WorldWideScience

Sample records for caricatures as topic

  1. Effect of Use of Caricatures on Teaching Vocabulary in Teaching Turkish as Foreign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topal, Yakup

    2015-01-01

    Teaching vocabulary in teaching Turkish as Foreign language is important. Different methods are employed in teaching vocabulary. In this study the pre- and post-test results of experimental group where caricatures were used to teach vocabulary and control group where vocabulary items were taught without use of caricatures when teaching Turkish…

  2. THE EFFECTS OF DIGITALIZATION ON TURKISH CARICATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahadir UCAN

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Years of 2000’s can be defined as “the digiral century”. In this digital century, it is seen that digitalllization creates new concepts and approaches and it even affects our daily lifes. Digitalization will be analyzed with the relationship between art and technology. Changes have seen on different areas of art both on style and contentment with digitalisation. In this study, it is aimed to underline digitalization, to investigate its effects on caricature, humor and the magazines in Turkey and to comment on what digitalization brings. Online books, online articles, online humor magazines are becoming popular. Internet makes caricature achievable freely and with the aid of social networking sites, digital caricatures can reach more people than the published ones.

  3. Manifold Constrained Transfer of Facial Geometric Knowledge for 3D Caricature Reconstruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-Fa Liu; Wen-Jing He; Tao Chen; Yi-Qiang Chen

    2013-01-01

    3D caricatures are important attractive elements of the interface in virtual environment such as online game.However,very limited 3D caricatures exist in the real world.Meanwhile,creating 3D caricatures manually is rather costly,and even professional skills are needed.This paper proposes a novel and effective manifold transfer algorithm to reconstruct 3D caricatures according to their original 2D caricatures.We first manually create a small dataset with only 100 3D caricature models and use them to initialize the whole 3D dataset.After that,manifold transfer algorithm is carried out to refine the dataset.The algorithm comprises of two steps.The first is to perform manifold alignment between 2D and 3D caricatures to get a "standard" manifold map; the second is to reconstruct all the 3D caricatures based on the manifold map.The proposed approach utilizes and transfers knowledge of 2D caricatures to the target 3D caricatures well.Comparative experiments show that the approach reconstructs 3D caricatures more effectively and the results conform more to the styles of the original 2D caricatures than the Principal Components Analysis (PCA) based method.

  4. Pilot studying about the role of anti-drug addiction documentary movies and caricature in changing the views of Tehran’s 7th disrict high school male/female students toward drug addiction as well as comparing them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the effect of movie and caricature on students’ attitude toward drug addiction is measured.124 students(61 male and 63 female from Tehran’s 7th district high schools were selected by using muli-stage cluster sampling method. The samples were randomly distibuted in three 21-member groups including control group, caricature group and documentary movie. All groups were pre-tested by using addiction attitude measuring scale (Form A. Then, the test goups were represented with dependent variables of movie and caricature but the control group received no variable. After two weeks, all groups were post-tesed by using addiction attitude measuring scale (Form B. The assumptions were analyzed by applying correlated t-tests , two-way variance analysis and Tucki’s pursuance test The results indicated that movie and caricature are effective in changing students’ attitudes toward addiction, the effects of movie differed from the effects of caricature but there was no difference between them in changing the attitude of male and female students.

  5. Information Censorship: A Comparative Analysis of Newspaper Coverage of the "Jyllands-Posten" Editorial Caricatures in Cross-Cultural Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Julie George

    2010-01-01

    The identification and examination of cultural information strategies and censorship patterns used to propagate the controversial issue of the caricatures in two separate cultural contexts was the aim of this dissertation. It explored discourse used for the coverage of this topic by one newspaper in a restrictive information context and two…

  6. Scientific Caricatures in the Earth Science Classroom: An Alternative Assessment for Meaningful Science Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clary, Renee M.; Wandersee, James H.

    2010-01-01

    Archive-based, historical research of materials produced during the Golden Age of Geology (1788-1840) uncovered scientific caricatures (SCs) which may serve as a unique form of knowledge representation for students today. SCs played important roles in the past, stimulating critical inquiry among early geologists and fueling debates that addressed…

  7. Crony Capitalism: Caricature or Category?

    OpenAIRE

    Mazumdar, Surajit

    2008-01-01

    This paper, part of a series on Crony Capitalism and Contemporary India, examines the conceptual meaning of the term crony capitalism, which has acquired considerable popularity since it was used as an explanation for the East Asian crisis. The paper argues that the conception of crony capitalism as a description of a distinct kind of capitalism associated with the State playing a key role in the allocation process suffers from serious deficiencies and therefore does not provide a suitable fr...

  8. Does the degree of image likeness affect the caricature and prototype effects in facial recognition?

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, Heather

    2012-01-01

    Background: Psychological research has largely overlooked that there is variability between photographs of the same person and as a result facial recognition studies have used randomly selected images to represent individuals. Thesis aim: This study therefore aimed to investigate if the variations between images are significant and if these differences influence the caricature and prototype effects. Method: Experiment 1 was designed to investigate image likeness and it found that variations b...

  9. Topical and peripheral ketamine as an analgesic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawynok, Jana

    2014-07-01

    Ketamine, in subanesthetic doses, produces systemic analgesia in chronic pain settings, an action largely attributed to block of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors in the spinal cord and inhibition of central sensitization processes. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors also are located peripherally on sensory afferent nerve endings, and this provided the initial impetus for exploring peripheral applications of ketamine. Ketamine also produces several other pharmacological actions (block of ion channels and receptors, modulation of transporters, anti-inflammatory effects), and while these may require higher concentrations, after topical (e.g., as gels, creams) and peripheral application (e.g., localized injections), local tissue concentrations are higher than those after systemic administration and can engage lower affinity mechanisms. Peripheral administration of ketamine by localized injection produced some alterations in sensory thresholds in experimental trials in volunteers and in complex regional pain syndrome subjects in experimental settings, but many variables were unaltered. There are several case reports of analgesia after topical application of ketamine given alone in neuropathic pain, but controlled trials have not confirmed such effects. A combination of topical ketamine with several other agents produced pain relief in case, and case series, reports with response rates of 40% to 75% in retrospective analyses. In controlled trials of neuropathic pain with topical ketamine combinations, there were improvements in some outcomes, but optimal dosing and drug combinations were not clear. Given orally (as a gargle, throat swab, localized peritonsillar injections), ketamine produced significant oral/throat analgesia in controlled trials in postoperative settings. Topical analgesics are likely more effective in particular conditions (patient factors, disease factors), and future trials of topical ketamine should include a consideration of factors that could predispose

  10. Repurposing celecoxib as a topical antimicrobial agent

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    Mohamed N. Seleem

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available There is an urgent need for new antibiotics and alternative strategies to combat multidrug-resistant bacterial pathogens, which are a growing clinical issue. Repurposing existing approved drugs with known pharmacology and toxicology is an alternative strategy to accelerate antimicrobial research and development. In this study, we show that celecoxib, a marketed inhibitor of cyclooxygenase-2, exhibits broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive pathogens from a variety of genera, including Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Listeria, Bacillus, and Mycobacterium, but not against Gram-negative pathogens. However, celecoxib is active against all of the Gram-negative bacteria tested, including strains of, Acinetobacter, and Pseudomonas, when their intrinsic resistance is artificially compromised by outer membrane permeabilizing agents such as colistin. The effect of celecoxib on incorporation of radioactive precursors into macromolecules in Staphylococcus aureus was examined. The primary antimicrobial mechanism of action of celecoxib was the dose-dependent inhibition of RNA, DNA, and protein synthesis. Further, we demonstrate the in vivo efficacy of celecoxib in a methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA infected Caenorhabditis elegans whole animal model. Topical application of celecoxib (1 and 2% significantly reduced the mean bacterial count in a mouse model of MRSA skin infection. Further, celecoxib decreased the levels of all inflammatory cytokines tested, including tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, interleukin-1 beta, and monocyte chemo attractant protein-1 in wounds caused by MRSA infection. Celecoxib also exhibited synergy with many conventional antimicrobials when tested against four clinical isolates of S. aureus. Collectively, these results demonstrate that celecoxib alone, or in combination with traditional antimicrobials, has a potential to use as a topical drug for the treatment of bacterial skin infections.

  11. One-dimensional caricature of phase transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonmann, Roberto H.; Tanaka, Nelson I.

    1990-10-01

    In the limit as the volume grows and the temperature vanishes, it is shown that the one-dimensional nearest neighbor ferromagnetic Ising model presents a sharp transition between two different regimes. Fluctuations are studied in one of these regimes and also in the critical case.

  12. Mode selection in a caricature of eutectic solidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datye, V.; Mathur, R.; Langer, J. S.

    1982-09-01

    We have studied the problem of mode selection, specifically, selection of the lamellar spacing, in eutectic solidification, by constructing a caricature of a thin-film eutectic solidifying at constant velocity in the presence of a finite temperature gradient and in a slightly noisy environment. Our model incorporates mechanisms which allow termination of substable lamellae and creation of new lamellae by the splitting of lamellae larger than a spacing λmax. We have studied this model both by a simple analytic approximation and by computer simulation. We find that both the steady state spacing and the regularity of the pattern are sensitively dependent on the ratio λmax/λmin, where λmin is the minimum spacing required for steady state stability. An additional result to emerge from our investigation is that when λmax becomes less than a critical value, the system apparently undergoes a transition into a chaotic state.

  13. Mode selection in a caricature of eutectic solidification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datye, V.; Mathur, R.; Langer, J.S.

    1982-09-01

    We have studied the problem of mode selection, specifically, selection of the lamellar spacing, in eutectic solidification, by constructing a caricature of a thin-film eutectic solidifying at constant velocity in the presence of a finite-temperature gradient and in a slightly noisy environment. Our model incorporates mechamisms which allow termination of substable lamellae and creation of new lamellae by the splitting of lamellae larger than a spacing lambda/sub max/. We have studied this model both by a simple analytic approximation and by computer simulation. We find that both the steady state spacing and the regularity of the pattern are sensitively dependent on the ratio lambda/sub max//lambda/sub min/, where lambda/sub min/ is the minimum spacing required for steady state stability. An additional result to emerge from our investigation is that when lambda/sub max/ becomes less than a critical value, the system apparently undergoes a transition into a chaotic state.

  14. Automatic Generation of 3D Caricatures Based on Artistic Deformation Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Lyndsey; Chen, Min; Mora, Benjamin

    2011-06-01

    Caricatures are a form of humorous visual art, usually created by skilled artists for the intention of amusement and entertainment. In this paper, we present a novel approach for automatic generation of digital caricatures from facial photographs, which capture artistic deformation styles from hand-drawn caricatures. We introduced a pseudo stress-strain model to encode the parameters of an artistic deformation style using "virtual" physical and material properties. We have also developed a software system for performing the caricaturistic deformation in 3D which eliminates the undesirable artifacts in 2D caricaturization. We employed a Multilevel Free-Form Deformation (MFFD) technique to optimize a 3D head model reconstructed from an input facial photograph, and for controlling the caricaturistic deformation. Our results demonstrated the effectiveness and usability of the proposed approach, which allows ordinary users to apply the captured and stored deformation styles to a variety of facial photographs.

  15. Image Based Hair Segmentation Algorithm for the Application of Automatic Facial Caricature Synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Hair is a salient feature in human face region and are one of the important cues for face analysis. Accurate detection and presentation of hair region is one of the key components for automatic synthesis of human facial caricature. In this paper, an automatic hair detection algorithm for the application of automatic synthesis of facial caricature based on a single image is proposed. Firstly, hair regions in training images are labeled manually and then the hair position prior distributions an...

  16. McKean caricature of the FitzHugh-Nagumo model: Traveling pulses in a discrete diffusive medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonnelier, Arnaud

    2003-03-01

    This paper investigates traveling wave solutions of the spatially discrete reaction-diffusion systems whose kinetics are modeled by the McKean caricature of the FitzHugh-Nagumo model. In the limit of a weak coupling strength, we construct the traveling wave solutions and obtain the critical coupling constant below which propagation failure occurs. We report the existence of two different pulse traveling waves with different propagation speeds. Analytical results on the wave speed are obtained. Earlier results on propagation in the bistable medium are found as a limiting regime of our analysis.

  17. Effects of Caricaturing in Shape or Color on Familiarity Decisions for Familiar and Unfamiliar Faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itz, Marlena L; Schweinberger, Stefan R; Kaufmann, Jürgen M

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that while reflectance information (including color) may be more diagnostic for familiar face recognition, shape may be more diagnostic for unfamiliar face identity processing. Moreover, event-related potential (ERP) findings suggest an earlier onset for neural processing of facial shape compared to reflectance. In the current study, we aimed to explore specifically the roles of facial shape and color in a familiarity decision task using pre-experimentally familiar (famous) and unfamiliar faces that were caricatured either in shape-only, color-only, or both (full; shape + color) by 15%, 30%, or 45%. We recorded accuracies, mean reaction times, and face-sensitive ERPs. Performance data revealed that shape caricaturing facilitated identity processing for unfamiliar faces only. In the ERP data, such effects of shape caricaturing emerged earlier than those of color caricaturing. Unsurprisingly, ERP effects were accentuated for larger levels of caricaturing. Overall, our findings corroborate the importance of shape for identity processing of unfamiliar faces and demonstrate an earlier onset of neural processing for facial shape compared to color.

  18. Topical dexketoprofen as a cause of photocontact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Abad, R; Paniagua, Ma J; Botey, E; Gaig, P; Rodriguez, P; Richart, C

    2004-01-01

    We reported on the case of a patient who developed a cutaneous eruption in a photoexposed area 1 week after a continous topical treatment with dexketoprofen (Enangel). Photopatch tests were positive for dexketoprofen, ketoprofen and piketoprofen and patch test was positive for piketoprofen. Control photopatch testing with dexketoprofen in 15 healthy volunteers was negative. Dexketoprofen, ketoprofen and piketoprofen are non-steroidal anti-inflamatory drugs (arylpropionic acid derivatives) often used as topical anti-inflammatory agents. It appears that the benzophenone moiety of their chemical structure is the cause of their photosensitivity and cross-photoreaction.

  19. LIQUID CRYSTAL AS ACCELERANT IN DRUG ABSORPTION FROM TOPICAL FORMULATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trivedi Nirali

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Topical drug delivery has been one of the major research fields in the area of drug therapy for last few decades. However inspite of its large therapeutic potential market success has been limited. It provides the several advantages over the oral drug delivery. Percutaneous absorption involves the passage of the drug molecule from the skin surface into the stratum corneum under the influence of a concentration gradient and its subsequent diffusion through the stratum corneum and underlying epidermis, through the dermis, and into the blood circulation. Liquid crystal phase has emerged as a novel material for preparation of topical drug delivery systems. It fulfills the requirements for making drug loading and drug absorption faster from the site of application of topical formulations. Liquid crystal has got many phases in itself which can be further exploited to get a better and more efficient drug delivery system. Also a variety of areas in medical and electronics streamline can find its application. There is also a wide scope in respect to the methods by which these liquid crystals can be prepared. Different methods give rise to different kinds of liquid crystals. Topical formulations have emerged as a very useful drug delivery system as it bypasses the first pass metabolism. Also the absorption of drugs depends on the percutaneous absorption of drug from the area of application. Hence it’s required to choose such a vehicle which enhances the absorption of drug from the formulation.

  20. Image Based Hair Segmentation Algorithm for the Application of Automatic Facial Caricature Synthesis

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    Yehu Shen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hair is a salient feature in human face region and are one of the important cues for face analysis. Accurate detection and presentation of hair region is one of the key components for automatic synthesis of human facial caricature. In this paper, an automatic hair detection algorithm for the application of automatic synthesis of facial caricature based on a single image is proposed. Firstly, hair regions in training images are labeled manually and then the hair position prior distributions and hair color likelihood distribution function are estimated from these labels efficiently. Secondly, the energy function of the test image is constructed according to the estimated prior distributions of hair location and hair color likelihood. This energy function is further optimized according to graph cuts technique and initial hair region is obtained. Finally, K-means algorithm and image postprocessing techniques are applied to the initial hair region so that the final hair region can be segmented precisely. Experimental results show that the average processing time for each image is about 280 ms and the average hair region detection accuracy is above 90%. The proposed algorithm is applied to a facial caricature synthesis system. Experiments proved that with our proposed hair segmentation algorithm the facial caricatures are vivid and satisfying.

  1. Solar thermal energy as a topic in secondary mathematics classrooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinkmann, A.; Brinkmann, K. [EnviPro Environmental Process Engineering Prof. Dr. Klaus Brinkmann, Iserlohn (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    One of the most effective methods to achieve a sustainable change of our momentary existing power supply system to a system mainly based on renewable energy conversion is the education of our children. For this purpose the compulsory school subject mathematics appears to be suitable. In order to promote renewable energy issues in mathematics classrooms, the authors have developed a special didactical concept to open this field for students, as well as for their teachers. The aim of this paper is to present firstly an overview of our concept and secondly examples of problems to the special topic of solar thermal energy, developed on the basis of our concept. (orig.)

  2. Le ‘convenienze teatrali’: i cantanti nelle caricature di Anton Maria Zanetti

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    Gianluca Stefani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Venetian engraver and collector Anton Maria Zanetti, quondam Girolamo the Elder, amused himself by caricaturing well known people of his time, above all operatic singers and other figures from musical theatre at the beginning of the eighteenth century. Zanetti’s graphic satire can be considered the visual equivalent of the famous Teatro alla moda by Benedetto Marcello: there are exact similarities between the biting literary portraits of male and female singers by the aristocratic Venetian composer and the figurative caricatures of castrati and prime donne by Zanetti. The works of both, full of hilarious wit and inveterate prejudices, are part of that satirical movement which accompanied the commercial musical theatre from its beginnings. This critical essay analyses some caricatures of the most famous singers of the time by Zanetti, and appraises the importance of the satirizing of the so-called convenienze teatrali shared by Marcello’s Teatro alla moda.L’incisore e collezionista veneziano Anton Maria Zanetti quondam Girolamo il vecchio si divertì a mettere in caricatura protagonisti del suo tempo, soprattutto cantanti d’opera e altre figure attinenti al teatro musicale del primo Settecento. La satira grafica zanettiana può considerarsi per molti aspetti l’equivalente visivo del celebre Teatro alla moda di Benedetto Marcello: puntuali le corrispondenze tra i graffianti ritratti letterari di virtuosi e canterine dell’aristocratico musicista veneziano e le icastiche caricature di castrati e primedonne di Zanetti. Gli uni e le altre, colmi di arguzie impagabili e inossidabili pregiudizi, rientrano in quel filone satirico che accompagna il teatro d’opera dei circuiti commerciali fin dai suoi esordi. Il saggio prende in considerazione alcune caricature zanettiane dei più noti cantanti dell’epoca, ponendo in valore quella satira delle cosiddette ‘convenienze teatrali’ condivisa dal libello marcelliano.  

  3. Elastic vesicles as topical/transdermal drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, M J; Maibach, H I

    2005-08-01

    Skin acts a major target as well as a principle barrier for topical/transdermal drug delivery. Despite the many advantages of this system, the major obstacle is the low diffusion rate of drugs across the stratum corneum. Several methods have been assessed to increase the permeation rate of drugs temporarily. One simple and convenient approach is application of drugs in formulation with elastic vesicles or skin enhancers. Elastic vesicles are classified with phospholipid (Transfersomes((R)) and ethosomes) and detergent-based types. Elastic vesicles were more efficient at delivering a low and high molecular weight drug to the skin in terms of quantity and depth. Their effectiveness strongly depends on their physicochemical properties: composition, duration and application volume, and entrapment efficiency and application methods. This review focuses on the effect of elastic liposomes for enhancing the drug penetration and defines the action mechanism of penetration into deeper skin. PMID:18492190

  4. TOPICAL IMMUNIZATION AND THE USE OF CHITOSAN AS CARRIER

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    Vengadesh prabhu K

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available With the technological advances in biomedical sciences and the better understanding of how the immune system works, new immunisation strategies and vaccine delivery options, such sprays, patches, and edible formulations have been developed. Needle-free delivery of vaccines has become a global priority. Transcutaneous immunisation (TCI, topical application of vaccine antigens to the skin, can elicit systemic antibody and T-cell responses, suggesting that this new technique may provide a means for vaccination without needles. TCI requires the use of an adjuvant such as cholera toxin added to a vaccine antigen, such as diphtheria toxoid, to induce antibodies to diphtheria toxoid. The adjuvant and antigen are thought to target Langerhans cells, potent antigen-presenting cells found in the superficial layers of the skin. TCI appears to be a highly practical technique for delivery of vaccines that provides unique access to the immune system.

  5. A singular dispersion relation arising in a caricature of a model for morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, N F

    1988-01-01

    In 1983 Oster et al. proposed a model for morphogenesis consisting of a system of partial differential equations in which the dispersion relation for the problem linearised about the zero solution has a singularity. That is, the initial growth rate sigma of a small perturbation of wave number k from the zero solution tends to positive or negative infinity as k tends to some critical value kc from above or below respectively. We consider here as a caricature of the model a single partial differential equation with a similar dispersion relation in a bounded one-dimensional domain. The wave number, or equivalently the domain size, may be thought of as a bifurcation parameter. For the Neumann problem a phenomenon arises in which, as the domain size l increases past a critical value ln, the linear stability of the n-th mode jumps from one solution to a remote solution. That is, for l less than ln the trivial solution is unstable and a certain non-trivial solution is stable to perturbations of mode n, whereas for l greater than ln the opposite is true. For the Dirichlet or the Robin problem a linear stability change in the trivial solution occurs, but no corresponding change in any other solution has been found. The corresponding initial boundary value problems are then considered. An asymptotic analysis is performed in the weakly nonlinear limit in the particular case in which only one mode is unstable and gives an asymptotic solution for two classes of nonlinearity, one symmetric and the other asymmetric about u = 0. A development of the method of harmonic balance is then used to obtain approximate solutions in the strongly nonlinear case and when more than one mode may be unstable.

  6. Review of topical beta blockers as treatment for infantile hemangiomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Sally L; Hildebrand, Göran Darius

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of infantile hemangiomas changed from the use of oral corticosteroids to oral propranolol on the serendipitous discovery of propanolol's clinical effectiveness in 2008. Since then, clinicians have begun to use topical beta blockers--in particular, timolol maleate 0.5% gel forming solution--with good effect. Topical beta blockers are now used for lesions with both deep and superficial components and those that are amblyogenic. When initiated in the proliferative phase of the lesion, the effectiveness of the treatment can be seen within days. There is no consensus on dosing, treatment bioavailability, or clinical assessment of lesions, but these are topics for future research.

  7. Le ‘convenienze teatrali’: i cantanti nelle caricature di Anton Maria Zanetti

    OpenAIRE

    Gianluca Stefani

    2014-01-01

    The Venetian engraver and collector Anton Maria Zanetti, quondam Girolamo the Elder, amused himself by caricaturing well known people of his time, above all operatic singers and other figures from musical theatre at the beginning of the eighteenth century. Zanetti’s graphic satire can be considered the visual equivalent of the famous Teatro alla moda by Benedetto Marcello: there are exact similarities between the biting literary portraits of male and female singers by the aristocratic Venetia...

  8. MICROSPONGES AS THE VERSATILE TOOL FOR TOPICAL ROUTE: A REVIEW

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    Archana Patel*, Pratik Upadhyay, Jatin Trivedi, Shreeraj Shah and Jaymin Patel

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The drug delivery technology landscape has become highly competitive and rapidly evolving. More and more developments in delivery systems are being integrated to optimize the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of the therapy. Conventional topical formulations are intended to work on the surface of the skin. Normally, upon application such formulations release their active ingredients and producing a highly concentrated layer of active ingredient that is quickly absorbed. Therefore, need exists for a system to increase the amount of time that an active ingredient is present either on skin surface as well as within the epidermis, at the same time, minimizing its transdermal penetration in the body. In recent times, microsponge delivery system (MDS has been successively addressed for the controlled release of drugs onto the epidermis with assurance that the drug remains chiefly localized and does not enter the systemic circulation in major amounts. Drug loaded microsponge consist of microporous beads, typically 10-25 μm in diameter that possess a versatility to entrap wide range of active agents. Microsponge Systems are based on microscopic, polymer-based microspheres that can suspend or entrap a wide variety of substances, and can then be incorporated into a formulated product such as a gel, cream, liquid or powder. Microsponge technology offers entrapment of ingredients and is believed to contribute towards reduced side effects, improved stability, increased elegance, and enhanced formulation flexibility. In addition, numerous studies have confirmed that microsponge systems are non-irritating, non-mutagenic, non-allergenic, and non-toxic. This review article covers methods of preparation, release mechanism, characterization and applications of microsponge delivery system with patent information and marketed formulations.

  9. An Index to the Caricatures in the "New York Review of Books" from Its Inception Through the Fifteenth Anniversary Issue (1963-1978).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drazan, Joseph Gerald; Sanguine, Phyllis

    This index identifies caricatures drawn by David Levine which are found in the "New York Review of Books" from its first issue in 1963 through the special fifteenth anniversary issue dated October 12, 1978. The index is arranged alphabetically by surname for each personality caricatured, with some cross references. The numbering system used refers…

  10. Representing Uncertain Geographical Information with Algorithmic Map Caricatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunsdon, Chris

    2016-04-01

    A great deal of geographical information - including the results ion data analysis - is imprecise in some way. For example the the results of geostatistical interpolation should consist not only of point estimates of the value of some quantity at points in space, but also of confidence intervals or standard errors of these estimators. Similarly, mappings of contour lines derived form such interpolations will also be characterised by uncertainty. However, most computerized cartography tools are designed to provide 'crisp' representations of geographical information, such as sharply drawn lines, or clearly delineated areas. In this talk, the use of 'fuzzy' or 'sketchy' cartographic tools will be demonstrated - where maps have a hand-drawn appearance and the degree of 'roughness' and other related characteristics can be used to convey the degree of uncertainty associated with estimated quantities being mapped. The tools used to do this are available as an R package, which will be described in the talk.

  11. Bupivacaine Lozenge Compared with Lidocaine Spray as Topical Pharyngeal Anesthetic before Unsedated Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salale, Nesrin; Treldal, Charlotte; Mogensen, Stine;

    2014-01-01

    Unsedated upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGE) can induce patient discomfort, mainly due to a strong gag reflex. The aim was to assess the effect of a bupivacaine lozenge as topical pharyngeal anesthetic compared with standard treatment with a lidocaine spray before UGE. Ninety-nine adult...... with a lidocaine spray proved to be a superior option as topical pharyngeal anesthetic before an UGE....

  12. Recreational football as a health promoting activity: a topical review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krustrup, Peter; Aagaard, Per; Nybo, Lars;

    2010-01-01

    The present review addresses the physiological demands during recreational football training and the effects on central health variables that influence the risk of life-style diseases of young and middle-aged men. Recent studies have established that recreational football, carried out as small......-sided games can be characterized as having a high aerobic component with mean heart rates of 80-85% of maximum heart rate, which is similar to values observed for elite football players. In addition, the training includes multiple high-speed runs, sprints, turns, jumps and tackles, which provide a high impact...... on muscles and bones. Recreational football training in untrained men results in marked improvements in maximum aerobic power, blood pressure, muscle capillarization and intermittent exercise performance, and those effects are similar to interval training and more pronounced than moderate...

  13. Silver Nanoparticles as Real Topical Bullets for Wound Healing

    OpenAIRE

    Gunasekaran, Thirumurugan; Nigusse, Tadele; Dhanaraju, Magharla Dasaratha

    2012-01-01

    Nanotechnology is on the threshold of providing a host of new materials and approaches, revolutionizing the medical and pharmaceutical fields. Several areas of medical care are already profiting from the advantage that nanotechnology offers. Recently, silver nanoparticles are attracting interest for a clinical application because of its potential biological properties such as antibacterial activity, anti-inflammatory effects, and wound healing efficacy, which could be exploited in developing ...

  14. Bexarotene Topical

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... condition may improve as soon as 4 weeks after you begin to use topical bexarotene, or it may ... notice any improvement. Continue to use topical bexarotene after you notice improvement; your condition may continue to improve. ...

  15. Clinical use of topical thrombin as a surgical hemostat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley K Lew

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Wesley K Lew1, Fred A Weaver21University of Southern California, Department of Surgery, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2CardioVascular Thoracic Institute at the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USAAbstract: When surgical ligation of bleeding fails, or is not possible, surgeons rely on a number of hemostatic aids, including thrombin. This review discusses the history, pharmacology and clinical application of thrombin as a surgical hemostat. The initial thrombin was bovine in origin, but its use has been complicated by the formation of antibodies that cross react with human coagulation factors. This has been associated with life threatening bleeding and in some circumstances anaphylaxis and death. Human thrombin, isolated from pooled plasma of donors, has been developed in an effort to minimize these risks, but its downside is the potential of transmitting blood-borne pathogens and limited availability. Recently a recombinant thrombin has been developed and approved for use by the FDA. It has the advantage of being minimally antigenic and devoid of the risk if viral transmission. Thrombin is often used in conjunction with other hemostatic aids, including absorbable agents (like gelfoam, collagen, and cellulose, and with fibrinogen in fibrin glues. The last part of this review will discuss these agents in detail, and review their clinical applications.Keywords: bovine, recombinant, human, thrombin, antigenicity, antibodies

  16. The role of topical antibiotics used as prophylaxis in surgical site infection prevention.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McHugh, S M

    2012-02-01

    Compared with systemic antibiotic therapy, the topical or local delivery of an antibiotic has many potential advantages. However, local antibiotics at the surgical site have received very limited approval in any of the surgical prophylaxis consensus guidelines that we are aware of. A review of the literature was carried out through searches of peer-reviewed publications in PubMed in the English language over a 30 year period between January 1980 and May 2010. Both retrospective and prospective studies were included, as well as meta-analyses. With regard to defining \\'topical\\' or \\'local\\' antibiotic application, the application of an antibiotic solution to the surgical site intraoperatively or immediately post-operatively was included. A number of surgical procedures have been shown to significantly benefit from perioperative topical prophylaxis, e.g. joint arthroplasty, cataract surgery and, possibly, breast augmentation. In obese patients undergoing abdominal surgery, topical surgical prophylaxis is also proven to be beneficial. The selective use of topical antibiotics as surgical prophylaxis is justified for specific procedures, such as joint arthroplasty, cataract surgery and, possibly, breast augmentation. In selective cases, such as obese patients undergoing abdominal surgery, topical surgical prophylaxis is also proven to be beneficial. Apart from these specific indications, the evidence for use of topical antibiotics in surgery is lacking in conclusive randomized controlled trials.

  17. The role of topical antibiotics used as prophylaxis in surgical site infection prevention.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McHugh, S M

    2011-04-01

    Compared with systemic antibiotic therapy, the topical or local delivery of an antibiotic has many potential advantages. However, local antibiotics at the surgical site have received very limited approval in any of the surgical prophylaxis consensus guidelines that we are aware of. A review of the literature was carried out through searches of peer-reviewed publications in PubMed in the English language over a 30 year period between January 1980 and May 2010. Both retrospective and prospective studies were included, as well as meta-analyses. With regard to defining \\'topical\\' or \\'local\\' antibiotic application, the application of an antibiotic solution to the surgical site intraoperatively or immediately post-operatively was included. A number of surgical procedures have been shown to significantly benefit from perioperative topical prophylaxis, e.g. joint arthroplasty, cataract surgery and, possibly, breast augmentation. In obese patients undergoing abdominal surgery, topical surgical prophylaxis is also proven to be beneficial. The selective use of topical antibiotics as surgical prophylaxis is justified for specific procedures, such as joint arthroplasty, cataract surgery and, possibly, breast augmentation. In selective cases, such as obese patients undergoing abdominal surgery, topical surgical prophylaxis is also proven to be beneficial. Apart from these specific indications, the evidence for use of topical antibiotics in surgery is lacking in conclusive randomized controlled trials.

  18. Viscoelastic evaluation of topical creams containing microcrystalline cellulose/sodium carboxymethyl cellulose as stabilizer

    OpenAIRE

    Adeyeye, Moji Christianah; Jain, Ashwinkumar C.; Ghorab, Mohamed K. M.; Reilly, William J.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the viscoelastic properties of topical creams containing various concentrations of microcrystalline cellulose and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (Avicel® CL-611) as a stabilizer. Avicel CL-611 was used at 4 different levels (1%, 2%, 4%, and 6% dispersion) to prepare topical creams, and hydrocortisone acetate was used as a model drug. The viscoelastic properties such as loss modulus (G), storage modulus (G), and loss tangent (tan δ) of these creams were...

  19. Producing Parsons' reputation: early critiques of Talcott Parsons' social theory and the making of a caricature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, B Robert

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the critical responses to Talcott Parsons' first major work, The Structure of Social Action (1937), and his two subsequent books, Toward a General Theory of Action and The Social System (both 1951). Because Parsons' work was the subject of such virulent debate, we cannot fully understand Parsons' impact on the discipline of sociology without understanding the source and nature of those early criticisms. I trace the responses to Parsons, first through book reviews and private letters and then in the more substantial statements of C. Wright Mills, George Homans, and Alvin Gouldner, from the largely positive but superficial reception of Structure to the polemics that followed Parsons' 1951 works. In the late 1930s and 1940s, Parsons' reputation grew steadily but there remained no careful reception of Structure, fostering resentment toward Parsons in some quarters while precluding a sophisticated understanding of his work. After 1951, a few critics capitalized on that tension, writing sweeping rejections of Parsons' work that spoke to a much broader audience of sociologists. That dynamic, coupled with Parsons' own indifference toward his harshest critics, produced a situation in which many sociologists simply chose not to read Parsons in the 1950s and 1960s, reinforcing a caricature and distorting perceptions of Parsons' place in mid-twentieth-century American sociology.

  20. Producing Parsons' reputation: early critiques of Talcott Parsons' social theory and the making of a caricature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, B Robert

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the critical responses to Talcott Parsons' first major work, The Structure of Social Action (1937), and his two subsequent books, Toward a General Theory of Action and The Social System (both 1951). Because Parsons' work was the subject of such virulent debate, we cannot fully understand Parsons' impact on the discipline of sociology without understanding the source and nature of those early criticisms. I trace the responses to Parsons, first through book reviews and private letters and then in the more substantial statements of C. Wright Mills, George Homans, and Alvin Gouldner, from the largely positive but superficial reception of Structure to the polemics that followed Parsons' 1951 works. In the late 1930s and 1940s, Parsons' reputation grew steadily but there remained no careful reception of Structure, fostering resentment toward Parsons in some quarters while precluding a sophisticated understanding of his work. After 1951, a few critics capitalized on that tension, writing sweeping rejections of Parsons' work that spoke to a much broader audience of sociologists. That dynamic, coupled with Parsons' own indifference toward his harshest critics, produced a situation in which many sociologists simply chose not to read Parsons in the 1950s and 1960s, reinforcing a caricature and distorting perceptions of Parsons' place in mid-twentieth-century American sociology. PMID:20419789

  1. Topical cyclosporin as an alternative treatment for vision threatening blepharokeratoconjunctivitis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail AS

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abdul-Salim Ismail,1,2 Rohana Taharin,2 Zunaina Embong11Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Hospital Pulau Pinang, Jalan Resindensi, Pulau Pinang, MalaysiaAbstract: Here, a case of vision threatening blepharokeratoconjunctivitis that responded well to topical cyclosporin is reported. A 9-year-old Malay girl with a history of bilateral blepharokeratoconjunctivitis was regularly treated with lid scrubbing using diluted baby shampoo, fusidic acid gel, and topical steroids as well as an intermittent course of oral doxycycline for the past year. She developed acute onset bilateral eye redness associated with poor vision in her right eye. Both eyes showed marked diffuse hyperemic conjunctiva with corneal vascularization. The presence of corneal vascularization obscured the visual axis in the right eye. The condition did not improve with regular intensive lid hygiene using diluted baby shampoo, fusidic acid gel, and topical steroids. She was started on topical cyclosporin A 0.5% every 6 hours. There was a dramatic regression of corneal vascularization after 3 days on topical cyclosporin, with marked improvement in visual acuity. This is a single case in which cyclosporin improved the status of the ocular surface. A large cohort study is required to justify its effectiveness in treating blepharokeratoconjunctivitis and to test its potential as an alternative immunosuppressive agent in comparison to conventional corticosteroids.Keywords: blepharokeratoconjunctivitis, cyclosporin

  2. Lipid nano/submicron emulsions as vehicles for topical flurbiprofen delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jia-You; Leu, Yann-Lii; Chang, Chia-Chun; Lin, Chia-Hsuan; Tsai, Yi-Hung

    2004-01-01

    The application of lipid nano/submicron emulsions as topical drug carrier systems for the percutaneous absorption of flurbiprofen was investigated. The lipid emulsions were made up of isopropyl myristate (IPM), soybean oil, or coconut oil as the oil phase, egg lecithin as the predominant emulsifier, and double-distilled water as the external phase. Stearylamine (SA) and deoxycholic acid (DA) also were used to produce positively and negatively charged emulsions. To evaluate the physicochemical properties of the lipid emulsions, particle size by laser light scattering, the image of atomic force microscopy, and relaxation time values by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) were determined. The in vitro permeation data showed that incorporation of SA significantly reduced the topical delivery of flurbiprofen. On the other hand, incorporation of DA exhibited no or a negligible effect on drug permeation. Enhancement of drug absorption was observed when adding oleic acid as part of the oil phase. The in vivo topical application of flurbiprofen from selected lipid emulsions showed a similar trend to the in vitro status. Furthermore, the intersubject variability was considerably reduced by lipid emulsions than by aqueous suspensions in both the in vitro and in vivo experiments. The irritant profiles of lipid emulsions showed that IPM elicited higher irritation than soybean oil. The incorporation of oleic acid also produced skin disruption. The results in the present study suggest the feasibility of lipid emulsions for the topical delivery of flurbiprofen.

  3. The image of the censor in a magazine caricature of Russia XIX – early XX century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena S. Sonina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on a study of 17 thin illustrated humorous and satirical magazines and a number of several digests the author investigates about 30 cartoons of 1847-1917 years dedicated to the censor of the Russian Empire (in addition, selectively – censors France, Germany, Denmark and Sweden. The author isolates the main types depicted censors. More often the Russian censors were depicted in the form of an old woman, a functionary, in the form of "pointing finger" with the amplification means at hand – a red pencil, scissors and paint. The censor’s appearance transformed especially during the First Russian Revolution. The author analyzes the cartoons with a life-like portraits and abstract images of those who are professionally limited the freedom of the press. The censorship conditions (e.g. an urgency of the work or a depending on the political situation in the country are demonstrated. All of the examples noted the prevailing negative connotations of satirical images. Of the 30 cartoons only one picture presents a censor helping writers to pass a difficult way to the Temple of Literature (1847. All other images highlight of obstructive censor’s labor. It was difficult to publish a caricature of censorship and censorship. The article presents facts from the Russian State Historical Archive about mass prohibition satirical images. Painters invented the different tricks against the vigilant guards, but it did not help. At the end of the article author makes a conclusion about the inevitability of a small number of published satirical drawings by virtue of censorship illustrated periodicals.

  4. Comparative study of liposomes, transfersomes and ethosomes as carriers for improving topical delivery of celecoxib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragagni, Marco; Mennini, Natascia; Maestrelli, Francesca; Cirri, Marzia; Mura, Paola

    2012-01-01

    Topical administration of celecoxib proved to be an effective mean of preventing skin cancer development and improving anticancer drugs effectiveness in skin tumors treatment. The aim of this study was the development of an effective topical formulation of celecoxib, able to promote drug skin delivery, providing its in depth penetration through the skin layers. Three kinds of vesicular formulations have been investigated as drug carriers: liposomes containing a surfactant, or transfersomes and ethosomes, containing suitable edge activators. Firstly, the effect of membrane composition variations on the system performance has been evaluated for each vesicle type. Selected formulations were characterized for particle size, polydispersity index and encapsulation efficiency. The best formulations were subjected to ex vivo permeation studies through excised human skin. All vesicular formulations markedly (p ethosomes, respectively. In particular, ethosomes containing Tween 20 as edge activator not only showed the best vesicle dimensions and homogeneity, and the highest encapsulation efficacy (54.4%), but also enabled the highest increase in drug penetration through the skin, probably due to the simultaneous presence in their composition of ethanol and Tween 20, both acting as permeation enhancers. Therefore, among the various vesicular formulations examined in the study, Tween 20-ethosomes can be considered the most promising one as carrier for topical celecoxib applications aimed to prevent skin cancer development and increase the anticancer drugs effectiveness against skin tumors. PMID:23043648

  5. Comparative study of liposomes, transfersomes and ethosomes as carriers for improving topical delivery of celecoxib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragagni, Marco; Mennini, Natascia; Maestrelli, Francesca; Cirri, Marzia; Mura, Paola

    2012-01-01

    Topical administration of celecoxib proved to be an effective mean of preventing skin cancer development and improving anticancer drugs effectiveness in skin tumors treatment. The aim of this study was the development of an effective topical formulation of celecoxib, able to promote drug skin delivery, providing its in depth penetration through the skin layers. Three kinds of vesicular formulations have been investigated as drug carriers: liposomes containing a surfactant, or transfersomes and ethosomes, containing suitable edge activators. Firstly, the effect of membrane composition variations on the system performance has been evaluated for each vesicle type. Selected formulations were characterized for particle size, polydispersity index and encapsulation efficiency. The best formulations were subjected to ex vivo permeation studies through excised human skin. All vesicular formulations markedly (p ethosomes, respectively. In particular, ethosomes containing Tween 20 as edge activator not only showed the best vesicle dimensions and homogeneity, and the highest encapsulation efficacy (54.4%), but also enabled the highest increase in drug penetration through the skin, probably due to the simultaneous presence in their composition of ethanol and Tween 20, both acting as permeation enhancers. Therefore, among the various vesicular formulations examined in the study, Tween 20-ethosomes can be considered the most promising one as carrier for topical celecoxib applications aimed to prevent skin cancer development and increase the anticancer drugs effectiveness against skin tumors.

  6. Final Technical Report summarizing Purdue research activities as part of the DOE JET Topical Collaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molnar, Denes [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy

    2015-09-01

    This report summarizes research activities at Purdue University done as part of the DOE JET Topical Collaboration. These mainly involve calculation of covariant radiative energy loss in the (Djordjevic-)Gyulassy-Levai-Vitev ((D)GLV) framework for relativistic A+A reactions at RHIC and LHC energies using realistic bulk medium evolution with both transverse and longitudinal expansion. The single PDF file provided also includes a report from the entire JET Collaboration.

  7. Microemulsions as vehicles for topical administration of voriconazole: formulation and in vitro evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hadidy, Gladious Naguib; Ibrahim, Howida Kamal; Mohamed, Magdi Ibrahim; El-Milligi, Mohamed Farid

    2012-01-01

    This work was undertaken to investigate microemulsion (ME) as a topical delivery system for the poorly water-soluble voriconazole. Different ME components were selected for the preparation of plain ME systems with suitable rheological properties for topical use. Two permeation enhancers were incorporated, namely sodium deoxycholate or oleic acid. Drug-loaded MEs were evaluated for their physical appearance, pH, rheological properties and in vitro permeation studies using guinea pig skin. MEs based on polyoxyethylene(10)oleyl ether (Brij 97) as the surfactant showed pseudoplastic flow with thixotropic behavior and were loaded with voriconazole. Jojoba oil-based MEs successfully prolonged voriconazole release up to 4 h. No significant changes in physical or rheological properties were recorded on storage for 12 months at ambient conditions. The presence of permeation enhancers favored transdermal rather than dermal delivery. Sodium deoxycholate was more effective than oleic acid for enhancing the voriconazole permeation. Voriconazole-loaded MEs, with and without enhancers, showed significantly better antifungal activity against Candida albicans than voriconazole supersaturated solution. In conclusion, the studied ME formulae could be promising vehicles for topical delivery of voriconazole.

  8. Microemulsions as vehicles for topical administration of voriconazole: formulation and in vitro evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hadidy, Gladious Naguib; Ibrahim, Howida Kamal; Mohamed, Magdi Ibrahim; El-Milligi, Mohamed Farid

    2012-01-01

    This work was undertaken to investigate microemulsion (ME) as a topical delivery system for the poorly water-soluble voriconazole. Different ME components were selected for the preparation of plain ME systems with suitable rheological properties for topical use. Two permeation enhancers were incorporated, namely sodium deoxycholate or oleic acid. Drug-loaded MEs were evaluated for their physical appearance, pH, rheological properties and in vitro permeation studies using guinea pig skin. MEs based on polyoxyethylene(10)oleyl ether (Brij 97) as the surfactant showed pseudoplastic flow with thixotropic behavior and were loaded with voriconazole. Jojoba oil-based MEs successfully prolonged voriconazole release up to 4 h. No significant changes in physical or rheological properties were recorded on storage for 12 months at ambient conditions. The presence of permeation enhancers favored transdermal rather than dermal delivery. Sodium deoxycholate was more effective than oleic acid for enhancing the voriconazole permeation. Voriconazole-loaded MEs, with and without enhancers, showed significantly better antifungal activity against Candida albicans than voriconazole supersaturated solution. In conclusion, the studied ME formulae could be promising vehicles for topical delivery of voriconazole. PMID:21696340

  9. Systemic absorption of topical steroids. Metabolic effects as an index of mild hypercortisolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garden, J M; Freinkel, R K

    1986-09-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether the commonly used treatment of psoriasis with potent topical glucocorticoids results in hypercortisolism and whether metabolic changes might provide a means for monitoring pharmacologic effects of excessive systemic absorption of glucocorticoids. Plasma cortisol, glucose, and insulin and circulating polymorphonuclear leukocytes were assessed under controlled conditions in five otherwise healthy patients with psoriasis (40% to 85% involvement) treated with topical desoximetasone, without occlusion. In all patients, there were rapid and sustained suppression of endogenous cortisol production, twofold to threefold increases in fasting insulin levels indicating insulin resistance, and elevated levels of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Two patients also experienced reduced glucose tolerance. These findings suggest that application of potent corticosteroids to large areas of diseased skin results in sufficient systemic absorption to cause not only adrenal suppression but some degree of hypercortisolism with greater frequency and rapidity than has been suggested. Prospective monitoring of insulin-glucose relationships as a sensitive index of the metabolic effects of glucocorticoids may provide a means of assessing excess systemic absorption that is not predictable on the basis of adrenal suppression or circulating levels of the drug. Such prediction could have particular relevance in anticipating adverse clinical effects in the treatment of chronic skin disorders with potent topical glucocorticoids. PMID:3527074

  10. Treating umbilical granuloma with topical clobetasol propionate cream at home is as effective as treating it with topical silver nitrate in the clinic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brødsgaard, Anne; Nielsen, Tove; Mølgaard, Ulla;

    2015-01-01

    AIM: There is a lack of evidence on the best treatment option for umbilical granuloma. The primary aim of this study was to compare three treatments for umbilical granuloma: standard treatment with topical silver nitrate, clobetasol propionate cream (0.05%) and ethanol wipes. The secondary aim......%) in the outpatient clinic, 30 infants had topical clobetasol propionate cream (0.05%) applied at home, and 34 infants received cleansing with ethanol wipes (82%) at home. RESULTS: Silver nitrate and clobetasol propionate cream (0.05%) were significantly superior to ethanol wipes, with shorter healing times...... and higher resolution rates (p = 0.0001). Healing time and resolution rates were identical for silver nitrate and clobetasol propionate cream (0.05%). Mild side effects were occasionally reported, all of which were self-limiting. CONCLUSION: Treating umbilical granuloma with topical clobetasol propionate...

  11. Topical Simvastatin as Host-Directed Therapy against Severity of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parihar, Suraj P.; Hartley, Mary-Anne; Hurdayal, Ramona; Guler, Reto; Brombacher, Frank

    2016-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that statins mediate protection against intracellular pathogens, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Listeria monocytogenes in mice. Here, we investigated the immunomodulatory potential of simvastatin as a topical or systemic host-directed drug therapy in controlling inflammatory responses in an experimental mouse model of cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania major (LV39). In an ear infection model, topical application of simvastatin directly on established lesions significantly reduced severity of the disease reflected by ear lesion size and ulceration. The host protective effect was further accompanied by decreased parasite burden in the ear and draining lymph nodes in both BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. Pre-treatment of these mice on a low-fat cholesterol diet and systemic simvastatin also reduced footpad swelling, as well as parasite burdens and ulceration/necrosis in the more robust footpad infection model, demonstrating the prophylactic potential of simvastatin for cutaneous leishmaniasis. Mechanistically, following L. major infection, simvastatin-treated primary macrophages responded with significantly reduced cholesterol levels and increased production of hydrogen peroxide. Furthermore, simvastatin-treated macrophages displayed enhanced phagosome maturation, as revealed by increased LAMP-3 expression in fluorescent microscopy and Western blot analysis. These findings demonstrate that simvastatin treatment enhances host protection against L. major by increasing macrophage phagosome maturation and killing effector functions. PMID:27632901

  12. Comparative Study between topical applications liposomally entrapped DNA repair enzymes and thymidine dinucleotide as radioprotectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The delivery of active agents to the skin by liposome carriers received great interest during the last three decades. This is based on their potential to enclose various types of biological materials and to deliver them to diverse cell types. Recent work suggests that liposomes as vehicles for topical drug delivery may be superior to conventional preparations. Also, topical application of DNA repair enzymes to irradiated skin increases the rate of repair of DNA potentially damaged cells. Moreover, thymidine dinucleotide is a new skin photo-protective agent against non-ionizing radiation through induction of DNA repair. Gamma irradiation can produce DNA damage in human skin. DNA mutations have an important role in the development of skin cancer and precancerous skin lesions. Albino rats were irradiated with Cobalt-60 gamma radiation with different doses (0.5, 1.5, 3 Gy), and were treated by either thymidine dinucleotide or liposomally entrapped DNA repair enzymes topically 24 hours before irradiation. Evaluation was done histopathologically by H and E stain. Computerized image analyzer using Masson's trichrome stain was also done. Gamma radiation produced epidermal thinning and dermal inflammatory cells together with collagen fragmentation and clumping in a dose-dependent manner. Comparing between both thymidine dinucleotide and liposomally entrapped DNA repair enzymes pretreated and irradiated rats. Low dose irradiation (0.5 Gy) together with previous drugs showed preservation of epidermis with no inflammatory cells and also it maintained the normal architecture of collagen bundles. However, they were ineffective with higher doses. In conclusion our results may suggest that the effects of gamma radiation on the skin at low dose could be minimized by the use of these drugs before exposure

  13. Learning about Teaching the Extracurricular Topic of Nanotechnology as a Vehicle for Achieving a Sustainable Change in Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blonder, Ron; Mamlok-Naaman, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    This study focused on teachers' transfer of a variety of teaching methods from a teaching module on nanotechnology, which is an example of a topic outside the science curriculum, to teaching topics that are part of the chemistry curriculum. Nanotechnology is outside the science curriculum, but it was used in this study as a means to carry out a…

  14. Evaluation of Topical Preparations Containing Curcuma, Acacia and Lupinus Extracts as an Anti-inflammatory Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M M Hamzah

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Summary: This work was suggested on the basis of presence of curcuminoids in curcuma and the presence of flavonoidal constituent in acacia and lupinus. The aim of this study was to study their possible anti-inflammatory effect by separately formulation of the three extracts in a suitable gel formula for topical administration and comparison of the prepared gels with a standard gel in the market (diclosal Emulgel by using the carrageenan induced paw edema model in albino rats. The extracts were subjected to phytochemical screening tests using reported methods to determine the presence of various phytoconstituents. Gel formulation was prepared containing 8% of each extract separately in gel base, namely sodium carboxy methyl cellulose (NaCMC. The pharmacological screening revealed that percent reduction of edema produced by curcuma extract was 30.0%, by acacia extract was 4%, by ethanol fraction lupinus was 18% and by chloroform fraction lupinus was 11.3%, while diclofenac sodium topical gel produced 48% reduction of edema. Industrial relevance: Medicinal plants provide a host of chemical compounds, which have been optimized on the basis of their biological activities. Chemical compounds present in medicinal plants have shown great promise in the management of various inflammatory disorders and have continued to serve as alternative and complementary therapies. The present study will help the industry to produce herbal drug effective in the treatment of inflammation with less side effect and less costly when compared to the synthetic drugs.

  15. Topical tranexamic acid as a novel treatment for bleeding peptic ulcer: A randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandana Rafeey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Peptic ulcers are among the most common causes of upper gastrointestinal (GI bleeding in children. The standard care for GI bleeding is endoscopy for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. We aimed to assess the effect of topical tranexamic acid (TXA via endoscopic procedures in children with GI bleeding caused by bleeding ulcers. Procedure: In this randomised controlled trial, 120 children were evaluated by diagnostic procedures for GI bleeding, of which 63 (30 girls, 33 boys aged 1-month to 15 years were recruited. The patients were randomly divided into case and control groups. In the case group, TXA was administered directly under endoscopic therapy. In the control group, epinephrine (1/10,000 was submucosally injected to the four quadrants of ulcer margins as the routine endoscopic therapy. In both groups, the patients received supportive medical therapy with intravenous fluids and proton pump inhibitor drugs. Results: The mean ± standard deviation age of the children was 5 ± 2.03 years. Rebleeding occurred in 15 (11.4% and 21 (9.8% patients in the case and control groups, respectively (P = 0.50. The frequency of blood transfusion episodes (P = 0.06 and duration of hospital stay (P = 0.07 were not statistically different between the groups. Conclusion: Using topical TXA via endoscopic procedures may be effective in cases of GI bleedings caused by active bleeding ulcers. In order to establish this therapeutic effect, a large number of clinical studies are needed.

