WorldWideScience

Sample records for caricatures as topic

  1. Effect of Use of Caricatures on Teaching Vocabulary in Teaching Turkish as Foreign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topal, Yakup

    2015-01-01

    Teaching vocabulary in teaching Turkish as Foreign language is important. Different methods are employed in teaching vocabulary. In this study the pre- and post-test results of experimental group where caricatures were used to teach vocabulary and control group where vocabulary items were taught without use of caricatures when teaching Turkish…

  2. THE EFFECTS OF DIGITALIZATION ON TURKISH CARICATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahadir UCAN

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Years of 2000’s can be defined as “the digiral century”. In this digital century, it is seen that digitalllization creates new concepts and approaches and it even affects our daily lifes. Digitalization will be analyzed with the relationship between art and technology. Changes have seen on different areas of art both on style and contentment with digitalisation. In this study, it is aimed to underline digitalization, to investigate its effects on caricature, humor and the magazines in Turkey and to comment on what digitalization brings. Online books, online articles, online humor magazines are becoming popular. Internet makes caricature achievable freely and with the aid of social networking sites, digital caricatures can reach more people than the published ones.

  3. Manifold Constrained Transfer of Facial Geometric Knowledge for 3D Caricature Reconstruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-Fa Liu; Wen-Jing He; Tao Chen; Yi-Qiang Chen

    2013-01-01

    3D caricatures are important attractive elements of the interface in virtual environment such as online game.However,very limited 3D caricatures exist in the real world.Meanwhile,creating 3D caricatures manually is rather costly,and even professional skills are needed.This paper proposes a novel and effective manifold transfer algorithm to reconstruct 3D caricatures according to their original 2D caricatures.We first manually create a small dataset with only 100 3D caricature models and use them to initialize the whole 3D dataset.After that,manifold transfer algorithm is carried out to refine the dataset.The algorithm comprises of two steps.The first is to perform manifold alignment between 2D and 3D caricatures to get a "standard" manifold map; the second is to reconstruct all the 3D caricatures based on the manifold map.The proposed approach utilizes and transfers knowledge of 2D caricatures to the target 3D caricatures well.Comparative experiments show that the approach reconstructs 3D caricatures more effectively and the results conform more to the styles of the original 2D caricatures than the Principal Components Analysis (PCA) based method.

  4. Pilot studying about the role of anti-drug addiction documentary movies and caricature in changing the views of Tehran’s 7th disrict high school male/female students toward drug addiction as well as comparing them

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    In this research, the effect of movie and caricature on students’ attitude toward drug addiction is measured.124 students(61 male and 63 female) from Tehran’s 7th district high schools were selected by using muli-stage cluster sampling method. The samples were randomly distibuted in three 21-member groups including control group, caricature group and documentary movie. All groups were pre-tested by using addiction attitude measuring scale (Form A). Then, the test goups were represented with d...

  5. Pilot studying about the role of anti-drug addiction documentary movies and caricature in changing the views of Tehran’s 7th disrict high school male/female students toward drug addiction as well as comparing them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the effect of movie and caricature on students’ attitude toward drug addiction is measured.124 students(61 male and 63 female from Tehran’s 7th district high schools were selected by using muli-stage cluster sampling method. The samples were randomly distibuted in three 21-member groups including control group, caricature group and documentary movie. All groups were pre-tested by using addiction attitude measuring scale (Form A. Then, the test goups were represented with dependent variables of movie and caricature but the control group received no variable. After two weeks, all groups were post-tesed by using addiction attitude measuring scale (Form B. The assumptions were analyzed by applying correlated t-tests , two-way variance analysis and Tucki’s pursuance test The results indicated that movie and caricature are effective in changing students’ attitudes toward addiction, the effects of movie differed from the effects of caricature but there was no difference between them in changing the attitude of male and female students.

  6. Contortionist, caricature and the grotesque body

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Winter, Tomáš

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 5 (2007), s. 400-408. ISSN 0049-5123. [Cubism, Surrealism and Tradition. Praha, 16.06.2005] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80330511 Keywords : František Tichý * caricature * Czech art of 20th century Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage http://versita.metapress.com/app/home/contribution.asp?referrer=parent&backto=issue,3,3;journal,1,5;linkingpublicationresults,1:120508,1

  7. Information Censorship: A Comparative Analysis of Newspaper Coverage of the "Jyllands-Posten" Editorial Caricatures in Cross-Cultural Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Julie George

    2010-01-01

    The identification and examination of cultural information strategies and censorship patterns used to propagate the controversial issue of the caricatures in two separate cultural contexts was the aim of this dissertation. It explored discourse used for the coverage of this topic by one newspaper in a restrictive information context and two…

  8. Crony Capitalism: Caricature or Category?

    OpenAIRE

    Mazumdar, Surajit

    2008-01-01

    This paper, part of a series on Crony Capitalism and Contemporary India, examines the conceptual meaning of the term crony capitalism, which has acquired considerable popularity since it was used as an explanation for the East Asian crisis. The paper argues that the conception of crony capitalism as a description of a distinct kind of capitalism associated with the State playing a key role in the allocation process suffers from serious deficiencies and therefore does not provide a suitable fr...

  9. Does the degree of image likeness affect the caricature and prototype effects in facial recognition?

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, Heather

    2012-01-01

    Background: Psychological research has largely overlooked that there is variability between photographs of the same person and as a result facial recognition studies have used randomly selected images to represent individuals. Thesis aim: This study therefore aimed to investigate if the variations between images are significant and if these differences influence the caricature and prototype effects. Method: Experiment 1 was designed to investigate image likeness and it found that variations b...

  10. Jane Austen ou la caricature littéraire domestique

    OpenAIRE

    Camus, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    Loin de la caricature politique courante dans l'Angleterre du dix-huitième siècle, loin de celle, tout aussi courante pratiquée entre eux par les frères ennemis de la littérature, Jane Austen élabora ce qu'on pourrait appeler une caricature domestique. Elle vise les donneurs de leçons et les pédants mais aussi les têtes creuses et les bavards impénitents qu'il est traditionnellement du devoir d'une femme bien élevée de supporter, un sourire figé accroché aux lèvres. Cet article s'attachera à ...

  11. Scientific Caricatures in the Earth Science Classroom: An Alternative Assessment for Meaningful Science Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clary, Renee M.; Wandersee, James H.

    2010-01-01

    Archive-based, historical research of materials produced during the Golden Age of Geology (1788-1840) uncovered scientific caricatures (SCs) which may serve as a unique form of knowledge representation for students today. SCs played important roles in the past, stimulating critical inquiry among early geologists and fueling debates that addressed key theoretical issues. When historical SCs were utilized in a large-enrollment college Earth History course, student response was positive. Therefore, we offered SCs as an optional assessment tool. Paired t-tests that compared individual students’ performances with the SC option, as well as without the SC option, showed a significant positive difference favoring scientific caricatures ( α = 0.05). Content analysis of anonymous student survey responses revealed three consistent findings: (a) students enjoyed expressing science content correctly but creatively through SCs, (b) development of SCs required deeper knowledge integration and understanding of the content than conventional test items, and (c) students appreciated having SC item options on their examinations, whether or not they took advantage of them. We think that incorporation of SCs during assessment may effectively expand the variety of methods for probing understanding, thereby increasing the mode validity of current geoscience tests.

  12. Repurposing celecoxib as a topical antimicrobial agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed N. Seleem

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available There is an urgent need for new antibiotics and alternative strategies to combat multidrug-resistant bacterial pathogens, which are a growing clinical issue. Repurposing existing approved drugs with known pharmacology and toxicology is an alternative strategy to accelerate antimicrobial research and development. In this study, we show that celecoxib, a marketed inhibitor of cyclooxygenase-2, exhibits broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive pathogens from a variety of genera, including Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Listeria, Bacillus, and Mycobacterium, but not against Gram-negative pathogens. However, celecoxib is active against all of the Gram-negative bacteria tested, including strains of, Acinetobacter, and Pseudomonas, when their intrinsic resistance is artificially compromised by outer membrane permeabilizing agents such as colistin. The effect of celecoxib on incorporation of radioactive precursors into macromolecules in Staphylococcus aureus was examined. The primary antimicrobial mechanism of action of celecoxib was the dose-dependent inhibition of RNA, DNA, and protein synthesis. Further, we demonstrate the in vivo efficacy of celecoxib in a methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA infected Caenorhabditis elegans whole animal model. Topical application of celecoxib (1 and 2% significantly reduced the mean bacterial count in a mouse model of MRSA skin infection. Further, celecoxib decreased the levels of all inflammatory cytokines tested, including tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, interleukin-1 beta, and monocyte chemo attractant protein-1 in wounds caused by MRSA infection. Celecoxib also exhibited synergy with many conventional antimicrobials when tested against four clinical isolates of S. aureus. Collectively, these results demonstrate that celecoxib alone, or in combination with traditional antimicrobials, has a potential to use as a topical drug for the treatment of bacterial skin infections.

  13. Image Based Hair Segmentation Algorithm for the Application of Automatic Facial Caricature Synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Hair is a salient feature in human face region and are one of the important cues for face analysis. Accurate detection and presentation of hair region is one of the key components for automatic synthesis of human facial caricature. In this paper, an automatic hair detection algorithm for the application of automatic synthesis of facial caricature based on a single image is proposed. Firstly, hair regions in training images are labeled manually and then the hair position prior distributions an...

  14. Tazarotene as alternative topical treatment for onychomycosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campione E

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Elena Campione,1 Evelin Jasmine Paternò,2 Gaetana Costanza,2,3 Laura Diluvio,1 Isabella Carboni,1 Daniele Marino,4 Cartesio Favalli,4 Sergio Chimenti,1 Luca Bianchi,1 Augusto Orlandi2,3 1Department of Dermatology, 2Department of Biomedicine and Prevention, 3Department of Anatomic Pathology, Policlinic Tor Vergata, 4Department of Microbiology, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy Background: Distal and lateral onychomycoses are the most frequent forms of onychomycosis, causing subungual hyperkeratosis that usually limits local penetration of antimycotic drugs. Tazarotene exerts anti-inflammatory and immune-modulating activities toward both infective agents and damaged keratinocytes. Given the well-documented efficacy of tazarotene on hyperkeratotic nail psoriasis, we investigated its therapeutic use in onychomycosis. Patients and methods: We designed a preliminary open clinical trial in patients affected by distal and lateral subungual onychomycosis of the toenails and verified the fungistatic activity of tazarotene in vitro. Fifteen patients were treated with topical tazarotene 0.1% gel once per day for 12 weeks. Mycological cultures and potassium hydroxide stains of nail samples were performed at the beginning and at the end of the study. Treatment was considered effective when clinical healing and negative mycological culture were obtained. Onycholysis, nail bed discoloration, and subungual hyperkeratosis were measured using standardized methodologies and analyzed by means of Mann–Whitney test and analysis of variance. Fungistatic activity of tazarotene was evaluated by disk diffusion assay. Results: Six patients (40% reached a mycological cure on target nail samples already after 4 weeks of treatment. Complete clinical healing and negative cultures were reached in all patients at week 12, with a significant improvement of all clinical parameters of the infected nails. Disk diffusion assay after 48 hours of incubation with

  15. LIQUID CRYSTAL AS ACCELERANT IN DRUG ABSORPTION FROM TOPICAL FORMULATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trivedi Nirali

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Topical drug delivery has been one of the major research fields in the area of drug therapy for last few decades. However inspite of its large therapeutic potential market success has been limited. It provides the several advantages over the oral drug delivery. Percutaneous absorption involves the passage of the drug molecule from the skin surface into the stratum corneum under the influence of a concentration gradient and its subsequent diffusion through the stratum corneum and underlying epidermis, through the dermis, and into the blood circulation. Liquid crystal phase has emerged as a novel material for preparation of topical drug delivery systems. It fulfills the requirements for making drug loading and drug absorption faster from the site of application of topical formulations. Liquid crystal has got many phases in itself which can be further exploited to get a better and more efficient drug delivery system. Also a variety of areas in medical and electronics streamline can find its application. There is also a wide scope in respect to the methods by which these liquid crystals can be prepared. Different methods give rise to different kinds of liquid crystals. Topical formulations have emerged as a very useful drug delivery system as it bypasses the first pass metabolism. Also the absorption of drugs depends on the percutaneous absorption of drug from the area of application. Hence it’s required to choose such a vehicle which enhances the absorption of drug from the formulation.

  16. Topical tranexamic acid as a promising treatment for melasma

    OpenAIRE

    Bahareh Ebrahimi; Farahnaz Fatemi Naeini

    2014-01-01

    Background: In recent times, tranexamic acid (TA) is claimed to have whitening effects especially for ultraviolet-induced hyperpigmentation including melasma. The aim of our study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of topical solution of TA and compare it with combined solution of hydroquinone and dexamethasone as the gold standard treatment of melasma in Iranian women. Materials and Methods: This was a double-blind split-face trial of 12 weeks which was conducted in Isfahan, Iran. Fifty...

  17. Topical tranexamic acid as a promising treatment for melasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahareh Ebrahimi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent times, tranexamic acid (TA is claimed to have whitening effects especially for ultraviolet-induced hyperpigmentation including melasma. The aim of our study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of topical solution of TA and compare it with combined solution of hydroquinone and dexamethasone as the gold standard treatment of melasma in Iranian women. Materials and Methods: This was a double-blind split-face trial of 12 weeks which was conducted in Isfahan, Iran. Fifty Iranian melasma patients applied topical solution of 3% TA on one side of the face, and topical solution of 3% hydroquinone + 0.01% dexamethasone on the other side two times a day. The Melasma Area and Severity Index (MASI and the side effects were evaluated at baseline and every 4 weeks before and after photographs to be compared by a dermatologist were taken. The patient satisfaction was documented at week 12. Results: A repeated measurement analysis was used to evaluate the changes in the MASI score before and after treatments. A significant decreasing trend was observed in the MASI score of both groups with no significant difference between them during the study (P < 0.05. No differences were seen in patients′ and investigator′s satisfaction of melasma improvement between two groups (P < 0.05. However, the side effects of hydroquinone + dexamethasone were significantly prominent compared with TA (P = 0.01. Conclusion: This study′s results introduce the topical TA as an effective and safe medication for the treatment of melasma.

  18. Topical fluoride as a cause of dental fluorosis in children

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, MCM; Lo, ECM; Glenny, AM; Tsang, BWK; Worthington, HV; Marinho, VCC

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: For many years, topical use of fluorides has gained greater popularity than systemic use of fluorides. A possible adverse effect associated with the use of topical fluoride is the development of dental fluorosis due to the ingestion of excessive fluoride by young children with developing teeth. OBJECTIVES: To describe the relationship between the use of topical fluorides in young children and the risk of developing dental fluorosis. SEARCH STRATEGY: Electronic search of the Cochra...

  19. Elastic vesicles as topical/transdermal drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, M J; Maibach, H I

    2005-08-01

    Skin acts a major target as well as a principle barrier for topical/transdermal drug delivery. Despite the many advantages of this system, the major obstacle is the low diffusion rate of drugs across the stratum corneum. Several methods have been assessed to increase the permeation rate of drugs temporarily. One simple and convenient approach is application of drugs in formulation with elastic vesicles or skin enhancers. Elastic vesicles are classified with phospholipid (Transfersomes((R)) and ethosomes) and detergent-based types. Elastic vesicles were more efficient at delivering a low and high molecular weight drug to the skin in terms of quantity and depth. Their effectiveness strongly depends on their physicochemical properties: composition, duration and application volume, and entrapment efficiency and application methods. This review focuses on the effect of elastic liposomes for enhancing the drug penetration and defines the action mechanism of penetration into deeper skin. PMID:18492190

  20. An Index to the Caricatures in the "New York Review of Books" from Its Inception Through the Fifteenth Anniversary Issue (1963-1978).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drazan, Joseph Gerald; Sanguine, Phyllis

    This index identifies caricatures drawn by David Levine which are found in the "New York Review of Books" from its first issue in 1963 through the special fifteenth anniversary issue dated October 12, 1978. The index is arranged alphabetically by surname for each personality caricatured, with some cross references. The numbering system used refers…

  1. Representing Uncertain Geographical Information with Algorithmic Map Caricatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunsdon, Chris

    2016-04-01

    A great deal of geographical information - including the results ion data analysis - is imprecise in some way. For example the the results of geostatistical interpolation should consist not only of point estimates of the value of some quantity at points in space, but also of confidence intervals or standard errors of these estimators. Similarly, mappings of contour lines derived form such interpolations will also be characterised by uncertainty. However, most computerized cartography tools are designed to provide 'crisp' representations of geographical information, such as sharply drawn lines, or clearly delineated areas. In this talk, the use of 'fuzzy' or 'sketchy' cartographic tools will be demonstrated - where maps have a hand-drawn appearance and the degree of 'roughness' and other related characteristics can be used to convey the degree of uncertainty associated with estimated quantities being mapped. The tools used to do this are available as an R package, which will be described in the talk.

  2. Bupivacaine Lozenge Compared with Lidocaine Spray as Topical Pharyngeal Anesthetic before Unsedated Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salale, Nesrin; Treldal, Charlotte; Mogensen, Stine;

    2014-01-01

    Unsedated upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGE) can induce patient discomfort, mainly due to a strong gag reflex. The aim was to assess the effect of a bupivacaine lozenge as topical pharyngeal anesthetic compared with standard treatment with a lidocaine spray before UGE. Ninety-nine adult...... lidocaine spray proved to be a superior option as topical pharyngeal anesthetic before an UGE....

  3. Silver Nanoparticles as Real Topical Bullets for Wound Healing

    OpenAIRE

    Gunasekaran, Thirumurugan; Nigusse, Tadele; Dhanaraju, Magharla Dasaratha

    2012-01-01

    Nanotechnology is on the threshold of providing a host of new materials and approaches, revolutionizing the medical and pharmaceutical fields. Several areas of medical care are already profiting from the advantage that nanotechnology offers. Recently, silver nanoparticles are attracting interest for a clinical application because of its potential biological properties such as antibacterial activity, anti-inflammatory effects, and wound healing efficacy, which could be exploited in developing ...

  4. Bexarotene Topical

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... condition may improve as soon as 4 weeks after you begin to use topical bexarotene, or it may ... notice any improvement. Continue to use topical bexarotene after you notice improvement; your condition may continue to improve. ...

  5. Clinical use of topical thrombin as a surgical hemostat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley K Lew

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Wesley K Lew1, Fred A Weaver21University of Southern California, Department of Surgery, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2CardioVascular Thoracic Institute at the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USAAbstract: When surgical ligation of bleeding fails, or is not possible, surgeons rely on a number of hemostatic aids, including thrombin. This review discusses the history, pharmacology and clinical application of thrombin as a surgical hemostat. The initial thrombin was bovine in origin, but its use has been complicated by the formation of antibodies that cross react with human coagulation factors. This has been associated with life threatening bleeding and in some circumstances anaphylaxis and death. Human thrombin, isolated from pooled plasma of donors, has been developed in an effort to minimize these risks, but its downside is the potential of transmitting blood-borne pathogens and limited availability. Recently a recombinant thrombin has been developed and approved for use by the FDA. It has the advantage of being minimally antigenic and devoid of the risk if viral transmission. Thrombin is often used in conjunction with other hemostatic aids, including absorbable agents (like gelfoam, collagen, and cellulose, and with fibrinogen in fibrin glues. The last part of this review will discuss these agents in detail, and review their clinical applications.Keywords: bovine, recombinant, human, thrombin, antigenicity, antibodies

  6. The role of topical antibiotics used as prophylaxis in surgical site infection prevention.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McHugh, S M

    2011-04-01

    Compared with systemic antibiotic therapy, the topical or local delivery of an antibiotic has many potential advantages. However, local antibiotics at the surgical site have received very limited approval in any of the surgical prophylaxis consensus guidelines that we are aware of. A review of the literature was carried out through searches of peer-reviewed publications in PubMed in the English language over a 30 year period between January 1980 and May 2010. Both retrospective and prospective studies were included, as well as meta-analyses. With regard to defining \\'topical\\' or \\'local\\' antibiotic application, the application of an antibiotic solution to the surgical site intraoperatively or immediately post-operatively was included. A number of surgical procedures have been shown to significantly benefit from perioperative topical prophylaxis, e.g. joint arthroplasty, cataract surgery and, possibly, breast augmentation. In obese patients undergoing abdominal surgery, topical surgical prophylaxis is also proven to be beneficial. The selective use of topical antibiotics as surgical prophylaxis is justified for specific procedures, such as joint arthroplasty, cataract surgery and, possibly, breast augmentation. In selective cases, such as obese patients undergoing abdominal surgery, topical surgical prophylaxis is also proven to be beneficial. Apart from these specific indications, the evidence for use of topical antibiotics in surgery is lacking in conclusive randomized controlled trials.

  7. The role of topical antibiotics used as prophylaxis in surgical site infection prevention.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McHugh, S M

    2012-02-01

    Compared with systemic antibiotic therapy, the topical or local delivery of an antibiotic has many potential advantages. However, local antibiotics at the surgical site have received very limited approval in any of the surgical prophylaxis consensus guidelines that we are aware of. A review of the literature was carried out through searches of peer-reviewed publications in PubMed in the English language over a 30 year period between January 1980 and May 2010. Both retrospective and prospective studies were included, as well as meta-analyses. With regard to defining \\'topical\\' or \\'local\\' antibiotic application, the application of an antibiotic solution to the surgical site intraoperatively or immediately post-operatively was included. A number of surgical procedures have been shown to significantly benefit from perioperative topical prophylaxis, e.g. joint arthroplasty, cataract surgery and, possibly, breast augmentation. In obese patients undergoing abdominal surgery, topical surgical prophylaxis is also proven to be beneficial. The selective use of topical antibiotics as surgical prophylaxis is justified for specific procedures, such as joint arthroplasty, cataract surgery and, possibly, breast augmentation. In selective cases, such as obese patients undergoing abdominal surgery, topical surgical prophylaxis is also proven to be beneficial. Apart from these specific indications, the evidence for use of topical antibiotics in surgery is lacking in conclusive randomized controlled trials.

  8. La ‘Negra Nieves’ ou le racisme à fleur de peau. Regards croisés sur une caricature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Nieves, célèbre caricature colombienne d’une jeune femme ‘noire’, est l’occasion de mener une réflexion autour de trois questions théoriques : signification des catégories raciales, permanence des stéréotypes et rôle social des apparences physiques. Le personnage, en effet, a une longue histoire : occupant les pages du quotidien de Cali, El País, depuis 1968, il a d’abord été représenté sous forme d’employée domestique avant de devenir, suite à une action de tutelle dénonçant le racisme de la caricature, étudiante en philosophie à l’université. Nieves permet ainsi d’analyser les mécanismes de construction et de gestion de la relation à l’autre : infériorisation paternaliste émanant de l’élite, incorporation populaire de normes sociales racialisantes, ruptures et continuités liées à l’introduction du multiculturalisme, revendications et impasses du mouvement ethnique ‘noir’, vision culturaliste de l’anthropologie colombienne. Nieves, famosa caricatura colombiana de una mujer ‘negra’, nos permite hacer una reflexión alrededor de tres cuestiones teóricas: significación de las categorías raciales, permanencia de los estereotipos y papel social de las apariencias físicas. De hecho, el personaje tiene una larga historia: en las páginas del diario de Cali, El País, desde 1968, fue primero representado bajo los rasgos de una empleada doméstica antes de convertirse -en razón de una acción de tutela- en estudiante universitaria de filosofía. Intentaremos así analizar los mecanismos de construcción y manejo de la relación con el otro: inferiorización paternalista por parte de la elite, incorporación popular de las normas raciales, rupturas y continuidades ligadas a la introducción del multiculturalismo, reivindicaciones y dificultades del movimiento étnico ‘negro��, visión culturalista de la antropología colombiana. In this paper, the use and meaning of Nieves, a famous Colombian

  9. Viscoelastic evaluation of topical creams containing microcrystalline cellulose/sodium carboxymethyl cellulose as stabilizer

    OpenAIRE

    Adeyeye, Moji Christianah; Jain, Ashwinkumar C.; Ghorab, Mohamed K. M.; Reilly, William J.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the viscoelastic properties of topical creams containing various concentrations of microcrystalline cellulose and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (Avicel® CL-611) as a stabilizer. Avicel CL-611 was used at 4 different levels (1%, 2%, 4%, and 6% dispersion) to prepare topical creams, and hydrocortisone acetate was used as a model drug. The viscoelastic properties such as loss modulus (G), storage modulus (G), and loss tangent (tan δ) of these creams were...

  10. Topical cyclosporin as an alternative treatment for vision threatening blepharokeratoconjunctivitis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail AS

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abdul-Salim Ismail,1,2 Rohana Taharin,2 Zunaina Embong11Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Hospital Pulau Pinang, Jalan Resindensi, Pulau Pinang, MalaysiaAbstract: Here, a case of vision threatening blepharokeratoconjunctivitis that responded well to topical cyclosporin is reported. A 9-year-old Malay girl with a history of bilateral blepharokeratoconjunctivitis was regularly treated with lid scrubbing using diluted baby shampoo, fusidic acid gel, and topical steroids as well as an intermittent course of oral doxycycline for the past year. She developed acute onset bilateral eye redness associated with poor vision in her right eye. Both eyes showed marked diffuse hyperemic conjunctiva with corneal vascularization. The presence of corneal vascularization obscured the visual axis in the right eye. The condition did not improve with regular intensive lid hygiene using diluted baby shampoo, fusidic acid gel, and topical steroids. She was started on topical cyclosporin A 0.5% every 6 hours. There was a dramatic regression of corneal vascularization after 3 days on topical cyclosporin, with marked improvement in visual acuity. This is a single case in which cyclosporin improved the status of the ocular surface. A large cohort study is required to justify its effectiveness in treating blepharokeratoconjunctivitis and to test its potential as an alternative immunosuppressive agent in comparison to conventional corticosteroids.Keywords: blepharokeratoconjunctivitis, cyclosporin

  11. De l’usure au pouvoir de l’argent : les métamorphoses d’un mythe antijuif à travers la caricature en Angleterre From Usury to High Finance: The Metamorphosis of an AntiJewish Myth viewed through English Caricatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucienne Germain

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available “Jewish Money Power”, the “Wandering Jew” and the “Blood Libel” (ritual murder myths are the three pillars of the anti-Semitic iconography which developed during the Middle Ages. Throughout the centuries, their evolution has continuously reflected the beliefs and tastes of the various societies which have used them to stereotype Jewish otherness. Far from being exhaustive, the intent of this article, based on a limited number of caricatures, is to stress the changes which took place over the centuries in numerous and varied portrayals of the “Jewish Money Power”: from the Jew in his capacity as money lender to the Jew as stockbroker, to more contemporary images of the Jewish banker and international financier, monopolising high finance, insinuating himself in all fields and plotting to dominate and destroy the Christian world. Having explained the various transformations in context, this analysis of selected Jewish graphic portrayals will also highlight the constant use of physical features and characteristics that have contributed to creating a misleading image of the Jews and encouraged anti-Semitism.

  12. Comparative study of liposomes, transfersomes and ethosomes as carriers for improving topical delivery of celecoxib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragagni, Marco; Mennini, Natascia; Maestrelli, Francesca; Cirri, Marzia; Mura, Paola

    2012-01-01

    Topical administration of celecoxib proved to be an effective mean of preventing skin cancer development and improving anticancer drugs effectiveness in skin tumors treatment. The aim of this study was the development of an effective topical formulation of celecoxib, able to promote drug skin delivery, providing its in depth penetration through the skin layers. Three kinds of vesicular formulations have been investigated as drug carriers: liposomes containing a surfactant, or transfersomes and ethosomes, containing suitable edge activators. Firstly, the effect of membrane composition variations on the system performance has been evaluated for each vesicle type. Selected formulations were characterized for particle size, polydispersity index and encapsulation efficiency. The best formulations were subjected to ex vivo permeation studies through excised human skin. All vesicular formulations markedly (p ethosomes, respectively. In particular, ethosomes containing Tween 20 as edge activator not only showed the best vesicle dimensions and homogeneity, and the highest encapsulation efficacy (54.4%), but also enabled the highest increase in drug penetration through the skin, probably due to the simultaneous presence in their composition of ethanol and Tween 20, both acting as permeation enhancers. Therefore, among the various vesicular formulations examined in the study, Tween 20-ethosomes can be considered the most promising one as carrier for topical celecoxib applications aimed to prevent skin cancer development and increase the anticancer drugs effectiveness against skin tumors. PMID:23043648

  13. Final Technical Report summarizing Purdue research activities as part of the DOE JET Topical Collaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molnar, Denes [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy

    2015-09-01

    This report summarizes research activities at Purdue University done as part of the DOE JET Topical Collaboration. These mainly involve calculation of covariant radiative energy loss in the (Djordjevic-)Gyulassy-Levai-Vitev ((D)GLV) framework for relativistic A+A reactions at RHIC and LHC energies using realistic bulk medium evolution with both transverse and longitudinal expansion. The single PDF file provided also includes a report from the entire JET Collaboration.

  14. Fabrication and Characterization of Sertaconazole Nitrate Microsponge as a Topical Drug Delivery System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pande, V. V.; Kadnor, N. A.; Kadam, Rupali N.; Upadhye, S. A.

    2015-01-01

    Present study was taken up to develop a topical formulation that releases the drug in controlled manner, reduce the side effects associated with topical drug delivery and improve product efficacy with aid of microsponges. Microsponges loaded with sertaconazole nitrate were prepared by using quasi emulsion solvent diffusion with five different proportions of the polymer (Eudragit RS 100). The developed microsponges were analyzed for particle size, production yield, entrapment efficiency and drug content. Scanning electron microscopic images of microsponges revealed that they are spherical in shape and contain pores. Pore structure analysis was done by using mercury intrusion porosimetry technique, which confirmed the porous nature of microsponges. Microsponges were then incorporated in to a 1% corbopol gel and evaluated for pH, drug content, texture profile analysis and in vitro drug release. The batch F IV was found to be optimal as it shown 69.38% controlled drug release in 8 h that followed Higuchi model. PMID:26997694

  15. Microemulsions as vehicles for topical administration of voriconazole: formulation and in vitro evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hadidy, Gladious Naguib; Ibrahim, Howida Kamal; Mohamed, Magdi Ibrahim; El-Milligi, Mohamed Farid

    2012-01-01

    This work was undertaken to investigate microemulsion (ME) as a topical delivery system for the poorly water-soluble voriconazole. Different ME components were selected for the preparation of plain ME systems with suitable rheological properties for topical use. Two permeation enhancers were incorporated, namely sodium deoxycholate or oleic acid. Drug-loaded MEs were evaluated for their physical appearance, pH, rheological properties and in vitro permeation studies using guinea pig skin. MEs based on polyoxyethylene(10)oleyl ether (Brij 97) as the surfactant showed pseudoplastic flow with thixotropic behavior and were loaded with voriconazole. Jojoba oil-based MEs successfully prolonged voriconazole release up to 4 h. No significant changes in physical or rheological properties were recorded on storage for 12 months at ambient conditions. The presence of permeation enhancers favored transdermal rather than dermal delivery. Sodium deoxycholate was more effective than oleic acid for enhancing the voriconazole permeation. Voriconazole-loaded MEs, with and without enhancers, showed significantly better antifungal activity against Candida albicans than voriconazole supersaturated solution. In conclusion, the studied ME formulae could be promising vehicles for topical delivery of voriconazole. PMID:21696340

  16. Functional Evaluation of Modified T Pouch as Ileal Neo bladder Ortho topic Reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on the functional results of ortho topic modified T pouch ileal neo bladder, incorporating serous- lined extra mural ileal anti reflux technique for urinary diversion after radical cystectomy. Material and Methods: From September 1998 through November 2001,42 patients of mean age 49 years (range 45-54) having invasive bladder carcinoma underwent radical cystectomy and ortho topic ileal neo bladder urinary diversion, the modified T pouch. Thirty-three patients were males while the remaining 9 were females. The mean follow up was 24 months (range 18-42). Preoperative unior bilateral ureteral dilatation was noted in 13/42 (30.9%) patients). Follow up included clinical examination, laboratory, radiological and uro dynamic investigations. Early postoperative complications were recorded in 3 cases, that were managed conservatively. Day and night continence were achieved in 34/42 (81 %) and 29/42 (69%) patients, night enuresis in 2 (4.8%),while satisfactory day and night continence were noted, respectively. Upper urinary tract (UUT) remained unchanged or improved in all cases. No need for clean intermittent catherization (CIC). No evidence of reflux was detected. Pressure at maximum capacity (average 17 cm H2O at 600 ml). Mean flow rate was 17.6 ml/sec (range 15-24). Pelvic cancer recurrence was recorded in 5 patients at mean 24 months, respectively. Modified T pouch has an excellent functional criteria as an ortho topic ileal neo bladder reservoir. It is absolutely indicated in short and/or massively dilated ureter

  17. Systemic absorption of topical steroids. Metabolic effects as an index of mild hypercortisolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garden, J M; Freinkel, R K

    1986-09-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether the commonly used treatment of psoriasis with potent topical glucocorticoids results in hypercortisolism and whether metabolic changes might provide a means for monitoring pharmacologic effects of excessive systemic absorption of glucocorticoids. Plasma cortisol, glucose, and insulin and circulating polymorphonuclear leukocytes were assessed under controlled conditions in five otherwise healthy patients with psoriasis (40% to 85% involvement) treated with topical desoximetasone, without occlusion. In all patients, there were rapid and sustained suppression of endogenous cortisol production, twofold to threefold increases in fasting insulin levels indicating insulin resistance, and elevated levels of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Two patients also experienced reduced glucose tolerance. These findings suggest that application of potent corticosteroids to large areas of diseased skin results in sufficient systemic absorption to cause not only adrenal suppression but some degree of hypercortisolism with greater frequency and rapidity than has been suggested. Prospective monitoring of insulin-glucose relationships as a sensitive index of the metabolic effects of glucocorticoids may provide a means of assessing excess systemic absorption that is not predictable on the basis of adrenal suppression or circulating levels of the drug. Such prediction could have particular relevance in anticipating adverse clinical effects in the treatment of chronic skin disorders with potent topical glucocorticoids. PMID:3527074

  18. Claims-making of Danish Muslims during the Muhammad Caricatures Controversy: A Challenge to the Principles of the Secular Public Sphere?

    OpenAIRE

    LINDEKILDE, Lasse E.

    2008-01-01

    During the Danish public debate following the publication of the twelve Muhammad caricatures in September 2005, many commentators stated that the (re)actions/claims of Danish Muslims showed lack of familiarity with the basic principles of democracy and Danish traditions of political debate. The article offers an empirical test to several such public accusations through a systematic analysis of the content and justification of Muslim claims throughout the controversy. Thus, the paper raises th...

  19. Treating umbilical granuloma with topical clobetasol propionate cream at home is as effective as treating it with topical silver nitrate in the clinic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brødsgaard, Anne; Nielsen, Tove; Mølgaard, Ulla; Pryds, Ole; Pedersen, Pernille

    2015-01-01

    healing times and higher resolution rates (p = 0.0001). Healing time and resolution rates were identical for silver nitrate and clobetasol propionate cream (0.05%). Mild side effects were occasionally reported, all of which were self-limiting. CONCLUSION: Treating umbilical granuloma with topical...

  20. Subtilisin-γ-glutamyl transpeptidase: a novel combination as ungual enhancer for prospective topical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwary, Ekta; Gupta, Rani

    2010-12-01

    A feather degrading strain of Bacillus licheniformis ER-15 was isolated which also degraded α-keratin of hooves. A detailed analysis revealed that a novel monomeric γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT(30)), a proteolytic product of heterodimeric 67 kDa γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT(67)), assists subtilisin during its action on α keratin. An equimolar combination of subtilisin and GGT(30) was designated as KerN and was used as ungual enhancer for topical application. KerN was effective in releasing proteins from nail plate surface and 300 µg of enzyme could release 41 µg protein/mg of nail after 24 h treatment. Scanning electron micrograph (SEM) revealed loosening of nail matrix confirming the action of KerN on nail keratin. Drug permeation studies revealed permeation of clotrimazole through both enzymatically pretreated nail plates and also through nail plates in presence of KerN. Nearly 58% drug could be retained by nail plates after 24 h of 300 µg/mL KerN which further enhanced up to 97% by prolonging the enzyme application. The enzyme was found to be stable in presence of drug even after 72 h. Thus, KerN can be used as an additive in formulation of topical drug for onchomycosis. PMID:20572051

  1. Comparative Study between topical applications liposomally entrapped DNA repair enzymes and thymidine dinucleotide as radioprotectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The delivery of active agents to the skin by liposome carriers received great interest during the last three decades. This is based on their potential to enclose various types of biological materials and to deliver them to diverse cell types. Recent work suggests that liposomes as vehicles for topical drug delivery may be superior to conventional preparations. Also, topical application of DNA repair enzymes to irradiated skin increases the rate of repair of DNA potentially damaged cells. Moreover, thymidine dinucleotide is a new skin photo-protective agent against non-ionizing radiation through induction of DNA repair. Gamma irradiation can produce DNA damage in human skin. DNA mutations have an important role in the development of skin cancer and precancerous skin lesions. Albino rats were irradiated with Cobalt-60 gamma radiation with different doses (0.5, 1.5, 3 Gy), and were treated by either thymidine dinucleotide or liposomally entrapped DNA repair enzymes topically 24 hours before irradiation. Evaluation was done histopathologically by H and E stain. Computerized image analyzer using Masson's trichrome stain was also done. Gamma radiation produced epidermal thinning and dermal inflammatory cells together with collagen fragmentation and clumping in a dose-dependent manner. Comparing between both thymidine dinucleotide and liposomally entrapped DNA repair enzymes pretreated and irradiated rats. Low dose irradiation (0.5 Gy) together with previous drugs showed preservation of epidermis with no inflammatory cells and also it maintained the normal architecture of collagen bundles. However, they were ineffective with higher doses. In conclusion our results may suggest that the effects of gamma radiation on the skin at low dose could be minimized by the use of these drugs before exposure

  2. Handbook preparation as a tool for self- directed learning process: A case study on endocrine topic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lale CERRAH ÖZSEVGEÇ

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the effectiveness of handbook preparation as a method in the self-directed learning process of student teachers in teaching endocrine glands, and increasing their levels of knowledge. Thirty student teachers were selected from a biology department. A pencil and paper test and a clinical interview procedure were used to collect data. The test had two open-ended questions investigating the knowledge level of the sample about endocrine glands and the basic concepts of the subject. The interview was conducted to search the effectiveness of the handbook preparation process on self-directed learning of the student teachers. The results revealed that the student teachers had very limited knowledge and also had misconceptions related to the endocrine topic. The handbook preparation method was very helpful for the student teachers to overcome their misconceptions about the subject and to increase their knowledge level. It was suggested that handbook preparation may be helpful for teaching other biology topics as a self-directed learning tool. However, it should be considered that the student teachers had heterogeneity with respect to skills.

  3. Learning about Teaching the Extracurricular Topic of Nanotechnology as a Vehicle for Achieving a Sustainable Change in Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blonder, Ron; Mamlok-Naaman, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    This study focused on teachers' transfer of a variety of teaching methods from a teaching module on nanotechnology, which is an example of a topic outside the science curriculum, to teaching topics that are part of the chemistry curriculum. Nanotechnology is outside the science curriculum, but it was used in this study as a means to carry out a…

  4. Evaluation of Topical Preparations Containing Curcuma, Acacia and Lupinus Extracts as an Anti-inflammatory Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M M Hamzah

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Summary: This work was suggested on the basis of presence of curcuminoids in curcuma and the presence of flavonoidal constituent in acacia and lupinus. The aim of this study was to study their possible anti-inflammatory effect by separately formulation of the three extracts in a suitable gel formula for topical administration and comparison of the prepared gels with a standard gel in the market (diclosal Emulgel by using the carrageenan induced paw edema model in albino rats. The extracts were subjected to phytochemical screening tests using reported methods to determine the presence of various phytoconstituents. Gel formulation was prepared containing 8% of each extract separately in gel base, namely sodium carboxy methyl cellulose (NaCMC. The pharmacological screening revealed that percent reduction of edema produced by curcuma extract was 30.0%, by acacia extract was 4%, by ethanol fraction lupinus was 18% and by chloroform fraction lupinus was 11.3%, while diclofenac sodium topical gel produced 48% reduction of edema. Industrial relevance: Medicinal plants provide a host of chemical compounds, which have been optimized on the basis of their biological activities. Chemical compounds present in medicinal plants have shown great promise in the management of various inflammatory disorders and have continued to serve as alternative and complementary therapies. The present study will help the industry to produce herbal drug effective in the treatment of inflammation with less side effect and less costly when compared to the synthetic drugs.

  5. Comprehensive evaluation of carboxylated nanodiamond as a topical drug delivery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Dae Gon; Kim, Ki Hyun; Kang, Eunah; Lim, Sun Hee; Ricci, Jeremy; Sung, Si Kwon; Kwon, Myoung Taek; Jeong, Seong Hoon

    2016-01-01

    The best strategy in the development of topical drug delivery systems may be to facilitate the permeation of drugs without any harmful effects, while staying on the skin surface and maintaining stability of the system. Nanodiamonds (NDs) play a key role with their excellent physicochemical properties, including high biocompatibility, physical adsorption, reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging capability, and photostabilizing activity. Z-average sizes of carboxylated ND (ND–COOH) agglutinate decreased significantly as the pH increased. Fluorescein-conjugated ND was observed only on the stratum corneum, and no sample diffused into the dermal layer even after 48 hours. Moreover, ND–COOH and ND–COOH/eugenol complex did not show significant toxic effects on murine macrophage cells. ND improved in vitro skin permeation >50% acting as a “drug reservoir” to maintain a high drug concentration in the donor chamber, which was supported by quartz crystal microbalance results. Moreover, ND–COOH could adsorb a drug amount equivalent to 80% of its own weight. A photostability study showed that ND–COOH increased the photostability ~47% with regard to rate constant of the eugenol itself. A significant decrease in ROS was observed in the ND–COOH and ND–COOH/eugenol complex compared with the negative control during intracellular ROS assay. Moreover, ROS and cupric reducing antioxidant capacity evaluation showed that ND–COOH had synergistic effects of antioxidation with eugenol. Therefore, ND–COOH could be used as an excellent topical drug delivery system with improved permeability, higher stability, and minimized safety issue. PMID:27307736

  6. Adrenal insufficiency as a result of long-term misuse of topical corticosteroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böckle, Barbara C; Jara, David; Nindl, Werner; Aberer, Werner; Sepp, Norbert T

    2014-01-01

    The treatment of chronic inflammatory skin disease is associated with the use of topical corticosteroids. Their efficacy, tolerability and adverse effects depend on several factors, specifically potency, type of preparation, extemporaneous dilutions, quantity used, magnitude of the treated body surface, frequency of application, location, patient age, method of application and condition of the skin barrier. We report on two men suffering from chronic inflammatory skin disease, who presented with fatigue and cushingoid appearance after prolonged self-application of potent corticosteroids. Impairment of the skin barrier due to their underlying skin disease, frequent self-application of topical steroids and repeated application of the entire body led to extensive absorption of these substances, eventually culminating in the suppression of the pituitary-hypothalamic-adrenal axis. In conclusion, topical corticosteroids are effective and well-established therapeutic modalities. However, inappropriate use of topical corticosteroids can cause side effects. PMID:24751677

  7. Research on the Application of Motion Perception in Caricature and Animation Creation%论运动知觉在动漫创作中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄唯

    2012-01-01

    在动漫创作中,创作者如果忽视对“运动知觉”的一些基本原理的应用,必然会影响动画片制作的效率和质量。文章结合电影心理学的相关理论,通过实例比较和分析,探讨“运动知觉”这一原理在漫画、二维动画片及三维动画片创作中的应用及其意义。%The neglect of some basic principles of "motion perception" will influence the efficiency and quality of the creators" caricature and animation creation. Based on the related theories of film psychol- ogy, and by means of case comparison and analysis, this paper discusses the application of the "motion perception" in the creation of caricature, two-dimensional and three-dimensional animations and its significance.

  8. Experiences of Teaching the Heat Energy Topic in English as a Second Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, Lilia; Dahlan, Fathiyah; Treagust, David F.; Chandrasegaran, A. L.

    2012-01-01

    In view of the current debate in Malaysia about the teaching of science and mathematics in English, a qualitative study was undertaken involving a purposeful sampling of three non-physics teachers to ascertain how well equipped they were with the necessary pedagogical content knowledge relating to the teaching of the topic of "heat energy" in the…

  9. Reclaiming Race as a Topic of the U.S. Biology Textbook Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Brian M.

    2015-01-01

    Even though human racial difference has been a longstanding topic of the school biology curriculum, there is little evidence that contemporary biology textbooks challenge stereotypical racial beliefs that are based in biological thinking. Rather, the modern biology curriculum may be a place where such beliefs about race are perpetuated…

  10. Topical pimecrolimus as a new optional treatment in cutaneous sarcoidosis of lichenoid type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tammaro, Antonella; Abruzzese, Claudia; Narcisi, Alessandra; Cortesi, Giorgia; Parisella, Francesca Romana; Di Russo, Pier Paolo; De Marco, Gabriella; Persechino, Severino

    2014-01-01

    We report the case of cutaneous sarcoidosis of lichenoid type successfully treated with pimecrolimus. For the first time in the literature, we propose the use of this topical calcineurin inhibitor for the treatment of the cases refractory to common therapy regimens. PMID:24826355

  11. Topical Pimecrolimus as a New Optional Treatment in Cutaneous Sarcoidosis of Lichenoid Type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Tammaro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of cutaneous sarcoidosis of lichenoid type successfully treated with pimecrolimus. For the first time in the literature, we propose the use of this topical calcineurin inhibitor for the treatment of the cases refractory to common therapy regimens.

  12. Topical Pimecrolimus as a New Optional Treatment in Cutaneous Sarcoidosis of Lichenoid Type

    OpenAIRE

    Antonella Tammaro; Claudia Abruzzese; Alessandra Narcisi; Giorgia Cortesi; Francesca Romana Parisella; Pier Paolo Di Russo; Gabriella De Marco; Severino Persechino

    2014-01-01

    We report the case of cutaneous sarcoidosis of lichenoid type successfully treated with pimecrolimus. For the first time in the literature, we propose the use of this topical calcineurin inhibitor for the treatment of the cases refractory to common therapy regimens.

  13. Evaluation of Topical Preparations Containing Curcuma, Acacia and Lupinus Extracts as an Anti-inflammatory Drugs

    OpenAIRE

    M M Hamzah

    2011-01-01

    Summary: This work was suggested on the basis of presence of curcuminoids in curcuma and the presence of flavonoidal constituent in acacia and lupinus. The aim of this study was to study their possible anti-inflammatory effect by separately formulation of the three extracts in a suitable gel formula for topical administration and comparison of the prepared gels with a standard gel in the market (diclosal Emulgel) by using the carrageenan induced paw edema model in albino rats. The extracts we...

  14. The human heart and the circulatory system as an interesting interdisciplinary topic in lessons of physics and biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volná, M.; Látal, F.; Kubínek, R.; Richterek, L.

    2014-01-01

    Many topics which are closely related can be found in the national curriculum of the Czech Republic for physics and biology. One of them is the heart and the circulatory system in the human body. This topic was examined cross curriculum, a teaching module was created and the topic was chosen for our research. The task was to determine if the students of bachelor study are aware of connections between physics and biology within this topic and whether we can help them effectively to describe the corresponding physics phenomena in the human body connected, for example, with a heart attack or with the measurement of blood pressure. In this paper, the heart and the circulatory system are presented as suitable topics for an interdisciplinary teaching module which includes both theoretical and experimental parts. The module was evaluated by a group of first-year undergraduate students of physics at the Faculty of Science, Palacký University. The acquired knowledge was compared with another control group through a test. The highest efficiency of the module was evaluated on the basis of questions that covered the calculation problems.

  15. The human heart and the circulatory system as an interesting interdisciplinary topic in lessons of physics and biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many topics which are closely related can be found in the national curriculum of the Czech Republic for physics and biology. One of them is the heart and the circulatory system in the human body. This topic was examined cross curriculum, a teaching module was created and the topic was chosen for our research. The task was to determine if the students of bachelor study are aware of connections between physics and biology within this topic and whether we can help them effectively to describe the corresponding physics phenomena in the human body connected, for example, with a heart attack or with the measurement of blood pressure. In this paper, the heart and the circulatory system are presented as suitable topics for an interdisciplinary teaching module which includes both theoretical and experimental parts. The module was evaluated by a group of first-year undergraduate students of physics at the Faculty of Science, Palacký University. The acquired knowledge was compared with another control group through a test. The highest efficiency of the module was evaluated on the basis of questions that covered the calculation problems. (paper)

  16. Fluorouracil Topical

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... topical solution are used to treat actinic or solar keratoses (scaly or crusted lesions [skin areas] caused by years of too much exposure to sunlight). Fluorouracil cream and topical solution are also used to treat ...

  17. Testosterone Topical

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in which the body does not produce enough natural testosterone). Testosterone is used only for men with ... topical may control your symptoms but will not cure your condition. Continue to use testosterone topical even ...

  18. Garcinia gardneriana (Planchon & Triana) Zappi. (Clusiaceae) as a topical anti-inflammatory alternative for cutaneous inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otuki, Michel F; Bernardi, Camila A; Prudente, Arthur S; Laskoski, Kerly; Gomig, Franciane; Horinouchi, Cintia D S; Guimarães, Claudio L; Ferreira, Juliano; Delle-Monache, Franco; Cechinel-Filho, Valdir; Cabrini, Daniela A

    2011-07-01

    Garcinia gardneriana is popularly used in skin disorders; therefore, this article investigated the effect of G. gardneriana extracts from leaves, bark and seeds and two isolated compounds in ear oedema and leucocytes migration caused by croton oil. The topical application of the extract of G. gardneriana leaves was able to reduce (70 ± 3%, and ID(50) 0.33 mg/ear) ear oedema, while the seeds (51 ± 5%) and the wood (60 ± 12%) extracts were less effective. In a time-course evaluation, the leaf extract (1 mg/ear) was effective when applied 2 hr before and until 3 hr after the stimulation, presenting a higher effectiveness when applied right after croton oil (83 ± 7% inhibition). In addition, the leaf extract was able to diminish the myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in 64 ± 13%, which suggests the inhibition of leucocyte infiltration that was confirmed by histological analysis. Also, both biflavonoids isolated from the leaves of G. gardneriana, fukugetin (or morelloflavone) and 13-naringenin-II 8-eriodictyol (GB-2a), were able to reduce ear oedema, with ID(50) values of 0.18 (0.10-0.28) and 0.22 (0.15-0.31) mg/ear, respectively, besides the inhibition of MPO activity of 52 ± 6% and 64 ± 5%, respectively. Using the fluorescent probe 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate, the leaf extract, fukugetin and GB-2a topically applied to the ear treated with croton oil reduced 52 ± 15%, 63 ± 17% and 83 ± 4%, respectively, the production of reactive oxygen species of the skin. Thus, these results reveal the anti-inflammatory effect of G. gardneriana leaves for topical usage, and both biflavonoids are responsible for this effect. PMID:21362142

  19. The State and Modernity as Anthropological Topics: A Very Short Introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Marina Simić

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to offer a brief introduction to anthropological studies of modernity and the state. I try to introduce some of the most important theoretical works in this field, built up in different ethnographic contexts ranging from Turkey to Latin America. I was trying to show some of the possibilities of the research of modernity and the state in anthropology emphasizing what anthropology can offer to wider debates on these topics. I argue that the ideas of modernity and the state are f...

