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Sample records for carica papaya leaves

  1. Dengue fever treatment with Carica papaya leaves extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nisar; Fazal, Hina; Ayaz, Muhammad; Abbasi, Bilal Haider; Mohammad, Ijaz; Fazal, Lubna

    2011-08-01

    The main objective of the current study is to investigate the potential of Carica papaya leaves extracts against Dengue fever in 45 year old patient bitten by carrier mosquitoes. For the treatment of Dengue fever the extract was prepared in water. 25 mL of aqueous extract of C. papaya leaves was administered to patient infected with Dengue fever twice daily i.e. morning and evening for five consecutive days. Before the extract administration the blood samples from patient were analyzed. Platelets count (PLT), White Blood Cells (WBC) and Neutrophils (NEUT) decreased from 176×10(3)/µL, 8.10×10(3)/µL, 84.0% to 55×10(3)/µL, 3.7×10(3)/µL and 46.0%. Subsequently, the blood samples were rechecked after the administration of leaves extract. It was observed that the PLT count increased from 55×10(3)/µL to 168×10(3)/µL, WBC from 3.7×10(3)/µL to 7.7×10(3)/µL and NEUT from 46.0% to 78.3%. From the patient feelings and blood reports it showed that Carica papaya leaves aqueous extract exhibited potential activity against Dengue fever. Furthermore, the different parts of this valuable specie can be further used as a strong natural candidate against viral diseases.

  2. Quantification of the antiplasmodial alkaloid carpaine in papaya (Carica papaya) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julianti, Tasqiah; Oufir, Mouhssin; Hamburger, Matthias

    2014-08-01

    Daily consumption of papaya (Carica papaya) leaves as greens and an herbal infusion is common in some parts of Indonesia as a means for preventing malaria. Antiplasmodial activity of the leaf extracts and of the main alkaloid carpaine were recently confirmed. A quantitative assay for determination of carpaine in papaya leaves was developed and validated. The assay involved pressurized liquid extraction and quantification with the aid of ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy. Extraction conditions were optimized with respect to solvent, temperature, and number of extraction cycles. The ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy assay was validated over a range of 20-5000 ng/mL (R(2) of 0.9908). A total of 29 papaya leaf samples were analyzed, and carpaine concentration in dry leaves was found to range from 0.02 to 0.31%. No obvious dependence on geographic origin and leaf maturity was observed. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Carica papaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, Rajkuberan; Seetharaman, Prabukumar; Krishnan, Muthukumar; Gnanasekar, Sathishkumar; Sivaperumal, Sivaramakrishnan

    2018-02-01

    This study manifests the larvicidal efficacy of Carica papaya latex extract and silver nanoparticles (CPAgNPs) synthesized using latex, against developing immature juveniles of Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus . Briefly, the latex was collected and fractioned with different solvents such as chloroform, methanol and aqueously. The obtained crude extracts were subjected to larvicidal activity in the dose-dependent method. After 24 h, the mortality rate was calculated and statistically analyzed. From the results, it was demonstrated that the chloroform extract displayed prominent activity in IInd and IIIrd instar larvae of A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus with better LC 50 values followed by methanol and aqueous extract. Subsequently, we profiled the qualitative analysis of a chloroform extract through biochemical tests; Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Moreover, we authenticated the major secondary metabolites and activated larvicidal compound present in the extract. Further, we synthesized CPAgNPs using aqueous latex extract and challenged with IInd and IIIrd instar larvae of A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus. Noticeably, the synthesized nanoproducts were showed 100% mortality in a 24-h treatment with significant LC 50 values. Hence, this study has opened up new vistas in the field of parasitological research to develop Carica papaya latex as a new stratagem in the insect vector management program.

  4. The Influence of Extract of Papaya Seeds and leaves (Carica papaya Linn.) on the Mortality of Anopheles sp. Larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Ishak, Hasanuddin; Aras, Nurhidayah; Hakim, Buraerah H. Abd.

    2015-01-01

    This paper will be presented as oral presentation in the 47th APACPH Conference in Bandung, Indonesia dated October, 21-23rd 2015 Insecticide resistance and environmental damage as impact of application of synthetic larvicide continuesly, therefore it is necessarily alternative larvicide for vector control of Malaria. The aim of the research was to find out the influence of extracts of papaya seeds and leaves (Carica papaya Linn.) on the mortality of Anopheles sp. Larvae. The research m...

  5. Mango ( Mangifera indica ) and Papaya ( Carica papaya )

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Polyphenoloxidase and Perioxidase Activity During Open Air Ripening Storage of Pineapple ( Ananas comosus L.), Mango ( Mangifera indica ) and Papaya ( Carica papaya ) Fruits Grown in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

  6. Hypoglycemic effect of Carica papaya leaves in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez-Rojop, Isela Esther; Díaz-Zagoya, Juan C; Ble-Castillo, Jorge L; Miranda-Osorio, Pedro H; Castell-Rodríguez, Andrés E; Tovilla-Zárate, Carlos A; Rodríguez-Hernández, Arturo; Aguilar-Mariscal, Hidemi; Ramón-Frías, Teresa; Bermúdez-Ocaña, Deysi Y

    2012-11-28

    Traditional plant treatment for diabetes has shown a surging interest in the last few decades. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the hypoglycemic effect of the aqueous extract of C. papaya leaves in diabetic rats. Several studies have reported that some parts of the C. papaya plant exert hypoglycemic effects in both animals and humans. Diabetes was induced in rats by intraperitoneal administration of 60 mg/kg of streptozotocin (STZ). The aqueous extract of C. papaya was administered in three different doses (0.75, 1.5 and 3 g/100 mL) as drinking water to both diabetic and non-diabetic animals during 4 weeks. The aqueous extract of Carica papaya (0.75 g and 1.5 g/100 mL) significantly decreased blood glucose levels (ppapaya could help islet regeneration manifested as preservation of cell size. In the liver of diabetic treated rats, C. papaya prevented hepatocyte disruption, as well as accumulation of glycogen and lipids. Finally, an antioxidant effect of C. papaya extract was also detected in diabetic rats. This study showed that the aqueous extract of C. papaya exerted a hypoglycemic and antioxidant effect; it also improved the lipid profile in diabetic rats. In addition, the leaf extract positively affected integrity and function of both liver and pancreas.

  7. Isolation And Purification Of Flavonoids From The Leaves Of Locally Produced Carica Papaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahaya Mobmi Musa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The leaves of Carica papaya 150g was defatted with N-Hexane and extracted with Methanol. The N-Hexane exract showed the presence of Flavonoid Saponin Tannin Glycoside Anthraquinone Resin and Steroid while Methanolic extract showed the presence of Flavonoid Saponin and Resins. 6g of the Methanolic extract was chromatographed using Column chromatography over Silica gel of column 200g60-200 mesh and eluted with the solvent mixture of CH2Cl2CH3OH H2O in the ratio of 70301. The yield of the isolated Flavonoid was 0.23.

  8. CARICA PAPAYA EXTRACTS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    phytochemical screening indicated the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids and tannins in either ethanol extract, fraction(s) or both. This indicates that the Carica papaya has the potential for the production of drugs against organisms causing urinary tract infections. Keywords: Sensitivity, Clinical isolates, Urinary tract, ...

  9. Antithrombocytopenic activity of carpaine and alkaloidal extract of Carica papaya Linn. leaves in busulfan induced thrombocytopenic Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zunjar, Vishwanath; Dash, Ranjeet Prasad; Jivrajani, Mehul; Trivedi, Bhavna; Nivsarkar, Manish

    2016-04-02

    The decoction of Carica papaya Linn. leaves is used in folklore medicine in certain parts of Malaysia and Indonesia for the treatment of different types of thrombocytopenia associated with diseases and drugs. There are several scientific studies carried out on humans and animal models to confirm the efficacy of decoction of papaya leave for the treatment of disease induced and drug induced thrombocytopenia, however very little is known about the bio-active compounds responsible for the observed activity. The aim of present study was to identify the active phytochemical component of Carica papaya Linn. leaves decoction responsible for anti-thrombocytopenic activity in busulfan-induced thrombocytopenic rats. Antithrombocytopenic activity was assessed on busulfan induced thrombocytopenic Wistar rats. The antithrombocytopenic activity of different bio-guided fractions was evaluated by monitoring blood platelet count. Bioactive compound carpaine was isolated and purified by chromatographic methods and confirmed by spectroscopic methods (LC-MS and 1D/2D-1H/13C NMR) and the structure was confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction. Quantification of carpaine was carried out by LC-MS/MS equipped with XTerra(®) MS C18 column and ESI-MS detector using 90:10 CH3CN:CH3COONH4 (6mM) under isocratic conditions and detected with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) in positive ion mode. Two different phytochemical groups were isolated from decoction of Carica papaya leaves: phenolics, and alkaloids. Out of these, only alkaloid fraction showed good biological activity. Carpaine was isolated from the alkaloid fraction and exhibited potent activity in sustaining platelet counts upto 555.50±85.17×10(9)/L with no acute toxicity. This study scientifically validates the popular usage of decoction of Carica papaya leaves and it also proves that alkaloids particularly carpaine present in the leaves to be responsible for the antithrombocytopenic activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier

  10. The effect of aqueous extract of Carica papaya leaves on liver ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of crude leaf extract of Carica papaya (Linn) on aspartate aminostransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), total white blood cells (WBC), lymphocytes, neutrophils, thrombocytes and on body weight of normal albino rats were investigated. Albino rats weighing between 74 g and 90.5 g, of both sexes ...

  11. Cyanogenesis in glucosinolate-producing plants: Carica papaya and Carica quercifolia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olafsdottir, E.S.; Jørgensen, Lise Bolt; Jaroszewski, Jerzy W.

    2002-01-01

    Carica papaya, Carica quercifolia, Carica hastata, Caricaceae, Passifloraceae, Biosynthesis, Glucosinolates, Cyanohydrin glycosides, Cyanogenic glycosides, Prunasin, Tetraphyllin B, Cyclopentenylglycine......Carica papaya, Carica quercifolia, Carica hastata, Caricaceae, Passifloraceae, Biosynthesis, Glucosinolates, Cyanohydrin glycosides, Cyanogenic glycosides, Prunasin, Tetraphyllin B, Cyclopentenylglycine...

  12. Green synthesis and antibacterial activity screening of silver nanoparticles reduced by papaya (Carica papaya L.) leaves extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esplana, Camille S.; Cabling, Mercedes Q.

    2013-01-01

    The field of nano technology is the most active area of research in modern material sciences. Though there are many chemical, as well as physical methods, green synthesis is the most emerging method of synthesis. This study aimed to describe a cost effective and environment friendly technique for green synthesis of silver nanoparticles. The synthesis of silver nanoparticles was prepared by adding Carica papaya L. leaves extract to 1mM silver nitrate solution. The color change in reaction mixture (pale yellow to dark brown color was observed during the incubation period , due to excitation of surface plasmon vibrations in silver nanoparticles. Nanoparticles were characterized using UV-Visible absorption spectroscopy, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) pattern, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy-Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDX) analysis. Absorption spectra of silver nanoparticles formed in the reaction media has absorbance peak at 280 nm, broadening of peak indicates that the particles are poly dispersed. SEM analysis described the morphology and the size of the particles. XRD confirmed the crystalline structure of the nanoparticles. The presence of the elemental silver was observed in the graph obtained from EDX analysis, which also supports the XRD results. The biomass of plants produces their nano materials by a process called bio mineralization. The tests cultures included in the study were Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Salmonella. Results showed that the maximum inhibitory effect using 1mM silver nitrates against the microbes were obtained. The approach of plant-mediated synthesis appears to be cost efficient, eco-friendly and easy alternative to conventional methods of silver nanoparticles synthesis (author)

  13. Safety Evaluation of Oral Toxicity of Carica papaya Linn. Leaves: A Subchronic Toxicity Study in Sprague Dawley Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ismail, Zakiah; Halim, Siti Zaleha; Abdullah, Noor Rain; Afzan, Adlin; Abdul Rashid, Badrul Amini; Jantan, Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    The subchronic toxicity effect of the leaf extract of Carica papaya Linn. in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats was investigated in this study. The extract was prepared by dissolving the freeze dried extract of the leaves in distilled water and was administered orally to SD rats (consisted of 10 rats/sex/group) at 0 (control), 0.01, 0.14, and 2 g/kg body weight (BW) for 13 weeks. General observation, mortality, and food and water intake were monitored throughout the experimental period. Hematologica...

  14. Cyanogenesis in glucosinolate-producing plants: Carica papaya and Carica quercifolia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olafsdottir, E.S.; Jørgensen, Lise Bolt; Jaroszewski, Jerzy W.

    2002-01-01

    Carica papaya, Carica quercifolia, Carica hastata, Caricaceae, Passifloraceae, Biosynthesis, Glucosinolates, Cyanohydrin glycosides, Cyanogenic glycosides, Prunasin, Tetraphyllin B, Cyclopentenylglycine......Carica papaya, Carica quercifolia, Carica hastata, Caricaceae, Passifloraceae, Biosynthesis, Glucosinolates, Cyanohydrin glycosides, Cyanogenic glycosides, Prunasin, Tetraphyllin B, Cyclopentenylglycine...

  15. Safety Evaluation of Oral Toxicity of Carica papaya Linn. Leaves: A Subchronic Toxicity Study in Sprague Dawley Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Zakiah; Halim, Siti Zaleha; Abdullah, Noor Rain; Afzan, Adlin; Abdul Rashid, Badrul Amini; Jantan, Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    The subchronic toxicity effect of the leaf extract of Carica papaya Linn. in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats was investigated in this study. The extract was prepared by dissolving the freeze dried extract of the leaves in distilled water and was administered orally to SD rats (consisted of 10 rats/sex/group) at 0 (control), 0.01, 0.14, and 2 g/kg body weight (BW) for 13 weeks. General observation, mortality, and food and water intake were monitored throughout the experimental period. Hematological and biochemical parameters, relative organ weights, and histopathological changes were evaluated. The study showed that leaf extract when administered for 13 weeks did not cause any mortality and abnormalities of behavior or changes in body weight as well as food and water intake. There were no significant differences observed in hematology parameters between treatment and control groups; however significant differences were seen in biochemistry values, for example, LDH, creatinine, total protein, and albumin. However, these changes were not associated with histopathological changes. In conclusion, the results suggested that daily oral administration of rats with C. papaya leaf extract for 13 weeks at a dose up to fourteen times the levels employed in traditional medicine practice did not cause any significant toxic effect.

  16. Safety Evaluation of Oral Toxicity of Carica papaya Linn. Leaves: A Subchronic Toxicity Study in Sprague Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakiah Ismail

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The subchronic toxicity effect of the leaf extract of Carica papaya Linn. in Sprague Dawley (SD rats was investigated in this study. The extract was prepared by dissolving the freeze dried extract of the leaves in distilled water and was administered orally to SD rats (consisted of 10 rats/sex/group at 0 (control, 0.01, 0.14, and 2 g/kg body weight (BW for 13 weeks. General observation, mortality, and food and water intake were monitored throughout the experimental period. Hematological and biochemical parameters, relative organ weights, and histopathological changes were evaluated. The study showed that leaf extract when administered for 13 weeks did not cause any mortality and abnormalities of behavior or changes in body weight as well as food and water intake. There were no significant differences observed in hematology parameters between treatment and control groups; however significant differences were seen in biochemistry values, for example, LDH, creatinine, total protein, and albumin. However, these changes were not associated with histopathological changes. In conclusion, the results suggested that daily oral administration of rats with C. papaya leaf extract for 13 weeks at a dose up to fourteen times the levels employed in traditional medicine practice did not cause any significant toxic effect.

  17. Somatic embryogenesis of Carica Papaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvina Lindsay Mijen; Rusli Ibrahim

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the somatic embryogenesis of Carica papaya. Culture medium used was1/2 strength MS basal medium supplemented with 6% sucrose, 0.27 % agar, glutamine and various concentrations of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). After 8 weeks in culture, the best concentration of 2,4-D to induce somatic embryo is at 45.2 μM. (Author)

  18. carica papaya l.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    1.45 ± 0.01. Percent sucrose (range). 2.2 – 7.5 (± 0.3). Ash. The average ash content of the papaya fruit during the season was 0.42 g/100 g-fw. No significant variation in ash content was observed for early, middle and late season papaya fruits. During normal storage ripening at room temperature the ash content decreased ...

  19. Post-irradiation identification of papaya ( Carica papaya L.) fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Suchandra; Variyar, Prasad S.; Sharma, Arun

    2012-03-01

    Impact of radiation processing on the volatile essential oil profile of papaya ( Carica papaya) was investigated. Gamma-radiation processing resulted in the appearance of a new peak in the GLC profile that was identified as phenol. The observed dose dependent increase in phenol content suggested possible use of this compound as a marker for radiation processed papaya.

  20. Metabolomic profiling of the phytomedicinal constituents of Carica papaya L. leaves and seeds by 1H NMR spectroscopy and multivariate statistical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogna, Navdeep; Hamid, Neda; Dorai, Kavita

    2015-11-10

    Extracts from the Carica papaya L. plant are widely reported to contain metabolites with antibacterial, antioxidant and anticancer activity. This study aims to analyze the metabolic profiles of papaya leaves and seeds in order to gain insights into their phytomedicinal constituents. We performed metabolite fingerprinting using 1D and 2D 1H NMR experiments and used multivariate statistical analysis to identify those plant parts that contain the most concentrations of metabolites of phytomedicinal value. Secondary metabolites such as phenyl propanoids, including flavonoids, were found in greater concentrations in the leaves as compared to the seeds. UPLC-ESI-MS verified the presence of significant metabolites in the papaya extracts suggested by the NMR analysis. Interestingly, the concentration of eleven secondary metabolites namely caffeic, cinnamic, chlorogenic, quinic, coumaric, vanillic, and protocatechuic acids, naringenin, hesperidin, rutin, and kaempferol, were higher in young as compared to old papaya leaves. The results of the NMR analysis were corroborated by estimating the total phenolic and flavonoid content of the extracts. Estimation of antioxidant activity in leaves and seed extracts by DPPH and ABTS in-vitro assays and antioxidant capacity in C2C12 cell line also showed that papaya extracts exhibit high antioxidant activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Protective effect of ethanol leaf extract of Carica papaya Linn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the ameliorative effect of ethanolic extract of Carica papaya leaves in alloxan - induced diabetic rats. Methods: Rats were randomly divided into five groups of eight animals each. Group A (control) comprised normal healthy animals which were orally administered 1.0 ml of distilled water daily for 21 ...

  2. Adsorption of saponin compound in Carica papaya leaves extract using weakly basic ion exchanger resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidin, Noraziani Zainal; Janam, Anathasia; Zubairi, Saiful Irwan

    2016-11-01

    Adsorption of saponin compound in papaya leaves juice extract using Amberlite® IRA-67 resin was not reported in previous studies. In this research, Amberlite® IRA-67 was used to determine the amount of saponin that can be adsorbed using different weights of dry resin (0.1 g and 0.5 g). Peleg model was used to determine the maximum yield of saponin (43.67 mg) and the exhaustive time (5.7 days) prior to a preliminary resin-saponin adsorption study. After adsorption process, there was no significant difference (p>0.05) in total saponin content (mg) for sample treated with 0.1 g (3.79 ± 0.55 mg) and sample treated with 0.5 g (3.43 ± 0.51 mg) dry weight resin. Long-term kinetic adsorption of resin-saponin method (>24 hours) should be conducted to obtain optimum freed saponin extract. Besides that, sample treated with 0.1 g dry weight resin had high free radical scavenging value of 50.33 ± 2.74% compared to sample treated with 0.5 g dry weight resin that had low free radical scavenging value of 24.54 ± 1.66% dry weights. Total saponin content (mg), total phenolic content (mg GAE) and free radical scavenging activity (%) was investigated to determine the interaction of those compounds with Amberlite® IRA-67. The RP-HPLC analysis using ursolic acid as standard at 203 nm showed no peak even though ursolic acid was one of the saponin components that was ubiquitous in plant kingdom. The absence of peak was due to weak solubility of ursolic acid in water and since it was only soluble in solvent with moderate polarity. The Pearson's correlation coefficient for total saponin content (mg) versus total phenolic content (mg GAE) and radical scavenging activity (%) were +0.959 and +0.807. Positive values showed that whenever there was an increase in saponin content (mg), the phenolic content (mg GAE) and radical scavenging activity (%) would also increase. However, as the resin-saponin adsorption was carried out, there was a significant decrease of radical scavenging activity

  3. Traditional Aboriginal Preparation Alters the Chemical Profile of Carica papaya Leaves and Impacts on Cytotoxicity towards Human Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thao T; Parat, Marie-Odile; Shaw, Paul N; Hewavitharana, Amitha K; Hodson, Mark P

    2016-01-01

    Carica papaya leaf decoction, an Australian Aboriginal remedy, has been used widely for its healing capabilities against cancer, with numerous anecdotal reports. In this study we investigated its in vitro cytotoxicity on human squamous cell carcinoma cells followed by metabolomic profiling of Carica papaya leaf decoction and leaf juice/brewed leaf juice to determine the effects imparted by the long heating process typical of the Aboriginal remedy preparation. MTT assay results showed that in comparison with the decoction, the leaf juice not only exhibited a stronger cytotoxic effect on SCC25 cancer cells, but also produced a significant cancer-selective effect as shown by tests on non-cancerous human keratinocyte HaCaT cells. Furthermore, evidence from testing brewed leaf juice on these two cell lines suggested that the brewing process markedly reduced the selective effect of Carica papaya leaf on SCC25 cancer cells. To tentatively identify the compounds that contribute to the distinct selective anticancer activity of leaf juice, an untargeted metabolomic approach employing Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole Time of Flight-Mass Spectrometry followed by multivariate data analysis was applied. Some 90 and 104 peaks in positive and negative mode respectively were selected as discriminatory features from the chemical profile of leaf juice and >1500 putative compound IDs were obtained via database searching. Direct comparison of chromatographic and tandem mass spectral data to available reference compounds confirmed one feature as a match with its proposed authentic standard, namely pheophorbide A. However, despite pheophorbide A exhibiting cytotoxic activity on SCC25 cancer cells, it did not prove to be the compound contributing principally to the selective activity of leaf juice. With promising results suggesting stronger and more selective anticancer effects when compared to the Aboriginal remedy, Carica papaya leaf juice warrants further study

  4. Long–term spatial memory and morphological changes in hippocampus of Wistar rats exposed to smoke from Carica papaya leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aboyeji Lukuman Oyewole

    2014-03-01

    Conclusions: In conclusion, the findings from this study has demonstrated that smoking of papaya leaves has the ability to maintain an intact long-term spatial memory at all doses but retrieving such memory is faster with the low and medium dosages.

  5. Acute and sub-chronic toxicity studies of three plants used in Cameroonian ethnoveterinary medicine: Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. (Xanthorrhoeaceae) leaves, Carica papaya L. (Caricaceae) seeds or leaves, and Mimosa pudica L. (Fabaceae) leaves in Kabir chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghonjuyi, Ndaleh Wozerou; Tiambo, Christian Keambou; Taïwe, Germain Sotoing; Toukala, Jean Paul; Lisita, Frederico; Juliano, Raquel Soares; Kimbi, Helen Kuokuo

    2016-02-03

    Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. (Xanthorrhoeaceae), Carica papaya L. (Caricaceae) and Mimosa pudica L. (Fabaceae) are widely used in the Cameroonian ethnoveterinary medicine as a panacea, and specifically for gastrointestinal disorders as well as an anthelmintic and antibacterial. The present study evaluated the potential toxicity of the hydroalcoholic extracts of Aloe vera leaves, Carica papaya leaves or seeds, and Mimosa pudica leaves after acute and sub-chronic administration in chicks. For the acute toxicity test a single administration of each of the four hydroalcoholic extracts was given orally at doses ranging from 40 to 5120 mg/kg (n=5/group/sex). In the sub-chronic study, these extracts were given orally as a single administration to chicks at doses of 80, 160, 320 and 640 mg/kg/day for 42 days. The anti-angiogenic properties of these extracts (5-320 µg/mg) were investigated in the chick chorioallantoic membrane in vivo. In the acute toxicity test, none of the four studied hydroalcoholic extracts induced mortality or significant behavioural changes. The sub-acute treatment with the four plant extracts did not alter either the body weight gain or the food and water consumption. However, the results indicated that Aloe vera leaf extract acute treatment by oral route at doses up to 2560 mg/kg did not produce death in 50% (5/10) of chicks during 24h or 14 days of observation, but 20% (2/10) chicks died. The haematological and biochemical analyses did not show significant differences in any of the parameters examined in female or male groups, with the exception of a transient rise in white blood cell counts at high doses (640 mg/kg). Additionally, these extracts did not have the potential for anti-angiogenic effects through the inhibition of neo-angiogenesis in the chick chorioallantoic membrane in vivo. The results showed that the therapeutic use of the hydroalcoholic extracts of Aloe vera leaves, Carica papaya leaves or seeds and Mimosa pudica leaves had very low

  6. Erwinia mallotivora sp., a new pathogen of papaya (Carica papaya) in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Noriha Mat; Bunawan, Hamidun; Redzuan, Rohaiza Ahmad; Jaganath, Indu Bala S

    2010-12-24

    Erwinia mallotivora was isolated from papaya infected with dieback disease showing the typical symptoms of greasy, water-soaked lesions and spots on leaves. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the strain belonged to the genus Erwinia and was united in a monophyletic group with E. mallotivora DSM 4565 (AJ233414). Earlier studies had indicated that the causal agent for this disease was E. papayae. However, our current studies, through Koch's postulate, have confirmed that papaya dieback disease is caused by E. mallotivora. To our knowledge, this is the first new discovery of E. mallotivora as a causal agent of papaya dieback disease in Peninsular Malaysia. Previous reports have suggested that E. mallotivora causes leaf spot in Mallotus japonicus. However, this research confirms it also to be pathogenic to Carica papaya.

  7. Erwinia mallotivora sp., a New Pathogen of Papaya (Carica papaya in Peninsular Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriha Mat Amin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Erwinia mallotivora was isolated from papaya infected with dieback disease showing the typical symptoms of greasy, water-soaked lesions and spots on leaves. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the strain belonged to the genus Erwinia and was united in a monophyletic group with E. mallotivora DSM 4565 (AJ233414. Earlier studies had indicated that the causal agent for this disease was E. papayae. However, our current studies, through Koch’s postulate, have confirmed that papaya dieback disease is caused by E. mallotivora. To our knowledge, this is the first new discovery of E. mallotivora as a causal agent of papaya dieback disease in Peninsular Malaysia. Previous reports have suggested that E. mallotivora causes leaf spot in Mallotus japonicus. However, this research confirms it also to be pathogenic to Carica papaya.

  8. Anticancer activity of Carica papaya: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thao T T; Shaw, Paul N; Parat, Marie-Odile; Hewavitharana, Amitha K

    2013-01-01

    Carica papaya is widely cultivated in tropical and subtropical countries and is used as food as well as traditional medicine to treat a range of diseases. Increasing anecdotal reports of its effects in cancer treatment and prevention, with many successful cases, have warranted that these pharmacological properties be scientifically validated. A bibliographic search was conducted using the key words "papaya", "anticancer", and "antitumor" along with cross-referencing. No clinical or animal cancer studies were identified and only seven in vitro cell-culture-based studies were reported; these indicate that C. papaya extracts may alter the growth of several types of cancer cell lines. However, many studies focused on specific compounds in papaya and reported bioactivity including anticancer effects. This review summarizes the results of extract-based or specific compound-based investigations and emphasizes the aspects that warrant future research to explore the bioactives in C. papaya for their anticancer activities. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Early sex discrimination in Carica papaya L. by molecular cytogenetics

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Isabella Santiago de Abreu

    2014-01-01

    The papaya, Carica papaya L., is the most economically important species of the family Caricaceae. Native of Central and South America, this herbaceous and fruitful crop is cultivated mainly in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide, and it is widely consumed for its edible fruit. C. papaya is characterized as a polygamous species with three sex types: male, female and hermaphrodite. Considering its preferred seminiferous propagation, inherent problems of papaya crop refer to the segregat...

  10. Proteomic analysis of papaya (Carica papaya L.) displaying typical sticky disease symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Silas P; Ventura, José A; Aguilar, Clemente; Nakayasu, Ernesto S; Almeida, Igor C; Fernandes, Patricia M B; Zingali, Russolina B

    2011-07-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) hosts the only described laticifer-infecting virus (Papaya meleira virus, PMeV), which is the causal agent of papaya sticky disease. To understand the systemic effects of PMeV in papaya, we conducted a comprehensive proteomic analysis of leaf samples from healthy and diseased plants grown under field conditions. First, a reference 2-DE map was established for proteins from healthy samples. A total of 486 reproducible spots were identified, and MALDI-TOF-MS/MS data identified 275 proteins accounting for 159 distinct proteins from 231 spots that were annotated. Second, the differential expression of proteins from healthy and diseased leaves was determined through parallel experiments, using 2-DE and DIGE followed by MALDI-TOF-MS/MS and LC-IonTrap-MS/MS, respectively. Conventional 2-DE analysis revealed 75 differentially expressed proteins. Of those, 48 proteins were identified, with 26 being upregulated (U) and 22 downregulated (D). In general, metabolism-related proteins were downregulated, and stress-responsive proteins were upregulated. This expression pattern was corroborated by the results of the DIGE analysis, which identified 79 differentially expressed proteins, with 23 identified (17 U and 6 D). Calreticulin and the proteasome subunits 20S and RPT5a were shown to be upregulated during infection by both 2-DE and DIGE analyses. These data may help shed light on plant responses against stresses and viral infections. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Nutritional quality of raw and processed unripe Carica papaya fruit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Processed unripe Carica papaya fruit pulp is used as soup ingredient in some Nigerian communities but the nutritional value of the variously processed forms is largely unknown. The thrust of this study was to determine the nutritional quality of traditionally processed unripe C. papaya fruit pulp using AOAC methods.

  12. Genetic diversity of Carica papaya as revealed by AFLP markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, M S; Moore, P H; Zee, F; Fitch, M M M; Steiger, D L; Manshardt, R M; Paull, R E; Drew, R A; Sekioka, T; Ming, R

    2002-06-01

    Genetic relationships among Carica papaya cultivars, breeding lines, unimproved germplasm, and related species were established using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. Seventy-one papaya accessions and related species were analyzed with nine EcoRI-MseI primer combinations. A total of 186 informative AFLP markers was generated and analyzed. Cluster analysis suggested limited genetic variation in papaya, with an average genetic similarity among 63 papaya accessions of 0.880. Genetic diversity among cultivars derived from the same or similar gene pools was smaller, such as Hawaiian Solo hermaphrodite cultivars and Australian dioecious cultivars with genetic similarity at 0.921 and 0.912, respectively. The results indicated that self-pollinated hermaphrodite cultivars were as variable as open-pollinated dioecious cultivars. Genetic diversity between C. papaya and six other Carica species was also evaluated. Carica papaya shared the least genetic similarity with these species, with an average genetic similarity of 0.432; the average genetic similarity among the six other species was 0.729. The results from AFLP markers provided detailed estimates of the genetic variation within and among papaya cultivars, and supported the notion that C. papaya diverged from the rest of Carica species early in the evolution of this genus.

  13. Addition of Selenium to Carica papaya Linn Pulp Extract Enhances ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and water extracts of unripe Carica papaya. papaya were analyzed for mineral element composition (Ca, calcium; Mg, magnesium; Na, sodium; Fe, iron; Mn, manganese; Zn, zinc; Ag, silver; and Se, selenium) using a microwave-assisted digestion procedure. Atomic absorption ...

  14. Keefektifan Ekstrak Daun Carica Papaya Linn. Dengan Metode Racun Lambung Untuk Pengendalian Rayap Tanah Coptotermes SP. (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Zulyusri, Zulyusri; Desyanti, Desyanti; Ramadani, Rosi Fitri

    2012-01-01

    Termite Coptotermes sp. is one of the most harmful types of termite class of Rhinotermitidae,  Coptotermes genus. One of the controlling efforts is by using an extract of Carica papaya leaves. This study aims at finding out the effectiveness of the leaf extract Carica papaya on the termite Coptotermes sp. Mortality, as well as finding out the concentration of the extract  of papaya C. leaf highly effecting on controlling the termites Coptotermes sp. This was an experimental research with Comp...

  15. KEEFEKTIFAN EKSTRAK DAUN Carica papaya Linn. DENGAN METODE RACUN LAMBUNG UNTUK PENGENDALIAN RAYAP TANAH Coptotermes sp. (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulyusri Zulyusri

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Termite Coptotermes sp. is one of the most harmful types of termite class of Rhinotermitidae,  Coptotermes genus. One of the controlling efforts is by using an extract of Carica papaya leaves. This study aims at finding out the effectiveness of the leaf extract Carica papaya on the termite Coptotermes sp. Mortality, as well as finding out the concentration of the extract  of papaya C. leaf highly effecting on controlling the termites Coptotermes sp. This was an experimental research with Completely Randomized Sampling (CRS in six extract treatments (0%, 1%, 1.5%, 2%, 2.5%, 3%, 3.5%, 4% and 3 replications. The mortality data and the loss of feed were analyzed through the analysis of variance (ANOVA and followed by Duncan test at 5% significance level. The lethal concentration (LC and lethal time (LT were analyzed by Probit analysis. The results showed that the leaf extract of Carica papaya can be used to control termites and it functions most effectively at a concentration of 1.5%.  The lethal concentration (LC leaf extract of Carica papaya is 0.005 and lethal time (LT is 3.201 days.   Key words: Coptotermes sp., extract of Carica papaya leaves

  16. Papaya (Carica papaya) lysozyme is a member of the family 19 (Basic, class II) chitinases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Subroto, T; Sufiati, S; Beintema, JJ

    1999-01-01

    The most comprehensive studies on a plant lysozyme (EC 3.2.1.17) are those on the enzyme from papaya (Carica papaya) latex, published in 1967 and 1969. However, the N-terminal amino acid sequence of five amino acid sequence of this enzyme, determined by manual Edman degradation, did not allow

  17. Anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties of Carica papaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Saurabh; Cabot, Peter J; Shaw, P Nicholas; Hewavitharana, Amitha K

    2016-07-01

    Chronic inflammation is linked with the generation and progression of various diseases such as cancer, diabetes and atherosclerosis, and anti-inflammatory drugs therefore have the potential to assist in the treatment of these conditions. Carica papaya is a tropical plant that is traditionally used in the treatment of various ailments including inflammatory conditions. A literature search was conducted by using the keywords "papaya", "anti-inflammatory and inflammation" and "immunomodulation and immune" along with cross-referencing. Both in vitro and in vivo investigation studies were included. This is a review of all studies published since 2000 on the anti-inflammatory activity of papaya extracts and their effects on various immune-inflammatory mediators. Studies on the anti-inflammatory activities of recognized phytochemicals present in papaya are also included. Although in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that papaya extracts and papaya-associated phytochemicals possess anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties, clinical studies are lacking.

  18. Papaya Extract to Treat Dengue: A Novel Therapeutic Option?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salutary effects of Carica papaya leaf extract in dengue fever patients‑a pilot study. Papaya leaf juice elevated total white cells and platelets in dengue patients. Ahmad, Fazal,. Ayaz, Abbasi,. Mohammad,. Fazal n=1. Case report. Dengue fever treatment with. Carica papaya leaves extracts. Carica papaya leaves extracts.

  19. Pectinesterase do mamão (Carica papaya L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Adelaide Tie Catutani

    1982-01-01

    Não consta resumo na publicação. Pectinesterase (E C 3.1.1.11) was extracted from papaya (Carica papaya L.) tissue and purified 4,48 fold by fractionated ammonium sulphate precipitation, dialysis and chromatography on DEAE-celulose and Sephadex G-100. Extraction conditions of enzyme were studied and their properties characterized. The increase on the activity of pectinesterase was practically followed by increase on the content of soluble pectin, during ripening. The molecular w...

  20. Morphological study of bone marrow to assess the effects of lead acetate on haemopoiesis and aplasia and the ameliorating role of Carica papaya extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tham, Ching S; Chakravarthi, Srikumar; Haleagrahara, Nagaraja; DE Alwis, Ranjit

    2013-02-01

    Lead causes damage to the body by inducing oxidative stress. The sites of damage include the bone marrow, where marrow hypoplasia and osteosclerosis may be observed. Leaves of Carica papaya, which have antioxidant and haemopoietic properties, were tested against the effect of lead acetate in experimental rats. The rats were divided into 8 groups; control, lead acetate only, Carica papaya (50 mg and 200 mg), post-treatment with Carica papaya (50 mg and 200 mg) following lead acetate administration and pre-treatment with Carica papaya (50 mg and 200 mg) followed by lead acetate administration. The substances were administered for 14 days. The effects were evaluated by measuring protein carbonyl content (PCC) and glutathione content (GC) in the bone marrow. Histological changes in the bone marrow were also observed. The results showed that Carica papaya induced a significant reduction in the PCC activity and significantly increased the GC in the bone marrow. Carica papaya also improved the histology of the bone marrow compared with that of the lead acetate-treated group. In summary, Carica papaya was effective against the oxidative damage caused by lead acetate in the bone marrow and had a stimulatory effect on haemopoiesis.

  1. Anthelmintic efficacy of pawpaw ( Carica papaya ) seeds in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The anthelmintic efficacy of the aqueous and crude extract of Carica papaya seeds was studied in 40 Isa Brown commercial layers infected naturally with nematodes. They were randomly divided into 4 groups: A, B, C and D with 10 birds per group. Group A birds were untreated, while groups B, C and D were treated orally ...

  2. Effects of Coadministration of Extract of Carica papaya Linn (family ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the interacting effects of co-administration of Carica papaya leaf extract on the hypoglycemic activity of metformin and glimepiride in an animal model. Method: Experimental factorial design was used to evaluate the individual and interaction influence of three variables ie nature (N), dose ...

  3. Antifertility Effects of the Aqueous Extract of Carica Papaya (Linn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We investigated the effects of short term administration of the aqueous extract of Carica Papaya (Linn.) seeds on ovulation and the estrous cycle of adult cyclic Sprague-Dawley rats. Three oral doses of the extract (50mg/kg; 100mg/kg and 800mg/kg body weight) were administered once a day in two independent ...

  4. Plant regeneration and ploidy level stability in Carica papaya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Usuario

    2013-04-11

    Apr 11, 2013 ... Protocolo para a embriogênese somática do mamoeiro. Pesqui. Agropecu. Bras. 35:2017-2024. Anandan R, Sudhakar D, Balasubramanian P, Gutieĭrrez-Mora A. (2012). In vitro somatic embryogenesis from suspension cultures of. Carica papaya L. Sci. Hortic. 136:43-49. Attree SM, Pomeroy MK, Fowke LC ...

  5. Effect of supplementation of Carica papaya seed concentrate diets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of supplementation of Carica papaya seeds (CPS) concentrate diet on the performance and faecal egg count of semi intensively village managed West African dwarf goats aged 6 to 8 months old with average weight of 7.31 ± 0.35 kg was evaluated in a 56 day feeding trial. Goats (n =16) were balanced for weight ...

  6. Determination of antibacterial activity of Carica papaya (pawpaw ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The quest for suitable and affordable alternatives in the face of increasing antimicrobial drugresistance has led researchers into exploring the use of plant extracts in the treatment of infections. Antibacterial activity of extracts of carica papaya (paw-paw) fruit was investigated using isolates from wound culture. These include: ...

  7. Larvicidal effects of paw paw ( Carica papaya ) aqueous extract on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As part of local sourcing for control of malaria in Nigeria, the larvicidal effect of Carica papaya extract against larvae of Anopheles and Culex mosquitoes and the rate of decay of the extract in aqueous solution was investigated. The leaf extract was found to achieve a 100% mortality rate of the Anopheles mosquito larvae at ...

  8. Effect of Carica papaya (Linn) aqueous leaf extract on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the fate of ciprofloxacin, after concomitant administration with the aqueous leaf extract of Carica papaya, which herbal practitioners in Nigeria have found helpful in the treatment of painful crisis in sickle cell anaemia (SCA) patients. Method: Thirteen rabbits were fasted for 12 h and given by oral route ...

  9. markers and morphochemical traits of Carica papaya L.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Javier Orlando Mijangos Cortés

    Genetic characterization by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers and morphochemical traits of Carica papaya L. genotypes. Mariela Vázquez Calderón. 1. , Javier O. Mijangos-Cortés. 1. , Manuel J. Zavala L. 2. , L. Felipe Sánchez. Teyer. 1. , Adriana Quiroz M. 1. , Matilde Margarita Ortiz G. 1. , Fernando ...

  10. Protective effect of Carica papaya fruit extract against gamma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Radiation side effects have been reported to induce oxidative stress by free radical generation. The protective effect of Carica papaya (CP) fruit extract, vitamins C and E against gamma radiation-induced oxidative damage on postnatal developing rat cerebellum was studied. Forty-two female Wistar rats were mated and ...

  11. Carica Papaya Seed Extract Enhances Cellular Response to Stress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cell death via apoptosis is involved in a wide range of biological and pathological processes and has been associated with oxidative stress in a number of cell systems. Therefore, the present study was carried out to investigate the role of Carica papaya seed (CPS) extract that contains, Benzyl Isothiocyanates, one of the ...

  12. Acute and chronic toxicity of pawpaw ( Carica papaya ) seed powder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This experiment determined the toxicity of pawpaw seed powder to adult tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, the most cultivable fish species in Africa. The 96 h static bioassay experiment was conducted to determine the median lethal concentration (LC50) for adult Nile tilapia, to pawpaw seed, Carica papaya. Two hundred live ...

  13. Development of plants resistant to Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus by intergeneric hybridization between Carica papaya and Vasconcellea cundinamarcensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarora, Kazuhiko; Shudo, Ayano; Kawano, Shinji; Yasuda, Keiji; Ueno, Hiroki; Matsumura, Hideo; Urasaki, Naoya

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we confirmed that Vasconcellea cundinamarcensis resists Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus (PLDMV), and used it to produce intergeneric hybrids with Carica papaya. From the cross between C. papaya and V. cundinamarcensis, we obtained 147 seeds with embryos. Though C. papaya is a monoembryonic plant, multiple embryos were observed in all 147 seeds. We produced 218 plants from 28 seeds by means of embryo-rescue culture. All plants had pubescence on their petioles and stems characteristic of V. cundinamarcensis. Flow cytometry and PCR of 28 plants confirmed they were intergeneric hybrids. To evaluate virus resistance, mechanical inoculation of PLDMV was carried out. The test showed that 41 of 134 intergeneric hybrid plants showed no symptoms and were resistant. The remaining 93 hybrids showed necrotic lesions on the younger leaves than the inoculated leaves. In most of the 93 hybrids, the necrotic lesions enclosed the virus and prevented further spread. These results suggest that the intergeneric hybrids will be valuable material for PLDMV-resistant papaya breeding. PMID:28163589

  14. Characterization of chromoplasts and carotenoids of red- and yellow-fleshed papaya (Carica papaya L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweiggert, Ralf M; Steingass, Christof B; Heller, Annerose; Esquivel, Patricia; Carle, Reinhold

    2011-11-01

    Chromoplast morphology and ultrastructure of red- and yellow-fleshed papaya (Carica papaya L.) were investigated by light and transmission electron microscopy. Carotenoid analyses by LC-MS revealed striking similarity of nutritionally relevant carotenoid profiles in both the red and yellow varieties. However, while yellow fruits contained only trace amounts of lycopene, the latter was found to be predominant in red papaya (51% of total carotenoids). Comparison of the pigment-loaded chromoplast ultrastructures disclosed tubular plastids to be abundant in yellow papaya, whereas larger crystalloid substructures characterized most frequent red papaya chromoplasts. Exclusively existent in red papaya, such crystalloid structures were associated with lycopene accumulation. Non-globular carotenoid deposition was derived from simple solubility calculations based on carotenoid and lipid contents of the differently colored fruit pulps. Since the physical state of carotenoid deposition may be decisive regarding their bioavailability, chromoplasts from lycopene-rich tomato fruit (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) were also assessed and compared to red papaya. Besides interesting analogies, various distinctions were ascertained resulting in the prediction of enhanced lycopene bioavailability from red papaya. In addition, the developmental pathway of red papaya chromoplasts was investigated during fruit ripening and carotenogenesis. In the early maturation stage of white-fleshed papaya, undifferentiated proplastids and globular plastids were predominant, corresponding to incipient carotenoid biosynthesis. Since intermediate plastids, e.g., amyloplasts or chloroplasts, were absent, chromoplasts are likely to emerge directly from proplastids.

  15. Effects of ionizing radiation on papayas ( Carica papaya ) fruit | Orji ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of ionizing radiation on papaya fruits were investigated with a particular interest on the disinfection and ripening. Twelve samples of papayas fruit, each weighing between 400 – 450 g were irradiated over four different regimes of radiation doses: 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.00 kGy, using a cobalt-60 gamma irradiation ...

  16. Influence of ripening stages on antioxidant properties of papaya fruit (Carica papaya L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addai, Zuhair Radhi; Abdullah, Aminah; Mutalib, Sahilah Abd.

    2013-11-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya L. cv Eksotika) is one of the most commonly consumed tropical fruits by humans, especially Malaysians. The objective of this study was to determine the phenolic compounds and antioxidants activity in different ripening stages of papaya fruit. The fruits were harvested at five different, stages RS1, RS2, RS3, RS4, and RS5 corresponding to 12, 14, 16, 18, and 20 weeks after anthesis, respectively. Papayas fruit at five different stage of ripening were obtained from farms at Pusat Flora Cheras, JabatanPertanian and Hulu Langat Semenyih, Selangor, Malaysia. The antioxidants activity were analyzed using the total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), ferric reducing antioxidant Power (FRAP) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). The analyses were conducted in triplicate and the data were subjected to statistical analysis using SPSS. The results showed significant differences (Pantioxidant content of papaya fruits.

  17. Callus induction in papaya (Carica papaya L. and synseed production for low temperature storage and cryopreservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teixeira da Silva Jaime A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The mid- to long-term preservation of papaya (Carica papaya L. would allow for the safeguarding of important germplasm. In this study, soft friable callus (SFC and hard callus (HC were induced from the first two true leaves of 10-day-old seedlings containing a midrib derived from the germinated seed of two cultivars (‘Rainbow’ and ‘Sunrise Solo’. Following germination on a Murashige and Skoog (MS medium that contained 3% sucrose and was free of plant growth regulators (PGRs, sections of the first true leaves from 10-day-old seedlings were exposed to seven published callus or somatic embryogenesis protocols for zygotic embryos, leaves or hypocotyls. Optimal SFC and HC induction was carried out on a half-strength MS medium following the Fitch (1993 or the Ascêncio-Cabral et al. (2008 protocol, respectively. SFC formed shoots that could then convert to plants when transferred to a full-strength MS medium devoid of PGRs. Plantlets 10-cm tall were acclimatised in two steps: first by in vitro acclimatisation in aerated vessels, the Vitron, under CO2-enriched (3000 ppm CO2, then by the transfer of individually rooted plantlets in Rockwool® blocks to a substrate of soil: pine bark : perlite (1:1:1, v/v/v. SFC and HC were then encapsulated in alginate beads, which were exposed to low temperature storage (LTS at 10°C and 15°C, and also cryopreserved for 30 days. All encapsulated alginate beads that contained SFC, HC or leaf tissue that had been stored under LTS or cryopreserved were able to regenerate callus when placed on an optimal callus induction medium. Plants derived from the control, LTS and cryopreservation protocols, either from SFC or HC, were successfully acclimatised.

  18. The protective effects of aqueous extract of Carica papaya seeds in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Oxidative stress plays a crucial role in the development of drug induced nephrotoxicity. The study aimed to determine the nephroprotective and ameliorative effects of Carica papaya seed extract in paracetamol-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Objectives: To carry out phytochemical screening of Carica papaya, ...

  19. Chemical Characterization and in Vitro Cytotoxicity on Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cells of Carica papaya Leaf Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thao T; Parat, Marie-Odile; Hodson, Mark P; Pan, Jenny; Shaw, Paul N; Hewavitharana, Amitha K

    2015-12-24

    In traditional medicine, Carica papaya leaf has been used for a wide range of therapeutic applications including skin diseases and cancer. In this study, we investigated the in vitro cytotoxicity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Carica papaya leaves on the human oral squamous cell carcinoma SCC25 cell line in parallel with non-cancerous human keratinocyte HaCaT cells. Two out of four extracts showed a significantly selective effect towards the cancer cells and were found to contain high levels of phenolic and flavonoid compounds. The chromatographic and mass spectrometric profiles of the extracts obtained with Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole Time of Flight-Mass Spectrometry were used to tentatively identify the bioactive compounds using comparative analysis. The principal compounds identified were flavonoids or flavonoid glycosides, particularly compounds from the kaempferol and quercetin families, of which several have previously been reported to possess anticancer activities. These results confirm that papaya leaf is a potential source of anticancer compounds and warrant further scientific investigation to validate the traditional use of papaya leaf to treat cancer.

  20. Chemical Characterization and in Vitro Cytotoxicity on Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cells of Carica Papaya Leaf Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thao T. Nguyen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In traditional medicine, Carica papaya leaf has been used for a wide range of therapeutic applications including skin diseases and cancer. In this study, we investigated the in vitro cytotoxicity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Carica papaya leaves on the human oral squamous cell carcinoma SCC25 cell line in parallel with non-cancerous human keratinocyte HaCaT cells. Two out of four extracts showed a significantly selective effect towards the cancer cells and were found to contain high levels of phenolic and flavonoid compounds. The chromatographic and mass spectrometric profiles of the extracts obtained with Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole Time of Flight-Mass Spectrometry were used to tentatively identify the bioactive compounds using comparative analysis. The principal compounds identified were flavonoids or flavonoid glycosides, particularly compounds from the kaempferol and quercetin families, of which several have previously been reported to possess anticancer activities. These results confirm that papaya leaf is a potential source of anticancer compounds and warrant further scientific investigation to validate the traditional use of papaya leaf to treat cancer.

  1. Characterization and expression analysis of genes encoding ubiquitin conjugating domain-containing enzymes in Carica papaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jue, Dengwei; Sang, Xuelian; Shu, Bo; Liu, Liqin; Wang, Yicheng; Jia, Zhiwei; Zou, Yu; Shi, Shengyou

    2017-01-01

    Ripening affects the quality and nutritional contents of fleshy fruits and is a crucial process of fruit development. Although several studies have suggested that ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (E2s or UBC enzymes) are involved in the regulation of fruit ripening, little is known about the function of E2s in papaya (Carica papaya). In the present study, we searched the papaya genome and identified 34 putative UBC genes, which were clustered into 17 phylogenetic subgroups. We also analyzed the nucleotide sequences of the papaya UBC (CpUBC) genes and found that both exon-intron junctions and sequence motifs were highly conserved among the phylogenetic subgroups. Using real-time PCR analysis, we also found that all the CpUBC genes were expressed in roots, stems, leaves, male and female flowers, and mature fruit, although the expression of some of the genes was increased or decreased in one or several specific organs. We also found that the expression of 13 and two CpUBC genes were incresesd or decreased during one and two ripening stages, respectively. Expression analyses indicates possible E2s playing a more significant role in fruit ripening for further studies. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported genome-wide analysis of the papaya UBC gene family, and the results will facilitate further investigation of the roles of UBC genes in fruit ripening and will aide in the functional validation of UBC genes in papaya.

  2. Reduction of hydrogen peroxide-induced erythrocyte damage by Carica papaya leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoko, Tebekeme; Ere, Diepreye

    2012-06-01

    To investigate the in vitro antioxidant potential of Carica papaya (C. papaya) leaf extract and its effect on hydrogen peroxide-induced erythrocyte damage assessed by haemolysis and lipid peroxidation. Hydroxyl radical scavenging activities, hydrogen ion scavenging activity, metal chelating activity, and the ferrous ion reducing ability were assessed as antioxidant indices. In the other experiment, human erythrocytes were treated with hydrogen peroxide to induce erythrocyte damage. The extract (at various concentrations) was subsequently incubated with the erythrocytes and later analysed for haemolysis and lipid peroxidation as indices for erythrocyte damage. Preliminary investigation of the extract showed that the leaf possessed significant antioxidant and free radical scavenging abilities using in vitro models in a concentration dependent manner (Ppapaya leaves possess significant bioactive potential which is attributed to the phytochemicals which act in synergy. Thus, the leaves can be exploited for pharmaceutical and nutritional purposes.

  3. In vitro regeneration of selected Kenyan papaya ( Carica papaya L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Papaya, an important fruit crop in Kenya is commercially propagated through seeds which lead to production of non-true-to-types plants. Conventional vegetative propagation methods are not carried out, hence, the need for micropropagation for mass multiplication of selected lines. An assessment for the effect of ...

  4. In vitro regeneration of selected Kenyan papaya (Carica papaya L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    naomi

    2013-12-04

    Dec 4, 2013 ... pharmaceutical industries. These uses include chill- proofing beer, tenderizing meat and in drug preparation for alleviating digestive ailments (Nakasone and Paull,. 1998). In Kenya, papaya is a widespread fruit crop especially where enough water is available for its culti- vation (Imungi and Wabule, 1990).

  5. Influence of gamma radiation on carbohydrates metabolism of ripening papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Solo)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, M.L.P.A.; Lajolo, F.M.; Cordenunsi, B.R.

    1999-01-01

    Food irradiation is one of the most promising treatments that can be utilized for fruits disinfestation and extension of shelf life. The authors studied the influence of 0,5 kGy of Gamma irradiation on the soluble carbohydrates composition of papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Solo) fruit, and on sucrose metabolizing enzymes: sucrose synthase (SS), sucrose-phosphate synthase, acid and neutral invertases activities, during ripening. The results demonstrated that ethylene production, total soluble sugars, sucrose content, and sucrose-phosphate synthase and invertases activities were affected by irradiation, but not respiration, glucose and fructose content, and SS activity. (author)

  6. Physical-chemical analyses of irradiated papayas (Carica papaya L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camargo, R.J. [Radiation Technology Center, IPEN-CNEN/SP, Av. Lineu Prestes, 2242, 05508-900, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Tadini, C.C. [Chemical Engineering Department, Escola Politecnica, Sao Paulo University, P.O. Box 61548, 05424-970, SP (Brazil); Sabato, S.F. [Radiation Technology Center, IPEN-CNEN/SP, Av. Lineu Prestes, 2242, 05508-900, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: sfsabato@ipen.br

    2007-11-15

    Papaya is cultivated in Espirito Santo State/Brazil and as it stands up to irradiation, it is important to validate this technology, since it is already being applied in some countries. Penetration energy, ratio (relation between soluble solids and titrable acidity) and skin color were evaluated to verify the influence of four different doses of irradiation (0.0, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.00 kGy) on papayas, during 21 days. As a result for the skin color and the penetration energy, it was found that in the first days after irradiation, these variables increased with increase in radiation dose; however, after a time lapse, the tendency inverted and the irradiated fruits had a slower ripening process. For the ratio, a very important variable that it is responsible for the fruit taste, no difference was found between irradiated and the control fruit. Color and texture measurements are dependent on the storage temperature.

  7. Physical-chemical analyses of irradiated papayas ( Carica papaya L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, R. J.; Tadini, C. C.; Sabato, S. F.

    2007-11-01

    Papaya is cultivated in Espírito Santo State/Brazil and as it stands up to irradiation, it is important to validate this technology, since it is already being applied in some countries. Penetration energy, ratio (relation between soluble solids and titrable acidity) and skin color were evaluated to verify the influence of four different doses of irradiation (0.0, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.00 kGy) on papayas, during 21 days. As a result for the skin color and the penetration energy, it was found that in the first days after irradiation, these variables increased with increase in radiation dose; however, after a time lapse, the tendency inverted and the irradiated fruits had a slower ripening process. For the ratio, a very important variable that it is responsible for the fruit taste, no difference was found between irradiated and the control fruit. Color and texture measurements are dependent on the storage temperature.

  8. Uji Toksisitas Akut Dan Efek Antiinflamasi Ekstrak Metanol dan Ekstrak n-Heksana Daun Pepaya (Carica papaya L

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    Tahara Dilla Santi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The acute toxicity test and antiinflammatory effect of methanol and n-hexane extracts of Carica papaya L leaf have been studied. The results of phytochemical screening show that papaya leaf contains alkaloid, steroid, and flavonoid compound. Flavonoid and alkaloid extracted from methanolic extract of papaya leaf and steroid extracted from n-hexane extract of papaya leaf. The aim of this work was to investigate the acute toxicity, behavioral responses (pharmacological profile, the development of body weight and mortality for 14 days. The results of acute toxicity test after giving dose of 250 mg/kgbw, 500 mg/kgbw and 1000 mg/kgbw of methanol and n-hexane extracts of leaves of Carica papaya L to male rats showed no animal died and no significant toxic effect. Study on its antiinflammatory effects in white rat which induced by 1% carragenan was done by determine an effective dose of extract papaya to decrease the edema volume of rat foot. The test was done using rat hind paw edema or established an artificial inflammation in left foot of white male rats.The treatments were carried out on six groups, the positive control group was administered with indomethacin 10 mg/kgbw per oral, the negative control group was administered with CMC 1%, and the extract groups were administered with 200 mg/kgbw and 400 mg/kgbw of methanolic and n-hexane extracts of Carica papaya L leaf. Edema volume were measured every half hour for 5 hours using a digital plestimometer. The obtained data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis test followed Mann-Whitney test with confident level was set at 95%. The result of this study indicated that papaya leaf extract showed no significant acute toxicity effect and can reduce edema volume of rat foot.

  9. Administration Dependent Antioxidant Effect of Carica papaya Seeds Water Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzarini, Elisa; Dwikat, Majdi; Mariano, Stefania; Vergallo, Cristian; Dini, Luciana

    2014-01-01

    Carica papaya is widely used in folk medicine as herbal remedy to prevent, protect against, and cure several diseases. These curative properties are based on the presence in different parts of the plant of phytochemical nutrients with antioxidant effect. Seeds are the less exploited part; thus this study is aimed at assessing the antioxidant activities of the C. papaya seeds water extract against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) oxidative stress in human skin Detroit 550 fibroblasts. C. papaya seeds water extract is not toxic and acts as a potent free radical scavenger, providing protection to Detroit 550 fibroblasts that underwent H2O2 oxidative stress. Data show that (i) the maximum protective effect is achieved by the simultaneous administration of the extract with 1 mM H2O2; (ii) the extract in presence of an oxidative stress does not increase catalase activity and prevents the release of cytochrome C and the inner mitochondrial transmembrane potential (Δψ m) loss; (iii) the extract is more efficient than vitamin C to hamper the oxidative damage; (iv) the purified subfractions of the seeds water extract exert the same antioxidant effect of whole extract. In conclusion, C. papaya seeds water extract is potentially useful for protection against oxidative stress. PMID:24795765

  10. Molecular detection of Papaya meleira virus in the latex of Carica papaya by RT-PCR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Araujo, de M.M.M.; Tavares, E.T.; Silva, da F.R.; Marinho, V.L.D.; Souza, M.T.

    2007-01-01

    A RT-PCR assay was developed for early and accurate detection of Papaya meleira virus (PMeV) in the latex from infected papayas. The meleira disease is characterized by an excessive exudation of more fluidic latex from fruits, leaves and stems. This latex oxidises and gives the fruit a ¿sticky¿

  11. Methanolysis of Carica papaya Seed Oil for Production of Biodiesel

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    Foluso O. Agunbiade

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The future of fossil fuel sources of energy has necessitated the need to search for renewable alternatives. Thus, Carica papaya seed oil (CPSO was employed as feedstock for the production of biodiesel by methanolysis. The seed was obtained locally, dried, and extracted with n-hexane. The CPSO was analyzed for specific gravity, viscosity, iodine value, and saponification value, among others using standard methods. The oil was transesterified by two-stage catalysis with oil to methanol mole ratio of 1 : 9. The biodiesel produced was subjected to standard fuel tests. The seed has an oil yield of 31.2% which is commercially viable. The kinematic viscosity of the oil at 313 K was 27.4 mm2s−1 while that of Carica papaya oil methylester (CPOME was reduced to 3.57 mm2s−1 and the specific gravity was 0.84 comparable with other seed-oil biodiesels and number 2 diesel. Other oil properties were compared favourably with seed oils already documented for biodiesel synthesis. CPOME’s cloud and pour points were 275 K and 274 K, respectively, and relatively higher than other biodiesels and number 2 diesel. CPOME exhibits moderate corrosion of copper strip. The methanolysis improved the fuel properties of the CPOME similar to other biodiesels. CPSO therefore exhibits a potential for biodiesel production.

  12. Cyanogenic allosides and glucosides from Passiflora edulis and Carica papaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seigler, David S; Pauli, Guido F; Nahrstedt, Adolf; Leen, Rosemary

    2002-08-01

    Leaf and stem material of Passiflora edulis (Passifloraceae) contains the new cyanogenic glycosides (2R)-beta-D-allopyranosyloxy-2-phenylacetonitrile (1a) and (2S)-beta-D-allopyranosyloxy-2-phenylacetonitrile (1b), along with smaller amounts of (2R)-prunasin (2a), sambunigrin (2b), and the alloside of benzyl alcohol (4); the major cyanogens of the fruits are (2R)-prunasin (2a) and (2S)-sambunigrin (2b). The major cyanogenic glycoside of Carica papaya (Caricaceae) is 2a; only small amounts of 2b also are present. We were not able to confirm the presence of a cyclopentenoid cyanogenic glycoside, tetraphyllin B, in Carica papaya leaf and stem materials. In detailed 1H NMR studies of 1a/b and 2a/b, differences in higher order effects in glucosides and allosides proved to be valuable for assignment of structures in this series. The diagnostic chemical shifts of cyanogenic methine and anomeric protons in 1a/b are sensitive to anisotropic environmental effects. The assignment of C-2 stereochemistry of 1a/b was made in analogy to previous assignments in the glucoside series and was supported by GLC analysis of the TMS ethers.

  13. Changes in Serological Reactivity of Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus Caused by Papain in Carica papaya L. and Its Detection Using Antipain or Papain

    OpenAIRE

    Tetsuo, MAOKA; Shinya, TSUDA; Tomio, USUGI; Chiyoichi, NODA; Mabito, IWASAKI; National Agricultural Research Center for Hokkaido Region; National Agriculture Research Center; National Agriculture Research Center; Okinawa Subtropical Station of the Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences; National Agricultural Research Center for Hokkaido Region

    2002-01-01

    Losses in serological reactivity of Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus (PLDMV) were demonstrated. An antibody, IgG-papaya, raised against PLDMV purified from papaya (Carica papaya L.) did not react with virus particles in Cucumis metuliferus leaf extracts in ELISA or SSEM-PAG (serologically specific electron microscopy using protein A-gold). In addition, IgG-papaya and IgG-Cucumis raised against PLDMV purified from C. metuliferus did not react with virus particles in papaya leaf extracts aft...

  14. Comparison of Pawpaw ( Carica Papaya ) and Mango ( Mangifera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These studies aimed at confirming our former work on antitrypanosomal effects of Mangifera indica (mango) and Carica papya (Pawpaw) leaves in experimental animals infected with T. brucei and identify which one of them is superior as an antiparasitic agent. It was also designed to carry out further fractionation of the ...

  15. Preparation and physicochemical evaluation of emulsified virgin coconut oil (VCO)-carica papaya extract concoction using Tween80

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Hazreen; Zubairi, Saiful Irwan; Fadhilah, Mohd Faizulhelmi; Omar, Dzolkhifli; Asib, Norhayu

    2016-11-01

    Carica papaya is a member of the Caricaceae. Its leaves have been used in folk medicine for centuries. Recent studies have shown its beneficial effects as an anti-inflammatory agent (Owoyele et al 2008) and anti-tumour15 as well as antioxidant and wound healing properties7. The study has shown that the effect of carica papaya leaves juice intake also can accelerate the rate of increase in platelet count among the patients infected with dengue fever and dengue haemorrhagic fever18. With all the goodness of carica papaya leaves, a formulation with addition of virgin coconut oil (VCO) is produced to give an enhanced supplement beverage to market nowadays. Virgin coconut oil is well known as anti-oxidant4. The combination of these two substances gives a balance combination in healthy supplement. In recent years the application of emulsion is rapidly increasing in many fields such as cosmetics and paints. Emulsions are dispersions of droplets of one liquid in another, immiscible, liquid in which the droplets are of colloidal or near-colloidal sizes. The combination of water and oil (VCO) with addition of non-ionic surfactant Tween80 was constructed using ternary phase diagram. By considering the Hydrophilic-Lipophilic Balance (HLB) value of each substance will help in producing a stable emulsion.

  16. Digital transcriptome analysis of putative sex-determination genes in papaya (Carica papaya).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urasaki, Naoya; Tarora, Kazuhiko; Shudo, Ayano; Ueno, Hiroki; Tamaki, Moritoshi; Miyagi, Norimichi; Adaniya, Shinichi; Matsumura, Hideo

    2012-01-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya) is a trioecious plant species that has male, female and hermaphrodite flowers on different plants. The primitive sex chromosomes genetically determine the sex of the papaya. Although draft sequences of the papaya genome are already available, the genes for sex determination have not been identified, likely due to the complicated structure of its sex-chromosome sequences. To identify the candidate genes for sex determination, we conducted a transcriptome analysis of flower samples from male, female and hermaphrodite plants using high-throughput SuperSAGE for digital gene expression analysis. Among the short sequence tags obtained from the transcripts, 312 unique tags were specifically mapped to the primitive sex chromosome (X or Y(h)) sequences. An annotation analysis revealed that retroelements are the most abundant sequences observed in the genes corresponding to these tags. The majority of tags on the sex chromosomes were located on the X chromosome, and only 30 tags were commonly mapped to both the X and Y(h) chromosome, implying a loss of many genes on the Y(h) chromosome. Nevertheless, candidate Y(h) chromosome-specific female determination genes, including a MADS-box gene, were identified. Information on these sex chromosome-specific expressed genes will help elucidating sex determination in the papaya.

  17. Digital transcriptome analysis of putative sex-determination genes in papaya (Carica papaya.

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    Naoya Urasaki

    Full Text Available Papaya (Carica papaya is a trioecious plant species that has male, female and hermaphrodite flowers on different plants. The primitive sex chromosomes genetically determine the sex of the papaya. Although draft sequences of the papaya genome are already available, the genes for sex determination have not been identified, likely due to the complicated structure of its sex-chromosome sequences. To identify the candidate genes for sex determination, we conducted a transcriptome analysis of flower samples from male, female and hermaphrodite plants using high-throughput SuperSAGE for digital gene expression analysis. Among the short sequence tags obtained from the transcripts, 312 unique tags were specifically mapped to the primitive sex chromosome (X or Y(h sequences. An annotation analysis revealed that retroelements are the most abundant sequences observed in the genes corresponding to these tags. The majority of tags on the sex chromosomes were located on the X chromosome, and only 30 tags were commonly mapped to both the X and Y(h chromosome, implying a loss of many genes on the Y(h chromosome. Nevertheless, candidate Y(h chromosome-specific female determination genes, including a MADS-box gene, were identified. Information on these sex chromosome-specific expressed genes will help elucidating sex determination in the papaya.

  18. A polymorphic pseudoautosomal boundary in the Carica papaya sex chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappin, Fiona M; Medert, Charles M; Hawkins, Kevin K; Mardonovich, Sandra; Wu, Meng; Moore, Richard C

    2015-08-01

    Sex chromosomes are defined by a non-recombining sex-determining region (SDR) flanked by one or two pseudoautosomal regions (PARs). The genetic composition and evolutionary dynamics of the PAR is also influenced by its linkage to the differentiated non-recombining SDR; however, understanding the effects of this linkage requires a precise definition of the PAR boundary. Here, we took a molecular population genetic approach to further refine the location of the PAR boundary of the evolutionary young sex chromosomes of the tropical plant, Carica papaya. We were able to map the position of the papaya PAR boundary A to a 100-kb region between two genetic loci approximately 2 Mb upstream of the previously genetically identified PAR boundary. Furthermore, this boundary is polymorphic within natural populations of papaya, with an approximately 100-130 kb expansion of the non-recombining SDR found in 16 % of individuals surveyed. The expansion of the PAR boundary in one Y haplotype includes at least one additional gene. Homologs of this gene are involved in male gametophyte and pollen development in other plant species.

  19. Growth and yield responses of pawpaw varieties (Carica Papaya l ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intercropping significantly decreased pawpaw plant height, stem girth, number of leaves, leaf area and canopy spread in the first year while it sustained LER. The LER, growth and yield in both ... papaya could be inter-cropped with vegetable at the early vegetative stages to sustain land utilization as well as total productivity.

  20. Anatomy of somatic embryogenesis in Carica papaya L.

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    Fernando Juliana A.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Mature zygotic embryos of Carica papaya L. ?Sunrise Solo? were used as explants for embryogenesis induction. The explants were inoculated on Murashige and Skoog culture medium supplemented with 2 mg.L-1 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and incubated in darkness at 25+2°C. Histological analysis of callogenesis and somatic embryogenesis indicated occurrence of direct and indirect somatic embryogenesis development. Direct somatic embryo formation was observed from hypocotyledonary epidermic cells only from explant 18 days after inoculation. Somatic embryos formed indirectly were originated from embryogenic superficial cells of pre-embryonic complexes located on peripherical and on internal cell layers of callus 49 days after inoculation. Diverse morphological differences including disformed embryos were observed among the somatic embryos.

  1. Effect of Biopreservatives on Storage Life of Papaya (Carica papaya L.

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    Fatema H. Brishti

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE In this experiment the effect on post-harvest preservation of papaya (Carica papaya L. fruit coated with either Aloe gel (AG; 100% or papaya leaf extract with Aloe gel (PLEAG; 1:1 was studied. To evaluate the role of coating on ripening behavior and quality of papaya the uncoated and coated fruits were stored and ripened at room temperature (25 °C-29 °C and 82-84% relative humidity. Physico-chemical properties were analyzed at 4 day intervals during the storage period. The incidence of disease attack was also visually observed. The overall results showed the superiority of AG and PLEAG coating in lengthening the shelf-life of papaya fruit compared to controls which showed significant decay from 6th day onward and complete decay within 12 days of storage. The AG and PLEAG coated fruits maintained their shelf life for 12 days and decayed at 16th day. The coated fruits also maintained their color, flavor and firmness up to 12 days of storage. An increase in ascorbic acid content (120.2 mg/100 g was also found in coated fruits in contrast to the control (59 mg/100 g. Only 27% disease incidence was observed in AG and 13% in PLEAG coated fruits as compared to control (100% during the storage period. The results of this study show that both AG and PLEAG coatings have excellent potential to be used on fresh produce to maintain quality and extend shelf-life.