  16. Dithiol-PEG-PDLLA micelles: preparation and evaluation as potential topical ocular delivery vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jian; Yan, Jing; Zhou, Zhihan; Amsden, Brian G

    2014-04-14

    Thiol-modified nanoparticles have potential applications in mucoadhesive drug delivery and have been examined in this regard for topical ocular delivery. In this paper we provide a simple method for the synthesis of a dithiol terminated amphiphilic diblock copolymer. Bidentate dithiol-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(d,l-lactide) (SH2-PEG-PDLLA) was synthesized and micelles with dithiol-containing coronas were prepared from this block copolymer via the emulsion method. In vitro release studies indicated that the presence of the thiol groups at the surface did not affect the rate of release of dexamethasone, used as a representative ocular drug. The micelles also showed low cytotoxicity to human corneal epithelial cells (HCEC) and murine fibroblast cells (3T3 cells). A hydrophobic red fluorophore, Nile red, was loaded into the core of micelles and confocal microscopy was used to study HCEC uptake and retention of the micelles. The micelles were rapidly endocytosed by the HCEC, with intracellular micelle levels remaining unchanged with incubation times from 5 to 120 min. Interestingly, Nile red was eliminated significantly more slowly from HCECs treated with the thiolated micelles. These results suggest that these dithiolated micelles may be effective for topical ocular drug delivery. PMID:24611557

  17. Comprehensive evaluation of carboxylated nanodiamond as a topical drug delivery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Dae Gon; Kim, Ki Hyun; Kang, Eunah; Lim, Sun Hee; Ricci, Jeremy; Sung, Si Kwon; Kwon, Myoung Taek; Jeong, Seong Hoon

    2016-01-01

    The best strategy in the development of topical drug delivery systems may be to facilitate the permeation of drugs without any harmful effects, while staying on the skin surface and maintaining stability of the system. Nanodiamonds (NDs) play a key role with their excellent physicochemical properties, including high biocompatibility, physical adsorption, reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging capability, and photostabilizing activity. Z-average sizes of carboxylated ND (ND–COOH) agglutinate decreased significantly as the pH increased. Fluorescein-conjugated ND was observed only on the stratum corneum, and no sample diffused into the dermal layer even after 48 hours. Moreover, ND–COOH and ND–COOH/eugenol complex did not show significant toxic effects on murine macrophage cells. ND improved in vitro skin permeation >50% acting as a “drug reservoir” to maintain a high drug concentration in the donor chamber, which was supported by quartz crystal microbalance results. Moreover, ND–COOH could adsorb a drug amount equivalent to 80% of its own weight. A photostability study showed that ND–COOH increased the photostability ~47% with regard to rate constant of the eugenol itself. A significant decrease in ROS was observed in the ND–COOH and ND–COOH/eugenol complex compared with the negative control during intracellular ROS assay. Moreover, ROS and cupric reducing antioxidant capacity evaluation showed that ND–COOH had synergistic effects of antioxidation with eugenol. Therefore, ND–COOH could be used as an excellent topical drug delivery system with improved permeability, higher stability, and minimized safety issue. PMID:27307736

  18. Assessment of topical versus oral ivermectin as a treatment for head lice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Hesham M; Abdel-Azim, Eman S; Abdel-Aziz, Rasha T

    2014-01-01

    Many medications are available for treatment of pediculosis capitis including ivermectin. Our aim is to compare the efficacy and safety of topical versus oral ivermectin in treatment of pediculosis capitis. Sixty-two patients with proved head lice infestation were included and divided into group I (31 patients; received single topical application of 1% ivermectin) and group II (31 patients; received single dose of oral ivermectin). Treatment was repeated after 1 week for nonresponders. At 1 week after treatment, the eradication rates and improvement of pruritus were significantly higher among patients who received topical than oral ivermectin. When a second treatment, topical or oral, was given to nonresponders, the cure rates of infestation and pruritus was 100% and 97% among patients treated with topical and oral ivermectin, respectively with no significant difference between the two groups. This study suggests that both topical and oral ivermectin demonstrate high efficacy and tolerability in treatment of pediculosis capitis. However, a single treatment with topical ivermectin provides significantly higher cure of infestation and faster relief of pruritus than oral ivermectin. In addition, whether topical or oral ivermectin is used to treat head lice, a second dose is required in some cases to ensure complete eradication.

  19. Gaining trust as well as respect in communicating to motivated audiences about science topics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiske, Susan T; Dupree, Cydney

    2014-09-16

    Expertise is a prerequisite for communicator credibility, entailing the knowledge and ability to be accurate. Trust also is essential to communicator credibility. Audiences view trustworthiness as the motivation to be truthful. Identifying whom to trust follows systematic principles. People decide quickly another's apparent intent: Who is friend or foe, on their side or not, or a cooperator or competitor. Those seemingly on their side are deemed warm (friendly, trustworthy). People then decide whether the other is competent to enact those intents. Perception of scientists, like other social perceptions, involves inferring both their apparent intent (warmth) and capability (competence). To illustrate, we polled adults online about typical American jobs, rated as American society views them, on warmth and competence dimensions, as well as relevant emotions. Ambivalently perceived high-competence but low-warmth, "envied" professions included lawyers, chief executive officers, engineers, accountants, scientists, and researchers. Being seen as competent but cold might not seem problematic until one recalls that communicator credibility requires not just status and expertise but also trustworthiness (warmth). Other research indicates the risk from being enviable. Turning to a case study of scientific communication, another online sample of adults described public attitudes toward climate scientists specifically. Although distrust is low, the apparent motive to gain research money is distrusted. The literature on climate science communicators agrees that the public trusts impartiality, not persuasive agendas. Overall, communicator credibility needs to address both expertise and trustworthiness. Scientists have earned audiences' respect, but not necessarily their trust. Discussing, teaching, and sharing information can earn trust to show scientists' trustworthy intentions.

  20. Adrenal insufficiency as a result of long-term misuse of topical corticosteroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böckle, Barbara C; Jara, David; Nindl, Werner; Aberer, Werner; Sepp, Norbert T

    2014-01-01

    The treatment of chronic inflammatory skin disease is associated with the use of topical corticosteroids. Their efficacy, tolerability and adverse effects depend on several factors, specifically potency, type of preparation, extemporaneous dilutions, quantity used, magnitude of the treated body surface, frequency of application, location, patient age, method of application and condition of the skin barrier. We report on two men suffering from chronic inflammatory skin disease, who presented with fatigue and cushingoid appearance after prolonged self-application of potent corticosteroids. Impairment of the skin barrier due to their underlying skin disease, frequent self-application of topical steroids and repeated application of the entire body led to extensive absorption of these substances, eventually culminating in the suppression of the pituitary-hypothalamic-adrenal axis. In conclusion, topical corticosteroids are effective and well-established therapeutic modalities. However, inappropriate use of topical corticosteroids can cause side effects. PMID:24751677

  1. Topical issues of functioning a region as a social-economic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Andreyevich Timofeyev

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective to identify the topical issues of forming a region as a socialeconomic system. Methods systematic approach based on general scientific methods of empirical and theoretical research such as observation and comparison analysis and synthesis induction and deduction as well as comparativehistorical method statistical methods macroeconomic analysis. Results the major issues of applying a systematic approach to the analysis of the region as a socioeconomic system were explored and analyzed. The authors proved the most important features of the system considered different points of view on the content of the region as a system category analyzed the basic paradigm of the region functioning identified specific properties inherent to the region as a system conducted analysis of the modern Russian and foreign literature which showed that at present there is no consensus about the structural content of the region as an economic system at mesolevel suggested the authorsrsquo definition of the region category conclusions were made about the applicability of systematic approach to analyzing a region as a socioeconomic system. Scientific novelty the trends and problems of the region formation as an economic system were specifiedin the form of components of a single social and economic system the conceptual scheme for the region development as a socioeconomic system at mesolevel was proposed the author39s definition of the regionwas given. The suggested conceptual framework focuses on regional subsystems each of which is characterized by resources capacity the effective use of which is intended to ensure the sustainable and competitive territory development while increasing the quality of life of the population under federalism and globalization. Practical significance conclusions and suggestions can be used by public authorities in the strategic policy development for the effective management of the Russian regions. nbsp

  2. Claims-making of Danish Muslims during the Muhammad Caricatures Controversy: A Challenge to the Principles of the Secular Public Sphere?

    OpenAIRE

    LINDEKILDE, Lasse E.

    2008-01-01

    During the Danish public debate following the publication of the twelve Muhammad caricatures in September 2005, many commentators stated that the (re)actions/claims of Danish Muslims showed lack of familiarity with the basic principles of democracy and Danish traditions of political debate. The article offers an empirical test to several such public accusations through a systematic analysis of the content and justification of Muslim claims throughout the controversy. Thus, the paper raises th...

  3. Ferulic Acid-Based Polymers with Glycol Functionality as a Versatile Platform for Topical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouimet, Michelle A; Faig, Jonathan J; Yu, Weiling; Uhrich, Kathryn E

    2015-09-14

    Ferulic acid-based polymers with aliphatic linkages have been previously synthesized via solution polymerization methods, yet they feature relatively slow ferulic acid release rates (∼11 months to 100% completion). To achieve a more rapid release rate as required in skin care formulations, ferulic acid-based polymers with ethylene glycol linkers were prepared to increase hydrophilicity and, in turn, increase ferulic acid release rates. The polymers were characterized using nuclear magnetic resonance and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopies to confirm chemical composition. The molecular weights, thermal properties (e.g., glass transition temperature), and contact angles were also obtained and the polymers compared. Polymer glass transition temperature was observed to decrease with increasing linker molecule length, whereas increasing oxygen content decreased polymer contact angle. The polymers' chemical structures and physical properties were shown to influence ferulic acid release rates and antioxidant activity. In all polymers, ferulic acid release was achieved with no bioactive decomposition. These polymers demonstrate the ability to strategically release ferulic acid at rates and concentrations relevant for topical applications such as skin care products. PMID:26258440

  4. Working Capital Management as a routine: An action based access to the topic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Kroflin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In times of unstable capital markets on the one side and historically low interests on the other, working capital management must be discussed from different perspectives. Limited sources of liquidity, and the high refinancing risk of lending companies, make the reduction of current assets and liabilities an even more important management task than before. On the other hand, low interest rates raise the need for defining the optimum level for working capital. Little research and empirical evidence exists when it comes to lifting working capital targets to create value. The objective of the present paper is to give evidence on whether German companies adapt their behavior in terms of handling working capital in the actual economic environment and to describe which practices have been established to perform this adaptation. The given analysis is based on a qualitative study. The data used have been gathered in 2014 and 2015 during semi structured interviews with CFOs or financial executives of 15 German and Austrian industrial firms. Our study suggests that adaptation is realized rather by moderating management attention and focus to the topic of capital cost but not by adjusting the financial targets themselves. This is because working capital reduction as become a management routine.

  5. Topical treatment with propranolol gel as a supplement to the existing treatment of hemangiomas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Markus Schneider; Andreas Reimer; Hansjoerg Cremer; Peter Ruef

    2014-01-01

    Background: Systemic treatment with propranolol is proven to be effective for patients with hemangiomas with less side-effect. We used a propranolol gel for topical use on hemangiomas. Methods: In this retrospective study, we analyzed 148 patients who had been treated topically with propranolol gel for 12 weeks. We analyzed the data of patients and clinically gave each hemangioma a "hemangioma score" to determine the treatment success. Results: In 147 of the 148 patients, strong signs of resolution under treatment included lightening, paling, and less vascularization. The hemangioma score showed a signifi cant decrease during the treatment. Relevant serum levels of propranolol were not found. Adverse effects were rare and not related to propranolol. Conclusion: Topical treatment with propranolol gel is suitable for specific hemangiomas in addition to cryotherapy and systemic treatment with propranolol.

  6. Topical pimecrolimus as a new optional treatment in cutaneous sarcoidosis of lichenoid type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tammaro, Antonella; Abruzzese, Claudia; Narcisi, Alessandra; Cortesi, Giorgia; Parisella, Francesca Romana; Di Russo, Pier Paolo; De Marco, Gabriella; Persechino, Severino

    2014-01-01

    We report the case of cutaneous sarcoidosis of lichenoid type successfully treated with pimecrolimus. For the first time in the literature, we propose the use of this topical calcineurin inhibitor for the treatment of the cases refractory to common therapy regimens. PMID:24826355

  7. Topical Pimecrolimus as a New Optional Treatment in Cutaneous Sarcoidosis of Lichenoid Type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Tammaro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of cutaneous sarcoidosis of lichenoid type successfully treated with pimecrolimus. For the first time in the literature, we propose the use of this topical calcineurin inhibitor for the treatment of the cases refractory to common therapy regimens.

  8. Topical Pimecrolimus as a New Optional Treatment in Cutaneous Sarcoidosis of Lichenoid Type

    OpenAIRE

    Antonella Tammaro; Claudia Abruzzese; Alessandra Narcisi; Giorgia Cortesi; Francesca Romana Parisella; Pier Paolo Di Russo; Gabriella De Marco; Severino Persechino

    2014-01-01

    We report the case of cutaneous sarcoidosis of lichenoid type successfully treated with pimecrolimus. For the first time in the literature, we propose the use of this topical calcineurin inhibitor for the treatment of the cases refractory to common therapy regimens.

  9. Oral Language Development as a Precursor to Literacy. ERIC Topical Bibliography and Commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Carl B., Ed.

    Research suggests that oral language development is directly related to literacy, and is crucial for success in learning to be literate. This topical bibliography and commentary discusses language acquisition theories, components of language, phonology in literacy, and a first-grade classroom study that explored "literate talk" in the classroom…

  10. Experiences of Teaching the Heat Energy Topic in English as a Second Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, Lilia; Dahlan, Fathiyah; Treagust, David F.; Chandrasegaran, A. L.

    2012-01-01

    In view of the current debate in Malaysia about the teaching of science and mathematics in English, a qualitative study was undertaken involving a purposeful sampling of three non-physics teachers to ascertain how well equipped they were with the necessary pedagogical content knowledge relating to the teaching of the topic of "heat energy" in the…

  11. Reclaiming Race as a Topic of the U.S. Biology Textbook Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Brian M.

    2015-01-01

    Even though human racial difference has been a longstanding topic of the school biology curriculum, there is little evidence that contemporary biology textbooks challenge stereotypical racial beliefs that are based in biological thinking. Rather, the modern biology curriculum may be a place where such beliefs about race are perpetuated…

  12. Evaluation of Topical Preparations Containing Curcuma, Acacia and Lupinus Extracts as an Anti-inflammatory Drugs

    OpenAIRE

    M M Hamzah

    2011-01-01

    Summary: This work was suggested on the basis of presence of curcuminoids in curcuma and the presence of flavonoidal constituent in acacia and lupinus. The aim of this study was to study their possible anti-inflammatory effect by separately formulation of the three extracts in a suitable gel formula for topical administration and comparison of the prepared gels with a standard gel in the market (diclosal Emulgel) by using the carrageenan induced paw edema model in albino rats. The extracts we...

  13. The human heart and the circulatory system as an interesting interdisciplinary topic in lessons of physics and biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volná, M.; Látal, F.; Kubínek, R.; Richterek, L.

    2014-01-01

    Many topics which are closely related can be found in the national curriculum of the Czech Republic for physics and biology. One of them is the heart and the circulatory system in the human body. This topic was examined cross curriculum, a teaching module was created and the topic was chosen for our research. The task was to determine if the students of bachelor study are aware of connections between physics and biology within this topic and whether we can help them effectively to describe the corresponding physics phenomena in the human body connected, for example, with a heart attack or with the measurement of blood pressure. In this paper, the heart and the circulatory system are presented as suitable topics for an interdisciplinary teaching module which includes both theoretical and experimental parts. The module was evaluated by a group of first-year undergraduate students of physics at the Faculty of Science, Palacký University. The acquired knowledge was compared with another control group through a test. The highest efficiency of the module was evaluated on the basis of questions that covered the calculation problems.

  14. Fluorouracil Topical

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... topical solution are used to treat actinic or solar keratoses (scaly or crusted lesions [skin areas] caused by years of too much exposure to sunlight). Fluorouracil cream and topical solution are also used to treat ...

  15. Bimatoprost Topical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topical bimatoprost is used to treat hypotrichosis (less than the normal amount of hair) of the eyelashes by promoting ... growth of longer, thicker, and darker lashes. Topical bimatoprost is in a class of medications called prostaglandin ...

  16. Testosterone Topical

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in which the body does not produce enough natural testosterone). Testosterone is used only for men with ... topical may control your symptoms but will not cure your condition. Continue to use testosterone topical even ...

  17. Garcinia gardneriana (Planchon & Triana) Zappi. (Clusiaceae) as a topical anti-inflammatory alternative for cutaneous inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otuki, Michel F; Bernardi, Camila A; Prudente, Arthur S; Laskoski, Kerly; Gomig, Franciane; Horinouchi, Cintia D S; Guimarães, Claudio L; Ferreira, Juliano; Delle-Monache, Franco; Cechinel-Filho, Valdir; Cabrini, Daniela A

    2011-07-01

    Garcinia gardneriana is popularly used in skin disorders; therefore, this article investigated the effect of G. gardneriana extracts from leaves, bark and seeds and two isolated compounds in ear oedema and leucocytes migration caused by croton oil. The topical application of the extract of G. gardneriana leaves was able to reduce (70 ± 3%, and ID(50) 0.33 mg/ear) ear oedema, while the seeds (51 ± 5%) and the wood (60 ± 12%) extracts were less effective. In a time-course evaluation, the leaf extract (1 mg/ear) was effective when applied 2 hr before and until 3 hr after the stimulation, presenting a higher effectiveness when applied right after croton oil (83 ± 7% inhibition). In addition, the leaf extract was able to diminish the myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in 64 ± 13%, which suggests the inhibition of leucocyte infiltration that was confirmed by histological analysis. Also, both biflavonoids isolated from the leaves of G. gardneriana, fukugetin (or morelloflavone) and 13-naringenin-II 8-eriodictyol (GB-2a), were able to reduce ear oedema, with ID(50) values of 0.18 (0.10-0.28) and 0.22 (0.15-0.31) mg/ear, respectively, besides the inhibition of MPO activity of 52 ± 6% and 64 ± 5%, respectively. Using the fluorescent probe 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate, the leaf extract, fukugetin and GB-2a topically applied to the ear treated with croton oil reduced 52 ± 15%, 63 ± 17% and 83 ± 4%, respectively, the production of reactive oxygen species of the skin. Thus, these results reveal the anti-inflammatory effect of G. gardneriana leaves for topical usage, and both biflavonoids are responsible for this effect. PMID:21362142

  18. The State and Modernity as Anthropological Topics: A Very Short Introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Marina Simić

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to offer a brief introduction to anthropological studies of modernity and the state. I try to introduce some of the most important theoretical works in this field, built up in different ethnographic contexts ranging from Turkey to Latin America. I was trying to show some of the possibilities of the research of modernity and the state in anthropology emphasizing what anthropology can offer to wider debates on these topics. I argue that the ideas of modernity and the state are f...

  19. Severe hyperkalemia as a complication of timolol, a topically applied beta-adrenergic antagonist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swenson, E.R.

    1986-06-01

    Severe hyperkalemia occurred in a patient with radiation pneumonitis and glaucoma shortly after beginning prednisone therapy. There was no evidence of renal failure, diabetes, acidosis, increased potassium intake, or significant tissue trauma. Medications having adverse effects on potassium metabolism were considered, and the patient's use of timolol maleate eyedrops was discontinued. His serum potassium level normalized despite continuation of the prednisone therapy. He became hyperkalemic on rechallenge with timolol and normokalemic following its withdrawal. This case indicates that the potential for beta-blocker-induced hyperkalemia exists even with topical appreciation.

  20. The Concept of the Interculture in Time: (Intercultural Topics in Textbooks of French as a Foreign Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meta Lah

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the concept of interculturality as used in foreign language didactics. In accordance with the definition of interculturality given in the first part of the article, two categories are included in the analysis – two “levels” of culture, each of them bearing a different name in literature, namely high and popular culture. Various textbooks used for teaching French as a foreign language in Slovenia in both the past and present were chosen for the analysis of topics that cover a fairly long period of time – among them the textbooks by two Slovenian authors: Južnič (1938 and Grad (1954, as well as some generally-used French textbooks, such as Cours de langue et de civilisation françaises (1953, Le nouveau sans frontières (1988 and Nouveau rond point (2011. The article is based on the hypothesis that high culture is more likely to be present in the older textbooks, which are based on traditional methods, whereas in modern textbooks more popular, everyday topics can be found. It is also presumed that topics in modern textbooks are, compared to their more traditional counterparts, introduced in an intercultural manner which could encourage students to compare the culture of the foreign country with their own. Both hypotheses are partly confirmed. In Slovenian textbooks there are very few culture-based topics. On the other hand, they are present in all French textbooks, regardless of the methodology. It is true that Mauger introduces more high culture than the others and that the intercultural topics are presented only in the most recent textbook. In all the others, it is exclusively the culture of the target country that is introduced.

  1. Comparison of intravenous and topical lidocaine as a suppressant of coughing after bronchoscopy during general anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, C J; Ahlburg, P; Holdgård, H O; Olsen, K H; Thomsen, A

    1991-04-01

    Twenty-four consecutive patients scheduled for fiberbronchoscopy were randomized to receive double-blind either intravenous (1.5 mg/kg) or laryngotracheal (3 mg/kg) lidocaine to evaluate the influence on post-bronchoscopic laryngospasm, pain in the throat and coughing. Plasma lidocaine concentrations were analyzed 5, 15, 30 and 60 min after administration. None of the patients demonstrated laryngospasm or pain in the throat during the first hour after bronchoscopy. Patients receiving topical lidocaine coughed significantly more than patients receiving intravenous lidocaine, with a median number of coughs of 20 compared to 4, during the first hour (P less than 0.01). The plasma lidocaine concentrations were significantly higher after intravenous than after topical administration (P less than 0.001). After intravenous administration the plasma lidocaine concentrations exceeded the accepted level for potential toxicity in five out of 11 patients, but none of the patients developed toxic symptoms and no side-effects were observed. PMID:2038931

  2. Topic and Textual Coherence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何明烈; 戢焕奇

    2008-01-01

    Based on the investigation of the origin and definition of topic as well as the classification of textual coherence, this paper ana-lyzes the function of topic to non-coherence, imphcit coherence and explicit coherence, and concludes that topic relevance is the primary cri-terion for textual coherence.

  3. A Case Report: Red Skin Syndrome- as the Rebound Effect of Using a Long Term Potent Topical Corticosteroid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristine D. Octaviani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available 31 years old male suffered from a rare skin disorder, diagnosed of red skin syndrome. Seven years ago, symptoms was begun with a light itching on skin area of body as well as face, and visited a general practitioner, diagnosed of light allergic rhinitis. He was prescribed oral corticosteroid, methyl prednisolone 4 mg b.i.d and very potent topical corticosteroid, clobetasol. The symptoms was significantly disappeared and being rebound after stopping the prescription. To maintain this rebound effect, for seven years in on-off unhealed conditions, he used topical cream corticosteroid, clobetasol, that fully masked this worst rebound condition. When application of the topical cream was stopped, rebound effect relapsed and even red skin syndrome became worse than before. After 20 months of being fully stopped from corticosteroid, the symptoms finally slowly reduced. He almost fully recovered and had a normal life until now December 2013. By this case, we can learn that this red skin syndrome, resulted from side effect of corticosteroid, will be stopped by fully stopping administering orally or topically, and this will take quite long time for skin to recover.

  4. Nanoemulsion as a carrier to improve the topical anti-inflammatory activity of stem bark extract of Rapanea ferruginea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Mas, Juarana; Zermiani, Tailyn; Thiesen, Liliani C; Silveira, Joana LM; da Silva, Kathryn ABS; de Souza, Márcia M; Malheiros, Angela; Bresolin, Tania MB; Lucinda-Silva, Ruth M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop nanoemulsion containing soft extract of stem bark of Rapanea ferruginea to improve the topical delivery and anti-inflammatory activity. The extract of R. ferruginea stem bark was incorporated into the oily phase of the nanoemulsion by the method of phase inversion at low energy. The developed nanoemulsion had an average droplet size of 47.88±8.20 nm and a polydispersibility index of 0.228. Uniformity of size, spherical shape of droplet, and absence of clusters were confirmed by transmission electronic microscopy. The zeta potential was −34.7±1.15 mV. The nanoemulsion showed a moderate degree of skin irritation in the agarose overlay assay in vitro. The content of the extract markers, myrsinoic acids A and B, was 54.10±0.08 and 53.03 μg/g in the formulation, respectively. The formulation demonstrated pseudoplastic and thixotropic rheological behavior. In vitro release of chemical markers was controlled by diffusion mechanism. An extract-loaded nanoemulsion showed a topical anti-inflammatory activity in a croton oil-induced edema ear model, with a decrease in tumor necrosis factor release and myeloperoxidase activity. The nanoemulsion was 160% more efficient than the conventional cream containing 0.13% of the extract. The nanoemulsion showed suitable properties as a carrier for topical use of R. ferruginea extract and the approach for improving the topical anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:27660442

  5. Topical Drugs for Pain Relief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali Srinivasan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Topical therapy helps patients with oral and perioral pain problems such as ulcers, burning mouth syndrome, temporomandibular disorders, neuromas, neuropathies and neuralgias. Topical drugs used in the field of dentistry are topical anaesthetics, topical analgesics, topical antibiotics and topical corticosteroids. It provides symptomatic/curative effect. Topical drugs are easy to apply, avoids hepatic first pass metabolism and more sites specific. But it can only be used for medications that require low plasma concentrations to achieve a therapeutic effect.

  6. Participation of women as authors and editors in journals concerned with mental retardation and related topics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Cari L; Christian, LeeAnn; Poling, Alan

    2003-02-01

    The present survey determined women's participation in eight journals concerned with mental retardation and related topics. The number of female authors was recorded for all articles published in these journals from 1991 through 2000. The number of women on the editorial board each year, for each journal, also was tabulated. For all years and all journals, women were first authors of 41% of articles published. Women wrote 34% of single-author articles. Overall, 45% of all authors were women. Women constituted 34% of the editorial board members for the eight journals combined. In sum, these data suggest that women's contribution to the mental retardation literature decreases with the prestige of the activity. PMID:12597719

  7. Efficacy and Toxicity of Zinc Salts as Candidate Topical Microbicides against Vaginal Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, Nigel; Stegall, Rachael; Montano, Raquel; Meador, Michael; Stanberry, Lawrence R.; Milligan, Gregg N.

    2005-01-01

    Zinc salt solutions administered as topical microbicides provided significant protection against herpes simplex virus type 2 infection in a mouse vaginal challenge model. However, at the therapeutic concentration, the salt solutions caused sloughing of sheets of vaginal epithelial cells. These observations limit the utility of zinc salts as microbicides and suggest that the application of zinc solutions to mucosal surfaces has the potential to cause damage that might increase susceptibility to secondary infections at a later time. PMID:15728922

  8. AI Topics

    OpenAIRE

    Buchanan, Bruce G; Glick, Jonathan

    2002-01-01

    The debut of the AI in the News column elsewhere in this issue of AI Magazine created a good opportunity to introduce the professional community to the AI Topics web site, home of the AI in the news virtual page. Although AI Topics is designed for the lay public, it serves a much larger audience.

  9. Misselling as a New Topic of Financial Education? A Didactic Analysis of Investment Advise after the Financial Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Loerwald

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Personal financial investments are, as a matter of course, a topic of economic education because they are a life situation which is inherently economical. In contrast, faulty advising in banks which has become focussed upon due to the extent it has played a part in the recent financial crisis is mentioned neither in curricula nor in educational text books. Numerous private funds have been exposed as unprofitable investments. One reason for this problem is to be found in the marketing staff of the banks who did not invest their customer’s funds securely enough – and the customers did not notice it. What conclusions can be drawn from this for general financial education after the financial crisis? The economic education has failed to address the topic of “faulty advising in banks” as well. On the basis of categorical economic didactics the following contribution will analyse whether one has an exemplary case here upon which students can win generalized, transferable insights. In this context, the topic of personal financial investments will be classified in an efficient manner and the risk of opportunism in advising situations will be analysed with the help of the positive principal-agent theory. The results of this analysis of informational asymmetries within financial markets give direction to the development and revision of curricula in the didactics of economic education. With the following article a sustainable theoretical fundament will be created to underscore the obligatory inclusion of this topic in curricula as well as its realisation for target groups in school text books.

  10. Lavender-thymol as a new topical aromatherapy preparation for episiotomy: A randomised clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzouk, T; Barakat, R; Ragab, A; Badria, F; Badawy, A

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of topical lavender-thymol in promoting episiotomy healing. This placebo-controlled, single-blinded, randomised clinical trial involved 60 primiparous women. REEDA score was used to evaluate the outcome of the trial. On the 7th post-partum day, women in Placebo-treated group had worse Redness, Edema, Ecchymosis, Discharge and Approximation (REEDA) score of 3.93 ± 3.65 compared with those in Lavender-thymol-treated group (2.03 ± 1.7) with significant difference (P = 0.013). Visual analogue Scale (VAS) score for pain at episiotomy in Lavender-thymol-treated group was 3.5 ± 1.9, whereas in Placebo-treated group it was 2.1 ± 2.2 (p = 0.011) for dyschezia, 3.8 ± 1.7 and 2.8 ± 1.6 in Placebo- and Lavender-thymol-treated women, respectively (p = 0.023). At 7th post-partum week, dyspareunia was more severe in Placebo-treated group compared with that in Lavender-thymol-treated group (5.3 ± 2.7 vs 2.7 ± 1.5 and p aromatherapy using lavender-thymol was highly effective, suitable and safe for episiotomy wound care with little or no expected side effects compared with that using placebo. PMID:25384116

  11. Tert-butyl benzoquinone: mechanism of biofilm eradication and potential for use as a topical antibiofilm agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, N.; Eady, E. A.; Cove, J. H.; O'Neill, A. J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Tert-butyl benzoquinone (TBBQ) is the oxidation product of tert-butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ), an antimicrobial food additive with >40 years of safe use. TBBQ displays potent activity against Staphylococcus aureus biofilms in vitro. Here, we report on studies to further explore the action of TBBQ on staphylococcal biofilms, and provide a preliminary preclinical assessment of its potential for use as a topical treatment for staphylococcal infections involving a biofilm component. Methods The antibacterial properties of TBBQ were assessed against staphylococci growing in planktonic culture and as biofilms in the Calgary Biofilm Device. Established assays were employed to measure the effects of TBBQ on biofilm structure and bacterial membranes, and to assess resistance potential. A living-skin equivalent was used to evaluate the effects of TBBQ on human skin. Results TBBQ eradicated biofilms of S. aureus and other staphylococcal species at concentrations ≤64 mg/L. In contrast to other redox-active agents exhibiting activity against biofilms, TBBQ did not cause substantial destructuring of the biofilm matrix; instead, the antibiofilm activity of the compound was attributed to its ability to kill slow- and non-growing cells via membrane perturbation. TBBQ acted synergistically with gentamicin, did not damage a living-skin equivalent following topical application and exhibited low resistance potential. Conclusions The ability of TBBQ to eradicate biofilms appears to result from its ability to kill bacteria regardless of growth state. Preliminary evaluation suggests that TBBQ represents a promising candidate for development as a topical antibiofilm agent. PMID:27121399

  12. Angiomatous reaction Kaposi-sarcoma-like as a side effect of topical corticosteroid therapy in lichen sclerosus of the penis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catricalà, Caterina; Marenda, Samantha; Muscardin, Luca Maria; Donati, Pietro; Lepri, Andrea; Eibenschutz, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Lichen sclerosus (LS) is a chronic inflammatory skin condition usually located in the anogenital area. Topical corticosteroid therapy is the first choice treatment which may arrest or delay the progression of the disorder. We report the case of a 74-year-old man presented with a 6-month history of nodular lesions localized on penis. The man had a previous history of genital lesions that had been diagnosed as LS and treated with long-term topical corticosteroid therapy. After 3 months of corticosteroid therapy, the patient observed the appearance of several nodular erythematous lesions on the penis with progressive disappearance of the clinical symptoms of LS. These purple to red asymptomatic angiomatoid nodules resembled the clinical features of Kaposi sarcoma. PMID:19580581

  13. Research on the Application of Motion Perception in Caricature and Animation Creation%论运动知觉在动漫创作中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄唯

    2012-01-01

    在动漫创作中,创作者如果忽视对“运动知觉”的一些基本原理的应用,必然会影响动画片制作的效率和质量。文章结合电影心理学的相关理论,通过实例比较和分析,探讨“运动知觉”这一原理在漫画、二维动画片及三维动画片创作中的应用及其意义。%The neglect of some basic principles of "motion perception" will influence the efficiency and quality of the creators" caricature and animation creation. Based on the related theories of film psychol- ogy, and by means of case comparison and analysis, this paper discusses the application of the "motion perception" in the creation of caricature, two-dimensional and three-dimensional animations and its significance.

  14. A Summary of Information on the Behavior of the Yakima Fold Belt as a Structural Entity -- Topical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Last, George V.; Winsor, Kelsey; Unwin, Stephen D.

    2012-08-01

    This document is one in a series of topical reports compiled by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to summarize technical information on selected topics important to the performance of a probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) of the Hanford Site. The purpose of this report is to summarize available data and analyses relevant to the Yakima Fold Belt (YFB) that may bear on the question of whether or not the YFB behaves as a single seismotectonic province in which activity along one fold structure is representative of behavior along all other fold structures. This topic has met with a fairly high level of contention in the expert community and has the potential to result in significant impacts on an evaluation of seismic hazard at the Hanford Site. This report defines the relevant alternative conceptual models relevant to this technical issue and the arguments and data that support those models. It provides a brief description of the technical issue and principal uncertainties; a general overview on the nature of the technical issue, along with alternative conceptual models, supporting arguments and information, and uncertainties; and finally, it suggests some possible approaches for reducing uncertainties regarding this issue.

  15. Clindamycin Topical

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... topical clindamycin.you should know that abrasive or medicated soaps and skin products that contain alcohol may ... in, tightly closed, and out of reach of children. Store it at room temperature and away from ...

  16. Estradiol Topical

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Estradiol topical gel is also used to treat vaginal dryness, itching, and burning in women who are experiencing menopause. However, women whose only bothersome symptoms are vaginal burning, itching, and dryness may benefit more from a medication that is ...

  17. Tretinoin Topical

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lotions, astringents, and perfumes); they can sting your skin, especially when you first use tretinoin.Do not use any other topical medications, especially benzoyl peroxide, salicylic acid (wart remover), and dandruff shampoos containing sulfur or ...

  18. Un contexte danois caricatural

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojsen, Heidi; Malki Jepsen, Johan

    2006-01-01

    Artikel om baggrunden for reaktionerne på Islam i Danmark og på publiceringen af karikaturtegningerne af Muhammed i Jyllandsposten i 2005. Om forholdet mellem social status, magt og ytringsfrihed...

  19. [Topical therapy of rosacea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöfer, H

    2013-07-01

    Metronidazole and azelaic acid are the only topical medications approved for rosacea. All other topical treatments for rosacea and its special forms are used off-label. Topical steroids are not indicated in rosacea, because of their side effects (induction of steroid rosacea, high risk of facial skin atrophy, and high risk of rebound after cessation of therapy). Topical as well as systemic steroids are allowed only as initial and short term therapy for acute forms of rosacea (e.g. rosacea fulminans). Papular and pustular rosacea is the major indication for topical therapy. Sebaceous gland and connective tissue hyperplasia in glandular-hypertrophic rosacea as well as erythema in erythematous rosacea do not respond well to topical measures. A new active substance, the alpha-2-adrenoreceptor agonist brimonidine, will be approved soon for the topical treatment of erythema in rosacea. All severe forms of rosacea should initially be treated with a combination of topical and systemic agents. After improvement of the clinical symptoms, topical treatment alone is usually adequate to maintain the control.

  20. Spotlight Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Spotlight Topic consists of a set of two or more review articles focused on a specific subject in surface science. The topics are recommended by the Board of Editors. A topic may be chosen because it is particularly new or fast-breaking, thus deserving introduction to the general readership. Or, it may be because a topic is especially controversial or confusing, requiring clarification by experts. Each review will give a critical assessment rather than an encyclopedic report. While our editors always will insist on fairness and accuracy, any review which forwards an opinion is bound to be somewhat subjective. Therefore, it is the editors' wish that the set of reviews written by different authors on the same subject matter will provide a broad and balanced viewpoint. It is often the case that an author who is an expert in a technique or method may be especially enthusiastic or critical about this technique or method. A companion review in the set may provide a different viewpoint. We are hopeful that the reader, after studying these reviews and checking some of the key references, will obtain an informed opinion of the subject. We think the set of reviews in a spotlight area will considerably shorten the ``learning time'' that a nonexpert would otherwise need to become knowledgeable about a subject. In this issue, we feature a spotlight topic on oxide surfaces. The set contains an overview article by Jacques Jupille, and four articles written by G. Pacchioni, F. Cosandey and T. E. Madey, B. G. Daniels, R. Lindsay and G. Thornton, and C. Noguera respectively. Of these, the article by Pacchioni has already appeared in SRL 7, 277 (2000). The other three articles appear in this issue. A reader who wishes to suggest a spotlight topic or recommend authors to write such reviews should contact the Editor-in-Chief. We would like to hear from you.

  1. Evaluation of a polyherbal topical aerosol spray as a supportive therapy for clinical mastitis in dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramasamy Selvam

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate the polyherbal topical aerosol spray Wisprec and reg; Advanced (M/S. Natural Remedies Private Limited, India as a supportive therapy for clinical mastitis in dairy cows. A total of 41 dairy cows suffering from clinical mastitis were selected, and Wisprec and reg; Advanced was sprayed on mastitis affected quarters of udder two times a day along with a parenteral antibiotic till complete recovery. The rectal temperature, pain on palpation of udder, swelling of udder, consistency of milk, recovery period and product satisfaction score were assessed to evaluate the efficacy of Wisprec and reg; Spray. Topical application of Wisprec and reg; Advanced Spray have shown a significant improvement (p<0.001 in alleviation of rectal temperature, pain on palpation of udder and swelling of udder, and the consistency of milk was restored to normal after 3 to 4 days of treatment. The results demonstrate that the Wisprec and reg; Advanced spray could be considered as an alternative to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs as a supportive therapy for clinical mastitis of dairy cows. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2015; 2(3.000: 285-290

  2. Balancing Constraints and the Sweet Spot as Coming Topics for Creativity Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Onarheim, Balder; Biskjaer, Michael Mose

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is the introduction of two new concepts, ‘balancing constraints’ and ‘the sweet spot of creativity’, as promising new paths for creativity research. This is motivated by the fact that creativity research shows a growing interest in the fundamental entwinement of constraints...... and creativity, with skillful and innovative handling of constraints seen as a prerequisite for apt creative performance. Based on a brief review of current disparate conceptualizations of constraints as both enablers and restrainers of creative activities, we begin by proposing the unifying concept ‘creativity...... constraints’ to help establish common terminological ground. Since the presence of constraints change over time, we suggest the term ‘constrainedness’ to articulate this total constraint intensity at a given time. This allows us to introduce our main contribution, the concept ‘the sweet spot’, to address...

  3. Balancing Constraints and the Sweet Spot as Coming Topics for Creativity Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Onarheim, Balder; Biskjaer, Michael Mose

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is the introduction of two new concepts, ‘balancing constraints’ and ‘the sweet spot of creativity’, as promising new paths for creativity research. This is motivated by the fact that creativity research shows a growing interest in the fundamental entwinement of constraints...... and creativity, with skillful and innovative handling of constraints seen as a prerequisite for apt creative performance. Based on a brief review of current disparate conceptualizations of constraints as both enablers and restrainers of creative activities, we begin by proposing the unifying concept ‘creativity...... constraints’ to help establish common terminological ground. Since the presence of constraints change over time, we suggest the term ‘constrainedness’ to articulate this total constraint intensity at a given time. This allows us to introduce our main contribution, the concept ‘the sweet spot’, to address...

  4. American National Identity in a Globalized World as a Topic in the Advanced EFL-Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Freese

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to make an issue as complex and controversial as that of ‘national identity’ teachable in the advanced EFL-classroom, it has to be reduced to exemplary aspects and illustrated with concrete examples. Therefore, I will suggest an appropriate ‘Course Opener,’ briefly survey the historical unfolding of the American identity concept in order to provide teachers with the necessary background knowledge, and then suggest two teaching units, the first of which traces some major developments by means of ‘classic’ texts, whereas the second deals with the crucial issue of whether a shared language is a prerequisite for a shared identity.

  5. New insights for an old topic: seagrasses as bioindicators of coastal trace element pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Richir, Jonathan; Lejeune, Pierre; Gobert, Sylvie

    2014-01-01

    The marine magnoliophyte Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile has been widely used since the mid-70th to biomonitor the coastal pollution of the Mediterranean in Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb and/or Fe. In contrast, other trace elements (TEs) like As, V, Ag, Be, Al, Mn, Co, Se, Mo, Sn, Sb and Bi, many of them categorized as TEs of environmental emerging concern, have been subject to nearly no ecotoxicological survey with that species. It has been shown that the French Mediterranean littoral was submitted ...

  6. Advances in studies of phospholipids as carriers in skin topical application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective:This article provides an overview of characteristics of phospholipids,the characteristics and influential factors of liposome and microemulsion as carriers for skin delivery of drugs,and the latest advances of the phospholipids carriers in transdermal delivery systems.The perspective is that phospholipids carriers may be capable of a wide range of applications in the transdermal defivery system.

  7. New lidocaine lozenge as topical anesthesia compared to lidocaine viscous oral solution before upper gastrointestinal endoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Stine; Treldal, Charlotte; Feldager, Erik;

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the effect and acceptance of a new lidocaine lozenge compared with a lidocaine viscous oral solution as a pharyngeal anesthetic before upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGE), a diagnostic procedure commonly performed worldwide during which many patients experience severe discomfort mo...

  8. Nanoemulsion as a carrier to improve the topical anti-inflammatory activity of stem bark extract of Rapanea ferruginea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dal Mas J

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Juarana Dal Mas,1 Tailyn Zermiani,1 Liliani C Thiesen,1 Joana LM Silveira,2 Kathryn ABS da Silva,1 Márcia M de Souza,1 Angela Malheiros,1 Tania MB Bresolin,1 Ruth M Lucinda-Silva1 1NIQFAR, Graduate Program in Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Vale do Itajaí, Itajaí, Santa Catarina, Brazil; 2Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Federal University of Paraná, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil Abstract: The aim of this study was to develop nanoemulsion containing soft extract of stem bark of Rapanea ferruginea to improve the topical delivery and anti-inflammatory activity. The extract of R. ferruginea stem bark was incorporated into the oily phase of the nanoemulsion by the method of phase inversion at low energy. The developed nanoemulsion had an average droplet size of 47.88±8.20 nm and a polydispersibility index of 0.228. Uniformity of size, spherical shape of droplet, and absence of clusters were confirmed by transmission electronic microscopy. The zeta potential was -34.7±1.15 mV. The nanoemulsion showed a moderate degree of skin irritation in the agarose overlay assay in vitro. The content of the extract markers, myrsinoic acids A and B, was 54.10±0.08 and 53.03 µg/g in the formulation, respectively. The formulation demonstrated pseudoplastic and thixotropic rheological behavior. In vitro release of chemical markers was controlled by diffusion mechanism. An extract-loaded nanoemulsion showed a topical anti-inflammatory activity in a croton oil-induced edema ear model, with a decrease in tumor necrosis factor release and myeloperoxidase activity. The nanoemulsion was 160% more efficient than the conventional cream containing 0.13% of the extract. The nanoemulsion showed suitable properties as a carrier for topical use of R. ferruginea extract and the approach for improving the topical anti-inflammatory activity. Keywords: nanotechnology, nanoemulsion, Rapanea ferruginea, anti-inflammatory, phytomedicine

  9. Novel alginate-based nanocarriers as a strategy to include high concentrations of hydrophobic compounds in hydrogels for topical application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, H. T. P.; Munnier, E.; Souce, M.; Perse, X.; David, S.; Bonnier, F.; Vial, F.; Yvergnaux, F.; Perrier, T.; Cohen-Jonathan, S.; Chourpa, I.

    2015-06-01

    The cutaneous penetration of hydrophobic active molecules is of foremost concern in the dermatology and cosmetic formulation fields. The poor solubility in water of those molecules limits their use in hydrophilic forms such as gels, which are favored by patients with chronic skin disease. The aim of this work is to design a novel nanocarrier of hydrophobic active molecules and to determine its potential as an ingredient of a topical form. The nanocarrier consists of an oily core surrounded by a protective shell of alginate, a natural polysaccharide isolated from brown algae. These calcium alginate-based nanocarriers (CaANCs) were prepared at room temperature and without the use of organic solvent by an accelerated nanoemulsification-polymer crosslinking method. The size (hydrodynamic diameter ˜200 nm) and surface charge (zeta potential ˜ - 30 mV) of the CaANCs are both compatible with their application on skin. CaANCs loaded with a fluorescent label were stable in model hydrophilic galenic forms under different storage conditions. Curcumin was encapsulated in CaANCs with an efficiency of ˜95%, fully retaining its antioxidant activity. The application of the curcumin-loaded CaANCs on excised human skin led to a significant accumulation of the active molecules in the upper layers of the skin, asserting the potential of these nanocarriers in active pharmaceutical and cosmetic ingredients topical delivery.

  10. Same-sex families as a topic in the Nova Gorica kindergartens

    OpenAIRE

    Benko, Maja

    2013-01-01

    A family represents the beginning of someone's life. In the family a child acquires patterns, examples and directions for the future life. Families have their own sets of rules and functions which make the difference between them. As the families differ from each other, the same goes for individuals. The gender is one of the first divisions we face in our lives. It is assigned to us, although our opinion is not asked for. The gender is not a division between male and female. The social impact...

  11. TOPICAL REVIEW: Metallo-supramolecular modules as a paradigm for materials science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk G Kurth

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Metal ion coordination in discrete or extended metallo-supramolecular assemblies offers ample opportunity to fabricate and study devices and materials that are equally important for fundamental research and new technologies. Metal ions embedded in a specific ligand field offer diverse thermodynamic, kinetic, chemical, physical and structural properties that make these systems promising candidates for active components in functional materials. A key challenge is to improve and develop methodologies for placing these active modules in suitable device architectures, such as thin films or mesophases. This review highlights recent developments in extended, polymeric metallo-supramolecular systems and discrete polyoxometalates with an emphasis on materials science.

  12. Formalin (0.25% as topical anti-microbial agent in burns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nair R

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available In a prospective controlled trial, 0.25% formalin spray was compared with 2% silver sulfadiazine cream as the local treatment of burns. Formation and separation of eschar, infection and death rates were recorded. In the group receiving formalin, rates of formation and separation of eschar were significantly more (P less than 0.001 and P less than 0.05 resp. compared to other group. Infection rate and fatality due to infection were also reduced. Other advantages of formalin are ease of application and the low east.

  13. Studies on rheology and microbiological evaluation of hydrotropically gelled starch as topical vehicle for terbinafine hydrochloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao Kovur

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed for the development and evaluation of hydrotropic starch gels of terbinafine hydrochloride which is an allylamine derivative of antifungal agent was formulated by using corn starch and sodium salicylate as hydrotropic salt. The gels were prepared in presence and absence of propylene glycol. The prepared gels were evaluated for in vitro drug release, rheological behavior and microbial studies. The degree of increase in the drug diffusion was found to be in order corn starch gel with propylene glycol was greater than corn starch gel without propylene glycol. The microbial studies were carried out in soya bean casein digest medium with Candida albicans as test organisms and were found to be 22.86 ± 0.58 and 20.22 ± 0.65 mm for TCSG (IV and TCS (III, respectively. All the gels exhibited shear thinning. The rheogram indicated that the gel systems are pseudoplastic and exhibited thixotropy. The added propylene glycol has not appreciably altered the apparent viscosity values.

  14. Topical report on sources and systems for aquatic plant biomass as an energy resource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, J.C.; Ryther, J.H.; Waaland, R.; Wilson, E.H.

    1977-10-21

    Background information is documented on the mass cultivation of aquatic plants and systems design that is available from the literature and through consultation with active research scientists and engineers. The biology of microalgae, macroalgae, and aquatic angiosperms is discussed in terms of morphology, life history, mode of existence, and ecological significance, as they relate to cultivation. The requirements for growth of these plants, which are outlined in the test, suggest that productivity rates are dependent primarily on the availability of light and nutrients. It is concluded that the systems should be run with an excess of nutrients and with light as the limiting factor. A historical review of the mass cultivation of aquatic plants describes the techniques used in commercial large-scale operations throughout the world and recent small-scale research efforts. This review presents information on the biomass yields that have been attained to date in various geographical locations with different plant species and culture conditions, emphasizing the contrast between high yields in small-scale operations and lower yields in large-scale operations.

  15. Time as a Key Topic in Health Professionals’ Perceptions of Clinical Handovers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadette M. Watson

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Clinical handovers are an essential part of the daily care and treatment of hospital patients. We invoked a language and social psychology lens to investigate how different health professional groups discussed the communication problems and strengths they experienced in handovers. We conducted in-depth interviews with three different health professional groups within a large metropolitan hospital. We used Leximancer text analytics software as a tool to analyze the data. Results showed that time was of concern to all groups in both similar and diverse ways. All professionals discussed time management, time pressures, and the difficulties of coordinating different handovers. Each professional group had its own unique perceptions and priorities about handovers. Our findings indicated that health professionals understood what was required for handover improvement but did not have the extra capacity to alter their current environment. Hospital management, with clinicians, need to implement handover schedule processes that prioritize interprofessional representation.

  16. [Topical contraceptives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alipov, V I; Korkhov, V V

    1982-02-01

    Recently there has been little interest in topical contraceptives. The most popular are the cervical cap and the diaphragm. Other types of mechanical contraceptive devices are being investigated. Standley and Kessler have developed a device for introduction into the cervical canal with a reservoir of spermatocide, it does not block the flow of blood during menstruation. New models of vaginal rings are also being developed which are simple enough for self-insertion and also contain a reservoir of spermatocide. Work is being done on spermatocide-containing sponges in many countries. Another project being investigated is the possibility of using natural proteins, collagens, and other substances which absorb spermatozoids. The ancients used various vaginal suppositories to kill spermatozoids; in the late 19th century quinine sulfate was used for this, and a variety of substances have been used recently. These spermicidal creams also have the advantage of acting as anti-infectious agents in many cases. But they do have some negative effects. They are about 85% effective, are local irritants, and some cause discomfort during intercourse. And it is possible that some are resorbed by the body and act on the liver and other organs. Vaginal globules and suppositories are also popular. The "Kontraceptin-T" brand contains quinosol, boric acid, and tannin. There are also foaming tablets which are mixed with water and then introduced. New locally-active chemical substances are being developed in Japan, West Germany, and the USSR. Kontraceptin-E contains paranonyl-phenoxypolyethylene glycol and sodium dioctylsulfosuccinate. The "Norforks" and other preparations contain mercurial compounds which may turn out to be harmful. The future promises the development of products which will act to prevent fertilization by acting on the hyaluronidase and the acrosine of the spermatozoid, thus preventing it from penetrating the ovum. It would be best to find enzyme inhibitors which are

  17. Bicellar systems as new delivery strategy for topical application of flufenamic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, L; Alonso, C; Rodríguez, G; Cócera, M; López-Iglesias, C; Coderch, L; De la Maza, A; Parra, J L; López, O

    2013-02-28

    In this work, bicellar systems, bilayered disc-shaped nanoaggregates formed in water by phospholipids, are proposed as a novel strategy for delivery of the anti-inflammatory flufenamic acid (FFA) to the skin. A comparative percutaneous penetration study of this drug in bicellar systems and other vehicles was conducted. The effects induced on the skin by the application of FFA in the different vehicles were analyzed by attenuated total reflectance-fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR). Additionally, using the microscopic technique freeze-substitution transmission electron microscopy (FSTEM) and X-ray scattering technique using synchrotron radiation (SAXS-SR), we studied the possible microstructural and organizational changes that were induced in the stratum corneum (SC) lipids and the collagen of the skin by the application of FFA bicellar systems. Bicellar systems exhibited a retarder effect on the percutaneous absorption of FFA with respect to the other vehicles without promoting disruption in the SC barrier function of the skin. Given that skin disruption is one of the main effects caused by inflammation, prevention of disruption and repair of the skin microstructure should be prioritized in anti-inflammatory formulations. PMID:23357252

  18. Ethosomes and liposomes as topical vehicles for azelaic acid: a preformulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Elisabetta; Menegatti, Enea; Cortesi, Rita

    2004-01-01

    The basic properties and the in vitro release rate kinetics of azelaic acid (AA), alternatively vehiculated in different phospholipid-based vesicles such as ethosomes or liposomes, were investigated. Ethosomes were produced by a simple method based on addition of an aqueous phase to an ethanol solution (comprised between 20\\% and 45%, v/v) of soy phosphatidyl choline (5%, w/w) and AA (0.2%, w/w) under mechanical stirring. Liposomes were obtained by the same composition in the absence of ethanol with the reverse-phase evaporation method. Vesicle size was measured by photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS), evidencing smaller mean diameters and narrower dimensional distributions in the case of ethosomes with respect to liposomes. In order to obtain homogeneously sized vesicles, both ethosomal and liposomal dispersions were extruded through polycarbonate membranes with pores of calibrated diameter (400 nm and 200 nm). Vesicle morphology was characterized by freeze-fracture scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showing the presence of unilamellar vesicles both in liposome- and in ethosome-based dispersions. Free energy measurements of the vesicle bilayers were conducted by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). AA diffusion from ethosomal or liposomal dispersions and from ethosomes and liposomes incorporated in a viscous gel was investigated by a Franz cell assembled with synthetic membranes. The release rate was more rapid from ethosomal systems than from liposomal systems. In particular, ethosomes produced by the highest ethanol concentration released AA more rapidly, and the same trend was found using viscous forms.