  20. Severe hyperkalemia as a complication of timolol, a topically applied beta-adrenergic antagonist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severe hyperkalemia occurred in a patient with radiation pneumonitis and glaucoma shortly after beginning prednisone therapy. There was no evidence of renal failure, diabetes, acidosis, increased potassium intake, or significant tissue trauma. Medications having adverse effects on potassium metabolism were considered, and the patient's use of timolol maleate eyedrops was discontinued. His serum potassium level normalized despite continuation of the prednisone therapy. He became hyperkalemic on rechallenge with timolol and normokalemic following its withdrawal. This case indicates that the potential for beta-blocker-induced hyperkalemia exists even with topical appreciation

  1. Severe hyperkalemia as a complication of timolol, a topically applied beta-adrenergic antagonist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swenson, E.R.

    1986-06-01

    Severe hyperkalemia occurred in a patient with radiation pneumonitis and glaucoma shortly after beginning prednisone therapy. There was no evidence of renal failure, diabetes, acidosis, increased potassium intake, or significant tissue trauma. Medications having adverse effects on potassium metabolism were considered, and the patient's use of timolol maleate eyedrops was discontinued. His serum potassium level normalized despite continuation of the prednisone therapy. He became hyperkalemic on rechallenge with timolol and normokalemic following its withdrawal. This case indicates that the potential for beta-blocker-induced hyperkalemia exists even with topical appreciation.

  2. The Concept of the Interculture in Time: (Intercultural Topics in Textbooks of French as a Foreign Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meta Lah

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the concept of interculturality as used in foreign language didactics. In accordance with the definition of interculturality given in the first part of the article, two categories are included in the analysis – two “levels” of culture, each of them bearing a different name in literature, namely high and popular culture. Various textbooks used for teaching French as a foreign language in Slovenia in both the past and present were chosen for the analysis of topics that cover a fairly long period of time – among them the textbooks by two Slovenian authors: Južnič (1938 and Grad (1954, as well as some generally-used French textbooks, such as Cours de langue et de civilisation françaises (1953, Le nouveau sans frontières (1988 and Nouveau rond point (2011. The article is based on the hypothesis that high culture is more likely to be present in the older textbooks, which are based on traditional methods, whereas in modern textbooks more popular, everyday topics can be found. It is also presumed that topics in modern textbooks are, compared to their more traditional counterparts, introduced in an intercultural manner which could encourage students to compare the culture of the foreign country with their own. Both hypotheses are partly confirmed. In Slovenian textbooks there are very few culture-based topics. On the other hand, they are present in all French textbooks, regardless of the methodology. It is true that Mauger introduces more high culture than the others and that the intercultural topics are presented only in the most recent textbook. In all the others, it is exclusively the culture of the target country that is introduced.

  3. Comparison of intravenous and topical lidocaine as a suppressant of coughing after bronchoscopy during general anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, C J; Ahlburg, P; Holdgård, H O; Olsen, K H; Thomsen, A

    1991-04-01

    Twenty-four consecutive patients scheduled for fiberbronchoscopy were randomized to receive double-blind either intravenous (1.5 mg/kg) or laryngotracheal (3 mg/kg) lidocaine to evaluate the influence on post-bronchoscopic laryngospasm, pain in the throat and coughing. Plasma lidocaine concentrations were analyzed 5, 15, 30 and 60 min after administration. None of the patients demonstrated laryngospasm or pain in the throat during the first hour after bronchoscopy. Patients receiving topical lidocaine coughed significantly more than patients receiving intravenous lidocaine, with a median number of coughs of 20 compared to 4, during the first hour (P less than 0.01). The plasma lidocaine concentrations were significantly higher after intravenous than after topical administration (P less than 0.001). After intravenous administration the plasma lidocaine concentrations exceeded the accepted level for potential toxicity in five out of 11 patients, but none of the patients developed toxic symptoms and no side-effects were observed. PMID:2038931

  4. Topic and Textual Coherence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何明烈; 戢焕奇

    2008-01-01

    Based on the investigation of the origin and definition of topic as well as the classification of textual coherence, this paper ana-lyzes the function of topic to non-coherence, imphcit coherence and explicit coherence, and concludes that topic relevance is the primary cri-terion for textual coherence.

  5. A Case Report: Red Skin Syndrome- as the Rebound Effect of Using a Long Term Potent Topical Corticosteroid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristine D. Octaviani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available 31 years old male suffered from a rare skin disorder, diagnosed of red skin syndrome. Seven years ago, symptoms was begun with a light itching on skin area of body as well as face, and visited a general practitioner, diagnosed of light allergic rhinitis. He was prescribed oral corticosteroid, methyl prednisolone 4 mg b.i.d and very potent topical corticosteroid, clobetasol. The symptoms was significantly disappeared and being rebound after stopping the prescription. To maintain this rebound effect, for seven years in on-off unhealed conditions, he used topical cream corticosteroid, clobetasol, that fully masked this worst rebound condition. When application of the topical cream was stopped, rebound effect relapsed and even red skin syndrome became worse than before. After 20 months of being fully stopped from corticosteroid, the symptoms finally slowly reduced. He almost fully recovered and had a normal life until now December 2013. By this case, we can learn that this red skin syndrome, resulted from side effect of corticosteroid, will be stopped by fully stopping administering orally or topically, and this will take quite long time for skin to recover.

  6. Topical Drugs for Pain Relief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali Srinivasan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Topical therapy helps patients with oral and perioral pain problems such as ulcers, burning mouth syndrome, temporomandibular disorders, neuromas, neuropathies and neuralgias. Topical drugs used in the field of dentistry are topical anaesthetics, topical analgesics, topical antibiotics and topical corticosteroids. It provides symptomatic/curative effect. Topical drugs are easy to apply, avoids hepatic first pass metabolism and more sites specific. But it can only be used for medications that require low plasma concentrations to achieve a therapeutic effect.

  7. Participation of women as authors and editors in journals concerned with mental retardation and related topics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Cari L; Christian, LeeAnn; Poling, Alan

    2003-02-01

    The present survey determined women's participation in eight journals concerned with mental retardation and related topics. The number of female authors was recorded for all articles published in these journals from 1991 through 2000. The number of women on the editorial board each year, for each journal, also was tabulated. For all years and all journals, women were first authors of 41% of articles published. Women wrote 34% of single-author articles. Overall, 45% of all authors were women. Women constituted 34% of the editorial board members for the eight journals combined. In sum, these data suggest that women's contribution to the mental retardation literature decreases with the prestige of the activity. PMID:12597719

  8. Misselling as a New Topic of Financial Education? A Didactic Analysis of Investment Advise after the Financial Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Dirk Loerwald; Thomas Retzmann

    2010-01-01

    Personal financial investments are, as a matter of course, a topic of economic education because they are a life situation which is inherently economical. In contrast, faulty advising in banks which has become focussed upon due to the extent it has played a part in the recent financial crisis is mentioned neither in curricula nor in educational text books. Numerous private funds have been exposed as unprofitable investments. One reason for this problem is to be found in the marketing staff of...

  9. Efficacy and Toxicity of Zinc Salts as Candidate Topical Microbicides against Vaginal Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, Nigel; Stegall, Rachael; Montano, Raquel; Meador, Michael; Stanberry, Lawrence R.; Milligan, Gregg N.

    2005-01-01

    Zinc salt solutions administered as topical microbicides provided significant protection against herpes simplex virus type 2 infection in a mouse vaginal challenge model. However, at the therapeutic concentration, the salt solutions caused sloughing of sheets of vaginal epithelial cells. These observations limit the utility of zinc salts as microbicides and suggest that the application of zinc solutions to mucosal surfaces has the potential to cause damage that might increase susceptibility to secondary infections at a later time. PMID:15728922

  10. Effect of a topical glucocorticoid, budesonide, on nasal mucosal blood flow as measured with 133Xe wash-out technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ''vasoconstrictor'' effect of dermally applicated steroids is a widely used parameter when determining the potency of glucocorticoids. A similar effect on the nasal mucosa has been suggested as providing an explanation for the clinical effect of topically administered glucocorticoids in the treatment of nasal disorders such as allergic and vasomotor rhinitis. The recently described 133Xe wash-out method was used for the purpose of blood flow determination in 11 healthy subjects. In a randomized double-blind cross-over study, the effect of topically administered budesonide, a non-halogenated glucocorticoid, for 1 week was compared with that of placebo. No difference was found to occur in the mucosal blood flow after the administration of budesonide, as compared with placebo. It seems likely that a more complex activity than vasoconstriction is responsible for the clinical effect in the treatment of nasal disorders, and further research is required in order to clarify this issue. (author)

  11. Misselling as a New Topic of Financial Education? A Didactic Analysis of Investment Advise after the Financial Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Loerwald

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Personal financial investments are, as a matter of course, a topic of economic education because they are a life situation which is inherently economical. In contrast, faulty advising in banks which has become focussed upon due to the extent it has played a part in the recent financial crisis is mentioned neither in curricula nor in educational text books. Numerous private funds have been exposed as unprofitable investments. One reason for this problem is to be found in the marketing staff of the banks who did not invest their customer’s funds securely enough – and the customers did not notice it. What conclusions can be drawn from this for general financial education after the financial crisis? The economic education has failed to address the topic of “faulty advising in banks” as well. On the basis of categorical economic didactics the following contribution will analyse whether one has an exemplary case here upon which students can win generalized, transferable insights. In this context, the topic of personal financial investments will be classified in an efficient manner and the risk of opportunism in advising situations will be analysed with the help of the positive principal-agent theory. The results of this analysis of informational asymmetries within financial markets give direction to the development and revision of curricula in the didactics of economic education. With the following article a sustainable theoretical fundament will be created to underscore the obligatory inclusion of this topic in curricula as well as its realisation for target groups in school text books.

  12. Lavender-thymol as a new topical aromatherapy preparation for episiotomy: A randomised clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzouk, T; Barakat, R; Ragab, A; Badria, F; Badawy, A

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of topical lavender-thymol in promoting episiotomy healing. This placebo-controlled, single-blinded, randomised clinical trial involved 60 primiparous women. REEDA score was used to evaluate the outcome of the trial. On the 7th post-partum day, women in Placebo-treated group had worse Redness, Edema, Ecchymosis, Discharge and Approximation (REEDA) score of 3.93 ± 3.65 compared with those in Lavender-thymol-treated group (2.03 ± 1.7) with significant difference (P = 0.013). Visual analogue Scale (VAS) score for pain at episiotomy in Lavender-thymol-treated group was 3.5 ± 1.9, whereas in Placebo-treated group it was 2.1 ± 2.2 (p = 0.011) for dyschezia, 3.8 ± 1.7 and 2.8 ± 1.6 in Placebo- and Lavender-thymol-treated women, respectively (p = 0.023). At 7th post-partum week, dyspareunia was more severe in Placebo-treated group compared with that in Lavender-thymol-treated group (5.3 ± 2.7 vs 2.7 ± 1.5 and p aromatherapy using lavender-thymol was highly effective, suitable and safe for episiotomy wound care with little or no expected side effects compared with that using placebo. PMID:25384116

  13. Effect of topical anti-glaucoma medications on late pupillary light reflex, as evaluated by pupillometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ba-Ali, Shakoor; Sander, Birgit; Brøndsted, Adam Elias;

    2015-01-01

    short-term effect of the anti-glaucoma drugs on the pupillary light reflex and in particular on the PIPR10-30s. METHODS: In this randomized, double-masked, crossover trial, pupillometry was performed before and after topical administration of latanoprost, dorzolamide, and timolol in 20 healthy subjects...... red light PIPR0-10s (p = 0.02). Pupillary size decreased slightly with timolol (0.1 mm, p = 0.03) and dorzolamide (0.2 mm, p < 0.001), but not with latanoprost. Timolol also reduced the maximal contraction amplitude significantly during red light (p = 0.02). Intraocular pressure was significantly...... reduced by all three drugs after 3.5 h (p < 0.01), while it remained unchanged during the control day (p = 0.3). CONCLUSION: Anti-glaucoma medications did not interfere with the blue light elicited PIPR. Dorzolamide reduced pupil size, while timolol reduced both pupil size and maximal contraction to red...

  14. AI Topics

    OpenAIRE

    Buchanan, Bruce G; Glick, Jonathan

    2002-01-01

    The debut of the AI in the News column elsewhere in this issue of AI Magazine created a good opportunity to introduce the professional community to the AI Topics web site, home of the AI in the news virtual page. Although AI Topics is designed for the lay public, it serves a much larger audience.

  15. Evaluation of a polyherbal topical aerosol spray as a supportive therapy for clinical mastitis in dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Ramasamy Selvam; Ganapa Sureshbabu; Marimuthu Saravanakumar; D'Souza Prashanth

    2015-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the polyherbal topical aerosol spray Wisprec and reg; Advanced (M/S. Natural Remedies Private Limited, India) as a supportive therapy for clinical mastitis in dairy cows. A total of 41 dairy cows suffering from clinical mastitis were selected, and Wisprec and reg; Advanced was sprayed on mastitis affected quarters of udder two times a day along with a parenteral antibiotic till complete recovery. The rectal temperature, pain on palpation of udder, sw...

  16. Angiomatous reaction Kaposi-sarcoma-like as a side effect of topical corticosteroid therapy in lichen sclerosus of the penis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catricalà, Caterina; Marenda, Samantha; Muscardin, Luca Maria; Donati, Pietro; Lepri, Andrea; Eibenschutz, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Lichen sclerosus (LS) is a chronic inflammatory skin condition usually located in the anogenital area. Topical corticosteroid therapy is the first choice treatment which may arrest or delay the progression of the disorder. We report the case of a 74-year-old man presented with a 6-month history of nodular lesions localized on penis. The man had a previous history of genital lesions that had been diagnosed as LS and treated with long-term topical corticosteroid therapy. After 3 months of corticosteroid therapy, the patient observed the appearance of several nodular erythematous lesions on the penis with progressive disappearance of the clinical symptoms of LS. These purple to red asymptomatic angiomatoid nodules resembled the clinical features of Kaposi sarcoma. PMID:19580581

  17. Syntactic Topic Models

    CERN Document Server

    Boyd-Graber, Jordan

    2010-01-01

    The syntactic topic model (STM) is a Bayesian nonparametric model of language that discovers latent distributions of words (topics) that are both semantically and syntactically coherent. The STM models dependency parsed corpora where sentences are grouped into documents. It assumes that each word is drawn from a latent topic chosen by combining document-level features and the local syntactic context. Each document has a distribution over latent topics, as in topic models, which provides the semantic consistency. Each element in the dependency parse tree also has a distribution over the topics of its children, as in latent-state syntax models, which provides the syntactic consistency. These distributions are convolved so that the topic of each word is likely under both its document and syntactic context. We derive a fast posterior inference algorithm based on variational methods. We report qualitative and quantitative studies on both synthetic data and hand-parsed documents. We show that the STM is a more pred...

  18. A Summary of Information on the Behavior of the Yakima Fold Belt as a Structural Entity -- Topical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Last, George V.; Winsor, Kelsey; Unwin, Stephen D.

    2012-08-01

    This document is one in a series of topical reports compiled by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to summarize technical information on selected topics important to the performance of a probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) of the Hanford Site. The purpose of this report is to summarize available data and analyses relevant to the Yakima Fold Belt (YFB) that may bear on the question of whether or not the YFB behaves as a single seismotectonic province in which activity along one fold structure is representative of behavior along all other fold structures. This topic has met with a fairly high level of contention in the expert community and has the potential to result in significant impacts on an evaluation of seismic hazard at the Hanford Site. This report defines the relevant alternative conceptual models relevant to this technical issue and the arguments and data that support those models. It provides a brief description of the technical issue and principal uncertainties; a general overview on the nature of the technical issue, along with alternative conceptual models, supporting arguments and information, and uncertainties; and finally, it suggests some possible approaches for reducing uncertainties regarding this issue.

  19. Estradiol Topical

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a medication that is applied topically to the vagina. Estradiol is in a class of medications called ... swelling, redness, burning, irritation, or itching of the vagina vaginal discharge Some side effects can be serious. ...

  20. New lidocaine lozenge as topical anesthesia compared to lidocaine viscous oral solution before upper gastrointestinal endoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Stine; Treldal, Charlotte; Feldager, Erik;

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the effect and acceptance of a new lidocaine lozenge compared with a lidocaine viscous oral solution as a pharyngeal anesthetic before upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGE), a diagnostic procedure commonly performed worldwide during which many patients experience severe discomfort...

  1. Spotlight Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Spotlight Topic consists of a set of two or more review articles focused on a specific subject in surface science. The topics are recommended by the Board of Editors. A topic may be chosen because it is particularly new or fast-breaking, thus deserving introduction to the general readership. Or, it may be because a topic is especially controversial or confusing, requiring clarification by experts. Each review will give a critical assessment rather than an encyclopedic report. While our editors always will insist on fairness and accuracy, any review which forwards an opinion is bound to be somewhat subjective. Therefore, it is the editors' wish that the set of reviews written by different authors on the same subject matter will provide a broad and balanced viewpoint. It is often the case that an author who is an expert in a technique or method may be especially enthusiastic or critical about this technique or method. A companion review in the set may provide a different viewpoint. We are hopeful that the reader, after studying these reviews and checking some of the key references, will obtain an informed opinion of the subject. We think the set of reviews in a spotlight area will considerably shorten the ``learning time'' that a nonexpert would otherwise need to become knowledgeable about a subject. In this issue, we feature a spotlight topic on oxide surfaces. The set contains an overview article by Jacques Jupille, and four articles written by G. Pacchioni, F. Cosandey and T. E. Madey, B. G. Daniels, R. Lindsay and G. Thornton, and C. Noguera respectively. Of these, the article by Pacchioni has already appeared in SRL 7, 277 (2000). The other three articles appear in this issue. A reader who wishes to suggest a spotlight topic or recommend authors to write such reviews should contact the Editor-in-Chief. We would like to hear from you.

  2. Evaluation of a polyherbal topical aerosol spray as a supportive therapy for clinical mastitis in dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramasamy Selvam

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate the polyherbal topical aerosol spray Wisprec and reg; Advanced (M/S. Natural Remedies Private Limited, India as a supportive therapy for clinical mastitis in dairy cows. A total of 41 dairy cows suffering from clinical mastitis were selected, and Wisprec and reg; Advanced was sprayed on mastitis affected quarters of udder two times a day along with a parenteral antibiotic till complete recovery. The rectal temperature, pain on palpation of udder, swelling of udder, consistency of milk, recovery period and product satisfaction score were assessed to evaluate the efficacy of Wisprec and reg; Spray. Topical application of Wisprec and reg; Advanced Spray have shown a significant improvement (p<0.001 in alleviation of rectal temperature, pain on palpation of udder and swelling of udder, and the consistency of milk was restored to normal after 3 to 4 days of treatment. The results demonstrate that the Wisprec and reg; Advanced spray could be considered as an alternative to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs as a supportive therapy for clinical mastitis of dairy cows. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2015; 2(3.000: 285-290

  3. A dry powder formulation from silk fibroin microspheres as a topical auto-gelling device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faragò, Silvio; Lucconi, Giulia; Perteghella, Sara; Vigani, Barbara; Tripodo, Giuseppe; Sorrenti, Milena; Catenacci, Laura; Boschi, Alessandra; Faustini, Massimo; Vigo, Daniele; Chlapanidas, Theodora; Marazzi, Mario; Torre, Maria Luisa

    2016-06-01

    With the aim of establishing the formulation of a new hydrophilic auto-gelling medical device for biomedical applications, fibroin-based microspheres were prepared. The proposed microspheres were produced by a cost-effective and industrially scalable technique, such as the spray-drying. Spray-dried silk fibroin microspheres were obtained and the effects of different hydrophilic polymer on the process yield, microsphere morphology and conformation transition of fibroin were evaluated. The final auto-gelling formulations were obtained by adding calcium gluconate (as a calcium source for alginate crosslinking) to the prepared microspheres and tested by an in vitro gelling test. This study showed that the combination of fibroin with sodium alginate and poloxamer produced the most promising auto-gelling formulation for specific biomedical applications, such as the treatment of pressure ulcers. PMID:25757645

  4. American National Identity in a Globalized World as a Topic in the Advanced EFL-Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Freese

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to make an issue as complex and controversial as that of ‘national identity’ teachable in the advanced EFL-classroom, it has to be reduced to exemplary aspects and illustrated with concrete examples. Therefore, I will suggest an appropriate ‘Course Opener,’ briefly survey the historical unfolding of the American identity concept in order to provide teachers with the necessary background knowledge, and then suggest two teaching units, the first of which traces some major developments by means of ‘classic’ texts, whereas the second deals with the crucial issue of whether a shared language is a prerequisite for a shared identity.

  5. New insights for an old topic: seagrasses as bioindicators of coastal trace element pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Richir, Jonathan; Lejeune, Pierre; Gobert, Sylvie

    2014-01-01

    The marine magnoliophyte Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile has been widely used since the mid-70th to biomonitor the coastal pollution of the Mediterranean in Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb and/or Fe. In contrast, other trace elements (TEs) like As, V, Ag, Be, Al, Mn, Co, Se, Mo, Sn, Sb and Bi, many of them categorized as TEs of environmental emerging concern, have been subject to nearly no ecotoxicological survey with that species. It has been shown that the French Mediterranean littoral was submitted ...

  6. Balancing Constraints and the Sweet Spot as Coming Topics for Creativity Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Onarheim, Balder; Biskjaer, Michael Mose

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is the introduction of two new concepts, ‘balancing constraints’ and ‘the sweet spot of creativity’, as promising new paths for creativity research. This is motivated by the fact that creativity research shows a growing interest in the fundamental entwinement of constraints...... constrainedness. More concretely, this means by hardening or softening the constraints at hand, resulting in a higher or lower level of constrainedness. Finally, we discuss how future studies can employ and inform these new concepts, which we see as potentially rich for cross-disciplinary creativity research...

  7. Balancing Constraints and the Sweet Spot as Coming Topics for Creativity Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Onarheim, Balder; Biskjaer, Michael Mose

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is the introduction of two new concepts, ‘balancing constraints’ and ‘the sweet spot of creativity’, as promising new paths for creativity research. This is motivated by the fact that creativity research shows a growing interest in the fundamental entwinement of constraints...... constrainedness. More concretely, this means by hardening or softening the constraints at hand, resulting in a higher or lower level of constrainedness. Finally, we discuss how future studies can employ and inform these new concepts, which we see as potentially rich for cross-disciplinary creativity research...

  8. Modern nuclear medicine methods as a topic of biophysics in veterinary training at UVM in Kosice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diagnostic and therapeutic application of ionising radiation is very important in all of branches of medicine including veterinary medicine. In veterinary training at University of Veterinary Medicine in Kosice (UVM), biophysics is a basic subject and it grants physical basis necessary for understanding subsequent subjects such as veterinary surgery, roentgenology, orthopedics. In view of this, traditional methods of radiology such as fluoroscopy, skiagraphy and tomography are explaining. The appearance and application of the theory so called reconstruction of image and also computers led to qualitatively new solutions via the development of modern methods in radiology. Explaining of physical principles, advantages or disadvantages of these new methods is also important in veterinary training although some of them do not use in veterinary practice yet. Two modern methods of nuclear medicine using in diagnostic (SPECT and PET) are discussed bellow. (authors)

  9. Improved Materials for Use as Components in Kraft Black Liquor Recovery Boilers; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) was undertaken to evaluate current and improved materials and materials processing conditions for use as components in kraft black liquor recovery boilers and other unit processes. The main areas addressed were: (1) Improved Black Liquor Nozzles, (2) Weld Overlay of Composite Floor Tubes, and (3) Materials for Lime Kilns. Iron aluminide was evaluated as an alternate material for the nozzles used to inject an aqueous solution known as black liquor into recovery boilers as well for the uncooled lining in the ports used for the nozzles. Although iron aluminide is known to have much better sulfidation resistance in gases than low alloy and stainless steels, it did not perform adequately in the environment where it came into contact with molten carbonate, sulfide and sulfate salts. Weld overlaying carbon steel tubes with a layer of stainless weld metal was a proposed method of extending the life of recovery boiler floor tubes that have experienced considerable fireside corrosion. After exposure under service conditions, sections of weld overlaid floor tubes were removed from a boiler floor and examined metallographically. Examination results indicated satisfactory performance of the tubes. Refractory-lined lime kilns are a critical component of the recovery process in kraft pulp mills, and the integrity of the lining is essential to the successful operation of the kiln. A modeling study was performed to determine the cause of, and possible solutions for, the repeated loss of the refractory lining from the cooled end of a particular kiln. The evaluation showed that the temperature, the brick shape and the coefficient of friction between the bricks were the most important parameters influencing the behavior of the refractory lining

  10. Formalin (0.25%) as topical anti-microbial agent in burns.

    OpenAIRE

    Nair R; Supe A; Samsi A

    1991-01-01

    In a prospective controlled trial, 0.25% formalin spray was compared with 2% silver sulfadiazine cream as the local treatment of burns. Formation and separation of eschar, infection and death rates were recorded. In the group receiving formalin, rates of formation and separation of eschar were significantly more (P less than 0.001 and P less than 0.05 resp.) compared to other group. Infection rate and fatality due to infection were also reduced. Other advantages of formalin are ...

  11. Studies on rheology and microbiological evaluation of hydrotropically gelled starch as topical vehicle for terbinafine hydrochloride

    OpenAIRE

    Rao Kovur; Najmuddin M; Satyanath B

    2008-01-01

    The present study was aimed for the development and evaluation of hydrotropic starch gels of terbinafine hydrochloride which is an allylamine derivative of antifungal agent was formulated by using corn starch and sodium salicylate as hydrotropic salt. The gels were prepared in presence and absence of propylene glycol. The prepared gels were evaluated for in vitro drug release, rheological behavior and microbial studies. The degree of increase in the drug diffusion was found to be in order c...

  12. Nanoemulsion as a carrier to improve the topical anti-inflammatory activity of stem bark extract of Rapanea ferruginea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dal Mas J

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Juarana Dal Mas,1 Tailyn Zermiani,1 Liliani C Thiesen,1 Joana LM Silveira,2 Kathryn ABS da Silva,1 Márcia M de Souza,1 Angela Malheiros,1 Tania MB Bresolin,1 Ruth M Lucinda-Silva1 1NIQFAR, Graduate Program in Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Vale do Itajaí, Itajaí, Santa Catarina, Brazil; 2Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Federal University of Paraná, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil Abstract: The aim of this study was to develop nanoemulsion containing soft extract of stem bark of Rapanea ferruginea to improve the topical delivery and anti-inflammatory activity. The extract of R. ferruginea stem bark was incorporated into the oily phase of the nanoemulsion by the method of phase inversion at low energy. The developed nanoemulsion had an average droplet size of 47.88±8.20 nm and a polydispersibility index of 0.228. Uniformity of size, spherical shape of droplet, and absence of clusters were confirmed by transmission electronic microscopy. The zeta potential was -34.7±1.15 mV. The nanoemulsion showed a moderate degree of skin irritation in the agarose overlay assay in vitro. The content of the extract markers, myrsinoic acids A and B, was 54.10±0.08 and 53.03 µg/g in the formulation, respectively. The formulation demonstrated pseudoplastic and thixotropic rheological behavior. In vitro release of chemical markers was controlled by diffusion mechanism. An extract-loaded nanoemulsion showed a topical anti-inflammatory activity in a croton oil-induced edema ear model, with a decrease in tumor necrosis factor release and myeloperoxidase activity. The nanoemulsion was 160% more efficient than the conventional cream containing 0.13% of the extract. The nanoemulsion showed suitable properties as a carrier for topical use of R. ferruginea extract and the approach for improving the topical anti-inflammatory activity. Keywords: nanotechnology, nanoemulsion, Rapanea ferruginea, anti-inflammatory, phytomedicine

  13. Novel alginate-based nanocarriers as a strategy to include high concentrations of hydrophobic compounds in hydrogels for topical application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, H. T. P.; Munnier, E.; Souce, M.; Perse, X.; David, S.; Bonnier, F.; Vial, F.; Yvergnaux, F.; Perrier, T.; Cohen-Jonathan, S.; Chourpa, I.

    2015-06-01

    The cutaneous penetration of hydrophobic active molecules is of foremost concern in the dermatology and cosmetic formulation fields. The poor solubility in water of those molecules limits their use in hydrophilic forms such as gels, which are favored by patients with chronic skin disease. The aim of this work is to design a novel nanocarrier of hydrophobic active molecules and to determine its potential as an ingredient of a topical form. The nanocarrier consists of an oily core surrounded by a protective shell of alginate, a natural polysaccharide isolated from brown algae. These calcium alginate-based nanocarriers (CaANCs) were prepared at room temperature and without the use of organic solvent by an accelerated nanoemulsification-polymer crosslinking method. The size (hydrodynamic diameter ˜200 nm) and surface charge (zeta potential ˜ - 30 mV) of the CaANCs are both compatible with their application on skin. CaANCs loaded with a fluorescent label were stable in model hydrophilic galenic forms under different storage conditions. Curcumin was encapsulated in CaANCs with an efficiency of ˜95%, fully retaining its antioxidant activity. The application of the curcumin-loaded CaANCs on excised human skin led to a significant accumulation of the active molecules in the upper layers of the skin, asserting the potential of these nanocarriers in active pharmaceutical and cosmetic ingredients topical delivery.

  14. Same-sex families as a topic in the Nova Gorica kindergartens

    OpenAIRE

    Benko, Maja

    2013-01-01

    A family represents the beginning of someone's life. In the family a child acquires patterns, examples and directions for the future life. Families have their own sets of rules and functions which make the difference between them. As the families differ from each other, the same goes for individuals. The gender is one of the first divisions we face in our lives. It is assigned to us, although our opinion is not asked for. The gender is not a division between male and female. The social impact...

  15. Formalin (0.25% as topical anti-microbial agent in burns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nair R

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available In a prospective controlled trial, 0.25% formalin spray was compared with 2% silver sulfadiazine cream as the local treatment of burns. Formation and separation of eschar, infection and death rates were recorded. In the group receiving formalin, rates of formation and separation of eschar were significantly more (P less than 0.001 and P less than 0.05 resp. compared to other group. Infection rate and fatality due to infection were also reduced. Other advantages of formalin are ease of application and the low east.

  16. TOPICAL REVIEW: Metallo-supramolecular modules as a paradigm for materials science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk G Kurth

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Metal ion coordination in discrete or extended metallo-supramolecular assemblies offers ample opportunity to fabricate and study devices and materials that are equally important for fundamental research and new technologies. Metal ions embedded in a specific ligand field offer diverse thermodynamic, kinetic, chemical, physical and structural properties that make these systems promising candidates for active components in functional materials. A key challenge is to improve and develop methodologies for placing these active modules in suitable device architectures, such as thin films or mesophases. This review highlights recent developments in extended, polymeric metallo-supramolecular systems and discrete polyoxometalates with an emphasis on materials science.

  17. Topical report on sources and systems for aquatic plant biomass as an energy resource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, J.C.; Ryther, J.H.; Waaland, R.; Wilson, E.H.

    1977-10-21

    Background information is documented on the mass cultivation of aquatic plants and systems design that is available from the literature and through consultation with active research scientists and engineers. The biology of microalgae, macroalgae, and aquatic angiosperms is discussed in terms of morphology, life history, mode of existence, and ecological significance, as they relate to cultivation. The requirements for growth of these plants, which are outlined in the test, suggest that productivity rates are dependent primarily on the availability of light and nutrients. It is concluded that the systems should be run with an excess of nutrients and with light as the limiting factor. A historical review of the mass cultivation of aquatic plants describes the techniques used in commercial large-scale operations throughout the world and recent small-scale research efforts. This review presents information on the biomass yields that have been attained to date in various geographical locations with different plant species and culture conditions, emphasizing the contrast between high yields in small-scale operations and lower yields in large-scale operations.

  18. Studies on rheology and microbiological evaluation of hydrotropically gelled starch as topical vehicle for terbinafine hydrochloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao Kovur

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed for the development and evaluation of hydrotropic starch gels of terbinafine hydrochloride which is an allylamine derivative of antifungal agent was formulated by using corn starch and sodium salicylate as hydrotropic salt. The gels were prepared in presence and absence of propylene glycol. The prepared gels were evaluated for in vitro drug release, rheological behavior and microbial studies. The degree of increase in the drug diffusion was found to be in order corn starch gel with propylene glycol was greater than corn starch gel without propylene glycol. The microbial studies were carried out in soya bean casein digest medium with Candida albicans as test organisms and were found to be 22.86 ± 0.58 and 20.22 ± 0.65 mm for TCSG (IV and TCS (III, respectively. All the gels exhibited shear thinning. The rheogram indicated that the gel systems are pseudoplastic and exhibited thixotropy. The added propylene glycol has not appreciably altered the apparent viscosity values.

  19. Ciclopirox Topical

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Use the applicator brush attached to the bottle cap to apply ciclopirox topical solution evenly to all affected nails. Also apply the ... the bottle cap and neck and replace the cap tightly on the bottle. Let the solution dry for about 30 seconds before you put ...

  20. Smugglers masters as lobbying. Off scanner at the borders is a topic for politicians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smugglers, who make use of the Ukraine-Slovak border for their business, might be satisfied after last week. The Slovak government ordered the switching off of scanning equipment monitoring the movement of goods by train through the Matovce border line. The modern equipment was substituted by people, who aren't able to check freight cars as effectively as gadgets. Not only in Ukraine are they celebrating this success in corruption, who demanded the shut-off of the scanning equipment The bosses on the Slovak side are also rubbing their hands. As told to TREND by Margareta Grecova, spokeswoman for Cargo Slovakia, 90% of goods that cross through the border at Matovce are unloaded. The most frequently transported commodities are ore, coal, chemical and petroleum products. Smugglers put their consignments among iron ore and coal. They prefer goods with high consumer taxes. Besides alcohol, there are mainly cigarettes. These are put into boxes which are concealed in various parts of the train. Favorite places are on the cars, approximately 15 centimeters underneath loaded ore and coal. Contraband may leave the train anywhere during a journey, most probably with Slovak help. A Ukrainian accomplice provides an alert where to find the smuggled cigarettes. A shadow of suspicion has fallen also on railway employees. If smuggled cigarettes are unloaded at train stations, along the track and at incidental stops, railway cooperation is highly probable. If nothing else they pretend not to see anything and ignore activities happening on a nearby train. This doesn't exclude the cooperation of employees in the firms where the cars unload. Or the customs officers, who receive alerts from Ukraine, and ignore certain parts of the train. It was the scanning devices which was helping to lessen corruption, each device making an archival recording of monitored cars. Moreover, it was proven that the devices could check trains incomparably better than people. Customs started using them for

  1. [Topical contraceptives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alipov, V I; Korkhov, V V

    1982-02-01

    Recently there has been little interest in topical contraceptives. The most popular are the cervical cap and the diaphragm. Other types of mechanical contraceptive devices are being investigated. Standley and Kessler have developed a device for introduction into the cervical canal with a reservoir of spermatocide, it does not block the flow of blood during menstruation. New models of vaginal rings are also being developed which are simple enough for self-insertion and also contain a reservoir of spermatocide. Work is being done on spermatocide-containing sponges in many countries. Another project being investigated is the possibility of using natural proteins, collagens, and other substances which absorb spermatozoids. The ancients used various vaginal suppositories to kill spermatozoids; in the late 19th century quinine sulfate was used for this, and a variety of substances have been used recently. These spermicidal creams also have the advantage of acting as anti-infectious agents in many cases. But they do have some negative effects. They are about 85% effective, are local irritants, and some cause discomfort during intercourse. And it is possible that some are resorbed by the body and act on the liver and other organs. Vaginal globules and suppositories are also popular. The "Kontraceptin-T" brand contains quinosol, boric acid, and tannin. There are also foaming tablets which are mixed with water and then introduced. New locally-active chemical substances are being developed in Japan, West Germany, and the USSR. Kontraceptin-E contains paranonyl-phenoxypolyethylene glycol and sodium dioctylsulfosuccinate. The "Norforks" and other preparations contain mercurial compounds which may turn out to be harmful. The future promises the development of products which will act to prevent fertilization by acting on the hyaluronidase and the acrosine of the spermatozoid, thus preventing it from penetrating the ovum. It would be best to find enzyme inhibitors which are

  2. Bicellar systems as new delivery strategy for topical application of flufenamic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, L; Alonso, C; Rodríguez, G; Cócera, M; López-Iglesias, C; Coderch, L; De la Maza, A; Parra, J L; López, O

    2013-02-28

    In this work, bicellar systems, bilayered disc-shaped nanoaggregates formed in water by phospholipids, are proposed as a novel strategy for delivery of the anti-inflammatory flufenamic acid (FFA) to the skin. A comparative percutaneous penetration study of this drug in bicellar systems and other vehicles was conducted. The effects induced on the skin by the application of FFA in the different vehicles were analyzed by attenuated total reflectance-fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR). Additionally, using the microscopic technique freeze-substitution transmission electron microscopy (FSTEM) and X-ray scattering technique using synchrotron radiation (SAXS-SR), we studied the possible microstructural and organizational changes that were induced in the stratum corneum (SC) lipids and the collagen of the skin by the application of FFA bicellar systems. Bicellar systems exhibited a retarder effect on the percutaneous absorption of FFA with respect to the other vehicles without promoting disruption in the SC barrier function of the skin. Given that skin disruption is one of the main effects caused by inflammation, prevention of disruption and repair of the skin microstructure should be prioritized in anti-inflammatory formulations. PMID:23357252

  3. Development of backfill material as an engineered barrier in the waste package system. Interim topical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A backfill barrier, emplaced between the containerized waste and the host rock, can both protect the other engineered barriers and act as a primary barrier to the release of radionuclides from the waste package. Attributes that a backfill should provide in order to carry out its required function have been identified. Primary attributes are those that have a direct effect upon the release and transport of radionuclides from the waste package. Supportive attributes do not directly affect radionuclide release but are necessary to support the primary attributes. The primary attributes, in order of importance, are: minimize (retard or exclude) the migration of ground water between the host rock and the waste canister system; retard the migration of selected chemical species (corrosive species and radionuclides) in the ground water; control the Eh and pH of the ground water within the waste-package environment. The supportive attributes are: self-seal any cracks or discontinuities in the backfill or interfacing host geology; retain performance properties at all repository temperatures; retain peformance properties during and after receiving repository levels of gamma radiation; conduct heat from the canister system to the host geology; retain mechanical properties and provide resistance to applied mechanical forces; retain morphological stability and compatibility with structural barriers and with the host geology for required period of time. Screening and selection of candidate backfill materials has resulted in a preliminary list of materials for testing. Primary emphasis has been placed on sodium and calcium bentonites and zeolites used in conjunction with quartz sand or crushed host rock. Preliminary laboratory studies have concentrated on permeability, sorption, swelling pressure, and compaction properties of candidate backfill materials

  4. Development of backfill material as an engineered barrier in the waste package system- Interim topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheelwright, E.J.; Hodges, F.N.; Bray, L.A.; Westsik, J.H. Jr.; Lester, D.H.; Nakai, T.L.; Spaeth, M.E.; Stula, R.T.

    1981-09-01

    A backfill barrier, emplaced between the containerized waste and the host rock, can both protect the other engineered barriers and act as a primary barrier to the release of radionuclides from the waste package. Attributes that a backfill should provide in order to carry out its required function have been identified. Primary attributes are those that have a direct effect upon the release and transport of radionuclides from the waste package. Supportive attributes do not directly affect radionuclide release but are necessary to support the primary attributes. The primary attributes, in order of importance, are: minimize (retard or exclude) the migration of ground water between the host rock and the waste canister system; retard the migration of selected chemical species (corrosive species and radionuclides) in the ground water; control the Eh and pH of the ground water within the waste-package environment. The supportive attributes are: self-seal any cracks or discontinuities in the backfill or interfacing host geology; retain performance properties at all repository temperatures; retain peformance properties during and after receiving repository levels of gamma radiation; conduct heat from the canister system to the host geology; retain mechanical properties and provide resistance to applied mechanical forces; retain morphological stability and compatibility with structural barriers and with the host geology for required period of time. Screening and selection of candidate backfill materials has resulted in a preliminary list of materials for testing. Primary emphasis has been placed on sodium and calcium bentonites and zeolites used in conjunction with quartz sand or crushed host rock. Preliminary laboratory studies have concentrated on permeability, sorption, swelling pressure, and compaction properties of candidate backfill materials.

  5. Thermosensitive chitosan-based hydrogel as a topical ocular drug delivery system of latanoprost for glaucoma treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yung-Hsin; Tsai, Tung-Hu; Jhan, Yong-Yu; Chiu, Allen Wen-Hsiang; Tsai, Kun-Ling; Chien, Chian-Shiu; Chiou, Shih-Hwa; Liu, Catherine Jui-Lin

    2016-06-25

    Ocular hypertension is a major risk factor for the development and progression of glaucoma. Frequent and long-term application of latanoprost often causes undesirable local side effects, which are a major cause of therapeutic failure due to loss of persistence in using this glaucoma medical therapy. In the present study, we developed a thermosensitive chitosan-based hydrogel as a topical eye drop formulation for the sustained release of latanoprost to control ocular hypertension. The developed formulation without preservatives may improve compliance and possibly even efficacy. The results of this study support its biocompatibility and sustained-release profile both in vitro and in vivo. After topical application of latanoprost-loaded hydrogel, triamcinolone acetonide-induced elevated intraocular pressure was significantly decreased within 7 days and remained at a normal level for the following 21 days in rabbit eyes. This newly developed chitosan-based hydrogel may provide a non-invasive alternative to traditional anti-glaucoma eye drops for glaucoma treatment. PMID:27083831

  6. Nanoemulsion Therapy for Burn Wounds Is Effective as a Topical Antimicrobial Against Gram-Negative and Gram-Positive Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolgachev, Vladislav A; Ciotti, Susan M; Eisma, Rone; Gracon, Stephen; Wilkinson, J Erby; Baker, James R; Hemmila, Mark R

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the antimicrobial efficacy of two different nanoemulsion (NE) formulations against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in an in vivo rodent scald burn model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized and received a partial-thickness scald burn. Eight hours after burn injury, the wound was inoculated with 1 × 10(8) colony-forming units of Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Staphylococcus aureus. Treatment groups consisted of two different NE formulations (NB-201 and NB-402), NE vehicle, or saline. Topical application of the treatment was performed at 16 and 24 hours after burn injury. Animals were killed 32 hours after burn injury, and skin samples were obtained for quantitative wound culture and determination of dermal inflammation markers. In a separate set of experiments, burn wound progression was measured histologically after 72 hours of treatment. Both NE formulations (NB-201 and NB-402) significantly reduced burn wound infections with either P. aeruginosa or S. aureus and decreased median bacterial counts at least three logs when compared with animals with saline applications (p wound as measured by myeloperoxidase (MPO) assay and histopathology (p wound progression 72 hours after injury. Topically applied NB-201 and NB-402 are effective in decreasing Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria growth in burn wounds, reducing inflammation, and abrogating burn wound progression. PMID:26182074

  7. Exploring the Abyss. The Financial Crisis of 2008 ff. as a Central Topic of Problem-Centered Social Science Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsten Hippe

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The financial crisis of 2008 ff. and financial crises in general should be a central topic of social science education because these crises are a recurrent and therefore structural feature of modern capitalism which has severe consequences for citizens’ quality of life. Hence, the citizenry should know how to prevent such developments which endanger its well-being in a massive way. Therefore, learners should understand the relationship between the quality of people’s everyday lives and those economic institutions and political decisions which have led to the current mess. They should be enabled to critically evaluate the current misregulation of the financial sector and the economy in order to identify possible policy measures to prevent or at least to mitigate future crises. By educating (young citizens in this way, the (future general public can – as a necessary counterweight to the lobbyism of the finance industry – exert more prudent political pressure which gives politicians a greater incentive to regulate the financial sector and the economy in a manner which is beneficial for the vast majority of the people instead of for a small elite. Two core concepts of the social sciences can be used to make the roots of the seemingly complex topic more understandable for learners: liability and inequality.

  8. Phosphatidylcholine liposomes as carriers to improve topical ascorbic acid treatment of skin disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serrano G

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Gabriel Serrano,1,* Patricia Almudéver,2,* Juan-Manuel Serrano,1 Javier Milara,2–5 Ana Torrens,1 Inmaculada Expósito,1 Julio Cortijo2–51Sesderma Laboratorios, 2Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Valencia, 3Clinical Research Unit, University General Hospital Consortium, 4CIBERES, Health Institute Carlos III, 5Research Foundation of the University General Hospital of Valencia, Valencia, Spain*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Liposomes have been intensively investigated as carriers for different applications in dermatology and cosmetics. Ascorbic acid has potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties preventing photodamage of keratinocytes; however, due to its instability and low skin penetration, an appropriate carrier is mandatory to obtain desirable efficacy. The present work investigates the ability of a specific ascorbate phosphatidylcholine (PC liposome to overcome the barrier of the stratum corneum and deliver the active agent into the dermis to prevent photodamage. Abdominal skin from ten patients was used. Penetration of PC liposomes was tested ex vivo in whole skin, epidermis, and dermis by means of fluorescein and sodium ascorbate. Histology and Franz diffusion cells were used to monitor the percutaneous absorption. Ultraviolet (UV-high performance liquid chromatography was used to analyze diffusion of sodium ascorbate through the different skin layers, while spectrofluorimetry and fluorescent microscopy were used for fluorescein monitoring. UVA/UVB irradiation of whole skin was applied to analyze the antioxidant capacity by Trolox assay and anti-inflammatory effects by tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 1 beta enzyme-linked immunoassay. PC liposomal formulation improved skin penetration of fluorescein and ascorbate. Fluorescein PC liposomes showed better diffusion through epidermis than dermis while ascorbate liposomes showed better diffusion through the dermis than

  9. Novel aqueous chitosan-based dispersions as efficient drug delivery systems for topical use. Rheological, textural and release studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucero, M J; Ferris, C; Sánchez-Gutiérrez, C A; Jiménez-Castellanos, M R; de-Paz, M-V

    2016-10-20

    The use of a novel cross-linked thiolated chitosan (CTS) was investigated as the main component of aqueous dispersions (at 1% and 3% w/v) for topical drug delivery systems. The nonionic theophiline (Th) and the cationic diltiazem(.)HCl (Dt) (at 0.5% w/v concentration) were used as model drugs. All aqueous dispersions behaved as viscoelastic fluids. The CTS 1% dispersions showed predominance of viscous component and low viscosity. However, in the CTS 3% dispersions, both the elastic component and high viscosities prevailed. So, texture parameters improved from CTS 1% to 3% dispersions and CTS 3%-Dt showed greater cohesion and adhesion than CTS 3%-Th, but always below CTS alone. All dispersions showed a Fickian diffusion mechanism. Despite release profiles of both drugs almost fully overlapped at 1% CTS, diffusion coefficients confirmed Dt released faster than Th at 3% CTS. The rheological behavior and the chemical nature of the drugs explained these results. PMID:27474615

  10. Syntacticized topics in Kurmuk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben

    2015-01-01

    This article argues that Kurmuk, a little-described Western Nilotic language, is characterized by a syntacticized topic whose grammatical relation is variable. In this language, declarative clauses have as topic an obligatory preverbal NP which is either a subject, an object or an adjunct. The gr...

  11. ASSESSMENT OF EFFICACY OF TOPICAL PHENYTOIN SODIUM DRESSING AS COMPARED TO CONVENTIONAL MOIST DRESSING IN THE MANAGEMENT OF LEG ULCERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srikanth Reddy

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Chronic leg ulcers are one of the most common surgical conditions in surgical practice. From times immemorial, many methods have been tried to treat these types of ulcers. Many techniques have been tried over the centuries to aid in healing of chronic leg ulcers, but there exists no ideal dressing till date.(1 Phenytoin Sodium, a chemical used in management of Epilepsy, is known to produce gingival Hyperplasia, an indirect evidence to enhanced Fibroblastic activity. The present study was conducted to assess the efficacy of topical Phenytoin solution dressing as compared to conventional moist dressing in the healing process of chronic leg ulcers. Phenytoin Sodium being a cheap drug, is likely to cut down, the cost burden on the individual and the Society, if proven effective.

  12. An open randomized comparative study to test the efficacy and safety of oral terbinafine pulse as a monotherapy and in combination with topical ciclopirox olamine 8% or topical amorolfine hydrochloride 5% in the treatment of onychomycosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaiswal Amit

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Onychomycosis is a fungal infection of nails caused by dermatophytes, yeasts and molds. Aims: To study the efficacy and safety of oral terbinafine pulse as a monotherapy and in combination with topical ciclopirox olamine 8% or topical amorolfine hydrochloride 5% in onychomycosis. Methods: A clinical comparative study was undertaken on 96 Patients of onychomycosis during the period between August 2005 to July 2006. Forty-eight patients were randomly assigned in group A to receive oral terbinafine 250 mg, one tablet twice daily for seven days every month (pulse therapy; 24 patients in group B to receive oral terbinafine pulse therapy plus topical ciclopirox olamine 8% to be applied once daily at night on all affected nails; and 24 patients in group C to receive oral terbinafine pulse therapy plus topical amorolfine hydrochloride 5% to be applied once weekly at night on all the affected nails. The treatment was continued for four months. The patients were evaluated at four weekly intervals till sixteen weeks and then at 24 and 36 weeks. Results: We observed clinical cure in 71.73, 82.60 and 73.91% patients in groups A, B and C, respectively; Mycological cure rates against dematophytes were 88.9, 88.9 and 85.7 in groups A, B and C, respectively. The yeast mycological cure rates were 66.7, 100 and 50 in groups A, B and C, respectively. In the case of nondermatophytes, the overall response was poor: one out of two cases (50% responded in group A, while one case each in group B and group C did not respond at all. Conclusion: Terbinafine pulse therapy is effective and safe alternative in treatment of onychomycosis due to dermatophytes; and combination therapy with topical ciclopirox or amorolfine do not show any significant difference in efficacy in comparison to monotherapy with oral terbinafine.

  13. The Big Five, Self-Esteem, and Narcissism as Predictors of the Topics People Write About in Facebook Status Updates

    OpenAIRE

    Marshall, TC; Lefringhausen, K; Ferenczi, N

    2015-01-01

    Status updates are one of the most popular features of Facebook, but few studies have examined the traits and motives that influence the topics that people choose to update about. In this study, 555 Facebook users completed measures of the Big Five, self-esteem, narcissism, motives for using Facebook, and frequency of updating about a range of topics. Results revealed that extraverts more frequently updated about their social activities and everyday life, which was motivated by their use of F...

  14. Water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA) can act as a penetration enhancer for topically applied substances

    OpenAIRE

    Sterry, Wolfram; Ackermann, Hanns; Hoffmann, Gerd; Schanzer, Sabine; Meyer, Lars; Grone, Diego; Otberg, Nina; Lademann, Jürgen

    2008-01-01

    Background: Water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA) irradiation has been shown to enhance penetration of clinically used topically applied substances in humans through investigation of functional effects of penetrated substances like vasoconstriction by cortisone. Aim of the study: Investigation of the influence of wIRA irradiation on the dermatopharmacokinetics of topically applied substances by use of optical methods, especially to localize penetrating substances, in a prospective randomised contr...

  15. An investigation into the role of dendrimers as potential enhancers of the dermal delivery of topically applied chlorhexidine

    OpenAIRE

    Judd, Amy Maryanne

    2013-01-01

    The reduction of bacteria on the skin results in prophylactic and therapeutic benefits by reducing the occurrence of skin infections. Currently, chlorhexidine digluconate, a conventional topical antiseptic, permeates the skin poorly leaving viable opportunistic pathogens below the superficial layers of the stratum corneum. The aim of this study was to use polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers to enhance the topical delivery of chlorhexidine digluconate to improve its antimicrobial efficacy.