  2. Molecular characterization and pathogenicity of Erwinia spp. associated with pineapple [Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.] and papaya (Carica papaya L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Ramachandran Kogeethavani; Manaf Uyub Abdul; Zakaria Latiffah

    2015-01-01

    The Erwinia species are well-known pathogens of economic importance in Malaysia causing serious damage to high-value fruit crops that include pineapple [Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.] and papaya (Carica papaya L.).The 16S rRNA sequence using eubacteria fD1 and rP2 primers, identified two bacteria species; Dickeya zeae from pineapple heart rot, and Erwinia mallotivora from papaya dieback. Phylogenetic analysis based on the neighbor-joining method indicated that all the bacterial isolates clustered...

  3. BIOLOGICAL EFFICACY AND SELECTIVITY OF ACARICIDES IN PAPAYA (Carica papaya L.

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    Marycruz Abato-Zárate

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Mites are considered the second pest in importance in papaya (Carica papaya L. in Veracruz, Mexico, caused by a general increment in pesticide use that might unbalance predatory populations. Efficacy of acaricides was evaluated against phytophagous mites, and their selectivity to predators in papaya cv. Maradol. A completely randomized block design with nine treatments and four replications was used. Significant differences (P = 0.005 were found in the number of phytophagous mites alive per leaf after the third weekly application. The lowest populations of pest mites per leaf (2.6, 3.9, 3.5 and 4.9 were observed in the following treatments: dicofol rotated with bifenthrin, paraffinic oil alone, sulphur powder alone and a weekly regime of fatty acid salts followed by paraffinic oil and azadirachtin 1.2%. Azadirachtin 1.2% alone had a lower efficacy than the previous group (5.8 mites per leaf, and the following pesticides were not significantly different (P > 0.05 than the control (17.4 mites per leaf: fatty acids sprayed alone (6.7, azadirachtin 4.5% alone (9.5 and drenched imidacloprid (7.6. No differences were found among treatments in the number of predatory mites, possibly due to the low mite densities found.

  4. Label-free quantitative proteomic analysis of pre-flowering PMeV-infected Carica papaya L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Eduardo de A; Werth, Emily G; Madroñero, Leidy J; Ventura, José A; Rodrigues, Silas P; Hicks, Leslie M; Fernandes, Patricia M B

    2017-01-16

    Papaya meleira virus (PMeV) infects papaya (Carica papaya L.) and leads to Papaya Sticky Disease (PSD) or "Meleira", characterized by a spontaneous exudation of latex from fruits and leaves only in the post-flowering developmental stage. The latex oxidizes in contact with air and accumulates as a sticky substance on the plant organs, impairing papaya fruit's marketing and exportation. To understand pre-flowering C. papaya resistance to PMeV, an LC-MS/MS-based label-free proteomics approach was used to assess the differential proteome of PMeV-infected pre-flowering C. papaya vs. uninfected (control) plants. In this study, 1333 proteins were identified, of which 111 proteins showed a significant abundance change (57 increased and 54 decreased) and supports the hypothesis of increased photosynthesis and reduction of 26S-proteassoma activity and cell-wall remodeling. All of these results suggest that increased photosynthetic activity has a positive effect on the induction of plant immunity, whereas the reduction of caspase-like activity and the observed changes in the cell-wall associated proteins impairs the full activation of defense response based on hypersensitive response and viral movement obstruction in pre-flowering C. papaya plants. The papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruit's production is severely limited by the occurrence of Papaya meleira virus (PMeV) infection, which causes Papaya Sticky Disease (PSD). Despite the efforts to understand key features involved with the plant×virus interaction, PSD management is still largely based on the observation of the first disease symptoms in the field, followed by the elimination of the diseased plants. However, C. papaya develops PSD only after flowering, i.e. about six-months after planting, and the virus inoculum sources are kept in field. The development of PMeV resistant genotypes is impaired by the limited knowledge about C. papaya resistance against viruses. The occurrence of a resistance/tolerance mechanism to PSD

  5. Antiulcerogenic activity of Carica papaya seed in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Lorraine Aparecida; Cordeiro, Kátia Wolff; Carrasco, Viviane; Carollo, Carlos Alexandre; Cardoso, Cláudia Andréa Lima; Argadoña, Eliana Janet Sanjinez; Freitas, Karine de Cássia

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the gastroprotective and healing effects of the methanolic extract of the seed of the papaya Carica papaya L. (MECP) in rats. Models of acute gastric ulcer induction by ethanol and indomethacin and of chronic ulcer by acetic acid were used. The gastric juice and mucus parameters were evaluated using the pylorus ligation model, and the involvement of sulfhydryl compounds (GSH) and nitric oxide in the gastroprotective effect was analyzed using the ethanol model. The toxicity was assessed through toxicity tests. No signs of toxicity were observed when the rats received a single dose of 2000 mg/kg of extract. The MECP in doses of 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg significantly reduced the gastric lesion with 56, 76, and 82 % inhibition, respectively, and a dose of 30 mg/kg lansoprazole showed 79 % inhibition in the ethanol model. MECP (125, 250, 500 mg/kg) and cimetidine (200 mg/kg) reduced the gastric lesion in the indomethacin model, with 62, 67, 81, and 85 % inhibition, respectively. The MECP (500 mg/kg) and cimetidine (200 mg/kg) treatments showed a reduction in ulcerative symptoms induced by acetic acid by 84 and 73 %, respectively. The antiulcerogenic activity seems to involve GSH because the inhibition dropped from 72 to 13 % in the presence of a GSH inhibitor. Moreover, the MECP showed systemic action, increasing the mucus production and decreasing gastric acidity. Treatments with MECP induce gastroprotection without signs of toxicity. This effect seems to involve sulfhydryl compounds, increased mucus, and reduced gastric acidity.

  6. A biochemical comparison between latex from Carica candamarcensis and C. papaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, L M; Hermosilla, J; Salas, C E

    1994-12-01

    1. A group of plant proteinases is present mainly in the unripe fruit of the papaya tree (Carica papaya), which is a member of the genus Carica. C. candamarcensis is another species that belongs to this group. Its latex contains several proteinases displaying high proteolytic activity. 2. We used several electrophoretic techniques to compare the protein composition of the latex from the two species. Acid electrophoresis followed by staining or Western blot revealed a total of 17 proteins in C. candamarcensis and 7 proteins in C. papaya. Some of the proteins observed in C. papaya have been previously reported in the literature. 3. Electrophoresis on denaturing gels, followed by staining or Western blot revealed the presence of 14 proteins in C. candamarcensis and 6 proteins in C. papaya. Non-equilibrium isoelectrofocusing of the latex from both species showed a larger array of proteins in C. candamarcensis. The analysis of esterase and proteolytic activities on gel fractions after electrophoresis revealed the presence of distinct areas presenting enzyme activity. Some proteins detected in C. candamarcensis have different mobilities when compared with proteins from C. papaya. 4. These results support the view that latex from C. candamarcensis contains a wider diversity of proteins compared to C. papaya, and that some of the proteins not in C. papaya present esterase and proteolytic activity.

  7. Repeated dose 28-days oral toxicity study of Carica papaya L. leaf extract in Sprague Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzan, Adlin; Abdullah, Noor Rain; Halim, Siti Zaleha; Rashid, Badrul Amini; Semail, Raja Hazlini Raja; Abdullah, Noordini; Jantan, Ibrahim; Muhammad, Hussin; Ismail, Zakiah

    2012-04-10

    Carica papaya L. leaves have been used in ethnomedicine for the treatment of fevers and cancers. Despite its benefits, very few studies on their potential toxicity have been described. The aim of the present study was to characterize the chemical composition of the leaf extract from 'Sekaki' C. papaya cultivar by UPLC-TripleTOF-ESI-MS and to investigate the sub-acute oral toxicity in Sprague Dawley rats at doses of 0.01, 0.14 and 2 g/kg by examining the general behavior, clinical signs, hematological parameters, serum biochemistry and histopathology changes. A total of twelve compounds consisting of one piperidine alkaloid, two organic acids, six malic acid derivatives, and four flavonol glycosides were characterized or tentatively identified in the C. papaya leaf extract. In the sub-acute study, the C. papaya extract did not cause mortality nor were treatment-related changes in body weight, food intake, water level, and hematological parameters observed between treatment and control groups. Some biochemical parameters such as the total protein, HDL-cholesterol, AST, ALT and ALP were elevated in a non-dose dependent manner. Histopathological examination of all organs including liver did not reveal morphological alteration. Other parameters showed non-significant differences between treatment and control groups. The present results suggest that C. papaya leaf extract at a dose up to fourteen times the levels employed in practical use in traditional medicine in Malaysia could be considered safe as a medicinal agent.

  8. Carica papaya induces in vitro thrombopoietic cytokines secretion by mesenchymal stem cells and haematopoietic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Jazli; Abu Kassim, Noor Lide; Abu Kasim, Noor Hayaty; Haque, Nazmul; Rahman, Mohammad Tariqur

    2015-07-08

    Use of Carica papaya leaf extracts, reported to improve thrombocyte counts in dengue patients, demands further analysis on the underlying mechanism of its thrombopoietic cytokines induction In vitro cultures of peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) and stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) were treated with unripe papaya pulp juice (UPJ) to evaluate its potential to induce thrombopoietic cytokines (IL-6 and SCF) RESULTS: In vitro scratch gap closure was significantly faster (p papaya to induce thrombopoietic cytokines synthesis in cells of hematopoietic and mesenchymal origin.

  9. Effect of water content and temperature on Carica papaya lipase catalyzed esterification and transesterification reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turon Fabrice

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Temperature and water activity (a w of the reaction medium are two factors that govern enzyme reactions. We studied the influence of these two parameters on the esterification and transesterification activity of Carica papaya lipase in water and solvent free reactions. It was found that over the course of reaction the catalytic activity of C. papaya lipase was dependent on these factors. The best lipase activity for both reactions was at a temperature of 55°C and water activity of 0.22, which corresponds to 2 g of water per 100 g of C. papaya latex.

  10. Unripe Papaya (Carica papaya L. Seed Hexane Fraction Extract Inhibits Male Mice (Mus musculus Spermatogenesis Stronger Than Unripe Papaya Seed Methanolic Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagus Komang Satriyasa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Men and women have the same rights and obligations in family planning program. Practically, participation in family planning program is still predominated by women while participation of men is still low. Low participation of men in family planning program is due to very limited choices in male contraceptive method. In recent years, studies have been refocused on investigating traditional plants as antifertility herbal medicine for men. Studies on antifertility effects of unripe papaya seeds have been done. However, similar studies on hexane fraction extract have not yet been done. In this study, unripe seeds were collected from local Balinese papaya (Carica papaya fruits. Objective: This study was aimed to assess the effect of unripe papaya seeds hexane fraction extract on spermatogenesis and the testosterone level of male mice. Hexane fraction extract of unripe papaya seeds contains glycosides and triterpenoids, which is assumed to have an antifertility property, so it can be used as a male contraceptive, although the mechanism of action remains to be elucidated. Method: This study used pre-test and post-test control group design, using 30 male mice of balb C strain, 12 weeks of age, weighing 20-22 gram, which were randomly grouped into 3 groups, each consisting of 10 male mice. One control group (P0 = control group was given double-distilled water, and two treatment groups were given hexane fraction extract of unripe Carica papaya seeds 20 mg/20gram/day, and methanolic extract of unripe Carica papaya seeds 20 mg/20 gram/day (P1 and P2, respectively. After 36 days of treatment, evaluation of the testes and blood of the male mice was conducted. Results: Data were analysed by normality test of Kolmogorov-Smirnov Goodness of Fit, homogeneity test, and Anova test. This study showed that spermatogonia A, primary pachytene spermatocytes, spermatid and Sertoli cells were decreased significantly (p < 0,05 but Leydig cells and testosterone

  11. Micropropagation de deux variétés de papayer ( Carica papaya L.) à ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Micropropagation de deux variétés de papayer (Carica papaya L.) à l'IPR/ IFRA de Katibougou, Mali. Abdoulaye Sidibé, Maman Sani Ladan Harouna, Bakary Mamourou Traoré, Moussa Abdoulaye, Ousmane Niangaly ...

  12. Effect of fermented seed extract of Carica papaya on litters of female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was performed to determine the effects of fermented seeds of Carica papaya on litters of female Wistar rats, and ascertain its safety as a food condiment. Animals in group one served as control, and were given only water; those in groups two and three were given the aqueous extract of the fermented seeds of C.

  13. Toxic effect of carica papaya bark on body weight, haematology, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toxic effect of Carica papaya bark on body weight, haematology and some biochemical parameters was investigated. Two-five out of thirty-five male albino rats allocated to five groups were sacrificed for the analysis. One group served as the control and the rest were test groups. The control group was placed on pelletized ...

  14. The protective effects of aqueous extract of Carica papaya seeds in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The protective effects of aqueous extract of Carica papaya seeds in paracetamol induced nephrotoxicity in male wistar rats. Madinah Naggayi1, Nozmo Mukiibi1, Ezekiel Iliya2. 1. Mbarara university of science and technology, Physiology. 2. Ahmad Bello University, Physiology. Abstract. Background: Oxidative stress plays a ...

  15. Anti-proliferation and Apoptosis Induction of Aqueous Leaf Extract of Carica papaya L. on Human Breast Cancer Cells MCF-7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuhrotun Nisa, Fatma; Astuti, Mary; Murdiati, Agnes; Mubarika Haryana, Sofia

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in women. Chemotherapy is the main method of breast cancer treatment but there are side effects. Carica papaya leaves is vegetable foods consumed by most people of Indonesia have potential as anticancer. The aim of this study was to investigate anti-proliferative and apoptotic induced effect of aqueous papaya leaves extracts on human breast cancer cell lines MCF-7. Inhibitory on cell proliferation was measured by MTT assay while apoptosis induction was measured using Annexin V. The results showed that papaya leaf can inhibit the proliferation of human breast cancer cells MCF-7 with IC50 in 1319.25 μg mL-1. The IC50 values of papaya leaf extract was higher than the IC50 value quercetin and doxorubicin. Papaya leaf extract can also induce apoptosis of breast cancer cells MCF-7 about 22.54% for concentration 659.63 μg mL-1 and about 20.73% for concentration 329.81 μg mL-1. The percentage of cell apoptosis of papaya leaf extract lower than doxorubicin but higher than quercetin. This study indicated that papaya leaf extract have potential as anticancer through mechanism anti-proliferation and apoptosis induction.

  16. Rapid sex identification of papaya (Carica papaya) using multiplex loop-mediated isothermal amplification (mLAMP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Te-Hua; Gwo, Jin-Chywan; Lin, Kuan-Hung

    2012-10-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is established as a cash crop throughout the tropical and subtropical regions due to its easy adaptation to diverse agricultural conditions, high yields, and prompt returns. The sex types of papaya plants are hermaphrodite, male, and female. Among them, hermaphroditic plants are the major type in papaya production, because the fruit has commercial advantages over that of the other sexes. Sex inheritance in papaya is determined by the M and M(h) dominant alleles in males and hermaphrodites, respectively, and a recessive m allele in females. Currently, all hermaphrodite seeds are not available due to the lethality of dominant homozygosity. Therefore, in this study, six male-hermaphrodite-specific markers were developed for a rapid sex identification using multiplex loop-mediated isothermal amplification (mLAMP) to efficiently and precisely select hermaphroditic individuals in the seedling or early growth stage. The LM1-LAMP assay consisted of two sex-LAMP reactions for amplifying two male-specific markers (T12 and Cpsm90) in one reaction, and showed several advantages in terms of a rapid reaction time (papaya production.

  17. Chemical composition and antifungal activity of Carica papaya Linn. seed essential oil against Candida spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, X; Ma, Y; Yi, G; Wu, J; Zhou, L; Guo, H

    2017-05-01

    In recent years, the incidence of clinical yeast infections has increased dramatically. Due to the extensive use of broad-spectrum antifungal agents, there has been a notable increase in drug resistance among infections yeast species. As one of the most popular natural antimicrobial agents, essential oils (EOs) have attracted a lot of attention from the scientific community. The aim of this study was to analyse the chemical composition and examine the antifungal activity of the EO extracted from the seeds of Carica papaya Linn. The papaya seed EO was analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The major constituent is benzyl isothiocyanate (99·36%). The filter paper disc diffusion method and broth dilution method were employed. The EO showed inhibitory effect against all the tested Candida strains including C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis and C. tropical with inhibition zone diameters in the range of 14·2-33·2 mm, the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) in the range of 4·0-16·0 μg ml -1 and the minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFCs) in the range of 16·0-64·0 μg ml -1 . Here, we found that the papaya seed EO has promising anticandida activity and identify C. papaya L. as a potential natural source of antifungal agents. The chemical composition and antifungal activity of essential oil of Carica papaya seeds were studied. The oil of papaya seeds could inhibit the growth of Candida spp. for the first report. Carica Papaya may be recognized as a possible new source of natural antifungal agents. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. Inhibition of Platelet Aggregation by the Leaf Extract of Carica papaya During Dengue Infection: An In Vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinnappan, Shobia; Ramachandrappa, Vijayakumar Shettikothanuru; Tamilarasu, Kadhiravan; Krishnan, Uma Maheswari; Pillai, Agiesh Kumar Balakrishna; Rajendiran, Soundravally

    2016-04-01

    Dengue cases were reported to undergo platelet activation and thrombocytopenia by a poorly understood mechanism. Recent studies suggested that Carica papaya leaf extract could recover the platelet count in dengue cases. However, no studies have attempted to unravel the mechanism of the plant extract in platelet recovery. Since there are no available drugs to treat dengue and considering the significance of C. papaya in dengue treatment, the current study aimed to evaluate two research questions: First one is to study if the C. papaya leaf extract exerts its action directly on platelets and second one is to understand if the extract can specifically inhibit the platelet aggregation during dengue viral infection. Sixty subjects with dengue positive and 60 healthy subjects were recruited in the study. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and platelet-poor plasma were prepared from both the dengue-infected and healthy control blood samples. Effect of the leaf extract obtained from C. papaya leaves was assessed on plasma obtained as well as platelets collected from both healthy and dengue-infected individuals. Platelet aggregation was significantly reduced when leaf extract preincubated with dengue plasma was added into control PRP, whereas no change in aggregation when leaf extract incubated-control plasma was added into control PRP. Upon direct addition of C. papaya leaf extract, both dengue PRP and control PRP showed a significant reduction in platelet aggregation. Within the dengue group, PRP from severe and nonsevere cases showed a significant decrease in aggregation without any difference between them. From the study, it is evident that C. papaya leaf extract can directly act on platelet. The present study, the first of its kind, found that the leaf extract possesses a dengue-specific neutralizing effect on dengue viral-infected plasma that may exert a protective role on platelets.

  19. DESHIDRATACIÓN OSMÓTICA DE FRUTOS DE PAPAYA HAWAIANA (Carica papaya L. EN CUATRO AGENTES EDULCORANTES OSMOTIC DEHYDRATION OF HAWAIIAN PAPAYA FRUITS (Carica papaya L. USING FOUR SWEETENER AGENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Maria Ríos Pérez

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Trozos de papaya hawaiiana (Carica papaya L. fueron sometidos a un proceso de osmo-deshidratación usando cuatro agentes edulcorantes: miel de abejas, miel de caña, crema de miel de abejas y sacarosa en medio acuoso a 79 grados Brix, temperatura de 20 ºC y 23 horas de inmersión. Los resultados estadísticos mostraron que el agente de mayor capacidad deshidratante fue la miel de abejas y el menor la sacarosa. Además, los análisis cinéticos indicaron que la máxima transferencia de masa ocurre en las primeras cuatro horas del proceso y la máxima pérdida de masa del producto que puede ser alcanzada fue de 32 % con un contenido de humedad final en los frutos de papaya osmodeshidratada de 41,3 % b.h.Pieces of Hawaiian papaya (Carica papaya L. were subjected to osmotic dehydration using four sweetener agents: honey, molasses, honey cream and sucrose in aqueous solution to 79 degrees Brix, 20 ºC temperature and 23 hours of immersion. The statistical results showed that honey was the sweetener agent with highest osmotic capacity while sucrose had the lowest. The kinetic analysis also showed that the maximum mass transfer occurs during the first four hours of the process and the maximum mass loss of the product that can be attained was 32 % with a final moisture content of 41,3 % w.b.

  20. Complete nucleotide sequence of a monopartite Begomovirus and associated satellites infecting Carica papaya in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, M S; Yoshida, S; Khatri-Chhetri, G B; Briddon, R W; Natsuaki, K T

    2013-06-01

    Carica papaya (papaya) is a fruit crop that is cultivated mostly in kitchen gardens throughout Nepal. Leaf samples of C. papaya plants with leaf curling, vein darkening, vein thickening, and a reduction in leaf size were collected from a garden in Darai village, Rampur, Nepal in 2010. Full-length clones of a monopartite Begomovirus, a betasatellite and an alphasatellite were isolated. The complete nucleotide sequence of the Begomovirus showed the arrangement of genes typical of Old World begomoviruses with the highest nucleotide sequence identity (>99 %) to an isolate of Ageratum yellow vein virus (AYVV), confirming it as an isolate of AYVV. The complete nucleotide sequence of betasatellite showed greater than 89 % nucleotide sequence identity to an isolate of Tomato leaf curl Java betasatellite originating from Indonesian. The sequence of the alphasatellite displayed 92 % nucleotide sequence identity to Sida yellow vein China alphasatellite. This is the first identification of these components in Nepal and the first time they have been identified in papaya.

  1. Contrasting patterns of X/Y polymorphism distinguish Carica papaya from other sex chromosome systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingartner, Laura A; Moore, Richard C

    2012-12-01

    The sex chromosomes of the tropical crop papaya (Carica papaya) are evolutionarily young and consequently allow for the examination of evolutionary mechanisms that drive early sex chromosome divergence. We conducted a molecular population genetic analysis of four X/Y gene pairs from a collection of 45 wild papaya accessions. These population genetic analyses reveal striking differences in the patterns of polymorphism between the X and Y chromosomes that distinguish them from other sex chromosome systems. In most sex chromosome systems, the Y chromosome displays significantly reduced polymorphism levels, whereas the X chromosome maintains a level of polymorphism that is comparable to autosomal loci. However, the four papaya sex-linked loci that we examined display diversity patterns that are opposite this trend: the papaya X alleles exhibit significantly reduced polymorphism levels, whereas the papaya Y alleles maintain greater than expected levels of diversity. Our analyses suggest that selective sweeps in the regions of the X have contributed to this pattern while also revealing geographically restricted haplogroups on the Y. We discuss the possible role sexual selection and/or genomic conflict have played in shaping the contrasting patterns of polymorphism found for the papaya X and Y chromosomes.

  2. Molluscicidal activity of Carica papaya and Areca catechu against the freshwater snail Lymnaea acuminata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Preetee; Singh, D K

    2008-04-15

    The molluscicidal activity of seed and lyophilized latex powder of Carica papaya and seed powder of Areca catechu against the vector snail Lymnaea acuminata was studied. The toxicity of these plant products was time and dose dependent. The toxicity of C. papaya lyophilized latex powder (LC(50) at 96 h: 8.38 mg/l) was more pronounced than that of A. catechu seed powder (LC(50) at 96 h: 12.32 mg/l) and C. papaya seed powder (LC(50) at 96 h: 61.56 mg/l). Ethanolic extracts of C. papaya seed and A. catechu seed were more toxic than their other extracts. The ethanolic extract of A. catechu seed (LC(50) at 24h: 17.21 mg/l) was more effective than the ethanolic extract of C. papaya seed (LC(50) at 24h: 53.38 mg/l). The LC(50) of column-purified fraction of A. catechu seed at 96 h was 3.99 mg/l, whereas that of C. papaya seed was 7.06 mg/l. C. papaya and A. catechu may be used as potent molluscicides since the concentrations used to kill the snails were not toxic for the fish Colisa fasciatus which shares the same habitat with the snail L. acuminata.

  3. Fitotoxicidade de fungicidas, acaricidas e inseticidas sobre o mamoeiro (Carica papaya L. cultivar sunrise solo improved line 72/12 Toxic effects of pesticides products on papaya plant (Carica papaya L. cv. sunrise solo improved line 72/12

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcílio Vieira

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Estudaram-se os efeitos fitotóxicos de fungicidas, acaricidas e inseticidas e algumas associações entre eles, em plantas de mamoeiros (Carica papaya L. cv. Sunrise Solo Improved Line 72/12, em condições de verão, no município de São Mateus - ES, localizado na região produtora do Estado. O experimento foi arranjado em delineamento de blocos casualizados, com 4 repetições e 03 plantas úteis por parcela experimental. Foram utilizados os seguintes produtos, com as respectivas doses, para cada 100 l de água: abamectin (Vertimec 18 CE - 50 ml; dicofol + tetradiphon (Carbax - 200 ml, fenbutatin oxide (Torque 500 SC - 60 ml; mancozeb (Dithane PM - 200g; oxicloreto de cobre (Reconil - 400g e thiabendazole (Tecto 450 - 100ml. Analisou-se a fitotoxicidade dos produtos em relação à altura da planta, nº de folhas, número de flores e frutos ; diâmetro do caule e queimaduras ou injúrias foliares. As medições e contagens foram feitas um dia antes das pulverizações, 15 e 30 dias após. Constatou-se que o Vertimec 18 CE, associado ao Reconil ou ao Tecto 450, ocasionou leves injúrias foliares, detectadas aos 15 dias após as pulverizações, que se tornaram praticamente imperceptíveis, aos 30 dias após as pulverizações; e que Dithane PM, Reconil, Tecto 450, Carbax, Torque 500 SC, Dithane PM + Carbax, Dithane PM + Torque 500 SC, Dithane PM + Vertimec 18 CE, Reconil + Carbax, Reconil + Torque 500 SC, Tecto 450 + Carbax e, Tecto 450 + + Torque 500 SC não interferiram nos parâmetros de desenvolvimento e de produção estudados, bem como não causaram injúrias ou queimaduras nas folhas dos mamoeiros.In this work was studied the phytotoxic effect of inseticides, acaricides and fungicides alone and in combination, on papaya plants (Carica papaya L.; cv. Sunrise Solo Improved Line 72/12, under field conditions. The experiment were conducted in a farm, located at São Mateus county, the most important papaya region in the State of Esp

  4. Sub acute and chronic effects of Carica Papaya on the kidney of rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates the sub-acute and chronic effects of Carica papaya on the kidney of growing Sprague Dawley rats. A total 40 growing rats (95.0 ± 10.0 grams) within the ages of 7 ± 1weeks were involved in the study. They were divided into eight groups of 5 rats each: A (control; n = 5), B (n = 10), C (n = 10) and D (n ...

  5. The effect of Carica papaya seed extracts on urea, creatinine and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the effect of Carica papaya seeds on renal function parameters. Male Wistar rats aged 7± 1weeks, and weighing 70.0-105.0g, were used for the study and the animals were divided into four groups -A, B, C and D. Group A served as control, while B, C and D, served as test groups. The test groups ...

  6. UJI EFEKTIVITAS EKSTRAK DAUN PEPAYA (Carica papaya L. TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN BAKTERI Escherichia coli DAN Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Tuntun

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Daun pepaya banyak digunakan masyarakat sebagai obat tradisional. Daun pepaya mengandung senyawa antibakteri seperti tanin, alkaloid, flavonoid, terpenoid, saponin, dan alkaloid karpain. Bakteri Escherichia coli dan Stapylococcus aureus merupakan bakteri pathogen yang sering menginfeksi manusia. Tujuan penelitian untuk mengetahui kemampuan ekstrak daun pepaya (Carica papaya L. dalam menghambat pertumbuhan bakteri Escherichia coli dan Staphylococcus aureus dan mengetahui konsentrasi ekstrak daun pepaya (Carica papaya L. yang efektif dalam menghambat pertumbuhan bakteri Escherichia coli dan  Staphylococcu aureus. Jenis penelitian adalah eksperimen laboratorium. Uji daya hambat menggunakan metode difusi agar cara Kirby Bauer. Variabel penelitian yaitu konsentrasi ekstrak daun pepaya 10%-100%, dan zona hambat pertumbuhan bakteri Escherichia coli  dan Staphylococcus aureus. Analisa data  menggunakan uji Anova. Hasil penelitian ini didapatkan F hitung > F tabel, baik terhadap bakteri Escherichia coli  maupun bakteri Staphylococcus aureus, hal ini menunjukkan bahwa ekstrak daun pepaya (Carica papaya L. mempunyai pengaruh terhadap pertumbuhan bakteri tersebut, tetapi tidak efektif jika dibandingkan dengan zona hambat antibiotik Chlorampenicol 30 mcg  (kontrol positif.

  7. PENGARUH JUS BUAH PEPAYA (Carica papaya L. TERHADAP PROFIL FARMAKOKINETIK SIMETIDIN PADA TIKUS PUTIH (Rattus norvegicus

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    Siti Julaicha

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Drugs used with foods or drinks can affect the drug effects. This study aims to observe the effect of papaya juice (Carica papaya L. to the pharmacokinetics profile of cimetidine in white rats. The animal were randomly in three group. Group 1 (cimetidine was given a single oral cimetidine 3,6 mg/200gBW. Group 2 (cimetidine and papaya juice dose I was given cimetidine 3,6 mg/200gBW together with papaya juice 4,5 g /200gBW. Group 3 (cimetidine and papaya juice dose II was given cimetidine 3,6 mg/200gBW together with papaya juice 9 g /200gBW. The serial blood was collected for 4 hours on lateralis vein of rats tail. Determination of cimetidine in plasma performed by spectrophotometer UV. The pharmacokinetic parameters of cimetidine were calculated by regresi linear method and recidual method and were analyzed by One Way ANOVA using 95 % confidence interval. Based on research results showed that the group II and group III increased of ka, Cpmaks, tmaks, Cl, AUC and decreased ke, t½ab and t½el. Group III provides the most affect the cimetidine pharmacokinetics profile with decreased absorption and elimination and increased metabolism of cimetidine in rat.

  8. Improvement of Quality of Carica papaya L. with Clove Oil as Preservative in Edible Coating Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eny Kusrini

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We have studied utilization of essential clove oil, extracted from clove buds by hydrodistillation, as preservative in edible packaging technology. Preservative of essential clove oil was applied on chopped papaya fruits by using two methods, namely spray and brush. The effects of concentration of clove oil from 0.05 to 0.20% on the preservation of papaya fruits (Carica papaya L. at room temperature (25 °C were also evaluated. Physicochemical and in vitro microbiological activities on the papaya fruits that were stored at 25 oC and 85-90% relative humidity were investigated in details. The results indicate that the clove oil at concentration ≥0.10% suppressed the decay time, 10% weight loss, 0.03 g citric acid/100 g in acidity titration test, and 20% pH value from those of control sample of papaya fruits kept in a storage. The population of fungi and bacteria were efficiently reduced by 90% when the clove oil at concentration ≥0.10% was applied as preservative on papaya fruits. This finding suggested that the extracted essential clove oil acted as effective antifungal and antibacterial agents. Preservative by essential clove oil improved the quality of fruits to extend the product shelf life and to reduce the risk of microbial growth on fruits surface.

  9. Evaluation of anxiolytic and sedative effects of 80% ethanolic Carica papaya L. (Caricaceae) pulp extract in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebebew, Zerihun; Shibeshi, Workineh

    2013-11-25

    Carica papaya has been used in the Ethiopian traditional medicine to relieve stress and other disease conditions. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the anxiolytic and sedative effects of 80% ethanolic Carica papaya (Caricaceae) pulp extract in mice. Carica papaya pulp extract was screened for anxiolytic effect by using elevated plus maze, staircase and open field tests, and ketamine-induced sleeping time test for sedation at doses of 50, 100, 200, 400 mg/kg. Distilled water and Diazepam were employed as negative and positive control groups, respectively. Carica papaya pulp extract 100 mg/kg significantly increased the percentage of open arm time and entry, and reduced the percentage of entry and time spent in closed arm in elevated plus maze test; reduced the number of rearing in the staircase test; and increased the time spent and entries in the central squares while the total number of entries into the open field were not significantly affected, suggesting anxiolytic activity without altering locomotor and sedative effects. A synergistic reduction in the number of rearing and an inverted U-shaped dose response curves were obtained with important parameters of anxiety The results of this study established a support for the traditional usage of Carica papaya as anxiolytic medicinal plant. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The protective effects of aqueous extract of Carica papaya seeds in paracetamol induced nephrotoxicity in male wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naggayi, Madinah; Mukiibi, Nozmo; Iliya, Ezekiel

    2015-06-01

    Oxidative stress plays a crucial role in the development of drug induced nephrotoxicity. The study aimed to determine the nephroprotective and ameliorative effects of Carica papaya seed extract in paracetamol-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. To carry out phytochemical screening of Carica papaya, measure serum urea, creatinine and uric acid and describe the histopathological status of the kidneys in the treated and untreated groups. Phytochemical screening of the extract was done. Thirty two adult male Wistar rats were divided into four groups (n= 8 in each group). Group A (control) animals received normal saline for seven days, group B (paracetamol group) received normal saline, and paracetamol single dose on the 8th day. Group C received Carica papaya extract (CPE) 500 mg/kg, and paracetamol on the 8th day, while group D, rats were pretreated with CPE 750 mg/kg/day,and paracetamol administration on the 8th day. Samples of kidney tissue were removed for histopathological examination. Screening of Carica papaya showed presence of nephroprotective pytochemicals. Paracetamol administration resulted in significant elevation of renal function markers. CPE ameliorated the effect of paracetamol by reducing the markers as well as reversing the paracetamol-induced changes in kidney architecture. Carica papaya contains nephroprotective phytochemicals and may be useful in preventing kidney damage induced by paracetamol.

  11. Biomechanical, biochemical, and morphological mechanisms of heat shock-mediated germination in Carica papaya seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Rachel E; Waterworth, Wanda M; Stuppy, Wolfgang; West, Christopher E; Ennos, Roland; Bray, Clifford M; Pritchard, Hugh W

    2016-12-01

    Carica papaya (papaya) seed germinate readily fresh from the fruit, but desiccation induces a dormant state. Dormancy can be released by exposure of the hydrated seed to a pulse of elevated temperature, typical of that encountered in its tropical habitat. Carica papaya is one of only a few species known to germinate in response to heat shock (HS) and we know little of the mechanisms that control germination in tropical ecosystems. Here we investigate the mechanisms that mediate HS-induced stimulation of germination in pre-dried and re-imbibed papaya seed. Exogenous gibberellic acid (GA 3 ≥250 µM) overcame the requirement for HS to initiate germination. However, HS did not sensitise seeds to GA 3 , indicative that it may act independently of GA biosynthesis. Seed coat removal also overcame desiccation-imposed dormancy, indicative that resistance to radicle emergence is coat-imposed. Morphological and biomechanical studies identified that neither desiccation nor HS alter the physical structure or the mechanical strength of the seed coat. However, cycloheximide prevented both seed coat weakening and germination, implicating a requirement for de novo protein synthesis in both processes. The germination antagonist abscisic acid prevented radicle emergence but had no effect on papaya seed coat weakening. Desiccation therefore appears to reduce embryo growth potential, which is reversed by HS, without physically altering the mechanical properties of the seed coat. The ability to germinate in response to a HS may confer a competitive advantage to C. papaya, an opportunistic pioneer species, through detection of canopy removal in tropical forests. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  12. Biomechanical, biochemical, and morphological mechanisms of heat shock-mediated germination in Carica papaya seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Rachel E.; Waterworth, Wanda M.; Stuppy, Wolfgang; West, Christopher E.; Ennos, Roland; Bray, Clifford M.; Pritchard, Hugh W.

    2016-01-01

    Carica papaya (papaya) seed germinate readily fresh from the fruit, but desiccation induces a dormant state. Dormancy can be released by exposure of the hydrated seed to a pulse of elevated temperature, typical of that encountered in its tropical habitat. Carica papaya is one of only a few species known to germinate in response to heat shock (HS) and we know little of the mechanisms that control germination in tropical ecosystems. Here we investigate the mechanisms that mediate HS-induced stimulation of germination in pre-dried and re-imbibed papaya seed. Exogenous gibberellic acid (GA3 ≥250 µM) overcame the requirement for HS to initiate germination. However, HS did not sensitise seeds to GA3, indicative that it may act independently of GA biosynthesis. Seed coat removal also overcame desiccation-imposed dormancy, indicative that resistance to radicle emergence is coat-imposed. Morphological and biomechanical studies identified that neither desiccation nor HS alter the physical structure or the mechanical strength of the seed coat. However, cycloheximide prevented both seed coat weakening and germination, implicating a requirement for de novo protein synthesis in both processes. The germination antagonist abscisic acid prevented radicle emergence but had no effect on papaya seed coat weakening. Desiccation therefore appears to reduce embryo growth potential, which is reversed by HS, without physically altering the mechanical properties of the seed coat. The ability to germinate in response to a HS may confer a competitive advantage to C. papaya, an opportunistic pioneer species, through detection of canopy removal in tropical forests. PMID:27811004

  13. Potential Test of Papaya Leaf and Seed Extract (Carica Papaya) as Larvicides against Anopheles Mosquito Larvae Mortality. SP IN Jayapura, Papua Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Arsunan, Hasanuddin

    2015-01-01

    Anopheles mosquitoes, sp is the main vector of malaria disease that is widespread in many parts of the world including in Papua Province. There are four speciesof Anopheles mosquitoes, sp, in Papua namely: An.farauti, An.koliensis, An. subpictus, and An.punctulatus. Larviciding synthetic cause resistance. This study aims to analyze the potential of papaya leaf and seeds extracts (Carica papaya) as larvicides against the mosquitoes Anopheles sp. The experiment was conducted at the Laboratory o...

  14. MOLECULAR WEIGHT PROFILE OF PROTEASE OF PINEAPPLE (Ananas comosus L.Merr) AND PAPAYA (Carica papaya L.) USING SDS-PAGE METHOD

    OpenAIRE

    Rizky Arcinthya Rachmania; Priyo Wahyudi; Aniza Mutia Wardania; Dini Rohmatul Insania

    2017-01-01

    A group of protease enzymes such as papain and bromelain is able to decipher the molecular structure of the protein into amino acids which will be very useful in many fields, especially in food and pharmaceutical industries. The objective of this study to determine the molecular weight profile of enzyme bromelain from pineapple bark (Ananas comosus L. Merr) and papain (Carica papaya L.) from papaya latex with different varieties using sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis...

  15. Protective role of Carica papaya (Linn.) in electron beam radiation induced hematological and cytogenetic damages in Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yogish Somayaji, T.; Suchetha Kumari, N.

    2014-01-01

    Carica papaya (Linn.) is known to possess various biomedical applications. It has remarkable antioxidant properties. The main objective of the study was to evaluate the leaf extracts of Carica papaya (Linn.) on hematologic and cytogenetic changes occurring due to irradiation of mice to sub-lethal doses of Electron Beam Radiation (EBR). Analysis of hematological changes occurring due to irradiation of mice to sub-lethal doses of EBR, and the effects of Carica papaya (Linn.) extract on the same. The Assessment of hematopoietic stress by spleen colony forming unit and spleen body weight index. The analysis of cell proliferation and immunomodulation with response to the effects of Carica papaya (Linn.) extract by estimation of IL-6. The estimation of serum total antioxidants, lipid peroxidation and analyzing the activities of enzymes like SOD, ALP, and AST. Male Swiss albino mice were fed orally with papaya aqueous leaf extract for 15 days. They were irradiated with a whole body dose of 6 Gy Electron Beam radiation. The mice were dissected for liver, kidney, bone marrow, spleen and brain. The hematological studies were done using blood cell count in an automated cell counter. The biochemical estimations like urea, creatinine, SGOT, SGPT, Total Protein, Albumin, Bilirubin were done using the serum and homogenates. The total antioxidant capacity, the antioxidant enzymes were estimated. The Interleukin-6 levels were estimated in serum to assess immune modulation. The results show a decrease in the hematological parameters in radiated animals. The papaya treated groups have shown modulation in the hematological parameters. The extract has also reduced the suppression of the bone marrow induced by radiation. The radiation induced liver damage is also reduced in papaya treated groups. The aqueous extract of Carica papaya (Linn.) has shown protective effects in electron beam radiation induced tissue damages in Swiss Albino mice (author)

  16. Factibilidad técnica de la utilización de cobertura vegetal en papaya (Carica papaya L. mediante la aplicación localizada de herbicidas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Bogantes

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Factibilidad técnica de la utilización de cobertura vegetal en papaya (Carica papaya L. mediante la aplicación localizada de herbicidas. Se estudió la factibilidad de utilizar cobertura vegetal en papaya (Carica papaya L. bajo un sistema de siembra sobre lomillos. El objetivo fue establecer un área libre de malezas sobre el lomillo para permitir la colocación del fertilizante cerca del sistema radical de la papaya. Se evaluó el control de malezas de cuatro herbicidas (gifosato, oxifluorfen, pendimetalina y acetaclor sobre especies de hoja ancha, poáceas y ciperáceas, así como el posible daño de los herbicidas al cultivo y su efecto sobre el crecimiento y rendimiento de las plantas de papaya. El herbicida glifosato fue eficiente en el control de poáceas pero no contra hojas anchas. Se obtuvo muy buen control general de malezas hasta los 90 después de la aplicación con los tratamientos preemergentes oxifluorfen+pendimetalina y acetaclor. Los dos primeros herbicidas afectaron levemente las plantas de papaya cuando se aplicaron a los 10 días después de la siembra. El acetaclor no causó daño en las plantas de papaya en ninguna de las aplicaciones. No hubo diferencias entre los tratamientos con respecto a las variables de crecimiento y rendimiento del cultivo.

  17. Green synthesis of colloidal copper oxide nanoparticles using Carica papaya and its application in photocatalytic dye degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar, Renu; Manikandan, Perumal; Malarvizhi, Viswanathan; Fathima, Tajudeennasrin; Shivashangari, Kanchi Subramanian; Ravikumar, Vilwanathan

    2014-03-01

    Copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticles were synthesized by treating 5 mM cupric sulphate with Carica papaya leaves extract. The kinetics of the reaction was studied using UV-visible spectrophotometry. An intense surface Plasmon resonance between 250-300 nm in the UV-vis spectrum clearly reveals the formation of copper oxide nanoparticles. The results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) exhibited that the green synthesized copper oxide nanoparticles are rod in shape and having a mean particle size of 140 nm, further negative zeta potential disclose its stability at -28.9 mV. The Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy results examined the occurrence of bioactive functional groups required for the reduction of copper ions. X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra confirmed the copper oxide nanoparticles crystalline nature. Furthermore, colloidal copper oxide nanoparticles effectively degrade the Coomassie brilliant blue R-250 dye beneath the sunlight.

  18. Purification of a thermostable alkaline laccase from papaya (Carica papaya) using affinity chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Nivedita; Pandey, Veda P; Dwivedi, Upendra N

    2015-01-01

    A laccase from papaya leaves was purified to homogeneity by a two step procedure namely, heat treatment (at 70 °C) and Con-A affinity chromatography. The procedure resulted in 1386.7-fold purification of laccase with a specific activity of 41.3 units mg(-1) and an overall yield of 61.5%. The native purified laccase was found to be a hexameric protein of ∼ 260 kDa. The purified enzyme exhibited acidic and alkaline pH optima of 6.0 and 8.0 with the non-phenolic substrate (ABTS) and phenolic substrate (catechol), respectively. The purified laccase was found to be thermostable up to 70 °C such that it retained ∼ 80% activity upon 30 min incubation at 70 °C. The Arrhenius energy of activation for purified laccase was found to be 7.7 kJ mol(-1). The enzyme oxidized various phenolic and non-phenolic substrates having catalytic efficiency (K(cat)/K(m)) in the order of 7.25>0.67>0.27 mM(-1) min(-1) for ABTS, catechol and hydroquinone, respectively. The purified laccase was found to be activated by Mn(2+), Cd(2+), Ca(2+), Na(+), Fe(2+), Co(2+) and Cu(2+) while weakly inhibited by Hg(2+). The properties such as thermostability, alkaline pH optima and metal tolerance exhibited by the papaya laccase make it a promising candidate enzyme for industrial exploitation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Ekstrak Daun Pepaya dan Kangkung untuk Meningkatkan Daya Tetas Telur dan Kelangsungan Hidup Larva Lele (EXTRACTS OF CARICA PAPAYA AND IPOMOEA AQUATICA FOR IMPROVING EGG HATCHABILITY AND LARVAL VIABILITY OF CATFISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Saptiani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed to investigate the potential use of leaf extract of Carica papaya and Ipomoeaaquatica lto improve egg hatchability and larval viability of catfish. Dried leaves of Carica papaya andIpomoea aquatica were macerated and extracted in water and ethanol. Eggs and larvae were tested in theaquarium size of 10 L with a a diameter of 28 cm. The extracts in concentration 600, 800 and 1.000 ppmwere tested on the egg hatchability of catfish with immersion method, and challed with Aeromonashydrophyla, Pseudomonas sp., and Saprolegnia spp. The extracts in concentration 800 and 1.000 ppm weretested on the larval viability with immersion method, and challed with pathogens. Water or ethanolextract of Carica papaya and Ipomoea aquatica can improve egg hatchability 67±8% until 90±6% andlarval viability of catfish 77±0,5 until 90±9%. Eight hundred ppm ethanol extract of Carica papaya has thebest egg hatchability and 1000 ppm can improve larval viability of catfish.

  20. The efficacy of Carica papaya leaf extract on some bacterial and a fungal strain by well diffusion method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Baskaran

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the antimicrobial activity and phytochemical screening Ethanol, methanol, Ethyl acetate, acetone, chloroform, Petroleum ether, hexane, hot water, and extracts of Carica papaya. Methods: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the qualitative analysis of phytochemicals and antimicrobial activity of various solvent extracts of Carica papaya. The antimicrobial activities of different solvent extracts of Carica papaya were tested against the Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains and fungus by observing the zone of inhibition. The Gram-positive bacteria used in the test were Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Micrococcus luteus, and the Gram-negative bacteria were Escherichia coli, and Klebsiella pneumoniae, fungus like Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Cryptococcus neoformans, and Candida kefyr. Results: It was observed that ethanol, methanol, ethyl acetate, aceton, chloroform, petroleum ether, hexane and aquas extracts showed activity against bacteria and fungus. The chloroform extract of Carica papaya showed more activity against Micrococcus luteus, zone of diameter 15.17暲0.29mm and acetone extract of Carica papaya showed more activity against Candida albicans, zone of diameter 11.23暲0.25mm compared to other solvent extracts. Conclusions: In this study chloroform extract in bacteria and acetone extract in fungus showed a varying degree of inhibition to the growth of tested organism, than Ethanol, methanol, Ethyl acetate, Petroleum ether, hexane and hot water extracts. The results confirmed the presence of antibacterial and antifungal activity of Carica papaya extract against various human pathogenic bacteria. Presences of phytochemical and antimicrobial activity are confirmed.

  1. Effect of Carica papaya (Linn) aqueous leaf extract on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Flowers of C. papaya are used in the treatment of jaundice. [personal communication] and inner bark used for sore throat [10]. The extract of unripe fruit and ..... parts. Food Chem. 1999; 64: 39-44. 14. Perrone RD, Madias NE, Levey AS. Serum creatinine as an index of renal function; New insight into old concept. Clin Chem.

  2. Nutritional quality of raw and processed unripe Carica papaya fruit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For Africa as a whole, prevalence of undernourishment decreased from 27.6% in 1990-1992 to 20.0% in 2014-2016 whereas in sub-Saharan Africa, undernourishment prevalence ... instability, armed conflicts, civil unrest, displacement of refugees and ... in nature, high yields and diverse range of varieties offer papaya for ...

  3. Toxic effect of carica papaya bark on body weight, haematology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chibuike

    from the roots, seeds, fruits, and barks of medicinal plants are used in the preparation of concoctions, ... unripe C. papaya fruit is effective against malaria while the seeds are anthelmintic in nature (Mantok, 2005). Iweala ..... accumulating reports about organ injuries and other effects after intake of some herbs. This could be ...

  4. Acute and chronic toxicity of pawpaw (Carica papaya) seed powder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-04

    Jul 4, 2008 ... "medicine tree" or "melon of health". Papaya is filled with nutrients (Jackwheeler, 2003). It contains medicinal pro- perties and the major active ingredients recorded include, carpine, chymopapain and papain, a bactericidal aglycone of glucotropaeolin, benzyl isothiocyanate, a glycoside sinigrin, the enzyme ...

  5. Genome sequence comparison reveals a candidate gene involved in male-hermaphrodite differentiation in papaya (Carica papaya) trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Hiroki; Urasaki, Naoya; Natsume, Satoshi; Yoshida, Kentaro; Tarora, Kazuhiko; Shudo, Ayano; Terauchi, Ryohei; Matsumura, Hideo

    2015-04-01

    The sex type of papaya (Carica papaya) is determined by the pair of sex chromosomes (XX, female; XY, male; and XY(h), hermaphrodite), in which there is a non-recombining genomic region in the Y and Y(h) chromosomes. This region is presumed to be involved in determination of males and hermaphrodites; it is designated as the male-specific region in the Y chromosome (MSY) and the hermaphrodite-specific region in the Y(h) chromosome (HSY). Here, we identified the genes determining male and hermaphrodite sex types by comparing MSY and HSY genomic sequences. In the MSY and HSY genomic regions, we identified 14,528 nucleotide substitutions and 965 short indels with a large gap and two highly diverged regions. In the predicted genes expressed in flower buds, we found no nucleotide differences leading to amino acid changes between the MSY and HSY. However, we found an HSY-specific transposon insertion in a gene (SVP like) showing a similarity to the Short Vegetative Phase (SVP) gene. Study of SVP-like transcripts revealed that the MSY allele encoded an intact protein, while the HSY allele encoded a truncated protein. Our findings demonstrated that the SVP-like gene is a candidate gene for male-hermaphrodite determination in papaya.

  6. Cloning and expression analysis of phytoene desaturase and ζ-carotene desaturase genes in Carica papaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, P; Gao, X Z; Shen, W T; Zhou, P

    2011-02-01

    The fruit flesh color of papaya is an important nutritional quality trait and is due to the accumulation of carotenoid. To elucidate the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway in Carica papaya, the phytoene desaturase (PDS) and the ζ-carotene desaturase (ZDS) genes were isolated from papaya (named CpPDS and CpZDS) using the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) approach, and their expression levels were investigated in red- and yellow-fleshed papaya varieties. CpPDS contains a 1749 bp open reading frame coding for 583 amino acids, while CpZDS contains a 1716 bp open reading frame coding for 572 amino acids. The deduced CpPDS and CpZDS proteins contain a conserved dinucleotide-binding site at the N-terminus and a carotenoid-binding domain at the C-terminus. Papaya genome sequence analysis revealed that CpPDS and CpZDS are single copy; the CpPDS was mapped to papaya chromosome LG6, and the CpZDS was mapped to chromosome LG3. Quantitative PCR showed that both CpPDS and CpZDS were expressed in all tissues examined with the highest expression in maturing fruits, and that the expression of CpPDS and CpZDS were higher in red-fleshed fruits than in yellow-fleshed fruits. These results indicated that the differential accumulation of carotenoids in red- and yellow-fleshed papaya varieties might be partly explained by the transcriptional level of CpPDS and CpZDS.

  7. Antihypertensive effect of Carica papaya via a reduction in ACE activity and improved baroreflex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasil, Girlandia Alexandre; Ronchi, Silas Nascimento; do Nascimento, Andrews Marques; de Lima, Ewelyne Miranda; Romão, Wanderson; da Costa, Helber Barcellos; Scherer, Rodrigo; Ventura, José Aires; Lenz, Dominik; Bissoli, Nazaré Souza; Endringer, Denise Coutinho; de Andrade, Tadeu Uggere

    2014-11-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the antihypertensive effects of the standardised methanolic extract of Carica papaya, its angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory effects in vivo, its effect on the baroreflex and serum angiotensin converting enzyme activity, and its chemical composition. The chemical composition of the methanolic extract of C. papaya was evaluated by liquid chromatography-mass/mass and mass/mass spectrometry. The angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory effect was evaluated in vivo by Ang I administration. The antihypertensive assay was performed in spontaneously hypertensive rats and Wistar rats that were treated with enalapril (10 mg/kg), the methanolic extract of C. papaya (100 mg/kg; twice a day), or vehicle for 30 days. The baroreflex was evaluated through the use of sodium nitroprusside and phenylephrine. Angiotensin converting enzyme activity was measured by ELISA, and cardiac hypertrophy was evaluated by morphometric analysis. The methanolic extract of C. papaya was standardised in ferulic acid (203.41 ± 0.02 µg/g), caffeic acid (172.60 ± 0.02 µg/g), gallic acid (145.70 ± 0.02 µg/g), and quercetin (47.11 ± 0.03 µg/g). The flavonoids quercetin, rutin, nicotiflorin, clitorin, and manghaslin were identified in a fraction of the extract. The methanolic extract of C. papaya elicited angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory activity. The antihypertensive effects elicited by the methanolic extract of C. papaya were similar to those of enalapril, and the baroreflex sensitivity was normalised in treated spontaneously hypertensive rats. Plasma angiotensin converting enzyme activity and cardiac hypertrophy were also reduced to levels comparable to the enalapril-treated group. These results may be associated with the chemical composition of the methanolic extract of C. papaya, and are the first step into the development of a new phytotherapic product which could be used in the treatment of hypertension. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart

  8. Novel thigmomorphogenetic responses in Carica papaya: touch decreases anthocyanin levels and stimulates petiole cork outgrowths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Brad W; Zhu, Yun J; Webb, David T; Christopher, David A

    2009-04-01

    Because of its rapid growth rate, relative ease of transformation, sequenced genome and low gene number relative to Arabidopsis, the tropical fruit tree, Carica papaya, can serve as a complementary genetic model for complex traits. Here, new phenotypes and touch-regulated gene homologues have been identified that can be used to advance the understanding of thigmomorphogenesis, a multigenic response involving mechanoreception and morphological change. Morphological alterations were quantified, and microscopy of tissue was conducted. Assays for hypocotyl anthocyanins, lignin and chlorophyll were performed, and predicted genes from C. papaya were compared with Arabidopsis touch-inducible (TCH) and Mechanosensitive channel of Small conductance-like genes (MscS-like or MSL). In addition, the expression of two papaya TCH1 homologues was characterized. On the abaxial side of petioles, treated plants were found to have novel, hypertrophic outgrowths associated with periderm and suberin. Touched plants also had higher lignin, dramatically less hypocotyl anthocyanins and chlorophyll, increased hypocotyl diameter, and decreased leaf width, stem length and root fresh weight. Papaya was found to have fewer MSL genes than Arabidopsis, and four touch-regulated genes in Arabidopsis had no counterparts in papaya. Water-spray treatment was found to enhance the expression of two papaya TCH1 homologues whereas induction following touch was only slightly correlated. The novel petiole outgrowths caused by non-wounding, mechanical perturbation may be the result of hardening mechanisms, including added lignin, providing resistance against petiole movement. Inhibition of anthocyanin accumulation following touch, a new phenotypic association, may be caused by diversion of p-coumaroyl CoA away from chalcone synthase for lignin synthesis. The absence of MSL and touch-gene homologues indicates that papaya may have a smaller set of touch-regulated genes. The genes and novel touch

  9. Wound-healing potential of an ethanol extract of Carica papaya (Caricaceae) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Bijoor Shivananda; Ramdeen, Ria; Adogwa, Andrew; Ramsubhag, Adash; Marshall, Julien Rhodney

    2012-12-01

    Carica papaya L. (Linn) (Caricaceae) is traditionally used to treat various skin disorders, including wounds. It is widely used in developing countries as an effective and readily available treatment for various wounds, particularly burns. This study evaluated the wound-healing and antimicrobial activity of C. papaya seed extract. Ethanol extract of C. papaya seed (50 mg/kg/day) was evaluated for its wound-healing activity in Sprague-Dawley rats using excision wound model. Animals were randomly divided into four groups of six each (group 1 served as control, group 2 treated with papaya seed extract, group 3 treated with a standard drug mupirocin and papaya seed extract (1:1 ratio) and group 4 treated with a mupirocin ointment. Rate of wound contraction and hydroxyproline content were determined to assess the wound-healing activity of the seed extract. The group 2 animals showed a significant decrease in wound area of 89% over 13 days when compared with groups 1 (82%), 3 (86%) and 4 (84%) respectively. The hydroxyproline content was significantly higher with the granulation tissue obtained from group 2 animals which were treated with C. papaya seed extract. Histological analysis of granulation tissue of the group 2 animals showed the deposition of well-organized collagen. The extract exhibited antimicrobial activity against Salmonella choleraesuis and Staphylococcus aureus. Our results suggest that C. papaya promotes significant wound healing in rats and further evaluation for this activity in humans is suggested. © 2012 The Authors. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd and Medicalhelplines.com Inc.

  10. Validation and use of DNA markers for sex determination in papaya (Carica papaya)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ejaz, M.; Iqbal, M.; Ahmed, I.

    2015-01-01

    Profitable papaya production requires female and hermaphrodite plants in higher number than male plants. This is only possible if sex of plants is determined at an early growth stage. The present study was conducted to validate sex-linked DNA markers using plants from two Pakistani papaya varieties and subsequently utilize them for determination of sex in juvenile papaya plants. One hundred and five plants (including 49 male and 56 female) of two Pakistani Papaya varieties at flowering stage were screened with six DNA markers viz., W-11, T12, SDP, Napf-76Napf-76, PKBT4 and PKBT5. All male plants exhibited amplification of sex-linked alleles with markers T12 and W11, whereas, 96% and 95% of female plants showed the absence of sex-linked allele with these markers, respectively. Markers SDP, PKBT5 and Napf-76 showed the presence of sex-linked alleles in 98%, 96% and 93% of male plants, respectively, whereas the same markers showed the absence of sex-linked alleles in 100%, 96% and 94% of female plants. One marker, PKBT4 could not produce expected PCR amplification reported previously. The five DNA markers were further used to screen 171 papaya seedlings. These markers clearly differentiated male and female sex types in the studied papaya plants. Results of our study are likely to facilitate Pakistani papaya breeders and growers to incorporate DNA based screening at juvenile stage to determine sex at early stage and to ensure profitable papaya production. (author)

  11. n vitro study of antiamoebic effect of methanol extract of mature seeds of Carica papaya on trophozoites of Entamoeba histolytica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujit Kumar Sarker, Nilufar Begum, Dinesh Mondal, Md. Abdullah Siddique, Mohammad A. Rashid

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Antiamoebic activity of methanol extract of mature seeds of Carica papaya was tested in vitro on axenic culture of Entamoeba histolytica using metronidazole as a reference amoebicidal agent. The MIC of seed extract was > 62.5 µg/mL as compared to < 0.8 µg/mL for metronidazole. The present study suggests that the mature seeds of C. papaya have antiamoebic effect but less pronounced than metronidazole.

  12. In vitro study of antiamoebic effect of methanol extract of mature seeds of Carica papaya on trophozoites of Entamoeba histolytica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujit Kumar Sarker

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Antiamoebic activity of methanol extract of mature seeds of Carica papaya was tested in vitro on axenic culture of Entamoeba histolytica using metronidazole as a reference amoebicidal agent. The MIC of seed extract was > 62.5 µg/mL as compared to < 0.8 µg/mL for metronidazole. The present study suggests that the mature seeds of C. papaya have antiamoebic effect but less pronounced than metronidazole.

  13. Purification of papain from fresh latex of Carica papaya

    OpenAIRE

    Monti, Rubens; Basilio, Carmelita A.; Trevisan, Henrique C.; Contiero, Jonas

    2000-01-01

    In the present study we wish to report a method of crystallizing papain from fresh papaya latex which gave higher yields than previously reported. This method does not involve the use of sulphydryl reagents. The papain thus obtained is practically pure and shows a single band when submitted to electrophoresis on polyacrylamide gel, and is identical to the papain obtained by other methods. In routine enzymatic assays, specific activity was measured using Z-gly-pNP and BAEE as substrates. Papai...

  14. Molecular characterization and pathogenicity of Erwinia spp. associated with pineapple [Ananas comosus (L. Merr.] and papaya (Carica papaya L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramachandran Kogeethavani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Erwinia species are well-known pathogens of economic importance in Malaysia causing serious damage to high-value fruit crops that include pineapple [Ananas comosus (L. Merr.] and papaya (Carica papaya L..The 16S rRNA sequence using eubacteria fD1 and rP2 primers, identified two bacteria species; Dickeya zeae from pineapple heart rot, and Erwinia mallotivora from papaya dieback. Phylogenetic analysis based on the neighbor-joining method indicated that all the bacterial isolates clustered in their own taxa and formed monophyletic clades. From the pathogenicity test, all isolates of D. zeae and E. mallotivora showed pathogenic reactions on their respective host plants. Genetic variability of these isolates was assessed using repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR fingerprinting. The results indicated interspecies, and intraspecies variation in both species’ isolates. There were more polymorphic bands shown by rep-PCR fingerprints than enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC and BOX- PCRs, however both species’ isolates produced distinguishable banding patterns. Unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averages (UPGMA cluster analysis indicated that all Dickeya and Erwinia isolates from the same species were grouped in the same main cluster. Similarity among the isolates ranged from 77 to 99%. Sequencing of 16S rRNA using eubacteria fD1 and rP2 primers, and rep-PCR fingerprinting revealed diversity among Dickeya and Erwinia isolates. But this method appears to be reliable for discriminating isolates from pineapple heart rot and papaya dieback.

  15. Imaging of Bacterial and Fungal Cells Using Fluorescent Carbon Dots Prepared from Carica papaya Juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasibabu, Betha Saineelima B; D'souza, Stephanie L; Jha, Sanjay; Kailasa, Suresh Kumar

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we have described a simple hydrothermal method for preparation of fluorescent carbon dots (C-dots) using Carica papaya juice as a precursor. The synthesized C-dots show emission peak at 461 nm with a quantum yield of 7.0 %. The biocompatible nature of C-dots was confirmed by a cytotoxicity assay on E. coli. The C-dots were used as fluorescent probes for imaging of bacterial (Bacillus subtilis) and fungal (Aspergillus aculeatus) cells and emitted green and red colors under different excitation wavelengths, which indicates that the C-dots can be used as a promising material for cell imaging.

  16. Correlation between ethylene emission and skin colour changes during papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruit ripening

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, M. G.; Oliveira, J. G.; Vitoria, A. P.; Corrêa, S. F.; Pereira, M. G.; Campostrini, E.; Santos, E. O.; Cavalli, A.; Vargas, H.

    2005-06-01

    The skin colour changes and ethylene emission rates were monitored during papaya (C. papaya L.) fruit ripening. Two groups of papaya (‘Formosa’ and ‘Solo’) were applied in this study. The total colour difference was used as measured parameter and the corresponding half time of its saturation was used as correlation parameter. A high correlation factor between the saturation half time and corresponding climacteric peak time was found. It was concluded that high ethylene emission rate in ‘Solo’ fruit promotes a quick change of the total colour difference.

  17. Effect of gamma irradiation in papaya (Carica papaya L.) harvested in three degrees of maturation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pimentel, Rodrigo Meirelles de Azevedo

    2001-01-01

    The papaya is a fragile tropical fruit with thin skin, susceptible to post harvest diseases and mechanical injuries. Furthermore, it is sensible to low temperatures and at normal conditions it ripens rapidly, increasing the difficulties with storage. The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of gamma irradiation in papayas harvested in three degrees of maturation, in order to increase shelf life. To accomplish that, papayas were harvested in perfect quality conditions, washed, submitted to carnauba wax and selected by skin coloration into three distinct degrees of maturation: Mat 0, or beginning of yellow coloration; Mat 1, yellow stripes more developed, and Mat 2, one third yellow. Half of them were submitted to irradiation with 0, 75 kGy, while the others became control treatment. They were analyzed in four different periods of conservation, which were 1 day after irradiation (DAI) refrigerated (11 +- 1 deg C), 14 DAI refrigerated, 14 DAI refrigerated + 3 at room temperature (RT = 24 deg +- 2 deg C) and 14 DAI refrigerated + 6 at RT. The effect of irradiation was not influenced by the maturation degree at harvest. Irradiation promoted firmness maintenance of papaya and, therefore, delayed ripening; modified the green color of papaya to a lighter tone, which determined more homogeneity in the skin yellow color development (greater values of L* and b*), and turned the papaya flesh color lighter (rower values of b*). There was no effect of irradiation in papaya weight loss, in the occurrence of diseases, in the development of surface yellow color, in the parameter a* of papaya skin color, in the parameters L*, a* and chroma of flesh color, p H and total soluble solids content. Visual and organoleptic sensorial tests were accomplished with papayas from a new delivery in the conservation period of 14 DAI refrigerated + 3 at RT. In the visual test was evaluated the appearance of papaya in the following treatments: Mat O control, Mat O irradiated, Mat 1

  18. Papaya (Carica papaya) consumption is unsafe in pregnancy: fact or fable? Scientific evaluation of a common belief in some parts of Asia using a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebiyi, Adebowale; Adaikan, P Ganesan; Prasad, R N V

    2002-08-01

    Using controlled in vivo and in vitro pharmacological methods, we evaluated the safety of papaya (Carica papaya) consumption in pregnancy with reference to its common avoidance during pregnancy in some parts of Asia. Ripe papaya (Carica papaya L. (Caricaecae) blend (500 ml/l water) was freely given to four groups of Sprague-Dawley rats at different stages of gestation (days 1-5, 6-11, 12-17 and 1-20). The control group received water. The effect of ripe papaya juice and crude papaya latex on pregnant and non-pregnant rats' uteri was also evaluated using standard isolated-organ-bath methods. The daily volumes (ml) of ripe papaya blend consumed by the treated group were significantly (Ppapaya relative to the control. No sign of fetal or maternal toxicity was observed in all the groups. In the in vitro study, ripe papaya juice (0.1-0.8 ml) did not show any significant contractile effect on uterine smooth muscles isolated from pregnant and non-pregnant rats; conversely, crude papaya latex (0.1-3.2 mg/ml) induced spasmodic contraction of the uterine muscles similar to oxytocin (1-64 mU/ml) and prostaglandin F(2 alpha) (0.028-1.81 microm). The response of the isolated rat uterine smooth muscles to 0.2 mg crude papaya latex/ml was comparable to 0.23 microm prostaglandin F(2 alpha) and 32 mU oxytocin/ml. In the 18-19 d pregnant rat uterus, the contractile effect of crude papaya latex was characterized by tetanic spasms. The results of the present study suggest that normal consumption of ripe papaya during pregnancy may not pose any significant danger. However, the unripe or semi-ripe papaya (which contains high concentration of the latex that produces marked uterine contractions) could be unsafe in pregnancy. Though evaluation of potentially toxic agents often relies on animal experimental results to predict risk in man, further studies will be necessary to ascertain the ultimate risk of unripe papaya-semi-ripe papaya consumption during pregnancy in man.

  19. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of the glutaminyl cyclase from Carica papaya latex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azarkan, Mohamed [Laboratoire de Chimie Générale I, Faculté de Médecine-ULB CP609, 808 Route de Lennik, B-1070 Brussels (Belgium); Clantin, Bernard; Bompard, Coralie [CNRS-UMR 8525, Institut de Biologie de Lille, BP 477, 1 Rue du Professeur Calmette, F-59021 Lille (France); Belrhali, Hassan [EMBL Grenoble Outstation, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, BP 181, F-38042 Grenoble CEDEX 9 (France); Baeyens-Volant, Danielle [Laboratoire de Chimie Générale I, Faculté de Médecine-ULB CP609, 808 Route de Lennik, B-1070 Brussels (Belgium); Looze, Yvan [Laboratoire de Chimie Générale, Institut de Pharmacie-ULB CP206/04, Boulevard du Triomphe, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Villeret, Vincent, E-mail: vincent.villeret@ibl.fr [CNRS-UMR 8525, Institut de Biologie de Lille, BP 477, 1 Rue du Professeur Calmette, F-59021 Lille (France); Wintjens, René, E-mail: vincent.villeret@ibl.fr [Laboratoire de Chimie Générale, Institut de Pharmacie-ULB CP206/04, Boulevard du Triomphe, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Laboratoire de Chimie Générale I, Faculté de Médecine-ULB CP609, 808 Route de Lennik, B-1070 Brussels (Belgium)

    2005-01-01

    The glutaminyl cyclase isolated from C. papaya latex has been crystallized using the hanging-drop method. Diffraction data have been collected at ESRF beamline BM14 and processed to 1.7 Å resolution. In living systems, the intramolecular cyclization of N-terminal glutamine residues is accomplished by glutaminyl cyclase enzymes (EC 2.3.2.5). While in mammals these enzymes are involved in the synthesis of hormonal and neurotransmitter peptides, the physiological role played by the corresponding plant enzymes still remains to be unravelled. Papaya glutaminyl cyclase (PQC), a 33 kDa enzyme found in the latex of the tropical tree Carica papaya, displays an exceptional resistance to chemical and thermal denaturation as well as to proteolysis. In order to elucidate its enzymatic mechanism and to gain insights into the structural determinants underlying its remarkable stability, PQC was isolated from papaya latex, purified and crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals belong to the orthorhombic space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 62.82, b = 81.23, c = 108.17 Å and two molecules per asymmetric unit. Diffraction data have been collected at ESRF beamline BM14 and processed to a resolution of 1.7 Å.

  20. Assessment of the Anti-Protozoal Activity of Crude Carica papaya Seed Extract against Trypanosoma cruzi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Y. Acosta-Viana

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the in vivo activity against the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, two doses (50 and 75 mg/kg of a chloroform extract of Carica papaya seeds were evaluated compared with a control group of allopurinol. The activity of a mixture of the three main compounds (oleic, palmitic and stearic acids in a proportion of 45.9% of oleic acid, 24.1% of palmitic and 8.52% of stearic acid previously identified in the crude extract of C. papaya was evaluated at doses of 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg. Both doses of the extracts were orally administered for 28 days. A significant reduction (p < 0.05 in the number of blood trypomastigotes was observed in animals treated with the evaluated doses of the C. papaya extract in comparison with the positive control group (allopurinol 8.5 mg/kg. Parasitemia in animals treated with the fatty acids mixture was also significantly reduced (p < 0.05, compared to negative control animals. These results demonstrate that the fatty acids identified in the seed extracts of C. papaya (from ripe fruit are able to reduce the number of parasites from both parasite stages, blood trypomastigote and amastigote (intracellular stage.