  19. Development of backfill material as an engineered barrier in the waste package system. Interim topical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A backfill barrier, emplaced between the containerized waste and the host rock, can both protect the other engineered barriers and act as a primary barrier to the release of radionuclides from the waste package. Attributes that a backfill should provide in order to carry out its required function have been identified. Primary attributes are those that have a direct effect upon the release and transport of radionuclides from the waste package. Supportive attributes do not directly affect radionuclide release but are necessary to support the primary attributes. The primary attributes, in order of importance, are: minimize (retard or exclude) the migration of ground water between the host rock and the waste canister system; retard the migration of selected chemical species (corrosive species and radionuclides) in the ground water; control the Eh and pH of the ground water within the waste-package environment. The supportive attributes are: self-seal any cracks or discontinuities in the backfill or interfacing host geology; retain performance properties at all repository temperatures; retain peformance properties during and after receiving repository levels of gamma radiation; conduct heat from the canister system to the host geology; retain mechanical properties and provide resistance to applied mechanical forces; retain morphological stability and compatibility with structural barriers and with the host geology for required period of time. Screening and selection of candidate backfill materials has resulted in a preliminary list of materials for testing. Primary emphasis has been placed on sodium and calcium bentonites and zeolites used in conjunction with quartz sand or crushed host rock. Preliminary laboratory studies have concentrated on permeability, sorption, swelling pressure, and compaction properties of candidate backfill materials

  20. Nanoemulsion Therapy for Burn Wounds Is Effective as a Topical Antimicrobial Against Gram-Negative and Gram-Positive Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolgachev, Vladislav A; Ciotti, Susan M; Eisma, Rone; Gracon, Stephen; Wilkinson, J Erby; Baker, James R; Hemmila, Mark R

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the antimicrobial efficacy of two different nanoemulsion (NE) formulations against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in an in vivo rodent scald burn model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized and received a partial-thickness scald burn. Eight hours after burn injury, the wound was inoculated with 1 × 10(8) colony-forming units of Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Staphylococcus aureus. Treatment groups consisted of two different NE formulations (NB-201 and NB-402), NE vehicle, or saline. Topical application of the treatment was performed at 16 and 24 hours after burn injury. Animals were killed 32 hours after burn injury, and skin samples were obtained for quantitative wound culture and determination of dermal inflammation markers. In a separate set of experiments, burn wound progression was measured histologically after 72 hours of treatment. Both NE formulations (NB-201 and NB-402) significantly reduced burn wound infections with either P. aeruginosa or S. aureus and decreased median bacterial counts at least three logs when compared with animals with saline applications (p wound as measured by myeloperoxidase (MPO) assay and histopathology (p wound progression 72 hours after injury. Topically applied NB-201 and NB-402 are effective in decreasing Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria growth in burn wounds, reducing inflammation, and abrogating burn wound progression. PMID:26182074

  1. Exploring the Abyss. The Financial Crisis of 2008 ff. as a Central Topic of Problem-Centered Social Science Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsten Hippe

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The financial crisis of 2008 ff. and financial crises in general should be a central topic of social science education because these crises are a recurrent and therefore structural feature of modern capitalism which has severe consequences for citizens’ quality of life. Hence, the citizenry should know how to prevent such developments which endanger its well-being in a massive way. Therefore, learners should understand the relationship between the quality of people’s everyday lives and those economic institutions and political decisions which have led to the current mess. They should be enabled to critically evaluate the current misregulation of the financial sector and the economy in order to identify possible policy measures to prevent or at least to mitigate future crises. By educating (young citizens in this way, the (future general public can – as a necessary counterweight to the lobbyism of the finance industry – exert more prudent political pressure which gives politicians a greater incentive to regulate the financial sector and the economy in a manner which is beneficial for the vast majority of the people instead of for a small elite. Two core concepts of the social sciences can be used to make the roots of the seemingly complex topic more understandable for learners: liability and inequality.

  2. Phosphatidylcholine liposomes as carriers to improve topical ascorbic acid treatment of skin disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serrano G

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Gabriel Serrano,1,* Patricia Almudéver,2,* Juan-Manuel Serrano,1 Javier Milara,2–5 Ana Torrens,1 Inmaculada Expósito,1 Julio Cortijo2–51Sesderma Laboratorios, 2Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Valencia, 3Clinical Research Unit, University General Hospital Consortium, 4CIBERES, Health Institute Carlos III, 5Research Foundation of the University General Hospital of Valencia, Valencia, Spain*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Liposomes have been intensively investigated as carriers for different applications in dermatology and cosmetics. Ascorbic acid has potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties preventing photodamage of keratinocytes; however, due to its instability and low skin penetration, an appropriate carrier is mandatory to obtain desirable efficacy. The present work investigates the ability of a specific ascorbate phosphatidylcholine (PC liposome to overcome the barrier of the stratum corneum and deliver the active agent into the dermis to prevent photodamage. Abdominal skin from ten patients was used. Penetration of PC liposomes was tested ex vivo in whole skin, epidermis, and dermis by means of fluorescein and sodium ascorbate. Histology and Franz diffusion cells were used to monitor the percutaneous absorption. Ultraviolet (UV-high performance liquid chromatography was used to analyze diffusion of sodium ascorbate through the different skin layers, while spectrofluorimetry and fluorescent microscopy were used for fluorescein monitoring. UVA/UVB irradiation of whole skin was applied to analyze the antioxidant capacity by Trolox assay and anti-inflammatory effects by tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 1 beta enzyme-linked immunoassay. PC liposomal formulation improved skin penetration of fluorescein and ascorbate. Fluorescein PC liposomes showed better diffusion through epidermis than dermis while ascorbate liposomes showed better diffusion through the dermis than

  3. Novel aqueous chitosan-based dispersions as efficient drug delivery systems for topical use. Rheological, textural and release studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucero, M J; Ferris, C; Sánchez-Gutiérrez, C A; Jiménez-Castellanos, M R; de-Paz, M-V

    2016-10-20

    The use of a novel cross-linked thiolated chitosan (CTS) was investigated as the main component of aqueous dispersions (at 1% and 3% w/v) for topical drug delivery systems. The nonionic theophiline (Th) and the cationic diltiazem(.)HCl (Dt) (at 0.5% w/v concentration) were used as model drugs. All aqueous dispersions behaved as viscoelastic fluids. The CTS 1% dispersions showed predominance of viscous component and low viscosity. However, in the CTS 3% dispersions, both the elastic component and high viscosities prevailed. So, texture parameters improved from CTS 1% to 3% dispersions and CTS 3%-Dt showed greater cohesion and adhesion than CTS 3%-Th, but always below CTS alone. All dispersions showed a Fickian diffusion mechanism. Despite release profiles of both drugs almost fully overlapped at 1% CTS, diffusion coefficients confirmed Dt released faster than Th at 3% CTS. The rheological behavior and the chemical nature of the drugs explained these results. PMID:27474615

  4. ASSESSMENT OF EFFICACY OF TOPICAL PHENYTOIN SODIUM DRESSING AS COMPARED TO CONVENTIONAL MOIST DRESSING IN THE MANAGEMENT OF LEG ULCERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srikanth Reddy

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Chronic leg ulcers are one of the most common surgical conditions in surgical practice. From times immemorial, many methods have been tried to treat these types of ulcers. Many techniques have been tried over the centuries to aid in healing of chronic leg ulcers, but there exists no ideal dressing till date.(1 Phenytoin Sodium, a chemical used in management of Epilepsy, is known to produce gingival Hyperplasia, an indirect evidence to enhanced Fibroblastic activity. The present study was conducted to assess the efficacy of topical Phenytoin solution dressing as compared to conventional moist dressing in the healing process of chronic leg ulcers. Phenytoin Sodium being a cheap drug, is likely to cut down, the cost burden on the individual and the Society, if proven effective.

  5. Histatin 5-spermidine conjugates have enhanced fungicidal activity and efficacy as a topical therapeutic for oral candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tati, Swetha; Li, Rui; Puri, Sumant; Kumar, Rohitashw; Davidow, Peter; Edgerton, Mira

    2014-01-01

    Oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) is caused by the opportunistic fungi Candida albicans and is prevalent in immunocompromised patients, individuals with dry mouth, or patients with prolonged antibiotic therapies that reduce oral commensal bacteria. Human salivary histatins, including histatin 5 (Hst 5), are small cationic proteins that are the major source of fungicidal activity of saliva. However, Hsts are rapidly degraded in vivo, limiting their usefulness as therapeutic agents despite their lack of toxicity. We constructed a conjugate peptide using spermidine (Spd) linked to the active fragment of Hst 5 (Hst 54-15), based upon our findings that C. albicans spermidine transporters are required for Hst 5 uptake and fungicidal activity. We found that Hst 54-15-Spd was significantly more effective in killing C. albicans and Candida glabrata than Hst 5 alone in both planktonic and biofilm growth and that Hst 54-15-Spd retained high activity in both serum and saliva. Hst 54-15-Spd was not bactericidal against streptococcal oral commensal bacteria and had no hemolytic activity. We tested the effectiveness of Hst 54-15-Spd in vivo by topical application to tongue surfaces of immunocompromised mice with OPC. Mice treated with Hst 54-15-Spd had significant clearance of candidal tongue lesions macroscopically, which was confirmed by a 3- to 5-log fold reduction of C. albicans colonies recovered from tongue tissues. Hst 54-15-Spd conjugates are a new class of peptide-based drugs with high selectivity for fungi and potential as topical therapeutic agents for oral candidiasis.

  6. Water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA) can act as a penetration enhancer for topically applied substances

    OpenAIRE

    Sterry, Wolfram; Ackermann, Hanns; Hoffmann, Gerd; Schanzer, Sabine; Meyer, Lars; Grone, Diego; Otberg, Nina; Lademann, Jürgen

    2008-01-01

    Background: Water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA) irradiation has been shown to enhance penetration of clinically used topically applied substances in humans through investigation of functional effects of penetrated substances like vasoconstriction by cortisone. Aim of the study: Investigation of the influence of wIRA irradiation on the dermatopharmacokinetics of topically applied substances by use of optical methods, especially to localize penetrating substances, in a prospective randomised contr...

  7. An investigation into the role of dendrimers as potential enhancers of the dermal delivery of topically applied chlorhexidine

    OpenAIRE

    Judd, Amy Maryanne

    2013-01-01

    The reduction of bacteria on the skin results in prophylactic and therapeutic benefits by reducing the occurrence of skin infections. Currently, chlorhexidine digluconate, a conventional topical antiseptic, permeates the skin poorly leaving viable opportunistic pathogens below the superficial layers of the stratum corneum. The aim of this study was to use polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers to enhance the topical delivery of chlorhexidine digluconate to improve its antimicrobial efficacy.

  8. The Big Five, Self-Esteem, and Narcissism as Predictors of the Topics People Write About in Facebook Status Updates

    OpenAIRE

    Marshall, TC; Lefringhausen, K; Ferenczi, N

    2015-01-01

    Status updates are one of the most popular features of Facebook, but few studies have examined the traits and motives that influence the topics that people choose to update about. In this study, 555 Facebook users completed measures of the Big Five, self-esteem, narcissism, motives for using Facebook, and frequency of updating about a range of topics. Results revealed that extraverts more frequently updated about their social activities and everyday life, which was motivated by their use of F...

  9. The Genetic Principle as a Link between Everyday Knowledge and Politics - The Art-of-Teaching Workshop about the Topic "Future"

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas Petrik

    2004-01-01

    This article demonstrates, how didactics of social sciences can turn its focus from theoretical conceptions to the arrangement of learning processes. It simulates a best practice ("Lehrkunst") workshop (I.1.) which compares seven teaching units about the key topic "future" (I.2.). Two typical problems become concrete: exchangeable topics and the transfer to abstract categories. The genetic principle is introduced as a possible remedy: It combines categories with concepts and chooses special t...

  10. Water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA can act as a penetration enhancer for topically applied substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sterry, Wolfram

    2008-07-01

    increased penetration depth compared to the non-irradiated skin (mode A: The ratio of the amount of the dye in the deeper (second 10% of the stratum corneum to the amount of the dye in the upper 10% of the stratum corneum showed medians and interquartile ranges for mode A of 0.017 (0.007/0.050, for mode B of 0.084 (0.021/0.106, for mode C of 0.104 (0.069/0.192 (difference between modes: p=0.0112, significant; comparison mode A with mode C: p<0.01, significant. In contrast to fluorescein, the lipophilic curcumin showed no differences in the penetration kinetics, in reference to whether the skin was irradiated with wIRA or not. These effects were confirmed by laser scanning microscopy. Water-filtered infrared-A irradiation increased the hydration of the stratum corneum: transepidermal water loss rose from approximately 8.8 g m-2 h-1 before wIRA irradiation to 14.2 g m-2 h-1 after wIRA irradiation and skin hydration rose from 67 to 87 relative units. Skin surface temperature increased from 32.8°C before wIRA to 36.4°C after wIRA irradiation. Discussion: The better penetration of the hydrophilic dye fluorescein after or during skin irradiation (modes B and C can be explained by increased hydration of the stratum corneum by irradiation with wIRA. Conclusions: As most topically applied substances for the treatment of patients are mainly hydrophilic, wIRA can be used to improve the penetration of substances before or after application of substances – in the first case even of thermolabile substances – with a broad clinical relevance as a contact free alternative to an occlusive dressing.

  11. Preoperative subconjunctival injection of mitomycin C versus intraoperative topical application as an adjunctive treatment for surgical removal of primary pterygium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehab M Ghoneim

    2011-01-01

    Materials and Methods : Seventy eyes of 70 patients with primary pterygia were randomly allocated to two groups. The first group (Group A, 35 eyes received 0.1 ml of 0.15 mg/ml of subconjunctival MMC injected into the head of the pterygium 24 h before surgical excision with the bare sclera technique. The second group (Group B 35 eyes underwent surgical removal with the bare sclera technique with intraoperative application of MMC (0.15 mg/ml over bare sclera for 3 min. The study was performed between March 2007 and December 2008, and follow up was performed for 1 year postoperatively. Differences between frequencies in both groups were compared by the Chi-square test or Fisher exact test. Differences between means in both groups were compared by Student′s t-test. P 0.05. Postoperatively, scleral thinning occurred in one eye in each group that resolved by 5 months postoperatively. No serious postoperative complications occurred in either group. Conclusion : Preoperative local injection of 0.15 mg/ml MMC is as effective as intraoperative topical application of 0.15 mg/ml MMC for preventing pterygium recurrence after surgical removal.

  12. Serum corticosterone as a quantitative test of the phlogistic potency of various agents topically applied in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giagnoni, G; Marsi, A; Parolaro, D; Sala, M; Gori, E

    1976-12-01

    The application into the rat conjunctiva of various phlogistic agents, such as croton oil, mustard oil and formaldehyde, elicits an increase of serum corticosterone linearly related to the log of the applied concentrations, so that from their parallelized regression lines it is possible to calculate the phlogistic potency of each tested agent in reference to croton oil. The time kinetic of such an increase (elicited by croton oil) is compared with that of two other parameters previously adopted as indirect quantitative indices of the phlogosis: the adrenal ascorbic acid depletion and the liver tyrosine-alpha-ketoglutarate transaminase increase. Serum corticosterone is shown to be the quickest and the most sensitive of the adopted indices, even if the phlogistic potency of the tested agents and the precision of these evaluations substantially coincides whatsoever the index adopted. Finally the pathways of adrenocortical activation are investigated and it is shown that the activation may be peripherally blocked by topical application of corticosteroids (but not of local anesthetics) and centrally by hypophysectomy or parenteral administration of pentobarbital plus morphine. PMID:13751

  13. A case of topical opioid-induced delirium mistaken as behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia in demented state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Go; Kanemoto, Kousuke

    2013-06-01

    In Japan, indications for opioid analgesics, once exclusively used as pain killers for patients suffering from malignant cancer, have been expanded for a wide range of pain. Herein we report a patient with opioid-induced delirium associated with the administration of buprenorphine patches that was well below the indicated therapeutic range limit. An 82-year-old woman was referred to us from an orthopaedic practitioner for uncontrollable behavioural problems apparently caused by the beginning of dementia; the patient had gradually developed disorientation, visual hallucinations, and delusions. Laboratory and imaging findings excluded common causes of delirium including Alzheimer's disease and diffuse Lewy body disease. Detailed questioning revealed that the patient's confused state appeared following a buprenorphine patch dose increase and subsequently disappeared after administration was stopped. Delirium has not been reported as a side-effect in clinical trials of buprenorphine patches. However, our findings in this case show that even topical opioids can precipitate the development of a delirious state in elderly patients.

  14. Non-occlusive topical exposure of human skin in vitro as model for cytotoxicity testing of irritant compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lönnqvist, Susanna; Briheim, Kristina; Kratz, Gunnar

    2016-02-01

    Testing of irritant compounds has traditionally been performed on animals and human volunteers. Animal testing should always be restricted and for skin irritancy mice and rabbits hold poor predictive value for irritant potential in humans. Irritant testing on human volunteers is restricted by the duration subjects can be exposed, and by the subjectivity of interpreting the visual signs of skin irritation. We propose an irritant testing system using viable human full thickness skin with the loss of cell viability in the exposed skin area as end point measurement. Skin was exposed to sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) at 20% concentration by non-occluded topical exposure to establish a positive control response and subsequent test compounds were statistically compared with the 20% SDS response. Cell viability and metabolism were measured with 3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The model presents correlation between increased concentration of SDS and decreased viability of cells in the exposed skin area (R(2) = 0.76). We propose the model to be used for cytotoxicity testing of irritant compounds. With fully intact barrier function, the model comprises all cells present in the skin with quantifiable end point measurement. PMID:26446981

  15. Comparative study of the topical effectiveness of the Andiroba oil (Carapa guianensis) and DEET 50% as repellent for Aedes sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miot, Hélio Amante; Batistella, Rafaelle Fernandes; Batista, Khristiani de Almeida; Volpato, Dimas Eduardo Carneiro; Augusto, Leonardo Silveira Teixeira; Madeira, Newton Goulart; Haddad, Vidal; Miot, Luciane Donida Bartoli

    2004-01-01

    DEET (N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide) is nowadays the most effective mosquito repellent available, however, its use can present some topical and systemic side effects. Some botanical compositions, as Andiroba (Carapa guianensis), have been proved repellent properties at low cost and toxicity. An experimental study was driven involving four volunteers submitting their forearms covered with Andiroba oil at 100%, DEET 50%, refined soy oil, Andiroba oil 15% and in the absence of products, directly to healthy females of Aedes sp. The times of first and third bites were checked. The results showed that the median of the first bite without any product was 17.5s and the third bite, 40.0s. In the soy oil, the bites happened in 60.0s and 101.5s, in the presence of Andiroba oil 100%, in 56.0s and 142.5s and in Andiroba oil 15%, in 63.0s and 97.5s. The volunteers using DEET 50% had not received bites after 3600s in most of the experiments (p Andiroba oil compared to the soy oil, forearm without product and Andiroba oil 15%, showed discreet superiority (p Andiroba oil presents discreet repellent effect against bite of Aedes sp., being significantly inferior to DEET 50%. PMID:15517027

  16. The Role of Topical Brimonidine Tartrate Gel as a Novel Therapeutic Option for Persistent Facial Erythema Associated with Rosacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Andrew William; Johnson, Sandra Marchese

    2015-09-01

    Rosacea is a chronic inflammatory skin condition that commonly presents with persistent facial erythema with or without the coincident presence of flushing, telangiectasias, inflammatory papules or pustules, phymatous changes, or ocular involvement. Patients often present with a constellation of various signs and symptoms of the disease, and an individualized treatment plan should be tailored to a patient's unique clinical presentation. Previously available medications for rosacea have all targeted the inflammatory erythematous papules and pustules frequently associated with the disease, leaving a therapeutic gap for the common manifestation of persistent facial erythema. Brimonidine tartrate 0.33% gel was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in August 2013 as the first medication available for the topical treatment of persistent facial erythema associated with rosacea. Brimonidine gel is a highly selective α2-adrenergic receptor agonist with potent vasoconstrictive effects, which leads to significant reduction of persistent facial erythema in the majority of patients when applied once daily. Based on large-scale clinical trials and post-marketing reports, brimonidine gel has maintained a good safety profile with a minority of patients experiencing adverse effects from its use, most of which are cutaneous in nature, mild-to-moderate in degree, occur early after initiation of treatment, often resolve spontaneously with continued use, and generally resolve after discontinuation of use. Among the reported adverse effects, two distinct manifestations of worsened erythema have been described. Brimonidine gel can be integrated into a treatment regimen along with concomitant therapies for facial papules and pustules with no increased risk of adverse events with combination therapy. Education about optimal application methods, setting reasonable expectations for treatment, and minimizing inflammation are important factors for the successful use of brimonidine

  17. Topical polyethylene glycol as a novel chemopreventive agent for oral cancer via targeting of epidermal growth factor response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh K Wali

    Full Text Available Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC is a major cause of morbidity and mortality underscoring the need for safe and effective chemopreventive strategies. Targeting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR is attractive in that it is an early critical event in HNSCC pathogenesis. However, current agents lack efficacy or have unacceptable toxicity. Several groups have demonstrated that the over-the-counter medication, polyethylene glycol (PEG has remarkable chemopreventive efficacy against colon carcinogenesis. Importantly, we reported that this effect is mediated through EGFR internalization/degradation. In the current study, we investigated the chemopreventive efficacy of this agent against HNSCC, using both the well validated animal model 4-NQO (4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide rat model and cell culture with the human HNSCC cell line SCC-25. We demonstrated that daily topical application of 10% PEG-8000 in the oral cavity (tongue and cavity wall post 4NQO initiation resulted in a significant reduction in tumor burden (both, tumor size and tumors/tumor bearing rat without any evidence of toxicity. Immunohistochemical studies depicted decreased proliferation (number of Ki67-positive cells and reduced expression of EGFR and its downstream effectors cyclin D1 in the tongue mucosa of 4NQO-rats treated with PEG. We showed that EGFR was also markedly downregulated in SCC-25 cells by PEG-8000 with a concomitant induction of G1-S phase cell-cycle arrest, which was potentially mediated through upregulated p21(cip1/waf1. In conclusion, we demonstrate, for the first time, that PEG has promising efficacy and safety as a chemopreventive efficacy against oral carcinogenesis.

  18. Development of water-soluble polyanionic carbosilane dendrimers as novel and highly potent topical anti-HIV-2 microbicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briz, Verónica; Sepúlveda-Crespo, Daniel; Diniz, Ana Rita; Borrego, Pedro; Rodes, Berta; de La Mata, Francisco Javier; Gómez, Rafael; Taveira, Nuno; Muñoz-Fernández, Mª Ángeles

    2015-08-01

    The development of topical microbicide formulations for vaginal delivery to prevent HIV-2 sexual transmission is urgently needed. Second- and third-generation polyanionic carbosilane dendrimers with a silicon atom core and 16 sulfonate (G2-S16), napthylsulfonate (G2-NS16) and sulphate (G3-Sh16) end-groups have shown potent and broad-spectrum anti-HIV-1 activity. However, their antiviral activity against HIV-2 and mode of action have not been probed. Cytotoxicity, anti-HIV-2, anti-sperm and antimicrobial activities of dendrimers were determined. Analysis of combined effects of triple combinations with tenofovir and raltegravir was performed by using CalcuSyn software. We also assessed the mode of antiviral action on the inhibition of HIV-2 infection through a panel of different in vitro antiviral assays: attachment, internalization in PBMCs, inactivation and cell-based fusion. Vaginal irritation and histological analysis in female BALB/c mice were evaluated. Our results suggest that G2-S16, G2-NS16 and G3-Sh16 exert anti-HIV-2 activity at an early stage of viral replication inactivating the virus, inhibiting cell-to-cell HIV-2 transmission, and blocking the binding of gp120 to CD4, and the HIV-2 entry. Triple combinations with tenofovir and raltegravir increased the anti-HIV-2 activity, consistent with synergistic interactions (CIwt: 0.33-0.66). No vaginal irritation was detected in BALB/c mice after two consecutive applications for 2 days with 3% G2-S16. Our results have clearly shown that G2-S16, G2-NS16 and G3-Sh16 have high potency against HIV-2 infection. The modes of action confirm their multifactorial and non-specific ability, suggesting that these dendrimers deserve further studies as potential candidate microbicides to prevent vaginal/rectal HIV-1/HIV-2 transmission in humans.

  19. Listening comprehension for sentences: the accessibility of referents for pronouns as a function of age, topic continuity, and pronoun emphasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kertoy, M K

    1991-12-01

    An auditory comprehension task was employed to determine how subjects (20 first graders, 20 fifth graders, and 20 adults) use topic continuity and contrastive emphasis in the assignment of referents for pronouns in sentences. Significant differences in performance for emphasized and unemphasized pronouns were found suggesting that subjects used contrastive emphasis when assigning referents for pronouns. Fifth graders overused the cue of topic continuity in assigning referents for emphasized pronouns. This effect has not been shown previously in studies of children's understanding of pronomial reference. An interaction between age and pronoun emphasis was also significant. This interaction suggests that developmental changes continued to take place in the learning of cues for resolving pronouns by school age children. PMID:1770333

  20. Concept mapping as a method to teach an evidence-based educated medical topic: a comparative study in medical students

    OpenAIRE

    Saeidifard, Farzane; Heidari, Kazem; Foroughi, Moein; Soltani, Akbar

    2014-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to compare concept mapping with lecture-based method in teaching of evidence based educated topic to medical students. Methods This randomized controlled trial was carried out on medical students during sixth year of 7-year MD curriculum clerkship phase. Cluster randomization was used to divide students into intervention and control groups. Both groups, at the beginning, were taught “Diabetic Ketoacidosis” (DKA) using evidence-based tool named Critic...

  1. Solid Lipid Nanoparticles Loaded with Retinoic Acid and Lauric Acid as an Alternative for Topical Treatment of Acne Vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Elton Luiz; Carneiro, Guilherme; De Araújo, Lidiane Advíncula; Trindade, Mariana de Jesus Vaz; Yoshida, Maria Irene; Oréfice, Rodrigo Lambert; Farias, Luis de Macêdo; De Carvalho, Maria Auxiliadora Roque; Dos Santos, Simone Gonçalves; Goulart, Gisele Assis Castro; Alves, Ricardo José; Ferreira, Lucas Antônio Miranda

    2015-01-01

    Topical therapy is the first choice for the treatment of mild to moderate acne and all-trans retinoic acid is one of the most used drugs. The combination of retinoids and antimicrobials is an innovative approach for acne therapy. Recently, lauric acid, a saturated fatty acid, has shown strong antimicrobial activity against Propionibacterium acnes. However, topical application of retinoic acid is followed by high incidence of side-effects, including erythema and irritation. Solid lipid nanoparticles represent an alternative to overcome these side-effects. This work aims to develop solid lipid nanoparticles loaded with retinoic acid and lauric acid and evaluate their antibacterial activity. The influence of lipophilic stearylamine on the characteristics of solid lipid nanoparticles was investigated. Solid lipid nanoparticles were characterized for size, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency, differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction. The in vitro inhibitory activity of retinoic acid-lauric acid-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles was evaluated against Propionibacterium acnes, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. High encapsulation efficiency was obtained at initial time (94 ± 7% and 100 ± 4% for retinoic acid and lauric acid, respectively) and it was demonstrated that lauric acid-loaded-solid lipid nanoparticles provided the incorporation of retinoic acid. However, the presence of stearylamine is necessary to ensure stability of encapsulation. Moreover, retinoic acid-lauric acid-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles showed growth inhibitory activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis, Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus aureus, representing an interesting alternative for the topical therapy of acne vulgaris. PMID:26328443

  2. Mechlorethamine Topical

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... used to treat early stage mycosis fungoides-type cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL; a cancer of the ... as well as any products such as vitamins, minerals, or other dietary supplements. You should bring this ...

  3. Topics in Physical Mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Marathe, Kishore

    2010-01-01

    This title adopts the view that physics is the primary driving force behind a number of developments in mathematics. Previously, science and mathematics were part of natural philosophy and many mathematical theories arose as a result of trying to understand natural phenomena. This situation changed at the beginning of last century as science and mathematics diverged. These two fields are collaborating once again; 'Topics in Mathematical Physics' takes the reader through this journey. The author discusses topics where the interaction of physical and mathematical theories has led to new points o

  4. Land use and cover change as an overarching topic in the Dutch National Research Programme on Global Air Pollution and Climate Change : issues for implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fresco, L.O.; Berg, van den M.M.; Zeijl-Rozema, van A.E.

    1996-01-01

    The integration study 'Land Use and Cover Change as an overarching topic in the Dutch National Research Programme on Global Air Pollution and Climate Change (NRP)' aims at identifying research fields in which the NRP can contribute most effectively to the international scientific know-how

  5. A prospective comparison of topical feracrylum citrate versus adrenaline as haemostatic agent in hypospadias surgery in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar Laddha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A comparative study of topical feracrylum citrate versus adrenaline to minimise haemorrhage-related complications in paediatric hypospadiac patients. Patients and Methods: A total of 108 consecutive paediatric hypospadiac patients (48 in the study group and 60 control - random allocation were studied. In the study group, 1% feracrylum citrate solution was used and adrenaline (1:100,000 in controls. Results: Among the study group, average number of blood-soaked gauge pieces were 2.95/patient, correlating with average intraoperative blood loss of 14.74 ml. In controls, average blood-soaked gauge pieces were 4.83/patient corresponding to an average blood loss of 24.13 ml. The average amount of blood loss during surgery in the <5 years was 13.70 ml/patient in the feracrylum group, while the same in the adrenaline group was 23.45 ml. Average duration of surgery was 79 min in the study group, while the same in controls was 94 min/patient. Average number of cauterisations was 0.255/patient in the study group and 0.583/patient among controls. Postoperative haematoma was seen in 8% study group compared with 18% controls. Wound oedema appeared in 4.17% study group and 11.67% controls. Postoperative complications were higher among controls. Conclusions: Feracrylum is more efficient and safer topical haemostatic agent than adrenaline. It reduced the frequency of cauterisation and tissue damage, intraoperative blood loss, and postoperative complications.

  6. Topical ketoprofen patch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazières, Bernard

    2005-01-01

    Although oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are effective in the treatment of a variety of acute and chronic pain conditions, their use may be associated with serious systemic adverse effects, particularly gastrointestinal disorders. In order to minimise the incidence of systemic events related to such agents, topical NSAIDs have been developed. Topical NSAIDs, applied as gels, creams or sprays, penetrate the skin, subcutaneous fatty tissue and muscle in amounts that are sufficient to exert a therapeutic effect on peripheral and central mechanisms in the absence of high plasma concentrations. Data indicate that topical NSAIDs are effective at relieving pain in a number of acute and chronic pain indications. This review article discusses the pharmacokinetics, efficacy and tolerability of a new formulation of ketoprofen available as a topical patch. The topical patch containing ketoprofen 100mg as the active principle has been developed using a novel delivery system that dispenses therapeutic doses of the drug directly to the site of injury. Pharmacokinetic data indicate that although plasma levels of ketoprofen are higher when the drug is administered as a patch versus a gel, the total systemic bioavailability of ketoprofen 100 mg administered via a patch is no more than 10% of that reported for ketoprofen 100 mg administered orally. Because the patch facilitates ketoprofen delivery over a 24-hour period, the drug remains continually present in the tissue subjacent to the site of application. High tissue but low plasma ketoprofen concentrations mean that while tissue concentrations are high enough to exert a therapeutic effect, plasma concentrations remain low enough to not result in systemic adverse events caused by elevated serum NSAID levels. Phase III clinical trials in patients with non-articular rheumatism and traumatic painful soft tissue injuries showed that the topical ketoprofen patch was significantly more effective than placebo at

  7. Historical Topics in Algebra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, Inc., Reston, VA.

    This is a reprint of the historical capsules dealing with algebra from the 31st Yearbook of NCTM,"Historical Topics for the Mathematics Classroom." Included are such themes as the change from a geometric to an algebraic solution of problems, the development of algebraic symbolism, the algebraic contributions of different countries, the origin and…

  8. Transportation: Topic Paper E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Council on the Handicapped, Washington, DC.

    As one of a series of topic papers assessing federal laws and programs affecting persons with disabilities, this paper reviews the issue of transportation services. In the area of urban mass transit, four relevant pieces of legislation and public transportation accessibility regulations are cited, and cost issues are explored. Paratransit systems,…

  9. Selected topics in magnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, L C

    1993-01-01

    Part of the ""Frontiers in Solid State Sciences"" series, this volume presents essays on such topics as spin fluctuations in Heisenberg magnets, quenching of spin fluctuations by high magnetic fields, and kondo effect and heavy fermions in rare earths amongst others.

  10. A Preliminary, Open Label, Single-arm Study of Calcipotriene/Betamethasone Topical Suspension as a Supplement to Non-biologic Systemic Therapy for Psoriasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupetsky, Erine; Houston, Neil A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Calcipotriene/betamethasone topical suspension is a topical therapy that is often used as monotherapy as a first-line treatment for plaque psoriasis. The objective of this preliminary, open label, single arm study was to determine the efficacy of adding a topical suspension to a traditional systemic therapy for psoriasis, either methotrexate or acitretin. Methods: In this exploratory study, eight patients with chronic plaque psoriasis who were on stable methotrexate or acitretin treatment without clearance were treated with once-daily calcipotriene/betamethasone topical suspension. Subjects completed five study visits over 12 weeks. Primary outcome measure was improvement of two or more points in Investigator Global Assessment. Secondary endpoints included change in Body Surface Area, Dermatology Life Quality Index, and Patient’s Global Assessment from baseline to Week 12. Results: Overall, the median decrease in Investigator Global Assessment over 12 weeks was 1.5 points, with 50 percent of subjects experiencing a drop of two or more points in Investigator Global Assessment. All eight subjects had a reduction in Body Surface Area and Patient’s Global Assessment. There was a mean decrease in Dermatology Life Quality Index score of 78.9 percent, showing improved patient quality of life. In addition, all patients tolerated the treatment well and 6 of 8 patients had improved satisfaction level with their treatment by the end of the study. Conclusion: The topical suspension was effective and well-tolerated in conjunction with stable methotrexate or acitretin treatment in all eight patients in this study. These results support the feasibility of a larger scale study to further investigate the efficacy of these treatment combinations. The trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01761019. PMID:27462386

  11. Discovering health topics in social media using topic models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Paul

    Full Text Available By aggregating self-reported health statuses across millions of users, we seek to characterize the variety of health information discussed in Twitter. We describe a topic modeling framework for discovering health topics in Twitter, a social media website. This is an exploratory approach with the goal of understanding what health topics are commonly discussed in social media. This paper describes in detail a statistical topic model created for this purpose, the Ailment Topic Aspect Model (ATAM, as well as our system for filtering general Twitter data based on health keywords and supervised classification. We show how ATAM and other topic models can automatically infer health topics in 144 million Twitter messages from 2011 to 2013. ATAM discovered 13 coherent clusters of Twitter messages, some of which correlate with seasonal influenza (r = 0.689 and allergies (r = 0.810 temporal surveillance data, as well as exercise (r =  .534 and obesity (r =  -.631 related geographic survey data in the United States. These results demonstrate that it is possible to automatically discover topics that attain statistically significant correlations with ground truth data, despite using minimal human supervision and no historical data to train the model, in contrast to prior work. Additionally, these results demonstrate that a single general-purpose model can identify many different health topics in social media.

  12. Differential Topic Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Changyou; Buntine, Wray; Ding, Nan; Xie, Lexing; Du, Lan

    2015-02-01

    In applications we may want to compare different document collections: they could have shared content but also different and unique aspects in particular collections. This task has been called comparative text mining or cross-collection modeling. We present a differential topic model for this application that models both topic differences and similarities. For this we use hierarchical Bayesian nonparametric models. Moreover, we found it was important to properly model power-law phenomena in topic-word distributions and thus we used the full Pitman-Yor process rather than just a Dirichlet process. Furthermore, we propose the transformed Pitman-Yor process (TPYP) to incorporate prior knowledge such as vocabulary variations in different collections into the model. To deal with the non-conjugate issue between model prior and likelihood in the TPYP, we thus propose an efficient sampling algorithm using a data augmentation technique based on the multinomial theorem. Experimental results show the model discovers interesting aspects of different collections. We also show the proposed MCMC based algorithm achieves a dramatically reduced test perplexity compared to some existing topic models. Finally, we show our model outperforms the state-of-the-art for document classification/ideology prediction on a number of text collections. PMID:26353238

  13. Alkyl polyglucoside-stabilized emulsion as a prospective vehicle for Usnea barbata CO2-supercritical extract: Assessing stability, safety and efficiency of a topical formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žugić Ana R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial activity of Usnea barbata especially against bacteria involved in pathogenesis of various skin conditions has been well documented in literature. Nevertheless, there are no papers dealing with formulation of its isolates into topical preparations for treatment of skin infections. In present study, alkyl polyglucoside (APG - based vehicle was developed as carrier of U. barbata CO2-supercritical extract (U-SE that demonstrated the best antimicrobial potential in preliminary screening. For comparison, chosen extract in the same concentration and using the same procedure was incorporated into a pharmacopoeial vehicle. Comparative evaluation of physicochemical stability, efficiency and safety proved APG-based vehicle to possess certain preferential features as carrier of U-SE compared to the reference one, composing a topical formulation with potential clinical relevance in treatment of skin infections. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III45017 i br. TR34031

  14. Contact dermatitis as an adverse reaction to some topically used European herbal medicinal products - Part 3: Mentha × piperita - Solanum dulcamara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calapai, Gioacchino; Minciullo, Paola L; Miroddi, Marco; Chinou, Ioanna; Gangemi, Sebastiano; Schmidt, Richard J

    2016-03-01

    This review focuses on contact dermatitis as an adverse effect of a selection of topically used herbal medicinal products for which the European Medicines Agency has completed an evaluation up to the end of November 2013 and for which a Community herbal monograph - now (since 2015)(†) called a European Union herbal monograph - has been produced. Part 3: Mentha × piperita L.-Solanum dulcamara L.

  15. Contact dermatitis as an adverse reaction to some topically used European herbal medicinal products - Part 3: Mentha × piperita - Solanum dulcamara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calapai, Gioacchino; Minciullo, Paola L; Miroddi, Marco; Chinou, Ioanna; Gangemi, Sebastiano; Schmidt, Richard J

    2016-03-01

    This review focuses on contact dermatitis as an adverse effect of a selection of topically used herbal medicinal products for which the European Medicines Agency has completed an evaluation up to the end of November 2013 and for which a Community herbal monograph - now (since 2015)(†) called a European Union herbal monograph - has been produced. Part 3: Mentha × piperita L.-Solanum dulcamara L. PMID:26563681

  16. Evaluation of RU58841 as an anti-androgen in prostate PC3 cells and a topical anti-alopecia agent in the bald scalp of stumptailed macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, H J; Wilding, G; Uno, H; Inui, S; Goldsmith, L; Messing, E; Chang, C

    1998-08-01

    The effect of androgen receptor transcriptional activation by RU58841, a nonsteroidal anti-androgen, was studied in the human prostate cancer PC3 cell line by cotransfection with wild-type androgen receptor (wt AR) and an androgen-responsive reporter (MMTV-ARE-CAT) construct. Anti-and rogens, hydroxyflutamide, and Casodex, and the antiestrogen, genistein, were studied in parallel for comparison with RU58841. The wt AR was activated only by the androgen dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Neither the anti-androgens nor antiestrogen can enhance AR transcriptional activity at 10(-11)-10(-7)M in PC3 cells. Hydroxyflutamide, RU58841, and Casodex, but not genistein, displayed competitively suppressive effects on DHT activation of wt AR. The potency of RU58841 was comparable to that of hydroxyflutamide. From this result, topical application of RU58841, which is considered to be a potential therapy for skin diseases, may induce systemic side effects. However, RU58841, on topical application, revealed a potent increase in density, thickening, and length of hair in the macaque model of androgenetic alopecia, whereas no systemic effects were detected. Together our results suggest that RU58841 may have potent antagonism to the wt AR and could be considered as a topically applied active anti-androgen for the treatment of androgen-dependent skin disorders, such as acne, androgenetic alopecia, and hirsutism.

  17. Linguistic Extensions of Topic Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd-Graber, Jordan

    2010-01-01

    Topic models like latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA) provide a framework for analyzing large datasets where observations are collected into groups. Although topic modeling has been fruitfully applied to problems social science, biology, and computer vision, it has been most widely used to model datasets where documents are modeled as exchangeable…

  18. Advancements in Topical Antifungal Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kircik, Leon H

    2016-02-01

    The primary treatment for superficial fungal infections is antifungal topical formulations, and allylamines and azoles represent the two major classes of topical formulations that are used to treat these infections. The stratum corneum (SC) is composed of keratinocytes that are surrounded by a matrix of lipids. The efficacy of topically applied formulations depends on their ability to penetrate this lipid matrix, and the vehicle plays an integral role in the penetration of active molecule into skin. There are several challenges to formulating topical drugs, which include the biotransformation of the active molecules as they pass through the SC and the physical changes that occur to the vehicle itself when it is applied to the skin. This article will review current and emerging topical antifungal vehicles. PMID:26885798

  19. Topical or oral administration with an extract of Polypodium leucotomos prevents acute sunburn and psoralen-induced phototoxic reactions as well as depletion of Langerhans cells in human skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, S.; Pathak, M.A.; Fitzpatrick, T.B. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Dept. of Dermatology, Boston, MA (United States); Cuevas, J. [Hospital Universitario de Guadalajara, Dept. of Pathology, Guadalajara (Spain); Villarrubia, V.G. [I.F. Cantabria SA, Medical Dept., Immunology Sect., Madrid (Spain)

    1997-12-31

    Sunburn, immune suppression, photo-aging, and skin cancers result from uncontrolled overexposure of human skin to solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Preventive measures, including photo-protection, are helpful and can be achieved by topical sun-screening agents. Polypodium leucotomos (PL) has been used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases and has shown some in vitro and in vivo immunomodulating properties. Its beneficial photo-protective effects in the treatment of vitiligo and its antioxidant properties encouraged us to evaluate in vivo the potentially useful photo-protective property of natural extract of PL after topical application or oral ingestion. Twenty-one healthy volunteers [either untreated or treated with oral psoralens (8-MOP or 5-MOP)] were enrolled in this study and exposed to solar radiation for evaluation of the following clinical parameters: immediate pigment darkening (IPD), minimal erythema dose (MED), minimal melanogenic dose (MMD), and minimal phototoxic dose (MPD) before and after topical or oral administration of PL. Immunohistochemical assessment of CD1a-expressing epidermal cells were also performed. PL was found to be photo-protective after topical application as well as oral administration. PL increased UV dose required for IPD (P<0.01), MED (P<0.001) and MPD (P<0.001). After oral administration of PL, MED increased 2.,8{+-}0.59 times and MPD increased 2.75{+-}0.5 and 6.8{+-}1.3 times depending upon the type of psoralen used. Immunohistochemical study revealed photo-protection of Langherhans cells by oral as well as topical PL. The observed photo-protective activities of oral or topical PL reveal a new avenue in examining the potentially useful field of systemic photo-protection and suggests that PL can be used as adjunct treatment and can make photochemotherapy and phototherapy possibly safe and effective when the control of cutaneous phototoxicity to PUVA or UVB is a limiting factor in such photo-therapies. (au). 50 refs.

  20. Topical rapamycin as a treatment for fibrofolliculomas in Birt-Hogg-Dube syndrome: a double-blind placebo-controlled randomized split-face trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieke M C Gijezen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome (BHD is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterised by the occurrence of benign, mostly facial, skin tumours called fibrofolliculomas, multiple lung cysts, spontaneous pneumothorax and an increased renal cancer risk. Current treatments for fibrofolliculomas have high rates of recurrence and carry a risk of complications. It would be desirable to have a treatment that could prevent fibrofolliculomas from growing. Animal models of BHD have previously shown deregulation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR. Topical use of the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin is an effective treatment for the skin tumours (angiofibromas in tuberous sclerosis complex, which is also characterised by mTOR deregulation. In this study we aimed to determine if topical rapamycin is also an effective treatment for fibrofolliculomas in BHD. METHODS: We performed a double blinded, randomised, facial left-right controlled trial of topical rapamycin 0.1% versus placebo in 19 BHD patients. Trial duration was 6 months. The primary outcome was cosmetic improvement as measured by doctors and patients. Changes in fibrofolliculoma number and size were also measured, as was occurrence of side effects. RESULTS: No change in cosmetic status of fibrofolliculomas was reported in the majority of cases for the rapamycin treated (79% by doctors, 53% by patients as well as the placebo treated facial sides (both 74%. No significant differences between rapamycin and placebo treated facial halves were observed (p = 1.000 for doctors opinion, p = 0.344 for patients opinion. No significant difference in fibrofolliculoma number or change in size of the fibrofolliculomas was seen after 6 months. Side effects occurred more often after rapamycin treatment (68% of patients than after placebo (58% of patients; p = 0.625. A burning sensation, erythema, itching and dryness were most frequently reported. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides no evidence that

  1. Topical erythropoietin as a novel preventive and therapeutic agent in bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantea Nazeman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the most common side effects of bisphosphonate intake is osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ which may develop following dentoalveolar interventions. Despite the vast available protocols, there is no clear guideline in the management of this condition. In osteonecrosis, the number and proliferation of bone-forming cells as well as vascularity are disturbed. Erythropoietin (EPO is a hematopoietic hormone with angiogenic, osteogenic, and antiapoptotic properties. The Hypothesis: It is suggested to utilize poly lactic-co-glycolic acid hydrogel containing 1500-3000 IU/kg EPO following dentoalveolar surgery in samples receiving bisphosphonates as a preventive or therapeutic agent. Evaluation of the Hypothesis: Considering the pathophysiology of ONJ and therapeutic properties of EPO, it is assumed that EPO may be effective in treatment of ONJ. Furthermore, as a preventive measure, utilizing EPO following dentoalveolar surgery may be beneficial in the patients at risk of ONJ.

  2. SLN as a topical delivery system for Artemisia arborescens essential oil: In vitro antiviral activity and skin permeation study

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Francesco; Sinico, Chiara; De Logu, Alessandro; Zaru, Marco; Müller, Rainer H.; Fadda, Anna M.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of SLN incorporation on transdermal delivery and in vitro antiherpetic activity of Artemisia arborescens essential oil was investigated. Two different SLN formulations were prepared using the hot – pressure homogenization technique, Compritol 888 ATO as lipid, and Poloxamer 188 and Miranol Ultra C32 as surfactants. Formulations were examined for their stability for two years by monitoring average size distribution and zeta potential values. The antiviral activity of free and SLN in...

  3. Clinical application of oral form of ANGIPARSTM and in combination with topical form as a new treatment for diabetic foot ulcers: A randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahrami A

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available ANGIPARSTM is a new herbal extract which has been produced in oral, topical, and intravenous forms. The present article contains preliminary results of the study which was planned to evaluate the efficacy and safety of orally applied ANGIPARSTM and to compare it with the combination of oral and topical forms and also with conventional therapy in patients with diabetic ulcers of the lower extremities."nTwenty one patients with diabetic foot ulcers were divided into 3 groups. The first group received 100 mg of oral ANGIPARSTM twice a day for 6 weeks in addition to conventional therapies. In the second group, ANGIPARSTM gel 3% was added to the oral form of the same product besides the conventional therapies for the same period of time. Finally, in the third group which was considered as control, only conventional therapies were performed. The patients were followed for 6 weeks. Parameters such as granulation tissue formation, skin epithelization, and wound surface areas changes were analyzed to determine the effectiveness of the compound in wounds healing. Furthermore, drug safety was assessed by monitoring adverse events and by clinical and laboratory evaluations."nThe study data showed significant differences between the intervention and control groups with respect to efficacy and tolerability. In each intervention group, primary wound healings occurred following 2 weeks. Complete wound healing which was greater than 70% improvement in wounds surface areas was achieved in 83% and 100% of group 1 and group 2 participants, respectively after 6 weeks. On the other hand, at the same period of time, only 22.2% of patients in control group revealed complete healing. Therefore, ANGIPARSTM had significant positive effect in increasing the incidence of complete wound closure compared with control group (p = 0.042. However, our evaluations indicated that adding topical treatment with 3% gel once a day to the oral therapy with the same product did not make

  4. Topics in Operator Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, Joseph A; Helton, JWilliam; Rodman, Leiba; Spitkovsky, Iiya

    2010-01-01

    This is the first volume of a collection of original and review articles on recent advances and new directions in a multifaceted and interconnected area of mathematics and its applications. It encompasses many topics in theoretical developments in operator theory and its diverse applications in applied mathematics, physics, engineering, and other disciplines. The purpose is to bring in one volume many important original results of cutting edge research as well as authoritative review of recent achievements, challenges, and future directions in the area of operator theory and its applications.

  5. Topics in field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Karpilovsky, G

    1989-01-01

    This monograph gives a systematic account of certain important topics pertaining to field theory, including the central ideas, basic results and fundamental methods.Avoiding excessive technical detail, the book is intended for the student who has completed the equivalent of a standard first-year graduate algebra course. Thus it is assumed that the reader is familiar with basic ring-theoretic and group-theoretic concepts. A chapter on algebraic preliminaries is included, as well as a fairly large bibliography of works which are either directly relevant to the text or offer supplementary material of interest.

  6. PREFACE: CEWQO Topical Issue CEWQO Topical Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozic, Mirjana; Man'ko, Margarita

    2009-09-01

    This topical issue of Physica Scripta collects selected peer-reviewed contributions based on invited and contributed talks and posters presented at the 15th Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics (CEWQO) which took place in Belgrade 29 May-3 June 2008 (http://cewqo08.phy.bg.ac.yu). On behalf of the whole community took place in Belgrade 29 May-3 June 2008 (http://cewqo08.phy.bg.ac.yu, cewqo08.phy.bg.ac.yu). On behalf of the whole community of the workshop, we thank the referees for their careful reading and useful suggestions which helped to improve all of the submitted papers. A brief description of CEWQO The Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics is a series of conferences started informally in Budapest in 1992. Sometimes small events transform into important conferences, as in the case of CEWQO. Professor Jozsef Janszky, from the Research Institute of Solid State Physics and Optics, is the founder of this series. Margarita Man'ko obtained the following information from Jozsef Janszky during her visit to Budapest, within the framework of cooperation between the Russian and Hungarian Academies of Sciences in 2005. He organized a small workshop on quantum optics in Budapest in 1992 with John Klauder as a main speaker. Then, bearing in mind that a year before Janszky himself was invited by Vladimir Buzek to give a seminar on the same topic in Bratislava, he decided to assign the name 'Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics', considering the seminar in Bratislava to be the first workshop and the one in Budapest the second. The third formal workshop took place in Bratislava in 1993 organized by Vladimir Buzek, then in 1994 (Budapest, by Jozsef Janszky), 1995 and 1996 (Budmerice, Slovakia, by Vladimir Buzek), 1997 (Prague, by Igor Jex), 1999 (Olomouc, Czech Republic, by Zdenek Hradil), 2000 (Balatonfüred, Hungary, by Jozsef Janszky ), 2001 (Prague, by Igor Jex), 2002 (Szeged, Hungary, by Mihaly Benedict), 2003 (Rostock,Germany, by Werner Vogel and

  7. SLN as a topical delivery system for Artemisia arborescens essential oil: In vitro antiviral activity and skin permeation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Francesco; Sinico, Chiara; De Logu, Alessandro; Zaru, Marco; Müller, Rainer H; Fadda, Anna M

    2007-01-01

    The effect of SLN incorporation on transdermal delivery and in vitro antiherpetic activity of Artemisia arborescens essential oil was investigated. Two different SLN formulations were prepared using the hot – pressure homogenization technique, Compritol 888 ATO as lipid, and Poloxamer 188 and Miranol Ultra C32 as surfactants. Formulations were examined for their stability for two years by monitoring average size distribution and zeta potential values. The antiviral activity of free and SLN incorporated essential oil was tested in vitro against Herpes Simplex Virus-1 (HSV-1) by a quantitative tetrazolium-based colorimetric method (MTT), while the effects of essential oil incorporation into SLN on both the permeation through and the accumulation into the skin strata was investigated by using in vitro diffusion experiments through newborn pig skin and an almond oil Artemisia essential oil solution as a control. Results showed that both SLN formulations were able to entrap the essential oil in high yields and that the mean particle size increased only slightly after two years of storage, indicating a high physical stability. In vitro antiviral assays showed that SLN incorporation did not affect the essential oil antiherpetic activity. The in vitro skin permeation experiments demonstrated the capability of SLN of greatly improving the oil accumulation into the skin, while oil permeation occurred only when the oil was delivered from the control solution. PMID:18019840

  8. Topic Model for Graph Mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Junyu; Lu, Jie; Zhang, Guangquan; Luo, Xiangfeng

    2015-12-01

    Graph mining has been a popular research area because of its numerous application scenarios. Many unstructured and structured data can be represented as graphs, such as, documents, chemical molecular structures, and images. However, an issue in relation to current research on graphs is that they cannot adequately discover the topics hidden in graph-structured data which can be beneficial for both the unsupervised learning and supervised learning of the graphs. Although topic models have proved to be very successful in discovering latent topics, the standard topic models cannot be directly applied to graph-structured data due to the "bag-of-word" assumption. In this paper, an innovative graph topic model (GTM) is proposed to address this issue, which uses Bernoulli distributions to model the edges between nodes in a graph. It can, therefore, make the edges in a graph contribute to latent topic discovery and further improve the accuracy of the supervised and unsupervised learning of graphs. The experimental results on two different types of graph datasets show that the proposed GTM outperforms the latent Dirichlet allocation on classification by using the unveiled topics of these two models to represent graphs. PMID:25616091

  9. Integrierter Sprach- und Sachunterricht im Spanischkurs fuer Fortgeschrittene am Beispiel des Themas "La Emigracion actual" (Integrated Instruction in Language and Realia in the Advanced Spanish Course, with, as an Example, the Topic "The Present Emigration")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christ, Ingeborg

    1975-01-01

    Advanced-level Spanish courses often lead outside everyday situations. Text, topic, language content and skill orientation form a complex of conditions for advanced learning. Consequences of significance for the learning process are discussed, with the topic "la emigracion actual" ("the present emigration") as a base. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  10. The future of topical analgesics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnstein, Paul M

    2013-07-01

    Topically applied analgesic therapies have been used throughout history to treat a variety of patient conditions that present with pain. Before modem pharmaceuticals became readily available, mud-based emollients, salves, cold therapies, and other natural remedies were often used. Now we have effective therapies and are developing advanced topical analgesics as we learn more about the physiology and pathophysiology of pain. The use of topical analgesics may be associated with fewer patient systemic side effects than are seen with oral, parenteral, or transdermally administered agents, making the topical route of administration attractive to prescribers and patients. With further refinement of existing drugs and the development of novel agents, topical analgesics may offer relief for treating patient pain conditions that are currently challenging to treat, such as pain resulting from burns, wound debridement, and pressure ulcers. Recognizing the value of a multimodal approach, topical analgesics may offer a therapeutic option that can become part of a comprehensive treatment plan for the patient. With continued advancements in targeted drug-delivery systems, topical analgesics may be able to provide a method to prevent or reverse the phenomena of peripheral and central sensitization, or the neuroplastic changes believed to be responsible for the transition from acute to chronic pain states in patients. For those patients at risk for developing chronic pain states, such as complex regional pain syndrome, the combination of cutaneous stimulation (achieved through rubbing during application) and analgesic effects produced by the drug itself may prevent the disabling pain that often emerges during the subacute phase of disease. In summary, better utilization of currently available topical analgesics and continued research promise to ensure that topical analgesics are, and will continue to be, important tools in the treatment of patients with resistant pain. PMID

  11. Computational mediation as factor of motivation and meaningful learning in education of sciences of 9th grade: astronomy topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, F. M.; Furtado, W. W.