  16. The Genetic Principle as a Link between Everyday Knowledge and Politics - The Art-of-Teaching Workshop about the Topic "Future"

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas Petrik

    2004-01-01

    This article demonstrates, how didactics of social sciences can turn its focus from theoretical conceptions to the arrangement of learning processes. It simulates a best practice ("Lehrkunst") workshop (I.1.) which compares seven teaching units about the key topic "future" (I.2.). Two typical problems become concrete: exchangeable topics and the transfer to abstract categories. The genetic principle is introduced as a possible remedy: It combines categories with concepts and chooses special t...

  17. Water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA can act as a penetration enhancer for topically applied substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sterry, Wolfram

    2008-07-01

    increased penetration depth compared to the non-irradiated skin (mode A: The ratio of the amount of the dye in the deeper (second 10% of the stratum corneum to the amount of the dye in the upper 10% of the stratum corneum showed medians and interquartile ranges for mode A of 0.017 (0.007/0.050, for mode B of 0.084 (0.021/0.106, for mode C of 0.104 (0.069/0.192 (difference between modes: p=0.0112, significant; comparison mode A with mode C: p<0.01, significant. In contrast to fluorescein, the lipophilic curcumin showed no differences in the penetration kinetics, in reference to whether the skin was irradiated with wIRA or not. These effects were confirmed by laser scanning microscopy. Water-filtered infrared-A irradiation increased the hydration of the stratum corneum: transepidermal water loss rose from approximately 8.8 g m-2 h-1 before wIRA irradiation to 14.2 g m-2 h-1 after wIRA irradiation and skin hydration rose from 67 to 87 relative units. Skin surface temperature increased from 32.8°C before wIRA to 36.4°C after wIRA irradiation. Discussion: The better penetration of the hydrophilic dye fluorescein after or during skin irradiation (modes B and C can be explained by increased hydration of the stratum corneum by irradiation with wIRA. Conclusions: As most topically applied substances for the treatment of patients are mainly hydrophilic, wIRA can be used to improve the penetration of substances before or after application of substances – in the first case even of thermolabile substances – with a broad clinical relevance as a contact free alternative to an occlusive dressing.

  18. Serum corticosterone as a quantitative test of the phlogistic potency of various agents topically applied in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giagnoni, G; Marsi, A; Parolaro, D; Sala, M; Gori, E

    1976-12-01

    The application into the rat conjunctiva of various phlogistic agents, such as croton oil, mustard oil and formaldehyde, elicits an increase of serum corticosterone linearly related to the log of the applied concentrations, so that from their parallelized regression lines it is possible to calculate the phlogistic potency of each tested agent in reference to croton oil. The time kinetic of such an increase (elicited by croton oil) is compared with that of two other parameters previously adopted as indirect quantitative indices of the phlogosis: the adrenal ascorbic acid depletion and the liver tyrosine-alpha-ketoglutarate transaminase increase. Serum corticosterone is shown to be the quickest and the most sensitive of the adopted indices, even if the phlogistic potency of the tested agents and the precision of these evaluations substantially coincides whatsoever the index adopted. Finally the pathways of adrenocortical activation are investigated and it is shown that the activation may be peripherally blocked by topical application of corticosteroids (but not of local anesthetics) and centrally by hypophysectomy or parenteral administration of pentobarbital plus morphine. PMID:13751

  19. Preoperative subconjunctival injection of mitomycin C versus intraoperative topical application as an adjunctive treatment for surgical removal of primary pterygium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehab M Ghoneim

    2011-01-01

    Materials and Methods : Seventy eyes of 70 patients with primary pterygia were randomly allocated to two groups. The first group (Group A, 35 eyes received 0.1 ml of 0.15 mg/ml of subconjunctival MMC injected into the head of the pterygium 24 h before surgical excision with the bare sclera technique. The second group (Group B 35 eyes underwent surgical removal with the bare sclera technique with intraoperative application of MMC (0.15 mg/ml over bare sclera for 3 min. The study was performed between March 2007 and December 2008, and follow up was performed for 1 year postoperatively. Differences between frequencies in both groups were compared by the Chi-square test or Fisher exact test. Differences between means in both groups were compared by Student′s t-test. P 0.05. Postoperatively, scleral thinning occurred in one eye in each group that resolved by 5 months postoperatively. No serious postoperative complications occurred in either group. Conclusion : Preoperative local injection of 0.15 mg/ml MMC is as effective as intraoperative topical application of 0.15 mg/ml MMC for preventing pterygium recurrence after surgical removal.

  20. Non-occlusive topical exposure of human skin in vitro as model for cytotoxicity testing of irritant compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lönnqvist, Susanna; Briheim, Kristina; Kratz, Gunnar

    2016-02-01

    Testing of irritant compounds has traditionally been performed on animals and human volunteers. Animal testing should always be restricted and for skin irritancy mice and rabbits hold poor predictive value for irritant potential in humans. Irritant testing on human volunteers is restricted by the duration subjects can be exposed, and by the subjectivity of interpreting the visual signs of skin irritation. We propose an irritant testing system using viable human full thickness skin with the loss of cell viability in the exposed skin area as end point measurement. Skin was exposed to sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) at 20% concentration by non-occluded topical exposure to establish a positive control response and subsequent test compounds were statistically compared with the 20% SDS response. Cell viability and metabolism were measured with 3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The model presents correlation between increased concentration of SDS and decreased viability of cells in the exposed skin area (R(2) = 0.76). We propose the model to be used for cytotoxicity testing of irritant compounds. With fully intact barrier function, the model comprises all cells present in the skin with quantifiable end point measurement. PMID:26446981

  1. Comparative study of the topical effectiveness of the Andiroba oil (Carapa guianensis) and DEET 50% as repellent for Aedes sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miot, Hélio Amante; Batistella, Rafaelle Fernandes; Batista, Khristiani de Almeida; Volpato, Dimas Eduardo Carneiro; Augusto, Leonardo Silveira Teixeira; Madeira, Newton Goulart; Haddad, Vidal; Miot, Luciane Donida Bartoli

    2004-01-01

    DEET (N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide) is nowadays the most effective mosquito repellent available, however, its use can present some topical and systemic side effects. Some botanical compositions, as Andiroba (Carapa guianensis), have been proved repellent properties at low cost and toxicity. An experimental study was driven involving four volunteers submitting their forearms covered with Andiroba oil at 100%, DEET 50%, refined soy oil, Andiroba oil 15% and in the absence of products, directly to healthy females of Aedes sp. The times of first and third bites were checked. The results showed that the median of the first bite without any product was 17.5s and the third bite, 40.0s. In the soy oil, the bites happened in 60.0s and 101.5s, in the presence of Andiroba oil 100%, in 56.0s and 142.5s and in Andiroba oil 15%, in 63.0s and 97.5s. The volunteers using DEET 50% had not received bites after 3600s in most of the experiments (p Andiroba oil compared to the soy oil, forearm without product and Andiroba oil 15%, showed discreet superiority (p Andiroba oil presents discreet repellent effect against bite of Aedes sp., being significantly inferior to DEET 50%. PMID:15517027

  2. The Role of Topical Brimonidine Tartrate Gel as a Novel Therapeutic Option for Persistent Facial Erythema Associated with Rosacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Andrew William; Johnson, Sandra Marchese

    2015-09-01

    Rosacea is a chronic inflammatory skin condition that commonly presents with persistent facial erythema with or without the coincident presence of flushing, telangiectasias, inflammatory papules or pustules, phymatous changes, or ocular involvement. Patients often present with a constellation of various signs and symptoms of the disease, and an individualized treatment plan should be tailored to a patient's unique clinical presentation. Previously available medications for rosacea have all targeted the inflammatory erythematous papules and pustules frequently associated with the disease, leaving a therapeutic gap for the common manifestation of persistent facial erythema. Brimonidine tartrate 0.33% gel was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in August 2013 as the first medication available for the topical treatment of persistent facial erythema associated with rosacea. Brimonidine gel is a highly selective α2-adrenergic receptor agonist with potent vasoconstrictive effects, which leads to significant reduction of persistent facial erythema in the majority of patients when applied once daily. Based on large-scale clinical trials and post-marketing reports, brimonidine gel has maintained a good safety profile with a minority of patients experiencing adverse effects from its use, most of which are cutaneous in nature, mild-to-moderate in degree, occur early after initiation of treatment, often resolve spontaneously with continued use, and generally resolve after discontinuation of use. Among the reported adverse effects, two distinct manifestations of worsened erythema have been described. Brimonidine gel can be integrated into a treatment regimen along with concomitant therapies for facial papules and pustules with no increased risk of adverse events with combination therapy. Education about optimal application methods, setting reasonable expectations for treatment, and minimizing inflammation are important factors for the successful use of brimonidine

  3. Development of water-soluble polyanionic carbosilane dendrimers as novel and highly potent topical anti-HIV-2 microbicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briz, Verónica; Sepúlveda-Crespo, Daniel; Diniz, Ana Rita; Borrego, Pedro; Rodes, Berta; de La Mata, Francisco Javier; Gómez, Rafael; Taveira, Nuno; Muñoz-Fernández, Mª Ángeles

    2015-08-01

    The development of topical microbicide formulations for vaginal delivery to prevent HIV-2 sexual transmission is urgently needed. Second- and third-generation polyanionic carbosilane dendrimers with a silicon atom core and 16 sulfonate (G2-S16), napthylsulfonate (G2-NS16) and sulphate (G3-Sh16) end-groups have shown potent and broad-spectrum anti-HIV-1 activity. However, their antiviral activity against HIV-2 and mode of action have not been probed. Cytotoxicity, anti-HIV-2, anti-sperm and antimicrobial activities of dendrimers were determined. Analysis of combined effects of triple combinations with tenofovir and raltegravir was performed by using CalcuSyn software. We also assessed the mode of antiviral action on the inhibition of HIV-2 infection through a panel of different in vitro antiviral assays: attachment, internalization in PBMCs, inactivation and cell-based fusion. Vaginal irritation and histological analysis in female BALB/c mice were evaluated. Our results suggest that G2-S16, G2-NS16 and G3-Sh16 exert anti-HIV-2 activity at an early stage of viral replication inactivating the virus, inhibiting cell-to-cell HIV-2 transmission, and blocking the binding of gp120 to CD4, and the HIV-2 entry. Triple combinations with tenofovir and raltegravir increased the anti-HIV-2 activity, consistent with synergistic interactions (CIwt: 0.33-0.66). No vaginal irritation was detected in BALB/c mice after two consecutive applications for 2 days with 3% G2-S16. Our results have clearly shown that G2-S16, G2-NS16 and G3-Sh16 have high potency against HIV-2 infection. The modes of action confirm their multifactorial and non-specific ability, suggesting that these dendrimers deserve further studies as potential candidate microbicides to prevent vaginal/rectal HIV-1/HIV-2 transmission in humans.

  4. Charles Darwin as a Celebrity

    OpenAIRE

    Browne, Janet E

    2003-01-01

    Several recent works in sociology examine the manufacture of public identities through the notion of celebrity. This paper explores the imagery of Charles Darwin as a nineteenth-century scientific celebrity by comparing the public character deliberately manufactured by Darwin and his friends with images constructed by the public as represented here by caricatures in humorous magazines of the era. It is argued that Darwin’s outward persona drew on a subtle tension between public and private. T...

  5. Listening comprehension for sentences: the accessibility of referents for pronouns as a function of age, topic continuity, and pronoun emphasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kertoy, M K

    1991-12-01

    An auditory comprehension task was employed to determine how subjects (20 first graders, 20 fifth graders, and 20 adults) use topic continuity and contrastive emphasis in the assignment of referents for pronouns in sentences. Significant differences in performance for emphasized and unemphasized pronouns were found suggesting that subjects used contrastive emphasis when assigning referents for pronouns. Fifth graders overused the cue of topic continuity in assigning referents for emphasized pronouns. This effect has not been shown previously in studies of children's understanding of pronomial reference. An interaction between age and pronoun emphasis was also significant. This interaction suggests that developmental changes continued to take place in the learning of cues for resolving pronouns by school age children. PMID:1770333

  6. Concept mapping as a method to teach an evidence-based educated medical topic: a comparative study in medical students

    OpenAIRE

    Saeidifard, Farzane; Heidari, Kazem; Foroughi, Moein; Soltani, Akbar

    2014-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to compare concept mapping with lecture-based method in teaching of evidence based educated topic to medical students. Methods This randomized controlled trial was carried out on medical students during sixth year of 7-year MD curriculum clerkship phase. Cluster randomization was used to divide students into intervention and control groups. Both groups, at the beginning, were taught “Diabetic Ketoacidosis” (DKA) using evidence-based tool named Critic...

  7. Mechlorethamine Topical

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... used to treat early stage mycosis fungoides-type cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL; a cancer of the ... as well as any products such as vitamins, minerals, or other dietary supplements. You should bring this ...

  8. Characters and Topical Diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Rune

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to contribute to our understanding of the difference between the bestseller and the non-bestseller in nonfiction. It is noticed that many bestsellers in nonfiction belongs to the sub-genre of creative nonfiction, but also that the topics in this kind of literature is...... largely ignored by the critics. Thus, the article tests how topics may work in creative nonfiction. Two Danish bestsellers belonging to the genre, Frank’s Mit smukke genom ( My Beautiful Genome), about genomics, and Buk-Swienty’s Slagtebænk Dybbøl ( ‘Slaughter-bench Dybbøl’), a history book, are chosen as...... cases and analysed using a slightly modified motif model by Johansen. The result is that in both books the main topic is treated from a double perspective, but also that six out of seven secondary topics, or motifs, are treated as well. It is concluded that also in a topical sense creative nonfiction...

  9. Topics in Physical Mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Marathe, Kishore

    2010-01-01

    This title adopts the view that physics is the primary driving force behind a number of developments in mathematics. Previously, science and mathematics were part of natural philosophy and many mathematical theories arose as a result of trying to understand natural phenomena. This situation changed at the beginning of last century as science and mathematics diverged. These two fields are collaborating once again; 'Topics in Mathematical Physics' takes the reader through this journey. The author discusses topics where the interaction of physical and mathematical theories has led to new points o

  10. Comparison of hyaluronic acid-containing topical eye drops with carbomer-based topical ocular gel as a tear replacement in canine keratoconjunctivitis sicca: A prospective study in twenty five dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Williams

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a hyaluronic acid containing eye drop in ameliorating ocular surface pathology and discomfort in canine keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS. Twenty five dogs with KCS treated with a topical carbomer (CA-based tear replacement gel were moved to treatment with a hyaluronic acid (HA-containing tear replacement eye drop. Dogs were subject to a full ophthalmic examination at the beginning of the study and after two and four weeks of treatment, Schirmer tear tests (STTs were performed at each examination. Conjunctival hyperemia, ocular discharge and ocular irritation were evaluated and scored on a 0-3 semi-quantitative scale. Values were compared before and after 4 weeks of treatment using a paired t-test. Evaluation scores were compared using the Wilcoxon signed rank test. The transfer from CA-based to HA-containing tear replacement significantly decreased the conjunctival hyperemia score from 2.12 ± 0.73 to 1.26 ± 0.59 and ocular discomfort was lowered from 2.11 ± 0.97 to 0.93 ± 0.75. Ocular discharge was reduced from a score of 1.04 ± 0.82 to 0.70 ± 0.53, however, the decrease did not reach statistical significance. Schirmer tear test was increased with statistical significance (p < 0.001 but given that the increase was only from 5.42 ± 3.50 to 6.19 ± 3.86 mm min-1; this was not considered clinically significant. This study demonstrated that HA-containing eye drops used twice daily in dogs with KCS had greater ameliorative effects on ocular surface health and discomfort than did CA-based topical gels used as or more frequently.

  11. Selected topics in magnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, L C

    1993-01-01

    Part of the ""Frontiers in Solid State Sciences"" series, this volume presents essays on such topics as spin fluctuations in Heisenberg magnets, quenching of spin fluctuations by high magnetic fields, and kondo effect and heavy fermions in rare earths amongst others.

  12. Historical Topics in Algebra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, Inc., Reston, VA.

    This is a reprint of the historical capsules dealing with algebra from the 31st Yearbook of NCTM,"Historical Topics for the Mathematics Classroom." Included are such themes as the change from a geometric to an algebraic solution of problems, the development of algebraic symbolism, the algebraic contributions of different countries, the origin and…

  13. A Preliminary, Open Label, Single-arm Study of Calcipotriene/Betamethasone Topical Suspension as a Supplement to Non-biologic Systemic Therapy for Psoriasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupetsky, Erine; Houston, Neil A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Calcipotriene/betamethasone topical suspension is a topical therapy that is often used as monotherapy as a first-line treatment for plaque psoriasis. The objective of this preliminary, open label, single arm study was to determine the efficacy of adding a topical suspension to a traditional systemic therapy for psoriasis, either methotrexate or acitretin. Methods: In this exploratory study, eight patients with chronic plaque psoriasis who were on stable methotrexate or acitretin treatment without clearance were treated with once-daily calcipotriene/betamethasone topical suspension. Subjects completed five study visits over 12 weeks. Primary outcome measure was improvement of two or more points in Investigator Global Assessment. Secondary endpoints included change in Body Surface Area, Dermatology Life Quality Index, and Patient’s Global Assessment from baseline to Week 12. Results: Overall, the median decrease in Investigator Global Assessment over 12 weeks was 1.5 points, with 50 percent of subjects experiencing a drop of two or more points in Investigator Global Assessment. All eight subjects had a reduction in Body Surface Area and Patient’s Global Assessment. There was a mean decrease in Dermatology Life Quality Index score of 78.9 percent, showing improved patient quality of life. In addition, all patients tolerated the treatment well and 6 of 8 patients had improved satisfaction level with their treatment by the end of the study. Conclusion: The topical suspension was effective and well-tolerated in conjunction with stable methotrexate or acitretin treatment in all eight patients in this study. These results support the feasibility of a larger scale study to further investigate the efficacy of these treatment combinations. The trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01761019. PMID:27462386

  14. Topical corticosteroid addiction and phobia

    OpenAIRE

    Aparajita Ghosh; Sujata Sengupta; Arijit Coondoo; Amlan Kusum Jana

    2014-01-01

    Corticosteroids, one of the most widely prescribed topical drugs, have been used for about six decades till date. However, rampant misuse and abuse down the years has given the drug a bad name. Topical steroid abuse may lead to two major problems which lie at the opposing ends of the psychosomatic spectrum. Topical steroid addiction, a phenomenon that came to be recognized about a decade after the introduction of the molecule is manifested as psychological distress and rebound phenomenon on s...

  15. Du coq à l’âne : la question sarroise au prisme de la métaphore animalière dans la caricature allemande (1945-1956)

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Marie-Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    Dans le contexte du « conflit sarrois » (1945-1956), partisans et adversaires du détachement de la Sarre se livrèrent à une bataille d’images où la caricature devint une arme. Sous la plume des dessinateurs de presse allemands et sarrois opposés à l’union économique du territoire à la France, l’animalisation fut ainsi mise au service de la dévalorisation de l’ennemi politique : la France, et en premier lieu son représentant à Sarrebruck Gilbert Grandval, et le Ministerpräsident sarrois Johann...

  16. 反拿破仑之“冷战”在文学和漫画中的表现%The Manifestation of the "Cold War" against Napoleon in Literature and Caricature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    越野刚; 米慧

    2012-01-01

    " Cold" is not only a term in meteorology, but it also obtains its "national" identity and cuhural connotation in Russian folk literature and caricature. This paper offers an analysis of the "cold" image based on the war cartoons and essays about war printed during the Russian Patriotic War of 1812.%"严寒"不仅是一个气候学词汇,在俄罗斯民间文学和漫画中同样也可获得"民族"身份和文化内涵。本文依据1812年俄国卫国战争时期印发的战争漫画和关于战争的散文作品,对"严寒"形象予以分析。

  17. Alkyl polyglucoside-stabilized emulsion as a prospective vehicle for Usnea barbata CO2-supercritical extract: Assessing stability, safety and efficiency of a topical formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žugić Ana R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial activity of Usnea barbata especially against bacteria involved in pathogenesis of various skin conditions has been well documented in literature. Nevertheless, there are no papers dealing with formulation of its isolates into topical preparations for treatment of skin infections. In present study, alkyl polyglucoside (APG - based vehicle was developed as carrier of U. barbata CO2-supercritical extract (U-SE that demonstrated the best antimicrobial potential in preliminary screening. For comparison, chosen extract in the same concentration and using the same procedure was incorporated into a pharmacopoeial vehicle. Comparative evaluation of physicochemical stability, efficiency and safety proved APG-based vehicle to possess certain preferential features as carrier of U-SE compared to the reference one, composing a topical formulation with potential clinical relevance in treatment of skin infections. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III45017 i br. TR34031

  18. Differential Topic Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Changyou; Buntine, Wray; Ding, Nan; Xie, Lexing; Du, Lan

    2015-02-01

    In applications we may want to compare different document collections: they could have shared content but also different and unique aspects in particular collections. This task has been called comparative text mining or cross-collection modeling. We present a differential topic model for this application that models both topic differences and similarities. For this we use hierarchical Bayesian nonparametric models. Moreover, we found it was important to properly model power-law phenomena in topic-word distributions and thus we used the full Pitman-Yor process rather than just a Dirichlet process. Furthermore, we propose the transformed Pitman-Yor process (TPYP) to incorporate prior knowledge such as vocabulary variations in different collections into the model. To deal with the non-conjugate issue between model prior and likelihood in the TPYP, we thus propose an efficient sampling algorithm using a data augmentation technique based on the multinomial theorem. Experimental results show the model discovers interesting aspects of different collections. We also show the proposed MCMC based algorithm achieves a dramatically reduced test perplexity compared to some existing topic models. Finally, we show our model outperforms the state-of-the-art for document classification/ideology prediction on a number of text collections. PMID:26353238

  19. Contact dermatitis as an adverse reaction to some topically used European herbal medicinal products - Part 3: Mentha × piperita - Solanum dulcamara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calapai, Gioacchino; Minciullo, Paola L; Miroddi, Marco; Chinou, Ioanna; Gangemi, Sebastiano; Schmidt, Richard J

    2016-03-01

    This review focuses on contact dermatitis as an adverse effect of a selection of topically used herbal medicinal products for which the European Medicines Agency has completed an evaluation up to the end of November 2013 and for which a Community herbal monograph - now (since 2015)(†) called a European Union herbal monograph - has been produced. Part 3: Mentha × piperita L.-Solanum dulcamara L. PMID:26563681

  20. Linguistic Extensions of Topic Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd-Graber, Jordan

    2010-01-01

    Topic models like latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA) provide a framework for analyzing large datasets where observations are collected into groups. Although topic modeling has been fruitfully applied to problems social science, biology, and computer vision, it has been most widely used to model datasets where documents are modeled as exchangeable…

  1. Advancements in Topical Antifungal Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kircik, Leon H

    2016-02-01

    The primary treatment for superficial fungal infections is antifungal topical formulations, and allylamines and azoles represent the two major classes of topical formulations that are used to treat these infections. The stratum corneum (SC) is composed of keratinocytes that are surrounded by a matrix of lipids. The efficacy of topically applied formulations depends on their ability to penetrate this lipid matrix, and the vehicle plays an integral role in the penetration of active molecule into skin. There are several challenges to formulating topical drugs, which include the biotransformation of the active molecules as they pass through the SC and the physical changes that occur to the vehicle itself when it is applied to the skin. This article will review current and emerging topical antifungal vehicles. PMID:26885798

  2. Topical or oral administration with an extract of Polypodium leucotomos prevents acute sunburn and psoralen-induced phototoxic reactions as well as depletion of Langerhans cells in human skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, S.; Pathak, M.A.; Fitzpatrick, T.B. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Dept. of Dermatology, Boston, MA (United States); Cuevas, J. [Hospital Universitario de Guadalajara, Dept. of Pathology, Guadalajara (Spain); Villarrubia, V.G. [I.F. Cantabria SA, Medical Dept., Immunology Sect., Madrid (Spain)

    1997-12-31

    Sunburn, immune suppression, photo-aging, and skin cancers result from uncontrolled overexposure of human skin to solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Preventive measures, including photo-protection, are helpful and can be achieved by topical sun-screening agents. Polypodium leucotomos (PL) has been used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases and has shown some in vitro and in vivo immunomodulating properties. Its beneficial photo-protective effects in the treatment of vitiligo and its antioxidant properties encouraged us to evaluate in vivo the potentially useful photo-protective property of natural extract of PL after topical application or oral ingestion. Twenty-one healthy volunteers [either untreated or treated with oral psoralens (8-MOP or 5-MOP)] were enrolled in this study and exposed to solar radiation for evaluation of the following clinical parameters: immediate pigment darkening (IPD), minimal erythema dose (MED), minimal melanogenic dose (MMD), and minimal phototoxic dose (MPD) before and after topical or oral administration of PL. Immunohistochemical assessment of CD1a-expressing epidermal cells were also performed. PL was found to be photo-protective after topical application as well as oral administration. PL increased UV dose required for IPD (P<0.01), MED (P<0.001) and MPD (P<0.001). After oral administration of PL, MED increased 2.,8{+-}0.59 times and MPD increased 2.75{+-}0.5 and 6.8{+-}1.3 times depending upon the type of psoralen used. Immunohistochemical study revealed photo-protection of Langherhans cells by oral as well as topical PL. The observed photo-protective activities of oral or topical PL reveal a new avenue in examining the potentially useful field of systemic photo-protection and suggests that PL can be used as adjunct treatment and can make photochemotherapy and phototherapy possibly safe and effective when the control of cutaneous phototoxicity to PUVA or UVB is a limiting factor in such photo-therapies. (au). 50 refs.

  3. Topical rapamycin as a treatment for fibrofolliculomas in Birt-Hogg-Dube syndrome: a double-blind placebo-controlled randomized split-face trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieke M C Gijezen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome (BHD is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterised by the occurrence of benign, mostly facial, skin tumours called fibrofolliculomas, multiple lung cysts, spontaneous pneumothorax and an increased renal cancer risk. Current treatments for fibrofolliculomas have high rates of recurrence and carry a risk of complications. It would be desirable to have a treatment that could prevent fibrofolliculomas from growing. Animal models of BHD have previously shown deregulation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR. Topical use of the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin is an effective treatment for the skin tumours (angiofibromas in tuberous sclerosis complex, which is also characterised by mTOR deregulation. In this study we aimed to determine if topical rapamycin is also an effective treatment for fibrofolliculomas in BHD. METHODS: We performed a double blinded, randomised, facial left-right controlled trial of topical rapamycin 0.1% versus placebo in 19 BHD patients. Trial duration was 6 months. The primary outcome was cosmetic improvement as measured by doctors and patients. Changes in fibrofolliculoma number and size were also measured, as was occurrence of side effects. RESULTS: No change in cosmetic status of fibrofolliculomas was reported in the majority of cases for the rapamycin treated (79% by doctors, 53% by patients as well as the placebo treated facial sides (both 74%. No significant differences between rapamycin and placebo treated facial halves were observed (p = 1.000 for doctors opinion, p = 0.344 for patients opinion. No significant difference in fibrofolliculoma number or change in size of the fibrofolliculomas was seen after 6 months. Side effects occurred more often after rapamycin treatment (68% of patients than after placebo (58% of patients; p = 0.625. A burning sensation, erythema, itching and dryness were most frequently reported. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides no evidence that

  4. SLN as a topical delivery system for Artemisia arborescens essential oil: In vitro antiviral activity and skin permeation study

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Francesco; Sinico, Chiara; De Logu, Alessandro; Zaru, Marco; Müller, Rainer H.; Fadda, Anna M.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of SLN incorporation on transdermal delivery and in vitro antiherpetic activity of Artemisia arborescens essential oil was investigated. Two different SLN formulations were prepared using the hot – pressure homogenization technique, Compritol 888 ATO as lipid, and Poloxamer 188 and Miranol Ultra C32 as surfactants. Formulations were examined for their stability for two years by monitoring average size distribution and zeta potential values. The antiviral activity of free and SLN in...

  5. Topical Application of Vitreous Body as a New Alternative for the Treatment of Persistent Epithelial Defect and Dry Eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Jahadi Hosseini

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available "nMany growth factors and chemical agents were previously used to accelerate corneal epithelial wound healing and dry eye .One of the enriched substances is autologous blood introduced with multiple randomized controlled studies for those who are not responsive to conventional treatments. Vitreous body as a natural substance has some properties which seem to make it superior to authologous blood for the management of severe dry eye syndrome and even persistent epithelial defect. This theory is based on some clues listed as below:"nVitreous contains a high amount of water and little macromolecules, the character suitable for a substance to be used for relieving symptoms of dry eye as a wetting effect. Moreover, it contains some growth factors such as insulin like growth factors and pigment epithelium-derived factor and high amount of viscous materials such as Chondroitin Sulfates and Hyaloronic acids, all are compounds seems to be effective in the management of dry eye and acceleration of epithelialization. It has also anti-inflammatory features. The most important unique feature of vitreous in comparison with blood is its immune privilege property documented by previous studies. Vitreous can be obtained from brain dead patients and also from eye banks easily.  As with all transplanted material of human origin, it carries risks of prion transmission; however, for intractable severe dry eye, benefits may greatly exceed the risk.

  6. Clinical application of oral form of ANGIPARSTM and in combination with topical form as a new treatment for diabetic foot ulcers: A randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahrami A

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available ANGIPARSTM is a new herbal extract which has been produced in oral, topical, and intravenous forms. The present article contains preliminary results of the study which was planned to evaluate the efficacy and safety of orally applied ANGIPARSTM and to compare it with the combination of oral and topical forms and also with conventional therapy in patients with diabetic ulcers of the lower extremities."nTwenty one patients with diabetic foot ulcers were divided into 3 groups. The first group received 100 mg of oral ANGIPARSTM twice a day for 6 weeks in addition to conventional therapies. In the second group, ANGIPARSTM gel 3% was added to the oral form of the same product besides the conventional therapies for the same period of time. Finally, in the third group which was considered as control, only conventional therapies were performed. The patients were followed for 6 weeks. Parameters such as granulation tissue formation, skin epithelization, and wound surface areas changes were analyzed to determine the effectiveness of the compound in wounds healing. Furthermore, drug safety was assessed by monitoring adverse events and by clinical and laboratory evaluations."nThe study data showed significant differences between the intervention and control groups with respect to efficacy and tolerability. In each intervention group, primary wound healings occurred following 2 weeks. Complete wound healing which was greater than 70% improvement in wounds surface areas was achieved in 83% and 100% of group 1 and group 2 participants, respectively after 6 weeks. On the other hand, at the same period of time, only 22.2% of patients in control group revealed complete healing. Therefore, ANGIPARSTM had significant positive effect in increasing the incidence of complete wound closure compared with control group (p = 0.042. However, our evaluations indicated that adding topical treatment with 3% gel once a day to the oral therapy with the same product did not make

  7. Handbook Preparation as a Tool for Self-Directed Learning Process: A Case Study on Endocrine Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerrah Ozsevgec, Lale; Ayas, Alipasa; Ozsevgec, Tuncay

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of handbook preparation as a method in the self-directed learning process of student teachers in teaching endocrine glands, and increasing their levels of knowledge. Thirty student teachers were selected from a biology department. A pencil and paper test and a clinical interview procedure were used to collect…

  8. SLN as a topical delivery system for Artemisia arborescens essential oil: In vitro antiviral activity and skin permeation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Francesco; Sinico, Chiara; De Logu, Alessandro; Zaru, Marco; Müller, Rainer H; Fadda, Anna M

    2007-01-01

    The effect of SLN incorporation on transdermal delivery and in vitro antiherpetic activity of Artemisia arborescens essential oil was investigated. Two different SLN formulations were prepared using the hot – pressure homogenization technique, Compritol 888 ATO as lipid, and Poloxamer 188 and Miranol Ultra C32 as surfactants. Formulations were examined for their stability for two years by monitoring average size distribution and zeta potential values. The antiviral activity of free and SLN incorporated essential oil was tested in vitro against Herpes Simplex Virus-1 (HSV-1) by a quantitative tetrazolium-based colorimetric method (MTT), while the effects of essential oil incorporation into SLN on both the permeation through and the accumulation into the skin strata was investigated by using in vitro diffusion experiments through newborn pig skin and an almond oil Artemisia essential oil solution as a control. Results showed that both SLN formulations were able to entrap the essential oil in high yields and that the mean particle size increased only slightly after two years of storage, indicating a high physical stability. In vitro antiviral assays showed that SLN incorporation did not affect the essential oil antiherpetic activity. The in vitro skin permeation experiments demonstrated the capability of SLN of greatly improving the oil accumulation into the skin, while oil permeation occurred only when the oil was delivered from the control solution. PMID:18019840

  9. SLN as a topical delivery system for Artemisia arborescens essential oil: in vitro antiviral activity and skin permeation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Francesco; Sinico, Chiara; De Logu, Alessandro; Zaru, Marco; Müller, Rainer H; Fadda, Anna M

    2007-01-01

    The effect of SLN incorporation on transdermal delivery and in vitro antiherpetic activity of Artemisia arborescens essential oil was investigated. Two different SLN formulations were prepared using the hot-pressure homogenization technique, Compritol 888 ATO as lipid, and Poloxamer 188 and Miranol Ultra C32 as surfactants. Formulations were examined for their stability for two years by monitoring average size distribution and zeta potential values. The antiviral activity of free and SLN incorporated essential oil was tested in vitro against Herpes Simplex Virus-1 (HSV-1) by a quantitative tetrazolium-based colorimetric method (MTT), while the effects of essential oil incorporation into SLN on both the permeation through and the accumulation into the skin strata was investigated by using in vitro diffusion experiments through newborn pig skin and an almond oil Artemisia essential oil solution as a control. Results showed that both SLN formulations were able to entrap the essential oil in high yields and that the mean particle size increased only slightly after two years of storage, indicating a high physical stability. In vitro antiviral assays showed that SLN incorporation did not affect the essential oil antiherpetic activity. The in vitro skin permeation experiments demonstrated the capability of SLN of greatly improving the oil accumulation into the skin, while oil permeation occurred only when the oil was delivered from the control solution. PMID:18019840

  10. Freshman Health Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovde, Karen

    2011-01-01

    This article examines a cluster of health topics that are frequently selected by students in lower division classes. Topics address issues relating to addictive substances, including alcohol and tobacco, eating disorders, obesity, and dieting. Analysis of the topics examines their interrelationships and organization in the reference literature.…

  11. Topic Model for Graph Mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Junyu; Lu, Jie; Zhang, Guangquan; Luo, Xiangfeng

    2015-12-01

    Graph mining has been a popular research area because of its numerous application scenarios. Many unstructured and structured data can be represented as graphs, such as, documents, chemical molecular structures, and images. However, an issue in relation to current research on graphs is that they cannot adequately discover the topics hidden in graph-structured data which can be beneficial for both the unsupervised learning and supervised learning of the graphs. Although topic models have proved to be very successful in discovering latent topics, the standard topic models cannot be directly applied to graph-structured data due to the "bag-of-word" assumption. In this paper, an innovative graph topic model (GTM) is proposed to address this issue, which uses Bernoulli distributions to model the edges between nodes in a graph. It can, therefore, make the edges in a graph contribute to latent topic discovery and further improve the accuracy of the supervised and unsupervised learning of graphs. The experimental results on two different types of graph datasets show that the proposed GTM outperforms the latent Dirichlet allocation on classification by using the unveiled topics of these two models to represent graphs. PMID:25616091

  12. Active ingredients in sunscreens act as topical penetration enhancers for the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agricultural workers are encouraged to use sunscreen to decrease the risk of UV-related skin cancer. Our previous studies have shown certain commercial sunscreens to be penetration enhancers. The focus of this project is to determine whether active ingredients in sunscreen formulations (i.e., the UV absorbing components and insect repellants for the sunscreen/bug repellant combinations) also act as dermal penetration enhancers for herbicides in vitro. The total percentages of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) penetrating through hairless mouse skin in 24 h ranged from 54.9 ± 4.7 for the no sunscreen control to 86.9 ± 2.5 for padimate-o. Of the active ingredients tested (7.5% octyl methoxycinnamate, 7% octocrylene, 0.6% oxybenzone, 5% homosalate, 5% octyl salicylate, 8% padimate-o, 10% sulisobenzone, and 9.5% and 19% N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide [DEET]), all but octocrylene led to a significant increase in total 2,4-D penetration as compared to the control (P 3H2O penetration across mouse skin, indicating physical damage to the stratum corneum. Additional studies demonstrated that the penetration enhancement seen across hairless mouse skin also occurred with human skin. Thus, the active ingredients of sunscreen formulations enhance dermal penetration of the moderately lipophilic herbicide 2,4-D

  13. The future of topical analgesics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnstein, Paul M

    2013-07-01

    Topically applied analgesic therapies have been used throughout history to treat a variety of patient conditions that present with pain. Before modem pharmaceuticals became readily available, mud-based emollients, salves, cold therapies, and other natural remedies were often used. Now we have effective therapies and are developing advanced topical analgesics as we learn more about the physiology and pathophysiology of pain. The use of topical analgesics may be associated with fewer patient systemic side effects than are seen with oral, parenteral, or transdermally administered agents, making the topical route of administration attractive to prescribers and patients. With further refinement of existing drugs and the development of novel agents, topical analgesics may offer relief for treating patient pain conditions that are currently challenging to treat, such as pain resulting from burns, wound debridement, and pressure ulcers. Recognizing the value of a multimodal approach, topical analgesics may offer a therapeutic option that can become part of a comprehensive treatment plan for the patient. With continued advancements in targeted drug-delivery systems, topical analgesics may be able to provide a method to prevent or reverse the phenomena of peripheral and central sensitization, or the neuroplastic changes believed to be responsible for the transition from acute to chronic pain states in patients. For those patients at risk for developing chronic pain states, such as complex regional pain syndrome, the combination of cutaneous stimulation (achieved through rubbing during application) and analgesic effects produced by the drug itself may prevent the disabling pain that often emerges during the subacute phase of disease. In summary, better utilization of currently available topical analgesics and continued research promise to ensure that topical analgesics are, and will continue to be, important tools in the treatment of patients with resistant pain. PMID

  14. Temporary shelter-in-place as protection against a release of airborne hazardous material : report of a literature search.; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ''Temporary shelter-in place'' is the combination of prompt shelter-in-place (SIP) to minimize initial exposure to airborne hazardous material, followed by timely action to terminate this protection to minimize exposure to hazardous vapor accumulations in the shelter once the air outside becomes less hazardous than the air inside the shelter. Temporary SIP, if properly executed, is considered to be an effective way to protect populations from hazardous chemical vapors, especially from high concentrations for short periods. This is supported by laboratory and field experiments. The need for timely termination of temporary SIP as protection from infiltrated vapors is an integral component of a temporary SIP strategy. It was from this premise that Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) was asked to develop methodologies for deciding when and how to terminate SIP. These methodologies, in turn, could be the basis for site-specific operational guidelines (e.g., decision matrix, decision-tree, or algorithm) for terminating SIP on each of the eight Army chemical stockpile storage sites, and in the off-post communities surrounding them. This project consists of two tasks. Task 1 was to collect and analyze existing literature that might be relevant to the termination of temporary SIP. This report is the product of Task 1. Task 2, which will begin on 2 February 2001, will use the results of the literature search as the baseline to investigate the concepts associated with temporary SIP, and to develop methodologies for termination of temporary SIP that can be incorporated in site-specific operational guidelines. It is understood that these methods will be consistent with Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP) policy that ''the most important objective of the emergency preparedness and implementation process is the avoidance of fatalities to the maximum extent practicable, should an accidental release of chemical agent occur.'' It is also anticipated that these

  15. 3D scanning and 3D printing as innovative technologies for fabricating personalized topical drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyanes, Alvaro; Det-Amornrat, Usanee; Wang, Jie; Basit, Abdul W; Gaisford, Simon

    2016-07-28

    Acne is a multifactorial inflammatory skin disease with high prevalence. In this work, the potential of 3D printing to produce flexible personalised-shape anti-acne drug (salicylic acid) loaded devices was demonstrated by two different 3D printing (3DP) technologies: Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) and stereolithography (SLA). 3D scanning technology was used to obtain a 3D model of a nose adapted to the morphology of an individual. In FDM 3DP, commercially produced Flex EcoPLA™ (FPLA) and polycaprolactone (PCL) filaments were loaded with salicylic acid by hot melt extrusion (HME) (theoretical drug loading - 2% w/w) and used as feedstock material for 3D printing. Drug loading in the FPLA-salicylic acid and PCL-salicylic acid 3D printed patches was 0.4% w/w and 1.2% w/w respectively, indicating significant thermal degradation of drug during HME and 3D printing. Diffusion testing in Franz cells using a synthetic membrane revealed that the drug loaded printed samples released <187μg/cm(2) within 3h. FPLA-salicylic acid filament was successfully printed as a nose-shape mask by FDM 3DP, but the PCL-salicylic acid filament was not. In the SLA printing process, the drug was dissolved in different mixtures of poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) that were solidified by the action of a laser beam. SLA printing led to 3D printed devices (nose-shape) with higher resolution and higher drug loading (1.9% w/w) than FDM, with no drug degradation. The results of drug diffusion tests revealed that drug diffusion was faster than with the FDM devices, 229 and 291μg/cm(2) within 3h for the two formulations evaluated. In this study, SLA printing was the more appropriate 3D printing technology to manufacture anti-acne devices with salicylic acid. The combination of 3D scanning and 3D printing has the potential to offer solutions to produce personalised drug loaded devices, adapted in shape and size to individual patients. PMID:27189134

  16. Use of Immunostimulatory Sequence-Containing Oligonucleotides as Topical Therapy for Genital Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyles, Richard B.; Higgins, Debbie; Chalk, Claudia; Zalar, Anthony; Eiden, Joseph; Brown, Carrie; Van Nest, Gary; Stanberry, Lawrence R.

    2002-01-01

    Synthetic oligonucleotides containing CpG motifs in specific sequence contexts have been shown to induce potent immune responses. We have evaluated mucosal administration of two immunostimulatory sequence (ISS)-containing phosphorothioate-stabilized oligonucleotides for antiherpetic efficacy in animal models. The ISS oligonucleotides, suspended in phosphate-buffered saline, were tested in mouse and guinea pig vaginal models of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection. For comparison, groups of untreated, non-ISS oligonucleotide-treated, and acyclovir-treated animals also were monitored. The results indicated that vaginal epithelial application of ISS (up to 6 h after viral inoculation) with mice lethally challenged with HSV-2 delayed disease onset and reduced the number of animals that developed signs of disease (P = 0.003). ISS application significantly increased survival rates over those of controls (P = 0.0014). The ISS also impacted an established infection in the guinea pig model of HSV-2 disease. A single administration of ISS (21 days after viral inoculation) significantly reduced the frequency and severity of HSV-2 lesions compared to results with non-ISS oligonucleotide-treated and untreated guinea pigs (P < 0.01). HSV-2 is shed from the vaginal cavity of the guinea pig in the absence of lesions, similar to the case with humans. As an additional indication of ISS efficacy, the magnitude of viral shedding also was significantly reduced in ISS-treated animals (P < 0.001). These effects appeared to be immunologically mediated, since ISS had no direct effect on HSV-2 replication in vitro using standard plaque assays. These data suggest that ISS may be useful in the treatment and control of genital herpes in humans. PMID:12388699

  17. Screening of Nanoemulsion Formulations and Identification of NB-201 as an Effective Topical Antimicrobial for Staphylococcus aureus in a Mouse Model of Infected Wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yongyi; Ciotti, Susan; Cao, Zhengyi; Eisma, Rone; Baker, James; Wang, Su He

    2016-05-01

    Despite advances in antimicrobial therapies, wound infection remains a global public health concern. We aimed to formulate and assess various nanoemulsions (NEs) for potential effectiveness as stable antimicrobial agents suitable for topic application. A total of 106 NEs were developed that varied with respect to nonionic and cationic surfactants. Stability testing demonstrated that the NEs tested are broadly stable, with 97/106 formulations passing 2-week stability tests. Two NEs, NB-201 and NB-402, were selected to test antimicrobial activity in a wound model in mice. Skin abrasion wounds were infected with Staphylococcus aureus followed by NE treatment. Infected skin was then evaluated by measuring colony forming units. NB-201 reduced median bacterial counts by 4 to 5 log compared to animals treated with saline, whereas NB-402 reduced bacterial counts by 2 to 3 log. Additional stability tests on NB-201 demonstrated that NB-201 is stable in the presence of human serum, and is stable for at least 6 months at 5°C, 25°C, and 40°C. Finally, in in vitro studies, NB-201 was found to be effective against S. aureus at a higher dilution than the commercially available silver sulfadiazine. Altogether these results demonstrate that NB-201 is a stable and effective topical antimicrobial for the treatment of S. aureus. PMID:27168582

  18. Music Perception as a Topic of Cognitive Psychology = Bilişsel Psikolojinin Bir Konusu Olarak Müzik Algısı

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslı ASLAN

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Music perception has a long and distinguished history as a topic of psychological research because music requires a mental activity in humans. As a complex human activity, music perception is naturally an area of interest especially to cognitive psychology. Cognitive studies suggest that listener’s experience of a particular musical sequence is driven and at the same time constrained by the sounds registered by auditory mechanisms but also processed by available mental resources. This assumption indicates that researchers must take into account certain inherent limitations and capabilities of the listener. The main purpose of this paper is to discuss possible cognitive processes underlying music perception. The steps taken towards this purpose will be describing the structure of music and discussing the way that this structure is perceived by human cognition.

  19. Human-competitive automatic topic indexing

    CERN Document Server

    Medelyan, Olena

    2009-01-01

    Topic indexing is the task of identifying the main topics covered by a document. These are useful for many purposes: as subject headings in libraries, as keywords in academic publications and as tags on the web. Knowing a document’s topics helps people judge its relevance quickly. However, assigning topics manually is labor intensive. This thesis shows how to generate them automatically in a way that competes with human performance. Three kinds of indexing are investigated: term assignment, a task commonly performed by librarians, who select topics from a controlled vocabulary; tagging, a popular activity of web users, who choose topics freely; and a new method of keyphrase extraction, where topics are equated to Wikipedia article names. A general two-stage algorithm is introduced that first selects candidate topics and then ranks them by significance based on their properties. These properties draw on statistical, semantic, domain-specific and encyclopedic knowledge. They are combined using a machine learn...

  20. Topics on continua

    CERN Document Server

    Macias, Sergio

    2005-01-01

    Specialized as it might be, continuum theory is one of the most intriguing areas in mathematics. However, despite being popular journal fare, few books have thoroughly explored this interesting aspect of topology. In Topics on Continua, Sergio Macías, one of the field's leading scholars, presents four of his favorite continuum topics: inverse limits, Jones's set function T, homogenous continua, and n-fold hyperspaces, and in doing so, presents the most complete set of theorems and proofs ever contained in a single topology volume. Many of the results presented have previously appeared only in research papers, and some appear here for the first time. After building the requisite background and exploring the inverse limits of continua, the discussions focus on Professor Jones''s set function T and continua for which T is continuous. An introduction to topological groups and group actions lead to a proof of Effros''s Theorem, followed by a presentation of two decomposition theorems. The author then offers an...

  1. Topical report review status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Topical Report Review Status is scheduled to be published semi-annually. The primary purpose of this document is to provide periodic progress reports of on-going topical report reviews, to identify those topical reports for which the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff review has been completed and, to the extent practicable, to provide NRC management with sufficient information regarding the conduct of the topical report program to permit taking whatever actions deemed necessary or appropriate. This document is also intended to be a source of information to NRC Licensing Project Managers and other NRC personnel regarding the status of topical reports which may be referenced in applications for which they have responsibility. This status report is published primarily for internal NRC use in managing the topical report program, but is also used by NRC to advise the industry of report review status

  2. Design of Block Copolymer Costabilized Nonionic Microemulsions and Their In Vitro and In Vivo Assessment as Carriers for Sustained Regional Delivery of Ibuprofen via Topical Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djekic, Ljiljana; Martinovic, Martina; Stepanović-Petrović, Radica; Tomić, Maja; Micov, Ana; Primorac, Marija

    2015-08-01

    Nonionic surfactants (caprylocaproyl macrogol-8 glycerides, octoxynol-12, polysorbate-20, and polyethylene glycol-40 hydrogenated castor oil) (47.03%, w/w), costabilizer (poloxamer 407) (12%-20%, w/w), oil (isopropyl myristate) (5.22%, w/w), water (q.s. ad 100%, w/w), and ibuprofen (5%, w/w) were used to develop oil-in-water microemulsions with Newtonian flow behavior, low viscosity (from 368 ± 38 to 916 ± 46 mPa s), and average droplet size from 14.79 ± 0.31 to 16.54 ± 0.75 nm. Ibuprofen in vitro release from the microemulsions was in accordance with zero-order kinetics (R0(2) > 0.99) for at least 12 h. The maximum drug release rate (3.55%h(-1) ) was from the microemulsion M3 comprising 16%, w/w of poloxamer 407. The release rate of ibuprofen from the reference hydrogel followed Higuchi kinetics (RH(2) > 0.99), and drug amount released after the 6th hour was negligible. In a rat model of inflammation, the microemulsion M3 was significantly more efficacious than the reference hydrogel in exerting antihyperalgesic effects in prophylactic topical treatment, whereas they were comparable in therapeutic treatment as well as in producing antiedematous effect in both protocols. No obvious skin irritation was observed in in vivo studies. The developed nonionic surfactants-based microemulsions containing the optimal concentration of poloxamer 407 could be promising carriers for sustained regional delivery of ibuprofen via topical administration. PMID:26045240

  3. Topical treatment of melasma

    OpenAIRE

    Bandyopadhyay Debabrata

    2009-01-01

    Melasma is a common hypermelanotic disorder affecting the face that is associated with considerable psychological impacts. The management of melasma is challenging and requires a long-term treatment plan. In addition to avoidance of aggravating factors like oral pills and ultraviolet exposure, topical therapy has remained the mainstay of treatment. Multiple options for topical treatment are available, of which hydroquinone (HQ) is the most commonly prescribed agent. Besides HQ, other topical ...

  4. Topical or oral administration with an extract of Polypodium leucotomos prevents acute sunburn and psoralen-induced phototoxic reactions as well as depletion of Langerhans cells in human skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunburn, immune suppression, photo-aging, and skin cancers result from uncontrolled overexposure of human skin to solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Preventive measures, including photo-protection, are helpful and can be achieved by topical sun-screening agents. Polypodium leucotomos (PL) has been used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases and has shown some in vitro and in vivo immunomodulating properties. Its beneficial photo-protective effects in the treatment of vitiligo and its antioxidant properties encouraged us to evaluate in vivo the potentially useful photo-protective property of natural extract of PL after topical application or oral ingestion. Twenty-one healthy volunteers [either untreated or treated with oral psoralens (8-MOP or 5-MOP)] were enrolled in this study and exposed to solar radiation for evaluation of the following clinical parameters: immediate pigment darkening (IPD), minimal erythema dose (MED), minimal melanogenic dose (MMD), and minimal phototoxic dose (MPD) before and after topical or oral administration of PL. Immunohistochemical assessment of CD1a-expressing epidermal cells were also performed. PL was found to be photo-protective after topical application as well as oral administration. PL increased UV dose required for IPD (P<0.01), MED (P<0.001) and MPD (P<0.001). After oral administration of PL, MED increased 2.,8±0.59 times and MPD increased 2.75±0.5 and 6.8±1.3 times depending upon the type of psoralen used. Immunohistochemical study revealed photo-protection of Langherhans cells by oral as well as topical PL. The observed photo-protective activities of oral or topical PL reveal a new avenue in examining the potentially useful field of systemic photo-protection and suggests that PL can be used as adjunct treatment and can make photochemotherapy and phototherapy possibly safe and effective when the control of cutaneous phototoxicity to PUVA or UVB is a limiting factor in such photo-therapies. (au)

  5. Topics in atomic physics

    CERN Document Server

    Burkhardt, Charles E

    2006-01-01

    The study of atomic physics propelled us into the quantum age in the early twentieth century and carried us into the twenty-first century with a wealth of new and, in some cases, unexplained phenomena. Topics in Atomic Physics provides a foundation for students to begin research in modern atomic physics. It can also serve as a reference because it contains material that is not easily located in other sources. A distinguishing feature is the thorough exposition of the quantum mechanical hydrogen atom using both the traditional formulation and an alternative treatment not usually found in textbooks. The alternative treatment exploits the preeminent nature of the pure Coulomb potential and places the Lenz vector operator on an equal footing with other operators corresponding to classically conserved quantities. A number of difficult to find proofs and derivations are included as is development of operator formalism that permits facile solution of the Stark effect in hydrogen. Discussion of the classical hydrogen...