  1. Assessment of the anti-protozoal activity of crude Carica papaya seed extract against Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Coello, Matilde; Guzman-Marín, Eugenia; Ortega-Pacheco, Antonio; Perez-Gutiérrez, Salud; Acosta-Viana, Karla Y

    2013-10-11

    In order to determine the in vivo activity against the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, two doses (50 and 75 mg/kg) of a chloroform extract of Carica papaya seeds were evaluated compared with a control group of allopurinol. The activity of a mixture of the three main compounds (oleic, palmitic and stearic acids in a proportion of 45.9% of oleic acid, 24.1% of palmitic and 8.52% of stearic acid previously identified in the crude extract of C. papaya was evaluated at doses of 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg. Both doses of the extracts were orally administered for 28 days. A significant reduction (p < 0.05) in the number of blood trypomastigotes was observed in animals treated with the evaluated doses of the C. papaya extract in comparison with the positive control group (allopurinol 8.5 mg/kg). Parasitemia in animals treated with the fatty acids mixture was also significantly reduced (p < 0.05), compared to negative control animals. These results demonstrate that the fatty acids identified in the seed extracts of C. papaya (from ripe fruit) are able to reduce the number of parasites from both parasite stages, blood trypomastigote and amastigote (intracellular stage).

  2. A purely green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Carica papaya, Manihot esculenta, and Morinda citrifolia: synthesis and antibacterial evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syafiuddin, Achmad; Salmiati; Hadibarata, Tony; Salim, Mohd Razman; Kueh, Ahmad Beng Hong; Sari, Ajeng Arum

    2017-09-01

    Green procedure for synthesizing silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) is currently considered due to its economy and toxic-free effects. Several existing works on synthesizing AgNPs using leaves extract still involve the use of physical or mechanical treatment such as heating or stirring, which consume a lot of energy. To extend and explore the green extraction philosophy, we report here the synthesis and antibacterial evaluations of a purely green procedure to synthesize AgNPs using Carica papaya, Manihot esculenta, and Morinda citrifolia leaves extract without the aforementioned additional treatment. The produced AgNPs were characterized using the ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and antibacterial investigations. For antibacterial tests, two bacteria namely Escherichia coli and Bacillus cereus were selected. The presently employed method has successfully produced spherical AgNPs having sizes ranging from 9 to 69 nm, with plasmonic characteristics ranging from 356 to 485 nm, and energy-dispersive X-ray peak at approximately 3 keV. In addition, the smallest particles can be produced when Manihot esculenta leaves extract was applied. Moreover, this study also confirmed that both the leaves and synthesized AgNPs exhibit the antibacterial capability, depending on their concentration and the bacteria type.

  3. Purification and characterization of a papaya (Carica papaya L.) pectin methylesterase isolated from a commercial papain preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasu, Prasanna; Savary, Brett J; Cameron, Randall G

    2012-07-15

    We purified a Carica papaya pectin methylesterase (CpL-PME; EC 3.1.1.11) from a commercial papain preparation. This CpL-PME was separated from the abundant cysteine endopeptidases activities using sequential hydrophobic interaction and cation-exchange chromatographies and then purified by affinity chromatography using Sepharose-immobilized kiwi PME inhibitor protein to obtain a single electrophoretically homogeneous protein. The enzyme was purified 92-fold with 38% yield, providing a specific activity of 1200 U/mg. The molecular weight was determined to be 35,135 by MALDI-TOF-MS in linear mode. MALDI-TOF-MS peptide mass fingerprinting following trypsin digestion indicated CpL-PME represents a novel Carica PME isoform. The CpL-PME required salt for activity, and it showed a broad activity range (pH 6-9) and moderate thermostability (optimum ca. 70°C). A calcium-insensitive methylated lime pectin treated with CpL-PME to reduce degree of methylesterification by 6% converted the substrate to high calcium sensitivity, indicating a processive mode of action. These properties support further research to apply CpL-PME to tailor pectin nanostructure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. HPLC-based activity profiling for antiplasmodial compounds in the traditional Indonesian medicinal plant Carica papaya L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julianti, Tasqiah; De Mieri, Maria; Zimmermann, Stefanie; Ebrahimi, Samad N; Kaiser, Marcel; Neuburger, Markus; Raith, Melanie; Brun, Reto; Hamburger, Matthias

    2014-08-08

    Leaf decoctions of Carica papaya have been traditionally used in some parts of Indonesia to treat and prevent malaria. Leaf extracts and fraction have been previously shown to possess antiplasmodial activity in vitro and in vivo. Antiplasmodial activity of extracts was confirmed and the active fractions in the extract were identified by HPLC-based activity profiling, a gradient HPLC fractionation of a single injection of the extract, followed by offline bioassay of the obtained microfractions. For preparative isolation of compounds, an alkaloidal fraction was obtained via adsorption on cationic ion exchange resin. Active compounds were purified by HPLC-MS and MPLC-ELSD. Structures were established by HR-ESI-MS and NMR spectroscopy. For compounds 5 and 7 absolute configuration was confirmed by comparison of experimental and calculated electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectroscopy data, and by X-ray crystallography. Compounds were tested for bioactivity in vitro against four parasites (Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, Trypanosoma cruzi, Leishmania donovani, and Plasmodium falciparum), and in the Plasmodium berghei mouse model. Profiling indicated flavonoids and alkaloids in the active time windows. A total of nine compounds were isolated. Four were known flavonols--manghaslin, clitorin, rutin, and nicotiflorin. Five compounds isolated from the alkaloidal fraction were piperidine alkaloids. Compounds 5 and 6 were inactive carpamic acid and methyl carpamate, while three alkaloids 7-9 showed high antiplasmodial activity and low cytotoxicity. When tested in the Plasmodium berghei mouse model, carpaine (7) did not increase the survival time of animals. The antiplasmodial activity of papaya leaves could be linked to alkaloids. Among these, carpaine was highly active and selective in vitro. The high in vitro activity could not be substantiated with the in vivo murine model. Further investigations are needed to clarify the divergence between our negative in vivo results

  5. Development of a gene-centered ssr atlas as a resource for papaya (Carica papaya) marker-assisted selection and population genetic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Newton Medeiros; Grazziotin, Ana Laura; Ramos, Helaine Christine Cancela; Pereira, Messias Gonzaga; Venancio, Thiago Motta

    2014-01-01

    Carica papaya (papaya) is an economically important tropical fruit. Molecular marker-assisted selection is an inexpensive and reliable tool that has been widely used to improve fruit quality traits and resistance against diseases. In the present study we report the development and validation of an atlas of papaya simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. We integrated gene predictions and functional annotations to provide a gene-centered perspective for marker-assisted selection studies. Our atlas comprises 160,318 SSRs, from which 21,231 were located in genic regions (i.e. inside exons, exon-intron junctions or introns). A total of 116,453 (72.6%) of all identified repeats were successfully mapped to one of the nine papaya linkage groups. Primer pairs were designed for markers from 9,594 genes (34.5% of the papaya gene complement). Using papaya-tomato orthology assessments, we assembled a list of 300 genes (comprising 785 SSRs) potentially involved in fruit ripening. We validated our atlas by screening 73 SSR markers (including 25 fruit ripening genes), achieving 100% amplification rate and uncovering 26% polymorphism rate between the parental genotypes (Sekati and JS12). The SSR atlas presented here is the first comprehensive gene-centered collection of annotated and genome positioned papaya SSRs. These features combined with thousands of high-quality primer pairs make the atlas an important resource for the papaya research community.

  6. Does Carica papaya leaf-extract increase the platelet count? An experimental study in a murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharmarathna, Sinhalagoda Lekamlage Chandi Asoka; Wickramasinghe, Susiji; Waduge, Roshitha Nilmini; Rajapakse, Rajapakse Peramune Veddikkarage Jayanthe; Kularatne, Senanayake Abeysinghe Mudiyanselage

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the potential role of fresh Carica papaya (C. papaya) leaf extract on haematological and biochemical parameters and toxicological changes in a murine model. In total 36 mice were used for the trial. Fresh C. papaya leaf extract [0.2 mL (2 g)/mouse] was given only to the test group (18 mice). General behavior, clinical signs and feeding patterns were recorded. Blood and tissue samples were collected at intervals. Haematological parameters including platelet, red blood cell (RBC), white blood cell (WBC), packed cell volume (PCV), serum biochemistry including serum creatinine, serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) and serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) were determined. Organs for possible histopathological changes were examined. Neither group exhibited alteration of behavior or reduction in food and water intake. Similarly, no significant changes in SGOT, SGPT and serum creatinine levels were detected in the test group. Histopathological organ changes were not observed in either group of mice except in three liver samples of the test group which had a mild focal necrosis. The platelet count (11.33±0.35)×10⁵/µL (P=0.00004) and the RBC count (7.97±0.61)×10⁶/µL (P=0.00003) were significantly increased in the test group compared to that of the controls. However, WBC count and PCV (%) values were not changed significantly in the test group. The platelet count in the test group started to increase significantly from Day 3 (3.4±0.18×10⁵/µL), reaching almost a fourfold higher at Day 21 (11.3×10⁵/µL), while it was 3.8×10⁵/µL and 5.5×10⁵/µL at Day 3 and Day 21 respectively in the control. Likewise, the RBC count in the test group increased from 6×10⁶/µL to 9×10⁶/ µL at Day 21 while it remained near constant in the control group (6×10⁶/µL). Fresh C. papaya leaf extract significantly increased the platelet and RBC counts in the test group as compared to controls. Therefore, it is very important to identify

  7. Production of fatty acid butyl esters using the low cost naturally immobilized Carica papaya lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Erzheng; Wei, Dongzhi

    2014-07-09

    In this work, the low cost naturally immobilized Carica papaya lipase (CPL) was investigated for production of fatty acid butyl esters (FABE) to fulfill the aim of reducing the lipase cost in the enzymatic butyl-biodiesel process. The CPL showed specificities to different alcohol acyl acceptors. Alcohols with more than three carbon atoms did not have negative effects on the CPL activity. The CPL catalyzed butanolysis for FABE production was systematically investigated. The reaction solvent, alcohol/oil molar ratio, enzyme amount, reaction temperature, and water activity all affected the butanolysis process. Under the optimized conditions, the highest conversion of 96% could be attained in 24 h. These optimal conditions were further applied to CPL catalyzed butanolysis of other vegetable oils. All of them showed very high conversion. The CPL packed-bed reactor was further developed, and could be operated continuously for more than 150 h. All of these results showed that the low cost Carica papaya lipase can be used as a promising lipase for biodiesel production.

  8. Aerobiological and immunochemical studies on Carica papaya L. pollen: an aeroallergen from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, P; Ghosh, D; Chowdhury, I; Roy, I; Chatterjee, S; Chanda, S; Gupta-Bhattacharya, S

    2005-07-01

    Carica papaya L. is a fruit yielding tree, wildly grown or cultivated in the tropics and subtropics. Its pollen grain has been reported to be airborne and cause immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated hypersensitivity. To conduct long-term aerobiological study on Carica pollen, along with aeroallergenic particles originating from it and to identify vis-a-vis characterize an important IgE-reactive component present in this pollen. The seasonal and diurnal periodicities of airborne C. papaya pollen were recorded in a 5-year survey using a Burkard volumetric sampler. The allergenic potential was studied by skin prick tests, IgE-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and also by aeroallergen immunoblotting. The total pollen extract was fractionated by Sephacryl S-200 column, and out of the eluted five fractions, the maximum IgE-reactive fraction (as found in ELISA inhibition) was resolved into five major subfractions in reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The subfraction with optimum IgE reactivity was studied by activity gel, native and nonreducing sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The homogeneity of the isolated protein fraction was checked by crossed immunoelectrophoresis with rabbit antisera and IgE reactivity was confirmed by ELISA inhibition and immunoblotting using individual patient sera. The Carica pollen occurred in the air round the year with peaks during January and September-October. Among a patient population of 1000, skin-test results showed 27.8% +1 level and 5.6% +2/+3 level reactions. In aeroallergen immunoblotting of exposed Burkard tape segments, the detected allergen spots showed a significant correlation with airborne pollen count recorded. The pollen extract elicited loss of IgE reactivity when treated with reducing agent-like beta-mercaptoethanol and heat, but showed six IgE-reactive components in nonreducing IgE-immunoblot. The fraction 1 eluted from Sephacryl S-200 column showed

  9. Carica papaya microRNAs are responsive to Papaya meleira virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Paolla M V; Gaspar, Clicia G; Buss, David S; Ventura, José A; Ferreira, Paulo C G; Fernandes, Patricia M B

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs are implicated in the response to biotic stresses. Papaya meleira virus (PMeV) is the causal agent of sticky disease, a commercially important pathology in papaya for which there are currently no resistant varieties. PMeV has a number of unusual features, such as residence in the laticifers of infected plants, and the response of the papaya to PMeV infection is not well understood. The protein levels of 20S proteasome subunits increase during PMeV infection, suggesting that proteolysis could be an important aspect of the plant defense response mechanism. To date, 10,598 plant microRNAs have been identified in the Plant miRNAs Database, but only two, miR162 and miR403, are from papaya. In this study, known plant microRNA sequences were used to search for potential microRNAs in the papaya genome. A total of 462 microRNAs, representing 72 microRNA families, were identified. The expression of 11 microRNAs, whose targets are involved in 20S and 26S proteasomal degradation and in other stress response pathways, was compared by real-time PCR in healthy and infected papaya leaf tissue. We found that the expression of miRNAs involved in proteasomal degradation increased in response to very low levels of PMeV titre and decreased as the viral titre increased. In contrast, miRNAs implicated in the plant response to biotic stress decreased their expression at very low level of PMeV and increased at high PMeV levels. Corroborating with this results, analysed target genes for this miRNAs had their expression modulated in a dependent manner. This study represents a comprehensive identification of conserved miRNAs inpapaya. The data presented here might help to complement the available molecular and genomic tools for the study of papaya. The differential expression of some miRNAs and identifying their target genes will be helpful for understanding the regulation and interaction of PMeV and papaya.

  10. Agronomic, economic and ecological aspects of the papaya (Carica papaya) production in Tabasco, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guzmán-Ramón, E.; Gómez-Alvarez, R.; Pat-Fernández, J.M.; Pohlan, H.A.J.; Álvarez-Rivero, J.C.; Geissen, V.

    2010-01-01

    The cultivation of papaya is important in the tropic because it provides source of income to the farmer within a short time. Statistical data were obtained from farmers located in the Chontalpa, Rios and Centro-Sierra regions; the size of the survey was 67 farmers. The study shows the results of the

  11. New fruit and seed disorders in Papaya ( Carica papaya L.) in India ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Systematic field screening was conducted in 14 important papaya germplasm lines to observe the severity of bumpy fruit incidence. The disease severity, fruit yield and economic losses due to physiological disorders were observed. Pune Selection-3 was most sensitive (64.6%) for the disorder while Pusa Selection Red ...

  12. Empleo del método de secado convectivo combinado para la deshidratación de papaya (Carica papaya L.), variedad Maradol roja

    OpenAIRE

    Sahylin Muñiz Becerá; Antihus Hernández Gómez; Annia García Pereira; Lilia Méndez Lagunas

    2013-01-01

    La presente investigación tiene como objetivo evaluar el método de secado convectivo de papaya (Carica papaya L.) variedad Maradol roja, combinado con la aplicación de pretratamientos de osmosis (DOSC) y escaldado simple (ESSC), mediante el efecto de los factores tecnológi- cos del secador: temperatura (40 y 60oC) y velocidad del flujo de aire (2,5 y 1,5 m/s) sobre el comportamiento de las propiedades de calidad de la fruta deshidratada y la cinética del proceso. El pretratamiento de escaldad...

  13. Bioseparation of papain from Carica papaya latex by precipitation of papain-poly (vinyl sulfonate) complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braia, Mauricio; Ferrero, Maximiliano; Rocha, María Victoria; Loureiro, Dana; Tubio, Gisela; Romanini, Diana

    2013-09-01

    The formation of insoluble complexes between enzymes and polyelectrolytes is a suitable technique for isolating these biomolecules from natural sources, because it is a simple and rapid technique that allows the concentration of the protein. This technique can be used in most purification protocols at the beginning of the downstream process. The aim of this investigation is to isolate papain from Carica papaya latex by precipitation of insoluble complexes between this enzyme and poly (vinyl sulfonate). The papain-poly (vinyl sulfonate) complex was insoluble at pH lower than 6, with a PVS/PAP stoichiometric ratio of 1:279. Ionic strength affected the complex formation. The presence of the polymer increased the enzymatic activity and protected the enzyme from autodegradation. The optimal conditions for the formation of insoluble papain-polyelectrolyte complex formation were applied to C. papaya latex and a high recovery was obtained (around 86%) and a purification factor around 2. This method can be applied as an isolation method of papain from C. papaya latex or as a first step in a larger purification strategy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Carpeloidy in flower evolution and diversification: a comparative study in Carica papaya and Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronse De Craene, Louis; Tréhin, Christophe; Morel, Patrice; Negrutiu, Ioan

    2011-06-01

    Bisexual flowers of Carica papaya range from highly regular flowers to morphs with various fusions of stamens to the ovary. Arabidopsis thaliana sup1 mutants have carpels replaced by chimeric carpel-stamen structures. Comparative analysis of stamen to carpel conversions in the two different plant systems was used to understand the stage and origin of carpeloidy when derived from stamen tissues, and consequently to understand how carpeloidy contributes to innovations in flower evolution. Floral development of bisexual flowers of Carica was studied by scanning electron microscopy and was compared with teratological sup mutants of A. thaliana. In Carica development of bisexual flowers was similar to wild (unisexual) forms up to locule initiation. Feminization ranges from fusion of stamen tissue to the gynoecium to complete carpeloidy of antepetalous stamens. In A. thaliana, partial stamen feminization occurs exclusively at the flower apex, with normal stamens forming at the periphery. Such transformations take place relatively late in development, indicating strong developmental plasticity of most stamen tissues. These results are compared with evo-devo theories on flower bisexuality, as derived from unisexual ancestors. The Arabidopsis data highlight possible early evolutionary events in the acquisition of bisexuality by a patchy transformation of stamen parts into female parts linked to a flower axis-position effect. The Carica results highlight tissue-fusion mechanisms in angiosperms leading to carpeloidy once bisexual flowers have evolved. We show two different developmental routes leading to stamen to carpel conversions by late re-specification. The process may be a fundamental aspect of flower development that is hidden in most instances by developmental homeostasis.

  15. Cysteine proteinases from papaya (Carica papaya) in the treatment of experimental Trichuris suis infection in pigs: two randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levecke, Bruno; Buttle, David J; Behnke, Jerzy M; Duce, Ian R; Vercruysse, Jozef

    2014-05-30

    Cysteine proteinases (CPs) from papaya (Carica papaya) possess anthelmintic properties against human soil-transmitted helminths (STH, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm), but there is a lack of supportive and up-to-date efficacy data. We therefore conducted two randomized controlled trials in pigs to assess the efficacy of papaya CPs against experimental infections with T. suis. First, we assessed efficacy by means of egg (ERR) and adult worm reduction rate (WRR) of a single-oral dose of 450 μmol active CPs (CP450) against low (inoculum of 300 eggs) and high (inoculum of 3,000 eggs) intensity T. suis infections and compared the efficacy with those obtained after a single-oral dose of 400 mg albendazole (ALB). In the second trial, we determined and compared the efficacy of a series of CP doses (45 [CP45], 115 [CP115], 225 [CP225], and 450 [CP450] μmol) against high intensity infections. CP450 was highly efficacious against both levels of infection intensity, resulting in ERR and WRR of more than 97%. For both levels of infection intensity, CP450 was significantly more efficacious compared to ALB by means of WRR (low infection intensity: 99.0% vs. 39.0%; high infection intensity; 97.4% vs. 23.2%). When the efficacy was assessed by ERR, a significant difference was only observed for high intensity infections, CP450 being more efficacious than ALB (98.9% vs. 59.0%). For low infection intensities, there was no significant difference in ERR between CP450 (98.3%) and ALB (64.4%). The efficacy of CPs increased as a function of increasing dose. When determined by ERR, the efficacy ranged from 2.1% for CP45 to 99.2% for CP450. For WRR the results varied from -14.0% to 99.0%, respectively. Pairwise comparison revealed a significant difference in ERR and WRR only between CP45 and CP450, the latter being more efficacious. A single dose of 450 μmol CPs provided greater efficacy against T. suis infections in pigs than a single-oral dose of 400 mg ALB

  16. Purification of papain from fresh latex of Carica papaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens Monti

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we wish to report a method of crystallizing papain from fresh papaya latex which gave higher yields than previously reported. This method does not involve the use of sulphydryl reagents. The papain thus obtained is practically pure and shows a single band when submitted to electrophoresis on polyacrylamide gel, and is identical to the papain obtained by other methods. In routine enzymatic assays, specific activity was measured using Z-gly-pNP and BAEE as substrates. Papain crystallized by this method, without the use of high concentrations of salts or thiol-containing substances such as cysteine and dithiothreitol, is obtained in the form of a complex with natural inhibitors existent in latex which can be removed by dialysis.No presente trabalho apresenta-se um método de cristalização da papaína oriunda do látex fresco de mamão, o qual apresenta uma alta produtividade em relação aos métodos previamente descritos. A metodologia aqui descrita não envolve o uso de reagentes sulfidrílicos, a papaína foi obtida de forma praticamente pura, apresentando uma simples banda quando submetida a eletroforese, e com propriedades idênticas àquelas obtidas por outros métodos. A atividade específica foi determinada utilizando Z-gly-pNP e BAEE como substrato. A papaína obtida por essa metodologia, sem uso de substâncias tais como cisteína e ditiotreitol, apresenta-se na forma de um complexo com inibidores naturais, os quais podem ser removidos por diálise.

  17. Genetic-molecular characterization of backcross generations for sexual conversion in papaya (Carica papaya L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, H C C; Pereira, M G; Pereira, T N S; Barros, G B A; Ferreguetti, G A

    2014-12-04

    The low number of improved cultivars limits the expansion of the papaya crop, particularly because of the time required for the development of new varieties using classical procedures. Molecular techniques associated with conventional procedures accelerate this process and allow targeted improvements. Thus, we used microsatellite markers to perform genetic-molecular characterization of papaya genotypes obtained from 3 backcross generations to monitor the inbreeding level and parental genome proportion in the evaluated genotypes. Based on the analysis of 20 microsatellite loci, 77 genotypes were evaluated, 25 of each generation of the backcross program as well as the parental genotypes. The markers analyzed were identified in 11 of the 12 linkage groups established for papaya, ranging from 1 to 4 per linkage group. The average values for the inbreeding coefficient were 0.88 (BC1S4), 0.47 (BC2S3), and 0.63 (BC3S2). Genomic analysis revealed average values of the recurrent parent genome of 82.7% in BC3S2, 64.4% in BC1S4, and 63.9% in BC2S3. Neither the inbreeding level nor the genomic proportions completely followed the expected average values. This demonstrates the significance of molecular analysis when examining different genotype values, given the importance of such information for selection processes in breeding programs.

  18. Comparative proteomic analysis of somatic embryo maturation in Carica papaya L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, Ellen de Moura; Heringer, Angelo Schuabb; Barroso, Tatiana; Ferreira, André Teixeira da Silva; da Costa, Monique Nunes; Perales, Jonas Enrique Aguilar; Santa-Catarina, Claudete; Silveira, Vanildo

    2014-01-01

    Somatic embryogenesis is a complex process regulated by numerous factors. The identification of proteins that are differentially expressed during plant development could result in the development of molecular markers of plant metabolism and provide information contributing to the monitoring and understanding of different biological responses. In addition, the identification of molecular markers could lead to the optimization of protocols allowing the use of biotechnology for papaya propagation and reproduction. This work aimed to investigate the effects of polyethylene glycol (PEG) on somatic embryo development and the protein expression profile during somatic embryo maturation in papaya (Carica papaya L.). The maturation treatment supplemented with 6% PEG (PEG6) resulted in the greatest number of somatic embryos and induced differential protein expression compared with cultures grown under the control treatment. Among 135 spots selected for MS/MS analysis, 76 spots were successfully identified, 38 of which were common to both treatments, while 14 spots were unique to the control treatment, and 24 spots were unique to the PEG6 treatment. The identified proteins were assigned to seven categories or were unclassified. The most representative class of proteins observed in the control treatment was associated with the stress response (25.8%), while those under PEG6 treatment were carbohydrate and energy metabolism (18.4%) and the stress response (18.4%). The differential expression of three proteins (enolase, esterase and ADH3) induced by PEG6 treatment could play an important role in maturation, and these proteins could be characterized as candidate biomarkers of somatic embryogenesis in papaya.

  19. Evaluation of the composition of Carica papaya L. seed oil extracted with supercritical CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso, Pedro T W; de Carvalho, Pedro P; Rocha, Thiago B; Pessoa, Fernando L P; Azevedo, Debora A; Mendes, Marisa F

    2016-09-01

    Among the most important tropical fruit grown in the world today and in Brazil, papaya occupies a prominent place. Native to tropical America, papaya has spread to several regions of the world, and Brazil accounts for 12.74% of the world production, followed by Mexico, Nigeria and India. The culture reached a harvested area of 441,042 ha and production of 12,420,585 t worldwide. The largest interest in this fruit relies on its main constituent compounds, like vitamins A, B and C, alkaloids (carpaine and pseudocarpaine), proteolytic enzymes (papain and quimiopapain) and benzyl isothiocyanate, more known as BITC, which has anthelmintic activity. Because of that, the present work has as objective the evaluation of the efficiency and composition of the oil extracted from Carica papaya L. seeds with supercritical carbon dioxide. The experiments were performed in a unit containing mainly a high-pressure pump and a stainless steel extractor with 42 mL of volume. The sampling was performed at each 20 min until the saturation of the process. About 6.5 g of sample were fed for each experiment done at 40, 60 and 80 °C under the pressures of 100, 150 and 200 bar. Samples of the Carica papaya L. fruit were acquired in a popular market and free for personal use intended for the study. After collection, the seeds were crushed with the help of a pestle, and dried at 60 °C for 60 min. For each operational condition, the extraction curves were constructed relating cumulative mass of oil extracted in function of the operational time. The better efficiencies were found at 40 °C and 200 bar (1.33%) followed by 80 °C and 200 bar (2.56%). Gas chromatography and NMR analysis could identify an insecticide component (BITC) that enables new applications of this residue in pharmaceutical and chemical industries.

  20. Evaluation of the composition of Carica papaya L. seed oil extracted with supercritical CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro T.W. Barroso

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Among the most important tropical fruit grown in the world today and in Brazil, papaya occupies a prominent place. Native to tropical America, papaya has spread to several regions of the world, and Brazil accounts for 12.74% of the world production, followed by Mexico, Nigeria and India. The culture reached a harvested area of 441,042 ha and production of 12,420,585 t worldwide. The largest interest in this fruit relies on its main constituent compounds, like vitamins A, B and C, alkaloids (carpaine and pseudocarpaine, proteolytic enzymes (papain and quimiopapain and benzyl isothiocyanate, more known as BITC, which has anthelmintic activity. Because of that, the present work has as objective the evaluation of the efficiency and composition of the oil extracted from Carica papaya L. seeds with supercritical carbon dioxide. The experiments were performed in a unit containing mainly a high-pressure pump and a stainless steel extractor with 42 mL of volume. The sampling was performed at each 20 min until the saturation of the process. About 6.5 g of sample were fed for each experiment done at 40, 60 and 80 °C under the pressures of 100, 150 and 200 bar. Samples of the Carica papaya L. fruit were acquired in a popular market and free for personal use intended for the study. After collection, the seeds were crushed with the help of a pestle, and dried at 60 °C for 60 min. For each operational condition, the extraction curves were constructed relating cumulative mass of oil extracted in function of the operational time. The better efficiencies were found at 40 °C and 200 bar (1.33% followed by 80 °C and 200 bar (2.56%. Gas chromatography and NMR analysis could identify an insecticide component (BITC that enables new applications of this residue in pharmaceutical and chemical industries.

  1. Herb-drug pharmacokinetic interaction between carica papaya extract and amiodarone in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Márcio; Alves, Gilberto; Francisco, Joana; Fortuna, Ana; Falcão, Amílcar

    2014-01-01

    Carica papaya has been traditionally used worldwide in folk medicine to treat a wide range of ailments in humans, including the management of obesity and digestive disorders. However, scientific information about its potential to interact with conventional drugs is lacking. Thus, this work aimed to investigate the interference of a standardized C. papaya extract (GMP certificate) on the systemic exposure to amiodarone (a narrow therapeutic index drug) in rats. In the first pharmacokinetic study, rats were simultaneously co-administered with a single-dose of C. papaya (1230 mg/kg, p.o.) and amiodarone (50 mg/kg, p.o.); in the second study, rats were pre-treated for 14 days with C. papaya (1230 mg/kg/day, p.o.) and received amiodarone (50 mg/kg, p.o.) on the 15th day. Rats of the control groups received the herbal extract vehicle. Blood samples were collected before dosing and at 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 12 h following amiodarone administration; in addition, at 24 h post-dose, blood and tissues (heart, liver, kidneys and lungs) were also harvested. Thereafter, the concentrations of amiodarone and its major metabolite (mono-N-desethylamiodarone) were determined in plasma and tissue samples employing a high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection method previously developed and validated. In both studies was observed a delay in attaining the maximum plasma concentrations of amiodarone (tmax) in the rats treated with the extract. Nevertheless, it must be highlighted the marked increase (60-70%) of the extent of amiodarone systemic exposure (as assessed by AUC0-t and AUC0-∞) in the rats pre-treated with C. papaya comparatively with the control (vehicle) group. The results herein found suggest an herb-drug interaction between C. papaya extract and amiodarone, which clearly increase the drug bioavailability. To reliably assess the clinical impact of these findings appropriate human studies should be conducted.

  2. Sexual Dimorphic Responses in Lymphocytes of Healthy Individuals after Carica papaya Consumption

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    Nur Ramziahrazanah Jumat

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sexual dimorphism in immune response is widely recognized, but few human studies have observed this distinction. Food with endo-immunomodulatory potential may reveal novel sex-biased in vivo interactions. Immunomodulatory effects of Carica papaya were compared between healthy male and female individuals. Volunteers were given fixed meals supplemented with papaya for 2 days. Changes in blood immune profiles and hormone levels were determined. In females, total natural killer (NK cell percentages decreased (12.7 ± 4.4 vs 14.6 ± 5.8%, p = 0.018, n = 18 while B cells increased (15.2 ± 5.5 vs 14.5 ± 5.0, p = 0.037, n = 18 after papaya consumption. Increased 17β-estradiol (511.1 ± 579.7 vs 282.7 ± 165.0 pmol/l, p = 0.036, n = 9 observed in females may be crucial to this change. Differentiation markers (CD45RA, CD69, CD25 analyzed on lymphocytes showed naïve (CD45RA+ non-CD4+ lymphocytes were reduced in females (40.7 ± 8.1 vs 46.8 ± 5.4%, p = 0.012, n = 8 but not males. A general suppressive effect of papaya on CD69+ cells, and higher percentage of CD69+ populations in females and non-CD4 lymphocytes, may be relevant. CD107a+ NK cells were significantly increased in males (16.8 ± 7.0 vs 14.7 ± 4.8, p = 0.038, n = 9 but not females. Effect in females may be disrupted by the action of progesterone, which was significantly correlated with this population (R = 0.771, p = 0.025, n = 8 after papaya consumption. In males, total T helper cells were increased (33.4 ± 6.4 vs 32.4 ± 6.1%, p = 0.040, n = 15. Strong significant negative correlation between testosterone and CD25+CD4+ lymphocytes, may play a role in the lower total CD4+ T cells reported in males. Thus, dissimilar immune profiles were elicited in the sexes after papaya consumption and may have sex hormone influence.

  3. Expressão transiente do gene gus, sob regulação de quatro promotores, em diferentes tecidos de mamoeiro (Carica papaya L. e videira (Vitis sp. Transient expression of the gus gene, under the regulation of four promoters, on different tissues of papaya (Carica papaya l. and grape (Vitis sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelar Almeida Pinto

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available O mamoeiro (Carica papaya L. e a videira (Vitis vinifera L. destacam-se entre as fruteiras produzidas no Brasil por serem plantadas em quase todo o território nacional e apresentarem importância econômica e social. A tecnologia de produção de organismos geneticamente modificados, também conhecidos como "transgênicos", tem grande potencial de uso no desenvolvimento de fruteiras melhoradas. Porém, questões de propriedade intelectual limitam o uso da engenharia genética por países em desenvolvimento, que normalmente não detêm direitos sobre processos ou produtos necessários ao uso desta. Neste contexto, o presente estudo buscou avaliar promotores de expressão gênica alternativos ao CaMV 35S, que é o mais utilizado no desenvolvimento de transgênicos, mas é patenteado. Para tanto, construções gênicas com o gene gus sob a regulação de diferentes promotores foram testadas para expressão transiente em diversos tecidos de mamoeiro e videira. Expressão transiente foi avaliada em embriões somáticos, folhas, caules, raízes e frutos. O promotor do gene UBQ3, que é constitutivo e se encontra em domínio publico, mostrou ser uma alternativa promissora para futuros trabalhos de transformação genética de mamoeiro, mas não de videira.Papaya (Carica papaya L. and grapes (Vitis vinifera L. are among the most important fruit crops produced in Brazil, and are cultivated in several regions around the country being of economical and social importance. Genetic engineering has great potential on the development of genetically improved fruit crops. However, intellectual property issues constantly limit the commercial use of this technology in developing countries. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate gene promoters as alternatives to the 35S CaMV, which is the most used so far in the development of transgenic plants, but it is patented. In order to do that, the expression of the gus gene under the regulation of distinct promoters was

  4. Genome-wide analysis and characterization of Aux/IAA family genes related to fruit ripening in papaya (Carica papaya L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kaidong; Yuan, Changchun; Feng, Shaoxian; Zhong, Shuting; Li, Haili; Zhong, Jundi; Shen, Chenjia; Liu, Jinxiang

    2017-05-05

    Auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) family genes encode short-lived nuclear proteins that mediate the responses of auxin-related genes and are involved in several plant developmental and growth processes. However, how Aux/IAA genes function in the fruit development and ripening of papaya (Carica papaya L.) is largely unknown. In this study, a comprehensive identification and a distinctive expression analysis of 18 C. papaya Aux/IAA (CpIAA) genes were performed using newly updated papaya reference genome data. The Aux/IAA gene family in papaya is slightly smaller than that in Arabidopsis, but all of the phylogenetic subfamilies are represented. Most of the CpIAA genes are responsive to various phytohormones and expressed in a tissues-specific manner. To understand the putative biological functions of the CpIAA genes involved in fruit development and ripening, quantitative real-time PCR was used to test the expression profiling of CpIAA genes at different stages. Furthermore, an IAA treatment significantly delayed the ripening process in papaya fruit at the early stages. The expression changes of CpIAA genes in ACC and 1-MCP treatments suggested a crosstalk between auxin and ethylene during the fruit ripening process of papaya. Our study provided comprehensive information on the Aux/IAA family in papaya, including gene structures, phylogenetic relationships and expression profiles. The involvement of CpIAA gene expression changes in fruit development and ripening gives us an opportunity to understand the roles of auxin signaling in the maturation of papaya reproductive organs.

  5. Antioxidant activities and phenolics profiling of different parts of Carica papaya by LCMS-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zunjar, V; Mammen, D; Trivedi, B M

    2015-01-01

    This article deals with the comparison of the antioxidant activity of aqueous extracts of various parts of Carica papaya L. The evaluation of total phenolic content and total flavonoid content revealed high antioxidant potential of the seeds and fruits. The free radical-scavenging potential of the aqueous extracts indicated the seeds to have better DPPH-scavenging activity than fruits. The results were augmented by the FRAP activity as well. The phenolics present in the extracts were separated and identified as 5-hydroxy feruloyl quinic acid, acetyl p-coumaryl quinic acid, quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside, syringic acid hexoside, 5-hydroxy caffeic quinic acid, peonidin-3-O-glucoside, sinapic acid-O-hexoside, cyaniding-3-O-glucose and methyl feruloyl glycoside by LCMS-MS technique.

  6. Sodium tetrathionate effect on papain purification from different Carica papaya latex crude extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llerena-Suster, Carlos R; Priolo, Nora S; Morcelle, Susana R

    2011-01-01

    Papain from latex of Carica papaya was purified up to matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry homogeneity by salt precipitation from two different crude extract sources: a refined preparation obtained in our laboratory and a commercial one. Sodium tetrathionate was tested in the purification process to preserve the enzymatic activity of the peptidase. Purification was checked by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and cation exchange chromatography, using commercial pure papain as standard for a rapid comparison. The best purification yields (3.4%) were obtained in presence of 30 mM sodium tetrathionate for the crude extract prepared in our laboratory. The described purification method proved to be robust and reliable to obtain pure papain on a preparative scale.

  7. Low-dose gamma irradiation following hot Water immersion of Papaya (Carica Papaya linn.) fruits provides additional control of postharvest fungal infection to extend shelf life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rashid, M.H.A.; Grout, Brian William Wilson; Continella, A.

    2015-01-01

    Low-dose gamma irradiation (0.08 kGy over 10 min), a level significantly below that required to satisfy the majority of international quarantine regulations, has been employed to provide a significant reduction in visible fungal infection on papaya fruit surfaces. This is appropriate for local...... and national markets in producer countries where levels of commercial acceptability can be retained despite surface lesions due to fungal infection. Irradiation alone and in combination with hot-water immersion (50 °C for 10 min) has been applied to papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruits at both the mature green...... and 1/3 yellow stages of maturity. The incidence and severity of surface fungal infections, including anthracnose, were significantly reduced by the combined treatment compared to irradiation or hot water treatment alone, extending storage at 11 °C by 13 days and retaining commercial acceptability...

  8. Evaluación de híbridos de papaya (carica papaya l. en pococí, limón, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Mora

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluación de híbridos de papaya (Carica papaya L. en Pococí, Limón, Costa Rica. Se estableció un experimento con nueve híbridos de papaya con el objetivo de determinar sus potenciales agronómicos y comerciales en una región de alta pluviosidad (cantón de Pococí, provincia de Limón. Las características evaluadas fueron tamaño de fruta, productividad total, brix de la pulpa y susceptibilidad a la antracnosis de la fruta causado por Colletotrichum gloesporioides. Se determinó que solo uno de los materiales mostró características similares al testigo comercial como fruta para consumo en fresco. Otro de los híbridos tuvo potencial para uso con fines agroindustriales.

  9. Label-free quantitative proteomics reveals differentially regulated proteins in the latex of sticky diseased Carica papaya L. plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Silas P; Ventura, José A; Aguilar, Clemente; Nakayasu, Ernesto S; Choi, HyungWon; Sobreira, Tiago J P; Nohara, Lilian L; Wermelinger, Luciana S; Almeida, Igor C; Zingali, Russolina B; Fernandes, Patricia M B

    2012-06-18

    Papaya meleira virus (PMeV) is so far the only described laticifer-infecting virus, the causal agent of papaya (Carica papaya L.) sticky disease. The effects of PMeV on the laticifers' regulatory network were addressed here through the proteomic analysis of papaya latex. Using both 1-DE- and 1D-LC-ESI-MS/MS, 160 unique papaya latex proteins were identified, representing 122 new proteins in the latex of this plant. Quantitative analysis by normalized spectral counting revealed 10 down-regulated proteins in the latex of diseased plants, 9 cysteine proteases (chymopapain) and 1 latex serine proteinase inhibitor. A repression of papaya latex proteolytic activity during PMeV infection was hypothesized. This was further confirmed by enzymatic assays that showed a reduction of cysteine-protease-associated proteolytic activity in the diseased papaya latex. These findings are discussed in the context of plant responses against pathogens and may greatly contribute to understand the roles of laticifers in plant stress responses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. INFLUENCE OF THICKNESS ON THE DRYING OF PAPAYA PUREE (Carica papaya L. THROUGH REFRACTANCE WINDOWTM TECHNOLOGY

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    MARÍA U. OCORÓ-ZAMORA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la influencia del espesor de las muestras (2, 3 y 4 mm sobre las cinéticas de secado, actividad de agua (aw y color (∆E de rodajas de puré de papaya procesadas por tecnología de ventana de refractanciaTM (RWTM. Adicionalmente se evaluó la difusividad del agua (Deff teniendo en cuenta el encogimiento. Los datos de humedad se ajustaron mediante los modelos de Newton y Midilli. Los resultados mostraron que a menor espesor el secado fue más rápido, los valores de aw fueron menores y los ∆E superiores. Las muestras alcanzaron 0.0652, 0.1132 y 0.2624 g agua/ g sólido seco en 60 min para rodajas de 2, 3 y 4 mm, respectivamente. El Modelo de Midilli fue el más apropiado para predecir las curvas de secado de papaya por RWTM. Deff disminuyó a menor espesor y su orden de magnitud fue de 10-10 m2/s.

  11. Green synthesis of colloidal copper oxide nanoparticles using Carica papaya and its application in photocatalytic dye degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar, Renu; Manikandan, Perumal; Malarvizhi, Viswanathan; Fathima, Tajudeennasrin; Shivashangari, Kanchi Subramanian; Ravikumar, Vilwanathan

    2014-01-01

    Copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticles were synthesized by treating 5 mM cupric sulphate with Carica papaya leaves extract. The kinetics of the reaction was studied using UV-visible spectrophotometry. An intense surface Plasmon resonance between 250-300 nm in the UV-vis spectrum clearly reveals the formation of copper oxide nanoparticles. The results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) exhibited that the green synthesized copper oxide nanoparticles are rod in shape and having a mean particle size of 140 nm, further negative zeta potential disclose its stability at -28.9 mV. The Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy results examined the occurrence of bioactive functional groups required for the reduction of copper ions. X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra confirmed the copper oxide nanoparticles crystalline nature. Furthermore, colloidal copper oxide nanoparticles effectively degrade the Coomassie brilliant blue R-250 dye beneath the sunlight. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Efficacy and safety of Carica papaya leaf extract in the dengue: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Charan, Jaykaran; Saxena, Deepak; Goyal, Jagdish Prasad; Yasobant, Sandul

    2016-01-01

    Background: Dengue is an infectious disease associated with high mortality and morbidity. Being a viral disease, there is no specific drug available for treatment. There are some reports that Carica papaya leaf extract may improve the clinical condition of dengue patients; however, to support this, at present, there is no systematically searched and synthesized evidence available. Objectives: This systematic review and meta-analysis was designed to search the available evidence related to the...

  13. Selective anti-proliferative activities of Carica papaya leaf juice extracts against prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Saurabh; Walpole, Carina; Cabot, Peter J; Shaw, Paul N; Batra, Jyotsna; Hewavitharana, Amitha K

    2017-05-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the leading cause of cancer related deaths in men. Carica papaya is a popular tropical plant that has been traditionally used for its nutritional and medicinal properties. We investigated the anti-proliferative responses of papaya leaf juice (LJP) and its various extracts ("biological"- in vitro digested, "physical"- size exclusion, and "chemical"-solvent extraction) on a range of cell lines representing benign hyperplasia, tumorigenic and normal cells of prostate origin. Time course analysis (by 24h, 48h and 72h) of LJP (1-0.1mg/mL) before and after in vitro digestion, and of molecular weight based fractions of LJP showed anti-proliferative responses. The medium polarity fraction of LJP (0.03-0.003mg/mL) after 72h exposure showed potent growth inhibitory (IC 50 =0.02-0.07mg/mL) and cytotoxic activities on all prostate cells, with the exception of the normal (RWPE-1 and WPMY-1) cells. Flow cytometry analysis showed S phase cell cycle arrest and apoptosis as a possible mechanism for these activities. Medium polar fraction of LJP also inhibited migration and adhesion of metastatic PC-3 cells. This is the first report suggesting selective anti-proliferative and anti-metastatic attributes of LJP extract against prostatic diseases, including PCa. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Identification of miRNAs and miRNA-mediated regulatory pathways in Carica papaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Gang; Li, Yang; He, Hua; Wang, Fang; Yu, Diqiu

    2013-10-01

    Plant microRNAs (miRNAs) post-transcriptionally regulate target gene expression to modulate growth and development and biotic and abiotic stress responses. By analyzing small RNA deep sequencing data in combination with the genome sequence, we identified 75 conserved miRNAs and 11 novel miRNAs. Their target genes were also predicted. For most conserved miRNAs, the miRNA-target pairs were conserved across plant species. In addition to these conserved miRNA-target pairs, we also identified some papaya-specific miRNA-target regulatory pathways. Both miR168 and miR530 target the Argonaute 1 gene, indicating a second autoregulatory mechanism for miRNA regulation. A non-conserved miRNA was mapped within an intron of Dicer-like 1 (DCL1), suggesting a conserved homeostatic autoregulatory mechanism for DCL1 expression. A 21-nt miRNA triggers secondary siRNA production from its target genes, nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat protein genes. Certain phased-miRNAs were processed from their conserved miRNA precursors, indicating a putative miRNA evolution mechanism. In addition, we identified a Carica papaya-specific miRNA that targets an ethylene receptor gene, implying its function in the ethylene signaling pathway. This work will also advance our understanding of miRNA functions and evolution in plants.

  15. Effect of Prior Heat Stress on the Early Growth of Carica papaya

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    Gideon Olarewaju OKUNLOLA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out to determine the effects of heat stress on some growth parameters like shoot height, leaf area, fresh weight, dry weight as well as the accumulation of chlorophylls in Carica papaya. Seedlings of C. papaya were exposed to prior heat stress at 40 °C. A group of plants was placed in a Gallenkamp oven for four hours; another group of plants was placed in the oven for eight hours while the third group of plants was placed in a dark cupboard for the period of eight hours. Sampling was carried out at weekly intervals starting from seven days after treatment. Plants were randomly picked from each of the three treatments. Three replicates were used for each parameter. The results obtained from the study showed that there was an increment in the shoot height, leaf area, fresh weight and dry weight from the beginning to the end of the experimental period. However, the accumulation of chlorophylls did not follow a particular pattern. The analysis of variance carried out on the data obtained showed that heat stress had a significant effect on the petiole length, shoot height, leaf length, leaf width, leaf area, fresh weight and dry weight. Heat stress, however, did not produce a significant effect on the accumulation of chlorophylls a and b and total chlorophyll.

  16. Effect of Prior Heat Stress on the Early Growth of Carica papaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gideon Olarewaju OKUNLOLA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out to determine the effects of heat stress on some growth parameters like shoot height, leaf area, fresh weight, dry weight as well as the accumulation of chlorophylls in Carica papaya. Seedlings of C. papaya were exposed to prior heat stress at 40 °C. A group of plants was placed in a Gallenkamp oven for four hours; another group of plants was placed in the oven for eight hours while the third group of plants was placed in a dark cupboard for the period of eight hours. Sampling was carried out at weekly intervals starting from seven days after treatment. Plants were randomly picked from each of the three treatments. Three replicates were used for each parameter. The results obtained from the study showed that there was an increment in the shoot height, leaf area, fresh weight and dry weight from the beginning to the end of the experimental period. However, the accumulation of chlorophylls did not follow a particular pattern. The analysis of variance carried out on the data obtained showed that heat stress had a significant effect on the petiole length, shoot height, leaf length, leaf width, leaf area, fresh weight and dry weight. Heat stress, however, did not produce a significant effect on the accumulation of chlorophylls a and b and total chlorophyll.

  17. EFFECT OF CARICA PAPAYA L LEAF ON MENSTRUAL PAIN AND PROSTAGLANDIN LEVEL IN ADOLESCENT WITH PRIMARY DYSMENORRHEA: A TRUE EXPERIMENT

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    Siska Nurul Abidah

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Primary dysmenorrhea occurs because of the excessive amount of prostaglandins in the blood. Papaya leaf extract is considered to be able to reduce prostaglandin and menstrual pain. Objective: This study aims to prove that papaya leaf extract (Carica Papaya L. can decrease the level of menstrual pain and prostaglandin levels in primary dysmenorrhea. Methods: A true experimental study with randomized pretest posttest control group design. There were 32 samples recruited using simple random sampling, with 16 each assigned to an experiment and control group. Numerical Rating Scale (NRS was used to measure menstrual pain, and the level of prostaglandin was measured using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA method. Independent t-test and paired t-test were performed for data analysis. Results: There was statistically significant differencec of menstrual pain and prostaglandin level before and after intervention with p-value 0.000 (<0.005, which indiciated that papaya leaf extract had a significant effect on reducing menstrual pain. The decrease of menstrual pain in the experimental group was -3.375 and in the control group was -3.438; while the decrease of prostaglandin level in the experimental group was -56.971 and in the control group was -57.557. Conclusion: Provision of papaya leaf extract (Carica Papaya L. significantly decreased the level of menstrual pain and prostaglandin levels in primary dysmenorrhea. Papaya leaf extract can be used as a safe and effective herbal medicine for primary dysmenorrhoea which has almost the same efficacy as mefenamic acid.

  18. DETERMINATION of OPTIMUM CONDITION of PAPAIN ENZYME FROM PAPAYA VAR JAVA (Carica papaya

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    Aline Puspita Kusumadjaja

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A study to investigate the optimum condition of papain enzyme has been carried out. The condition that are investigated are pH and temperature, based on measurement of enzyme activity which is defined as mmole tyrosin that are released in reaction between papain enzyme and casein as substrat per minute. In this research, the papain enzyme was isolated from pepaya burung varietas Java. The enzyme was partially purified by precipitation method using 30% - 50% saturated acetone. The result showed that the optimum conditions of papain enzyme are in pH 6 with activity 2,606 U/mL, and temperature at 50 oC with activity 2,469 U/mL. Keywords : Papaya var Java, papain, optimum condition, enzymatic activity

  19. Antioxidant potentials of Iranian Carica papaya juice in vitro and in vivo are comparable to alpha-tocopherol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdipour, Sanaz; Yasa, Narges; Dehghan, Gholamreza; Khorasani, Reza; Mohammadirad, Azadeh; Rahimi, Roja; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2006-07-01

    Carica papaya is widely cultivated throughout the world and is used as a food and also as a traditional medicine, particularly as an antiseptic and contraceptive. The present study was designed to explore the toxicological and antioxidant potential of dried C. papaya juice in vitro and in vivo. The oral LD(50) of the juice of C. papaya was determined, and the antioxidant potentials determined by DPPH and FRAP tests. In vivo examination was performed after oral administration of dried papaya juice to rats for 2 weeks at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg. Blood TBARS and FRAP assays were used to determine the potential of the juice to act against oxidative stress. The acute toxicity test (LD(50)) demonstrated that papaya juice is not lethal up to a dose of 1500 mg/kg after oral administration and thus is considered nontoxic. In treated groups, no sign of toxicity was observed. In vitro evaluation of the antioxidant effects of papaya showed that the highest antioxidant activity (80%) was observed with a concentration of 17.6 mg/mL. Blood lipid peroxidation levels decreased significantly after administration of all doses of papaya juice (100, 200, 400 mg/kg/day) to 35.5%, 39.5% and 40.86% of the control, respectively, compared with a value of 28.8% for vitamin E. The blood total antioxidant power was increased significantly by all doses of papaya juice (100, 200, 400 mg/kg/day) to 11.11%, 23.58% and 23.14% of the control, respectively. The value for vitamin E was 18.44%. This preliminary study indicates the safety and antioxidative stress potential of the juice of C. papaya, which was found to be comparable to the standard antioxidant compound alpha-tocopherol.

  20. Study about papaya (Carica papaya L.) conservation submitted to a combined treatment of irradiation and an edible film of quitosan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camargo, Rita Junqueira de

    2004-01-01

    In this research, on a first stage the effect of two treatments were studied: thermal, and a chitosan edible coating, combined with four different irradiation doses: 0,00 kGy, 0,50 kGy, 0,75 kGy and 1,00 kGy for effects in the ripening of papaya (Carica Papaya) cv. Golden. To evaluate the influence of these two factors in the physical-chemical characteristics of the fruit during ripening, analysis on color, both skin and pulp, firmness, soluble solids, pH and titrable acidity were performed. The incidence of fungi in fruit skin was also analyzed. The fruits were first maintained at 10 deg C chamber for fifteen days to simulate maritime transportation to the importer country and then transferred to a 25 deg C chamber aiming simulation of the commercialization conditions. From this first step, the conclusion was that chitosan in the concentration of 2% was not able to contain the fungi development and that it also influenced in a significant form the variable pH. A more expressive result was obtained for irradiation doses of 0,75 kGy and 1,00 kGy, as it was observed in the beginning the acceleration in ripening through the variables skin color and penetration energy of the fruit pulp. When storage temperature was changed to 25 deg C this situation inverted for these same variables and a two day delay was observed on the development of yellow color on the fruit skin and loss of pulp firmness. The variables titrable acidity, soluble solids and pulp color were not influenced by treatment or by irradiation. On a second stage, the fruits, in the same condition of the previous stage, were analyzed in relation of their mass and ripening stage using a ripening scale provided by the producer of the fruits for this experiment, as to evaluate the gradual development of fruit ripening according to the various treatments (chitosan 3%, thermal or control) and irradiation dose (0,00 kGy and 0,75 kGy). Confirming the results obtained in the first stage, the irradiation was able to

  1. Papaya (Carica papaya latex- an alternative to rennet for cottage cheese preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Shohel Rana

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The study was conducted to standardize the desire level of papaya latex on quality of cheese prepared from cow milk. Materials and methods: Cheese sample was prepared using whole milk collected from Dairy Farm, Bangladesh Agricultural University. This experiment was conducted on five treatments from cow milk named as sample CC1: cow control; A1: 2 drops (0.06 gm; B1: 3 drops (0.10 gm; C1: 4 drops (0.14 gm; D1: 5 drops (0.16 gm of papaya latex. All experimental cheeses were judged by a panel of judges for organoleptic evaluation using a score card. The total solids and ash content of the different types of cheese were determined by oven drying method according to AOAC. Fat per cent, protein and acidity were determined by Babcock method, procedure and titrating with N/10 sodium hydroxide solution, respectively described by Aggarwala and Sharma. Results: There was significant difference within the overall physical score of different samples except color score. Overall score of sample B1 was highest (93.67±1.53 and score of sample D1 was lowest (72.33±12.01. In case of chemical analysis, the highest protein value was 17.14±0.34% found in B1 and lowest value was 14.94±0.16% found in D1. The highest fat value of sample B1 was 23.00±1.00% and lowest value was 16.00±1.00% found in C1. Highest carbohydrate was found in A1 (9.44±2.25 and lowest in D1 (5.02±0.04. Total solids and moisture content of cheese differed significantly (P<0.01 among the sample. On the other hand, non-significant difference was found in acidity. Conclusion: Cheese from cow milk, time on curd coagulation have significant difference (P<0.01 but non-significant difference was found in yield. Highest yield was found in sample CC1 (200.00±5.00 gm/kg and lowest yield was found in B1 (193.33±2.89 gm/kg. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2017; 4(3.000: 249-254

  2. Papaya (Carica papaya) leaf methanolic extract modulates in vitro rumen methanogenesis and rumen biohydrogenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Saeid; Goh, Yong M; Rajion, Mohamed A; Jahromi, Mohammad F; Ahmad, Yusof H; Ebrahimi, Mahdi

    2017-02-01

    Papaya leaf methanolic extract (PLE) at concentrations of 0 (CON), 5 (LLE), 10 (MLE) and 15 (HLE) mg/250 mg dry matter (DM) with 30 mL buffered rumen fluid were incubated for 24 h to identify its effect on in vitro ruminal methanogenesis and ruminal biohydrogenation (BH). Total gas production was not affected (P > 0.05) by addition of PLE compared to the CON at 24 h of incubation. Methane (CH 4 ) production (mL/250 mg DM) decreased (P < 0.05) with increasing levels of PLE. Acetate to propionate ratio was lower (P <0.05) in MLE (2.02) and HLE (1.93) compared to the CON (2.28). Supplementation of the diet with PLE significantly (P <0.05) decreased the rate of BH of C18:1n-9 (oleic acid; OA), C18:2n-6 (linoleic acid; LA), C18:3n-3 (linolenic acid; LNA) and C18 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) compared to CON after 24 h incubation, which resulted in higher concentrations of BH intermediates such as C18:1 t11 (vaccenic acid; VA), c9t11 conjugated LA (CLA) (rumenic acid; RA) and t10c12 CLA. Real-time PCR analysis indicated that the total bacteria, total protozoa, Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens and methanogen population in HLE decreased (P <0.05) compared to CON, but the total bacteria and B. fibrisolvens population were higher (P < 0.05) in CON compared to the PLE treatment groups. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  3. In vitro antimicrobial and anti-proliferative activities of plant extracts from Spathodea campanulata, Ficus bubu, and Carica papaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbosso Teinkela, Jean Emmanuel; Assob Nguedia, Jules Clément; Meyer, Franck; Vouffo Donfack, Erik; Lenta Ndjakou, Bruno; Ngouela, Silvère; Tsamo, Etienne; Adiogo, Dieudonné; Guy Blaise Azebaze, Anatole; Wintjens, René

    2016-01-01

    African medicinal plants represent a prominent source of new active substances. In this context, three plants were selected for biological investigations based on their traditional uses. The antimicrobial and anti-proliferative features of three plants used for medicinal purpose were evaluated. The antimicrobial activities of methanol extracts of Ficus bubu Warb. (Moraceae) stem bark and leaves, of Spathodea campanulata P. Beauv. (Bignoniaceae) flowers, as well as those of Carica papaya Linn. (Caricaceae) latex, were determined using the microbroth dilution method against a set of bacteria and fungi pathogens including: Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, S. saprophyticus, S. epidermididis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Salmonella typhimurium, Candida albicans, and Trichophyton rubrum. The tested concentrations of extracts ranged from 2500.0 to 2.4 μg/mL and MIC values were evaluated after 24 h incubation at 37 °C. Subsequently, MTT assay was used to estimate anti-proliferative activity of these methanol extracts and of F. bubu latex on three human cancer cell lines (U373 glioblastoma, A549 NSCLC, and SKMEL-28 melanoma). The methanol extract of F. bubu stem bark exhibited the highest antimicrobial activity against C. albicans with a MIC value of 9.8 μg/mL, while the F. bubu latex and the methanol extract of F. bubu leaves induced significant anti-proliferative activity against lung (IC50 values of 10 and 14 μg/mL, respectively) and glioma (IC50 values of 13 and 16 μg/mL, respectively) cancer cells. These results indicate that effective drugs could be derived from the three studied plants.

  4. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of extracts from Cassia alata, Eleusine indica, Eremomastax speciosa, Carica papaya and Polyscias fulva medicinal plants collected in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagnia, Bertrand; Fedeli, Donatella; Casetti, Rita; Montesano, Carla; Falcioni, Giancarlo; Colizzi, Vittorio

    2014-01-01

    The vast majority of the population around the world has always used medicinal plants as first source of health care to fight infectious and non infectious diseases. Most of these medicinal plants may have scientific evidence to be considered in general practice. The aim of this work was to investigate the antioxidant capacities and anti-inflammatory activities of ethanol extracts of leaves of Cassia alata, Eleusine indica, Carica papaya, Eremomastax speciosa and the stem bark of Polyscias fulva, collected in Cameroon. Chemiluminescence was used to analyze the antioxidant activities of plant extracts against hydrogen peroxide or superoxide anion. Comet assays were used to analyze the protection against antioxidant-induced DNA damage induced in white blood cells after treating with hydrogen peroxide. Flow cytometry was used to measure γδ T cells proliferation and anti-inflammatory activity of γδ T cells and of immature dendritic cells (imDC) in the presence of different concentrations of plant extracts. Ethanol extracts showed strong antioxidant properties against both hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion. Cassia alata showed the highest antioxidant activity. The effect of plant extracts on γδ T cells and imDC was evidenced by the dose dependent reduction in TNF-α production in the presence of Cassia alata, Carica papaya, Eremomastax speciosa Eleusine indica, and Polyscias fulva. γδ T cells proliferation was affected to the greatest extent by Polyscias fulva. These results clearly show the antioxidant capacity and anti-inflammatory activities of plant extracts collected in Cameroon. These properties of leaves and stem bark extracts may contribute to the value for these plants in traditional medicine and in general medical practice.

  5. Optical and ultrastructural study of the pollen grain development in hermaphrodite papaya tree (Carica papaya L.

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    Lídia Márcia Silva Santos

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to describe the pollen grain development in hermaphrodite papaya tree. The flower buds were collected at different stages of the development and the anthers were treated chemically for observation under optical and electronic transmission microscopes. The pollen grain development followed the normal pattern described for the Angiosperms. The pollen grain development was described from meiocyte to the mature pollen grain. In the microsporogenesis, the microspore mother cells or the meiocytes underwent meiosis giving rise to the tetrads that were enclosed by the calose. Later, the tetrads were released by the dissolution of the calose by calase activity and microspores underwent mitosis. Microgametogenesis was characterized by asymmetrical mitotic division of each microspore giving rise to bi-nucleate pollen grains. The structures similar to the plastids were found in the cytoplasm and close to the nucleus of the generative cell. Gradual degeneration was observed in the tapetum during the male gamete development.Esta pesquisa descreve os estádios de formação do gameta masculino (grão de pólen em mamoeiro. Para isto foram coletados botões florais em diferentes etapas de desenvolvimento e as anteras foram tratadas quimicamente para serem observadas ao microscópio óptico e eletrônico de transmissão. O desenvolvimento do grão de pólen seguiu o padrão normal para Angiospermas. Foram descritos os estádios de desenvolvimento do grão de pólen desde meiócitos ou células mães de micrósporos até o grão de pólen binucleado. Na microesporogênese, as células esporogênicas sofreram meiose dando origem as tétrades, com posterior liberação dos micrósporos da tétrade. A microgametogênese caracterizou-se, principalmente, pela divisão mitótica assimétrica de cada micrósporo originando grãos de pólen binucleados. Estruturas semelhantes a plastídios foram encontradas no citoplasma da c

  6. Valorization of agroindustrial wastes: Identification by LC-MS and NMR of benzylglucosinolate from papaya (Carica papaya L.) seeds, a protective agent against lipid oxidation in edible oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Vargas, Henry I; Baumann, Wolfram; Parada-Alfonso, Fabián

    2016-07-01

    In the present study we report the characterization of benzylglucosinolate (BG) isolated from papaya (Carica papaya L.) seeds. A methanolic extract was fractionated and further purified by solid phase extraction (SPE). It was analyzed by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS), and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1) H and (13) C-NMR) as well, and the target compound BG was identified by these two techniques. The effect of BG on lipid oxidation in edible vegetable oil (EO) was shown by observing some lipid oxidation products (linoleic acid hydroperoxides, LHP; hexanal, HEX; nonanal, NON; thiobarbituric acid reactives species, TBARS). BG reduced lipid oxidation production in EO by over 80%, as compared to a control sample and in this way has proved to be a useful antioxidant, even more effective than some antioxidants used by food industry. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Lactogenic Activity of an Enzymatic Hydrolysate from Octopus vulgaris and Carica papaya in SD Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Bingna; Chen, Hua; Sun, Han; Sun, Huili; Wan, Peng; Chen, Deke; Pan, Jianyu

    2015-11-01

    The traditional Chinese medicine theory believes that octopus papaya soup can stimulate milk production in lactating women. The objective of this study was to determine whether dietary supplementation with an enzymatic hydrolysate of Octopus vulgaris and Carica papaya (EHOC) could increase milk production and nutritional indexes in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Female SD rats (n = 24) were fed a control diet (n = 8), EHOC-supplemented diet, or a positive control diet (Shengruzhi) from day 10 of pregnancy to day 10 of lactation. Maternal serum, mammary gland (day 10 of lactation), milk, and pup weight (daily) were collected for analysis. Results showed that the EHOC diet obviously elevated daily milk yield and pup weight compared to the control group (P < .05). The EHOC diet was found to increase the concentration of prolactin (PRL), progesterone (P), estradiol (E2), and growth hormone (GH) significantly in the circulation and mammary gland. Mammary glands of EHOC-treated dams showed clear lobuloalveolar development and proliferation of myoepithelial cells, but no striking variations were observed among the groups. Furthermore, the nutrition content and immune globulin concentration in the milk of EHOC-supplemented dams were higher than those of the control group, especially the cholesterol, glucose, and IgG were higher by 44.98% (P < .001), 42.76% (P < .01), and 42.23% (P < .01), respectively. In conclusion, this article demonstrates that EHOC administration has beneficial effects on milk production in the dams and on performance of the dam and pup. These results indicate that EHOC could be explored as a potentially lactogenic nutriment for lactating women.

  8. Preferential reproduction mode of hermaphrodite papaya plant (Carica papaya L; Caricaceae Modo de reprodução preferencial de plantas hermafroditas de mamoeiro (Carica papaya L; Caricaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Corrêa Damasceno junior

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This research was done to study the reproductive system of papaya hermaphrodite plant based on the histochemical nature of pollen grain, stigma receptivity, in vivo pollen grain germination and pollen:ovule ratio. In the histochemical analysis, pollen grains were stained by using Sudan IV and I2KI solution ; the stigma receptivity was assessed by alpha-naphthtyl acetate solution in closed and opened flowers. Pollen germination and pollen tube growing were examined in flower buds near anthesis with 0.1% aniline blue. To estimate the pollen:ovule ratio , anthers from each flower bud were dissected and all pollen grains were counted; ovules were dissected from ovaries and were counted under stereomicroscope. The results indicated that papaya pollen grains are of lipidic nature; the stigmas were receptive before the opening and until 48 hours after opening; the pollen grains germinated and emitted polinic tube before flower opening and the pollen:ovule ratio indicated the predominance of autogamous reproductive system. These results indicate that hermaphrodite papaya trees is preferentially of optional autogamous with cleistogamy.Esta pesquisa teve o objetivo de estudar o sistema reprodutivo preferencial de plantas hermafroditas de mamoeiro, com base na natureza histoquímica dos grãos de pólen, receptividade do estigma, teste de germinação in vivo do grão de pólen e razão pólen : óvulo. Na análise histoquímica dos grãos de pólen, foram utilizados os corantes Sudan IV e solução de I2KI; a receptividade do estigma foi avaliada com a solução de acetato de alfa-naftil em flores abertas e fechadas. A germinação e o crescimento do tubo polínico in vivo foram avaliados em flores fechadas, utilizando solução de azul de anilina a 0,1%. Para estimar a razão pólen:óvulo, anteras de cada flor foram dissecadas, e os grãos de pólen foram contados; ovários foram dissecados, e os óvulos foram contados sob estereomicroscópio. Os

  9. Genome-wide identification and characterization of auxin response factor (ARF) family genes related to flower and fruit development in papaya (Carica papaya L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kaidong; Yuan, Changchun; Li, Haili; Lin, Wanhuang; Yang, Yanjun; Shen, Chenjia; Zheng, Xiaolin

    2015-11-05

    Auxin and auxin signaling are involved in a series of developmental processes in plants. Auxin Response Factors (ARFs) is reported to modulate the expression of target genes by binding to auxin response elements (AuxREs) and influence the transcriptional activation of down-stream target genes. However, how ARF genes function in flower development and fruit ripening of papaya (Carica papaya L.) is largely unknown. In this study, a comprehensive characterization and expression profiling analysis of 11 C. papaya ARF (CpARF) genes was performed using the newly updated papaya reference genome data. We analyzed CpARF expression patterns at different developmental stages. CpARF1, CpARF2, CpARF4, CpARF5, and CpARF10 showed the highest expression at the initial stage of flower development, but decreased during the following developmental stages. CpARF6 expression increased during the developmental process and reached its peak level at the final stage of flower development. The expression of CpARF1 increased significantly during the fruit ripening stages. Many AuxREs were included in the promoters of two ethylene signaling genes (CpETR1 and CpETR2) and three ethylene-synthesis-related genes (CpACS1, CpACS2, and CpACO1), suggesting that CpARFs might be involved in fruit ripening via the regulation of ethylene signaling. Our study provided comprehensive information on ARF family in papaya, including gene structures, chromosome locations, phylogenetic relationships, and expression patterns. The involvement of CpARF gene expression changes in flower and fruit development allowed us to understand the role of ARF-mediated auxin signaling in the maturation of reproductive organs in papaya.

  10. Papaya (Carica papaya L.) yetiştiriciliği ve ülkemiz koşullarında yetiştirilme olanakları

    OpenAIRE

    DEMİRAL, Esma; GÜBBÜK, Hamide

    2004-01-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) tropik bir iklim bitkisi olmasına rağmen, subtropik iklim koşullarında uygun mikroklimalarda da yetiştirilebilmektedir. Papaya yetiştiriciliğinin kolay olması, hızlı büyüme ve çoğaltılabilmesi, kısa sürede ekonomik getirisinin olması, değişik toprak ve iklim koşullarına adapte olabilmesi nedeniyle oldukça popüler bir türdür. Papaya meyvesi iyi bir A, B ve C vitamini olması yanında, farklı endüstrilerde kullanım açısından da oldukça önemli bir türdür. Bu çalışmada, pa...

  11. Uji Daya Terima dan Nilai Gizi Biskuit yang Dimodifikasi Dengan Tepung Buah Pepaya (Carica papaya L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Ananda, Ceni Dwi

    2016-01-01

    Food diversification efforts can be done by using local food. Papaya is one of the local food with high nutrients and their availability of papaya fruit tends to increase every year. Papaya processed into flour an effort to become snack food utilization. Biscuit flour papaya is a modification biscuit by adding flour papaya fruit and its contains nutrients needed by the body. The purpose of this study is to determine the acceptability biscuit of papaya flour, organoleptic analysis based on ...

  12. Mature leaf concentrate of Sri Lankan wild type Carica papaya Linn. modulates nonfunctional and functional immune responses of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasinghe, Chanika Dilumi; Gunasekera, Dinara S; De Silva, Nuwan; Jayawardena, Kithmini Kawya Mandakini; Udagama, Preethi Vidya

    2017-04-26

    The leaf concentrate of Carica papaya is a traditionally acclaimed immunomodulatory remedy against numerous diseases; nonetheless comprehensive scientific validation of this claim is limited. The present study thus investigated the immunomodulatory potential of Carica papaya mature leaf concentrate (MLCC) of the Sri Lankan wild type cultivar using nonfunctional and functional immunological assays. Wistar rats (N = 6/ group) were orally gavaged with 3 doses (0.18, 0.36 and 0.72 ml/100g body weight) of the MLCC once daily for 3 consecutive days. Selected nonfunctional (enumeration of immune cells and cytokine levels) and functional (cell proliferation and phagocytic activity) immunological parameters, and acute toxic effects were determined using standard methods. Effect of the MLCC (31.25, 62.5, 125, 250, 500 and 1000 μg/ml) on ex vivo proliferation of bone marrow cells (BMC) and splenocytes (SC), and in vitro phagocytic activity of peritoneal macrophages (PMs), and their corresponding cytokine responses were evaluated. The phytochemical profile of the MLCC was established using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LS-MS) and Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Counts of rat platelets, total leukocytes, lymphocyte and monocyte sub populations, and BMCs were significantly augmented by oral gavage of the MLCC (p papaya Sri Lankan wild type cultivar is orally active, safe and effectively modulates nonfunctional and functional immunological parameters of rats that unequivocally corroborate the traditional medical claims.

