orientation. Key words animated cartoon, caricature, epoch style, schematism, complexity and metadiscourse

  9. La banlieue dans l’imaginaire québécois. Problèmes originels et avenir critique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Laforest

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La banlieue est l’objet d’une visibilité accrue dans l’imaginaire littéraire du Québec contemporain. Rien n’indique cependant qu’elle ait dépassé le stade de la caricature ou de la critique unidimensionnelle. Face à cela cet article formule deux hypothèses. La première est qu’il y a une ville consensuelle dans les imaginaires du Québec moderne, et que cette ville repose sur la suppression de l’historicité des formes périurbaines. La seconde est que la réhabilitation de cette historicité dégagera des avenues critiques neuves pour la lecture des récits urbains contemporains. À travers Nègres blancs d’Amérique de Pierre Vallières et Le ciel de Bay City de Catherine Mavrikakis, on verra que le mot banlieue recouvre en fait deux notions qu’il est urgent d’articuler avec le développement de la littérature québécoise : l’urbanisation et la vie ordinaire.The suburb has become progressively more visible in the literary imaginary of contemporary Québec, though nothing seems to indicate that it has surpassed the stage of caricature or unidimensional criticism. In light of this situation, two hypotheses are formulated in this article. The first is that a widely accepted type of city dominates in the imaginary of modern Québec, and that this city is founded upon the suppression of the historicity of peri-urban forms. The second is that the rehabilitation of this suppressed historicity will open new critical avenues for the interpretation of contemporary urban stories. Through an analysis of Pierre Vallières’ Nègres blancs d’Amérique and Catherine Mavrikakis’ Le ciel de Bay City, we will see that the word ‘suburb’ encompasses two notions urgently requiring clarification in view of the development of Québécois literature: urbanisation and ordinary life.

  10. A New Design Approach to Game-Based learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lasse Juel

    2012-01-01

    This paper puts forward a new design perspective for gamebased learning. The general idea is to abandon the long sought-after dream of designing a closed learning system, where students in both primary and secondary school could learn – without the interference of teachers – whatever subject they...... or more different, yet interconnected, elements; namely a teacher, a web-based platform and an immersive game or play world.......This paper puts forward a new design perspective for gamebased learning. The general idea is to abandon the long sought-after dream of designing a closed learning system, where students in both primary and secondary school could learn – without the interference of teachers – whatever subject...... they wanted while sitting in front of a computer. This describes a caricature, I know, but it still lurks in the background whenever we speak of, read or write about learning with computer games. The entire field of learning with games is called ‘serious games’, since they find themselves on a direct...

  11. Evasion, private events, and pragmatism: A Reply to Moore's response to my review of Conceptual Foundations of Radical Behaviorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, William M

    2011-01-01

    Moore's screed in response to my review of his book uses several rhetorical tricks to counter criticism without actually addressing it: he tries to preempt the transparency of his own orthodoxy by groundlessly accusing me of orthodoxy; he caricatures my criticisms to make them appear obviously wrong; he professes lack of understanding so as to dodge having to attempt a genuine response; and he engages in pejorative labeling to dismiss the criticisms without analysis. From a scientific and pragmatic point of view, private events are a mistake, precisely because they are private. They cannot serve as independent variables, as Moore suggests, because they cannot be measured; “private independent variable” is a contradiction in terms. When we carefully examine locutions like “observe” and “report on,” we discover that they entail only public verbal and nonverbal behavior, not objects and not private events as objects. A person in pain is not reporting on anything, is engaging in public verbal and nonverbal pain-behavior, and an infant or a dog may be considered to be in pain. The public behavior is all that matters, because determining whether a person is really in pain privately is impossible. The same is true of any private event, and the control of the public behavior on which the verbal community comments lies in the public environment. We cannot have two sets of principles, one for verbal behavior and one for nonverbal behavior or one for humans and one for other animals.

  12. YouTubers as satirists: Humour and remix in online video

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Dias da Silva

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to discuss the role humour plays in politics, particularly in a media environment overflowing with user-generated video. We start with a genealogy of political satire, from classical to Internet times, followed by a general description of “the Hitler meme,” a series of videos on YouTube featuring footage from the film Der Untergang and nonsensical subtitles. Amid video-games, celebrities, and the Internet itself, politicians and politics are the target of twenty-first century caricatures. By analysing these videos we hope to elucidate how the manipulation of images is  embedded in everyday practices and may be of political consequence, namely by deflating politicians' constructed media image. The realm of image, at the centre of the Internet's technological culture, is connected with decisive aspects of today's social structure of knowledge and play. It is timely to understand which part of “playing” is in fact an expressive practice with political significance.

  13. Is the Diversity of Shifting Cultivation Held in High Enough Esteem in Lao PDR?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Ducourtieux

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Shifting cultivation is often described as “traditional”, inflexible and outdated, in contrast with “modern”, mechanised and chemical agriculture. This belief leads to overlooking farmer know-how, accumulated over generations to exploit natural resources while adapting itself to the mutations of the physical, social and economic environment.Research conducted in Phongsaly provides an idea about how complex and consistent a shifting cultivation system can be and how farmers optimise family labour but also limit their risks. External interventions—policies, projects, etc.—are aimed at improving the farmers’ livelihood by converting their farming practices. When these interventions overlook how diversified slash-and-burn agriculture is, they often lead to oversimplifying the farming systems, impoverishing people and exposing them to natural and economic risks. These actions are then counterproductive. In the interest of the Lao nation, as a community, the policies and their implementation should be rethought so as to hold highland farmers of ethnic minorities in higher esteem and to widen the viewpoint, currently limited to a caricature of the mountains and forest, upheld by the culturally and politically dominant lowland inhabitants.

  14. The Combination of Inconsistent Feelings in Satire or Humor on Persian Language (A Case study: Parviz e Shapoor s Caricalamatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Taslim Jahromi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Grotesque is a concept and style in art and literature in which artist or belletrist tries to induce two inconsistent senses of fear (anxiety or repulsion or laugh (satire or humor to second person simultaneously. Grotesque, today, describes and manifests distressed and alienation world. It means observing familiar world of strange perspective that shows off it fearful and ridiculous. The most prominent features that make a Grotesque work are as fallow: disharmony, extravagance and exaggeration, abnormality and comic and terrifying. But one of the most important art and literature branches that Grotesque enters in it, is satire and humor that one of its kind is Caricalamatur.   Caricalamatur is a kind of short, simple and satire prose that paid attention to around to phenomenon and world by different attitude with aim of foregrounding and based on some people opinion, also, it is defined as a caricature that is expressed by worlds.   Grotesque in Caricalamaturs has special appearance particularly in Caricalamatur of Parviz e Shapoor, the pioneer of this style.Grotesque in Caricalamaturs is more the result of two technics of abnormality (paradox, and extravagance and exaggeration and present to it strange and comic and terrifying picture quality.   The most important of Grotesque technics in Caricalamaturs are disorder, levels integration, exaggeration, movement, metamorphosis and uses of antithetical and twin.This research has performed by descriptive- analytical method to recognize and investigate Grotesque concepts, how it occurs and its contents in Caricalamatur by evidence representation.

  15. Seasonal invasion dynamics in a spatially heterogeneous river with fluctuating flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yu; Hilker, Frank M; Steffler, Peter M; Lewis, Mark A

    2014-07-01

    A key problem in environmental flow assessment is the explicit linking of the flow regime with ecological dynamics. We present a hybrid modeling approach to couple hydrodynamic and biological processes, focusing on the combined impact of spatial heterogeneity and temporal variability on population dynamics. Studying periodically alternating pool-riffle rivers that are subjected to seasonally varying flows, we obtain an invasion ratchet mechanism. We analyze the ratchet process for a caricature model and a hybrid physical-biological model. The water depth and current are derived from a hydrodynamic equation for variable stream bed water flows and these quantities feed into a reaction-diffusion-advection model that governs population dynamics of a river species. We establish the existence of spreading speeds and the invasion ratchet phenomenon, using a mixture of mathematical approximations and numerical computations. Finally, we illustrate the invasion ratchet phenomenon in a spatially two-dimensional hydraulic simulation model of a meandering river structure. Our hybrid modeling approach strengthens the ecological component of stream hydraulics and allows us to gain a mechanistic understanding as to how flow patterns affect population survival.

  16. Il Selvaggio 1926–1942: Architectural Polemics and Invective Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Rosso

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of a special collection dedicated to the study of image-word relations in the press and their impact upon the dissemination of architecture within the public realm, the story of 'Il Selvaggio', the magazine published from July 13, 1924, until five weeks before the fall of Mussolini in 1943, assumes a significant relevance. Since its inception, and increasingly from 1926, 'Il Selvaggio' hosts, alongside articles and polemic essays, a varied range of graphic materials in different genres and forms of artistic expression. This heterogeneous visual catalogue, an expression of the versatile and eclectic culture of its founder, the artist, writer and illustrator Mino Maccari, includes an equally varied ensemble of literary registers ranging from rhymes and aphorisms to brief polemic writings, ironic manipulation of proverbs, word plays and puns. The interest of a study about the representations of architecture within 'Il Selvaggio' lies in the non-specialist nature of a periodical whose cultural stances were predominantly elaborated outside the professional circles of the architectural work and its well-known authors. This article examines the rhetorical strategies and linguistic devices of the magazine, where caricatures and landscape scenes, still lives and urban views, photographs and mottoes, are intertwined in a set of varying relationships. It also elucidates the historical context in which the contemporary architectural debate unfolds and which constitutes the constant reference for Maccari and his collaborators, providing the source materials for the journal’s polemics.

  17. Jean-Martin Charcot and art: relationship of the "founder of neurology" with various aspects of art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogousslavsky, Julien; Boller, François

    2013-01-01

    Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893), the "father of neurology" in France and much beyond, was also the man who established academic psychiatry in Paris, differentiating it from clinical alienism. In his teaching, he used artistic representations from previous centuries to illustrate the historical developments of hysteria, mainly with the help of his pupil Paul Richer. Charcot liked to draw portraits (in particular, sketches of colleagues during boring faculty meetings and students' examinations), caricatures of himself and others, church sculptures, landscapes, soldiers, etc. He also used this skill in his clinical and scientific work; he drew histological or anatomic specimens, as well as patients' features and demeanor. His most daring artistic experiments were drawing under the influence of hashish. Charcot's tastes in art were conservative; he displayed no affinity for the avant-gardes of his time, including impressionism, or for contemporary musicians, such as César Franck or Hector Berlioz. Léon Daudet, son of Charcot's former friend and famous writer Alphonse Daudet, described Charcot's home as a pseudo-gothic kitsch accumulation of heteroclite pieces of furniture and materials. However, as Henry Meige wrote a few years after his mentor's death, Charcot the artist remains "inseparable from Charcot the physician."

  18. Return of the living dead: Re-reading Pierre Flourens' contributions to neurophysiology and literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, Sharman

    2013-01-01

    Historians of neurophysiology remember Marie Jean Pierre Flourens (1794-1867) for his experimental approach to nineteenth-century debates on cortical localization and, in particular, for his successful attacks on Frantz Joseph Gall's (1758-1828) phrenology (Gall and Spurzheim, 1810-19). Whereas Gall and his colleague, Johann Gaspar Spurzheim (1776-1832), posited correlations between features of the skull and brain development and claimed to have localized character traits, competencies and temperaments in specific cortical regions, Flourens advocated cerebral equipotentiality and provided empirical as well as philosophical grounds for his theories. Flourens has also been recognized for his contributions to the understanding of the cerebellum's role in the coordination of movement, the localization of a respiratory center in the medulla oblongata, the relationship between the semicircular canals and balance, the role of the periosteum in bone growth and regeneration, and finally, the anesthetic properties of chloroform. Less known to historians of neuroscience is the fact that Pierre Flourens was not only a neurophysiologist and Secrétaire Perpetuel of the French Académie des Sciences, he was also a member of the Académie Française, France's most prestigious literary academy. Examining Flourens' contributions as a writer and, at the same time, a prime target for criticism and caricature from journalists, yields a particularly interesting example of the problematic relations between different genres of science writing and their respective publics in mid-nineteenth-century France.

  19. Phenomenological Skillful Coping: Another Counter-Argument to Daniel Dennett’s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jethro Masís

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with Daniel Dennett’s well-known charges against phenomenological philosophy as an endevour to restore the rights of introspection: that is, the attempt, albeit doomed to failure, to contribute to the science of the mind from a purported incorrigible, ineffable and ‘subjective’ (interpreted as ‘private’ first-person perspective. According to Dennett’s heterophenomenology, only a strict third-person method is possible when it comes to the scientific study of the mind. I will dispute Dennett’s method in order to do both: correct Dennett’s caricaturization of phenomenological philosophy as naïve introspection and offer not only a clarification of phenomenology’s true aims and scope, but also a case in which phenomenology will stand as a crucial option in the new studies of the mind, under the sigh of fresh air that can be found in the new approaches to cognitive science (the so-called 4EA approaches: embodied, embedded, extended, enacted, affective. By way of introducing the concept of ‘phenomenological skillful-coping,’ an affirmative respond to Dennett’s own question shall be given: “Is there anything about experience that is not explorable by heterophenomenology? I’d like to know what.” The answer to Dennett should be firm: Yes there is! No less than the most basic non-theoretical, non-representational, embodied and embedded, human experience or coping.

  20. On the Comic Arts of LAI Sheng-chuan's Ménage à 13%论赖声川《十三角关系》的喜剧艺术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡明华

    2012-01-01

    《十三角关系》作为赖声川的一部喜剧精品,其主题内容和艺术手法都堪称精炼。该剧取自中国人当下都市生活题材,通过对现代人之间混乱而复杂的多重关系设置来探讨人性缺陷与完善的主题,讽刺和批判了现代人对"爱"的无能为力。剧中荒谬的情节编排和闹剧手法的使用,可以看到美国漫画和西方喜剧大师伍迪.艾伦、达里奥.福等人的喜剧创作中找到根源。%Ménage à 13 as one of LAI Sheng-chuan's classic comedies is exquisite in its theme and artistic technique which reflects the contemporary urban life by depicting the messy and complex multiple relations among modern people to probe into the defects and perfection in humanity and to satirize modern man's incapability for love.The absurd arrangement of plots and the employment of farce in the play can be traced back to the American caricatures and the comedies of the great western comedian Woody Allen and Dario Fo.