  6. An ionic liquid-in-water microemulsion as a potential carrier for topical delivery of poorly water soluble drug: Development, ex-vivo and in-vivo evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goindi, Shishu; Kaur, Ramanpreet; Kaur, Randeep

    2015-11-30

    In this paper, we report an ionic liquid-in-water (IL/w) microemulsion (ME) formulation which is able to solubilize etodolac (ETO), a poorly water soluble drug for topical delivery using BMIMPF6 (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate) as IL, Tween 80 as surfactant and ethanol as co-surfactant. The prepared ME was characterized for physicochemical parameters, subjected to ex-vivo permeation studies as well as in-vivo pharmacodynamic evaluation. The ex-vivo drug permeation studies through rat skin was performed using Franz-diffusion cell and the IL/w based ME showed maximum mean cumulative percent permeation of 99.030±0.921% in comparison to oil-in-water (o/w) ME (61.548±1.875%) and oily solution (48.830±2.488%) of ETO. In-vivo anti-arthritic and anti-inflammatory activities of the prepared formulations were evaluated using different rodent models and the results revealed that ETO loaded IL/w based ME was found to be more effective in controlling inflammation than oily solution, o/w ME and marketed formulation of ETO. Histopathological studies also demonstrated that IL/w based ME caused no anatomical and pathological changes in the skin. PMID:26456294

  7. Clinical application of oral form of ANGIPARSTM and in combination with topical form as a new treatment for diabetic foot ulcers: A randomized clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Bahrami A; Kamali K; Ali-Asgharzadeh A; Hosseini P; Heshmat R; HR Khorram Khorshid; Gharibdoust F; SH Madani; Larijani B

    2008-01-01

    ANGIPARSTM is a new herbal extract which has been produced in oral, topical, and intravenous forms. The present article contains preliminary results of the study which was planned to evaluate the efficacy and safety of orally applied ANGIPARSTM and to compare it with the combination of oral and topical forms and also with conventional therapy in patients with diabetic ulcers of the lower extremities."nTwenty one patients with diabetic foot ulcers were divided into 3 groups. The first gro...

  8. A Survey of Topic Modeling in Text Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubayyi Alghamdi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Topic models provide a convenient way to analyze large of unclassified text. A topic contains a cluster of words that frequently occur together. A topic modeling can connect words with similar meanings and distinguish between uses of words with multiple meanings. This paper provides two categories that can be under the field of topic modeling. First one discusses the area of methods of topic modeling, which has four methods that can be considerable under this category. These methods are Latent semantic analysis (LSA, Probabilistic latent semantic analysis (PLSA, Latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA, and Correlated topic model (CTM. The second category is called topic evolution models, which model topics by considering an important factor time. In the second category, different models are discussed, such as topic over time (TOT, dynamic topic models (DTM, multiscale topic tomography, dynamic topic correlation detection, detecting topic evolution in scientific literature, etc.

  9. Lactobionic acid as antioxidant and moisturizing active in alkyl polyglucoside-based topical emulsions: the colloidal structure, stability and efficacy evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasic-Kostov, M; Pavlovic, D; Lukic, M; Jaksic, I; Arsic, I; Savic, S

    2012-10-01

    Cosmeceutical antioxidants may protect the skin against oxidative injury, involved in the pathogenesis of many skin disorders. However, an unsuitable topical delivery system with compromising safety profile can affect the efficacy of an antioxidant active. This study investigated the antioxidant potential of lactobionic acid (LA), a newer cosmeceutical active, per se (in solution) and incorporated into natural alkyl polyglucoside (APG) emulsifier-based system using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging and lipid peroxidation inhibition assays. The α-tocopherol was used as a reference compound. The physical stability (using rheology, polarization microscopy, pH and conductivity measurements) of an Alkyl glucoside-based emulsion was evaluated with and without the active (LA); colloidal structure was assessed using polarization and transmission electron microscopy, rheology, thermal and texture analysis. Additionally, the safety profile and moisturizing potential were investigated using the methods of skin bioengineering. Good physical stability and applicative characteristics were obtained although LA strongly influenced the colloidal structure of the vehicle. LA per se and in APG-based emulsion showed satisfying antioxidant activity that promotes it as mild multifunctional cosmeceutical efficient in the treatment and prevention of the photoaged skin. Employed assays were shown as suitable for the antioxidant activity evaluation of LA in APG-based emulsions, but not for α-tocopherol in the same vehicle. PMID:22691034

  10. Maps on the basis of the Arts & Humanities Citation Index: The journals Leonardo and Art Journal versus "Digital Humanities" as a topic

    CERN Document Server

    Leydesdorff, Loet

    2009-01-01

    The possibilities of using the Arts & Humanities Citation Index (A&HCI) for journal mapping have not been sufficiently recognized because of the absence of a Journal Citations Report (JCR) for this database. A quasi-JCR for the A&HCI (2008) was constructed from the data contained in the Web-of-Science and is used for the evaluation of two journals as examples: Leonardo and Art Journal. The maps on the basis of the aggregated journal-journal citations within this domain can be compared with maps including references to journals in the Science Citation Index and Social Science Citation Index. Art journals are cited by (social) science journals more than by other art journals, but these journals draw upon one another in terms of their own references. This cultural impact in terms of being cited is not found when documents with a topic such as "digital humanities" are analyzed. This community of practice functions more as an intellectual organizer than a journal.

  11. PREFACE: CEWQO Topical Issue CEWQO Topical Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozic, Mirjana; Man'ko, Margarita

    2009-09-01

    This topical issue of Physica Scripta collects selected peer-reviewed contributions based on invited and contributed talks and posters presented at the 15th Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics (CEWQO) which took place in Belgrade 29 May-3 June 2008 (http://cewqo08.phy.bg.ac.yu). On behalf of the whole community took place in Belgrade 29 May-3 June 2008 (http://cewqo08.phy.bg.ac.yu, cewqo08.phy.bg.ac.yu). On behalf of the whole community of the workshop, we thank the referees for their careful reading and useful suggestions which helped to improve all of the submitted papers. A brief description of CEWQO The Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics is a series of conferences started informally in Budapest in 1992. Sometimes small events transform into important conferences, as in the case of CEWQO. Professor Jozsef Janszky, from the Research Institute of Solid State Physics and Optics, is the founder of this series. Margarita Man'ko obtained the following information from Jozsef Janszky during her visit to Budapest, within the framework of cooperation between the Russian and Hungarian Academies of Sciences in 2005. He organized a small workshop on quantum optics in Budapest in 1992 with John Klauder as a main speaker. Then, bearing in mind that a year before Janszky himself was invited by Vladimir Buzek to give a seminar on the same topic in Bratislava, he decided to assign the name 'Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics', considering the seminar in Bratislava to be the first workshop and the one in Budapest the second. The third formal workshop took place in Bratislava in 1993 organized by Vladimir Buzek, then in 1994 (Budapest, by Jozsef Janszky), 1995 and 1996 (Budmerice, Slovakia, by Vladimir Buzek), 1997 (Prague, by Igor Jex), 1999 (Olomouc, Czech Republic, by Zdenek Hradil), 2000 (Balatonfüred, Hungary, by Jozsef Janszky ), 2001 (Prague, by Igor Jex), 2002 (Szeged, Hungary, by Mihaly Benedict), 2003 (Rostock,Germany, by Werner Vogel and

  12. Identifying Topics in Microblogs Using Wikipedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldırım, Ahmet; Üsküdarlı, Suzan; Özgür, Arzucan

    2016-01-01

    Twitter is an extremely high volume platform for user generated contributions regarding any topic. The wealth of content created at real-time in massive quantities calls for automated approaches to identify the topics of the contributions. Such topics can be utilized in numerous ways, such as public opinion mining, marketing, entertainment, and disaster management. Towards this end, approaches to relate single or partial posts to knowledge base items have been proposed. However, in microblogging systems like Twitter, topics emerge from the culmination of a large number of contributions. Therefore, identifying topics based on collections of posts, where individual posts contribute to some aspect of the greater topic is necessary. Models, such as Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA), propose algorithms for relating collections of posts to sets of keywords that represent underlying topics. In these approaches, figuring out what the specific topic(s) the keyword sets represent remains as a separate task. Another issue in topic detection is the scope, which is often limited to specific domain, such as health. This work proposes an approach for identifying domain-independent specific topics related to sets of posts. In this approach, individual posts are processed and then aggregated to identify key tokens, which are then mapped to specific topics. Wikipedia article titles are selected to represent topics, since they are up to date, user-generated, sophisticated articles that span topics of human interest. This paper describes the proposed approach, a prototype implementation, and a case study based on data gathered during the heavily contributed periods corresponding to the four US election debates in 2012. The manually evaluated results (0.96 precision) and other observations from the study are discussed in detail. PMID:26991442

  13. Identifying Topics in Microblogs Using Wikipedia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Yıldırım

    Full Text Available Twitter is an extremely high volume platform for user generated contributions regarding any topic. The wealth of content created at real-time in massive quantities calls for automated approaches to identify the topics of the contributions. Such topics can be utilized in numerous ways, such as public opinion mining, marketing, entertainment, and disaster management. Towards this end, approaches to relate single or partial posts to knowledge base items have been proposed. However, in microblogging systems like Twitter, topics emerge from the culmination of a large number of contributions. Therefore, identifying topics based on collections of posts, where individual posts contribute to some aspect of the greater topic is necessary. Models, such as Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA, propose algorithms for relating collections of posts to sets of keywords that represent underlying topics. In these approaches, figuring out what the specific topic(s the keyword sets represent remains as a separate task. Another issue in topic detection is the scope, which is often limited to specific domain, such as health. This work proposes an approach for identifying domain-independent specific topics related to sets of posts. In this approach, individual posts are processed and then aggregated to identify key tokens, which are then mapped to specific topics. Wikipedia article titles are selected to represent topics, since they are up to date, user-generated, sophisticated articles that span topics of human interest. This paper describes the proposed approach, a prototype implementation, and a case study based on data gathered during the heavily contributed periods corresponding to the four US election debates in 2012. The manually evaluated results (0.96 precision and other observations from the study are discussed in detail.

  14. Identifying Topics in Microblogs Using Wikipedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldırım, Ahmet; Üsküdarlı, Suzan; Özgür, Arzucan

    2016-01-01

    Twitter is an extremely high volume platform for user generated contributions regarding any topic. The wealth of content created at real-time in massive quantities calls for automated approaches to identify the topics of the contributions. Such topics can be utilized in numerous ways, such as public opinion mining, marketing, entertainment, and disaster management. Towards this end, approaches to relate single or partial posts to knowledge base items have been proposed. However, in microblogging systems like Twitter, topics emerge from the culmination of a large number of contributions. Therefore, identifying topics based on collections of posts, where individual posts contribute to some aspect of the greater topic is necessary. Models, such as Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA), propose algorithms for relating collections of posts to sets of keywords that represent underlying topics. In these approaches, figuring out what the specific topic(s) the keyword sets represent remains as a separate task. Another issue in topic detection is the scope, which is often limited to specific domain, such as health. This work proposes an approach for identifying domain-independent specific topics related to sets of posts. In this approach, individual posts are processed and then aggregated to identify key tokens, which are then mapped to specific topics. Wikipedia article titles are selected to represent topics, since they are up to date, user-generated, sophisticated articles that span topics of human interest. This paper describes the proposed approach, a prototype implementation, and a case study based on data gathered during the heavily contributed periods corresponding to the four US election debates in 2012. The manually evaluated results (0.96 precision) and other observations from the study are discussed in detail. PMID:26991442

  15. Topics in millimeter wave technology

    CERN Document Server

    Button, Kenneth

    1988-01-01

    Topics in Millimeter Wave Technology, Volume 1 presents topics related to millimeter wave technology, including fin-lines and passive components realized in fin-lines, suspended striplines, suspended substrate microstrips, and modal power exchange in multimode fibers. A miniaturized monopulse assembly constructed in planar waveguide with multimode scalar horn feeds is also described. This volume is comprised of five chapters; the first of which deals with the analysis and synthesis techniques for fin-lines as well as the various passive components realized in fin-line. Tapers, discontinuities,

  16. Topics in current aerosol research

    CERN Document Server

    Hidy, G M

    1971-01-01

    Topics in Current Aerosol Research deals with the fundamental aspects of aerosol science, with emphasis on experiment and theory describing highly dispersed aerosols (HDAs) as well as the dynamics of charged suspensions. Topics covered range from the basic properties of HDAs to their formation and methods of generation; sources of electric charges; interactions between fluid and aerosol particles; and one-dimensional motion of charged cloud of particles. This volume is comprised of 13 chapters and begins with an introduction to the basic properties of HDAs, followed by a discussion on the form

  17. Topics in Nuclear Astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some topics in nuclear astrophysics are discussed, e.g.: highly evolved stellar cores, stellar evolution (through the temperature analysis of stellar surface), nucleosynthesis and finally the solar neutrino problem. (L.C.)

  18. Topical anesthesia in phacoemulsification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad Waheeb

    2010-01-01

    Conclusion : Topical anesthesia is a satisfactory and safe alternative to retrobulbar and peribulbar anesthesia for clear corneal phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation in selected cataract patients in the hands of experienced cataract surgeon.

  19. Advanced Topics in Aerodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filippone, Antonino

    1999-01-01

    "Advanced Topics in Aerodynamics" is a comprehensive electronic guide to aerodynamics,computational fluid dynamics, aeronautics, aerospace propulsion systems, design and relatedtechnology. We report data, tables, graphics, sketches,examples, results, photos, technical andscientific literature, for...

  20. Topical treatment of melasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandyopadhyay Debabrata

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Melasma is a common hypermelanotic disorder affecting the face that is associated with considerable psychological impacts. The management of melasma is challenging and requires a long-term treatment plan. In addition to avoidance of aggravating factors like oral pills and ultraviolet exposure, topical therapy has remained the mainstay of treatment. Multiple options for topical treatment are available, of which hydroquinone (HQ is the most commonly prescribed agent. Besides HQ, other topical agents for which varying degrees of evidence for clinical efficacy exist include azelaic acid, kojic acid, retinoids, topical steroids, glycolic acid, mequinol, and arbutin. Topical medications modify various stages of melanogenesis, the most common mode of action being inhibition of the enzyme, tyrosinase. Combination therapy is the preferred mode of treatment for the synergism and reduction of untoward effects. The most popular combination consists of HQ, a topical steroid, and retinoic acid. Prolonged HQ usage may lead to untoward effects like depigmentation and exogenous ochronosis. The search for safer alternatives has given rise to the development of many newer agents, several of them from natural sources. Well-designed controlled clinical trials are needed to clarify their role in the routine management of melasma.

  1. Topical corticosteroid addiction and phobia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparajita Ghosh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Corticosteroids, one of the most widely prescribed topical drugs, have been used for about six decades till date. However, rampant misuse and abuse down the years has given the drug a bad name. Topical steroid abuse may lead to two major problems which lie at the opposing ends of the psychosomatic spectrum. Topical steroid addiction, a phenomenon that came to be recognized about a decade after the introduction of the molecule is manifested as psychological distress and rebound phenomenon on stoppage of the drug. The rebound phenomenon, which can affect various parts of the body particularly the face and the genitalia has been reported by various names in the literature. TC phobia which lies at the opposite end of the psychiatric spectrum of steroid abuse has been reported particularly among parents of atopic children. Management of both conditions is difficult and frustrating. Psychological counseling and support can be of immense help in both the conditions.

  2. Topical corticosteroid addiction and phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Aparajita; Sengupta, Sujata; Coondoo, Arijit; Jana, Amlan Kusum

    2014-09-01

    Corticosteroids, one of the most widely prescribed topical drugs, have been used for about six decades till date. However, rampant misuse and abuse down the years has given the drug a bad name. Topical steroid abuse may lead to two major problems which lie at the opposing ends of the psychosomatic spectrum. Topical steroid addiction, a phenomenon that came to be recognized about a decade after the introduction of the molecule is manifested as psychological distress and rebound phenomenon on stoppage of the drug. The rebound phenomenon, which can affect various parts of the body particularly the face and the genitalia has been reported by various names in the literature. TC phobia which lies at the opposite end of the psychiatric spectrum of steroid abuse has been reported particularly among parents of atopic children. Management of both conditions is difficult and frustrating. Psychological counseling and support can be of immense help in both the conditions. PMID:25284851

  3. Recent Advances In Topical Therapy In Dermatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Thappa Devinder

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available With changing times various newer topical agents are introduced in the field of dermatology. Tacrolimus and pimecrolimus are immunisuppressants, which are effective topically and are tried in the management of atopic dermatitis as well as other disorders including allergic contact dermatitis, atrophic lichen planus, pyoderma gangrenosum. Imiquimod, an immune response modifier, is presently in use for genital warts but has potentials as anti- tumour agent and in various other dermatological conditions when used topically. Tazarotene is a newer addition to the list of topical reginoids, which is effective in psoriasis and has better effect in combination with calcipotriene, phototherapy and topical costicosteroids. Tazarotene and adapelene are also effective in inflammatory acne. Calcipotriol, a vitamin D analogue has been introduced as a topical agent in the treatment of psoriasis. Steroid components are also developed recently which will be devoid of the side effects but having adequate anti-inflammatory effect. Topical photodynamic therapy has also a wide range of use in dermatology. Newer topical agents including cidofovir, capsaicin, topical sensitizers, topical antifungal agents for onychomycosis are also of use in clinical practice. Other promising developments include skin substitutes and growth factors for wound care.

  4. Topics in statistical mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elser, V.

    1984-05-01

    This thesis deals with four independent topics in statistical mechanics: (1) the dimer problem is solved exactly for a hexagonal lattice with general boundary using a known generating function from the theory of partitions. It is shown that the leading term in the entropy depends on the shape of the boundary; (2) continuum models of percolation and self-avoiding walks are introduced with the property that their series expansions are sums over linear graphs with intrinsic combinatorial weights and explicit dimension dependence; (3) a constrained SOS model is used to describe the edge of a simple cubic crystal. Low and high temperature results are derived as well as the detailed behavior near the crystal facet; (4) the microscopic model of the lambda-transition involving atomic permutation cycles is reexamined. In particular, a new derivation of the two-component field theory model of the critical behavior is presented. Results for a lattice model originally proposed by Kikuchi are extended with a high temperature series expansion and Monte Carlo simulation. 30 references.

  5. Topics in statistical mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis deals with four independent topics in statistical mechanics: (1) the dimer problem is solved exactly for a hexagonal lattice with general boundary using a known generating function from the theory of partitions. It is shown that the leading term in the entropy depends on the shape of the boundary; (2) continuum models of percolation and self-avoiding walks are introduced with the property that their series expansions are sums over linear graphs with intrinsic combinatorial weights and explicit dimension dependence; (3) a constrained SOS model is used to describe the edge of a simple cubic crystal. Low and high temperature results are derived as well as the detailed behavior near the crystal facet; (4) the microscopic model of the lambda-transition involving atomic permutation cycles is reexamined. In particular, a new derivation of the two-component field theory model of the critical behavior is presented. Results for a lattice model originally proposed by Kikuchi are extended with a high temperature series expansion and Monte Carlo simulation. 30 references

  6. Superconcentration and related topics

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, Sourav

    2014-01-01

    A certain curious feature of random objects, introduced by the author as “super concentration,” and two related topics, “chaos” and “multiple valleys,” are highlighted in this book. Although super concentration has established itself as a recognized feature in a number of areas of probability theory in the last twenty years (under a variety of names), the author was the first to discover and explore its connections with chaos and multiple valleys. He achieves a substantial degree of simplification and clarity in the presentation of these findings by using the spectral approach. Understanding the fluctuations of random objects is one of the major goals of probability theory and a whole subfield of probability and analysis, called concentration of measure, is devoted to understanding these fluctuations. This subfield offers a range of tools for computing upper bounds on the orders of fluctuations of very complicated random variables. Usually, concentration of measure is useful when more direct prob...

  7. Parent's alcoholism severity and family topic avoidance about alcohol as predictors of perceived stigma among adult children of alcoholics: Implications for emotional and psychological resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haverfield, Marie C; Theiss, Jennifer A

    2016-01-01

    Alcoholism is a highly stigmatized condition, with both alcohol-dependent individuals and family members of the afflicted experiencing stigmatization. This study examined the severity of a parent's alcoholism and family topic avoidance about alcohol as two factors that are associated with family members' perceptions of stigma. Three dimensions of stigma were considered: discrimination stigma, disclosure stigma, and positive aspect stigma. In addition, this study assessed associations between perceived stigmatization and individuals' experiences of depressive symptoms, self-esteem, and resilience. Adult children of alcoholics (N = 622) were surveyed about family conditions, perceived stigma, and their emotional and psychological well-being. Regression analyses revealed that the severity of a parent's alcoholism predicted all three types of stigma for females, but not for males. In addition, family topic avoidance about alcohol predicted all types of stigma for males and discrimination stigma and positive aspect stigma for females. With few exceptions, the three types of stigma predicted depressive symptoms, self-esteem, and resilience for both male and female adult children of alcoholics. The results are discussed in terms of their implications for promoting a family environment that mitigates stigma and encourages emotional and psychological well-being. In 2012, approximately 3.3 million deaths worldwide were due to the harmful use of alcohol (World Health Organization [WHO], 2014). Individuals who abuse alcohol are susceptible to a variety of negative health outcomes (Rehm et al., 2009) and display inappropriate social behaviors (Klingemann, 2001; Schomerus et al., 2011a). General societal perceptions tend to characterize alcohol-dependent individuals as irresponsible and lacking in self-control (Schomerus et al., 2011b). Research in the United Kingdom found that 54% of the population believes alcohol-dependent individuals are personally to blame for their own

  8. Topics in optics and music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Andrew W.

    2012-10-01

    While the use of optics in the playback of music has been a tremendously successful technology and laser light shows are a common occurrence, other intersections of optics and music tend to be less well known. Topics such as optics-based instruments, performance tools and effects, instrument characterization and manufacturing, recording, playback, and signal processing are explored.

  9. The Health Curriculum: 500 Topics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Oliver E.

    2001-01-01

    This 1958 paper divides 500 health topics into 20 categories: health as a social accomplishment/social problem; nutrition; physical fitness; mental health and disease; heredity/eugenics; infection/immunity; chronic and degenerative disease; substance abuse; skin care; vision, hearing, and speech; dental health; safety; physical environment; health…

  10. Topics on Galactic Chemical Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Prantzos, Nikos

    2011-01-01

    I discuss three different topics in Galactic chemical evolution:the "puzzling" absence of any observational signature of secondary elements ; the building of the Galactic halo in the framework of hierarchical galaxy formation, as evidenced from its metallicity distribution ; and the potentially important role that radial migration may play in the evolution of galactic disks, according to recent studies.

  11. Selected topics in nuclear structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    19. winter school in Zakopane was devoted to selected topics in nuclear structure such as: production of spin resonances, heavy ions reactions and their applications to the investigation of high spin states, octupole deformations, excited states and production of new elements etc. The experimental data are ofen compared with theoretical predictions. Report contains 28 papers. (M.F.W.)

  12. Talking topically to artificial dialog partners: Emulating humanlike topic awareness in a virtual agent

    OpenAIRE

    Breuing, Alexa; Wachsmuth, Ipke; Filipe, Joaquim; Fred, Ana

    2013-01-01

    During dialog, humans are able to track ongoing topics, to detect topical shifts, to refer to topics via labels, and to decide on the appropriateness of potential dialog topics. As a result, they interactionally produce coherent sequences of spoken utterances assigning a thematic structure to the whole conversation. Accordingly, an artificial agent that is intended to engage in natural and sophisticated human-agent dialogs should be endowed with similar conversational abilities. This paper pr...

  13. Endoscopic Resection and Topical 5-Fluorouracil as an Alternative Treatment to Craniofacial Resection for the Management of Primary Intestinal-Type Sinonasal Adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Mackie

    2010-01-01

    Conclusion. Trans-nasal endoscopic resection and topical 5-Fluorouracil could potentially offer an acceptable alternative treatment to the standard of cranio-facial resection. This should be investigated in trials with a longer followup period than this paper in order to directly compare the two treatment modalities.

  14. Skin oxygenation after topical application of liposome-entrapped benzyl nicotinate as measured by EPR oximetry in vivo: influence of composition and size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristl, Julijana; Abramović, Zrinka; Sentjurc, Marjeta

    2003-01-01

    New and improved drug delivery systems are the important subject of much scientific research. The development of formulations that increase skin oxygenation and of methods for measuring oxygen levels in skin are important for dealing with healing processes affected by the level of oxygen. We have used EPR oximetry in vivo to compare the influence of liposomal formulations of different size and composition with that of hydrogel with respect to the action of the entrapped benzyl nicotinate (BN). Following the topical application of BN onto the skin of mice, pO2 increase was measured by low-frequency EPR as a function of time. The effect of BN was evaluated by 3 different parameters: lag-time, time needed for maximum pO2 increase, and overall effectiveness expressed by the area under the response-time curve. An increase in skin oxygenation was observed after BN application. The results show that the effect of BN incorporated in liposomes is achieved more rapidly than the effect from hydrophilic gel. The composition of the liposomes significantly affects the time at which BN starts to act and, to a lesser extent, the maximum increase of pO2 in skin and the effectiveness of BN action. However, the size of the liposomes influences both the effectiveness of BN action and the time at which BN starts to act. After repeated application of liposomes, the pO2 baseline increased and the response of the skin tissue was faster. Our results demonstrate that EPR oximetry is a useful method for evaluating oxygen changes after drug application and for following the time course of their action. PMID:12713274

  15. Topical Products for the Aging Face.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCook, John P

    2016-07-01

    This article focuses on nonprescription home-use topical treatment technologies for the aging face and is intended to serve as a guide for the core cosmeceutical technologies currently used and to help educate and assist the selection of topical antiaging products by the professional staff and their patients. Antiaging topical treatments for patient home use should be nonirritating, compatible with the patient skin type, effective, and complementary to surgical and minimally invasive office procedures, and aesthetically elegant. New topical antiaging technologies, formulated as monotherapy or as combinations with well-known cosmeceuticals, should present adequate clinical studies to support their selection for use. PMID:27363774

  16. Topic Identification in Discourse

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Kuang-hua

    1995-01-01

    This paper proposes a corpus-based language model for topic identification. We analyze the association of noun-noun and noun-verb pairs in LOB Corpus. The word association norms are based on three factors: 1) word importance, 2) pair co-occurrence, and 3) distance. They are trained on the paragraph and sentence levels for noun-noun and noun-verb pairs, respectively. Under the topic coherence postulation, the nouns that have the strongest connectivities with the other nouns and verbs in the di...

  17. Severe photosensitivity reaction induced by topical diclofenac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramod B Akat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Albeit uncommon, photosensitivity reaction induced by diclofenac can be an unfortunate adverse reaction complicating its use as a topical analgesic. We here present a case of a patient who suffered such a reaction as a result of exposure to diclofenac, employed as a topical analgesic for low backache. The lesions healed with conservative management without extensive scarring or other complications.

  18. Tracking topic birth and death in LDA.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Andrew T.; Robinson, David Gerald

    2011-09-01

    Most topic modeling algorithms that address the evolution of documents over time use the same number of topics at all times. This obscures the common occurrence in the data where new subjects arise and old ones diminish or disappear entirely. We propose an algorithm to model the birth and death of topics within an LDA-like framework. The user selects an initial number of topics, after which new topics are created and retired without further supervision. Our approach also accommodates many of the acceleration and parallelization schemes developed in recent years for standard LDA. In recent years, topic modeling algorithms such as latent semantic analysis (LSA)[17], latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA)[10] and their descendants have offered a powerful way to explore and interrogate corpora far too large for any human to grasp without assistance. Using such algorithms we are able to search for similar documents, model and track the volume of topics over time, search for correlated topics or model them with a hierarchy. Most of these algorithms are intended for use with static corpora where the number of documents and the size of the vocabulary are known in advance. Moreover, almost all current topic modeling algorithms fix the number of topics as one of the input parameters and keep it fixed across the entire corpus. While this is appropriate for static corpora, it becomes a serious handicap when analyzing time-varying data sets where topics come and go as a matter of course. This is doubly true for online algorithms that may not have the option of revising earlier results in light of new data. To be sure, these algorithms will account for changing data one way or another, but without the ability to adapt to structural changes such as entirely new topics they may do so in counterintuitive ways.

  19. Towards Automatic Topical Classification of LOD Datasets.

    OpenAIRE

    Meusel, R, Spahiu, B, Bizer, C, Paulheim, H

    2015-01-01

    The datasets that are part of the Linking Open Data cloud diagram (LOD cloud) are classified into the following topical categories: media, government, publications, life sciences, geographic, social networking, user-generated content, and cross-domain. The topical categories were manually assigned to the datasets. In this paper, we investigate to which extent the topical classification of new LOD datasets can be automated using machine learning techniques and the existing annotations as super...

  20. Topic: Mastery Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killoran, James, Ed.

    1983-01-01

    This journal issue addresses the topic of mastery learning at both the elementary and secondary school levels. The first article, "The Theory and Practice of Mastery Learning" (Guskey), gives a definition of and information about the development, operation, and application of mastery learning, based on the theories of Benjamin Bloom. In addition,…

  1. Topical Research: Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Karen

    This lesson plan can be used in social studies, language arts, or library research. The instructional objective is for students to select a topic of study relating to Africa, write a thesis statement, collect information from media sources, and develop a conclusion. The teacher may assign the lesson for written or oral evaluation. The teacher…

  2. Contrastive topics decomposed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Wagner

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of contrastive topics introduced in Büring 1997b and further developed in Büring 2003 relies on distinguishing two types of constituents that introduce alternatives: the sentence focus, which is marked by a FOC feature, and the contrastive topic, which is marked by a CT feature. A non-compositional rule of interpretation that refers to these features is used to derive a topic semantic value, a nested set of sets of propositions. This paper presents evidence for a correlation between the restrictive syntax of nested focus operators and the syntax of contrastive topics, a correlation which is unexpected under this analysis. A compositional analysis is proposed that only makes use of the flatter focus semantic values introduced by focus operators. The analysis aims at integrating insights from the original analysis while at the same time capturing the observed syntactic restrictions. http://dx.doi.org/10.3765/sp.5.8 BibTeX info

  3. Topics in Nonlinear Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosekilde, Erik

    Through a significant number of detailed and realistic examples this book illustrates how the insights gained over the past couple of decades in the fields of nonlinear dynamics and chaos theory can be applied in practice. Aomng the topics considered are microbiological reaction systems, ecological...

  4. Topic Tracking with Dynamic Topic Model and Topic-based Weighting Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan Zhang

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In topic tracking, a topic is usually described by several stories. How to represent a topic is always an issue and a difficult problem in the research on topic tracking. To emphasis the topic in stories, we provide an improved topic-based tf*idf weighting method to measure the topical importance of the features in the representation model. To overcome the topic drift problem and filter the noise existed in the tracked topic description, a dynamic topic model is proposed based on the static model. It extends the initial topic model with the information from the incoming related stories and filters the noise using the latest unrelated story. The topic tracking systems are implemented on the TDT4 Chinese corpus. The experimental results indicate that both the new weighting method and the dynamic model can improve the tracking performance.

  5. The treatment of rosacea with topical ivermectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, S T; Alinia, H; Feldman, S R

    2015-04-01

    The treatment of rosacea is challenging because several pathophysiologic processes may be involved, including neurovascular dysregulation and alterations in innate immune status. Demodex mites may play a role in the latter mechanism. Topical ivermectin is a new therapeutic modality which demonstrates antiparasitic and anti-inflammatory properties. This article reviews published evidence related to the efficacy and safety of topical ivermectin. PubMed was utilized to search for key words "topical ivermectin", "ivermectin cream" and "rosacea". Three clinical trials were found that studied topical ivermectin as a treatment option for rosacea. Ivermectin was effective, safe and well tolerated. PMID:26020066

  6. Updates of Topical and Local Anesthesia Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Ricardo A; Kirpalani, Tarun; Mohan, Naveen

    2016-04-01

    As described in this article, there are many advances in topical and local anesthesia. Topical and local anesthetics have played a great role in dentistry in alleviating the fears of patients, eliminating pain, and providing pain control. Many invasive procedures would not be performed without the use and advances of topical/local anesthetics. The modern-day dentist has the responsibility of knowing the variety of products on the market and should have at least references to access before, during, and after treatment. This practice ensures proper care with topical and local anesthetics for the masses of patients entering dental offices worldwide. PMID:27040295

  7. Large scale topic modeling made practical

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlgreen, Bjarne Ørum; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2011-01-01

    Topic models are of broad interest. They can be used for query expansion and result structuring in information retrieval and as an important component in services such as recommender systems and user adaptive advertising. In large scale applications both the size of the database (number of...... topics at par with a much larger case specific vocabulary....

  8. Topics and topic prominence in two sign languages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V. Kimmelman

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we describe topic marking in Russian Sign Language (RSL) and Sign Language of the Netherlands (NGT) and discuss whether these languages should be considered topic prominent. The formal markers of topics in RSL are sentence-initial position, a prosodic break following the topic, and non

  9. Analyses of Research Topics in the Field of Informetrics Based on the Method of Topic Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Sung-Chien Lin

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we used the approach of topic modeling to uncover the possible structure of research topics in the field of Informetrics, to explore the distribution of the topics over years, and to compare the core journals. In order to infer the structure of the topics in the field, the data of the papers published in the Journal of Informetricsand Scientometrics during 2007 to 2013 are retrieved from the database of the Web of Science as input of the approach of topic modeling. The results ...

  10. Discovering Health Topics in Social Media Using Topic Models

    OpenAIRE

    Paul, Michael J.; Dredze, Mark

    2014-01-01

    By aggregating self-reported health statuses across millions of users, we seek to characterize the variety of health information discussed in Twitter. We describe a topic modeling framework for discovering health topics in Twitter, a social media website. This is an exploratory approach with the goal of understanding what health topics are commonly discussed in social media. This paper describes in detail a statistical topic model created for this purpose, the Ailment Topic Aspect Model (ATAM...

  11. Hot topic [editorial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    simulations 'would be seriously in error'. One may ask if this magazine should give space to Lindzen or those involved in geoengineering to air their views. Given the uncertainties still present within climate models and the potential costs of dealing with global warming, it would be wrong for Physics World to ignore those outside the mainstream. After all, as Richard Feynman once wrote: 'There is no harm in doubt and scepticism, for it is through these that new discoveries are made'. Physicists should never take anything at face value, not least a topic as important as climate change. (U.K.)

  12. Topical retinoids for acne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Lindsey; Bonati, Lauren Meshkov; Silverberg, Nanette B

    2016-06-01

    Topical retinoids are currently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of acne vulgaris in nonpregnant, nonlactating patients 12 years of age and older. Their efficacy, safety, and tolerability are well documented for inflammatory and noninflammatory acne with studies repeatedly demonstrating a decrease in the number of lesions, significant improvement in acne severity, improvement in the cosmetic appearance of acne, and the prevention of acne lesions through microcomedone formation. There is some variability between prescription retinoid products regarding efficacy, safety, and tolerability; with erythema, peeling, and dryness being common, potential side effects. Due to their efficacious and safe profile, topical retinoids remain the first-line treatment for acne vulgaris. PMID:27416308

  13. Four (Somewhat Nonstandard) Research Topics

    OpenAIRE

    Paun, Gheorghe; Research Group on Natural Computing (Universidad de Sevilla) (Coordinador)

    2014-01-01

    Four research directions are suggested, dealing with the following four main ideas: computing along the axon (up to now, this topic was only preliminarily investi- gated), using pre-computed resources in order to solve computationally hard problems, considering in P systems both objects \\of matter" and \\of anti-matter" (which annihilate each other when meet), and considering the distance (naturally de ned in a membrane structure of a given type) as a support of information.

  14. Automatic labelling of topic models learned from Twitter by summarisation

    OpenAIRE

    Cano Basave, Amparo Elizabeth; He, Yulan; Xu, Ruifeng

    2014-01-01

    Latent topics derived by topic models such as Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) are the result of hidden thematic structures which provide further insights into the data. The automatic labelling of such topics derived from social media poses however new challenges since topics may characterise novel events happening in the real world. Existing automatic topic labelling approaches which depend on external knowledge sources become less applicable here since relevant articles/concepts of the ext...

  15. Correlated Topic Model for Web Services Ranking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustapha AZNAG

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing number of published Web services providing similar functionalities, it’s very tedious for a service consumer to make decision to select the appropriate one according to her/his needs. In this paper, we explore several probabilistic topic models: Probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis (PLSA, Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA and Correlated Topic Model (CTM to extract latent factors from web service descriptions. In our approach, topic models are used as efficient dimension reduction techniques, which are able to capture semantic relationships between word-topic and topic-service interpreted in terms of probability distributions. To address the limitation of keywords-based queries, we represent web service description as a vector space and we introduce a new approach for discovering and ranking web services using latent factors. In our experiment, we evaluated our Service Discovery and Ranking approach by calculating the precision (P@n and normalized discounted cumulative gain (NDCGn.

  16. Darwin and Religion: Correcting the Caricatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooke, John Hedley

    2010-01-01

    Much has been written on the subject of Darwinism and religion, but rather less on the development of Darwin's own thinking on religious matters and how it changed over time. What were his religious, or anti-religious, beliefs? Did he believe that his theory of evolution by natural selection was incompatible with belief in a Creator? Was it his…

  17. Topics in commutative ring theory

    CERN Document Server

    Watkins, John J

    2009-01-01

    Topics in Commutative Ring Theory is a textbook for advanced undergraduate students as well as graduate students and mathematicians seeking an accessible introduction to this fascinating area of abstract algebra. Commutative ring theory arose more than a century ago to address questions in geometry and number theory. A commutative ring is a set-such as the integers, complex numbers, or polynomials with real coefficients--with two operations, addition and multiplication. Starting from this simple definition, John Watkins guides readers from basic concepts to Noetherian rings-one of

  18. "Draw My Topics": Find Desired Topics fast from large scale of Corpus

    OpenAIRE

    Dou, Jason; Sun, Ni; Zou, Xiaojun

    2016-01-01

    We develop the "Draw My Topics" toolkit, which provides a fast way to incorporate social scientists' interest into standard topic modelling. Instead of using raw corpus with primitive processing as input, an algorithm based on Vector Space Model and Conditional Entropy are used to connect social scientists' willingness and unsupervised topic models' output. Space for users' adjustment on specific corpus of their interest is also accommodated. We demonstrate the toolkit's use on the Diachronic...

  19. Topical Acne Treatments and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topical Acne Treatments and Pregnancy In every pregnancy, a woman starts out with a 3-5% chance of having ... This sheet talks about whether exposure to topical acne treatments may increase the risk for birth defects ...

  20. Topical tretinoin in acanthosis nigricans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lahiri Koushik

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficacy of topical tretinoin was assessed in 30 cases of idiopathic acanthosis nigricans which were recalcitrant to conventional modalities of treatment. Topical tretinoin once at night application was found to be very effective both clinically and histologically.

  1. Topical tretinoin in acanthosis nigricans

    OpenAIRE

    Lahiri Koushik; Malakar Subrata

    1996-01-01

    Efficacy of topical tretinoin was assessed in 30 cases of idiopathic acanthosis nigricans which were recalcitrant to conventional modalities of treatment. Topical tretinoin once at night application was found to be very effective both clinically and histologically.

  2. Modern topics in electron scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Frois, Bernard

    1991-01-01

    This book summarizes the considerable progress recently achieved in the understanding of nucleon and nuclear structure by using high energy electrons as a probe. A collection of papers discusses in detail the new frontiers of this field. Experimental and theoretical articles cover topics such as the structure of the nucleon, nucleon distributions, many-body correlations, non-nucleonic degrees of freedom and few-body systems. This book is an up-to-date introduction to the research planned with continuous beam electron accelerators.

  3. Recent Advances In Topical Therapy In Dermatology

    OpenAIRE

    Mohan Thappa Devinder

    2003-01-01

    With changing times various newer topical agents are introduced in the field of dermatology. Tacrolimus and pimecrolimus are immunisuppressants, which are effective topically and are tried in the management of atopic dermatitis as well as other disorders including allergic contact dermatitis, atrophic lichen planus, pyoderma gangrenosum. Imiquimod, an immune response modifier, is presently in use for genital warts but has potentials as anti- tumour agent and in various other dermatological co...

  4. Topics in strangeness nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strangeness nuclear physics bears a broad impact on contemporary physics since it lies at the intersection of nuclear and elementary particle physics, having, moreover, significant implications to the astrophysics of compact objects. This set of extensive lectures presents a balanced theoretical and experimental introduction to, and survey of, the field, addressing topics such as the production and spectroscopy of strange nuclear systems, modern approaches to the hyperon-nucleon interaction, and weak decays of hypernuclei. With new experiments underway, this burgeoning research field is well served by this tutorial primer and review for both newcomers and seasoned researchers alike. (orig.)

  5. Digital Social Network Mining for Topic Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradianzadeh, Pooya; Mohi, Maryam; Sadighi Moshkenani, Mohsen

    Networked computers are expanding more and more around the world, and digital social networks becoming of great importance for many people's work and leisure. This paper mainly focused on discovering the topic of exchanging information in digital social network. In brief, our method is to use a hierarchical dictionary of related topics and words that mapped to a graph. Then, with comparing the extracted keywords from the context of social network with graph nodes, probability of relation between context and desired topics will be computed. This model can be used in many applications such as advertising, viral marketing and high-risk group detection.

  6. Control of pain with topical plant medicines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    James; David; Adams; Jr.; Xiaogang; Wang

    2015-01-01

    Pain is normally treated with oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents and opioids. These drugs are dangerous and are responsible for many hospitalizations and deaths. It is much safer to use topical preparations made from plants to treat pain, even severe pain. Topical preparations must contain compounds that penetrate the skin, inhibit pain receptors such as transient receptor potential cation channels and cyclooxygenase-2, to relieve pain. Inhibition of pain in the skin disrupts the pain cycle and avoids exposure of internal organs to large amounts of toxic compounds. Use of topical pain relievers has the potential to save many lives, decrease medical costs and improve therapy.

  7. Topic-focused Dynamic Information Filtering in Social Media

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Yadong; Lan, Yanyan; Guo, Jiafeng; Cheng, Xueqi

    2015-01-01

    With the quick development of online social media such as twitter or sina weibo in china, many users usually track hot topics to satisfy their desired information need. For a hot topic, new opinions or ideas will be continuously produced in the form of online data stream. In this scenario, how to effectively filter and display information for a certain topic dynamically, will be a critical problem. We call the problem as Topic-focused Dynamic Information Filtering (denoted as TDIF for short) ...

  8. Analyses of Research Topics in the Field of Informetrics Based on the Method of Topic Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Chien Lin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we used the approach of topic modeling to uncover the possible structure of research topics in the field of Informetrics, to explore the distribution of the topics over years, and to compare the core journals. In order to infer the structure of the topics in the field, the data of the papers published in the Journal of Informetricsand Scientometrics during 2007 to 2013 are retrieved from the database of the Web of Science as input of the approach of topic modeling. The results of this study show that when the number of topics was set to 10, the topic model has the smallest perplexity. Although data scopes and analysis methodsare different to previous studies, the generating topics of this study are consistent with those results produced by analyses of experts. Empirical case studies and measurements of bibliometric indicators were concerned important in every year during the whole analytic period, and the field was increasing stability. Both the two core journals broadly paid more attention to all of the topics in the field of Informetrics. The Journal of Informetricsput particular emphasis on construction and applications ofbibliometric indicators and Scientometrics focused on the evaluation and the factors of productivity of countries, institutions, domains, and journals.

  9. Hierarchical topic modeling with nested hierarchical Dirichlet process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-qun DING; Shan-ping LI; Zhen ZHANG; Bin SHEN

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with the statistical modeling of latent topic hierarchies in text corpora. The height of the topic tree is assumed as fixed, while the number of topics on each level as unknown a priori and to be inferred from data. Taking a nonparametric Bayesian approach to this problem, we propose a new probabilistic generative model based on the nested hierarchical Dirichlet process (nHDP) and present a Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling algorithm for the inference of the topic tree structure as welt as the word distribution of each topic and topic distribution of each document. Our theoretical analysis and experiment results show that this model can produce a more compact hierarchical topic structure and captures more free-grained topic relationships compared to the hierarchical latent Dirichlet allocation model.

  10. Advanced verification topics

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharya, Bishnupriya; Hall, Gary; Heaton, Nick; Kashai, Yaron; Khan Neyaz; Kirshenbaum, Zeev; Shneydor, Efrat

    2011-01-01

    The Accellera Universal Verification Methodology (UVM) standard is architected to scale, but verification is growing and in more than just the digital design dimension. It is growing in the SoC dimension to include low-power and mixed-signal and the system integration dimension to include multi-language support and acceleration. These items and others all contribute to the quality of the SOC so the Metric-Driven Verification (MDV) methodology is needed to unify it all into a coherent verification plan. This book is for verification engineers and managers familiar with the UVM and the benefits it brings to digital verification but who also need to tackle specialized tasks. It is also written for the SoC project manager that is tasked with building an efficient worldwide team. While the task continues to become more complex, Advanced Verification Topics describes methodologies outside of the Accellera UVM standard, but that build on it, to provide a way for SoC teams to stay productive and profitable.

  11. 75 FR 26647 - Ophthalmic and Topical Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Ivermectin Topical Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ... parasites that were approved for the pioneer product with 3 years of marketing exclusivity (69 FR 501... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 524 Ophthalmic and Topical Dosage Form New... part 524 is amended as follows: PART 524--OPHTHALMIC AND TOPICAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS 0 1....

  12. Detection of Embryonic Research Topics by Analysing Semantic Topic Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Salatino, Angelo Antonio; Motta, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    Being aware of new research topics is an important asset for anybody involved in the research environment, including researchers, academic publishers and institutional funding bodies. In recent years, the amount of scholarly data available on the web has increased steadily, allowing the development of several approaches for detecting emerging research topics and assessing their trends. However, current methods focus on the detection of topics which are already associated with a label or a sub...

  13. A Survey On Interactivity in Topic Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik Ehrencrona Kjellin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Trying to make sense and gain deeper insight from large sets of data is becoming a task very central to computer science in general. Topic models, capable of uncovering the semantic themes pervading through large collections of documents, have seen a surge in popularity in recent years. However, topic models are high level statistical tools; their output is given in terms of probability distributions, suited neither for simple interpretation nor deep analysis. Interpreting the fitted topic models in an intuitive manner requires visual and interactive tools. Additionally, some measure of human interaction is typically required for refining the output offered by such models. In the research, this area remains relatively unexplored – only recently has this aspect been receiving more attention. In this paper, the literature is surveyed as it pertains to interactivity and visualisation within the context of topic models, with the goal of finding current research trends in this area.

  14. Synergetics introduction and advanced topics

    CERN Document Server

    Haken, Hermann

    2004-01-01

    This book is an often-requested reprint of two classic texts by H. Haken: "Synergetics. An Introduction" and "Advanced Synergetics". Synergetics, an interdisciplinary research program initiated by H. Haken in 1969, deals with the systematic and methodological approach to the rapidly growing field of complexity. Going well beyond qualitative analogies between complex systems in fields as diverse as physics, chemistry, biology, sociology and economics, Synergetics uses tools from theoretical physics and mathematics to construct an unifying framework within which quantitative descriptions of complex, self-organizing systems can be made. This may well explain the timelessness of H. Haken's original texts on this topic, which are now recognized as landmarks in the field of complex systems. They provide both the beginning graduate student and the seasoned researcher with solid knowledge of the basic concepts and mathematical tools. Moreover, they admirably convey the spirit of the pioneering work by the founder of ...

  15. Scaling up Dynamic Topic Models

    OpenAIRE

    Bhadury, Arnab; Chen, Jianfei; Zhu, Jun; Liu, Shixia

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic topic models (DTMs) are very effective in discovering topics and capturing their evolution trends in time series data. To do posterior inference of DTMs, existing methods are all batch algorithms that scan the full dataset before each update of the model and make inexact variational approximations with mean-field assumptions. Due to a lack of a more scalable inference algorithm, despite the usefulness, DTMs have not captured large topic dynamics. This paper fills this research void, a...

  16. Topic Modeling of Hierarchical Corpora /

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Do-kyum

    2014-01-01

    The sizes of modern digital libraries have grown beyond our capacity to comprehend manually. Thus we need new tools to help us in organizing and browsing large corpora of text that do not require manually examining each document. To this end, machine learning researchers have developed topic models, statistical learning algorithms for automatic comprehension of large collections of text. Topic models provide both global and local views of a corpus; they discover topics that run through the co...

  17. Industrial Transformation: Research Gaps and Possible Research Topics for IIASA.

    OpenAIRE

    Mulder, P

    1997-01-01

    Industrial transformation has been identified as a priority research topic within the International Human Dimensions Programme on Global Environmental Change (IHDP). This paper looks at the research gaps in the area of Industrial Transformation identified within the framework of IHDP. Furthermore, the paper explores possible research topics for IIASA and discusses possible research questions for the topics of ``Technology'' and ``Consumption''.