    2012-10-01

    The main purpose of this study was to analyze the contribution of using hypertext and pedagogic mediation in search of a Meaningful Learning Process in Sciences. We investigate the usage of hypertext in the teaching and learning methods of Astronomy modules. A survey was conducted with students from the 9th grade of Primary School of a public school in the city of Goiânia, Goiás in Brazil. We have analyzed the possibilities that hypermedia can offer in the teaching and learning process, using as reference David Ausubel's Theory of Meaningful Learning. The study was divided into four phases: application of an initial questionnaire on students, development of didactic material (hypertext), six classes held in a computer lab with the use of hypermedia and a final questionnaire applied in the lab after classes. This research indicated that the use of hypertext linked to pedagogical mediation processes is seen as a motivational tool and has potential to foster to Meaningful Learning.

  12. Temporary shelter-in-place as protection against a release of airborne hazardous material : report of a literature search.; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ''Temporary shelter-in place'' is the combination of prompt shelter-in-place (SIP) to minimize initial exposure to airborne hazardous material, followed by timely action to terminate this protection to minimize exposure to hazardous vapor accumulations in the shelter once the air outside becomes less hazardous than the air inside the shelter. Temporary SIP, if properly executed, is considered to be an effective way to protect populations from hazardous chemical vapors, especially from high concentrations for short periods. This is supported by laboratory and field experiments. The need for timely termination of temporary SIP as protection from infiltrated vapors is an integral component of a temporary SIP strategy. It was from this premise that Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) was asked to develop methodologies for deciding when and how to terminate SIP. These methodologies, in turn, could be the basis for site-specific operational guidelines (e.g., decision matrix, decision-tree, or algorithm) for terminating SIP on each of the eight Army chemical stockpile storage sites, and in the off-post communities surrounding them. This project consists of two tasks. Task 1 was to collect and analyze existing literature that might be relevant to the termination of temporary SIP. This report is the product of Task 1. Task 2, which will begin on 2 February 2001, will use the results of the literature search as the baseline to investigate the concepts associated with temporary SIP, and to develop methodologies for termination of temporary SIP that can be incorporated in site-specific operational guidelines. It is understood that these methods will be consistent with Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP) policy that ''the most important objective of the emergency preparedness and implementation process is the avoidance of fatalities to the maximum extent practicable, should an accidental release of chemical agent occur.'' It is also anticipated that these

  13. 3D scanning and 3D printing as innovative technologies for fabricating personalized topical drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyanes, Alvaro; Det-Amornrat, Usanee; Wang, Jie; Basit, Abdul W; Gaisford, Simon

    2016-07-28

    Acne is a multifactorial inflammatory skin disease with high prevalence. In this work, the potential of 3D printing to produce flexible personalised-shape anti-acne drug (salicylic acid) loaded devices was demonstrated by two different 3D printing (3DP) technologies: Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) and stereolithography (SLA). 3D scanning technology was used to obtain a 3D model of a nose adapted to the morphology of an individual. In FDM 3DP, commercially produced Flex EcoPLA™ (FPLA) and polycaprolactone (PCL) filaments were loaded with salicylic acid by hot melt extrusion (HME) (theoretical drug loading - 2% w/w) and used as feedstock material for 3D printing. Drug loading in the FPLA-salicylic acid and PCL-salicylic acid 3D printed patches was 0.4% w/w and 1.2% w/w respectively, indicating significant thermal degradation of drug during HME and 3D printing. Diffusion testing in Franz cells using a synthetic membrane revealed that the drug loaded printed samples released manufacture anti-acne devices with salicylic acid. The combination of 3D scanning and 3D printing has the potential to offer solutions to produce personalised drug loaded devices, adapted in shape and size to individual patients. PMID:27189134

  14. 3D scanning and 3D printing as innovative technologies for fabricating personalized topical drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyanes, Alvaro; Det-Amornrat, Usanee; Wang, Jie; Basit, Abdul W; Gaisford, Simon

    2016-07-28

    Acne is a multifactorial inflammatory skin disease with high prevalence. In this work, the potential of 3D printing to produce flexible personalised-shape anti-acne drug (salicylic acid) loaded devices was demonstrated by two different 3D printing (3DP) technologies: Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) and stereolithography (SLA). 3D scanning technology was used to obtain a 3D model of a nose adapted to the morphology of an individual. In FDM 3DP, commercially produced Flex EcoPLA™ (FPLA) and polycaprolactone (PCL) filaments were loaded with salicylic acid by hot melt extrusion (HME) (theoretical drug loading - 2% w/w) and used as feedstock material for 3D printing. Drug loading in the FPLA-salicylic acid and PCL-salicylic acid 3D printed patches was 0.4% w/w and 1.2% w/w respectively, indicating significant thermal degradation of drug during HME and 3D printing. Diffusion testing in Franz cells using a synthetic membrane revealed that the drug loaded printed samples released 3D printing technology to manufacture anti-acne devices with salicylic acid. The combination of 3D scanning and 3D printing has the potential to offer solutions to produce personalised drug loaded devices, adapted in shape and size to individual patients.

  15. Use of Immunostimulatory Sequence-Containing Oligonucleotides as Topical Therapy for Genital Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyles, Richard B.; Higgins, Debbie; Chalk, Claudia; Zalar, Anthony; Eiden, Joseph; Brown, Carrie; Van Nest, Gary; Stanberry, Lawrence R.

    2002-01-01

    Synthetic oligonucleotides containing CpG motifs in specific sequence contexts have been shown to induce potent immune responses. We have evaluated mucosal administration of two immunostimulatory sequence (ISS)-containing phosphorothioate-stabilized oligonucleotides for antiherpetic efficacy in animal models. The ISS oligonucleotides, suspended in phosphate-buffered saline, were tested in mouse and guinea pig vaginal models of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection. For comparison, groups of untreated, non-ISS oligonucleotide-treated, and acyclovir-treated animals also were monitored. The results indicated that vaginal epithelial application of ISS (up to 6 h after viral inoculation) with mice lethally challenged with HSV-2 delayed disease onset and reduced the number of animals that developed signs of disease (P = 0.003). ISS application significantly increased survival rates over those of controls (P = 0.0014). The ISS also impacted an established infection in the guinea pig model of HSV-2 disease. A single administration of ISS (21 days after viral inoculation) significantly reduced the frequency and severity of HSV-2 lesions compared to results with non-ISS oligonucleotide-treated and untreated guinea pigs (P < 0.01). HSV-2 is shed from the vaginal cavity of the guinea pig in the absence of lesions, similar to the case with humans. As an additional indication of ISS efficacy, the magnitude of viral shedding also was significantly reduced in ISS-treated animals (P < 0.001). These effects appeared to be immunologically mediated, since ISS had no direct effect on HSV-2 replication in vitro using standard plaque assays. These data suggest that ISS may be useful in the treatment and control of genital herpes in humans. PMID:12388699

  16. Mental Mechanisms for Topics Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis Massey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Topics identification (TI is the process that consists in determining the main themes present in natural language documents. The current TI modeling paradigm aims at acquiring semantic information from statistic properties of large text datasets. We investigate the mental mechanisms responsible for the identification of topics in a single document given existing knowledge. Our main hypothesis is that topics are the result of accumulated neural activation of loosely organized information stored in long-term memory (LTM. We experimentally tested our hypothesis with a computational model that simulates LTM activation. The model assumes activation decay as an unavoidable phenomenon originating from the bioelectric nature of neural systems. Since decay should negatively affect the quality of topics, the model predicts the presence of short-term memory (STM to keep the focus of attention on a few words, with the expected outcome of restoring quality to a baseline level. Our experiments measured topics quality of over 300 documents with various decay rates and STM capacity. Our results showed that accumulated activation of loosely organized information was an effective mental computational commodity to identify topics. It was furthermore confirmed that rapid decay is detrimental to topics quality but that limited capacity STM restores quality to a baseline level, even exceeding it slightly.

  17. 反拿破仑之“冷战”在文学和漫画中的表现%The Manifestation of the "Cold War" against Napoleon in Literature and Caricature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    越野刚; 米慧

    2012-01-01

    " Cold" is not only a term in meteorology, but it also obtains its "national" identity and cuhural connotation in Russian folk literature and caricature. This paper offers an analysis of the "cold" image based on the war cartoons and essays about war printed during the Russian Patriotic War of 1812.%"严寒"不仅是一个气候学词汇,在俄罗斯民间文学和漫画中同样也可获得"民族"身份和文化内涵。本文依据1812年俄国卫国战争时期印发的战争漫画和关于战争的散文作品,对"严寒"形象予以分析。

  18. Human-competitive automatic topic indexing

    CERN Document Server

    Medelyan, Olena

    2009-01-01

    Topic indexing is the task of identifying the main topics covered by a document. These are useful for many purposes: as subject headings in libraries, as keywords in academic publications and as tags on the web. Knowing a document’s topics helps people judge its relevance quickly. However, assigning topics manually is labor intensive. This thesis shows how to generate them automatically in a way that competes with human performance. Three kinds of indexing are investigated: term assignment, a task commonly performed by librarians, who select topics from a controlled vocabulary; tagging, a popular activity of web users, who choose topics freely; and a new method of keyphrase extraction, where topics are equated to Wikipedia article names. A general two-stage algorithm is introduced that first selects candidate topics and then ranks them by significance based on their properties. These properties draw on statistical, semantic, domain-specific and encyclopedic knowledge. They are combined using a machine learn...

  19. Music Perception as a Topic of Cognitive Psychology = Bilişsel Psikolojinin Bir Konusu Olarak Müzik Algısı

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslı ASLAN

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Music perception has a long and distinguished history as a topic of psychological research because music requires a mental activity in humans. As a complex human activity, music perception is naturally an area of interest especially to cognitive psychology. Cognitive studies suggest that listener’s experience of a particular musical sequence is driven and at the same time constrained by the sounds registered by auditory mechanisms but also processed by available mental resources. This assumption indicates that researchers must take into account certain inherent limitations and capabilities of the listener. The main purpose of this paper is to discuss possible cognitive processes underlying music perception. The steps taken towards this purpose will be describing the structure of music and discussing the way that this structure is perceived by human cognition.

  20. Topical report review status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Topical Report Review Status is scheduled to be published semi-annually. The primary purpose of this document is to provide periodic progress reports of on-going topical report reviews, to identify those topical reports for which the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff review has been completed and, to the extent practicable, to provide NRC management with sufficient information regarding the conduct of the topical report program to permit taking whatever actions deemed necessary or appropriate. This document is also intended to be a source of information to NRC Licensing Project Managers and other NRC personnel regarding the status of topical reports which may be referenced in applications for which they have responsibility. This status report is published primarily for internal NRC use in managing the topical report program, but is also used by NRC to advise the industry of report review status

  1. Design of Block Copolymer Costabilized Nonionic Microemulsions and Their In Vitro and In Vivo Assessment as Carriers for Sustained Regional Delivery of Ibuprofen via Topical Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djekic, Ljiljana; Martinovic, Martina; Stepanović-Petrović, Radica; Tomić, Maja; Micov, Ana; Primorac, Marija

    2015-08-01

    Nonionic surfactants (caprylocaproyl macrogol-8 glycerides, octoxynol-12, polysorbate-20, and polyethylene glycol-40 hydrogenated castor oil) (47.03%, w/w), costabilizer (poloxamer 407) (12%-20%, w/w), oil (isopropyl myristate) (5.22%, w/w), water (q.s. ad 100%, w/w), and ibuprofen (5%, w/w) were used to develop oil-in-water microemulsions with Newtonian flow behavior, low viscosity (from 368 ± 38 to 916 ± 46 mPa s), and average droplet size from 14.79 ± 0.31 to 16.54 ± 0.75 nm. Ibuprofen in vitro release from the microemulsions was in accordance with zero-order kinetics (R0(2) > 0.99) for at least 12 h. The maximum drug release rate (3.55%h(-1) ) was from the microemulsion M3 comprising 16%, w/w of poloxamer 407. The release rate of ibuprofen from the reference hydrogel followed Higuchi kinetics (RH(2) > 0.99), and drug amount released after the 6th hour was negligible. In a rat model of inflammation, the microemulsion M3 was significantly more efficacious than the reference hydrogel in exerting antihyperalgesic effects in prophylactic topical treatment, whereas they were comparable in therapeutic treatment as well as in producing antiedematous effect in both protocols. No obvious skin irritation was observed in in vivo studies. The developed nonionic surfactants-based microemulsions containing the optimal concentration of poloxamer 407 could be promising carriers for sustained regional delivery of ibuprofen via topical administration. PMID:26045240

  2. Topical or oral administration with an extract of Polypodium leucotomos prevents acute sunburn and psoralen-induced phototoxic reactions as well as depletion of Langerhans cells in human skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunburn, immune suppression, photo-aging, and skin cancers result from uncontrolled overexposure of human skin to solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Preventive measures, including photo-protection, are helpful and can be achieved by topical sun-screening agents. Polypodium leucotomos (PL) has been used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases and has shown some in vitro and in vivo immunomodulating properties. Its beneficial photo-protective effects in the treatment of vitiligo and its antioxidant properties encouraged us to evaluate in vivo the potentially useful photo-protective property of natural extract of PL after topical application or oral ingestion. Twenty-one healthy volunteers [either untreated or treated with oral psoralens (8-MOP or 5-MOP)] were enrolled in this study and exposed to solar radiation for evaluation of the following clinical parameters: immediate pigment darkening (IPD), minimal erythema dose (MED), minimal melanogenic dose (MMD), and minimal phototoxic dose (MPD) before and after topical or oral administration of PL. Immunohistochemical assessment of CD1a-expressing epidermal cells were also performed. PL was found to be photo-protective after topical application as well as oral administration. PL increased UV dose required for IPD (P<0.01), MED (P<0.001) and MPD (P<0.001). After oral administration of PL, MED increased 2.,8±0.59 times and MPD increased 2.75±0.5 and 6.8±1.3 times depending upon the type of psoralen used. Immunohistochemical study revealed photo-protection of Langherhans cells by oral as well as topical PL. The observed photo-protective activities of oral or topical PL reveal a new avenue in examining the potentially useful field of systemic photo-protection and suggests that PL can be used as adjunct treatment and can make photochemotherapy and phototherapy possibly safe and effective when the control of cutaneous phototoxicity to PUVA or UVB is a limiting factor in such photo-therapies. (au)

  3. Topics in atomic physics

    CERN Document Server

    Burkhardt, Charles E

    2006-01-01

    The study of atomic physics propelled us into the quantum age in the early twentieth century and carried us into the twenty-first century with a wealth of new and, in some cases, unexplained phenomena. Topics in Atomic Physics provides a foundation for students to begin research in modern atomic physics. It can also serve as a reference because it contains material that is not easily located in other sources. A distinguishing feature is the thorough exposition of the quantum mechanical hydrogen atom using both the traditional formulation and an alternative treatment not usually found in textbooks. The alternative treatment exploits the preeminent nature of the pure Coulomb potential and places the Lenz vector operator on an equal footing with other operators corresponding to classically conserved quantities. A number of difficult to find proofs and derivations are included as is development of operator formalism that permits facile solution of the Stark effect in hydrogen. Discussion of the classical hydrogen...

  4. Syntacticized topics in Kurmuk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben

    2015-01-01

    . The grammatical relation of the topic is expressed by a voice-like inflection of the verb, here called orientation. While subject-orientation is morphologically unmarked, object-oriented and adjunct-oriented verbs are marked by a subject suffix or by a suffix indicating that the topic is not subject, and adjunct...

  5. Salicylic Acid Topical

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... skin blemishes in people who have acne. Topical salicylic acid is also used to treat skin conditions that involve scaling or overgrowth of skin ... water for 15 minutes.Do not apply topical salicylic acid to skin that is broken, red, swollen, irritated, or infected. ...

  6. An ionic liquid-in-water microemulsion as a potential carrier for topical delivery of poorly water soluble drug: Development, ex-vivo and in-vivo evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goindi, Shishu; Kaur, Ramanpreet; Kaur, Randeep

    2015-11-30

    In this paper, we report an ionic liquid-in-water (IL/w) microemulsion (ME) formulation which is able to solubilize etodolac (ETO), a poorly water soluble drug for topical delivery using BMIMPF6 (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate) as IL, Tween 80 as surfactant and ethanol as co-surfactant. The prepared ME was characterized for physicochemical parameters, subjected to ex-vivo permeation studies as well as in-vivo pharmacodynamic evaluation. The ex-vivo drug permeation studies through rat skin was performed using Franz-diffusion cell and the IL/w based ME showed maximum mean cumulative percent permeation of 99.030±0.921% in comparison to oil-in-water (o/w) ME (61.548±1.875%) and oily solution (48.830±2.488%) of ETO. In-vivo anti-arthritic and anti-inflammatory activities of the prepared formulations were evaluated using different rodent models and the results revealed that ETO loaded IL/w based ME was found to be more effective in controlling inflammation than oily solution, o/w ME and marketed formulation of ETO. Histopathological studies also demonstrated that IL/w based ME caused no anatomical and pathological changes in the skin. PMID:26456294

  7. Topic Identification in Discourse

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, K

    1995-01-01

    This paper proposes a corpus-based language model for topic identification. We analyze the association of noun-noun and noun-verb pairs in LOB Corpus. The word association norms are based on three factors: 1) word importance, 2) pair co-occurrence, and 3) distance. They are trained on the paragraph and sentence levels for noun-noun and noun-verb pairs, respectively. Under the topic coherence postulation, the nouns that have the strongest connectivities with the other nouns and verbs in the discourse form the preferred topic set. The collocational semantics then is used to identify the topics from paragraphs and to discuss the topic shift phenomenon among paragraphs.

  8. Clinical application of oral form of ANGIPARSTM and in combination with topical form as a new treatment for diabetic foot ulcers: A randomized clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Bahrami A; Kamali K; Ali-Asgharzadeh A; Hosseini P; Heshmat R; HR Khorram Khorshid; Gharibdoust F; SH Madani; Larijani B

    2008-01-01

    ANGIPARSTM is a new herbal extract which has been produced in oral, topical, and intravenous forms. The present article contains preliminary results of the study which was planned to evaluate the efficacy and safety of orally applied ANGIPARSTM and to compare it with the combination of oral and topical forms and also with conventional therapy in patients with diabetic ulcers of the lower extremities."nTwenty one patients with diabetic foot ulcers were divided into 3 groups. The first gro...

  9. A Survey of Topic Modeling in Text Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubayyi Alghamdi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Topic models provide a convenient way to analyze large of unclassified text. A topic contains a cluster of words that frequently occur together. A topic modeling can connect words with similar meanings and distinguish between uses of words with multiple meanings. This paper provides two categories that can be under the field of topic modeling. First one discusses the area of methods of topic modeling, which has four methods that can be considerable under this category. These methods are Latent semantic analysis (LSA, Probabilistic latent semantic analysis (PLSA, Latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA, and Correlated topic model (CTM. The second category is called topic evolution models, which model topics by considering an important factor time. In the second category, different models are discussed, such as topic over time (TOT, dynamic topic models (DTM, multiscale topic tomography, dynamic topic correlation detection, detecting topic evolution in scientific literature, etc.

  10. Parent's alcoholism severity and family topic avoidance about alcohol as predictors of perceived stigma among adult children of alcoholics: Implications for emotional and psychological resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haverfield, Marie C; Theiss, Jennifer A

    2016-01-01

    Alcoholism is a highly stigmatized condition, with both alcohol-dependent individuals and family members of the afflicted experiencing stigmatization. This study examined the severity of a parent's alcoholism and family topic avoidance about alcohol as two factors that are associated with family members' perceptions of stigma. Three dimensions of stigma were considered: discrimination stigma, disclosure stigma, and positive aspect stigma. In addition, this study assessed associations between perceived stigmatization and individuals' experiences of depressive symptoms, self-esteem, and resilience. Adult children of alcoholics (N = 622) were surveyed about family conditions, perceived stigma, and their emotional and psychological well-being. Regression analyses revealed that the severity of a parent's alcoholism predicted all three types of stigma for females, but not for males. In addition, family topic avoidance about alcohol predicted all types of stigma for males and discrimination stigma and positive aspect stigma for females. With few exceptions, the three types of stigma predicted depressive symptoms, self-esteem, and resilience for both male and female adult children of alcoholics. The results are discussed in terms of their implications for promoting a family environment that mitigates stigma and encourages emotional and psychological well-being. In 2012, approximately 3.3 million deaths worldwide were due to the harmful use of alcohol (World Health Organization [WHO], 2014). Individuals who abuse alcohol are susceptible to a variety of negative health outcomes (Rehm et al., 2009) and display inappropriate social behaviors (Klingemann, 2001; Schomerus et al., 2011a). General societal perceptions tend to characterize alcohol-dependent individuals as irresponsible and lacking in self-control (Schomerus et al., 2011b). Research in the United Kingdom found that 54% of the population believes alcohol-dependent individuals are personally to blame for their own

  11. Maps on the basis of the Arts & Humanities Citation Index: The journals Leonardo and Art Journal versus "Digital Humanities" as a topic

    CERN Document Server

    Leydesdorff, Loet

    2009-01-01

    The possibilities of using the Arts & Humanities Citation Index (A&HCI) for journal mapping have not been sufficiently recognized because of the absence of a Journal Citations Report (JCR) for this database. A quasi-JCR for the A&HCI (2008) was constructed from the data contained in the Web-of-Science and is used for the evaluation of two journals as examples: Leonardo and Art Journal. The maps on the basis of the aggregated journal-journal citations within this domain can be compared with maps including references to journals in the Science Citation Index and Social Science Citation Index. Art journals are cited by (social) science journals more than by other art journals, but these journals draw upon one another in terms of their own references. This cultural impact in terms of being cited is not found when documents with a topic such as "digital humanities" are analyzed. This community of practice functions more as an intellectual organizer than a journal.

  12. Identifying Topics in Microblogs Using Wikipedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldırım, Ahmet; Üsküdarlı, Suzan; Özgür, Arzucan

    2016-01-01

    Twitter is an extremely high volume platform for user generated contributions regarding any topic. The wealth of content created at real-time in massive quantities calls for automated approaches to identify the topics of the contributions. Such topics can be utilized in numerous ways, such as public opinion mining, marketing, entertainment, and disaster management. Towards this end, approaches to relate single or partial posts to knowledge base items have been proposed. However, in microblogging systems like Twitter, topics emerge from the culmination of a large number of contributions. Therefore, identifying topics based on collections of posts, where individual posts contribute to some aspect of the greater topic is necessary. Models, such as Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA), propose algorithms for relating collections of posts to sets of keywords that represent underlying topics. In these approaches, figuring out what the specific topic(s) the keyword sets represent remains as a separate task. Another issue in topic detection is the scope, which is often limited to specific domain, such as health. This work proposes an approach for identifying domain-independent specific topics related to sets of posts. In this approach, individual posts are processed and then aggregated to identify key tokens, which are then mapped to specific topics. Wikipedia article titles are selected to represent topics, since they are up to date, user-generated, sophisticated articles that span topics of human interest. This paper describes the proposed approach, a prototype implementation, and a case study based on data gathered during the heavily contributed periods corresponding to the four US election debates in 2012. The manually evaluated results (0.96 precision) and other observations from the study are discussed in detail. PMID:26991442

  13. Identifying Topics in Microblogs Using Wikipedia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Yıldırım

    Full Text Available Twitter is an extremely high volume platform for user generated contributions regarding any topic. The wealth of content created at real-time in massive quantities calls for automated approaches to identify the topics of the contributions. Such topics can be utilized in numerous ways, such as public opinion mining, marketing, entertainment, and disaster management. Towards this end, approaches to relate single or partial posts to knowledge base items have been proposed. However, in microblogging systems like Twitter, topics emerge from the culmination of a large number of contributions. Therefore, identifying topics based on collections of posts, where individual posts contribute to some aspect of the greater topic is necessary. Models, such as Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA, propose algorithms for relating collections of posts to sets of keywords that represent underlying topics. In these approaches, figuring out what the specific topic(s the keyword sets represent remains as a separate task. Another issue in topic detection is the scope, which is often limited to specific domain, such as health. This work proposes an approach for identifying domain-independent specific topics related to sets of posts. In this approach, individual posts are processed and then aggregated to identify key tokens, which are then mapped to specific topics. Wikipedia article titles are selected to represent topics, since they are up to date, user-generated, sophisticated articles that span topics of human interest. This paper describes the proposed approach, a prototype implementation, and a case study based on data gathered during the heavily contributed periods corresponding to the four US election debates in 2012. The manually evaluated results (0.96 precision and other observations from the study are discussed in detail.

  14. Identifying Topics in Microblogs Using Wikipedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldırım, Ahmet; Üsküdarlı, Suzan; Özgür, Arzucan

    2016-01-01

    Twitter is an extremely high volume platform for user generated contributions regarding any topic. The wealth of content created at real-time in massive quantities calls for automated approaches to identify the topics of the contributions. Such topics can be utilized in numerous ways, such as public opinion mining, marketing, entertainment, and disaster management. Towards this end, approaches to relate single or partial posts to knowledge base items have been proposed. However, in microblogging systems like Twitter, topics emerge from the culmination of a large number of contributions. Therefore, identifying topics based on collections of posts, where individual posts contribute to some aspect of the greater topic is necessary. Models, such as Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA), propose algorithms for relating collections of posts to sets of keywords that represent underlying topics. In these approaches, figuring out what the specific topic(s) the keyword sets represent remains as a separate task. Another issue in topic detection is the scope, which is often limited to specific domain, such as health. This work proposes an approach for identifying domain-independent specific topics related to sets of posts. In this approach, individual posts are processed and then aggregated to identify key tokens, which are then mapped to specific topics. Wikipedia article titles are selected to represent topics, since they are up to date, user-generated, sophisticated articles that span topics of human interest. This paper describes the proposed approach, a prototype implementation, and a case study based on data gathered during the heavily contributed periods corresponding to the four US election debates in 2012. The manually evaluated results (0.96 precision) and other observations from the study are discussed in detail. PMID:26991442

  15. Topics in current aerosol research

    CERN Document Server

    Hidy, G M

    1971-01-01

    Topics in Current Aerosol Research deals with the fundamental aspects of aerosol science, with emphasis on experiment and theory describing highly dispersed aerosols (HDAs) as well as the dynamics of charged suspensions. Topics covered range from the basic properties of HDAs to their formation and methods of generation; sources of electric charges; interactions between fluid and aerosol particles; and one-dimensional motion of charged cloud of particles. This volume is comprised of 13 chapters and begins with an introduction to the basic properties of HDAs, followed by a discussion on the form

  16. Topics in millimeter wave technology

    CERN Document Server

    Button, Kenneth

    1988-01-01

    Topics in Millimeter Wave Technology, Volume 1 presents topics related to millimeter wave technology, including fin-lines and passive components realized in fin-lines, suspended striplines, suspended substrate microstrips, and modal power exchange in multimode fibers. A miniaturized monopulse assembly constructed in planar waveguide with multimode scalar horn feeds is also described. This volume is comprised of five chapters; the first of which deals with the analysis and synthesis techniques for fin-lines as well as the various passive components realized in fin-line. Tapers, discontinuities,

  17. Topics in Nuclear Astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some topics in nuclear astrophysics are discussed, e.g.: highly evolved stellar cores, stellar evolution (through the temperature analysis of stellar surface), nucleosynthesis and finally the solar neutrino problem. (L.C.)

  18. Diclofenac Topical (osteoarthritis pain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... should know that you should not apply sunscreens, cosmetics, lotions, moisturizers, insect repellents, or other topical medications ... that is bloody or looks like coffee grounds slow, shallow, or irregular breathing hives itching difficulty breathing ...

  19. Advanced Topics in Aerodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filippone, Antonino

    1999-01-01

    "Advanced Topics in Aerodynamics" is a comprehensive electronic guide to aerodynamics,computational fluid dynamics, aeronautics, aerospace propulsion systems, design and relatedtechnology. We report data, tables, graphics, sketches,examples, results, photos, technical andscientific literature, for...

  20. Supplemental topics on voids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rood, H.J.

    1988-09-01

    Several topics concerning voids are presented, supplementing the report of Rood (1988). The discovery of the Coma supercluster and void and the recognition of the cosmological significance of superclusters and voids are reviewed. Galaxy redshift surveys and redshift surveys for the Abell clusters and very distant objects are discussed. Solar system and extragalactic dynamics are examined. Also, topics for future observational research on voids are recommended. 50 references.

  1. Topical treatment of melasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandyopadhyay Debabrata

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Melasma is a common hypermelanotic disorder affecting the face that is associated with considerable psychological impacts. The management of melasma is challenging and requires a long-term treatment plan. In addition to avoidance of aggravating factors like oral pills and ultraviolet exposure, topical therapy has remained the mainstay of treatment. Multiple options for topical treatment are available, of which hydroquinone (HQ is the most commonly prescribed agent. Besides HQ, other topical agents for which varying degrees of evidence for clinical efficacy exist include azelaic acid, kojic acid, retinoids, topical steroids, glycolic acid, mequinol, and arbutin. Topical medications modify various stages of melanogenesis, the most common mode of action being inhibition of the enzyme, tyrosinase. Combination therapy is the preferred mode of treatment for the synergism and reduction of untoward effects. The most popular combination consists of HQ, a topical steroid, and retinoic acid. Prolonged HQ usage may lead to untoward effects like depigmentation and exogenous ochronosis. The search for safer alternatives has given rise to the development of many newer agents, several of them from natural sources. Well-designed controlled clinical trials are needed to clarify their role in the routine management of melasma.

  2. Recent Advances In Topical Therapy In Dermatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Thappa Devinder

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available With changing times various newer topical agents are introduced in the field of dermatology. Tacrolimus and pimecrolimus are immunisuppressants, which are effective topically and are tried in the management of atopic dermatitis as well as other disorders including allergic contact dermatitis, atrophic lichen planus, pyoderma gangrenosum. Imiquimod, an immune response modifier, is presently in use for genital warts but has potentials as anti- tumour agent and in various other dermatological conditions when used topically. Tazarotene is a newer addition to the list of topical reginoids, which is effective in psoriasis and has better effect in combination with calcipotriene, phototherapy and topical costicosteroids. Tazarotene and adapelene are also effective in inflammatory acne. Calcipotriol, a vitamin D analogue has been introduced as a topical agent in the treatment of psoriasis. Steroid components are also developed recently which will be devoid of the side effects but having adequate anti-inflammatory effect. Topical photodynamic therapy has also a wide range of use in dermatology. Newer topical agents including cidofovir, capsaicin, topical sensitizers, topical antifungal agents for onychomycosis are also of use in clinical practice. Other promising developments include skin substitutes and growth factors for wound care.

  3. Implicit stage topics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Lahousse

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Il a souvent été proposé que les éléments spatio-temporels en position initiale de phrase spécifient le cadre de l’événement dénoté par la proposition et ont une interprétation thématique ou topicale. Alors que les topiques spatio-temporels explicites ont souvent été étudiés, Erteschik-Schir (1997, 1999 propose l’idée que les topiques spatio-temporels, ou topiques scéniques (stage topics peuvent aussi être implicites.Dans cet article, nous offrons des arguments en faveur de la notion de topique scénique implicite. Nous montrons qu’un certain nombre de cas d’inversion nominale en français, une configuration syntaxique qui est favorisée par la présence d’un topique scénique explicite, s’expliquent par la présence d’un topique scénique implicite. Le fait que les topiques scéniques implicites interagissent avec la structure syntaxique de la même façon que les topiques scéniques explicites constitue un argument empirique en faveur de leur existence.It has often been proposed that sentence-initial spatio-temporal elements specify the frame in which the whole proposition takes place and are topical (i.e. thematic. Whereas considerable attention has been paid to explicit spatio-temporal topics, Erteschik-Shir (1997, 1999 argues that spatio-temporal topics, or stage topics, can also be implicit.In this article we provide evidence in favour of the notion of implicit stage topic. We show that a certain number of nominal inversion cases in French, a syntactic configuration which is triggered by the presence of an explicit stage topic, are explained by the presence of an implicit stage topic. The fact that implicit stage topics interact with syntactic structure the same way explicit stage topics do constitutes a strong empirical argument in favour of their existence.

  4. Superconcentration and related topics

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, Sourav

    2014-01-01

    A certain curious feature of random objects, introduced by the author as “super concentration,” and two related topics, “chaos” and “multiple valleys,” are highlighted in this book. Although super concentration has established itself as a recognized feature in a number of areas of probability theory in the last twenty years (under a variety of names), the author was the first to discover and explore its connections with chaos and multiple valleys. He achieves a substantial degree of simplification and clarity in the presentation of these findings by using the spectral approach. Understanding the fluctuations of random objects is one of the major goals of probability theory and a whole subfield of probability and analysis, called concentration of measure, is devoted to understanding these fluctuations. This subfield offers a range of tools for computing upper bounds on the orders of fluctuations of very complicated random variables. Usually, concentration of measure is useful when more direct prob...

  5. Topics in statistical mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis deals with four independent topics in statistical mechanics: (1) the dimer problem is solved exactly for a hexagonal lattice with general boundary using a known generating function from the theory of partitions. It is shown that the leading term in the entropy depends on the shape of the boundary; (2) continuum models of percolation and self-avoiding walks are introduced with the property that their series expansions are sums over linear graphs with intrinsic combinatorial weights and explicit dimension dependence; (3) a constrained SOS model is used to describe the edge of a simple cubic crystal. Low and high temperature results are derived as well as the detailed behavior near the crystal facet; (4) the microscopic model of the lambda-transition involving atomic permutation cycles is reexamined. In particular, a new derivation of the two-component field theory model of the critical behavior is presented. Results for a lattice model originally proposed by Kikuchi are extended with a high temperature series expansion and Monte Carlo simulation. 30 references

  6. Parent's alcoholism severity and family topic avoidance about alcohol as predictors of perceived stigma among adult children of alcoholics: Implications for emotional and psychological resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haverfield, Marie C; Theiss, Jennifer A

    2016-01-01

    Alcoholism is a highly stigmatized condition, with both alcohol-dependent individuals and family members of the afflicted experiencing stigmatization. This study examined the severity of a parent's alcoholism and family topic avoidance about alcohol as two factors that are associated with family members' perceptions of stigma. Three dimensions of stigma were considered: discrimination stigma, disclosure stigma, and positive aspect stigma. In addition, this study assessed associations between perceived stigmatization and individuals' experiences of depressive symptoms, self-esteem, and resilience. Adult children of alcoholics (N = 622) were surveyed about family conditions, perceived stigma, and their emotional and psychological well-being. Regression analyses revealed that the severity of a parent's alcoholism predicted all three types of stigma for females, but not for males. In addition, family topic avoidance about alcohol predicted all types of stigma for males and discrimination stigma and positive aspect stigma for females. With few exceptions, the three types of stigma predicted depressive symptoms, self-esteem, and resilience for both male and female adult children of alcoholics. The results are discussed in terms of their implications for promoting a family environment that mitigates stigma and encourages emotional and psychological well-being. In 2012, approximately 3.3 million deaths worldwide were due to the harmful use of alcohol (World Health Organization [WHO], 2014). Individuals who abuse alcohol are susceptible to a variety of negative health outcomes (Rehm et al., 2009) and display inappropriate social behaviors (Klingemann, 2001; Schomerus et al., 2011a). General societal perceptions tend to characterize alcohol-dependent individuals as irresponsible and lacking in self-control (Schomerus et al., 2011b). Research in the United Kingdom found that 54% of the population believes alcohol-dependent individuals are personally to blame for their own

  7. The Health Curriculum: 500 Topics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Oliver E.

    2001-01-01

    This 1958 paper divides 500 health topics into 20 categories: health as a social accomplishment/social problem; nutrition; physical fitness; mental health and disease; heredity/eugenics; infection/immunity; chronic and degenerative disease; substance abuse; skin care; vision, hearing, and speech; dental health; safety; physical environment; health…

  8. Selected topics in nuclear structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    19. winter school in Zakopane was devoted to selected topics in nuclear structure such as: production of spin resonances, heavy ions reactions and their applications to the investigation of high spin states, octupole deformations, excited states and production of new elements etc. The experimental data are ofen compared with theoretical predictions. Report contains 28 papers. (M.F.W.)

  9. Topics in optics and music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Andrew W.

    2012-10-01

    While the use of optics in the playback of music has been a tremendously successful technology and laser light shows are a common occurrence, other intersections of optics and music tend to be less well known. Topics such as optics-based instruments, performance tools and effects, instrument characterization and manufacturing, recording, playback, and signal processing are explored.

  10. Endoscopic Resection and Topical 5-Fluorouracil as an Alternative Treatment to Craniofacial Resection for the Management of Primary Intestinal-Type Sinonasal Adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Mackie

    2010-01-01

    Conclusion. Trans-nasal endoscopic resection and topical 5-Fluorouracil could potentially offer an acceptable alternative treatment to the standard of cranio-facial resection. This should be investigated in trials with a longer followup period than this paper in order to directly compare the two treatment modalities.

  11. Researching Distressing Topics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Jackson

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative researchers who explore sensitive topics may expose themselves to emotional distress. Consequently, researchers are often faced with the challenge of maintaining emotional equilibrium during the research process. However, discussion on the management of difficult emotions has occupied a peripheral place within accounts of research practice. With rare exceptions, the focus of published accounts is concentrated on the analysis of the emotional phenomena that emerge during the collection of primary research data. Hence, there is a comparative absence of a dialogue around the emotional dimensions of working with secondary data sources. This article highlights some of the complex ways in which emotions enter the research process during secondary analysis, and the ways in which we engaged with and managed emotional states such as anger, sadness, and horror. The concepts of emotional labor and emotional reflexivity are used to consider the ways in which we “worked with” and “worked on” emotion. In doing so, we draw on our collective experiences of working on two collaborative projects with ChildLine Scotland in which a secondary analysis was conducted on children’s narratives of distress, worry, abuse, and neglect.

  12. Topical Products for the Aging Face.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCook, John P

    2016-07-01

    This article focuses on nonprescription home-use topical treatment technologies for the aging face and is intended to serve as a guide for the core cosmeceutical technologies currently used and to help educate and assist the selection of topical antiaging products by the professional staff and their patients. Antiaging topical treatments for patient home use should be nonirritating, compatible with the patient skin type, effective, and complementary to surgical and minimally invasive office procedures, and aesthetically elegant. New topical antiaging technologies, formulated as monotherapy or as combinations with well-known cosmeceuticals, should present adequate clinical studies to support their selection for use. PMID:27363774

  13. Skin oxygenation after topical application of liposome-entrapped benzyl nicotinate as measured by EPR oximetry in vivo: influence of composition and size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristl, Julijana; Abramović, Zrinka; Sentjurc, Marjeta

    2003-01-01

    New and improved drug delivery systems are the important subject of much scientific research. The development of formulations that increase skin oxygenation and of methods for measuring oxygen levels in skin are important for dealing with healing processes affected by the level of oxygen. We have used EPR oximetry in vivo to compare the influence of liposomal formulations of different size and composition with that of hydrogel with respect to the action of the entrapped benzyl nicotinate (BN). Following the topical application of BN onto the skin of mice, pO2 increase was measured by low-frequency EPR as a function of time. The effect of BN was evaluated by 3 different parameters: lag-time, time needed for maximum pO2 increase, and overall effectiveness expressed by the area under the response-time curve. An increase in skin oxygenation was observed after BN application. The results show that the effect of BN incorporated in liposomes is achieved more rapidly than the effect from hydrophilic gel. The composition of the liposomes significantly affects the time at which BN starts to act and, to a lesser extent, the maximum increase of pO2 in skin and the effectiveness of BN action. However, the size of the liposomes influences both the effectiveness of BN action and the time at which BN starts to act. After repeated application of liposomes, the pO2 baseline increased and the response of the skin tissue was faster. Our results demonstrate that EPR oximetry is a useful method for evaluating oxygen changes after drug application and for following the time course of their action. PMID:12713274

  14. Tracking topic birth and death in LDA.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Andrew T.; Robinson, David Gerald

    2011-09-01

    Most topic modeling algorithms that address the evolution of documents over time use the same number of topics at all times. This obscures the common occurrence in the data where new subjects arise and old ones diminish or disappear entirely. We propose an algorithm to model the birth and death of topics within an LDA-like framework. The user selects an initial number of topics, after which new topics are created and retired without further supervision. Our approach also accommodates many of the acceleration and parallelization schemes developed in recent years for standard LDA. In recent years, topic modeling algorithms such as latent semantic analysis (LSA)[17], latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA)[10] and their descendants have offered a powerful way to explore and interrogate corpora far too large for any human to grasp without assistance. Using such algorithms we are able to search for similar documents, model and track the volume of topics over time, search for correlated topics or model them with a hierarchy. Most of these algorithms are intended for use with static corpora where the number of documents and the size of the vocabulary are known in advance. Moreover, almost all current topic modeling algorithms fix the number of topics as one of the input parameters and keep it fixed across the entire corpus. While this is appropriate for static corpora, it becomes a serious handicap when analyzing time-varying data sets where topics come and go as a matter of course. This is doubly true for online algorithms that may not have the option of revising earlier results in light of new data. To be sure, these algorithms will account for changing data one way or another, but without the ability to adapt to structural changes such as entirely new topics they may do so in counterintuitive ways.

  15. Topics in Nonlinear Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosekilde, Erik

    Through a significant number of detailed and realistic examples this book illustrates how the insights gained over the past couple of decades in the fields of nonlinear dynamics and chaos theory can be applied in practice. Aomng the topics considered are microbiological reaction systems, ecological...

  16. Topic: Mastery Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killoran, James, Ed.

    1983-01-01

    This journal issue addresses the topic of mastery learning at both the elementary and secondary school levels. The first article, "The Theory and Practice of Mastery Learning" (Guskey), gives a definition of and information about the development, operation, and application of mastery learning, based on the theories of Benjamin Bloom. In addition,…

  17. Topical Research: Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Karen

    This lesson plan can be used in social studies, language arts, or library research. The instructional objective is for students to select a topic of study relating to Africa, write a thesis statement, collect information from media sources, and develop a conclusion. The teacher may assign the lesson for written or oral evaluation. The teacher…

  18. Contrastive topics decomposed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Wagner

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of contrastive topics introduced in Büring 1997b and further developed in Büring 2003 relies on distinguishing two types of constituents that introduce alternatives: the sentence focus, which is marked by a FOC feature, and the contrastive topic, which is marked by a CT feature. A non-compositional rule of interpretation that refers to these features is used to derive a topic semantic value, a nested set of sets of propositions. This paper presents evidence for a correlation between the restrictive syntax of nested focus operators and the syntax of contrastive topics, a correlation which is unexpected under this analysis. A compositional analysis is proposed that only makes use of the flatter focus semantic values introduced by focus operators. The analysis aims at integrating insights from the original analysis while at the same time capturing the observed syntactic restrictions. http://dx.doi.org/10.3765/sp.5.8 BibTeX info

  19. Characters and Topical Diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Rune

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to contribute to our understanding of the difference between the bestseller and the non-bestseller in nonfiction. It is noticed that many bestsellers in nonfiction belongs to the sub-genre of creative nonfiction, but also that the topics in this kind of literature i...

  20. Updates of Topical and Local Anesthesia Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Ricardo A; Kirpalani, Tarun; Mohan, Naveen

    2016-04-01

    As described in this article, there are many advances in topical and local anesthesia. Topical and local anesthetics have played a great role in dentistry in alleviating the fears of patients, eliminating pain, and providing pain control. Many invasive procedures would not be performed without the use and advances of topical/local anesthetics. The modern-day dentist has the responsibility of knowing the variety of products on the market and should have at least references to access before, during, and after treatment. This practice ensures proper care with topical and local anesthetics for the masses of patients entering dental offices worldwide. PMID:27040295

  1. The treatment of rosacea with topical ivermectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, S T; Alinia, H; Feldman, S R

    2015-04-01

    The treatment of rosacea is challenging because several pathophysiologic processes may be involved, including neurovascular dysregulation and alterations in innate immune status. Demodex mites may play a role in the latter mechanism. Topical ivermectin is a new therapeutic modality which demonstrates antiparasitic and anti-inflammatory properties. This article reviews published evidence related to the efficacy and safety of topical ivermectin. PubMed was utilized to search for key words "topical ivermectin", "ivermectin cream" and "rosacea". Three clinical trials were found that studied topical ivermectin as a treatment option for rosacea. Ivermectin was effective, safe and well tolerated. PMID:26020066

  2. Topics and topic prominence in two sign languages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V. Kimmelman

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we describe topic marking in Russian Sign Language (RSL) and Sign Language of the Netherlands (NGT) and discuss whether these languages should be considered topic prominent. The formal markers of topics in RSL are sentence-initial position, a prosodic break following the topic, and non

  3. The pharmacology of topical analgesics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkin, Robert L

    2013-07-01

    systemic circulation, topically applied analgesics are associated with application-site reactions in patients, such as dryness, erythema, burning, and discoloration. Furthermore, some adverse events that have been observed in patients may be suggestive of some degree of systemic exposure. This article reviews the mechanisms of action, pharmacokinetics, and tolerability of topical treatments for the management of patient pain.

  4. Analyses of Research Topics in the Field of Informetrics Based on the Method of Topic Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Sung-Chien Lin

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we used the approach of topic modeling to uncover the possible structure of research topics in the field of Informetrics, to explore the distribution of the topics over years, and to compare the core journals. In order to infer the structure of the topics in the field, the data of the papers published in the Journal of Informetricsand Scientometrics during 2007 to 2013 are retrieved from the database of the Web of Science as input of the approach of topic modeling. The results ...

  5. Hot topic [editorial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    simulations 'would be seriously in error'. One may ask if this magazine should give space to Lindzen or those involved in geoengineering to air their views. Given the uncertainties still present within climate models and the potential costs of dealing with global warming, it would be wrong for Physics World to ignore those outside the mainstream. After all, as Richard Feynman once wrote: 'There is no harm in doubt and scepticism, for it is through these that new discoveries are made'. Physicists should never take anything at face value, not least a topic as important as climate change. (U.K.)

  6. Topical retinoids for acne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Lindsey; Bonati, Lauren Meshkov; Silverberg, Nanette B

    2016-06-01

    Topical retinoids are currently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of acne vulgaris in nonpregnant, nonlactating patients 12 years of age and older. Their efficacy, safety, and tolerability are well documented for inflammatory and noninflammatory acne with studies repeatedly demonstrating a decrease in the number of lesions, significant improvement in acne severity, improvement in the cosmetic appearance of acne, and the prevention of acne lesions through microcomedone formation. There is some variability between prescription retinoid products regarding efficacy, safety, and tolerability; with erythema, peeling, and dryness being common, potential side effects. Due to their efficacious and safe profile, topical retinoids remain the first-line treatment for acne vulgaris. PMID:27416308

  7. Psoriasis: improving adherence to topical therapy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feldman, S.R.; Horn, E.J.; Balkrishnan, R.; Basra, M.K.; Finlay, A.Y.; McCoy, D.; Menter, A.; Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de

    2008-01-01

    Topical therapy has an important role in psoriasis treatment. It is efficacious and has a favorable safety profile as demonstrated in clinical trials. However, poor treatment outcomes from topical therapy regimens likely result from poor adherence and ineffective use of the medication. The Internati

  8. Four (Somewhat Nonstandard) Research Topics

    OpenAIRE

    Paun, Gheorghe; Research Group on Natural Computing (Universidad de Sevilla) (Coordinador)

    2014-01-01

    Four research directions are suggested, dealing with the following four main ideas: computing along the axon (up to now, this topic was only preliminarily investi- gated), using pre-computed resources in order to solve computationally hard problems, considering in P systems both objects \\of matter" and \\of anti-matter" (which annihilate each other when meet), and considering the distance (naturally de ned in a membrane structure of a given type) as a support of information.

  9. Correlated Topic Model for Web Services Ranking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustapha AZNAG

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing number of published Web services providing similar functionalities, it’s very tedious for a service consumer to make decision to select the appropriate one according to her/his needs. In this paper, we explore several probabilistic topic models: Probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis (PLSA, Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA and Correlated Topic Model (CTM to extract latent factors from web service descriptions. In our approach, topic models are used as efficient dimension reduction techniques, which are able to capture semantic relationships between word-topic and topic-service interpreted in terms of probability distributions. To address the limitation of keywords-based queries, we represent web service description as a vector space and we introduce a new approach for discovering and ranking web services using latent factors. In our experiment, we evaluated our Service Discovery and Ranking approach by calculating the precision (P@n and normalized discounted cumulative gain (NDCGn.

  10. Topics in commutative ring theory

    CERN Document Server

    Watkins, John J

    2009-01-01

    Topics in Commutative Ring Theory is a textbook for advanced undergraduate students as well as graduate students and mathematicians seeking an accessible introduction to this fascinating area of abstract algebra. Commutative ring theory arose more than a century ago to address questions in geometry and number theory. A commutative ring is a set-such as the integers, complex numbers, or polynomials with real coefficients--with two operations, addition and multiplication. Starting from this simple definition, John Watkins guides readers from basic concepts to Noetherian rings-one of

  11. "Draw My Topics": Find Desired Topics fast from large scale of Corpus

    OpenAIRE

    Dou, Jason; Sun, Ni; Zou, Xiaojun

    2016-01-01

    We develop the "Draw My Topics" toolkit, which provides a fast way to incorporate social scientists' interest into standard topic modelling. Instead of using raw corpus with primitive processing as input, an algorithm based on Vector Space Model and Conditional Entropy are used to connect social scientists' willingness and unsupervised topic models' output. Space for users' adjustment on specific corpus of their interest is also accommodated. We demonstrate the toolkit's use on the Diachronic...

  12. Topical Acne Treatments and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topical Acne Treatments and Pregnancy In every pregnancy, a woman starts out with a 3-5% chance of having ... This sheet talks about whether exposure to topical acne treatments may increase the risk for birth defects ...

  13. Recent Advances In Topical Therapy In Dermatology

    OpenAIRE

    Mohan Thappa Devinder

    2003-01-01

    With changing times various newer topical agents are introduced in the field of dermatology. Tacrolimus and pimecrolimus are immunisuppressants, which are effective topically and are tried in the management of atopic dermatitis as well as other disorders including allergic contact dermatitis, atrophic lichen planus, pyoderma gangrenosum. Imiquimod, an immune response modifier, is presently in use for genital warts but has potentials as anti- tumour agent and in various other dermatological co...

  14. Potential theory—selected topics

    CERN Document Server

    Aikawwa, Hiroaki

    1996-01-01

    The first part of these lecture notes is an introduction to potential theory to prepare the reader for later parts, which can be used as the basis for a series of advanced lectures/seminars on potential theory/harmonic analysis. Topics covered in the book include minimal thinness, quasiadditivity of capacity, applications of singular integrals to potential theory, L(p)-capacity theory, fine limits of the Nagel-Stein boundary limit theorem and integrability of superharmonic functions. The notes are written for an audience familiar with the theory of integration, distributions and basic functional analysis.

  15. Control of pain with topical plant medicines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    James; David; Adams; Jr.; Xiaogang; Wang

    2015-01-01

    Pain is normally treated with oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents and opioids. These drugs are dangerous and are responsible for many hospitalizations and deaths. It is much safer to use topical preparations made from plants to treat pain, even severe pain. Topical preparations must contain compounds that penetrate the skin, inhibit pain receptors such as transient receptor potential cation channels and cyclooxygenase-2, to relieve pain. Inhibition of pain in the skin disrupts the pain cycle and avoids exposure of internal organs to large amounts of toxic compounds. Use of topical pain relievers has the potential to save many lives, decrease medical costs and improve therapy.

  16. Digital Social Network Mining for Topic Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradianzadeh, Pooya; Mohi, Maryam; Sadighi Moshkenani, Mohsen

    Networked computers are expanding more and more around the world, and digital social networks becoming of great importance for many people's work and leisure. This paper mainly focused on discovering the topic of exchanging information in digital social network. In brief, our method is to use a hierarchical dictionary of related topics and words that mapped to a graph. Then, with comparing the extracted keywords from the context of social network with graph nodes, probability of relation between context and desired topics will be computed. This model can be used in many applications such as advertising, viral marketing and high-risk group detection.

  17. Analyses of Research Topics in the Field of Informetrics Based on the Method of Topic Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Chien Lin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we used the approach of topic modeling to uncover the possible structure of research topics in the field of Informetrics, to explore the distribution of the topics over years, and to compare the core journals. In order to infer the structure of the topics in the field, the data of the papers published in the Journal of Informetricsand Scientometrics during 2007 to 2013 are retrieved from the database of the Web of Science as input of the approach of topic modeling. The results of this study show that when the number of topics was set to 10, the topic model has the smallest perplexity. Although data scopes and analysis methodsare different to previous studies, the generating topics of this study are consistent with those results produced by analyses of experts. Empirical case studies and measurements of bibliometric indicators were concerned important in every year during the whole analytic period, and the field was increasing stability. Both the two core journals broadly paid more attention to all of the topics in the field of Informetrics. The Journal of Informetricsput particular emphasis on construction and applications ofbibliometric indicators and Scientometrics focused on the evaluation and the factors of productivity of countries, institutions, domains, and journals.