  1. 浅析朱山坡小说的荒诞特性%The Characteristics of Absurdness in Zhu Shanpo’ Novels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈莉

    2016-01-01

    Guangxi writer Zhu Shanpo thinks the highest level of performance techniques of novels is"absurdness". In his novels, performance techniques of absurdness through the different degrees of the modes of discourse and narrative are reflected in four aspects: the bizarre plot, exaggerated description, oversimplified and caricatured characters, creative use of language, widely adopted parody.%广西作家朱山坡认为小说之表现手法的最高境界是“荒诞”,综观朱山坡的小说文本,他的小说创作的话语方式、叙事模式不同程度地呈现出荒诞特征的表现技巧,分别体现在四个方面:离奇的情节、夸张的描写、漫画式和过度简化的人物形象、语言的创造性运用、仿拟的广泛采用。

  2. Adalbert J. Volck (1828-1912): Confederate dentist, artist and anti-Lincoln satirist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christen, A G; Christen, J A

    2001-03-01

    Dr. Adalbert Volck, a native of Bavaria, Germany, was a man of many talents: he was a skilled, innovative and versatile dentist, artist, artisan, craftsman, and a Confederate Civil War cartoonist and caricaturist. In 1848, after participating in a national revolution gone sour, Volck emigrated to the U.S. In 1852, Volck received his DDS degree from the Baltimore College of Dental Surgery, and subsequently, he established a life-long residency and dental practice in Baltimore. Dr. Volck gave staunch support to the spirit and force of organized dentistry. Among his professional accomplishments was his work in the early development of dental porcelain restorations. Although he was a non-combatant in the U.S. Civil War, Volck demonstrated his loyalty to the Southern cause by becoming a blockade runner; smuggler of drugs and medical supplies; "safe house" operator for Confederate soldiers and agents; Rebel spy; and personal courier for Jefferson Davis (the President of the Confederacy). The popular anti-Confederacy political cartoons of the great Thomas Nast inspired Volck to execute similar lampoons against the Union. Early in the war, Volck, through his caricatures, attacked the person and policies of President Lincoln and his Northern leaders. By using irony, sarcasm and ridicule, Volck attempted to sway popular sentiment toward the South.

  3. On the subculture of animation%试论动漫产生的亚文化性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨明

    2012-01-01

      Nowadays has inevitably entered an era of popular cartoon animation culture, animation culture has become a concern of subculture phenomenon. China has formed a preliminary animation industry, the audience was the influence of Europe and the United States Japan catoon caricature and cartoon culture because of various channels into China, combined with characteristics of adolescents, formed its own cartoon subculture circle. How to treat and analysis, thus further guide the ACG non-mainstream culture, is our current had to face an important issue.%  当今时代已经不可避免地进入了一个动漫文化流行的时代,动漫文化已经成为了一种令人关注的亚文化现象。中国当前已经形成了初步的动漫产业,在受众早已因为各种渠道进入的欧美日本动漫产品和动漫文化的影响下,结合当代中国青少年的特点,形成了自己的动漫亚文化圈。如何看待和分析,从而进一步引导这种动漫亚文化,是我们当前不得不面对的一个重要课题。

  4. Qu’est-ce que problématiser? Genèses d'un paradigme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Fabre

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the idea of the problem invades the school and training. How to avoid that this idea does not dilute and caricaturizes itself? It seems necessary to go back to the root question: What is problematization? The genesis of the paradigm of problematization is studied here departing from 4 problem philosophies from John Dewey, Gaston Bachelard, Gilles Deleuze and Michel Meyer. While these philosophies come up from different intuitions and develop their own theories, they largely converge on the idea of problematization which allows a precise definition of concepts (the problematization, the problem, the issue. These philosophies also allow to highlight the intellectual demands of an attitude that seems to take its normal course of the common thought and even - according to some of our authors - of philosophical thought,marked precisely by the forgetfulness of the problem. There is no problematization if self-control of thought is not present, a dialectic between data and conditions of the problem, which needs to conceive a logic of research, centered in the building of the problem and not just on its corresponding resolution. It is possible to outline the pedagogical implications of the four sketches, studied in relation to knowledge and problem. Their differences reveal themselves pedagogically over determined: they send back to the problems of a pedagogy of the problems.

  5. 在巴黎受气的美国人

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    说文解字1、嘿、服务员,来个汉堡包!2、我们没有汉堡包,美国猪!3、那么来杯咖啡吧,青蛙佬!4、加点糖吧!5、我们没有糖!We are in a streetside resaurant in Paris,the"Bistro Chirac",where the tall,haughty waiterwith his nose stuck up in the air looks a bit like the president of France himself.An American tourist(Pat Oliphant’s standard marionette-like caricature of"lightweight"George W.Bush)impolitely demands a hamburger;both his tone and what he asks for are an insult to the waiter;and of course,being a typical American,he automatically uses a very colloquial American English.Not speaking French is bad enoughin Paris,but just to assume,without apology,that everyone there speaks English is...unpardonable!The waiter replies in heavily accented French-English:"We do not serve the hamburger."At the same time,without for an instant losing his cool,he adds the words"American swine"in French and makes a very rude gesture.Clearly this is not a waiter looking for a tip.Bush,now upset,demands coffee instead.Again he uses the very colloquial"gimme"for"give

  6. ETHICAL IMPLICATIONS REGARDING THE USE AND ABUSE OF IRONY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIVIU IULIAN COCEI

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the ethical implications concerning the use of irony is not an easy task. Even though there are notable differences between the various ironical expressions, it looks like irony in general plays with people’s emotions. Ironically, it seems that it gets them together and pulls them apart at the same time. Thus, whether we refer to philosophical or rhetorical irony, it is hard to say when is it morally right to turn into ridicule. Therefore, in this paper, considering Linda Hutcheon`s view on the edge of irony and Richard Rorty`s neo-pragmatist philosophy, we analyze the moral limits of ironization. We emphasize that, in some cases, the difference between the use and the abuse of irony is cancelled, the limit between innocent irony and real offence being almost inexistent. For this reason, we claim that irony is acceptable only in a culture that is opened to all ironic modalities, such as satire, parody, caricature, pamphlet and even humor.

  7. Oliver Twist and Inklings of ‘Grotesque’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Hafezi Kermani

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Oliver Twist is a novel in which the society of pilfers and felons were reconnoitered uninvited by a young boy whose name is Oliver in the Victorian period. He as an orphan faces with dissimilar circumstances that are concealed to the eyes of the conventional people. Dickens, as the narrator of the story, has logged those absurdities and clumsiness in his novel. Dickens uses the idea of grotesque to display the conditions and the scenes to alert people in forms of comic and tragic. Dearth, poverty, lives of thieves, and whatever ensued in his time are dexterously exhibited in this novel by using grotesquery which its function is ‘mixing emotions, tragicomic, abnormality’. He uses melodramatic techniques with grotesque and humorous characterization. He exchanges tragic and comic scenes to balance one against another. Grotesque in Oliver Twist mainly can be debated in three formulas that are comprised as caricature-like characters, Gothic-like environment, and a means of satirizing situations.

  8. When Carniolan Sausage Shines among the Stars. On the Consumption of “Cosmosausages”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jernej Mlekuž

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Certain nations eat certain foods with particular enjoyment. These foods are usually not eaten merely for their caloric value (if there is any, but are consumed with pride (and of course there are many who analyze and/or caricature that pride. With these foods symbolic consumption is often more important than the physical (although we often cannot neglect their physical consumption, the paper will not dwell on this argument. One paradigmatic example of such a food is the space Carniolan sausage, which has been physically consumed (if at all only by an astronaut with Slovene roots. All other Slovenes can only enjoy it through language. When they consume the (space Carniolan sausage through language, they are most likely consuming that which it signifies. Carniolan sausage is probably the most common, most dominant, most satisfying (“culinary” signifier of Sloveneness; it is a sort of Slovene culinary flag. But, following Michael Billig, in the case of the consumption of the space Carniolan sausage, what kind of culinary flag are we dealing with: one that is being waved or not?

  9. Britannia : Grandeur et infortune d’une allégorie nationale dans l’univers du cartoon britannique 1842-1999 Britannia: Greatness and Misfortune of a National Symbol in the World of British Cartoons 1842-1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert Millat

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Britannia, sometimes accompanied by the emblematic British Lion, has long been personifying justice, liberty, and the British Empire on coins and stamps as well as in graphic satire. Originally of Roman origin, she became the visual representation of Britain after being revived in the sixteenth century. This article is based on the analysis of over four hundred cartoons featuring this symbol. It argues that between 1860 and the 1950s, Britannia striking a solemn pose, that of the Græco-Roman goddess created by Tenniel, exalted Victorian greatness and the early twentieth century great power twice victorious in the World Wars. On the other hand, since the inter-war years, Low and his followers had been challenging this supposedly immutable image. They turned her into a definitely helpless and obsolete symbol whose identity was sometimes usurped by such anti-heroes as Colonel Blimp. Finally, from the 1960s, in a context of continuous British decline and growing permissiveness, cartoonists increasingly followed the example of the old masters of 18th century caricature and early Punch cartoonists, even though aggressiveness and vulgarity have remained much less explicit.

  10. 镜头语言在漫画中的运用与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张英明; 张毅

    2011-01-01

    本文比较了日本漫画(manga]相对于其他类型漫画的差异,指出镜头语言在漫画中的重要作用,镜头语言在漫画中的运用最主要的体现在分镜和分格两个方面,分镜的来源是影视语言,而分格则是漫画所独有的语言要素,它们相互补充,相互影响.本文通过镜头语言的节奏韵律和翻页的分析以及分镜与分格的相互作用来阐述镜头语言在漫画中的运用.文中指的漫画是指日本目前主流漫画(manga)语言,而非讽刺性漫画(caricature)或其他.

  11. On Racine’s The Litigants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Witz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available French tragedian Jean Racine’s only comedy The Litigants (1668 is a theatrical caricature of the people of the law and of legal procedure at the time when Louis XIV’s councillor Colbert was undertaking important reforms of the judicial system. Litigious claimants, a maniac judge, a masochistic bailiff and loquacious lawyers all concur in the frantic display of a justice drowned in formalities and the pursuit of individual interests. The study of this play reminds us of the importance of constant efforts to reduce the complexity of legal procedure. Los litigantes (1668, la única comedia del dramaturgo francés Jean Racine, es una caricatura teatral del mundo del derecho y el procedimiento legal de la época en la que Colbert, canciller de Luis XIV, impulsó importantes reformas del sistema judicial. Demandantes litigiosos, un juez maníaco, un agente judicial masoquista y abogados locuaces coinciden en una exhibición frenética en la que la justicia se muestra ahogada en formalidades y la búsqueda de intereses individuales. El estudio de esta obra nos recuerda la importancia de los esfuerzos constantes para reducir la complejidad del procedimiento legal.DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2543495

  12. Education, Enlightenment and Positivism: The Vienna Circle's Scientific World-Conception Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uebel, Thomase.

    The scientific world-conception is properly understood as an enlightenment philosophy only if the current reassessment of the historical Vienna Circle(as opposed to the caricature still prevalent in the popular philosophical imagination) is once more extended to comprehend not only its thorough-going epistemological anti-foundationalism, but also the voluntarist point of its ethical`non-cognitivism'. That is to say, the scientific world-conception is properly understood as the opposite of village positivism only if it is recognized that it has an `other' and that the scientific world-conception was meant by its proponents to perform its enlightenment work only in conjunction with that other of scientific reason - ethical will and willing. Scientific reason cannot determine all there is to determine, it cannot determine the will. In this sense, there was, pace village positivism, more than scientific reason dreamt of. Scientific reason was not made absolute: rather, its (self-) clarification was required if a satisfactory view of its place in `life' was to be attained.

  13. Een wankel vertoog. Over ontzuiling als karikatuur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter van Dam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A Shaky Exposition: On De-pillarisation as a CaricatureDutch twentieth-century history is regularly constructed on the basis of the antithesis of verzuiling (pillarisation and ontzuiling (de-pillarisation. The popular discourse of de-pillarisation suggests the dismissal, around the 1960s, of three societal characteristics: segregated religious and ideological communities (pillars; the societal dominance of such communities; and pacifying cooperation among social elites. De-pillarisation thus connects to the discourses of individualisation, secularisation and politicisation. Conversely, this article proposes seeing a shift in the way citizens have organised themselves – a shift from heavy to light communities – as the essential transformation in Dutch post-war history. From this perspective, the discourse of discontinuity is replaced by a panorama of gradual change. Individuals became more independent and organised themselves more loosely; religious traditions were only admitted to public life as long as they proved to be bonding elements; and politicians legitimized their policies by means of a dialogue among experts whilst, by and large, maintaining their pacifying style.

  14. Un altro tipo di ordine. Frank O. Gehry e il progetto di un grande edificio urbano a Berlino / Another Type of Order. Frank O. Gehry and the project of a large urban building in Berlin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Margiotta

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available L’opera di Frank O. Gehry dà la possibilità di incontrare un ricco universo di tecniche compositive alternative rispetto a quelle di cui si avvalgono la maggior parte degli architetti del ‘900. L’architetto californiano, con la sua dimensione ironica, caricaturale, anti-classica, racconta di un modo alternativo di presentare nella città l’oggetto architettonico e di intendere “l’appropriata collocazione delle cose” e la “scelta dell’effetto dell’opera”, come testimonia il grande edificio urbano costruito a Berlino, in uno dei luoghi più importanti della storia europea. / The work of Frank O. Gehry gives the chance to meet a rich universe of alternative compositional techniques than those of the architects of the ‘900. The Californian architect, with his ironic dimension, caricature, anti-classical, talks about an alternative way of presenting the architectural object in the city and about an alternative way of understanding “the proper placement of things” and the “choice of the effect of the works”, as evidenced by the large urban building built in Berlin, in one of the most important places of European history.