  18. Generative Topic Modeling in Image Data Mining and Bioinformatics Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin

    2012-01-01

    Probabilistic topic models have been developed for applications in various domains such as text mining, information retrieval and computer vision and bioinformatics domain. In this thesis, we focus on developing novel probabilistic topic models for image mining and bioinformatics studies. Specifically, a probabilistic topic-connection (PTC) model…

  19. Current Topics in Epilepsy Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usui, Naotaka

    2016-05-15

    This article reviews the current topics in the field of epilepsy surgery. Each type of epilepsy is associated with a different set of questions and goals. In mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) with hippocampal sclerosis (HS), postoperative seizure outcome is satisfactory. A recent meta-analysis revealed superior seizure outcome after anterior temporal lobectomy compared with selective amygdalohippocampectomy; in terms of cognitive outcome; however, amygdalohippocampectomy may be beneficial. In temporal lobe epilepsy with normal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), postoperative seizure outcome is not as favorable as it is in MTLE with HS; further improvement of seizure outcome in these cases is necessary. Focal cortical dysplasia is the most common substrate in intractable neocortical epilepsy, especially in children, as well as in MRI-invisible neocortical epilepsy. Postoperative seizure-free outcome is approximately 60-70%; further diagnostic and therapeutic improvement is required. Regarding diagnostic methodology, an important topic currently under discussion is wideband electroencephalogram (EEG) analysis. Although high-frequency oscillations and ictal direct current shifts are considered important markers of epileptogenic zones, the clinical significance of these findings should be clarified further. Regarding alternatives to surgery, neuromodulation therapy can be an option for patients who are not amenable to resective surgery. In addition to vagus nerve stimulation, intracranial stimulation such as responsive neurostimulation or anterior thalamic stimulation is reported to have a modest seizure suppression effect. Postoperative management such as rehabilitation and antiepileptic drug (AED) management is important. It has been reported that postoperative rehabilitation improves postoperative employment status. Pre- and post-operative comprehensive care is mandatory for postoperative improvement of quality of life. PMID:26984452

  20. Current topics in radiation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current research topics in radiation measurements will be shown in this presentation. Applications of radiation measurements have grown with the development of radiation sources and new measurement techniques. Recent new developments in this field are briefly introduced. Optical techniques such as lasers and fiber optics, which are widely used in an optical communication field, are successfully applied to radiation measurements. Micro-fabrication techniques and the photolithography technique are indispensable for semiconductor or even gas detectors. Complicated analog signal processing is being simplified by the use of fast computation techniques available in digital chips. Cryogenic X-ray detectors are making a great progress in the energy resolution. Some of the current research topics found in the recent journals and international symposiums are as follows: the development of room temperature semiconductor radiation detectors like CdZnTe and SiC, new signal processing methods such as coplanar grid unipolar charge sensing, medical γ-ray imaging, the development of cryogenic X-ray detectors such as STJs (Superconducting Tunnel Junction) and TES (Transition Edge Sensor) microcalorimeters, micromachined gas proportional counters like MSGC/MGC/GEM, new detection system which requires both the energy and spatial resolutions, the search of longer wavelength scintillators, development of new fast scintillators such as LSO/YAP/LuAP, new digital waveform processing based on fast digitizing technique, etc. Current developments are especially focused on the increase of the information derived from the detector and the improvement in the resolution. One of the other directions of the development is toward the microscopic visualization of the radiation. Such an approach must solve many technological difficulties both in fabrication of the detectors and even in the detection scheme, however, we might proceed to open a new phase of radiation measurements soon. (author)

  1. Topics of Evolutionary Computation 2001

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ursem, Rasmus Kjær

    This booklet contains the student reports from the course: Topics of Evolutionary Computation, Fall 2001, given by Thiemo Krink, Rene Thomsen and Rasmus K. Ursem......This booklet contains the student reports from the course: Topics of Evolutionary Computation, Fall 2001, given by Thiemo Krink, Rene Thomsen and Rasmus K. Ursem...

  2. Topics in Banach space theory

    CERN Document Server

    Albiac, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    This text provides the reader with the necessary technical tools and background to reach the frontiers of research without the introduction of too many extraneous concepts. Detailed and accessible proofs are included, as are a variety of exercises and problems. The two new chapters in this second edition are devoted to two topics of much current interest amongst functional analysts: Greedy approximation with respect to bases in Banach spaces and nonlinear geometry of Banach spaces. This new material is intended to present these two directions of research for their intrinsic importance within Banach space theory, and to motivate graduate students interested in learning more about them. This textbook assumes only a basic knowledge of functional analysis, giving the reader a self-contained overview of the ideas and techniques in the development of modern Banach space theory. Special emphasis is placed on the study of the classical Lebesgue spaces Lp (and their sequence space analogues) and spaces of continuous f...

  3. THE BIBLICAL EPISODE ABOUT THE THREE TEMPTETIONS OF JESUS AS A TOPIC OF THE DIALOGUE BETWEEN F. M. DOSTOEVSKY AND V. A. ALEKSEEV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babkina T. A.

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on Dostoevsky's correspondence with the soloist of the Mariinsky Theater orchestra Vasily Alekseevich Alekseev, which appeared as a feedback after the release of "A Writer's Diary".

  4. Evaluating supervised topic models in the presence of OCR errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Daniel; Ringger, Eric; Seppi, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Supervised topic models are promising tools for text analytics that simultaneously model topical patterns in document collections and relationships between those topics and document metadata, such as timestamps. We examine empirically the effect of OCR noise on the ability of supervised topic models to produce high quality output through a series of experiments in which we evaluate three supervised topic models and a naive baseline on synthetic OCR data having various levels of degradation and on real OCR data from two different decades. The evaluation includes experiments with and without feature selection. Our results suggest that supervised topic models are no better, or at least not much better in terms of their robustness to OCR errors, than unsupervised topic models and that feature selection has the mixed result of improving topic quality while harming metadata prediction quality. For users of topic modeling methods on OCR data, supervised topic models do not yet solve the problem of finding better topics than the original unsupervised topic models.

  5. Nanoparticles - A paradigm for topical drug delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogesh S Chaudhari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Topical drug delivery is still a challenge due to the difficulties in controlling the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API fate within the skin. Due to the safety of the component material and controlled release abilities, nanoparticles offer an excellent opportunity for the rational delivery of drugs to the desired target site and hence these carrier systems are effectively used for topical delivery of variety of active principles for both pharmaceutical as well as cosmetic purposes. Recently, solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs have shown a great potential as carriers for topical administration of active substances, principally owing to the possible targeting effect and controlled release in different skin strata. Also, nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs are a new type of topical delivery system offering improved performance in terms of drug loading and long-term stability with the ability to form highly concentrated dispersions. Another invention in the field of topical drug delivery is the use of micellar nanoparticles (MNPs that offer a potentially fast and inexpensive pharmaceutical development model by using drugs already proven safe and effective to create new proprietary formulations. These novel drug delivery systems have gained much interest as they combine both the technology of lipid sciences and nanosciences, and hence may be better alternative carriers.

  6. The potential of the essential fatty acid-deficient hairless rat as a psoriasis screening model for topical anti-proliferative drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mette; Groth, L.; Holmer, G.;

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study was to establish essential fatty acid deficiency (EFAD) in hairless rats and investigate the potential of this model as a psoriasis screening model by testing the effects of calcipotriol and dithranol on differentiation and proliferation in the epidermis. Hairless rats...

  7. KEY TOPICS IN SPORTS MEDICINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Ali Narvani

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Key Topics in Sports Medicine is a single quick reference source for sports and exercise medicine. It presents the essential information from across relevant topic areas, and includes both the core and emerging issues in this rapidly developing field. It covers: 1 Sports injuries, rehabilitation and injury prevention, 2 Exercise physiology, fitness testing and training, 3 Drugs in sport, 4 Exercise and health promotion, 5 Sport and exercise for special and clinical populations, 6 The psychology of performance and injury. PURPOSE The Key Topics format provides extensive, concise information in an accessible, easy-to-follow manner. AUDIENCE The book is targeted the students and specialists in sports medicine and rehabilitation, athletic training, physiotherapy and orthopaedic surgery. The editors are authorities in their respective fields and this handbook depends on their extensive experience and knowledge accumulated over the years. FEATURES The book contains the information for clinical guidance, rapid access to concise details and facts. It is composed of 99 topics which present the information in an order that is considered logical and progressive as in most texts. Chapter headings are: 1. Functional Anatomy, 2. Training Principles / Development of Strength and Power, 3. Biomechanical Principles, 4. Biomechanical Analysis, 5. Physiology of Training, 6. Monitoring of Training Progress, 7. Nutrition, 8. Hot and Cold Climates, 9. Altitude, 10. Sport and Travelling, 11. Principles of Sport Injury Diagnosis, 12. Principles of Sport and Soft Tissue Management, 13. Principles of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation, 14. Principles of Sport Injury Prevention, 15. Sports Psychology, 16. Team Sports, 17. Psychological Aspects of Injury in Sport, 18. Injury Repair Process, 19. Basic Biomechanics of Tissue Injury, 20. Plain Film Radiography in Sport, 21. Nuclear Medicine, 22. Diagnostic Ultrasound, 23. MRI Scan, 24. Other Imaging, 5. Head Injury, 26. Eye

  8. A Problematic Family Reunion of a Chinese-American in China: Issues of Face Abstract: As one of the heated topics in the intercultural communication studies, face issues have aroused world-wide attention in the academic field. This paper analyses thr...%ract: As one of the heated topics in the intercultural communication studies, face issues have aroused world-wide attention in the academic field. This paper analyses three critical incidents based on two face theories proposed by Brown and Levinson ...

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹凤琴

    2012-01-01

    As one of the heated topics in the intercultural communication studies, face issues have aroused world-wide attention in the academic field. This paper analyses three critical incidents based on two face theories proposed by Brown and Levinson (1987) and Ting-Toomey and Kurogi(1998) respectively. Lastly, by focusing on the relationship between the rapport-threatening behavior and the face, this paper intends to cultivate our awareness of face and highlight the harmonious interpersonal relationship between different cultures.

  9. TOPICAL REVIEW: FPA-based infrared thermography as applied to the study of cutaneous perspiration and stimulated vascular response in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vainer, Boris G.

    2005-12-01

    This review gives an overview of focal plane array (FPA)-based infrared (IR) thermography as a powerful research method in the field of physiology and medicine. Comparison of the gained results with the data previously obtained by other authors with other research tools is given. Outer thermoregulatory manifestations displayed by the human organism subjected to whole-body heating (sauna bath) and physical loads (exercise bicycling) are quantitatively analysed. Some details of human body emotional sweating (psycho-physiological effect) are reported. Particular attention is paid to studying active sweat glands as individual objects. All experimental data were obtained with the help of a high-sensitivity (0.03 °C) fast 128 × 128 InAs IR detector-based thermal imaging system operating in the short-wave spectral region (2.5 to 3 µm) and perfectly suiting medical purposes. It is shown that IR thermography makes it possible to overcome limitations inherent to contact measuring means that were traditionally used before in thermal studies. It is also shown that heterogeneous thermograms displayed by organisms with disturbed inner equilibrium can be quantitatively analysed in terms of statistical parameters of related surface-temperature histograms, such as the mean temperature and the standard deviation of temperature (SDT). The increase and the decrease in SDT turned out to be typical of prolonged physical load and subsequent relaxation, and of external whole-body heating, respectively. Explanation of this result based on a hypothesis advanced within the context of the doctrine of human-organism evolution is given. Skin-temperature distribution function accompanying the relaxed organism in normality was found to closely resemble normal-distribution function. Symmetry break down and variation of the shape of this characteristic may serve as an indicator of homeostasis shift and can be used as a quantitative criterion for the latter. A new phenomenon, stable punctate

  10. Scopus vs WOS as scientific evaluation tools:A comparative analysis based on a testing sample search on the topic of electric vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Na; PAN; Yuntao; MA; Zheng; WU; Yishan

    2010-01-01

    Based on a bibliometric analysis in combination with other information analysis methods,this paper compares the different evaluation results on the subject of"electric vehicles"drawn from Web of Science(WOS)and from Scopus.We came to the following conclusions after a careful comparison of these two databases.Firstly,both WOS and Scopus would provide some valid and unique evaluation indicators.Secondly,they showed similar results in terms of evaluating research performance of countries and research organizations involved in the targeted subject fields.In fact,both databases are good for discovering the research trend in general at the macroscopic level.Lastly,we ought to take the disciplinary characteristics,the extent of journal inclusion and resource selection criteria as well as inevitable data errors into full account in making recommendations to policy decision-makers.

  11. Maps on the basis of the Arts & Humanities Citation Index: The journals Leonardo and Art Journal versus "Digital Humanities" as a topic

    OpenAIRE

    Leydesdorff, Loet; Salah, Alkim Almila Akdag

    2009-01-01

    The possibilities of using the Arts & Humanities Citation Index (A&HCI) for journal mapping have not been sufficiently recognized because of the absence of a Journal Citations Report (JCR) for this database. A quasi-JCR for the A&HCI (2008) was constructed from the data contained in the Web-of-Science and is used for the evaluation of two journals as examples: Leonardo and Art Journal. The maps on the basis of the aggregated journal-journal citations within this domain can be compared with ma...

  12. Character Education. What Works Clearinghouse Topic Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Character education is a fairly new and rapidly evolving topic for curriculum interventions. Character can encompass such moral and ethical values as respect, fairness, and caring -- as well as responsibility, trustworthiness, and citizenship. It can refer to the demonstration of these values in behavior, reasoning, and emotions. The What Works…

  13. Testing of Continuous Sampling Air-ICP and Mercury Systems as Continuous Emission Monitors at the Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report has been prepared to document the performance of the continuous sampling reduced-pressure air-ICP-AES (inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy) and mercury-monitor systems developed by Ames Laboratory for use as continuous emission monitors (CEM). This work was funded by the U. S. Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management, Office of Science and Technology, through the Mixed Waste Focus Area. The purpose of the project is to develop instrumentation and methods for spectroscopic field monitoring applications. During FY00 this included continued work on the development of the continuous sample introduction system and the multi-frequency AOTF-echelle spectrometer, used in conjunction with the reduced-pressure air-ICP-AES system as a multi-metal CEM. The assembly, development, and testing of an echelle spectrometer system for the detection of mercury (Hg) by atomic absorption was also completed during FY00. The continuous sampling system and the multi-metal air-ICP and mercury-monitor CEM systems were tested at Mississippi State University at the Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory (DIAL) at the end of FY00. This report describes the characteristics and performance of these systems, and the results of the field tests performed at DIAL

  14. Topics in Galois theory

    CERN Document Server

    Serre, Jean-Pierre

    2007-01-01

    This book is based on a course given by the author at Harvard University in the fall semester of 1988. The course focused on the inverse problem of Galois Theory: the construction of field extensions having a given finite group as Galois group. In the first part of the book, classical methods and results, such as the Scholz and Reichardt construction for p-groups, p != 2, as well as Hilbert's irreducibility theorem and the large sieve inequality, are presented. The second half is devoted to rationality and rigidity criteria and their application in realizing certain groups as Galois groups of

  15. The RING for gypsy moth control: Topical application of fragment of its nuclear polyhedrosis virus anti-apoptosis gene as insecticide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberemok, Volodymyr V; Laikova, Kateryna V; Zaitsev, Aleksei S; Gushchin, Vladimir A; Skorokhod, Oleksii A

    2016-07-01

    Numerous studies suggest a cellular origin for the Lymantria dispar multicapsid nuclear polyhedrosis virus (LdMNPV) anti-apoptosis genes IAPs, thus opening a possibility to use the fragments of these genes for modulation of host metabolism. We report here the strong insecticidal and metabolic effect of single-stranded antisense DNA fragment from RING (really interesting new gene) domain of gypsy moth LdMNPV IAP-3 gene: specifically, on reduction of biomass (by 35%) and survival of L. dispar caterpillars. The treatment with this DNA fragment leads to a significantly higher mortality rates of female insects (1.7 fold) accompanied with the signs of apoptosis. Additionally, we show increased expression of host IAP-1, caspase-4 and gelsolin genes in eggs laid by survived females treated with RING DNA fragment accompanied with calcium and magnesium imbalance, indicating that the strong stress reactions and metabolic effects are not confined to treated insects but likely led to apoptosis in eggs too. The proposed new approach for insect pest management, which can be considered as advancement of "microbial pesticides", is based on the application of the specific virus DNA, exploiting the knowledge about virus-pest interactions and putting it to the benefit of mankind. PMID:27265824

  16. Selected topics on Hadrons in Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Oset, E; Hernandez, E; Ramos, A; Magas, V K; Yamagata-Sekihara, J; Hirenzaki, S; Gamermann, D; Molina, R; Tolos, L; Roca, L

    2011-01-01

    In this talk we report on selected topics on hadrons in nuclei. The first topic is the renormalization of the width of the $\\Lambda(1520)$ in a nuclear medium. This is followed by a short update of the situation of the $\\omega$ in the medium. The investigation of the properties of $\\bar{K}$ in the nuclear medium from the study of the $(K_{flight},p)$ reaction is also addressed, as well as properties of X,Y,Z charmed and hidden charm resonances in a nuclear medium. Finally we address the novel issue of multimeson states.

  17. Learning Topic Models by Belief Propagation

    CERN Document Server

    Zeng, Jia; Liu, Jiming

    2011-01-01

    Latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA) is an important class of hierarchical Bayesian models for probabilistic topic modeling, which attracts worldwide interests and touches many important applications in text mining, computer vision and computational biology. This paper proposes a novel tree-structured factor graph representation for LDA within the Markov random field (MRF) framework, which enables the classic belief propagation (BP) algorithm for exact inference and parameter estimation. Although two commonly-used approximation inference methods, such as variational Bayes (VB) and collapsed Gibbs sampling (GS), have gained great successes in learning LDA, the proposed BP is competitive in both speed and accuracy validated by encouraging experimental results on four large-scale document data sets. Furthermore, the BP algorithm has the potential to become a generic learning scheme for variants of LDA-based topic models. To this end, we show how to learn two typical variants of LDA-based topic models, such as autho...

  18. Advanced topics in biometrics

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Haizhou; Toh, Kar-Ann

    2011-01-01

    Biometrics is the study of methods for uniquely recognizing humans based on one or more intrinsic physical or behavioral traits. After decades of research activities, biometrics, as a recognized scientific discipline, has advanced considerably both in practical technology and theoretical discovery to meet the increasing need of biometric deployments. In this book, the editors provide both a concise and accessible introduction to the field as well as a detailed coverage on the unique research problems with their solutions in a wide spectrum of biometrics research ranging from voice, face, finge

  19. Topics in general topology

    CERN Document Server

    Morita, K

    1989-01-01

    Being an advanced account of certain aspects of general topology, the primary purpose of this volume is to provide the reader with an overview of recent developments.The papers cover basic fields such as metrization and extension of maps, as well as newly-developed fields like categorical topology and topological dynamics. Each chapter may be read independently of the others, with a few exceptions. It is assumed that the reader has some knowledge of set theory, algebra, analysis and basic general topology.

  20. Emerging topics in FXTAS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Deborah A; Birch, Rachael C; Anheim, Mathieu;

    2014-01-01

    This paper summarizes key emerging issues in fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) as presented at the First International Conference on the FMR1 Premutation: Basic Mechanisms & Clinical Involvement in 2013....

  1. Nonsteroidal Topical Immunomodulators in Allergology and Dermatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanović, Marina; Golušin, Zoran

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to review currently available literature data concerning pathomechanisms of action, indications, treatment efficacy, as well as side effects of nonsteroidal immunomodulators used in dermatology, primarily for the treatment of allergic dermatoses. MEDLINE search was undertaken using the key words “Topical Immunomodulators, Dermatology and Allergy”. Full articles, and nothing but full articles, were used. PMID:27144167

  2. Water: A Topic for All Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Malonne I.; Seimears, C. Matt

    2008-01-01

    The authors illustrate an effective lesson-planning technique known as unpacking for the broad topic of water. Interconnections among science disciplines are shown for numerous possible subtopics. Two lesson sets are included, the first dealing with properties of water and the second dealing with water as a resource. (Contains 1 table and 4…

  3. Health Topic XML File Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... XML File Description: MedlinePlus URL of this page: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/xmldescription.html Health ... corresponding health topic page on MedlinePlus. Example: url="https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/abdominalpain.html" Use ...

  4. Selected topics in nuclear structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The collection of abstracts on selected topics in nuclear structure are given. Special attention pays to collective excitations and high-spin states of nuclei, giant resonance structure, nuclear reaction mechanisms and so on

  5. Topics of Bioengineering in Wikipedia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassia Atanassova

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The present report aims to give a snapshot of how topics from the field of bioengineering (bioinformatics, bioprocess systems, biomedical engineering, biotechnology, etc. are currently covered in the free electronic encyclopedia Wikipedia. It also offers insights and information about what Wikipedia is, how it functions, how and when to cite Wikipedian articles, if necessary. Several external wikis, devoted to topics of bioengineering, are also listed and reviewed.

  6. Do scientists trace hot topics?

    OpenAIRE

    Tian Wei; Menghui Li; Chensheng Wu; Xiao-Yong Yan; Ying Fan; Zengru Di; Jinshan Wu

    2013-01-01

    Do scientists follow hot topics in their scientific investigations? In this paper, by performing analysis to papers published in the American Physical Society (APS) Physical Review journals, it is found that papers are more likely to be attracted by hot fields, where the hotness of a field is measured by the number of papers belonging to the field. This indicates that scientists generally do follow hot topics. However, there are qualitative differences among scientists from various countries,...

  7. Key Topics in Sports Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Amir Ali Narvani; Panagiotis Thomas; Burce Lynn

    2006-01-01

    Key Topics in Sports Medicine is a single quick reference source for sports and exercise medicine. It presents the essential information from across relevant topic areas, and includes both the core and emerging issues in this rapidly developing field. It covers: 1) Sports injuries, rehabilitation and injury prevention, 2) Exercise physiology, fitness testing and training, 3) Drugs in sport, 4) Exercise and health promotion, 5) Sport and exercise for special and clinical populations, 6) The ps...

  8. Current topics in photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book contains papers on current research in photovoltaics. Areas include: outdoor spectral odor radiation variations and their relationship to photovoltaic device performance, numerical modeling for analysis and design of solar cells, radiation damage mechanisms in GaAs and Si solar cells, and health and safety issues in the manufacturing of photovoltaic cells

  9. Topics in probability

    CERN Document Server

    Prabhu, Narahari

    2011-01-01

    Recent research in probability has been concerned with applications such as data mining and finance models. Some aspects of the foundations of probability theory have receded into the background. Yet, these aspects are very important and have to be brought back into prominence.

  10. [Current topics in pediatric nutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morali, A; Vidailhet, M

    2002-07-01

    As main current topics in pediatric nutrition we have considered the results of the continuing research on the long term consequences of fetal malnutrition and intra-uterine growth retardation with the concept of metabolic imprinting leading to chronic disease in adulthood, the progresses of knowledge in the fields of iron metabolism and regulatory mechanisms of satiety, hunger and energetic balance, a better determination of recommended docosahexanoic and arachidonic acids intake in the first months of life for premature and term infants, and the studies on probiotics and prebiotics utilization for preventive and curative purposes. The concerns about vitamin D insufficiency in France have markedly decreased with the generalization ten years ago of cholecalciferol supplementation of infant formula, and more recently the authorization of dairy products supplementation. On the contrary the problem of iron deficiency in young children remains, as well as two major nutritional concerns: the very low percentage of breast-fed infants and the dramatic increase of childhood obesity which affects presently 14% of 10 year old children versus 5% in 1980. PMID:12162162

  11. Topics In Quantum Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Raugas, M V

    2001-01-01

    In this work, we investigate different features of the quantum geometry associated to string theory. In chapter one, we use the language of quiver theory to determine the toric part of the classical moduli space of D-branes on a nonabelian Calabi-Yau threefold singularity and see that it admits topology-changing transitions. In chapter two, we determine the worldvolume field theories of D3-branes transverse to Calabi-Yau cones over singular Fano surfaces, which can be realized as partial resolutions of an orbifold of complex three-space by a discrete group. A mismatch between the isometries of the complex line bundle over the Fano surfaces and the discrete symmetries of the effective superpotential is found. In chapter three, we investigate the quantum volume of D-branes wrapped around cycles of various dimension in Calabi-Yau fourfolds and fivefolds. We consider the cases of the sextic and heptic hypersurface Calabi-Yau manifolds, as well as one example in weighted projective space, and find expressions for...

  12. Topics in Supergravity Phenomenology

    CERN Document Server

    Dhuria, Mansi

    2014-01-01

    In the first part of the review article, we discuss the possibility of realizing "mu-split-like SUSY" scenario from a phenomenological model, which we show could be realizable locally as the large volume limit of a type IIB Swiss-Cheese Calabi-Yau orientifold involving a mobile space-time filling D3-brane localized at a nearly special Lagrangian three-cycle embedded in the "big" divisor and multiple fluxed stacks of space-time filling D7-branes wrapping the same "big" divisor. We show that the mass of one of the Higgs doublets can be produced to be of the order of 125 GeV whereas other Higgs as well as higgsino mass parameter to be very heavy- the "mu-split-like SUSY" scenario. Then we discuss the role of the heavy squarks/sleptons and the light Higgs in (i) obtaining long-lived gluinos (ii) in verifying that the NLSPs (squarks/sleptons/neutralino) decay into the LSP (gravitino) respects the BBN constraints with the lifetime of the LSP (gravitino) coming out to be of the order or larger than the age of the un...

  13. A Discourse Perspective of Topic-prominence in Chinese EFL Learners’ Interlanguage

    OpenAIRE

    Shaopeng Li; Lianrui Yang

    2014-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate the general characteristics of topic-prominent typological interlanguage development of Chinese learners of English in terms of acquiring subject-prominent English structures from the discourse perspective. We have selected as the research target “topic chain” which is the main topic-prominent structure in Chinese discourse and “zero anaphora” which is the most common topic anaphor of topic chain. Topic structures mainly appear in Chinese discourse in the...

  14. APT accelerator. Topical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) project, sponsored by Department of Energy Defense Programs (DOE/DP), involves the preconceptual design of an accelerator system to produce tritium for the nation's stockpile of nuclear weapons. Tritium is an isotope of hydrogen used in nuclear weapons, and must be replenished because of radioactive decay (its half-life is approximately 12 years). Because the annual production requirements for tritium has greatly decreased since the end of the Cold War, an alternative approach to reactors for tritium production, based on a linear accelerator, is now being seriously considered. The annual tritium requirement at the time this study was undertaken (1992-1993) was 3/8 that of the 1988 goal, usually stated as 3/8-Goal. Continued reduction in the number of weapons in the stockpile has led to a revised (lower) production requirement today (March, 1995). The production requirement needed to maintain the reduced stockpile, as stated in the recent Nuclear Posture Review (summer 1994) is approximately 3/16-Goal, half the previous level. The Nuclear Posture Review also requires that the production plant be designed to accomodate a production increase (surge) to 3/8-Goal capability within five years, to allow recovery from a possible extended outage of the tritium plant. A multi-laboratory team, collaborating with several industrial partners, has developed a preconceptual APT design for the 3/8-Goal, operating at 75% capacity. The team has presented APT as a promising alternative to the reactor concepts proposed for Complex-21. Given the requirements of a reduced weapons stockpile, APT offers both significant safety, environmental, and production-fexibility advantages in comparison with reactor systems, and the prospect of successful development in time to meet the US defense requirements of the 21st Century

  15. APT accelerator. Topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, G.; Rusthoi, D. [comp.] [ed.

    1995-03-01

    The Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) project, sponsored by Department of Energy Defense Programs (DOE/DP), involves the preconceptual design of an accelerator system to produce tritium for the nation`s stockpile of nuclear weapons. Tritium is an isotope of hydrogen used in nuclear weapons, and must be replenished because of radioactive decay (its half-life is approximately 12 years). Because the annual production requirements for tritium has greatly decreased since the end of the Cold War, an alternative approach to reactors for tritium production, based on a linear accelerator, is now being seriously considered. The annual tritium requirement at the time this study was undertaken (1992-1993) was 3/8 that of the 1988 goal, usually stated as 3/8-Goal. Continued reduction in the number of weapons in the stockpile has led to a revised (lower) production requirement today (March, 1995). The production requirement needed to maintain the reduced stockpile, as stated in the recent Nuclear Posture Review (summer 1994) is approximately 3/16-Goal, half the previous level. The Nuclear Posture Review also requires that the production plant be designed to accomodate a production increase (surge) to 3/8-Goal capability within five years, to allow recovery from a possible extended outage of the tritium plant. A multi-laboratory team, collaborating with several industrial partners, has developed a preconceptual APT design for the 3/8-Goal, operating at 75% capacity. The team has presented APT as a promising alternative to the reactor concepts proposed for Complex-21. Given the requirements of a reduced weapons stockpile, APT offers both significant safety, environmental, and production-fexibility advantages in comparison with reactor systems, and the prospect of successful development in time to meet the US defense requirements of the 21st Century.

  16. TOPICAL REVIEW: Biopolymeric nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundar, Sushmitha; Kundu, Joydip; Kundu, Subhas C.

    2010-02-01

    This review on nanoparticles highlights the various biopolymers (proteins and polysaccharides) which have recently revolutionized the world of biocompatible and degradable natural biological materials. The methods of their fabrication, including emulsification, desolvation, coacervation and electrospray drying are described. The characterization of different parameters for a given nanoparticle, such as particle size, surface charge, morphology, stability, structure, cellular uptake, cytotoxicity, drug loading and drug release, is outlined together with the relevant measurement techniques. Applications in the fields of medicine and biotechnology are discussed along with a promising future scope.

  17. Topics in superstring theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author discusses two specific issues in superstring theory as follows: regularization of open superstring from oriented closed surface and worldsheet supersymmetry. Regarding the first issue, the author discusses a technical issue occurring in the open superstring which allows introduction of a multiplicative Chan-Paton factor. For O(N) groups the adjoint representation is the antisymmetric part of N x N and this simple property is lacking in the exceptional groups. The author discusses how for superstrings there are two relevant kinds of supersymmetry: spacetime supersymmetry in d = 10 spacetime dimensions and worldsheet supersymmetry in d = 2 worldsheet dimensions. Until a few months ago, all known superstrings possessed both: at least N = 1 spacetime supersymmetry and at lest (1,0) worldsheet supersymmetry. Recently, however, an 0(16) x 0(16) superstring was proposed with no spacetime supersymmetry; the model has infrared problems on flat M10 but these problems might be cured by compactification. This motivates one to study the restrictions on the six-dimensional compact manifold for the case without spacetime supersymmetry. The author finds that (2,2) worldsheet supersymmetry and quantum conformal invariance of the two-dimensional field theory lead to equally strong restrictions as does the assumption of preserving a spacetime supersymmetry

  18. Visual Structure Language; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we describe a new language, Visual Structure Language (VSL), designed to describe the structure of a program and explain its pieces. This new language is built on top of a general-purpose language, such as C. The language consists of three extensions: explanations, nesting, and arcs. Explanations are comments explicitly associated with code segments. These explanations can be nested. And arcs can be inserted between explanations to show data- or control-flow. The value of VSL is that it enables a developer to better control a code. The developer can represent the structure via nested explanations, using arcs to indicate the flow of data and control. The explanations provide a ''second opinion'' about the code so that at any level, the developer can confirm that the code operates as it is intended to do. We believe that VSL enables a programmer to use in a computer language the same model-a hierarchy of components-that they use in their heads when they conceptualize systems

  19. Mapping the evolution of research topics using ATM and SNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunlei; YE

    2014-01-01

    Purpose:This paper introduces an analysis framework for tracking the evolution of research topics at the selected topics level,covering a research topic’s evolution trend,evolution path and its content changes over time.Design/methodology/approach:After the topics were recovered by the author-topic model,we first built the keyword-topic co-occurrence network to track the dynamics of topic trends.Then a single-mode network was constructed with each node representing a topic and edge indicating the relationship between topics.It was used to illustrate the evolution path and content changes of research topics.A case study was conducted on the digital library research in China to verify the effectiveness of the analysis framework.Findings:The experimental results show that this analysis framework can be used to track evolution of research topics at a micro level and using social network analysis method can help understand research topics’evolution paths and content changes with the passage of time.Research limitations:Using the analysis framework will produce limited results when examining unstructured data such as social media data.In addition,the effectiveness of the framework introduced in this paper needs to be verified with more research topics in information science and in more scientific fields.Practical implications:This analysis framework can help scholars and researchers map research topics’evolution process and gain insights into how a field’s topics have evolved over time.Originality/value:Tbe analysis framework used in this study can help reveal more micro evolution details.The index to measure topic association strength defined in this paper reflects both similarity and dissimilarity between topics,which belps better understand research topics’evolution paths and content changes.

  20. Topics in quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantum gravity is an attempt to unify general relativity with quantum mechanics which are the two highly successful fundamental theories of theoretical physics. The main difficulty in this unification arises from the fact that, while general relativity describes gravity as a macroscopic geometrical theory, quantum mechanics explains microscopic phenomena. As a further complication, not only do both theories describe different scales but also their philosophical ramifications and the mathematics used to describe them differ in a dramatic way. Consequently, one possible starting point of an attempt at a unification is quantum mechanics, i.e. particle physics, and try to incorporate gravitation. This pathway has been chosen by particle physicists which led to string theory. On the other hand, loop quantum gravity (LQG) chooses the other possibility, i.e. it takes the geometrical aspects of gravity seriously and quantizes geometry. The first part of this thesis deals with a generalization of loop quantum cosmology (LQC) to toroidal topologies. LQC is a quantization of homogenous solutions of Einstein's field equations using tools from LQG. First the general concepts of closed topologies is introduced with special emphasis on Thurston's theorem and its consequences. It is shown that new degrees of freedom called Teichmueller parameters come into play and their dynamics can be described by a Hamiltonian. Several numerical solutions for a toroidal universe are presented and discussed. Following the guidelines of LQG this dynamics are rewritten using the Ashtekar variables and numerical solutions are shown. However, in order to find a suitable Hilbert space a canonical transformation must be performed. On the other hand this transformation makes the quantization of geometrical quantities less tractable such that two different ways are presented. It is shown that in both cases the spectrum of such geometrical operators depends on the initial value problem. Furthermore, we

  1. Topics in quantum gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamon, Raphael

    2010-06-29

    Quantum gravity is an attempt to unify general relativity with quantum mechanics which are the two highly successful fundamental theories of theoretical physics. The main difficulty in this unification arises from the fact that, while general relativity describes gravity as a macroscopic geometrical theory, quantum mechanics explains microscopic phenomena. As a further complication, not only do both theories describe different scales but also their philosophical ramifications and the mathematics used to describe them differ in a dramatic way. Consequently, one possible starting point of an attempt at a unification is quantum mechanics, i.e. particle physics, and try to incorporate gravitation. This pathway has been chosen by particle physicists which led to string theory. On the other hand, loop quantum gravity (LQG) chooses the other possibility, i.e. it takes the geometrical aspects of gravity seriously and quantizes geometry. The first part of this thesis deals with a generalization of loop quantum cosmology (LQC) to toroidal topologies. LQC is a quantization of homogenous solutions of Einstein's field equations using tools from LQG. First the general concepts of closed topologies is introduced with special emphasis on Thurston's theorem and its consequences. It is shown that new degrees of freedom called Teichmueller parameters come into play and their dynamics can be described by a Hamiltonian. Several numerical solutions for a toroidal universe are presented and discussed. Following the guidelines of LQG this dynamics are rewritten using the Ashtekar variables and numerical solutions are shown. However, in order to find a suitable Hilbert space a canonical transformation must be performed. On the other hand this transformation makes the quantization of geometrical quantities less tractable such that two different ways are presented. It is shown that in both cases the spectrum of such geometrical operators depends on the initial value problem

  2. Two Topics In String Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Cheung, Y E

    2000-01-01

    We study two topics in string theory: consistency of D- branes and their intersections in topologically nontrivial background, and Noncommutative Geometry and “Little String Theories.” When a D-brane wraps around a cycle of a curved manifold, the nontrivial topology of its normal bundle can induce chiral asymmetry in its worldvolume theory. We obtain the general form of the resulting anomalies for D-branes and their intersections. They are not cancelled among themselves, and the standard inflow mechanism does not apply at first sight because of their apparent lack of factorizability and the apparent vanishing of the corresponding inflow. We show, however, that after taking into consideration the effects of the twisting of the normal bundles, the anomalies can be transformed into factorized forms and precisely cancelled by finite inflow from the Chern-Simons actions for the D-branes as long as the latter are well defined. Such twisting of the normal bundle is shown to induce Ramond-Ramond c...

  3. The Virtual Robotics Laboratory; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The growth of the Internet has provided a unique opportunity to expand research collaborations between industry, universities, and the national laboratories. The Virtual Robotics Laboratory (VRL) is an innovative program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) that is focusing on the issues related to collaborative research through controlled access of laboratory equipment using the World Wide Web. The VRL will provide different levels of access to selected ORNL laboratory secondary education programs. In the past, the ORNL Robotics and Process Systems Division has developed state-of-the-art robotic systems for the Army, NASA, Department of Energy, Department of Defense, as well as many other clients. After proof of concept, many of these systems sit dormant in the laboratories. This is not out of completion of all possible research topics. but from completion of contracts and generation of new programs. In the past, a number of visiting professors have used this equipment for their own research. However, this requires that the professor, and possibly his/her students, spend extended periods at the laboratory facility. In addition, only a very exclusive group of faculty can gain access to the laboratory and hardware. The VRL is a tool that enables extended collaborative efforts without regard to geographic limitations

  4. Clausewitz’s “Wondrous Trinity” as a Coordinate System of War and Violent Conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Herberg-Rothe, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    Rather than discarding Clausewitz’s theory of war in response to the revolutionary changes in modern warfare, this article articulates a broader theory of war based on his concept of the “wondrous trinity,” identifying it as his true legacy. The author shows that the concept of trinitarian war attributed to Clausewitz by his critics, which seems to be applicable only to wars between states, is a caricature of Clausewitz’s theory. He goes on to develop Clause- witz’s theory that war is compose...

  5. Organic solvent topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    COWLEY, W.L.

    1999-05-13

    This report provides the basis for closing the organic solvent safety issue. Sufficient information is presented to conclude that risk posed by an organic solvent fire is within risk evaluation guidelines. This report updates information contained in Analysis of Consequences of Postulated Solvent Fires in Hanford Site Waste Tanks. WHC-SD-WM-CN-032. Rev. 0A (Cowley et al. 1996). However, this document will not replace Cowley et al (1996) as the primary reference for the Basis for Interim Operation (BIO) until the recently submitted BIO amendment (Hanson 1999) is approved by the US Department of Energy. This conclusion depends on the use of controls for preventing vehicle fuel fires and for limiting the use of flame cutting in areas where hot metal can fall on the waste surface.The required controls are given in the Tank Waste Remediation System Technical Safety Requirements (Noorani 1997b). This is a significant change from the conclusions presented in Revision 0 of this report. Revision 0 of this calcnote concluded that some organic solvent fire scenarios exceeded risk evaluation guidelines, even with controls imposed.

  6. Hot Topic Talk 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosten, Onur

    2016-05-01

    I will focus on our experiments with cold atoms highlighting some of the most recent developments in the prospect of using quantum entanglement to improve the precision of atomic and optical sensors. The first part of the talk will describe the generation of 20 dB spin-squeezed states of half a million 87Rb atoms inside of an optical cavity. The second part will describe the experimental demonstration of a new concept we call quantum phase magnification. The demonstrated 20 dB squeezing enables a 100-fold reduction in averaging time or a 100-fold reduction in atom numbers to achieve a given sensing precision. As part of this work we show an atomic clock operating 10 dB beyond the classical limit. Some of the states prepared in these experiments possess in excess of 680 atom entanglement. The quantum phase magnification experiment shows that detection noise levels below the standard quantum limit is in fact not a requirement to realize the benefits of the intrinsic sensitivity provided by exotic quantum states. Here, optical cavity-aided effective interactions between atoms magnify signals to-be-measured to levels that can easily be detected with a rather inefficient fluorescence imaging system. The method relaxes stringent detection requirements which have been the main bottleneck in quantum metrology experiments, and can also be implemented in physical platforms other than cold atom-cavity systems.

  7. Organic solvent topical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides the basis for closing the organic solvent safety issue. Sufficient information is presented to conclude that risk posed by an organic solvent fire is within risk evaluation guidelines. This report updates information contained in Analysis of Consequences of Postulated Solvent Fires in Hanford Site Waste Tanks. WHC-SD-WM-CN-032. Rev. 0A (Cowley et al. 1996). However, this document will not replace Cowley et al (1996) as the primary reference for the Basis for Interim Operation (BIO) until the recently submitted BIO amendment (Hanson 1999) is approved by the US Department of Energy. This conclusion depends on the use of controls for preventing vehicle fuel fires and for limiting the use of flame cutting in areas where hot metal can fall on the waste surface.The required controls are given in the Tank Waste Remediation System Technical Safety Requirements (Noorani 1997b). This is a significant change from the conclusions presented in Revision 0 of this report. Revision 0 of this calcnote concluded that some organic solvent fire scenarios exceeded risk evaluation guidelines, even with controls imposed

  8. Risk Management Plan; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this Risk Management Plan (RMP) is to establish the concept and define the process to assure that National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office Environmental Management (NNSA/NV EM) programs and projects incorporate appropriate, efficient, cost-effective measures to mitigate the impact of program-and/or project-related risks. In addition, it describes the roles and responsibilities of program personnel in performing the risk management functions, and defines reporting and tracking requirements for risk-related information. The product of this risk analysis will be a risk analysis report listing the various risks with their classification, mitigation and handling strategies, impact on cost and schedule, and action items. The risk management process will identify potential risk sources; assess individual risks and impacts on performance, cost, and schedule; evaluate alternative approaches to mitigate high and moderate risks; develop action plans to handle individual risks; and interface risks with other programs and/or projects. Risk management and risk assessment will be consistent with DOE Orders 430.1 and 413.3 and their associated guidance documentation. The RMP will remain valid for the life cycle of the program and/or projects and will be under configuration control with revisions to be conducted as required and approved

  9. Topical Structure in Arabic-English Interlanguage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhri, Ahmed

    A study compared the topical structure (TS) of Arabic and English in order to determine whether Arab learners of English as a Second Language (ESL) transfer potential differences between Arabic and English in their English writing, or whether they use an altogether different TS indicative of developmental factors. Four sets of data were compared…

  10. Topics in Collider Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is an exciting time for high energy physics. Several experiments are currently exploring uncharted terrain; the next generation of colliders will begin operation in the coming decade. These experiments will together help us understand some of the most puzzling issues in particle physics: the mechanism of electroweak symmetry breaking and the generation of flavor physics. It is clear that the primary goal of theoretical particle physics in the near future is to support and guide this experimental program. These tasks can be accomplished in two ways: by developing experimental signatures for new models which address outstanding problems, and by improving Standard Model predictions for precision observables. We present here several results which advance both of these goals. We begin with a study of non-commutative field theories. It has been suggested that TeV-scale non-commutativity could explain the origin of CP violation in the SM. We identify several distinct signatures of non-commutativity in high energy processes. We also demonstrate the one-loop quantum consistency of a simple spontaneously broken non-commutative U(1) theory; this result is an important preface to any attempt to embed the SM within a non-commutative framework. We then investigate the phenomenology of extra-dimensional theories, which have been suggested recently as solutions to the hierarchy problem of particle physics. We first examine the implications of allowing SM fields to propagate in the full five-dimensional spacetime of the Randall-Sundrum model, which solves the hierarchy problem via an exponential ''warping'' of the Planck scale induced by a five-dimensional anti de-Sitter geometry. In an alternative extra-dimensional theory, in which all SM fields are permitted to propagate in flat extra dimensions, we show that properties of the Higgs boson are significantly modified. Finally, we discuss the next-to-next-to leading order QCD corrections to the dilepton rapidity distribution in

  11. Therapeutic Effect of Intrastromal Voriconazole, Topical Voriconazole, and Topical Natamycin on Fusarium Keratitis in Rabbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejabat, Mahmood; Yaqubi, Nafiseh; Khosravi, Amir; Zomorodian, Kamiar; Ashraf, Mohammad Javad; Salouti, Ramin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. Evaluating the therapeutic effect of topical and intrastromal voriconazole and topical natamycin on Fusarium keratitis. Methods. 24 rabbits were selected. The stroma of their corneas was inoculated with suspension of Fusarium solani species complex. Seven days after injection they were divided into 4 groups randomly: the first group was treated with topical voriconazole (TV) 1% for one week, the second one with one-time intrastromal injection of voriconazole (ISV) 50 microgram/0.1 mL, and the third group with topical gel of natamycin (TN) for one week, and the last one did not receive any antifungal treatment. Finally the eyes were enucleated and sclerocorneal buttons were sent for histological and microbiological examinations. Results. After treatment the ISV group and TN group showed significantly lower clinical score and colony forming units than the control group (P = 0.040 and P = 0.026, resp.), but there was statistically no significant difference between control and TV groups (P = 0.249) or between ISV and TN groups (P = 0.665). In pathological evaluation, fewer chronic inflammations were reported in 2 of the 3 buttons from TV group and 3 of the 3 buttons from ISV and TN groups in comparison with the control group. Conclusion. Intrastromal injection of voriconazole seems to be effective in treatment of Fusarium keratitis as much as topical natamycin and these are more effective than topical voriconazole.

  12. Topics on electricity trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    being unable to fulfil the commitments made on the spot market. The disclosed cost of using the regulating power market is a quadratic function of the amount of regulation. This asymmetric cost may encourage bidders with fluctuating production to be more strategic in their way of bidding on the spot market. By using such strategies the extra costs (for e.g. wind power) needed to counter unpredictable fluctuations may be limited. The fourth paper applies the findings in the previous paper to show how a supplier with a 'controllable' production will make strategic bids on the power exchange - in this case a heat pump. The fifth paper discusses the design of the regulating power market and what the choice of design means for suppliers with fluctuating production, e.g. wind turbines. It is found that not only does the accuracy of the wind prediction influence the use of the power exchange, but the structure of the power exchange itself may also play an important role. Several studies of the northern European electricity liberalisation have concluded that developments of a liberalised electricity market and cross border trade can be of benefit for the consumers and bring along a global environmental improvement. All these studies have assumed that a perfect competitive electricity market can be obtained. A number of imperfections, which inevitably will arise, have not been taken into account, - at least in the transition period. These imperfections can be technical, economic or tradition-bound, but may have political characteristics as well. The sixth paper in this thesis surveys those market imperfections which are most likely to appear. Market imperfections can, for example, have structural or political characteristics that imply non-optimal competitive behaviour, e.g., the means to achieve political goals may hinder the desirable effects of the liberalisation. This can, for example, come from the creation of suitable arrangements for survival and enlargement of renewable

  13. Topics on electricity trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skytte, K.

    2001-07-01

    being unable to fulfil the commitments made on the spot market. The disclosed cost of using the regulating power market is a quadratic function of the amount of regulation. This asymmetric cost may encourage bidders with fluctuating production to be more strategic in their way of bidding on the spot market. By using such strategies the extra costs (for e.g. wind power) needed to counter unpredictable fluctuations may be limited. The fourth paper applies the findings in the previous paper to show how a supplier with a 'controllable' production will make strategic bids on the power exchange - in this case a heat pump. The fifth paper discusses the design of the regulating power market and what the choice of design means for suppliers with fluctuating production, e.g. wind turbines. It is found that not only does the accuracy of the wind prediction influence the use of the power exchange, but the structure of the power exchange itself may also play an important role. Several studies of the northern European electricity liberalisation have concluded that developments of a liberalised electricity market and cross border trade can be of benefit for the consumers and bring along a global environmental improvement. All these studies have assumed that a perfect competitive electricity market can be obtained. A number of imperfections, which inevitably will arise, have not been taken into account, - at least in the transition period. These imperfections can be technical, economic or tradition-bound, but may have political characteristics as well. The sixth paper in this thesis surveys those market imperfections which are most likely to appear. Market imperfections can, for example, have structural or political characteristics that imply non-optimal competitive behaviour, e.g., the means to achieve political goals may hinder the desirable effects of the liberalisation. This can, for example, come from the creation of suitable arrangements for survival and enlargement of

  14. Combinatorial Topic Models using Small-Variance Asymptotics

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Ke; Sra, Suvrit; Kulis, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Topic models have emerged as fundamental tools in unsupervised machine learning. Most modern topic modeling algorithms take a probabilistic view and derive inference algorithms based on Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) or its variants. In contrast, we study topic modeling as a combinatorial optimization problem, and derive its objective function from LDA by passing to the small-variance limit. We minimize the derived objective by using ideas from combinatorial optimization, which results in ...

  15. Adolescent Scalp Psoriasis: Update on Topical Combination Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Osier, Emily; Gomez, Barbara; Eichenfield, Lawrence F.

    2015-01-01

    Plaque psoriasis can begin early in life and negatively affect quality of life. Topical agents are generally recommended as first-line therapy for plaque psoriasis. The synergy of a vitamin D analog and a steroid in a topical fixed-combination formulation provides more favorable effectiveness and tolerability as compared with either agent alone. The safety and effectiveness of a once-daily calcipotriene/betamethasone dipropionate topical suspension have been established in children 12 to 17 y...

  16. Main technical topics in 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Safety Authority annual report strives to present current organizational provisions and future trends in nuclear safety supervision in France and to describe the most outstanding occurrences during the past year. A first part presents nine documents concerning the main topics of 1999: aging of nuclear installations, the Offsite Emergency Plans (PPI), the impact of nuclear activities on man and the environment, the criticality hazards, EDF in 1999, the EPR project, the Andra in 1999, the transport incidents, the nuclear safety in eastern Europe. The second part presents the missions and actions of the Nuclear Installations Safety in the domains of the liabilities, the organization of the nuclear safety control, the regulations of the INB, the public information, the international relations, the crisis management, the radioactive materials transportation, the radioactive wastes. The equipment, the radiation protection and the exploitation of the pressurized water reactors are also treated just as the experimental reactors, the fuel cycle installations and the the nuclear installations dismantling. (A.L.B.)

  17. topicmodels: An R Package for Fitting Topic Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Grun

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Topic models allow the probabilistic modeling of term frequency occurrences in documents. The fitted model can be used to estimate the similarity between documents as well as between a set of specified keywords using an additional layer of latent variables which are referred to as topics. The R package topicmodels provides basic infrastructure for fitting topic models based on data structures from the text mining package tm. The package includes interfaces to two algorithms for fitting topic models: the variational expectation-maximization algorithm provided by David M. Blei and co-authors and an algorithm using Gibbs sampling by Xuan-Hieu Phan and co-authors.

  18. Topical agents in burn care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Momčilović Dragan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Understanding of fluid shifts and recognition of the importance of early and appropriate fluid replacement therapy have significantly reduced mortality in the early post burn period. After the bum patient successfully passes the resuscitation period, the burn wound represents the greatest threat to survival. History Since the dawn of civilization, man has been trying to find an agent which would help burn wounds heal, and at the same time, not harm general condition of the injured. It was not until the XX century, after the discovery of antibiotics, when this condition was fulfilled. In 1968, combining silver and sulfadiazine, fox made silver-sulfadiazine, which is a 1% hydro-soluble cream and a superior agent in topical treatment of burns today. Current topical agents None of the topical antimicrobial agents available today, alone or combined, have the characteristics of ideal prophylactic agents, but they eliminate colonization of burn wound, and invasive infections are infrequent. With an excellent spectrum of activity, low toxicity, and ease of application with minimal pain, silver-sulfadiazine is still the most frequently used topical agent. Conclusion The incidence of invasive infections and overall mortality have been significantly reduced after introduction of topical burn wound antimicrobial agents into practice. In most burn patients the drug of choice for prophylaxis is silver sulfadiazine. Other agents may be useful in certain clinical situations.

  19. Selected topics of fluid mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindsvater, Carl E.

    1958-01-01

    the Euler, Froude, Reynolds, Weber, and Cauchy numbers are defined as essential tools for interpreting and using experimental data. The derivations of the energy and momentum equations are treated in detail. One-dimensional equations for steady nonuniform flow are developed, and the restrictions applicable to the equations are emphasized. Conditions of uniform and gradually varied flow are discussed, and the origin of the Chezy equation is examined in relation to both the energy and the momentum equations. The inadequacy of all uniform-flow equations as a means of describing gradually varied flow is explained. Thus, one of the definitive problems of river hydraulics is analyzed in the light of present knowledge. This report is the outgrowth of a series of short schools conducted during the spring and summer of 1953 for engineers of the Surface Water Branch, Water Resources Division, U. S. Geological Survey. The topics considered are essentially the same as the topics selected for inclusion in the schools. However, in order that they might serve better as a guide and outline for informal study, the arrangement of the writer's original lecture notes has been considerably altered. The purpose of the report, like the purpose of the schools which inspired it, is to build a simple but strong framework of the fundamentals of fluid mechanics. It is believed that this framework is capable of supporting a detailed analysis of most of the practical problems met by the engineers of the Geological Survey. It is hoped that the least accomplishment of this work will be to inspire the reader with the confidence and desire to read more of the recent and current technical literature of modern fluid mechanics.