  18. Hierarchical topic modeling with nested hierarchical Dirichlet process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-qun DING; Shan-ping LI; Zhen ZHANG; Bin SHEN

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with the statistical modeling of latent topic hierarchies in text corpora. The height of the topic tree is assumed as fixed, while the number of topics on each level as unknown a priori and to be inferred from data. Taking a nonparametric Bayesian approach to this problem, we propose a new probabilistic generative model based on the nested hierarchical Dirichlet process (nHDP) and present a Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling algorithm for the inference of the topic tree structure as welt as the word distribution of each topic and topic distribution of each document. Our theoretical analysis and experiment results show that this model can produce a more compact hierarchical topic structure and captures more free-grained topic relationships compared to the hierarchical latent Dirichlet allocation model.

  19. Advanced verification topics

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharya, Bishnupriya; Hall, Gary; Heaton, Nick; Kashai, Yaron; Khan Neyaz; Kirshenbaum, Zeev; Shneydor, Efrat

    2011-01-01

    The Accellera Universal Verification Methodology (UVM) standard is architected to scale, but verification is growing and in more than just the digital design dimension. It is growing in the SoC dimension to include low-power and mixed-signal and the system integration dimension to include multi-language support and acceleration. These items and others all contribute to the quality of the SOC so the Metric-Driven Verification (MDV) methodology is needed to unify it all into a coherent verification plan. This book is for verification engineers and managers familiar with the UVM and the benefits it brings to digital verification but who also need to tackle specialized tasks. It is also written for the SoC project manager that is tasked with building an efficient worldwide team. While the task continues to become more complex, Advanced Verification Topics describes methodologies outside of the Accellera UVM standard, but that build on it, to provide a way for SoC teams to stay productive and profitable.

  20. 75 FR 26647 - Ophthalmic and Topical Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Ivermectin Topical Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ... parasites that were approved for the pioneer product with 3 years of marketing exclusivity (69 FR 501... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 524 Ophthalmic and Topical Dosage Form New... part 524 is amended as follows: PART 524--OPHTHALMIC AND TOPICAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS 0 1....

  1. Detection of Embryonic Research Topics by Analysing Semantic Topic Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Salatino, Angelo Antonio; Motta, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    Being aware of new research topics is an important asset for anybody involved in the research environment, including researchers, academic publishers and institutional funding bodies. In recent years, the amount of scholarly data available on the web has increased steadily, allowing the development of several approaches for detecting emerging research topics and assessing their trends. However, current methods focus on the detection of topics which are already associated with a label or a sub...

  2. A Survey On Interactivity in Topic Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik Ehrencrona Kjellin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Trying to make sense and gain deeper insight from large sets of data is becoming a task very central to computer science in general. Topic models, capable of uncovering the semantic themes pervading through large collections of documents, have seen a surge in popularity in recent years. However, topic models are high level statistical tools; their output is given in terms of probability distributions, suited neither for simple interpretation nor deep analysis. Interpreting the fitted topic models in an intuitive manner requires visual and interactive tools. Additionally, some measure of human interaction is typically required for refining the output offered by such models. In the research, this area remains relatively unexplored – only recently has this aspect been receiving more attention. In this paper, the literature is surveyed as it pertains to interactivity and visualisation within the context of topic models, with the goal of finding current research trends in this area.

  3. Topic Modeling of Hierarchical Corpora /

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Do-kyum

    2014-01-01

    The sizes of modern digital libraries have grown beyond our capacity to comprehend manually. Thus we need new tools to help us in organizing and browsing large corpora of text that do not require manually examining each document. To this end, machine learning researchers have developed topic models, statistical learning algorithms for automatic comprehension of large collections of text. Topic models provide both global and local views of a corpus; they discover topics that run through the co...

  4. Synergetics introduction and advanced topics

    CERN Document Server

    Haken, Hermann

    2004-01-01

    This book is an often-requested reprint of two classic texts by H. Haken: "Synergetics. An Introduction" and "Advanced Synergetics". Synergetics, an interdisciplinary research program initiated by H. Haken in 1969, deals with the systematic and methodological approach to the rapidly growing field of complexity. Going well beyond qualitative analogies between complex systems in fields as diverse as physics, chemistry, biology, sociology and economics, Synergetics uses tools from theoretical physics and mathematics to construct an unifying framework within which quantitative descriptions of complex, self-organizing systems can be made. This may well explain the timelessness of H. Haken's original texts on this topic, which are now recognized as landmarks in the field of complex systems. They provide both the beginning graduate student and the seasoned researcher with solid knowledge of the basic concepts and mathematical tools. Moreover, they admirably convey the spirit of the pioneering work by the founder of ...

  5. Industrial Transformation: Research Gaps and Possible Research Topics for IIASA.

    OpenAIRE

    Mulder, P

    1997-01-01

    Industrial transformation has been identified as a priority research topic within the International Human Dimensions Programme on Global Environmental Change (IHDP). This paper looks at the research gaps in the area of Industrial Transformation identified within the framework of IHDP. Furthermore, the paper explores possible research topics for IIASA and discusses possible research questions for the topics of ``Technology'' and ``Consumption''.

  6. Generative Topic Modeling in Image Data Mining and Bioinformatics Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin

    2012-01-01

    Probabilistic topic models have been developed for applications in various domains such as text mining, information retrieval and computer vision and bioinformatics domain. In this thesis, we focus on developing novel probabilistic topic models for image mining and bioinformatics studies. Specifically, a probabilistic topic-connection (PTC) model…

  7. The Impact of Topic Congruence on Second Language Reading Comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Sadeghpour

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study scrutinized the impact of congruent topics on the quality of L2 reading comprehension. 56 Iranian advanced-level students read 2 texts on a controversial topic, one on the advantages of child gender selection, and the other on disadvantages. Quality analysis of immediate and delayed recall tasks, defined as the amount of high and low-level information recalled correctly, was performed by analysis of variance. Results revealed that topic congruence affected immediate recall of both high and low-level information, and also delayed recall of low-level information. Findings showed that the effect of congruent topics on reading recall was detrimental; participants recalled less information from the passage with congruent topic than a passage with incongruent topic. Outcomes of the study suggest that controversial topics should be selected more cautiously, because they may not truly reflect L2 readers’ reading comprehension. Keywords: congruent topic, L2 reading, readers’ attitude, immediate recall, delayed recall

  8. The topical treatment of psoriasis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de; Vissers, W.H.P.M.

    2003-01-01

    According to the patients, improvement of efficacy, long-term safety and improvement of compliance are needed. The topical treatment has been innovated during the last decade. Most important are the introduction of two new classes of treatments: topical vitamin D(3) analogues and the retinoid tazaro

  9. Topics of Evolutionary Computation 2001

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ursem, Rasmus Kjær

    This booklet contains the student reports from the course: Topics of Evolutionary Computation, Fall 2001, given by Thiemo Krink, Rene Thomsen and Rasmus K. Ursem......This booklet contains the student reports from the course: Topics of Evolutionary Computation, Fall 2001, given by Thiemo Krink, Rene Thomsen and Rasmus K. Ursem...

  10. Topics in Banach space theory

    CERN Document Server

    Albiac, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    This text provides the reader with the necessary technical tools and background to reach the frontiers of research without the introduction of too many extraneous concepts. Detailed and accessible proofs are included, as are a variety of exercises and problems. The two new chapters in this second edition are devoted to two topics of much current interest amongst functional analysts: Greedy approximation with respect to bases in Banach spaces and nonlinear geometry of Banach spaces. This new material is intended to present these two directions of research for their intrinsic importance within Banach space theory, and to motivate graduate students interested in learning more about them. This textbook assumes only a basic knowledge of functional analysis, giving the reader a self-contained overview of the ideas and techniques in the development of modern Banach space theory. Special emphasis is placed on the study of the classical Lebesgue spaces Lp (and their sequence space analogues) and spaces of continuous f...

  11. Uma caricatura de país

    OpenAIRE

    Olimpio, Ana Filipa Pereira Miguel, 1989-

    2013-01-01

    Tese de mestrado, Desenho, Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Belas Artes, 2013 The dissertation made in the context of the Drawing Master Degree with the theme: Uma caricatura de país (Caricature of a country), wants to investigate the history of caricature and its protagonists in Portugal, to create a practical work about social and habits caricature and has the purpose to study caricature and humour as an artistic expression. The caricatures introduced in the personal project wa...

  12. THE BIBLICAL EPISODE ABOUT THE THREE TEMPTETIONS OF JESUS AS A TOPIC OF THE DIALOGUE BETWEEN F. M. DOSTOEVSKY AND V. A. ALEKSEEV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babkina T. A.

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on Dostoevsky's correspondence with the soloist of the Mariinsky Theater orchestra Vasily Alekseevich Alekseev, which appeared as a feedback after the release of "A Writer's Diary".

  13. Nanoparticles - A paradigm for topical drug delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogesh S Chaudhari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Topical drug delivery is still a challenge due to the difficulties in controlling the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API fate within the skin. Due to the safety of the component material and controlled release abilities, nanoparticles offer an excellent opportunity for the rational delivery of drugs to the desired target site and hence these carrier systems are effectively used for topical delivery of variety of active principles for both pharmaceutical as well as cosmetic purposes. Recently, solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs have shown a great potential as carriers for topical administration of active substances, principally owing to the possible targeting effect and controlled release in different skin strata. Also, nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs are a new type of topical delivery system offering improved performance in terms of drug loading and long-term stability with the ability to form highly concentrated dispersions. Another invention in the field of topical drug delivery is the use of micellar nanoparticles (MNPs that offer a potentially fast and inexpensive pharmaceutical development model by using drugs already proven safe and effective to create new proprietary formulations. These novel drug delivery systems have gained much interest as they combine both the technology of lipid sciences and nanosciences, and hence may be better alternative carriers.

  14. Darwin and Religion: Correcting the Caricatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooke, John Hedley

    2010-01-01

    Much has been written on the subject of Darwinism and religion, but rather less on the development of Darwin's own thinking on religious matters and how it changed over time. What were his religious, or anti-religious, beliefs? Did he believe that his theory of evolution by natural selection was incompatible with belief in a Creator? Was it his…

  15. Caricature freedom of expression in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renán Vega Cantor

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article we will present a sample of the way in France, the acclaimed birthplace and home of freedom of expression, censored, persecuted, and even imprisons those who dare to criticize the Israel lobby or their positions are not in tune with the thought “warm” right, the academic and cultural world

  16. KEY TOPICS IN SPORTS MEDICINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Ali Narvani

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Key Topics in Sports Medicine is a single quick reference source for sports and exercise medicine. It presents the essential information from across relevant topic areas, and includes both the core and emerging issues in this rapidly developing field. It covers: 1 Sports injuries, rehabilitation and injury prevention, 2 Exercise physiology, fitness testing and training, 3 Drugs in sport, 4 Exercise and health promotion, 5 Sport and exercise for special and clinical populations, 6 The psychology of performance and injury. PURPOSE The Key Topics format provides extensive, concise information in an accessible, easy-to-follow manner. AUDIENCE The book is targeted the students and specialists in sports medicine and rehabilitation, athletic training, physiotherapy and orthopaedic surgery. The editors are authorities in their respective fields and this handbook depends on their extensive experience and knowledge accumulated over the years. FEATURES The book contains the information for clinical guidance, rapid access to concise details and facts. It is composed of 99 topics which present the information in an order that is considered logical and progressive as in most texts. Chapter headings are: 1. Functional Anatomy, 2. Training Principles / Development of Strength and Power, 3. Biomechanical Principles, 4. Biomechanical Analysis, 5. Physiology of Training, 6. Monitoring of Training Progress, 7. Nutrition, 8. Hot and Cold Climates, 9. Altitude, 10. Sport and Travelling, 11. Principles of Sport Injury Diagnosis, 12. Principles of Sport and Soft Tissue Management, 13. Principles of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation, 14. Principles of Sport Injury Prevention, 15. Sports Psychology, 16. Team Sports, 17. Psychological Aspects of Injury in Sport, 18. Injury Repair Process, 19. Basic Biomechanics of Tissue Injury, 20. Plain Film Radiography in Sport, 21. Nuclear Medicine, 22. Diagnostic Ultrasound, 23. MRI Scan, 24. Other Imaging, 5. Head Injury, 26. Eye

  17. Do Students Who Get Low Grades Only in Research Methods Need the Same Help as Students Who Get Low Grades in All Topics in Psychology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, John A.

    2012-01-01

    Some psychology students achieve high grades in all classes except for research methods (RM). Previous research has usually treated low levels of achievement in RM as a unitary phenomenon, without reference to the grades the student is achieving in other subjects. The present internet survey explored preferences for learning RM in 140 psychology…

  18. Integrating Case Topics in Medical School Curriculum to Enhance Multiple Skill Learning: Using Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders as an Exemplary Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paley, Blair; O'Connor, Mary J.; Baillie, Susan J.; Guiton, Gretchen; Stuber, Margaret L.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: This article describes the use of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) as a theme to connect the learning of basic neurosciences with clinical applications across the age span within a systems-based, integrated curricular structure that emphasizes problem-based learning. Methods: In collaboration with the Centers for Disease…

  19. FORMULATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF TOPICAL NIOSOMAL GEL OF BCS CLASS - III ANTI-VIRAL DRUG FOR BETTER EFFICACY AS HERPES TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modi Kushal A.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of present research work was to formulate niosomal gel of ACV and to evaluate it for enhancements of skin permeation and skin retention characteristics. ACV niosomes were prepared by classical thin layer hydration method. The niosomal vesicles were separated by centrifugation method and further evaluated for percentage drug entrapment (PDE and vesicle mean geometric diameter. The separated niosomal vesicles were incorporated into the Carbopol® 971 gel base. The niosomal gel was further evaluated for skin retention characteristics, in vitro diffusion study and stability studies at accelerated and non-accelerated conditions. The batch F12 was considered as optimized batch as it showed minimum geometric mean diameter of vesicles (1.23 ± 0.19 μm and maximum PDE (58.71 ± 0.89 %. The in vitro diffusion study using human cadaver skin (HCS showed 1.57 times higher flux as compared to conventional ACV gel. The skin retention study reveals that the percentage drug retained was 4.92 times higher as compared to conventional ACV gel. The stability studies at 2-8 °C showed PDE 94.23% after 12 weeks whereas at accelerated condition it was found to be 90.11%.

  20. A Problematic Family Reunion of a Chinese-American in China: Issues of Face Abstract: As one of the heated topics in the intercultural communication studies, face issues have aroused world-wide attention in the academic field. This paper analyses thr...%ract: As one of the heated topics in the intercultural communication studies, face issues have aroused world-wide attention in the academic field. This paper analyses three critical incidents based on two face theories proposed by Brown and Levinson ...

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹凤琴

    2012-01-01

    As one of the heated topics in the intercultural communication studies, face issues have aroused world-wide attention in the academic field. This paper analyses three critical incidents based on two face theories proposed by Brown and Levinson (1987) and Ting-Toomey and Kurogi(1998) respectively. Lastly, by focusing on the relationship between the rapport-threatening behavior and the face, this paper intends to cultivate our awareness of face and highlight the harmonious interpersonal relationship between different cultures.

  1. TOPICAL REVIEW: FPA-based infrared thermography as applied to the study of cutaneous perspiration and stimulated vascular response in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vainer, Boris G.

    2005-12-01

    This review gives an overview of focal plane array (FPA)-based infrared (IR) thermography as a powerful research method in the field of physiology and medicine. Comparison of the gained results with the data previously obtained by other authors with other research tools is given. Outer thermoregulatory manifestations displayed by the human organism subjected to whole-body heating (sauna bath) and physical loads (exercise bicycling) are quantitatively analysed. Some details of human body emotional sweating (psycho-physiological effect) are reported. Particular attention is paid to studying active sweat glands as individual objects. All experimental data were obtained with the help of a high-sensitivity (0.03 °C) fast 128 × 128 InAs IR detector-based thermal imaging system operating in the short-wave spectral region (2.5 to 3 µm) and perfectly suiting medical purposes. It is shown that IR thermography makes it possible to overcome limitations inherent to contact measuring means that were traditionally used before in thermal studies. It is also shown that heterogeneous thermograms displayed by organisms with disturbed inner equilibrium can be quantitatively analysed in terms of statistical parameters of related surface-temperature histograms, such as the mean temperature and the standard deviation of temperature (SDT). The increase and the decrease in SDT turned out to be typical of prolonged physical load and subsequent relaxation, and of external whole-body heating, respectively. Explanation of this result based on a hypothesis advanced within the context of the doctrine of human-organism evolution is given. Skin-temperature distribution function accompanying the relaxed organism in normality was found to closely resemble normal-distribution function. Symmetry break down and variation of the shape of this characteristic may serve as an indicator of homeostasis shift and can be used as a quantitative criterion for the latter. A new phenomenon, stable punctate

  2. Scopus vs WOS as scientific evaluation tools:A comparative analysis based on a testing sample search on the topic of electric vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Na; PAN; Yuntao; MA; Zheng; WU; Yishan

    2010-01-01

    Based on a bibliometric analysis in combination with other information analysis methods,this paper compares the different evaluation results on the subject of"electric vehicles"drawn from Web of Science(WOS)and from Scopus.We came to the following conclusions after a careful comparison of these two databases.Firstly,both WOS and Scopus would provide some valid and unique evaluation indicators.Secondly,they showed similar results in terms of evaluating research performance of countries and research organizations involved in the targeted subject fields.In fact,both databases are good for discovering the research trend in general at the macroscopic level.Lastly,we ought to take the disciplinary characteristics,the extent of journal inclusion and resource selection criteria as well as inevitable data errors into full account in making recommendations to policy decision-makers.

  3. The potential of the essential fatty acid-deficient hairless rat as a psoriasis screening model for topical anti-proliferative drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mette; Groth, L.; Holmer, G.;

    2002-01-01

    with calcipotriol. Dithranol and its coal tar-containing vehicle also showed a reductive effect on epidermal thickness. EFAD hairless rats possess various histological changes resembling psoriasis. These histological changes normalise during treatment with anti-psoriatic drugs as calcipotriol, dithranol and coal......The objective of this study was to establish essential fatty acid deficiency (EFAD) in hairless rats and investigate the potential of this model as a psoriasis screening model by testing the effects of calcipotriol and dithranol on differentiation and proliferation in the epidermis. Hairless rats...... were fed with a fat-free diet lacking linoleic acid. The EFAD condition was established within 8 weeks. In order to ensure that this condition had been established, several parameters were measured and observed, i.e. animal weight, water consumption, transepidermal water loss, clinical skin symptoms...

  4. The potential of the essential fatty acid-deficient hairless rat as a psoriasis screening model for topical anti-proliferative drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, M.; Groth, L.; Fullerton, A.;

    2002-01-01

    , histology of the epidermis and fatty acid analysis of serum and skin. Immediately after the EFAD condition had been established, the animals were treated with dithranol ointment or different concentrations of calcipotriol solution. A reduction in epidermal thickness of 15-20% was seen after the treatment...... with calcipotriol. Dithranol and its coal tar-containing vehicle also showed a reductive effect on epidermal thickness. EFAD hairless rats possess various histological changes resembling psoriasis. These histological changes normalise during treatment with anti-psoriatic drugs as calcipotriol, dithranol and coal...

  5. Testing of Continuous Sampling Air-ICP and Mercury Systems as Continuous Emission Monitors at the Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report has been prepared to document the performance of the continuous sampling reduced-pressure air-ICP-AES (inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy) and mercury-monitor systems developed by Ames Laboratory for use as continuous emission monitors (CEM). This work was funded by the U. S. Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management, Office of Science and Technology, through the Mixed Waste Focus Area. The purpose of the project is to develop instrumentation and methods for spectroscopic field monitoring applications. During FY00 this included continued work on the development of the continuous sample introduction system and the multi-frequency AOTF-echelle spectrometer, used in conjunction with the reduced-pressure air-ICP-AES system as a multi-metal CEM. The assembly, development, and testing of an echelle spectrometer system for the detection of mercury (Hg) by atomic absorption was also completed during FY00. The continuous sampling system and the multi-metal air-ICP and mercury-monitor CEM systems were tested at Mississippi State University at the Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory (DIAL) at the end of FY00. This report describes the characteristics and performance of these systems, and the results of the field tests performed at DIAL

  6. Safety and Efficacy of Propranolol in Comparison With Combination of Fentanyl and Ketamine as Premedication in Cataract Surgery Under the Topical Anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazel, Farhad; Saryazdi, Hamidhajigholam; Rezaei, Leila; Mahboubi, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the safety and effects of propranolol as a premedication before cataract surgery and compared them with the usual combination doses of fentanyl and ketamine. Among all reffered patients to Feiz Hospital of Esfahan for cataract surgery, 122 patients between Mar to Sep 2010 were enrolled in this study and randomly allocated into one of the following equal groups: 40 mg propranolol, 2 hours before surgery and combination of 15 mg ketamine and 50 µg fentanyl l. 5 min before surgery. The ability to control of hemodynamic instabilities caused by stress and to gain patients satisfaction was compared between two groups. Also, the efficacy of each premedication to control of hemodynamic changes during surgery were evaluated and compared. No significant differences were seen in the patients satisfaction and controlling of stress induced hemodynamic changes between two groups (P>0.05). However, patients in ketamine + fentanyl group showed more nausea and less pain during and after surgery. Moreover, no significant adverse effects were reported during and after the surgery. Our results demonstrated that propranolol can be used safely as a premedication in cataract surgery in the comparable efficacy to ketamine plus fentanyl premedication. PMID:26153173

  7. Topics in Galois theory

    CERN Document Server

    Serre, Jean-Pierre

    2007-01-01

    This book is based on a course given by the author at Harvard University in the fall semester of 1988. The course focused on the inverse problem of Galois Theory: the construction of field extensions having a given finite group as Galois group. In the first part of the book, classical methods and results, such as the Scholz and Reichardt construction for p-groups, p != 2, as well as Hilbert's irreducibility theorem and the large sieve inequality, are presented. The second half is devoted to rationality and rigidity criteria and their application in realizing certain groups as Galois groups of

  8. The RING for gypsy moth control: Topical application of fragment of its nuclear polyhedrosis virus anti-apoptosis gene as insecticide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberemok, Volodymyr V; Laikova, Kateryna V; Zaitsev, Aleksei S; Gushchin, Vladimir A; Skorokhod, Oleksii A

    2016-07-01

    Numerous studies suggest a cellular origin for the Lymantria dispar multicapsid nuclear polyhedrosis virus (LdMNPV) anti-apoptosis genes IAPs, thus opening a possibility to use the fragments of these genes for modulation of host metabolism. We report here the strong insecticidal and metabolic effect of single-stranded antisense DNA fragment from RING (really interesting new gene) domain of gypsy moth LdMNPV IAP-3 gene: specifically, on reduction of biomass (by 35%) and survival of L. dispar caterpillars. The treatment with this DNA fragment leads to a significantly higher mortality rates of female insects (1.7 fold) accompanied with the signs of apoptosis. Additionally, we show increased expression of host IAP-1, caspase-4 and gelsolin genes in eggs laid by survived females treated with RING DNA fragment accompanied with calcium and magnesium imbalance, indicating that the strong stress reactions and metabolic effects are not confined to treated insects but likely led to apoptosis in eggs too. The proposed new approach for insect pest management, which can be considered as advancement of "microbial pesticides", is based on the application of the specific virus DNA, exploiting the knowledge about virus-pest interactions and putting it to the benefit of mankind. PMID:27265824

  9. Learning Topic Models by Belief Propagation

    CERN Document Server

    Zeng, Jia; Liu, Jiming

    2011-01-01

    Latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA) is an important class of hierarchical Bayesian models for probabilistic topic modeling, which attracts worldwide interests and touches many important applications in text mining, computer vision and computational biology. This paper proposes a novel tree-structured factor graph representation for LDA within the Markov random field (MRF) framework, which enables the classic belief propagation (BP) algorithm for exact inference and parameter estimation. Although two commonly-used approximation inference methods, such as variational Bayes (VB) and collapsed Gibbs sampling (GS), have gained great successes in learning LDA, the proposed BP is competitive in both speed and accuracy validated by encouraging experimental results on four large-scale document data sets. Furthermore, the BP algorithm has the potential to become a generic learning scheme for variants of LDA-based topic models. To this end, we show how to learn two typical variants of LDA-based topic models, such as autho...

  10. Selected topics on Hadrons in Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Oset, E; Hernandez, E; Ramos, A; Magas, V K; Yamagata-Sekihara, J; Hirenzaki, S; Gamermann, D; Molina, R; Tolos, L; Roca, L

    2011-01-01

    In this talk we report on selected topics on hadrons in nuclei. The first topic is the renormalization of the width of the $\\Lambda(1520)$ in a nuclear medium. This is followed by a short update of the situation of the $\\omega$ in the medium. The investigation of the properties of $\\bar{K}$ in the nuclear medium from the study of the $(K_{flight},p)$ reaction is also addressed, as well as properties of X,Y,Z charmed and hidden charm resonances in a nuclear medium. Finally we address the novel issue of multimeson states.

  11. Corticosteróide tópico oclusivo no tratamento de manifestações gengivais de doenças vesicobolhosas auto-imunes Topical occlusive corticosteroid for the treatment of gingival manifestations of vesicobullous autoimmune diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Fragoso Motta

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available O tratamento das lesões gengivais de doenças vesicobolhosas auto-imunes constitui grande desafio na estomatologia, principalmente pela natureza crônica das lesões. O tratamento sistêmico é necessário no controle das apresentações mais graves; entretanto, quando possível, o tratamento tópico é preferível. Este artigo descreve uma técnica oclusiva para aplicação de corticosteróide tópico que tem demonstrado ser eficaz no controle dessas lesões, sobretudo em pacientes com manifestações exclusivamente gengivais.Management of gingival lesions of vesicobullous autoimmune diseases is one the main challenges to oral medicine, primarily because of their chronic nature. Systemic therapy is required in most severe lesions, however, whenever feasible, topic corticosteroid therapy is preferred. This article describes a technique to provide topical occlusive corticotherapy that has shown to be effective in controlling these lesions, especially in patients exclusively with gingival lesions.

  12. Emerging topics in FXTAS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Deborah A; Birch, Rachael C; Anheim, Mathieu;

    2014-01-01

    This paper summarizes key emerging issues in fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) as presented at the First International Conference on the FMR1 Premutation: Basic Mechanisms & Clinical Involvement in 2013....

  13. Clindamycin and Benzoyl Peroxide Topical

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... benzoyl peroxide works by killing the bacteria that cause acne. ... E-Mycin, Erythrocin) and other topical medications for acne. Your doctor ... colitis (a condition which causes swelling and sores in the lining of the ...

  14. Water: A Topic for All Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Malonne I.; Seimears, C. Matt

    2008-01-01

    The authors illustrate an effective lesson-planning technique known as unpacking for the broad topic of water. Interconnections among science disciplines are shown for numerous possible subtopics. Two lesson sets are included, the first dealing with properties of water and the second dealing with water as a resource. (Contains 1 table and 4…

  15. Do scientists trace hot topics?

    OpenAIRE

    Tian Wei; Menghui Li; Chensheng Wu; Xiao-Yong Yan; Ying Fan; Zengru Di; Jinshan Wu

    2013-01-01

    Do scientists follow hot topics in their scientific investigations? In this paper, by performing analysis to papers published in the American Physical Society (APS) Physical Review journals, it is found that papers are more likely to be attracted by hot fields, where the hotness of a field is measured by the number of papers belonging to the field. This indicates that scientists generally do follow hot topics. However, there are qualitative differences among scientists from various countries,...

  16. Key Topics in Sports Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Amir Ali Narvani; Panagiotis Thomas; Burce Lynn

    2006-01-01

    Key Topics in Sports Medicine is a single quick reference source for sports and exercise medicine. It presents the essential information from across relevant topic areas, and includes both the core and emerging issues in this rapidly developing field. It covers: 1) Sports injuries, rehabilitation and injury prevention, 2) Exercise physiology, fitness testing and training, 3) Drugs in sport, 4) Exercise and health promotion, 5) Sport and exercise for special and clinical populations, 6) The ps...

  17. Topics of Bioengineering in Wikipedia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassia Atanassova

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The present report aims to give a snapshot of how topics from the field of bioengineering (bioinformatics, bioprocess systems, biomedical engineering, biotechnology, etc. are currently covered in the free electronic encyclopedia Wikipedia. It also offers insights and information about what Wikipedia is, how it functions, how and when to cite Wikipedian articles, if necessary. Several external wikis, devoted to topics of bioengineering, are also listed and reviewed.

  18. Current topics in photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book contains papers on current research in photovoltaics. Areas include: outdoor spectral odor radiation variations and their relationship to photovoltaic device performance, numerical modeling for analysis and design of solar cells, radiation damage mechanisms in GaAs and Si solar cells, and health and safety issues in the manufacturing of photovoltaic cells

  19. Sarcoidosis - Main Topic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilgün Solak Tekin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Sarcoidosis is a multisystemic, inflammatory disease of unknown etiology that is characterized by noncaseating granulomas. Approximately, one-third of the patients with systemic sarcoidosis are observed cutaneous manifestations of different morphologies. Skin sarcoidosis have extremely heterogeneous clinical picture, so it is defined as “The Great Imitator” or “clinical chameleon”.

  20. Topics in Supergravity Phenomenology

    CERN Document Server

    Dhuria, Mansi

    2014-01-01

    In the first part of the review article, we discuss the possibility of realizing "mu-split-like SUSY" scenario from a phenomenological model, which we show could be realizable locally as the large volume limit of a type IIB Swiss-Cheese Calabi-Yau orientifold involving a mobile space-time filling D3-brane localized at a nearly special Lagrangian three-cycle embedded in the "big" divisor and multiple fluxed stacks of space-time filling D7-branes wrapping the same "big" divisor. We show that the mass of one of the Higgs doublets can be produced to be of the order of 125 GeV whereas other Higgs as well as higgsino mass parameter to be very heavy- the "mu-split-like SUSY" scenario. Then we discuss the role of the heavy squarks/sleptons and the light Higgs in (i) obtaining long-lived gluinos (ii) in verifying that the NLSPs (squarks/sleptons/neutralino) decay into the LSP (gravitino) respects the BBN constraints with the lifetime of the LSP (gravitino) coming out to be of the order or larger than the age of the un...

  1. Illustrative EDOF topics in Fourier optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Nicholas; Chen, Xi; Chi, Wanli

    2011-10-01

    In this talk we present a series of illustrative topics in Fourier Optics that are proving valuable in the design of EDOF camera systems. They are at the level of final examination problems that have been made solvable by a student or professoi having studied from one of Joseph W. Goodman's books---our tribute for his 75fr year. As time permits, four illustrative topics are l) Electromagnetic waves and Fourier optics;2) The perfect lens; 3) Connection between phase delay and radially varying focal length in an asphere and 4) tailored EDOF designs.

  2. APT accelerator. Topical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) project, sponsored by Department of Energy Defense Programs (DOE/DP), involves the preconceptual design of an accelerator system to produce tritium for the nation's stockpile of nuclear weapons. Tritium is an isotope of hydrogen used in nuclear weapons, and must be replenished because of radioactive decay (its half-life is approximately 12 years). Because the annual production requirements for tritium has greatly decreased since the end of the Cold War, an alternative approach to reactors for tritium production, based on a linear accelerator, is now being seriously considered. The annual tritium requirement at the time this study was undertaken (1992-1993) was 3/8 that of the 1988 goal, usually stated as 3/8-Goal. Continued reduction in the number of weapons in the stockpile has led to a revised (lower) production requirement today (March, 1995). The production requirement needed to maintain the reduced stockpile, as stated in the recent Nuclear Posture Review (summer 1994) is approximately 3/16-Goal, half the previous level. The Nuclear Posture Review also requires that the production plant be designed to accomodate a production increase (surge) to 3/8-Goal capability within five years, to allow recovery from a possible extended outage of the tritium plant. A multi-laboratory team, collaborating with several industrial partners, has developed a preconceptual APT design for the 3/8-Goal, operating at 75% capacity. The team has presented APT as a promising alternative to the reactor concepts proposed for Complex-21. Given the requirements of a reduced weapons stockpile, APT offers both significant safety, environmental, and production-fexibility advantages in comparison with reactor systems, and the prospect of successful development in time to meet the US defense requirements of the 21st Century

  3. APT accelerator. Topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, G.; Rusthoi, D. [comp.] [ed.

    1995-03-01

    The Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) project, sponsored by Department of Energy Defense Programs (DOE/DP), involves the preconceptual design of an accelerator system to produce tritium for the nation`s stockpile of nuclear weapons. Tritium is an isotope of hydrogen used in nuclear weapons, and must be replenished because of radioactive decay (its half-life is approximately 12 years). Because the annual production requirements for tritium has greatly decreased since the end of the Cold War, an alternative approach to reactors for tritium production, based on a linear accelerator, is now being seriously considered. The annual tritium requirement at the time this study was undertaken (1992-1993) was 3/8 that of the 1988 goal, usually stated as 3/8-Goal. Continued reduction in the number of weapons in the stockpile has led to a revised (lower) production requirement today (March, 1995). The production requirement needed to maintain the reduced stockpile, as stated in the recent Nuclear Posture Review (summer 1994) is approximately 3/16-Goal, half the previous level. The Nuclear Posture Review also requires that the production plant be designed to accomodate a production increase (surge) to 3/8-Goal capability within five years, to allow recovery from a possible extended outage of the tritium plant. A multi-laboratory team, collaborating with several industrial partners, has developed a preconceptual APT design for the 3/8-Goal, operating at 75% capacity. The team has presented APT as a promising alternative to the reactor concepts proposed for Complex-21. Given the requirements of a reduced weapons stockpile, APT offers both significant safety, environmental, and production-fexibility advantages in comparison with reactor systems, and the prospect of successful development in time to meet the US defense requirements of the 21st Century.

  4. Topics in soliton theory

    CERN Document Server

    Carroll, RW

    1991-01-01

    When soliton theory, based on water waves, plasmas, fiber optics etc., was developing in the 1960-1970 era it seemed that perhaps KdV (and a few other equations) were really rather special in the set of all interesting partial differential equations. As it turns out, although integrable systems are still special, the mathematical interaction of integrable systems theory with virtually all branches of mathematics (and with many currently developing areas of theoretical physics) illustrates the importance of this area. This book concentrates on developing the theme of the tau function. KdV and K

  5. Quantum mechanics selected topics

    CERN Document Server

    Perelomov, Askold Mikhailovich

    1998-01-01

    It can serve as a good supplement to any quantum mechanics textbook, filling the gap between standard textbooks and higher-level books on the one hand and journal articles on the other. This book provides a detailed treatment of the scattering theory, multidimensional quasi-classical approximation, non-stationary problems for oscillators and the theory of unstable particles. It will be useful for postgraduate students and researchers who wish to find new, interesting information hidden in the depths of non-relativistic quantum mechanics.

  6. Mapping the evolution of research topics using ATM and SNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunlei; YE

    2014-01-01

    Purpose:This paper introduces an analysis framework for tracking the evolution of research topics at the selected topics level,covering a research topic’s evolution trend,evolution path and its content changes over time.Design/methodology/approach:After the topics were recovered by the author-topic model,we first built the keyword-topic co-occurrence network to track the dynamics of topic trends.Then a single-mode network was constructed with each node representing a topic and edge indicating the relationship between topics.It was used to illustrate the evolution path and content changes of research topics.A case study was conducted on the digital library research in China to verify the effectiveness of the analysis framework.Findings:The experimental results show that this analysis framework can be used to track evolution of research topics at a micro level and using social network analysis method can help understand research topics’evolution paths and content changes with the passage of time.Research limitations:Using the analysis framework will produce limited results when examining unstructured data such as social media data.In addition,the effectiveness of the framework introduced in this paper needs to be verified with more research topics in information science and in more scientific fields.Practical implications:This analysis framework can help scholars and researchers map research topics’evolution process and gain insights into how a field’s topics have evolved over time.Originality/value:Tbe analysis framework used in this study can help reveal more micro evolution details.The index to measure topic association strength defined in this paper reflects both similarity and dissimilarity between topics,which belps better understand research topics’evolution paths and content changes.

  7. Topics in quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantum gravity is an attempt to unify general relativity with quantum mechanics which are the two highly successful fundamental theories of theoretical physics. The main difficulty in this unification arises from the fact that, while general relativity describes gravity as a macroscopic geometrical theory, quantum mechanics explains microscopic phenomena. As a further complication, not only do both theories describe different scales but also their philosophical ramifications and the mathematics used to describe them differ in a dramatic way. Consequently, one possible starting point of an attempt at a unification is quantum mechanics, i.e. particle physics, and try to incorporate gravitation. This pathway has been chosen by particle physicists which led to string theory. On the other hand, loop quantum gravity (LQG) chooses the other possibility, i.e. it takes the geometrical aspects of gravity seriously and quantizes geometry. The first part of this thesis deals with a generalization of loop quantum cosmology (LQC) to toroidal topologies. LQC is a quantization of homogenous solutions of Einstein's field equations using tools from LQG. First the general concepts of closed topologies is introduced with special emphasis on Thurston's theorem and its consequences. It is shown that new degrees of freedom called Teichmueller parameters come into play and their dynamics can be described by a Hamiltonian. Several numerical solutions for a toroidal universe are presented and discussed. Following the guidelines of LQG this dynamics are rewritten using the Ashtekar variables and numerical solutions are shown. However, in order to find a suitable Hilbert space a canonical transformation must be performed. On the other hand this transformation makes the quantization of geometrical quantities less tractable such that two different ways are presented. It is shown that in both cases the spectrum of such geometrical operators depends on the initial value problem. Furthermore, we

  8. Topics in quantum gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamon, Raphael

    2010-06-29

    Quantum gravity is an attempt to unify general relativity with quantum mechanics which are the two highly successful fundamental theories of theoretical physics. The main difficulty in this unification arises from the fact that, while general relativity describes gravity as a macroscopic geometrical theory, quantum mechanics explains microscopic phenomena. As a further complication, not only do both theories describe different scales but also their philosophical ramifications and the mathematics used to describe them differ in a dramatic way. Consequently, one possible starting point of an attempt at a unification is quantum mechanics, i.e. particle physics, and try to incorporate gravitation. This pathway has been chosen by particle physicists which led to string theory. On the other hand, loop quantum gravity (LQG) chooses the other possibility, i.e. it takes the geometrical aspects of gravity seriously and quantizes geometry. The first part of this thesis deals with a generalization of loop quantum cosmology (LQC) to toroidal topologies. LQC is a quantization of homogenous solutions of Einstein's field equations using tools from LQG. First the general concepts of closed topologies is introduced with special emphasis on Thurston's theorem and its consequences. It is shown that new degrees of freedom called Teichmueller parameters come into play and their dynamics can be described by a Hamiltonian. Several numerical solutions for a toroidal universe are presented and discussed. Following the guidelines of LQG this dynamics are rewritten using the Ashtekar variables and numerical solutions are shown. However, in order to find a suitable Hilbert space a canonical transformation must be performed. On the other hand this transformation makes the quantization of geometrical quantities less tractable such that two different ways are presented. It is shown that in both cases the spectrum of such geometrical operators depends on the initial value problem

  9. The Virtual Robotics Laboratory; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The growth of the Internet has provided a unique opportunity to expand research collaborations between industry, universities, and the national laboratories. The Virtual Robotics Laboratory (VRL) is an innovative program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) that is focusing on the issues related to collaborative research through controlled access of laboratory equipment using the World Wide Web. The VRL will provide different levels of access to selected ORNL laboratory secondary education programs. In the past, the ORNL Robotics and Process Systems Division has developed state-of-the-art robotic systems for the Army, NASA, Department of Energy, Department of Defense, as well as many other clients. After proof of concept, many of these systems sit dormant in the laboratories. This is not out of completion of all possible research topics. but from completion of contracts and generation of new programs. In the past, a number of visiting professors have used this equipment for their own research. However, this requires that the professor, and possibly his/her students, spend extended periods at the laboratory facility. In addition, only a very exclusive group of faculty can gain access to the laboratory and hardware. The VRL is a tool that enables extended collaborative efforts without regard to geographic limitations

  10. Hot Topic Talk 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosten, Onur

    2016-05-01

    I will focus on our experiments with cold atoms highlighting some of the most recent developments in the prospect of using quantum entanglement to improve the precision of atomic and optical sensors. The first part of the talk will describe the generation of 20 dB spin-squeezed states of half a million 87Rb atoms inside of an optical cavity. The second part will describe the experimental demonstration of a new concept we call quantum phase magnification. The demonstrated 20 dB squeezing enables a 100-fold reduction in averaging time or a 100-fold reduction in atom numbers to achieve a given sensing precision. As part of this work we show an atomic clock operating 10 dB beyond the classical limit. Some of the states prepared in these experiments possess in excess of 680 atom entanglement. The quantum phase magnification experiment shows that detection noise levels below the standard quantum limit is in fact not a requirement to realize the benefits of the intrinsic sensitivity provided by exotic quantum states. Here, optical cavity-aided effective interactions between atoms magnify signals to-be-measured to levels that can easily be detected with a rather inefficient fluorescence imaging system. The method relaxes stringent detection requirements which have been the main bottleneck in quantum metrology experiments, and can also be implemented in physical platforms other than cold atom-cavity systems.

  11. Organic solvent topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    COWLEY, W.L.

    1999-05-13

    This report provides the basis for closing the organic solvent safety issue. Sufficient information is presented to conclude that risk posed by an organic solvent fire is within risk evaluation guidelines. This report updates information contained in Analysis of Consequences of Postulated Solvent Fires in Hanford Site Waste Tanks. WHC-SD-WM-CN-032. Rev. 0A (Cowley et al. 1996). However, this document will not replace Cowley et al (1996) as the primary reference for the Basis for Interim Operation (BIO) until the recently submitted BIO amendment (Hanson 1999) is approved by the US Department of Energy. This conclusion depends on the use of controls for preventing vehicle fuel fires and for limiting the use of flame cutting in areas where hot metal can fall on the waste surface.The required controls are given in the Tank Waste Remediation System Technical Safety Requirements (Noorani 1997b). This is a significant change from the conclusions presented in Revision 0 of this report. Revision 0 of this calcnote concluded that some organic solvent fire scenarios exceeded risk evaluation guidelines, even with controls imposed.

  12. Organic solvent topical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides the basis for closing the organic solvent safety issue. Sufficient information is presented to conclude that risk posed by an organic solvent fire is within risk evaluation guidelines. This report updates information contained in Analysis of Consequences of Postulated Solvent Fires in Hanford Site Waste Tanks. WHC-SD-WM-CN-032. Rev. 0A (Cowley et al. 1996). However, this document will not replace Cowley et al (1996) as the primary reference for the Basis for Interim Operation (BIO) until the recently submitted BIO amendment (Hanson 1999) is approved by the US Department of Energy. This conclusion depends on the use of controls for preventing vehicle fuel fires and for limiting the use of flame cutting in areas where hot metal can fall on the waste surface.The required controls are given in the Tank Waste Remediation System Technical Safety Requirements (Noorani 1997b). This is a significant change from the conclusions presented in Revision 0 of this report. Revision 0 of this calcnote concluded that some organic solvent fire scenarios exceeded risk evaluation guidelines, even with controls imposed

  13. Topics in Collider Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is an exciting time for high energy physics. Several experiments are currently exploring uncharted terrain; the next generation of colliders will begin operation in the coming decade. These experiments will together help us understand some of the most puzzling issues in particle physics: the mechanism of electroweak symmetry breaking and the generation of flavor physics. It is clear that the primary goal of theoretical particle physics in the near future is to support and guide this experimental program. These tasks can be accomplished in two ways: by developing experimental signatures for new models which address outstanding problems, and by improving Standard Model predictions for precision observables. We present here several results which advance both of these goals. We begin with a study of non-commutative field theories. It has been suggested that TeV-scale non-commutativity could explain the origin of CP violation in the SM. We identify several distinct signatures of non-commutativity in high energy processes. We also demonstrate the one-loop quantum consistency of a simple spontaneously broken non-commutative U(1) theory; this result is an important preface to any attempt to embed the SM within a non-commutative framework. We then investigate the phenomenology of extra-dimensional theories, which have been suggested recently as solutions to the hierarchy problem of particle physics. We first examine the implications of allowing SM fields to propagate in the full five-dimensional spacetime of the Randall-Sundrum model, which solves the hierarchy problem via an exponential ''warping'' of the Planck scale induced by a five-dimensional anti de-Sitter geometry. In an alternative extra-dimensional theory, in which all SM fields are permitted to propagate in flat extra dimensions, we show that properties of the Higgs boson are significantly modified. Finally, we discuss the next-to-next-to leading order QCD corrections to the dilepton rapidity distribution in

  14. Intelligent Topical Sentiment Analysis for the Classification of E-Learners and Their Topics of Interest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ravichandran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Every day, huge numbers of instant tweets (messages are published on Twitter as it is one of the massive social media for e-learners interactions. The options regarding various interesting topics to be studied are discussed among the learners and teachers through the capture of ideal sources in Twitter. The common sentiment behavior towards these topics is received through the massive number of instant messages about them. In this paper, rather than using the opinion polarity of each message relevant to the topic, authors focus on sentence level opinion classification upon using the unsupervised algorithm named bigram item response theory (BIRT. It differs from the traditional classification and document level classification algorithm. The investigation illustrated in this paper is of threefold which are listed as follows: (1 lexicon based sentiment polarity of tweet messages; (2 the bigram cooccurrence relationship using naïve Bayesian; (3 the bigram item response theory (BIRT on various topics. It has been proposed that a model using item response theory is constructed for topical classification inference. The performance has been improved remarkably using this bigram item response theory when compared with other supervised algorithms. The experiment has been conducted on a real life dataset containing different set of tweets and topics.

  15. Intelligent topical sentiment analysis for the classification of e-learners and their topics of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravichandran, M; Kulanthaivel, G; Chellatamilan, T

    2015-01-01

    Every day, huge numbers of instant tweets (messages) are published on Twitter as it is one of the massive social media for e-learners interactions. The options regarding various interesting topics to be studied are discussed among the learners and teachers through the capture of ideal sources in Twitter. The common sentiment behavior towards these topics is received through the massive number of instant messages about them. In this paper, rather than using the opinion polarity of each message relevant to the topic, authors focus on sentence level opinion classification upon using the unsupervised algorithm named bigram item response theory (BIRT). It differs from the traditional classification and document level classification algorithm. The investigation illustrated in this paper is of threefold which are listed as follows: (1) lexicon based sentiment polarity of tweet messages; (2) the bigram cooccurrence relationship using naïve Bayesian; (3) the bigram item response theory (BIRT) on various topics. It has been proposed that a model using item response theory is constructed for topical classification inference. The performance has been improved remarkably using this bigram item response theory when compared with other supervised algorithms. The experiment has been conducted on a real life dataset containing different set of tweets and topics.

  16. Topical Structure in Arabic-English Interlanguage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhri, Ahmed

    A study compared the topical structure (TS) of Arabic and English in order to determine whether Arab learners of English as a Second Language (ESL) transfer potential differences between Arabic and English in their English writing, or whether they use an altogether different TS indicative of developmental factors. Four sets of data were compared…

  17. Seven topics in functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandettini, Peter A

    2009-09-01

    Functional MRI (fMRI) is a non-invasive brain imaging methodology that started in 1991 and allows human brain activation to be imaged at high resolution within only a few minutes. Because it has extremely high sensitivity, is relatively easy to implement, and can be performed on most standard clinical MRI scanners. It continues to grow at an explosive rate throughout the world. Over the years, at any given time, fMRI has been defined by only a handful of major topics that have been the focus of researchers using and developing the methodology. In this review, I attempt to take a snapshot of the field of fMRI as it is in mid-2009 by discussing the seven topics that I feel are most on the minds of fMRI researchers. The topics are, in no particular order or grouping: (1) Clinical impact, (2) Utilization of individual functional maps, (3) fMRI signal interpretation, (4) Pattern effect mapping and decoding, (5) Endogenous oscillations, (6) MRI technology, and (7) Alternative functional contrast mechanisms. Most of these topics are highly interdependent, each advancing as the others advance. While most fMRI involves applications towards clinical or neuroscience questions, all applications are fundamentally dependent on advances in basic methodology as well as advances in our understanding of the relationship between neuronal activity and fMRI signal changes. This review neglects almost completely an in-depth discussion of applications. Rather the discussions are on the methods and interpretation.

  18. Topics on electricity trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    being unable to fulfil the commitments made on the spot market. The disclosed cost of using the regulating power market is a quadratic function of the amount of regulation. This asymmetric cost may encourage bidders with fluctuating production to be more strategic in their way of bidding on the spot market. By using such strategies the extra costs (for e.g. wind power) needed to counter unpredictable fluctuations may be limited. The fourth paper applies the findings in the previous paper to show how a supplier with a 'controllable' production will make strategic bids on the power exchange - in this case a heat pump. The fifth paper discusses the design of the regulating power market and what the choice of design means for suppliers with fluctuating production, e.g. wind turbines. It is found that not only does the accuracy of the wind prediction influence the use of the power exchange, but the structure of the power exchange itself may also play an important role. Several studies of the northern European electricity liberalisation have concluded that developments of a liberalised electricity market and cross border trade can be of benefit for the consumers and bring along a global environmental improvement. All these studies have assumed that a perfect competitive electricity market can be obtained. A number of imperfections, which inevitably will arise, have not been taken into account, - at least in the transition period. These imperfections can be technical, economic or tradition-bound, but may have political characteristics as well. The sixth paper in this thesis surveys those market imperfections which are most likely to appear. Market imperfections can, for example, have structural or political characteristics that imply non-optimal competitive behaviour, e.g., the means to achieve political goals may hinder the desirable effects of the liberalisation. This can, for example, come from the creation of suitable arrangements for survival and enlargement of renewable

  19. Topics on electricity trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skytte, K.

    2001-07-01

    being unable to fulfil the commitments made on the spot market. The disclosed cost of using the regulating power market is a quadratic function of the amount of regulation. This asymmetric cost may encourage bidders with fluctuating production to be more strategic in their way of bidding on the spot market. By using such strategies the extra costs (for e.g. wind power) needed to counter unpredictable fluctuations may be limited. The fourth paper applies the findings in the previous paper to show how a supplier with a 'controllable' production will make strategic bids on the power exchange - in this case a heat pump. The fifth paper discusses the design of the regulating power market and what the choice of design means for suppliers with fluctuating production, e.g. wind turbines. It is found that not only does the accuracy of the wind prediction influence the use of the power exchange, but the structure of the power exchange itself may also play an important role. Several studies of the northern European electricity liberalisation have concluded that developments of a liberalised electricity market and cross border trade can be of benefit for the consumers and bring along a global environmental improvement. All these studies have assumed that a perfect competitive electricity market can be obtained. A number of imperfections, which inevitably will arise, have not been taken into account, - at least in the transition period. These imperfections can be technical, economic or tradition-bound, but may have political characteristics as well. The sixth paper in this thesis surveys those market imperfections which are most likely to appear. Market imperfections can, for example, have structural or political characteristics that imply non-optimal competitive behaviour, e.g., the means to achieve political goals may hinder the desirable effects of the liberalisation. This can, for example, come from the creation of suitable arrangements for survival and enlargement of

  20. Topics on electricity trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skytte, K.

    2001-07-01

    being unable to fulfil the commitments made on the spot market. The disclosed cost of using the regulating power market is a quadratic function of the amount of regulation. This asymmetric cost may encourage bidders with fluctuating production to be more strategic in their way of bidding on the spot market. By using such strategies the extra costs (for e.g. wind power) needed to counter unpredictable fluctuations may be limited. The fourth paper applies the findings in the previous paper to show how a supplier with a 'controllable' production will make strategic bids on the power exchange - in this case a heat pump. The fifth paper discusses the design of the regulating power market and what the choice of design means for suppliers with fluctuating production, e.g. wind turbines. It is found that not only does the accuracy of the wind prediction influence the use of the power exchange, but the structure of the power exchange itself may also play an important role. Several studies of the northern European electricity liberalisation have concluded that developments of a liberalised electricity market and cross border trade can be of benefit for the consumers and bring along a global environmental improvement. All these studies have assumed that a perfect competitive electricity market can be obtained. A number of imperfections, which inevitably will arise, have not been taken into account, - at least in the transition period. These imperfections can be technical, economic or tradition-bound, but may have political characteristics as well. The sixth paper in this thesis surveys those market imperfections which are most likely to appear. Market imperfections can, for example, have structural or political characteristics that imply non-optimal competitive behaviour, e.g., the means to achieve political goals may hinder the desirable effects of the liberalisation. This can, for example, come from the creation of suitable arrangements for survival and enlargement of

  1. Selecting a Topic in Public Speaking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉霞

    2013-01-01

    The first step in speechmaking is choosing a topic, which will decide the success of the speech. In the paper, we are go⁃ing to discuss how to select a topic in public speaking, and we’ll mainly talk about the following: the speaker, the occasion and the audience, selecting a topic, specific methods for choosing a topic and available topics.

  2. Main technical topics in 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Safety Authority annual report strives to present current organizational provisions and future trends in nuclear safety supervision in France and to describe the most outstanding occurrences during the past year. A first part presents nine documents concerning the main topics of 1999: aging of nuclear installations, the Offsite Emergency Plans (PPI), the impact of nuclear activities on man and the environment, the criticality hazards, EDF in 1999, the EPR project, the Andra in 1999, the transport incidents, the nuclear safety in eastern Europe. The second part presents the missions and actions of the Nuclear Installations Safety in the domains of the liabilities, the organization of the nuclear safety control, the regulations of the INB, the public information, the international relations, the crisis management, the radioactive materials transportation, the radioactive wastes. The equipment, the radiation protection and the exploitation of the pressurized water reactors are also treated just as the experimental reactors, the fuel cycle installations and the the nuclear installations dismantling. (A.L.B.)