  15. On the Satirical Art inOur Gang%论《我们这一伙》的讽刺艺术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俊宇

    2015-01-01

    In Our Gang, Philip Roth employs such figures of speech as parody, irony, hyperbole, caricature and parody of genre for his satirical skills to expose the hypocrisy of American politicians, the ugliness of politics, and the role of accomplice played by media for the government; to express standpoint of anti-war and try to deconstruct the authority of discourse that was maintained making use of media by American president.%在《我们这一伙》中,菲利普·罗斯利用戏拟、反讽、夸张、漫画式刻画、文类仿拟等修辞格作为其讽刺手法,揭露了美国政客的虚伪、政治的丑恶和媒体充当政府帮凶的角色,表达了其强烈的反战立场,同时力图解构美国总统利用媒体所建立的话语权威。

  16. Herman Merivale’s black legend: rethinking the intellectual history of free trade imperialism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Rood

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Focusses on the lectures and theories of economist and colonial bureaucrat Herman Merivale on the imperial transition of British colonialism from slave labour to free labour, and toward free trade, in 1839. Author specifically shows how Merivale propagated the free trade imperialism of the reformed British Empire by using the "Black Legend" way of thinking, i.e. criticizing Spanish colonialism, to caricaturize the second British Empire, and thus justify imperial policy reforms. Author elaborates on this Black Legend tradition, going back to writings of Las Casas, and how it served as justification for "better" imperialisms of other colonial powers than Spain, and how Merivale's views followed this tradition. He shows how Merivale as part of this criticized the mismanagement, slavery, brutality, mercantilism, and the concentration of power and wealth in Cuba and other Spanish colonies, as negative examples contrasted to the British approach. Author points out, however, how Merivale's views were in part paradoxical and ambiguous, as he favoured a social hierarchy and an imperial authoritarianism limiting free labour.

  17. An Unholy Mess: Why 'The Sanctity of Life Principle' Should Be Jettisoned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, David Albert

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this article is to present an account of an important element of medical ethics and law which is widely cited but is often confused. This element is most frequently referred to as 'the principle of the sanctity of life', and it is often assumed that this language has a religious provenance. However, the phrase is neither rooted in the traditions it purports to represent nor is it used consistently in contemporary discourse. Understood as the name of an established 'principle' the 'sanctity of life' is virtually an invention of the late twentieth century. The language came to prominence as the label of a position that was being rejected: it is the name of a caricature. Hence there is no locus classicus for a definition of the terms and different authors freely apply the phrase to divergent and contradictory positions. Appeal to this 'principle' thus serves only to perpetuate confusion. This language is best jettisoned in favour of clearer and more traditional ethical concepts.

  18. "Fat is your fault". Gatekeepers to health, attributions of responsibility and the portrayal of gender in the Irish media representation of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Brún, Aoife; McCarthy, Mary; McKenzie, Kenneth; McGloin, Aileen

    2013-03-01

    We investigated the representation of obesity in the Irish media by conducting an inductive thematic analysis on newspaper articles (n=346) published in 2005, 2007 and 2009 sampled from six major publications. The study analysed the media's construction of gender in discussions of obesity and associated attributions of blame. Three dominant themes are discussed: the caricatured portrayal of gender, women as caregivers for others, and emotive parent-blaming for childhood obesity. Men were portrayed as a homogenous group; unaware and unconcerned about weight and health issues. Dieting and engaging in preventative health behaviours were portrayed as activities exclusively within the female domain and women were depicted as responsible for encouraging men to be healthy. Parents, specifically mothers, attracted much blame for childhood obesity and media messages aimed to shame and disgrace parents of obese children through use of emotive and evocative language. This portrayal was broadly consistent across media types and served to reinforce traditional gender roles by positioning women as primarily responsible for health. This analysis offers the first qualitative investigation into the Irish media discourse on obesity and indicates a rather traditional take on gender roles in diet and nutrition.

  19. Differential HIF-1α and HIF-2α Expression in Mammary Epithelial Cells during Fat Pad Invasion, Lactation, and Involution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Påhlman

    Full Text Available The development and functional cycle of the mammary gland involves a number of processes that are caricatured by breast cancer cells during invasion and metastasis. Expression of the hypoxia-inducible transcription factors HIF-1 and HIF-2 has been associated with metastatic, poor prognosis, and high-grade breast cancers. Since hypoxia affects normal epithelial differentiation, we hypothesise that HIFs are important for normal breast epithelial development and regeneration as well as cancer initiation and progression. Here, we investigated the expression of the oxygen-sensitive HIF-alpha subunits during mouse mammary gland development, lactation, and involution. In breast epithelial cells, HIF-1α was expressed during early development, prior to cell polarisation. In contrast, expression of HIF-2α occurred later and was restricted to a subpopulation of luminal epithelial cells in the lactating gland. Mammary gland involution is a developmental stage that involves extensive tissue remodelling with cell death but survival of tissue stem/progenitor cells. At this stage, HIF-2α, but little HIF-1α, was expressed in CK14-positive epithelial cells. The temporal but differential expression of the HIF-alpha subunits during the mammary gland life cycle indicates that their expression is controlled by additional factors to hypoxia. Further functional studies of the roles of these proteins in the mammary gland and breast cancer are warranted.

  20. [Neurobiology of endocannabinoids and central effects of tetrahydrocannabinol contained in indian hemp].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costentin, Jean

    2014-03-01

    Tetrahydrocannabinol, the main psychotropic component of Cannabis indica, is an addictive drug with multiple effects including both peripheral and central damages. All these effects are due to interference with endocannabinoidergic transmission. This endocannabinoid system subtly regulates many physiologicalfunctions. This regulation involves various ligands derived from arachidonic acid (anandamide, di-arachidonoylglycerol, virodhamin, noladin ether, N arachidonoyl dopamine, etc.) which stimulate two main types of receptor CB1 in the central nervous system and CB2 in the periphery. CB1 receptors are very numerous and ubiquitous in the brain. They influence various important functions (awakening, attention, delirium, hallucinations, memory, cognition, anxiety, humor stability, motor coordination, brain maturation, etc.). Far from mimicking endocannabinoids, THC caricatures their effects. It affects all brain structures, simultaneously, intensely and durably, inducing down-regulation of CB1 receptors and thereby reducing the effects of their physiological ligands. On account of its exceptional lipophilia, THC accumulates for days and even weeks in the brain. It is not a soft drug but rather a slow drug: its abuse induces long-lasting modifications and deterioration of brain function, potentially leading to various mental and psychiatric disorders.

  1. Marcianos, melanesios, mormones y murcianos. Apuntes de antropohistoria galáctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Javier Izquierdo Martín

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Swiss psychiatrist Carl Gustav Jung (1875-1961, higher priest of all things apocalyptic and titanic that remain in our present time, and his Mediterranean nemesis, the Spanish cinematographer Luis García Berlanga (Valencia, 1921, ultimate practitioner of the lost baroque-Spanish art of the courtesan jester, are gathered together in this paper for the good cause of revisiting the most absurd and funny of all anthropological research topics: cargo cults. These are Millenium movements whose believers invest enormous amounts of ritual work to invocate of embodied ancestral Gods. They ask their gods to land their cargo spaceships loaded with high-tech mana at their bamboo airports. The craziest avatar of this spiritual saga, so-called UFO religions have begun the theoretical exploration and practical exploitation of the fundamental cargoist -i.e. economic-analogy between ordinary visits (of conquerors, missioners, ethnographers or tourists to anonymous places and extraordinary visits (of Gods or extraterrestrials to spiritual centers. The fast global-cinematic diffusion of the modern myth of the flying saucer reveals a close anthropo-historical connection between the rise of this specifically post-industrial variety of cargo cult and the tourists' validation of the megalomaniac techno-economic dreams of aboriginal tribes living in the Stone Age. We conclude sketching an analytical caricature of one of the most stupid cargonomical ‘pilot' in galactic anthropohistory: the so-called ‘Spanish economic miracle'.

  2. Face-space: A unifying concept in face recognition research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Tim; Lewis, Michael B; Hills, Peter J

    2016-10-01

    The concept of a multidimensional psychological space, in which faces can be represented according to their perceived properties, is fundamental to the modern theorist in face processing. Yet the idea was not clearly expressed until 1991. The background that led to the development of face-space is explained, and its continuing influence on theories of face processing is discussed. Research that has explored the properties of the face-space and sought to understand caricature, including facial adaptation paradigms, is reviewed. Face-space as a theoretical framework for understanding the effect of ethnicity and the development of face recognition is evaluated. Finally, two applications of face-space in the forensic setting are discussed. From initially being presented as a model to explain distinctiveness, inversion, and the effect of ethnicity, face-space has become a central pillar in many aspects of face processing. It is currently being developed to help us understand adaptation effects with faces. While being in principle a simple concept, face-space has shaped, and continues to shape, our understanding of face perception.

  3. A sM*A*S*Hing CERN visit

    CERN Multimedia

    Amy Elizabeth Dusto

    2012-01-01

    Alan Alda, the actor best known for playing medic Hawkeye Pierce on yesteryear’s TV series M*A*S*H, really likes science. Moreover, the Scientific American Frontiers TV program inspired his passion for science communication. Since then, he has become an advocate for increased public literacy in science. He visited CERN and the ATLAS experiment last week.   Alan Alda enjoying his visit to the ATLAS cavern.  “I’d been reading about it so much, I just wanted to see it,” he said. He does in fact have a connection with one of the LHC experiments. A few years ago, a fan of his from ATLAS asked if he would draw an Einstein cartoon to go on their fundraising T-shirts. Alda said he spent weeks on the caricature, and he joked that, “there would be no ATLAS project without that T-shirt,” which was a hit. Indeed, his favourite moment was underground when he was standing on the platform and looking at the giant detector. Alda helped c...

  4. Somatotyping using 3D anthropometry: a cluster analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olds, Tim; Daniell, Nathan; Petkov, John; David Stewart, Arthur

    2013-01-01

    Somatotyping is the quantification of human body shape, independent of body size. Hitherto, somatotyping (including the most popular method, the Heath-Carter system) has been based on subjective visual ratings, sometimes supported by surface anthropometry. This study used data derived from three-dimensional (3D) whole-body scans as inputs for cluster analysis to objectively derive clusters of similar body shapes. Twenty-nine dimensions normalised for body size were measured on a purposive sample of 301 adults aged 17-56 years who had been scanned using a Vitus Smart laser scanner. K-means Cluster Analysis with v-fold cross-validation was used to determine shape clusters. Three male and three female clusters emerged, and were visualised using those scans closest to the cluster centroid and a caricature defined by doubling the difference between the average scan and the cluster centroid. The male clusters were decidedly endomorphic (high fatness), ectomorphic (high linearity), and endo-mesomorphic (a mixture of fatness and muscularity). The female clusters were clearly endomorphic, ectomorphic, and the ecto-mesomorphic (a mixture of linearity and muscularity). An objective shape quantification procedure combining 3D scanning and cluster analysis yielded shape clusters strikingly similar to traditional somatotyping.

  5. Vindicating virtue: a critical analysis of the situationist challenge against Aristotelian moral psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croom, Adam M

    2014-03-01

    This article provides a critical analysis of the situationist challenge against Aristotelian moral psychology. It first outlines the details and results from four paradigmatic studies in psychology that situationists have heavily drawn upon in their critique of the Aristotelian conception of virtuous characteristics, including studies conducted by Hartshorne and May (1928), Darley and Batson (Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 27:100-108, 1973), Isen and Levin (Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 21:384-388, 1972), and Milgram (Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 67:371-378, 1963). It then presents ten problems with the way situationists have used these studies to challenge Aristotelian moral psychology. After challenging the situationists on these grounds, the article then proceeds to challenge the situationist presentation of the Aristotelian conception, showing that situationists have provided an oversimplified caricature of it that goes against the grain of much Aristotelian text. In evaluating the situationist challenge against the actual results from empirical research as well as primary Aristotelian text, it will be shown that the situationist debate has advanced both an extreme, untenable view about the nature of characteristics and situations, as well as an inaccurate presentation of the Aristotelian view.

  6. Strongly coupled non-Abelian plasmas in a magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Critelli, Renato

    2016-01-01

    In this dissertation we use the gauge/gravity duality approach to study the dynamics of strongly coupled non-Abelian plasmas. Ultimately, we want to understand the properties of the quark-gluon plasma (QGP), whose scientifc interest by the scientific community escalated exponentially after its discovery in the 2000's through the collision of ultrarelativistic heavy ions. One can enrich the dynamics of the QGP by adding an external field, such as the baryon chemical potential (needed to study the QCD phase diagram), or a magnetic field. In this dissertation, we choose to investigate the magnetic effects. Indeed, there are compelling evidences that strong magnetic fields of the order $eB\\sim 10 m_\\pi^2$ are created in the early stages of ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions. The chosen observable to scan possible effects of the magnetic field on the QGP was the viscosity, due to the famous result $\\eta/s=1/4\\pi$ obtained via holography. In a first approach we use a caricature of the QGP, the $\\mathcal{N}=4$ s...

  7. El estereotipo como mecanismo de desintegración de la identidad nacional. El caso de Mi gran boda griega

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González Sánchez, José Félix

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available En español: La industria cultural se aprovecha del poder evocador del estereotipo para construir discursos de fácil identificación con el público. La maquinaria audiovisual, en especial Hollywood, utiliza este mecanismo narrativo para desintegrar los rasgos culturales que conforman la identidad de un grupo social. Los elementos étnicos positivos los integra rápidamente a su cultura, los negativos los convierte en estereotipos que sirven para caricaturizar a la nación donante. Esta afrenta hacia las “culturas periféricas” intenta, a su vez, reforzar y consolidar la débil identidad estadounidense.In english: The cultural industry takes advantage of the evocative power of the stereotype to construct discourses easily identified with the public. The audiovisual machinery, especially Hollywood, employs this narrative mechanism to disintegrate the cultural features that shape the identity of a social group. Positive ethnic characteristics are quickly integrated into its culture; however, negative aspects are converted into stereotypes that serve to caricature the donor nation. This affront to the peripheral cultures tries at the same time to reinforce and consolidate the weak North American identity.