  13. Effect of Carica papaya Leaf Extract Capsule on Platelet Count in Patients of Dengue Fever with Thrombocytopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadhwal, Ajeet Kumar; Ankit, B S; Chahar, Chitresh; Tantia, Pankaj; Sirohi, P; Agrawal, R P

    2016-06-01

    Thrombocytopenia in dengue fever is a common and serious complication. However, no specific treatment is available for dengue fever induced thrombocytopenia. In few countries (Pakistan, Malaysia, Sri Lanka and other Asian countries) the leaf extract of Carica papaya has been effectively used for thrombocytopenia. So, the study is planned to access effect of Carica papaya leaf extract on platelet count in dengue fever patients. All participants were randomised into two groups, study group and control group; the study group was given papaya leaf extract capsule of 500 mg once daily and routine supportive treatment for consecutive five days. The controls were given only routine supportive treatment. Daily complete blood counts, platelet counts and haematocrit level, liver function test, renal function test of both groups were observed. On the first day platelet count of study group and control group was (59.82±18.63, 61.06±20.03 thousands, p value 0.36). On the 2nd day platelet count of both study and control groups was not significantly different (61.67±19.46 and 59.93±19.52 thousands, p value 0.20) but on 3rd day platelet count of study group was significantly higher than control group (82.96±16.72, 66.45±17.36 thousands, p value dengue fever without any side effect and prevents the complication of thrombocytopenia. So, it can be used in dengue fever with thrombocytopenia patients.

  14. Anti-ulcerogenic activity of aqueous extract of Carica papaya seed on indomethacin-induced peptic ulcer in male albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oloyede, Hussein O B; Adaja, Matthew C; Ajiboye, Taofeek O; Salawu, Musa O

    2015-03-01

    Carica papaya is an important fruit with its seeds used in the treatment of ulcer in Nigeria. This study investigated the anti-ulcerogenic and antioxidant activities of aqueous extract of Carica papaya seed against indomethacin-induced peptic ulcer in male rats. Thirty male rats were separated into 6 groups (A-F) of five rats each. For 14 d before ulcer induction with indomethacin, groups received once daily oral doses of vehicle (distilled water), cimetidine 200 mg/kg body weight (BW), or aqueous extract of C. papaya seed at doses of 100, 150 or 200 mg/kg BW (groups A, B, C, D, E and F, respectively). Twenty-four hours after the last treatment, groups B, C, D, E and F were treated with 100 mg/kg BW of indomethacin to induce ulcer formation. Carica papaya seed extract significantly (Ppapaya extract. In this study, pretreatment with aqueous extract of Carica papaya seed exhibited anti-ulcerogenic and antioxidant effects, which may be due to the enhanced antioxidant enzymes.

  15. Antimalarial Potential of Carica papaya and Vernonia amygdalina in Mice Infected with Plasmodium berghei

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    Oche Okpe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study determined if administration of Vernonia amygdalina and Carica papaya plants provides synergistic effects in ameliorating plasmodium infection in mice. Thirty mice (17.88–25.3 g were divided into 6 groups of 5 mice each. Group 1 was normal control, while groups 2–6 were intraperitoneally inoculated 2.5 × 107 Plasmodium berghei parasitized red blood cell, followed by daily administration of 350 mg/kg aqueous leaf extracts after establishment of infection. Group 2 was disease control, while group 6 was treated with standard drug for four consecutive days. The results showed significant (P0.05 change in mean body weight of all treated groups except in disease control group. Histological studies of the infected mice indicate recovery of hepatic cells from congested black pigmentation. The reduction in parasite load and recovery of hepatic cell damage/hematological parameters were induced by these plant extracts. This highlighted the important usage of the plant in traditional remedy of malaria infection.

  16. Identification of phenylpropanoids in fig (Ficus carica L.) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Toru; Okiura, Aya; Saito, Keita; Kohno, Masahiro

    2014-10-15

    In this study, the phenylpropanoid composition and antioxidant activity of identified components in fig (Ficus carica L.) leaves were examined. Known polyphenols rutin, isoschaftoside, isoquercetin, and chlorogenic acid were identified. Furthermore, caffeoylmalic acid (CMA) was the most abundant polyphenol and was identified for the first time. CMA exhibited antioxidant activity similar to that of vitamin C or catechin. Psoralen and bergapten were identified as known furanocoumarins, with psoralen being the most abundant. Moreover, psoralic acid glucoside (PAG) was identified for the first time. As a precursor of psoralen, PAG content was equivalent to the psoralen content in moles. Notably, the content of these compounds varied between the five fig varieties, and the furanocoumarin and PAG contents varied more than that of the polyphenols. Further investigations concerning the influence of CMA and PAG on human health are necessary to elucidate functionalities of fig leaves.

  17. Somatic embryogenesis in Carica papaya as affected by auxins and explants, and morphoanatomical-related aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipriano, Jamile L D; Cruz, Ana Cláudia F; Mancini, Karina C; Schmildt, Edilson R; Lopes, José Carlos; Otoni, Wagner C; Alexandre, Rodrigo S

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate somatic embryogenesis in juvenile explants of the THB papaya cultivar. Apical shoots and cotyledonary leaves were inoculated in an induction medium composed of different concentrations of 2,4-D (6, 9, 12, 15 and 18 µM) or 4-CPA (19, 22, 25, 28 and 31 µM). The embryogenic calluses were transferred to a maturation medium for 30 days. Histological analysis were done during the induction and scanning electron microscopy after maturing. For both types of auxin, embryogenesis was achieved at higher frequencies with cotyledonary leaves incubated in induction medium than with apical shoots; except for callogenesis. The early-stage embryos (e.g., globular or heart-shape) predominated. Among the auxins, best results were observed in cotyledonary leaves induced with 4-CPA (25 µM). Histological analyses of the cotyledonary leaf-derived calluses confirmed that the somatic embryos (SEs) formed from parenchyma cells, predominantly differentiated via indirect and multicellular origin and infrequently via synchronized embryogenesis. The secondary embryogenesis was observed during induction and maturation phases in papaya THB cultivar. The combination of ABA (0.5 µM) and AC (15 g L-1) in maturation medium resulted in the highest somatic embryogenesis induction frequency (70 SEs callus-1) and the lowest percentage of early germination (4%).

  18. Somatic embryogenesis in Carica papaya as affected by auxins and explants, and morphoanatomical-related aspects

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    JAMILE L.D. CIPRIANO

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate somatic embryogenesis in juvenile explants of the THB papaya cultivar. Apical shoots and cotyledonary leaves were inoculated in an induction medium composed of different concentrations of 2,4-D (6, 9, 12, 15 and 18 µM or 4-CPA (19, 22, 25, 28 and 31 µM. The embryogenic calluses were transferred to a maturation medium for 30 days. Histological analysis were done during the induction and scanning electron microscopy after maturing. For both types of auxin, embryogenesis was achieved at higher frequencies with cotyledonary leaves incubated in induction medium than with apical shoots; except for callogenesis. The early-stage embryos (e.g., globular or heart-shape predominated. Among the auxins, best results were observed in cotyledonary leaves induced with 4-CPA (25 µM. Histological analyses of the cotyledonary leaf-derived calluses confirmed that the somatic embryos (SEs formed from parenchyma cells, predominantly differentiated via indirect and multicellular origin and infrequently via synchronized embryogenesis. The secondary embryogenesis was observed during induction and maturation phases in papaya THB cultivar. The combination of ABA (0.5 µM and AC (15 g L-1 in maturation medium resulted in the highest somatic embryogenesis induction frequency (70 SEs callus-1 and the lowest percentage of early germination (4%.

  19. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Carica Papaya fruit extract under sunlight irradiation and their colorimetric detection of mercury ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firdaus, M.; Andriana, S.; Elvinawati; Alwi, W.; Swistoro, E.; Ruyani, A.; Sundaryono, A.

    2017-04-01

    We have successfully synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by using aqueous extract of papaya (Carica papaya) fruit as bioreductant under sunlight irradiation without additional capping agent. Characterizations were done using UV-Visible spectrophotometry and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The synthesized AgNPs have yellowish-brown color with surface plasmon resonance peak at 410 nm. Good selectivity of the AgNPs towards hazardous heavy metal of mercury ions in aqueous solution has been developed as a green environmental sensor. The presence of Hg(II) ions in the mixture changed the yellowish-brown color of AgNPs to colorless due to oxidation of Ag(O) in AgNPs to Ag(I) ions. Effect of samples matrix such as alkali metal, alkaline earth metal and transition metal ions were evaluated.

  20. Report: In vivo anticoccidial effects of Azadirachta indica and Carica papaya L. with salinomycin drug as a dietary feed supplement in broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hema, Srinivasan; Arun, Thangavel; Senthilkumar, Balakrishnan; Senbagam, Duraisamy; Sureshkumar, Muthusamy

    2015-07-01

    A total of thirty suspected broiler chicks were screened for coccidiosis, of them 25 chicks were found to be infected with coccidiosis viz. Eimeria tenella (15) Eimeria maxima (5) Eimeria necatrix (6) and Eimeria mitis (4). The anticoccidial efficacy of Azadirachta indica and Carica papaya with Salinomycin as a dietary feed supplement on the representative E. tenella (25 x 10³ oocyst) infection challenged in broiler chicks was studied in six groups for the period of six weeks. A. indica and C. papaya leaves were administered in powder form at the concentration of 0.1% and 0.2% respectively. The Oocysts per gram (OPG) count were observed on 8th, 9th, 10th, 11th day of post inoculation (DPI). The challenged experimental chicks revealed haemorrhage, thickening of mucosa, cores of blood and ballooning of caecum. The experimental group T5 chicks treated with A. indica were analyzed to possess the maximum weight gain (2.003), better feed conversion ratio (FCR) (2.32), OPG count (5.87), livability percentage (88) and the lesion score (3.33). Chi-square test analysis revealed no significant differences among the treated groups and the performance parameters. Therefore, this study concludes that plant sources used as a remedial curate for coccidiosis is a perforated growth in the commercial broiler industries.

  1. Pengaruh Pemberian Ekstrak Daun Pepaya (Carica papaya Linn dan Kunyit (Curcuma domestica Terhadap Fermentabilitas Rumen Sapi Perah Secara In vitro

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    Annisa Ramandhani

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to determine the effect of using papaya leaves extract, turmeric extract and the combination on ruminal pH, the concentrations of amonia (NH3, Volatile Fatty Acids (VFA, Acetate, Propionate, Butyrate, Methane (CH4, CO2 and Total Protein. The material was used rumen fluid of dairy cows, papaya leaves extract and turmeric extract. The study was arranged in a completely randomized design with 4 treatments and 4 replications. The treatment was control diet (T1; control diet supplemented with 0.005 ml papaya leaves extract (T2; control diet supplemented with 0.005 ml turmeric extract (T3 and control diet supplemented with 0.0025 ml papaya leaves extract and 0.0025 ml turmeric extract (T4. The rumen fluid was analyzed after 3 hours fermentation. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and continued by Duncan test. The result showed that single supplementation of either papaya leaves or turmeric extract alone and supplementation of both herbal did not affect ruminal pH, NH3, CO2 and total protein production. Moreover, there were an increase in concentrations of total VFA, acetate, propionate, butyrate and methane. The combination of papaya leaves and turmeric extract supplementation resulting in the highest concentrations of VFA (445 mMol/l, acetate (13.5 mMol/l, propionate (4.24 mMol/l, butyrate (1.87 mMol/l and CH4 (17.17% in the rumen. In conclusion, supplementation of papaya leaves and turmeric alone, and the combination of both herbal could enhance rumen fermentability of dairy cow.

  2. Genetic diversity and structure of wild populations of Carica papaya in Northern Mesoamerica inferred by nuclear microsatellites and chloroplast markers.

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    Chávez-Pesqueira, Mariana; Núñez-Farfán, Juan

    2016-12-01

    Few studies have evaluated the genetic structure and evolutionary history of wild varieties of important crop species. The wild papaya (Carica papaya) is a key element of early successional tropical and sub-tropical forests in Mexico, and constitutes the genetic reservoir for evolutionary potential of the species. In this study we aimed to determine how diverse and structured is the genetic variability of wild populations of C. papaya in Northern Mesoamerica. Moreover, we assessed if genetic structure and evolutionary history coincide with hypothetized (1) pre-Pleistocene events (Isthmus of Tehuantepec sinking), (2) Pleistocene refugia or (3) recent patterns. We used six nuclear and two chloroplast (cp) DNA markers to assess the genetic diversity and phylogeographical structure of 19 wild populations of C. papaya in its natural distribution in Northern Mesoamerica. We found high genetic diversity (H o = 0·681 for nuclear markers, and h = 0·701 for cpDNA markers) and gene flow between populations of C. papaya (migration r up to 420 km). A lack of phylogeographical structure was found with the cpDNA markers (NST Mesoamerica did not experience important climate fluctuations during the Pleistocene, and that the life history of C. papaya could have promoted long-distance dispersal and rapid colonization of lowland rainforests. Moreover, the results obtained with the nuclear markers suggest recent human disturbances. The fragmentation of tropical habitats in Northern Mesoamerica appears to be the main driver of genetic structuring, and the major threat to the dispersion and survival of the species in the wild. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. How to become a tree without wood--biomechanical analysis of the stem of Carica papaya L.

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    Kempe, A; Lautenschläger, T; Lange, A; Neinhuis, C

    2014-01-01

    Carica papaya L. does not contain wood, according to the botanical definition of wood as lignified secondary xylem. Despite its parenchymatous secondary xylem, these plants are able to grow up to 10-m high. This is surprising, as wooden structural elements are the ubiquitous strategy for supporting height growth in plants. Proposed possible alternative principles to explain the compensation for lack of wood in C. papaya are turgor pressure of the parenchyma, lignified phloem fibres in the bark, or a combination of the two. Interestingly, lignified tissue comprises only 5-8% of the entire stem mass. Furthermore, the phloem fibres do not form a compact tube enclosing the xylem, but instead form a mesh tubular structure. To investigate the mechanism of papaya's unusually high mechanical strength, a set of mechanical measurements were undertaken on whole stems and tissue sections of secondary phloem and xylem. The structural Young's modulus of mature stems reached 2.5 GPa. Since this is low compared to woody plants, the flexural rigidity of papaya stem construction may mainly be based on a higher second moment of inertia. Additionally, stem turgor pressure was determined indirectly by immersing specimens in sucrose solutions of different osmolalities, followed by mechanical tests; turgor pressure was between 0.82 and 1.25 MPa, indicating that turgor is essential for flexural rigidity of the entire stem. © 2013 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  4. Chemical and morphological characterization of Costa Rican papaya (Carica papaya L.) hybrids and lines with particular focus on their genuine carotenoid profiles.

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    Schweiggert, Ralf M; Steingass, Christof B; Esquivel, Patricia; Carle, Reinhold

    2012-03-14

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) F1 hybrids and inbred lines grown in Costa Rica were screened for morphological and nutritionally relevant fruit traits. The qualitative composition of carotenoids showed great similarity, being mostly composed of free and esterified β-cryptoxanthins accompanied by β-carotene, lycopene, and biosynthetic precursors. High levels of (all-E)-lycopene and its isomers were distinctive for red-fleshed hybrids, whereas yellow-fleshed fruits were virtually devoid of lycopenes. Because carotenoid levels among the investigated hybrids and lines differed significantly, this study supports the hypothesis of an exploitable genetic variability, and a potential heterotic effect regarding carotenoid expression may be instrumental in papaya-breeding programs. Due to significantly higher levels of provitamin A carotenoids and coinciding high levels of total lycopene, particularly red-fleshed hybrids might represent prospective sources of these compounds. Furthermore, the nutritional value of some genotypes was boosted by substantial amounts of ascorbic acid (up to 73 mg/100 g of fresh weight), which correlated to total soluble solids (R(2) = 0.86).

  5. Low-dose gamma irradiation following hot water immersion of papaya (Carica papaya linn.) fruits provides additional control of postharvest fungal infection to extend shelf life

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    Rashid, M. H. A.; Grout, B. W. W.; Continella, A.; Mahmud, T. M. M.

    2015-05-01

    Low-dose gamma irradiation (0.08 kGy over 10 min), a level significantly below that required to satisfy the majority of international quarantine regulations, has been employed to provide a significant reduction in visible fungal infection on papaya fruit surfaces. This is appropriate for local and national markets in producer countries where levels of commercial acceptability can be retained despite surface lesions due to fungal infection. Irradiation alone and in combination with hot-water immersion (50 °C for 10 min) has been applied to papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruits at both the mature green and 1/3 yellow stages of maturity. The incidence and severity of surface fungal infections, including anthracnose, were significantly reduced by the combined treatment compared to irradiation or hot water treatment alone, extending storage at 11 °C by 13 days and retaining commercial acceptability. The combined treatment had no significant, negative impact on ripening, with quality characteristics such as surface and internal colour change, firmness, soluble solids, acidity and vitamin C maintained at acceptable levels.

  6. Genome analysis methods: Carica papaya [PGDBj Registered plant list, Marker list, QTL list, Plant DB link and Genome analysis methods[Archive

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    Full Text Available Carica papaya Draft 2n=18 372 Mb 2008 Sanger (WGS) 1.6M reads 370 Mb 3x ... 17,764 47...,483 TIGR Eukaryotic Annotation Pipeline 13,311 CpGDB; http://www.plantgdb.org/CpGDB/ Cpapaya_113 Cpapaya_113 10.1038/nature06856 18432245 ...

  7. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of a family 19 glycosyl hydrolase from Carica papaya latex

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    Huet, Joëlle, E-mail: jhuet@ulb.ac.be [Laboratoire de Chimie Générale (CP 206/4), Institut de Pharmacie, Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Campus de la Plaine, Boulevard du Triomphe, B-1050 Bruxelles (Belgium); Azarkan, Mohamed [Laboratoire de Chimie Générale (CP 609), Faculté de Médecine, Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Campus Erasme, 808 Route de Lennik, B-1070 Bruxelles (Belgium); Looze, Yvan [Laboratoire de Chimie Générale (CP 206/4), Institut de Pharmacie, Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Campus de la Plaine, Boulevard du Triomphe, B-1050 Bruxelles (Belgium); Villeret, Vincent [CNRS-UMR 8161, Institut de Biologie de Lille, Université de Lille 1-Université de Lille 2-Institut Pasteur de Lille, IFR142, 1 Rue du Professeur Calmette, F-59021 Lille (France); Wintjens, René, E-mail: jhuet@ulb.ac.be [Laboratoire de Chimie Générale (CP 206/4), Institut de Pharmacie, Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Campus de la Plaine, Boulevard du Triomphe, B-1050 Bruxelles (Belgium)

    2008-05-01

    A chitinase isolated from the latex of the tropical species Carica papaya has been crystallized. The addition of N-acetyl-d-glucosamine to the crystallization solution has improved the diffraction quality resolution of the crystal to 1.8 Å resolution. A chitinase isolated from the latex of the tropical species Carica papaya has been purified to homogeneity and crystallized. This enzyme belongs to glycosyl hydrolase family 19 and exhibits exceptional resistance to proteolysis. The initially observed crystals, which diffracted to a resolution of 2.0 Å, were improved through modification of the crystallization protocol. Well ordered crystals were subsequently obtained using N-acetyl-d-glucosamine, the monomer resulting from the hydrolysis of chitin, as an additive to the crystallization solution. Here, the characterization of a chitinase crystal that belongs to the monoclinic space group P2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 69.08, b = 44.79, c = 76.73 Å, β = 95.33° and two molecules per asymmetric unit, is reported. Diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 1.8 Å. Structure refinement is currently in progress.

  8. Identification and expression of C2H2 transcription factor genes in Carica papaya under abiotic and biotic stresses.

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    Jiang, Ling; Pan, Lin-jie

    2012-06-01

    C2H2 proteins belong to a group of transcription factors (TFs) existing as a superfamily that plays important roles in defense responses and various other physiological processes in plants. The present study aimed to screen for and identify C2H2 proteins associated with defense responses to abiotic and biotic stresses in Carica papaya L. Data were collected for 47,483 papaya-expressed sequence tags (ESTs). The full-length cDNA nucleotide sequences of 87 C2H2 proteins were predicated by BioEdit. All 91 C2H2 proteins were aligned, and a phylogenetic tree was constructed using DNAman. The expression levels of 42 C2H2 were analyzed under conditions of salt stress by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Methyl jasmonate treatment rapidly upregulated ZF(23.4) and ZF(30,912.1) by 18.6- and 21.7-fold, respectively. ZF(1.3), ZF(138.44), ZF(94.49), ZF(29.160), and ZF(20.206) were found to be downregulated after low temperature treatment at very significant levels (p papaya ringspot virus pathogen. ZF(30,912.1) was subcellularly localized in the nucleus by a transgenic fusion of pBS-ZF(30,912.1)-GFP into the protoplast of papaya. The results of the present study showed that ZF(30,912.1) could be an important TF that mediates responses to abiotic and biotic stresses in papaya.

  9. Study about papaya (Carica papaya L.) conservation submitted to a combined treatment of irradiation and an edible film of quitosan; Estudo do tratamento combinado de radiacao ionizante e cobertura de quitosana em mamao papaia (Carica papaya L.)

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    Camargo, Rita Junqueira de

    2004-07-01

    In this research, on a first stage the effect of two treatments were studied: thermal, and a chitosan edible coating, combined with four different irradiation doses: 0,00 kGy, 0,50 kGy, 0,75 kGy and 1,00 kGy for effects in the ripening of papaya (Carica Papaya) cv. Golden. To evaluate the influence of these two factors in the physical-chemical characteristics of the fruit during ripening, analysis on color, both skin and pulp, firmness, soluble solids, pH and titrable acidity were performed. The incidence of fungi in fruit skin was also analyzed. The fruits were first maintained at 10 deg C chamber for fifteen days to simulate maritime transportation to the importer country and then transferred to a 25 deg C chamber aiming simulation of the commercialization conditions. From this first step, the conclusion was that chitosan in the concentration of 2% was not able to contain the fungi development and that it also influenced in a significant form the variable pH. A more expressive result was obtained for irradiation doses of 0,75 kGy and 1,00 kGy, as it was observed in the beginning the acceleration in ripening through the variables skin color and penetration energy of the fruit pulp. When storage temperature was changed to 25 deg C this situation inverted for these same variables and a two day delay was observed on the development of yellow color on the fruit skin and loss of pulp firmness. The variables titrable acidity, soluble solids and pulp color were not influenced by treatment or by irradiation. On a second stage, the fruits, in the same condition of the previous stage, were analyzed in relation of their mass and ripening stage using a ripening scale provided by the producer of the fruits for this experiment, as to evaluate the gradual development of fruit ripening according to the various treatments (chitosan 3%, thermal or control) and irradiation dose (0,00 kGy and 0,75 kGy). Confirming the results obtained in the first stage, the irradiation was able to

  10. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of a protease inhibitor from the latex of Carica papaya

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    Azarkan, Mohamed [Université Libre de Bruxelles, Faculty of Medicine, Protein Chemistry Unit, Campus Erasme (CP 609), 808 Route de Lennik, B-1070 Brussels (Belgium); Garcia-Pino, Abel [Department of Molecular and Cellular Interactions, Vlaams Interuniversitair Instituut voor Biotechnologie and Laboratorium voor Ultrastructuur, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussel (Belgium); Dibiani, Rachid [Université Libre de Bruxelles, Faculty of Medicine, Protein Chemistry Unit, Campus Erasme (CP 609), 808 Route de Lennik, B-1070 Brussels (Belgium); Wyns, Lode; Loris, Remy, E-mail: reloris@vub.ac.be [Department of Molecular and Cellular Interactions, Vlaams Interuniversitair Instituut voor Biotechnologie and Laboratorium voor Ultrastructuur, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussel (Belgium); Baeyens-Volant, Danielle [Université Libre de Bruxelles, Faculty of Medicine, Protein Chemistry Unit, Campus Erasme (CP 609), 808 Route de Lennik, B-1070 Brussels (Belgium)

    2006-12-01

    The Kunitz-type trypsin/chymotrypsin inhibitor isolated from C. papaya latex has been crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Two different crystal forms are observed, diffracting to 2.6 and 1.7 Å. A Kunitz-type protease inhibitor purified from the latex of green papaya (Carica papaya) fruits was crystallized in the presence and absence of divalent metal ions. Crystal form I, which is devoid of divalent cations, diffracts to a resolution of 2.6 Å and belongs to space group P3{sub 1} or P3{sub 2}. This crystal form is a merohedral twin with two molecules in the asymmetric unit and unit-cell parameters a = b = 74.70, c = 78.97 Å. Crystal form II, which was grown in the presence of Co{sup 2+}, diffracts to a resolution of 1.7 Å and belongs to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 44.26, b = 81.99, c = 140.89 Å.

  11. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of a protease inhibitor from the latex of Carica papaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azarkan, Mohamed; Garcia-Pino, Abel; Dibiani, Rachid; Wyns, Lode; Loris, Remy; Baeyens-Volant, Danielle

    2006-01-01

    The Kunitz-type trypsin/chymotrypsin inhibitor isolated from C. papaya latex has been crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Two different crystal forms are observed, diffracting to 2.6 and 1.7 Å. A Kunitz-type protease inhibitor purified from the latex of green papaya (Carica papaya) fruits was crystallized in the presence and absence of divalent metal ions. Crystal form I, which is devoid of divalent cations, diffracts to a resolution of 2.6 Å and belongs to space group P3 1 or P3 2 . This crystal form is a merohedral twin with two molecules in the asymmetric unit and unit-cell parameters a = b = 74.70, c = 78.97 Å. Crystal form II, which was grown in the presence of Co 2+ , diffracts to a resolution of 1.7 Å and belongs to space group P2 1 2 1 2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 44.26, b = 81.99, c = 140.89 Å

  12. In vitro efficacy of latex and purified papain from Carica papaya against Strongyloides venezuelensis eggs and larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Dayane; Levenhagen, Marcelo Arantes; Costa-Cruz, Julia Maria; Costa, Antônio Paulino da; Rodrigues, Rosângela Maria

    2017-04-03

    Latex from Carica papaya is rich in bioactive compounds, especially papain, which may help to control parasitic diseases. This study evaluated the efficacy of latex from C. papaya and purified papain against Strongyloides venezuelensis. The Egg Hatching Test (EHT) and the Larval Motility Test (LMT) using fresh and frozen latex (250mg/mL), lyophilized latex (34mg/mL), and purified papain (2.8 mg/mL) were performed. Albendazole (0.025 mg/mL) and ivermectin (316 ppm) were used as positive controls. EHT and LMT were carried out through the incubation of each solution with S. venezuelensis eggs or larvae (± 100 specimens), and results were analyzed after 48h (EHT) or 24, 48, and 72h (LMT). EHT showed that latex preparations at higher concentrations (1:10 to 1:100) resulted in partial or complete destruction of eggs and larvae inside the eggs. The result from the 1:1,000 dilution was similar to the positive control. LMT showed effectiveness in all the tested dilutions compared to negative controls. Purified papain showed a dose-dependent response in the EHT. Purified papain (2.8 mg/ mL) showed similar results to lyophilized latex at 1:1,000 in the EHT. Latex and purified papain from C. papaya were effective against S. venezuelensis eggs and larvae in vitro, suggesting their potential use as an alternative treatment for strongyloidiasis.

  13. THE EFFECT OF IMMERSION LENGTH IN PAPAYA LEAF SOLUTION (CARICA PAPAYA L. TOWARD FERTILIZATION AND HATCHING OF IRIDESCENT SHARKS (PANGASIANODON HYPOPHTHALMUS S.

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    Eka S.H.

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Iridescent sharks is one kind of freshwater fish that is quite economical. However, the availability of the fish eggs is rather problematic due to the hatcheries, i.e. the adhesive nature of the eggs. Papaya leaves contain papain enzymes that can reduce the adhesive nature of eggs. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of papaya leaf solution with different immersion period on the successful hatching of the iridescent sharks (P. hypophthalmus. This study was conducted experimentally using a complete randomized design. There were five treatments, i.e. (K 0 seconds, (A 30 seconds, (B 60 seconds, (C 90 seconds, (D 120 seconds, and (E 150 seconds with three-time repetition. The result of this study shows that the best hatching (80.31% happens to the eggs immersed in papaya leaf solution for 60 seconds (treatment B.

  14. Efficacy and safety of Carica papaya leaf extract in the dengue: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

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    Charan, Jaykaran; Saxena, Deepak; Goyal, Jagdish Prasad; Yasobant, Sandul

    2016-01-01

    Dengue is an infectious disease associated with high mortality and morbidity. Being a viral disease, there is no specific drug available for treatment. There are some reports that Carica papaya leaf extract may improve the clinical condition of dengue patients; however, to support this, at present, there is no systematically searched and synthesized evidence available. This systematic review and meta-analysis was designed to search the available evidence related to the efficacy and safety of C. papaya leaf extract in dengue and to synthesize the evidence in meaningful form through meta-analysis so that inference can be drawn. Randomized controlled trials related to the efficacy and safety of C. papaya leaf extract in dengue were searched from PubMed, Cochrane Clinical Trial Registry and Google Scholar. The primary endpoint was mortality, and secondary endpoints were increase in platelet count, hospitalization days, and Grade 3 and 4 adverse events. Data related to primary and secondary endpoints were pooled together and analyzed by review manager (Review Manager (RevMan) Copenhagen: The Nordic Cochrane Centre, The Cochrane Collaboration, Denmark) software. The random effect model was used. The bias was analyzed by the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Total four trials enrolling 439 subjects were included in the analysis. Of 439 subjects, data of 377 subjects were available for analysis. C. papaya leaf extract was found to be associated with increase in platelet count in the overall analysis (mean difference [MD] =20.27 [95% confidence interval (CI) 6.21-34.73; P = 0.005]) and analysis after 4 th day (MD = 28.25 [95% CI 14.14-42.37; P papaya and control group (MD = 13.38 [95% CI - 7.71-34.51; P = 0.21]). There was significant decrease in hospitalization days in the C. papaya group (MD = 1.90 [95% CI 1.62-2.18; P papaya leaf extract can be considered as a potential candidate for increase in platelet count in patients of dengue, however; there is need of high

  15. Morfología de la flor y de la semilla de papaya (Carica papaya L.: variedad Maradol e híbrido Tainung-1

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    Gil Arlette Ivonne

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Con el objetivo de analizar la morfología de la flor y de la semilla de papaya (Carica papaya L. de la variedad ‘Maradol’ y el híbrido ‘Tainung-1’, se recolectó el material vegetal en dos plantaciones y se llevaron al laboratorio de Fisiología de Cultivos, Facultad de Agronomía, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá, con el fin de realizar las descripciones correspondientes de los tres tipos de flores (femeninas, hermafroditas y estaminadas y de la semilla, sus características externas (forma, tamaño, hilo, micrópilo, funículo, rafe y cubierta seminal e internas (cubierta seminal, endospermo y embrión. Se concluyó principalmente que a nivel morfológico las flores y semillas de los dos materiales evaluados mostraron características similares, por tanto, las descripciones dadas en este trabajo son generales para ambos.

  16. Physico-chemical characteristics of papaya (Carica papaya L.) seed oil of the Hong Kong/Sekaki variety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanty, Noorzianna Abdul Manaf; Marikkar, Jalaldeen Mohammed Nazrim; Nusantoro, Bangun Prajanto; Long, Kamariah; Ghazali, Hasanah Mohd

    2014-01-01

    A study was carried out to determine the physicochemical characteristics of the oil derived from papaya seeds of the Hong Kong/Sekaki variety. Proximate analysis showed that seeds of the Hong Kong/Sekaki variety contained considerable amount of oil (27.0%). The iodine value, saponification value, unsaponifiable matter and free fatty acid contents of freshly extracted papaya seed oil were 76.9 g I2/100g oil, 193.5 mg KOH/g oil, 1.52% and 0.91%, respectively. The oil had a Lovibond color index of 15.2Y + 5.2B. Papaya seed oil contained ten detectable fatty acids, of which 78.33% were unsaturated. Oleic (73.5%) acid was the dominant fatty acids followed by palmitic acid (15.8%). Based on the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis, seven species of triacylglycerols (TAGs) were detected. The predominant TAGs of papaya seed oil were OOO (40.4%), POO (29.1%) and SOO (9.9%) where O, P, and S denote oleic, palmitic and stearic acids, respectively. Thermal analysis by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) showed that papaya seed oil had its major melting and crystallization transitions at 12.4°C and -48.2°C, respectively. Analysis of the sample by Z-nose (electronic nose) instrument showed that the sample had a high level of volatile compounds.

  17. The effect of praziquantel and Carica papaya seeds on Hymenolepis nana infection in mice using scanning electron microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Shady, Omayma M; Basyoni, Maha M A; Mahdy, Olfat A; Bocktor, Nardden Zakka

    2014-08-01

    Hymenolepis nana (H. nana) is the most common tapeworm infection worldwide. It is more prevalent in warm climates where sanitation is poor, particularly among children. The effect and mechanism of action of praziquantel (PZQ), given at a dose of 25-mg/kg BW, and Carica papaya dried seed crude aqueous extract (CAE), given at a dose of 1.2-g/kg BW, were assessed on H. nana worms in experimentally infected mice. Tegumental changes were studied using the scanning electron microscope (SEM) and different parasitological parameters were observed. Each group of infected mice was divided into two subgroups. The first subgroup received either treatment before the 4th day after infection to investigate their effects on the cysticercoid stage. The other subgroup received treatments after the development of the adult stage, confirmed by eggs detection in stool. Both PZQ and C. papaya dried seed CAE resulted in a significant reduction of worm burden, total egg output and viable egg count. Marked tegumental changes were evident in adult worms treated with either treatment including shrinkage of the scolex and neck region with rostellar edema and complete loss of its hooks. However, all previous effects were exerted more rapidly in the case of PZQ treatment. They both significantly reduced cysticercoid stage size. Nevertheless, C. papaya outstand PZQ in having a deforming effect on adults arising from treated cysticercoids. It was concluded that C. papaya has significant anti-cestodal properties that enable its seed extract to be a very effective alternative to PZQ against H. nana.

  18. Identification and expression of the WRKY transcription factors of Carica papaya in response to abiotic and biotic stresses.

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    Pan, Lin-Jie; Jiang, Ling

    2014-03-01

    The WRKY transcription factor (TF) plays a very important role in the response of plants to various abiotic and biotic stresses. A local papaya database was built according to the GenBank expressed sequence tag database using the BioEdit software. Fifty-two coding sequences of Carica papaya WRKY TFs were predicted using the tBLASTn tool. The phylogenetic tree of the WRKY proteins was classified. The expression profiles of 13 selected C. papaya WRKY TF genes under stress induction were constructed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The expression levels of these WRKY genes in response to 3 abiotic and 2 biotic stresses were evaluated. TF807.3 and TF72.14 are upregulated by low temperature; TF807.3, TF43.76, TF12.199 and TF12.62 are involved in the response to drought stress; TF9.35, TF18.51, TF72.14 and TF12.199 is involved in response to wound; TF12.199, TF807.3, TF21.156 and TF18.51 was induced by PRSV pathogen; TF72.14 and TF43.76 are upregulated by SA. The regulated expression levels of above eight genes normalized against housekeeping gene actin were significant at probability of 0.01 levels. These WRKY TFs could be related to corresponding stress resistance and selected as the candidate genes, especially, the two genes TF807.3 and TF12.199, which were regulated notably by four stresses respectively. This study may provide useful information and candidate genes for the development of transgenic stress tolerant papaya varieties.

  19. Determinação de isotiocianato de benzila em Carica papaya utilizando cromatografia gasosa com detectores seletivos Determination of benzyl isothiocyanate in Carica papaya using gas chromatography with selectives detectors

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    Izabela Miranda de Castro

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, a method was developed and validated for the quantification of benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC in the fruits of Carica papaya. The quantification of this compound was carried out by gas chromatography (GC with selective detectors - nitrogen phosphorus detector (NPD and flame photometric detector (FPD. The performance of these detectors showed a higher sensitivity of the NPD with a broader linear range of detection. The LOD/LOQ were 0.038/0.100 µg/mL for NPD and 5.78/19.29 µg/mL for FPD. The recovery of the method for BITC was 90,64%. An average value of BITC concentration in all the analyzed samples was 16,23 µg BITC/g.

  20. A coating of chitosan and propolis extract for the postharvest treatment of papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Hawaiiana

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    Elizabeth Barrera

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Propolis is a natural antimicrobial that can be used asa bioadditive in coatings to control fruit quality losses. The effectof two coatings was evaluated, a control (chitosan, 1% and atreatment (chitosan, 1%; containing propolisethanolic extract, 5%,on the microbiological and physicochemical properties of papayafruits. The chemical profile of the propolis revealed the presenceof fatty acids and their esters, carbohydrates, diterpenic acids,and pentacyclic triterpenes. The fruits covered with the treatmentdemonstrated a reduced deterioration index and infection diameterof the fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, as compared tothe control papayas, postponing the appearance of damage bytwo days. Additionally, the treatment did not significantly affectthe physicochemical properties of the papaya, as compared tothe control. In conclusion, the coating formulated with propolisexhibited an in situ fungicidal and bactericidal effect withoutaltering the physiological changes of the papaya fruit duringstorage.

  1. Modelagem empírica do processo de biodegradação de efluentes protéicos por enzimas de Carica papaya sp. Empirical modeling of biodegradation process of proteic effluents by enzymes of Carica papaya sp.

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    Joana P. M. Biazus

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi modelar empiricamente a biodegradação de efluentes protéicos por enzimas papaínas do látex de Carica papaya sp. num biorreator agitado, para facilitar a otimização do processo por metodologia de análise de superfície de resposta (RSM e aplicar em tratamento de efluentes provenientes de indústrias de processamento de carne. As análises das curvas de biodegradação mostraram que o tempo de residência para os biorreatores está entre 28 e 30 h. O modelo empírico que mais se ajustou aos dados de biodegradação sob influência dos fatores (pH e temperatura foi o de um hiperplano e a região de operação otimizada para a degradação de proteínas pelas papaínas foi aquela que apresentou os maiores valores de temperatura e menores valores de pH.The objective of this research was to model empirically the proteic effluent biodegradation by papains enzymes from Carica papaya sp. in an agitated bioreactor, to facilitate the optimization process by response surface methodology (RSM and to apply in treatment of effluents from meat processing industries. The analysis of biodegradation curves showed that bioreactors residence time is between 28 and 30 h. Hiper plane empirical model was the one that best fitted to biodegradation data under the influence factors (pH and temperature and the optimized operation zone for the protein biodegradation by papains was the one that presented the high temperature and low pH values.

  2. DIVERSITAS SERANGGA PADA PERKEBUNAN PEPAYA (Carica papaya L. DI DAERAH SANUR, DENPASAR, BALI

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    Ni Made Suartini

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The role of insects in papaya plants is as pollinators, pests, parasites and predators of other insects. Referring to the role of insects, this research was conducted to determine the insects on an papaya plantations. Traping method using methyl eugenol and ripe papaya fruit as well as the manual method with insect net used in this research. Each method was repeated three times with an interval of sampling is one week. Insect netting done on the same day with traping method. Samples were preserved and then taken to the laboratory for identification. Environmental factors were measured are: temperature, humidity, latitude and altitude. Insects were identified by reference: Borror et al. (1992, CSIRO I & II (1991 and also Peggie and Amir (2006. Five species belonging to the genus Bactrocera found on methyl eugenol traps and five species belonging to the genus Drosophila was found in ripe papaya fruit traps as well as 16 other species found using insect netting around the papaya plant. In addition, there is also the genus Paracoccus on a papaya plant. Bactrocera papayae and genus Paracoccus is an insect pest on papaya plants.Keywords: diversity, insect, papaya plantation, Sanur

  3. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of Ficus carica Linn. leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, B; Mujeeb, M; Aeri, V; Mir, S R; Faiyazuddin, M; Shakeel, F

    2012-01-01

    Ficus carica Linn. (Moraceae) is commonly known as edible fig. The leaves, roots, fruits and latex of the plant are medicinally used in different diseases. The leaves are claimed to be effective in various inflammatory conditions like painful or swollen piles, insect sting and bites. However, there has been no report on anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of F. carica leaves. Therefore the aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of F. carica leaves. Our study validated the traditional claim with pharmacological data. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of the drug could be due to the presence of steroids and flavanoids, respectively, which are reported to be present in the drug. Furthermore, the anti-inflammatory activity of the drug could be due to its free radical scavenging activity. Further work is also required to isolate and characterise the active constituents responsible for the anti-inflammatory activities.

  4. Portable chlorophyll meter (PCM-502) values are related to total chlorophyll concentration and photosynthetic capacity in papaya (Carica papaya L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was carried out to verify the practical use of the portable chlorophyll meter-PCM502 (PCM) in two papaya cultivars with contrasting green coloring of the leaf blade (‘Golden’: yellowish-green; ‘Solo’: dark green). The relationship was studied between the photosynthetic process and leaf n...

  5. Papain-like cysteine proteases in Carica papaya: lineage-specific gene duplication and expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Juan; Sharma, Anupma; Niewiara, Marie Jamille; Singh, Ratnesh; Ming, Ray; Yu, Qingyi

    2018-01-06

    Papain-like cysteine proteases (PLCPs), a large group of cysteine proteases structurally related to papain, play important roles in plant development, senescence, and defense responses. Papain, the first cysteine protease whose structure was determined by X-ray crystallography, plays a crucial role in protecting papaya from herbivorous insects. Except the four major PLCPs purified and characterized in papaya latex, the rest of the PLCPs in papaya genome are largely unknown. We identified 33 PLCP genes in papaya genome. Phylogenetic analysis clearly separated plant PLCP genes into nine subfamilies. PLCP genes are not equally distributed among the nine subfamilies and the number of PLCPs in each subfamily does not increase or decrease proportionally among the seven selected plant species. Papaya showed clear lineage-specific gene expansion in the subfamily III. Interestingly, all four major PLCPs purified from papaya latex, including papain, chymopapain, glycyl endopeptidase and caricain, were grouped into the lineage-specific expansion branch in the subfamily III. Mapping PLCP genes on chromosomes of five plant species revealed that lineage-specific expansions of PLCP genes were mostly derived from tandem duplications. We estimated divergence time of papaya PLCP genes of subfamily III. The major duplication events leading to lineage-specific expansion of papaya PLCP genes in subfamily III were estimated at 48 MYA, 34 MYA, and 16 MYA. The gene expression patterns of the papaya PLCP genes in different tissues were assessed by transcriptome sequencing and qRT-PCR. Most of the papaya PLCP genes of subfamily III expressed at high levels in leaf and green fruit tissues. Tandem duplications played the dominant role in affecting copy number of PLCPs in plants. Significant variations in size of the PLCP subfamilies among species may reflect genetic adaptation of plant species to different environments. The lineage-specific expansion of papaya PLCPs of subfamily III might

  6. Isolation and functional characterization of bacterial endophytes from Carica papaya fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, P; Bhat, R; Kush, A; Ravikumar, P

    2012-08-01

    To isolate and characterize the endophytes from papaya fruits and to determine the fermentative potential of the strains. Endophytes provide potential sources for novel natural products for the use in agriculture and nutrition. There is very limited information on isolation and characterization of bacterial endophytes from papaya. We describe isolation and characterization of eighteen endophytes of papaya fruit from four economically important papaya varieties viz 'Red lady', 'Solo', 'Coorg Honey' and 'Bangalore'. The phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA sequence revealed that isolated endophytes are genetically distinct and cluster as discrete clades in the dendrogram. The Bacillus species is a predominant bacterial endophyte across papaya varieties. The seeds and the endocarp of papaya fruits harbour Kocuria, Acinetobacter and Enterobacter species. The Staphylococcus species were detected in the fruit mesocarp of two papaya varieties used in the study. The endophytes isolated from papaya fruits were capable of producing extracellular enzymes like amylase, cellulase, pectinase and xylanase. Three isolates, Bacillus (PE-LR-1 and PE-LR-3) and Kocuria (PE-LR-2), were selected for fruit fermentation, and antioxidant potential of the fermented product was evaluated. PE-LR-3 fermented product has the free radical scavenging activity of 61·2% and a microbial cocktail of PE-LR-3 with Saccharomyces cerevisiae MTCC 2918 enhances the antioxidant potential to 75·7%. These findings suggest that different parts of papaya fruits harbour an array of bacterial endophytes that could be important agents in attributing the high nutritive status to the fruit and can serve as potent microbial cocktails for developing value-added fermented products of this important fruit. This study describes isolation of a bacterial endophyte from papaya fruit that is capable of improving the antioxidant potential of raw papaya after fermentation. No claim to Indian Government works Journal

  7. Determinación del mejor estado fisiológico para cosechar papaya (Carica papaya L.) y madurarla con etefón (ácido 2-cloro-etilfosfónico)

    OpenAIRE

    Monterrey López, Miguel; Baraona Cockrell, Marcia; Aguirre Rosales, Diego; Flores Del Valle, Wilfredo; Madrigal Villa, Herberth

    1993-01-01

    El presente estudio tuvo por objetivo la determinación del mejor estado fisiológico para cosechar papaya (Carica papaya L.) y madurarla posteriormente con etefón (ácido 2 cloro-etil-fosfónico). Se utilizaron frutas de las dos principales zonas productoras del país; Guácimo en Limón (zona húmeda) y Parrita de Puritnrerias (zona seca). El estado fisiológico al momento de la cosecha se determinó según el porcentaje de la superficie que presentara coloración amarilla. Se clasificaron de la sig...

  8. RAP2.4a Is Transported through the Phloem to Regulate Cold and Heat Tolerance in Papaya Tree (Carica papaya cv. Maradol): Implications for Protection Against Abiotic Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa-Yañez, Luis; Pereira-Santana, Alejandro; Arroyo-Herrera, Ana; Rodriguez-Corona, Ulises; Sanchez-Teyer, Felipe; Espadas-Alcocer, Jorge; Espadas-Gil, Francisco; Barredo-Pool, Felipe; Castaño, Enrique; Rodriguez-Zapata, Luis Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Plants respond to stress through metabolic and morphological changes that increase their ability to survive and grow. To this end, several transcription factor families are responsible for transmitting the signals that are required for these changes. Here, we studied the transcription factor superfamily AP2/ERF, particularly, RAP2.4 from Carica papaya cv. Maradol. We isolated four genes (CpRap2.4a, CpRAap2.4b, CpRap2.1 and CpRap2.10), and an in silico analysis showed that the four genes encode proteins that contain a conserved APETALA2 (AP2) domain located within group I and II transcription factors of the AP2/ERF superfamily. Semiquantitative PCR experiments indicated that each CpRap2 gene is differentially expressed under stress conditions, such as extreme temperatures. Moreover, genetic transformants of tobacco plants overexpressing CpRap2.4a and CpRap2.4b genes show a high level of tolerance to cold and heat stress compared to non-transformed plants. Confocal microscopy analysis of tobacco transgenic plants showed that CpRAP2.4a and CpRAP2.4b proteins were mainly localized to the nuclei of cells from the leaves and roots and also in the sieve elements. Moreover, the movement of CpRap2.4a RNA in tobacco grafting was analyzed. Our results indicate that CpRap2.4a and CpRap2.4b RNA in the papaya tree have a functional role in the response to stress conditions such as exposure to extreme temperatures via direct translation outside the parental RNA cell.

  9. RAP2.4a Is Transported through the Phloem to Regulate Cold and Heat Tolerance in Papaya Tree (Carica papaya cv. Maradol: Implications for Protection Against Abiotic Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Figueroa-Yañez

    Full Text Available Plants respond to stress through metabolic and morphological changes that increase their ability to survive and grow. To this end, several transcription factor families are responsible for transmitting the signals that are required for these changes. Here, we studied the transcription factor superfamily AP2/ERF, particularly, RAP2.4 from Carica papaya cv. Maradol. We isolated four genes (CpRap2.4a, CpRAap2.4b, CpRap2.1 and CpRap2.10, and an in silico analysis showed that the four genes encode proteins that contain a conserved APETALA2 (AP2 domain located within group I and II transcription factors of the AP2/ERF superfamily. Semiquantitative PCR experiments indicated that each CpRap2 gene is differentially expressed under stress conditions, such as extreme temperatures. Moreover, genetic transformants of tobacco plants overexpressing CpRap2.4a and CpRap2.4b genes show a high level of tolerance to cold and heat stress compared to non-transformed plants. Confocal microscopy analysis of tobacco transgenic plants showed that CpRAP2.4a and CpRAP2.4b proteins were mainly localized to the nuclei of cells from the leaves and roots and also in the sieve elements. Moreover, the movement of CpRap2.4a RNA in tobacco grafting was analyzed. Our results indicate that CpRap2.4a and CpRap2.4b RNA in the papaya tree have a functional role in the response to stress conditions such as exposure to extreme temperatures via direct translation outside the parental RNA cell.

  10. Biosynthesis of AgNPs using Carica Papaya peel extract and evaluation of its antioxidant and antimicrobial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokila, T; Ramesh, P S; Geetha, D

    2016-12-01

    Waste fruit peel mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) is a green chemistry approach that links nanotechnology and biotechnology. Using biological medium such as peel extract for the biosynthesis of nanoparticles is an ecofriendly and emerging scientific trend. With this back drop the present study focused on the biosynthesis of AgNPs using Carica Papaya peel extract (CPPE) and evaluation of its antimicrobial potentials of the nanoparticles against different human pathogens and to investigate the free radical scavenging activity. Water soluble antioxidant constituents present in Carica Papaya peel extract were mainly responsible for the reduction of silver ions to nanosized Ag particles. UV-vis spectral analysis shows surface plasmon resonance band at 430nm. The presence of active proteins and phenolic groups present in the biomass before and after reduction was identified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction study shows the average size of the silver nanoparticles is in the range of 28nm, as well as revealed their face centered cubic structure. Atomic force microscope image gives the 3D topological characteristic of silver nanoparticles and the particle size ranges from 10 to 30nm. The average particle size distribution of silver nanoparticles is 161nm (Dynamic light scattering) and the corresponding average zeta potential value is -20.5mV, suggesting higher stability of silver nanoparticles. Biologically synthesized nanoparticles efficiently inhibited pathogenic organisms both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The biosynthesized nanoparticles might serve as a potent antioxidant as revealed by DPPH and ABT S+ assay. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Nematodos agalladores asociados al cultivo de papaya (Carica papaya L. en el departamento de Córdoba, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaraba Juan de Dios

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available

    El objetivo de este trabajo fue identificar los nematodos agalladores asociados al cultivo de papaya (Carica papaya L. en los municipios de Tierralta, Valencia, Lorica, Montería y Montelíbano que constituyen el área productora de papaya en Córdoba. Se evaluaron variables morfológicas y morfométricas en hembras, machos y juveniles de segundo estadío (J2. En las muestras de suelo se determinó pH, contenido de materia orgánica (MO, conductividad eléctrica (CE y textura, a fin de correlacionarlas con la presencia de especies nematodas. Se encontraron Meloidogyne javanica,M. incognita y M. arenaria, siendo M. incognita la especie más frecuente. Las tres especies se encontraron mezcladas en 37,5% de los individuos;M. incognita y M. arenaria en 50%, mientras que M. incognita y M. javanica no se encontraron mezcladas. Las especies se encontraron en pH de 4,9 a 6,4; CE de 0,1 a 0,45 dS· m-1; MO de 1,2 % a 2,5 % y la textura fue arenosa, franca y franco arenosa. El pH, el contenido de arena y la CE correlacionan de manera positiva con la presencia de los nematodos, mientras la MO mostró correlación negativa. Se reporta por primera vez la ocurrencia de M. javanica, M. incognita, M. arenaria, así como la mezcla de M. incognita y M. arenaria, en papayas de Colombia.

  12. The effectiveness of laser diode induction to Carica Papaya L. chlorophyll extract to be ROS generating in the photodynamic inactivation mechanisms for C.albicans biofilms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astuty, S Dewi; Baktir, A

    2017-01-01

    Research on the effectiveness of photo inactivation of C.albicans biofilms led by a-PDT system mediated by chlorophyll-diode-laser-induced was done. This research was done using in vitro technique in order to effectively determine chlorophyll extract of ROS-generated Carica Papaya L. using in situ technique. This technique induced laser diode on different dose and C. albicans with reduced degree. This research is a preliminary study in efforts to find anew sensitizer agent candidate made of chlorophyll extract and antifungal of Carica Papaya L. The effectiveness of eradication has been tested with MDA’s content and OD of biomass biofilms as well as analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey Test (α=0.05). The characteristic of chlorophyll extract of Carica Papaya L. has maximum absorptions on blue areas (λ max = 420 nm) and red areas (λ max = 670 nm). The MIC value of Carica Papaya L. ’s chlorophyll extract against C. albicans planktonic and biofilms cell is 63.8 μM and 31.9 μM respectively. The result shows that treatment using laser which was combined with chlorophyll extract is more effective than that with laser only or chlorophyll extract only. The treatment using laser combined with chlorophyll extract obtained more than 65% (α=0.05) (more than that of negative control) for P 2 L 1 group with OD 595 0.915. The MDA’s content showed that group of laser which was mediated with chlorophyll extract had larger values than group of laser or chlorophyll extract only. (paper)

  13. The effectiveness of laser diode induction to Carica Papaya L. chlorophyll extract to be ROS generating in the photodynamic inactivation mechanisms for C.albicans biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewi Astuty, S.; Baktir, A.

    2017-05-01

    Research on the effectiveness of photo inactivation of C.albicans biofilms led by a-PDT system mediated by chlorophyll-diode-laser-induced was done. This research was done using in vitro technique in order to effectively determine chlorophyll extract of ROS-generated Carica Papaya L. using in situ technique. This technique induced laser diode on different dose and C. albicans with reduced degree. This research is a preliminary study in efforts to find anew sensitizer agent candidate made of chlorophyll extract and antifungal of Carica Papaya L. The effectiveness of eradication has been tested with MDA’s content and OD of biomass biofilms as well as analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey Test (α=0.05). The characteristic of chlorophyll extract of Carica Papaya L. has maximum absorptions on blue areas (λmax = 420 nm) and red areas (λmax = 670 nm). The MIC value of Carica Papaya L.’schlorophyll extract against C. albicans planktonic and biofilms cell is 63.8 μM and 31.9 μM respectively. The result shows that treatment using laser which was combined with chlorophyll extract is more effective than that with laser only or chlorophyll extract only. The treatment using laser combined with chlorophyll extract obtained more than 65% (α=0.05) (more than that of negative control) for P2L1 group with OD595 0.915. The MDA’s content showed that group of laser which was mediated with chlorophyll extract had larger values than group of laser or chlorophyll extract only.

  14. Effect of heat treatment on ethylene and CO2 emissions rates during papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruit ripening

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, M. G.; Santos, E. O.; Sthel, M. S.; Cardoso, S. L.; Cavalli, A.; Monteiro, A. R.; de Oliveira, J. G.; Pereira, M. G.; Vargas, H.

    2003-01-01

    Ripening studies of nontreated and treated papaya (papaya L) are accomplished by monitoring the ethylene and CO2 emission rates of that climacteric fruit, to evaluate its shelf life. The treatments simulate the commercial Phitosanitarian process used to avoid the fly infestation. Ethylene emission was measured using a commercial CO2 laser driven photoacoustic setup and CO2, using a commercial gas analysis also based on the photothermal effect. The results show a marked change in ethylene and CO2 emission rate pattern for treated fruits when compared to the ones obtained for nontreated fruits and a displacement of the climacteric pick shown that the treatment causes a decrease of shelf life of fruit.

  15. In silico cloning and characterization of the TGA (TGACG MOTIF-BINDING FACTOR) transcription factors subfamily in Carica papaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrovo Espín, Fabio Marcelo; Peraza-Echeverria, Santy; Fuentes, Gabriela; Santamaría, Jorge M

    2012-05-01

    The TGA transcription factors belong to the subfamily of bZIP group D that play a major role in disease resistance and development. Most of the TGA identified in Arabidopsis interact with the master regulator of SAR, NPR1 that controls the expression of PR genes. As a first approach to determine the possible involvement of these transcription factors in papaya defense, we characterized Arabidopsis TGA orthologs from the genome of Carica papaya cv. SunUp. Six orthologs CpTGA1 to CpTGA6, were identified. The predicted CpTGA proteins were highly similar to AtTGA sequences and probably share the same DNA binding properties and transcriptional regulation features. The protein sequences alignment evidenced the presence of conserved domains, characteristic of this group of transcription factors. The phylogeny showed that CpTGA evolved into three different subclades associated with defense and floral development. This is the first report of basal expression patterns assessed by RT-PCR, from the whole subfamily of CpTGA members in different tissues from papaya cv. Maradol mature plants. Overall, CpTGA1, CpTGA3 CpTGA6 and CpTGA4 showed a basal expression in all tissues tested; CpTGA2 expressed strongly in all tissues except in petioles while CpTGA5 expressed only in petals and to a lower extent in petioles. Although more detailed studies in anthers and other floral structures are required, we suggest that CpTGA5 might be tissue-specific, and it might be involved in papaya floral development. On the other hand, we report here for the first time, the expression of the whole family of CpTGA in response to salicylic acid (SA). The expression of CpTGA3, CpTGA4 and CpTGA6 increased in response to SA, what would suggest its involvement in the SAR response in papaya. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Empleo de un Recubrimiento Formulado con Propóleos para el Manejo Poscosecha de Frutos de Papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Hawaiana Use of a Coating Formulated with Propolis for Postharvest Handling of Papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Hawaiian Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Barrera Bello

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. El fruto de papaya es reconocido por las propiedades nutricionales y sensoriales; no obstante, su tiempo de vida útil en poscosecha es muy corto. En los últimos años, para incrementar la vida de almacenamiento del fruto se ha implementado el uso de recubrimientos como vehículos de agentes antimicrobianos y antioxidantes, entre otros. En este trabajo se comparó el efecto de dos recubrimientos; cera comercial (control y cera comercial conteniendo un extracto etanólico de propóleos (5% p/v, sobre la vida en poscosecha de frutos de papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Hawaiana almacenados a temperatura ambiente (28 ± 2 ºC y humedad relativa entre 65 y 70%. El efecto de los recubrimientos se determinó mediante el índice de deterioro de los frutos y el recuento microbiano (mesófilos aerobios, mohos y levaduras. Adicionalmente, se evaluaron durante 12 días las propiedades fisicoquímicas de los frutos (cambio de color, textura, pH, acidez total titulable, pérdida de peso y sólidos solubles. Los resultados mostraron que las papayas tratadas con el recubrimiento formulado con el extracto de propóleos, presentó un menor deterioro en cuanto a su apariencia y mayor inhibición del crecimiento de microorganismos durante los primeros 6 días de evaluación en comparación con los frutos control; además, no se observaron diferencias, producto de los recubrimientos, en relación a las características fisicoquímicas de los frutos.Abstract. Papaya fruit is known for the nutritional and sensory properties; however, its postharvest shelf life is very short. In recent years, to extend the storage life of this fruit, the use of coatings as a carrier of antimicrobial agents and antioxidants, has been implemented. In this work, the effect of two coatings, commercial wax (control and commercial wax containing an ethanolic extract of propolis (5% w/v on the postharvest of papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Hawaiian was compared. The fruits were stored at

  17. Heat shock and gamma radiation in the quarantine process of Papaya CV. Solo(Carica papaya L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimentel, Rodrigo M.A.; Walder, Julio M.M. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)]. E-mails: rmapiment@cena.usp.br; jmwalder@cena.usp.br; Marcondes, Yvens E.M. [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: yvensmar@unimep.br

    2007-07-01

    Full text: To export, it is not only necessary to achieve quality standards, but also, quarantine standards. The main function of irradiation is quarantine control of fruit flies, therefore it is necessary to combine with treatments which focus at keeping fruit quality. The objective of this work was the evaluation of the quality of papaya submitted to heat treatment followed by irradiation at quarantine doses. Papayas were selected green and separated in treatments: a) control; irradiation at doses; b) 250, c) 500 Gy; d) hot water at 60 deg C for 30 seconds; and combined to doses e) 250, f) 500 Gy. The papayas were stored at 21 ({+-} 1 deg C) with relative humidity of 85 - 90%, and then after 8 days, they were evaluated by their soluble solid content, pH, titratable acidity, firmness, decay index and internal color. The analysis of mass loss and external color were executed at 0, 2, 4 and 7 days after irradiation. It was observed that in fruits submitted to hot water (d, e, f) there were less decay and in combined treatments (e, f) it was verified higher firmness. In the second day, irradiated treatments (b, c, e, f) were more yellow than the others. As to the other parameters evaluated, there were no differences between treatments (author)

  18. GC-MS profiling, descriptive sensory analysis, and consumer acceptance of Costa Rican papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruit purees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieb, Veronika M; Esquivel, Patricia; Cubero Castillo, Elba; Carle, Reinhold; Steingass, Christof B

    2018-05-15

    Volatiles of papaya purees from four Costa Rican cultivars were analysed by solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of 83 volatiles was assigned in the purees, of which 19 were detected for the first time as papaya constituents. As revealed by multivariate statistics, i.e., principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), the purees may be allocated to terpene- and lactone-rich ('SH-5'), ester-containing ('Criolla'), and intermediate chemotypes ('Pococí' and 'Silvestre'). Descriptive sensory analysis and a consumer acceptance test were additionally performed. Floral, fruity, and honey-like notes were perceived at significantly higher intensities in 'SH-5' puree. The latter descriptors strongly correlated with volatiles discriminating 'SH-5' in the PCA and PLS-DA, respectively. Consumer acceptance of the papaya purees differed significantly. 'Pococí' and 'SH-5' purees appear to be suitable for improving the nutritional value of blended fruit juices without impairing their sensory quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Microbiological safety aspects of mangoes (Mangifera indica and papayas (Carica papaya: a mini-review | Aspectos de segurança microbiológica de manga (Mangifera indica e papaya (Carica papaya: mini revisão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Penteado

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This review describes several aspects related to microbiological safety in mangoes and papayas, such as incidence, outbreaks, internalisation and growth/survival of bacterial pathogens. Mangoes and papayas are often served sliced in food establishments in fresh pieces at salad bars, deli counters and as pulp juice. In general, these products do not undergo any process to eliminate pathogenic microorganisms before consumption, and a long shelf life could theoretically provide time for these microorganisms to multiply without affecting the organoleptic qualities of the fruit, thereby increasing the risks of food-borne illness. The data presented in this review show that low temperatures can impede microbial growth, but not completely inhibit such growth in mangoes and papayas. Highest growth rates were observed in the range between 22 and 37oC. In the last 20 years, several outbreaks of salmonellosis caused by these fruits or by food made with these fruits have been reported. The control of the temperature in the fruit washing water is important to prevent the internalisation of Salmonella spp. The implementation of strategies such as Good Agricultural Practices, Good Manufacturing Practices and Hazard Analysis Critical is important, as these methods can eliminate or significantly reduce microbial contamination. ================================================== Esta revisão descreve diversos aspectos relacionados à segurança microbiológica em manga e mamão papaya como; incidência, surtos, internalização e crescimento/sobrevivência de patógenos bacterianos nestas frutas. Mangas e papayas são frequentemente servidas fatiadas em estabelecimentos alimentícios como pedaços frescos, em misturas para saladas, expostas em balcões e como polpas de frutas. No geral, estes produtos não passam por qualquer processo para eliminar microrganismos patogênicos antes do seu consumo e uma vida longa de prateleira poderia teoricamente fornecer tempo

  20. In Vivo Antimalarial Activity of the Solvent Fractions of Fruit Rind and Root of Carica papaya Linn (Caricaceae) against Plasmodium berghei in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebebe, Dereje; Mulisa, Eshetu; Gashe, Fanta

    2017-01-01

    Background Currently, antimalarial drug resistance poses a serious challenge. This stresses the need for newer antimalarial compounds. Carica papaya is used traditionally and showed in vitro antimalarial activity. This study attempted to evaluate in vivo antimalarial activity of C. papaya in mice. Methods In vivo antimalarial activity of solvent fractions of the plant was carried out against early P. berghei infection in mice. Parasitemia, temperature, PCV, and body weight of mice were recorded. Windows SPSS version 16 (one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's post hoc test) was used for data analysis. Results The pet ether and chloroform fractions of C. papaya fruit rind and root produced a significant (p papaya fruit rind in the highest dose (400 mg/kg/day). Only 400 mg/kg/day dose of chloroform fraction of C. papaya root exhibited a parasite suppression effect (48.11%). But, methanol fraction of the plant parts produced less chemosuppressive effect. Conclusion Pet ether fraction of C. papaya fruit rind had the highest antimalarial activity and could be a potential source of lead compound. Further study should be done to show the chemical and metabolomic profile of active ingredients. PMID:29391947

  1. Sales de calcio mejoran vida de anaquel y aceptabilidad general de papaya (Carica papaya L. var. Maradol fresca cortada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayely Leyva López

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Las tendencias actuales de los consumidores por alimentos sanos y de conveniencia promueven un mayor consumo de frutas y hortalizas, donde destacan productos frescos cortados. Sin embargo, por su naturaleza estos productos pueden ser muy susceptibles a diferentes alteraciones que afectan su calidad. El uso de aditivos como sales de calcio representa una alternativa tecnológica para mantener, o incluso mejorar, la calidad durante su vida de anaquel. Por lo anterior el objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar el efecto de sales de calcio en papaya fresca cortada sobre la calidad física, química, microbiológica, nutracéutica y sensorial. Cubos de papaya, variedad Maradol (2 cm de arista fueron tratados con lactato y cloruro de calcio al 1,0 y 3,0 %, bajo condiciones de inmersión por 2 min a 40 °C. Las muestras tratadas fueron colocadas en vasos de polietileno tereftalato (PET de 500 mL tapa, y almacenadas por 8 días a 5 °C. En comparación con los frutos testigo, los tratamientos a base de calcio demostraron mejorar la firmeza (~ 8 N, principalmente los frutos tratados con cloruro de calcio al 3,0 %. Por otra parte, la calidad nutracéutica (fenólicos totales no se vio afectada por el uso de sales de calcio, mientras que las evaluaciones microbiológicas demuestran condiciones de inocuidad conforme a normatividad. Se sugiere el uso de cloruro de calcio para fines de comercializar papaya fresca cortada.

  2. Sales de calcio mejoran vida de anaquel y aceptabilidad general de papaya (Carica papaya L. var. Maradol fresca cortada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayely Leyva López

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Las tendencias actuales de los consumidores por alimentos sanos y de conveniencia promueven un mayor consumo de frutas y hortalizas, donde destacan productos frescos cortados. Sin embargo, por su naturaleza estos productos pueden ser muy susceptibles a diferentes alteraciones que afectan su calidad. El uso de aditivos como sales de calcio representa una alternativa tecnológica para mantener, o incluso mejorar, la calidad durante su vida de anaquel. Por lo anterior el objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar el efecto de sales de calcio en papaya fresca cortada sobre la calidad física, química, microbiológica, nutracéutica y sensorial. Cubos de papaya, variedad Maradol (2 cm de arista fueron tratados con lactato y cloruro de calcio al 1,0 y 3,0 %, bajo condiciones de inmersión por 2 min a 40 °C. Las muestras tratadas fueron colocadas en vasos de polietileno tereftalato (PET de 500 mL con tapa, y almacenadas por 8 días a 5 °C. En comparación con los frutos testigo, los tratamientos a base de calcio demostraron mejorar la firmeza (~ 8 N, principalmente los frutos tratados con cloruro de calcio al 3,0 %. Por otra parte, la calidad nutracéutica (fenólicos totales no se vio afectada por el uso de sales de calcio, mientras que las evaluaciones microbiológicas demuestran condiciones de inocuidad conforme a normatividad. Se sugiere el uso de cloruro de calcio para fines de comercializar papaya fresca cortada.