  3. topicmodels: An R Package for Fitting Topic Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Grun

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Topic models allow the probabilistic modeling of term frequency occurrences in documents. The fitted model can be used to estimate the similarity between documents as well as between a set of specified keywords using an additional layer of latent variables which are referred to as topics. The R package topicmodels provides basic infrastructure for fitting topic models based on data structures from the text mining package tm. The package includes interfaces to two algorithms for fitting topic models: the variational expectation-maximization algorithm provided by David M. Blei and co-authors and an algorithm using Gibbs sampling by Xuan-Hieu Phan and co-authors.

  4. Topical agents in burn care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Momčilović Dragan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Understanding of fluid shifts and recognition of the importance of early and appropriate fluid replacement therapy have significantly reduced mortality in the early post burn period. After the bum patient successfully passes the resuscitation period, the burn wound represents the greatest threat to survival. History Since the dawn of civilization, man has been trying to find an agent which would help burn wounds heal, and at the same time, not harm general condition of the injured. It was not until the XX century, after the discovery of antibiotics, when this condition was fulfilled. In 1968, combining silver and sulfadiazine, fox made silver-sulfadiazine, which is a 1% hydro-soluble cream and a superior agent in topical treatment of burns today. Current topical agents None of the topical antimicrobial agents available today, alone or combined, have the characteristics of ideal prophylactic agents, but they eliminate colonization of burn wound, and invasive infections are infrequent. With an excellent spectrum of activity, low toxicity, and ease of application with minimal pain, silver-sulfadiazine is still the most frequently used topical agent. Conclusion The incidence of invasive infections and overall mortality have been significantly reduced after introduction of topical burn wound antimicrobial agents into practice. In most burn patients the drug of choice for prophylaxis is silver sulfadiazine. Other agents may be useful in certain clinical situations.

  5. Selected topics of fluid mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindsvater, Carl E.

    1958-01-01

    the Euler, Froude, Reynolds, Weber, and Cauchy numbers are defined as essential tools for interpreting and using experimental data. The derivations of the energy and momentum equations are treated in detail. One-dimensional equations for steady nonuniform flow are developed, and the restrictions applicable to the equations are emphasized. Conditions of uniform and gradually varied flow are discussed, and the origin of the Chezy equation is examined in relation to both the energy and the momentum equations. The inadequacy of all uniform-flow equations as a means of describing gradually varied flow is explained. Thus, one of the definitive problems of river hydraulics is analyzed in the light of present knowledge. This report is the outgrowth of a series of short schools conducted during the spring and summer of 1953 for engineers of the Surface Water Branch, Water Resources Division, U. S. Geological Survey. The topics considered are essentially the same as the topics selected for inclusion in the schools. However, in order that they might serve better as a guide and outline for informal study, the arrangement of the writer's original lecture notes has been considerably altered. The purpose of the report, like the purpose of the schools which inspired it, is to build a simple but strong framework of the fundamentals of fluid mechanics. It is believed that this framework is capable of supporting a detailed analysis of most of the practical problems met by the engineers of the Geological Survey. It is hoped that the least accomplishment of this work will be to inspire the reader with the confidence and desire to read more of the recent and current technical literature of modern fluid mechanics.

  6. Quantum mechanics II advanced topics

    CERN Document Server

    Rajasekar, S

    2015-01-01

    Quantum Mechanics II: Advanced Topics uses more than a decade of research and the authors’ own teaching experience to expound on some of the more advanced topics and current research in quantum mechanics. A follow-up to the authors introductory book Quantum Mechanics I: The Fundamentals, this book begins with a chapter on quantum field theory, and goes on to present basic principles, key features, and applications. It outlines recent quantum technologies and phenomena, and introduces growing topics of interest in quantum mechanics. The authors describe promising applications that include ghost imaging, detection of weak amplitude objects, entangled two-photon microscopy, detection of small displacements, lithography, metrology, and teleportation of optical images. They also present worked-out examples and provide numerous problems at the end of each chapter.

  7. Tracking Multiple Topics for Finding Interesting Articles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pon, R K; Cardenas, A F; Buttler, D J; Critchlow, T J

    2007-02-15

    We introduce multiple topic tracking (MTT) for iScore to better recommend news articles for users with multiple interests and to address changes in user interests over time. As an extension of the basic Rocchio algorithm, traditional topic detection and tracking, and single-pass clustering, MTT maintains multiple interest profiles to identify interesting articles for a specific user given user-feedback. Focusing on only interesting topics enables iScore to discard useless profiles to address changes in user interests and to achieve a balance between resource consumption and classification accuracy. Also by relating a topic's interestingness to an article's interestingness, iScore is able to achieve higher quality results than traditional methods such as the Rocchio algorithm. We identify several operating parameters that work well for MTT. Using the same parameters, we show that MTT alone yields high quality results for recommending interesting articles from several corpora. The inclusion of MTT improves iScore's performance by 9% to 14% in recommending news articles from the Yahoo! News RSS feeds and the TREC11 adaptive filter article collection. And through a small user study, we show that iScore can still perform well when only provided with little user feedback.

  8. Selected topics in nuclear structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fourth International Conference on selected topics in nuclear structure was held at Dubna in July 1994 on recent experimental and theoretical investigations in nuclear structure. Topics discussed were the following: nuclear structure at low-energy excitations (collective quasiparticle phenomena, proton-neutron interactions, microscopic and phenomenological theories of nuclear structure; nuclear structure studies with charged particles. heavy ions, neutrons and photons; nuclei at high angular momenta and superdeformation, structure and decay properties of giant resonances, charge-exchange resonances and β-decay; semiclassical approach of large amplitude collective motion and structure of hot nuclei

  9. Orienting to Topic in Clinical Discourse Elicitation of Everyday Conversation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fond, Marissa Joanne

    2013-01-01

    Talking topically, as it is understood intuitively and evoked metadiscursively, requires constructing an intersubjective orientation to talk that must be continually renewed. Analysis of interactants' ability to orient to topic emergence provides evidence of what is achieved in interaction, as well as why conversational coordination can lapse…

  10. The Impact of Topic Congruence on Second Language Reading Comprehension

    OpenAIRE

    Marzieh Sadeghpour; Sayyed Mohammad Alavi

    2013-01-01

    The present study scrutinized the impact of congruent topics on the quality of L2 reading comprehension. 56 Iranian advanced-level students read 2 texts on a controversial topic, one on the advantages of child gender selection, and the other on disadvantages. Quality analysis of immediate and delayed recall tasks, defined as the amount of high and low-level information recalled correctly, was performed by analysis of variance. Results revealed that topic congruence affected immediate recall o...

  11. Weakly-supervised joint sentiment-topic detection from text

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Chenghua; He, Yulan; Everson, Richard; Rüger, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Sentiment analysis or opinion mining aims to use automated tools to detect subjective information such as opinions, attitudes, and feelings expressed in text. This paper proposes a novel probabilistic modeling framework called joint sentiment-topic (JST) model based on latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA), which detects sentiment and topic simultaneously from text. A reparameterized version of the JST model called Reverse-JST, by reversing the sequence of sentiment and topic generation in the mo...

  12. 301 research topics from Skinner's book verbal behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Sundberg, Mark L.

    1991-01-01

    Skinner's (1957) analysis of verbal behavior addresses some of the most important issues in human behavior. However, relatively few of the analyses presented by Skinner in Verbal Behavior have been subjected to an experimental analysis. The current list of topics was assembled in an effort to stimulate empirical research on verbal behavior. The list contains thirty research areas with ten topics suggested for each area. A final topic, education, is presented as a challenge to behavior analysts.

  13. Rosacea-like eruption due to topical pimecrolimus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Heis, S; Buckley, D A

    2015-05-01

    Topical calcineurin inhibitors have been used outside their approved indications for a number of conditions, including topical steroid-induced rosacea. However, tacrolimus ointment itself has been reported to trigger rosacea in a small number of cases. We report a case of a rosacea-like eruption in a 39-year-old woman occurring after the use of pimecrolimus cream for 12 months for atopic dermatitis. Withdrawal of pimecrolimus combined with treatment with oral lymecycline, topical metronidazole, and an emollient resulted in resolution of the eruption. There have been 5 previously reported cases of a topical pimecrolimus-induced rosacea-like eruption suggesting that this rare side-effect may be a class effect of all topical calcineurin inhibitors. Dermatologists prescribing these drugs should be aware of this uncommon complication and may wish to warn patients of its occurrence as a potential side-effect when using topical calcineurin inhibitors in facial skin in adults. PMID:26295863

  14. Rosacea-like eruption due to topical pimecrolimus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Heis, S; Buckley, D A

    2015-05-18

    Topical calcineurin inhibitors have been used outside their approved indications for a number of conditions, including topical steroid-induced rosacea. However, tacrolimus ointment itself has been reported to trigger rosacea in a small number of cases. We report a case of a rosacea-like eruption in a 39-year-old woman occurring after the use of pimecrolimus cream for 12 months for atopic dermatitis. Withdrawal of pimecrolimus combined with treatment with oral lymecycline, topical metronidazole, and an emollient resulted in resolution of the eruption. There have been 5 previously reported cases of a topical pimecrolimus-induced rosacea-like eruption suggesting that this rare side-effect may be a class effect of all topical calcineurin inhibitors. Dermatologists prescribing these drugs should be aware of this uncommon complication and may wish to warn patients of its occurrence as a potential side-effect when using topical calcineurin inhibitors in facial skin in adults.

  15. Approach to extracting hot topics based on network traffic content

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yadong ZHOU; Xiaohong GUAN; Qindong SUN; Wei LI; Jing TAO

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the formal definition and description of popular topics on the Internet,analyzes the relationship between popular words and topics,and finally introduces a method that uses statistics and correlation of the popular words in traffic content and network flow characteristics as input for extracting popular topics on the Internet.Based on this,this article adapts a clustering algorithm to extract popular topics and gives formalized results.The test results show that this method has an accuracy of 16.7% in extracting popular topics on the Internet.Compared with web mining and topic detection and tracking (TDT),it can provide a more suitable data source for effective recovery of Internet public opinions.

  16. Sick sinus syndrome associated with topical timolol maleate instillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harpreet S Walia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A 70-year-old black woman presented with intermittent palpitations and dyspnea was found to be bradycardic with a normal sinus rhythm. She had instilled her topical timolol maleate approximately 30 minutes prior to each of these episodes. Topical timolol was discontinued and the conduction abnormality resolved. She was diagnosed as having intermittent sinus bradycardia with intermittent atrioventricular block, likely induced by topical beta-blocker therapy. Topical timolol maleate is an effective treatment for ocular hypertension, acting by reducing aqueous fluid production. However, it can induce systemic side effects and should be used with caution in patients with, or predisposed to, cardiac or respiratory depression.

  17. Topics on cryogenic design of superconducting magnet for fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design concepts and the research topics on cryogenic stability, quench and refrigeration of superconducting magnets for fusion experimental reactor are reviewed. Emphasis is given to introduce their fundamental ideas as well as the results obtained by various experiments at National Institute for Fusion Science, however, some of the other recent topics are also included. (author)

  18. Large scale topic modeling made practical

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlgreen, Bjarne Ørum; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2011-01-01

    Topic models are of broad interest. They can be used for query expansion and result structuring in information retrieval and as an important component in services such as recommender systems and user adaptive advertising. In large scale applications both the size of the database (number of docume......Topic models are of broad interest. They can be used for query expansion and result structuring in information retrieval and as an important component in services such as recommender systems and user adaptive advertising. In large scale applications both the size of the database (number...... problem is reduced by use of large and carefully curated term set. We demonstrate the performance of the proposed system and in the process break a previously claimed ’world record’ announced April 2010 both by speed and size of problem. We show that the use of a WordNet derived vocabulary can identify...

  19. Investigation of some topical formulations containing dexpanthenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stozkowska, Wiesława; Piekoś, Ryszard

    2004-01-01

    Owing to its ability to regenerate epidermal cells Dexpanthenol (D-panthenol; chemically known as (+)-2,4-dihydroxy-N-(3-hydroxypropyl)-3,3-dimethylbutyramide) has found use for the treatment of patholytic ileus and postoperative distention. The purpose of research was to develop a gel containing dexpanthenol by monitoring the effect of various concentrations of a gelating agent on the activity of the ciliary apparatus. A system containing 2.5% of hydroxyethylcellulose was optimal for the preparation of the gel. Together with a formulation containing 5% of dexpanthenol, drops with equal concentration of the active compound were tested for comparison. Physical characteristics, such as osmotic pressure, acidity, density and viscosity of the preparation were determined as well as its microbiological sterility. The anti-inflammatory activity of the gel was determined following its topical application. Epidermal tests showed its good tolerance after topical application to the shaved skin of guinea pigs. PMID:15794335

  20. Topical and transdermal delivery of caffeine.

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, L.; Lane, M. E.

    2015-01-01

    Caffeine is administered topically and transdermally for a variety of pharmaceutical and cosmetic applications and it is also used as a model hydrophilic compound in dermal risk assessment studies. This review considers the physicochemical and permeation properties of caffeine with reference to its delivery to and through the skin. Since it has been used as a model compound the findings have implications for the delivery of many hydrophilic compounds having similar properties. Various passive...

  1. Supporting information visualization through topic maps

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos, Adérito; Oliveira, Alexandre Rocha; Malgueiro, Octávio; Grave, Luís

    2002-01-01

    We are living a phenomenon of accelerated information production with different accessing sources. Hence users are faced with a growing problem: accessing (navigation) and filtering specific information contained in large datasets, which are increasing in size. Procedures such as data filtering and gathering are now simplified through a new concept known as Topic Maps. The application of Virtual Reality technologies enables to present and interact with multidimensional information...

  2. Efficacy of topical calcineurin inhibitors in vitiligo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Russell; Lin, Andrew N

    2013-04-01

    Topical tacrolimus and pimecrolimus are indicated for the treatment of atopic dermatitis, but they have been studied in many off-label uses. We reviewed the English language literature to define their roles in treatment of vitiligo. Double-blind studies show that tacrolimus 0.1% ointment combined with excimer laser is superior to placebo, especially for UV resistant areas, such as bony prominences of the extremities. When used alone, tacrolimus 0.1% ointment is almost as effective as clobetasol propionate 0.05% ointment. Other studies suggest it can also be effective for facial lesions. Double blind studies show that pimecrolimus 1% cream combined with narrow band UVB is superior to placebo, especially for facial lesions. Additional studies would further clarify the role of topical calcineurin inhibitors in vitiligo. PMID:23331250

  3. Clausewitz’s “Wondrous Trinity” as a Coordinate System of War and Violent Conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Herberg-Rothe, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    Rather than discarding Clausewitz’s theory of war in response to the revolutionary changes in modern warfare, this article articulates a broader theory of war based on his concept of the “wondrous trinity,” identifying it as his true legacy. The author shows that the concept of trinitarian war attributed to Clausewitz by his critics, which seems to be applicable only to wars between states, is a caricature of Clausewitz’s theory. He goes on to develop Clause- witz’s theory that war is compose...

  4. Topics from the theory of numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Grosswald, Emil

    1984-01-01

    Many of the important and creative developments in modern mathematics resulted from attempts to solve questions that originate in number theory. The publication of Emil Grosswald’s classic text presents an illuminating introduction to number theory. Combining the historical developments with the analytical approach, Topics from the Theory of Numbers offers the reader a diverse range of subjects to investigate, including: * divisibility * congruences * the Riemann zeta function * Diophantine equations and Fermat’s conjecture * the theory of partitions Comprehensive in nature, Topics from the Theory of Numbers is an ideal text for advanced undergraduates and graduate students alike. "In my opinion it is excellent. It is carefully written and represents clearly a work of a scholar who loves and understands his subject. One can only wish more authors would take such pains and would be as good and honest expositors as Grosswald." — Marc Kac "This book is designed for use in a first course in number theory at...

  5. Do scientists trace hot topics?

    CERN Document Server

    Wei, Tian; Wu, Chensheng; Yan, XiaoYong; Fan, Ying; Di, Zengru; Wu, Jinshan

    2013-01-01

    Do scientists follow hot topics in their scientific investigations? In this paper, by performing analysis to papers published in the American Physical Society (APS) Physical Review journals, it is found that papers are more likely to be attracted by hot fields, where the hotness of a field is measured by the number of papers belonging to the field. This indicates that scientists generally do follow hot topics. However, there are qualitative differences among scientists from various countries, among research works regarding different number of authors, different number of affiliations and different number of references. These observations could be valuable for policy makers when deciding research funding and also for individual researchers when searching for scientific projects.

  6. Efinaconazole topical solution, 10%: formulation development program of a new topical treatment of toenail onychomycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, V; Pillai, R

    2015-07-01

    Transungual drug delivery of antifungals is considered highly desirable to treat common nail disorders such as onychomycosis, due to localized effects, and improved adherence resulting from minimal systemic adverse events. However, the development of effective topical therapies has been hampered by poor nail penetration. An effective topical antifungal must permeate through, and under the dense keratinized nail plate to the site of infection in the nail bed and nail matrix. We present here the formulation development program to provide effective transungual and subungual delivery of efinaconazole, the first topical broad spectrum triazole specifically developed for onychomycosis treatment. We discuss the important aspects encompassing the formulation development program for efinaconazole topical solution, 10%, focusing on its solubility in a number of solvents, in vitro penetration through the nail, and in vivo efficacy. Efinaconazole topical solution, 10% is a stable, non-lacquer, antifungal with a unique combination of ingredients added to an alcohol-based formulation to provide low surface tension and good wetting properties. This low surface tension is believed to affect effective transungual delivery of efinaconazole and believed to provide a dual mode of delivery by accessing the nail bed by wicking into the space between the nail and nail plate.

  7. LEPA’S: TOPICAL APPLICATION OF AYURVEDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bali Yogitha

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The goal of medicine is to prevent the disease, restore health and suffering. Understanding and appropriately treating pain is an important component of this goal. Pain is universally recognized as a signal of disease or injury and is a common reason for patients to seek the medical care. Analgesics given in the form of topical application is said to provide the therapeutic benefits by reaching the local tissue and with minimal side effects like irritation of the skin etc. Apart form relieving the pain, topical application is also useful in treating various skin lesions, ulcers. Ayurveda, a science of life and traditional system of medicine native to India is also a form of Alternative medicine. Ayurveda also called as Astanga Ayurveda contains eight branches such as kayachikitsa(internal medicine, shalya tantra (surgery, shalakya tantra (ENT, agada tantra (toxicology and forensic medicine, bhutavidya (treatment of psychic diseases, kaumarabhrutya(paediatrics, rasayana tantra (rejuvenation treatment and vajikarana (aphrodiasics. Ayurveda, an ancient science has vast description of these topical applications in the name of lepa described both as the chikitsa of various disease conditions and for beauty.

  8. Capitalization and Punctuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Teresa Marie

    An elementary school unit on punctuation skills is divided into nine sections. Section 1 contains a pretest which is repeated in section 9 as a posttest. Section 2 consists of a series of punctuation mark caricatures to put on the classroom bulletin board. Sections 3 through 7 contain material on the following topics: end of sentence punctuation,…

  9. Preface to Special Topic: Optofluidics

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Ai-qun

    2010-01-01

    This Special Topic section of Biomicrofluidics is on optofluidics or micro-optofluidic systems (MOFS), a burgeoning technology that aims to manipulate light and fluid at microscale and exploits their interaction to create highly versatile devices and integrated systems. This special issue puts together various contributed articles focusing on optofluidics or MOFS, which help inspire new research ideas and innovation in the microfluidics and nanofluidics community.

  10. Probabilistic analysis and related topics

    CERN Document Server

    Bharucha-Reid, A T

    1983-01-01

    Probabilistic Analysis and Related Topics, Volume 3 focuses on the continuity, integrability, and differentiability of random functions, including operator theory, measure theory, and functional and numerical analysis. The selection first offers information on the qualitative theory of stochastic systems and Langevin equations with multiplicative noise. Discussions focus on phase-space evolution via direct integration, phase-space evolution, linear and nonlinear systems, linearization, and generalizations. The text then ponders on the stability theory of stochastic difference systems and Marko

  11. Topics in clinical oncology. 15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The monograph comprising primarily papers on topical subjects of oncology and cancer research, contains also a selection of papers presented at the 2. Congress of the Czechoslovak Society of Nuclear Medicine and Radiation Hygiene. Seven papers were selected on behalf of their subject related to clinical oncology. All of them were iputted in INIS; five of them deal with the scintiscanning of the skeleton of cancer patients, one with radioimmunodetection of tumors, and one with radionuclide lymphography. (A.K.)

  12. Hot topics from the Tevatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenzinski, D.; /Fermilab

    2008-01-01

    The Tevatron Run-II began in March 2001. To date, both the CDF and D0 experiments have collected 1 fb{sup -1} of data each. The results obtained from this data set were summarized at this conference in 39 parallel session presentations covering a wide range of topics. The author summarizes the most important of those results here and comments on some of the prospects for the future.

  13. Immigration, Cultural-Linguistic Diversity, and Topics in Language Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Li-Rong Lilly

    2010-01-01

    This article summarizes 4 topics contributed by the author over the last 30 years of "Topics in Language Disorders" that address the issues of immigration, migration, and refugees. The focus is on the historical perspectives on evolution of terminologies from limited English proficient to English language learner and English as a new language.…

  14. Topical macrolide immunomodulators: a role in the treatment of vitiligo?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjioe, M.; Vissers, W.H.P.M.; Gerritsen, M.J.P.

    2006-01-01

    Recently, topical macrolide immunomodulators have been successfully introduced in the treatment of atopic dermatitis. With the growing interest in this new line of topical immunosuppressants, research into the efficacy of these medicines in other T-cell-mediated skin diseases, such as psoriasis, lic

  15. Topics in Finance Part VII--Dividend Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laux, Judy

    2011-01-01

    This series inspects the major topics in finance, reviewing the roles of stockholder wealth maximization, the risk-return tradeoff, and agency conflicts. The current article, devoted to dividend policy, also reviews the topic as presented in textbooks and the literature.

  16. Comparison of topical tretinoin and betamethasone in oral lichen planus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kar H

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-one patients of oral lichen planus were enrolled in this study and two groups were made. Group 1 consisting of 16 patients who applied topical tretinoin 0.05% and Group 2 comprising of 15 patients who were given topical betamethasone dipropionate 0.05%. The patients applying tretinoin showed statistically significant improvement as compared to patients applying betamethasone.

  17. Topics in Finance Part VI--Capital Budgeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laux, Judy

    2011-01-01

    This series on the theory of financial management offers insight into the roles of stockholder wealth maximization, the risk-return tradeoff, and agency conflicts as they apply to major topics in finance. The current article investigates capital budgeting. Much literature addresses this topic, with a number of articles challenging mainstream…

  18. Modern topics in theoretical nuclear physics

    OpenAIRE

    Jennings, B. K.; Schwenk, A

    2005-01-01

    Over the past five years there have been profound advances in nuclear physics based on effective field theory and the renormalization group. In this brief, we summarize these advances and discuss how they impact our understanding of nuclear systems and experiments that seek to unravel their unknowns. We discuss future opportunities and focus on modern topics in low-energy nuclear physics, with special attention to the strong connections to many-body atomic and condensed matter physics, as wel...

  19. Topics in Cement and Concrete Research

    OpenAIRE

    Brouwers, H. J. H.

    2006-01-01

    The present paper addresses several topics in regard to the sustainable design and use of concrete. First, major features concerning the sustainable aspects of the material concrete are summarised. Then the major constituent, from an environmental point of view, cement is discussed in detail, particularly the hydration and application of slag cement. The intelligent combining of mineral oxides, which are found in clinker, slag, fly ashes etc., is designated as mineral oxide engineering. It re...

  20. LEPA’S: TOPICAL APPLICATION OF AYURVEDA

    OpenAIRE

    Bali Yogitha

    2012-01-01

    The goal of medicine is to prevent the disease, restore health and suffering. Understanding and appropriately treating pain is an important component of this goal. Pain is universally recognized as a signal of disease or injury and is a common reason for patients to seek the medical care. Analgesics given in the form of topical application is said to provide the therapeutic benefits by reaching the local tissue and with minimal side effects like irritation of the skin etc. Apart form relievin...

  1. LECITHINISED MICROEMULSIONS FOR TOPICAL DELIVERY OF TRETINOIN

    OpenAIRE

    Khanna Surabhi; Katare O P; Drabu Sushma

    2010-01-01

    Tretinoin is indicated for the management of acne, photoaged skin, psoriasis and other skin disorders and also for severe conditions like acute promyelocytic anaemia and squamous cell carcinoma of the skin. The potential of tretinoin in these conditions is limited due to want of a proper delivery vehicle. In order to develop alternate formulations for the topical administration of tretinoin, lecithinsed microemulsions were prepared and evaluated as delivery vehicles. These systems were prepar...

  2. Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection following Topical Hormone Replacement Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander L. Pan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous coronary artery dissection is a rare condition, usually presenting as an acute coronary syndrome, and is often seen in states associated with high systemic estrogen levels such as pregnancy or oral contraceptive use. While topical hormonal replacement therapy may result in increased estrogen levels similar to those documented with oral contraceptive use, there are no reported cases of spontaneous coronary dissection with topical hormonal replacement therapy. We describe a 53-year-old female who developed two spontaneous coronary dissections while on topical hormonal replacement therapy. The patient had no other risk factors for coronary dissection. After withdrawal from topical hormonal therapy, our patient has done well and has not had recurrent coronary artery dissections over a one-year follow-up period. The potential contributory role of topical hormonal therapy as a cause of spontaneous coronary dissection should be recognized.

  3. Topic-Focus Articulation of Isotopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radim Sova

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with linguistic phenomena at suprasentential level. In particular, it looks into how textual analysis can be enhanced by supplementing the Parisian programme of interpretive semantics, as devised by François Rastier, namely his theory of isotopies, with elementary aspects of topic-focus articulation (TFA, as well as contextual boundness (CB and contextual non-boundness (CN, as elaborated within the Praguian linguistic tradition (V. Mathesius, P. Sgall, E. Hajičová, F. Daneš, J. Firbas, and how the descriptive power of the former can be increased by the latter. In this respect, it is argued that two types of TFA phenomena interact during any process of textual interpretation: those of topic-focus articulation at the level of sentence, conceiving lexical morphs as thematic (T and/or rhematic (R, as well as contextually bound (CB and/or contextually non-bound (CN, and those of topic-focus articulation at the level of isotopy, with each isotopy being conceived as structured around a center (an abstract semantic unit and periphery (a span of concrete utterances. Two types of such interaction are described, each defined by either correlation, or non-correlation of the CB and CN semes at the levels of isotopy and sentence, respectively: thematic-rhematic isotopy, induced by co-occurrence of the CB seme of the center and the CB seme of the periphery; and thematic-rhematic allotopy (i.e. non-isotopy, induced by co-occurrence of the CB seme of the center and the CN seme of the periphery. Since topic-focus isotopies and allotopies can be perceived as members of privative oppositions, a tentative system of such oppositions is presented, based on linguistic analyses of selected European Commission texts drafted in English and their Czech translations. The author’s ultimate intention is to show that the semantic features of topic-focus articulation at the sentential and suprasentential levels are both structurally parallel and

  4. Application of Topic Map on Knowledge Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sou-shan Wu

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge management (KM has received much attention from both academics and practitioners in the past few years. Following the KM trend, many organizations have built their own knowledge repositories or data warehouses. However, information or knowledge is still scattered everywhere without being properly managed. The rapid growth of the Internet accelerates the creation of unstructured and unclassified information and causes the explosion of information overload. The effort of browsing information through general-purpose search engines turns out to be tedious and painstaking. Hence, an effective technology to solve this information retrieval problem is much needed. The purpose of this research is to explore the application of text mining technique in organizing knowledge stored in unstructured natural language text documents. Major components of text mining techniques required for topic map in particular will be presented in detail.Two sets of unstructured documents are utilized to demonstrate the usage of SOM for topic categorization. The first set of documents is a collection of speeches given by Y.C. Wang, Chairman of the Taiwan Plastics Group, and the other is the collection of all laws and regulations related to securities and future markets in Taiwan. We also try to apply text mining to these two sets of documents to generate their respective topic maps, thus revealing the differences between organizing explicit and tacit knowledge as well as the difficulties associated with tacit knowledge.[Article content in Chinese

  5. Tracking Multiple Topics for Finding Interesting Articles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pon, R K; Cardenas, A F; Buttler, D J; Critchlow, T J

    2008-01-03

    We introduce multiple topic tracking (MTT) for iScore to better recommend news articles for users with multiple interests and to address changes in user interests over time. As an extension of the basic Rocchio algorithm, traditional topic detection and tracking, and single-pass clustering, MTT maintains multiple interest profiles to identify interesting articles for a specific user given user-feedback. Focusing on only interesting topics enables iScore to discard useless profiles to address changes in user interests and to achieve a balance between resource consumption and classification accuracy. iScore is able to achieve higher quality results than traditional methods such as the Rocchio algorithm. We identify several operating parameters that work well for MTT. Using the same parameters, we show that MTT alone yields high quality results for recommending interesting articles from several corpora. The inclusion of MTT improves iScore's performance by 25% in recommending news articles from the Yahoo! News RSS feeds and the TREC11 adaptive filter article collection. And through a small user study, we show that iScore can still perform well when only provided with little user feedback.

  6. Nanociência e nanotecnologia como temáticas para discussão de ciência, tecnologia, sociedade e ambiente Nanoscience and Nanotechnology as topical themes for a discussion on science, technology, society and environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Siqueira-Batista

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A educação científica e tecnológica tem sido intensamente discutida hodiernamente, tendo em vista o compromisso último das diferentes instituições de ensino: formar cidadãos capazes de entender o mundo no qual estão inseridos. Com efeito, a apreciação de temas da atualidade se constitui em abordagem bastante salutar para motivar as discussões sobre tais temáticas em sala de aula. Neste domínio se inserem a nanociência e a nanotecnologia, saberes que podem ser abordados de forma interdisciplinar, envolvendo as ciências exatas e da natureza de forma articulada às ciências humanas e sociais. A proposição de eixos temáticos para o emprego da nanociência e da nanotecnologia como mote para o ensino de ciências, construídos a partir da revisão da literatura sob um enfoque ciência-tecnologia-sociedade-ambiente (CTSA é o escopo do presente artigo.Scientific and technological education has been, in present times, fairly-well discussed, with focus on the ultimate commitment of the various teaching institutions: to promote the formation of citizens who are able to understand the world where they live in. Actually, the choice of contemporary topics is by itself a very strategic approach to motivate discussions on such matters in the classroom. Nanoscience and nanotechnology come up very properly in such a domain, which can be treated in an interdisciplinary way, by joining exact and natural sciences on the one hand, and human and social sciences on the other hand. The proposal of thematic directions to approach nanoscience and nanotechnology as a motto for science teaching, set up from reviewing the literature under the optics of Science-Technology-Society-Environment (STSE, is the main goal of the present paper.

  7. Microblog Hot Spot Mining Based on PAM Probabilistic Topic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Yaxin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Microblogs are short texts carried with limited information, which will increase the difficulty of topic mining. This paper proposes the use of PAM (Pachinko Allocation Model probabilistic topic model to extract the generative model of text’s implicit theme for microblog hot spot mining. First, three categories of microblog and the main contribution of this paper are illustrated. Second, for there are four topic models which are respectively explained, the PAM model is introduced in detail in terms of how to generate a document, the accuracy of document classification and the topic correlation in PAM. Finally, MapReduce is described. For the number of microblogs is huge as well as the number of contactors, the totally number of words is relatively small. With MapReduce, microblogs data are split by contactor, document-topic count matrix and contactor-topic count matrix can be locally stored while the word-topic count matrix must be globally stored. Thus, the hot spot mining can be achieved on the basis of PAM probabilistic topic model.

  8. Topics on Electricity Transmission Pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    -subsidization, the largest state-owned firm was split to form Statkraft SF, Norway's largest generation company, and Statnett SF, the major transmission company. Statnett is also the system operator of the entire Norwegian power system. Many distribution companies, usually publicly owned, are still part of vertically integrated companies, but there is strict separation of the financial accounts for transmission/distribution and generation/marketing. Trading is accomplished through several channels. The largest organized market is the common Norwegian-Swedish pool, NordPool. NordPool ASA is owned by Statnett Marked (which is a subsidiary of Statnett) and the Swedish grid-company, Svenska Kraftnaet. NordPool also supports the Finnish and Danish markets, thus through cooperation with the grid-companies of Denmark (Eltra) and Finland (Fingrid), locational markets are provided in these countries as well. Unlike England and Wales, only part of actual production is traded on this market. In addition, independent brokers offer various energy-contracts and facilitate bilateral contracts. In 1998 22% of the energy was traded on the hourly day-ahead (spot) market of NordPool. NordPool also organizes a forward and futures market and settles contracts from the regulation market organized by Statnett. The regulation market is a realtime market used to settle imbalances in real time. In total, close to 30% of the energy traded is organized through NordPool, and this share is increasing year by year. The efficiency of the market is heavily affected by the operation and pricing of the transmission system, and the topic of this thesis concerns the interaction of the transmission network and the energy markets. Throughout, the findings are illustrated by means of simple examples. This is to enhance readability and intuition. To start with, chapter 2 is devoted to power flow models, whereas chapter 3 provides an overview of models developed to efficiently coordinate the allocation of transmission

  9. Topical protection of human esophageal mucosal integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodland, P; Batista-Lima, F; Lee, C; Preston, S L; Dettmar, P; Sifrim, D

    2015-06-15

    Patients with nonerosive reflux disease exhibit impaired esophageal mucosal integrity, which may underlie enhanced reflux perception. In vitro topical application of an alginate solution can protect mucosal biopsies against acid-induced changes in transepithelial electrical resistance (TER). We aimed to confirm this finding in a second model using 3D cell cultures and to assess prolonged protection in a biopsy model. We assessed the protective effect of a topically applied alginate solution 1 h after application. 3D cell cultures were grown by using an air-liquid interface and were studied in Ussing chambers. The apical surface was "protected" with 200 μl of either alginate or viscous control or was unprotected. The tissue was exposed to pH 3 + bile acid solution for 30 min and TER change was calculated. Distal esophageal mucosal biopsies were taken from 12 patients and studied in Ussing chambers. The biopsies were coated with either alginate or viscous control solution. The biopsies were then bathed in pH 7.4 solution for 1 h. The luminal chamber solution was replaced with pH 2 solution for 30 min. Percentage changes in TER were recorded. In five biopsies fluorescein-labeled alginate solution was used to allow immunohistological localization of the alginate after 1 h. In the cell culture model, alginate solution protected tissue against acid-induced change in TER. In biopsies, 60 min after protection with alginate solution, the acidic exposure caused a -8.3 ± 2.2% change in TER compared with -25.1 ± 4.5% change after protection with the viscous control (P < 0.05). Labeled alginate could be seen coating the luminal surface in all cases. In vitro, alginate solutions can adhere to the esophageal mucosa for up to 1 h and exert a topical protectant effect. Durable topical protectants can be further explored as first-line/add-on therapies for gastroesophageal reflux disease. PMID:25907692

  10. Topics in black hole evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two major aspects of particle creation by gravitational fields of black holes are studied: the neutrino emission from rotating black holes; and interactions between scalar particles emitted by a black hole. Neutrino emission is investigated under three topics: The asymmetry of the angular dependence of neutrino emission from rotating black holes; the production of a local matter excess by rotating black holes in a baryon symmetric universe; and cosmological magnetic field generation by neutrinos from evaporating black holes. Finally the author studies the effects of interactions on the black hole evaporation process

  11. Topics in atomic collision theory

    CERN Document Server

    Geltman, Sydney; Brueckner, Keith A

    1969-01-01

    Topics in Atomic Collision Theory originated in a course of graduate lectures given at the University of Colorado and at University College in London. It is recommended for students in physics and related fields who are interested in the application of quantum scattering theory to low-energy atomic collision phenomena. No attention is given to the electromagnetic, nuclear, or elementary particle domains. The book is organized into three parts: static field scattering, electron-atom collisions, and atom-atom collisions. These are in the order of increasing physical complexity and hence necessar

  12. THE PROBLEM OF COUNTRYSIDE AND URBAN PLACES AS THE BASIC TOPIC IN MUSTAFA KUTLU’S STORIES MUSTAFA KUTLU’NUN HİKÂYELERİNDE TEMEL İZLEK OLARAK KÖY-KENT MESELESİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sezai COŞKUN

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Mustafa Kutlu is one of the most important names in Turkish story after period of 1970’s. Story language, style and topics of his stories are original. One of the basic charactristic of his stories is majority meaning world. Village-city problematique is one of the basic topics in his stories. Kutlu write this problematique before and after the immigration. He think that this problematique is one of the important side of social change.We study village-city problematique in Kutlu’s stories and essays in this article. Also we try to show this problematique as source of Kutlu’s stories. Mustafa Kutlu, 1970 sonrası Türk hikâyesinin önde gelen isimlerinden biridir. Kutlu, bugüne kadar yazdığı hikâyelerde, gerek kullandığı dil, üslup gerek işlediği te¬malar itibariyle kendine mahsus bir hikâye ekolü kur¬mayı başarmıştır. Kutlu’nun hikâyelerinin temel özellikle¬rinden biri, çoklu anlam katmanlarına sahip olmasıdır. Mustafa Kutlu’nun hikâyelerinde çokça işlenen iz¬leklerden biri, köy kent meselesidir. Kutlu, göçü merkeze alarak öncesi ve sonrasıyla köy-kent konusunu işler. O, bazı hikâyelerinde köye ilişkin meseleleri öne çıkartırken bazılarında kente ilişkin meseleleri öne çıkartır. Ama he¬men her eserinde Türk toplumunun yaşadığı değişmenin önemli alanlarından biri olan köy kent meselesi, hikâyeyi idare eden temel bir izlek olarak varlığını devam ettirir.Bu çalışmada, Kutlu’nun hikâyelerinde ve deneme¬lerinde köy- kent meselesini nasıl ele aldığını, köyü nasıl tanımladığını, köylü insana nasıl baktığını inceleyerek buradan hareketle yazarın modern kent algısını ortaya koymaya, bu izleğin Kutlu’nun hikâyelerine nasıl kay¬naklık ettiğini tespit ve tahlil etmeye çalışacağız.

  13. Líquido amniótico tópico: uma potencial nova alternativa para doenças da superfície ocular Topical amniotic fluid: a potential new alternative for ocular surface diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Goulart Quinto

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O líquido amniótico banha o feto durante a vida intra-uterina e está em contato permanente com a superfície ocular durante este importante período do desenvolvimento. Ele contém uma série de fatores de crescimento que podem ter diversos efeitos sobre o processo cicatricial. Estes fatores aceleram a recuperação da sensibilidade corneana e regeneração nervosa após procedimentos cerato-refrativos, além de controlar a formação de cicatriz e o equilíbrio da superfície ocular após sua aplicação tópica. Centenas de diferentes proteínas têm sido identificadas no líquido amniótico humano e o papel de cada uma continua desconhecido. Os resultados obtidos até o momento sobre a aplicação de líquido amniótico em doenças de superfície ocular sugerem uma terapia promissora. Pesquisas estão sendo realizadas para identificar os efeitos dos fatores específicos do líquido amniótico sobre a inflamação ocular. O objetivo desta revisão é relatar as propriedades e utilizações atuais do líquido amniótico, bem como apresentar os recentes estudos relacionados ao uso deste líquido e doenças da superfície ocular.Amniotic fluid bathes the fetus during intrauterine life and is in permanent contact with the fetal ocular surface in this important period of development. It contains a series of growth factors that may have multiple effects on the wound healing process. These factors are thought to accelerate the recovery of corneal sensitivity and nerve regeneration after keratorefractive procedures, and also may control scar formation and balance the ocular surface after topical application. Hundreds of different proteins have been identified in the human amniotic fluid, and the role of each still not quite understood. The outcomes obtained so far with amniotic fluid application to ocular surface diseases suggest a promising therapy. Research is underway to identify the effects of specific factors of the amniotic fluid in ocular

  14. Web mining for topics defined by complex and precise predicates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ching-Cheng; Sampathkumar, Sushma

    2004-04-01

    The enormous growth of the World Wide Web has made it important to perform resource discovery efficiently for any given topic. Several new techniques have been proposed in the recent years for this kind of topic specific web-mining, and among them a key new technique called focused crawling which is able to crawl topic-specific portions of the web without having to explore all pages. Most existing research on focused crawling considers a simple topic definition that typically consists of one or more keywords connected by an OR operator. However this kind of simple topic definition may result in too many irrelevant pages in which the same keyword appears in a wrong context. In this research we explore new strategies for crawling topic specific portions of the web using complex and precise predicates. A complex predicate will allow the user to precisely specify a topic using Boolean operators such as "AND", "OR" and "NOT". Our work will concentrate on defining a format to specify this kind of a complex topic definition and secondly on devising a crawl strategy to crawl the topic specific portions of the web defined by the complex predicate, efficiently and with minimal overhead. Our new crawl strategy will improve the performance of topic-specific web crawling by reducing the number of irrelevant pages crawled. In order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the above approach, we have built a complete focused crawler called "Eureka" with complex predicate support, and a search engine that indexes and supports end-user searches on the crawled pages.

  15. Topics in radiation dosimetry radiation dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    1972-01-01

    Radiation Dosimetry, Supplement 1: Topics in Radiation Dosimetry covers instruments and techniques in dealing with special dosimetry problems. The book discusses thermoluminescence dosimetry in archeological dating; dosimetric applications of track etching; vacuum chambers of radiation measurement. The text also describes wall-less detectors in microdosimetry; dosimetry of low-energy X-rays; and the theory and general applicability of the gamma-ray theory of track effects to various systems. Dose equivalent determinations in neutron fields by means of moderator techniques; as well as developm

  16. Topical corticosteroids: clinical pharmacology and therapeutic use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J A; Munro, D D

    1980-02-01

    The development of topical corticosteroids has enabled many dermatoses to be more effectively treated than previously, but there is also no doubt that misuse of these preparations can lead to troublesome local effects and potentially serious systemic problems. The most effective assay for comparing different compounds has been their vasoconstrictive activity, and this on the whole correlates well with clinical effect. To be effective, corticosteroid must be absorbed and the importance of concentration, occlusion, the type of vehicle, added penetrants such as urea and the anatomical site, on the amount of absorption and therefore on clinical activity has been demonstrated. Ointments have been shown to be more effective than creams but because of the considerable choice of potencies now available most dermatologists tend to prescribe the different formulations according to the wishes of the patient. For the same reason, dilution of the commercially marketed preparations is now not generally recommended. The main therapeutic activity of topical corticosteroids is their nonspecific anti-inflammatory effect, thought to be primarily a result of their action on the chemical mediators of inflammation. They have also been shown to be antimitotic which may well be relevant not only to the treatment of scaling dermatoses but also to their dermal thinning effect resulting from inhibition of fibroblasts. Combinations of corticosteroids with antibacterial and antifungal agents have been shown to be very effective in flexural eruptions and secondarily infected dermatoses. As a general rule, the use of topical corticosteroids in outpatients, unless badly misused, is not associated with any significant risk of adrenal axis suppression, but care must be exercised as to the amount prescribed, especially if large areas of the body are to be treated with highly potent preparations. Certain groups such as young children and patients with liver failure, and certain anatomical sites such

  17. Topics in Electricity Transmission Pricing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjoerndal, Mette

    2000-02-01

    Directorate (NVE). To prevent cross-subsidization, the largest state-owned firm was split to form Statkraft SF, Norway's largest generation company, and Statnett SF, the major transmission company. Statnett is also the system operator of the entire Norwegian power system. Many distribution companies, usually publicly owned, are still part of vertically integrated companies, but there is strict separation of the financial accounts for transmission/distribution and generation/marketing. Trading is accomplished through several channels. The largest organized market is the common Norwegian-Swedish pool, NordPool. NordPool ASA is owned by Statnett Marked (which is a subsidiary of Statnett) and the Swedish grid-company, Svenska Kraftnaet. NordPool also supports the Finnish and Danish markets, thus through cooperation with the grid-companies of Denmark (Eltra) and Finland (Fingrid), locational markets are provided in these countries as well. Unlike England and Wales, only part of actual production is traded on this market. In addition, independent brokers offer various energy-contracts and facilitate bilateral contracts. In 1998 22% of the energy was traded on the hourly day-ahead (spot) market of NordPool. NordPool also organizes a forward and futures market and settles contracts from the regulation market organized by Statnett. The regulation market is a realtime market used to settle imbalances in real time. In total, close to 30% of the energy traded is organized through NordPool, and this share is increasing year by year. The efficiency of the market is heavily affected by the operation and pricing of the transmission system, and the topic of this thesis concerns the interaction of the transmission network and the energy markets. Throughout, the findings are illustrated by means of simple examples. This is to enhance readability and intuition. To start with, chapter 2 is devoted to power flow models, whereas chapter 3 provides an overview of models developed to efficiently

  18. Topics on Electricity Transmission Pricing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjoerndal, Mette

    2000-02-01

    Directorate (NVE). To prevent cross-subsidization, the largest state-owned firm was split to form Statkraft SF, Norway's largest generation company, and Statnett SF, the major transmission company. Statnett is also the system operator of the entire Norwegian power system. Many distribution companies, usually publicly owned, are still part of vertically integrated companies, but there is strict separation of the financial accounts for transmission/distribution and generation/marketing. Trading is accomplished through several channels. The largest organized market is the common Norwegian-Swedish pool, NordPool. NordPool ASA is owned by Statnett Marked (which is a subsidiary of Statnett) and the Swedish grid-company, Svenska Kraftnaet. NordPool also supports the Finnish and Danish markets, thus through cooperation with the grid-companies of Denmark (Eltra) and Finland (Fingrid), locational markets are provided in these countries as well. Unlike England and Wales, only part of actual production is traded on this market. In addition, independent brokers offer various energy-contracts and facilitate bilateral contracts. In 1998 22% of the energy was traded on the hourly day-ahead (spot) market of NordPool. NordPool also organizes a forward and futures market and settles contracts from the regulation market organized by Statnett. The regulation market is a realtime market used to settle imbalances in real time. In total, close to 30% of the energy traded is organized through NordPool, and this share is increasing year by year. The efficiency of the market is heavily affected by the operation and pricing of the transmission system, and the topic of this thesis concerns the interaction of the transmission network and the energy markets. Throughout, the findings are illustrated by means of simple examples. This is to enhance readability and intuition. Chapter 2 is devoted to power flow models, whereas chapter 3 provides an overview of models developed to efficiently coordinate the

  19. Topics in Electricity Transmission Pricing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjoerndal, Mette

    2000-02-01

    Directorate (NVE). To prevent cross-subsidization, the largest state-owned firm was split to form Statkraft SF, Norway's largest generation company, and Statnett SF, the major transmission company. Statnett is also the system operator of the entire Norwegian power system. Many distribution companies, usually publicly owned, are still part of vertically integrated companies, but there is strict separation of the financial accounts for transmission/distribution and generation/marketing. Trading is accomplished through several channels. The largest organized market is the common Norwegian-Swedish pool, NordPool. NordPool ASA is owned by Statnett Marked (which is a subsidiary of Statnett) and the Swedish grid-company, Svenska Kraftnaet. NordPool also supports the Finnish and Danish markets, thus through cooperation with the grid-companies of Denmark (Eltra) and Finland (Fingrid), locational markets are provided in these countries as well. Unlike England and Wales, only part of actual production is traded on this market. In addition, independent brokers offer various energy-contracts and facilitate bilateral contracts. In 1998 22% of the energy was traded on the hourly day-ahead (spot) market of NordPool. NordPool also organizes a forward and futures market and settles contracts from the regulation market organized by Statnett. The regulation market is a realtime market used to settle imbalances in real time. In total, close to 30% of the energy traded is organized through NordPool, and this share is increasing year by year. The efficiency of the market is heavily affected by the operation and pricing of the transmission system, and the topic of this thesis concerns the interaction of the transmission network and the energy markets. Throughout, the findings are illustrated by means of simple examples. This is to enhance readability and intuition. To start with, chapter 2 is devoted to power flow models, whereas chapter 3 provides an overview of models developed to efficiently

  20. Topics on Electricity Transmission Pricing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjoerndal, Mette

    2000-02-01

    Directorate (NVE). To prevent cross-subsidization, the largest state-owned firm was split to form Statkraft SF, Norway's largest generation company, and Statnett SF, the major transmission company. Statnett is also the system operator of the entire Norwegian power system. Many distribution companies, usually publicly owned, are still part of vertically integrated companies, but there is strict separation of the financial accounts for transmission/distribution and generation/marketing. Trading is accomplished through several channels. The largest organized market is the common Norwegian-Swedish pool, NordPool. NordPool ASA is owned by Statnett Marked (which is a subsidiary of Statnett) and the Swedish grid-company, Svenska Kraftnaet. NordPool also supports the Finnish and Danish markets, thus through cooperation with the grid-companies of Denmark (Eltra) and Finland (Fingrid), locational markets are provided in these countries as well. Unlike England and Wales, only part of actual production is traded on this market. In addition, independent brokers offer various energy-contracts and facilitate bilateral contracts. In 1998 22% of the energy was traded on the hourly day-ahead (spot) market of NordPool. NordPool also organizes a forward and futures market and settles contracts from the regulation market organized by Statnett. The regulation market is a realtime market used to settle imbalances in real time. In total, close to 30% of the energy traded is organized through NordPool, and this share is increasing year by year. The efficiency of the market is heavily affected by the operation and pricing of the transmission system, and the topic of this thesis concerns the interaction of the transmission network and the energy markets. Throughout, the findings are illustrated by means of simple examples. This is to enhance readability and intuition. Chapter 2 is devoted to power flow models, whereas chapter 3 provides an overview of models developed to efficiently coordinate the

  1. Topics in Open Topological Strings

    CERN Document Server

    Prudenziati, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    This thesis is based on some selected topics in open topological string theory which I have worked on during my Ph.D. It comprises an introductory part where I have focused on the points most needed for the later chapters, trading completeness for conciseness and clarity. Then, following [12], we discuss tadpole cancellation for topological strings where we mainly show how its implementation is needed for ensuring the same "odd" moduli decoupling encountered in the closed theory. Next we move to analyse how the open and closed effective field theories for the B model interact writing the complete Lagrangian. We first check it deriving some already known tree level amplitudes in term of target space quantities, and then we extend the recipe to new results; later we implement open closed duality from a target field theory perspective. This last subject is also analysed from a worldsheet point of view extending the analysis of [13]. Some ideas for future research are briefly reported.

  2. Periorbital muscle atrophy associated with topical bimatoprost therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang PX

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Priscilla Xinhui Wang, Victor Teck Chang Koh, Jin Fong ChengDepartment of Ophthalmology, National University Health System, SingaporeAbstract: Topical Bimatoprost is a common and popular prostaglandin analog used as an ocular hypotensive agent in the treatment of glaucoma. Side effects include ocular hyperaemia, ocular pruritus, and periocular and iris pigmentary changes. Perioribital lipodystrophy is another well-documented outcome associated with chronic use of topical bimatoprost, which results in periorbital hallowing, upper eyelid sulcus deepening, eyelid retraction and enophthalmos. We report an unusual case of periocular muscle atrophy and weakness from unilateral topical bimatoprost use. Our patient had primary angle closure and experienced a right upper eyelid ptosis 2 months after she started to use topical bimatoprost in that eye. Clinical measurements of her eyelids clearly showed reduction in the function of her right levator muscle, suggesting that effects of topical bimatoprost may not be limited to periorbital fat. She was advised to stop topical bimatoprost and right ptosis correction surgery with levator muscle advancement was performed successfully. Ophthalmologists and patients should be aware of this potential rare side effect of topical bimatoprost, as it may be potentially disfiguring, especially with monocular use. However, its exact mechanism of action needs to be clarified further.Keywords: prostaglandin analog, levator, muscle atrophy, muscle weakness, ptosis, side effects

  3. A method of detecting emerging trends in research topics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei; GE; Zongying; TAN

    2014-01-01

    Purpose:This paper proposes a method of detecting emerging trends in research topics from a more micro perspective.Design/methodology/approach:Through co-word clustering to identify research topics and analyzing position changes of topic words in the keywords life-cycle diagram during different time periods,we detected emerging trends in research topics from a more micro perspective.I’he method was applied to the field of nanotechnology to verify its effectiveness and practicability.Findings:The results show that this method can be used to detect emerging trends in research topics from a more micro perspective,as it divides keywords into five categories:Potential keywords,emerging keywords,hot keywords,stable keywords and recession keywords,through which more details of topic changes can be found.Research limitations:We used keywords provided by authors and database indexers for keywords extraction.But this approach may lead to the problem of "indexer effect".The method may have a limited effect when applied to a disciplinary domain such as mathematics,which evolves slowly.Practical implications:This study provides information analysts with insights into the way to better understand specialty areas of a discipline domain and formulate research policies and strategic plans.Originality/value:This study contributes to the current literature by proposing a new method,which can detect emerging trends in research topics from a more micro perspective.