  8. An Arctic Republic of Letters in Early Twentieth-Century Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Sawchuck

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The writing of historical polar exploration in the English-speaking academy has undergone a substantial shift in the past twenty years, to the point where it may be safe to declare that the once-dominant triumphal and hagiographical style, inherited from the nineteenth century, has breathed its last. The explorer as depicted in this tradition has become a figure of fun in current discourse, easily recognizable in the contours of caricature. Sherrill Grace, for example, presents for our inspection "courageous men battling a dangerous, hostile, female terra incognita to prove their masculinity and the superior force of their technology" whose fate is to "die nobly in struggle, or to map, claim, name, and control unstructured space, even if only on paper." It is all too simple to dismiss these aims in an era with less palpable sympathy for them. Instead, many current writers have chosen the more difficult approach of grounding these explorers in appropriate political, social, and cultural contexts, and subsequently uncovering the rationale behind their beliefs and practices.

  9. On Particles and Primes

    CERN Document Server

    Knill, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Primes in the two complete associative normed division algebras C and H have affinities with structures seen in the standard model of particle physics. On the integers in the two algebras, there are two equivalence relations: a strong one, related to a U(1) and SU(3) symmetry allowing to permute and switch signs of the coordinates of the integers, as well as a weak relation with origins from units U(1),SU(2) in the algebra. Weak equivalence classes within the strong equivalence classes of odd primes in C case relate to leptons, the inert ones being neutrino like, and the split ones resembling electron-positron pairs. In the H case, for odd primes, the equivalence classes come in groups of two or three, leading to a caricature of hadrons featuring either mesons built by a quark pair or then baryons obtained by quark triplets. We can now list for every rational prime p all these particles and attach fractional charges to its constituents.

  10. Modeling and numerical study of two phase flow; Modelisation et etude numerique d'ecoulements diphasiques: 1- Modelisation d'un ecoulement homogene equilibre 2- Modelisation des collisions entre gouttelettes a l'aide d'un modele simplifie de type BGK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Champmartin, A.

    2011-02-28

    This thesis describes the modelization and the simulation of two-phase systems composed of droplets moving in a gas. The two phases interact with each other and the type of model to consider directly depends on the type of simulations targeted. In the first part, the two phases are considered as fluid and are described using a mixture model with a drift relation (to be able to follow the relative velocity between the two phases and take into account two velocities), the two-phase flows are assumed at the equilibrium in temperature and pressure. This part of the manuscript consists of the derivation of the equations, writing a numerical scheme associated with this set of equations, a study of this scheme and simulations. A mathematical study of this model (hyperbolicity in a simplified framework, linear stability analysis of the system around a steady state) was conducted in a frame where the gas is assumed baro-tropic. The second part is devoted to the modelization of the effect of inelastic collisions on the particles when the time of the simulation is shorter and the droplets can no longer be seen as a fluid. We introduce a model of inelastic collisions for droplets in a spray, leading to a specific Boltzmann kernel. Then, we build caricatures of this kernel of BGK type, in which the behavior of the first moments of the solution of the Boltzmann equation (that is mass, momentum, directional temperatures, variance of the internal energy) are mimicked. The quality of these caricatures is tested numerically at the end. (author) [French] Cette these decrit la modelisation et la simulation de systemes a deux phases composees de particules evoluant dans un gaz. Les deux phases interagissent entre elles et le type de modele a considerer depend directement du type de simulations envisagees. Dans une premiere partie, les deux phases sont considerees comme des fluides, elles sont decrites a l'aide d'un modele de melange avec une relation de derive (permettant de

  11. REPRESENTACIÓN BURLESCA DE LOS BLASONES EN GRAN SEÑOR Y RAJADIABLOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Hermosilla

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available En este ensayo se analiza el repertorio de recursos satíricos empleados por Eduardo Barrios en Gran Señor y rajadiablos en la confección de un relato humorístico que socava la percepción ideológica que privilegiaba la fama del apellido y del linaje peninsular como signos hegemónicos del estatus aristocrático. Mediante la caricaturización literaria de las cadenas emblemáticas asociadas al fuero de los Casaquemada y el escudo de armas de los antepasados de los Valverde, Eduardo Barrios pone de relieve la persistencia ideológica, en algunos sectores de la sociedad chilena representada en la novela, de un sistema anacrónico de diferenciación social incompatible con el nuevo ideario democrático impulsado con el advenimiento de la república.This essay analyses the array of satirical resources employed by Eduardo Barrios in his Gran Señor y rajadiablos (GreatLordandHellRaiser to create a humoristic narration undermining the ideological perception that favored the Peninsular last name and lineage as hegemonic signs of aristocratic status. Through a literary caricature-like representation of the emblematic chains related to the Casaquemada court of justice and the Valverde predecessors' coat of arms, Barrios satirizes the persistence of an anachronic ideology of social differentiation held by some sectors of the Chilean society represented in this novel. Such ideology becomes incompatible with the new democratic ideals brought along by the emerging Republic.

  12. An Analysis of the Exaggerated Mechanism of Parody%戏仿的夸张机制分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程军

    2013-01-01

    Exaggeration is one of the typical mechanisms for parody.In the field of contemporary liter-ary and artistic creation and cultural production,exaggeration has become one of the major means to paro-dy.Parody tends to highlight the typical style or formal characteristics of a certain author or genre and to imitate them exaggeratedly so as to achieve the funny and caricature effects.Through the use of exaggera-tion,parody not only plays a positive role and function in literature and art but also serves as an effective means for popular texts to avoid and resist the dominance of the mainstay ideology,thus having the poten-tial political significance.%夸张是戏仿运作的典型机制之一。在当代文艺创作和文化生产领域中,夸张已成为戏仿创作的主要手段之一。戏仿往往通过抓住某一作者或体裁的典型风格或形式特征,并对它进行夸大的模仿,以达到滑稽可笑的漫画化效果。通过夸张的运用,戏仿不仅在文学艺术领域中发挥积极的功能和作用,同时还是大众文本规避和抵制主流意识形态控制的有效手段,因而具有潜在的政治意义。

  13. Guest Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiguo Lian

    2011-08-01

    Discrete Multiwavelet Transform (DMWT and Quantization Index Modulus Modulation (QIMM. The multiwavelet coefficients of an image are quantized using QIMM and the coefficients are modified according to the binary watermark logo. Comparative experimental results show that, the proposed watermarking scheme is robust to some rotational attacks, and gets better performance in terms of Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR and Bit Error Rate (BER.In the sixth paper, "On the Collusion-Resistance of the Fingerprinting Algorithm Based on Additive Watermarking" by X. Chen and S. Lian, the fingerprinting algorithm based on additive embedding is investigated, which focuses on the robustness against collusion attacks that aim to remove the embedded fingerprint code by combining several marked media copies by e.g., averaging. The theoretical results are given, together with some simulation results. It shows that, the considered fingerprinting algorithm is robust against some of the collusion attacks, while becomes fragile to some other collusion attacks with the rise of the number of colluders. The work may provide some valuable information to design or analyze fingerprinting algorithms.The seventh paper, “Usage Control Model for Digital Rights Management in Digital Home Networks” by Z. Zhang et al., proposes a role-based cross-domain usage control model (RCDUCM for digital home network (DHN. This model employs the means both for role-based access control and for security domain constraint management. And, it is also visually modeled by Unified Modeling Language to shorten the gap between the theoretical model and digital rights management applications. An application case denotes that the proposed model can implement consumer-contents-device license binding and transferring.In the eighth paper, “Caricature Generation with Different Styles” by W. Chen et al., a caricature generation technique with different styles is proposed, which consists of shape exaggeration, relationship

  14. Monsters and Clowns Incorporated: the Representations of Adolf Hitler in British and American WWII Propaganda Posters Monstres, clowns et compagnie : les représentations d’Hitler dans les affiches de propagande britanniques et américaines pendant la Seconde Guerre mondiale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile Vallée

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Dans les affiches de propagande britanniques et américaines de la Seconde Guerre mondiale, les représentations d’Adolf Hitler font de lui soit un monstre effrayant, sanguinaire et diabolique, soit un clown grotesque, un pantin ridicule et risible, une cible qu’il faut frapper, écraser, ou détruire d’une façon ou d’une autre. S’adressant au sens de l’humour du spectateur, à ses peurs ou à son aversion, les artistes de propagande des deux côtés de l’Atlantique utilisent des leviers émotionnels et des tons très variés pour faire du dictateur nazi un des ressorts principaux de la participation à l’effort de guerre. Ces caricatures d’Hitler, dont l’objectif final était d’encourager la production et les économies ou de lutter contre les bavardages intempestifs, révèlent une condamnation morale ou politique et font partie de la propagande de soutien au moral, qui vise à galvaniser les Troupes de l’Intérieur en présentant la victoire comme quelque chose de vital ou d’inéluctable. Qu’il soit monstre ou clown, on fait tomber le dictateur déshumanisé de son piédestal, un piédestal si soigneusement construit pour lui par la propagande nazie.

  15. La Documentation photographique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magali Hamm

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available La Documentation photographique, revue destinée aux enseignants et étudiants en histoire-géographie, place l’image au cœur de sa ligne éditoriale. Afin de suivre les évolutions actuelles de la géographie, la collection propose une iconographie de plus en plus diversifiée : cartes, photographies, mais aussi caricatures, une de journal ou publicité, toutes étant considérées comme un document géographique à part entière. Car l’image peut se faire synthèse ; elle peut au contraire montrer les différentes facettes d’un objet ; souvent elle permet d’incarner des phénomènes géographiques. Associées à d’autres documents, les images aident les enseignants à initier leurs élèves à des raisonnements géographiques complexes. Mais pour apprendre à les lire, il est fondamental de les contextualiser, de les commenter et d’interroger leur rapport au réel.The Documentation photographique, magazine dedicated to teachers and students in History - Geography, places the image at the heart of its editorial line. In order to follow the evolutions of Geography, the collection presents a more and more diversified iconography: maps, photographs, but also drawings or advertisements, all this documents being considered as geographical ones. Because image can be a synthesis; on the contrary it can present the different facets of a same object; often it enables to portray geographical phenomena. Related to other documents, images assist the teachers in the students’ initiation to complex geographical reasoning. But in order to learn how to read them, it is fundamental to contextualize them, comment them and question their relations with reality.

  16. Shades of irony in the anti-language of Amos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Domeris

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The rhetoric of Amos includes a wonderful mixture of humour and threat, sarcasm and irony, hyperbole and prediction. Holding the fabric of this conversation together is Amos’s place within the prophetic minority – the Yahweh-only party (his anti-society. Making use of sociolinguistics, and particularly the idea of anti-language, I take a closer look at Amos, including his use of overlexicalisation, insider-humour and all the shades of irony one might expect. Typically of a member of an anti-society, Amos exaggerates the differences between insider and outsider, in this case, speaking of ‘ivory houses’, ‘the cattle of Bashan’ while appealing to his successful attempts to save the rich from the wrath of God. The offenses of the outsiders are sometimes crystal clear and at other times shrouded in metaphor, and so too is the fate of these people. In reading Amos, we are constantly in danger of falling victim to the persuasive power of his rhetoric. We are drawn into the world of Amos, quickly accepting his boundaries and the ideology of his anti-society, his depiction of reality and his stark caricature of the rich. The rhetoric is persuasive and the irony is divisive forcing a choice of black and white, believer and unbeliever, rich and poor, oppressors and oppressed. We struggle to swim against the current and instead long to respond to Amos’s invitation to live (Am 5:5 – perhaps even to discover that elusive hope at which the book hints: Most of history has been the forging of structures of security and appropriate loyalty symbols, to announce and defend one’s personal identity, one’s group, and one’s gender issues and identity. (Rohr 2011:4

  17. Women and the media in South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, S; Weerackody, I; Panday, N R; Al-mujahid, S; Musa, A B

    1987-01-01

    This article gives a brief overview of women's access to journalism and communication training, status of women in the media, their needs for development of skills, and portrayal of women in the media, in Bangladesh, Nepal, Pakistan, India and Sri Lanka. 5 authors from those countries contributed sections subdivided into each of these subheadings. In India, women have access to training, but their positions in the media are limited. They are often falsely stereotyped, sensationalized or exploited, or totally absent. In Sri Lanka, however, women are closer to being equal to men, in terms of training, hiring and employment, although they tend to work in women's periodicals. Women are shown in most of the advertisements, and are generally portrayed as perpetually in pursuit of glamour, food, clothes and cosmetics. Media in Nepal are comparatively new; for example, television is only 1 year old. Therefore, opportunities for women are few, and men dominate the hierarchy. Women are portrayed in the media negatively or sensationally, and used extensively in commercials. Women's position in Pakistan is limited in the cities by purdah and in rural areas by the feudal heritage, in which women are chattel. A minority of women are enrolled in journalism schools a employed in the media: those are excelling. Women are often either idealized, abused or caricatured as interested only in consumption. Women have recently entered the journalism profession in Bangladesh, now totaling 24 women. Mores do not permit women to work at night or on outside assignments. The media are liberal in Bangladesh, airing news about dowry abuse and female oppression openly. In most of the countries, women tend to work only until marriage, or afterward are limited by domestic duties.

  18. The Hoopla Over the Higgs Boson: A Window into the State of Science Journalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Adrian

    2012-10-01

    On July 4, experimenters at the European particle physics laboratory, CERN, near Geneva, Switzerland, held a special seminar in which they reported that they had at last discovered something resembling the Higgs boson, the last missing piece in particle physicists' standard model. The event drew more than 100 journalists, including myself, and the days leading up to the seminar evolved in almost a caricature of a media circus. Rumors coursed across the internet, bloggers prognosticated about what would be reported, anonymous sources whispered confidence levels to eager reporters, and on the very eve of the seminar CERN's own press office inadvertently leaked a video explaining many of the details. At a post-seminar press conference, dozens of photographers and videographers swarmed Peter Higgs, the eponymous theorist from the University of Edinburgh. Higgs even had his own handler to help him fend off the press onslaught. It was all great fun, but for a traditional journalist the event highlighted the many open questions we journalists now face. In the age of blogs and Twitter, does anybody really care that journalists try to put together fair, balanced, and accessible accounts of events? Or are people just as happy to get their information directly from researchers through their blogs or the lab through its press office? Is being first out with the story the only measure of success these days, or is there still a market for deeper analysis? I'll use the Higgs hoopla as a lens to lay out the questions as I see them. I am hoping to get the answers of the members of the audience in a discussion.