  3. Modulatory potentials of aqueous leaf and unripe fruit extracts of Carica papaya Linn. (Caricaceae) against carbon tetrachloride and acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awodele, Olufunsho; Yemitan, Omoniyi; Ise, Peter Uduak; Ikumawoyi, Victor Olabowale

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Carica papaya Linn is used in a traditional medicine for hepatobiliary disorders. This study investigated the hepatomodulatory effects of aqueous extracts of C. papaya leaf (CPL) and unripe fruit (CPF) at doses of 100 and 300 mg/kg on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) and acetaminophen (ACM)-induced liver toxicities in rats. Materials and Methods: Rats were administered CCl4 (3 ml/kg in olive oil, i.p.) followed by oral administration of CPL and CPF at 2, 6 and 10 h intervals. The ACM model proceeded with the same method but inclusive of animals treated with N-acetyl cysteine (3 ml/kg i.p). At the end of the study, serum levels of liver biomarkers and antioxidant enzymes were assessed and histology of the liver tissues determined. Results: There was a significant (P papaya may be useful in preventing CCl4 and ACM-induced liver toxicities. PMID:27069723

  4. In vitro effects of fermented papaya (Carica papaya, L.) on platelets obtained from patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffaelli, F; Nanetti, L; Montecchiani, G; Borroni, F; Salvolini, E; Faloia, E; Ferretti, G; Mazzanti, L; Vignini, A

    2015-02-01

    Oxidative stress is associated with insulin resistance pathogenesis, insulin secretion deficiency, and complication onset. Fermented papaya preparation (FPP), a dietary supplement obtained by fermentation of the papaya fruit, may be used as an antioxidant in the prevention of diabetic complications. Platelets from 30 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM 2) and 15 healthy subjects were analyzed to evaluate the in vitro effects of FPP incubation. Na(+)/K(+)-adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activity, membrane fluidity, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and conjugated diene levels were determined. In vitro FPP incubation improved platelet function, by enhancing Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity and membrane fluidity, and ameliorated the antioxidant system functionality, through an increase in TAC and SOD activity and a parallel decrease in conjugated diene levels in patients with DM 2. Our data suggest that the incubation with FPP may have a protective effect on platelets from patients with DM 2, by preventing the progression of oxidative damage associated with diabetes and its complications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of gamma irradiation in papaya (Carica papaya L.) harvested in three degrees of maturation.; Efeito da irradiacao gama em mamao papaia (Carica papaya L.) colhido em tres pontos de maturacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimentel, Rodrigo Meirelles de Azevedo

    2001-07-01

    The papaya is a fragile tropical fruit with thin skin, susceptible to post harvest diseases and mechanical injuries. Furthermore, it is sensible to low temperatures and at normal conditions it ripens rapidly, increasing the difficulties with storage. The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of gamma irradiation in papayas harvested in three degrees of maturation, in order to increase shelf life. To accomplish that, papayas were harvested in perfect quality conditions, washed, submitted to carnauba wax and selected by skin coloration into three distinct degrees of maturation: Mat 0, or beginning of yellow coloration; Mat 1, yellow stripes more developed, and Mat 2, one third yellow. Half of them were submitted to irradiation with 0, 75 kGy, while the others became control treatment. They were analyzed in four different periods of conservation, which were 1 day after irradiation (DAI) refrigerated (11 +- 1 deg C), 14 DAI refrigerated, 14 DAI refrigerated + 3 at room temperature (RT = 24 deg +- 2 deg C) and 14 DAI refrigerated + 6 at RT. The effect of irradiation was not influenced by the maturation degree at harvest. Irradiation promoted firmness maintenance of papaya and, therefore, delayed ripening; modified the green color of papaya to a lighter tone, which determined more homogeneity in the skin yellow color development (greater values of L* and b*), and turned the papaya flesh color lighter (rower values of b*). There was no effect of irradiation in papaya weight loss, in the occurrence of diseases, in the development of surface yellow color, in the parameter a* of papaya skin color, in the parameters L*, a* and chroma of flesh color, p H and total soluble solids content. Visual and organoleptic sensorial tests were accomplished with papayas from a new delivery in the conservation period of 14 DAI refrigerated + 3 at RT. In the visual test was evaluated the appearance of papaya in the following treatments: Mat O control, Mat O irradiated, Mat 1

  6. INCIDENCIA Y SEVERIDAD DE LA ANTRACNOSIS EN LÍNEAS E HÍBRIDOS DE PAPAYA (Carica papaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Bogantes-Arias

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la incidencia y severidad de la antracnosis (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, en frutas de papaya. El experimento se realizó en Guápiles, Limón, Costa Rica, entre los años 2010 y 2011. Se sembraron cinco líneas y cuatro híbridos bajo un diseño de bloques completos al azar con tres repeticiones. Se evaluó la incidencia y severidad de la antracnosis, así como la firmeza y los sólidos solubles (grados Brix de la fruta. Los híbridos presentaron carac terísticas intermedias a los padres para las características evaluadas. En la antracnosis de fruta, la resistencia tiende a ser dominante para el material evaluado.

  7. Use of microsatellite markers in molecular analysis of segregating populations of papaya (Carica papaya L.) derived from backcrossing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, F O; Pereira, M G; Luz, L N; Cardozo, D L; Ramos, H C C; Macedo, C M P

    2013-07-08

    Brazil is the world leader in papaya production. However, only a small number of cultivars are registered for commercial planting, mainly owing to delays in obtaining cultivars and the high costs of the field phase of breeding programs. These costs can be reduced when molecular tools are combined with conventional breeding methods. In the present study, we conducted a molecular analysis of a self-fertilized population of a first backcrossing generation of BC1S1 papaya plants via microsatellite markers both to monitor the level of homozygosity and the gene/allele transfer that confers the Golden trait (fruit color) and to assess the parental genomic proportion in the genotypes studied. Based on the analysis of 20 polymorphic microsatellite loci, 19 genotypes with the Golden trait belonging to BC1S1 were evaluated in addition to the parental genotypes. Genetic distance was estimated through weighted index. The genotypes were then grouped using the hierarchical nearest neighbor method, and the analysis of principal coordinates was used to measure the proportion of parental genomes in the segregating genotypes. The mean value of the inbreeding coefficient was 0.36. The analysis of the principal coordinates revealed that on average, 64% of the recurrent parent genome was present in the population. Together, the analyses allowed the selection of 3 individuals for the next backcross cycle (33BC1S1-18, 34BC1S1-16, and 37BC1S1-10). These individuals had a higher proportion of the recurrent parent and were grouped close to the recurrent parent in the cluster analysis.

  8. Transcriptome analysis of Carica papaya embryogenic callus upon De-etiolated 1 (DET1 gene suppression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diyana Jamaluddin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Papaya is considered to be one of the most nutritional fruits. It is rich in vitamins, carotenoids, flavonoids and other phytonutrient which function as antioxidant in our body [1]. Previous studies revealed that the suppression of a negative regulator gene in photomorphogenesis, De-etiolated 1 (DET1 can improve the phytonutrient in tomato and canola without affecting the fruit quality [2,3]. This report contains the experimental data on high-throughput 3′ mRNA sequencing of transformed papaya callus upon DET1 gene suppression.

  9. Antagonism or synergism between papaya ringspot virus and papaya mosaic virus in Carica papaya is determined by their order of infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez-Calvillo, Gabriela; Contreras-Paredes, Carlos A; Mora-Macias, Javier; Noa-Carrazana, Juan C; Serrano-Rubio, Angélica A; Dinkova, Tzvetanka D; Carrillo-Tripp, Mauricio; Silva-Rosales, Laura

    2016-02-01

    Antagonism between unrelated plant viruses has not been thoroughly described. Our studies show that two unrelated viruses, papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) and papaya mosaic virus (PapMV) produce different symptomatic outcomes during mixed infection depending on the inoculation order. Synergism occurs in plants infected first with PRSV or in plants infected simultaneously with PRSV and PapMV, and antagonism occurs in plants infected first with PapMV and later inoculated with PRSV. During antagonism, elevated pathogenesis-related (PR-1) gene expression and increased reactive oxygen species production indicated the establishment of a host defense resulting in the reduction in PRSV titers. Polyribosomal fractioning showed that PRSV affects translation of cellular eEF1α, PR-1, β-tubulin, and PapMV RNAs in planta, suggesting that its infection could be related to an imbalance in the translation machinery. Our data suggest that primary PapMV infection activates a defense response against PRSV and establishes a protective relationship with the papaya host. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. IDENTIFICACIÓN MEDIANTE PCR DEL SEXO DE LA PAPAYA (Carica papaya L., HÍBRIDO "POCOCÍ"

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    Ericka Saalau-Rojas

    2009-01-01

    con dos metodologías de extracción, CTAB y lisis alcalina (NaOH. La amplificación por PCR del ADN extraído de muestras foliares de papaya híbrido "Pococí", con ambos métodos de extracción, produjo los fragmentos del tamaño esperado. La determinación del sexo de 1.500 plántulas en almácigo mostró un 46 % de plántulas hermafroditas y un 54 % de plantas femeninas. La proporción observada de plantas femeninas: hemafroditas no varió de la esperada (1:1 según la prueba de chi-cuadrado (p= 0,4237. Las plantas hermafroditas fueron llevadas al campo y al momento de la floración se determinó su sexo. La correspondencia entre el sexado por PCR y la expresión sexual en campo fue de un 98 %.

  11. Influência da adubação com esterco bovino e inoculação de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares no crescimento de mudas de Carica papaya L. (var. Formosa Influence of fertilization with bovine manure and inoculation of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the growth of Carica papaya L. 'Formosa' seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Elizabete de Lima Lins

    1999-12-01

    been employed for the seedling production of several types of fruit trees. The objectives of this work were to evaluate the influence of the inoculation of AMF and the application of organic matter in the growth of papaya (Carica papaya L. 'Formosa', in a greenhouse. Seedlings were cultivated in sandy soil (characterized by a low P: 4ppm, inoculated with AMF and fertilized or not with 50g of bovine manure. The experimental design was entirely randomized with six treatments and three replicates: - inoculation with either native AMF, Gigaspora albida Schenck & Smith or Scutellospora hetervgama (Nicol. & Gerd. Walker & Sanders with/without organic matter. The experiment was evaluated ev ery 10 days, considering the parameters: height, diameter of stem and number of leaves. Significant differences between fertilized and non fertilized treatments were observed on the 30th day. After 40 days, plants inoculated with native AMF presented better development than those inoculated separately with G. albida or S. heterogama, in both fertilized and non fertilized soils.

  12. Mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion of poultry dropping and Carica papaya peels: Modelling and process parameter optimization study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahunsi, S O; Oranusi, S; Owolabi, J B; Efeovbokhan, V E

    2016-09-01

    The study evaluated anaerobic co-digestion of poultry dropping and pawpaw peels and the optimization of important process parameters. The physic-chemical analyses of the substrates were done using standard methods after application of mechanical, thermal and chemical pre-treatments methods. Gas chromatography analysis revealed the gas composition to be within the range of 66-68% methane and 18-23% carbon dioxide. The study equally revealed that combination of the different pre-treatment methods enhanced enormous biogas yield from the digestion. Optimization of the generated biogas data were carried out using the Response Surface Methodology and the Artificial Neural Networks. The coefficient of determination (R(2)) for RSM (0.9181) was lower compare to that of ANN (0.9828). This shows that ANN model gives higher accuracy than RSM model for the current. Further usage of Carica papaya peels for biogas generation is advocated. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Biodiesel production from crude Jatropha oil catalyzed by non-commercial immobilized heterologous Rhizopus oryzae and Carica papaya lipases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, J; Canet, A; Rivera, I; Osório, N M; Sandoval, G; Valero, F; Ferreira-Dias, S

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of biodiesel production by transesterification of Jatropha oil with methanol, catalyzed by non-commercial sn-1,3-regioselective lipases. Using these lipases, fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) and monoacylglycerols are produced, avoiding the formation of glycerol as byproduct. Heterologous Rhizopus oryzae lipase (rROL) immobilized on different synthetic resins and Carica papaya lipase (rCPL) immobilized on Lewatit VP OC 1600 were tested. Reactions were performed at 30°C, with seven stepwise methanol additions. For all biocatalysts, 51-65% FAME (theoretical maximum=67%, w/w) was obtained after 4h transesterification. Stability tests were performed in 8 or 10 successive 4h-batches, either with or without rehydration of the biocatalyst between each two consecutive batches. Activity loss was much faster when biocatalysts were rehydrated. For rROL, half-life times varied from 16 to 579h. rROL on Lewatit VPOC 1600 was more stable than for rCPL on the same support. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Papaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... called carpain. Carpain seems to be able to kill certain parasites, and it might affect the central ... Herbs and supplements that might lower blood sugarPapaya that has been fermented might lower blood sugar. Using ...

  15. Características fenotípicas y agronómicas de seis genotipos de papaya (Carica papaya L. de Tuxpan, Guerrero, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ángel Alcántara Jiménez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available En México la producción de papayo (Carica papaya L. es afectada por factores genéticos, ambientales y bióticos. Destacan los daños provocados por el virus de la mancha anular, el cual reduce considerablemente la cantidad y calidad de la fruta; por eso es muy importante, conocer la productividad de los genotipos en un ambiente determinado. La presente investigación se realizó con el objetivo de evaluar el desarrollo y las características agronómicas de seis genotipos de papayo. El estudio se llevó a cabo en la localidad de Tuxpan, Guerrero, donde se cultivaron los genotipos: R4M3, Maradol, Criolla, Red Lady, Zapote y R5M2. Como diseño experimental se utilizó el de bloques completos al azar, con cuatro repeticiones. Las variables evaluadas fueron: altura al primer fruto, diámetro del cuello, altura de la planta, número de días a la cosecha, rendimiento de frutos (t/ha, número, diámetro y longitud de frutos, concentración de azúcares (grados Brix, textura, color de la pulpa y epicarpio de frutos maduros. Los datos de las variables se sometieron a análisis de varianza y prueba de comparación de medias de Tukey. En relación a la adaptación de los genotipos: todos los genotipos se desarrollaron y produjeron frutos en las condiciones de trópico seco. La variedad Maradol fue la más sobresaliente, presentando un porte menor, mayor precocidad y productividad, textura dura de pulpa, alta concentración de azúcares, buen tamaño y color.

  16. Carica papaya ameliorates allergic asthma via down regulation of IL-4, IL-5, eotaxin, TNF-α, NF-ĸB, and iNOS levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inam, Asma; Shahzad, Muhammad; Shabbir, Arham; Shahid, Hira; Shahid, Khadija; Javeed, Aqeel

    2017-08-15

    Natural products have a prime importance as an essential source for new drug discovery. Carica papaya leaves (CPL) have been used to treat inflammation in traditional system of medicine. Current study evaluates the anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of CPL extract using mouse model of ovalbumin- (OVA) induced allergic asthma. All the mice were intraperitoneally sensitized and subsequently given intranasal challenge with OVA except the control group. Group-III and -IV were treated for seven consecutive days with CPL extract and methylprednisolone (MP), respectively. At the end of study, histopathological examination of the lungs was performed and inflammatory cell counts were done in blood as well as bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). The mRNA expression levels of IL-4, IL-5, eotaxin, TNF-α, NF-ĸB, and iNOS were measured using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results showed significant attenuation of lung infiltration of inflammatory cells, alveolar thickening, and goblet cell hyperplasia after treatment with CPL extract. We also found significant suppression of total and differential leukocyte counts in both blood and BALF samples of CPL extract treated group. CPL extract also alleviated the expression levels of IL-4, IL-5, eotaxin, TNF-α, NF-ĸB, and iNOS. Similarly, treatment with MP, used as a reference drug, also significantly ameliorated all the pro-inflammatory markers. Current study shows that CPL extract possesses anti-inflammatory effect in mouse model of allergic airway inflammation by down-regulating IL-4, IL-5, eotaxin, TNF-α, NF-ĸB, and iNOS expression levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. A microsatellite library for Carica papaya L. cv. Sunrise solo Marcadores microssatélites para Carica papaya L. cv. Sunrise solo

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    Silvia Correa Santos

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available In experimental areas of the Education and Researches Ilha Solteira and Jaboticabal UNESP/Campus farms were selected and tagged 20 hermaphrodite plants and 20 feminine of cultivar Sunrise Solo, Improved Sunrise Solo cv.72/12 and Baixinho of Santa Amália.The seeds origined of the selected fruits were cropped to be analysed the self-pollination efficiency and frequency of the sex in the progenies. After that, samples of the young leaf of the matrix plants were colected for the extration of the DNA. It was built five library enriched of microsatellite sequencies, using probes (TCA10, (TC13, (GATA4, (CAC10 e (TGAG8.It was possible the development of the primers only in the library that has utilized the probe (TCA10. This probe allowed the design of 32 primer pairs. From these, 31 presented pattern of unique band in agarose Metaphor and in acrilamide. For primer S36 were observed 2 bands, but with no polymorphism to differentiation in the sexual form at papaya tree culture. However, these primers can be tested, in the futures, in the investigation of the others features in segregated populations of this specie and the related species, germoplasm analysis, cultivars identification, parent evolution and molecular markers for the assisted plant breeding programs.Em áreas experimentais das Fazendas de Ensino e Pesquisa da UNESP/Campus de Ilha Solteira e Jaboticabal foram selecionadas e marcadas 20 plantas hermafroditas e 20 femininas dos cultivares Sunrise Solo, Improved Sunrise Solo cv.72/12 e Baixinho de Santa Amália. As sementes provenientes dos frutos selecionados foram plantadas para analisar-se a eficiência da autofecundação e a freqüência dos sexos nas progênies. Posteriormente, amostras de tecido foliar jovem das plantas matrizes foram coletadas para a extração de DNA. Foram construídas cinco bibliotecas enriquecidas de seqüências microsatélites, utilizando-se as sondas (TCA10, (TC13, (GATA4, (CAC10 e (TGAG8. Foi possível o

  18. Toxicité du macérât de Carica papaya L. contre Coptotermes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Par des tests biologiques, cette étude a examiné, au laboratoire, les effets du macérât de graines de C. papaya sur la toxicité, la survie, l'alimentation et la tâche de construction de galeries des ouvriers du termite souterrain Formosan, Coptotermes formosanus. Dans les bio-essais, le macérât non fermenté de graines et ...

  19. Chromosome number reduction in the sister clade of Carica papaya with concomitant genome size doubling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockinger, Alexander; Sousa, Aretuza; Carvalho, Fernanda A; Renner, Susanne S

    2016-06-01

    Caricaceae include six genera and 34 species, among them papaya, a model species in plant sex chromosome research. The family was held to have a conserved karyotype with 2n = 18 chromosomes, an assumption based on few counts. We examined the karyotypes and genome size of species from all genera to test for possible cytogenetic variation. We used fluorescent in situ hybridization using standard telomere, 5S, and 45S rDNA probes. New and published data were combined with a phylogeny, molecular clock dating, and C values (available for ∼50% of the species) to reconstruct genome evolution. The African genus Cylicomorpha, which is sister to the remaining Caricaceae (all neotropical), has 2n = 18, as do the species in two other genera. A Mexican clade of five species that includes papaya, however, has 2n = 18 (papaya), 2n = 16 (Horovitzia cnidoscoloides), and 2n = 14 (Jarilla caudata and J. heterophylla; third Jarilla not counted), with the phylogeny indicating that the dysploidy events occurred ∼16.6 and ∼5.5 million years ago and that Jarilla underwent genome size doubling (∼450 to 830-920 Mbp/haploid genome). Pericentromeric interstitial telomere repeats occur in both Jarilla adjacent to 5S rDNA sites, and the variability of 5S rDNA sites across all genera is high. On the basis of outgroup comparison, 2n = 18 is the ancestral number, and repeated chromosomal fusions with simultaneous genome size increase as a result of repetitive elements accumulating near centromeres characterize the papaya clade. These results have implications for ongoing genome assemblies in Caricaceae. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  20. Papaya extract to treat dengue: a novel therapeutic option? | Sarala ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dengue is a viral disease that today affects a vast number of people in over 125 countries and is responsible for a sizable number of deaths. In the absence of an effective antiviral drug to treat the disease, various treatments are being investigated. Studies have indicated that the juice of the leaves of the Carica papaya plant ...

  1. HPLC-ESI-MS Characterization of Certain Polyphenolic Compounds of Carica papaya L. Fruit Extracts and Evaluation of Their Potential Against Murine Schistosomiasis mansoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Lateef, Ezzat El-Sayed; Rabia, Ibrahim Aly; El-Sayed, Mortada Mohamed; Abdel-Hameed, El-Sayed Saleh

    2018-04-10

    The in vivo antischistosomal activities of Carica papaya L. extracts were evaluated and the characterization of the active secondary metabolites of the defatted methanolic extract was performed using HPLC-ESI-MS. The plant fruit powders were extracted with 85% methanol and fractionated using organic solvents. The in vivo antischistosomal effects of the methanolic extracts and its fractions, as well as the assessment of the relationship between the antischistosomal activity of these plant extracts and oxidative stress, was determined. In addition, the defatted methanolic extract was characterized by HPLC-ESI-MS analysis. The number of worms, ova, and the Oogram pattern displayed typical Schistosoma mansoni pathology 8 weeks after infection in mice. Treatment of the infected group with the defatted methanolic extracts significantly decreased worm burden, immature ova and mature ova, while increasing the percentage of dead ova in vivo. The butanol fraction was the most effective fraction reducing worm burden by 77%, ova count in the intestine by 76% and in the liver by 80%, and significantly decreased immature and mature ova ( P <0.001) compared to the infected group. Additionally, the defatted methanolic extracts improved the reduced glutathione and malondialdehyde levels in hepatic tissues in the treated groups compared to the infected group. The HPLC-ESI-MS analysis of the Carica papaya defatted methanolic extract revealed the presence of several polyphenolic compounds. Carica papaya fruit extracts are rich with phenolic acids and flavonoids and show a significant effect against S. mansoni infections which may be used alternative to PZQ as anti-schistosomal drug against schistosomiasis. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Correct names for some of the closest relatives of Carica papaya: A review of the Mexican/Guatemalan genera Jarilla and Horovitzia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Fernanda Antunes; Renner, Susanne S.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Using molecular data, we recently showed that Carica papaya L. is sister to a Mexican/Guatemalan clade of two genera, Jarilla Rusby with three species and Horovitzia V.M. Badillo with one. These species are herbs or thin-stemmed trees and may be of interest for future genomics-enabled papaya breeding. Here we clarify the correct names of Jarilla heterophylla (Cerv. ex La Llave) Rusby and Jarilla caudata (Brandegee) Standl., which were confused in a recent systematic treatment of Jarilla (McVaugh 2001). We designate epitypes for both, provide weblinks to type specimens, a key to the species of Jarilla and Horovitzia, and notes on their habitats and distribution. PMID:24399895

  3. Correct names for some of the closest relatives of Carica papaya: A review of the Mexican/Guatemalan genera Jarilla and Horovitzia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Carvalho

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Using molecular data, we recently showed that Carica papaya L. is sister to a Mexican/Guatemalan clade of two genera, Jarilla Rusby with three species and Horovitzia V.M. Badillo with one. These species are herbs or thin-stemmed trees and may be of interest for future genomics-enabled papaya breeding. Here we clarify the correct names of J. heterophylla (Cerv. ex La Llave Rusby and J. caudata (Brandegee Standl., which were confused in a recent systematic treatment of Jarilla (McVaugh 2001. We designate epitypes for both, provide weblinks to type specimens, a key to the species of Jarilla and Horovitzia, and notes on their habitats and distribution.

  4. Genetic differentiation of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and C. truncatum associated with Anthracnose disease of papaya (Carica papaya L.) and bell pepper (Capsium annuum L.) based on ITS PCR-RFLP fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharaj, Ariana; Rampersad, Sephra N

    2012-03-01

    Members of the genus Colletotrichum include some of the most economically important fungal pathogens in the world. Accurate diagnosis is critical to devising disease management strategies. Two species, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and C. truncatum, are responsible for anthracnose disease in papaya (Carica papaya L.) and bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) in Trinidad. The ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of 48 Colletotrichum isolates was sequenced, and the ITS PCR products were analyzed by PCR-RFLP analysis. Restriction site polymorphisms generated from 11 restriction enzymes enabled the identification of specific enzymes that were successful in distinguishing between C. gloeosporioides and C. truncatum isolates. Species-specific restriction fragment length polymorphisms generated by the enzymes AluI, HaeIII, PvuII, RsaI, and Sau3A were used to consistently resolve C. gloeosporioides and C. truncatum isolates from papaya. AluI, ApaI, PvuII, RsaI, and SmaI reliably separated isolates of C. gloeosporioides and C. truncatum from bell pepper. PvuII, RsaI, and Sau3A were also capable of distinguishing among the C. gloeosporioides isolates from papaya based on the different restriction patterns that were obtained as a result of intra-specific variation in restriction enzyme recognition sites in the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 rDNA region. Of all the isolates tested, C. gloeosporioides from papaya also had the highest number of PCR-RFLP haplotypes. Cluster analysis of sequence and PCR-RFLP data demonstrated that all C. gloeosporioides and C. truncatum isolates clustered separately into species-specific clades regardless of host species. Phylograms also revealed consistent topologies which suggested that the genetic distances for PCR-RFLP-generated data were comparable to that of ITS sequence data. ITS PCR-RFLP fingerprinting is a rapid and reliable method to identify and differentiate between Colletotrichum species.

  5. Use of Temporary Immersion Systems in the multiplication and germination of somatic embryos of banana (Musa sp. Cultivar Grande Naine (AAA and papaya (Carica papaya L. var. Red Maradol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laisyn Posada-Pérez

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The method consisted of sowing embryogenic culture in Filtration Systems “Sartorius” autoclaveable of 250 ml of capacity. Different densities inoculum that varied in dependency of the culture were used(250 mg for banana and groups of 10 to 12 somatic embryos in the case of papaya. In this case two types of culture medium for the multiplication of the embryos were studied. For the banana, the modified, MS medium with Picloram 2 mg.l-1 and the modified MS with the combination of 6 BAP and AIA, and for the papaya embryos the modified MS medium with two concentrations of 2,4-D (1 and 2 mg.l-1. The frequency was of three timesa day during a minute. For the germination, the multiplication culture medium was modiffied by the MS supplemented with 0.5 mg.l-1 de 6 BAP, 2 mg.l-1 de AIA, sucrose 3% for banana, studying two concentrations of inoculum 500 and 1 000 mg.l-1 and for papaya the modified MS with 0.5 mg.l-1 of 6 BAP, 0.01 mg.l-1 of Biobras-6 (an equivalent of brassinosteroid 0.6 mg.l-1 of riboflavin and sucrose 2%. As a result for the banana the best results were achieved in the modified MS without Picloram, obtaining after two months, multiplication rates twenty times higher than in the culture medium containing this auxin. Germination values between 70-82% were achieved after three months. In papaya was possible to multiply the somatic embryos obtaining, after 45 days multiplication coefficients of forty in the culture medium with 1 mg.l-1of 2,4-D and 87% of germination. Key words: auxin, Carica papaya, liquid medium, Musa,

  6. Uso de esterco associado à adubação mineral na produção de mudas de mamoeiro (Carica papaya L. The use of manure associated with mineral fertilization in papaya (Carica papaya L. seedling production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Célia Faria Simão Canesin

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Na composição do substrato para produção de mudas de mamoeiro, recomenda-se o uso de adubação orgânica, que traz como vantagens a melhoria das características físicas, químicas e biológicas do solo, criando um ambiente favorável ao desenvolvimento inicial das mudas, bem como boa resposta do mamoeiro. Os materiais orgânicos desempenham ainda um importante papel na nutrição das plantas como fornecedores de nutrientes. Contudo, observa-se que existe uma grande variação nas recomendações e quase sempre a adubação orgânica está associada à adubação mineral. Neste contexto, o objetivo deste trabalho foi o de verificar os efeitos do uso de esterco de curral associado ou não à adubação mineral no substrato sobre a formação de mudas de mamoeiro. O Experimento foi conduzido na FEP/UNESP/Câmpus de Ilha Solteira-SP. O delineamento utilizado foi em blocos, em esquema de parcelas subdivididas, sendo parcelas as cultivares e subparcelas os substratos. Cada parcela com 5 repetições e 10 plantas úteis por subparcela. Para a comparação das médias, utilizou-se o teste de Tukey. Com base nos resultados obtidos, pode-se concluir que: a Na formação das mudas de mamoeiro, o esterco de curral pode ser utilizado sem a necessidade de adubação mineral com o superfosfato simples e o cloreto de potássio; b O esterco de curral foi capaz de fornecer às mudas de mamoeiro os nutrientes N, P, K, Ca, Mg e Cu, necessários para seu desenvolvimento até o transplantio para o campo.The use of organic fertilization is recommended to be added to the substrate for papaya seedling production, as it enhances the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the soil, creating a favorable environment for the initial development of the plants, which results in better plant growth. The organic matter has also the important role of providing nutrients to the plants. However, there is great variation in the recommendations, and in most cases

  7. Selenium added unripe carica papaya pulp extracts enhance wound repair through TGF-β1 and VEGF-a signalling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafiu, Abdulrazaq Bidemi; Rahman, Mohammad Tariqur

    2015-10-15

    Increased wound healing efficiency by Se(2+) added Carica papaya L. (Caricaceae) fruit extract was linked to increased antioxidant and anti-inflammatory responses during healing. We investigated the impact of Se(2+) or Zn(2+) added papaya water (WE) and phosphate-buffered saline (PE) extracts on cells recruitment and bio-molecular alterations on days 4 and 10 post wounding in an in vivo excision wound. Excision wounds were created on the dorsum of Sprague Dawley rats and treated topically twice/day with 20 μL of PE and WE (5 mg extract/mL), 0.5 μgSe(2+) added PE and WE (PES and WES), or 100 μMZn(2+) added PE and WE (PEZ and WEZ). Deionised water (negative) and Solcoseryl (positive) were applied on the control groups. Histochemical and biochemical assays were used to evaluate cellular and bio-molecular changes in the wound. PES (PE + 0.5 μg Se(2+)) only increased significantly (p Papaya extract improved wound repair by increasing fibroblasts recruitment and reducing polymorphonuclear leukocytes infiltration through early transient expressions of TGF-β1 and VEGFA at the wound area. The processes were amplified with Se(2+) addition.

  8. Protective Action of Carica papaya on β-Cells in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda-Osorio, Pedro H; Castell-Rodríguez, Andrés E; Vargas-Mancilla, Juan; Tovilla-Zárate, Carlos A; Ble-Castillo, Jorge L; Aguilar-Domínguez, Dora E; Juárez-Rojop, Isela E; Díaz-Zagoya, Juan C

    2016-04-27

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of C. papaya L. leaf extract (CPLE) on pancreatic islets in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats, as well as on cultured normal pancreatic cells with STZ in the medium. CPLE (3-125 mg/Kg) was administered orally for 20 days, while a group of diabetic rats received 5 IU/Kg/day of insulin. At the end of the treatment the rats were sacrificed. Blood was obtained to assess glucose and insulin levels. The pancreas was dissected to evaluate β cells by immunohistochemistry. In addition, normal pancreatic cells were cultured in a medium that included CPLE (3-12 mg). One half of the cultured cells received simultaneously CPLE and STZ (6 mg), while the other half received CPLE and five days later the STZ. After three days of incubation, insulin was assayed in the incubation medium. The CPLE administered to diabetic rats improved the fasting glycemia and preserved the number and structure of pancreatic islets. However, when CPLE was added to pancreatic cells in culture along with STZ, the insulin concentration was higher in comparison with the cells that only received STZ. In conclusion, the CPLE preserves the integrity of pancreatic islets, improves the basal insulin secretion and protects cultured cells from the adverse effects of STZ.

  9. Metabolismo de carboidratos durante o amadurecimento do mamão (Carica papaya L. Cv. Solo: influência da radiação gama Influence of gamma radiation on carbohydrates metabolism of ripening papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Solo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. P. A. GOMEZ

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available A irradiação de alimentos é um tratamento pós-colheita bastante promissor, capaz de atuar tanto na desinfestação como no aumento da vida útil de frutos. O mamão é um fruto com curta vida pós-colheita, levando de 6 a 12 dias para atingir a senescência. Além disto, a infestação por larvas de mosca diminui sensivelmente o seu potencial de exportação. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a ação de uma dose de 0,5 kGy de irradiação gama, normalmente utilizada para desinfestação e aumento de vida útil dos frutos, sobre o comportamento dos carboidratos solúveis durante o amadurecimento do mamão (Carica papaya L. cv. Solo, e sobre as enzimas relacionadas ao metabolismo da sacarose: sacarose sintase (SS, sacarose-fosfato sintase (SPS e invertases ácida e neutra. Os resultados demonstraram que a irradiação não exerce efeito sobre o teor de glicose e frutose, ou sobre a respiração e atividade da SS. Entretanto, a composição dos açúcares solúveis totais e da sacarose, e a atividade da SPS e das invertases foram afetados.Food irradiation is one of the most promising treatments that can be utilized for fruits desinfestation and extension of shelf life. The authors studied the influence of 0,5 kGy of Gamma irradiation on the soluble carbohydrates composition of papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Solo fruit, and on sucrose metabolizing enzymes: sucrose synthase (SS, sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPS, acid and neutral invertases activities, during ripening. The results demonstred that ethylene production, total soluble sugars, sucrose content, and sucrose-phosphate synthase and invertases activities were affected by irradiation, but not respiration, glucose and fructose content, and SS activity.

  10. Sensitivity of a real-time PCR method for the detection of transgenes in a mixture of transgenic and non-transgenic seeds of papaya (Carica papaya L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nageswara-Rao, Madhugiri; Kwit, Charles; Agarwal, Sujata; Patton, Mariah T; Skeen, Jordan A; Yuan, Joshua S; Manshardt, Richard M; Stewart, C Neal

    2013-09-01

    Genetically engineered (GE) ringspot virus-resistant papaya cultivars 'Rainbow' and 'SunUp' have been grown in Hawai'i for over 10 years. In Hawai'i, the introduction of GE papayas into regions where non-GE cultivars are grown and where feral non-GE papayas exist have been accompanied with concerns associated with transgene flow. Of particular concern is the possibility of transgenic seeds being found in non-GE papaya fruits via cross-pollination. Development of high-throughput methods to reliably detect the adventitious presence of such transgenic material would benefit both the scientific and regulatory communities. We assessed the accuracy of using conventional qualitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as well as real-time PCR-based assays to quantify the presence of transgenic DNA from bulk samples of non-GE papaya seeds. In this study, an optimized method of extracting high quality DNA from dry seeds of papaya was standardized. A reliable, sensitive real-time PCR method for detecting and quantifying viral coat protein (cp) transgenes in bulk seed samples utilizing the endogenous papain gene is presented. Quantification range was from 0.01 to 100 ng/μl of GE-papaya DNA template with a detection limit as low as 0.01% (10 pg). To test this system, we simulated transgene flow using known quantities of GE and non-GE DNA and determined that 0.038% (38 pg) GE papaya DNA could be detected using real-time PCR. We also validated this system by extracting DNA from known ratios of GE seeds to non-GE seeds of papaya followed by real-time PCR detection and observed a reliable detection limit of 0.4%. This method for the quick and sensitive detection of transgenes in bulked papaya seed lots using conventional as well as real-time PCR-based methods will benefit numerous stakeholders. In particular, this method could be utilized to screen selected fruits from maternal non-GE papaya trees in Hawai'i for the presence of transgenic seed at typical regulatory threshold levels

  11. Efficacy Of Aqueous Extract Of Carica papaya Leaf In The Control Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experimental chicks were divided into five groups (treatments) of twenty each and replicated thrice. Each group was infected with sporulated oocyst of the cultured coccidian through drinking water. The crude Pawpaw leaves extract was administered intramuscularly at the rate of 2ml, 3ml and 4ml /kg to three groups ...

  12. Caracterización de diversas fracciones del látex Carica papaya como biocatalizadores en la hidrólisis de triglicéridos

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    Rivera, I.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Carica papaya latex contains interesting enzymes; the best known is papain, but lipolytic activity is also present. Due to the complexity of the latex polymeric matrix, it has not been possible to completely isolate enzymes responsible of lipolytic activity. The aim of this work was to characterize the lipolytic activity in the raw latex (CPLtx and two partially purified fractions of papaya latex (without protease, CPL-p and without esterase CPL-e. Thermostability, optimal temperature and pH in the hydrolysis of two model triglycerides (tributyrin and triolein and the selectivity towards triglycerides with different chain lengths were determined. The lipolytic activity of these biocatalysts in the hydrolysis of tributyrin and olive oil was similar to other commercially available immobilized microbial lipases (RM IM and Novozyme 435.El látex de Carica papaya es fuente de interesantes enzimas, la más conocida es la papaína, pero la actividad lipolítica también está presente. No obstante, debido a la complejidad de la matriz polimérica del látex, hasta la fecha no ha sido posible aislar las enzimas responsables de la actividad lipolítica del látex. Este trabajo está dedicado a la caracterización de la actividad lipolítica en el látex crudo (CPLtx y dos fracciones parcialmente purificadas de látex de papaya (sin proteasas, CPL-p y sin esterasas, CPL-e, a las cuales se determinaron la termostabilidad, temperatura y pH óptimos en la hidrólisis de dos triglicéridos modelo (tributirina y trioleina, así como la selectividad hacia triglicéridos con diferentes longitudes de cadena. Los tres presentaron actividades lipolíticas en hidrólisis de tributirina y aceite de oliva comparables con otras lipasas microbianas inmovilizadas disponibles comercialmente (RM IM y Novozyme 435.

  13. Long-chain ethers as solvents can amplify the enantioselectivity of the Carica papaya lipase-catalyzed transesterification of 2-(substituted phenoxy)propanoic acid esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazawa, Toshifumi; Iguchi, Wakana

    2013-10-01

    The enantioselectivity of the transesterification of the 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl esters of 2-(substituted phenoxy)propanoic acids, as catalyzed by the lipase from Carica papaya, was greatly improved by using long-chain ethers, such as di-n-hexyl ether, as solvents instead of the conventional diisopropyl ether. Thus, for example, the E value was enhanced from 21 [in diisopropyl ether (0.8 ml)] to 57 [in di-n-hexyl ether (0.8 ml)] in the reaction of 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl(RS)-2-phenoxypropanoate (0.1 mmol) with methanol (0.4 mmol) in the presence of the plant lipase preparation (10 mg); it was also improved from 13 (in diisopropyl ether) to 44 (in di-n-hexyl ether) in the reaction of 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl(RS)-2-(2-chlorophenoxy)propanoate with methanol under the same reaction conditions.

  14. An analysis on DNA fingerprints of thirty papaya cultivars (Carica papaya L.), grown in Thailand with the use of amplified fragment length polymorphisms technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratchadaporn, Janthasri; Sureeporn, Katengam; Khumcha, U

    2007-09-15

    The experiment was carried out at the Department of Horticulture, Ubon Ratchathani University, Ubon Ratchathani province, Northeast Thailand during June 2002 to May 2003 aims to identify DNA fingerprints of thirty papaya cultivars with the use of Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms (AFLP) technique. Papaya cultivars were collected from six different research centers in Thailand. Papaya plants of each cultivar were grown under field conditions up to four months then leaf numbers 2 and 3 of each cultivar (counted from top) were chosen for DNA extraction and the samples were used for AFLP analysis. Out of 64 random primers being used, 55 pairs gave an increase in DNA bands but only 12 pairs of random primers were randomly chosen for the final analysis of the experiment. The results showed that AFLP markers gave Polymorphic Information Contents (PIC) of three ranges i.e., AFLP markers of 235 lied on a PIC range of 0.003-0.05, 47 for a PIC range of 0.15-0.20 and 12 for a PIC range of 0.35-0.40. The results on dendrogram cluster analysis revealed that the thirty papaya cultivars were classified into six groups i.e., (1) Kaeg Dum and Malador (2) Kaeg Nuan (3) Pakchong and Solo (4) Taiwan (5) Co Coa Hai Nan and (6) Sitong. Nevertheless, in spite of the six papaya groups all papaya cultivars were genetically related to each other where diversity among the cultivars was not significantly found.

  15. Safety evaluation of long term oral treatment of methanol sub-fraction of the seeds of Carica papaya as a male contraceptive in albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, S; Manivannan, B; Ansari, A S; Jain, S C; Lohiya, N K

    2010-02-03

    The manuscript is one of the series of attempts in authenticating scientific documentation of the seeds of Carica papaya being traditionally used for contraception. To establish safety of the methanol sub-fraction (MSF) of the seeds of Carica papaya as a male contraceptive following long term oral treatment. MSF was administered orally to albino rats at multiples of contraceptive dose (CD) at 50 (1x), 100 (2x), 250 (5x) and 500 (10x)mg/kg body weight daily for 52 weeks. Body weight, organs weight, morbidity, mortality, clinical chemistry, sperm analysis, histopathology and serum testosterone were evaluated to assess the safety and contraceptive efficacy. MSF treatment at various dose regimens, daily for 52 weeks did not show significant changes in body weight, organs weight, food and water intake and pre-terminal deaths compared to those of control animals. Sperm count and viability in 50mg/kg body weight treated animals and the weight of epididymis, seminal vesicle and prostate of all the treated animals showed significant reduction compared to control. Cauda epididymal spermatozoa of 50mg/kg body weight treated animals were immotile. Azoospermia was observed in 100, 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight treated animals. Serum clinical parameters, serum testosterone and histopathology of vital organs were comparable to those of control animals. Histology of testis revealed adverse effects on the process of spermatogenesis, while the histology of epididymis, seminal vesicles and ventral prostate showed no changes compared to control. The long term daily oral administration of MSF affects sperm parameters without adverse side effects and is clinically safe as a male contraceptive. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A wild origin of the loss-of-function lycopene beta cyclase (CYC-b) allele in cultivated, red-fleshed papaya (Carica papaya).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Meng; Lewis, Jamicia; Moore, Richard C

    2017-01-01

    The red flesh of some papaya cultivars is caused by a recessive loss-of-function mutation in the coding region of the chromoplast-specific lycopene beta cyclase gene (CYC-b). We performed an evolutionary genetic analysis of the CYC-b locus in wild and cultivated papaya to uncover the origin of this loss-of-function allele in cultivated papaya. We analyzed the levels and patterns of genetic diversity at the CYC-b locus and six loci in a 100-kb region flanking CYC-b and compared these to genetic diversity levels at neutral autosomal loci. The evolutionary relationships of CYC-b haplotypes were assessed using haplotype network analysis of the CYC-b locus and the 100-kb CYC-b region. Genetic diversity at the recessive CYC-b allele (y) was much lower relative to the dominant Y allele found in yellow-fleshed wild and cultivated papaya due to a strong selective sweep. Haplotype network analyses suggest the y allele most likely arose in the wild and was introduced into domesticated varieties after the first papaya domestication event. The shared haplotype structure between some wild, feral, and cultivated haplotypes around the y allele supports subsequent escape of this allele from red cultivars back into wild populations through feral intermediates. Our study supports a protracted domestication process of papaya through the introgression of wild-derived traits and gene flow from cultivars to wild populations. Evidence of gene flow from cultivars to wild populations through feral intermediates has implications for the introduction of transgenic papaya into Central American countries. © 2017 Botanical Society of America.

  17. Immobilization of mycoplana sp. MVMB2 isolated from petroleum contaminated soil onto papaya stem (carica papaya l.) and its application on degradation of phenanthrene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinda Lakshmi, Mahalingam; Muthukumar, Karuppan; Velan, Manickam [Environmental Biotechnology Laboratory, Department of Chemical Engineering, A.C. College of Technology, Anna University, Chennai (India)

    2012-08-15

    This study presents the degradation of phenanthrene using immobilized Mycoplana sp. MVMB2 isolated from contaminated soil. Papaya stem pretreated by two stage processes, treating with acid or alkali and drying, was used for the immobilization of Mycoplana sp. Alkali pretreated papaya stem was found to be most effective in cell uptake compared to acid treated one. The maximum immobilization capacity at various physiochemical conditions for the alkali pretreated papaya stem was found to be at 320 min time, pH 6.5, 30 C temperature, and 18.6 x 10{sup 6} cells/mL initial concentrations. The adsorption mechanism of Mycoplana sp. MVMB2 on pretreated papaya stem was assessed using various kinetic and isotherm models. The immobilization of Mycoplana sp. MVMB2 on to pretreated papaya stem was corroborated by scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transformed IR spectroscopy analysis. The performance of immobilized cells in batch reactor showed more than 95% phenanthrene degradation within 72 h, whereas, free cells were found to require 120 h. The immobilized cells also showed better degradation performance in the packed column study. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. Marcadores RAPD para la identificación del sexo en papaya (Carica papaya L. en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaves-Bedoya Giovanni

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available

    La determinación del sexo en plantas de papaya es considerado un sistema intrigante, debido a que esta especie presenta tres sexos (macho, hembra y hermafrodita determinados por un locus multialélico. Además, esta especie no presenta cromosomas sexuales morfológicamente diferenciables. Los marcadores moleculares pueden asociarse a características de interés, como en el presente caso, al sexo en plántulas de papaya. Con el objetivo de identificar marcadores moleculares que permitan una rápida identificación del sexo en genotipos colombianos de plántulas de papaya, se aplicó la técnica RAPD (ampliación aleatoria de polimorfismos del ADN. El estudio encontró tres marcadores RAPD polimórficos, los cuales permitieron diferenciar los sexos de la papaya. Dos marcadores fueron específicos para plantas macho y hermafrodita, y un tercero para plantas hembra. Estos nuevos marcadores moleculares podrán ser beneficiosos en la determinación del sexo en genotipos colombianos de papaya.

  19. Effect of Papaya Seed Extract (Carica papaya Linn. on Glucose Transporter 4 (GLUT 4 Expression of Skeletal Muscle Tissue in Diabetic Mice Induced by High Fructose Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devyani Diah Wulansari

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Ethnobotany surveys show that papaya seeds are widely used as herbs for the management of some diseases such as abdominal discomfort, pain, malaria, diabetes, obesity, and infection. This research was conducted to analyze the effect of papaya seed extract on GLUT4 expression on skeletal muscle tissue of DM type II model induced by high fructose diet. This study used 24 animals, divided into 4 groups of negative control group, treated with papaya seed extract 100 mg / kgBB, 200 mg / kgBW and 300 mg / kgBW, was adapted for 14 days then induced by fructose solution 20% Orally with a dose of 1.86 grams / kgBB for 56 days. The treatment group was given papaya seed extract in accordance with the dose of each group for 14 days. GDP levels was measured using a spectrophotometer. Skeletal muscle tissue is used on the gastrocnemius part. GLUT4 expression was measured through a Immunoreactive Score (IRS method with immunohistochemical staining using GLUT4 polyclonal antibodies. Comparative test results showed that there were significant differences between groups (p <0.05 in final GDP variables and GLUT4 expression. Pearson correlation test results show that the value p = 0.001, meaning there is a significant relationship between GLUT4 expression with final GDP levels. The result of simple linear regression analysis showed that p = 0,000 (<0,05, meaning that dose of papaya seed extract had a significant influence on GLUT4 expression.

  20. Protective effects of Ficus carica leaves on glucose and lipids levels, carbohydrate metabolism enzymes and β-cells in type 2 diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen Irudayaraj, Santiagu; Christudas, Sunil; Antony, Stalin; Duraipandiyan, Veeramuthu; Naif Abdullah, Al-Dhabi; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu

    2017-12-01

    The decoctions of Ficus carica Linn. (Moraceae) leaves are used in the folklore treatment of diabetes. To evaluate the effect of F. carica on glucose and lipids levels, carbohydrate metabolism enzymes and β-cells protective effects in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes was induced in 15 days high-fat diet (HFD)-fed Wistar rats by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ) (40 mg/kg). The ethyl acetate extract (250 and 500 mg/kg) of F. carica leaves was administered for 28 days. Oral glucose tolerance (OGTT) and intraperitoneal insulin tolerance tests (ITT) were evaluated on 15th and 25th days, respectively. The ethyl acetate extract (250 and 500 mg/kg) of n F. carica leaves showed significant effect (p carica (250 and 500 mg/kg) significantly (p carica enhanced the glucose utilization significantly (p carica. Immumohistochemical studies of islets substantiated the cytoprotective effect on pancreatic β-cells. F. carica leaves exerted significant effect on carbohydrate metabolism enzymes with promising hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activities in type 2 diabetic rats.

  1. Gamma radiation use as a quarantine treatment for Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824) and Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied., 1830) in papaya fruits (Carica papaya, Linnaeus), cultivar sunrise solo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria, J.T. de.

    1989-01-01

    The gamma irradiation as treatment for control of the immature stages of fruit flies, C. capitata and A. fraterculus in papaya fruits, cultivar Sunrise Solo is studied. The gamma rays attenuation was observed by one and two papaya fruits placed between source and infested fruit, and this changed the radiation doses required to obtain mortality in eggs and larvae of the Medfly. The efficacy of irradiation was higher when the infested papayas were packed in paper box. The radiation dose determined using the Probit 9 concept, for immature stages mortality of C. capitata was 107,74 Gy and for A. fraterculus was 50,82 Gy. The sterilizing doses for adults of C. capitata and D. fraterculus, irradiated as pupae, was 60 Gy and 40 Gy, respectively. (author)

  2. Papaya Lethal Yellowing Virus (PLYV) Infects Vasconcellea cauliflora

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amaral, P.P.R.; Resende, de R.O.; Souza, M.T.

    2006-01-01

    Papaya lethal yellowing virus (PLYV) é um dos três vírus descritos infectando mamoeiros (Carica papaya L.) no Brasil. Vasconcellea cauliflora (Jacq.) A. DC., antes denominada de Carica cauliflora (Jacq.), é uma reconhecida fonte de resistência natural ao Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), causador da

  3. Relationships between SAP-flow measurements, whole-canopy transpiration and reference evapotranspiration in field-grown papaya (Carica papaya L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whole-canopy gas exchange measurement in papaya can provide a scientific basis to optimize irrigation, and fruit yield and quality. The objectives of this study were to: 1) verify the relationship between xylem sap flow measured by the heat coefficient method and whole canopy transpiration in ‘Gra...

  4. NIa-Pro of Papaya ringspot virus interacts with Carica papaya eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 subunit G (CpeIF3G).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Le; Tuo, Decai; Shen, Wentao; Yan, Pu; Li, Xiaoying; Zhou, Peng

    2015-02-01

    The interaction of papaya eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 subunit G (CpeIF3G) with Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) NIa-Pro was validated using a bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay in papaya protoplasts based on the previous yeast two-hybrid assay results. The C-terminal (residues 133-239) fragment of PRSV NIa-Pro and the central domain (residues 59-167) of CpeIF3G were required for effective interaction between NIa-Pro and CpeIF3G as shown by a Sos recruitment yeast two-hybrid system with several deletion mutants of NIa-Pro and CpeIF3G. The central domain of CpeIF3G, which contains a C2HC-type zinc finger motif, is required to bind to other eIFs of the translational machinery. In addition, quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR assay confirmed that PRSV infection leads to a 2- to 4.5-fold up-regulation of CpeIF3G mRNA in papaya. Plant eIF3G is involved in various stress response by enhancing the translation of resistance-related proteins. It is proposed that the NIa-Pro-CpeIF3G interaction may impair translation preinitiation complex assembly of defense proteins and interfere with host defense.

  5. Identificación de especies del género Colletotrichum asociadas a la antracnosis en papaya (Carica papaya L. En Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Molina-Chaves

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available La antracnosis, causada por Colletotrichum spp., es una de la enfermedades poscosecha más importantes en papaya. En este estudio, frutas de papaya, híbrido Pococí, recolectados en plantaciones ubicadas en el cantón de Guácimo, provincia de Limón, presentaron 7 síntomas de antracnosis, luego de un período de almacenamiento. De cada síntoma se obtuvieron aislados de Colletotrichum en medio de cultivo PDA (papa-dextrosa-agar. Los aislamientos se clasificaron en 3 grupos según la similitud de los síntomas y la morfología de la colonia. El análisis de la secuencia de la región espaciadora interna transcrita (ITS del ADN ribosomal reveló que los aislamientos pertenecieron a 3 especies del género Colletotrichum: C. gloeosporioides sensu lato, C. magnum y C. capsici (C. truncatum. La identificación de las especies fue confirmada con imprimadores taxón específico para C. gloeosporioides e imprimadores especie-específicos para C. magnum. Las 3 especies identificadas mostraron ser patogénicas sobre frutas de papaya. Las especies C. magnum y C. capsici (C. truncatum se registran por primera vez en Costa Rica, como agentes causales de la antracnosis en papaya.

  6. Carica papaya L.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    à 2 types d'explants (bourgeons apicaux et axillaires), la performance de 3 milieux d'enracinement. Les résultats obtenus ont ...... l'entreprise serricole-. Cahier de références techniques, 44 p. CILSS. 2004. Normes de consommation des principaux produits alimentaires dans les pays du CILSS. p 44. CIRAD-. GRET. 2006.

  7. Carica papaya L

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-08-08

    Aug 8, 2017 ... tan Zainal Abidin, Tembila Campus, 22200 Besut, Terengganu, Malay. Published online: ... disease had spread to five states on the west coast of peninsular Malaysia, affecting 800 hectare with yield ... The Biolog readings presented were obtained from a fresh 24-48 h culture (Table 1). The readings after 4 ...

  8. Relationship between pulp structure breakdown and nutritional value of papaya (Carica papaya) and strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) nectars using alternative thermal and non-thermal processing techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swada, Jeffrey G; Keeley, Christopher J; Ghane, Mohammad A; Engeseth, Nicki J

    2016-05-01

    Papaya and strawberry contain a wide array of nutrients that contribute to human health; however, availability of these fruits is limited due to their short shelf lives and seasonal nature. In this study, the effect of alternative techniques including ultra high temperature (UHT, 20-135 °C, 1-3 s) and irradiation (0-10 kGy) on carotenoid concentration, antioxidant capacity and changes to pulp structure using transmission electron microscopy were determined for papaya and strawberry nectars. UHT had moderate effects on antioxidant capacity, but the greatest overall release of carotenoids from the pulp matrix (34.2%, 6.26%, 8.31%; β-cryptoxanthin, β-carotene, and lycopene, respectively). Irradiation resulted in the greatest increase in antioxidant capacity [19.22 to 24.32 µmol Trolox equivalents kg(-1) (papaya), 190.51 to 287.68 µmol Trolox equivalents kg(-1) (strawberry)], with moderate effects on carotenoid concentration. This research demonstrates that decreases in nutrient value and antioxidant capacity can result from processing, but that regeneration of these losses can be seen corresponding to the apparent breakdown of pulp structure. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Estudio de la conservación de la papaya (Carica papaya L. asociado a la aplicación de películas comestibles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Almeida Castro

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Brasil es un importante productor de papaya, pero sólo una pequeña parte se exporta. Esta fruta es altamente perecedera, por lo que el control de la maduración es esencial para aumentar la vida útil, tanto para el mercado interno como para la exportación. Una alternativa que ha cobrado impulso en el mercado es el uso de películas comestibles biodegradables, entre ellas la película producida a partir de almidón de yuca. En este estudio se evaluó el efecto de una película de almidón de yuca (2 % sobre la papaya almacenadas a temperatura ambiental (25 ± 2 ºC y a 8 °C, y 82 % de humedad relativa durante 6 días de almacenamiento. Se realizaron análisis de pérdida de peso, color, pH, acidez, carotenoides totales, vitamina C y sólidos solubles totales, cada tres días de almacenamiento. La película comestible de almidón de yuca resultó ser una buena alternativa para la preservación de la papaya durante seis días de almacenamiento, en relación a los parámetros pH, grados Brix, acidez y carotenoides.

  10. The thiol proteinases from the latex of Carica papaya L. IV. Proteolytic specificities of chymopapain and papaya proteinase omega determined by digestion of alpha-globin chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquet, A; Kleinschmidt, T; Dubois, T; Schnek, A G; Looze, Y; Braunitzer, G

    1989-08-01

    The proteolytic specificities of chymopapain and papaya proteinase omega were investigated by using the alpha-chains of manatee and mole haemoglobin, whose primary structures are known, as substrates. The resulting peptides from each enzymatic cleavage were isolated by gel filtration on Sephadex G-25, followed by reversed-phase HPLC of the separated peaks and, in some cases, further purified by preparative thin-layer electrophoresis. The purified peptides were then identified on the basis of their amino-acid composition. The proteolytic specificities of chymopapain and papaya proteinase omega, deduced from the experimental cleavage patterns, are compared to that of papain. As in the case of papain, the specificity-determining factor is the amino-acid residue of the substrate that will be bound in subsite S2 (the next but one from the scissible bond). Aromatic residues in this position, preferred by papain, are not important for chymopapain and papaya proteinase omega. Cleavages preferentially occur when S2 is occupied by leucine, valine or threonine. For chymopapain, proline in position S2 also causes cleavage.

  11. Potencial antifúngico de extractos de cuatro especies vegetales sobre el crecimiento de Colletotrichum gloeosporioides en papaya (Carica papaya en poscosecha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Landero Valenzuela

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El manejo de antracnosis por Colletotrichum gloeosporioides es el problema más importante en poscosecha de frutos tropicales. La actividad antifúngica de diferentes extractos vegetales fue evaluada in vitro e in vivo para controlar la antracnosis poscosecha en papaya. Extractos de ajo (Allium sativum (10 y 15 % y canela (Cinnamomum zeylanicum (0,0050; 0,0100; 0,0150 % mostraron efecto fungicida en contra de C. gloeosporioides para supresión de crecimiento micelial (100 %, inhibición de germinación (100 % y esporulación del hongo (100 %, considerándose estos extractos como los más promisorios para inhibir el desarrollo del hongo in vitro. Estudios in vivo también revelaron que los extracto de ajo (11,74 % y canela a dosis de 0,0054 % aplicada antes y al mismo tiempo de la inoculación con C. gloeosporioides, fueron las dosis óptimas para el control (severidad de la antracnosis en frutos de papaya artificialmente inoculados, mientras que a mayores dosis la severidad aumentó. La variable fitotoxicidad arrojó resultados consistentes con lo anterior, comprobándose que al aumentar las dosis de extracto de canela se presentó cambio de color en los frutos. Los resultados sugieren la posibilidad de usar estos extractos a dosis adecuadas como biofungicidas para controlar antracnosis en papaya en poscosecha.

  12. Potencial antifúngico de extractos de cuatro especies vegetales sobre el crecimiento de Colletotrichum gloeosporioides en papaya (Carica papaya en poscosecha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Landero Valenzuela

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available El manejo de antracnosis por Colletotrichum gloeosporioides es el problema más importante en poscosecha de frutos tropicales. La actividad antifúngica de diferentes extractos vegetales fue evaluada in vitro e in vivo para controlar la antracnosis poscosecha en papaya. Extractos de ajo (Allium sativum (10 y 15 % y canela (Cinnamomum zeylanicum (0,0050; 0,0100; 0,0150 % mostraron efecto fungicida en contra de C. gloeosporioides para supresión de crecimiento micelial (100 %, inhibición de germinación (100 % y esporulación del hongo (100 %, considerándose estos extractos como los más promisorios para inhibir el desarrollo del hongo in vitro. Estudios in vivo también revelaron que los extracto de ajo (11,74 % y canela a dosis de 0,0054 % aplicada antes y al mismo tiempo de la inoculación con C. gloeosporioides, fueron las dosis óptimas para el control (severidad de la antracnosis en frutos de papaya artificialmente inoculados, mientras que a mayores dosis la severidad aumentó. La variable fitotoxicidad arrojó resultados consistentes con lo anterior, comprobándose que al aumentar las dosis de extracto de canela se presentó cambio de color en los frutos. Los resultados sugieren la posibilidad de usar estos extractos a dosis adecuadas como biofungicidas para controlar antracnosis en papaya en poscosecha.

  13. Sperm characteristics and ultrastructure of testes of rats after long-term treatment with the methanol subfraction of Carica papaya seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manivannan, Boomi; Mittal, Ruchi; Goyal, Shipra; Ansari, Abdul S; Lohiya, Nirmal K

    2009-09-01

    The contraceptive efficacy of Carica papaya seeds after short-term evaluation has been well established. We have examined the safety and mechanism of contraception in rats after long-term treatment with the methanol subfraction (MSF) of C. papaya seeds. The test substance was administered orally to the male albino rats (n = 40) at 50 mg per kg body weight each day for 360 days. Control animals (n = 40) received olive oil as a vehicle. Recovery was assessed up to 120 days after treatment withdrawal. Sperm parameters, serum testosterone levels, fertility, histology and ultrastructure of the testis, haematology and serum clinical chemistry were evaluated to establish the safety and efficacy of the test substance. Safety of long-term treatment was evidenced by unaltered health status, organ weight, haematology and clinical chemistry, and by an increase in body weight. The mechanism of contraception was shown by reduction in nuclear and cytoplasmic volume, normal nuclear characteristics and vacuolization in the cytoplasmic organelles of the Sertoli cells, as well as nuclear degeneration in spermatocytes and spermatids indicating disturbed spermatogenesis. Leydig cells were normal. Initial effects were observed in Sertoli cells at 60 days of treatment. Spermatocytes and spermatids were affected after 120-240 days of treatment. A significant decline in sperm count and viability, total inhibition of sperm motility, increased numbers of sperm abnormalities, normal serum testosterone levels and 100% sterility were evident after 60 days of treatment. All the altered parameters, including percent fertility, were restored to control level 120 days after treatment withdrawal. It is concluded that the MSF is safe for long-term treatment and the mechanism of contraception is shown by its effect on spermatid differentiation in the testis, possibly mediated by the Sertoli cell factors.

  14. ISOLATION AND PUNRIFICATION OF PSORALEN AND BERGAPTEN FROM FICUS CARICA L LEAVES BY HIGH-SPEED COUNTERCURRENT CHROMATOGRAPHY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chunyan, Chi; Bo, Shi; Ping, Liang; Jingmei, Li; Ito, Yoichiro

    2009-01-01

    High-speed countercurrent chromatography was successfully applied for the first time for the separation of psoralen and bergapten from Ficus carica L leaves. The crudeextract obtained by light petroleum (b.p.: 60°C-90°C) from the dried leaves of Ficus carica L. was separated with a two-phase solvent system of n-Hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (1:1:1:1, v/v). Each peak fraction was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. The method yielded 4.4 mg of psoralen at 99.1% purity and 2.1 mg of bergapten at 98.2% purity from 400 mg of the crude extract in a single run. The two compounds were identified by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and MS. PMID:20351802

  15. EFECTO DE CERAS COMO COMPLEMENTO A LA INMERSIÓN HIDROTÉRMICA SOBRE LA CALIDAD EN LA FRUTA DE PAPAYA (Carica papaya L. HÍBRIDO POCOCÍ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Gustavo Corrales

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto de ceras, como com - plemento a la inmersión hidrotérmica, sobre variables de calidad poscosecha de papaya. Las frutas se cosecharon, empacaron y fueron lava - das, desinfectadas e inmersas en agua a 49°C por 20 minutos (TH para posteriormente aplicar los tratamientos: 1 cera de abejas y aceite de palma 5%; 2 cera de mezcla ácidos grasos 4,7%; 3 qui - tosano 0,1%; 4 solo TH; 5 testigo (sin inmersión hidrotérmica ni cera. La papaya fue almacena - da 15 días a 12ºC y posteriormente a 20°C. Se encontraron diferencias significativas (p<=0,05 entre las frutas que recibieron el TH complemen - tado con cera de abejas y palma al 5%, que tuvie - ron menor tasa respiratoria (12,27 ml CO 2 /kg*h a 8 días de salida del almacenamiento en frío, en comparación con las que solo recibieron el TH (16,72 ml CO 2 /kg*h, o las papayas testigo (17,01 ml CO 2 /kg*h. El menor porcentaje de pérdida de peso acumulado se registró con el TH más cera de abejas y palma. Las variables de color no fueron afectadas, excepto por el tratamiento 2, cera de mezcla de ácidos grasos, que indujo un retraso en el desarrollo del color (p≤0,05. No se observaron cambios en firmeza interna o externa ni en grados brix. El TH permitió una disminu - ción en la incidencia de pudriciones, severidad de antracnosis y prolongación de la vida útil. El uso de ceras como complemento al TH puede contri - buir a mantener algunos de los parámetros que inciden en la calidad de la papaya.

  16. The development of functional mapping by three sex-related loci on the third whorl of different sex types of Carica papaya L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Yu Lee

    Full Text Available Carica papaya L. is an important economic crop worldwide and is used as a model plant for sex-determination research. To study the different flower sex types, we screened sex-related genes using alternative splicing sequences (AS-seqs from a transcriptome database of the three flower sex types, i.e., males, females, and hermaphrodites, established at 28 days before flowering using 15 bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs of C. papaya L. After screening, the cDNA regions of the three sex-related loci, including short vegetative phase-like (CpSVPL, the chromatin assembly factor 1 subunit A-like (CpCAF1AL, and the somatic embryogenesis receptor kinase (CpSERK, which contained eight sex-related single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs from the different sex types of C. papaya L., were genotyped using high-resolution melting (HRM. The three loci were examined regarding the profiles of the third whorl, as described below. CpSVPL, which had one SNP associated with the three sex genotypes, was highly expressed in the male and female sterile flowers (abnormal hermaphrodite flowers that lacked the fourth whorl structure. CpCAF1AL, which had three SNPs associated with the male genotype, was highly expressed in male and normal hermaphrodite flowers, and had no AS-seqs, whereas it exhibited low expression and an AS-seqs in intron 11 in abnormal hermaphrodite flowers. Conversely, carpellate flowers (abnormal hermaphrodite flowers showed low expression of CpSVPL and AS-seqs in introns 5, 6, and 7 of CpSERK, which contained four SNPs associated with the female genotype. Specifically, the CpSERK and CpCAF1AL loci exhibited no AS-seq expression in the third whorl of the male and normal hermaphrodite flowers, respectively, and variance in the AS-seq expression of all other types of flowers. Functional mapping of the third whorl of normal hermaphrodites indicated no AS-seq expression in CpSERK, low CpSVPL expression, and, for CpCAF1AL, high expression and no AS

  17. Effects of Chlorophyll in Papaya Leaves on Superoxide Dismutation and Blood Glucose Level of Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choirun Nissa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Hyperglycemia in diabetes mellitus results in oxidative stress and increases complication development. Experimental studies have shown that chlorophyll has antioxidant activity and papaya leaves contained chlorophyll more than the other green vegetables. This study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant and hypoglycemic role in chlorophyll rich in papaya leaves on diabetic rats. Thirty six rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: without treatment (technique control/TC, diabetic (negative control/NC, diabetic with treatment A (100.3 mg/200 g BW of extract and diabetic with treatment B (200.6 mg/200 g BW of extract. Diabetic induction was conducted by injecting streptozotocin 40 mg/kg BW intraperitoneally. Extract was given by nasogastric tube. Blood glucose level was measured using enzymatic colorimetric GOD-PAP test at before, after 20 and 40 days of treatment. Hepatic superoxide dismutation (SOD level was measured after 40 days of treatment. Blood glucose levels in 3 diabetic groups were significantly raised after seven days of induction. In Anova and post hoc LSD analysis, both treatments had lower hepatic SOD level than TC (p=0.0001, and blood glucose level also decreased after given the treatment (p=0.0001. Treatment B had a better antioxidant and hypoglycemic role than treatment A.

  18. Toxicological investigations on the methanol sub-fraction of the seeds of Carica papaya as a male contraceptive in albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohiya, Nirmal K; Manivannan, Boomi; Garg, Shipra

    2006-10-01

    Pre-clinical acute and sub-chronic toxicity studies of the methanol sub-fraction (MSF) of the seeds of Carica papaya, a putative male contraceptive, have been investigated in rats to evaluate safety of the test substance. A single oral dose of MSF at 2000 mg/kg body weight was studied over 14 days for acute toxicity, and daily oral doses of 50, 100, 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight were studied for 28- and 90-day periods for sub-chronic toxicity. Body weight, food and water intake and phenotypical toxicological symptoms were recorded daily. Sperm analysis, hematology, serum clinical biochemistry, libido and pathological examination of vital organs were recorded at the termination of the experimental periods. We observed no overt general toxicity in exposed animals. Food and water intake showed daily fluctuations within control limits. Sperm density showed a significant decrease in all 28- and 90-day repeated dose treated animals whereas total sperm motility inhibition was observed at 250 and 500 mg/kg dose levels at the 28-day time interval but in all dose groups at the 90-day interval. The preliminary results suggest the test substance may be a safe approach to male anti-fertility.

  19. Design, fabrication and initial evaluation of an upflow fixed-bed adsorption column for lead (Pb2+) using Carica papaya seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piquero, Ronald E.

    2005-03-01

    The study is about the adsorption pf lead (Pb 2+ ) using Carica papaya as biosorbent in an upflow continuous fixed-bed adsorption column. A column was designed and fabricated which was used in the experiment. It aimed to determine the effect of flowrates in the adsorption mechanism of the biosorbent. Three flowrates were used in the experiment: 100 mL/min, 150 mL/min, and 200 mL/min. A solution of 100 ppm of unbuffered lead was allowed to pass through a bed of biosorbent that has a length of 15 cm and the amount of lead ions was measured using flame atomic absorption spectroscopy in terms of residual concentration of lead in the outlet stream. The result showed that the 100 mL/min flowrate had the lowest amount of residual concentration measured compared to the 150 mL/min and 200 mL/min. This means that the 100 mL/min had the most lead ions adsorbed. Statistical test like the one-factor anova and t-test were also done in the research. Anova result showed that the flowrate has significant effect in the adsorption of lead ions of the biosorbent while the t-test results showed that the 100 ml/min is the most effective flowrate wherein the bed had adsorbed the most amounts of ions. (Author)

  20. 93 Toxicité du macérât de Carica papaya L. contre Coptotermes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PR BOKO

    Afrique SCIENCE 08(3) (2012) 93 - 101. Annick TAHIRI. La composition chimique du C. papaya justifie l'effet toxique du macérât sur le termite Coptotermes. En effet, les alcaloïdes, les polyphénols, les terpénoïdes et certaines huiles essentielles de plantes odoriférantes sont toxiques pour les insectes en général et pour le ...

  1. Carotenoids and Vitamin C during Handling and Distribution of Guava (Psidium guajava L.), Mango (Mangifera indica L.), and Papaya (Carica papaya L.) at Commercial Restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Daniela Da Silva; Lobato, Alvanice Lemos; Ribeiro, Sônia Machado Rocha; Santana, Angela Maria Campos; Chaves, José Benício Paes; Pinheiro-Sant'Ana, Helena Maria

    2010-05-26

    The content and stability of vitamin C (ascorbic acid, AA, and dehydroascorbic acid, DHA) and carotenoids (beta-carotene, lycopene, and beta-cryptoxanthin) were analyzed in papaya, mango, and guava after the reception, preparation (cleaning, peeling, and slicing), and distribution stages for consumption in a commercial restaurant. The analysis of carotenoids and vitamin C was carried out by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The fruits analyzed were considered excellent sources of vitamin C and carotenoids. There were no significant differences in the vitamin C and carotenoids content during the different fruit handling stages at the commercial restaurant, which demonstrates the excellent stability of the components under the usual handling conditions employed. The results show that customers of the commercial restaurant are directly benefitted since the nutritional quality of the fruits was preserved during all of the handling and distribution periods.

  2. Impact of metal ionic characteristics on adsorption potential of Ficus carica leaves using QSPR modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batool, Fozia; Iqbal, Shahid; Akbar, Jamshed

    2018-04-03

    The present study describes Quantitative Structure Property Relationship (QSPR) modeling to relate metal ions characteristics with adsorption potential of Ficus carica leaves for 13 selected metal ions (Ca +2 , Cr +3 , Co +2 , Cu +2 , Cd +2 , K +1 , Mg +2 , Mn +2 , Na +1 , Ni +2 , Pb +2 , Zn +2 , and Fe +2 ) to generate QSPR model. A set of 21 characteristic descriptors were selected and relationship of these metal characteristics with adsorptive behavior of metal ions was investigated. Stepwise Multiple Linear Regression (SMLR) analysis and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) were applied for descriptors selection and model generation. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were also applied on adsorption data to generate proper correlation for experimental findings. Model generated indicated covalent index as the most significant descriptor, which is responsible for more than 90% predictive adsorption (α = 0.05). Internal validation of model was performed by measuring [Formula: see text] (0.98). The results indicate that present model is a useful tool for prediction of adsorptive behavior of different metal ions based on their ionic characteristics.