  20. Capitalization and Punctuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Teresa Marie

    An elementary school unit on punctuation skills is divided into nine sections. Section 1 contains a pretest which is repeated in section 9 as a posttest. Section 2 consists of a series of punctuation mark caricatures to put on the classroom bulletin board. Sections 3 through 7 contain material on the following topics: end of sentence punctuation,…

  1. Quantum mechanics II advanced topics

    CERN Document Server

    Rajasekar, S

    2015-01-01

    Quantum Mechanics II: Advanced Topics uses more than a decade of research and the authors’ own teaching experience to expound on some of the more advanced topics and current research in quantum mechanics. A follow-up to the authors introductory book Quantum Mechanics I: The Fundamentals, this book begins with a chapter on quantum field theory, and goes on to present basic principles, key features, and applications. It outlines recent quantum technologies and phenomena, and introduces growing topics of interest in quantum mechanics. The authors describe promising applications that include ghost imaging, detection of weak amplitude objects, entangled two-photon microscopy, detection of small displacements, lithography, metrology, and teleportation of optical images. They also present worked-out examples and provide numerous problems at the end of each chapter.

  2. Tracking Multiple Topics for Finding Interesting Articles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pon, R K; Cardenas, A F; Buttler, D J; Critchlow, T J

    2007-02-15

    We introduce multiple topic tracking (MTT) for iScore to better recommend news articles for users with multiple interests and to address changes in user interests over time. As an extension of the basic Rocchio algorithm, traditional topic detection and tracking, and single-pass clustering, MTT maintains multiple interest profiles to identify interesting articles for a specific user given user-feedback. Focusing on only interesting topics enables iScore to discard useless profiles to address changes in user interests and to achieve a balance between resource consumption and classification accuracy. Also by relating a topic's interestingness to an article's interestingness, iScore is able to achieve higher quality results than traditional methods such as the Rocchio algorithm. We identify several operating parameters that work well for MTT. Using the same parameters, we show that MTT alone yields high quality results for recommending interesting articles from several corpora. The inclusion of MTT improves iScore's performance by 9% to 14% in recommending news articles from the Yahoo! News RSS feeds and the TREC11 adaptive filter article collection. And through a small user study, we show that iScore can still perform well when only provided with little user feedback.

  3. Selected topics in nuclear structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fourth International Conference on selected topics in nuclear structure was held at Dubna in July 1994 on recent experimental and theoretical investigations in nuclear structure. Topics discussed were the following: nuclear structure at low-energy excitations (collective quasiparticle phenomena, proton-neutron interactions, microscopic and phenomenological theories of nuclear structure; nuclear structure studies with charged particles. heavy ions, neutrons and photons; nuclei at high angular momenta and superdeformation, structure and decay properties of giant resonances, charge-exchange resonances and β-decay; semiclassical approach of large amplitude collective motion and structure of hot nuclei

  4. 301 research topics from Skinner's book verbal behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Sundberg, Mark L.

    1991-01-01

    Skinner's (1957) analysis of verbal behavior addresses some of the most important issues in human behavior. However, relatively few of the analyses presented by Skinner in Verbal Behavior have been subjected to an experimental analysis. The current list of topics was assembled in an effort to stimulate empirical research on verbal behavior. The list contains thirty research areas with ten topics suggested for each area. A final topic, education, is presented as a challenge to behavior analysts.

  5. Weakly-supervised joint sentiment-topic detection from text

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Chenghua; He, Yulan; Everson, Richard; Rüger, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Sentiment analysis or opinion mining aims to use automated tools to detect subjective information such as opinions, attitudes, and feelings expressed in text. This paper proposes a novel probabilistic modeling framework called joint sentiment-topic (JST) model based on latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA), which detects sentiment and topic simultaneously from text. A reparameterized version of the JST model called Reverse-JST, by reversing the sequence of sentiment and topic generation in the mo...

  6. The Impact of Topic Congruence on Second Language Reading Comprehension

    OpenAIRE

    Marzieh Sadeghpour; Sayyed Mohammad Alavi

    2013-01-01

    The present study scrutinized the impact of congruent topics on the quality of L2 reading comprehension. 56 Iranian advanced-level students read 2 texts on a controversial topic, one on the advantages of child gender selection, and the other on disadvantages. Quality analysis of immediate and delayed recall tasks, defined as the amount of high and low-level information recalled correctly, was performed by analysis of variance. Results revealed that topic congruence affected immediate recall o...

  7. Topics in topological band systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhoushen

    The discovery of integer quantum Hall effect and its subsequent theoretical formulation heralded a new paradigm of thinking in condensed matter physics, which has by now blossomed into the rapidly growing field of topological phases. In this work we investigate several mutually related topics in the framework of topological band theory. In Chapter 2, we study solutions to boundary states on a lattice and see how they are related to the bulk topology. To elicit a real space manifestation of the non-trivial topology, the presence of a physical edge is not strictly necessary. We study two other possibilities, namely the entanglement spectrum associated with an imaginary spatial boundary, and the localization centers of Wannier functions, in Chapters 3,4, and 5. Topological classification through discrete indices is so far possible only for systems described by pure quantum states---in the existing scheme, quantization is lost for systems in mixed states. In Chapter 6, we present a program through which discrete topological indices can be defined for topological band systems at finite temperature, based on Uhlmann's parallel transport of density matrices. The potential of topologocal insulators in realistic applications lies in the existence of Dirac nodes on its surface spectrum. Dirac physics, however, is not exclusive to TI surfaces. In a recently discovered class of materials known as Weyl semimetals, energy nodes which emit linear dispersions also occur in the bulk material. In Chapter 7, we study the possibility of resonance states induced by localized impurities near the nodal energy in Weyl semimetals, which will help us in understanding the stability of density-of-state suppression at the energy nodes. Finally, in Chapter 8, we apply the topological characterization developed for noninteracting particles to a class of interacting spin models in 3D, which are generalizations of Kitaev's honeycomb model, and identify several exotic quantum phases such as spin

  8. Approach to extracting hot topics based on network traffic content

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yadong ZHOU; Xiaohong GUAN; Qindong SUN; Wei LI; Jing TAO

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the formal definition and description of popular topics on the Internet,analyzes the relationship between popular words and topics,and finally introduces a method that uses statistics and correlation of the popular words in traffic content and network flow characteristics as input for extracting popular topics on the Internet.Based on this,this article adapts a clustering algorithm to extract popular topics and gives formalized results.The test results show that this method has an accuracy of 16.7% in extracting popular topics on the Internet.Compared with web mining and topic detection and tracking (TDT),it can provide a more suitable data source for effective recovery of Internet public opinions.

  9. Rosacea-like eruption due to topical pimecrolimus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Heis, S; Buckley, D A

    2015-05-01

    Topical calcineurin inhibitors have been used outside their approved indications for a number of conditions, including topical steroid-induced rosacea. However, tacrolimus ointment itself has been reported to trigger rosacea in a small number of cases. We report a case of a rosacea-like eruption in a 39-year-old woman occurring after the use of pimecrolimus cream for 12 months for atopic dermatitis. Withdrawal of pimecrolimus combined with treatment with oral lymecycline, topical metronidazole, and an emollient resulted in resolution of the eruption. There have been 5 previously reported cases of a topical pimecrolimus-induced rosacea-like eruption suggesting that this rare side-effect may be a class effect of all topical calcineurin inhibitors. Dermatologists prescribing these drugs should be aware of this uncommon complication and may wish to warn patients of its occurrence as a potential side-effect when using topical calcineurin inhibitors in facial skin in adults. PMID:26295863

  10. Two topics in quantum chromodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The two topics are (1) estimates of perturbation theory coefficients for R(e+e- → hadrons), and (2) the virtual-photon structure function, with emphasis on the analytic behavior in its squared mass. 20 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  11. Topics in combinatorial pattern matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vildhøj, Hjalte Wedel

    This dissertation studies problems in the general theme of combinatorial pattern matching. More specifically, we study the following topics: Longest Common Extensions. We revisit the longest common extension (LCE) problem, that is, preprocess a string T into a compact data structure that supports...

  12. Sick sinus syndrome associated with topical timolol maleate instillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harpreet S Walia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A 70-year-old black woman presented with intermittent palpitations and dyspnea was found to be bradycardic with a normal sinus rhythm. She had instilled her topical timolol maleate approximately 30 minutes prior to each of these episodes. Topical timolol was discontinued and the conduction abnormality resolved. She was diagnosed as having intermittent sinus bradycardia with intermittent atrioventricular block, likely induced by topical beta-blocker therapy. Topical timolol maleate is an effective treatment for ocular hypertension, acting by reducing aqueous fluid production. However, it can induce systemic side effects and should be used with caution in patients with, or predisposed to, cardiac or respiratory depression.

  13. Topics on cryogenic design of superconducting magnet for fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design concepts and the research topics on cryogenic stability, quench and refrigeration of superconducting magnets for fusion experimental reactor are reviewed. Emphasis is given to introduce their fundamental ideas as well as the results obtained by various experiments at National Institute for Fusion Science, however, some of the other recent topics are also included. (author)

  14. Investigation of some topical formulations containing dexpanthenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stozkowska, Wiesława; Piekoś, Ryszard

    2004-01-01

    Owing to its ability to regenerate epidermal cells Dexpanthenol (D-panthenol; chemically known as (+)-2,4-dihydroxy-N-(3-hydroxypropyl)-3,3-dimethylbutyramide) has found use for the treatment of patholytic ileus and postoperative distention. The purpose of research was to develop a gel containing dexpanthenol by monitoring the effect of various concentrations of a gelating agent on the activity of the ciliary apparatus. A system containing 2.5% of hydroxyethylcellulose was optimal for the preparation of the gel. Together with a formulation containing 5% of dexpanthenol, drops with equal concentration of the active compound were tested for comparison. Physical characteristics, such as osmotic pressure, acidity, density and viscosity of the preparation were determined as well as its microbiological sterility. The anti-inflammatory activity of the gel was determined following its topical application. Epidermal tests showed its good tolerance after topical application to the shaved skin of guinea pigs. PMID:15794335

  15. Topical and transdermal delivery of caffeine.

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, L.; Lane, M. E.

    2015-01-01

    Caffeine is administered topically and transdermally for a variety of pharmaceutical and cosmetic applications and it is also used as a model hydrophilic compound in dermal risk assessment studies. This review considers the physicochemical and permeation properties of caffeine with reference to its delivery to and through the skin. Since it has been used as a model compound the findings have implications for the delivery of many hydrophilic compounds having similar properties. Various passive...

  16. Supporting information visualization through topic maps

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos, Adérito; Oliveira, Alexandre Rocha; Malgueiro, Octávio; Grave, Luís

    2002-01-01

    We are living a phenomenon of accelerated information production with different accessing sources. Hence users are faced with a growing problem: accessing (navigation) and filtering specific information contained in large datasets, which are increasing in size. Procedures such as data filtering and gathering are now simplified through a new concept known as Topic Maps. The application of Virtual Reality technologies enables to present and interact with multidimensional information...

  17. Efficacy of topical calcineurin inhibitors in vitiligo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Russell; Lin, Andrew N

    2013-04-01

    Topical tacrolimus and pimecrolimus are indicated for the treatment of atopic dermatitis, but they have been studied in many off-label uses. We reviewed the English language literature to define their roles in treatment of vitiligo. Double-blind studies show that tacrolimus 0.1% ointment combined with excimer laser is superior to placebo, especially for UV resistant areas, such as bony prominences of the extremities. When used alone, tacrolimus 0.1% ointment is almost as effective as clobetasol propionate 0.05% ointment. Other studies suggest it can also be effective for facial lesions. Double blind studies show that pimecrolimus 1% cream combined with narrow band UVB is superior to placebo, especially for facial lesions. Additional studies would further clarify the role of topical calcineurin inhibitors in vitiligo. PMID:23331250

  18. Topics from the theory of numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Grosswald, Emil

    1984-01-01

    Many of the important and creative developments in modern mathematics resulted from attempts to solve questions that originate in number theory. The publication of Emil Grosswald’s classic text presents an illuminating introduction to number theory. Combining the historical developments with the analytical approach, Topics from the Theory of Numbers offers the reader a diverse range of subjects to investigate, including: * divisibility * congruences * the Riemann zeta function * Diophantine equations and Fermat’s conjecture * the theory of partitions Comprehensive in nature, Topics from the Theory of Numbers is an ideal text for advanced undergraduates and graduate students alike. "In my opinion it is excellent. It is carefully written and represents clearly a work of a scholar who loves and understands his subject. One can only wish more authors would take such pains and would be as good and honest expositors as Grosswald." — Marc Kac "This book is designed for use in a first course in number theory at...

  19. Ethical use of topical corticosteroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abir Saraswat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dermatologists rely very heavily on corticosteroids for treating many common dermatoses. Concerns about their incorrect use are widely expressed both in lay public and specialist discourse. From the point of view of medical ethics, issues of autonomy, beneficence and non-maleficence are all raised frequently when we prescribe topical corticosteroids to our patients. We need to be aware of situations when conflicts between these issues arise and have a clear thought process about resolving them. This can only be achieved if we have a thorough understanding of the skin disease being treated coupled with expertise in the use of the varied potencies and available dosage forms of topical corticosteroids. A good understanding of human psychology and effective communication is also needed to use these agents optimally.

  20. Optimizing topical antifungal therapy for superficial cutaneous fungal infections: focus on topical naftifine for cutaneous dermatophytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rosso, James Q; Kircik, Leon H

    2013-11-01

    Superficial cutaneous fungal infections (SCFIs) are commonly encountered in clinical practice in the United States, and comprise infections of the skin by dermatophytes and yeasts. The most common organisms causing SCFI are dermatophytes, especially Trichophyton spp. With the exception of onchomycosis and tinea capitis, most cases of SCFIs are amenable to properly selected topical antifungal therapy used over an adequate period of time. A variety of topical antifungal agents are available for the treatment of SCFIs, and they encompass a few major chemical classes: the polyenes (ie, nystatin), imidazoles (ie, ketoconazole, econazole, oxiconazole, etc), allylamines (ie, naftifine, terbinafine), benzylamines (ie, butenafine), and hydroxypyridones (ie, ciclopirox). The 2 major classes that represent the majority of available topical antifungal agents are the azoles and the allylamines. Overall, the allylamines are superior to the azoles in activity against dermatophytes, although both are clinically effective. The reverse is true against yeasts such as Candida spp and Malassezia spp, although topical allylamines have proven to be efficacious in some cases of tinea versicolor and cutaneous candidiasis. Naftifine, a topical allylamine, is fungicidal in vitro against a wide spectrum of dermatophyte fungi and has been shown to be highly effective against a variety of cutaneous dermatophyte infections. Rapid onset of clinical activity and favorable data on sustained clearance of infection have been documented with naftifine. The more recent addition of naftifine 2% cream has expanded the armamentarium, with data supporting a clinically relevant therapeutic reservoir effect after completion of therapy. PMID:24196340

  1. LEPA’S: TOPICAL APPLICATION OF AYURVEDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bali Yogitha

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The goal of medicine is to prevent the disease, restore health and suffering. Understanding and appropriately treating pain is an important component of this goal. Pain is universally recognized as a signal of disease or injury and is a common reason for patients to seek the medical care. Analgesics given in the form of topical application is said to provide the therapeutic benefits by reaching the local tissue and with minimal side effects like irritation of the skin etc. Apart form relieving the pain, topical application is also useful in treating various skin lesions, ulcers. Ayurveda, a science of life and traditional system of medicine native to India is also a form of Alternative medicine. Ayurveda also called as Astanga Ayurveda contains eight branches such as kayachikitsa(internal medicine, shalya tantra (surgery, shalakya tantra (ENT, agada tantra (toxicology and forensic medicine, bhutavidya (treatment of psychic diseases, kaumarabhrutya(paediatrics, rasayana tantra (rejuvenation treatment and vajikarana (aphrodiasics. Ayurveda, an ancient science has vast description of these topical applications in the name of lepa described both as the chikitsa of various disease conditions and for beauty.

  2. Comparison of topical tretinoin and betamethasone in oral lichen planus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kar H

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-one patients of oral lichen planus were enrolled in this study and two groups were made. Group 1 consisting of 16 patients who applied topical tretinoin 0.05% and Group 2 comprising of 15 patients who were given topical betamethasone dipropionate 0.05%. The patients applying tretinoin showed statistically significant improvement as compared to patients applying betamethasone.

  3. Topics in Finance Part VI--Capital Budgeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laux, Judy

    2011-01-01

    This series on the theory of financial management offers insight into the roles of stockholder wealth maximization, the risk-return tradeoff, and agency conflicts as they apply to major topics in finance. The current article investigates capital budgeting. Much literature addresses this topic, with a number of articles challenging mainstream…

  4. Immigration, Cultural-Linguistic Diversity, and Topics in Language Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Li-Rong Lilly

    2010-01-01

    This article summarizes 4 topics contributed by the author over the last 30 years of "Topics in Language Disorders" that address the issues of immigration, migration, and refugees. The focus is on the historical perspectives on evolution of terminologies from limited English proficient to English language learner and English as a new language.…

  5. Topics in Finance Part VII--Dividend Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laux, Judy

    2011-01-01

    This series inspects the major topics in finance, reviewing the roles of stockholder wealth maximization, the risk-return tradeoff, and agency conflicts. The current article, devoted to dividend policy, also reviews the topic as presented in textbooks and the literature.

  6. Topical macrolide immunomodulators: a role in the treatment of vitiligo?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjioe, M.; Vissers, W.H.P.M.; Gerritsen, M.J.P.

    2006-01-01

    Recently, topical macrolide immunomodulators have been successfully introduced in the treatment of atopic dermatitis. With the growing interest in this new line of topical immunosuppressants, research into the efficacy of these medicines in other T-cell-mediated skin diseases, such as psoriasis, lic

  7. Preface to Special Topic: Optofluidics

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Ai-qun

    2010-01-01

    This Special Topic section of Biomicrofluidics is on optofluidics or micro-optofluidic systems (MOFS), a burgeoning technology that aims to manipulate light and fluid at microscale and exploits their interaction to create highly versatile devices and integrated systems. This special issue puts together various contributed articles focusing on optofluidics or MOFS, which help inspire new research ideas and innovation in the microfluidics and nanofluidics community.

  8. Stochastic Analysis and Related Topics

    CERN Document Server

    Ustunel, Ali

    1988-01-01

    The Silvri Workshop was divided into a short summer school and a working conference, producing lectures and research papers on recent developments in stochastic analysis on Wiener space. The topics treated in the lectures relate to the Malliavin calculus, the Skorohod integral and nonlinear functionals of white noise. Most of the research papers are applications of these subjects. This volume addresses researchers and graduate students in stochastic processes and theoretical physics.

  9. Topics in clinical oncology. 15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The monograph comprising primarily papers on topical subjects of oncology and cancer research, contains also a selection of papers presented at the 2. Congress of the Czechoslovak Society of Nuclear Medicine and Radiation Hygiene. Seven papers were selected on behalf of their subject related to clinical oncology. All of them were iputted in INIS; five of them deal with the scintiscanning of the skeleton of cancer patients, one with radioimmunodetection of tumors, and one with radionuclide lymphography. (A.K.)

  10. Hot topics from the Tevatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenzinski, D.; /Fermilab

    2008-01-01

    The Tevatron Run-II began in March 2001. To date, both the CDF and D0 experiments have collected 1 fb{sup -1} of data each. The results obtained from this data set were summarized at this conference in 39 parallel session presentations covering a wide range of topics. The author summarizes the most important of those results here and comments on some of the prospects for the future.

  11. 76 FR 81806 - Ophthalmic and Topical Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Ivermectin Topical Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ... exclusivity (69 FR 501, January 6, 2004). The supplemental ANADA is approved as of September 21, 2011, and 21... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 524 Ophthalmic and Topical Dosage Form New... for Veterinary Medicine, 21 CFR part 524 is amended as follows: PART 524--OPHTHALMIC AND...

  12. Modern topics in theoretical nuclear physics

    OpenAIRE

    Jennings, B. K.; Schwenk, A

    2005-01-01

    Over the past five years there have been profound advances in nuclear physics based on effective field theory and the renormalization group. In this brief, we summarize these advances and discuss how they impact our understanding of nuclear systems and experiments that seek to unravel their unknowns. We discuss future opportunities and focus on modern topics in low-energy nuclear physics, with special attention to the strong connections to many-body atomic and condensed matter physics, as wel...

  13. Efficient Learning for Undirected Topic Models

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Jiatao; Li, Victor O. K.

    2015-01-01

    Replicated Softmax model, a well-known undirected topic model, is powerful in extracting semantic representations of documents. Traditional learning strategies such as Contrastive Divergence are very inefficient. This paper provides a novel estimator to speed up the learning based on Noise Contrastive Estimate, extended for documents of variant lengths and weighted inputs. Experiments on two benchmarks show that the new estimator achieves great learning efficiency and high accuracy on documen...

  14. Antiophidian sera sterility control: topics in perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Paula Gomes Santos; Dilvani Oliveira Santos; Lilia Ribeiro Seródio; Rachel de Souza Marinho; Carlos Rangel Rodrigues; Lucio Mendes Cabral; Marcelo de Pádula; Valéria Pereira de Sousa; Helena Carla Castro

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work is to review the most important topics about the antiophidic sera sterility, including obtaining methods, sterilization procedures and clean room control using Vital Brazil Institute (VBI) as an example. Bibliographical research was performed through Medline, Lilacs, PubMed, ISI and the Fundação Oswaldo Cruz - RJ and VBI Libraries, from 1960 to 2009. The antiophidic sera for human use are immunobiologic products produced in Brazil by three national laboratories, including...

  15. LEPA’S: TOPICAL APPLICATION OF AYURVEDA

    OpenAIRE

    Bali Yogitha

    2012-01-01

    The goal of medicine is to prevent the disease, restore health and suffering. Understanding and appropriately treating pain is an important component of this goal. Pain is universally recognized as a signal of disease or injury and is a common reason for patients to seek the medical care. Analgesics given in the form of topical application is said to provide the therapeutic benefits by reaching the local tissue and with minimal side effects like irritation of the skin etc. Apart form relievin...

  16. Topics in Cement and Concrete Research

    OpenAIRE

    Brouwers, H. J. H.

    2006-01-01

    The present paper addresses several topics in regard to the sustainable design and use of concrete. First, major features concerning the sustainable aspects of the material concrete are summarised. Then the major constituent, from an environmental point of view, cement is discussed in detail, particularly the hydration and application of slag cement. The intelligent combining of mineral oxides, which are found in clinker, slag, fly ashes etc., is designated as mineral oxide engineering. It re...

  17. LECITHINISED MICROEMULSIONS FOR TOPICAL DELIVERY OF TRETINOIN

    OpenAIRE

    Khanna Surabhi; Katare O P; Drabu Sushma

    2010-01-01

    Tretinoin is indicated for the management of acne, photoaged skin, psoriasis and other skin disorders and also for severe conditions like acute promyelocytic anaemia and squamous cell carcinoma of the skin. The potential of tretinoin in these conditions is limited due to want of a proper delivery vehicle. In order to develop alternate formulations for the topical administration of tretinoin, lecithinsed microemulsions were prepared and evaluated as delivery vehicles. These systems were prepar...

  18. Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection following Topical Hormone Replacement Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander L. Pan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous coronary artery dissection is a rare condition, usually presenting as an acute coronary syndrome, and is often seen in states associated with high systemic estrogen levels such as pregnancy or oral contraceptive use. While topical hormonal replacement therapy may result in increased estrogen levels similar to those documented with oral contraceptive use, there are no reported cases of spontaneous coronary dissection with topical hormonal replacement therapy. We describe a 53-year-old female who developed two spontaneous coronary dissections while on topical hormonal replacement therapy. The patient had no other risk factors for coronary dissection. After withdrawal from topical hormonal therapy, our patient has done well and has not had recurrent coronary artery dissections over a one-year follow-up period. The potential contributory role of topical hormonal therapy as a cause of spontaneous coronary dissection should be recognized.

  19. Topic prominence in Chinese EFL learners’ interlanguage

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Shaopeng; Yang, Lianrui

    2014-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate the general characteristics of topic-prominent typological interlanguage development of Chinese learners of English in terms of acquiring subject-prominent English structures from a discourse perspec- tive. Topic structures mainly appear in Chinese discourse in the form of topic chains (Wang, 2002; 2004). The research target are the topic chain, which is the main topic-prominent structure in Chinese discourse, and zero anaphora, which is the most common t...

  20. Sampled Weighted Min-Hashing for Large-Scale Topic Mining

    OpenAIRE

    Fuentes-Pineda, Gibran; Meza-Ruiz, Ivan Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    We present Sampled Weighted Min-Hashing (SWMH), a randomized approach to automatically mine topics from large-scale corpora. SWMH generates multiple random partitions of the corpus vocabulary based on term co-occurrence and agglomerates highly overlapping inter-partition cells to produce the mined topics. While other approaches define a topic as a probabilistic distribution over a vocabulary, SWMH topics are ordered subsets of such vocabulary. Interestingly, the topics mined by SWMH underlie ...

  1. Nanociência e nanotecnologia como temáticas para discussão de ciência, tecnologia, sociedade e ambiente Nanoscience and Nanotechnology as topical themes for a discussion on science, technology, society and environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Siqueira-Batista

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A educação científica e tecnológica tem sido intensamente discutida hodiernamente, tendo em vista o compromisso último das diferentes instituições de ensino: formar cidadãos capazes de entender o mundo no qual estão inseridos. Com efeito, a apreciação de temas da atualidade se constitui em abordagem bastante salutar para motivar as discussões sobre tais temáticas em sala de aula. Neste domínio se inserem a nanociência e a nanotecnologia, saberes que podem ser abordados de forma interdisciplinar, envolvendo as ciências exatas e da natureza de forma articulada às ciências humanas e sociais. A proposição de eixos temáticos para o emprego da nanociência e da nanotecnologia como mote para o ensino de ciências, construídos a partir da revisão da literatura sob um enfoque ciência-tecnologia-sociedade-ambiente (CTSA é o escopo do presente artigo.Scientific and technological education has been, in present times, fairly-well discussed, with focus on the ultimate commitment of the various teaching institutions: to promote the formation of citizens who are able to understand the world where they live in. Actually, the choice of contemporary topics is by itself a very strategic approach to motivate discussions on such matters in the classroom. Nanoscience and nanotechnology come up very properly in such a domain, which can be treated in an interdisciplinary way, by joining exact and natural sciences on the one hand, and human and social sciences on the other hand. The proposal of thematic directions to approach nanoscience and nanotechnology as a motto for science teaching, set up from reviewing the literature under the optics of Science-Technology-Society-Environment (STSE, is the main goal of the present paper.

  2. Application of Topic Map on Knowledge Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sou-shan Wu

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge management (KM has received much attention from both academics and practitioners in the past few years. Following the KM trend, many organizations have built their own knowledge repositories or data warehouses. However, information or knowledge is still scattered everywhere without being properly managed. The rapid growth of the Internet accelerates the creation of unstructured and unclassified information and causes the explosion of information overload. The effort of browsing information through general-purpose search engines turns out to be tedious and painstaking. Hence, an effective technology to solve this information retrieval problem is much needed. The purpose of this research is to explore the application of text mining technique in organizing knowledge stored in unstructured natural language text documents. Major components of text mining techniques required for topic map in particular will be presented in detail.Two sets of unstructured documents are utilized to demonstrate the usage of SOM for topic categorization. The first set of documents is a collection of speeches given by Y.C. Wang, Chairman of the Taiwan Plastics Group, and the other is the collection of all laws and regulations related to securities and future markets in Taiwan. We also try to apply text mining to these two sets of documents to generate their respective topic maps, thus revealing the differences between organizing explicit and tacit knowledge as well as the difficulties associated with tacit knowledge.[Article content in Chinese

  3. Tracking Multiple Topics for Finding Interesting Articles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pon, R K; Cardenas, A F; Buttler, D J; Critchlow, T J

    2008-01-03

    We introduce multiple topic tracking (MTT) for iScore to better recommend news articles for users with multiple interests and to address changes in user interests over time. As an extension of the basic Rocchio algorithm, traditional topic detection and tracking, and single-pass clustering, MTT maintains multiple interest profiles to identify interesting articles for a specific user given user-feedback. Focusing on only interesting topics enables iScore to discard useless profiles to address changes in user interests and to achieve a balance between resource consumption and classification accuracy. iScore is able to achieve higher quality results than traditional methods such as the Rocchio algorithm. We identify several operating parameters that work well for MTT. Using the same parameters, we show that MTT alone yields high quality results for recommending interesting articles from several corpora. The inclusion of MTT improves iScore's performance by 25% in recommending news articles from the Yahoo! News RSS feeds and the TREC11 adaptive filter article collection. And through a small user study, we show that iScore can still perform well when only provided with little user feedback.

  4. Topics on Electricity Transmission Pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    -subsidization, the largest state-owned firm was split to form Statkraft SF, Norway's largest generation company, and Statnett SF, the major transmission company. Statnett is also the system operator of the entire Norwegian power system. Many distribution companies, usually publicly owned, are still part of vertically integrated companies, but there is strict separation of the financial accounts for transmission/distribution and generation/marketing. Trading is accomplished through several channels. The largest organized market is the common Norwegian-Swedish pool, NordPool. NordPool ASA is owned by Statnett Marked (which is a subsidiary of Statnett) and the Swedish grid-company, Svenska Kraftnaet. NordPool also supports the Finnish and Danish markets, thus through cooperation with the grid-companies of Denmark (Eltra) and Finland (Fingrid), locational markets are provided in these countries as well. Unlike England and Wales, only part of actual production is traded on this market. In addition, independent brokers offer various energy-contracts and facilitate bilateral contracts. In 1998 22% of the energy was traded on the hourly day-ahead (spot) market of NordPool. NordPool also organizes a forward and futures market and settles contracts from the regulation market organized by Statnett. The regulation market is a realtime market used to settle imbalances in real time. In total, close to 30% of the energy traded is organized through NordPool, and this share is increasing year by year. The efficiency of the market is heavily affected by the operation and pricing of the transmission system, and the topic of this thesis concerns the interaction of the transmission network and the energy markets. Throughout, the findings are illustrated by means of simple examples. This is to enhance readability and intuition. To start with, chapter 2 is devoted to power flow models, whereas chapter 3 provides an overview of models developed to efficiently coordinate the allocation of transmission

  5. Topical protection of human esophageal mucosal integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodland, P; Batista-Lima, F; Lee, C; Preston, S L; Dettmar, P; Sifrim, D

    2015-06-15

    Patients with nonerosive reflux disease exhibit impaired esophageal mucosal integrity, which may underlie enhanced reflux perception. In vitro topical application of an alginate solution can protect mucosal biopsies against acid-induced changes in transepithelial electrical resistance (TER). We aimed to confirm this finding in a second model using 3D cell cultures and to assess prolonged protection in a biopsy model. We assessed the protective effect of a topically applied alginate solution 1 h after application. 3D cell cultures were grown by using an air-liquid interface and were studied in Ussing chambers. The apical surface was "protected" with 200 μl of either alginate or viscous control or was unprotected. The tissue was exposed to pH 3 + bile acid solution for 30 min and TER change was calculated. Distal esophageal mucosal biopsies were taken from 12 patients and studied in Ussing chambers. The biopsies were coated with either alginate or viscous control solution. The biopsies were then bathed in pH 7.4 solution for 1 h. The luminal chamber solution was replaced with pH 2 solution for 30 min. Percentage changes in TER were recorded. In five biopsies fluorescein-labeled alginate solution was used to allow immunohistological localization of the alginate after 1 h. In the cell culture model, alginate solution protected tissue against acid-induced change in TER. In biopsies, 60 min after protection with alginate solution, the acidic exposure caused a -8.3 ± 2.2% change in TER compared with -25.1 ± 4.5% change after protection with the viscous control (P < 0.05). Labeled alginate could be seen coating the luminal surface in all cases. In vitro, alginate solutions can adhere to the esophageal mucosa for up to 1 h and exert a topical protectant effect. Durable topical protectants can be further explored as first-line/add-on therapies for gastroesophageal reflux disease. PMID:25907692

  6. The Impact of Topic Congruence on Second Language Reading Comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Sadeghpour

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study scrutinized the impact of congruent topics on the quality of L2 reading comprehension. 56 Iranian advanced-level students read 2 texts on a controversial topic, one on the advantages of child gender selection, and the other on disadvantages. Quality analysis of immediate and delayed recall tasks, defined as the amount of high and low-level information recalled correctly, was performed by analysis of variance. Results revealed that topic congruence affected immediate recall of both high and low-level information, and also delayed recall of low-level information. Findings showed that the effect of congruent topics on reading recall was detrimental; participants recalled less information from the passage with congruent topic than a passage with incongruent topic. Outcomes of the study suggest that controversial topics should be selected more cautiously, because they may not truly reflect L2 readers’ reading comprehension.Keywords: congruent topic, L2 reading, readers’ attitude, immediate recall, delayed recall

  7. Topics in black hole evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two major aspects of particle creation by gravitational fields of black holes are studied: the neutrino emission from rotating black holes; and interactions between scalar particles emitted by a black hole. Neutrino emission is investigated under three topics: The asymmetry of the angular dependence of neutrino emission from rotating black holes; the production of a local matter excess by rotating black holes in a baryon symmetric universe; and cosmological magnetic field generation by neutrinos from evaporating black holes. Finally the author studies the effects of interactions on the black hole evaporation process

  8. Topical Anesthetic Abuse Keratopathy and its Clinical Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkan Dayanır

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available To report a case series with topical anesthetic abuse and to define the clinical progression of the disease. Six eyes of three topical anesthetic abuser patients with various corneal abnormalities are reviewed. Signs of the disease are presented in order to document the natural progression of the disease. A report was filed to the General Directorate of Pharmaceuticals and Pharmacy, Ministry of Health, Ankara, Turkey describing the outcome of uncontrolled use of topical anesthetic. Topical anesthetic abuse can result in serious corneal complications such as corneal epithelium defect, ring keratitis, stromal infiltrate, hypopyon, superficial and deep corneal vascularization, corneal lysis, and at last spontaneous perforation. The General Directorate of Pharmaceuticals and Pharmacy issued that topical anesthetics can only be prescribed by an ophthalmologist up to four boxes a month, the prescription must be kept for one, year and criminal action will be taken against pharmacies disregarding these provisions. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2013; 43: 289-93

  9. Improving Text Categorization By Using A Topic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wongkot Sriurai

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Most text categorization algorithms represent a document collection as a Bag of Words (BOW.The BOWrepresentation is unable to recognize synonyms from a given term set and unable to recognize semanticrelationships between terms. In this paper, we apply the topic-model approach to cluster the words into aset of topics. Words assigned into the same topic are semantically related. Our main goal is to comparebetween the feature processing techniques of BOW and the topic model. We also apply and comparebetween two feature selection techniques: Information Gain (IG and Chi Squared (CHI. Three textcategorization algorithms: Naïve Bayes (NB, Support Vector Machines (SVM and Decision tree, areused for evaluation. The experimental results showed that the topic-model approach for representing thedocuments yielded the best performance based on F1 measure equal to 79% under the SVM algorithmwith the IG feature selection technique.

  10. On-line Hot Topic Recommendation Using Tolerance Rough Set Based Topic Clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghui Wu

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present our research of online hot topic detection and label extraction method for our hot topic recommendation system. Using a new topical feature selection method, the feature space is compressed suitable for an online system. The tolerance rough set model is used to enriching the small set of topical feature words to a topical approximation space. According to the distance defined on the topical approximation space, the web pages are clustered into groups which will be merged with document overlap. The topic labels are extracted based on the approximation topical space enriched with the useful but high frequency topical words dropped by the clustering process. The experiments show that our method could generate more information abundant classes and more topical class labels, alleviate the topical drift caused by the non-topical and noise words.

  11. Web mining for topics defined by complex and precise predicates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ching-Cheng; Sampathkumar, Sushma

    2004-04-01

    The enormous growth of the World Wide Web has made it important to perform resource discovery efficiently for any given topic. Several new techniques have been proposed in the recent years for this kind of topic specific web-mining, and among them a key new technique called focused crawling which is able to crawl topic-specific portions of the web without having to explore all pages. Most existing research on focused crawling considers a simple topic definition that typically consists of one or more keywords connected by an OR operator. However this kind of simple topic definition may result in too many irrelevant pages in which the same keyword appears in a wrong context. In this research we explore new strategies for crawling topic specific portions of the web using complex and precise predicates. A complex predicate will allow the user to precisely specify a topic using Boolean operators such as "AND", "OR" and "NOT". Our work will concentrate on defining a format to specify this kind of a complex topic definition and secondly on devising a crawl strategy to crawl the topic specific portions of the web defined by the complex predicate, efficiently and with minimal overhead. Our new crawl strategy will improve the performance of topic-specific web crawling by reducing the number of irrelevant pages crawled. In order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the above approach, we have built a complete focused crawler called "Eureka" with complex predicate support, and a search engine that indexes and supports end-user searches on the crawled pages.

  12. On-line Hot Topic Recommendation Using Tolerance Rough Set Based Topic Clustering

    OpenAIRE

    Yonghui Wu; Yuxin Ding; Xiaolong Wang; Jun Xu

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present our research of online hot topic detection and label extraction method for our hot topic recommendation system. Using a new topical feature selection method, the feature space is compressed suitable for an online system. The tolerance rough set model is used to enriching the small set of topical feature words to a topical approximation space. According to the distance defined on the topical approximation space, the web pages are clustered into groups which will be mer...

  13. [Topical administration of cyclosporin in psoriasis vulgaris].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunse, T; Schulze, H J; Mahrle, G

    1990-06-01

    Two groups of patients with chronic plaque psoriasis were topically treated either with 10% cyclosporin in a jelly base or with 5% cyclosporin in an ointment base under occlusion. We found that cyclosporin penetrates into the lower epidermis and the dermis, when it is applied under occlusion. Obviously, the target cells are neutrophil granulocytes, since they decrease in number under cyclosporin, whereas the other inflammatory cells as well as the epidermal proliferation remain unchanged. In contrast to systemic application of cyclosporin, we did not observe any clinical differences between plaques treated with cyclosporin and those treated with placebo. PMID:2202163

  14. Selected topics in heavy flavour physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We review the status of flavour physics in spring 2014. The numerous accurate new measurements of flavour experiments have enabled us to test our theoretical understanding of flavour processes with an unprecedented precision. At first sight the dominant amount of measurements seems to be standard model like. Having a closer look one finds, however, that in most of the observables there is still some considerable space for new effects. In addition many discrepancies are still not yet settled. For further investigations and definite conclusions an improvement of the theoretical precision as well as the experimental one is mandatory. Communicated by Professor Alan Martin (topical review)

  15. Topics in radiation dosimetry radiation dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    1972-01-01

    Radiation Dosimetry, Supplement 1: Topics in Radiation Dosimetry covers instruments and techniques in dealing with special dosimetry problems. The book discusses thermoluminescence dosimetry in archeological dating; dosimetric applications of track etching; vacuum chambers of radiation measurement. The text also describes wall-less detectors in microdosimetry; dosimetry of low-energy X-rays; and the theory and general applicability of the gamma-ray theory of track effects to various systems. Dose equivalent determinations in neutron fields by means of moderator techniques; as well as developm

  16. Topics in Electricity Transmission Pricing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjoerndal, Mette

    2000-02-01

    Directorate (NVE). To prevent cross-subsidization, the largest state-owned firm was split to form Statkraft SF, Norway's largest generation company, and Statnett SF, the major transmission company. Statnett is also the system operator of the entire Norwegian power system. Many distribution companies, usually publicly owned, are still part of vertically integrated companies, but there is strict separation of the financial accounts for transmission/distribution and generation/marketing. Trading is accomplished through several channels. The largest organized market is the common Norwegian-Swedish pool, NordPool. NordPool ASA is owned by Statnett Marked (which is a subsidiary of Statnett) and the Swedish grid-company, Svenska Kraftnaet. NordPool also supports the Finnish and Danish markets, thus through cooperation with the grid-companies of Denmark (Eltra) and Finland (Fingrid), locational markets are provided in these countries as well. Unlike England and Wales, only part of actual production is traded on this market. In addition, independent brokers offer various energy-contracts and facilitate bilateral contracts. In 1998 22% of the energy was traded on the hourly day-ahead (spot) market of NordPool. NordPool also organizes a forward and futures market and settles contracts from the regulation market organized by Statnett. The regulation market is a realtime market used to settle imbalances in real time. In total, close to 30% of the energy traded is organized through NordPool, and this share is increasing year by year. The efficiency of the market is heavily affected by the operation and pricing of the transmission system, and the topic of this thesis concerns the interaction of the transmission network and the energy markets. Throughout, the findings are illustrated by means of simple examples. This is to enhance readability and intuition. To start with, chapter 2 is devoted to power flow models, whereas chapter 3 provides an overview of models developed to efficiently

  17. Topics on Electricity Transmission Pricing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjoerndal, Mette

    2000-02-01

    Directorate (NVE). To prevent cross-subsidization, the largest state-owned firm was split to form Statkraft SF, Norway's largest generation company, and Statnett SF, the major transmission company. Statnett is also the system operator of the entire Norwegian power system. Many distribution companies, usually publicly owned, are still part of vertically integrated companies, but there is strict separation of the financial accounts for transmission/distribution and generation/marketing. Trading is accomplished through several channels. The largest organized market is the common Norwegian-Swedish pool, NordPool. NordPool ASA is owned by Statnett Marked (which is a subsidiary of Statnett) and the Swedish grid-company, Svenska Kraftnaet. NordPool also supports the Finnish and Danish markets, thus through cooperation with the grid-companies of Denmark (Eltra) and Finland (Fingrid), locational markets are provided in these countries as well. Unlike England and Wales, only part of actual production is traded on this market. In addition, independent brokers offer various energy-contracts and facilitate bilateral contracts. In 1998 22% of the energy was traded on the hourly day-ahead (spot) market of NordPool. NordPool also organizes a forward and futures market and settles contracts from the regulation market organized by Statnett. The regulation market is a realtime market used to settle imbalances in real time. In total, close to 30% of the energy traded is organized through NordPool, and this share is increasing year by year. The efficiency of the market is heavily affected by the operation and pricing of the transmission system, and the topic of this thesis concerns the interaction of the transmission network and the energy markets. Throughout, the findings are illustrated by means of simple examples. This is to enhance readability and intuition. Chapter 2 is devoted to power flow models, whereas chapter 3 provides an overview of models developed to efficiently coordinate the

  18. Topical report review status: Volume 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides industry with procedures for submitting topical reports, guidance on how the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) processes and responds to topical report submittals, and an accounting, with review schedules, of all topical reports currently accepted for review by the NRC. This report is published annually

  19. Effects of Preexamination Disclosure of Essay Topics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Donald E.; Fowles, Mary E.

    1998-01-01

    To determine the effects on test performance and test validity of releasing essay topics before an examination, 300 prospective graduate students wrote essays on a released and an unreleased topic. Analyses did not reveal any statistically significant effect of topic release. (SLD)

  20. Conclusion from the fifth topic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The topic ''mechanics and alteration kinetics of glasses'' is a crucial point for the understanding of the long-term behaviour of nuclear glasses. Kinetic models used in simulation are based on the works made by Grambow who imputes the control of the alteration kinetics of borosilicate glasses to the desorption of the ortho-silica acid produced at the reactive interface. The ensuing kinetics law requires the existence of an equilibrium of the silica at the interface glass/gel and the existence of a linear concentration gradient dissolved in the interstitial gel solution. The role of the gel needs further studies to be well understood. The difficulty lies in the fact that the composition and the structure of the gel varies with time, space (anisotropy) and with the conditions of alteration (temperature, pH, flowrate...). (A.C.)

  1. A method of detecting emerging trends in research topics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei; GE; Zongying; TAN

    2014-01-01

    Purpose:This paper proposes a method of detecting emerging trends in research topics from a more micro perspective.Design/methodology/approach:Through co-word clustering to identify research topics and analyzing position changes of topic words in the keywords life-cycle diagram during different time periods,we detected emerging trends in research topics from a more micro perspective.I’he method was applied to the field of nanotechnology to verify its effectiveness and practicability.Findings:The results show that this method can be used to detect emerging trends in research topics from a more micro perspective,as it divides keywords into five categories:Potential keywords,emerging keywords,hot keywords,stable keywords and recession keywords,through which more details of topic changes can be found.Research limitations:We used keywords provided by authors and database indexers for keywords extraction.But this approach may lead to the problem of "indexer effect".The method may have a limited effect when applied to a disciplinary domain such as mathematics,which evolves slowly.Practical implications:This study provides information analysts with insights into the way to better understand specialty areas of a discipline domain and formulate research policies and strategic plans.Originality/value:This study contributes to the current literature by proposing a new method,which can detect emerging trends in research topics from a more micro perspective.

  2. Topics on the FORM software; Topicos do software FORM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa Jorge, Patricia M. da; Peres, Patricia Duarte [Universidade Catolica de Petropolis, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencia da Computacao

    1997-06-01

    These notes studies the compilation with FORM software as applied to high energy physics, covering the following topics: Command structures, statistics and numbers, Dirac matrices, optimization control, Gamma matrices, errors and polynomial substitution

  3. Topical and working papers on uranium resources and availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basic topics relative to world-wide resources and availability of uranium resources; potential for recovery of uranium from mill tailings in Canada; uranium from seawater; depleted uranium as an energy source; world uranium requirements in perspective

  4. Preface to Special Topic: Marine Renewable Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, F. T.; Iglesias, G.; Santos, P. R.; Deng, Zhiqun

    2015-12-30

    Marine renewable energy (MRE) is generates from waves, currents, tides, and thermal resources in the ocean. MRE has been identified as a potential commercial-scale source of renewable energy. This special topic presents a compilation of works selected from the 3rd IAHR Europe Congress, held in Porto, Portugal, in 2014. It covers different subjects relevant to MRE, including resource assessment, marine energy sector policies, energy source comparisons based on levelized cost, proof-of-concept and new-technology development for wave and tidal energy exploitation, and assessment of possible inference between wave energy converters (WEC).

  5. Topics in multivariate approximation and interpolation

    CERN Document Server

    Jetter, Kurt

    2005-01-01

    This book is a collection of eleven articles, written by leading experts and dealing with special topics in Multivariate Approximation and Interpolation. The material discussed here has far-reaching applications in many areas of Applied Mathematics, such as in Computer Aided Geometric Design, in Mathematical Modelling, in Signal and Image Processing and in Machine Learning, to mention a few. The book aims at giving a comprehensive information leading the reader from the fundamental notions and results of each field to the forefront of research. It is an ideal and up-to-date introduction for gr

  6. Topics in Bayesian statistics and maximum entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notions of Bayesian decision theory and maximum entropy methods are reviewed with particular emphasis on probabilistic inference and Bayesian modeling. The axiomatic approach is considered as the best justification of Bayesian analysis and maximum entropy principle applied in natural sciences. Particular emphasis is put on solving the inverse problem in digital image restoration and Bayesian modeling of neural networks. Further topics addressed briefly include language modeling, neutron scattering, multiuser detection and channel equalization in digital communications, genetic information, and Bayesian court decision-making. (author)

  7. Recent topics in differential and analytic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Ochiai, T

    2014-01-01

    Advanced Studies in Pure Mathematics, Volume 18-I: Recent Topics in Differential and Analytic Geometry presents the developments in the field of analytical and differential geometry. This book provides some generalities about bounded symmetric domains.Organized into two parts encompassing 12 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of harmonic mappings and holomorphic foliations. This text then discusses the global structures of a compact Kähler manifold that is locally decomposable as an isometric product of Ricci-positive, Ricci-negative, and Ricci-flat parts. Other chapters con

  8. Topicality and Social Impact: Diverse Messages but Focused Messengers

    OpenAIRE

    Weng, Lilian; Menczer, Filippo

    2014-01-01

    Are users who comment on a variety of matters more likely to achieve high influence than those who delve into one focused field? Do general Twitter hashtags, such as #lol, tend to be more popular than novel ones, such as #instantlyinlove? Questions like these demand a way to detect topics hidden behind messages associated with an individual or a hashtag, and a gauge of similarity among these topics. Here we develop such an approach to identify clusters of similar hashtags by detecting communi...

  9. Medicare Payment: Surgical Dressings and Topical Wound Care Products

    OpenAIRE

    Schaum, Kathleen D.

    2014-01-01

    Medicare patients' access to surgical dressings and topical wound care products is greatly influenced by the Medicare payment system that exists in each site of care. Qualified healthcare professionals should consider these payment systems, as well as the medical necessity for surgical dressings and topical wound care products. Scientists and manufacturers should also consider these payment systems, in addition to the Food and Drug Administration requirements for clearance or approval, when t...

  10. Multilingual Topic Models for Unaligned Text

    CERN Document Server

    Boyd-Graber, Jordan

    2012-01-01

    We develop the multilingual topic model for unaligned text (MuTo), a probabilistic model of text that is designed to analyze corpora composed of documents in two languages. From these documents, MuTo uses stochastic EM to simultaneously discover both a matching between the languages and multilingual latent topics. We demonstrate that MuTo is able to find shared topics on real-world multilingual corpora, successfully pairing related documents across languages. MuTo provides a new framework for creating multilingual topic models without needing carefully curated parallel corpora and allows applications built using the topic model formalism to be applied to a much wider class of corpora.

  11. Detecting Hotspot Information Using Multi-Attribute Based Topic Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wang

    Full Text Available Microblogging as a kind of social network has become more and more important in our daily lives. Enormous amounts of information are produced and shared on a daily basis. Detecting hot topics in the mountains of information can help people get to the essential information more quickly. However, due to short and sparse features, a large number of meaningless tweets and other characteristics of microblogs, traditional topic detection methods are often ineffective in detecting hot topics. In this paper, we propose a new topic model named multi-attribute latent dirichlet allocation (MA-LDA, in which the time and hashtag attributes of microblogs are incorporated into LDA model. By introducing time attribute, MA-LDA model can decide whether a word should appear in hot topics or not. Meanwhile, compared with the traditional LDA model, applying hashtag attribute in MA-LDA model gives the core words an artificially high ranking in results meaning the expressiveness of outcomes can be improved. Empirical evaluations on real data sets demonstrate that our method is able to detect hot topics more accurately and efficiently compared with several baselines. Our method provides strong evidence of the importance of the temporal factor in extracting hot topics.

  12. Detecting Hotspot Information Using Multi-Attribute Based Topic Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Li, Li; Tan, Feng; Zhu, Ying; Feng, Weisi

    2015-01-01

    Microblogging as a kind of social network has become more and more important in our daily lives. Enormous amounts of information are produced and shared on a daily basis. Detecting hot topics in the mountains of information can help people get to the essential information more quickly. However, due to short and sparse features, a large number of meaningless tweets and other characteristics of microblogs, traditional topic detection methods are often ineffective in detecting hot topics. In this paper, we propose a new topic model named multi-attribute latent dirichlet allocation (MA-LDA), in which the time and hashtag attributes of microblogs are incorporated into LDA model. By introducing time attribute, MA-LDA model can decide whether a word should appear in hot topics or not. Meanwhile, compared with the traditional LDA model, applying hashtag attribute in MA-LDA model gives the core words an artificially high ranking in results meaning the expressiveness of outcomes can be improved. Empirical evaluations on real data sets demonstrate that our method is able to detect hot topics more accurately and efficiently compared with several baselines. Our method provides strong evidence of the importance of the temporal factor in extracting hot topics. PMID:26496635

  13. Local wound care and topical management of hidradenitis suppurativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Afsaneh; Kirsner, Robert S

    2015-11-01

    Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a chronic, recurrent, debilitating disease predominantly involving apocrine gland-bearing skin. The folliculoinfundibular dysfunction and an aberrant cutaneous immune response to commensal bacteria are recognized as potential contributors. Topical antibiotics, such as clindamycin, and keratolytic agents have been used in the management of early stages of HS. Proper wound care is a key part of management, particularly in patients with advanced HS. The evidence for the optimal topical therapy or optimal local wound care is limited. As such, a multidisciplinary approach is necessary to address all aspects of HS, including topical therapy, systemic therapy, and proper wound care. The focus of this paper is to review the evidence for the topical management and local wound care strategies in patients with HS. PMID:26470618

  14. Topical vs Combination Ciprofloxacin in the Management of Discharging Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media

    OpenAIRE

    Renukananda, G.S.; U P, Santosh; George, Nitha Mary

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To study the microbial flora and determine the efficacy of topical ciprofloxacin ear drops in comparison with combination of topical and oral ciprofloxacin as first line management in patients diagnosed with chronic suppurative otitis media.