  19. Filipinas, fin de siglo: imágenes y realidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizalde, María Dolores

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to present an image of the Philippines at the end of the 19th century, different to the picture of underveloped islands, inhabitated by savages unable to selfgovernment, transmited by the historiography and caricatures of that time. With this purpose, they are studied the process of redefinition of the Spanish colonial goverment, the strengthening of a new filipino society, the development of the economy and commerce, and the strong international interests in the islands.

    El presente artículo pretende ofrecer una imagen de las Filipinas de fin de siglo, diferente de la transmitida por la historiografía tradicional y por la viñetas y caricaturas de la época. Frente a los estereotipos de unas islas atrasadas, incapaces del autogobierno, habitadas por salvajes a los que había que civilizar, se impone una realidad definida por el gobierno colonial de España, en pleno proceso de redefinición; por el afianzamiento de una burguesía ilustrada filipina, la pujanza de una clase campesina y obrera, la fuerza de un movimiento de afirmación nacional, y el desarrollo de una economía agroexportadora en pleno crecimiento; y por la presencia de fuertes intereses internacionales que hay que entender insertos en la marea de expansión colonial y reparto de mercados y territorios ultramarinos; intereses internacionales de los que se da cuenta a través de un análisis de comercio, inversiones y presencia diplomática de las grandes potencias en las Filipinas de fin de siglo.

  20. Witkacy’s Paradises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Tomassucci

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The studies on Witkacy’s oeuvre Narcotics (Narkotyki, 1932 exist without any specific status, as if reduced to a research element ancillary to other “more serious” creative areas of its author. The above is especially astonishing since they belong to a specific literary genre which was started with De Quincy’s Confessions of an Opium Eater (1821 and became really successful in the 19th and 20th centuries, with Baudelaire, Cocteau, Artaud, Huxley and many others. Witkacy was the first Polishwriter who addressed the issue of drug addiction and wrote explicitly on the role of narcotics in artistic creation. He experimented with cocaine, mescaline, peyotl and discovered “the magic peyotl” in the same years as A. Artaud and W. Benjamin, and many years before Huxley. He was also one of the few writers who, after having experimented with drugs, began to deal with the theory of narcotics.The use of opium, cocaine, dawamesk also became a sort of caricatural form in many of his works from Cuttlefish (Mątwa up to the novel The Only Way Out (Jedyne wyjście. The aim of my work is to try to answer several questions: In what way does the author’s interest in the addiction of Unwashed Souls (Niemyte dusze fit into the 19th and 20th century debate between doctors, writers and European artists? Can Witkacy’s literary and dramatic work demonstrate that he was familiar with publications on pharmacology (published in Germany and France in the 20s and also with the authors who were writing about drugs in the 19th and 20th century? How does his prohibitionist point of view fit with his historiosophy? Can Narcotics be considered a literary work? I have also tried to determine the anonymous sources quoted by Witkacy and co-authors of Narcotics, B. Filipowski and S. Glass (pen name of Dezydery Prokopowicz.

  1. Raising voices: How sixth graders construct authority and knowledge in argumentative essays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monahan, Mary Elizabeth

    This qualitative classroom-based study documents one teacher-researcher's response to the "voice" debate in composition studies and to the opposing views expressed by Elbow and Bartholomae. The author uses Bakhtin's principle of dialogism, Hymes's theory of communicative competence, as well as Ivanic's discussion of discoursally constructed identities to reconceptualize voice and to redesign writing instruction in her sixth grade classroom. This study shows how students, by redefining and then acting on that voice pedagogy in terms that made sense to them, shaped the author's understanding of what counts as "voiced" writing in non-narrative discourse. Based on a grounded-theory analysis of the twenty-six sixth graders' argumentative essays in science, the author explains voice, not as a property of writers or of texts, but as a process of "knowing together"---a collaborative, but not entirely congenial, exercise of establishing one's authority by talking with, against, and through other voices on the issue. As the results of this study show, the students' "I-Ness" or authorial presence within their texts, was born in a nexus of relationships with "rivals," "allies" and "readers." Given their teacher's injunctions to project confidence and authority in argumentative writing, the students assumed fairly adversarial stances toward these conversational partners throughout their essays. Exaggerating the terms for voiced writing built into the curriculum, the sixth graders produced essays that read more like caricatures than examples of argumentation. Their displays of rhetorical bravado and intellectual aggressiveness, however offsetting to the reader, still enabled these sixth graders to composed voiced essays. This study raises doubts about the value of urging students to sound like their "true selves" or to adopt the formal registers of academe. Students, it seems clear, stand to gain by experimenting with a range of textual identities. The author suggests that voice

  2. Why did so many German doctors join the Nazi Party early?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Omar S; De Freitas, Julian; Viani, Ivana; Niederschulte, Bradley; Bursztajn, Harold J

    2012-01-01

    During the Weimar Republic in the mid-twentieth century, more than half of all German physicians became early joiners of the Nazi Party, surpassing the party enrollments of all other professions. From early on, the German Medical Society played the most instrumental role in the Nazi medical program, beginning with the marginalization of Jewish physicians, proceeding to coerced "experimentation," "euthanization," and sterilization, and culminating in genocide via the medicalization of mass murder of Jews and others caricatured and demonized by Nazi ideology. Given the medical oath to "do no harm," many postwar ethical analyses have strained to make sense of these seemingly paradoxical atrocities. Why did physicians act in such a manner? Yet few have tried to explain the self-selected Nazi enrollment of such an overwhelming proportion of the German Medical Society in the first place. This article lends insight into this paradox by exploring some major vulnerabilities, motives, and rationalizations that may have predisposed German physicians to Nazi membership-professional vulnerabilities among physicians in general (valuing conformity and obedience to authority, valuing the prevention of contamination and fighting against mortality, and possessing a basic interest in biomedical knowledge and research), economic factors and motives (related to physician economic insecurity and incentives for economic advancement), and Nazi ideological and historical rationalizations (beliefs about Social Darwinism, eugenics, and the social organism as sacred). Of particular significance for future research and education is the manner in which the persecution of Jewish physician colleagues was rationalized in the name of medical ethics itself. Giving proper consideration to the forces that fueled "Nazi Medicine" is of great importance, as it can highlight the conditions and motivations that make physicians susceptible to misapplications of medicine, and guide us toward prevention of

  3. The Quiet Man and Angela’s Ashes: Hollywood Representations of Irish Emigration as Male Quest Narrative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelis Martin Renes

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses Alan Parker’s Angela’s Ashes (1999 against John Ford’s seminalThe Quiet Man (1952. Both Hollywood productions reflect on the Irish return myth, adapting the homonymous memoir by Frank McCourt (1996 and short story by Maurice Walsh (1933 respectively. Although Angela’s Ashes reverses The Quiet Man’s mythical depiction of early 20thc. west of Ireland as rural paradise, the urban ‘inferno’ the former paints can be equally understood as the product of a romantic mindset which combines Irish émigré nostalgia with male quest narrative. Both views are the result of the objective each male protagonist pursues –a return to Ireland in The Quiet Man and to the USA in Angela’s Ashes– and, thus, the divergence in their perception of Ireland may be explained as instances of romance in which Ireland and its culture is reduced to opposing caricatures in the service of wish-fulfilment. Not surprisingly, the criticism of capitalist, industrial America embedded in Walsh’s story, masked as psychological conflict in Ford’s screenplay, and the rags-to-riches American immigrant success story of McCourt’s memoir were adapted to the screen with different degrees of independence from mainstream US film production. This gives additional clues on each film’s use of traditional Irish imagery to the point that Ford’s The Quiet Man may be understood to deliver a more emancipatory perspective on Irish identity than Parker’s Angela’s Ashes.

  4. Holistic Darwinism: the new evolutionary paradigm and some implications for political science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corning, Peter A

    2008-03-01

    Holistic Darwinism is a candidate name for a major paradigm shift that is currently underway in evolutionary biology and related disciplines. Important developments include (1) a growing appreciation for the fact that evolution is a multilevel process, from genes to ecosystems, and that interdependent coevolution is a ubiquitous phenomenon in nature; (2) a revitalization of group selection theory, which was banned (prematurely) from evolutionary biology over 30 years ago (groups may in fact be important evolutionary units); (3) a growing respect for the fact that the genome is not a "bean bag" (in biologist Ernst Mayr's caricature), much less a gladiatorial arena for competing selfish genes, but a complex, interdependent, cooperating system; (4) an increased recognition that symbiosis is an important phenomenon in nature and that symbiogenesis is a major source of innovation in evolution; (5) an array of new, more advanced game theory models, which support the growing evidence that cooperation is commonplace in nature and not a rare exception; (6) new research and theoretical work that stresses the role of nurture in evolution, including developmental processes, phenotypic plasticity, social information transfer (culture), and especially the role of behavioral innovations as pacemakers of evolutionary change (e.g., niche construction theory, which is concerned with the active role of organisms in shaping the evolutionary process, and gene-culture coevolution theory, which relates especially to the dynamics of human evolution); (7) and, not least, a broad effort to account for the evolution of biological complexity--from major transition theory to the "Synergism Hypothesis." Here I will briefly review these developments and will present a case for the proposition that this paradigm shift has profound implications for the social sciences, including specifically political theory, economic theory, and political science as a discipline. Interdependent superorganisms, it

  5. Pole Dancing Auto-ethnography – Practice, Pedagogy, Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Patricia Cadwallader

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this research paper, the author addresses the following four questions: 1 What are the implications of bringing pole dancing into concert dance, not as a caricature or theatrical version of what is performed in strip clubs, but as its own, free-standing art form? 2 In what ways will years of ballet and modern dance training influence the type of dancing that emerges from dancers when poles and other apparatuses are introduced? 3 How can the author create an original pole dancing style and pedagogical methods for teaching it? 4 Who participates in pole fitness classes and how does the demographic change based on location? What about when pole fitness classes are offered in an academic setting? The author shares first-hand experiences of investigating pole dancing in fitness classes, attending performances, engaging in a rehearsal process with highly trained dancers, and teaching pole dancing to movers with a wide range of abilities. The author addresses how research plans changed as she encountered limitations of budget and time constraints. The author also elaborates on the creative process that she engaged in with her thesis cast, collaborators, and supporting designers in the making of Super-beneath, a theatrical dance work that uses five, free-standing poles. She outline the vignettes, overall structure, and narrative of the work. The author then discusses where this research fits into the larger field of pole dancing, and the even larger field of dance. In the final sections of this paper, the author describes her pedagogical practices relating to pole classes, what “practice as research” means to her, and how she would like to continue on this research trajectory in the future.

  6. A repertoire of comic figures of the antique theatre in miniatures of Byzantine Psalters with marginal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bemabò Massimo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent investigations on ninth-century Byzantine Psalters have focused mostly on the impact of the iconoclast controversy on the iconography of the marginal illustrations in these manuscripts. In fact this impact has been greatly exaggerated and the Psalter illustrations that can be connected to the debates on icon are less than a dozen out of a total of a few hundreds. The present article focuses on the iconography of figures illustrating social and moral types in the psalms. These figures cannot be considered as novel inventions of the ninth-century artists who painted our manuscripts. Their origin must be drawn back to late antique prototypes; in particular it is inferred that most of these figures represent characters that were originally modeled after the moral and social types acted on stage in late antique theater, mime and pantomime. A number of examples out of the miniatures in the Carolingian manuscripts of Terence and other media provides parallels to gestures, postures and features of the figures in the Psalter illustrations. The iconographical invention of these characters for the psalms must date from fourth to sixth century, a period during which theater was still very popular, notwithstanding the strong opposition of the Christian Fathers. Chroricius of Gaza' Apologia memoriam and other late antique writings witness the popularity of mime up to the middle sixth century and the ample variety of types that were acted on stage. The figures scissor out of marginal illustrations in the Byzantine Psalters are arranged in five plates collecting examples of, respectively, moral types, emotions caricatures, social types and professions, gods and devils.

  7. Travelling waves in a model of quasi-active dendrites with active spines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofeeva, Y.

    2010-05-01

    Dendrites, the major components of neurons, have many different types of branching structures and are involved in receiving and integrating thousands of synaptic inputs from other neurons. Dendritic spines with excitable channels can be present in large densities on the dendrites of many cells. The recently proposed Spike-Diffuse-Spike (SDS) model that is described by a system of point hot-spots (with an integrate-and-fire process) embedded throughout a passive tree has been shown to provide a reasonable caricature of a dendritic tree with supra-threshold dynamics. Interestingly, real dendrites equipped with voltage-gated ion channels can exhibit not only supra-threshold responses, but also sub-threshold dynamics. This sub-threshold resonant-like oscillatory behaviour has already been shown to be adequately described by a quasi-active membrane. In this paper we introduce a mathematical model of a branched dendritic tree based upon a generalisation of the SDS model where the active spines are assumed to be distributed along a quasi-active dendritic structure. We demonstrate how solitary and periodic travelling wave solutions can be constructed for both continuous and discrete spine distributions. In both cases the speed of such waves is calculated as a function of system parameters. We also illustrate that the model can be naturally generalised to an arbitrary branched dendritic geometry whilst remaining computationally simple. The spatio-temporal patterns of neuronal activity are shown to be significantly influenced by the properties of the quasi-active membrane. Active (sub- and supra-threshold) properties of dendrites are known to vary considerably among cell types and animal species, and this theoretical framework can be used in studying the combined role of complex dendritic morphologies and active conductances in rich neuronal dynamics.