  3. A Multi-centric, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled, Randomized, Prospective Study to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of Carica papaya Leaf Extract, as Empirical Therapy for Thrombocytopenia associated with Dengue Fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasture, Prabhu Nagnathappa; Nagabhushan, K H; Kumar, Arun

    2016-06-01

    Dengue is a rapidly expanding global health problem. Approximately 2.5 billion people live in dengue-risk regions with about 100 million new cases each year worldwide. The cumulative dengue diseases burden has attained an unprecedented proportion in recent times with sharp increase in the size of human population at risk. The management of dengue virus infection is essentially supportive and symptomatic and no specific treatment is available for increasing the fallen platelets, which have a significant role in causing the mortality of dengue patient.This study was conducted to evaluate the platelet increasing efficacy of Carica papaya leaf extract (CPLE) in patients with dengue fever (DF). The administration of Carica papaya leaf extract should significantly increase the platelet count in cases of thrombocytopenia associated with dengue, preventing the patient to go in DHF or DSS conditions. A Multi-centric, Double blind, Placebo controlled, Randomized, prospective study was conducted in 300 patients across 5 centres', to evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of Carica Papaya Leaf Extract, as empirical therapy for thrombocytopenia associated with dengue fever. The subjects were randomized into two groups, as control and intervention group. Both the groups were managed by the standard management guidelines for dengue except steroid administration. In addition to this, the intervention group received CPLE tablet three times daily for five days. All of them were followed daily with platelet monitoring. This study has been registered in the clinical trial registry-India (CTRI Registration number: CTRI/2015/05/005806). The results indicate that CPLE had significant increase(p< 0.01) in the platelet count over the therapy duration, in dengue fever patients, confirming CPLE accelerates the increase in platelet count compared to the control group. There were few adverse events related to GI disturbance like nausea and vomiting which were similar in both groups. Thus this study

  4. POST-HARVEST FUNGAL DISEASES OF PAWPAW ( CARICA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Post-harvest fungal diseases of pawpaw (Carica papaya L.) fruits sold in Mile 3 Market, Port Harcourt were investigated bi-weekly for sixteen weeks using the Standard Blotter Method. The following fungi were isolated from the tissues of diseased fruits: Fusarium solani, Phoma carica-papaya Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus ...

  5. Characterisation of an acidic peroxidase from papaya (Carica papaya L. cv Tainung No. 2) latex and its application in the determination of micromolar hydrogen peroxide in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Chun; Chung, Yun-Chin; Chang, Chen-Tien

    2012-12-15

    An acidic peroxidase isoform, POD-A, with a molecular mass of 69.4 kDa and an isoelectric point of 3.5 was purified from papaya latex. Using o-phenylenediamine (OPD) as a hydrogen donor (citrate-phosphate as pH buffer), the optimum pH for the function of POD-A was 4.6, and the optimum temperature was 50°C. The peroxidase activity of POD-A toward hydrogen donors was both pH- and concentration-dependent. Under optimal conditions, POD-A catalysed the oxidation of OPD at higher rates than pyrogallol, catechol, quercetin and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS). The chemical modification reagents N-bromosuccinimide and sodium azide significantly inhibited POD-A activity. The results of kinetic studies indicated that POD-A followed a ping-pong mechanism and had a K(m) value of 2.8mM for OPD. Using CPC silica-immobilised POD-A for the determination of micromolar H(2)O(2) in milk, the lower limit of determination was 0.1 μM, and the recoveries of added H(2)O(2) were 96-109%. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. RNA interference of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase (ACO1 and ACO2) genes expression prolongs the shelf life of Eksotika (Carica papaya L.) papaya fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekeli, Rogayah; Abdullah, Janna Ong; Namasivayam, Parameswari; Muda, Pauziah; Abu Bakar, Umi Kalsom; Yeong, Wee Chien; Pillai, Vilasini

    2014-06-19

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of using RNA interference in down regulating the expression of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase gene in Eksotika papaya. One-month old embryogenic calli were separately transformed with Agrobacterium strain LBA 4404 harbouring the three different RNAi pOpOff2 constructs bearing the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase gene. A total of 176 putative transformed lines were produced from 15,000 calli transformed, selected, then regenerated on medium supplemented with kanamycin. Integration and expression of the targeted gene in putatively transformed lines were verified by PCR and real-time RT-PCR. Confined field evaluation of a total of 31 putative transgenic lines planted showed a knockdown expression of the targeted ACO1 and ACO2 genes in 13 lines, which required more than 8 days to achieve the full yellow colour (Index 6). Fruits harvested from lines pRNAiACO2 L2-9 and pRNAiACO1 L2 exhibited about 20 and 14 days extended post-harvest shelf life to reach Index 6, respectively. The total soluble solids contents of the fruits ranged from 11 to 14° Brix, a range similar to fruits from non-transformed, wild type seed-derived plants.

  7. Efecto del calcio en aplicaciones precosecha y poscosecha sobre la severidad de antracnosis (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides y la calidad de frutos de papaya (Carica papaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Saborío

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evalu6 el efecto de aplicaciones pre- cosecha y poscosecha de calcio en papaya va- riedad "criolla" sabre la severidad de antracno- sis (CoUetotrichum gloeosporioides y varia- hIes de calidad del fruto. Los tratamientos pre- cosecha fueron 4: aspersi6n de CaCl2 al 1% Y 4% (2 aplicaciones: <40 dfas posantesis (dpa y entre 100-140 dpa con el penetrante alquilaril- polimero (NP- 7 Bayer (0.4 mIlL, CaCO3 al suelo (1 ton/ha, 70 dpa y testigo (0% Ca. El diseno experimental fue un BCA (4 repeticio- nes de 20 frutos. Los tratamientos poscosecha fueron 3: inmersiones par 5 min con 0%, 1 % Y 4% de CaCI2, con el mismo penetrante. El dise- no experimental fue un BCA (3 repeticiones de 15 frutas. Se evalu6 severidad, % calcio en cascara, brix, pH, % acidez, firmeza (cascara y pulpa y % de madurez. En la aplicaci6n de cal- cia precosecha la severidad fue: 1 % CaC12 con 6%, testigo 7%, CaCO3 9% y 4% CaC12 con 11 %, no se encontr6 que el Ca tuviera un efec-

  8. RNA Interference of 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic Acid Oxidase (ACO1 and ACO2 Genes Expression Prolongs the Shelf Life of Eksotika (Carica papaya L. Papaya Fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogayah Sekeli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of using RNA interference in down regulating the expression of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase gene in Eksotika papaya. One-month old embryogenic calli were separately transformed with Agrobacterium strain LBA 4404 harbouring the three different RNAi pOpOff2 constructs bearing the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase gene. A total of 176 putative transformed lines were produced from 15,000 calli transformed, selected, then regenerated on medium supplemented with kanamycin. Integration and expression of the targeted gene in putatively transformed lines were verified by PCR and real-time RT-PCR. Confined field evaluation of a total of 31 putative transgenic lines planted showed a knockdown expression of the targeted ACO1 and ACO2 genes in 13 lines, which required more than 8 days to achieve the full yellow colour (Index 6. Fruits harvested from lines pRNAiACO2 L2-9 and pRNAiACO1 L2 exhibited about 20 and 14 days extended post-harvest shelf life to reach Index 6, respectively. The total soluble solids contents of the fruits ranged from 11 to 14° Brix, a range similar to fruits from non-transformed, wild type seed-derived plants.

  9. Allergenicity assessment of the Papaya ringspot virus coat protein expressed in transgenic Rainbow papaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    The virus-resistant, transgenic commercial papaya cultivars Rainbow and SunUp (Carica papaya L.) have been consumed locally in Hawaii and elsewhere in the mainland US and Canada since their release to planters in Hawaii in 1998. These cultivars are derived from transgenic papaya line 55-1 and carry ...

  10. Estudo e modelagem da cinética de desidratação osmótica do mamão formosa (Carica papaya L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Aquar Ânoar Abbas

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo o estudo da cinética e modelagem do processo de desidratação osmótica de cubos de mamão Formosa (Carica papaya L., assim como da qualidade do produto final. O tratamento osmótico foi conduzido a 30ºC, com agitação de 110rpm, utilizando-se dois tipos de soluções de sacarose 70ºBrix: a primeira contendo lactato de sódio 2,4% p/p e ácido láctico 0,1M e a segunda com lactato de sódio 2,4% p/p e ácido cítrico 0,1M. O estudo da cinética de desidratação osmótica mostrou que a solução contendo ácido cítrico apresentou valor de perda de água (WL, ao final de 48 horas de processo, ligeiramente superior ao encontrado para a solução contendo ácido láctico. Comportamento contrário ocorreu para o ganho de sólidos (SG. O ajuste dos dados experimentais foi realizado através do modelo difusional para geometria cúbica, sem considerar encolhimento durante o processo e um modelo empírico de dois parâmetros. Os coeficientes de difusividade efetiva de água (Def variaram de 1,27 a 5,03 x 10-10 m²/s. A qualidade da fruta após processamento foi avaliada através de análises de vitamina C, carotenóides totais, acidez e pH.

  11. FITOTOXICIDADE DE FUNGICIDAS, ACARICIDAS E INSETICIDAS, SOBRE O MAMOEIRO (Carica papaya L. CULTIVAR SUNRISE SOLO IMPROVED LINE 72/12 EM CONDIÇÕES DE CAMPO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIEIRA ALCÍLIO

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A presente pesquisa teve como objetivo estudar os efeitos fitotóxicos de fungicidas, acaricidas e inseticidas e algumas associações entre eles, em plantas de mamoeiros (Carica papaya L. cv. Sunrise Solo Improved Line 72/12, em condições de campo, no município de São Mateus -- ES, pertencente à maior região produtora do Estado. O experimento foi arranjado em delineamento de blocos casualizados, com 4 repetições e 03 plantas úteis por parcela. Foram utilizados os seguintes produtos, com as respectivas doses, para cada 100 L de água: chlorothalonil (Daconil PM-200g; mancozeb (Dithane PM -- 200g; oxicloreto de cobre (Reconil -- 400g; thiabendazole (Tecto 450 -- 100ml; dicofol + tetradifon (Carbax -- 200ml; triazophós (Hostathion 400 BR -- 150ml; óxido de fenbutatina (Torque 500 SC -- 60ml; e abamectin (Vertimec 18 CE -- 50ml: Analisou-se a fitotoxicidade dos produtos testados, em relação à altura da planta, nº de folhas, número de flores e frutos ; diâmetro do caule e queimaduras ou injúrias foliares. As datas das avaliações foram: 01 dia antes das pulverizações, 15 dias e 30 dias após as mesmas. Os fungicidas Daconil BR, Reconil e Tecto 450; o fungicida acaricida Dithane PM; os acaricidas Carbax e Torque 500 SC; e o inseticida-acaricida Vertimec 18 CE, aplicados isoladamente, não afetaram o crescimento e a produção das plantas, nem causaram injúrias nas folhas das mesmas. A associação de fungicidas e fungicida-acaricida, com os acaricidas, ou inseticida-acaricida, não mostrou nenhum efeito fitotóxico sobre os parâmetros de crescimento avaliados, nem causaram queimaduras ou injúrias foliares.

  12. Fabrication and hemocompatibility assessment of novel polyurethane-based bio-nanofibrous dressing loaded with honey and Carica papaya extract for the management of burn injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji, Arunpandian; Jaganathan, Saravana Kumar; Ismail, Ahmad Fauzi; Rajasekar, Rathanasamy

    Management of burn injury is an onerous clinical task since it requires continuous monitoring and extensive usage of specialized facilities. Despite rapid improvizations and investments in burn management, >30% of victims hospitalized each year face severe morbidity and mortality. Excessive loss of body fluids, accumulation of exudate, and the development of septic shock are reported to be the main reasons for morbidity in burn victims. To assist burn wound management, a novel polyurethane (PU)-based bio-nanofibrous dressing loaded with honey (HN) and Carica papaya (PA) fruit extract was fabricated using a one-step electrospinning technique. The developed dressing material had a mean fiber diameter of 190±19.93 nm with pore sizes of 4-50 µm to support effective infiltration of nutrients and gas exchange. The successful blending of HN- and PA-based active biomolecules in PU was inferred through changes in surface chemistry. The blend subsequently increased the wettability (14%) and surface energy (24%) of the novel dressing. Ultimately, the presence of hydrophilic biomolecules and high porosity enhanced the water absorption ability of the PU-HN-PA nanofiber samples to 761.67% from 285.13% in PU. Furthermore, the ability of the bio-nanofibrous dressing to support specific protein adsorption (45%), delay thrombus formation, and reduce hemolysis demonstrated its nontoxic and compatible nature with the host tissues. In summary, the excellent physicochemical and hemocompatible properties of the developed PU-HN-PA dressing exhibit its potential in reducing the clinical complications associated with the treatment of burn injuries.

  13. Incidencia de la mecanización del suelo sobre sus propiedades físicas y el crecimiento vegetativo de papaya (Carica papaya L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Fernando Mendez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Para determinar la incidencia de la mecanización del suelo sobre sus propiedades físicas y el crecimiento vegetativo de papaya en Florencia (Caquetá, se utilizó el Diseño de Bloques Completos al Azar con tres tratamientos: suelo mecanizado con Motoazada, Azadón y no mecanizado - Testigo y cuatro repeticiones. Se midió en campo la resistencia a la penetración y los índices de crecimiento vegetativo, mientras que en laboratorio se calcularon la porosidad total, y la densidad aparente. En el mes uno (M1 la resistencia a la penetración presentó diferencias significativas (p0,05 en ninguna de las profundidades. La densidad aparente y resistencia a la penetración aumentaron a través del tiempo. Los mayores valores de producción de asimilados y rendimiento en adsorción de energía lumínica representada en la tasa de asimilación neta, se presentaron a los 180 días después de la siembra en Testigo, donde alcanzó 10,04gm-2dia-1. La duración de área foliar y la tasa de crecimiento del cultivo fueron las variables más sensibles en respuesta de los cambios de porosidad y resistencia a la penetración del suelo. El Testigo, alcanzó los mayores niveles de tasa de asimilación neta, posiblemente por la homogeneidad en la ganancia de asimilados, a través del periodo fotosintético evaluado.

  14. Microbicidal effect of medicinal plant extracts (Psidium guajava Linn. and Carica papaya Linn. upon bacteria isolated from fish muscle and known to induce diarrhea in children Uso de extrato de plantas medicinais (Psidium guajava Linn. e Carica papaya Linn. frente a bactérias isoladas de pescado, causadoras de diarréias infantis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regine Helena Silva dos Fernandes VIEIRA

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Out of the twenty-four samples of shrimp and fish muscle used for this study, twelve were collected near a large marine sewer for waste disposal, 3 km off the coast of Fortaleza (Brazil and used for the isolation of E. coli. Other twelve were collected at the Mucuripe fresh fish market (Fortaleza, Brazil and used for the isolation of Staphylococcus aureus. Ethanol, water and acetone-diluted extracts of guava and papaya leaf sprouts were tested on the bacteria in order to verify their microbicidal potential. The E. coli strains used in the trials were rated LT positive. The papaya leaf extracts (Carica papaya Linn showed no microbicidal activity while the guava sprout extracts (Psidium guajava Linn displayed halos exceeding 13 mm for both species, an effect considered to be inhibitory by the method employed. Guava sprout extracts by 50% diluted ethanol most effectively inhibited E. coli (EPEC, while those in 50% acetone were less effective. It may be concluded that guava sprout extracts constitute a feasible treatment option for diarrhea caused by E. coli or by S. aureus-produced toxins, due to their quick curative action, easy availability in tropical countries and low cost to the consumer.Foram coletadas doze amostras de camarão e peixes nas imediações do interceptor oceânico, em Fortaleza e igual número na Feira de pescado do Mucuripe, Fortaleza, para isolamento de E. coli e Staphylococcus aureus, respectivamente. Extratos aquosos, alcoólicos e cetônicos de broto de goiabeira e de folha de mamão foram testados frente às bactérias para se verificar suas ações antibióticas. As cepas de E. coli utilizadas nos ensaios foram as classificadas como LT positivas. Os extratos de folhas de mamão (Carica papaya Linn não revelaram quaisquer atividades antibióticas enquanto que os preparados com broto de goiabeira (Psidium guajava Linn apresentaram halos sempre >13 mm para as duas espécies, considerados como de inibição pelo m

  15. Effects of Ficus carica L. Leaves Extract on Rats Exposed to gamma-Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawas, A.M.; Abdel Hamid, F.F.

    2010-01-01

    Ficus leaves water extract; Ficus carica L., Moraceae (FWE); 500 mg/kg body wt. were administrated for 14 days to study their effects on lipid peroxidation process and metallothionein levels (MT) in liver and kidney of male albino rats exposed to gamma-rays (5 Gy) as acute dose. Fe, Cu, Zn and Ca levels in liver, kidney, spleen and brain tissues were also, measured. FWE was administrated alone, or post-irradiation. Tissues samples were collected at the 7th and 14th days of radiation exposure or FWE treatment. Exposure to gamma-rays significantly increased the liver and kidney malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, at the 7th day, and significantly decreased the MT levels, at the 7th and 14th days compared to the control group. Administration of FWE significantly lowered the MDA level, at the 7th day, and the MT levels, at the 7th and 14th days, in liver and kidney tissues compared to the control group. At the 14th day of FWE administration MDA level showed a significant increase. Rats treated with FWE for 14 days post-exposure to gamma-rays showed a significant increase in the MDA and decrease in the MT levels in liver and kidney tissues compared to the irradiated group. Exposure to gamma-rays significantly increased the Fe level in all tested organs, Cu level in spleen, Zn level in liver and spleen at one and two weeks. Ca level increased in liver, spleen and brain tissues at the 14th day. Also gamma-rays significantly decreased the Cu and Ca levels in kidney. A significant decrease in Fe levels was observed in all organs after 14 days of FWE administration post-irradiation compared with irradiated group. On the other hand, administration of FWE post-irradiation caused a significant increase in Cu and Ca levels in kidney compared to irradiated group. FWE have no protective efficacy against gamma-radiation at the dose used

  16. Artificial neural network and response surface methodology modeling in mass transfer parameters predictions during osmotic dehydration of Carica papaya L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Prakash Maran

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a comparative approach was made between artificial neural network (ANN and response surface methodology (RSM to predict the mass transfer parameters of osmotic dehydration of papaya. The effects of process variables such as temperature, osmotic solution concentration and agitation speed on water loss, weight reduction, and solid gain during osmotic dehydration were investigated using a three-level three-factor Box-Behnken experimental design. Same design was utilized to train a feed-forward multilayered perceptron (MLP ANN with back-propagation algorithm. The predictive capabilities of the two methodologies were compared in terms of root mean square error (RMSE, mean absolute error (MAE, standard error of prediction (SEP, model predictive error (MPE, chi square statistic (χ2, and coefficient of determination (R2 based on the validation data set. The results showed that properly trained ANN model is found to be more accurate in prediction as compared to RSM model.

  17. Penggunan Natrium Metabisulfit (Na2S2O5 sebagai pemutih Pektin dari Kulit Buah Pepaya (Carica papaya L.,

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    Chintya Aulia Elfitri

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Pectin washigh value functional foods which widely useful in food industry because its ability to form watery gel. One of the most pectin source is papaya’s peel. The problem is drying process on food can make colour change to be brown  like on papaya peels’s pectin. Natrium metabisulphite can we use to avoid that. The purpose of this research is was get the best concentrate of natrium metabisulphite to make better quality from papaya peel’s pectin asspecialy in its colour. This research used Completedly Randomized Design (CRD with five treatments and four replications. The treatments were increased  natrium metabisulphite (0%, 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.15% and 0.2% on sulfitation process. The value of observation were analyzed using Analysis of Varians followed by Duncan’s New Multiple Range Test (DNMRT on 5% level. The result of this research showed that increasing of natrium metabisulphite on sulfitation process given significants effect to the numbers of Yield pectin, water content and jelly colour but not significants on ash content, methoxyl content, viscosity and time of jelly. The result of this research got average values of yield pectin is 9.64-10.61%, water content is 6.18-7.00%, ash content is 4.69-4.78%, methoxyl contentis 3.32-3.42%, viscosity 30.02-30.23 cP, time of jelly is 14.21-14.23 minutes and jellycolour is dark brown until light brown.

  18. Propagación in vitro de Carica papaya var. PTM-331 a partir de meristemos apicales In vitro propagation of Carica papaya var. PTM-331 from apical meristem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reynaldo Solis L.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo consistió en desarrollar un protocolo de propagación in vitro de la variedad de papaya PTM-331 a partir de meristemos apicales, con la finalidad de obtener plántulas vigorosas y libres de enfermedades, empleando la técnica del cultivo de tejidos. Las yemas apicales empleadas fueron obtenidas de plantas cultivadas en invernadero, los cuales fueron usados como explantes para la extracción de meristemos. La mejor diferenciación de meristemos se logró en el medio basal MS suplementado con 0,5 mg.L-1 de BAP, 0,5 mg.L-1 de AIA y 10 mg.L-1 de adenina. La mejor multiplicación se logró con el medio MS suplementado con 0,5 mg.L-1 de BAP, 0,5 mg.L-1 de AIA y 0,3 mg.L-1 de AG3, con un coeficiente de multiplicación de 3,42; mientras que el mejor medio para el enraizamiento fue la combinación del medio MS, 3 mg.L-1 de AIB y 5 mg.L-1 de adenina, donde se obtuvo 83,33% de plantas enraizadas.An in vitro protocol was develop to propagate variety of papaya PTM-331 from apical meristems, with the objective of obtaining vigorous and disease-free seedlings, using tissue culture techniques. Apical buds were obtained from seedlings cultivated in greenhouse and used as explants for meristem dissection. Meristems were cultured on MS basal medium supplemented with 0,5 mg.L-1 of BAP, 0,5 mg.L-1 of AIA and 10 mg.L-1 of adenine for their differentiation. The best multiplication of explants was achieved with the combination of MS medium supplemented with 0,5 mg.L-1 of BAP, 0,5 mg.L-1 of AIA and 0,3 mg.L-1 of AG3, where largest seedlings, with more shoots were obtained. The best medium for rooting was the combination of MS, 3 mg.L-1 of AIB and 5 mg.L-1 of adenine, where 83,33% of rooted plants were obtained.

  19. Two nematicidal furocoumarins from Ficus carica L. leaves and their physiological effects on pine wood nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qunqun; Du, Guicai; He, Hongwei; Xu, Hongkai; Guo, Daosen; Li, Ronggui

    2016-09-01

    The ethanol extract of the Ficus carica L. leaves was tested to show strong nematicidal activity against pine wood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, causing 90.93% corrected mortality within 72 h at 1.0 mg/mL. From the ethyl acetate soluble fraction of the F. carica L. leaves extract, the main nematicidal constituents were obtained by bioassay-guided isolation and identified as linear furocoumarins bergapten (1) and psoralen (2) by mass and NMR spectral data analysis. Bergapten and psoralen had significant nematicidal activity against PWN with the LC50 values of 97.08 aKSnd 115.03  μ g/mL within 72 h, respectively. The two furocoumarins could inhibit the activities of amylase, cellulase and acetylcholinesterase (AchE) from PWN. The morphologies of PWNs changed much after they were treated by bergapten and psoralen. The physiological effects of bergapten and psoralen on PWN might provide helpful clues to elucidate their nematicidal mechanisms.

  20. Gene Technology for Papaya Ringspot Virus Disease Management

    OpenAIRE

    Azad, Md. Abul Kalam; Amin, Latifah; Sidik, Nik Marzuki

    2014-01-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya) is severely damaged by the papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). This review focuses on the development of PRSV resistant transgenic papaya through gene technology. The genetic diversity of PRSV depends upon geographical distribution and the influence of PRSV disease management on a sequence of PRSV isolates. The concept of pathogen-derived resistance has been employed for the development of transgenic papaya, using a coat protein-mediated, RNA-silencing mechanism and replicase...

  1. Fabrication and hemocompatibility assessment of novel polyurethane-based bio-nanofibrous dressing loaded with honey and Carica papaya extract for the management of burn injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balaji A

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Arunpandian Balaji,1 Saravana Kumar Jaganathan,2–4 Ahmad Fauzi Ismail,5 Rathanasamy Rajasekar6 1Faculty of Biosciences and Medical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor Bahru, Malaysia; 2Department for Management of Science and Technology Development, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam; 3Faculty of Applied Sciences, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam; 4IJNUTM Cardiovascular Engineering Centre, Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Biosciences and Medical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor Bahru, Malaysia; 5Advanced Membrane Technology Research Center, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor Bahru, Malaysia; 6Department of Mechanical Engineering, School of Building and Mechanical Sciences, Kongu Engineering College, Tamil Nadu, India Abstract: Management of burn injury is an onerous clinical task since it requires continuous monitoring and extensive usage of specialized facilities. Despite rapid improvizations and investments in burn management, >30% of victims hospitalized each year face severe morbidity and mortality. Excessive loss of body fluids, accumulation of exudate, and the development of septic shock are reported to be the main reasons for morbidity in burn victims. To assist burn wound management, a novel polyurethane (PU-based bio-nanofibrous dressing loaded with honey (HN and Carica papaya (PA fruit extract was fabricated using a one-step electrospinning technique. The developed dressing material had a mean fiber diameter of 190±19.93 nm with pore sizes of 4–50 µm to support effective infiltration of nutrients and gas exchange. The successful blending of HN- and PA-based active biomolecules in PU was inferred through changes in surface chemistry. The blend subsequently increased the wettability (14% and surface energy (24% of the novel dressing. Ultimately, the presence of hydrophilic biomolecules and high porosity enhanced the water absorption ability of the PU

  2. Differential accumulation of photosynthetic proteins regulates diurnal photochemical adjustments of PSII in common fig (Ficus carica L.) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlinarić, Selma; Antunović Dunić, Jasenka; Skendrović Babojelić, Martina; Cesar, Vera; Lepeduš, Hrvoje

    2017-02-01

    Molecular processes involved in photosystem II adaptation of woody species to diurnal changes in light and temperature conditions are still not well understood. Regarding this, here we investigated differences between young and mature leaves of common fig (Ficus carica L.) in photosynthetic performance as well as accumulation of the main photosynthetic proteins: light harvesting complex II, D1 protein and Rubisco large subunit. Investigated leaf types revealed different adjustment mechanisms to keep effective photosynthesis. Rather stable diurnal accumulation of light harvesting complex II in mature leaves enabled efficient excitation energy utilization (negative L-band) what triggered faster D1 protein degradation at high light. However, after photoinhibition, greater accumulation of D1 during the night enabled them faster recovery. So, the most photosynthetic parameters, as the maximum quantum yield for primary photochemistry, electron transport and overall photosynthetic efficiency in mature leaves successfully restored to their initial values at 1a.m. Reduced connectivity of light harvesting complexes II to its reaction centers (positive L-band) in young leaves increased dissipation of excess light causing less pressure to D1 and its slower degradation. Decreased electron transport in young leaves, due to reduced transfer beyond primary acceptor Q A - most probably additionally induced degradation of Rubisco large subunit what consequently led to the stronger decrease of overall photosynthetic efficiency in young leaves at noon. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Consideraciones sobre la utilización de diferentes densidades en el cultivo de papaya (Carica papaya, L. "Baixinho de Santa Amalia" en islas canarias Different plantation densities for papaya (Carica papaya, L cv. "Baixinho de Santa Amalia" culture in the canary islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Cristina Rodriguez Pastor

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available El cultivo de papaya en Islas Canarias se ha extendido en los últimos años bajo condiciones de invernadero. La utilización de cultivares de papaya tipo "Baixinho de Santa Amalia" (mutante natural del cultivar "Sunrise" de porte bajo, emisión de la flor a corta altura y precocidad en la floración, resultan de gran interés sobre todo en esta clase de medios. Estas características fenológicas hacen posible el manejo del cultivo a mayores densidades que las empleadas con otros cultivares. Por lo tanto, se ha planteado este trabajo cuyo objetivo principal es determinar cual es el marco de plantación óptimo, que permita obtener mayores rendimientos sin depreciar la calidad del fruto. Para ello, se ha evaluado la producción tanto de las plantas hermafroditas como de las plantas femeninas durante dos ciclos de cultivo, así como las características organolépticas, grado de carpeloidía y deformación de los frutos. Los resultados indican que la densidad mayor, proporciona mejor comportamiento de las plantas así como mayor producción de frutos y menor porcentaje de fruta desechable.The growth of papaya plants under greenhouse conditions has recently become the norm in the Canary Islands. The use of "Baixinho de Santa Amalia" (a natural mutant of the "Sunrise" cultivar, which is a dwarf cultivar flowering early and not high up the plant, is the great interest, above all under these conditions. These phenological characteristic make possible the planting at higher densities than for other cultivars. This study has been carried out to determine the optimal planting density to permit greater production without reducing fruit quality. To this aim the yield, both of hermaphrodite and female plants, has been evaluated through two crop cycles, as well as studying the organoleptic characteristics, degree of carpellody and deformation of the fruits. The results suggest that the highest density provides better plant perfomance as well as higher fruit

  4. High-performance thin layer chromatographic quantification of bioactive psoralen and daidzein in leaves of Ficus carica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, B; Mujeeb, M; Aeri, V; Mir, S R; Ahmad, S; Siddique, N A; Faiyazuddin, M; Shakeel, F

    2011-10-01

    This study was undertaken to quantify psoralen and daidzein by high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC). The methanolic extract of 10 mg mL(-1) concentration solution was prepared for HPTLC quantification of psoralen and daidzein. HPTLC aluminium-backed plates coated with 0.2 mm layers of silica gel 60 F(254) were used as the stationary phase. The working standard solution of psoralen and daidzein was applied along with the test sample solution by means of Camag Linomat IV sample applicator. R (f) values of psoralen and daidzein were found to be 0.60 and 0.88, whilst as their percentage values in methanolic extract were found to be 3.02% and 5.64% (w/w), respectively. A simple quantitative estimation method of psoralen and daidzein by HPTLC is reported that can be used for the quality control of marketed preparations containing Ficus carica. However, further study is warranted to isolate and quantify active constituents present in the leaves of F. carica by sophisticated techniques.

  5. Methanolic Extract of Ficus carica Linn. Leaves Exerts Antiangiogenesis Effects Based on the Rat Air Pouch Model of Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eteraf-Oskouei, Tahereh; Allahyari, Saeideh; Akbarzadeh-Atashkhosrow, Arezu; Delazar, Abbas; Pashaii, Mahdiyeh; Gan, Siew Hua; Najafi, Moslem

    2015-01-01

    The antiangiogenesis effect of Ficus carica leaves extract in an air pouch model of inflammation was investigated in rat. Inflammation was induced by injection of carrageenan into pouches. After antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content (TPC) investigations, the extract was administered at 5, 25, and 50 mg/pouch, and then the volume of exudates, the cell number, TNFα, PGE2, and VEGF levels were measured. Angiogenesis of granulation tissues was determined by measuring hemoglobin content. Based on the DPPH assay, the extract had significant antioxidant activity with TPC of 11.70 mg GAE/100 g dry sample. In addition, leukocyte accumulation and volume of exudate were significantly inhibited by the extract. Moreover, it significantly decreased the production of TNFα, PGE2, and VEGF, while angiogenesis was significantly inhibited by all administered doses. Interestingly, attenuation of angiogenesis and inflammatory parameters (except leukocyte accumulation) by the extract was similar to that shown by diclofenac. The extract has anti-inflammatory effects and ameliorated cell influx and exudation to the site of the inflammatory response which may be related to the local inhibition of TNFα, PGE2, and VEGF levels as similarly shown by diclofenac. The antiangiogenesis and anti-VEGF effects of Ficus carica may be correlated with its significant antioxidant potentials. PMID:25977699

  6. Evaluation of phenolic content, total flavonoid and survey of antioxidant activity of leaves of Ficus carica and Pterocarya fraxinifolia trees using spectrophotometry and high performance liquid chromatograph methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Jafari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this research, to evaluate the antioxidant activity of leaf Pterocarya fraxinifolia (Juglandaceae and Ficus carica (Moraceae extract were carried out by spectrophotometry and high performance liquid chromatography methods. The leaves of P. fraxinifolia and F. carica were collected from Whitney and Shast Kalate (Golestan, Noor (Mazandaran and Asalem (Guilan forests in Iran. Methanolc extract was used in different experiments. The phenolic compounds (gallic acid, coumaric acid and quercetin were also measured by using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method.The maximum IC50 for DPPH radical-scavenging activity (595.12±21.4 μg ml-1 were observed in P. fraxinifolia leaves. According to the inhibition time, phenolic compound (gallic acid, coumaric acid and quercetin in F. carica leaves and gallic acid and coumaric acid were detected of Pterocarya leaves methanol extracts. The maximum amount of gallic acid (78.93 and coumaric acid (8.14 in extracts Pterocarya leaves Asalem and the lowest gallic acid (8.56 and coumaric acid (0.89 milligrams per gram was observed in Ficus leaf of Noor forest. Based on the standard chromatogram retention time of gallic acid (2.383, coumaric acid (3.817 and quercetin (7.217 mg/g was reported. This study showed that soil factors, such as potassium, sodium, phosphorus and nitrogen compounds with antioxidant phenolic extracts of the leaves of both plants there is a significant correlation.

  7. Somatic embryogenesis from leaf explants of hermaphrodite Carica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Somatic embryogenesis from leaf explants of hermaphrodite Carica papaya: A new approach for clonal propagation. Andréa Dias Koehler, Carlos Roberto Carvalho, Isabella Santiago Abreu, Wellington Ronildo Clarindo ...

  8. Desenvolvimento de néctar à base de mamão (Carica papaya L.) adicionado de inulina e oligofrutose

    OpenAIRE

    Braga, Héberly Fernandes [UNESP

    2013-01-01

    The demand for food and functional ingredients has increased, in particular by the prebiotics. The incorporation of inulin and oligofructose in fruit drinks, as nectars, is an alternative to increase nutritional value to products. Among fruits, the papaya is an excellent choice because of its easy cultivation, high productivity, low cost, high nutritional value and, particularly, the shortage of this fruit nectar in the Brazilian market. The study aimed to develop papaya nectars with differen...

  9. L-ascorbic acid, β-carotene and lycopene content in papaya fruits (Carica papaya with or without physiological skin freckles Conteúdo de ácido l-ascórbico, β-caroteno e licopeno em frutos de mamão (Carica papaya com e sem mancha fisiológica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Marelli de Souza

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The Skin Freckles is a papaya skin disorder that depreciates de fruit appearance and hampers its commercialization, although not lowering its nutritive value. Being the papaya a good source of ascorbic acid, β-carotene and licopene this research aimed at determining L-ascorbic acid, β-carotene and licopene content in papaya fruits, from 'Formosa' and 'Solo' group varieties, with and without apparent physiological skin disease (skin freckles. Fruits were harvested in the Southeast Region of Brazil. L-ascorbic acid content was determined by titration technique. β-carotene and licopene contents were determined by high performance liquid chromatography technique (HPLC. L-ascorbic acid content in papaya fruits ranged from (59.9 ± 3.4 mg 100 g-1 to (112.4 ± 12.6 mg 100 g-1 in fresh papaya pulp. β-carotene content ranged from (0.19 ± 0.07 mg 100 g-1 to (0.56 ± 0.09 mg 100 g-1 and that of licopene ranged from (1.44 ± 0.28 mg 100 g-1 to (3.39 ± 0.32 mg 100 g-1 in fresh papaya pulp. L-ascorbic acid contents of papaya fruits with skin disease averaged 7.0 mg 100 g-1 to 10.0 mg 100 g-1 higher than those of papaya fruits without skin freckles (P A Mancha Fisiológica do Mamão (MFM é uma desordem da casca do mamão, que deprecia a aparência do fruto e prejudica a sua comercialização, embora não prejudique o seu valor nutritivo. Considerando ser o mamão, uma boa fonte de ácido L-ascórbico, b-caroteno e licopeno, esta pesquisa visou determinar o índice destes componentes em frutas de mamão, das variedades do grupo 'Formosa' e 'Solo', com e sem Mancha Fisiológica do Mamão (MFM aparente na pele. As frutas foram colhidas na região do sudeste de Brasil. O teor de ácido L-ascórbico foi determinado pela técnica de titulação. Os índices do b-caroteno e do licopeno foram determinados pela técnica de cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (HPLC. O teor de ácido L-ascórbico variou de (59,9 ± 3,4 mg 100 g-1 a (112,4 ± 12,6 mg 100 g-1

  10. Ethanolic extract of Ficus carica leave Suppresses Angiogenesis by Regulating VEGF-A and Integrin β3 mRNA Expression in Human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghambarali, Zahra; Bidmeshkipouri, Ali; Akrami, Hassan; Azadbakht, Mehri; Rabzia, Arezo

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the anti-angiogenic effects of the ethanol extract of Ficus carica leave on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). HUVECs were used in this study. The cells were cultured in DMEM medium and then incubated with different concentrations of ethanolic extract of Ficus carica leave (0-25 μg\\ml) in the presence or absence of the extract for 24 hours. Cell viability was analyzed using neutral red assay. Endothelial cell tube formation was measured with the Matrigel basement membrane matrix. The level of VEGF and Integrin β3 mRNA expression in the HUVECs was measured with reverse-transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-q real time PCR). We observed that the extract dose dependently inhibited the tube formation of HUVECs. Furthermore, the extract significantly decreased mRNA expression levels of VEGF-A and Integrin β3 in HUVECs at 20 μg\\ml concentration of the extract compared to untreated control cells (P Ficus carica leave contains anti-angiogenic activities and could be a candidate as a potential agent for the prevention of angiogenesis related disorders.

  11. Evaluation of general toxicity, anti-oxidant activity and effects of ficus carica leaves extract on ischemia/reperfusion injuries in isolated heart of rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allahyari, Saeideh; Delazar, Abbas; Najafi, Moslem

    2014-12-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate general toxicity, anti-oxidant activity and effects of Ficus carica leaves extract on ischemia/reperfusion injuries. Antioxidant activity, total phenolic and flavonoid compounds of 70% methanolic extract of Ficus carica leaves were measured. The general toxicity test was carried out by brine shrimp lethality assay. Isolated hearts of male rats were mounted on a Langendorff apparatus and perfused with modified Krebs-Henseleit solution. In control group, the hearts were perfused with normal Krebs solution, however, treatment groups received enriched solution with the extract (0.04, 0.2 and 1 mg/ml) during stabilization and reperfusion (after 30 min global ischemia), respectively. Cardiac arrhythmias were analyzed and TTC method was used for infarct size determination. The extract displayed antioxidant activity in the DPPH assay (RC50=0.06666 mg/ml). Total phenolic content was 12.29 mg GAE/100 g dry sample and the amount of flavonoids was calculated 40.729 mg/g. LD50 value by brine shrimp test was 0.158 mg/ml. The extract decreased number of VEBs, incidence and duration of Rev VF with clear reduction in infarct size and infarct volume (PFicus carica decreased ischemia/reperfusion-induced injuries. These protections are probably due to antioxidant capacity and the existence of flavonoid and phenolic compounds in the extract.

  12. Inhibition of key enzymes linked to type 2 diabetes and sodium nitroprusside-induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas by water-extractable phytochemicals from unripe pawpaw fruit (Carica papaya).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oboh, Ganiyu; Olabiyi, Ayodeji A; Akinyemi, Ayodele J; Ademiluyi, Adedayo O

    2014-02-01

    Various parts of unripe pawpaw (Carica papaya Linn) fruit have been reportedly used for the management or treatment of diabetes mellitus in folklore medicine. Therefore, the present study sought to investigate the inhibitory effects of the aqueous extract of different parts of unripe pawpaw fruit on key enzymes linked to type 2 diabetes (α-amylase and α-glucosidase) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP)-induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas in vitro. The aqueous extracts of the unripe pawpaw (C. papaya) fruit parts were prepared (1:20 w/v) and the ability of the extracts to inhibit α-amylase, α-glucosidase and SNP-induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas in vitro was investigated. The results revealed that all the extracts inhibited α-amylase (IC50=0.87-1.11 mg/mL), α-glucosidase (IC50=1.76-2.64 mg/mL) and SNP-induced lipid peroxidation (IC50=1.99-2.42 mg/mL) in a dose-dependent manner. However, combination of the flesh, seed and peel in equal amounts had the highest inhibitory effect on α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities. Strong inhibitory activities of the unripe pawpaw fruit against key enzymes linked to type 2 diabetes and SNP-induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas could be part of the mechanism by which unripe pawpaw is used in the management/prevention of diabetes mellitus in folk medicine. However, combining the unripe pawpaw fruit parts in equal amounts exhibited synergistic properties on α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities.

  13. Estimation of papaya leaf area using the central vein length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campostrini Eliemar

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Four genotypes of papaya (Carica papaya L. two from the 'Solo' group (Sunrise Solo and Improved Sunrise Solo line 72/12 and two from the 'Formosa' group (Tainung 02 and Known-You 01, grown in Macaé, RJ, Brazil (lat. 22(0 24' S, long. 41(0 42' W, were used in this study. Twenty-five mature leaves from each genotype were sampled four and five months after seedling transplant to the field to determine the length of the leaf central vein (LLCV and the leaf area (LA. According to covariance analyses there were no significant differences in the slope and intercept of the mathematical models calculated for each genotype. Thus, a single mathematical model (Log LA = 0.315 + 1.85 Log LLCV, R²=0.898 was adjusted to estimate the LA using the length of LLCV for the four genotypes. An unique model can be applied to estimate the LA for the four papaya genotypes using LLCV in the range from 0.25 to 0.60 m, and for papaya trees 150 to 180 days after transplanting.

  14. Distribution, diversity and environmental adaptation of highland papaya (Vasconcellea spp.) in tropical and subtropical America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheldeman, X.; Willemen, L.; Coppens D'eeckenbrugge, G.; Romeijn-Peeters, E.; Restrepo, M.T.; Romero Motoche, J.; Jimenez, D.; Lobo, M.; Medina, C.I.; Reyes, C.; Rodriguez, D.; Ocampo, J.A.; Damme, van P.; Goetghebeur, P.

    2007-01-01

    Vasconcellea species, often referred to as highland papayas, consist of a group of fruit species that are closely related to the common papaya (Carica papaya). The genus deserves special attention as a number of species show potential as raw material in the tropical fruit industry, fresh or in

  15. Genótipos melhorados de mamão (Carica papaya L.: avaliação tecnológica dos frutos na forma de sorvete Improved genotypes of papaya (Carica papaya L.: technological evaluation as ice-cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia R.R. Santana

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo a avaliação tecnológica na forma de sorvete, de frutos de cinco genótipos selecionados de mamão (CMF012, CMF020, CMF023, CMF031, CMF047, provenientes do Banco Ativo de Germoplasma da Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura, Cruz das Almas, Bahia. Estes genótipos foram identificados em estudos anteriores por apresentarem cor atraente, sabor agradável e valores elevados de sólidos solúveis (ºBrix. As amostras de sorvete foram submetidas à avaliação sensorial para os atributos aparência, cor, aroma, sabor e textura, através de testes afetivos, utilizando-se escala hedônica estruturada de nove pontos. Realizou-se determinações de pH, acidez total titulável, sólidos solúveis (ºBrix, "ratio", ácido ascórbico, sólidos totais, cinzas, proteínas, lipídeos, açúcares totais, redutores e não-redutores. Os resultados das avaliações sensoriais e físico-químicas foram analisados através de ANOVA e teste de Tukey. Os sorvetes demonstraram elevada aceitação, obtendo médias correspondentes ao conceito "gostei moderadamente" para todos os atributos avaliados. Os genótipos CMF020 e CMF031 destacaram-se alcançando média correspondente ao termo da escala hedônica "gostei muito" para o atributo sabor. Os provadores não indicaram prevalência entre os produtos quanto à aparência, cor e textura; portanto, os genótipos pouco atraentes como fruto de mesa, poderão ser aproveitados na indústria para elaboração de sorvete. Além disso, podem ser considerados como uma sobremesa valiosa e nutritiva, pois apresentaram níveis satisfatórios de carboidratos e razoáveis de vitamina C e proteínas. O estudo demonstrou que o sorvete de mamão é uma excelente alternativa para o aproveitamento da fruta.The objective of the present work was to evaluate as an alternative of consumption the ice-cream of five selective papaya genotypes (CMF012, CMF020, CMF023, CMF031, CMF047 obtained from the Active

  16. Efecto de la madurez, geometría y presión sobre la cinética de transferencia de masa en la deshidratación osmótica de papaya (Carica papaya L., var. Maradol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Marcela Chavarro-Castrillón

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Las papayas obtenidas en el raleo (papayas menos desarrolladas entresacadas de los árboles para beneficiar el crecimiento de las otras generalmente se descartan. Alternativamente, estas papayas pueden secarse por un proceso de deshidratación osmótica y secado térmico convencional para usarlas como snacks o como ingrediente para otros productos. Se comparó la cinética de transferencia de masa en la deshidratación osmótica de papayas de raleo frente a papayas desarrolladas con diferente grado de madurez, considerando el efecto de la geometría de la muestra y de la presión del proceso. La deshidratación osmótica se efectuó en una solución agitada de sacarosa a 50 °Brix, a 25 °C. Se consideraron tres niveles de madurez: raleo, verde y pintona, tres geometrías: lámina, cilindro y anillo y dos niveles de presión: atmosférica y vacío. Se estudiaron como variables cinéticas la variación de peso (WR, pérdida de agua (WL y ganancia de sólidos (SG entre 10 y 180 min. La madurez tuvo efecto significativo sobre las tres respuestas de la cinética a 30 min y sobre SG a 180 min; la geometría tuvo efecto sobre WR y SG a 30 min y sobre los tres parámetros cinéticos a 180 min y la presión solamente tuvo efecto sobre WL y SG a 30 min. La mayor pérdida de agua (65% se obtuvo a 30 min para la combinación raleo/cilindro/vacío; mientras que la mayor ganancia de sólidos fue 31% para el tratamiento verde/lámina/vacío a 180 min.

  17. Physiological and enzymatic alterations in papaya seed during storage

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, Denise Cunha Fernandes Dos Santos; Estanislau, Wagner Tompson; Finger, Fernando Luiz; Alvarenga, Eveline Mantovani; Dias, Luiz Antônio Dos Santos

    2010-01-01

    This study was done to evaluate the physiological and enzymatic alterations in papaya (Carica papaya L.) seeds during storage period. Seeds were extracted from mature fruits of Formosa group papaya hybrid Tainung 01. The sarcotesta was removed by rubbing the seeds on a wire screen under running water and then dried to the moisture content (MC) of 5, 8 or 11% The seeds were packed in multilayer paper bags, polyethylene bags, aluminum foil pouch and metallic canisters and stored for 15 months u...

  18. Development of virus resistant transgenic papayas expressing the coat protein gene from a Brazilian isolate of Papaya ringspot virus

    OpenAIRE

    Souza Júnior, Manoel T.; Nickel, Osmar; Gonsalves, Dennis

    2005-01-01

    Translatable and nontranslatable versions of the coat protein (cp) gene of a Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) isolate collected in the state of Bahia, Brazil, were engineered for expression in Sunrise and Sunset Solo varieties of papaya (Carica papaya). The biolistic system was used to transform secondary somatic embryo cultures derived from immature zygotic embryos. Fifty-four transgenic lines, 26 translatable and 28 nontranslatable gene versions, were regenerated, with a transformation efficien...

  19. Transferencia de tecnología en el manejo integrado de ácaros en el agroecosistema con base en papayo (Carica papaya L.).

    OpenAIRE

    Cano Reyes, Octavio

    2013-01-01

    Se integra el análisis de redes sociales aplicado a los procesos de transferencia de tecnología (TT) para el manejo integrado de ácaros (MIA) en papayo, mediante el modelo ascendente de TT “Grupos de Crecimiento Productivo Simultáneo” (GCPS), aplicado por socios de “Productora y Comercializadora de Papaya de Cotaxtla S.P.R. de R.L.” Los objetivos fueron determinar las redes y actores centrales presentes en la asociación, construir un programa de TT en forma participativa para el MIA y propone...

  20. CURVAS DE ABSORCIÓN DE NUTRIENTES EN PAPAYA (Carica papaya L.) CV. “POCOCÍ” EN LAS FASES DE CRECIMIENTO VEGETATIVO, FLORACIÓN E INICIO DE COSECHA

    OpenAIRE

    Róger Fallas; Floria Bertsch; Mauricio Barrientos

    2014-01-01

    Durante el 2010, en una plantación comercial de papaya cv. “Pococí”, ubicada en Guácimo, Costa Rica, se determinó la curva de crecimiento del cultivo y las curvas de absorción de nutrimentos, mediante muestreos destructivos de plantas realizados desde el trasplante a partir de febrero del 2010 hasta 9 meses después del trasplante. Fueron obtenidas las curvas de absorción de nutrientes para un híbrido de alto rendimiento, así como sus requerimientos nutrimentales. Con una densidad de siembra d...

  1. Curvas de absorción de nutrientes en papaya (Carica papaya L.) cv. “Pococí” en las fases de crecimiento vegetativo, floración e inicio de cosecha

    OpenAIRE

    Róger Fallas; Floria Bertsch; Mauricio Barrientos

    2014-01-01

    Durante el 2010, en una plantación comercial de papaya cv. “Pococí”, ubicada en Guácimo, Costa Rica, se determinó la curva de crecimiento del cultivo y las curvas de absorción de nutrimentos, mediante muestreos destructivos de plantas realizados desde el trasplante a partir de febrero del 2010 hasta 9 meses después del trasplante. Fueron obtenidas las curvas de absorción de nutrientes para un híbrido de alto rendimiento, así como sus requerimientos nutrimentales. Con una densidad de siembra d...

  2. Effect of leaf dehydration duration and dehydration degree on PSII photochemical activity of papaya leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Meijun; Zhang, Zishan; Gao, Huiyuan; Yang, Cheng; Fan, Xingli; Cheng, Dandan

    2014-09-01

    Although the effect of dehydration on photosynthetic apparatus has been widely studied, the respective effect of dehydration duration and dehydration degree was neglected. This study showed that, when leaves dehydrated in air, the PSII activities of leaves decreased with the decline of leaf relative water content (RWC). Unexpectedly, when leaves dehydrated to same RWC, the decreases in Fv/Fm, Ψo and RC/CSm were lower in leaves dehydrating at 43 °C than those at 25 °C. However, to reach the same RWC, leaves dehydrating at 43 °C experienced 1/6 of the dehydration duration for leaves dehydrating at 25 °C. To distinguish the respective effect of dehydration degree and dehydration duration on photosynthetic apparatus, we studied the PSII activities of leaves treated with different concentration of PEG solutions. Increasing dehydration degree aggravated the decline of Fv/Fm, Ψo and RC/CSm in leaves with the same dehydration duration, while prolonging the dehydration duration also exacerbated the decline of Fv/Fm, Ψo and RC/CSm in leaves with identical dehydration degree. With the same dehydration degree and duration, high temperature enhanced the decrease of Fv/Fm, Ψo and RC/CSm in the leaves. When leaves dehydrated in air, the effect of high temperature was underestimated due to reduction of dehydration duration. The results demonstrated that, dehydration degree and duration both play important roles in damage to photosynthetic apparatus. We suggest that, under combined stresses, the effects of dehydration degree and duration on plants should be considered comprehensively, otherwise, partial or incorrect results may be obtained. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. A ¹H NMR Investigation of the Interaction between Phenolic Acids Found in Mango (Manguifera indica cv Ataulfo) and Papaya (Carica papaya cv Maradol) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) Free Radicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Martínez, Luis M; Santacruz-Ortega, Hisila; Navarro, Rosa-Elena; Sotelo-Mundo, Rogerio R; González-Aguilar, Gustavo A

    2015-01-01

    The benefits of phenolic acids on human health are very often ascribed to their potential to counteract free radicals to provide antioxidant protection. This potential has been attributed to their acidic chemical structure, which possesses hydroxyl groups in different positions. Phenolic acids can interact between themselves and exhibit an additive, antagonistic or synergistic effect. In this paper, we used 1H NMR to analyze the interactions and mechanisms that are present in major phenolic acids found in mango (gallic, protocatechuic, chlorogenic and vanillic acids) and papaya (caffeic, ferulic and p-coumaric acids), and the DPPH radical was used to evaluate the effect of the antioxidant mixtures. The interactions were found to occur via hydrogen bonds between the -OH and -COOH groups. Moreover, the phenolic acids exhibit two types of mechanisms for the neutralization of the DPPH radical. According to the results, these two mechanisms are Hydrogen Atom Transfer (HAT) and Single Electron Transfer (SET). The ability of the phenolic acid to neutralize the DPPH radical decreases in the following order in mango: gallic > chlorogenic > protocatechuic > vanillic. Moreover, within the acids found in papaya, the order was as follows: caffeic > p-coumaric > ferulic.

  4. A 1H NMR Investigation of the Interaction between Phenolic Acids Found in Mango (Manguifera indica cv Ataulfo) and Papaya (Carica papaya cv Maradol) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) Free Radicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Martínez, Luis M.; Santacruz-Ortega, Hisila; Navarro, Rosa-Elena; Sotelo-Mundo, Rogerio R.; González-Aguilar, Gustavo A.

    2015-01-01

    The benefits of phenolic acids on human health are very often ascribed to their potential to counteract free radicals to provide antioxidant protection. This potential has been attributed to their acidic chemical structure, which possesses hydroxyl groups in different positions. Phenolic acids can interact between themselves and exhibit an additive, antagonistic or synergistic effect. In this paper, we used 1H NMR to analyze the interactions and mechanisms that are present in major phenolic acids found in mango (gallic, protocatechuic, chlorogenic and vanillic acids) and papaya (caffeic, ferulic and p-coumaric acids), and the DPPH radical was used to evaluate the effect of the antioxidant mixtures. The interactions were found to occur via hydrogen bonds between the -OH and -COOH groups. Moreover, the phenolic acids exhibit two types of mechanisms for the neutralization of the DPPH radical. According to the results, these two mechanisms are Hydrogen Atom Transfer (HAT) and Single Electron Transfer (SET). The ability of the phenolic acid to neutralize the DPPH radical decreases in the following order in mango: gallic > chlorogenic > protocatechuic > vanillic. Moreover, within the acids found in papaya, the order was as follows: caffeic > p-coumaric > ferulic. PMID:26559189

  5. Avaliação da taxa de crescimento de frutos de mamão (Carica papaya L. em função das épocas do ano e graus-dias acumulados Evaluation of the growth tax of papaya fruitS (Carica papaya L. infunction of different times of the year and accumulated degree-days

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sávio da Silva Berilli

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O monitoramento do desenvolvimento dos órgãos vegetais, como o fruto, pode ser de grande interesse científico. O acompanhamento da fase de crescimento dos frutos pode indicar os pontos críticos de exigências nutricionais e de água, e sua relação com fatores climáticos, como a temperatura. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a taxa de crescimento do fruto de mamão híbrido UENF/CALIMAN 01 em diferentes épocas do ano, em função do número de graus-dia (GD acumulados. O ponto máximo de crescimento dos frutos variou de acordo com as diferentes épocas de desenvolvimento dos mesmos. Frutos desenvolvidos em períodos com temperaturas mais elevadas atingiram, num menor tempo, seu ponto de colheita, ocorrendo o inverso em frutos desenvolvidos em períodos de temperaturas mais amenas. Os resultados mostraram, no entanto, que o crescimento dos frutos, invariavelmente, estabilizou-se após os mesmos atingirem o nível de aproximadamente 800 GD. Cessada a fase de crescimento do fruto, o processo de maturação dos mesmos foi tão rápido quanto maior a temperatura mensal do período.The monitoring of the vegetable organ development, as the fruit, is a great scientific interest. The knowledge of the different phases of growth of these fruits can indicate the critical points of nutritional requirements and water, and its relation with climatic factors effect, as the temperature. The aim of this work was to evaluate the growth rate of the hybrid papaya fruit UENF/CALIMAN 01 at different times of the year, in function of the number of degree-day (DD accumulated. The fruits had reached the harvest point varying in accordance to the different times of development throughout the year. Fruits developed in periods with high temperatures had in smaller time its point of harvest, and it was inverse in fruits developed in colder periods. However, when reaching around 800 DD after anthesis, the fruits had tended to stabilize its growth invariably. After

  6. Sequences of the coat protein gene from brazilian isolates of Papaya ringspot virus

    OpenAIRE

    LIMA, ROBERTO C. A.; SOUZA JR., MANOEL T.; PIO-RIBEIRO, GILVAN; LIMA, J. ALBERSIO A.

    2002-01-01

    Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) is the causal agent of the main papaya (Carica papaya) disease in the world. Brazil is currently the world's main papaya grower, responsible for about 40% of the worldwide production. Resistance to PRSV on transgenic plants expressing the PRSV coat protein (cp) gene was shown to be dependent on the sequence homology between the cp transgene expressed in the plant genome and the cp gene from the incoming virus, in an isolate-specific fashion. Therefore, knowledge o...

  7. Evaluation de l'efficacité des extraits aqueux de graines de papaye (Carica papaya L. dans le traitement de la coccidiose caecale à Eimeria tenella chez le poulet de chair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akoa Etoa, JM.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of the Efficiency of Aqueous Extracts of Papaw Seeds (Carica papaya L. for the Treatment of Caecum Eimeria tenella Coccidiosis in Broiler Chicken. A study was carried out to study the efficiency of aqueous extracts of papaw seeds for the treatment of caecum Eimeria tenella coccidiosis in broiler chicken. Eighty eight 37-day old caged ISA15 VEDETTE broiler chickens were inoculated with a suspension of 3500 ± 1050 E. tenella oocysts/ml. The birds then divided into 4 groups of 22 birds received 10 days later either 0 (D0 dose, 10 (D10 dose, 20 (D20 dose or 40 g/l (D40 dose of aqueous extracts of papaw seeds. Mortality rates of 45.5%, 34.8%, 18.2% and 9.1% were recorded for D0, D10, D20 and D40 groups respectively. As compared to infestation rate before treatment, the reduction rate of the number of oocysts/g of faeces was respectively 6.6%, 42.8%, 73.6% and 91.8% for D0, D10, D20 and D40. Average daily weight gain was 42.7 g, 47.8 g, 69.8 g and 86 g for treatments D0, D10, D20 and D40, respectively while average weekly feed efficiency ratio values of 3.9, 4.1, 2.4 and 1.9 were respectively recorded for D0, D10, D20 and D40 treatments. Aqueous extracts of papaw seeds seemed to be efficient in the treatment of caecum E. tenella coccidiosis in broiler chickens.

  8. Development of transgenic papayas expressing the coat protein gene from a Brazilian isolate of Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) = Desenvolvimento de mamoeiros transgênicos resistentes a vírus expressando o gene da capa protéica de um isolado brasileiro de Papaya ringspot virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Souza, M.T.; Níckel, O.; Gonsalves, D.

    2005-01-01

    Translatable and nontranslatable versions of the coat protein (cp) gene of a Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) isolate collected in the state of Bahia, Brazil, were engineered for expression in Sunrise and Sunset Solo varieties of papaya (Carica papaya). The biolistic system was used to transform

  9. Ectopic expression of Dahlia merckii defensin DmAMP1 improves papaya resistance to Phytophthora palmivora by reducing pathogen vigor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yun J; Agbayani, Ricelle; Moore, Paul H

    2007-06-01

    Phytophthora spp., some of the more important casual agents of plant diseases, are responsible for heavy economic losses worldwide. Plant defensins have been introduced as transgenes into a range of species to increase host resistance to pathogens to which they were originally susceptible. However, the effectiveness and mechanism of interaction of the defensins with Phytophthora spp. have not been clearly characterized in planta. In this study, we expressed the Dahlia merckii defensin, DmAMP1, in papaya (Carica papaya L.), a plant highly susceptible to a root, stem, and fruit rot disease caused by Phytophthora palmivora. Extracts of total leaf proteins from transformed plants inhibited growth of Phytophthora in vitro and discs cut from the leaves of transformed plants inhibited growth of Phytophthora in a bioassay. Results from our greenhouse inoculation experiments demonstrate that expressing the DmAMP1 gene in papaya plants increased resistance against P. palmivora and that this increased resistance was associated with reduced hyphae growth of P. palmivora at the infection sites. The inhibitory effects of DmAMP1 expression in papaya suggest this approach has good potential to impart transgenic resistance against Phytophthora in papaya.

  10. LEAF GAS EXCHANGE CHARACTERISTICS OF FOUR PAPAYA GENOTYPES DURING DIFFERENT STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAMPOSTRINI ELIEMAR

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research, was used four papaya (Carica papaya L. genotypes: three from the 'Solo ( Sunrise Solo TJ, Sunrise Solo 72/12 and Baixinho de Santa Amália group and one from the 'Formosa' group (Know-You 01. They were grown in plastic pots containing a sandy-clay-loam soil subjected to pH correction and fertilization, under greenhouse conditions. Throughout the experimental period plants were subjected to periodic irrigation to maintain the soil humitidy around field capacity. The experiment was conducted 73 days after sowing. In all genotypes, leaf gas exchange characteristics were determined. The net photosynthetic rate (A, mumol m-2 s-1 , stomatal conductance (g s mol m-2 s-1, leaf temperature (T I, 0C and intercellular carbon dioxide concentration (ci, muL L-1 on the 4th, 5th, 6th, 7th, 8th and 9th leaves from the plant apex were determined. No significant differences were observed for A, g s, c i, or Tl either among the leaves sampled from any of the genotypes. A was positively correlated with g s and in the other hand T I and g s were negatively correlated. The results suggest that, for 73 DAP, all the sampled papaya leaves functioned as sources of organs.

  11. Whole genome sequence analysis of unidentified genetically modified papaya for development of a specific detection method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Kosuke; Kondo, Kazunari; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Ishigaki, Takumi; Noguchi, Akio; Katsumata, Hiroshi; Takasaki, Kazuto; Futo, Satoshi; Sakata, Kozue; Fukuda, Nozomi; Mano, Junichi; Kitta, Kazumi; Tanaka, Hidenori; Akashi, Ryo; Nishimaki-Mogami, Tomoko

    2016-08-15

    Identification of transgenic sequences in an unknown genetically modified (GM) papaya (Carica papaya L.) by whole genome sequence analysis was demonstrated. Whole genome sequence data were generated for a GM-positive fresh papaya fruit commodity detected in monitoring using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The sequences obtained were mapped against an open database for papaya genome sequence. Transgenic construct- and event-specific sequences were identified as a GM papaya developed to resist infection from a Papaya ringspot virus. Based on the transgenic sequences, a specific real-time PCR detection method for GM papaya applicable to various food commodities was developed. Whole genome sequence analysis enabled identifying unknown transgenic construct- and event-specific sequences in GM papaya and development of a reliable method for detecting them in papaya food commodities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Rapid divergence and expansion of the X chromosome in papaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gschwend, Andrea R.; Yu, Qingyi; Tong, Eric J.; Zeng, Fanchang; Han, Jennifer; VanBuren, Robert; Aryal, Rishi; Charlesworth, Deborah; Moore, Paul H.; Paterson, Andrew H.; Ming, Ray

    2012-01-01

    X chromosomes have long been thought to conserve the structure and gene content of the ancestral autosome from which the sex chromosomes evolved. We compared the recently evolved papaya sex chromosomes with a homologous autosome of a close relative, the monoecious Vasconcellea monoica, to infer changes since recombination stopped between the papaya sex chromosomes. We sequenced 12 V. monoica bacterial artificial chromosomes, 11 corresponding to the papaya X-specific region, and 1 to a papaya autosomal region. The combined V. monoica X-orthologous sequences are much shorter (1.10 Mb) than the corresponding papaya region (2.56 Mb). Given that the V. monoica genome is 41% larger than that of papaya, this finding suggests considerable expansion of the papaya X; expansion is supported by a higher repetitive sequence content of the X compared with the papaya autosomal sequence. The alignable regions include 27 transcript-encoding sequences, only 6 of which are functional X/V. monoica gene pairs. Sequence divergence from the V. monoica orthologs is almost identical for papaya X and Y alleles; the Carica-Vasconcellea split therefore occurred before the papaya sex chromosomes stopped recombining, making V. monoica a suitable outgroup for inferring changes in papaya sex chromosomes. The papaya X and the hermaphrodite-specific region of the Yh chromosome and V. monoica have all gained and lost genes, including a surprising amount of changes in the X. PMID:22869742

  13. Perbandingan Pemberian Topikal Aqueous Leaf Extract of Carica Papaya (ALEC dan Madu Khaula Terhadap Percepatan Penyembuhan Luka Sayat pada Kulit Mencit (Mus musculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Januarsih Iwan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Topical application of papaya and honey has been hypothesized to accelerate skin wound healing. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the differences between topical application of the ALEC and Khaula Honey in accelerating skin wound healing in mice. The experiment took place in Histology Laboratory, School of Medicine, Padjadjaran University, Bandung, November 2006-April 2007.The prospective experimental method was held in 10 days. Subjects were male ddy mice divided into 3 groups (each consisted of 9 mices, which were control group solcoseryl jelly, 10% ALEC in vaseline and 1.0 g Khaula honey treated group. The comparisons in accelerating skin wound healing were investigated by using full thickness skin wound model produced on the back of the mice. Solcoseryl jelly was applied topically to wound of group 1, group 2 and group 3 mice were treated topically with 10% ALEC in vaseline and Khaula honey, respectively. The mice were sacrificed on 4th, 7th, and 10th day of post wounding for evaluating the histological changes. Data was obtained by microscopically analysis of the skin based on the epidermal regeneration, granulation tissues thickness and angiogenesis and then analyzed by using parametric independent T-test. The level for statistical significant was set p < 0.05. The result of this experiment showed that there were significant difference between control group and ALEC10% in vaseline in three mentioned above. Comparison between control and Khaula honey showed differences only in epidermal regeneration and angiogenesis. Wound treated with ALEC 10% in vaseline and Khaula honey group showed significantly difference in epidermal regeneration (mean 2.19 (0.81 for ALEC 10% and 2.67 (0.67 for honey group, p value < 0.001 and granulation tissues thickness (mean 2.99 (0.94 for ALEC 10% and 3.23 (0.99 for honey group, p value 0.038.These result documented the differences of ALEC and Khaula honey for the acceleration of wound healing process

  14. Domestication and Genetics of Papaya: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Chávez-Pesqueira

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A wealth of plant species used by humans for different purposes, but mainly as food, originated and domesticated in the Mesoamerican region. Papaya (Carica papaya is the third most cultivated tropical crop worldwide, and it has been hypothesized that Mesoamerica is the most likely center of its origin and domestication. In support of it, many wild populations of papaya occur throughout Mesoamerica and hence represent the gene pool of genetic variability for further evolution and future crop management. Despite its importance, a dearth of information exists regarding the status of wild populations of papaya, as compared to the extent of knowledge, and interest, on domesticated varieties. We review the evidence on the extant wild populations of papaya, as well as its origin and distribution. Also, we synthetize what is known on the domestication history of the species, including the domestication syndrome that distinguishes wild and domesticated papayas. Moreover, we make an account of the use of genetic markers to assess genetic diversity of wild and domesticated papaya, and discuss the importance of papaya as the first species with a transgenic cultivar to be released for human consumption, and one that has its complete genome sequenced. Evidence from different disciplines strongly suggest that papaya originated and was domesticated in Mesoamerica, and that wild populations in the region possess, still, high genetic diversity compared to the domesticated papaya. Finally, we outline papaya as an excellent model species for genomic studies that will help gain insight into the domestication process and improvement of papaya and other tropical crops.

  15. Partial rootzone drying (PRD) and regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) effects on stomal conductance, growth, photosynthetic capacity, and water-use efficiency of papaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaya (Carica papaya, L.) is an important economic crop in tropical and subtropical countries in addition to its human health benefits. Papaya is a giant herbaceous species and maintaining adequate tissue turgidity and water availability is necessary to maintain the rigidity of the stem as well as...

  16. Release and establishment of Encarsia diaspidicola (Hymenoptera: Aphelididae) against white peach scale in papaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    White peach scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Hemiptera:Diaspididae) is a serious economic pest of papaya, Carica papaya L. The parasitic wasp Encarsia diaspidicola (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) was brought from Samoa into a quarantine containment facility in Hawaii for evaluation and potential release...

  17. Papaya is not a host for Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The economic value of tomato production is threatened by tomato yellow leaf-curl virus TYLCV and its vector, the silverleaf whitefly Bemisia tabaci biotype B (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). Use of papaya Carica papaya L. as a banker plant for a whitefly parasitoid shows promise as a whitefly m...

  18. Obtaining of transgenic papaya plants var. Maradol roja that carry out the rice oryzacystatin gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milady F. Mendoza

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Papaya (Carica papaya L., is severely affected by Papaya Ringspot virus, which belongs to plant potyvirus group. A recent strategy for pest control produced by this virus is the transformation with genes encoding cysteine proteinase inhibitors. Rice oryzacistatin gene encoding for cystatins, was inserted in a pCAMBIA binary vector, for genetic transformation of papaya somatic embryos var. Maradol roja, mediated by gene gun. Gene integration was confirmed by means of polimerase chain reaction using the primers designed from gene bar sequence. Forty out of eighty in vitro transgenic papaya lines amplified a 402 fragment which correspond to the expecting size. Key words: Carica papaya, genetic engineering, potyvirus, proteinase inhibitor

  19. Application of reflectance spectroscopies (FTIR-ATR & FT-NIR) coupled with multivariate methods for robust in vivo detection of begomovirus infection in papaya leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haq, Quazi M I; Mabood, Fazal; Naureen, Zakira; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Gilani, Sayed A; Hussain, Javid; Jabeen, Farah; Khan, Ajmal; Al-Sabari, Ruqaya S M; Al-Khanbashi, Fatema H S; Al-Fahdi, Amira A M; Al-Zaabi, Ahoud K A; Al-Shuraiqi, Fatma A M; Al-Bahaisi, Iman M

    2018-06-05

    Nucleic acid & serology based methods have revolutionized plant disease detection, however, they are not very reliable at asymptomatic stage, especially in case of pathogen with systemic infection, in addition, they need at least 1-2days for sample harvesting, processing, and analysis. In this study, two reflectance spectroscopies i.e. Near Infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIR) and Fourier-Transform-Infrared spectroscopy with Attenuated Total Reflection (FT-IR, ATR) coupled with multivariate exploratory methods like Principle Component Analysis (PCA) and Partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) have been deployed to detect begomovirus infection in papaya leaves. The application of those techniques demonstrates that they are very useful for robust in vivo detection of plant begomovirus infection. These methods are simple, sensitive, reproducible, precise, and do not require any lengthy samples preparation procedures. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Gene Technology for Papaya Ringspot Virus Disease Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, Md. Abul Kalam; Sidik, Nik Marzuki

    2014-01-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya) is severely damaged by the papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). This review focuses on the development of PRSV resistant transgenic papaya through gene technology. The genetic diversity of PRSV depends upon geographical distribution and the influence of PRSV disease management on a sequence of PRSV isolates. The concept of pathogen-derived resistance has been employed for the development of transgenic papaya, using a coat protein-mediated, RNA-silencing mechanism and replicase gene-mediated transformation for effective PRSV disease management. The development of PRSV-resistant papaya via post-transcriptional gene silencing is a promising technology for PRSV disease management. PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya is environmentally safe and has no harmful effects on human health. Recent studies have revealed that the success of adoption of transgenic papaya depends upon the application, it being a commercially viable product, bio-safety regulatory issues, trade regulations, and the wider social acceptance of the technology. This review discusses the genome and the genetic diversity of PRSV, host range determinants, molecular diagnosis, disease management strategies, the development of transgenic papaya, environmental issues, issues in the adoption of transgenic papaya, and future directions for research. PMID:24757435

  1. Gene technology for papaya ringspot virus disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, Md Abul Kalam; Amin, Latifah; Sidik, Nik Marzuki

    2014-01-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya) is severely damaged by the papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). This review focuses on the development of PRSV resistant transgenic papaya through gene technology. The genetic diversity of PRSV depends upon geographical distribution and the influence of PRSV disease management on a sequence of PRSV isolates. The concept of pathogen-derived resistance has been employed for the development of transgenic papaya, using a coat protein-mediated, RNA-silencing mechanism and replicase gene-mediated transformation for effective PRSV disease management. The development of PRSV-resistant papaya via post-transcriptional gene silencing is a promising technology for PRSV disease management. PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya is environmentally safe and has no harmful effects on human health. Recent studies have revealed that the success of adoption of transgenic papaya depends upon the application, it being a commercially viable product, bio-safety regulatory issues, trade regulations, and the wider social acceptance of the technology. This review discusses the genome and the genetic diversity of PRSV, host range determinants, molecular diagnosis, disease management strategies, the development of transgenic papaya, environmental issues, issues in the adoption of transgenic papaya, and future directions for research.