  15. Topically applied ceramide accumulates in skin glyphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Q

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Qihong Zhang,1 Carol R Flach,1 Richard Mendelsohn,1 Guangru Mao,2 Apostolos Pappas,2 M Catherine Mack,2 Russel M Walters,2 Michael D Southall2 1Department of Chemistry, Rutgers University, Newark, 2Johnson & Johnson Consumer Companies, Inc., Skillman, NJ, USAAbstract: Ceramides (CERs, structural components of the stratum corneum (SC, impart essential barrier properties to this thin outer layer of the epidermis. Variations in CER species within this layer have been linked to several skin diseases. A recent proliferation of CER-containing topical skin-care products warrants the elucidation of CER penetration profiles in both healthy and diseased skin. In the current study, the spatial distributions of CER concentration profiles, following topical application of two species of CER, were tracked using infrared imaging. Suspensions of single-chain perdeuterated sphingosine and phytosphingosine CER in oleic acid were applied, in separate experiments, to the surface of healthy intact ex vivo human skin using Franz diffusion cells. Following either a 24- or 48-hour incubation period at 34°C, infrared images were acquired from microtomed skin sections. Both CER species accumulated in glyph regions of the skin and penetrated into the SC, to a limited extent, only in these regions. The concentration profiles observed herein were independent of the CER species and incubation time utilized in the study. As a result, a very heterogeneous, sparse, spatial distribution of CERs in the SC was revealed. In contrast, oleic acid was found to be fairly homogeneously distributed throughout the SC and viable epidermis, albeit at lower concentrations in the latter. A more uniform, lateral distribution of CERs in the SC would likely be important for barrier efficacy or enhancement.Keywords: stratum corneum, infrared imaging, topical delivery, oleic acid

  16. Topical menthol increases cutaneous blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craighead, Daniel H; Alexander, Lacy M

    2016-09-01

    Menthol, the active ingredient in several topically applied analgesics, activates transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8) receptors on sensory nerves and on the vasculature inducing a cooling sensation on the skin. Ilex paraguariensis is also a common ingredient in topical analgesics that has potential vasoactive properties and may alter the mechanisms of action of menthol. We sought to characterize the microvascular effects of topical menthol and ilex application and to determine the mechanism(s) through which these compounds may independently and combined alter cutaneous blood flow. We hypothesized that menthol would induce vasoconstriction and that ilex would not alter skin blood flow (SkBF). Three separate protocols were conducted to examine menthol and ilex-mediated changes in SkBF. In protocol 1, placebo, 4% menthol, 0.7% ilex, and combination menthol+ilex gels were applied separately to the skin and red cell flux was continuously measured utilizing laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI). In protocol 2, seven concentrations of menthol gel (0.04%, 0.4%, 1%, 2%, 4%, 7%, 8%) were applied to the skin to model the dose-response curve. In protocol 3, placebo, menthol, ilex, and menthol+ilex gels were applied to skin under local thermal control (34°C) both with and without sensory nerve blockage (topical lidocaine 4%). Post-occlusive reactive hyperemia (PORH) and local heating (42°C) protocols were conducted to determine the relative contribution of endothelium derived hyperpolarizing factors (EDHFs)/sensory nerves and nitric oxide (NO), respectively. Red cell flux was normalized to mean arterial pressure expressed as cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC: flux·mmHg(-1)) in all protocols. Topical menthol application increased SkBF compared to placebo (3.41±0.33 vs 1.1±0.19CVC: peffect, p<0.05) with an ED50 of 1.0%. Similarly, SkBF was increased after menthol application during PORH (3.62±0.29 vs. 2.50±0.21flux·mmHg(-1); p<0.001), but not local heating

  17. Monolingual and cross-lingual probabilistic topic models and their applications in information retrieval

    OpenAIRE

    Moens, Marie-Francine; Vulic, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    Probabilistic topic models are a group of unsupervised generative machine learning models that can be effectively trained on large text collections. They model document content as a two-step generation process, i.e., documents are observed as mixtures of latent topics, while topics are probability distributions over vocabulary words. Recently, a significant research effort has been invested into transferring the probabilistic topic modeling concept from monolingual to multilingual settings. N...

  18. Topics in Number Theory Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Andrews, George; Ono, Ken

    1999-01-01

    From July 31 through August 3,1997, the Pennsylvania State University hosted the Topics in Number Theory Conference. The conference was organized by Ken Ono and myself. By writing the preface, I am afforded the opportunity to express my gratitude to Ken for beng the inspiring and driving force behind the whole conference. Without his energy, enthusiasm and skill the entire event would never have occurred. We are extremely grateful to the sponsors of the conference: The National Sci­ ence Foundation, The Penn State Conference Center and the Penn State Depart­ ment of Mathematics. The object in this conference was to provide a variety of presentations giving a current picture of recent, significant work in number theory. There were eight plenary lectures: H. Darmon (McGill University), "Non-vanishing of L-functions and their derivatives modulo p. " A. Granville (University of Georgia), "Mean values of multiplicative functions. " C. Pomerance (University of Georgia), "Recent results in primality testing. " C. ...

  19. Decision Point 1 Topical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yablonsky, Al; Barsoumian, Shant; Legere, David

    2013-05-01

    This Topical Report addresses accomplishments achieved during Phase 2a of the SkyMine® Carbon Mineralization Pilot Project. The primary objectives of this project are to design, construct, and operate a system to capture CO2 from a slipstream of flue gas from a commercial coal-fired cement kiln, convert that CO2 to products having commercial value (i.e., beneficial use), show the economic viability of the CO2 capture and conversion process, and thereby advance the technology to the point of readiness for commercial scale demonstration and proliferation. The overall process is carbon negative, resulting in mineralization of CO2 that would otherwise be released into the atmosphere. The project will also substantiate market opportunities for the technology by sales of chemicals into existing markets, and identify opportunities to improve technology performance and reduce costs at the commercial scale. The project is being conducted in two phases. The primary objectives of Phase 1 were to elaborate proven SkyMine® process chemistry to commercial pilot-scale operation and complete the preliminary design for the pilot plant to be built and operated in Phase 2, complete a NEPA evaluation, and develop a comprehensive carbon life cycle analysis. The objective of the current Phase (2a) is to complete the detailed design of the pilot plant to be built in Phase 2b.

  20. Uncovering Research Topics of Academic Communities of Scientific Collaboration Network

    OpenAIRE

    Hongqi Han; Shuo Xu; Jie Gui; Xiaodong Qiao; Lijun Zhu; Han Zhang

    2014-01-01

    In order to improve the quality of applications, such as recommendation or retrieval in knowledge-based service system, it is very helpful to uncover research topics of academic communities in scientific collaboration network (SCN). Previous research mainly focuses on network characteristics measurement and community evolution, but it remains largely understudied on how to uncover research topics of each community. This paper proposes a nonjoint approach, consisting of three simple steps: (1)...

  1. Formulations, Release and Skin Penetration of Topical Anesthetics

    OpenAIRE

    Welin-Berger, Katayoun

    2001-01-01

    This thesis describes certain critical aspects of the development of semisolid topical anesthetic formulations requiring a fast onset of action. Furthermore, local anesthetics were investigated regarding their phase interaction with membrane lipids. A new long acting and topically effective local anesthetic/analgesic agent, isopropyl-methyl-[2-(3-propoxyphenoxy)-ethyl]-amine (amino diether, AD), was used as the model compound. The nonionized form of AD is liquid oil at room temperature with l...

  2. Recent advances in topical formulation carriers of antifungal agents

    OpenAIRE

    Eman Ahmed Bseiso; Maha Nasr; Omaima Sammour; Nabaweya A Abd El Gawad

    2015-01-01

    Fungal infections are amongst the most commonly encountered diseases affecting the skin. Treatment approaches include both topical and oral antifungal agents. The topical route is generally preferred due to the possible side effects of oral medication. Advances in the field of formulation may soon render outdated conventional products such as creams, ointments and gels. Several carrier systems loaded with antifungal drugs have demonstrated promising results in the treatment of skin fungal inf...

  3. Topical Collaboration "Neutrinos and Nucleosynthesis in Hot and Dense Matter"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allahverdi, Rouzbeh [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-18

    This is the final technical report describing contributions from the University of New Mexico to Topical Collaboration on "Neutrinos and Nucleosynthesis in Hot and Dense Matter" in the period June 2010 through May 2015. During the funding period, the University of New Mexico successfully hired Huaiyu Duan as a new faculty member with the support from DOE, who has contributed to the Topical Collaboration through his research and collaborations.

  4. Liquid crystals: a new topic in physics for undergraduates

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlin, Jerneja; Vaupotič, Nataša; Čepič, Mojca

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents a teaching module about liquid crystals. Since liquid crystals are linked to everyday student experiences and are also a topic of a current scientific research, they are an excellent candidate of a modern topic to be introduced into education. We show that liquid crystals can provide a file rouge through several fields of physics such as thermodynamics, optics and electromagnetism. We discuss what students should learn about liquid crystals and what physical concepts they s...

  5. Barrier Qualities of the Mouse Eye to Topically Applied Drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Zhao; Do, Chi Wai; Avila, Marcel Y.; Stone, Richard A.; Jacobson, Kenneth A.; Civan, Mortimer M.

    2007-01-01

    The mouse eye displays unusually rapid intraocular pressure (IOP) responses to topically applied drugs as measured by the invasive servo-null micropipette system (SNMS). To learn if the time course reflected rapid drug transfer across the thin mouse cornea and sclera, we monitored a different parameter, pupillary size, following topical application of droplets containing 40 μM (0.073μg) carbachol. No miosis developed from this low carbachol concentration unless the cornea was impaled with an ...

  6. Topical minoxidil in the treatment of alopecia areata

    OpenAIRE

    Fenton, D A; Wilkinson, J. D.

    1983-01-01

    A modified double blind crossover study was performed to assess the effect of 1% topical minoxidil as compared with placebo in 30 patients with alopecia areata and alopecia totalis. The active preparation produced a highly significant incidence of hair regrowth. A cosmetically acceptable response was noted in 16 patients. No side effects were seen. The study confirmed that topical minoxidil will induce new hair growth in alopecia areata but that it is less likely to do so in more severe and e...

  7. Topic 7: parallel computer architecture and instruction level parallelism

    OpenAIRE

    Ayguadé Parra, Eduard; Wolfgang, Kark; De Bosschere, Koen; Francois, Jean Collard

    2006-01-01

    We welcome you to the two Parallel Computer Architecture and Instruction Level Parallelism sessions of Euro-Par 2006 conference being held in Dresden, Germany. The call for papers for this Euro-Par topic area sought papers on all hardware/software aspects of parallel computer architecture, processor architecture and microarchitecture. This year 12 papers were submitted to this topic area. Among the submissions, 5 papers were accepted as full papers for the conference (41% acceptance rate).

  8. Topical and oral antibiotics for acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rosso, James Q

    2016-06-01

    Antibiotics, both oral and topical, have been an integral component of the management of acne vulgaris (AV) for approximately 6 decades. Originally thought to be effective for AV due to their ability to inhibit proliferation of Propionibacterium acnes, it is now believed that at least some antibiotics also exert anti-inflammatory effects that provide additional therapeutic benefit. To add, an increase in strains of P acnes and other exposed bacteria that are less sensitive to antibiotics used to treat AV have emerged, with resistance directly correlated geographically with the magnitude of antibiotic use. Although antibiotics still remain part of the therapeutic armamentarium for AV treatment, current recommendations support the following when used to treat AV: 1) monotherapy use should be avoided; 2) use benzoyl peroxide concomitantly to reduce emergence of resistant P acnes strains; 3) oral antibiotics should be used in combination with a topical regimen for moderate-to-severe inflammatory AV; and 4) use oral antibiotics over a limited duration to achieve control of inflammatory AV with an exit plan in place to discontinue their use as soon as possible. When selecting an oral antibiotic to treat AV, potential adverse effects are important to consider. PMID:27416309

  9. Fair trade: as an international hot topic and its approach in Brazil Fair Trade (comércio justo como um ‘Tópico Quente” internacional e sua abordagem no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Lazaro Silva-Filho

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabela normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi; mso-fareast-language:EN-US;} This paper aims to analyse the concept of Fair Trade in international and Braszilian literature. Throgh the identification of the grow of thema and analyzing the possible "barriers" to the development of the theme in the Brazilian context. The authors  develop two bibliometric research, a eletronic amd international one based on database of "Web of Science from ISI” and another in the brazilian publications (proceedings and journals. Although the indentification of the thma as a real emerging theme in international literature("hot topic", the authors noted a significant gap in the Brazilian publications. The author propouses to use  use the theoretical approach, that emerges fom the French social science, the  "quality and conventions" aproach that are being use to understand the coordination of networks of agribusiness So, in Brazil, the Fair Trade still inscipiente because it does not comes from a "civic (moral convention", that could be a necessary phase to achive de “market convention”, in other side de developed countries began has a civic convention and are achiving the market as a new convention, assimilated by the retails networks.Este artigo tem como objetivo

  10. Comparative efficacy and safety of topical permethrin, topical ivermectin, and oral ivermectin in patients of uncomplicated scabies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunita B Chhaiya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ivermectin has opened a new era in the management of scabies as orally effective drug. However, topical route has been little explored for ivermectin. Aims: To compare the efficacy and safety of topical permethrin, oral ivermectin, and topical ivermectin in the treatment of uncomplicated scabies. Methods: This was an open-label, randomized, comparative, parallel clinical trial conducted in 315 patients, randomly allocated to 3 groups. First group received permethrin 5% cream as single application, second group received tablet ivermectin 200 mcg/kg as single dose, and third group received ivermectin 1% lotion as single application. All the patients received anti-histaminic for pruritus. The patients were followed up at intervals of 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks. If there were no signs of cure, the same intervention was repeated at each follow up. Primary efficacy variable was clinical cure of lesions. Statistical analysis was done by chi square test and one way ANOVA test using SPSS version 12. Results: At the end of first week, cure rate was 74.8% in permethrin group, 30% in oral ivermectin group, and 69.3% in topical ivermectin group (P < 0.05. At the end of second week, cure rate was 99% in permethrin group, 63% in oral ivermectin group, and 100% in topical ivermectin group (P < 0.05. At the end of third week, 100% cure rate was observed in permethrin and topical ivermectin group while 99% in oral ivermectin group (P = 0.367. No serious adverse events were observed. Conclusions: Permethrin and topical ivermectin were equally effective against scabies while oral ivermectin was significantly less effective up to 2 weeks. Topical ivermectin can be used as an alternative to permethrin.

  11. Topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for the treatment of pain due to soft tissue injury: diclofenac epolamine topical patch

    OpenAIRE

    Lionberger, David R; Brennan, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    David R Lionberger1, Michael J Brennan21Southwest Orthopedic Group, Houston, TX, USA; 2Department of Medicine, Bridgeport Hospital, Bridgeport, CT, USAAbstract: The objective of this article is to review published clinical data on diclofenac epolamine topical patch 1.3% (DETP) in the treatment of acute soft tissue injuries, such as strains, sprains, and contusions. Review of published literature on topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), diclofenac, and DETP in patients with ac...

  12. Comparative effectiveness of topical calcineurin inhibitors in adult patients with atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Hillary C; Qureshi, Abrar A

    2012-04-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by extreme pruritis and lichenified papules and plaques that may begin in or persist into adulthood. Topical corticosteroids are first-line prescription therapy for AD; they are efficacious and have a well established safety profile. The topical calcineurin inhibitors tacrolimus and pimecrolimus were approved by the US FDA in 2000 and 2001, respectively, as second-line topical therapy for AD. This review evaluates the available studies on the comparative effectiveness, safety, cost, and impact on quality of life of topical corticosteroids and topical calcineurin inhibitors for the treatment of adult AD. Tacrolimus was found to be as effective as class III-V topical corticosteroids for AD of the trunk and extremities, and more effective than low-potency class VI or VII corticosteroids for AD of the face or neck. Pimecrolimus was less effective than both tacrolimus and low-potency topical corticosteroids for moderate to severe AD. The short-term safety studies found that, compared with topical corticosteroid-treated adults, patients treated with topical calcineurin inhibitors had an increased frequency of application-site reactions, an equivalent infection risk, and a decreased risk of skin atrophy. The long-term safety of topical calcineurin inhibitors remains under investigation. Currently published studies that evaluated the comparative cost and quality-of-life effects compared tacrolimus with less potent topical corticosteroids despite the availability of equivalent potency corticosteroids. Further cost and quality-of-life studies are needed that compare topical calcineurin inhibitors with stronger classes of topical corticosteroids over longer time periods. The available clinical trials data do not suggest an efficacy advantage for topical calcineurin inhibitors over topical corticosteroids in adults with AD of the trunk and extremities, and there is not yet adequate evidence to support

  13. Formulation and Evaluation of Topical Hydrogel Patch Containing Amide Type Local Anaesthetic Agent

    OpenAIRE

    Jayrajsinh Sarvaiya; Chintan Tank; Kosanam Divakar; Jay Upadhyay; G.K.Kapse

    2012-01-01

    Hydrogel based drug delivery systems provides significant effect in designing sustained release topical dosage forms. Topical patch containing drug in hydrogel type polymer matrix provides not only targeted drug flux through the skin but also provides cooling effect on application site. Topical hydrogel patch containing lidocaine was prepared by using sodium poly acrylate as bioadhesive polymer. Effect of brij 30 and transcutol was also evaluated on topical flux of lidocaine base from hydroge...

  14. A Topic Modeling Toolbox Using Belief Propagation

    OpenAIRE

    Zeng, Jia

    2012-01-01

    Latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA) is an important hierarchical Bayesian model for probabilistic topic modeling, which attracts worldwide interests and touches on many important applications in text mining, computer vision and computational biology. This paper introduces a topic modeling toolbox (TMBP) based on the belief propagation (BP) algorithms. TMBP toolbox is implemented by MEX C++/Matlab/Octave for either Windows 7 or Linux. Compared with existing topic modeling packages, the novelty o...

  15. Credibility improves topical blog post retrieval

    OpenAIRE

    Weerkamp, W.; Rijke, de, M.

    2008-01-01

    Topical blog post retrieval is the task of ranking blog posts with respect to their relevance for a given topic. To improve topical blog post retrieval we incorporate textual credibility indicators in the retrieval process. We consider two groups of indicators: post level (determined using information about individual blog posts only) and blog level (determined using information from the underlying blogs). We describe how to estimate these indicators and how to integrate them into a retrieval...

  16. Incorporating Women and Crime Topics into Criminology Classes: Assignments, Exercises, and Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Richard A.

    1987-01-01

    Recommends a variety of books, assignments, exercises, and projects which can be incorporated into introductory criminology classes to compensate for the omission of topics on women and crime in textbooks and curricula. Includes a list of potential topics for writing assignments and a selection of films covering such topics as sexual harassment,…

  17. Feminism as Islamophobia: A review of misogyny charges against Islam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Mahmudul Hasan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available One important feature of Islamophobia is to caricaturize Islam as misogynistic and oppressive to women and thus to advance imperialist hegemony. This “gendered Islamophobia” stigmatizes the religion even though, compared to other world religions, its treatment of women is arguably preferable and more enlightened. Historically, one treasonous use of feminism has been to misappropriate it in order to serve colonial interests and support imperialist wars of occupation that repress subjugated people including women and children. This article argues that ignorance about, and prejudice against, Islam contribute to portraying it as a misogynistic creed. Wrong notions of Islam lead many feminists in Muslim societies to denigrate Islamic teachings and borrow Western ideas to advance women’s causes. Lampooning Islam and replicating Western feminist ideas in Muslim lands have served neither women nor feminism. Such feminist tendencies rather give a bad name to the women’s rights movement and fuel controversy, anger and resentment among Muslims.

  18. Scientific articles recommendation with topic regression and relational matrix factorization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming YANG; Ying-ming LI; Zhongfei(Mark)ZHANG

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we study the problem of recommending scientifi c articles to users in an online community with a new perspective of considering topic regression modeling and articles relational structure analysis simultane-ously. First, we present a novel topic regression model, the topic regression matrix factorization (tr-MF), to solve the problem. The main idea of tr-MF lies in extending the matrix factorization with a probabilistic topic modeling. In particular, tr-MF introduces a regression model to regularize user factors through probabilistic topic modeling under the basic hypothesis that users share similar preferences if they rate similar sets of items. Consequently, tr-MF provides interpretable latent factors for users and items, and makes accurate predictions for community users. To incorporate the relational structure into the framework of tr-MF, we introduce relational matrix factorization. Through combining tr-MF with the relational matrix factorization, we propose the topic regression collective matrix factorization (tr-CMF) model. In addition, we also present the collaborative topic regression model with relational matrix factorization (CTR-RMF) model, which combines the existing collaborative topic regression (CTR) model and relational matrix factorization (RMF). From this point of view, CTR-RMF can be considered as an appropriate baseline for tr-CMF. Further, we demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed models on a large subset of the data from CiteULike, a bibliography sharing service dataset. The proposed models outperform the state-of-the-art matrix factorization models with a signifi cant margin. Specifi cally, the proposed models are effective in making predictions for users with only few ratings or even no ratings, and support tasks that are specifi c to a certain fi eld, neither of which has been addressed in the existing literature.

  19. Clinical Comparison: Fast-Acting and Traditional Topical Dental Anesthetic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMarco, Arthur C; Wetmore, Ann O'Kelley

    2016-01-01

    A randomized, nonblinded clinical trial compared the effectiveness of an application method of a fast-acting refrigerant topical agent to a 20% benzocaine gel topical. In a split-mouth design, right and left anterior middle superior alveolar injections (N = 30) were administered with a 27-gauge needle at least 24 hours apart with preinjection topicals. Using a cotton-tipped applicator, a refrigerant topical was applied for 5 seconds and 20% benzocaine gel for 2 minutes on opposite sides at 2 separate appointments. Subjects self-reported pain perception after each injection using a visual analog scale (VAS). The mean VAS ratings demonstrated no significant difference between the 5-second application of the refrigerant (M = 16.2, SD = 17.7) and the 2-minute application of 20% benzocaine topical gel anesthetic (M = 17.9, SD = 18.2). Fifty-seven percent of the subjects reported greater pain reduction with the refrigerant, 33% reported greater pain reduction with 20% benzocaine, and 10% reported no difference. Results suggest the described method of application of a refrigerant as an oral topical anesthetic has a faster onset and provides similar benefit in pain reduction compared with 20% benzocaine gel. The refrigerant was easy to accomplish and well received by subjects, indicating potential for routine use in dentistry. PMID:27269661

  20. Misuse of topical corticosteroids: A clinical study of adverse effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Kumar Dey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Misuse of topical corticosteroids is a widespread phenomenon among young people in India, especially women. The practice is associated with significant adverse effects and poor awareness of these effects among the general public. Aim: This study was conducted to examine the misuse and adverse effects of topical corticosteroids among the people in Bastar region in Chhattisgarh state of India. Materials and Methods: Data collected from patients presenting with at least one of the adverse effects of topical corticosteroids as the chief complaint, from November 2010 to October 2011. Results: Out of the 6723 new patients, 379 (5.63% had presented with misuse and adverse effects of topical corticosteroids, of whom 78.89% were females. More than 65% of the patients were in the age group 10-29 years. The main reason for using the topical corticosteroids was to lighten skin colour and treat melasma and suntan. Acne (37.99% and telangiectasia (18.99% were the most common adverse effects noted. Conclusions: Misuse of topical corticosteroids has a huge impact on dermatological practice, leading to a significant proportion of visits to the dermatologist. This hydra-headed problem needs multi-dimensional interventions, involving educational, legal and managerial approaches with cooperation from different sectors of society.

  1. Current topics in summability theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Rhoades, Billy

    2016-01-01

    This book discusses recent developments in and contemporary research on summability theory, including general summability methods, direct theorems on summability, absolute and strong summability, special methods of summability, functional analytic methods in summability, and related topics and applications. All contributing authors are eminent scientists, researchers and scholars in their respective fields, and hail from around the world. The book can be used as a textbook for graduate and senior undergraduate students, and as a valuable reference guide for researchers and practitioners in the fields of summability theory and functional analysis. Summability theory is generally used in analysis and applied mathematics. It plays an important part in the engineering sciences, and various aspects of the theory have long since been studied by researchers all over the world. .

  2. Infantile generalized hypertrichosis caused by topical minoxidil*

    OpenAIRE

    Rampon, Greice; Henkin, Caroline; de Souza, Paulo Ricardo Martins; de Almeida Jr, Hiram Larangeira

    2016-01-01

    Rare cases of hypertrichosis have been associated with topically applied minoxidil. We present the first reported case in the Brazilian literature of generalized hypertrichosis affecting a 5-year-old child, following use of minoxidil 5%, 20 drops a day, for hair loss. The laboratory investigation excluded hyperandrogenism and thyroid dysfunction. Topical minoxidil should be used with caution in children.

  3. Fostering Topic Knowledge: Essential for Academic Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proske, Antje; Kapp, Felix

    2013-01-01

    Several researchers emphasize the role of the writer's topic knowledge for writing. In academic writing topic knowledge is often constructed by studying source texts. One possibility to support that essential phase of the writing process is to provide interactive learning questions which facilitate the construction of an adequate situation…

  4. Aerodynamics of wind turbines emerging topics

    CERN Document Server

    Amano, R S

    2014-01-01

    Focusing on Aerodynamics of Wind Turbines with topics ranging from Fundamental to Application of horizontal axis wind turbines, this book presents advanced topics including: Basic Theory for Wind turbine Blade Aerodynamics, Computational Methods, and Special Structural Reinforcement Technique for Wind Turbine Blades.

  5. Topic Maps Based Project Knowledge Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Xiaofan; Zhou Liang; Zhang Lei; Li Lingzhi; Ding Qiulin

    2006-01-01

    Based on topic maps, a preprocessing scheme using similarity comparision is presented and applied in knowledge management.Topic and occurrence-oriented merging algorithm is also introduced to implement knowledge integration for the sub-system. An Omnigator-supported example from an aeroaustic institute is utilised to validate the preprocessing method and the result indicates it can speed up the research schedule.

  6. Topical diclofenac in the treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niklas Schuelert

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Niklas Schuelert, Fiona A Russell, Jason J McDougallDepartment of Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, CanadaAbstract: Osteoarthritis (OA is a common disease that affects millions of people worldwide. As there is no cure for OA, drug treatment to relieve symptoms is the main form of management. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs such as diclofenac are the most commonly used drugs to treat knee OA pain. Unfortunately, these agents are associated with gastrointestinal and cardiovascular risks, which limit their chronic use. Topical NSAIDs are emerging as a viable alternative for managing OA pain. Because a pharmacologically effective dose can be restricted to the site of pain, there is superfluous systemic absorption, and the risk of related adverse effects is minimized. This article reviews the currently available preclinical and clinical information on topical diclofenac for the treatment of OA pain, including data from recently published randomized controlled trials regarding the efficacy and safety of topical diclofenac. Most studies confirm topical diclofenac to be as effective as oral diclofenac with significantly reduced side effects; however, the efficacy of NSAIDs is far from optimal, and more research needs to be done to investigate the underlying mechanisms of OA in order to improve treatment options, especially for patients with NSAID-resistant OA pain.Keywords: osteoarthritis, topical diclofenac, NSAID, joint pain 

  7. Topics from Australian Conferences on Teaching Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Phillips, Brian; Martin, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The first OZCOTS conference in 1998 was inspired by papers contributed by Australians to the 5th International Conference on Teaching Statistics. In 2008, as part of the program of one of the first National Senior Teaching Fellowships, the 6th OZCOTS was held in conjunction with the Australian Statistical Conference, with Fellowship keynotes and contributed papers, optional refereeing and proceedings. This venture was so successful that the 7th and 8th OZCOTS were similarly run, conjoined with Australian Statistical Conferences in 2010 and 2012. Authors of papers from these OZCOTS conferences were invited to develop chapters for refereeing and inclusion in this volume. There are sections on keynote topics, undergraduate curriculum and learning, professional development, postgraduate learning, and papers from OZCOTS 2012. Because OZCOTS aim to unite statisticians and statistics educators, the approaches this volume takes are immediately relevant to all who have a vested interest in good teaching practices. Glo...

  8. Topical tar: Back to the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paghdal, K.V.; Schwartz, R.A. [University of Medicine & Dentistry of New Jersey, Newark, NJ (United States)

    2009-08-15

    The use of medicinal tar for dermatologic disorders dates back to the ancient times. Although coal tar is utilized more frequently in modern dermatology, wood tars have also been widely employed. Tar is used mainly in the treatment of chronic stable plaque psoriasis, scalp psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, and seborrheic dermatitis, either alone or in combination therapy with other medications, phototherapy, or both. Many modifications have been made to tar preparations to increase their acceptability, as some dislike its odor, messy application, and staining of clothing. One should consider a tried and true treatment with tar that has led to clearing of lesions and prolonged remission times. Occupational studies have demonstrated the carcinogenicity of tar; however, epidemiologic studies do not confirm similar outcomes when used topically. This article will review the pharmacology, formulations, efficacy, and adverse effects of crude coal tar and other tars in the treatment of selected dermatologic conditions.

  9. Three Topics in Renormalization and Improvement

    CERN Document Server

    Vladikas, A

    2011-01-01

    This is an expanded version of lecture notes, delivered at the XCIII Les Houches Summer School (August 2009). Our aim is to present three very specific topics: (i) The consequences of the loss of chiral symmetry in the Wilson lattice regularization of the fermionic action and its recovery in the continuum limit. The treatment of these arguments involves lattice Ward identities. (ii) The definition and properties of mass independent renormalization schemes, which are suitable for a non-perturbative computation of various operator renormalization constants. (iii) The modification of the Wilson fermion action, by the introduction of a chirally twisted mass term (known as twisted mass QCD - tmQCD), which results to improved (re)normalization and scaling properties for physical quantities of interest.

  10. Topic maps for custom viewing of data

    CERN Document Server

    Mahabal, A A; Williams, R E; Brunner, R J

    2002-01-01

    A Topic Map is a structured network of hyperlinks that points into an information pool. Topic Maps have an existence independent of the information pool and hence different Topic Maps can form different layers above the same information pool and provide us with different views of it. We explore the use of Topic Maps with the Unified Column Descriptor (UCD) scheme developed in the frame of the ESO-CDS data mining project. UCD, with its multi-tier hierarchical structure, categorizes parameters reported in tables and catalogs. By using Topic Maps we show how columns from different catalogs with similar but not identical descriptions could be combined. A direct application for the Virtual Observatory community is that of merging catalogs in order to generate customized views of data.

  11. Geographical Topics Learning of Geo-Tagged Social Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoming; Ji, Shufan; Wang, Senzhang; Li, Zhoujun; Lv, Xueqiang

    2016-03-01

    With the availability of cheap location sensors, geotagging of images in online social media is very popular. With a large amount of geo-tagged social images, it is interesting to study how these images are shared across geographical regions and how the geographical language characteristics and vision patterns are distributed across different regions. Unlike textual document, geo-tagged social image contains multiple types of content, i.e., textual description, visual content, and geographical information. Existing approaches usually mine geographical characteristics using a subset of multiple types of image contents or combining those contents linearly, which ignore correlations between different types of contents, and their geographical distributions. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a novel method to discover geographical characteristics of geo-tagged social images using a geographical topic model called geographical topic model of social images (GTMSIs). GTMSI integrates multiple types of social image contents as well as the geographical distributions, in which image topics are modeled based on both vocabulary and visual features. In GTMSI, each region of the image would have its own topic distribution, and hence have its own language model and vision pattern. Experimental results show that our GTMSI could identify interesting topics and vision patterns, as well as provide location prediction and image tagging. PMID:25861092

  12. Research on Online Topic Evolutionary Pattern Mining in Text Streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Chen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Text Streams are a class of ubiquitous data that came in over time and are extraordinary large in scale that we often lose track of. Basically, text streams forms the fundamental source of information that can be used to detect semantic topic which individuals and organizations are interested in as well as detect burst events within communities. Thus, intelligent system that can automatically extract interesting temporal pattern from text streams is terribly needed; however, Evolutionary Pattern Mining is not well addressed in previous work. In this paper, we start a tentative research on topic evolutionary pattern mining system by discussing fully properties of a topic after formally definition, as well as proposing a common and formal framework in analyzing text streams. We also defined three basic tasks including (1 online topic Detection, (2 event evolution extraction and (3 topic property life cycle, and proposed three common mining algorithms respectively. Finally we exemplify the application of Evolutionary Pattern Mining and shows that interesting patterns can be extracted in newswire dataset

  13. Two SVDs Suffice: Spectral decompositions for probabilistic topic modeling and latent Dirichlet allocation

    CERN Document Server

    Anandkumar, Animashree; Hsu, Daniel; Kakade, Sham M; Liu, Yi-Kai

    2012-01-01

    Topic models can be seen as a generalization of the clustering problem, in that they posit that observations are generated due to multiple latent factors (e.g. the words in each document are generated as a mixture of several active topics, as opposed to just one). This increased representational power comes at the cost of a more challenging unsupervised learning problem of estimating the topic probability vectors (the distributions over words for each topic), when only the words are observed and the corresponding topics are hidden. We provide a simple and efficient learning procedure that is guaranteed to recover the parameters for a wide class of mixture models, including the popular latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA) model. For LDA, the procedure correctly recovers both the topic probability vectors and the prior over the topics, using only trigram statistics (i.e. third order moments, which may be estimated with documents containing just three words). The method, termed Excess Correlation Analysis (ECA), is...

  14. LECITHINISED MICROEMULSIONS FOR TOPICAL DELIVERY OF TRETINOIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khanna Surabhi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Tretinoin is indicated for the management of acne, photoaged skin, psoriasis and other skin disorders and also for severe conditions like acute promyelocytic anaemia and squamous cell carcinoma of the skin. The potential of tretinoin in these conditions is limited due to want of a proper delivery vehicle. In order to develop alternate formulations for the topical administration of tretinoin, lecithinsed microemulsions were prepared and evaluated as delivery vehicles. These systems were prepared using phosphate buffer pH 5.5, isopropyl myristate, tween 80 and ethanol. The microemulsions were characterized using TEM. The ability of the system to deliver tretinoin into and through the skin was evaluated in vitro using the skin of laca mice. The in vitro permeation data showed that the novel microemulsions increased tretinoin penetration through the skin; higher flux (33.92 µg / cm2 / hr was obtained with microemulsion formulation and microemulsified gel (31.54 µg / cm2 / hr in comparison to the plain drug solution (22.33 µg / cm2 / hr, plain drug in gel (28.67 µg / cm2 / hr and the marketed preparation (24.28 µg / cm2 / hr. These results were supported by skin retention study and it was noted that the maximum amount retained was with microemulsified gel (96.28 µg / cm2 and non-gel (82.13 µg / cm2 respectively. The other systems; drug in solution, drug in gel (conventional and marketed preparation were able to retain the drug at the level of 32.4 µg/ cm2, 21.54 µg / cm2 and 29.32 µg / cm2 respectively. These results suggest that the studied microemulsions may be appropriate vehicles for topical delivery of tretinoin.

  15. Recent advances in topical formulation carriers of antifungal agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bseiso, Eman Ahmed; Nasr, Maha; Sammour, Omaima; Abd El Gawad, Nabaweya A

    2015-01-01

    Fungal infections are amongst the most commonly encountered diseases affecting the skin. Treatment approaches include both topical and oral antifungal agents. The topical route is generally preferred due to the possible side effects of oral medication. Advances in the field of formulation may soon render outdated conventional products such as creams, ointments and gels. Several carrier systems loaded with antifungal drugs have demonstrated promising results in the treatment of skin fungal infections. Examples of these newer carriers include micelles, lipidic systems such as solid lipid nanoparticles and nanostructured lipid carriers, microemulsions and vesicular systems such as liposomes, niosomes, transfersomes, ethosomes, and penetration enhancer vesicles. PMID:26261140

  16. Recent advances in topical formulation carriers of antifungal agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Ahmed Bseiso

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal infections are amongst the most commonly encountered diseases affecting the skin. Treatment approaches include both topical and oral antifungal agents. The topical route is generally preferred due to the possible side effects of oral medication. Advances in the field of formulation may soon render outdated conventional products such as creams, ointments and gels. Several carrier systems loaded with antifungal drugs have demonstrated promising results in the treatment of skin fungal infections. Examples of these newer carriers include micelles, lipidic systems such as solid lipid nanoparticles and nanostructured lipid carriers, microemulsions and vesicular systems such as liposomes, niosomes, transfersomes, ethosomes, and penetration enhancer vesicles.

  17. Comparative study of the topical effectiveness of the andiroba oil (Carapa guianensis) and DEET 50% as repellent for Aedes sp Estudo comparativo da eficácia tópica do óleo de andiroba (Carapa guianensis) e DEET 50% como repelente para Aedes sp

    OpenAIRE

    Hélio Amante Miot; Rafaelle Fernandes Batistella; Khristiani de Almeida Batista; Dimas Eduardo Carneiro Volpato; Leonardo Silveira Teixeira Augusto; Newton Goulart Madeira; Vidal Haddad Jr.; Luciane Donida Bartoli Miot

    2004-01-01

    DEET (N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide) is nowadays the most effective mosquito repellent available, however, its use can present some topical and systemic side effects. Some botanical compositions, as Andiroba (Carapa guianensis), have been proved repellent properties at low cost and toxicity. An experimental study was driven involving four volunteers submitting their forearms covered with Andiroba oil at 100%, DEET 50%, refined soy oil, Andiroba oil 15% and in the absence of products, directly...

  18. Predicting Complex Word Emotions and Topics through a Hierarchical Bayesian Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we provide a Word Emotion Topic (WET) model to predict the complex word e- motion information from text, and discover the dis- trbution of emotions among different topics. A complex emotion is defined as the combination of one or more singular emotions from following 8 basic emotion categories: joy, love, expectation, sur- prise, anxiety, sorrow, anger and hate. We use a hi- erarchical Bayesian network to model the emotions and topics in the text. Both the complex emotions and topics are drawn from raw texts, without con- sidering any complicated language features. Our ex- periment shows promising results of word emotion prediction, which outperforms the traditional parsing methods such as the Hidden Markov Model and the Conditional Random Fields(CRFs) on raw text. We also explore the topic distribution by examining the emotion topic variation in an emotion topic diagram.

  19. Topical Review: Polymer gel dosimetry

    OpenAIRE

    Baldock, C; De Deene, Y; Doran, S.; Ibbott, G; Jirasek, A.; Lepage, M.; McAuley, K B; Oldham, M; Schreiner, L J

    2010-01-01

    Polymer gel dosimeters are fabricated from radiation sensitive chemicals which, upon irradiation, polymerize as a function of the absorbed radiation dose. These gel dosimeters, with the capacity to uniquely record the radiation dose distribution in three-dimensions (3D), have specific advantages when compared to one-dimensional dosimeters, such as ion chambers, and two-dimensional dosimeters, such as film. These advantages are particularly significant in dosimetry situations where steep dose ...

  20. Extracting Topics from the Holy Quran Using Generative Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Alhawarat

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The holy Quran is one of the Holy Books of God. It is considered one of the main references for an estimated 1.6 billion of Muslims around the world. The Holy Quran language is Arabic. Specialized as well as non-specialized people in religion need to search and lookup certain information from the Holy Quran. Most research projects concentrate on the translation of the holy Quran in different languages. Nevertheless, few research projects pay attention to original text of the holy Quran in Arabic language. Keyword search is one of the Information Retrieval (IR methods but will retrieve what is called exact search. Semantic search aims at finding deeper meanings of a text, and it is a hot field of study in Natural Language Processing (NLP. In this paper topic modeling techniques are explored to setup a framework for semantic search in the holy Quran. As the Holy Quran is the word of God, its meanings are unlimited. In this paper the words of chapter Joseph (Peace Be Upon Him (PBUH from the Holy Quran is analyzed based on topic modeling techniques as a case study. Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA topic modeling technique has been applied in this paper into two structures (Hizb Quarters and verses of Joseph chapter as: words, roots and stems. The log-Likelihood has been calculated for the two structures of the chapter. Results show that the best structure to use is verses, which gives the least energy for data. Some of the results of the attained topics are shown. These results suggest that topic modeling techniques failed to capture in an accurate manner the coherent topics of the chapter.

  1. Evaluation of continuous and intermittent myocardial topical negative pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindstedt, Sandra; Malmsjö, Malin; Gesslein, Bodil;

    2008-01-01

    Topical negative pressure, commonly used in wound therapy, has been shown to increase blood flow and stimulate angiogenesis in subcutaneous tissue and skeletal muscle. In wound therapy, intermittent negative pressure is often preferred to continuous negative pressure as tissue exposed to...... intermittent therapy shows twice as much granulation tissue formation than that exposed to continuous pressure after 2 weeks of therapy. The present study was designed to elucidate the differences in microvascular blood flow in the left anterior descending artery area between continuous and intermittent...... myocardial topical negative pressure of -50 mmHg....

  2. Selected Topics in MicroNano-robotics for Biomedical Applications

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Selected Topics in Micro/Nano-robotics for Biomedical Applications features a system approach and incorporates modern methodologies in autonomous mobile robots for programmable and controllable micro/nano-robots aiming at biomedical applications. The book provides chapters of instructional materials and cutting-edge research results in micro/nanorobotics for biomedical applications. The book presents new sensing technology on nanofibers, new power supply techniques including miniature fuel cells and energy harvesting devices, and manipulation techniques including AFM-based nano-robotic manipulation, robot-aided optical tweezers, and robot-assisted catheter surgery systems. It also contains case studies on using micro/nano-robots in biomedical environments and in biomedicine, as well as a design example to conceptually develop a Vitamin-pill sized robot to enter human’s gastrointestinal tract. Each chapter covers a different topic of the highly interdisciplinary area. Bring together the selected topics into ...

  3. Iatrogenic hyperadrenocorticism during topical steroid therapy: assessment of systemic effects by metabolic criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, L J; Freinkel, R K; Zugerman, C; Levin, D L; Radtke, R

    1982-06-01

    Systemic absorption of topically applied glucocorticoids in quantities sufficient to replace endogenous production is not uncommon. However, iatrogenic Cushing's syndrome resulting from the use of topical corticosteroids is very rare. Thus the possibility that systemic absorption may cause hyperglucocorticism has been deemphasized and examined only sporadically. We have studied changes in carbohydrate metabolism induced by topical glucocorticoids in a psoriatic patient who had developed Cushing's syndrome from topical desoximetasone (Topicort). The results indicated that (1) fasting hyperglycemia and increased insulin-glucose ratios could be induced within 24 hours of administration of topical glucocorticoids, (2) insulin resistance accompanied abnormal carbohydrate tolerance, and (3) fluctuations in circulating leukocytes paralleled the changes in carbohydrate metabolism. The findings suggest that metabolic indexes of glucocorticoid action action may provide useful parameters for assessing systemic absorption of topical glucocorticoids. glucose relationship as one such index to assess the risk of treatment of extensive chronic skin disease with potent topical glucocorticoids. PMID:7047591

  4. Modeling Online Reviews with Multi-grain Topic Models

    CERN Document Server

    Titov, Ivan

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present a novel framework for extracting the ratable aspects of objects from online user reviews. Extracting such aspects is an important challenge in automatically mining product opinions from the web and in generating opinion-based summaries of user reviews. Our models are based on extensions to standard topic modeling methods such as LDA and PLSA to induce multi-grain topics. We argue that multi-grain models are more appropriate for our task since standard models tend to produce topics that correspond to global properties of objects (e.g., the brand of a product type) rather than the aspects of an object that tend to be rated by a user. The models we present not only extract ratable aspects, but also cluster them into coherent topics, e.g., `waitress' and `bartender' are part of the same topic `staff' for restaurants. This differentiates it from much of the previous work which extracts aspects through term frequency analysis with minimal clustering. We evaluate the multi-grain models both ...

  5. Fluorine Compounds and Dental Health: Applications of General Chemistry Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Gabriel

    2009-01-01

    An example about the use of everyday phenomena in teaching general chemistry is given. Students have a greater appreciation of the principles of chemistry if they can see the relevance to their lives. Fluorine compounds in dental applications (as topical or as systemic use) provide an excellent context in which to review core content of general…

  6. Topics in Social Psychology: Further Classroom Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Royce, Jr.; Kerber, Kenneth W.

    1980-01-01

    Presents ideas for stimulating students' interest in college level sociology courses by involving students in individual v group decision making, nonverbal communication, romantic love, and ethnic stereotypes. Tips for organizing classroom demonstrations around these topics are presented. (Author/DB)

  7. MedlinePlus Health Topic XML Files

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — XML files containing information resources on diseases, conditions and wellness issues. MedlinePlus produces three types of health topic XML files – MedlinePlus...

  8. Mining Concurrent Topical Activity in Microblog Streams

    CERN Document Server

    Panisson, A; Quaggiotto, M; Cattuto, C

    2014-01-01

    Streams of user-generated content in social media exhibit patterns of collective attention across diverse topics, with temporal structures determined both by exogenous factors and endogenous factors. Teasing apart different topics and resolving their individual, concurrent, activity timelines is a key challenge in extracting knowledge from microblog streams. Facing this challenge requires the use of methods that expose latent signals by using term correlations across posts and over time. Here we focus on content posted to Twitter during the London 2012 Olympics, for which a detailed schedule of events is independently available and can be used for reference. We mine the temporal structure of topical activity by using two methods based on non-negative matrix factorization. We show that for events in the Olympics schedule that can be semantically matched to Twitter topics, the extracted Twitter activity timeline closely matches the known timeline from the schedule. Our results show that, given appropriate techn...

  9. Neutron spectroscopy, nuclear structure, related topics. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron spectroscopy, nuclear structure and related topics are considered. P, T-breaking, neutron beta decay, neutron radiative capture and neutron polarizability are discussed. Reaction with fast neutrons, methodical aspect low-energy fission are considered too

  10. MedlinePlus Health Topic Web Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A search-based Web service that provides access to disease, condition and wellness information via MedlinePlus health topic data in XML format. The service accepts...

  11. Environmental Health Topics from A to Z

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Topics Environmental Agents Acrylamide Air Pollution Allergens & Irritants Aloe Vera Arsenic Bisphenol A (BPA) Cell Phones Climate ... Cigarette Smoke Cockroaches Dust Mites Pets & Animals Pollen Aloe Vera Alternatives to Animal Testing Arsenic Asthma Autism ...

  12. Topical Session on the Decommissioning and Dismantling Safety Case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Set up by the Radioactive Waste Management Committee (RWMC), the WPDD brings together senior representatives of national organisations who have a broad overview of Decommissioning and Dismantling (D and D) issues through their work as regulators, implementers, R and D experts or policy makers. These include representatives from regulatory authorities, industrial decommissioners from the NEA Cooperative Programme on Exchange of Scientific and Technical Information on Nuclear Installation Decommissioning Projects (CPD), and cross-representation from the NEA Committee on Nuclear Regulatory Activities, the Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health, and the RWMC. The EC is a member of the WPDD and the IAEA also participates. This ensures co-ordination amongst activities in these international programmes. Participation from civil society organisations is considered on a case by case basis, and has already taken place through the active involvement of the Group of Municipalities with Nuclear Installations at the first meeting of the WPDD At its second meeting, in Paris, 5-7 December 2001, the WPDD held two topical sessions on the D and D Safety Case and on the Management of Materials from D and D, respectively. This report documents the topical session on the safety case. The topical session was meant to provide an exchange of information and experience on the following issues: What topics should be included in a safety case? Of what should it consist? Is there sufficient and complete guidance nationally and internationally? How do practices differ internationally? Main boundary condition to this session was that it would deal with plants where spent fuel has been removed. Also the topical sessions was kept at a level that makes the most of the varied constituency of the WPDD. Namely, interface issues are important, and issue-identification and discussion was the immediate goal. There was less interest in examining areas where variability amongst national

  13. The rational design of topical formulations

    OpenAIRE

    Duszynska-Krupa, A. M.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis addresses the development of topical formulations designed to treat atopic dermatitis (AD) using nicotinamide (NA). A rational approach to the development of topical formulations based on the physical and chemical properties of the drug and vehicle components is studied. This approach is an alternative to the model of formulation development where the drug is added into an existing vehicle without optimisation of the formulation in terms of the active delivery to its site of actio...

  14. Topical and oral therapeutic approach to rosacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfrich, Yolanda R; Maier, Lisa M

    2016-06-01

    Rosacea is an inflammatory condition of the skin, primarily affecting the central convexities of the face. Various topical and oral therapeutic approaches exist. Most have been developed to treat the papulopustular subtype of rosacea; however, other approaches can be used to treat the erythematotelangiectatic, ocular, and phymatous subtypes. This review provides a summary of available topical and oral approaches for the treatment of rosacea. PMID:27416312

  15. Is topical haloperidol a useful glaucoma treatment?

    OpenAIRE

    Lavin, M J; Andrews, V.

    1986-01-01

    A randomised, double blind, single dose study of topical haloperidol, a dopamine receptor blocking drug, was performed on 20 healthy volunteers. After its administration a modest reduction in intraocular pressure was recorded over the six-hour study period, but the difference was not significant at the p less than 0.05 level. Although dopamine blocking agents are effective in reducing intraocular pressure in experimental animals, topical haloperidol appears unlikely to be clinically useful in...

  16. Materials to the topic 'nuclear power plants'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The topic Nuclear Power Stations is becoming more and more important for the natural and social science subjects of school. The offers in traditional school books to the topic are insufficient, because of the actuality of the nuclear energy discussion. Therefore, instruction units are bieng produced at many places to fill the gap. This documentation gives a survey of the most important instruction units and a critical analysis of them. Furthermore a bibliography of journal essays, books and a filmography is offered. (orig.)

  17. Formulation, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of topical microbicides

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Jessica L.; Kashuba, Angela D. M.

    2012-01-01

    The development of safe topical microbicides that effectively prevent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a major goal in curbing the human immunodeficiency virus pandemic. A number of past failures resulting from mucosal toxicity or lack of efficacy have informed the field. Products that caused toxicity to the female genital tract mucosa, and thereby increased the likelihood of HIV acquisition, included nonoxynol 9, cellulose sulfate, and C31 G vaginal gel Savvy®. Topical product...

  18. Topical calcineurin inhibitors in systemic lupus erythematosus

    OpenAIRE

    Lampropoulos, Christos

    2010-01-01

    Christos E Lampropoulos, David P D’CruzLupus Research Unit, Rayne Institute, St. Thomas’ Hospital, London, UKAbstract: Cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CLE) encompasses a variety of lesions that may be refractory to systemic or topical agents. Discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE) and subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus (SCLE) are the most common lesions in clinical practice. The topical calcineurin inhibitors, tacrolimus and pimecrolimus, have been used to treat resistant cu...

  19. Pharmacogenetics of ophthalmic topical β-blockers

    OpenAIRE

    Sidjanin, Duska J; Catherine A McCarty; Patchett, Richard; Smith, Edward; Wilke, Russell A

    2008-01-01

    Glaucoma is the second leading cause of blindness worldwide. The primary glaucoma risk factor is elevated intraocular pressure. Topical β-blockers are affordable and widely used to lower intraocular pressure. Genetic variability has been postulated to contribute to interpersonal differences in efficacy and safety of topical β-blockers. This review summarizes clinically significant polymorphisms that have been identified in the β-adrenergic receptors (ADRB1, ADRB2 and ADRB3). The implications ...