  8. COVERING RACE AND RELIGION: THE MOORTHY AND NYONYA TAHIR CASES IN FOUR MALAYSIAN NEWSPAPERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngu Teck Hua

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Reporting on issues like race and religion in a multi-racial and multi-religious society is not an easy media responsibility. In a country like Malaysia where racial and religious sensitivities abound, the media have to constantly tread on precarious ground, balancing between what to write and how to write it. Much of the concern over the reporting of sensitive issues stems from the belief that a wrong move may have dire consequences, as seen in the recent controversy and furore over the Prophet Muhammad caricature published in the Danish newspaper, Jyllands-Posten.This study analyses two recent racial/religious issues – M. Moorthy and Nyonya Tahir cases – as reported in the New Straits Times (NST, Utusan Malaysia (UM, Malaysia Nanban (MN and Sin Chew Daily (SCD. The former case caused a stir when there was a tussle between Moorthy’s Indian/Hindu family and the Federal Territory Islamic Affairs Council which argued that Moorthy had converted to Islam when he was alive without the family’s knowledge. The latter was a case of a Malay/Muslim woman who, while alive, had denounced Islam and lived as a Chinese practising Buddhism.This study analyses how the two race and religion-related controversial issues were treated in the various language newspapers in Malaysia. A preliminary finding showed that, true to the communal nature of the Malaysian press, there was an apparent slant in how the ethnic press covered these two issues. For instance, in terms of prominence given to the stories, SCD, while downplaying the Moorthy story, dedicated more space to the Nyonya Tahir case. Similarly, MN highlighted the Moorthy story and downplayed the Nyonya Tahir case. The different newspapers were also seen to ''favour'' the subject they covered according to the ethnicity.

  9. ОСНОВНІ ТЕНДЕНЦІЇ РОЗВИТКУ ОБРАЗОТВОРЧОГО МИСТЕЦТВА В СУЧАСНІЙ УКРАЇНІ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    С. Ю. Боєва

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In the article a special attention is paid to issues of state support to free development of all styles and genres of Ukrainian fine arts, its broad popularization through all-Ukrainian regional, group or personal exhibitions in the post Soviet period. The activity of galleries has became an important factor for development of arts. They contribute to conservation of invaluable relics of the Ukrainian art; control the process of flow of cultural values from Ukraine, which at the present time acquires a mass and perilous character. The prominent tendencies of contemporary Ukrainian fine arts — neofolklorism (the folklore’s influence on the art, postmodernism and others have also been analyzed in the article. The development of Ukrainian art of sculpture, engraving and caricature is in focus of the article, as well as new styles of the Ukrainian fine arts — installation, video art, performance, street-art, etc. The author concludes: economic difficulties experienced by Ukraine make the problem of social protection of arts especially urgent. This can be seen in the current state in purchases of works of arts by the state. For the Ukrainian fine arts the way of going out of the crisis is a formation of cultural infrastructure, ensuring the conditions of functioning of a real self-regulated art market. Despite all difficulties the Ukrainian art is developing and mastering its strength. There is quite a number of gifted Ukrainian artists who work in Ukraine or abroad and are known in the world and who respectfully represent the art of their people.

  10. Acid deposition: decision framework. Volume 1. Description of conceptual framework and decision-tree models. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balson, W.E.; Boyd, D.W.; North, D.W.

    1982-08-01

    Acid precipitation and dry deposition of acid materials have emerged as an important environmental issue affecting the electric utility industry. This report presents a framework for the analysis of decisions on acid deposition. The decision framework is intended as a means of summarizing scientific information and uncertainties on the relation between emissions from electric utilities and other sources, acid deposition, and impacts on ecological systems. The methodology for implementing the framework is that of decision analysis, which provides a quantitative means of analyzing decisions under uncertainty. The decisions of interest include reductions in sulfur oxide and other emissions thought to be precursors of acid deposition, mitigation of acid deposition impacts through means such as liming of waterways and soils, and choice of strategies for research. The report first gives an overview of the decision framework and explains the decision analysis methods with a simplified caricature example. The state of scientific information and the modeling assumptions for the framework are then discussed for the three main modules of the framework: emissions and control technologies; long-range transport and chemical conversion in the atmosphere; and ecological impacts. The report then presents two versions of a decision tree model that implements the decision framework. The basic decision tree addresses decisions on emissions control and mitigation in the immediate future and a decade hence, and it includes uncertainties in the long-range transport and ecological impacts. The research emphasis decision tree addresses the effect of research funding on obtaining new information as the basis for future decisions. Illustrative data and calculations using the decision tree models are presented.

  11. Modelling hair follicle growth dynamics as an excitable medium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip J Murray

    Full Text Available The hair follicle system represents a tractable model for the study of stem cell behaviour in regenerative adult epithelial tissue. However, although there are numerous spatial scales of observation (molecular, cellular, follicle and multi follicle, it is not yet clear what mechanisms underpin the follicle growth cycle. In this study we seek to address this problem by describing how the growth dynamics of a large population of follicles can be treated as a classical excitable medium. Defining caricature interactions at the molecular scale and treating a single follicle as a functional unit, a minimal model is proposed in which the follicle growth cycle is an emergent phenomenon. Expressions are derived, in terms of parameters representing molecular regulation, for the time spent in the different functional phases of the cycle, a formalism that allows the model to be directly compared with a previous cellular automaton model and experimental measurements made at the single follicle scale. A multi follicle model is constructed and numerical simulations are used to demonstrate excellent qualitative agreement with a range of experimental observations. Notably, the excitable medium equations exhibit a wider family of solutions than the previous work and we demonstrate how parameter changes representing altered molecular regulation can explain perturbed patterns in Wnt over-expression and BMP down-regulation mouse models. Further experimental scenarios that could be used to test the fundamental premise of the model are suggested. The key conclusion from our work is that positive and negative regulatory interactions between activators and inhibitors can give rise to a range of experimentally observed phenomena at the follicle and multi follicle spatial scales and, as such, could represent a core mechanism underlying hair follicle growth.

  12. The Draughtsman’s Contacts: Robert Seymour and the Humorous Periodical Press in the 1830s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Maidment

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Robert Seymour was celebrated enough in his day to become one of very few late Regency and early Victorian comic and satirical draughtsmen sufficiently visible to be traced through the magazines of the 1830s. His periodical contributions are, therefore, of considerable significance in trying to establish the patterns of work and maps of interconnected activity that were necessary to sustain the career of a jobbing draughtsman at this time. After contributing to Bell’s Life in London in the late 1820s, Seymour’s presence as a prolific magazine illustrator dates largely from the early 1830s. As well as a mass of jobbing illustrations that were produced for a remarkably diverse range of magazines. Seymour worked extensively for three significant and profusely illustrated magazines at this time — the Looking Glass, Figaro in London, and the Comic Magazine. The Looking Glass was published by Thomas McLean and sought to sustain an established tradition of political caricature through adapting it to a magazine format using the relatively new reprographic medium of lithography. Figaro in London was illustrated by vignette wood engravings, which were both vernacular and sophisticated at the same time. The Comic Magazine, another publication dependent on small wood-engraved images, sought to build on the growing popularity of song books and comic annuals. The diversity and prolixity of Seymour’s output at this time bears testimony to the extraordinary demands made on draughtsmen and engravers in the 1830s, and suggests something of the relentlessly innovative market place for humorous and satirical print at this time.

  13. Winning at Pocker and Games of Chance Winning at Pocker and Games of Chance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Flanders Rebelo

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available It's the modern consumer mind - compete to eat, save to the grave, throw to the wind to win! Never the game that's im portant - it's the beer , the fag. . . and if you're broke it's just the "odds" to turn you on. "Socrates didn't play dice games. He drank a lot. And when he was drunk he would go watch the game and give advice. It was because of bad advice that he was eventually sentenced to death. . . Back then it was more fun. Nobody knew anything about odds. It was just put down your money, you toss the dice, you laugh, you take another drink." - to Cassidy,it's knowing the odds that's put everybody on pot. Rack Cassidy's Winning at Poker and Games of Chance lampoons the illogic logic of modern "instructed" man. It is a disturbingly funny caricature of a nonsensical consumer's mind trying to ratio nalize the game of life, and what comes out is "hash" - not meat and potatoes. The book is high philosophical slapstick comedy ila Charlie Chaplin on paper in today's scene. To Cassidy, consumer thinking has made intellectual nitwits of us. We're always ex plaining in detail about what we don't have the slightest real understanding of, but we go on and on like automats spitting out words and words which in the long run make no sense to our__ selves and much less to the other poor broken down human calculat ing machines - especially when we try to give logic to our il/logical vices and fears.

  14. O que é problematizar? Géneses de um paradigma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Fabre

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A ideia de problema invade, atualmente, a escola e a formação. Como evitar que esta ideia não se dilua e se caricature? Parece ser necessário voltar à questão de raiz: o que é problematizar? Estuda-se, aqui, a génese do paradigma da problematização a partir de 4 filosofias do problema: John Dewey, Gaston Bachelard, Gilles Deleuze e Michel Meyer. Ainda que estas filosofias se manifestem a partir de intuições diferentes e desenvolvam teses próprias, elas convergem largamente sobre a ideia de problematização o que permite uma definição rigorosa de conceitos (a problematização, o problemático, a problemática. Estas filosofias permitem, igualmente, evidenciar as exigências intelectuais de uma atitude que parece ter de fazer o percurso normal do pensamento comum e até - segundo alguns dos nossos autores - do pensamento filosófico, marcado precisamente pelo esquecimento do problema. Não há problematização se não for instaurado um autocontrole do pensamento, uma dialética entre dados e condições do problema, o que necessita conceber uma lógica da pesquisa, centrada na construção do problema e não apenas sobre a respetiva resolução. É possível delinear as incidências pedagógicas dos quatro esboços estudados quanto à relação entre saber e problema. As suas próprias divergências revelam-se pedagogicamente sobre determinadas: reenviam para os problemas de uma pedagogia dos problemas.Nowadays, the idea of the problem invades the school and training. How to avoid that this idea does not dilute and caricaturizes itself? It seems necessary to go back to the root question: What is problematization? The genesis of the paradigm of problematization is studied here departing from 4 problem philosophies from John Dewey, Gaston Bachelard, Gilles Deleuze and Michel Meyer. While these philosophies come up from different intuitions and develop their own theories, they largely converge on the idea of problematization which

  15. Diary of a Bad Year (2007: Coetzee between essay and autofiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Claudia Fiorella

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In his ‘Australian’ phase (that is, after 2002 J.M. Coetzee seems to have taken a decidedly anti-narrative turn towards hybridization of non-fiction and auto-fiction. In particular, Diary of a Bad Year is marked by the polemic character of its social and political criticism, and by the author’s unusual willingness to acknowledge that analysis as his own, albeit in his typical oblique ways.The work – which is neither an essay, nor a novel, and not even a diary but a mixture of the three, eluding any attempt to define its genre – dramatizes the difficulty of being a man and an intellectual in these times and at an old age, and settles it graphically by dividing the page in three horizontal sections in a Freudian and Dostoevskian succession. Freudian, because in the upper part one reads the ‘strong opinions’ (short pamphlets by a certain ‘John C’ (a manifest alter ego for the author himself whereas the lower sections tell about the solitude and shabbiness of the man writing those pamphlets, and of the infatuation that makes a caricature of him; Dostoevskian, because – as a real underground man – John C unveils a whole range of not always commendable motives prompting his activity as a writer and his life choices; and also because it is in the basement of his apartment block that he encounters the alluring young woman whom he will later offer a Dostoevskian job as a typist – whereas J.M. Coetzee has her perform the role of the implicit reader.The partition of the page – which imposes a non-sequential reading, arduous even for expert readers – enables Coetzee to stage his abdication to authorial authority (because the ‘strong opinions’ in the upper part of the page are to be gradually influenced by the reader Anya, who will later be entrusted with the narratorial function as well as to expose as fictional any attempt to draw novelistic and essayistic rhetoric apart.       

  16. Modelos de mundo y tópicos literarios: la construcción ficcional al servicio de la ideología del poder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez Parejo, Ramón

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available To sum up, by world views we understand the cultural perception of the world we belong to. This concept of world views, that comes from the Semiotic of Culture developed by the School of Tartu-Moscow in the seventies, reaches an interesting scope in Literature as it offers information about cultural and ideological components that are part of any fictional trasformation. In this article we have shown the relationships and disagreements established between real world and the cultural and literary /artistic view of the world. This cultural / literary / artistic views are shaped from a recreation of reality based on different interests. Fictional transformation can be a small one or can reach a high level of idealization, caricature or complete alteration. This fictional distortion must be analysed together with its scope, how it is produced, who has decided to produce it and why. We will find out that there are both cultural and ideological reasons and those who produce these transformations have often something to do with the ruling classes. By building these virtual worlds they are just trying to preserve their power, their privileges and their possessions.En síntesis, por modelos de mundo se entiende la percepción cultural que el sujeto tiene del mundo al que pertenece. El concepto, que procede de la Semiótica de la Cultura desarrollada por la Escuela de Tartu-Moscú en los años setenta, adquiere una interesante proyección en Literatura porque informa sobre el componente cultural e ideológico que comporta todo desvío ficcional. Hemos señalado las relaciones y desajustes que se establecen entre mundo real, modelo de mundo cultural y modelo de mundo literario/artístico. Estos últimos se forjan a partir de la transformación interesada de la realidad. Esa distorsión ficcional puede resultar mínima o llegar a alcanzar cotas de idealismo, caricatura o absoluta desfiguración. Se debe analizar ese desvío ficcional, cuál es su medida, en

  17. Liberté d’expression et religion en France. Les démarches de la laïcité à la française

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Alicino

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Il contributo, segnalato dal Prof . Nicola Colaianni, è destinato alla pubbl icazione negli At ti della Conferenza internazionale, «La Constitution française / La Costituzione francese» (22-23 maggio 2008, Università degli Studi di BariSOMMAIRE: 1. Les coordonnées (constitutionnelles de la liberté d’expression – 2. La liberté d’expression en matière religieuse – 3. La religion? Un objet susceptible d’être commenté, critiqué, discuté … – 3.1. … ou bien la «sacro-sainte» liberté d’expression ne doit pas céder devant la religion – 3.2. Le pluralisme comme distinction entre critique (antireligieuse et diffamation – 4. La religion? Un objet susceptible d’être caricaturé – 4.1. Droit de satire, liberté d’expression et laïcité: un lien réciproque de cause à effet – 5. Les limites – 5.1. L’ordre public comme limite à la liberté d’expression – 5.2. La liberté d’autrui comme limite à la liberté d’expression – 6. Religion, liberté d’expression et ethnicité. «Ils» étaient Arabes, ils deviennent musulmans – 6.1. L’école laïque et laïcité de l’État – 6.2. Le rôle du Conseil d’État – 7. Universalisme des droits fondamentaux et dimension collective de la religion – 7.1. Conclusion: de la tolérance au pluralisme. Le temps de la laïcité comme «médiation».ora nel volume collettaneo (a cura di M. Calamo Specchia La Costituzione francese / La constitution Française, 2 voll., Giappichelli, Torino,  2009, pp. 29-57.