  2. Gene Technology for Papaya Ringspot Virus Disease Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Abul Kalam Azad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Papaya (Carica papaya is severely damaged by the papaya ringspot virus (PRSV. This review focuses on the development of PRSV resistant transgenic papaya through gene technology. The genetic diversity of PRSV depends upon geographical distribution and the influence of PRSV disease management on a sequence of PRSV isolates. The concept of pathogen-derived resistance has been employed for the development of transgenic papaya, using a coat protein-mediated, RNA-silencing mechanism and replicase gene-mediated transformation for effective PRSV disease management. The development of PRSV-resistant papaya via post-transcriptional gene silencing is a promising technology for PRSV disease management. PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya is environmentally safe and has no harmful effects on human health. Recent studies have revealed that the success of adoption of transgenic papaya depends upon the application, it being a commercially viable product, bio-safety regulatory issues, trade regulations, and the wider social acceptance of the technology. This review discusses the genome and the genetic diversity of PRSV, host range determinants, molecular diagnosis, disease management strategies, the development of transgenic papaya, environmental issues, issues in the adoption of transgenic papaya, and future directions for research.

  3. Genetic diversity of papaya ring spot virus in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Food and Agriculture Organization estimates that 20-40% of crop yield is lost due to pests and diseases. Viruses are agents that cause diseases which contribute greatly to the global yield loss. Because of this, food production is negatively affected, especially in the tropics. Carica papaya, co...

  4. Studies on arbuscular mycorrhisation of papaya | Khade | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Carica papaya L. is known to exhibit a strong growth response to colonisation by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi; yet it is generally believed that mycorrhizal growth effects are primarily nutritionally mediated and are inversely related to improved soil fertility, especially available soil P, which affects the fungus symbiotic ...

  5. Development of Transgenic Papaya through Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation

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    Md. Abul Kalam Azad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Transgenic papaya plants were regenerated from hypocotyls and immature zygotic embryo after cocultivation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA-4404 carrying a binary plasmid vector system containing neomycin phosphotransferase (nptII gene as the selectable marker and β-glucuronidase (GUS as the reporter gene. The explants were co-cultivated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens on regeneration medium containing 500 mg/L carbenicillin + 200 mg/L cefotaxime for one week. The cocultivated explants were transferred into the final selection medium containing 500 mg/L carbenicillin + 200 mg/L cefotaxime + 50 mg/L kanamycin for callus induction as well as plant regeneration. The callus derived from the hypocotyls of Carica papaya cv. Shahi showed the highest positive GUS activities compared to Carica papaya cv. Ranchi. The transformed callus grew vigorously and formed embryos followed by transgenic plantlets successfully. The result of this study showed that the hypocotyls of C. papaya cv. Shahi and C. papaya cv. Ranchi are better explants for genetic transformation compared to immature embryos. The transformed C. papaya cv. Shahi also showed the maximum number of plant regeneration compared to that of C. papaya cv. Ranchi.

  6. Teores de Ca e variáveis meteorológicas: relações com a incidência da mancha fisiológica do mamão no Norte Fluminense Ca concetration and meteorological variables: relationships with skin freckles in papaya (Carica papaya L. fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliemar Campostrini

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil e no mundo, o mamoeiro (Carica papaya L. tem apresentado um distúrbio fisiológico no fruto denominado de Mancha Fisiológica do Mamão (MFM. Na literatura, pouco se conhece sobre as causas desta anomalia que afeta sensivelmente a comercialização dos frutos da espécie. Com o objetivo de se buscar informações relacionadas às causas da MFM, foi realizado um estudo, durante um ano, em um plantio comercial localizado em São Franscisco do Itabapoana (RJ, no norte fluminense. Foram feitas relações entre algumas variáveis do clima (temperatura, déficit de pressão de vapor, precipitação pluvial e radiação solar global e os teores de Ca na planta [limbo, pecíolo, pedúnculo, epicarpo não-exposto (face do fruto próxima ao tronco e epicarpo exposto (face do fruto oposta ao tronco] com a incidência da MFM. Observou-se que a maior incidência de MFM foi durante setembro/2000. Em janeiro/2001, a incidência da MFM foi praticamente nula. A amplitude térmica, nos três meses que antecederam a setembro/2000, foi a variável do clima que mais se relacionou com a incidência da MFM. Em setembro, os teores de Ca em todas as partes do fruto (pedúnculo, epicarpo exposto e não-exposto estudadas foram maiores. Na época que antecedeu o mês de setembro, as relações Ca/K e Ca/Mg foram estatisticamente maiores no epicarpo exposto e não-exposto e, nesta época, a relação Ca/P foi estatisticamente maior no pedúnculo e no epicarpo não-exposto. Os efeitos da amplitude térmica sobre a incidência da MFM são discutidos e a hipótese de que os teores baixos de Ca no fruto poderiam causar desestabilização na parede celular, o que facilitaria o extravasamento do látex e provocaria a MFM, deve ser reavaliada.In Brazil and other parts of the world, papaya fruit suffer with a physiological disruption, known as skin freckles (SF. There is very little information available concerning the causes of this disruption that seriously affects the

  7. Effect of Fitomas-E on seedling production of papaya var. Maradol Roja in Cienfuegos,Cuba

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    Fernando G. Serbelló Guzmán

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available An experiment in nursery in bag conditions was carried out at the Cienfuegos Horticultural Company, in order to evaluate the effect of different alternatives to stimulate the growth and the development of papaya seedlings (Carica papaya L. variety Maradol Red, in the period from June to September 2010. The treatments were: applying Fitomas-E, Trichoderma, EcoMic, the combination of Trichoderma + EcoMic and a control without application. We evaluated the height and diameter at four different positions, the number of leaves, green and dry mass of roots as well as for the external part of the plant at the transplantation time. The obtained data were subjected to the given statistical analyzes. Results indicate that the height and diameter of the papaya plants are increased with the application of Fitomas E and EcoMic, while a higher number of leaves is reached with the application of Fitomas E, and the combination of EcoMic with Trichoderma.

  8. Allergenicity assessment of the papaya ringspot virus coat protein expressed in transgenic rainbow papaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fermín, Gustavo; Keith, Ronald C; Suzuki, Jon Y; Ferreira, Stephen A; Gaskill, Douglas A; Pitz, Karen Y; Manshardt, Richard M; Gonsalves, Dennis; Tripathi, Savarni

    2011-09-28

    The virus-resistant, transgenic commercial papaya Rainbow and SunUp (Carica papaya L.) have been consumed locally in Hawaii and elsewhere in the mainland United States and Canada since their release to planters in Hawaii in 1998. These papaya are derived from transgenic papaya line 55-1 and carry the coat protein (CP) gene of papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). The PRSV CP was evaluated for potential allergenicity, an important component in assessing the safety of food derived from transgenic plants. The transgene PRSV CP sequence of Rainbow papaya did not exhibit greater than 35% amino acid sequence homology to known allergens, nor did it have a stretch of eight amino acids found in known allergens which are known common bioinformatic methods used for assessing similarity to allergen proteins. PRSV CP was also tested for stability in simulated gastric fluid and simulated intestinal fluid and under various heat treatments. The results showed that PRSV CP was degraded under conditions for which allergenic proteins relative to nonallergens are purported to be stable. The potential human intake of transgene-derived PRSV CP was assessed by measuring CP levels in Rainbow and SunUp along with estimating the fruit consumption rates and was compared to potential intake estimates of PRSV CP from naturally infected nontransgenic papaya. Following accepted allergenicity assessment criteria, our results show that the transgene-derived PRSV CP does not pose a risk of food allergy.

  9. Development of transgenic papayas expressing the coat protein gene from a Brazilian isolate of Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) = Desenvolvimento de mamoeiros transgênicos resistentes a vírus expressando o gene da capa protéica de um isolado brasileiro de Papaya ringspot virus

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, M.T.; Níckel, O.; Gonsalves, D.

    2005-01-01

    Translatable and nontranslatable versions of the coat protein (cp) gene of a Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) isolate collected in the state of Bahia, Brazil, were engineered for expression in Sunrise and Sunset Solo varieties of papaya (Carica papaya). The biolistic system was used to transform secondary somatic embryo cultures derived from immature zygotic embryos. Fifty-four transgenic lines, 26 translatable and 28 nontranslatable gene versions, were regenerated, with a transformation efficien...

  10. Post-transcriptional gene silencing is involved in resistance of transgenic papayas to Papaya Ringspot Virus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ruanjan, P.; Kertbundit, Sunee; Juříček, Miloslav

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 3 (2007), s. 517-520 ISSN 0006-3134 Grant - others:BIOTEC, NASDA(TH) BT-B-06-PG-14-4503 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Source of funding: V - iné verejné zdroje Keywords : Carica papaya * reverse transcription PCR * COAT PROTEIN GENE Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.259, year: 2007

  11. Plant Regeneration and Somatic Embryogenesis from Immature Embryos Derived through Interspecific Hybridization among Different Carica Species

    OpenAIRE

    Azad, Md. Abul; Rabbani, Md. Golam; Amin, Latifah

    2012-01-01

    Plant regeneration and somatic embryogenesis through interspecific hybridization among different Carica species were studied for the development of a papaya ringspot virus-resistant variety. The maximum fruit sets were recorded from the cross of the native variety C. papaya cv. Shahi with the wild species C. cauliflora. The highest hybrid embryos were recorded at 90 days after pollination and the embryos were aborted at 150 days after pollination. The immature hybrid embryos were used for pla...

  12. Enhanced and green extraction polyphenols and furanocoumarins from Fig (Ficus carica L.) leaves using deep eutectic solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tong; Jiao, Jiao; Gai, Qing-Yan; Wang, Peng; Guo, Na; Niu, Li-Li; Fu, Yu-Jie

    2017-10-25

    Nowadays, green extraction of bioactive compounds from medicinal plants has gained increasing attention. As green solvent, deep eutectic solvent (DES) have been highly rated to replace toxic organic solvents in extraction process. In present study, to simultaneous extraction five main bioactive compounds from fig leaves, DES was tailor-made. The tailor-made DES composed of a 3:3:3 molar ratio of glycerol, xylitol and D-(-)-Fructose showed enhanced extraction yields for five target compounds simultaneously compared with traditional methanol and non-tailor DESs. Then, the tailor-made DES based extraction methods have compared and microwave-assisted extraction was selected and optimized due to its high extraction yields with lower time consumption. The influencing parameters including extraction temperature, liquid-solid ratio, and extraction time were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). Under optimal conditions the extraction yield of caffeoylmalic acid, psoralic acid-glucoside, rutin, psoralen and bergapten was 6.482mg/g, 16.34mg/g, 5.207mg/g, 15.22mg/g and 2.475mg/g, respectively. Macroporous resin D101 has been used to recovery target compounds with recovery yields of 79.2%, 83.4%, 85.5%, 81.2% and 75.3% for caffeoylmalic acid, psoralic acid-glucoside, rutin, psoralen and bergapten, respectively. The present study suggests that DESs are truly designer and efficient solvents and the method we developed was efficient and sustainable for extraction main compounds from Fig leaves.mg/g. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Estimativa dos níveis ótimos e econômicos de irrigação no mamoeiro (Carica papaya L. cultivar Golden nas condições do norte do Espírito Santo Estimate of great and economic levels of irrigation in papaya tree (Carica papaya L. Golden cultivar in north of Espírito Santo conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Bastos Lyra

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, no presente trabalho, identificar os níveis ótimos de irrigação e adubação nitrogenada que propiciem a máxima produtividade física e econômica da cultivar de mamoeiro Golden. Na identificação dos níveis ótimos, utilizou-se a função de produção. O estudo experimental foi conduzido na fazenda Caliman Agrícola S.A., no município de Linhares-ES. Utilizou-se o delineamento estatístico experimental em blocos casualizados, com esquema fatorial 5x4, em parcelas subdivididas, sendo cinco lâminas de irrigação (0,5; 0,7; 0,9; 1,1 e 1,3 da evapotranspiração de referência, com turno de rega diário, e quatro doses de sulfato de amônio (90; 188; 288 e 377 kg ha-1mês-1. A estimativa da produtividade (t ha-1, em função da lâmina total de água aplicada, obteve ajuste estatístico significativo (p This paper aimed in identifying great levels of irrigation and nitrogen fertilization that provide the greatest physical and economical productivity of papaya tree Golden cultivar. In the identification of the great levels it was used production function. The experimental study was conducted at Caliman S.A. farm, in the city of Linhares, State of Espírito Santo, Brazil. The experimental design was randomized blocks in a 5x4 factorial scheme in split-plot. Five irrigation water depths (0.5; 0.7; 0.9; 1.1 e 1.3 of the evapotranspiration of reference were used with daily irrigation frequency and four rates of ammonium sulphate (90, 188, 288 e 377 kg ha-1 month-1. The productivity estimation (t ha-1 as a function of the applied total water depth obtained a significant statistical adjustment (p < 0.05 from the model of second order. The great economical productivity was 94.83 t ha-1, with the maximum depth of 1546.50 mm. Operational net incomes for domestic and international markets were R$ 313.19 e R$ 929.57 ha-1 month-1, respectively.

  14. Bandeo de cromosomas humanos con extracto crudo de frutas u hojas de papaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Virginia Solís

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Preparaciones de una semana de cromosomas humanos fueron tratadas con filtrados de una hoja de papaya (Carica papaya licuada (53 g en 100 ml de agua destilada, y tenidas con 1.5 % Giemsa (pH 6.8. Se obtuvo buen bandeo de cromosomas luego de 2 min de tratamiento. Soluciones que han sido congeladas por años son efectivas y el método es más barato y fácil que otrosOne week old human chromosome preparations were treated with filtrate from one liquefied leaf (53 g of papaya (Carica papaya in 100 ml of distilled water, and stained with 1.5 % Giemsa (pH 6.8. Good chromosome banding was obtained after 2 min of treatment. Solutions that have been frozen even for years are effective and the method is cheaper and easier than others

  15. Evaluation of some edible leaves as potential feed ingredients in aquatic animal nutrition and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunday Emmanuel Olusola

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the potential benefits of ten edible leaves (Manihot esculents, cassava leaf; Colocasia esculenta, cocoyam leaf; Talinum triagulare, water leaf; Telfairia occidentalis, fluted pumpkin leaf; Carica papaya, pawpaw leaf; Amaranthus chlorostachys, green leaf; Moringa oleifare, drumstick leaf; Vernonia amygdalina, bitter leaf; Ipomoea batatas, sweet potato leaf and Basella alba, Malabar spinach ‘Amunututu’ to aquatic animal nutrition and health were studied along with proximate, mineral and phytochemical compositions. Results show that theses edible leaves were a good source of protein and the highest crude protein was obtained in C. papaya (32.6% while the lowest in C. esculenta (14.7%. The highest and lowest total ash was found in T. triagulare (34.6% and C. papaya (11% respectively. The result showed that the edible leaves are rich in wide variety of secondary metabolites of phytochemical constituents such as tannins, alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, glycosides oxalates and phytate which can act against different diseases. Results suggest that inclusion of edible leaves may be nutritionally beneficial and this could promote growth, immune system and enhance disease resistance properties and subsequently very potential to reduce the cost of highly priced supplementary feeds.

  16. Analysis of ripening-related gene expression in papaya using an Arabidopsis-based microarray

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a commercially important crop that produces climacteric fruits with a soft and sweet pulp that contain a wide range of health promoting phytochemicals. Despite its importance, little is known about transcriptional modifications during papaya fruit ripening and their control. In this study we report the analysis of ripe papaya transcriptome by using a cross-species (XSpecies) microarray technique based on the phylogenetic proximity between papaya and Arabidopsis thaliana. Results Papaya transcriptome analyses resulted in the identification of 414 ripening-related genes with some having their expression validated by qPCR. The transcription profile was compared with that from ripening tomato and grape. There were many similarities between papaya and tomato especially with respect to the expression of genes encoding proteins involved in primary metabolism, regulation of transcription, biotic and abiotic stress and cell wall metabolism. XSpecies microarray data indicated that transcription factors (TFs) of the MADS-box, NAC and AP2/ERF gene families were involved in the control of papaya ripening and revealed that cell wall-related gene expression in papaya had similarities to the expression profiles seen in Arabidopsis during hypocotyl development. Conclusion The cross-species array experiment identified a ripening-related set of genes in papaya allowing the comparison of transcription control between papaya and other fruit bearing taxa during the ripening process. PMID:23256600

  17. Potential threat of a new pathotype of Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus infecting transgenic papaya resistant to Papaya ringspot virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bau, H-J; Kung, Y-J; Raja, J A J; Chan, S-J; Chen, K-C; Chen, Y-K; Wu, H-W; Yeh, S-D

    2008-07-01

    A virus identified as a new pathotype of Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus (PLDMV, P-TW-WF) was isolated from diseased papaya in an isolated test-field in central Taiwan, where transgenic papaya lines resistant to Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) were evaluated. The infected plants displayed severe mosaic, distortion and shoe-stringing on leaves; stunting in apex; and water-soaking on petioles and stems. This virus, which did not react in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with the antiserum to the PRSV coat protein, infected only papaya, but not the other 18 plant species tested. Virions studied under electron microscope exhibited morphology and dimensions of potyvirus particles. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction conducted using potyvirus-specific primers generated a 1,927-nucleotide product corresponding to the 3' region of a potyvirus, showing high sequence identity to the CP gene and 3' noncoding region of PLDMV. Search for similar isolates with the antiserum against CP of P-TW-WF revealed scattered occurrence of PLDMV in Taiwan. Phylogenetic analysis of PLDMV isolates of Taiwan and Japan indicated that the Taiwan isolates belong to a separate genetic cluster. Since all the Taiwan isolates infected only papaya, unlike the cucurbit-infecting Japanese P type isolates, the Taiwan isolates are considered a new pathotype of PLDMV. Susceptibility of all our PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya lines to PLDMV indicates that the virus is an emerging threat for the application of PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya in Taiwan and elsewhere.

  18. Inhibition of the host proteasome facilitates papaya ringspot virus accumulation and proteosomal catalytic activity is modulated by viral factor HcPro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandita Sahana

    Full Text Available The ubiquitin/26S proteasome system plays an essential role not only in maintaining protein turnover, but also in regulating many other plant responses, including plant-pathogen interactions. Previous studies highlighted different roles of the 20S proteasome in plant defense during virus infection, either indirectly through viral suppressor-mediated degradation of Argonaute proteins, affecting the RNA interference pathway, or directly through modulation of the proteolytic and RNase activity of the 20S proteasome, a component of the 20S proteasome, by viral proteins, affecting the levels of viral proteins and RNAs. Here we show that MG132, a cell permeable proteasomal inhibitor, caused an increase in papaya ringspot virus (PRSV accumulation in its natural host papaya (Carica papaya. We also show that the PRSV HcPro interacts with the papaya homologue of the Arabidopsis PAA (α1 subunit of the 20S proteasome, but not with the papaya homologue of Arabidopsis PAE (α5 subunit of the 20S proteasome, associated with the RNase activity, although the two 20S proteasome subunits interacted with each other. Mutated forms of PRSV HcPro showed that the conserved KITC54 motif in the N-terminal domain of HcPro was necessary for its binding to PAA. Co-agroinfiltration assays demonstrated that HcPro expression mimicked the action of MG132, and facilitated the accumulation of bothtotal ubiquitinated proteins and viral/non-viral exogenous RNA in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. These effects were not observed by using an HcPro mutant (KITS54, which impaired the HcPro - PAA interaction. Thus, the PRSV HcPro interacts with a proteasomal subunit, inhibiting the action of the 20S proteasome, suggesting that HcPro might be crucial for modulating its catalytic activities in support of virus accumulation.

  19. The high content of β-carotene present in orange-pulp fruits of Carica papaya L. is not correlated with a high expression of the CpLCY-β2 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan-León, Arianna C; Estrella-Maldonado, Humberto; Dubé, Pascal; Fuentes Ortiz, Gabriela; Espadas-Gil, Francisco; Talavera May, Carlos; Ramírez Prado, Jorge; Desjardins, Yves; Santamaría, Jorge M

    2017-10-01

    We investigated the transcriptional regulation of six genes involved in carotenoid biosynthesis, together with the carotenoid accumulation during postharvest ripening of three different papaya genotypes of contrasting pulp color. Red-pulp genotype (RPG) showed the lowest content of yellow pigments (YP), such as β-cryptoxanthin, zeaxanthin, and violaxanthin, together with the lowest relative expression levels (REL) of CpLCY-β2 and CpCHX-β genes. On the contrary, the yellow-pulp genotype (YPG) showed the highest content of YP and the highest REL of CpLCY-β2 and CpCHX-β genes. Interestingly, the orange-pulp genotype (OPG) showed intermediate content of YP and intermediate REL of CpLCY-β2 and CpCHX-β genes. The highest content of β-carotene shown by OPG despite having an intermediate REL of the CpLCY-β2 genes, suggests a post-transcriptional regulation. Thus, the transcriptional level of the genes, directing the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway, can partially explain the accumulation of carotenoids during the postharvest ripening in C. papaya genotypes of contrasting pulp color. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Optimal conditions in papaya somatic embryos transformation utilizing a low pressure gene gun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Mas

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Genetic improvement of papaya (Carica papaya L. is of great importance for its commercialization in the world. In this sense biolistic, as a genetic transformation method constitutes an alternative. Using a low pressure gene gun, papaya somatic embryos were bombarded with the plasmid pCAMBIA3301. The assays were evaluated by histochemical analysis of the gus gene expression. Optimal genetic transformation conditions were obtained with a maximum efficiency of 77.8 blue points per 100 mg of somatic embryos. Key words: β-glucuronidase, bombardment, microparticles

  1. Chromosomal location and gene paucity of the male specific region on papaya Y chromosome

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Yu, Q.; Hou, S.; Hobza, Roman; Feltus, F.A.; Wang, X.; Jin, W.; Skelton, R.L.; Blas, A.; Lemke, C.; Saw, J.H.; Moore, P.H.; Alam, M.; Jiang, J.; Paterson, A.H.; Vyskot, Boris; Ming, R.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 278, č. 2 (2007), s. 177-185 ISSN 1617-4615 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA521/06/0056 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : Carica papaya * repetitive sequences * sex chromosome Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.978, year: 2007

  2. Analysis of Papaya Cell Wall-Related Genes during Fruit Ripening Indicates a Central Role of Polygalacturonases during Pulp Softening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabi, João Paulo; Broetto, Sabrina Garcia; da Silva, Sarah Lígia Garcia Leme; Zhong, Silin; Lajolo, Franco Maria; do Nascimento, João Roberto Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a climacteric fleshy fruit that undergoes dramatic changes during ripening, most noticeably a severe pulp softening. However, little is known regarding the genetics of the cell wall metabolism in papayas. The present work describes the identification and characterization of genes related to pulp softening. We used gene expression profiling to analyze the correlations and co-expression networks of cell wall-related genes, and the results suggest that papaya pulp softening is accomplished by the interactions of multiple glycoside hydrolases. The polygalacturonase cpPG1 appeared to play a central role in the network and was further studied. The transient expression of cpPG1 in papaya results in pulp softening and leaf necrosis in the absence of ethylene action and confirms its role in papaya fruit ripening. PMID:25162506

  3. Ficus carica L.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Issam

    2013-02-27

    Feb 27, 2013 ... Key words: Carbon source, salinity, gelling agent, fig (Ficus carica L.). INTRODUCTION. Ficus carica L. is considered an ancient fruit tree that is relatively small in size. Fig trees are deciduous and are mainly grown in the Mediterranean region. The Food and. Agricultural Organization of the United Nations ...

  4. Current status of tropical fruit breeding and genetics for three tropical fruit species cultivated in Japan: pineapple, mango, and papaya

    OpenAIRE

    Ogata, Tatsushi; Yamanaka, Shinsuke; Shoda, Moriyuki; Urasaki, Naoya; Yamamoto, Toshiya

    2016-01-01

    Tropical fruit crops are predominantly produced in tropical and subtropical developing countries, but some are now grown in southern Japan. Pineapple (Ananas comosus), mango (Mangifera indica) and papaya (Carica papaya) are major tropical fruits cultivated in Japan. Modern, well-organized breeding systems have not yet been developed for most tropical fruit species. Most parts of Japan are in the temperate climate zone, but some southern areas such as the Ryukyu Islands, which stretch from Kyu...

  5. Interlaboratory validation data on real-time polymerase chain reaction detection for unauthorized genetically modified papaya line PRSV-YK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosuke Nakamura

    2016-06-01

    Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR detection method for unauthorized genetically modified (GM papaya (Carica papaya L. line PRSV-YK (PRSV-YK detection method was developed using whole genome sequence data (DDBJ Sequenced Read Archive under accession No. PRJDB3976. Interlaboratory validation datasets for PRSV-YK detection method were provided. Data indicating homogeneity of samples prepared for interlaboratory validation were included. Specificity and sensitivity test data for PRSV-YK detection method were also provided.

  6. Removal of hazardous pharmaceutical dyes by adsorption onto papaya seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Caroline Trevisan; Collazzo, Gabriela Carvalho; Mazutti, Marcio Antonio; Foletto, Edson Luiz; Dotto, Guilherme Luiz

    2014-01-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) seeds were used as adsorbent to remove toxic pharmaceutical dyes (tartrazine and amaranth) from aqueous solutions, in order to extend application range. The effects of pH, initial dye concentration, contact time and temperature were investigated. The kinetic data were evaluated by the pseudo first-order, pseudo second-order and Elovich models. The equilibrium was evaluated by the Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherm models. It was found that adsorption favored a pH of 2.5, temperature of 298 K and equilibrium was attained at 180-200 min. The adsorption kinetics followed the pseudo second-order model, and the equilibrium was well represented by the Langmuir model. The maximum adsorption capacities were 51.0 and 37.4 mg g(-1) for tartrazine and amaranth, respectively. These results revealed that papaya seeds can be used as an alternative adsorbent to remove pharmaceutical dyes from aqueous solutions.

  7. Ficus carica L.: Metabolic and biological screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Andreia P; Valentão, Patrícia; Pereira, José A; Silva, Branca M; Tavares, Fernando; Andrade, Paula B

    2009-11-01

    Ficus carica L. is one of the earliest cultivated fruit trees. In this work, metabolite profiling was performed on the leaves, pulps and peels of two Portuguese white varieties of F. carica (Pingo de Mel and Branca Tradicional). Phenolics and organic acids profiles were determined by HPLC/DAD and HPLC/UV, respectively. All samples presented a similar phenolic profile composed by 3-O- and 5-O-caffeoylquinic acids, ferulic acid, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, quercetin-3-O-rutinoside, psoralen and bergapten. 3-O-Caffeoylquinic acid and quercetin-3-O-glucoside are described for the first time in this species. Leaves' organic acids profile presented oxalic, citric, malic, quinic, shikimic and fumaric acids, while in pulps and peels quinic acid was absent. The antioxidant potential of the different plant parts was checked. All materials exhibited activity against DPPH and nitric oxide radicals in a concentration-dependent way. However, only the leaves presented capacity to scavenge superoxide radical. Leaves were always the most effective part, which seems to be related with phenolics compounds. Additionally, acetylcholinesterase inhibitory capacity was evaluated, but no effect was observed. Antimicrobial potential was also assessed against several bacterial species, although no activity was noticed. This is the first study comparing the chemical composition and biological potential of F. carica pulps, peels and leaves.

  8. Papaya nutritional analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papayas are sweet, flavorful tropical fruit, rich in vitamin C and carotenoids. Multiple interactions among preharvest environmental conditions, genetics, and physiology determine papaya nutritional composition at harvest. Selecting a cultivar with the genetic potential for high nutrient content and...

  9. Update on the development of virus-resistant papaya: virus-resistant transgenic papaya for people in rural communities of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuanrungsirikul, S; Sarindu, N; Prasartsee, V; Chaikiatiyos, S; Siriyan, R; Sriwatanakul, M; Lekananon, P; Kitprasert, C; Boonsong, P; Kosiyachinda, P; Fermin, G; Gonsalves, D

    2005-12-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is one of the most important and preferred crops in rural communities in Thailand. Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) is a serious disease of papaya throughout Thailand. Efforts to control the virus by various methods either have not been successful or have not resulted in sustainable control. In 1995, collaborative research by the Department of Agriculture of Thailand and Cornell University to develop transgenic papaya resistant to PRSV was initiated. Two local Thai cultivars were transformed by microprojectile bombardment with the use of a nontranslatable coat protein gene of PRSV from Khon Kaen. Numerous kanamycin-resistantplants were regenerated and were inoculated with the PRSV Khon Kaen isolate for selection of resistant lines. Since 1997, promising RO transgenic lines have been transferred to the research station at Thapra for subsequent screenhouse tests and selection of the most PRSV-resistant lines. In selection set 1, three R3 lines initially derived from Khaknuan papaya showed excellent resistance to PRSV (97% to 100%) and had a yield of fruit 70 times higher than nontransgenic Khaknuan papaya. In selection set 2, one R3 line initially derived from Khakdam papaya showed 100% resistance. Safety assessments of these transgenic papayas have so far found no impact on the surrounding ecology. No natural crossing between transgenic and nonmodified papaya was observed beyond a distance of 10 m from the test plots. Analysis of the nutritional composition found no differences in nutrient levels in comparison with the nonmodified counterparts. Molecular characterization by Southern blotting revealed three copies of the transgene presented; however, no coat protein product was expressed. Data on additional topics, such as the effects offeeding the transgenic papaya to rats and the stability of the gene inserts, are currently being gathered.

  10. Propolis extract in postharvest conservation Solo papaya cv. 'Golden'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Regina Passos

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The high perishability of papaya (Carica papaya L. reduces its lifespan as well as limits marketing. Coating the fruits is an alternative to aid food preservation. We aimed to evaluate the effects of coating propolis extract on the physicochemical characteristics of papaya stored at room temperature. Solo papayas cv. 'Golden' were randomly divided into five postharvest treatment groups, three forms of dip-coating (70% alcohol, hydroalcoholic extract of propolis to 2.5%, and hydroalcoholic extract of propolis to 5% and two controls (one uncoated and one with refrigerated uncoated fruits. The weight loss, firmness, soluble solids (SS, titratable acidity (TA, SS/TA, and hydrogen potential (pH were evaluated at the intervals of 4 days every 12th storage day. Sensory analysis was performed on the 4th day of storage of papayas and evaluated by untrained through the acceptance testing. Treatments “refrigerated”, “propolis 2.5%”, and “5% propolis” presented with the lowest weight loss. The firmness level for treatment propolis 5% was superior to that of control, alcohol, and 2.5% propolis treatments. The SS was greater for propolis 5% treatment, which only differed from the alcohol treatment. The TA and SS/TA did not vary with the treatments, but with the storage time. The pH of refrigerated papaya showed significant differences in relation to other treatments. The fruits subjected to refrigerated treatment presented with chilling injury. Papayas coated with propolis extract showed sensory acceptability similar to that in other treatments on the 4th day of storage. The coating of propolis extract is a promising alternative for the control of weight loss and for the maintenance of firmness in Solo papaya cv. 'Golden'.

  11. Use of RNAi technology to develop a PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Ruizong; Zhao, Hui; Huang, Jing; Kong, Hua; Zhang, Yuliang; Guo, Jingyuan; Huang, Qixing; Guo, Yunling; Wei, Qing; Zuo, Jiao; Zhu, Yun J; Peng, Ming; Guo, Anping

    2017-10-03

    Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) seriously limits papaya (Carica papaya L.) production in tropical and subtropical areas throughout the world. Coat protein (CP)- transgenic papaya lines resistant to PRSV isolates in the sequence-homology-dependent manner have been developed in the U.S.A. and Taiwan. A previous investigation revealed that genetic divergence among Hainan isolates of PRSV has allowed the virus to overcome the CP-mediated transgenic resistance. In this study, we designed a comprehensive RNAi strategy targeting the conserved domain of the PRSV CP gene to develop a broader-spectrum transgenic resistance to the Hainan PRSV isolates. We used an optimized particle-bombardment transformation system to produce RNAi-CP-transgenic papaya lines. Southern blot analysis and Droplet Digital PCR revealed that line 474 contained a single transgene insert. Challenging this line with different viruses (PRSV I, II and III subgroup) under greenhouse conditions validated the transgenic resistance of line 474 to the Hainan isolates. Northern blot analysis detected the siRNAs products in virus-free transgenic papaya tissue culture seedlings. The siRNAs also accumulated in PRSV infected transgenic papaya lines. Our results indicated that this transgenic papaya line has a useful application against PRSV in the major growing area of Hainan, China.

  12. Transgenic papaya: a useful platform for oral vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragoso, Gladis; Hernández, Marisela; Cervantes-Torres, Jacquelynne; Ramírez-Aquino, Rubén; Chapula, Héctor; Villalobos, Nelly; Segura-Velázquez, René; Figueroa, Alfredo; Flores, Iván; Jiménez, Herminio; Adalid, Laura; Rosas, Gabriela; Galvez, Luis; Pezzat, Elias; Monreal-Escalante, Elizabeth; Rosales-Mendoza, Sergio; Vazquez, Luis G; Sciutto, Edda

    2017-05-01

    Transgenic papaya callus lines expressing the components of the S3Pvac vaccine constitute a stable platform to produce an oral vaccine against cysticercosis caused by Taenia solium or T. crassiceps. The development of effective delivery systems to cope with the reduced immunogenicity of new subunit vaccines is a priority in vaccinology. Herein, experimental evidence supporting a papaya-based platform to produce needle-free, recombinant, highly immunogenic vaccines is shown. Papaya (Carica papaya) callus lines were previously engineered by particle bombardment to express the three protective peptides of the S3Pvac anti-cysticercosis vaccine (KETc7, KETc12, KETc1). Calli were propagated in vitro, and a stable integration and expression of the target genes has been maintained, as confirmed by PCR, qRT-PCR, and HPLC. These results point papaya calli as a suitable platform for long-term transgenic expression of the vaccine peptides. The previously demonstrated protective immunogenic efficacy of S3Pvac-papaya orally administered to mice is herein confirmed in a wider dose-range and formulated with different delivery vehicles, adequate for oral vaccination. This protection is accompanied by an increase in anti-S3Pvac antibody titers and a delayed hypersensitivity response against the vaccine. A significant increase in CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocyte proliferation was induced in vitro by each vaccine peptide in mice immunized with the lowest dose of S3Pvac papaya (0.56 ng of the three peptides in 0.1 µg of papaya callus total protein per mouse). In pigs, the obliged intermediate host for Taenia solium, S3Pvac papaya was also immunogenic when orally administered in a two-log dose range. Vaccinated pigs significantly increased anti-vaccine antibodies and mononuclear cell proliferation. Overall, the oral immunogenicity of this stable S3Pvac-papaya vaccine in mice and pigs, not requiring additional adjuvants, supports the interest in papaya callus as a useful platform for plant

  13. Estimativas de parâmetros genéticos e fenotípicos em mamão Estimates of genetic and phenotypic parameters in papaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulcinéia Elizabete Foltran

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Na Estação Experimental de Tietê, estimaram-se os parâmetros genéticos e fenotípicos das variáveis altura da planta, diâmetro do caule a 10 e a 50 cm acima do nível do solo, comprimento do internódio mediano, número de folhas e índice foliar, a partir de dados tomados aos três, cinco e sete meses de idade, em um ensaio de oito progênies de meios-irmãos de mamoeiro (Carica papaya L.. As análises da variância foram significativas para altura das plantas, nas três idades; para diâmetro do caule a 10 cm de altura, aos sete meses, e para comprimento do internódio mediano, aos três e aos cinco meses. As estimativas do coeficiente de determinação genotípica, ao nível de médias de progênies, foram, na maioria, altas. Esses resultados mostram a possibilidade de sucesso na seleção massal para as variáveis estudadas.Genetic and phenotypic parameters of papaya (Carica papaya L. were estimated for plant height, stem diameter at 10 and 50 cm height (above the soil surface, number of leaves, internodes length and foliar index at the ages of three, five and seven months old. The experiment was conducted using eight half-sib progenies at Tietê Experimental Station, State of São Paulo, Brazil. The results of the variance analyses showed significant effects for plant height for the three ages; for stem diameter at 10 cm height, in seven month old plants; and for median internodes length in three and five month old plants. Estimates for the genotypic determination coefficient, for the average of progenies, were high in most of the cases. These results showed the possibility of a successful mass selection of papaya, for the variables studied.

  14. STRATEGI PENGEMBANGAN INDUSTRI KECIL CARICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Permadi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui bagaimana profil industri kecil carica di Kabupaten Wonosobo serta untuk mengetahui strategi pengembangan apa yang bisa digunakan. Variabel yang diteliti adalah profil industri yang meliputi sumber daya manusia, permodalan, teknologi, dan pemasaran. Metode analisis data yang digunakan adalah metode analisis deskriptif dan analisis SWOT. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa profil industri kecil carica di Kabupaten Wonosobo pada tahun 2014 ada 15 unit usaha. Ada beberapa prioritas strategi pengembangan yaang dilakukaan yaitu strategi SO dengan meningkatkan kualitas SDM, memanfaatkan tenaga kerja dari daerah sekitar, dan mengoptimalkan lokasi industri yang strategis. Strategi WO menyiapkan stok produk carica, mengoptimalkan produk carica, dan mengoptimalkan pelatihan dari dinas terkait. Strategi ST dengan meningkatkan kualitas ciri khas produk carica,peranan pemerintah dalam hal mengantisipasi bencana longsor di Dieng, dan melakukan inovasi produk carica. Strategi WT dengan meningkatkan kemampuan manajerial pengusaha, menaikkan harga jual produk carica, dan pada musim kemarau diganti dengan produk makanan komoditas Kabupaten Wonosobo. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian, strategi yang diterapkan dalam kondisi ini adalah mendukung kebijakan yang agresif, yaitu industri kecil carica di Kabupaten Wonosobo dapat bersaing dengan produk olahan makanan jenis lainnya dari berbagai daerah dengan cara menjaga dan meningkatkan kualitas produk carica yang dihasilkan.The purpose of this study to find out the profiles of carica industries in Wonosobo regency and to determine what is the development strategy can be used. The variables in this research belongs to human resources, capital, technology, and marketing. Data analysis method used is descriptive analysis method and SWOT analysis. Based on the results of this study showed that small industrial profiles carica in Wonosobo regency in 2014 there were 15 business

  15. Strategies of leaf expansion in Ficus carica under semiarid conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Rodríguez, A M; Peters, J

    2010-05-01

    Leaf area expansion, thickness and inclination, gas exchange parameters and relative chlorophyll content were analysed in field-grown fig (Ficus carica L.) leaves over time, from emergence until after full leaf expansion (FLE). Ficus carica leaves showed a subtle change in shape during the early stages of development, and FLE was reached within ca. 30 days after emergence. Changes in leaf thickness and inclination after FLE demonstrated good adaptation to environmental conditions during summer in areas with a Mediterranean climate. Changes in gas exchange parameters and relative chlorophyll content showed that F. carica is a delayed-greening species, reaching maximum values 20 days after FLE. Correlation analysis of datasets collected during leaf expansion, confirmed dependence among structural and functional traits in F. carica. Pn was directly correlated with stomatal conductance (Gs), transpiration (E), leaf area (LA) and relative chlorophyll content up to FLE. The effect of pruning on leaf expansion, a cultural technique commonly applied in this fruit tree, was also evaluated. Although leaf development in pruned branches gave a significantly higher relative leaf area growth rate (RGR(l)) and higher LA than non-pruned branches, no significant differences were found in other morphological and physiological traits, indicating no pruning effect on leaf development. All studied morphological and physiological characteristics indicate that F. carica is well adapted to semiarid conditions. The delayed greening strategy of this species is discussed.

  16. Comparison of safety and efficacy of papaya dressing with hydrogen peroxide solution on wound bed preparation in patients with wound gape

    OpenAIRE

    Murthy, Mangala B.; Murthy, Bhasker K.; Bhave, Sanjay

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Indian papaya or Carica papaya is known to have de-sloughing and wound-healing properties due to the presence of protease enzymes. The present study was done to compare the efficacy and safety of papaya dressing with hydrogen peroxide solution for preparation of wound bed in patients of postoperative wound gape. Materials and Methods: A randomized, open-labeled interventional study was carried out over a period of 8 months at a tertiary care hospital on post-caesarean section p...

  17. Pawpaw leaves supplemented with three calcium sources and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The response of one hundred and thirty-two (132) grower African giant land snail (Archachatina marginata) with a weight range of 231.33-234.00 g and fed fresh pawpaw (Carica papaya) leaf-based diet supplemented with three mineral calcium sources was investigated in a humid tropical environment of Nigeria.

  18. The use of sodium alginate-based coating and cellulose acetate in papaya post-harvest preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Andrade Silva

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the ripening of papaya fruit (Carica papaya L. at room temperature (±25°C and10°C with 80% relative humidity, coated with edible film based on sodium alginate (1% and cellulose acetate film (3% by dipping the fruit in the suspensions for 1 min. On the application of the treatment and every three days during 12 days of storage, fruit were evaluated for weight loss, firmness, total carotenoid content, lycopene content and vitamin C content of the pulp. The cellulose acetate film extended the shelf-life of papayas, without affecting their quality. This treatment delayed fruit ripening, whose changes in all the parameters analyzed were significantly slower than fruit treated with sodium alginate-based coating. The coating with cellulose acetate at 3% was more effective in the preservation of papaya stored for 12 days under both temperatures.

  19. Addition of Selenium to Carica papaya Linn Pulp Extract Enhances ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    using Adobe ® CS3 Photoshop (Extended. Version); the data were analyzed using SPSS for. Windows version 16.0 software. Percent relative wound healing efficiency (RWHE) of the extracts was calculated to measure the rate of healing of the wound by the extracts compared with the time required for complete healing ...

  20. Production of ethanol from Carica papaya (pawpaw) agro waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    sample was pulverised with a blender, packed in plastic container and stored in the freezer for subsequent analysis. Dried baker's yeast (Sacchromyces cerevisiae) is .... Production from Corn-cob Wastes and Grass-straw. Nig. J. Biotechnol. 6: 110 - 112. Akin-Osanaiye et al. 659. Association of Official Analytical Chemists ...

  1. Antisickling agent in an extract of unripe pawpaw ( Carica papaya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ethyl acetate and butanol revealed that the antisickling agent in the extract of unripe pawpaw resides in the ethyl acetate fraction as this fraction prevented sickling of Hb SS red cells and reversed sickled Hb SS red cells in 2% sodium metabisulphite whereas the butanol and aqueous fractions had none of these properties.

  2. Effet antiparasitaire des graines de papaye ( Carica papaya ) chez l ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    papaye comme anthelminthique mais à des doses différentes (cuillerée à soupe, cuillerée à café, capsule de bière et petite boîte de tomate) et avec diverses pratiques (graines de papaye, papaye verte ou mature); 10,09% ont recours aux anthelminthiques vétérinaires et 0,92% utilisent diverses plantes médicinales ...

  3. AFLP analysis of genetic relationships among papaya and its wild relatives (Caricaceae) from Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Droogenbroeck, B.; Breyne, P.; Goetghebeur, P.; Romeijn-Peeters, E.; Kyndt, T.; Gheysen, G.

    2002-08-01

    The AFLP technique was used to assess the genetic relationships among the cultivated papaya ( Carica papaya L.) and related species native to Ecuador. Genetic distances based on AFLP data were estimated for 95 accessions belonging to three genera including C. papaya, at least eight Vasconcella species and two Jacaratia species. Cluster analysis using different methods and principal co-ordinate analysis (PCO), based on the AFLP data from 496 polymorphic bands generated with five primer combinations, was performed. The resulted grouping of accessions of each species corresponds largely with their taxonomic classifications and were found to be consistent with other studies based on RAPD, isozyme and cpDNA data. The AFLP analysis supports the recent rehabilitation of the Vasconcella group as a genus; until recently Vasconcella was considered as a section within the genus Carica. Both cluster and PCO analysis clearly separated the species of the three genera and illustrated the large genetic distance between C. papaya accessions and the Vasconcella group. The specific clustering of the highly diverse group of Vasconcella x heilbornii accessions also suggests that these genotypes may be the result of bi-directional introgression events between Vasconcella stipulata and Vasconcella cundinamarcensis.

  4. Direct LAMP Assay without Prior DNA Purification for Sex Determination of Papaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chi-Chu; Shih, Huei-Chuan; Ko, Ya-Zhu; Wang, Ren-Huang; Li, Shu-Ju; Chiang, Yu-Chung

    2016-01-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is an economically important tropical fruit tree with hermaphrodite, male and female sex types. Hermaphroditic plants are the major type used for papaya production because their fruits have more commercial advantages than those of female plants. Sex determination of the seedlings, or during the early growth stages, is very important for the papaya seedling industry. Thus far, the only method for determining the sex type of a papaya at the seedling stage has been DNA analysis. In this study, a molecular technique—based on DNA analysis—was developed for detecting male-hermaphrodite-specific markers to examine the papaya’s sex type. This method is based on the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and does not require prior DNA purification. The results show that the method is an easy, efficient, and inexpensive way to determine a papaya’s sex. This is the first report on the LAMP assay, using intact plant materials-without DNA purification-as samples for the analysis of sex determination of papaya. We found that using high-efficiency DNA polymerase was essential for successful DNA amplification, using trace intact plant material as a template DNA source. PMID:27669237

  5. Direct LAMP Assay without Prior DNA Purification for Sex Determination of Papaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Chu Tsai

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Papaya (Carica papaya L. is an economically important tropical fruit tree with hermaphrodite, male and female sex types. Hermaphroditic plants are the major type used for papaya production because their fruits have more commercial advantages than those of female plants. Sex determination of the seedlings, or during the early growth stages, is very important for the papaya seedling industry. Thus far, the only method for determining the sex type of a papaya at the seedling stage has been DNA analysis. In this study, a molecular technique—based on DNA analysis—was developed for detecting male-hermaphrodite-specific markers to examine the papaya’s sex type. This method is based on the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP and does not require prior DNA purification. The results show that the method is an easy, efficient, and inexpensive way to determine a papaya’s sex. This is the first report on the LAMP assay, using intact plant materials-without DNA purification-as samples for the analysis of sex determination of papaya. We found that using high-efficiency DNA polymerase was essential for successful DNA amplification, using trace intact plant material as a template DNA source.

  6. The effect of gamma radiation on the chemical content, texture and shelf life of papaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhamad Samudi bin Yasir

    1990-01-01

    Commercially matured papaya, Carica papaya var. Solo were gamma irradiated at doses of 0 kGy, 0.75 kGy, 1.0 KGy and 1.5 kGy. The production rate of ethylene, development of ripening colour, pectin substances and ascorbic acid content as well as the weight losses were studied during storage at room temperature. Ethylene production, development of ripening colour and softening were found to be retarded by irradiation. Irradiation also slowed down the reduction rate of alcohol insoluble substances and hydrochloric acid soluble pectin and the increment of water soluble pectin and hexamataphosphate soluble pectin. Doses of 1.0 kGy and 1.5 kGy effectively suppressed the synthesis of vitamin C although no effect on the existing ascorbic acid was detected. The weight losses of papaya were not affected by irradiation treatment

  7. Obtention of papaya var. Maradol Roja transgenic plants with delay in the fruits ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orelvis Portal

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Papaya is a crop of economic importance for tropical countries. However, post-harvesting losses of Maradol Roja cultivar, the most important in Central America, have been up to 80%, due to a lack of proper infrastructure and qualified personnel at the rural areas and mainly because of the quick ripening of the fruits. The ripening process in climacteric fruits like papaya is regulated by ethylene levels. By reducing the genetic expression of the key enzymes which participate in the biosynthesis of this phytohormone, a decrease of the expression could be obtained. With the purpose of obtaining transgenic plants with delayed fruit ripening, accox1 gene encoding for the 1-aminoiciclopropeno-1-carboxylate (ACC oxidase of the Maradol Roja variety was isolated and a binary vector for gene gun mediated transformation constructed with this gene in antisense orientation. In vitro transgenic lines, verified by PCR, were obtained. Key words: antisense technology, Carica papaya, ethylene, ripening

  8. Combined treatment of UV and gamma radiation of papaya for decay control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moy, J.H.; McElhaney, T.; Matsuzaki, C.; Piedrahita, C.

    1978-01-01

    An exploratory study was made to determine if combining u.v. and gamma radiation treatment at selective doses would decrease the fungal decay incidence in papaya (Carica papaya L. var. Solo), and thereby increase the marketable life of the fruit. Also studied was the effect of the combined treatment on the spores of Aschochyta spp., Colletotrichium spp. and Phytophthora spp., which are commonly found on papaya grown in Hawaii. This was to test the postulate that the combined treatment would prevent photoreactivation of the disrupted nuclei in microorganisms and lead to eventual death. Experimental results did not indicate a conclusive trend to effectiveness but suggested a number of problems to be resolved before the treatment can become useful in fungal decay control of fruits. (author)

  9. An umbra-like virus of papaya discovered in Ecuador: detection, occurrence and phylogenetic relatedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) extractions from papaya leaves infected with Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) revealed the presence of an unusual 4kb band, in addition to the presumed PRSV-associated 10kb band. Partial sequence of RT-PCR products from the 4kb dsRNA revealed homology to genomes of several me...

  10. Infestation of Pseudopiazurus papayanus (Marshall) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on Carica spp. and Vasconcella spp. genotypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fancelli, Marilene; Sanches, Nilton F.; Dantas, Jorge L.L.; Caldas, Ranulfo C.; Morales, Cinara F.G.

    2008-01-01

    The papaya borer weevil, Pseudopiazurus papayanus (Marshall), is generally considered a secondary pest, but it has been reported in high infestations in Northeast Brazil. This work aimed at evaluating the occurrence of P. papayanus and reporting its infestation level in papaya genotypes kept at the germplasm bank of EMBRAPA Cassava and Tropical Fruits (Cruz das Almas, Bahia, Brazil). The number of larvae, pupae and adults found in each plant of 65 Carica spp. genotypes and of three Vasconcella spp. genotypes was registered in three to five plants of each genotype, by cutting the exsudating trunks lengthwise. Papaya borer weevil was found in C. papaya and V. cauliflora but not in those of V. quercifolia. Among the evaluated genotypes, 52.4% of those belonging to the Solo group were infested, against 25.0% of the Formosa group. Larval infestation was the best criterion for sorting out genotypes concerning this insect infestation. This is also the first occurrence of the papaya borer weevil . (author)

  11. New Cultivars Derived from Crosses between Commercial Cultivar and a Wild Population of Papaya Rescued at Its Center of Origin

    OpenAIRE

    Mariela Vázquez Calderón; Manuel Jesús Zavala León; Fernando Amilcar Contreras Martín; Francisco Espadas y Gil; Abelardo Navarrete Yabur; Lorenzo Felipe Sánchez Teyer; Jorge M. Santamaría

    2014-01-01

    In order to generate new varieties, this study focused on the rescue and use of landraces and wild Carica papaya L. populations located at southern Yucatan, Mexico, to cross them with a commercial papaya cultivar (Maradol). In the cross L7 × M22, The native parent line L7 was used as the receiver parent while the commercial Maradol (M22) was used as the donor parent, seeking to generate genotypes with improved productivity and reduced plant height. Cluster analysis and principal components an...

  12. Evaluation of sample preparation methods for the analysis of papaya leaf proteins through two-dimensional gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Silas Pessini; Ventura, José Aires; Zingali, R B; Fernandes, P M B

    2009-01-01

    A variety of sample preparation protocols for plant proteomic analysis using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) have been reported. However, they usually have to be adapted and further optimised for the analysis of plant species not previously studied. This work aimed to evaluate different sample preparation protocols for analysing Carica papaya L. leaf proteins through 2-DE. Four sample preparation methods were tested: (1) phenol extraction and methanol-ammonium acetate precipitation; (2) no precipitation fractionation; and the traditional trichloroacetic acid-acetone precipitation either (3) with or (4) without protein fractionation. The samples were analysed for their compatibility with SDS-PAGE (1-DE) and 2-DE. Fifteen selected protein spots were trypsinised and analysed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS/MS), followed by a protein search using the NCBInr database to accurately identify all proteins. Methods number 3 and 4 resulted in large quantities of protein with good 1-DE separation and were chosen for 2-DE analysis. However, only the TCA method without fractionation (no. 4) proved to be useful. Spot number and resolution advances were achieved, which included having an additional solubilisation step in the conventional TCA method. Moreover, most of the theoretical and experimental protein molecular weight and pI data had similar values, suggesting good focusing and, most importantly, limited protein degradation. The described sample preparation method allows the proteomic analysis of papaya leaves by 2-DE and mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS/MS). The methods presented can be a starting point for the optimisation of sample preparation protocols for other plant species.

  13. Collaborative ring trial of the papaya endogenous reference gene and its polymerase chain reaction assays for genetically modified organism analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jiaojun; Li, Feiwu; Guo, Jinchao; Li, Xiang; Xu, Junfeng; Wu, Gang; Zhang, Dabing; Yang, Litao

    2013-11-27

    The papaya (Carica papaya L.) Chymopapain (CHY) gene has been reported as a suitable endogenous reference gene for genetically modified (GM) papaya detection in previous studies. Herein, we further validated the use of the CHY gene and its qualitative and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays through an interlaboratory collaborative ring trial. A total of 12 laboratories working on detection of genetically modified organisms participated in the ring trial and returned test results. Statistical analysis of the returned results confirmed the species specificity, low heterogeneity, and single-copy number of the CHY gene among different papaya varieties. The limit of detection of the CHY qualitative PCR assay was 0.1%, while the limit of quantification of the quantitative PCR assay was ∼25 copies of haploid papaya genome with acceptable PCR efficiency and linearity. The differences between the tested and true values of papaya content in 10 blind samples ranged from 0.84 to 6.58%. These results indicated that the CHY gene was suitable as an endogenous reference gene for the identification and quantification of GM papaya.

  14. Fermented Papaya Preparation Restores Age-Related Reductions in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cell Cytolytic Activity in Tube-Fed Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Fujita, Yuhzo; Tsuno, Haruo; Nakayama, Jiro

    2017-01-01

    Tube-fed elderly patients are generally supplied with the same type of nutrition over long periods, resulting in an increased risk for micronutrient deficiencies. Dietary polyphenols promote immunity and have anti-inflammatory, anti-carcinogenic, and anti-oxidative properties. Carica papaya Linn. is rich in several polyphenols; however, these polyphenols are poorly absorbed from the digestive tract in their original polymerized form. Therefore, we determined the molecular components of a ferm...

  15. Phenotypic characterization of papaya genotypes to determine powdery mildew resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Vivas

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In support of breeding of papaya (Carica papaya, the disease incidence and severity of powdery mildew (Ovulariopsis caricicola were evaluated in papaya genotypes. Two experiments in complete randomized blocks were carried out, one in the field and the other in a greenhouse. In field experiments, the lowest mean disease incidence was observed on the genotypes ‘Costa Rica’ and ‘Baixinho Super’, and the lowest mean disease severity on ‘Caliman M5’, ‘GTF’, ‘SH 11-08’, and ‘JS 11’. In the greenhouse experiment, the genotypes ‘Caliman M5’, ‘Golden’, ‘Kapoho Solo’, ‘Waimanalo’, ‘Mamão Bené’, ‘SH 12-07’, ‘JS 12’, and ‘GTF’ had the lowest mean incidence in at least one evaluation. On the other hand, for severity, the genotypes ‘Diva’, ‘Sunrise Solo 72/12’, ‘Kapoho Solo PA’, ‘Waimanalo’, ‘Maradol’, ‘Maradol GL’, ‘SH 15-04’, ‘FMV, ‘JS 12-4’, ‘SH 12-07’ and ‘Sekati FLM’ had the lowest means. These results indicate these genotypes for a possible use in breeding for reduction of powdery mildew intensity

  16. Immunotoxicity activity of natural furocoumarins from milky sap of Ficus carica L. against Aedes aegypti L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Iii-Min; Kim, Sun-Jin; Yeo, Min-A; Park, Se-Won; Moon, Hyung-In

    2011-09-01

    Ficus carica L., its fruits are delicious and can be eaten by human. Its leaves are commonly used to cure hemorrhoid and clear away heart ache. The milky sap of F. carica have a significant toxic effect against early fourth-stage larvae of Aedes aegypti L with an lethal concentration (LC(50)) value of 10.2 μg/ml and an LC(90) value of 42.3 μg/ml. Two natural furocoumarins, 5-methoxypsoralen and 8-methoxypsoralen were isolated from the milky sap of F. carica. The LC(50) value of 5-methoxypsoralen and 8-methoxypsoralen were 9.4 and 56.3 μg/ml, respectively. The above indicates that major compounds may play a more important role in the toxicity of the milky sap of F. carica.

  17. Emergence and dry matter of weeds in papaya crop (Carica papaya)

    OpenAIRE

    Santana, I.S.; Peixoto, M.F.S.P.; Carvalho, J.E.B.; Sampaio, L.S.V.; Ledo, C.A.S.; Peixoto, C.P.

    2005-01-01

    O objetivo deste experimento foi avaliar o "banco" de sementes de plantas daninhas através do método da emergência de plântulas, na cultura do mamoeiro, em que se empregaram diferentes sistemas de manejo. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, com três repetições e seis tratamentos: capina em área total; herbicida nas linhas + grade nas entrelinhas; subsolagem cruzada antes do plantio + capina em área total; subsolagem cruzada antes do plantio + herbicida nas linhas e feijão ...

  18. New fruit and seed disorders in Papaya (Carica papaya L.) in India

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2014-01-22

    Jan 22, 2014 ... It is cultivated in the world in an area of 3.83 lakh ha with a production of. 8.05 million tones. ... normal and bumpy fruits as rupees per hectare during study years. An economic loss was estimated by ..... Recent Advances and Future Strategies in Seed Science and. Technology, June 9-11, 1992, Nauni, ...

  19. Characterization of the exogenous insert and development of event-specific PCR detection methods for genetically modified Huanong No. 1 papaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jinchao; Yang, Litao; Liu, Xin; Guan, Xiaoyan; Jiang, Lingxi; Zhang, Dabing

    2009-08-26

    Genetically modified (GM) papaya (Carica papaya L.), Huanong No. 1, was approved for commercialization in Guangdong province, China in 2006, and the development of the Huanong No. 1 papaya detection method is necessary for implementing genetically modified organism (GMO) labeling regulations. In this study, we reported the characterization of the exogenous integration of GM Huanong No. 1 papaya by means of conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and thermal asymmetric interlaced (TAIL)-PCR strategies. The results suggested that one intact copy of the initial construction was integrated in the papaya genome and which probably resulted in one deletion (38 bp in size) of the host genomic DNA. Also, one unintended insertion of a 92 bp truncated NptII fragment was observed at the 5' end of the exogenous insert. Furthermore, we revealed its 5' and 3' flanking sequences between the insert DNA and the papaya genomic DNA, and developed the event-specific qualitative and quantitative PCR assays for GM Huanong No. 1 papaya based on the 5' integration flanking sequence. The relative limit of detection (LOD) of the qualitative PCR assay was about 0.01% in 100 ng of total papaya genomic DNA, corresponding to about 25 copies of papaya haploid genome. In the quantitative PCR, the limits of detection and quantification (LOD and LOQ) were as low as 12.5 and 25 copies of papaya haploid genome, respectively. In practical sample quantification, the quantified biases between the test and true values of three samples ranged from 0.44% to 4.41%. Collectively, we proposed that all of these results are useful for the identification and quantification of Huanong No. 1 papaya and its derivates.

  20. Current status of tropical fruit breeding and genetics for three tropical fruit species cultivated in Japan: pineapple, mango, and papaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Tatsushi; Yamanaka, Shinsuke; Shoda, Moriyuki; Urasaki, Naoya; Yamamoto, Toshiya

    2016-01-01

    Tropical fruit crops are predominantly produced in tropical and subtropical developing countries, but some are now grown in southern Japan. Pineapple (Ananas comosus), mango (Mangifera indica) and papaya (Carica papaya) are major tropical fruits cultivated in Japan. Modern, well-organized breeding systems have not yet been developed for most tropical fruit species. Most parts of Japan are in the temperate climate zone, but some southern areas such as the Ryukyu Islands, which stretch from Kyushu to Taiwan, are at the northern limits for tropical fruit production without artificial heating. In this review, we describe the current status of tropical fruit breeding, genetics, genomics, and biotechnology of three main tropical fruits (pineapple, mango, and papaya) that are cultivated and consumed in Japan. More than ten new elite cultivars of pineapple have been released with improved fruit quality and suitability for consumption as fresh fruit. New challenges and perspectives for obtaining high fruit quality are discussed in the context of breeding programs for pineapple.

  1. Potential of fermented papaya beverage in the prevention of foodborne illness incidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koh, S.P.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Foodborne illness is recognized as an emerging infectious disease. The incidence of foodborne infections is common and the majority cases are undiagnosed or unreported. Apart from some diarrhea or minor gastrointestinal problem, some foodborne pathogenic microbes may cause death, particularly to those people with weakened immune system. In this study, we have developed a new fermented papaya beverage using symbiotic culture of yeast and acetic acid bacteria under controlled biofermentation process. An in-vitro assessment of fermented papaya beverage against few foodborne pathogenic microorganism was conducted to determine its minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC>99. Three types of foodborne pathogen: Escherichia coli O157, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium ATCC 53648, Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (isolated from infectious chicken were selected. From minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC>99 assay, both fermented papaya pulp and leaves beverages have shown 100% killing rate against three selected foodborne pathogenic microbes. Inversely, non-fermented papaya pulp and leaves beverages indicated no inhibition at all. In fact, further dilution of fermented papaya pulp and leaves beverages demonstrated different degree of MBC>99 and brix value, but the pH value remained less than 3.5. These findings indicated the combination of soluble solid compounds presents in both fermented papaya beverage and product acidity play an important role in the inhibition of pathogenic microorganisms. The preliminary promising results of this work have shown that the great potential of fermented papaya beverages as a preventive measure to reduce the incidence of foodborne illness.

  2. Infestation of Pseudopiazurus papayanus (Marshall) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on Carica spp. and Vasconcella spp. genotypes; Infestacao de Pseudopiazurus papayanus (Marshall) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) em genotipos de Carica spp. e Vasconcella spp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fancelli, Marilene; Sanches, Nilton F.; Dantas, Jorge L.L.; Caldas, Ranulfo C. [EMBRAPA Mandioca e Fruticultura Tropical, Cruz das Almas, BA (Brazil)]. E-mail: fancelli@cnpmf.embrapa.br; Morales, Cinara F.G. [Fundacao Estadual de Pesquisa Agropecuaria (FEPAGRO), Ijui, RS (Brazil)

    2008-09-15

    The papaya borer weevil, Pseudopiazurus papayanus (Marshall), is generally considered a secondary pest, but it has been reported in high infestations in Northeast Brazil. This work aimed at evaluating the occurrence of P. papayanus and reporting its infestation level in papaya genotypes kept at the germplasm bank of EMBRAPA Cassava and Tropical Fruits (Cruz das Almas, Bahia, Brazil). The number of larvae, pupae and adults found in each plant of 65 Carica spp. genotypes and of three Vasconcella spp. genotypes was registered in three to five plants of each genotype, by cutting the exsudating trunks lengthwise. Papaya borer weevil was found in C. papaya and V. cauliflora but not in those of V. quercifolia. Among the evaluated genotypes, 52.4% of those belonging to the Solo group were infested, against 25.0% of the Formosa group. Larval infestation was the best criterion for sorting out genotypes concerning this insect infestation. This is also the first occurrence of the papaya borer weevil . (author)

  3. A Current Overview of the Papaya meleira virus, an Unusual Plant Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Paolla M. V.; Antunes, Tathiana F. S.; Magaña-Álvarez, Anuar; Pérez-Brito, Daisy; Tapia-Tussell, Raúl; Ventura, José A.; Fernandes, Antonio A. R.; Fernandes, Patricia M. B.

    2015-01-01

    Papaya meleira virus (PMeV) is the causal agent of papaya sticky disease, which is characterized by a spontaneous exudation of fluid and aqueous latex from the papaya fruit and leaves. The latex oxidizes after atmospheric exposure, resulting in a sticky feature on the fruit from which the name of the disease originates. PMeV is an isometric virus particle with a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) genome of approximately 12 Kb. Unusual for a plant virus, PMeV particles are localized on and linked to the polymers present in the latex. The ability of the PMeV to inhabit such a hostile environment demonstrates an intriguing interaction of the virus with the papaya. A hypersensitivity response is triggered against PMeV infection, and there is a reduction in the proteolytic activity of papaya latex during sticky disease. In papaya leaf tissues, stress responsive proteins, mostly calreticulin and proteasome-related proteins, are up regulated and proteins related to metabolism are down-regulated. Additionally, PMeV modifies the transcription of several miRNAs involved in the modulation of genes related to the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Until now, no PMeV resistant papaya genotype has been identified and roguing is the only viral control strategy available. However, a single inoculation of papaya plants with PMeV dsRNA delayed the progress of viral infection. PMID:25856636

  4. A Current Overview of the Papaya meleira virus, an Unusual Plant Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolla M. V. Abreu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Papaya meleira virus (PMeV is the causal agent of papaya sticky disease, which is characterized by a spontaneous exudation of fluid and aqueous latex from the papaya fruit and leaves. The latex oxidizes after atmospheric exposure, resulting in a sticky feature on the fruit from which the name of the disease originates. PMeV is an isometric virus particle with a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA genome of approximately 12 Kb. Unusual for a plant virus, PMeV particles are localized on and linked to the polymers present in the latex. The ability of the PMeV to inhabit such a hostile environment demonstrates an intriguing interaction of the virus with the papaya. A hypersensitivity response is triggered against PMeV infection, and there is a reduction in the proteolytic activity of papaya latex during sticky disease. In papaya leaf tissues, stress responsive proteins, mostly calreticulin and proteasome-related proteins, are up regulated and proteins related to metabolism are down-regulated. Additionally, PMeV modifies the transcription of several miRNAs involved in the modulation of genes related to the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Until now, no PMeV resistant papaya genotype has been identified and roguing is the only viral control strategy available. However, a single inoculation of papaya plants with PMeV dsRNA delayed the progress of viral infection.

  5. Ficus carica L. (Moraceae): Phytochemistry, Traditional Uses and Biological Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawa, Shukranul; Husain, Khairana; Jantan, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the botanical features of Ficus carica L. (Moraceae), its wide variety of chemical constituents, its use in traditional medicine as remedies for many health problems, and its biological activities. The plant has been used traditionally to treat various ailments such as gastric problems, inflammation, and cancer. Phytochemical studies on the leaves and fruits of the plant have shown that they are rich in phenolics, organic acids, and volatile compounds. However, there is little information on the phytochemicals present in the stem and root. Reports on the biological activities of the plant are mainly on its crude extracts which have been proven to possess many biological activities. Some of the most interesting therapeutic effects include anticancer, hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and antimicrobial activities. Thus, studies related to identification of the bioactive compounds and correlating them to their biological activities are very useful for further research to explore the potential of F. carica as a source of therapeutic agents. PMID:24159359

  6. Using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA for evaluating genetic relationships among papaya cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiles, J I; Lemme, C; Sondur, S; Morshidi, M B; Manshardt, R

    1993-02-01

    We have applied the recently developed technique of random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) to the analysis of the relationships among ten cultivars of papaya (Carica papaya L.). Eleven ten-base synthetic oligonucleotides were chosen that gave multiple PCR amplification products using papaya DNA as template. These 11 primers amplified a total of 102 distinct fragments. Cultivars were scored for presence or absence of RAPD fragments and grouped by cluster analysis using simple matching coefficients of similarity. A dendrogram of the ten cultivars was constructed. Of the ten cultivars seven were of the Hawaiian type, and all of these grouped to one branch of the tree. Divisions within the Hawaiian, branch were mostly consistent with the known genetic background of these cultivars. Three non-Hawaiian, cultivars were also analyzed. The minimum similarity detected was 0.7 suggesting that the domesticated papaya germ plasm is quite narrow. Our results show that RAPD technology is a rapid, precise and sensitive technique for genomic analysis.

  7. Effective selection of transgenic papaya plants with the PMI/Man selection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yun J; Agbayani, Ricelle; McCafferty, Heather; Albert, Henrik H; Moore, Paul H

    2005-09-01

    The selectable marker gene phospho-mannose isomerase (pmi), which encodes the enzyme phospho-mannose isomerase (PMI) to enable selection of transformed cell lines on media containing mannose (Man), was evaluated for genetic transformation of papaya (Carica papaya L.). We found that papaya embryogenic calli have little or no PMI activity and cannot utilize Man as a carbon source; however, when calli were transformed with a pmi gene, the PMI activity was greatly increased and they could utilize Man as efficiently as sucrose. Plants regenerated from selected callus lines also exhibited PMI activity but at a lower specific activity level. Our transformation efficiency with Man selection was higher than that reported using antibiotic selection or with a visual marker. For papaya, the PMI/Man selection system for producing transgenic plants is a highly efficient addition to previously published methods for selection and may facilitate the stacking of multiple transgenes of interest. Additionally, since the PMI/Man selection system does not involve antibiotic or herbicide resistance genes, its use might reduce environmental concerns about the potential flow of those genes into related plant populations.