  4. Topics on the FORM software; Topicos do software FORM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa Jorge, Patricia M. da; Peres, Patricia Duarte [Universidade Catolica de Petropolis, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencia da Computacao

    1997-06-01

    These notes studies the compilation with FORM software as applied to high energy physics, covering the following topics: Command structures, statistics and numbers, Dirac matrices, optimization control, Gamma matrices, errors and polynomial substitution

  5. Topical and working papers on uranium resources and availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basic topics relative to world-wide resources and availability of uranium resources; potential for recovery of uranium from mill tailings in Canada; uranium from seawater; depleted uranium as an energy source; world uranium requirements in perspective

  6. Topical Application of Fingolimod Perturbs Cutaneous Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wai Y; Dimasi, David P; Pitman, Melissa R; Zhuang, YiZhong; Heddle, Robert; Pitson, Stuart M; Grimbaldeston, Michele A; Bonder, Claudine S

    2016-05-01

    The prevalence of allergies, including rhinitis, eczema, and anaphylaxis, is rising dramatically worldwide. This increase is especially problematic in children who bear the greatest burden of this rising trend. Increasing evidence identifies neutrophils as primary perpetrators of the more severe and difficult to manage forms of inflammation. A newly recognized mechanism by which neutrophils are recruited during the early phase of histamine-induced inflammation involves the sphingosine kinase (SK)/sphingosine-1-phosphate axis. This study examines whether topical application of fingolimod, an established SK/sphingosine-1-phosphate antagonist already in clinical use to treat multiple sclerosis, may be repurposed to treat cutaneous inflammation. Using two mouse models of ear skin inflammation (histamine- and IgE-mediated passive cutaneous anaphylaxis) we topically applied fingolimod prophylactically, as well as after establishment of the inflammatory response, and examined ear swelling, SK activity, vascular permeability, leukocyte recruitment, and production of proinflammatory mediators. The present study reveals that when applied topically, fingolimod attenuates both immediate and late-phase responses to histamine with reduced extravasation of fluid, SK-1 activity, proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine production, and neutrophil influx and prevents ear swelling. Intravital microscopy demonstrates that histamine-induced neutrophil rolling and adhesion to the postcapillary venules in the mouse ears is significantly attenuated even after 24 h. More importantly, these effects are achievable even once inflammation is established. Translation into humans was also accomplished with epicutaneous application of fingolimod resolving histamine-induced and allergen-induced inflammatory reactions in forearm skin. Overall, this study demonstrates, to our knowledge for the first time, that fingolimod may be repurposed to treat cutaneous inflammation. PMID:27001955

  7. Generic development of topical dermatologic products, Part II: quality by design for topical semisolid products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Rong-Kun; Raw, Andre; Lionberger, Robert; Yu, Lawrence

    2013-07-01

    The emergence of quality by design as a relatively new systematic science and risk-based approach has added a new dimension to pharmaceutical development and manufacturing. This review attempts to discuss the quality by design elements and concepts applied for topical semisolid products. Quality by design begins with defining a quality target product profile as well as critical quality attributes. Subsequently, this is followed by risk identification/risk analysis/risk evaluation to recognize critical material attributes and critical process parameters, in conjunction with design of experiments or other appropriate methods to establish control strategies for the drug product. Several design-of-experiment examples are included as practical strategies for the development and optimization of formulation and process for topical drug products.

  8. Recent topics in differential and analytic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Ochiai, T

    1990-01-01

    Advanced Studies in Pure Mathematics, Volume 18-I: Recent Topics in Differential and Analytic Geometry presents the developments in the field of analytical and differential geometry. This book provides some generalities about bounded symmetric domains.Organized into two parts encompassing 12 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of harmonic mappings and holomorphic foliations. This text then discusses the global structures of a compact Kähler manifold that is locally decomposable as an isometric product of Ricci-positive, Ricci-negative, and Ricci-flat parts. Other chapters con

  9. Quantum mechanics new approaches to selected topics

    CERN Document Server

    Lipkin, Harry J

    2007-01-01

    Acclaimed as ""excellent"" (Nature) and ""very original and refreshing"" (Physics Today), this collection of self-contained studies is geared toward advanced undergraduates and graduate students. Its broad selection of topics includes the Mössbauer effect, many-body quantum mechanics, scattering theory, Feynman diagrams, and relativistic quantum mechanics.Author Harry J. Lipkin, a well-known teacher at Israel's Weizmann Institute, takes an unusual approach by introducing many interesting physical problems and mathematical techniques at a much earlier point than in conventional texts. This meth

  10. Preface to Special Topic: Marine Renewable Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, F. T.; Iglesias, G.; Santos, P. R.; Deng, Zhiqun

    2015-12-30

    Marine renewable energy (MRE) is generates from waves, currents, tides, and thermal resources in the ocean. MRE has been identified as a potential commercial-scale source of renewable energy. This special topic presents a compilation of works selected from the 3rd IAHR Europe Congress, held in Porto, Portugal, in 2014. It covers different subjects relevant to MRE, including resource assessment, marine energy sector policies, energy source comparisons based on levelized cost, proof-of-concept and new-technology development for wave and tidal energy exploitation, and assessment of possible inference between wave energy converters (WEC).

  11. Topics in multivariate approximation and interpolation

    CERN Document Server

    Jetter, Kurt

    2005-01-01

    This book is a collection of eleven articles, written by leading experts and dealing with special topics in Multivariate Approximation and Interpolation. The material discussed here has far-reaching applications in many areas of Applied Mathematics, such as in Computer Aided Geometric Design, in Mathematical Modelling, in Signal and Image Processing and in Machine Learning, to mention a few. The book aims at giving a comprehensive information leading the reader from the fundamental notions and results of each field to the forefront of research. It is an ideal and up-to-date introduction for gr

  12. Topics in Bayesian statistics and maximum entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notions of Bayesian decision theory and maximum entropy methods are reviewed with particular emphasis on probabilistic inference and Bayesian modeling. The axiomatic approach is considered as the best justification of Bayesian analysis and maximum entropy principle applied in natural sciences. Particular emphasis is put on solving the inverse problem in digital image restoration and Bayesian modeling of neural networks. Further topics addressed briefly include language modeling, neutron scattering, multiuser detection and channel equalization in digital communications, genetic information, and Bayesian court decision-making. (author)

  13. Shock wave dynamics derivatives and related topics

    CERN Document Server

    Emanuel, George

    2012-01-01

    Working knowledge of the relations of various quantities and their derivatives across a shock wave is useful for any advanced research involving shock waves. Although these relations can be derived in principle by any diligent student of the subject, the derivations are often not trivial, and once derived, neither the approach nor the result can be confidently verified. Comprehensive and analytical, Shock Wave Dynamics: Derivatives and Related Topics includes not only the final results but also the methods, which are of great practical value as examples of mathematical procedure in this field.

  14. Topicality and Social Impact: Diverse Messages but Focused Messengers

    OpenAIRE

    Weng, Lilian; Menczer, Filippo

    2014-01-01

    Are users who comment on a variety of matters more likely to achieve high influence than those who delve into one focused field? Do general Twitter hashtags, such as #lol, tend to be more popular than novel ones, such as #instantlyinlove? Questions like these demand a way to detect topics hidden behind messages associated with an individual or a hashtag, and a gauge of similarity among these topics. Here we develop such an approach to identify clusters of similar hashtags by detecting communi...

  15. Medicare Payment: Surgical Dressings and Topical Wound Care Products

    OpenAIRE

    Schaum, Kathleen D.

    2014-01-01

    Medicare patients' access to surgical dressings and topical wound care products is greatly influenced by the Medicare payment system that exists in each site of care. Qualified healthcare professionals should consider these payment systems, as well as the medical necessity for surgical dressings and topical wound care products. Scientists and manufacturers should also consider these payment systems, in addition to the Food and Drug Administration requirements for clearance or approval, when t...

  16. Multilingual Topic Models for Unaligned Text

    CERN Document Server

    Boyd-Graber, Jordan

    2012-01-01

    We develop the multilingual topic model for unaligned text (MuTo), a probabilistic model of text that is designed to analyze corpora composed of documents in two languages. From these documents, MuTo uses stochastic EM to simultaneously discover both a matching between the languages and multilingual latent topics. We demonstrate that MuTo is able to find shared topics on real-world multilingual corpora, successfully pairing related documents across languages. MuTo provides a new framework for creating multilingual topic models without needing carefully curated parallel corpora and allows applications built using the topic model formalism to be applied to a much wider class of corpora.

  17. Detecting Hotspot Information Using Multi-Attribute Based Topic Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wang

    Full Text Available Microblogging as a kind of social network has become more and more important in our daily lives. Enormous amounts of information are produced and shared on a daily basis. Detecting hot topics in the mountains of information can help people get to the essential information more quickly. However, due to short and sparse features, a large number of meaningless tweets and other characteristics of microblogs, traditional topic detection methods are often ineffective in detecting hot topics. In this paper, we propose a new topic model named multi-attribute latent dirichlet allocation (MA-LDA, in which the time and hashtag attributes of microblogs are incorporated into LDA model. By introducing time attribute, MA-LDA model can decide whether a word should appear in hot topics or not. Meanwhile, compared with the traditional LDA model, applying hashtag attribute in MA-LDA model gives the core words an artificially high ranking in results meaning the expressiveness of outcomes can be improved. Empirical evaluations on real data sets demonstrate that our method is able to detect hot topics more accurately and efficiently compared with several baselines. Our method provides strong evidence of the importance of the temporal factor in extracting hot topics.

  18. Detecting Hotspot Information Using Multi-Attribute Based Topic Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Li, Li; Tan, Feng; Zhu, Ying; Feng, Weisi

    2015-01-01

    Microblogging as a kind of social network has become more and more important in our daily lives. Enormous amounts of information are produced and shared on a daily basis. Detecting hot topics in the mountains of information can help people get to the essential information more quickly. However, due to short and sparse features, a large number of meaningless tweets and other characteristics of microblogs, traditional topic detection methods are often ineffective in detecting hot topics. In this paper, we propose a new topic model named multi-attribute latent dirichlet allocation (MA-LDA), in which the time and hashtag attributes of microblogs are incorporated into LDA model. By introducing time attribute, MA-LDA model can decide whether a word should appear in hot topics or not. Meanwhile, compared with the traditional LDA model, applying hashtag attribute in MA-LDA model gives the core words an artificially high ranking in results meaning the expressiveness of outcomes can be improved. Empirical evaluations on real data sets demonstrate that our method is able to detect hot topics more accurately and efficiently compared with several baselines. Our method provides strong evidence of the importance of the temporal factor in extracting hot topics. PMID:26496635

  19. Integrating ethical topics in a traditional computer science course

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winrich, L.B. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States)

    1994-12-31

    It is never hard to find additional, often unconventional, topics which seem to beg inclusion in standard courses. A dynamic discipline like computer science usually provides a steady stream of new technical ideas to vie for time and attention with more traditional material. As difficult as it may be to keep standard CS courses up-to-date with technical innovations, it often seems even more difficult to include non-technical topics even when there is universal agreement on their importance, Inevitably the question of whether or not such inclusion will compromise the technical content of the course arises. This paper describes an attempt to include two such topics in a traditional course in data structures. The two topics are writing and ethics and, although the effort concentrates on the inclusion of ethical questions in a standard CS course, writing is the vehicle for accomplishing this goal. Furthermore, the inclusion writing in the CS curriculum is certainly recognized as a desirable outcome.

  20. Local wound care and topical management of hidradenitis suppurativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Afsaneh; Kirsner, Robert S

    2015-11-01

    Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a chronic, recurrent, debilitating disease predominantly involving apocrine gland-bearing skin. The folliculoinfundibular dysfunction and an aberrant cutaneous immune response to commensal bacteria are recognized as potential contributors. Topical antibiotics, such as clindamycin, and keratolytic agents have been used in the management of early stages of HS. Proper wound care is a key part of management, particularly in patients with advanced HS. The evidence for the optimal topical therapy or optimal local wound care is limited. As such, a multidisciplinary approach is necessary to address all aspects of HS, including topical therapy, systemic therapy, and proper wound care. The focus of this paper is to review the evidence for the topical management and local wound care strategies in patients with HS. PMID:26470618

  1. Topical vs Combination Ciprofloxacin in the Management of Discharging Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media

    OpenAIRE

    Renukananda, G.S.; U P, Santosh; George, Nitha Mary

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To study the microbial flora and determine the efficacy of topical ciprofloxacin ear drops in comparison with combination of topical and oral ciprofloxacin as first line management in patients diagnosed with chronic suppurative otitis media.

  2. Novel topical therapies for distal colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ian; Craig; Lawrance

    2010-01-01

    Distal colitis(DC) can be effectively treated with topical 5ASA agents.Suppositories target the rectum while enemas can reliably reach the splenic flexure.Used in combination with oral 5ASAs,the control of the inflammation is even more effective.Unfortunately,resistant DC does occur and can be extremely challenging to manage.In these patients,the use of steroids,immunosuppressants and the anti-tumor necrosis factor α agents are often required.These,however,can be associated with systemic side effects and are not always effective.The investigation of new topical therapeutic agents is thus required as they are rarely associated with significant blood drug levels and side effects are infrequent.Some of the agents that have been proposed for use in resistant distal colitis include butyrate,cyclosporine and nicotine enemas as well as tacrolimus suppositories and tacrolimus,ecabet sodium,arsenic,lidocaine,rebamipide and Ridogrel enemas.Some of these agents have demonstrated impressive results but the majority of the agents have only been assessed in small open-labelled patient cohorts.Further work is thus required with the investigation of promising agents in the context of randomized double-blinded placebo controlled trials.This review aims to highlight those potentially effective therapies in the management of resistant distal colitis and to promote interest in furthering their investigation.

  3. Topically applied ceramide accumulates in skin glyphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Q

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Qihong Zhang,1 Carol R Flach,1 Richard Mendelsohn,1 Guangru Mao,2 Apostolos Pappas,2 M Catherine Mack,2 Russel M Walters,2 Michael D Southall2 1Department of Chemistry, Rutgers University, Newark, 2Johnson & Johnson Consumer Companies, Inc., Skillman, NJ, USAAbstract: Ceramides (CERs, structural components of the stratum corneum (SC, impart essential barrier properties to this thin outer layer of the epidermis. Variations in CER species within this layer have been linked to several skin diseases. A recent proliferation of CER-containing topical skin-care products warrants the elucidation of CER penetration profiles in both healthy and diseased skin. In the current study, the spatial distributions of CER concentration profiles, following topical application of two species of CER, were tracked using infrared imaging. Suspensions of single-chain perdeuterated sphingosine and phytosphingosine CER in oleic acid were applied, in separate experiments, to the surface of healthy intact ex vivo human skin using Franz diffusion cells. Following either a 24- or 48-hour incubation period at 34°C, infrared images were acquired from microtomed skin sections. Both CER species accumulated in glyph regions of the skin and penetrated into the SC, to a limited extent, only in these regions. The concentration profiles observed herein were independent of the CER species and incubation time utilized in the study. As a result, a very heterogeneous, sparse, spatial distribution of CERs in the SC was revealed. In contrast, oleic acid was found to be fairly homogeneously distributed throughout the SC and viable epidermis, albeit at lower concentrations in the latter. A more uniform, lateral distribution of CERs in the SC would likely be important for barrier efficacy or enhancement.Keywords: stratum corneum, infrared imaging, topical delivery, oleic acid

  4. Topical menthol increases cutaneous blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craighead, Daniel H; Alexander, Lacy M

    2016-09-01

    Menthol, the active ingredient in several topically applied analgesics, activates transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8) receptors on sensory nerves and on the vasculature inducing a cooling sensation on the skin. Ilex paraguariensis is also a common ingredient in topical analgesics that has potential vasoactive properties and may alter the mechanisms of action of menthol. We sought to characterize the microvascular effects of topical menthol and ilex application and to determine the mechanism(s) through which these compounds may independently and combined alter cutaneous blood flow. We hypothesized that menthol would induce vasoconstriction and that ilex would not alter skin blood flow (SkBF). Three separate protocols were conducted to examine menthol and ilex-mediated changes in SkBF. In protocol 1, placebo, 4% menthol, 0.7% ilex, and combination menthol+ilex gels were applied separately to the skin and red cell flux was continuously measured utilizing laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI). In protocol 2, seven concentrations of menthol gel (0.04%, 0.4%, 1%, 2%, 4%, 7%, 8%) were applied to the skin to model the dose-response curve. In protocol 3, placebo, menthol, ilex, and menthol+ilex gels were applied to skin under local thermal control (34°C) both with and without sensory nerve blockage (topical lidocaine 4%). Post-occlusive reactive hyperemia (PORH) and local heating (42°C) protocols were conducted to determine the relative contribution of endothelium derived hyperpolarizing factors (EDHFs)/sensory nerves and nitric oxide (NO), respectively. Red cell flux was normalized to mean arterial pressure expressed as cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC: flux·mmHg(-1)) in all protocols. Topical menthol application increased SkBF compared to placebo (3.41±0.33 vs 1.1±0.19CVC: peffect, p<0.05) with an ED50 of 1.0%. Similarly, SkBF was increased after menthol application during PORH (3.62±0.29 vs. 2.50±0.21flux·mmHg(-1); p<0.001), but not local heating

  5. Topics in Number Theory Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Andrews, George; Ono, Ken

    1999-01-01

    From July 31 through August 3,1997, the Pennsylvania State University hosted the Topics in Number Theory Conference. The conference was organized by Ken Ono and myself. By writing the preface, I am afforded the opportunity to express my gratitude to Ken for beng the inspiring and driving force behind the whole conference. Without his energy, enthusiasm and skill the entire event would never have occurred. We are extremely grateful to the sponsors of the conference: The National Sci­ ence Foundation, The Penn State Conference Center and the Penn State Depart­ ment of Mathematics. The object in this conference was to provide a variety of presentations giving a current picture of recent, significant work in number theory. There were eight plenary lectures: H. Darmon (McGill University), "Non-vanishing of L-functions and their derivatives modulo p. " A. Granville (University of Georgia), "Mean values of multiplicative functions. " C. Pomerance (University of Georgia), "Recent results in primality testing. " C. ...

  6. Decision Point 1 Topical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yablonsky, Al; Barsoumian, Shant; Legere, David

    2013-05-01

    This Topical Report addresses accomplishments achieved during Phase 2a of the SkyMine® Carbon Mineralization Pilot Project. The primary objectives of this project are to design, construct, and operate a system to capture CO2 from a slipstream of flue gas from a commercial coal-fired cement kiln, convert that CO2 to products having commercial value (i.e., beneficial use), show the economic viability of the CO2 capture and conversion process, and thereby advance the technology to the point of readiness for commercial scale demonstration and proliferation. The overall process is carbon negative, resulting in mineralization of CO2 that would otherwise be released into the atmosphere. The project will also substantiate market opportunities for the technology by sales of chemicals into existing markets, and identify opportunities to improve technology performance and reduce costs at the commercial scale. The project is being conducted in two phases. The primary objectives of Phase 1 were to elaborate proven SkyMine® process chemistry to commercial pilot-scale operation and complete the preliminary design for the pilot plant to be built and operated in Phase 2, complete a NEPA evaluation, and develop a comprehensive carbon life cycle analysis. The objective of the current Phase (2a) is to complete the detailed design of the pilot plant to be built in Phase 2b.

  7. Topical minoxidil in the treatment of alopecia areata

    OpenAIRE

    Fenton, D A; Wilkinson, J. D.

    1983-01-01

    A modified double blind crossover study was performed to assess the effect of 1% topical minoxidil as compared with placebo in 30 patients with alopecia areata and alopecia totalis. The active preparation produced a highly significant incidence of hair regrowth. A cosmetically acceptable response was noted in 16 patients. No side effects were seen. The study confirmed that topical minoxidil will induce new hair growth in alopecia areata but that it is less likely to do so in more severe and e...

  8. Uncovering Research Topics of Academic Communities of Scientific Collaboration Network

    OpenAIRE

    Hongqi Han; Shuo Xu; Jie Gui; Xiaodong Qiao; Lijun Zhu; Han Zhang

    2014-01-01

    In order to improve the quality of applications, such as recommendation or retrieval in knowledge-based service system, it is very helpful to uncover research topics of academic communities in scientific collaboration network (SCN). Previous research mainly focuses on network characteristics measurement and community evolution, but it remains largely understudied on how to uncover research topics of each community. This paper proposes a nonjoint approach, consisting of three simple steps: (1)...

  9. Topical bimatoprost for the treatment of eyebrow hypotrichosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweiger, Eric S; Pinchover, Lisa; Bernstein, Robert M

    2012-01-01

    Topical bimatoprost was FDA approved in December of 2008 for the treatment of eyelash hypotrichosis. Since its approval, some physicians have advocated the use of bimatoprost "off label" for hair growth in other areas, such as the scalp or eyebrows, but there has yet to be published scientific evidence to support this use. We report one of the first cases of significant eyebrow hair growth in a patient after use of topical bimatoprost for eyebrow hypotrichosis.

  10. Recent advances in topical formulation carriers of antifungal agents

    OpenAIRE

    Eman Ahmed Bseiso; Maha Nasr; Omaima Sammour; Nabaweya A Abd El Gawad

    2015-01-01

    Fungal infections are amongst the most commonly encountered diseases affecting the skin. Treatment approaches include both topical and oral antifungal agents. The topical route is generally preferred due to the possible side effects of oral medication. Advances in the field of formulation may soon render outdated conventional products such as creams, ointments and gels. Several carrier systems loaded with antifungal drugs have demonstrated promising results in the treatment of skin fungal inf...

  11. Topical Collaboration "Neutrinos and Nucleosynthesis in Hot and Dense Matter"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allahverdi, Rouzbeh [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-18

    This is the final technical report describing contributions from the University of New Mexico to Topical Collaboration on "Neutrinos and Nucleosynthesis in Hot and Dense Matter" in the period June 2010 through May 2015. During the funding period, the University of New Mexico successfully hired Huaiyu Duan as a new faculty member with the support from DOE, who has contributed to the Topical Collaboration through his research and collaborations.

  12. Liquid crystals: a new topic in physics for undergraduates

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlin, Jerneja; Vaupotič, Nataša; Čepič, Mojca

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents a teaching module about liquid crystals. Since liquid crystals are linked to everyday student experiences and are also a topic of a current scientific research, they are an excellent candidate of a modern topic to be introduced into education. We show that liquid crystals can provide a file rouge through several fields of physics such as thermodynamics, optics and electromagnetism. We discuss what students should learn about liquid crystals and what physical concepts they s...

  13. Barrier Qualities of the Mouse Eye to Topically Applied Drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Zhao; Do, Chi Wai; Avila, Marcel Y.; Stone, Richard A.; Jacobson, Kenneth A.; Civan, Mortimer M.

    2007-01-01

    The mouse eye displays unusually rapid intraocular pressure (IOP) responses to topically applied drugs as measured by the invasive servo-null micropipette system (SNMS). To learn if the time course reflected rapid drug transfer across the thin mouse cornea and sclera, we monitored a different parameter, pupillary size, following topical application of droplets containing 40 μM (0.073μg) carbachol. No miosis developed from this low carbachol concentration unless the cornea was impaled with an ...

  14. Topical and oral antibiotics for acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rosso, James Q

    2016-06-01

    Antibiotics, both oral and topical, have been an integral component of the management of acne vulgaris (AV) for approximately 6 decades. Originally thought to be effective for AV due to their ability to inhibit proliferation of Propionibacterium acnes, it is now believed that at least some antibiotics also exert anti-inflammatory effects that provide additional therapeutic benefit. To add, an increase in strains of P acnes and other exposed bacteria that are less sensitive to antibiotics used to treat AV have emerged, with resistance directly correlated geographically with the magnitude of antibiotic use. Although antibiotics still remain part of the therapeutic armamentarium for AV treatment, current recommendations support the following when used to treat AV: 1) monotherapy use should be avoided; 2) use benzoyl peroxide concomitantly to reduce emergence of resistant P acnes strains; 3) oral antibiotics should be used in combination with a topical regimen for moderate-to-severe inflammatory AV; and 4) use oral antibiotics over a limited duration to achieve control of inflammatory AV with an exit plan in place to discontinue their use as soon as possible. When selecting an oral antibiotic to treat AV, potential adverse effects are important to consider. PMID:27416309

  15. Topical and oral antibiotics for acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rosso, James Q

    2016-06-01

    Antibiotics, both oral and topical, have been an integral component of the management of acne vulgaris (AV) for approximately 6 decades. Originally thought to be effective for AV due to their ability to inhibit proliferation of Propionibacterium acnes, it is now believed that at least some antibiotics also exert anti-inflammatory effects that provide additional therapeutic benefit. To add, an increase in strains of P acnes and other exposed bacteria that are less sensitive to antibiotics used to treat AV have emerged, with resistance directly correlated geographically with the magnitude of antibiotic use. Although antibiotics still remain part of the therapeutic armamentarium for AV treatment, current recommendations support the following when used to treat AV: 1) monotherapy use should be avoided; 2) use benzoyl peroxide concomitantly to reduce emergence of resistant P acnes strains; 3) oral antibiotics should be used in combination with a topical regimen for moderate-to-severe inflammatory AV; and 4) use oral antibiotics over a limited duration to achieve control of inflammatory AV with an exit plan in place to discontinue their use as soon as possible. When selecting an oral antibiotic to treat AV, potential adverse effects are important to consider.

  16. Fair trade: as an international hot topic and its approach in Brazil Fair Trade (comércio justo como um ‘Tópico Quente” internacional e sua abordagem no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Lazaro Silva-Filho

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabela normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi; mso-fareast-language:EN-US;} This paper aims to analyse the concept of Fair Trade in international and Braszilian literature. Throgh the identification of the grow of thema and analyzing the possible "barriers" to the development of the theme in the Brazilian context. The authors  develop two bibliometric research, a eletronic amd international one based on database of "Web of Science from ISI” and another in the brazilian publications (proceedings and journals. Although the indentification of the thma as a real emerging theme in international literature("hot topic", the authors noted a significant gap in the Brazilian publications. The author propouses to use  use the theoretical approach, that emerges fom the French social science, the  "quality and conventions" aproach that are being use to understand the coordination of networks of agribusiness So, in Brazil, the Fair Trade still inscipiente because it does not comes from a "civic (moral convention", that could be a necessary phase to achive de “market convention”, in other side de developed countries began has a civic convention and are achiving the market as a new convention, assimilated by the retails networks.Este artigo tem como objetivo

  17. Auditory and Visual Cues for Topic Maintenance with Persons Who Exhibit Dementia of Alzheimer's Type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teten, Amy F; Dagenais, Paul A; Friehe, Mary J

    2015-01-01

    This study compared the effectiveness of auditory and visual redirections in facilitating topic coherence for persons with Dementia of Alzheimer's Type (DAT). Five persons with moderate stage DAT engaged in conversation with the first author. Three topics related to activities of daily living, recreational activities, food, and grooming, were broached. Each topic was presented three times to each participant: once as a baseline condition, once with auditory redirection to topic, and once with visual redirection to topic. Transcripts of the interactions were scored for overall coherence. Condition was a significant factor in that the DAT participants exhibited better topic maintenance under visual and auditory conditions as opposed to baseline. In general, the performance of the participants was not affected by the topic, except for significantly higher overall coherence ratings for the visually redirected interactions dealing with the topic of food. PMID:26171273

  18. Topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for the treatment of pain due to soft tissue injury: diclofenac epolamine topical patch

    OpenAIRE

    Lionberger, David R; Brennan, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    David R Lionberger1, Michael J Brennan21Southwest Orthopedic Group, Houston, TX, USA; 2Department of Medicine, Bridgeport Hospital, Bridgeport, CT, USAAbstract: The objective of this article is to review published clinical data on diclofenac epolamine topical patch 1.3% (DETP) in the treatment of acute soft tissue injuries, such as strains, sprains, and contusions. Review of published literature on topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), diclofenac, and DETP in patients with ac...

  19. Comparative effectiveness of topical calcineurin inhibitors in adult patients with atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Hillary C; Qureshi, Abrar A

    2012-04-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by extreme pruritis and lichenified papules and plaques that may begin in or persist into adulthood. Topical corticosteroids are first-line prescription therapy for AD; they are efficacious and have a well established safety profile. The topical calcineurin inhibitors tacrolimus and pimecrolimus were approved by the US FDA in 2000 and 2001, respectively, as second-line topical therapy for AD. This review evaluates the available studies on the comparative effectiveness, safety, cost, and impact on quality of life of topical corticosteroids and topical calcineurin inhibitors for the treatment of adult AD. Tacrolimus was found to be as effective as class III-V topical corticosteroids for AD of the trunk and extremities, and more effective than low-potency class VI or VII corticosteroids for AD of the face or neck. Pimecrolimus was less effective than both tacrolimus and low-potency topical corticosteroids for moderate to severe AD. The short-term safety studies found that, compared with topical corticosteroid-treated adults, patients treated with topical calcineurin inhibitors had an increased frequency of application-site reactions, an equivalent infection risk, and a decreased risk of skin atrophy. The long-term safety of topical calcineurin inhibitors remains under investigation. Currently published studies that evaluated the comparative cost and quality-of-life effects compared tacrolimus with less potent topical corticosteroids despite the availability of equivalent potency corticosteroids. Further cost and quality-of-life studies are needed that compare topical calcineurin inhibitors with stronger classes of topical corticosteroids over longer time periods. The available clinical trials data do not suggest an efficacy advantage for topical calcineurin inhibitors over topical corticosteroids in adults with AD of the trunk and extremities, and there is not yet adequate evidence to support

  20. Formulation and Evaluation of Topical Hydrogel Patch Containing Amide Type Local Anaesthetic Agent

    OpenAIRE

    Jayrajsinh Sarvaiya; Chintan Tank; Kosanam Divakar; Jay Upadhyay; G.K.Kapse

    2012-01-01

    Hydrogel based drug delivery systems provides significant effect in designing sustained release topical dosage forms. Topical patch containing drug in hydrogel type polymer matrix provides not only targeted drug flux through the skin but also provides cooling effect on application site. Topical hydrogel patch containing lidocaine was prepared by using sodium poly acrylate as bioadhesive polymer. Effect of brij 30 and transcutol was also evaluated on topical flux of lidocaine base from hydroge...

  1. Incorporating Women and Crime Topics into Criminology Classes: Assignments, Exercises, and Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Richard A.

    1987-01-01

    Recommends a variety of books, assignments, exercises, and projects which can be incorporated into introductory criminology classes to compensate for the omission of topics on women and crime in textbooks and curricula. Includes a list of potential topics for writing assignments and a selection of films covering such topics as sexual harassment,…

  2. Scientific articles recommendation with topic regression and relational matrix factorization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming YANG; Ying-ming LI; Zhongfei(Mark)ZHANG

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we study the problem of recommending scientifi c articles to users in an online community with a new perspective of considering topic regression modeling and articles relational structure analysis simultane-ously. First, we present a novel topic regression model, the topic regression matrix factorization (tr-MF), to solve the problem. The main idea of tr-MF lies in extending the matrix factorization with a probabilistic topic modeling. In particular, tr-MF introduces a regression model to regularize user factors through probabilistic topic modeling under the basic hypothesis that users share similar preferences if they rate similar sets of items. Consequently, tr-MF provides interpretable latent factors for users and items, and makes accurate predictions for community users. To incorporate the relational structure into the framework of tr-MF, we introduce relational matrix factorization. Through combining tr-MF with the relational matrix factorization, we propose the topic regression collective matrix factorization (tr-CMF) model. In addition, we also present the collaborative topic regression model with relational matrix factorization (CTR-RMF) model, which combines the existing collaborative topic regression (CTR) model and relational matrix factorization (RMF). From this point of view, CTR-RMF can be considered as an appropriate baseline for tr-CMF. Further, we demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed models on a large subset of the data from CiteULike, a bibliography sharing service dataset. The proposed models outperform the state-of-the-art matrix factorization models with a signifi cant margin. Specifi cally, the proposed models are effective in making predictions for users with only few ratings or even no ratings, and support tasks that are specifi c to a certain fi eld, neither of which has been addressed in the existing literature.

  3. Visual analysis of topic competition on social media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Panpan; Wu, Yingcai; Wei, Enxun; Peng, Tai-Quan; Liu, Shixia; Zhu, Jonathan J H; Qu, Huamin

    2013-12-01

    How do various topics compete for public attention when they are spreading on social media? What roles do opinion leaders play in the rise and fall of competitiveness of various topics? In this study, we propose an expanded topic competition model to characterize the competition for public attention on multiple topics promoted by various opinion leaders on social media. To allow an intuitive understanding of the estimated measures, we present a timeline visualization through a metaphoric interpretation of the results. The visual design features both topical and social aspects of the information diffusion process by compositing ThemeRiver with storyline style visualization. ThemeRiver shows the increase and decrease of competitiveness of each topic. Opinion leaders are drawn as threads that converge or diverge with regard to their roles in influencing the public agenda change over time. To validate the effectiveness of the visual analysis techniques, we report the insights gained on two collections of Tweets: the 2012 United States presidential election and the Occupy Wall Street movement.

  4. Current topics in summability theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Rhoades, Billy

    2016-01-01

    This book discusses recent developments in and contemporary research on summability theory, including general summability methods, direct theorems on summability, absolute and strong summability, special methods of summability, functional analytic methods in summability, and related topics and applications. All contributing authors are eminent scientists, researchers and scholars in their respective fields, and hail from around the world. The book can be used as a textbook for graduate and senior undergraduate students, and as a valuable reference guide for researchers and practitioners in the fields of summability theory and functional analysis. Summability theory is generally used in analysis and applied mathematics. It plays an important part in the engineering sciences, and various aspects of the theory have long since been studied by researchers all over the world. .

  5. Corneal staining after treatment with topical tetracycline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Lapid-Gortzak; C.P. Nieuwendaal; A.R. Slomovic; L. Spanjaard

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report a case of corneal staining after treatment with topical tetracycline. Methods: A patient with crystalline keratopathy caused by Streptococcus viridans after corneal transplantation was treated topically with tetracycline eye drops, based on results of

  6. Fostering Topic Knowledge: Essential for Academic Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proske, Antje; Kapp, Felix

    2013-01-01

    Several researchers emphasize the role of the writer's topic knowledge for writing. In academic writing topic knowledge is often constructed by studying source texts. One possibility to support that essential phase of the writing process is to provide interactive learning questions which facilitate the construction of an adequate situation…

  7. Infantile generalized hypertrichosis caused by topical minoxidil*

    OpenAIRE

    Rampon, Greice; Henkin, Caroline; de Souza, Paulo Ricardo Martins; de Almeida Jr, Hiram Larangeira

    2016-01-01

    Rare cases of hypertrichosis have been associated with topically applied minoxidil. We present the first reported case in the Brazilian literature of generalized hypertrichosis affecting a 5-year-old child, following use of minoxidil 5%, 20 drops a day, for hair loss. The laboratory investigation excluded hyperandrogenism and thyroid dysfunction. Topical minoxidil should be used with caution in children.

  8. Aerodynamics of wind turbines emerging topics

    CERN Document Server

    Amano, R S

    2014-01-01

    Focusing on Aerodynamics of Wind Turbines with topics ranging from Fundamental to Application of horizontal axis wind turbines, this book presents advanced topics including: Basic Theory for Wind turbine Blade Aerodynamics, Computational Methods, and Special Structural Reinforcement Technique for Wind Turbine Blades.

  9. Topic Maps Based Project Knowledge Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Xiaofan; Zhou Liang; Zhang Lei; Li Lingzhi; Ding Qiulin

    2006-01-01

    Based on topic maps, a preprocessing scheme using similarity comparision is presented and applied in knowledge management.Topic and occurrence-oriented merging algorithm is also introduced to implement knowledge integration for the sub-system. An Omnigator-supported example from an aeroaustic institute is utilised to validate the preprocessing method and the result indicates it can speed up the research schedule.

  10. Infantile generalized hypertrichosis caused by topical minoxidil*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampon, Greice; Henkin, Caroline; de Souza, Paulo Ricardo Martins; de Almeida Jr, Hiram Larangeira

    2016-01-01

    Rare cases of hypertrichosis have been associated with topically applied minoxidil. We present the first reported case in the Brazilian literature of generalized hypertrichosis affecting a 5-year-old child, following use of minoxidil 5%, 20 drops a day, for hair loss. The laboratory investigation excluded hyperandrogenism and thyroid dysfunction. Topical minoxidil should be used with caution in children. PMID:26982785

  11. Infantile generalized hypertrichosis caused by topical minoxidil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampon, Greice; Henkin, Caroline; de Souza, Paulo Ricardo Martins; Almeida, Hiram Larangeira de

    2016-01-01

    Rare cases of hypertrichosis have been associated with topically applied minoxidil. We present the first reported case in the Brazilian literature of generalized hypertrichosis affecting a 5-year-old child, following use of minoxidil 5%, 20 drops a day, for hair loss. The laboratory investigation excluded hyperandrogenism and thyroid dysfunction. Topical minoxidil should be used with caution in children. PMID:26982785

  12. Histiocytosis X: treatment with topical nitrogen mustard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, B; Chang, D L; Shupack, J L

    1980-07-01

    The case histories of two elderly patients with cutaneous histiocytosis X treated topically with nitrogen mustard are presented. The cutaneous lesions cleared within 2 to 3 weeks, and remission was maintained with daily topical administration of nitrogen mustard. The clinical impression of improvement was substantiated by light and electron microscopic studies prior to and after therapy.

  13. Research topics in Social Psychology in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio V. Torres

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available How is the portrait of the Brazilian scientific production in Social Psychology of the past few years? This study aims to address especifically this question, by visiting the articles published by Brazilian scholars since 1980, all of whom have been recognized and sponsored by the Brazilian National Council on Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq. Production from 80 Brazilian researchers was analysed, based on phenomena traditionally studied by Social Psychologists (e.g., Social Influence, which served as a priori categories. Articles that reflect studies developed in 5 geopolitical regions of the country, but data showed regions South and Southeast with the highest concentration in terms of academic production. Such finding is discussed in terms of the influence of an individualist culture on Brazilian research. Observing the main Social Psychology topics studied by Brazilians, it was noticed a centrality of the "Psychological" approach to Social Psychology, mainly originated in English-speaking countries.

  14. Topics from Australian Conferences on Teaching Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Phillips, Brian; Martin, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The first OZCOTS conference in 1998 was inspired by papers contributed by Australians to the 5th International Conference on Teaching Statistics. In 2008, as part of the program of one of the first National Senior Teaching Fellowships, the 6th OZCOTS was held in conjunction with the Australian Statistical Conference, with Fellowship keynotes and contributed papers, optional refereeing and proceedings. This venture was so successful that the 7th and 8th OZCOTS were similarly run, conjoined with Australian Statistical Conferences in 2010 and 2012. Authors of papers from these OZCOTS conferences were invited to develop chapters for refereeing and inclusion in this volume. There are sections on keynote topics, undergraduate curriculum and learning, professional development, postgraduate learning, and papers from OZCOTS 2012. Because OZCOTS aim to unite statisticians and statistics educators, the approaches this volume takes are immediately relevant to all who have a vested interest in good teaching practices. Glo...

  15. Current topics in clinical FES in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handa, Y

    1997-12-01

    This paper reviews recent topics of clinical application of functional electrical stimulation (FES) for the paralyzed extremities in Japan. Transcutaneous and percutaneous FES systems have been clinically used in Japan. Candidates of extremity FES arer mostly stroke and spinal cord injury patients. By using percutaneous FES system, all of the joints of the upper extremity including the shoulder have been controlled for activities of daily living in the hemiplegic patient. Simultaneous FES control of the hand and wrist and the bilateral hands have also been achieved in C5 and C6 quadriplegics, respectively. Hybrid FES systems using percutaneous and surface electrodes, where FES is used in combination with orthoses, have been applied to the paraplegics because they are highly practical for assisting their locomotive activities. Percutaneous FES have been also provided the amyotropic lateral sclerosis patients with standing up motion. A total implant FES system with 16 output channels is currently developing as a next generation FES system.

  16. Topical tar: Back to the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paghdal, K.V.; Schwartz, R.A. [University of Medicine & Dentistry of New Jersey, Newark, NJ (United States)

    2009-08-15

    The use of medicinal tar for dermatologic disorders dates back to the ancient times. Although coal tar is utilized more frequently in modern dermatology, wood tars have also been widely employed. Tar is used mainly in the treatment of chronic stable plaque psoriasis, scalp psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, and seborrheic dermatitis, either alone or in combination therapy with other medications, phototherapy, or both. Many modifications have been made to tar preparations to increase their acceptability, as some dislike its odor, messy application, and staining of clothing. One should consider a tried and true treatment with tar that has led to clearing of lesions and prolonged remission times. Occupational studies have demonstrated the carcinogenicity of tar; however, epidemiologic studies do not confirm similar outcomes when used topically. This article will review the pharmacology, formulations, efficacy, and adverse effects of crude coal tar and other tars in the treatment of selected dermatologic conditions.

  17. Topical antioxidants in radiodermatitis: a clinical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodiyan, Joyson; Amber, Kyle T

    2015-09-01

    Radiation-induced skin toxicity is the most prevalent side effect of radiation therapy. Not only does it have a significant effect on patients' quality of life, but it also results in poor follow-up and early termination of radiotherapy treatment. Several skin care practices and topical applications have been studied in the field of radiodermatitis, including skin washing, topical steroids, and mechanical skin barriers. Aside from these methods, many patients turn to complementary and alternative medicine for the prevention and treatment of radiodermatitis. Many of these alternative therapies are topically applied antioxidants. While the rationale behind the use of antioxidants in treating radiodermatitis is strong, clinical studies have been far less consistent. Even in large scale randomised controlled trials, findings have been limited by the inconsistent use of topical vehicles and placebos. In this article, the authors review the role of topical antioxidants to better help the practitioner navigate through different available skin directed antioxidants.

  18. Geographical Topics Learning of Geo-Tagged Social Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoming; Ji, Shufan; Wang, Senzhang; Li, Zhoujun; Lv, Xueqiang

    2016-03-01

    With the availability of cheap location sensors, geotagging of images in online social media is very popular. With a large amount of geo-tagged social images, it is interesting to study how these images are shared across geographical regions and how the geographical language characteristics and vision patterns are distributed across different regions. Unlike textual document, geo-tagged social image contains multiple types of content, i.e., textual description, visual content, and geographical information. Existing approaches usually mine geographical characteristics using a subset of multiple types of image contents or combining those contents linearly, which ignore correlations between different types of contents, and their geographical distributions. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a novel method to discover geographical characteristics of geo-tagged social images using a geographical topic model called geographical topic model of social images (GTMSIs). GTMSI integrates multiple types of social image contents as well as the geographical distributions, in which image topics are modeled based on both vocabulary and visual features. In GTMSI, each region of the image would have its own topic distribution, and hence have its own language model and vision pattern. Experimental results show that our GTMSI could identify interesting topics and vision patterns, as well as provide location prediction and image tagging. PMID:25861092

  19. Research on Online Topic Evolutionary Pattern Mining in Text Streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Chen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Text Streams are a class of ubiquitous data that came in over time and are extraordinary large in scale that we often lose track of. Basically, text streams forms the fundamental source of information that can be used to detect semantic topic which individuals and organizations are interested in as well as detect burst events within communities. Thus, intelligent system that can automatically extract interesting temporal pattern from text streams is terribly needed; however, Evolutionary Pattern Mining is not well addressed in previous work. In this paper, we start a tentative research on topic evolutionary pattern mining system by discussing fully properties of a topic after formally definition, as well as proposing a common and formal framework in analyzing text streams. We also defined three basic tasks including (1 online topic Detection, (2 event evolution extraction and (3 topic property life cycle, and proposed three common mining algorithms respectively. Finally we exemplify the application of Evolutionary Pattern Mining and shows that interesting patterns can be extracted in newswire dataset

  20. Two SVDs Suffice: Spectral decompositions for probabilistic topic modeling and latent Dirichlet allocation

    CERN Document Server

    Anandkumar, Animashree; Hsu, Daniel; Kakade, Sham M; Liu, Yi-Kai

    2012-01-01

    Topic models can be seen as a generalization of the clustering problem, in that they posit that observations are generated due to multiple latent factors (e.g. the words in each document are generated as a mixture of several active topics, as opposed to just one). This increased representational power comes at the cost of a more challenging unsupervised learning problem of estimating the topic probability vectors (the distributions over words for each topic), when only the words are observed and the corresponding topics are hidden. We provide a simple and efficient learning procedure that is guaranteed to recover the parameters for a wide class of mixture models, including the popular latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA) model. For LDA, the procedure correctly recovers both the topic probability vectors and the prior over the topics, using only trigram statistics (i.e. third order moments, which may be estimated with documents containing just three words). The method, termed Excess Correlation Analysis (ECA), is...

  1. The Power of Combination Topical Therapy for Psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kircik, Leon H; Zografos, Panagiotis

    2015-10-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease where the use of topical corticosteroids is a mainstream treatment. However, the continuous use of high potency topical corticosteroids is limited by a variety of well known adverse events which include, atrophy, and telangiectasia. Also, inhibition of lipid synthesis by steroids can cause impairment of the epidermal barrier, which is already disrupted in most of the inflammatory cutaneous disorders such as psoriasis. This will further lead to increase transepidermal water loss (TEWL), decreased hydration, dry skin, and irritation. On the other hand, topical vitamin D analogs directly affect keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation as well as modulation of epidermal lipids and antimicrobial peptides. Although the exact mechanism of action of topical vitamin D analogs is not well understood in the treatment of psoriasis, their efficacy and safety has been shown in several clinical trials over the years and they are widely used for psoriasis. Therefore, combination of topical steroids and vitamin D analogs may be a logical option for the treatment of psoriasis.

  2. LECITHINISED MICROEMULSIONS FOR TOPICAL DELIVERY OF TRETINOIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khanna Surabhi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Tretinoin is indicated for the management of acne, photoaged skin, psoriasis and other skin disorders and also for severe conditions like acute promyelocytic anaemia and squamous cell carcinoma of the skin. The potential of tretinoin in these conditions is limited due to want of a proper delivery vehicle. In order to develop alternate formulations for the topical administration of tretinoin, lecithinsed microemulsions were prepared and evaluated as delivery vehicles. These systems were prepared using phosphate buffer pH 5.5, isopropyl myristate, tween 80 and ethanol. The microemulsions were characterized using TEM. The ability of the system to deliver tretinoin into and through the skin was evaluated in vitro using the skin of laca mice. The in vitro permeation data showed that the novel microemulsions increased tretinoin penetration through the skin; higher flux (33.92 µg / cm2 / hr was obtained with microemulsion formulation and microemulsified gel (31.54 µg / cm2 / hr in comparison to the plain drug solution (22.33 µg / cm2 / hr, plain drug in gel (28.67 µg / cm2 / hr and the marketed preparation (24.28 µg / cm2 / hr. These results were supported by skin retention study and it was noted that the maximum amount retained was with microemulsified gel (96.28 µg / cm2 and non-gel (82.13 µg / cm2 respectively. The other systems; drug in solution, drug in gel (conventional and marketed preparation were able to retain the drug at the level of 32.4 µg/ cm2, 21.54 µg / cm2 and 29.32 µg / cm2 respectively. These results suggest that the studied microemulsions may be appropriate vehicles for topical delivery of tretinoin.

  3. Recent advances in topical formulation carriers of antifungal agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bseiso, Eman Ahmed; Nasr, Maha; Sammour, Omaima; Abd El Gawad, Nabaweya A

    2015-01-01

    Fungal infections are amongst the most commonly encountered diseases affecting the skin. Treatment approaches include both topical and oral antifungal agents. The topical route is generally preferred due to the possible side effects of oral medication. Advances in the field of formulation may soon render outdated conventional products such as creams, ointments and gels. Several carrier systems loaded with antifungal drugs have demonstrated promising results in the treatment of skin fungal infections. Examples of these newer carriers include micelles, lipidic systems such as solid lipid nanoparticles and nanostructured lipid carriers, microemulsions and vesicular systems such as liposomes, niosomes, transfersomes, ethosomes, and penetration enhancer vesicles. PMID:26261140

  4. Recent advances in topical formulation carriers of antifungal agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Ahmed Bseiso

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal infections are amongst the most commonly encountered diseases affecting the skin. Treatment approaches include both topical and oral antifungal agents. The topical route is generally preferred due to the possible side effects of oral medication. Advances in the field of formulation may soon render outdated conventional products such as creams, ointments and gels. Several carrier systems loaded with antifungal drugs have demonstrated promising results in the treatment of skin fungal infections. Examples of these newer carriers include micelles, lipidic systems such as solid lipid nanoparticles and nanostructured lipid carriers, microemulsions and vesicular systems such as liposomes, niosomes, transfersomes, ethosomes, and penetration enhancer vesicles.

  5. Polymeric vehicles for topical delivery and related analytical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Heui Kyoung; Cho, Jin Hun; Jeong, Seong Hoon; Cho, Dong Chul; Yeum, Jeong Hyun; Cheong, In Woo

    2014-04-01

    Recently a variety of polymeric vehicles, such as micelles, nanoparticles, and polymersomes, have been explored and some of them are clinically used to deliver therapeutic drugs through skin. In topical delivery, the polymeric vehicles as drug carrier should guarantee non-toxicity, long-term stability, and permeation efficacy for drugs, etc. For the development of the successful topical delivery system, it is of importance to develop the polymeric vehicles of well-defined intrinsic properties, such as molecular weights, HLB, chemical composition, topology, specific ligand conjugation and to investigate the effects of the properties on drug permeation behavior. In addition, the role of polymeric vehicles must be elucidated in in vitro and in vivo analyses. This article describes some important features of polymeric vehicles and corresponding analytical methods in topical delivery even though the application span of polymers has been truly broad in the pharmaceutical fields.

  6. Frenet-Serret vacuum radiation, detection proposals and related topics

    CERN Document Server

    Rosu, H C

    2003-01-01

    The paradigmatic Unruh radiation is an ideal and simple case of stationary vacuum radiation patterns related to worldlines defined as Frenet-Serret curves. We review the corresponding body of literature as well as the experimental proposals that have been suggested to detect these types of quantum field radiation patterns. Finally, we comment on a few other topics related to the Unruh effect

  7. Predicting Complex Word Emotions and Topics through a Hierarchical Bayesian Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we provide a Word Emotion Topic (WET) model to predict the complex word e- motion information from text, and discover the dis- trbution of emotions among different topics. A complex emotion is defined as the combination of one or more singular emotions from following 8 basic emotion categories: joy, love, expectation, sur- prise, anxiety, sorrow, anger and hate. We use a hi- erarchical Bayesian network to model the emotions and topics in the text. Both the complex emotions and topics are drawn from raw texts, without con- sidering any complicated language features. Our ex- periment shows promising results of word emotion prediction, which outperforms the traditional parsing methods such as the Hidden Markov Model and the Conditional Random Fields(CRFs) on raw text. We also explore the topic distribution by examining the emotion topic variation in an emotion topic diagram.

  8. Comparative study of the topical effectiveness of the andiroba oil (Carapa guianensis) and DEET 50% as repellent for Aedes sp Estudo comparativo da eficácia tópica do óleo de andiroba (Carapa guianensis) e DEET 50% como repelente para Aedes sp

    OpenAIRE

    Hélio Amante Miot; Rafaelle Fernandes Batistella; Khristiani de Almeida Batista; Dimas Eduardo Carneiro Volpato; Leonardo Silveira Teixeira Augusto; Newton Goulart Madeira; Vidal Haddad Jr.; Luciane Donida Bartoli Miot

    2004-01-01

    DEET (N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide) is nowadays the most effective mosquito repellent available, however, its use can present some topical and systemic side effects. Some botanical compositions, as Andiroba (Carapa guianensis), have been proved repellent properties at low cost and toxicity. An experimental study was driven involving four volunteers submitting their forearms covered with Andiroba oil at 100%, DEET 50%, refined soy oil, Andiroba oil 15% and in the absence of products, directly...

  9. Markers of topical discourse in child-directed speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, Hannah; Frank, Michael C

    2014-01-01

    Although the language we encounter is typically embedded in rich discourse contexts, many existing models of processing focus largely on phenomena that occur sentence-internally. Similarly, most work on children's language learning does not consider how information can accumulate as a discourse progresses. Research in pragmatics, however, points to ways in which each subsequent utterance provides new opportunities for listeners to infer speaker meaning. Such inferences allow the listener to build up a representation of the speakers' intended topic and more generally to identify relationships, structures, and messages that extend across multiple utterances. We address this issue by analyzing a video corpus of child-caregiver interactions. We use topic continuity as an index of discourse structure, examining how caregivers introduce and discuss objects across utterances. For the analysis, utterances are grouped into topical discourse sequences using three annotation strategies: raw annotations of speakers' referents, the output of a model that groups utterances based on those annotations, and the judgments of human coders. We analyze how the lexical, syntactic, and social properties of caregiver-child interaction change over the course of a sequence of topically related utterances. Our findings suggest that many cues used to signal topicality in adult discourse are also available in child-directed speech.

  10. Feminism as Islamophobia: A review of misogyny charges against Islam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Mahmudul Hasan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available One important feature of Islamophobia is to caricaturize Islam as misogynistic and oppressive to women and thus to advance imperialist hegemony. This “gendered Islamophobia” stigmatizes the religion even though, compared to other world religions, its treatment of women is arguably preferable and more enlightened. Historically, one treasonous use of feminism has been to misappropriate it in order to serve colonial interests and support imperialist wars of occupation that repress subjugated people including women and children. This article argues that ignorance about, and prejudice against, Islam contribute to portraying it as a misogynistic creed. Wrong notions of Islam lead many feminists in Muslim societies to denigrate Islamic teachings and borrow Western ideas to advance women’s causes. Lampooning Islam and replicating Western feminist ideas in Muslim lands have served neither women nor feminism. Such feminist tendencies rather give a bad name to the women’s rights movement and fuel controversy, anger and resentment among Muslims.

  11. Risk assessment of topically applied products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søborg, Tue; Basse, Line Hollesen; Halling-Sørensen, Bent

    2007-01-01

    parameters for estimating the risk. The immediate human risk of BADGE and derivatives in topical dosage forms was found to be low. However, local treatment of broken skin may lead to higher exposure of BADGE and derivatives compared to application to normal skin. 3-BC permeated skin at higher flux than 4-MBC......The human risk of harmful substances in semisolid topical dosage forms applied topically to normal skin and broken skin, respectively, was assessed. Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) and three derivatives of BADGE previously quantified in aqueous cream and the UV filters 3-BC and 4-MBC were used...