  18. Les Turcs dans Ţiganiada de Ion Budai-Deleanu Turcs in Ţiganiada of Ion Budai-Deleanu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviu Petcu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available La Ţiganiada d’Ion Budai-Deleanu, un des pères de la langue roumaine moderne, est une épopée placée dans la Munténie du XVe siècle et structurée sur deux plans : d'une part, un plan comique créé par le pittoresque du campement des « Tsiganes », mobilisés pour combattre les Turcs par le prince Vlad l'Empaleur, surnommé Dracula, et, d'autre part, un plan héroïque constitué par les actions de ce prince et son armée. La promesse d’émancipation des Rroms esclaves, avec attribution d'un territoire, en échange de leur alliance au combat est une pure fiction et même un anachronisme pour le XVe siècle. Mais à travers cette idée, Budai-Deleanu se révèle visionnaire et partisan du mouvement d’abolition de l'esclavage des Rroms qui n'arrivera à ses fins que le 20 février 1856. En raison de son insoumission entêtée au sultan Mahomet II, son courage et ses capacités stratégiques, Vlad l'Empaleur devait rester dans l'histoire roumaine comme un patriote qui voulait protéger son pays contre l'expansion ottomane – même s'il est plus connu à l'étranger sous la caricature d'un vampire. La Ţiganiada doit être appréciée avant tout comme une allégorie où le plan de la fiction remplace souvent le plan réel. Mais l'auteur, chargé d’un idéal patriotique, nous présente aussi le plan réel avec ses particularités historiques et nationales. La lutte opiniâtre de la petite armée roumaine formée de paysans et de boyards permet de retarder l'avancée des Turcs vers l'Europe centrale. Elle laisse ainsi le temps nécessaire à l'Europe de se préparer et de livrer des batailles dans des périodes plus favorables, avec des armes plus puissantes et plus efficaces que celles des Turcs. L'image des Turcs y est en tous points conforme à leur réputation, largement répandue dans les Balkans. Cruauté, perfidie, corruption et absence de compassion les caractérisent d'un bout à l'autre de l'œuvre, l’auteur montre

  19. Structogram: A new approach to characterize and interpolate spatio-temporal data sets based on the Ramer-Douglas-Peucker algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehret, Uwe

    2016-04-01

    approximation error than for an unstructured data set such as white noise. Knowledge of this Pareto optimum can be useful for the design of sampling strategies. It is also interesting to analyze the spatio-temporal distribution of the most relevant nodes of the data set (those with the largest information gain): Homogeneously spaced nodes indicate a data set of constant predictability throughout its extent, or low complexity, while heterogeneously spaced nodes indicate shifting patterns of local predictability, which is an attribute of higher complex data sets (if 'complexity' is defined as 'high overall uncertainty about local uncertainty'). Interpolation of data sets The structogram can also be used for interpolation, i.e. estimation at nodes where no observations are available. The idea of structogram-based interpolation is that, just as for Kriging, the estimation is a weighted linear combination of the observations, but here the weights are not determined based on the Variogram and the intrinsic hypothesis, but on the relevance of the nodes: Highly relevant nodes are given higher weights than lesser relevant nodes. Testing many different data sets revealed that for 'smooth' data sets, where proximity means similarity, classical Kriging-based interpolation outperforms structogram-based approaches, while for intermittent data sets such as rainfall time-series, where proximity does not always mean similarity, structogram-based interpolation performs better. References Ramer, U.: An iterative procedure for the polygonal approximation of plane curves, Computer Graphics and Image Processing, 1, 244-256, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0146-664X(72)80017-0, 1972. Douglas, D., Peucker, T.: Algorithms for the reduction of the number of points required to represent a digitized line or its caricature. In: The Canadian Cartographer. Bd. 10, Nr. 2, 1973, ISSN 0008-3127, S. 112-122, 1973.

  20. La caricatura política desde un siglo XXI iberoamericano. Una historia cultural del tiempo presente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langue, Frédérique

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In an adverse context for freedom of thought in the so called public sphere, and from the perspective of the history of present time, this study explores the sense that is supposed to have in Latin America one of the “recent disasters” as was the attack against the satirical newspaper Charlie Hebdo in France. Political caricature appears to be the expression of a traumatic experience and a shared political culture through both republican and democratic practices. However, on a continent democratized but still grappling with memory and the traumatic past of dictatorships, this imaginary is also strongly questioned by authoritarian ideological options. A figure hovers in both positions (democratic and authoritarian as well and impacts on related imaginary: the victims figure, which within this relationship to the past or regime of historicity, not only replace “the era of witnesses” exemplified by the history of present time but also are integrated into an instrumentalized regime of emotions finally leading to a skewed view of history.En una coyuntura adversa a la libertad de opinión en el espacio público tanto en Europa como en América Latina y desde la perspectiva de la historia del tiempo presente, este estudio analiza el significado que habrá tenido desde y para América Latina una de las “últimas catástrofes” como lo fue el atentado en contra del periódico satírico Charlie Hebdo en París en enero de 2015. La caricatura política aparece en efecto como el revelador no sólo de un acontecer traumático sino también de una cultura política compartida a través de unas prácticas republicanas y democráticas. Ahora bien, el imaginario político que conlleva se ve cuestionado y hasta rebatido por opciones ideológicas autoritarias en un continente democratizado pero que se enfrenta todavía con unas memorias divididas o con el pasado traumático de las dictaduras. Una figura asoma en ambas posturas (la democrática y la

  1. El discurso musical como arma política en la obra de Alejo Carpentier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villanueva Abelairas, Carlos

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Alejo Carpentier became known as Art and Music critic: first from his early works in La Havana newspapers and magazines, being an active member of the “Minorista” group; and later, in Paris (1928, in his voluntary exile of Caracas (1945, or already incorporated to the Cuban revolution (1959, he starts to change the chronicle, the historical essay or the fiction stories into an authentic musical curtain of the life he portrays, as if it was a soundtrack, always with clear and didactic political premeditation. The shades and tools of his discourse will depend on the genre he manipulates: pure musicology for the deconstruction of the musical space (La Música en Cuba; the ethnic narration for the foundation of Afrocubanism (¡Écue-yam - bao!; the counterpoint of “revolutionary” musics (La consagración de la primavera; the chronicle of primitive worlds (Los pasos perdidos or the pure humor to caricature a dictatorship (El recurso del método. Always through daily chronicles, he uses the example, the quote or the musical variation as a teacher, trying to transform Life, Society, Aesthetics and the people.

    Alejo Carpentier se dio a conocer como crítico de arte y de música: desde sus trabajos en periódicos y revistas habaneras, siendo miembro activo del grupo ”Minorista”; posteriormente, desde París (1928, en su exilio voluntario de Caracas (1945, o ya incorporado a la revolución castrista (1959, va convirtiendo la crónica, el ensayo histórico o el relato de ficción en un auténtico telón musical de la vida que retrata, como si de una banda sonora se tratara, siempre con clara y didáctica intencionalidad política. Los matices y herramientas de su discurso dependerán del género que manipula: la pura musicología para la deconstrucción del espacio musical (La Música en Cuba; el relato étnico para la fundamentación del afrocubanismo (¡Écue-yamba-o!; el contrapunto de músicas “revolucionarias” (

  2. Antikinių dramų pastatymai Lietuvoje | Performances of Antique Dramas in Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovita Dikmonienė

    2004-01-01

    present-day realia were revealed: women emancipation was revealed in “Medea” and politician’s caricature – in “Oedipus the King”. Antique chorus role was retained in both performances, while masks – in Koršunovas’ performance. Scenography was abstract in “Oedipus the King” by Tuminas, neither representing antiquity nor nowadays.A conclusion is drawn that most Lithuanian directors trended into creation of jug-handled, idealized character (B. Dauguvietis, J. Miltinis, I. Kriauzaitė, B. Marcinkevičiūtė, melodramaticallity (I. Kriauzaitė, L. M. Zaikauskas or tragicomedy (R. Tuminas. None of directors managed to show universality of antique tragedy so that both past and present would be reflected in it. They, using texts of antique tragedy, created modern picture of distinctive, idealized and psychologized, alone, reserved, depending on destiny human being.

  3. Apresentação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Os Editores

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Este número da Significação segue os parâmetros já definidos pela revista, isto é, integra um conjunto de trabalhos de pesquisadores de diferentes Programas de Pós-Graduação do País e ensaios de investigadores estrangeiros que se publicam pela primeira vez, dois deles na língua original e um terceiro traduzido para o português. Quanto à temática, os textos aqui reunidos lidam com assuntos que nos parecem de interesse considerando as tendências atuais dos estudos da comunicação e, ainda, a relevância da epistemologia para a análise e interpretação das metáforas visuais, assim como das mudanças porque vem passando o conceito de sujeito nas ciências humanas. Isso fica claro se, por exemplo, nos adentramos na leitura e discussão dos fundamentos narratológicos, no equacionamento da metodologia posta em prática nas abordagens de discursos fílmicos ou da apropriação caricatural e grotesca da crise do sujeito que se manifesta no espetáculo midiático. Somem-se a isso os esforços destinados a nos dar, de um lado, um panorama diacrônico dos aspectos fundamentais do cinema mexicano moderno e, de outro, uma visão predominantemente sincrônica de um tema que funciona como entremeio no cinema espanhol contemporâneo. Em seu conjunto, a diversidade de tópicos abordados define, como não poderia deixar de ser, eixos comuns em torno dos quais giram pontos de vista cujas diferenças não impedem o diálogo, traço característico que orienta as particularidades deste periódico. É de se ressaltar, também, a preocupação com o estudo da imagem a partir das peculiaridades das etimologias iconográficas, pressuposto que, a nosso ver, abre novas perspectivas para a crítica das mensagens visuais. Mas este número, levando em conta a já longa trajetória da revista, se toma, sobretudo, singular pelo fato de publicar, pela primeira vez e em português, um texto pouco conhecido de Algirdas Julien Greimas, traduzido diretamente do

  4. Reklamlarda Karikatür Kullanımı: Piyale Örneği

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Binay Kurultay

    2015-08-01

    önemsellik gözetilerek gösterge bilimsel olarak değerlendirilmiştir.Anahtar Sözcükler: Karikatür, Reklam, Piyale                                          Use of Cartoons in Advertising: The Case of PiyaleAbstract            As a satirical art form with a mission to make the audience think, to teach something and to persuade, cartoons have become attractive visuals for advertisers. Cartoons express an idea in a simple yet effective manner which is the reason for being the choice of brands for their of advertisements that aim to create a behavioral change in the consumer and sell their products as well as increasing brand awareness. Advertisements using cartoons achieve this as all other advertisements do, sometimes through a slogan and other times through creating a position, a character and an identity for the brand. Cartoons have been used in advertisements for major brands in the 1960’s in Turkey, primarily for the banking industry and spaghetti.            In this study the advertisements for Piyale Spaghetti, known as “the brand that introduced spaghetti to Turkey” that use cartoons as visuals in the 1960’s were investigated. The relationship of cartoons as a form of communication and advertisements as a form of marketing was evaluated using semiotic analysis.As cartoons are woven with messages based on drawings and visuals, post-structuralist semiotic analysis was chosen as the methodology. As it is necessary for this methodology, cartoons’ symbolic universe as well as the textual universe was investigated for the importance historical period has over meaning making of signs. In this direction, in the years advertisements including cartoons, themes such as women, family, health, trust have been semiotically evaluated with periodicity in mind.Keywords: Caricature, Cartoon, Advertising, Piyale 

  5. Comment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-03-01

    Virtual reality - whose reality? There is an old joke about a farmer who wanted to improve his milk yields and employed an engineer, a psychologist and a physicist to make suggestions. They all went away for a month and came back with their proposals. The engineer had measured the size of the milking stalls, the ambient temperature and the milking process. She suggested a modest rise in ambient temperature and an alteration in the pumping equipment. The psychologist decided to paint the stalls green and play a tape-recording of birdsong to the cows to make them feel more content and release their milk more easily. The physicist explained that he had decided to look at things more fundamentally: 'Let us assume that the cow is a sphere' ... he began. And that's the joke. Some people think that this is the funniest thing out - a physicist can't recognize a cow when they see one. What troubles me is that I didn't get the joke straight away. I am so used to the language and the often-ludicrous assumptions in physics that it did not seem particularly strange or funny. What did you think? The joke, for me, illustrates the essence of our problem in physics teaching. In a very real way, physics is about another world. It isn't about the real world in which ordinary people live, and they know it. Physics has its own language, its own laws and its own values. Depleted uranium has been in the news of late. It is interesting to compare the casual way in which physics teachers have discussed the possibilitiy that one atom of uranium can kill someone with the shock-horror reporting of this fact in the press. We are caricatured, sometimes for good reason, being callous, calculating, cold people - out of touch with the things that really matter. And then there's that other 'real world' - of really tough people who make serious money. Our friends who work out in the worlds of commerce and industry like to mutter, with some superiority, that teachers would never survive in the real

  6. FIRST-PRINCIPLES APPROACHES TO THE STRUCTURE AND REACTIVITY OF ATMOSPHERICALLY RELEVANT AQUESOUS INTERFACES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mundy, C; Kuo, I W

    2005-06-08

    The field of atmospheric science is very rich in problems ranging from the molecular to the regional and global scale. These problems are often extremely complex, and although the statement of a particular atmospheric science question may be clear, finding a single, concise computational approach to address this question can be daunting. As a result, the broad scope of scientific problems that lie within the umbrella of atmospheric science require a multi-discipline approach. Of particular interest to atmospheric chemists is the role that heterogeneous chemistry plays in the important processes that take place throughout the atmosphere. The definition of heterogeneous is: consisting of dissimilar elements or parts. The chemical environment induced by the presence of the interface can be dramatically different than the corresponding gas- or condensed phase homogeneous environment and can give rise to novel chemistry. Although the importance of heterogeneous chemistry in the atmosphere has been known for decades, a challenge to both experimentalists and theorists in provide simplified models and experiments that can yield insight into the field measurements of the atmospheric process. The use of molecular modeling has been widely used to provide a particle-based picture of atmospherically relevant interfaces to deduce the novel chemistry that is taking place. Unfortunately, even with the most computationally efficient particle-based approach, it is still impossible to model the full ice-crystal in the stratosphere or the sea-salt aerosol in the troposphere. Figure 1 depicts a caricature of the actual system of interest, and highlights the region where efficient molecular modeling can be employed. Although there is seemingly a large disconnect between reality and the model, we hope to convince the reader that there is still much insight to be gained from a particle-based picture. There is a myriad of different approaches to molecular modeling that have been

  7. Chemical Achievers: The Human Face of the Chemical Sciences (by Mary Ellen Bowden)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, George B.