  20. Topics in quaternion linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Rodman, Leiba

    2014-01-01

    Quaternions are a number system that has become increasingly useful for representing the rotations of objects in three-dimensional space and has important applications in theoretical and applied mathematics, physics, computer science, and engineering. This is the first book to provide a systematic, accessible, and self-contained exposition of quaternion linear algebra. It features previously unpublished research results with complete proofs and many open problems at various levels, as well as more than 200 exercises to facilitate use by students and instructors. Applications presented in the book include numerical ranges, invariant semidefinite subspaces, differential equations with symmetries, and matrix equations. Designed for researchers and students across a variety of disciplines, the book can be read by anyone with a background in linear algebra, rudimentary complex analysis, and some multivariable calculus. Instructors will find it useful as a complementary text for undergraduate linear algebra courses...

  1. Topics in Localization and Mapping

    OpenAIRE

    Callmer, Jonas

    2011-01-01

    The need to determine ones position is common and emerges in many different situations. Tracking soldiers or a robot moving in a building or aiding a tourist exploring a new city, all share the questions ”where is the unit?“ and ”where is the unit going?“. This is known as the localization problem.Particularly, the problem of determining ones position in a map while building the map at the same time, commonly known as the simultaneous localization and mapping problem (slam), has been widely s...

  2. OHVT technology roadmap[2000]; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The OHVT Technology Roadmap for 2000 presents the multiyear program plan of the U.S. DOE's Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OHVT). It is an update of the 1997 plan, reflecting changes in regulations and ongoing discussions with DOE's heavy vehicle customers. The technical plan covers three classes of trucks: (1) class 7-8 (large, on-highway trucks); (2) class 3-6 (medium duty trucks); (3) class 1-2 (pickups, vans, and sport utility vehicles) as well as enabling and supporting technologies. The Roadmap documents program goals, schedules, and milestones

  3. Adoption Research: Trends, Topics, Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, Jesus; Brodzinsky, David

    2010-01-01

    The current article provides a review of adoption research since its inception as a field of study. Three historical trends in adoption research are identified: the first focusing on risk in adoption and identifying adoptee-nonadoptee differences in adjustment; the second examining the capacity of adopted children to recover from early adversity;…

  4. Dental Topics for Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorber, Mortimer

    1976-01-01

    As part of the required Introduction to Clinical Sciences course, second-year students at Georgetown University School of Medicine attend three one-hour lectures on dentistry: restorative dentistry, oral surgery, and various diseases. Contents of the lectures are summarized here. (JT)

  5. Topical subjects of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report supplements and extends basic information contained in the seminar report 'Use and risk of nuclear energy' (Juel-Conf-17). The contributions deal with nuclear waste management, measures to avoid the misuse of nuclear fuels, and the properties and use of plutonium. As against the last edition, the subject 'Energy and environment' has been added. (orig.)

  6. Safety management. Topical issue 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper reviews the concept of safety management, which has been defined as a comprehensive set of processes, systems and procedures coupled with attitudes inculcated to operate nuclear installations safely. It highlights its inextricable link to safety culture and organizational issues, such as employee contribution and management commitment at all levels to overall safety management. In the face of increasing pressures on the nuclear industry through corporate and plant restructuring, deregulation and privatization, it is even more important that safety is managed correctly. The advantages of self-assessment and peer review of safety performance are stressed as effective tools to monitor standards and identify areas for improvement. This search for improvement can also be aided through the establishment of indicators, risk monitors and the will to learn from others in the pursuit of excellence. Regulatory bodies play a major part in the facilitation of safety improvements, the shaping of attitudes and the encouragement of good safety performance. Therefore, the regulatory-utility interfaces are seen as the vital components of a good safety management system. It has been shown that probabilistic safety assessment (PSA), properly applied, can provide added confidence in the safety management area, and when utilized in conjunction with configuration management and control it can contribute greatly to the achievement of shorter, safer outages and maintenance. Several key questions are posed in the paper relating to the essential issues of safety management and the need for internationally co-ordinated efforts to address current and future concerns. (author)

  7. HOT TOPICS IN FOOD MICROBIOLOGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escherichia coli is a bacterium whose importance ranges from its role as a host for recombinant DNA manipulations to being one of the most well-recognized foodborne pathogens. Most E. coli strains are considered to be part of the normal microflora of the intestinal tract of humans and other warm-bl...

  8. Topical calcineurin inhibitors in systemic lupus erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos E Lampropoulos

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Christos E Lampropoulos, David P D’CruzLupus Research Unit, Rayne Institute, St. Thomas’ Hospital, London, UKAbstract: Cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CLE encompasses a variety of lesions that may be refractory to systemic or topical agents. Discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE and subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus (SCLE are the most common lesions in clinical practice. The topical calcineurin inhibitors, tacrolimus and pimecrolimus, have been used to treat resistant cutaneous lupus since 2002 and inhibit the proliferation and activation of T-cells and suppress immune-mediated cutaneous inflammation. This article reviews the mechanism of action, efficacy, adverse effects, and the recent concern about their possible carcinogenic effect. Although the total number of patients is small and there is only one relevant randomized controlled study, the data are encouraging. Many patients, previously resistant to systemic agents or topical steroids, improved after four weeks of treatment. DLE and SCLE lesions were less responsive, reflecting the chronicity of the lesions, although more than 50% of patients still showed improvement. Topical calcineurin inhibitors may be a safe and effective alternative to topical steroids for CLE although the only approved indication is for atopic dermatitis.Keywords: tacrolimus, pimecrolimus, cutaneous lupus erythematosus, topical calcineurin inhibitors

  9. EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Gasification Technologies and Transportation Fuels and Chemicals programs, DOE and Texaco are partners through Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40658 to determine the feasibility of developing, constructing and operating an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP). The overall objective of the project is the three-phase development of an EECP that produces at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: Electric power (or heat); Fuels; and Chemicals. The objective is to have these products produced by technologies capable of using synthesis gas derived from coal and/or some other carbonaceous feedstock, such as petroleum coke. The objective of Phase I was to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site and to develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD and T) Plan for implementation in Phase II. This objective has now been accomplished. A specific site, Motiva Refinery in Port Arthur, Texas, has been selected as the location best suited for the EECP. The specific work requirements of Phase I included: Prepare an EECP Preliminary Concept Report covering Tasks 2-8 specified in the Cooperative Agreement; Develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD and T) Plan as specified in Task 9 of the Cooperative Agreement for implementation in Phase II; and Develop a Preliminary Project Financing Plan for the EECP Project as specified in Task 10 of the Cooperative Agreement. This document is the Preliminary Project Financing Plan for the design, construction, and operation of the EECP at the Motiva Port Arthur Refinery

  10. Topical spironolactone reduces sebum secretion rates in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, A; Ito, M

    1996-04-01

    The effects of topically applied spironolactone on the sebum secretion rates (SSR) of young adults were investigated. SSR was expressed as the ratio of wax esters/[cholesterol+cholesterol esters] (WE/[C+CE]) and the amount of sebaceous lipids (squalene, triacylglycerol and wax esters). Topical spironolactone 5% gel applied to the right cheeks of the subjects produced a significant reduction in the SSR at 12 weeks (4 weeks after termination of application), but not at 8 weeks (the end of treatment). Untreated "control" areas (the left cheeks of the subjects) showed no significant change during the study. None of the subjects experienced skin rash or signs of local irritation. This results suggests that topical spironolactone may be effective in the treatment of acne patients with high SSR. PMID:8935338

  11. Iatrogenic Cushing's Syndrome After Topical Steroid Therapy for Psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahıp, Birsen; Celık, Mehmet; Ayturk, Semra; Kucukarda, Ahmet; Mert, Onur; Dıncer, Nejla; Guldıken, Sıbel; Tugrul, Armagan

    2016-01-01

    Glucocorticoids are used for the treatment of many diseases, such as inflammatory, allergic, autoimmune, and neoplastic diseases. They can be used in the form of topical, oral, inhalable, rectal, and intra-articular agents. Many topical steroid-related iatrogenic Cushing's syndrome cases affecting especially children have been reported in the literature. Topical steroid-related Cushing's syndrome is rarely seen in adults. In this report, we present the case of a 32-year-old male patient with iatrogenic Cushing's syndrome related to long-term clobetasol propionate treatment for psoriasis. In the context of such treatment, the glucocorticoid withdrawal problem has to be overcome. At present there is no consensus on steroid withdrawal. Patients on long-term glucocorticoid treatment must be evaluated for potential adverse effects and withdrawal symptoms by their physician and their endocrinologist. PMID:26955131

  12. Management of chronic pruritus with a UV filtering topical cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanardelli, Matteo; Kovacevic, Maja; McCoy, John; Wang, Xingang; Goren, Andy; Lotti, Torello

    2016-03-01

    Chronic pruritus is a common dermatological condition affecting 10-13% of the general population. UVB phototherapy has been demonstrated to be effective in relieving the symptoms of pruritus. However, phototherapy is rarely administered because the treatment is time-consuming and expensive, when compared to other topical drugs. In previous works, it has been reported that a topical cream, which selectively filters solar UVB can be used as a convenient alternative to traditional phototherapy. Here, we report the results of a pilot study aimed at assessing the effectiveness of the cream for treating pruritus. Seven patients with pruritus symptoms were included in the study. After 3 months of treatment (3 sessions per week), all patients noted improvement in pruritus symptoms. These preliminary results demonstrate that the novel topical cream could provide a convenient, low cost treatment for chronic pruritus patients. PMID:26849280

  13. Management of Periocular Granuloma Annulare Using Topical Dapsone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Mayha; Shitabata, Paul; Horowitz, David

    2015-01-01

    Granuloma annulare is a disease characterized by granulomatous inflammation of the dermis. Localized granuloma annulare may resolve spontaneously, while generalized granuloma annulare may persist for decades. The authors present the case of a 41-year-old Hispanic man with a two-week history of periocular granuloma annulare. Due to previously reported success in the use of systemic dapsone for the treatment of granuloma annulare, and the periocular proximity of the patient’s lesion, topical dapsone was used for treatment. Various additional therapies for the management of granuloma annulare have been reported, such as topical and systemic steroids, isotretinoin, pentoxifylline, cyclosporine, Interferon gamma, potassium iodide, nicotinamide, niacinamide, salicylic acid, fumaric acid ester, etanercept, infliximab, and hydroxychloroquine. Additional clinical trials are necessary to further evaluate the effectiveness of topical dapsone in the management of granuloma annulare. PMID:26203321

  14. Strategy of topical vaccination with nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sascha; Patzelt, Alexa; Otberg, Nina; Thiede, Gisela; Sterry, Wolfram; Lademann, Juergen

    2009-03-01

    Liposomes in the nanosize range have been recognized as a versatile drug delivery system of both hydrophilic and lipophilic molecules. In order to develop a liposome-based topical vaccination strategy, five different types of liposomes were tested as a putative vaccine delivery system on pig ear skin. The investigated liposomes mainly varied in size, lipid composition, and surface charge. Using hydrophilic and hydrophobic fluorescent dyes as model drugs, penetration behavior was studied by means of confocal laser scanning microscopy of intact skin and histological sections, respectively. Follicular penetration of the liposomes was measured in comparison to a standard, nonliposomal formulation at different time points. Dependent on time but independent of their different characters, the liposomes showed a significantly higher penetration depth into the hair follicles compared to the standard formulation. The standard formulation reached a relative penetration depth of 30% of the full hair follicle length after seven days, whereas amphoteric and cationic liposomes had reached ~70%. Penetration depth of negatively charged liposomes did not exceed 50% of the total follicle length. The fluorescence dyes were mainly detected in the hair follicle; only a small amount of dye was found in the upper parts of the epidermis.

  15. KSU KDD: Word Sense Induction by Clustering in Topic Space

    OpenAIRE

    Elshamy, Wesam; Caragea, Doina; Hsu, William

    2013-01-01

    We describe our language-independent unsupervised word sense induction system. This system only uses topic features to cluster different word senses in their global context topic space. Using unlabeled data, this system trains a latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA) topic model then uses it to infer the topics distribution of the test instances. By clustering these topics distributions in their topic space we cluster them into different senses. Our hypothesis is that closeness in topic space refl...

  16. Special topics in international adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenista, Jerri Ann

    2005-10-01

    As international adoption has become more "mainstream," the issues recently addressed in domestic adoption have become more important in adoptions involving children originating in other countries. Certain groups of prospective adoptive parents, such as gay or lesbian couples, single parents, and parents with disabilities, have begun to apply to adopt in ever increasing numbers. Children who may have been considered unadoptable in the past are now routinely being offered to prospective adoptive parents. The numbers and ages of the children placed and the spacing between adoptions have come under scrutiny. The rates of adoption dissolutions and disruptions are being examined carefully by the receiving and sending countries. There is a pressing need for research into numerous social aspects of adoption. PMID:16154473

  17. Topics in computational linear optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hultberg, Tim Helge

    2000-01-01

    Linear optimization has been an active area of research ever since the pioneering work of G. Dantzig more than 50 years ago. This research has produced a long sequence of practical as well as theoretical improvements of the solution techniques avilable for solving linear optimization problems...... formulation has a tighter LP-relaxation than the original formulation. The first paper surveys the use of automatic reformulation techniques for general mixed 0-1 linear programs. An implementation, Spiky, of a direct method for solving large sparse unsymmetric systems of linear equations is presented in the...... factorization of an augmented system is computed. This involves the solution of a sparse triangular system with 's' right-hand sides. Solution sparsity is exploited in the sparse triangular solves of the block LU factorization. 3) a factorization of the Schur complement matrix, of order 's', is computed. The...

  18. Hot topics in gut microbiota

    OpenAIRE

    Doré, Joël; Simrén, Magnus; Buttle, Lisa; Guarner, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    The study of gut microbiota is a rapidly moving field of research, and the impact of gut microbial communities on human health is widely perceived as one of the most exciting advancements in biomedicine in recent years. The gut microbiota plays a key role in digestion, metabolism and immune function, and has widespread impact beyond the gastrointestinal tract. Changes in the biodiversity of the gut microbiota are associated with far reaching consequences on host health and development. Furthe...

  19. Literature survey results: Topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willson, W.G.; Ness, R.O.; Hendrikson, J.G.; Entzminger, J.A.; Jha, M.; Sinor, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    This report reviews mild gasification processes with respect to processing conditions and configurations. Special emphasis was placed on processes which could be commercialized within five years. Detailed market information was provided by J.E. Sinor concerning markets and economic considerations of the various processing steps. Processing areas studied include coal cleaning; mild gasification; and upgrading of the char, condensables, and hydrocarbon gases. Pros and cons in the different processing areas as well as ''gaps'' in pertinent data were identified and integrated into a detailed process development program. The report begins with a summary of the market assessment and an evaluation of the co-product. The impacts of feed materials and operating parameters--including coal rank, heating rate, pressure, agglomeration, temperature, and feed gas composition--on the co- products and processes were evaluated through a literature survey. Recommendations were made as to the preferred product specifications and operating parameters for a commercial plant. A literature review of mild gasification processes was conducted and evaluated with regard to product specification and operating parameters. Two candidate processes were chosen and discussed in detail with respect to scale-up feasibility. Recommendations were then made to process development needs to further consideration of the two processes. 129 refs., 33 figs., 16 tabs.

  20. On Constructing, Grouping and Using Topical Ontology for Semantic Matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yan; de Baer, Peter; Zhao, Gang; Meersman, Robert

    An ontology topic is used to group concepts from different contexts (or even from different domain ontologies). This paper presents a pattern-driven modeling methodology for constructing and grouping topics in an ontology (PAD-ON methodology), which is used for matching similarities between competences in the human resource management (HRM) domain. The methodology is supported by a tool called PAD-ON. This paper demonstrates our recent achievement in the work from the EC Prolix project. The paper approach is applied to the training processes at British Telecom as the test bed.

  1. International Conference on Advances of Fractals and Related Topics

    CERN Document Server

    Lau, Ka-Sing

    2014-01-01

    This volume collects thirteen expository or survey articles on topics including Fractal Geometry, Analysis of Fractals, Multifractal Analysis, Ergodic Theory and Dynamical Systems, Probability and Stochastic Analysis, written by the leading experts in their respective fields. The articles are based on papers presented at the International Conference on Advances on Fractals and Related Topics, held on December 10-14, 2012 at the Chinese University of Hong Kong. The volume offers insights into a number of exciting, cutting-edge developments in the area of fractals, which has close ties to and applications in other areas such as analysis, geometry, number theory, probability and mathematical physics.   

  2. Peregrinations through topics in light scattering and radiative transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattawar, George W.

    2016-07-01

    In this van de Hulst essay, I have taken the liberty to present a journey through some topics in light scattering and radiative transfer which I feel were major contributions to the field but the number of topics I would like to cover is far more numerous than I have the time or the space to present. I also wanted to share with the reader some heartwarming memories I have of my wonderful friend and truly distinguished colleague Hendrik Christoffel van de Hulst (affectionately known to his colleagues as "Henk") whom I consider to be one of the preeminent scientists of his era.

  3. Topical review of the Finnish forest sector 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present report is e review of the Finnish forest sector, made by several authors. The topics reviewed are: Economic trends of forest sector; The operational conditions of the forest sector; Development of the forest sector; Conjuncture reviews; Special topics including the certification of the forests, the forest reserves in Finland, the financial support forest economy, export prices of sawn timber and cellulose, raw-wood markets, forests and forest industry shares as targets for investments, recreational use of the state owned areas. (8 refs.)

  4. Topical Conference on Oportunities in Biology for Physicists II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franz, Judy R.

    2004-02-01

    In 2002, the American Physical Society (APS) organized and held the first topical conference in Boston, MA, as a way of informing physicists, particularly those just entering the field, of opportunities emerging at the interface of physics and biology. Because of the tremendous success of the first conference, it was decided to organize a second conference, similar in nature and focus, but with different presentation topic areas. Again the intended audience would be graduate students and postdocs considering applying methods of physics to biological research, and those who advise others on such opportunities.

  5. Anesthetic effectiveness of topical levobupivacaine 0.75% versus topical proparacaine 0.5% for intravitreal injections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurgül Örnek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Today no method of topical anesthesia for intravitreal injection administration has been proven to make the patient comfortable yet. We compared the efficacy of topical levobupivacaine 0.75% and proparacaine 0.5% in patients undergoing intravitreal injections. Materials and Methods: A prospective, randomized study comparing two agents for topical anesthesia in intravitreal injections. Ninety-six consecutive patients were enrolled into two groups to receive either topical levobupivacaine 0.75% (n=48 or proparacaine 0.5% (n=48. Patients were asked to score their pain using a visual analog scale (VAS immediately following the injection. The average of these scores was used as the primary outcome. The surgeon performing the procedure scored his perception of the patients′ pain using the Wong-Baker FACES scale. Results: Mean VAS pain scores for two groups were found to be 44.77 ± 16.42 and 34.18 ± 14.83, respectively. Mean VAS pain score in the proparacaine group was significantly lower than that in the levobupivacaine group (P= 0.003. Mean Wong-Baker FACES scores for the two groups were 1.08 ± 0.49 and 1.10 ± 0.30, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between levobupivacaine and proparacaine groups (P=0.824. Conclusions: Topical proparacaine 0.5% was more effective in preventing pain during intravitreal injections.

  6. Redundancy-aware topic modeling for patient record notes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Cohen

    Full Text Available The clinical notes in a given patient record contain much redundancy, in large part due to clinicians' documentation habit of copying from previous notes in the record and pasting into a new note. Previous work has shown that this redundancy has a negative impact on the quality of text mining and topic modeling in particular. In this paper we describe a novel variant of Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA topic modeling, Red-LDA, which takes into account the inherent redundancy of patient records when modeling content of clinical notes. To assess the value of Red-LDA, we experiment with three baselines and our novel redundancy-aware topic modeling method: given a large collection of patient records, (i apply vanilla LDA to all documents in all input records; (ii identify and remove all redundancy by chosing a single representative document for each record as input to LDA; (iii identify and remove all redundant paragraphs in each record, leaving partial, non-redundant documents as input to LDA; and (iv apply Red-LDA to all documents in all input records. Both quantitative evaluation carried out through log-likelihood on held-out data and topic coherence of produced topics and qualitative assessment of topics carried out by physicians show that Red-LDA produces superior models to all three baseline strategies. This research contributes to the emerging field of understanding the characteristics of the electronic health record and how to account for them in the framework of data mining. The code for the two redundancy-elimination baselines and Red-LDA is made publicly available to the community.

  7. Redundancy-aware topic modeling for patient record notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Raphael; Aviram, Iddo; Elhadad, Michael; Elhadad, Noémie

    2014-01-01

    The clinical notes in a given patient record contain much redundancy, in large part due to clinicians' documentation habit of copying from previous notes in the record and pasting into a new note. Previous work has shown that this redundancy has a negative impact on the quality of text mining and topic modeling in particular. In this paper we describe a novel variant of Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) topic modeling, Red-LDA, which takes into account the inherent redundancy of patient records when modeling content of clinical notes. To assess the value of Red-LDA, we experiment with three baselines and our novel redundancy-aware topic modeling method: given a large collection of patient records, (i) apply vanilla LDA to all documents in all input records; (ii) identify and remove all redundancy by chosing a single representative document for each record as input to LDA; (iii) identify and remove all redundant paragraphs in each record, leaving partial, non-redundant documents as input to LDA; and (iv) apply Red-LDA to all documents in all input records. Both quantitative evaluation carried out through log-likelihood on held-out data and topic coherence of produced topics and qualitative assessment of topics carried out by physicians show that Red-LDA produces superior models to all three baseline strategies. This research contributes to the emerging field of understanding the characteristics of the electronic health record and how to account for them in the framework of data mining. The code for the two redundancy-elimination baselines and Red-LDA is made publicly available to the community. PMID:24551060

  8. Lie Algebras and Related Topics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yucai SU; Shaobin TAN; Hechun ZHANG

    2011-01-01

    From July 20 to 26,2011,the Department of Mathematics at Huzhou Teachers College will host the 12th National Conference on Lie Algebras.Aiming to offer a forum for people working in this old but still exciting field to exchange research ideas and enhance collaborations,the conference will bring together some 150 participants from all over China and some participants overseas as well.There will be 41 talks during the conference and among them 8 are invited ones.Detailed information on the conference,including the organizing committee,the scientific committee,the invited speakers,and the conference program,can be found in

  9. Topics in cohomology of groups

    CERN Document Server

    Lang, Serge

    1996-01-01

    The book is a mostly translated reprint of a report on cohomology of groups from the 1950s and 1960s, originally written as background for the Artin-Tate notes on class field theory, following the cohomological approach. This report was first published (in French) by Benjamin. For this new English edition, the author added Tate's local duality, written up from letters which John Tate sent to Lang in 1958 - 1959. Except for this last item, which requires more substantial background in algebraic geometry and especially abelian varieties, the rest of the book is basically elementary, depending only on standard homological algebra at the level of first year graduate students.

  10. Diverse topics in crystalline beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Equations of motion are presented, appropriate to interacting charged particles of diverse charge and mass, subject to the external forces produced by various kinds of magnetic fields and radio-frequency (rf) electric fields in storage rings. These equations are employed in the molecular dynamics simulations to study the properties of crystalline beams. The two necessary conditions for the formation and maintenance of crystalline beams are summarized. The transition from ID to 2D, and from 2D to 3D is explored, and the scaling behavior of the heating rates is discussed especially in the high temperature limit. The effectiveness of various cooling techniques in achieving crystalline states has been investigated. Crystalline beams made of two different species of ions via sympathetic cooling are presented, as well as circulating ''crystal balls'' bunched in all directions by magnetic focusing and rf field. By numerically reconstructing the original experimental conditions of the NAP-M ring, it is found that only at extremely low beam intensities, outside of the range of the original measurement, proton particles can form occasionally-passing disks. The proposed New ASTRID ring is shown to be suitable for the formation and maintenance of crystalline beams of all dimensions

  11. Flammable gas project topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, G.D.

    1997-01-29

    The flammable gas safety issue was recognized in 1990 with the declaration of an unreviewed safety question (USQ) by the U. S. Department of Energy as a result of the behavior of the Hanford Site high-level waste tank 241-SY-101. This tank exhibited episodic releases of flammable gas that on a couple of occasions exceeded the lower flammability limit of hydrogen in air. Over the past six years there has been a considerable amount of knowledge gained about the chemical and physical processes that govern the behavior of tank 241-SY-1 01 and other tanks associated with the flammable gas safety issue. This report was prepared to provide an overview of that knowledge and to provide a description of the key information still needed to resolve the issue. Items covered by this report include summaries of the understanding of gas generation, retention and release mechanisms, the composition and flammability behavior of the gas mixture, the amounts of stored gas, and estimated gas release fractions for spontaneous releases. `Me report also discusses methods being developed for evaluating the 177 tanks at the Hanford Site and the problems associated with these methods. Means for measuring the gases emitted from the waste are described along with laboratory experiments designed to gain more information regarding rates of generation, species of gases emitted and modes of gas storage and release. Finally, the process for closing the USQ is outlined as are the information requirements to understand and resolve the flammable gas issue.

  12. Topics in elementary scattering theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In these lectures a summary is given of some of the fundamental ideas and formalism used to describe and understand the interactions of elementary particles. A brief review of relativistic kinematics is followed by a discussion of Lorentz-invariant variables for describing two-body processes, phase space and plots, such as the Dalitz plot, which can be used to study some aspects of the dynamics of an interaction, relatively free from kinematic complications. A general description of scattering and decay is given and then, more specifically, some aspects of two-body interactions in the absence of spin are discussed. Finally, complications that arise when particle spin has to be taken into account are considered. (U.K.)

  13. Minimal inhibitory concentrations of modern topical antimicrobials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. N. Vorontsova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To measure minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC values for modern topical antimicrobials against common ocular pathogens.Methods.Antimicrobials most commonly used in ophthalmology (fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides are dose-dependent drugs, i.e., the rate of microbial death increases in direct proportion to their concentrations. To determine MICs, we applied Hi Comb MIC Test (E-test. 105 patients aged 2 months through 7 years which were diagnosed with various inflammatory disorders of anterior segment were  xamined. MIC values for most commonly used antimicrobials, i.e., ciprofloxacin / Cipromed (Sentiss Pharma, Gurgaon, India, ofloxacin / Floxal (Baush & Lomb, Rochester, New-York, levofloxacin / Signicef (Sentiss Pharma, Gurgaon, India, moxifloxacin / Vigamox (Alcon, Fort Worth, Texas, gatifloxacin / Zymar (Allergan, Irvine, California, and tobramycin / Tobrex (Alcon, Fort Worth, Texas, were measured.Results. The analysis revealed that the most effective antibacterial drug against microbial isolates in children (i.e., Staphylococci spp. was levofloxacin. MIC for this agent against Streptococci spp. and Gram-negative microbes was low as well. Moxifloxacin is preferred for the treatment of ocular inflammation provoked by Streptococci spp. as MIC of this antimicrobial against Streptococci spp. was the lowest. MIC of ciprofloxacin against Gram-negative flora was the lowest. These data demonstrate generally recognized high efficacy of this drug. MIC value for tobramycin against all bacterial isolates was the highest.

  14. Nanoberries for topical delivery of antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanari, Jorge; Vera, María; Mensi, Emanuel; Morilla, María; Romero, Eder

    2013-01-01

    With the aim of improving the antioxidant activity of polyphenols from blueberries (Vaccinium myrtillus) on skin targets after topical application, ethanolic extracts from three blueberry varieties (named Millenia, O'Neal, and Blue Crisp) were loaded into ultradeformable liposomes. These nanocarriers are known to be capable of penetrating through the stratum corneum reaching its deeper layers and the viable epidermis. On the other hand, blueberries contain large amounts of polyphenols, whose antioxidant properties as tissue protectors against processes mediated by reactive oxygen species have been extensively proved. Blueberries are usually consumed as edible products, but their antioxidant compounds are poorly absorbed. The antioxidant properties of the extracts were screened before and after being loaded into ultradeformable liposomes made of soy phosphatidylcholine and sodium cholate, of nearly 100 nm in size at 0.223 extract/lipid w/w. The ethanolic extract-loaded ultradeformable liposomes (nanoberries) from Millenia variety retained an 85% of the antioxidant capacity of the free extract and showed low cytotoxicity on HaCaT cells (less than 20%) at active concentration against free radicals. PMID:24397884

  15. Preparation and evaluation of aceclofenac topical microemulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh Shah, Rohit; Shripal Magdum, Chandrakant; Shivagonda Patil, Shitalkumar; Shanawaj Niakwade, Nilofar

    2010-01-01

    A topical preparation containing aceclofenac was developed using an o/w microemulsion system. Isopropyl myristate was chosen as the oil phase as it showed a good solubilising capacity. Pseudo-ternary phase diagrams were used to obtain the concentration ranges of the oil, surfactant (Labrasol) and co-surfactant (plurol oleique) for microemulsion formation. Five different formulations were formulated with various amount of the oil (5-25%), water (10-50%), and the mixture of surfactant and co-surfactant at the ratio of 4 (45-65%). In vitro permeability of aceclofenac from the microemulsions was evaluated using Keshary Chien diffusion cells with 0.45-μm cellulose acetate membrane. The amount of the aceclofenac permeated was analyzed by HPLC and the droplet size and zeta potential of the microemulsions was determined using a Zetasizer Nano-ZS. The mean diameters of the microemulsion droplets approximately ranged between 154 - 434 nm, and the permeability of aceclofenac incorporated into the microemulsion systems was 3 folds higher than that of the marketed formulation. These results indicate that the microemulsion system studied is a promising tool for percutaneous delivery of aceclofenac. PMID:24363700

  16. Selected topics in nuclear electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA training courses in the field of nuclear electronics heavily rely upon practical work in the laboratory. Accordingly, the IAEA has produced and published the Nuclear Electronics Laboratory Manual (TECDOC 309) where the experience on organizing the efficient practical training in nuclear electronics was compiled. The present publication is focused on the theoretical understanding of basic electronic circuits and is of particular importance to the attendees of the IAEA training course. The present publication does not copy any available book on nuclear electronics and instrumentation. On purpose, it does not describe the elementary electronics circuits as applied in nuclear instruments; they can be found in books. It starts the nuclear electronics study on the instruments level, continues to describe the technology and circuitries on the board level, and only in some exceptional cases investigates the circuits on the components level. It is believed that such an approach better reflects the advanced status of nuclear electronics and the philosophy of the modern design of nuclear instruments. For illustration, and wherever it appeared useful, some commercial instruments are described and analyzed. Figs and tabs

  17. Selected topics in nuclear electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA training courses in the field of nuclear electronics heavily rely upon practical work in the laboratory. Accordingly, the IAEA has produced and published the Nuclear Electronics Laboratory Manual (TECDOC 309) where the experience on organizing the efficient practical training in nuclear electronics was compiled. The present publication is focused on the theoretical understanding of basic electronic circuits and is of particular importance to the attendees of the IAEA training course. The present publication does not copy any available book on nuclear electronics and instrumentation. On purpose, it does not describe the elementary electronics circuits as applied in nuclear instruments; they can be found in books. It starts the nuclear electronics study on the instruments level, continues to describe the technology and circuitries on the board level, and only in some exceptional cases investigates the circuits on the components level. It is believed that such an approach better reflects the advanced status of nuclear electronics and the philosophy of the modern design of nuclear instruments. For illustration, and wherever it appeared useful, some commercial instruments are described and analyzed

  18. Topics in strong Langmuir turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis discusses certain aspects of the turbulence of a fully ionised non-isothermal plasma dominated by the Langmuir mode. Some of the basic properties of strongly turbulent plasmas are reviewed. In particular, interest is focused on the state of Langmuir turbulence, that is the turbulence of a simple externally unmagnetized plasma. The problem of the existence and dynamics of Langmuir collapse is discussed, often met as a non-linear stage of the modulational instability in the framework of the Zakharov equations (i.e. simple time-averaged dynamical equations). Possible macroscopic consequences of such dynamical turbulent models are investigated. In order to study highly non-linear collapse dynamics in its advanced stage, a set of generalized Zakharov equations are derived. Going beyond the original approximation, the author includes the effects of higher electron non-linearities and a breakdown of slow-timescale quasi-neutrality. He investigates how these corrections may influence the collapse stabilisation. Recently, it has been realised that the modulational instability in a Langmuir plasma will be accompanied by the collisionless-generation of a slow-timescale magnetic field. Accordingly, a novel physical situation has emerged which is investigated in detail. The stability of monochromatic Langmuir waves in a self-magnetized Langmuir plasma, is discussed, and the existence of a novel magneto-modulational instability shown. The wave collapse dynamics is investigated and a physical interpretation of the basic results is given. A problem of the transient analysis of an interaction of time-dependent electromagnetic pulses with linear cold plasma media is investigated. (Auth.)

  19. Special Topics in Radiography. Chapter 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Up to this point, this handbook has described the use of X rays to form 2-D medical images of the 3-D patient. This process of reducing patient information by one dimension results in an image of superimposed tissues where important information might be obscured. Chapter 11 begins a section of the book involving the creation of cross-sectional medical images through computed tomography (CT), ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This Chapter describes a number of special X ray imaging modalities and their associated techniques, and forms a transition between projection and cross-sectional imaging. The first of these special topics is dental radiography, which is characterized by a diversity of technology and innovation. The common intraoral radiograph of a single tooth has seen little fundamental change since the time of Roentgen and is, today, along with the simple chest radiograph, the most commonly performed radiographic examination. By contrast, the challenge to create an image of all the teeth simultaneously has placed dentistry at the cutting edge of technology, through the development of panographic techniques and, most recently, with the application of cone beam CT (CBCT). Moreover, the small size of the tooth and the consequent reduced need for X ray generation power promotes equipment mobility. The effect of the need for equipment mobility also forms a special topic that is examined in this chapter. Quantification of the composition of the body is another special X ray imaging technique. Dual energy X ray absorptiometry (DXA) is primarily used to derive the mass of one material in the presence of another, through knowledge of their unique X ray attenuation at different energies. DXA’s primary commercial application has been to measure body mineral density as an assessment of fracture risk and to diagnose osteoporosis; thus, the X ray energies used are optimized for bone density assessment. Currently, there are estimated to be over 50 000

  20. Second Workshop on Stochastic Analysis and Related Topics

    CERN Document Server

    Ustunel, Ali

    1990-01-01

    The Second Silivri Workshop functioned as a short summer school and a working conference, producing lecture notes and research papers on recent developments of Stochastic Analysis on Wiener space. The topics of the lectures concern short time asymptotic problems and anticipative stochastic differential equations. Research papers are mostly extensions and applications of the techniques of anticipative stochastic calculus.

  1. Chaos: A Topic for Interdisciplinary Education in Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Saebyok

    2009-01-01

    Since society and science need interdisciplinary works, the interesting topic of chaos is chosen for interdisciplinary education in physics. The educational programme contains various university-level activities such as computer simulations, chaos experiment and team projects besides ordinary teaching. According to the participants, the programme…

  2. Making Advanced Computer Science Topics More Accessible through Interactive Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Kun; Maher, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Teaching advanced technical concepts in a computer science program to students of different technical backgrounds presents many challenges. The purpose of this paper is to present a detailed experimental pedagogy in teaching advanced computer science topics, such as computer networking, telecommunications and data structures using…

  3. Second Language Vocabulary Learning and Teaching: Still a Hot Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrotta, Clarena

    2011-01-01

    For many reasons second language vocabulary learning and teaching continues to be a topic of interest for learners, instructors, and researchers. This article describes the implementation of personal glossaries in a community program offering English as second language classes to Latina/o Spanish speaking adults. Field notes, interviews, and…

  4. A Topic Model Approach to Multi-Modal Similarity

    OpenAIRE

    Troelsgård, Rasmus; Jensen, Bjørn Sand; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2014-01-01

    Calculating similarities between objects defined by many heterogeneous data modalities is an important challenge in many multimedia applications. We use a multi-modal topic model as a basis for defining such a similarity between objects. We propose to compare the resulting similarities from different model realizations using the non-parametric Mantel test. The approach is evaluated on a music dataset.

  5. Regulatory strategies. Topical issue 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The regulatory programmes established by Member States that use radioactive materials, handle radioactive waste or have nuclear installations vary depending on the size and scope of the regulated activities, historical evolution, government and industry structures. The main changes in external factors which will further affect the regulatory programmes include stagnation in the development of nuclear power, the increased economic competition of energy suppliers, ageing plants, continued growth in the industrial and medical uses of radioactive materials, delays in high level waste facilities and the reduced availability of trained personnel. Eight areas are discussed with the objective of identifying ways in which the IAEA can assist Member States to anticipate and respond to changing external factors and facilitate beneficial harmonization of regulatory practices. (1) Regulatory approaches are continuing to evolve among Member States with a general tendency towards less prescriptive practices. (2) Key elements in enhancing safety culture are an open regulator-regulated dialogue and the use of peer reviews by external or international organizations. (3) The efficiency and effectiveness of regulatory bodies is intimately related to the implementation of modem business practices and the hiring and retention of highly qualified staff that keep abreast of developing technology. (4) While nuclear power plant safety performance has improved worldwide, political, economic and social factors combine to make regulatory decisions increasingly difficult. (5) Harmonization of national safety criteria and decisions has largely occurred through the efforts of the IAEA in developing standards, promulgating conventions and hosting peer discussions in a number of forums. (6) Regulatory bodies generally acknowledge the value of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) methodology as a complementary tool to deterministic safety analysis methods. (7) Significant progress has been made

  6. Catching Fire via "Likes": Inferring Topic Preferences of Trump Followers on Twitter

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yu; Luo, Jiebo; Niemi, Richard; Li, Yuncheng; Hu, Tianran

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a framework to infer the topic preferences of Donald Trump's followers on Twitter. We first use latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA) to derive the weighted mixture of topics for each Trump tweet. Then we use negative binomial regression to model the "likes," with the weights of each topic serving as explanatory variables. Our study shows that attacking Democrats such as President Obama and former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton earns Trump the most "likes." Our frame...

  7. Selected topics on parton distribution functions

    CERN Document Server

    Hirai, M; Kumano, S; Saito, K

    2011-01-01

    We report recent studies on structure functions of the nucleon and nuclei. First, clustering effects are investigated in the structure function F_2 of Be-9 for explaining an unusual nuclear correction found in a JLab experiment. We propose that high densities created by formation of clustering structure like 2*alpha+neutron in Be-9 is the origin of the unexpected JLab result by using the antisymmetrized molecular dynamics (AMD). There is an approved proposal at JLab to investigate the structure functions of light nuclei including the cluster structure, so that much details will become clear in a few years. Second, tensor-polarized quark and antiquark distributions are obtained by analyzing HERMES measurements on the structure function b_1 for the deuteron. The result suggests a finite tensor polarization for antiquark distributions, which is an interesting topic for further theoretical and experimental investigations. An experimental proposal exists at JLab for measuring b_1 of the deuteron as a new tensor-st...

  8. Topics in the structure of hadronic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this dissertation the author examines a variety of different problems in the physics of strongly-bound systems. Each is elucidated by a different standard method of analysis developed to probe the properties of such systems. He begins with an examination of the properties and consequences of the current algebra of weak currents in the limit of heavy quark spin-flavor symmetry. In particular, he examines the assumptions in the proof of the Ademollo-Gatto theorem in general and for spin-flavor symmetry, and exhibit the constraints imposed upon matrix elements by this theorem. Then he utilizes the renormalization-group method to create composite fermions in a three-generation electroweak model. Such a model is found to reproduce the same low energy behavior as the top-condensate electroweak model, although in general it may have strong constraints upon its Higgs sector. Next he uncovers subtleties in the nonrelativistic quark model that drastically alter the picture of the physical origins of meson electromagnetic and hyperfine mass splittings; in particular, the explicit contributions due to (md-mu) and electrostatic potentials may be overwhelmed by other effects. Such novel effects are used to explain the anomalous pattern of mass splittings recently measured in bottom mesons. Finally, he considers the topic of baryon masses in heavy fermion chiral perturbation theory, including both tree-level and loop effects

  9. VARIABLE SPEED INTEGRATED INTELLIGENT HVAC BLOWER; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This comprehensive topical report discusses the key findings in the development of a intelligent integrated blower for HVAC applications. The benefits of rearward inclined blades over that of traditional forward inclined blades is well documented and a prototype blower design is presented. A comparison of the proposed blower to that of three typical units from the industry is presented. The design of the blower housing is also addressed and the impact of size limitations on static efficiency is discussed. Issues of air flow controllability in the rearward inclined blower is addressed and a solution to this problem is proposed. Several motor design options are discussed including inside-out radial flux designs and novel axial flux designs, all are focused on the various blower needs. The control of the motor-blower and airflow through the use of a high density inverter stage and modern digital signal processor is presented. The key technical challenges of the approach are discussed. The use of the motor as a sensor in the larger heating/ventilating system is also discussed. Diagnostic results for both the motor itself and the blower system are presented

  10. Topical issues in nuclear safety [Closing comments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First, how should the IAEA further its efforts in the development and application of its safety standards? The need for international standards, as the global reference of a high level of safety, was recognized in each of our four sessions, and the IAEA is the only international organization with the statutory mandate to serve this role. We must continue our efforts at developing standards for all safety thematic areas and for all types of nuclear installations, and at keeping them current and user friendly by actively incorporating feedback to meet the changes in technology and the needs of our Member States; likewise, we will continue to seek ways to ensure that the standards are applied effectively and universally throughout the world. Second, we must seek out ways to share lessons learned in as deep and wide a manner as possible. Self-sustaining networks within and between Member States, based on strategic knowledge management, is a key vehicle to achieve this objective. The Asian Nuclear Safety Network, supported in China by the Beijing Institute of Nuclear Engineering, CAEA and NNSA (among others), is the flagship of the IAEA's safety networks. The proceedings and results of this conference will be a key input to this network. Further enhancement of the IAEA peer reviews, OSART and IRRT in particular, was also widely perceived to be another very effective way to promote the sharing of lessons more in-depth. Third, it is essential that international legal instruments, such as the Convention on Nuclear Safety, are incorporated into the improvement suggestions on the global safety regime that have been proposed. The IAEA will share the insights of this conference with the contracting parties and will work to engage them, as appropriate. Finally, all the valuable suggestions and insights of this conference regarding the future activities of the IAEA will be duly reflected in the planning and implementation of the IAEA's future programmes. We also plan to organize

  11. Clausewitz’s “Wondrous Trinity” as a Coordinate System of War and Violent Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Herberg-Rothe

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Rather than discarding Clausewitz’s theory of war in response to the revolutionary changes in modern warfare, this article articulates a broader theory of war based on his concept of the “wondrous trinity,” identifying it as his true legacy. The author shows that the concept of trinitarian war attributed to Clausewitz by his critics, which seems to be applicable only to wars between states, is a caricature of Clausewitz’s theory. He goes on to develop Clause- witz’s theory that war is composed of the three tendencies of violence/force, fighting, and the affiliation of the combatants to a warring community. Each war can be analyzed as being composed of these three tendencies and their opposites.

  12. Getting Started with Topic Modeling and MALLET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn Graham

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this lesson you will first learn what topic modeling is and why you might want to employ it in your research. You will then learn how to install and work with the MALLET natural language processing toolkit to do so. MALLET involves modifying an environment variable (essentially, setting up a short-cut so that your computer always knows where to find the MALLET program and working with the command line (ie, by typing in commands manually, rather than clicking on icons or menus. We will run the topic modeller on some example files, and look at the kinds of outputs that MALLET installed. This will give us a good idea of how it can be used on a corpus of texts to identify topics found in the documents without reading them individually.

  13. Lecture Notes on Topics in Accelerator Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These are lecture notes that cover a selection of topics, some of them under current research, in accelerator physics. I try to derive the results from first principles, although the students are assumed to have an introductory knowledge of the basics. The topics covered are: (1) Panofsky-Wenzel and Planar Wake Theorems; (2) Echo Effect; (3) Crystalline Beam; (4) Fast Ion Instability; (5) Lawson-Woodward Theorem and Laser Acceleration in Free Space; (6) Spin Dynamics and Siberian Snakes; (7) Symplectic Approximation of Maps; (8) Truncated Power Series Algebra; and (9) Lie Algebra Technique for nonlinear Dynamics. The purpose of these lectures is not to elaborate, but to prepare the students so that they can do their own research. Each topic can be read independently of the others

  14. Topical Nitroglycerine in Perniosis/Chilblains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Prashant

    2015-01-01

    The treatment of perniosis is largely inadequate. The success rate of 0.2% nitroglycerine ointment is demonstrated in the present series. Twenty-two patients clinically diagnosed with severe perniosis were prescribed the topical vasodilator nitroglycerine. Digital photography and patient self-report of the clinical appearance, degree of irritation, and pain and soreness of the lesions were assessed on a 3-point scale to assess therapeutic response. A total of 18 of the 22 patients had regression of the lesions within the first week of treatment and complete regression in 2 weeks. Of these patients, 2 who experienced a relapse were successfully treated with another course of topical nitroglycerine. Two of 22 patients had regression of the lesions during the second week and complete regression in another week. Response was delayed in patients with a longer duration of disease. Topical 0.2% nitroglycerine ointment may be a promising alternative treatment option in perniosis. PMID:26380502

  15. LDA-Based Unified Topic Modeling for Similar TV User Grouping and TV Program Recommendation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyo, Shinjee; Kim, Eunhui; Kim, Munchurl

    2015-08-01

    Social TV is a social media service via TV and social networks through which TV users exchange their experiences about TV programs that they are viewing. For social TV service, two technical aspects are envisioned: grouping of similar TV users to create social TV communities and recommending TV programs based on group and personal interests for personalizing TV. In this paper, we propose a unified topic model based on grouping of similar TV users and recommending TV programs as a social TV service. The proposed unified topic model employs two latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA) models. One is a topic model of TV users, and the other is a topic model of the description words for viewed TV programs. The two LDA models are then integrated via a topic proportion parameter for TV programs, which enforces the grouping of similar TV users and associated description words for watched TV programs at the same time in a unified topic modeling framework. The unified model identifies the semantic relation between TV user groups and TV program description word groups so that more meaningful TV program recommendations can be made. The unified topic model also overcomes an item ramp-up problem such that new TV programs can be reliably recommended to TV users. Furthermore, from the topic model of TV users, TV users with similar tastes can be grouped as topics, which can then be recommended as social TV communities. To verify our proposed method of unified topic-modeling-based TV user grouping and TV program recommendation for social TV services, in our experiments, we used real TV viewing history data and electronic program guide data from a seven-month period collected by a TV poll agency. The experimental results show that the proposed unified topic model yields an average 81.4% precision for 50 topics in TV program recommendation and its performance is an average of 6.5% higher than that of the topic model of TV users only. For TV user prediction with new TV programs, the average

  16. A look at emerging delivery systems for topical drug products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fireman, Sharon; Toledano, Ofer; Neimann, Karine; Loboda, Natalia; Dayan, Nava

    2011-01-01

    The introduction of new topical drugs based on new chemical entities has become a rare event. Instead, pharmaceutical companies have been focused on reformulating existing drugs resulting in an ever-growing number of topical drug products for every approved drug substance. In light of this trend, soon reformulations may not be as rewarding to their sponsors as they are today unless they offer a substantial improvement over other formulations of the same drug substance and the same indication, namely improved efficacy over existing drugs, reduced side effects, unique drug combinations, or applicability for new indications. This article reviews and compares topical drug delivery systems currently under active research that are designed to offer such advantages in the coming years. The reviewed delivery systems are: liposomes, niosomes, transferosomes, ethosomes, solid lipid nanoparticles, nanostructured lipid carriers, cyclodextrin, and sol-gel microcapsules. Among all the topical drug delivery systems currently undergoing active research, only the sol-gel microencapsulation is at clinical stages. PMID:22353154

  17. Barrier qualities of the mouse eye to topically applied drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhao; Do, Chi Wai; Avila, Marcel Y; Stone, Richard A; Jacobson, Kenneth A; Civan, Mortimer M

    2007-07-01

    The mouse eye displays unusually rapid intraocular pressure (IOP) responses to topically applied drugs as measured by the invasive servo-null micropipette system (SNMS). To learn if the time course reflected rapid drug transfer across the thin mouse cornea and sclera, we monitored a different parameter, pupillary size, following topical application of droplets containing 40 microM (0.073 microg) carbachol. No miosis developed from this low carbachol concentration unless the cornea was impaled with an exploring micropipette as used in the SNMS. We also compared the mouse IOP response to several purinergic drugs, measured by the invasive SNMS and non-invasive pneumotonometry. Responses to the previously studied non-selective adenosine-receptor (AR) agonist adenosine, the A(3)-selective agonist Cl-IB-MECA and the A(3)-selective antagonist MRS 1191 were all enhanced to varying degrees, in time and magnitude, by corneal impalement. We conclude that the thin ocular coats of the mouse eye actually present a substantial barrier to drug penetration. Corneal impalement with even fine-tipped micropipettes can significantly enhance entry of topically-applied drugs into the mouse aqueous humor, reflecting either direct diffusion around the tip or a more complex impalement-triggered change in ocular barrier properties. Comparison of invasive and non-invasive measurement methods can document drug efficacy at intraocular target sites even if topical drug penetration is too slow to manifest convincing physiologic effects in intact eyes. PMID:17490649

  18. Inertial confinement fusion and related topics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current state of different approaches (laser fusion, light and heavy ions, electron beam) to the realization of inertial confinement fusion is considered. From comparative analysis a conclusion is made that from the viewpoint of physics, technology, safety, and economics the most realistic way to future energetics is an electric power plant based on a hybrid fission-fusion reactor which consists of an external source of neutrons (based on laser fusion) and a subcritical two-cascade nuclear blanket, which yields the energy under the action of 14 MeV neutrons. The main topics on inertial confinement fusion such as the energy driver, the interaction between plasmas and driver beam, the target design are discussed. New concept of creation of a laser driver for IFE based on generation and amplification of radiation with controllable coherence is reported. The performed studies demonstrate that the laser based on generation and amplification of radiation with controllable coherence (CCR laser) has a number of advantages as compared to conventional schemes of lasers. The carried out experiments have shown a possibility of suppression of small-scale self-focusing, formation of laser radiation pulses with required characteristics, simplification of an optical scheme of the laser, good matching of laser-target system and achievement of homogeneous irradiation and high output laser energy density without using traditional correcting systems (phase plates, adaptive optics, space filters etc.). The results of the latest experiments to reach ultimate energy characteristics of the developed laser system are also reported. Recent results from the experiments aimed at studying of the physical processes in targets under illumination by the laser with controllable coherence of radiation are presented and discussed, especially such important laser-matter interaction phenomena as absorption and scattering of the laser radiation, the laser radiation harmonic generation, X

  19. Topics in current aerosol research (part2)

    CERN Document Server

    Hidy, G M

    1972-01-01

    Topics in Current Aerosol Research, Part 2 contains some selected articles in the field of aerosol study. The chosen topics deal extensively with the theory of diffusiophoresis and thermophoresis. Also covered in the book is the mathematical treatment of integrodifferential equations originating from the theory of aerosol coagulation. The book is the third volume of the series entitled International Reviews in Aerosol Physics and Chemistry. The text offers significant understanding of the methods employed to develop a theory for thermophoretic and diffusiophoretic forces acting on spheres in t

  20. Applied atomic and collision physics special topics

    CERN Document Server

    Massey, H S W; Bederson, Benjamin

    1982-01-01

    Applied Atomic Collision Physics, Volume 5: Special Topics deals with topics on applications of atomic collisions that were not covered in the first four volumes of the treatise. The book opens with a chapter on ultrasensitive chemical detectors. This is followed by separate chapters on lighting, magnetohydrodynamic electrical power generation, gas breakdown and high voltage insulating gases, thermionic energy converters, and charged particle detectors. Subsequent chapters deal with the operation of multiwire drift and proportional chambers and streamer chambers and their use in high energy p