  12. Topical Review: Polymer gel dosimetry

    OpenAIRE

    Baldock, C; De Deene, Y; Doran, S.; Ibbott, G; Jirasek, A.; Lepage, M.; McAuley, K B; Oldham, M; Schreiner, L J

    2010-01-01

    Polymer gel dosimeters are fabricated from radiation sensitive chemicals which, upon irradiation, polymerize as a function of the absorbed radiation dose. These gel dosimeters, with the capacity to uniquely record the radiation dose distribution in three-dimensions (3D), have specific advantages when compared to one-dimensional dosimeters, such as ion chambers, and two-dimensional dosimeters, such as film. These advantages are particularly significant in dosimetry situations where steep dose ...

  13. Extracting Topics from the Holy Quran Using Generative Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Alhawarat

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The holy Quran is one of the Holy Books of God. It is considered one of the main references for an estimated 1.6 billion of Muslims around the world. The Holy Quran language is Arabic. Specialized as well as non-specialized people in religion need to search and lookup certain information from the Holy Quran. Most research projects concentrate on the translation of the holy Quran in different languages. Nevertheless, few research projects pay attention to original text of the holy Quran in Arabic language. Keyword search is one of the Information Retrieval (IR methods but will retrieve what is called exact search. Semantic search aims at finding deeper meanings of a text, and it is a hot field of study in Natural Language Processing (NLP. In this paper topic modeling techniques are explored to setup a framework for semantic search in the holy Quran. As the Holy Quran is the word of God, its meanings are unlimited. In this paper the words of chapter Joseph (Peace Be Upon Him (PBUH from the Holy Quran is analyzed based on topic modeling techniques as a case study. Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA topic modeling technique has been applied in this paper into two structures (Hizb Quarters and verses of Joseph chapter as: words, roots and stems. The log-Likelihood has been calculated for the two structures of the chapter. Results show that the best structure to use is verses, which gives the least energy for data. Some of the results of the attained topics are shown. These results suggest that topic modeling techniques failed to capture in an accurate manner the coherent topics of the chapter.

  14. Selected Topics in MicroNano-robotics for Biomedical Applications

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Selected Topics in Micro/Nano-robotics for Biomedical Applications features a system approach and incorporates modern methodologies in autonomous mobile robots for programmable and controllable micro/nano-robots aiming at biomedical applications. The book provides chapters of instructional materials and cutting-edge research results in micro/nanorobotics for biomedical applications. The book presents new sensing technology on nanofibers, new power supply techniques including miniature fuel cells and energy harvesting devices, and manipulation techniques including AFM-based nano-robotic manipulation, robot-aided optical tweezers, and robot-assisted catheter surgery systems. It also contains case studies on using micro/nano-robots in biomedical environments and in biomedicine, as well as a design example to conceptually develop a Vitamin-pill sized robot to enter human’s gastrointestinal tract. Each chapter covers a different topic of the highly interdisciplinary area. Bring together the selected topics into ...

  15. Iatrogenic hyperadrenocorticism during topical steroid therapy: assessment of systemic effects by metabolic criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, L J; Freinkel, R K; Zugerman, C; Levin, D L; Radtke, R

    1982-06-01

    Systemic absorption of topically applied glucocorticoids in quantities sufficient to replace endogenous production is not uncommon. However, iatrogenic Cushing's syndrome resulting from the use of topical corticosteroids is very rare. Thus the possibility that systemic absorption may cause hyperglucocorticism has been deemphasized and examined only sporadically. We have studied changes in carbohydrate metabolism induced by topical glucocorticoids in a psoriatic patient who had developed Cushing's syndrome from topical desoximetasone (Topicort). The results indicated that (1) fasting hyperglycemia and increased insulin-glucose ratios could be induced within 24 hours of administration of topical glucocorticoids, (2) insulin resistance accompanied abnormal carbohydrate tolerance, and (3) fluctuations in circulating leukocytes paralleled the changes in carbohydrate metabolism. The findings suggest that metabolic indexes of glucocorticoid action action may provide useful parameters for assessing systemic absorption of topical glucocorticoids. glucose relationship as one such index to assess the risk of treatment of extensive chronic skin disease with potent topical glucocorticoids. PMID:7047591

  16. Modeling Online Reviews with Multi-grain Topic Models

    CERN Document Server

    Titov, Ivan

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present a novel framework for extracting the ratable aspects of objects from online user reviews. Extracting such aspects is an important challenge in automatically mining product opinions from the web and in generating opinion-based summaries of user reviews. Our models are based on extensions to standard topic modeling methods such as LDA and PLSA to induce multi-grain topics. We argue that multi-grain models are more appropriate for our task since standard models tend to produce topics that correspond to global properties of objects (e.g., the brand of a product type) rather than the aspects of an object that tend to be rated by a user. The models we present not only extract ratable aspects, but also cluster them into coherent topics, e.g., `waitress' and `bartender' are part of the same topic `staff' for restaurants. This differentiates it from much of the previous work which extracts aspects through term frequency analysis with minimal clustering. We evaluate the multi-grain models both ...

  17. Etodolac Containing Topical Niosomal Gel: Formulation Development and Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyati Shilakari Asthana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the delivery potential of Etodolac (ETD containing topical niosomal gel. Niosomal formulations were prepared by thin film hydration method at various ratios of cholesterol and Span 60 and were evaluated with respect to particle size, shape, entrapment efficiency, and in vitro characteristics. Dicetyl phosphate (DCP was also added in the niosomal formulation. Mean particle size of niosomal formulation was found to be in the range of 2 μm to 4 μm. Niosomal formulation N2 (1 : 1 ratio of cholesterol and surfactant displayed good entrapment efficiency (96.72%. TEM analyses showed that niosomal formulation was spherical in shape. Niosomal formulation (N2 displayed high percentage of drug release after 24 h (94.91 at (1 : 1 ratio of cholesterol : surfactant. Further selected niosomal formulation was used to formulate topical gel and was characterized with respect to its various parameters such as pH, viscosity, spreadability, ex vivo study, and in vivo potential permeation. Ex vivo study showed that niosomal gel possessed better skin permeation study than the plain topical gel. Further in vivo study revealed good inhibition of inflammation in case of topical niosomal gel than plain gel and niosomal formulation. The present study suggested that topical niosomal gel formulations provide sustained and prolonged delivery of drug.

  18. Etodolac Containing Topical Niosomal Gel: Formulation Development and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asthana, Abhay; Singh, Davinder; Sharma, Parveen Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the delivery potential of Etodolac (ETD) containing topical niosomal gel. Niosomal formulations were prepared by thin film hydration method at various ratios of cholesterol and Span 60 and were evaluated with respect to particle size, shape, entrapment efficiency, and in vitro characteristics. Dicetyl phosphate (DCP) was also added in the niosomal formulation. Mean particle size of niosomal formulation was found to be in the range of 2 μm to 4 μm. Niosomal formulation N2 (1 : 1) ratio of cholesterol and surfactant displayed good entrapment efficiency (96.72%). TEM analyses showed that niosomal formulation was spherical in shape. Niosomal formulation (N2) displayed high percentage of drug release after 24 h (94.91) at (1 : 1) ratio of cholesterol : surfactant. Further selected niosomal formulation was used to formulate topical gel and was characterized with respect to its various parameters such as pH, viscosity, spreadability, ex vivo study, and in vivo potential permeation. Ex vivo study showed that niosomal gel possessed better skin permeation study than the plain topical gel. Further in vivo study revealed good inhibition of inflammation in case of topical niosomal gel than plain gel and niosomal formulation. The present study suggested that topical niosomal gel formulations provide sustained and prolonged delivery of drug. PMID:27478643

  19. Neomycin, Polymyxin, and Bacitracin Topical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neomycin, polymyxin, and bacitracin combination is used to prevent minor skin injuries such as cuts, scrapes, and burns from becoming infected. Neomycin, polymyxin, and bacitracin are in a class of ...

  20. Selected Topics in Teleparallel Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Aldrovandi, R; Vu, K H

    2003-01-01

    Teleparallel gravity can be seen as a gauge theory for the translation group. As such, its fundamental field is neither the tetrad nor the metric, but a gauge potential assuming values in the Lie algebra of the translation group. This gauge character makes of teleparallel gravity, despite its equivalence to general relativity, a rather peculiar theory. A first important point is that it does not rely on the universality of free fall, and consequently does not require the equivalence principle to describe the gravitational interaction. Another peculiarity is its similarity with Maxwell's theory, which allows an Abelian nonintegrable phase factor approach, and consequently a global formulation for gravitation. Application of these concepts to the motion of spinless particles, as well as to the COW and gravitational Aharonov-Bohm effects are presented and discussed.

  1. Environmental Health Topics from A to Z

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Topics Environmental Agents Acrylamide Air Pollution Allergens & Irritants Aloe Vera Arsenic Bisphenol A (BPA) Cell Phones Climate ... Cigarette Smoke Cockroaches Dust Mites Pets & Animals Pollen Aloe Vera Alternatives to Animal Testing Arsenic Asthma Autism ...

  2. MedlinePlus Health Topic Web Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A search-based Web service that provides access to disease, condition and wellness information via MedlinePlus health topic data in XML format. The service accepts...

  3. MedlinePlus Health Topic XML Files

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — XML files containing information resources on diseases, conditions and wellness issues. MedlinePlus produces three types of health topic XML files – MedlinePlus...

  4. Mining Concurrent Topical Activity in Microblog Streams

    CERN Document Server

    Panisson, A; Quaggiotto, M; Cattuto, C

    2014-01-01

    Streams of user-generated content in social media exhibit patterns of collective attention across diverse topics, with temporal structures determined both by exogenous factors and endogenous factors. Teasing apart different topics and resolving their individual, concurrent, activity timelines is a key challenge in extracting knowledge from microblog streams. Facing this challenge requires the use of methods that expose latent signals by using term correlations across posts and over time. Here we focus on content posted to Twitter during the London 2012 Olympics, for which a detailed schedule of events is independently available and can be used for reference. We mine the temporal structure of topical activity by using two methods based on non-negative matrix factorization. We show that for events in the Olympics schedule that can be semantically matched to Twitter topics, the extracted Twitter activity timeline closely matches the known timeline from the schedule. Our results show that, given appropriate techn...

  5. Accelerators, Beams And Physical Review Special Topics - Accelerators And Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siemann, R.H.; /SLAC

    2011-10-24

    Accelerator science and technology have evolved as accelerators became larger and important to a broad range of science. Physical Review Special Topics - Accelerators and Beams was established to serve the accelerator community as a timely, widely circulated, international journal covering the full breadth of accelerators and beams. The history of the journal and the innovations associated with it are reviewed.

  6. Fluorine Compounds and Dental Health: Applications of General Chemistry Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Gabriel

    2009-01-01

    An example about the use of everyday phenomena in teaching general chemistry is given. Students have a greater appreciation of the principles of chemistry if they can see the relevance to their lives. Fluorine compounds in dental applications (as topical or as systemic use) provide an excellent context in which to review core content of general…

  7. Topical calcineurin inhibitors in systemic lupus erythematosus

    OpenAIRE

    Lampropoulos, Christos

    2010-01-01

    Christos E Lampropoulos, David P D’CruzLupus Research Unit, Rayne Institute, St. Thomas’ Hospital, London, UKAbstract: Cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CLE) encompasses a variety of lesions that may be refractory to systemic or topical agents. Discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE) and subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus (SCLE) are the most common lesions in clinical practice. The topical calcineurin inhibitors, tacrolimus and pimecrolimus, have been used to treat resistant cu...

  8. The rational design of topical formulations

    OpenAIRE

    Duszynska-Krupa, A. M.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis addresses the development of topical formulations designed to treat atopic dermatitis (AD) using nicotinamide (NA). A rational approach to the development of topical formulations based on the physical and chemical properties of the drug and vehicle components is studied. This approach is an alternative to the model of formulation development where the drug is added into an existing vehicle without optimisation of the formulation in terms of the active delivery to its site of actio...

  9. Formulation, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of topical microbicides

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Jessica L.; Kashuba, Angela D. M.

    2012-01-01

    The development of safe topical microbicides that effectively prevent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a major goal in curbing the human immunodeficiency virus pandemic. A number of past failures resulting from mucosal toxicity or lack of efficacy have informed the field. Products that caused toxicity to the female genital tract mucosa, and thereby increased the likelihood of HIV acquisition, included nonoxynol 9, cellulose sulfate, and C31 G vaginal gel Savvy®. Topical product...

  10. Topical and oral therapeutic approach to rosacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfrich, Yolanda R; Maier, Lisa M

    2016-06-01

    Rosacea is an inflammatory condition of the skin, primarily affecting the central convexities of the face. Various topical and oral therapeutic approaches exist. Most have been developed to treat the papulopustular subtype of rosacea; however, other approaches can be used to treat the erythematotelangiectatic, ocular, and phymatous subtypes. This review provides a summary of available topical and oral approaches for the treatment of rosacea. PMID:27416312

  11. Pharmacogenetics of ophthalmic topical β-blockers

    OpenAIRE

    Sidjanin, Duska J; Catherine A McCarty; Patchett, Richard; Smith, Edward; Wilke, Russell A

    2008-01-01

    Glaucoma is the second leading cause of blindness worldwide. The primary glaucoma risk factor is elevated intraocular pressure. Topical β-blockers are affordable and widely used to lower intraocular pressure. Genetic variability has been postulated to contribute to interpersonal differences in efficacy and safety of topical β-blockers. This review summarizes clinically significant polymorphisms that have been identified in the β-adrenergic receptors (ADRB1, ADRB2 and ADRB3). The implications ...

  12. Topical Session on the Decommissioning and Dismantling Safety Case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Set up by the Radioactive Waste Management Committee (RWMC), the WPDD brings together senior representatives of national organisations who have a broad overview of Decommissioning and Dismantling (D and D) issues through their work as regulators, implementers, R and D experts or policy makers. These include representatives from regulatory authorities, industrial decommissioners from the NEA Cooperative Programme on Exchange of Scientific and Technical Information on Nuclear Installation Decommissioning Projects (CPD), and cross-representation from the NEA Committee on Nuclear Regulatory Activities, the Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health, and the RWMC. The EC is a member of the WPDD and the IAEA also participates. This ensures co-ordination amongst activities in these international programmes. Participation from civil society organisations is considered on a case by case basis, and has already taken place through the active involvement of the Group of Municipalities with Nuclear Installations at the first meeting of the WPDD At its second meeting, in Paris, 5-7 December 2001, the WPDD held two topical sessions on the D and D Safety Case and on the Management of Materials from D and D, respectively. This report documents the topical session on the safety case. The topical session was meant to provide an exchange of information and experience on the following issues: What topics should be included in a safety case? Of what should it consist? Is there sufficient and complete guidance nationally and internationally? How do practices differ internationally? Main boundary condition to this session was that it would deal with plants where spent fuel has been removed. Also the topical sessions was kept at a level that makes the most of the varied constituency of the WPDD. Namely, interface issues are important, and issue-identification and discussion was the immediate goal. There was less interest in examining areas where variability amongst national

  13. Topics in quaternion linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Rodman, Leiba

    2014-01-01

    Quaternions are a number system that has become increasingly useful for representing the rotations of objects in three-dimensional space and has important applications in theoretical and applied mathematics, physics, computer science, and engineering. This is the first book to provide a systematic, accessible, and self-contained exposition of quaternion linear algebra. It features previously unpublished research results with complete proofs and many open problems at various levels, as well as more than 200 exercises to facilitate use by students and instructors. Applications presented in the book include numerical ranges, invariant semidefinite subspaces, differential equations with symmetries, and matrix equations. Designed for researchers and students across a variety of disciplines, the book can be read by anyone with a background in linear algebra, rudimentary complex analysis, and some multivariable calculus. Instructors will find it useful as a complementary text for undergraduate linear algebra courses...

  14. Topics in Localization and Mapping

    OpenAIRE

    Callmer, Jonas

    2011-01-01

    The need to determine ones position is common and emerges in many different situations. Tracking soldiers or a robot moving in a building or aiding a tourist exploring a new city, all share the questions ”where is the unit?“ and ”where is the unit going?“. This is known as the localization problem.Particularly, the problem of determining ones position in a map while building the map at the same time, commonly known as the simultaneous localization and mapping problem (slam), has been widely s...

  15. OHVT technology roadmap[2000]; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The OHVT Technology Roadmap for 2000 presents the multiyear program plan of the U.S. DOE's Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OHVT). It is an update of the 1997 plan, reflecting changes in regulations and ongoing discussions with DOE's heavy vehicle customers. The technical plan covers three classes of trucks: (1) class 7-8 (large, on-highway trucks); (2) class 3-6 (medium duty trucks); (3) class 1-2 (pickups, vans, and sport utility vehicles) as well as enabling and supporting technologies. The Roadmap documents program goals, schedules, and milestones

  16. Topical calcineurin inhibitors in systemic lupus erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos E Lampropoulos

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Christos E Lampropoulos, David P D’CruzLupus Research Unit, Rayne Institute, St. Thomas’ Hospital, London, UKAbstract: Cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CLE encompasses a variety of lesions that may be refractory to systemic or topical agents. Discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE and subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus (SCLE are the most common lesions in clinical practice. The topical calcineurin inhibitors, tacrolimus and pimecrolimus, have been used to treat resistant cutaneous lupus since 2002 and inhibit the proliferation and activation of T-cells and suppress immune-mediated cutaneous inflammation. This article reviews the mechanism of action, efficacy, adverse effects, and the recent concern about their possible carcinogenic effect. Although the total number of patients is small and there is only one relevant randomized controlled study, the data are encouraging. Many patients, previously resistant to systemic agents or topical steroids, improved after four weeks of treatment. DLE and SCLE lesions were less responsive, reflecting the chronicity of the lesions, although more than 50% of patients still showed improvement. Topical calcineurin inhibitors may be a safe and effective alternative to topical steroids for CLE although the only approved indication is for atopic dermatitis.Keywords: tacrolimus, pimecrolimus, cutaneous lupus erythematosus, topical calcineurin inhibitors

  17. Adoption Research: Trends, Topics, Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, Jesus; Brodzinsky, David

    2010-01-01

    The current article provides a review of adoption research since its inception as a field of study. Three historical trends in adoption research are identified: the first focusing on risk in adoption and identifying adoptee-nonadoptee differences in adjustment; the second examining the capacity of adopted children to recover from early adversity;…

  18. Topical subjects of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report supplements and extends basic information contained in the seminar report 'Use and risk of nuclear energy' (Juel-Conf-17). The contributions deal with nuclear waste management, measures to avoid the misuse of nuclear fuels, and the properties and use of plutonium. As against the last edition, the subject 'Energy and environment' has been added. (orig.)

  19. Dental Topics for Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorber, Mortimer

    1976-01-01

    As part of the required Introduction to Clinical Sciences course, second-year students at Georgetown University School of Medicine attend three one-hour lectures on dentistry: restorative dentistry, oral surgery, and various diseases. Contents of the lectures are summarized here. (JT)

  20. EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Gasification Technologies and Transportation Fuels and Chemicals programs, DOE and Texaco are partners through Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40658 to determine the feasibility of developing, constructing and operating an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP). The overall objective of the project is the three-phase development of an EECP that produces at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: Electric power (or heat); Fuels; and Chemicals. The objective is to have these products produced by technologies capable of using synthesis gas derived from coal and/or some other carbonaceous feedstock, such as petroleum coke. The objective of Phase I was to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site and to develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD and T) Plan for implementation in Phase II. This objective has now been accomplished. A specific site, Motiva Refinery in Port Arthur, Texas, has been selected as the location best suited for the EECP. The specific work requirements of Phase I included: Prepare an EECP Preliminary Concept Report covering Tasks 2-8 specified in the Cooperative Agreement; Develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD and T) Plan as specified in Task 9 of the Cooperative Agreement for implementation in Phase II; and Develop a Preliminary Project Financing Plan for the EECP Project as specified in Task 10 of the Cooperative Agreement. This document is the Preliminary Project Financing Plan for the design, construction, and operation of the EECP at the Motiva Port Arthur Refinery

  1. Management of chronic pruritus with a UV filtering topical cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanardelli, Matteo; Kovacevic, Maja; McCoy, John; Wang, Xingang; Goren, Andy; Lotti, Torello

    2016-03-01

    Chronic pruritus is a common dermatological condition affecting 10-13% of the general population. UVB phototherapy has been demonstrated to be effective in relieving the symptoms of pruritus. However, phototherapy is rarely administered because the treatment is time-consuming and expensive, when compared to other topical drugs. In previous works, it has been reported that a topical cream, which selectively filters solar UVB can be used as a convenient alternative to traditional phototherapy. Here, we report the results of a pilot study aimed at assessing the effectiveness of the cream for treating pruritus. Seven patients with pruritus symptoms were included in the study. After 3 months of treatment (3 sessions per week), all patients noted improvement in pruritus symptoms. These preliminary results demonstrate that the novel topical cream could provide a convenient, low cost treatment for chronic pruritus patients. PMID:26849280

  2. Topical spironolactone reduces sebum secretion rates in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, A; Ito, M

    1996-04-01

    The effects of topically applied spironolactone on the sebum secretion rates (SSR) of young adults were investigated. SSR was expressed as the ratio of wax esters/[cholesterol+cholesterol esters] (WE/[C+CE]) and the amount of sebaceous lipids (squalene, triacylglycerol and wax esters). Topical spironolactone 5% gel applied to the right cheeks of the subjects produced a significant reduction in the SSR at 12 weeks (4 weeks after termination of application), but not at 8 weeks (the end of treatment). Untreated "control" areas (the left cheeks of the subjects) showed no significant change during the study. None of the subjects experienced skin rash or signs of local irritation. This results suggests that topical spironolactone may be effective in the treatment of acne patients with high SSR. PMID:8935338

  3. Topics in Bioethics: A Development of Student Perspectives†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Keith A.

    2014-01-01

    Exposing students to current biotechnological and medical issues is eye-opening for many students in a way that is not always achieved through lecture-based learning. Lecture or investigative teaching styles provide a tremendous knowledge base for the students, but sometimes these teaching styles do not allow the student to fully develop, especially personal attitudes to issues in bioethics. Through online videos, Hollywood movies, guided readings and classroom discussions, students in this course are informed of some bioethical topics, encouraged to learn about other topics, and use this gained knowledge to develop personal positions regarding the value and/or risk of the issues. This course has been well-received by previous students as a favorite in terms of both topics covered and style. PMID:25574290

  4. Iatrogenic Cushing's Syndrome After Topical Steroid Therapy for Psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahıp, Birsen; Celık, Mehmet; Ayturk, Semra; Kucukarda, Ahmet; Mert, Onur; Dıncer, Nejla; Guldıken, Sıbel; Tugrul, Armagan

    2016-01-01

    Glucocorticoids are used for the treatment of many diseases, such as inflammatory, allergic, autoimmune, and neoplastic diseases. They can be used in the form of topical, oral, inhalable, rectal, and intra-articular agents. Many topical steroid-related iatrogenic Cushing's syndrome cases affecting especially children have been reported in the literature. Topical steroid-related Cushing's syndrome is rarely seen in adults. In this report, we present the case of a 32-year-old male patient with iatrogenic Cushing's syndrome related to long-term clobetasol propionate treatment for psoriasis. In the context of such treatment, the glucocorticoid withdrawal problem has to be overcome. At present there is no consensus on steroid withdrawal. Patients on long-term glucocorticoid treatment must be evaluated for potential adverse effects and withdrawal symptoms by their physician and their endocrinologist.

  5. Topics in bioethics: a development of student perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Keith A

    2014-12-01

    Exposing students to current biotechnological and medical issues is eye-opening for many students in a way that is not always achieved through lecture-based learning. Lecture or investigative teaching styles provide a tremendous knowledge base for the students, but sometimes these teaching styles do not allow the student to fully develop, especially personal attitudes to issues in bioethics. Through online videos, Hollywood movies, guided readings and classroom discussions, students in this course are informed of some bioethical topics, encouraged to learn about other topics, and use this gained knowledge to develop personal positions regarding the value and/or risk of the issues. This course has been well-received by previous students as a favorite in terms of both topics covered and style.

  6. Topics in Bioethics: A Development of Student Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith A. Johnson

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Exposing students to current biotechnological and medical issues is eye-opening for many students in a way that is not always achieved through lecture-based learning. Lecture or investigative teaching styles provide a tremendous knowledge base for the students, but sometimes these teaching styles do not allow the student to fully develop, especially personal attitudes to issues in bioethics. Through online videos, Hollywood movies, guided readings and classroom discussions, students in this course are informed of some bioethical topics, encouraged to learn about other topics, and use this gained knowledge to develop personal positions regarding the value and/or risk of the issues. This course has been well-received by previous students as a favorite in terms of both topics covered and style.

  7. Strategy of topical vaccination with nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sascha; Patzelt, Alexa; Otberg, Nina; Thiede, Gisela; Sterry, Wolfram; Lademann, Juergen

    2009-03-01

    Liposomes in the nanosize range have been recognized as a versatile drug delivery system of both hydrophilic and lipophilic molecules. In order to develop a liposome-based topical vaccination strategy, five different types of liposomes were tested as a putative vaccine delivery system on pig ear skin. The investigated liposomes mainly varied in size, lipid composition, and surface charge. Using hydrophilic and hydrophobic fluorescent dyes as model drugs, penetration behavior was studied by means of confocal laser scanning microscopy of intact skin and histological sections, respectively. Follicular penetration of the liposomes was measured in comparison to a standard, nonliposomal formulation at different time points. Dependent on time but independent of their different characters, the liposomes showed a significantly higher penetration depth into the hair follicles compared to the standard formulation. The standard formulation reached a relative penetration depth of 30% of the full hair follicle length after seven days, whereas amphoteric and cationic liposomes had reached ~70%. Penetration depth of negatively charged liposomes did not exceed 50% of the total follicle length. The fluorescence dyes were mainly detected in the hair follicle; only a small amount of dye was found in the upper parts of the epidermis.

  8. Special topics in international adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenista, Jerri Ann

    2005-10-01

    As international adoption has become more "mainstream," the issues recently addressed in domestic adoption have become more important in adoptions involving children originating in other countries. Certain groups of prospective adoptive parents, such as gay or lesbian couples, single parents, and parents with disabilities, have begun to apply to adopt in ever increasing numbers. Children who may have been considered unadoptable in the past are now routinely being offered to prospective adoptive parents. The numbers and ages of the children placed and the spacing between adoptions have come under scrutiny. The rates of adoption dissolutions and disruptions are being examined carefully by the receiving and sending countries. There is a pressing need for research into numerous social aspects of adoption. PMID:16154473

  9. Hot topics in gut microbiota

    OpenAIRE

    Doré, Joël; Simrén, Magnus; Buttle, Lisa; Guarner, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    The study of gut microbiota is a rapidly moving field of research, and the impact of gut microbial communities on human health is widely perceived as one of the most exciting advancements in biomedicine in recent years. The gut microbiota plays a key role in digestion, metabolism and immune function, and has widespread impact beyond the gastrointestinal tract. Changes in the biodiversity of the gut microbiota are associated with far reaching consequences on host health and development. Furthe...

  10. Literature survey results: Topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willson, W.G.; Ness, R.O.; Hendrikson, J.G.; Entzminger, J.A.; Jha, M.; Sinor, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    This report reviews mild gasification processes with respect to processing conditions and configurations. Special emphasis was placed on processes which could be commercialized within five years. Detailed market information was provided by J.E. Sinor concerning markets and economic considerations of the various processing steps. Processing areas studied include coal cleaning; mild gasification; and upgrading of the char, condensables, and hydrocarbon gases. Pros and cons in the different processing areas as well as ''gaps'' in pertinent data were identified and integrated into a detailed process development program. The report begins with a summary of the market assessment and an evaluation of the co-product. The impacts of feed materials and operating parameters--including coal rank, heating rate, pressure, agglomeration, temperature, and feed gas composition--on the co- products and processes were evaluated through a literature survey. Recommendations were made as to the preferred product specifications and operating parameters for a commercial plant. A literature review of mild gasification processes was conducted and evaluated with regard to product specification and operating parameters. Two candidate processes were chosen and discussed in detail with respect to scale-up feasibility. Recommendations were then made to process development needs to further consideration of the two processes. 129 refs., 33 figs., 16 tabs.

  11. Peregrinations through topics in light scattering and radiative transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattawar, George W.

    2016-07-01

    In this van de Hulst essay, I have taken the liberty to present a journey through some topics in light scattering and radiative transfer which I feel were major contributions to the field but the number of topics I would like to cover is far more numerous than I have the time or the space to present. I also wanted to share with the reader some heartwarming memories I have of my wonderful friend and truly distinguished colleague Hendrik Christoffel van de Hulst (affectionately known to his colleagues as "Henk") whom I consider to be one of the preeminent scientists of his era.

  12. International Conference on Advances of Fractals and Related Topics

    CERN Document Server

    Lau, Ka-Sing

    2014-01-01

    This volume collects thirteen expository or survey articles on topics including Fractal Geometry, Analysis of Fractals, Multifractal Analysis, Ergodic Theory and Dynamical Systems, Probability and Stochastic Analysis, written by the leading experts in their respective fields. The articles are based on papers presented at the International Conference on Advances on Fractals and Related Topics, held on December 10-14, 2012 at the Chinese University of Hong Kong. The volume offers insights into a number of exciting, cutting-edge developments in the area of fractals, which has close ties to and applications in other areas such as analysis, geometry, number theory, probability and mathematical physics.   

  13. Anesthetic effectiveness of topical levobupivacaine 0.75% versus topical proparacaine 0.5% for intravitreal injections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurgül Örnek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Today no method of topical anesthesia for intravitreal injection administration has been proven to make the patient comfortable yet. We compared the efficacy of topical levobupivacaine 0.75% and proparacaine 0.5% in patients undergoing intravitreal injections. Materials and Methods: A prospective, randomized study comparing two agents for topical anesthesia in intravitreal injections. Ninety-six consecutive patients were enrolled into two groups to receive either topical levobupivacaine 0.75% (n=48 or proparacaine 0.5% (n=48. Patients were asked to score their pain using a visual analog scale (VAS immediately following the injection. The average of these scores was used as the primary outcome. The surgeon performing the procedure scored his perception of the patients′ pain using the Wong-Baker FACES scale. Results: Mean VAS pain scores for two groups were found to be 44.77 ± 16.42 and 34.18 ± 14.83, respectively. Mean VAS pain score in the proparacaine group was significantly lower than that in the levobupivacaine group (P= 0.003. Mean Wong-Baker FACES scores for the two groups were 1.08 ± 0.49 and 1.10 ± 0.30, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between levobupivacaine and proparacaine groups (P=0.824. Conclusions: Topical proparacaine 0.5% was more effective in preventing pain during intravitreal injections.

  14. Redundancy-aware topic modeling for patient record notes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Cohen

    Full Text Available The clinical notes in a given patient record contain much redundancy, in large part due to clinicians' documentation habit of copying from previous notes in the record and pasting into a new note. Previous work has shown that this redundancy has a negative impact on the quality of text mining and topic modeling in particular. In this paper we describe a novel variant of Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA topic modeling, Red-LDA, which takes into account the inherent redundancy of patient records when modeling content of clinical notes. To assess the value of Red-LDA, we experiment with three baselines and our novel redundancy-aware topic modeling method: given a large collection of patient records, (i apply vanilla LDA to all documents in all input records; (ii identify and remove all redundancy by chosing a single representative document for each record as input to LDA; (iii identify and remove all redundant paragraphs in each record, leaving partial, non-redundant documents as input to LDA; and (iv apply Red-LDA to all documents in all input records. Both quantitative evaluation carried out through log-likelihood on held-out data and topic coherence of produced topics and qualitative assessment of topics carried out by physicians show that Red-LDA produces superior models to all three baseline strategies. This research contributes to the emerging field of understanding the characteristics of the electronic health record and how to account for them in the framework of data mining. The code for the two redundancy-elimination baselines and Red-LDA is made publicly available to the community.

  15. Redundancy-aware topic modeling for patient record notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Raphael; Aviram, Iddo; Elhadad, Michael; Elhadad, Noémie

    2014-01-01

    The clinical notes in a given patient record contain much redundancy, in large part due to clinicians' documentation habit of copying from previous notes in the record and pasting into a new note. Previous work has shown that this redundancy has a negative impact on the quality of text mining and topic modeling in particular. In this paper we describe a novel variant of Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) topic modeling, Red-LDA, which takes into account the inherent redundancy of patient records when modeling content of clinical notes. To assess the value of Red-LDA, we experiment with three baselines and our novel redundancy-aware topic modeling method: given a large collection of patient records, (i) apply vanilla LDA to all documents in all input records; (ii) identify and remove all redundancy by chosing a single representative document for each record as input to LDA; (iii) identify and remove all redundant paragraphs in each record, leaving partial, non-redundant documents as input to LDA; and (iv) apply Red-LDA to all documents in all input records. Both quantitative evaluation carried out through log-likelihood on held-out data and topic coherence of produced topics and qualitative assessment of topics carried out by physicians show that Red-LDA produces superior models to all three baseline strategies. This research contributes to the emerging field of understanding the characteristics of the electronic health record and how to account for them in the framework of data mining. The code for the two redundancy-elimination baselines and Red-LDA is made publicly available to the community. PMID:24551060

  16. Topics in cohomology of groups

    CERN Document Server

    Lang, Serge

    1996-01-01

    The book is a mostly translated reprint of a report on cohomology of groups from the 1950s and 1960s, originally written as background for the Artin-Tate notes on class field theory, following the cohomological approach. This report was first published (in French) by Benjamin. For this new English edition, the author added Tate's local duality, written up from letters which John Tate sent to Lang in 1958 - 1959. Except for this last item, which requires more substantial background in algebraic geometry and especially abelian varieties, the rest of the book is basically elementary, depending only on standard homological algebra at the level of first year graduate students.

  17. Lie Algebras and Related Topics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yucai SU; Shaobin TAN; Hechun ZHANG

    2011-01-01

    From July 20 to 26,2011,the Department of Mathematics at Huzhou Teachers College will host the 12th National Conference on Lie Algebras.Aiming to offer a forum for people working in this old but still exciting field to exchange research ideas and enhance collaborations,the conference will bring together some 150 participants from all over China and some participants overseas as well.There will be 41 talks during the conference and among them 8 are invited ones.Detailed information on the conference,including the organizing committee,the scientific committee,the invited speakers,and the conference program,can be found in

  18. Flammable gas project topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, G.D.

    1997-01-29

    The flammable gas safety issue was recognized in 1990 with the declaration of an unreviewed safety question (USQ) by the U. S. Department of Energy as a result of the behavior of the Hanford Site high-level waste tank 241-SY-101. This tank exhibited episodic releases of flammable gas that on a couple of occasions exceeded the lower flammability limit of hydrogen in air. Over the past six years there has been a considerable amount of knowledge gained about the chemical and physical processes that govern the behavior of tank 241-SY-1 01 and other tanks associated with the flammable gas safety issue. This report was prepared to provide an overview of that knowledge and to provide a description of the key information still needed to resolve the issue. Items covered by this report include summaries of the understanding of gas generation, retention and release mechanisms, the composition and flammability behavior of the gas mixture, the amounts of stored gas, and estimated gas release fractions for spontaneous releases. `Me report also discusses methods being developed for evaluating the 177 tanks at the Hanford Site and the problems associated with these methods. Means for measuring the gases emitted from the waste are described along with laboratory experiments designed to gain more information regarding rates of generation, species of gases emitted and modes of gas storage and release. Finally, the process for closing the USQ is outlined as are the information requirements to understand and resolve the flammable gas issue.

  19. Identification of key research needs for topical therapy treatment of psoriasis - a consensus paper by the International Psoriasis Council.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J J; Lynde, C W; Kleyn, C E; Iversen, L; van der Walt, J M; Carvalho, A; Kirby, B; Bissonnette, R

    2016-07-01

    In this age of expanding choices of therapy for psoriasis, topical therapies still play an important part in the management of patients. There are many knowledge gaps in topical therapy for psoriasis with regard to efficacy and safety as well as various combinations including topical therapy with phototherapy or with systemic agents. Councillors of the International Psoriasis Council comprised a topical therapy working group to describe these gaps in order to help direct future research endeavours. Herein, we present the results of this analysis, discuss topical agents in clinical development and the attributes of the ideal topical treatment for psoriasis.

  20. Topics in elementary scattering theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In these lectures a summary is given of some of the fundamental ideas and formalism used to describe and understand the interactions of elementary particles. A brief review of relativistic kinematics is followed by a discussion of Lorentz-invariant variables for describing two-body processes, phase space and plots, such as the Dalitz plot, which can be used to study some aspects of the dynamics of an interaction, relatively free from kinematic complications. A general description of scattering and decay is given and then, more specifically, some aspects of two-body interactions in the absence of spin are discussed. Finally, complications that arise when particle spin has to be taken into account are considered. (U.K.)

  1. Minimal inhibitory concentrations of modern topical antimicrobials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. N. Vorontsova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To measure minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC values for modern topical antimicrobials against common ocular pathogens.Methods.Antimicrobials most commonly used in ophthalmology (fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides are dose-dependent drugs, i.e., the rate of microbial death increases in direct proportion to their concentrations. To determine MICs, we applied Hi Comb MIC Test (E-test. 105 patients aged 2 months through 7 years which were diagnosed with various inflammatory disorders of anterior segment were  xamined. MIC values for most commonly used antimicrobials, i.e., ciprofloxacin / Cipromed (Sentiss Pharma, Gurgaon, India, ofloxacin / Floxal (Baush & Lomb, Rochester, New-York, levofloxacin / Signicef (Sentiss Pharma, Gurgaon, India, moxifloxacin / Vigamox (Alcon, Fort Worth, Texas, gatifloxacin / Zymar (Allergan, Irvine, California, and tobramycin / Tobrex (Alcon, Fort Worth, Texas, were measured.Results. The analysis revealed that the most effective antibacterial drug against microbial isolates in children (i.e., Staphylococci spp. was levofloxacin. MIC for this agent against Streptococci spp. and Gram-negative microbes was low as well. Moxifloxacin is preferred for the treatment of ocular inflammation provoked by Streptococci spp. as MIC of this antimicrobial against Streptococci spp. was the lowest. MIC of ciprofloxacin against Gram-negative flora was the lowest. These data demonstrate generally recognized high efficacy of this drug. MIC value for tobramycin against all bacterial isolates was the highest.

  2. Preparation and evaluation of aceclofenac topical microemulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh Shah, Rohit; Shripal Magdum, Chandrakant; Shivagonda Patil, Shitalkumar; Shanawaj Niakwade, Nilofar

    2010-01-01

    A topical preparation containing aceclofenac was developed using an o/w microemulsion system. Isopropyl myristate was chosen as the oil phase as it showed a good solubilising capacity. Pseudo-ternary phase diagrams were used to obtain the concentration ranges of the oil, surfactant (Labrasol) and co-surfactant (plurol oleique) for microemulsion formation. Five different formulations were formulated with various amount of the oil (5-25%), water (10-50%), and the mixture of surfactant and co-surfactant at the ratio of 4 (45-65%). In vitro permeability of aceclofenac from the microemulsions was evaluated using Keshary Chien diffusion cells with 0.45-μm cellulose acetate membrane. The amount of the aceclofenac permeated was analyzed by HPLC and the droplet size and zeta potential of the microemulsions was determined using a Zetasizer Nano-ZS. The mean diameters of the microemulsion droplets approximately ranged between 154 - 434 nm, and the permeability of aceclofenac incorporated into the microemulsion systems was 3 folds higher than that of the marketed formulation. These results indicate that the microemulsion system studied is a promising tool for percutaneous delivery of aceclofenac. PMID:24363700

  3. Topics in Double Field Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Seung Ki

    The existence of momentum and winding modes of closed string on a torus leads to a natural idea that the field theoretical approach of string theory should involve winding type coordinates as well as the usual space-time coordinates. Recently developed double field theory is motivated from this idea and it implements T-duality manifestly by doubling the coordinates. In this thesis we will mainly focus on the double field theory formulation of different string theories in its low energy limit: bosonic, heterotic, type II and its massive extensions, and N = 1 supergravity theory. In chapter 2 of the thesis we study the equivalence of different formulations of double field theory. There are three different formulations of double field theory: background field E formulation, generalized metric H formulation, and frame field EAM formulation. Starting from the frame field formalism and choosing an appropriate gauge, the equivalence of the three formulations of bosonic theory are explicitly verified. In chapter 3 we construct the double field theory formulation of heterotic strings. The global symmetry enlarges to O( D, D + n) for heterotic strings and the enlarged generalized metric features this symmetry. The structural form of bosonic theory can directly be applied to the heterotic theory with the enlarged generalized metric. In chapter 4 we develop a unified framework of double field theory for type II theories. The Ramond-Ramond potentials fit into spinor representations of the duality group O( D, D) and the theory displays Spin+( D, D) symmetry with its self-duality relation. For a specific form of RR 1-form the theory reduces to the massive deformation of type IIA theory due to Romans. In chapter 5 we formulate the N = 1 supersymmetric extension of double field theory including the coupling to n abelian vector multiplets. This theory features a local O(1, 9 + n) x O(1, 9) tangent space symmetry under which the fermions transform. (Copies available exclusively from

  4. Selected topics in nuclear electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA training courses in the field of nuclear electronics heavily rely upon practical work in the laboratory. Accordingly, the IAEA has produced and published the Nuclear Electronics Laboratory Manual (TECDOC 309) where the experience on organizing the efficient practical training in nuclear electronics was compiled. The present publication is focused on the theoretical understanding of basic electronic circuits and is of particular importance to the attendees of the IAEA training course. The present publication does not copy any available book on nuclear electronics and instrumentation. On purpose, it does not describe the elementary electronics circuits as applied in nuclear instruments; they can be found in books. It starts the nuclear electronics study on the instruments level, continues to describe the technology and circuitries on the board level, and only in some exceptional cases investigates the circuits on the components level. It is believed that such an approach better reflects the advanced status of nuclear electronics and the philosophy of the modern design of nuclear instruments. For illustration, and wherever it appeared useful, some commercial instruments are described and analyzed. Figs and tabs

  5. Selected topics in nuclear electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA training courses in the field of nuclear electronics heavily rely upon practical work in the laboratory. Accordingly, the IAEA has produced and published the Nuclear Electronics Laboratory Manual (TECDOC 309) where the experience on organizing the efficient practical training in nuclear electronics was compiled. The present publication is focused on the theoretical understanding of basic electronic circuits and is of particular importance to the attendees of the IAEA training course. The present publication does not copy any available book on nuclear electronics and instrumentation. On purpose, it does not describe the elementary electronics circuits as applied in nuclear instruments; they can be found in books. It starts the nuclear electronics study on the instruments level, continues to describe the technology and circuitries on the board level, and only in some exceptional cases investigates the circuits on the components level. It is believed that such an approach better reflects the advanced status of nuclear electronics and the philosophy of the modern design of nuclear instruments. For illustration, and wherever it appeared useful, some commercial instruments are described and analyzed

  6. Current Topics in Postnatal Behavioral Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henck, Judith W; Elayan, Ikram; Vorhees, Charles; Fisher, J Edward; Morford, LaRonda L

    2016-09-01

    The study of developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) continues to be an important component of safety evaluation of candidate therapeutic agents and of industrial and environmental chemicals. Developmental neurotoxicity is considered to be an adverse change in the central and/or peripheral nervous system during development of an organism and has been primarily evaluated by studying functional outcomes, such as changes in behavior, neuropathology, neurochemistry, and/or neurophysiology. Neurobehavioral evaluations are a component of a wide range of toxicology studies in laboratory animal models, whereas neurochemistry and neurophysiology are less commonly employed. Although the primary focus of this article is on neurobehavioral evaluation in pre- and postnatal development and juvenile toxicology studies used in pharmaceutical development, concepts may also apply to adult nonclinical safety studies and Environmental Protection Agency/chemical assessments. This article summarizes the proceedings of a symposium held during the 2015 American College of Toxicology annual meeting and includes a discussion of the current status of DNT testing as well as potential issues and recommendations. Topics include the regulatory context for DNT testing; study design and interpretation; behavioral test selection, including a comparison of core learning and memory systems; age of testing; repeated testing of the same animals; use of alternative animal models; impact of findings; and extrapolation of animal results to humans. Integration of the regulatory experience and scientific concepts presented during this symposium, as well as from subsequent discussion and input, provides a synopsis of the current state of DNT testing in safety assessment, as well as a potential roadmap for future advancement.

  7. Special Topics in Radiography. Chapter 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Up to this point, this handbook has described the use of X rays to form 2-D medical images of the 3-D patient. This process of reducing patient information by one dimension results in an image of superimposed tissues where important information might be obscured. Chapter 11 begins a section of the book involving the creation of cross-sectional medical images through computed tomography (CT), ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This Chapter describes a number of special X ray imaging modalities and their associated techniques, and forms a transition between projection and cross-sectional imaging. The first of these special topics is dental radiography, which is characterized by a diversity of technology and innovation. The common intraoral radiograph of a single tooth has seen little fundamental change since the time of Roentgen and is, today, along with the simple chest radiograph, the most commonly performed radiographic examination. By contrast, the challenge to create an image of all the teeth simultaneously has placed dentistry at the cutting edge of technology, through the development of panographic techniques and, most recently, with the application of cone beam CT (CBCT). Moreover, the small size of the tooth and the consequent reduced need for X ray generation power promotes equipment mobility. The effect of the need for equipment mobility also forms a special topic that is examined in this chapter. Quantification of the composition of the body is another special X ray imaging technique. Dual energy X ray absorptiometry (DXA) is primarily used to derive the mass of one material in the presence of another, through knowledge of their unique X ray attenuation at different energies. DXA’s primary commercial application has been to measure body mineral density as an assessment of fracture risk and to diagnose osteoporosis; thus, the X ray energies used are optimized for bone density assessment. Currently, there are estimated to be over 50 000

  8. Regulatory strategies. Topical issue 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The regulatory programmes established by Member States that use radioactive materials, handle radioactive waste or have nuclear installations vary depending on the size and scope of the regulated activities, historical evolution, government and industry structures. The main changes in external factors which will further affect the regulatory programmes include stagnation in the development of nuclear power, the increased economic competition of energy suppliers, ageing plants, continued growth in the industrial and medical uses of radioactive materials, delays in high level waste facilities and the reduced availability of trained personnel. Eight areas are discussed with the objective of identifying ways in which the IAEA can assist Member States to anticipate and respond to changing external factors and facilitate beneficial harmonization of regulatory practices. (1) Regulatory approaches are continuing to evolve among Member States with a general tendency towards less prescriptive practices. (2) Key elements in enhancing safety culture are an open regulator-regulated dialogue and the use of peer reviews by external or international organizations. (3) The efficiency and effectiveness of regulatory bodies is intimately related to the implementation of modem business practices and the hiring and retention of highly qualified staff that keep abreast of developing technology. (4) While nuclear power plant safety performance has improved worldwide, political, economic and social factors combine to make regulatory decisions increasingly difficult. (5) Harmonization of national safety criteria and decisions has largely occurred through the efforts of the IAEA in developing standards, promulgating conventions and hosting peer discussions in a number of forums. (6) Regulatory bodies generally acknowledge the value of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) methodology as a complementary tool to deterministic safety analysis methods. (7) Significant progress has been made

  9. Making Advanced Computer Science Topics More Accessible through Interactive Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Kun; Maher, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Teaching advanced technical concepts in a computer science program to students of different technical backgrounds presents many challenges. The purpose of this paper is to present a detailed experimental pedagogy in teaching advanced computer science topics, such as computer networking, telecommunications and data structures using…

  10. Second Workshop on Stochastic Analysis and Related Topics

    CERN Document Server

    Ustunel, Ali

    1990-01-01

    The Second Silivri Workshop functioned as a short summer school and a working conference, producing lecture notes and research papers on recent developments of Stochastic Analysis on Wiener space. The topics of the lectures concern short time asymptotic problems and anticipative stochastic differential equations. Research papers are mostly extensions and applications of the techniques of anticipative stochastic calculus.

  11. Second Language Vocabulary Learning and Teaching: Still a Hot Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrotta, Clarena

    2011-01-01

    For many reasons second language vocabulary learning and teaching continues to be a topic of interest for learners, instructors, and researchers. This article describes the implementation of personal glossaries in a community program offering English as second language classes to Latina/o Spanish speaking adults. Field notes, interviews, and…

  12. Independent Consulting Topical Interest Group: 2004 Industry Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarosewich, Tania; Essenmacher, Victoria L.; Lynch, Christina Olenik; Williams, Jennifer E.; Doino-Ingersoll, Jo Ann

    2006-01-01

    The American Evaluation Association's (AEA) Independent Consulting Topical Interest Group (IC TIG) has a membership of over eight hundred individuals who generally work as sole proprietors, in partnerships, or in small consulting firms. Well over a decade ago, the IC TIG conducted a survey of its membership (Bonnet, 1992). To gather current data…

  13. Reading Strategy: Tackling Reading through Topic and Main Ideas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidu, Bharathi; Briewin, Marshal; Embi, Mohamed Amin

    2013-01-01

    Reading comprehension is one of the four skills essential in learning English. In a reading class, students tend to read all the information provided in reading materials, but how much do they actually retain? This study explores whether learners use identification of the topic and main ideas as a reading strategy to assist in reading…

  14. A Topic Model Approach to Multi-Modal Similarity

    OpenAIRE

    Troelsgård, Rasmus; Jensen, Bjørn Sand; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2014-01-01

    Calculating similarities between objects defined by many heterogeneous data modalities is an important challenge in many multimedia applications. We use a multi-modal topic model as a basis for defining such a similarity between objects. We propose to compare the resulting similarities from different model realizations using the non-parametric Mantel test. The approach is evaluated on a music dataset.

  15. Photodynamic therapy versus topical imiquimod versus topical fluorouracil for treatment of superficial basal-cell carcinoma : a single blind, non-inferiority, randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arits, Aimee H. M. M.; Mosterd, Klara; Essers, Brigitte A. B.; Spoorenberg, Eefje; Sommer, Anja; De Rooij, Michette J. M.; van Pelt, Han P. A.; Quaedvlieg, Patricia J. F.; Krekels, Gertruud A. M.; van Neer, Pierre A. F. A.; Rijzewijk, Joris J.; van Geest, Adrienne J.; Steijlen, Peter M.; Nelemans, Patty J.; Kelleners-Smeets, Nicole W. J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Superficial basal-cell carcinoma is most commonly treated with topical non-surgical treatments, such as photodynamic therapy or topical creams. Photodynamic therapy is considered the preferable treatment, although this has not been previously tested in a randomised control trial. We asses

  16. Holder and Topic Based Analysis of Emotions on Blog Texts: A Case Study for Bengali

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Dipankar; Bandyopadhyay, Sivaji

    The paper presents an extended approach of analyzing emotions of the blog users on different topics. The rule based techniques to identify emotion holders and topics with respect to their corresponding emotional expressions helps to develop the baseline system. On the other hand, the Support Vector Machine (SVM) based supervised framework identifies the holders, topics and emotional expressions from the blog sentences by outperforming the baseline system. The existence of many to many relations between the holders and the topics with respect to Ekman's six different emotion classes has been examined using two way evaluation techniques, one is with respect to holder and other is from the perspective of topic. The results of the system were found satisfactory in comparison with the agreement of the subjective annotation. The error analysis shows that the topic of a blog at document level is not always conveyed at the sentence level. Moreover, the difficulty in identifying topic from a blog document is due to the problem of identifying some features like bigrams, Named Entities and sentiment. Thus, we employed a semantic clustering approach along with these features to identify the similarity between document level topic and sentential topic as well as to improve the results of identifying the document level topic.

  17. Catching Fire via "Likes": Inferring Topic Preferences of Trump Followers on Twitter

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yu; Luo, Jiebo; Niemi, Richard; Li, Yuncheng; Hu, Tianran

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a framework to infer the topic preferences of Donald Trump's followers on Twitter. We first use latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA) to derive the weighted mixture of topics for each Trump tweet. Then we use negative binomial regression to model the "likes," with the weights of each topic serving as explanatory variables. Our study shows that attacking Democrats such as President Obama and former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton earns Trump the most "likes." Our frame...

  18. Selected topics on parton distribution functions

    CERN Document Server

    Hirai, M; Kumano, S; Saito, K

    2011-01-01

    We report recent studies on structure functions of the nucleon and nuclei. First, clustering effects are investigated in the structure function F_2 of Be-9 for explaining an unusual nuclear correction found in a JLab experiment. We propose that high densities created by formation of clustering structure like 2*alpha+neutron in Be-9 is the origin of the unexpected JLab result by using the antisymmetrized molecular dynamics (AMD). There is an approved proposal at JLab to investigate the structure functions of light nuclei including the cluster structure, so that much details will become clear in a few years. Second, tensor-polarized quark and antiquark distributions are obtained by analyzing HERMES measurements on the structure function b_1 for the deuteron. The result suggests a finite tensor polarization for antiquark distributions, which is an interesting topic for further theoretical and experimental investigations. An experimental proposal exists at JLab for measuring b_1 of the deuteron as a new tensor-st...

  19. Lecture Notes on Topics in Accelerator Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These are lecture notes that cover a selection of topics, some of them under current research, in accelerator physics. I try to derive the results from first principles, although the students are assumed to have an introductory knowledge of the basics. The topics covered are: (1) Panofsky-Wenzel and Planar Wake Theorems; (2) Echo Effect; (3) Crystalline Beam; (4) Fast Ion Instability; (5) Lawson-Woodward Theorem and Laser Acceleration in Free Space; (6) Spin Dynamics and Siberian Snakes; (7) Symplectic Approximation of Maps; (8) Truncated Power Series Algebra; and (9) Lie Algebra Technique for nonlinear Dynamics. The purpose of these lectures is not to elaborate, but to prepare the students so that they can do their own research. Each topic can be read independently of the others

  20. Getting Started with Topic Modeling and MALLET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn Graham

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this lesson you will first learn what topic modeling is and why you might want to employ it in your research. You will then learn how to install and work with the MALLET natural language processing toolkit to do so. MALLET involves modifying an environment variable (essentially, setting up a short-cut so that your computer always knows where to find the MALLET program and working with the command line (ie, by typing in commands manually, rather than clicking on icons or menus. We will run the topic modeller on some example files, and look at the kinds of outputs that MALLET installed. This will give us a good idea of how it can be used on a corpus of texts to identify topics found in the documents without reading them individually.