    1999-02-01

    (formal and informal, familiar and unfamiliar), caricatures, apparatus, patent drawings, models, manuscripts, memoranda, laboratories, and plants and buildings are featured. The book presents many images of chemists in the work settings where they actually made their discoveries. The quaint pictures of Chandler with his wash bottle, William H. Walker with his slide rule, Carl Djerassi peering at a flask without goggle protection, and Edward Goodrich Acheson with his omnipresent cigar evoke a bygone era that will induce nostalgia in instructors and curiosity or disbelief in students. Many of the 80 featured chemists are minority scientists; 10 are women (Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin, Marie Curie, Iréne Joliot-Curie, Mme. Lavoisier, Rosalind Franklin, Stephanie L. Kwolek, Ellen Swallow Richards, Alice Hamilton, Rachel Carson, and Julia Brainerd Hall, whose role in her brother Charles Martin Hall's development of the electrolytic production of metal is underappreciated), and three are African-Americans (Percy Lavon Julian, Walter Lincoln Hawkins, and Henry Aaron Hill). The book's 11 sections, each prefaced with a short, helpful summary, and the number of scientists profiled in each are Forerunners, 4; Theory and Production of Gases, 4; Electrochemistry and Electrochemical Industries, 12; The Path to the Periodic Table, 9; Atomic and Nuclear Structure, 9; Chemical Synthesis, Structure, and Bonding, 9; Pharmaceuticals and the Path to Biomolecules, 10; Petroleum and Petrochemicals, 4; Plastics and Other Polymers, 6; Chemical Engineering (most of whose practitioners were unfamiliar to me), 6; and Human and Natural Environmental Concerns, 7. An extensive bibliography (five double-column pages), arranged according to these sections, includes books, articles, dissertations, collections, and oral histories. Items as recent as 1997 and even a 1998 book in press are cited. An index (three triple-column pages) facilitates location of material. Chemical Achievers is to some extent similar

  8. L'idée d'universalité de la sciencie et sa critique philosophique et historique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paty, Michel

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The question of the universality of science is considered, in contemporary debates, under the most varied and opposed positions depending whether one is sharing the point of view of an "ideal science" or that of a "social production of science". In the first case, science is conceived as the "hard core" of its statements and results at the period under consideration, and its supposed universality ignores factors that relativize its contents of knowledge, and which can be of a conceptual as well as a social nature. Conversely, an exclusive focalization on the social aspects of the production of scientific knowledge ignores the objective character of these knowledge contents, be they either thought objects such as mathematical ones, or phenomena of the real, physico-biological as well as human and social, world. These two extreme positions, although caricatural, are shared by many. They illustrate the absence or ignorance of interdisciplinar analyse between philosophy, the various sciences, history of sciences and general history. We first evoke some elements of the critique set against the universality of science as it stands nowadays from inquiries of philosophy of knowledge, sociology of knowledge, history of science, history and anthropology. Then we shall try to set philosophically the problem of the universality of science as a philosophical idea, strongly linked to science and to philosophy since their genesis. We shall see, by following the idea at various stages of the history of thought, that the philosophical statement of universality of science has to be confronted with the historical reality of the production, diffusion and assimilation or appropriation of scientific knowledge, always specifying the various dimensions of that one (which include its applications and its links to techniques and to technology.

    [fr] Nous nous proposons de réfléchir sur quelques aspects épistémologiques et philosophiques de problèmes reli

  9. Yalanlamalı Destanlar İle Gelin-Kaynana Manilerinin Mizah Yönünden Benzerlikleri Comparison Of Legends With Denial And Bride-Mother-İn-Law Turkish Poems İn View Of Humor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bülent ARI

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In our study, it has been revealed that why literary productsinteract with each other is the fact that the main material in almost allof them is human being and his happiness, unhappiness, belief,suffering.Firstly; bride - mother-in-law Turkish poems and legends withdenial, studied in our research, have been defined comprehensively inorder to show their similarities.Then, in order to reveal the similarities of the two kinds in view ofhumor, a classification has been made, and these similarities has beentried to be revealed in categories such as exaggeration, caricaturization,using word games, slang and bad words, humoring by spats.The final part has been ended with conclusion and bibliographyby stating the fact that art strength of legends with spats and mutualTurkish poems is much more than the others, because all strength ofart is put forward for being dominant in these kinds of humors.Although, it both species there is a social problem on the basis of brideand mother-in-law to increase wits, to apply to various inventions forovercoming the rival side, by doing this it focuses on amusing thosewho are there. Cultural products such as this, maket hem think, holdthem a mirror, help them to see themselves.As a result, it is emphasized that someone who says poem(mani and “epic” uses the folk as a material. Çalışmamızda edebi ürünlerin birbirleriyle etkileşiminin temelinde, hemen hemen hepsinin ana malzemesinin insan olması; insanın sevincinin, hüznünün, özleminin, inancının, acısının, çilesinin vb. bu edebi ürünlerin ana konusu olmasının yattığı ortaya konulmuştur.Çalışmamıza konu olan gelin-kaynana manileri ve yalanlamalı türlerin benzerliklerini daha iyi ortaya koyabilme kaygısıyla, makalenin ilk bölümünde mani ve Güldürücü Destanlar üzerine genişçe bir açıklama yapılmıştır.Sonrasında her iki türün mizah yönünden benzerliklerini ortaya koyabilmek amacıyla bir sınıflandırma yapma

  10. Marcianos, melanesios, mormones y murcianos. Apuntes de antropohistoria galáctica Martians, Melanesians, Mormons and 'Murcianos'. Notes on Anthropogalactic History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Javier Izquierdo Martín

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available

    Swiss psychiatrist Carl Gustav Jung (1875-1961, higher priest of all things apocalyptic and titanic that remain in our present time, and his Mediterranean nemesis, the Spanish cinematographer Luis García Berlanga (Valencia, 1921, ultimate practitioner of the lost baroque-Spanish art of the courtesan jester, are gathered together in this paper for the good cause of revisiting the most absurd and funny of all anthropological research topics: cargo cults. These are Millenium movements whose believers invest enormous amounts of ritual work to invocate of embodied ancestral Gods. They ask their gods to land their cargo spaceships loaded with high-tech mana at their bamboo airports. The craziest avatar of this spiritual saga, so-called UFO religions have begun the theoretical exploration and practical exploitation of the fundamental cargoist -i.e. economic-analogy between ordinary visits (of conquerors, missioners, ethnographers or tourists to anonymous places and extraordinary visits (of Gods or extraterrestrials to spiritual centers. The fast global-cinematic diffusion of the modern myth of the flying saucer reveals a close anthropo-historical connection between the rise of this specifically post-industrial variety of cargo cult and the tourists' validation of the megalomaniac techno-economic dreams of aboriginal tribes living in the Stone Age. We conclude sketching an analytical caricature of one of the most stupid cargonomical ‘pilot' in galactic anthropohistory: the so-called ‘Spanish economic miracle'.

    El sumo sacerdote de todo lo que de titánico y apocalíptico pervive aún en el mundo contemporáneo, el psiquiatra suizo Carlos Gustavo Jung (1875-1961, y su némesis castizoide, el cineasta español Luís García Berlanga (Valencia, 1921, restaurador para Madrid y provincias del decadente espíritu barroco de los clásicos de la burla cortesana, se juntan aquí por vez primera para contribuir a una buena causa. Se

  11. Assédio moral no trabalho e suas representações na mídia jornalística Acoso moral en el trabajo y sus representaciones en el medio periodístico Representations of workplace psychological harassment in print news media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia De Conto Garbin

    2012-06-01

    reflect the phenomenon of psychological harassment in today's society, explanations for its occurrence and impact on workers' health. RESULT ANALYSIS: This theme emerged in the media through the dissemination of books, academic research production and laws. It was initially published in general news then in jobs and/or business sections. Discourses on compensation and precautionary business practices and coping strategies are widespread. Health-related aspects are foregone under the prevailing money-based rationale. Corporate cultures are permissive regarding psychological harassment and conflicts are escalated while working to achieve goals and results. Indifference, embarrassment, ridicule and demean were common in the news stories analyzed. CONCLUSIONS: The causal explanations of workplace harassment tend to have a psychological interpretation with emphasis on individual and behavioral characteristics, and minimizing a collective approach. The discourses analyzed trivialized harassment by creating caricatures of the actors involved. People apprehend its psychological content and stigmatization which contributes to making workplace harassment an accepted practice and trivializing work-related violence.

  12. Fifty years of Jaynes-Cummings physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greentree, Andrew D.; Koch, Jens; Larson, Jonas

    2013-11-01

    This special issue commemorates the 50th anniversary of the seminal paper published by E T Jaynes and F W Cummings [1], the fundamental model which they introduced and now carries their names, and celebrates the remarkable host of exciting research on Jaynes-Cummings physics throughout the last five decades. The Jaynes-Cummings model has been taking the prominent stance as the 'hydrogen atom of quantum optics' [2]. Generally speaking, it provides a fundamental quantum description of the simplest form of coherent radiation-matter interaction. The Jaynes-Cummings model describes the interaction between a single electromagnetic mode confined to a cavity, and a two-level atom. Energy is exchanged between the field and the atom, which leads directly to coherent population oscillations (Rabi oscillations) and superposition states (dressed states). Being exactly solvable, the Jaynes-Cummings model serves as a most useful toy model, and as such it is a textbook example of the physicists' popular strategy of simplifying a complex problem to its most elementary constituents. Thanks to the simplicity of the Jaynes-Cummings model, this caricature of coherent light-matter interactions has never lost its appeal. The Jaynes-Cummings model is essential when discussing experiments in quantum electrodynamics (indeed the experimental motivation of the Jaynes-Cummings model was evident already in the original paper, dealing as it does with the development of the maser), and it has formed the starting point for much fruitful research ranging from ultra-cold atoms to cavity quantum electrodynamics. In fact, Jaynes-Cummings physics is at the very heart of the beautiful experiments by S Haroche and D Wineland, which recently earned them the 2012 Nobel Prize in physics. Indeed, as with most significant models in physics, the model is invoked in settings that go far beyond its initial framework. For example, recent investigations involving multi-level atoms, multiple atoms [3, 4], multiple

  13. L’imagier franco-allemand du Monde et de la Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung. Une rhétorique du Vivre-Ensemble

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliette Charbonneaux

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available L’omniprésence et l’abondance des images associant en une figure dirigeants français et allemands dans les médias européens contemporains tendent à laisser penser que ce motif a toujours été là, disponible pour dire et écrire l’actualité. Pourtant, il semble peu probable qu’au sortir de la seconde guerre mondiale il en ait été de même. Dans cette perspective, l’article vise à déconstruire cet effet d’évidence en interrogeant le rôle et la place tenus par les images périodiques dans la construction et l’institution d’une figure du « vivre-ensemble » franco-allemand. Cette opération prend la forme d’une analyse socio-sémiotique : la réflexion porte à la fois sur les images — photographies et caricatures — et leurs légendes, sur leur agencement dans la page de journal et sur leurs conditions de production. La démarche procède également d’une double comparaison : en diachronie, dans un temps relativement long (de 1949 à 2012, et en synchronie, sur la base d’une confrontation de deux titres de presse quotidienne nationale de « référence », l’un français et l’autre allemand, Le Monde et la Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung (FAZ. Une interrogation sur les conditions de possibilité de la présence de l’image dans ces deux périodiques permet d’abord de dégager combien la place de l’imagerie franco-allemande ne va pas de soi, mais résulte d’un processus de longue haleine. Toutefois, malgré défis et obstacles, à la fois techniques et idéologiques, la figure franco-allemande s’impose par le biais de la stabilisation de modèles de représentation qui en font un motif naturel et incontournable. Ainsi, des cadres éditoriaux pérennes favorisent son implantation et sa reconnaissance au quotidien. À l’intérieur de ces cadres, à la surface des images, la figuration de la ressemblance et de la proximité entre les dirigeants français et allemands contribue à forger la

  14. Conflicten over Haagse stadsbeelden. Van Willemspark tot Spuiforum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo Oorschot

    2014-06-01

    the urban fabric might undergo in our minds. She distinguishes three categories: the image of the city, the imagined city, and the imaginary city. The image of the city is the idea that is composed by individuals or groups: a creation that is triggered from experience of the city in the mind or a concept based on the actual city itself. The imagined city is the virtual arena conceived by artists, architects, city planners, marketers, and others through art, film, literature, music, advertising, architecture, and urban designs. This idea is certainly related to the first category, but here the focus is on the representation of the city by specialists that are making the presentations to convince people of the value and significance of an urban composition or public building. In this sense, the producers of the images are crucial since, after all, who needs to be convinced of which statement? Using a caricature on Berlage’s Amsterdam South, Stieber demonstrated that the categories are inseparable and all three are about metaphors of the city. ‘The city between the ears’, as noted by the geographer and urban marketing specialist Gertjan Hosper (2010.The goal of this study is to discover and describe consecutive city images of The Hague and the conflicts associated with them between 1860 and 2010, as well as to determine for whom, with what motive and background these city images were developed, where, in how far, and if these consecutive city images were realized, what the conflicts were about, and why the often unfinished images disappeared again, which resulted in the current fragmented image of the city. The human activities that take place in the buildings and surroundings, no matter how significant, were left out of the study for practical reasons. Every case study is of a dominant city image from a certain period. The central context is the relation between ‘the city between the ears’, the actual built city, and the many conflicts pertaining to that image