  8. A new helvolic acid derivative from an endophytic Fusarium sp. of Ficus carica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xi-Ai; Ma, Yang-Min; Zhang, Hong-Chi; Liu, Rui

    2016-11-01

    A new helvolic acid derivative named helvolic acid methyl ester (1), together with two known helvolic acid compounds, helvolic acid (2) and hydrohelvolic acid (3), were isolated from the fermentation of endophytic fungus Fusarium sp. in Ficus carica leaves. Their structures were elucidated and identified by spectroscopic methods. Compounds 1-3 showed potent antifungal and antibacterial activities.

  9. Plant regeneration and somatic embryogenesis from immature embryos derived through interspecific hybridization among different Carica species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, Md Abul Kalam; Rabbani, Md Golam; Amin, Latifah

    2012-12-12

    Plant regeneration and somatic embryogenesis through interspecific hybridization among different Carica species were studied for the development of a papaya ringspot virus-resistant variety. The maximum fruit sets were recorded from the cross of the native variety C. papaya cv. Shahi with the wild species C. cauliflora. The highest hybrid embryos were recorded at 90 days after pollination and the embryos were aborted at 150 days after pollination. The immature hybrid embryos were used for plant regeneration and somatic embryogenesis. The 90-day-old hybrid embryos from the cross of C. papaya cv. Shahi × C. cauliflora showed the highest percentage of germination, as well as plant regeneration on growth regulators free culture medium after 7 days pre-incubation on half-strength MS medium supplemented with 0.2 mg/L BAP, 0.5 mg/L NAA and 60 g/L sucrose. The 90-day-old hybrid embryos from the cross of C. papaya cv. Shahi × C. cauliflora produced maximum callus, as well as somatic embryos when cultured on half-strength MS medium containing 5 mg/L 2,4-D, 100 mg/L glutamine, 100 mg/L casein hydrolysate and 60 g/L sucrose. The somatic embryos were transferred into half-strength MS medium containing 0.5 mg/L BAP and 0.2 mg/L NAA and 60 g/L sucrose for maturation. The highest number of regenerated plants per hybrid embryo (10.33) was recorded from the cross of C. papaya cv. Shahi × C. cauliflora. Isoenzyme and dendrogram cluster analysis using UPGMA of the regenerated F(1) plantlets confirmed the presence of the hybrid plantlets.

  10. Plant Regeneration and Somatic Embryogenesis from Immature Embryos Derived through Interspecific Hybridization among Different Carica Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latifah Amin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Plant regeneration and somatic embryogenesis through interspecific hybridization among different Carica species were studied for the development of a papaya ringspot virus-resistant variety. The maximum fruit sets were recorded from the cross of the native variety C. papaya cv. Shahi with the wild species C. cauliflora. The highest hybrid embryos were recorded at 90 days after pollination and the embryos were aborted at 150 days after pollination. The immature hybrid embryos were used for plant regeneration and somatic embryogenesis. The 90-day-old hybrid embryos from the cross of C. papaya cv. Shahi × C. cauliflora showed the highest percentage of germination, as well as plant regeneration on growth regulators free culture medium after 7 days pre-incubation on half-strength MS medium supplemented with 0.2 mg/L BAP, 0.5 mg/L NAA and 60 g/L sucrose. The 90-day-old hybrid embryos from the cross of C. papaya cv. Shahi × C. cauliflora produced maximum callus, as well as somatic embryos when cultured on half-strength MS medium containing 5 mg/L 2,4-D, 100 mg/L glutamine, 100 mg/L casein hydrolysate and 60 g/L sucrose. The somatic embryos were transferred into half-strength MS medium containing 0.5 mg/L BAP and 0.2 mg/L NAA and 60 g/L sucrose for maturation. The highest number of regenerated plants per hybrid embryo (10.33 was recorded from the cross of C. papaya cv. Shahi × C. cauliflora. Isoenzyme and dendrogram cluster analysis using UPGMA of the regenerated F1 plantlets confirmed the presence of the hybrid plantlets.

  11. Fermented Papaya Preparation Restores Age-Related Reductions in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cell Cytolytic Activity in Tube-Fed Patients.

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    Yuhzo Fujita

    Full Text Available Tube-fed elderly patients are generally supplied with the same type of nutrition over long periods, resulting in an increased risk for micronutrient deficiencies. Dietary polyphenols promote immunity and have anti-inflammatory, anti-carcinogenic, and anti-oxidative properties. Carica papaya Linn. is rich in several polyphenols; however, these polyphenols are poorly absorbed from the digestive tract in their original polymerized form. Therefore, we determined the molecular components of a fermented Carica papaya Linn. preparation, as well as its effects on immunity and the composition of gut microbiota in tube-fed patients. Different doses of the fermented C. papaya L. preparation were administered to three groups of tube-fed patients for 30 days. Its effects on fecal microbiota composition and immunity were assessed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and immune-marker analysis, respectively. The chemical composition of the fermented C. papaya L. preparation was analyzed by capillary electrophoresis- and liquid chromatography- time of flight mass spectrometry. The fermented C. papaya L. preparation restored peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC cytolytic activity; however, no other biomarkers of immunity were observed. Treatment with the preparation (9 g/day significantly reduced the abundance of Firmicutes in the fecal microbiota. In particular, treatment reduced Clostridium scindens and Eggerthella lenta in most patients receiving 9 g/day. Chemical analysis identified low-molecular-weight phenolic acids as polyphenol metabolites; however, no polymerized, large-molecular-weight molecules were detected. Our study indicates that elderly patients who are tube-fed over the long-term have decreased PBMC cytolytic activity. In addition, low-molecular-weight polyphenol metabolites fermented from polymerized polyphenols restore PBMC cytolytic activity and modulate the composition of gut microbiota in tube-fed patients.

  12. Fermented Papaya Preparation Restores Age-Related Reductions in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cell Cytolytic Activity in Tube-Fed Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Yuhzo; Tsuno, Haruo; Nakayama, Jiro

    2017-01-01

    Tube-fed elderly patients are generally supplied with the same type of nutrition over long periods, resulting in an increased risk for micronutrient deficiencies. Dietary polyphenols promote immunity and have anti-inflammatory, anti-carcinogenic, and anti-oxidative properties. Carica papaya Linn. is rich in several polyphenols; however, these polyphenols are poorly absorbed from the digestive tract in their original polymerized form. Therefore, we determined the molecular components of a fermented Carica papaya Linn. preparation, as well as its effects on immunity and the composition of gut microbiota in tube-fed patients. Different doses of the fermented C. papaya L. preparation were administered to three groups of tube-fed patients for 30 days. Its effects on fecal microbiota composition and immunity were assessed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and immune-marker analysis, respectively. The chemical composition of the fermented C. papaya L. preparation was analyzed by capillary electrophoresis- and liquid chromatography- time of flight mass spectrometry. The fermented C. papaya L. preparation restored peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) cytolytic activity; however, no other biomarkers of immunity were observed. Treatment with the preparation (9 g/day) significantly reduced the abundance of Firmicutes in the fecal microbiota. In particular, treatment reduced Clostridium scindens and Eggerthella lenta in most patients receiving 9 g/day. Chemical analysis identified low-molecular-weight phenolic acids as polyphenol metabolites; however, no polymerized, large-molecular-weight molecules were detected. Our study indicates that elderly patients who are tube-fed over the long-term have decreased PBMC cytolytic activity. In addition, low-molecular-weight polyphenol metabolites fermented from polymerized polyphenols restore PBMC cytolytic activity and modulate the composition of gut microbiota in tube-fed patients.

  13. The effects of Ficus carica on the activity of enzymes related to metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mopuri, Ramgopal; Ganjayi, Muniswamy; Meriga, Balaji; Koorbanally, Neil Anthony; Islam, Md Shahidul

    2018-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effects of the various parts of Ficus carica L. (figs) on antioxidant, antidiabetic, and antiobesogenic effects in vitro. Fruit, leaves, and stembark of the F. carica plant were sequentially extracted using organic and inorganic solvents and their total polyphenol and flavonoid contents were estimated. The effects of the extracts on antioxidative, antidiabetic (inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzymes), and antiobesogenic (antilipase) activities were measured using several experimental models. The fruit ethanolic extract contained a high quantity of polyphenols and flavonoids (104.67±5.51 μg/mL and 81.67±4.00 μg/mL) compared with all other extracts. The activity of the ethanolic extract of F. carica fruit was significantly (pcarica may have potential antidiabetic and antiobesogenic agents. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Variabilidade morfocultural e genética de fungos associados a podridão peduncular do mamão Morphocultural and genetic variability of fungi associated with stem-end rot of papaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela Pimenta Peres

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, verificar a variabilidade morfocultural e genética de fungos associados à podridão peduncular do mamão (Carica papaya L.. As avaliações morfoculturais foram feitas pelo índice de crescimento micelial e características das colônias, como coloração e tipo de micélio, quando os isolados foram crescidos em diferentes meios de cultura (BDA, MDA e Czapek. A variabilidade genética foi verificada por meio de análises de AFLP. Os isolamentos foram feitos em frutos obtidos de diferentes regiões produtoras do Brasil. Foram estudados oito isolados de cada uma das três espécies mais incidentes (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Phoma caricae-papayae e Fusarium solani. Foi verificado que os meios BDA e MDA promoveram um maior e mais rápido crescimento micelial para a maioria dos isolados testados e houve variações nas colorações das colônias desses isolados nos diferentes meios. A análise de AFLP gerou um total de 339 bandas polimórficas, indicando uma variabilidade genética entre os isolados de cada espécie fúngica, com alguns desses microrganismos formando grupos divergentes dos demais. Não foi observada uma correlação entre características morfológicas e análises de AFLP.The objective of this work was to look at the variability between isolates of the three fungal species, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Fusarium solani and Phoma caricae-papayae associated with stem-end rot in papaya fruits (Carica papaya L. which were produced in different regions of Brazil. In one trial, comparisons were made considering morphological and cultural characteristics exhibited by the fungi grown in different media: Potato dextrose agar (PDA, Papaya extract agar (PEA and Czapek. In general, mycelial growth of all fungi was higher in PDA and PEA and no correlation was seen between growth rates and other morphocultural characteristics such as color, colony type and others for all isolates compared. The analysis of

  15. in Alloxan-induced Diabetic Rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    extract of its leaves [7,8]. Despite the fact that ethanolic extract of Carica papaya leaf is used in the treatment of diabetes in Nigeria [6], there is dearth of information on its efficacy. Therefore, this study was aimed at evaluating the anti- diabetic effect of ethanolic extract of Carica papaya leaves in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

  16. Comparative study of the antioxidant and immunomodulant activities between yeast and lab fermented papaya

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    Cristiana Caliceti

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dietary supplements of Carica papaya Linn fermented with yeast using a biotechnological process have well recognized positive effects on immunological, hematological, inflammatory, and oxidative stress parameters, utilized as biomarkers of chronic and degenerative diseases. Although many natural products fermented with lactic acid bacteria (LAB have shown beneficial effects on the immune system and on antioxidant defenses, formulations of papaya fermented with LAB have not yet been studied. Aims: The aims of this study were to investigate the immunomodulatory activity linked to the type of papaya fermentation (yeast vs LAB in macrophages and to evaluate whether the type of fermentation differently modulates oxidative stress both in cell free system and in a model of embryonic brain cells. Methods: Cytotoxicity was evaluated through cell proliferation kinetic and lactate dehydrogenase release assays; immunomodulatory activity through the transcriptional activation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and Tumor Necrosis Factor α (TNFα by qRT-PCR in RAW 264.7 macrophages; antioxidant capacity was assessed, in cell free system and in pheochromocytoma cells embryonic brain cells, by measuring the intracellular ROS levels through a fluorescent dye. Results: Our data showed that all the formulations studied are safe at low concentrations (3-6 mg/ml; the LAB- fermented formulations promoted the expression of iNOS and TNFα more efficiently than yeast-fermented papaya preparation (p <0.001. In a cell free system, the LAB-fermented formulation acted as mild scavengers of ROS while, in cells, both formulations didn’t show any significant effect. Conclusions: This study corroborates previous reports showing the efficacy of yeast fermented papaya as a potent immunostimulant and highlights the beneficial contribution of lactic bacteria fermentation.

  17. Palynology of Carica and Vasconcellea (Caricaceae Palinología de Carica y Vasconcellea (Caricaceae

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    Lagos Túlio César

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Palynology of Carica and Vasconcellea (Caricaceae. The pollen of C. papaya and agreements of Vasconcellea cauliflora, V. cundinamarcensis, V. crassipetala, V. goudotiana, V. x heilbornii var. chrysopetala, V. longiflora and V. sphaerocarpa collected in the Colombian Coffee Growing Zone, using the technique of acetolisis for optic microscopy and the fixation procedure with glutaraldehide, dehydration and ionization with gold-palade, for scanning electronic microscopy was described. The pollen grains were characterized using descriptors, which include the characters of taxonomic value for pollen identification, genetically determined. The most important are the number, position and character of the aperture (NPC and exine ornamentation and stratification. The pollen is of medium size for both genera, tricolporate, zonoaperturate, prolate-spheroid to subprolate, isopolar radial symmetry, tectate, dug, foveolate, with columelas. These characters have demonstrated a great contribution to the taxonomy of Caricaceae because the cluster analysis allowed distinguish very well the two genera.

    Se describe el polen de C. papaya y accesiones de Vasconcellea cauliflora, V. cundinamarcensis, V. crassipetala, V. goudotiana, V. x heilbornii var. chrysopetala, V. longiflora y V. sphaerocarpa recolectadas en la Zona Cafetera de Colombia, empleando la técnica de acetólisis para microscopía óptica y el procedimiento de fijación con glutaraldehído, deshidratación e ionización con oro paladio, para microscopía electrónica de barrido (MEB. Se caracterizaron los granos de polen por medio de una lista de descriptores que incluyeron los caracteres de valor taxonómico para identi

  18. Fatty acids, coumarins and polyphenolic compounds of Ficus carica L. cv. Dottato: variation of bioactive compounds and biological activity of aerial parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrelli, Mariangela; Statti, Giancarlo A; Tundis, Rosa; Menichini, Francesco; Conforti, Filomena

    2014-01-01

    Leaves, bark and woody part of Ficus carica L. cultivar Dottato collected in different months were examined to assess their chemical composition, antioxidant activity and phototoxicity on C32 human melanoma cells after UVA irradiation. The phytochemical investigation revealed different composition in the coumarin, fatty acid, polyphenol and flavonoid content. The second harvest of leaves and the first harvest of the bark possessed the highest antiradical activity with IC50 values of 64.00 ± 0.59 and 67.00 ± 1.09 μg/mL, respectively. Harvest III of leaves showed the best inhibition of lipid peroxidation (IC50 = 1.48 ± 0.04 μg/mL). Leaf samples of F. carica showed also the best antiproliferative activity in comparison with bark and woody part of F. carica.

  19. Comparison of safety and efficacy of papaya dressing with hydrogen peroxide solution on wound bed preparation in patients with wound gape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Mangala B; Murthy, Bhasker K; Bhave, Sanjay

    2012-01-01

    Indian papaya or Carica papaya is known to have de-sloughing and wound-healing properties due to the presence of protease enzymes. The present study was done to compare the efficacy and safety of papaya dressing with hydrogen peroxide solution for preparation of wound bed in patients of postoperative wound gape. A randomized, open-labeled interventional study was carried out over a period of 8 months at a tertiary care hospital on post-caesarean section patients with wound gape. The efficacy parameters studied were duration of time required to induce development of healthy granulation tissue and total duration of hospitalization. Safety parameters studied were adverse effects reported by patients and development of hypersensitivity reaction. A total of 64 patients were enrolled, of which 32 patients received hydrogen peroxide dressing and 31 patients received papaya dressing (one patient withdrew after randomization). Time required to induce the development of healthy granulation tissue and total duration of hospitalization were 6.2±1.6 days vs 2.5±0.5 days and 19.2±5.8 days vs 12.92±4.6 days in papaya and hydrogen peroxide dressing groups, respectively. Both primary efficacy parameters were significantly shorter in papaya dressing group. The incidence of adverse effects like local irritation and itching were comparable in both groups and the difference was not statistically significant. Papaya dressing is more efficacious and equally safe as compared to hydrogen peroxide dressing when used for wound bed preparation in patients with postoperative wound gape.

  20. Physiological Degradation of Pectin in Papaya Cell Walls: Release of Long Chains Galacturonans Derived from Insoluble Fractions During Postharvest Fruit Ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Prado

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Papaya (Carica papaya L. is a fleshy fruit that presents a rapid pulp softening during ripening. However, the timeline on how papaya pectinases act in polysaccharide solubilization and the consequent modification of the cell wall fractions during ripening is still not clear. In this work, the gene expression correlations between, on one hand, 16 enzymes potentially acting during papaya cell wall disassembling and, on the other hand, the monosaccharide composition of cell wall fractions during papaya ripening were evaluated. In order to explain differences in the ripening of papaya samplings, the molecular mass distribution of polysaccharides from water-soluble and oxalate-soluble fractions (WSF and OSF, respectively, as well as the oligosaccharide profiling from the WSF fraction, were evaluated by high performance size exclusion chromatography coupled to a refractive index detector (HPSEC-RID and high performance anion-exchange chromatography coupled to pulse amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD analyses, respectively. Results showed that up-regulated polygalacturonase and β-galactosidase genes were positively correlated with some monosaccharide profiles. In addition, an overall increase in the retention time of high molecular weight (HMW and low molecular weight (LMW polysaccharides in WSF and OSF was shown. The apparent disappearance of one HMW peak of the OSF may result from the conversion of pectin that were crosslinked with calcium into more soluble forms through the action of PGs, which would increase the solubilization of polysaccharides by lowering their molecular weight. Thus, the results allowed us to propose a detailed process of papaya cell wall disassembling that would affect sensorial properties and post-harvesting losses of this commercially important fruit.

  1. Managing papaya ringspot virus: Impact of grass barriers on alate aphid immigration into papaya orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaya ringspot virus, transmitted by alate aphids, is the most limiting factor of papaya production in the Caribbean region. Although there are transgenic papaya varieties that provide protection from this virus, these varieties are effective only in certain regions against certain strains of the v...

  2. Protection and coexistence of conventional papaya productions with PRSV resistant transgenic papaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) is a devastating disease that has a detrimental impact on both commercial papaya production and Caricaceae germplasm conservation. Transgenic line 55-1 and derived progeny ‘SunUp’ and ‘Rainbow’ are resistant to PRSV and have saved the papaya industry in Hawaii. In small...

  3. Nutritional and sensory profiling of the African giant land snail fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Archachatina marginata) were investigated using 96 healthy-looking growing snails maintained on broiler starter mash (BSM) as control, Talinium triangulare or waterleaf, Centrosema molle or centro leaves, and Carica papaya or pawpaw leaves for 16 ...

  4. Sales de calcio mejoran vida de anaquel y aceptabilidad general de papaya (Carica papaya L. var. Maradol) fresca cortada

    OpenAIRE

    Nayely Leyva López; J. Basilio Heredia; Laura Aracely Contreras Angulo; María Dolores Muy Rangel; Juan Pedro Campos Sauceda; Irma González Lizarraga

    2011-01-01

    Las tendencias actuales de los consumidores por alimentos sanos y de conveniencia promueven un mayor consumo de frutas y hortalizas, donde destacan productos frescos cortados. Sin embargo, por su naturaleza estos productos pueden ser muy susceptibles a diferentes alteraciones que afectan su calidad. El uso de aditivos como sales de calcio representa una alternativa tecnológica para mantener, o incluso mejorar, la calidad durante su vida de anaquel. Por lo anterior el objetivo de esta investig...

  5. Metodologia de inoculação de fungos causadores da podridão peduncular em mamão Inoculation methodology's of papaya fruits with fungi causing stem-end-rot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Andrea Nery-Silva

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available A podridão peduncular, uma das principais doenças associadas à pós-colheita do mamão (Carica papaya L., tem sido pouco investigada no que se refere a aspectos ecológicos e epidemiológicos nas condições brasileiras. Para que estudos sejam conduzidos nas referidas áreas é necessário que se disponham, a priori, de metodologias adequadas que permitam a reprodução dos sintomas dessa doença em condições de laboratório. No presente trabalho, o objetivo foi estabelecer um método de inoculação de frutos de mamão com o intuito de se reproduzir os sintomas da podridão peduncular, por meio de três procedimentos: 1 corte do pedúnculo seguido por deposição de um disco de micélio do fungo; 2 deposição de suspensão de conídios na região do pedúnculo, seguido por ferimento, e 3 aplicação de suspensão de conídios na região peduncular sem ferimento. Foram utilizados os fungos: Phoma caricae-papayae, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Botryodiplodia theobromae e Fusarium solani, sendo os frutos inoculados, submetidos a temperaturas de 20 e 25ºC. Os resultados indicaram que não houve efeito das temperaturas testadas no desenvolvimento dos fungos, nos diferentes métodos de inoculação. A maior severidade da podridão peduncular (notas de 1 a 5 foi observada em frutos inoculados pelo método de injeção no pedúnculo, independente do patógeno utilizado. Os fungos C. gloeosporioides e P. caricae-papayae foram os que apresentaram as maiores médias de severidade da doença seguido por B. theobromae e F. solani.The stem-end-rot, one of the major post-harvest diseases in papaya (Carica papaya L., has not been very well investigated concerning ecological and epidemiological aspects of the Brazilian conditions. So that studies can be developed in the referred to areas, it is necessary to use the right methodologies that allow the reproduction of the symptons of this disease in laboratory conditions. This study aimed to stablish a

  6. Comportamiento de los cultivares de papaya Sunset, Sunrise y de los genotipos Baixinho de Santa Amalia y BH - 65 en la zona sur de la isla de Tenerife Behavior of papaya cultivars Sunset, Sunrise and genotypes of 'Baixinho de Santa Amalia' and BH- 65 in the south of Tenerife island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Rodríguez Pastor

    2010-12-01

    semejante, si bien tienen menor porte en el primer año de cultivo (142,9 y 138,8cm menor altura a la primera flor (40,6 y 42,2 cm y menor longitud de entrenudos (1,4 y 1,3 cm.Las características descriptivas de los frutos son muy parecidas sin existir diferencias significativas entre ellas. Los frutos tienen buen tamaño (13,74 x 7,81 cm y (12,68 x 7,98 cm y peso (392,92 y 418,8 g. y una producción excelente, cualidades de gran interés para el cultivo de la papaya bajo invernadero.The history of the papaya (Carica papaya, L. in the Canary Islands came to show the viability of this crop under greenhouse and the possibility of further expansion in short term due to the introduction, over the last years, of high-quality of commercial cultivars from Hawaii ('Sunrise' and Brazil 'Baixinho de Santa Amalia'(BSA. In this work it was studied the growth, development and productivity of the cultivars Sunset, Sunrise and the genotype BH-65, and 'Baixinho de Santa Amalia', and the morphological and organoleptic characteristics of the fruits, in order to continue with the selection of those cultivars that best adapted and agree with the market requirements, maintain a good productivity in marginal areas for banana production and serve as a basis for future breeding programs. The results show that the highest flowering percentages took place in May (6 months after being planted in hermaphrodite plants for all cultivars, corresponding to 'Sunset' and 'Sunrise' the maximum percentages (80 and 90.4%, respectively. The number of leaves emitted monthly is similar in all cultivars, between 7.5 and 7.8. The female plants of 'Sunrise'and the hermaphrodites of 'Sunset' have greater diameter, and in addition, the last cultivar is precocious in blooming and the fruits are bigger in size and weight. Note also that at the consumption point of the fruit, the cultivar Sunrise showed the highest total soluble solids content (10.33 ° Brix. Moreover, hermaphrodite fruits of 'Sunrise' are the first to

  7. Stability and efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells based on papaya-leaf dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suyitno, Suyitno; Saputra, Trisma Jaya; Supriyanto, Agus; Arifin, Zainal

    2015-09-01

    The present article reports on the enhancement of the performance and stability of natural dye-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Natural dyes extracted from papaya leaves (PL) were investigated as sensitizers in TiO2-based DSSCs and evaluated in comparison with N719 dye. The acidity of the papaya-leaf extract dyes was tuned by adding benzoic acid. The TiO2 film-coated fluorine-doped tin oxide glass substrates were prepared using the doctor-blade method, followed by sintering at 450 °C. The counter electrode was coated by chemically deposited catalytic platinum. The working electrodes were immersed in N719 dye and papaya dye solutions with concentrations of 8 g/100 mL. The absorbance spectra of the dyes were obtained by ultra-violet-visible spectroscopy. The energy levels of the dyes were measured by the method of cyclic voltammetry. In addition, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to determine the characteristic functionalities of the dye molecules. The DSSC based on the N719 dye displayed a highest efficiency of 0.87% whereas those based on papaya-leaf dye achieved 0.28% at pH 3.5. The observed improved efficiency of the latter was attributed to the increased current density value. Furthermore, the DSSCs based on papaya-leaf dye with pH 3.5-4 exhibited better stability than those based on N719 dye. However, further studies are required to improve the current density and stability of natural dye-based DSSCs, including the investigation of alternative dye extraction routes, such as isolating the pure chlorophyll from papaya leaves and stabilizing it.

  8. Stability and efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells based on papaya-leaf dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suyitno, Suyitno; Saputra, Trisma Jaya; Supriyanto, Agus; Arifin, Zainal

    2015-09-05

    The present article reports on the enhancement of the performance and stability of natural dye-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Natural dyes extracted from papaya leaves (PL) were investigated as sensitizers in TiO2-based DSSCs and evaluated in comparison with N719 dye. The acidity of the papaya-leaf extract dyes was tuned by adding benzoic acid. The TiO2 film-coated fluorine-doped tin oxide glass substrates were prepared using the doctor-blade method, followed by sintering at 450 °C. The counter electrode was coated by chemically deposited catalytic platinum. The working electrodes were immersed in N719 dye and papaya dye solutions with concentrations of 8 g/100 mL. The absorbance spectra of the dyes were obtained by ultra-violet-visible spectroscopy. The energy levels of the dyes were measured by the method of cyclic voltammetry. In addition, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to determine the characteristic functionalities of the dye molecules. The DSSC based on the N719 dye displayed a highest efficiency of 0.87% whereas those based on papaya-leaf dye achieved 0.28% at pH 3.5. The observed improved efficiency of the latter was attributed to the increased current density value. Furthermore, the DSSCs based on papaya-leaf dye with pH 3.5-4 exhibited better stability than those based on N719 dye. However, further studies are required to improve the current density and stability of natural dye-based DSSCs, including the investigation of alternative dye extraction routes, such as isolating the pure chlorophyll from papaya leaves and stabilizing it. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Use of stem sliced from in vitro plants of papaya (hybrid IBP 42-99 by obtained callus with embryogenic structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Gallardo Colina

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Inside in vitro propagation via, the somatic embriogenesis offers possibilities of obtaining top volumes of production in a minor period of time and a lower cost, which are a method potentially more efficient than the regeneration via organogenesis. In papaya the somatic embryogenesis could have developed from zigotic embryos and axis hipocotilos, nevertheless in case of the hybrids these methods cannot be used and it becomes necessary to develop it from a somatic fabric, without link with the sexual reproduction. This work chased as main objective Evaluated the use of in vitro plants stem sections of the Carica papaya IBP 42-99 hybrid for the formation of callus with embryogenic structures. As plant material were use in vitro plants of the papaya hybrid IBP 42-99. For it there took sections of different parts of the stem from the meristem up to the base of the in vitro plants, was use the culture medium Nitsh and Nitsh supplemented with 1.5 mg.l-1 of 6-BAP and 1.5 mg.l-1 of AIA. It was achieved to obtain callus from the stem sections with the culture medium used, nevertheless, in the treatments where used cylinders inside 1.0 cm from the apex down, the best results were achieved. The use of in vitro plants stem sections as explant for the formation of callus in this vegetable species it opens new possibilities for his in vitro propagation, specially in case of resultant hybrids of genetic improvement programs. Key words: apexes, Carica papaya, callogenesis, somatic embryogenesis

  10. Properties of soluble dietary fiber-polysaccharide from papaya peel obtained through alkaline or ultrasound-assisted alkaline extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weimin; Zeng, Guanglin; Pan, Yonggui; Chen, Wenxue; Huang, Wuyang; Chen, Haiming; Li, Yuansong

    2017-09-15

    Soluble dietary fiber (SDF) from the peel of papaya (Carica papaya Linn.) was recovered through alkaline extraction (alkaline-extracted SDF, a-SDF) and ultrasound-assisted alkaline extraction (ultrasound-treated SDF, u-SDF) processes, and the composition, structure and properties of the extracts were compared. The optimal parameters for obtaining the maximum extraction yield of u-SDF were evaluated through response surface methodology. Under optimal conditions, the maximum yield of u-SDF was 36.99%, and u-SDF had a lower total amino acid content but a higher essential amino acid (16.18%) than a-SDF. A monosaccharide analysis indicated that the primary sugars in a-SDF and u-SDF were neutral sugars and pectic saccharides, respectively. An X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed that u-SDF was less crystalline than a-SDF. Moreover, a thermal analysis indicated that u-SDF exhibited higher thermal stability. In addition, u-SDF exhibited higher water-holding, oil-holding and swelling capacities than a-SDF. These results indicate that papaya peel is a potential inexpensive source of natural dietary fiber and a potential functional food ingredient. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Morphological diversity of Kenyan papaya germplasm | Asudi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characterization of papaya germplasm is normally accomplished by use of morphological descriptors, hence as a first step, a germplasm collection from within Kenya was gathered and its morphological diversity was assessed. The papaya germplasm was collected from Coast, Nyanza, Western, Rift Valley, Eastern and ...

  12. The in vitro secretome of Mycosphaerella fijiensis induces cell death in banana leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuc-Uc, José; Brito-Argáez, Ligia; Canto-Canché, Blondy; Tzec-Simá, Miguel; Rodríguez-García, Cecilia; Peraza-Echeverría, Leticia; Peraza-Echeverría, Santy; James-Kay, Andrew; Cruz-Cruz, Carlos Alberto; Peña-Rodríguez, Luis Manuel; Islas-Flores, Ignacio

    2011-06-01

    The hemibiotrophic filamentous fungus Mycosphaerella fijiensis causes the banana foliar disease known as black Sigatoka, responsible for major worldwide losses in the banana fruit industry. In this work the in vitro secretome of M. fijiensis was characterized. Native and denaturant polyacrylamide gel protease assays showed the M. fijiensis secretome contains protease activity capable of degrading gelatin. Necrotic lesions on leaves were produced by application of the in vitro secretome to the surface of one black Sigatoka-resistant banana wild species, one susceptible cultivar and the non-host plant Carica papaya. To distinguish if necrosis by the secretome is produced by phytotoxins or proteins, the latter ones were precipitated with ammonium sulfate and applied in native or denatured forms onto leaves of the same three plant species. Proteins applied in both preparations were able to produce necrotic lesions. Application of Pronase, a commercial bacterial protease suggested that the necrosis was, at least in part, caused by protease activity from the M. fijiensis secretome. The ability to cause necrotic lesions between M. fijiensis secreted- and ammonium sulfate-precipitated proteins, and purified lipophilic or hydrophilic phytotoxins, was compared. The results suggested that leaf necrosis arises from the combined action of non-host specific hydrolytic activities from the secreted proteins and the action of phytotoxins. This is the first characterization of the M. fijiensis protein secretome produced in vitro but, more importantly, it is also the first time the M. fijiensis secretome has been shown to contain virulence factors capable of causing necrosis to its natural host. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Oxidative Stress in Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease: Effect of Extracts of Fermented Papaya Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Barbagallo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain tissue is particularly susceptible to oxidative stress (OS. Increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS, reduced antioxidant systems, and decreased efficiency in repairing mechanisms have been linked to Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Postmortem studies in AD patients’ brains have shown oxidative damage markers (i.e., lipid peroxidation, protein oxidative damage, and glycoxidation. Fermented papaya (FPP, a product of Carica papaya Linn fermentation with yeast is a nutraceutical supplement with favorable effects on immunological, hematological, inflammatory, and OS parameters in chronic/degenerative diseases. We studied 40 patients (age 78.2 ± 1.1 years, 28 AD patients, and 12 controls. Urinary 8-OHdG was measured to assess OS. Twenty AD patients were supplemented with FPP (Immunage, 4.5 grams/day for 6 months, while controls did not receive any treatment. At baseline, 8-OHdG was significantly higher in patients with AD versus controls (13.7 ± 1.61 ng/mL versus 1.6 ± 0.12 ng/mL, P<0.01. In AD patients FPP significantly decreased 8-OHdG (14.1 ± 1.7 ng/mL to 8.45 ± 1.1 ng/mL, P<0.01, with no significant changes in controls. AD is associated with increased OS, and FPP may be helpful to counteract excessive ROS in AD patients.

  14. Cancer chemopreventive effects of the flavonoid-rich fraction isolated from papaya seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Neelam; Khan, Saba; Bhargava, Arpit; Raghuram, Gorantla V; Jain, Deepika; Panwar, Hariom; Samarth, Ravindra M; Jain, Subodh K; Maudar, Kewal K; Mishra, Dinesh K; Mishra, Pradyumna K

    2014-01-01

    Intervention to decelerate, arrest, or reverse the process of carcinogenesis by the use of either natural or synthetic agents individually or in combination has emerged as a promising and pragmatic medical approach to reduce cancer risk. In the present study, we examined the cancer chemopreventive potential of a flavonoid-rich fraction isolated from the seeds of Carica papaya, a plant traditionally referred to as papaw. The flavonoid-enriched benzene fraction of the aqueous extract exerted its anticancer properties in vitro through cytoprotection, antioxidative and antiinflammatory mechanisms and genoprotection in response to isocyanate-induced carcinogenicity. Medium-term anticarcinogenicity and 2-stage skin papillomagenesis studies conducted in benzopyrene-induced lung carcinogenesis and 7,12-dimethyl benz(a)anthracene-mediated skin papillomagenesis mouse models further validated our in vitro observations. This is the first demonstration of chemopreventive activities of papaya seed products, however, further studies to understand the subtle targets of intracellular signaling pathways, pharmacological profile and toxicological safety of this bioactive fraction are essential to pave the way for successful clinical translation. Our study supports the inverse association between dietary flavonoid intake and cancer risk.

  15. Germination and biochemical changes in ‘Formosa’ papaya seeds treated with plant hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Fonsêca Zanotti

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effects of growth regulators on germination rates and biochemical compound concentrations in Carica papaya L. seeds (‘Formosa’ group. The seeds were harvested from fruits at maturation stages 3 and 5 (50 and 75% yellow fruit skin, respectively. The effects of 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid (CEPA, KNO3 and gibberellic acid (GA3on seed germination, germination index speed, soluble sugars, starch, lipids, soluble proteins and total proteins of the papaya seeds were evaluated. The seeds from stage 5 showed a higher rate of germination 30 days after sowing than did the seeds from stage 3. Treatment with CEPA decreased seed germination, apparently due to decreased starch mobilization; the opposite response was observed following KNO3 treatment. GA3, alone or in combination with KNO3, stimulated an increase in lipid mobilization. In general, with the exception of CEPA, all growth regulators tested were effective in overcoming seed dormancy, and KNO3 was the most effective. The seeds from stage 3 fruits treated with KNO3 or KNO3 + GA3 had higher rates of germination at 14 days.

  16. Model-assisted phenotyping by digital images in papaya breeding program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Fernando Marmolejo Cortes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Manual phenotyping for papaya Carica papaya (L breeding purposes limits the evaluation of a great number of plants and hampers selection of superior genotypes. This study aimed to validate two methodologies for the phenotyping of morpho-agronomic plant traits using image analysis and fruit traits through image processing. In plants of the ‘THB’ variety and ‘UENF/Caliman-01’ hybrid two images (A and B were analyzed to estimate commercial and irregularly shaped fruits. Image A was also used in the estimation of plant height, stem diameter and the first fruit insertion height. In ‘THB’ fruits, largest and smallest diameters, length, and volume were estimated by using a caliper and image processing (IP. Volume was obtained by water column displacement (WCD and by the expression of ellipsoid approximation (EA. Correlations above 0.85 between manual and image measurements were obtained for all traits. The averages of the morpho-agronomic traits, estimated by using images, were similar when compared to the averages measured manually. In addition, the errors of the proposed methodologies were low compared to manual phenotyping. Bland-Altman's approach indicated agreement between the volume estimated by WCD and EA using caliper and IP. The strong association obtained between volume and fruit weight suggests the use of regression to estimate this trait. Thus, the expectation is that image-based phenotyping can be used to expand the experiments, thereby maintaining accuracy and providing greater genetic gains in the selection of superior genotypes.

  17. Beverages of lemon juice and exotic noni and papaya with potential for anticholinergic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gironés-Vilaplana, Amadeo; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B; Ferreres, Federico; Moreno, Diego A; García-Viguera, Cristina

    2015-03-01

    Lemon (Citrus limon (L.) Burm. f.) juice beverages enriched either with noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) (LN) or papaya (Carica papaya L.) (LP), were characterized by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS(n), the antioxidant capacity was evaluated by (DPPH·), superoxide (O2(·-)), hydroxyl radicals (·OH) and hypochlorous acid (HOCl) assays, and their potential as acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) inhibitors was also assessed. The fruits are rich in a wide range of bioactive phenolics. Regarding DPPH·, ·OH and HOCl assays, the LP displayed strong activity, and LN was the most active against O2(·-). Concerning cholinesterases, LP was the most active, mainly due to lemon juice contribution. The effect on the cholinesterases was not as strong as in previous reports on purified extracts, but the bioactive-rich beverages offer the possibility of dietary coadjutants for daily consumption of health-promoting substances by adults with aging-related cognitive or physical disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Pathogenicity of three entomopathogenic fungi, Metarhizium anisopliae, Beauveria bassiana, and Paecilomyces lilacinus, to Tetranychus kanzawai infesting papaya seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yayan Sanjaya

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Tetranychus kanzawai is an economically important polyphagous mite species in East and South Asia. In the Philippines, it commonly infests cassava and papaya plants. The mites attack and severely damage the older leaves of papaya trees as well as seedlings. Its serious damage causes the leaves to dry up, thus, reducing the photosynthetic activity of the plant. Three entomopathogenic fungal isolates were tested on mites under greenhouse conditions using treated papaya seedlings following a completely randomized design. The mites tested were examined under a dissecting scope to determine the causal agent and to confirm mortality. The LT50 of Metarhizium anisopliae, Beauveria bassiana and Paecilomyces lilacinus on T. kanzawai were estimated. Our results indicate that among these entomopathogenic fungi, the Metarhizium anisopliae Ma6 isolate (LT50= 3.00 days has potentiality for the control of T. kanzawai.

  19. Identification of a putative triacylglycerol lipase from papaya latex by functional proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhouib, R; Laroche-Traineau, J; Shaha, R; Lapaillerie, D; Solier, E; Rualès, J; Pina, M; Villeneuve, P; Carrière, F; Bonneu, M; Arondel, V

    2011-01-01

    Latex from Caricaceae has been known since 1925 to contain strong lipase activity. However, attempts to purify and identify the enzyme were not successful, mainly because of the lack of solubility of the enzyme. Here, we describe the characterization of lipase activity of the latex of Vasconcellea heilbornii and the identification of a putative homologous lipase from Carica papaya. Triacylglycerol lipase activity was enriched 74-fold from crude latex of Vasconcellea heilbornii to a specific activity (SA) of 57 μmol·min(-1)·mg(-1) on long-chain triacylglycerol (olive oil). The extract was also active on trioctanoin (SA = 655 μmol·min(-1)·mg(-1) ), tributyrin (SA = 1107 μmol·min(-1)·mg(-1) ) and phosphatidylcholine (SA = 923 μmol·min(-1)·mg(-1) ). The optimum pH ranged from 8.0 to 9.0. The protein content of the insoluble fraction of latex was analyzed by electrophoresis followed by mass spectrometry, and 28 different proteins were identified. The protein fraction was incubated with the lipase inhibitor [(14) C]tetrahydrolipstatin, and a 45 kDa protein radiolabeled by the inhibitor was identified as being a putative lipase. A C. papaya cDNA encoding a 55 kDa protein was further cloned, and its deduced sequence had 83.7% similarity with peptides from the 45 kDa protein, with a coverage of 25.6%. The protein encoded by this cDNA had 35% sequence identity and 51% similarity to castor bean acid lipase, suggesting that it is the lipase responsible for the important lipolytic activities detected in papaya latex. © 2010 The Authors Journal compilation © 2010 FEBS.

  20. New approach for papaya latex storage without virus degradation Nova metodologia de armazenamento do latex de mamão sem degradação viral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silas P. Rodrigues

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Papaya meleira virus (PMeV is the causal agent of papaya (Carica papaya L. sticky disease, which has been detected through analysis of its double-stranded RNA (dsRNA genome from plant latex. In this work we demonstrate that PMeV dsRNA is protected during 25 days when latex is diluted in citrate buffer pH 5.0 (1:1 v/v and maintained at -20°C. At the same temperature, some protection was observed for pure latex or latex diluted in ultra-pure water. Conversely, the dsRNA was almost completely degraded after 25 days when maintained at 25°C, indicating the need for freezing. The proper procedures to collect and store papaya latex described here will contribute to efficient and large scale use of molecular diagnosis of PMeV.Papaya meleira virus (PMeV é o agente etiológico da meleira do mamoeiro (Carica papaya L., cujo diagnóstico é feito através da detecção do RNA dupla-fita (dsRNA viral a partir do látex das plantas. Neste trabalho é demonstrado que o dsRNA do PMeV é protegido durante 25 dias quando diluído em tampão citrato pH 5.0 (1:1 v/v seguido de armazenamento à -20°C. Nesta mesma temperatura, o dsRNA foi parcialmente protegido quando o látex foi diluído em água ultra-pura ou mantido puro. Ao contrário, quando as amostras foram mantidas à 25°C, observou-se uma degradação progressiva do dsRNA, com ausência de bandas após 25 dias, indicando a necessidade do congelamento do látex. Os procedimentos de coleta e armazenamento do látex descritos neste trabalho contribuem para a eficiência e uso em larga escala do diagnóstico molecular do PMeV.

  1. Karakterisasi Carica pubescens di Dataran Tinggi Dieng, Jawa Tengah berdasarkan sifat morfologi, kapasitas antioksidan, dan pola pita protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AINUN NIKMATI LAILY

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Laily AN, Suranto, Sugiyarto. 2012. Karakterisasi Carica pubescens di Dataran Tinggi Dieng, Jawa Tengah berdasarkan sifat morfologi, kapasitas antioksidan, dan pola pita protein. Bioteknologi 9: 7-13. Carica pubescens Lenne & K. Koch merupakan jenis tanaman buah yang pertamakali dibudidayakan di Amerika Selatan dan beradaptasi pada lingkungan dataran tinggi, misalnya Dataran Tinggi Dieng, Jawa Tengah (∼2000 m dpl. C. pubescens memiliki daerah persebaran sempit dan variasi intraspesies terbatas atau belum diketahui. Oleh karenanya, diperlukan informasi mengenai karakter tanaman pada berbagai ketinggian sehingga dimungkinkan untuk memperluas daerah penyebaran melalui transplantasi di daerah lain. Karakterisasi dapat dilakukan berdasarkan karakter morfologi, kandungan kimia, dan pola pita protein. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendeskripsikan karakter morfologi, kandungan kimia (kapasitas antioksidan, dan pola pita protein dengan pewarnaan commasie brillian blue pada C. pubescens di Dataran Tinggi Dieng. Penelitian lapangan dilakukan di Desa Kejajar (1400 m dpl, Patak Banteng (1900 m dpl, dan Sembungan (2400 m dpl. Pengamatan karakter morfologi dilakukan di lapangan dan dilanjutkan di laboratorium. Karakter morfologi, kandungan kimia (kapasitas antioksidan, dan pola pita protein C. pubescens dianalisis secara deskriptif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa karakter morfologi C. pubescens di Dataran Tinggi Dieng bervariasi pada batang, daun, dan buah. Kapasitas antioksidannya bervariasi dengan urutan dari ketinggian 2400 m dpl > 1900 m dpl > 1400 m dpl. Pola pita proteinnya tidak bervariasi antar ketinggian, namun berbeda dengan C. papaya. Keseragaman pola pita protein menunjukkan kestabilan genetik C. pubescens tidak dipengaruhi oleh perubahan lingkungan.

  2. Genotoxic and Cytotoxic Safety Evaluation of Papain (Carica papaya L. Using In Vitro Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia R. da Silva

    2010-01-01

    This work evaluated the toxic and mutagenic potential of papain and its potential antioxidant activity against induced-H2O2 oxidative stress in Escherichia coli strains. Cytotoxicity assay, Growth inhibition test, WP2-Mutoxitest and Plasmid-DNA treatment, and agarose gel electrophoresis were used to investigate if papain would present any toxic or mutagenic potential as well as if papain would display antioxidant properties. Papain exhibited negative results for all tests. This agent presented an activity protecting cells against H2O2-induced mutagenesis.

  3. Genotoxic and Cytotoxic Safety Evaluation of Papain (Carica papaya L.) Using In Vitro Assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Claudia R; Oliveira, Marcia B N; Motta, Ellen S; de Almeida, Gabriella S; Varanda, Leandro L; de Pádula, Marcelo; Leitão, Alvaro C; Caldeira-de-Araújo, Adriano

    2010-01-01

    Papain, a phytotherapeutic agent, has been used in the treatment of eschars and as a debriding chemical agent to remove damaged or necrotic tissue of pressure ulcers and gangrene. Its benefits in these treatments are deemed effective, since more than 5000 patients, at the public university hospital at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, have undergone papain treatment and presented satisfactory results. Despite its extensive use, there is little information about toxic and mutagenic properties of papain. This work evaluated the toxic and mutagenic potential of papain and its potential antioxidant activity against induced-H(2)O(2) oxidative stress in Escherichia coli strains. Cytotoxicity assay, Growth inhibition test, WP2-Mutoxitest and Plasmid-DNA treatment, and agarose gel electrophoresis were used to investigate if papain would present any toxic or mutagenic potential as well as if papain would display antioxidant properties. Papain exhibited negative results for all tests. This agent presented an activity protecting cells against H(2)O(2)-induced mutagenesis.

  4. Genotoxic and Cytotoxic Safety Evaluation of Papain (Carica papaya L.) Using In Vitro Assays

    OpenAIRE

    da Silva, Claudia R.; Oliveira, Marcia B. N.; Motta, Ellen S.; de Almeida, Gabriella S.; Varanda, Leandro L.; de P?dula, Marcelo; Leit?o, Alvaro C.; Caldeira-de-Ara?jo, Adriano

    2010-01-01

    Papain, a phytotherapeutic agent, has been used in the treatment of eschars and as a debriding chemical agent to remove damaged or necrotic tissue of pressure ulcers and gangrene. Its benefits in these treatments are deemed effective, since more than 5000 patients, at the public university hospital at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, have undergone papain treatment and presented satisfactory results. Despite its extensive use, there is little information about toxic and mutagenic properties of papain....

  5. the effect of carica papaya seed extracts on urea, creatinine and uric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-10-31

    Oct 31, 2015 ... the use of herbal products (O'Hara et al., 1998). Available data indicate ... 3000) and packaged in small plastic envelopes and then stored pending usage. The feeds (grower .... doses, irrespective of its state –ripe or unripe, or in combination, can induce the reduction of uric acid levels. Being conscious of ...

  6. Effect of Carica papaya (paw-paw) seeds ethanolic extract on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The thyrotrophs (TSH cells) of anterior pituitary showed progressive hypertrophy and degranulation at high dose levels of 200 mg/kg for one and eight weeks respectively. Acidophils somatotrophs (STH cells) and Lactotrophs or prolactin cells (LTH/PRL cells) showed no significant changes in both the experimental groups ...

  7. The protective effects of aqueous extract of Carica papaya seeds in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    toxicity was evaluated by determining the levels of cre- atinine, urea and uric acid from the serum in all the ex- perimental groups. To assess the ultra structural changes of the kidney, histopathological studies were conduct- ed from kidney sections of normal rat, rat treated with paracetamol, and rat treated with plant extract ...

  8. Volatile Compounds from Six Varieties of Ficus carica from Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala Soltana

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aroma is one of the essential parameters for the evaluation of fruit quality and consumer acceptance, with volatile components being determinant for this characteristic. During this work, the volatile profile of fresh fruits (pulp and peel and leaves of Tunisian Ficus carica L. white (‘‘Bither Abiadh”, ‘‘Bidi” and dark (‘‘Bither Kholi”, ‘‘Himri”, ‘‘Kholi” and ‘‘Tchich Asal” varieties were characterised by GC and GC-MS. The major components detected among the volatiles of leaves were cedrol (38.9%, manoyl oxide (24.8%, α-terpineol acetate (21.7%, abietatriene (11.8%, γ-muurolene (7.4%, α-pinene (6.1%, pentadecanal (5.2% and nonadecanal (2.3%. The major components detected in the volatiles of the fruits were cedrol (43.8%, α-terpinyl acetate (22.5%, manoyl oxide (12.9%, α-pinene (9.3%, abietadiene (8.1%,trans-calamenene (3.9% and n-heneicosane (3.5%.The results suggest that the varieties could be distinguished on the basis of their volatile fractions composition.

  9. Hepatoprotective activity of Ficus carica Linn leaf extract against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan G.K.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The methanol extract of the leaves of Ficus carica Linn. (Moraceae was evaluated for hepatoprotective activity in rats with liver damage induced by carbon tetrachloride. The extract at an oral dose of 500 mg/kg exhibited a significant protective effect by lowering the serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, total serum bilirubin, and malondialdehyde equivalent, an index of lipid peroxidation of the liver. These biochemical observations were supplemented by histopathological examination of liver sections. The activity of extract was also comparable to that of silymarin, a known hepatoprotective. 

  10. Rapid Construction of Stable Infectious Full-Length cDNA Clone of Papaya Leaf Distortion Mosaic Virus Using In-Fusion Cloning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Decai Tuo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus (PLDMV is becoming a threat to papaya and transgenic papaya resistant to the related pathogen, papaya ringspot virus (PRSV. The generation of infectious viral clones is an essential step for reverse-genetics studies of viral gene function and cross-protection. In this study, a sequence- and ligation-independent cloning system, the In-Fusion® Cloning Kit (Clontech, Mountain View, CA, USA, was used to construct intron-less or intron-containing full-length cDNA clones of the isolate PLDMV-DF, with the simultaneous scarless assembly of multiple viral and intron fragments into a plasmid vector in a single reaction. The intron-containing full-length cDNA clone of PLDMV-DF was stably propagated in Escherichia coli. In vitro intron-containing transcripts were processed and spliced into biologically active intron-less transcripts following mechanical inoculation and then initiated systemic infections in Carica papaya L. seedlings, which developed similar symptoms to those caused by the wild-type virus. However, no infectivity was detected when the plants were inoculated with RNA transcripts from the intron-less construct because the instability of the viral cDNA clone in bacterial cells caused a non-sense or deletion mutation of the genomic sequence of PLDMV-DF. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the construction of an infectious full-length cDNA clone of PLDMV and the splicing of intron-containing transcripts following mechanical inoculation. In-Fusion cloning shortens the construction time from months to days. Therefore, it is a faster, more flexible, and more efficient method than the traditional multistep restriction enzyme-mediated subcloning procedure.

  11. Toxicity assessment of transgenic papaya ringspot virus of 823-2210 line papaya fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsin-Tang; Yen, Gow-Chin; Huang, Ting-Tzu; Chan, Lit-Fu; Cheng, Ying-Huey; Wu, Jhaol-Huei; Yeh, Shyi-Dong; Wang, Sheng-Yang; Liao, Jiunn-Wang

    2013-02-20

    The transgenic papaya is a valuable strategy for creating plants resistant to papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) infection and increasing production. This study was further performed to evaluate the comparative toxicity effects of the newly developed transgenic line of the fruits of two backcross transgenic papaya lines (2210 and 823) and one hybrid line (823-2210) and compare to their parent non-transgenic (TN-2) counterparts. The stability analysis of coat protein (CP) of PRSV was investigated using the digestion stability assays in simulated gastric fluid (SGF), simulated intestinal fluid (SIF), and bile salts to detect the CP fragments. Results revealed that the CP fragments were rapidly hydrolyzed in SGF and were undetectable in organs and gastrointestinal contents in rats. For the genotoxicity, three in vitro assays were conducted and exhibited that non-transgenic and backcross transgenic papaya fruits were negative. Moreover, a repeated animal feeding study was conducted by feeding 2 g/kg of body weight (bw) of non-transgenic and backcross transgenic papaya fruits for 28 days in rats. There were no biological or toxicological significances between non-transgenic and backcross transgenic papaya fruits in rats. The results demonstrated that the backcross transgenic papaya fruit can be recognized as an equivalent substitution for traditional papaya in food safety.

  12. Influence of planting papaya ringspot virus resistant transgenic papaya on soil microbial biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yi-Ting; Pan, Tzu-Ming

    2006-01-11

    To investigate the influence of papaya ringspot virus resistant transgenic papaya on soil microorganisms, upper (0-15 cm) and lower layers (15-30 cm) of soil samples were collected around transgenic papaya planting area and nontransgenic papaya planting area and from soils in which plants had not been grown. The moisture content, pH value, total organic carbon content, and total nitrogen content were not significantly different among groups. The populations of total count, fungi, and actinomycete were highest in upper layer soils around transgenic papaya planting area and lowest in lower layer soils in which plants had not been grown. The microbial populations were all higher in upper layer of soils. Amplified fragment length polymorphism, amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism, and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analyses indicated that the similarity of soil microorganisms of upper layer soils around transgenic papaya planting area and around nontransgenic papaya planting area was >80%. A similar result was observed in lower layer soils. Thus, planting transgenic papayas does have a limited impact on soil microorganisms.

  13. REACTION OF PAPAYA GENOTYPES TO TARGET SPOT AND ACTIVITY OF PLANT EXTRACTS AND Bacillus spp. ON Corynespora cassiicola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dannielle Silva Da Paz

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Papaya target-spot, caused by fungus Corynespora cassiicola presents a wide geographic distribution, causing leaf spots in several hosts. The aim of this research was to evaluate the behavior of papaya varieties and/or selections to the natural occurrence of target spot, and test the fungi toxic effect of neem, citronella and eucalyptus extracts, and fungi static effects of Bacillus isolates on the fungus C. cassiicola in vitro. To evaluate the natural occurrence of the disease in field, symptoms on leaves of 11 papaya varieties and/or selections have been assessed. The pathogenicity of isolates was verified by inoculation of plants in greenhouse. Neem, citronella and eucalyptus extracts were prepared at concentrations of 10, 15 and 20% and poured into Petri dishes containing C. cassiicola mycelium discs. For , Bacillusnine isolates were used, and the antagonistic potential was evaluated by the pairing of pathogen and isolate colonies by the circle method. Papaya varieties and/or selections presented all leaves with injury, and Canaan Sunrise Solo and Canaan Golden selections showed the greatest number of injuries per leaf, showing that papaya varieties and/or selections respond differently to the phytopathogen. All plant extracts tested showed inhibitory effect on the mycelial growth of C. cassiicola in vitro. Bacillus isolates showed an antagonistic potential on the mycelial growth of the fungus, with B. methylotrophicus (Iso 31 and Iso 41 being the most promising as a biological control agent. The results indicate that forms of alternative control of diseases are promising in the management of papaya target-spot.

  14. 78 FR 48628 - Importation of Papayas From Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    ... Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 319 [Docket No. APHIS-2012-0014] RIN 0579-AD68 Importation of Papayas From Peru... from Peru into the continental United States. The conditions for the importation of papayas from Peru... action would allow for the importation of papayas from Peru while continuing to provide protection...

  15. Diversity of Papaya ringspot virus isolates in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) devastates papaya production worldwide. In Puerto Rico, papaya fields can be completely infected with PRSV within a year of planting. Information about the diversity of the Puerto Rican PRSV population is relevant in order to establish a control strategy in the island. T...

  16. Traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Ficus carica: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badgujar, Shamkant B; Patel, Vainav V; Bandivdekar, Atmaram H; Mahajan, Raghunath T

    2014-11-01

    Ficus carica Linn (Moraceae) has been used in traditional medicine for a wide range of ailments related to digestive, endocrine, reproductive, and respiratory systems. Additionally, it is also used in gastrointestinal tract and urinary tract infection. This review gathers the fragmented information available in the literature regarding morphology, ethnomedicinal applications, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicology of Ficus carica. It also explores the therapeutic potential of Ficus carica in the field of ethnophytopharmacology. All the available information on Ficus carica was compiled from electronic databases such as Academic Journals, Ethnobotany, Google Scholar, PubMed, Science Direct, Web of Science, and library search. Worldwide ethnomedical uses of Ficus carica have been recorded which have been used traditionally for more than 40 types of disorders. Phytochemical research has led to the isolation of primary as well as secondary metabolites, plant pigment, and enzymes (protease, oxidase, and amylase). Fresh plant materials, crude extracts, and isolated components of Ficus carica have shown a wide spectrum of biological (pharmacological) activities. Ficus carica has emerged as a good source of traditional medicine for the treatment of various ailments such as anemia, cancer, diabetes, leprosy, liver diseases, paralysis, skin diseases, and ulcers. It is a promising candidate in pharmaceutical biology for the development/formulation of new drugs and future clinical uses.

  17. New Cultivars Derived from Crosses between Commercial Cultivar and a Wild Population of Papaya Rescued at Its Center of Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariela Vázquez Calderón

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to generate new varieties, this study focused on the rescue and use of landraces and wild Carica papaya L. populations located at southern Yucatan, Mexico, to cross them with a commercial papaya cultivar (Maradol. In the cross L7 × M22, The native parent line L7 was used as the receiver parent while the commercial Maradol (M22 was used as the donor parent, seeking to generate genotypes with improved productivity and reduced plant height. Cluster analysis and principal components analysis grouped the genotypes firstly into those individuals with few fruits and those with many fruits and secondly into individuals with high and low plant height. Selected genotypes H13B, H17B, H19B, H68B, and H71B meet the desirable characteristics, such as reduced plant height (PH and intermediate number of fruits per plant (NFP. These materials can be used now to produce new crosses to continue with the ongoing breeding program at CICY, seeking new varieties with higher productivity and adequate plant height, and also these genotypes will be preserved and integrated in the germplasm bank in situ and in vitro for further genetic work and possible exchange with other germplasm collections worldwide.

  18. Optimal plot size in the evaluation of papaya scions: proposal and comparison of methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Felipe Celanti

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Evaluating the quality of scions is extremely important and it can be done by characteristics of shoots and roots. This experiment evaluated height of the aerial part, stem diameter, number of leaves, petiole length and length of roots of papaya seedlings. Analyses were performed from a blank trial with 240 seedlings of "Golden Pecíolo Curto". The determination of the optimum plot size was done by applying the methods of maximum curvature, maximum curvature of coefficient of variation and a new proposed method, which incorporates the bootstrap resampling simulation to the maximum curvature method. According to the results obtained, five is the optimal number of seedlings of papaya "Golden Pecíolo Curto" per plot. The proposed method of bootstrap simulation with replacement provides optimal plot sizes equal or higher than the maximum curvature method and provides same plot size than maximum curvature method of the coefficient of variation.

  19. Free radical scavenging activity of papaya juice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webman, E.J.; Mower, H.F.; Edlin, Gordon

    1989-03-01

    Papaya juice is an efficient scavenger of highly reactive hydroxyl radicals (OH radical) formed during /sup 60/Co irradiation of water. The OH anion radicals were detected by the electron spin resonance (ESR) technique of spin trapping using DMPO (5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide) or by a colorimetric assay in which salicylate is converted into polyhydroxybenzoic acids. Papaya juice is also able to quench the ESR signal of a stable free radical (TEMPOL) and the ESR signal of the DMPO-OH adduct. The active substance(s) in papaya juice are heat-stable, dialyzable, and soluble in water but not in lipid solvents. The active agents do not appear to be ascorbate, tocopherol, or carotenoids.

  20. Physicochemical and biochemical characterization of transgenic papaya modified for protection against Papaya ringspot virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Madeen; Minott, Donna A; Pinnock, Simone; Tennant, Paula F; Jackson, Jose C

    2014-03-30

    Papaya, a nutritious tropical fruit, is consumed both in its fresh form and as a processed product worldwide. Major quality indices which include firmness, acidity, pH, colour and size, are cultivar dependent. Transgenic papayas engineered for resistance to Papaya ringspot virus were evaluated over the ripening period to address physicochemical quality attributes and food safety concerns. With the exception of one transgenic line, no significant differences (P > 0.05) were observed in firmness, acidity and pH. Lightness (L*) and redness (a*) of the pulps of non-transgenic and transgenic papaya were similar but varied over the ripening period (P papaya cultivars, as were shape indices of female fruits. Transgene proteins, CP and NPTII, were not detected in fruit pulp at the table-ready stage. The findings suggest that transformation did not produce any major unintended alterations in the physicochemical attributes of the transgenic papayas. Transgene proteins in the edible fruit pulp were low or undetectable. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Innovative approach for urease inhibition by Ficus carica extract-fabricated silver nanoparticles: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borase, Hemant P; Salunkhe, Rahul B; Patil, Chandrashekhar D; Suryawanshi, Rahul K; Salunke, Bipinchandra K; Wagh, Nilesh D; Patil, Satish V

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, a rapid, low-cost, and ecofriendly method of stable silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesis using leaves extract of Ficus carica (F. carica), a plant with diverse metabolic consortium, is reported for the first time. An absorption peak at 422 nm in UV-Vis spectroscopy, a spherical shape with an average size of 21 nm in transmission electron microscopy, and crystalline nature in X-ray powder diffraction studies were observed for the synthesized AgNPs. Fourier transform infrared analysis indicated that proteins of F. carica might have a vital role in AgNP synthesis and stabilization. AgNPs were found to inhibit urease, a key enzyme responsible for the survival and pathogenesis of the bacterium, Helicobacter pylori. Inhibition of urease by AgNPs was monitored spectrophotometrically by the evaluation of ammonia release. The urease inhibition potential of AgNPs can be explored in the treatment of H. pylori by preparing novel combinations of standard drugs with AgNPs- or AgNPs-encapsulated drug molecules. © 2015 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. Origin and domestication of papaya Yh chromosome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sex in papaya is controlled by a pair of nascent sex chromosomes. Females are XX, and two slightly different Y chromosomes distinguish males (XY) and hermaphrodites (XYh). The hermaphrodite-specific region of the Yh chromosome (HSY) and its X chromosome counterpart were sequenced and analyzed previo...

  3. Fig latex (Ficus carica L. cultivar Dottato) in combination with UV irradiation decreases the viability of A375 melanoma cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menichini, Giulio; Alfano, Carmine; Provenzano, Eugenio; Marrelli, Mariangela; Statti, Giancarlo A; Somma, Francesco; Menichini, Francesco; Conforti, Filomena

    2012-10-01

    Melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers are among the most prevalent cancers in the human population. In the present work latex of Ficus carica cultivar Dottato from Italy collected from fruits and leaves was examined to assess its free radical-scavenging activity with 1,1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and its phototoxicity on A375 human melanoma cells. The latex obtained from the fruits of Ficus carica cv. Dottato showed the best antiradical activity with an IC50 value of 0.05 mg/ml while the latex obtained from the leaves showed the best antiproliferative activity with an IC50 value of 1.5 μg/ml on the human tumor cell line A375 (melanoma) after irradiation at a specific UVA dose (1.08 J/cm2). Control experiments with UVA light or drugs alone were carried out without significant cytotoxic effects. Polyphenolic content of the samples was also evaluated. This is the first study comparing F. carica latex of leaves and fruits. Plant derived natural products have long been and will continue to be an important source for anticancer drug development.

  4. The effects of Ficus carica on the activity of enzymes related to metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramgopal Mopuri

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the effects of the various parts of Ficus carica L. (figs on antioxidant, antidiabetic, and antiobesogenic effects in vitro. Fruit, leaves, and stembark of the F. carica plant were sequentially extracted using organic and inorganic solvents and their total polyphenol and flavonoid contents were estimated. The effects of the extracts on antioxidative, antidiabetic (inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzymes, and antiobesogenic (antilipase activities were measured using several experimental models. The fruit ethanolic extract contained a high quantity of polyphenols and flavonoids (104.67±5.51 μg/mL and 81.67±4.00 μg/mL compared with all other extracts. The activity of the ethanolic extract of F. carica fruit was significantly (p<0.05 higher than all other extracts and parts of the plant in terms of antioxidative, antidiabetic, and antiobesogenic effects. The IC50 values of the fruit ethanolic extract in terms of antioxidative (134.44±18.43 μg/mL, and inhibition of α-glucosidase (255.57±36.46 μg/mL, α-amylase (315.89±3.83 μg/mL, and pancreatic lipase (230.475±9.65 μg/mL activity indicate that the activity of fruit ethanolic extract is better than all other extracts of the plant. The gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy analysis of the fruit ethanolic extract showed the presence of a number of bioactive compounds such as butyl butyrate, 5-hydroxymethyl furfural, 1-butoxy-1-isobutoxy butane, malic acid, tetradecanoic acid, phytol acetate, trans phytol, n-hexadecanoic acid, 9Z,12Z-octadecadienoic acid, stearic acid, sitosterol, 3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-2,3-dihydro-4H-pyran-4-one, and 2,4,5-trimethyl-2,4-dihydro-3H-pyrazol-3-one. The results of this study suggest that the ethanolic extract of the fruit of F. carica may have potential antidiabetic and antiobesogenic agents.

  5. Long-term hepatotoxicity and hypoglycaemic study of Aqueous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of Carica papaya extracts as an anti-diabetic remedy in Nigeria is well documented. Since these extracts are usually taken for long periods of time, it is important to assess their long term biochemical effects so as to ascertain their safety. In this study, the effects of aqueous extracts of C. papaya leaves, orally ...

  6. [Detection of recombinant DNA from genetically modified papaya].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goda, Y; Asano, T; Shibuya, M; Hino, A; Toyoda, M

    2001-08-01

    A method using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was developed to detect the genetically modified (GM) papaya (55-1 line), of which the mandatory safety assessment has not been finished in Japan because of insufficient data. The papaya intrinsic papain gene was used as an internal control. The results of PCR amplification of the papain gene segment indicated that a commercial silica membrane type kit (QIAGEN DNeasy plant mini) was useful for extraction of DNA from papaya fruit, but not for extraction from canned papaya fruit. On the other hand, a commercial ion-exchange type kit (QIAGEN Genomic-tip) provided enough purified DNA for PCR from canned papaya fruit. Compared with the parental line and other commercial non-GM papayas, the DNA from GM papaya fruit provided specific amplification bands in PCR with five primer pairs (Nos. 2-6) including beta-glucuronidase and neomycin phosphotransferase II gene-specific ones. On the other hand, the primer pairs recognizing these genes showed false-positive results when we used DNAs from canned papaya. Therefore, we recommend that the primer pairs (Nos. 5 and 6) recognizing the sequences derived from two different species of organism should be used in order to detect specifically the GM papaya in canned fruits.

  7. The Relationship between the Expression of Ethylene-Related Genes and Papaya Fruit Ripening Disorder Caused by Chilling Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yuan; Zhang, Lin; Rao, Shen; Zhu, Xiaoyang; Ye, Lanlan; Chen, Weixin; Li, Xueping

    2014-01-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is sensitive to low temperature and easy to be subjected to chilling injury, which causes fruit ripening disorder. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the expression of genes related to ethylene and fruit ripening disorder caused by chilling injury. Papaya fruits were firstly stored at 7°C and 12°C for 25 and 30 days, respectively, then treated with exogenous ethylene and followed by ripening at 25°C for 5 days. Chilling injury symptoms such as pulp water soaking were observed in fruit stored at 7°C on 20 days, whereas the coloration and softening were completely blocked after 25 days, Large differences in the changes in the expression levels of twenty two genes involved in ethylene were seen during 7°C-storage with chilling injury. Those genes with altered expression could be divided into three groups: the group of genes that were up-regulated, including ACS1/2/3, EIN2, EIN3s/EIL1, CTR1/2/3, and ERF1/3/4; the group of genes that were down-regulated, including ACO3, ETR1, CTR4, EBF2, and ERF2; and the group of genes that were un-regulated, including ACO1/2, ERS, and EBF1. The results also showed that pulp firmness had a significantly positive correlation with the expression of ACS2, ACO1, CTR1/4, EIN3a/b, and EBF1/2 in fruit without chilling injury. This positive correlation was changed to negative one in fruit after storage at 7°C for 25 days with chilling injury. The coloring index displayed significantly negative correlations with the expression levels of ACS2, ACO1/2, CTR4, EIN3a/b, ERF3 in fruit without chilling injury, but these correlations were changed into the positive ones in fruit after storage at 7°C for 25 days with chilling injury. All together, these results indicate that these genes may play important roles in the abnormal softening and coloration with chilling injury in papaya. PMID:25542021

  8. Repeated Dose 90-Day Feeding Study of Whole Fruits of Genetically Modified Papaya Resistant to Papaya Ringspot Virus in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsin-Tang; Yen, Gow-Chin; Lee, Wei-Cheng; Tsai, Yi-Ting; Wu, Jhaol-Huei; Yeh, Shyi-Dong; Cheng, Ying-Huey; Chang, Shih-Chieh; Liao, Jiunn-Wang

    2015-02-04

    Genetically modified (GM) papaya plants resistant to infection by Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) have been successfully generated by cloning the coat protein (CP) gene of PRSV to increase fruit production. In this study, the GM papaya line 823-2210 was used to conduct a 90-day feeding toxicity study and compared to its parent plant of non-GM papaya, Tainung-2 (TN-2) based on the experimental guidance reported by the European Food Safety Authority.1 Ten male and 10 female Sprague-Dawley albino rats were gavaged at low (1 g/kg bw) and high (2 g/kg bw) doses of non-GM and GM lyophilized papaya fruits for 90 days. Hematology, coagulation, biochemistry, urinalysis, and pathology were examined in all animals. Although some differences were found in feed consumption, hematology, and serum chemistry examinations between non-GM and GM papaya, the results were within historical control values and not considered biologically significant in rats. In addition, there were no treatment-related gross or microscopic lesions in male or female rats attributable to the non-GM or GM papaya fruit. This 90-day feeding study of GM papaya fruit did not reveal adverse effects in rats and indicates that GM papaya fruits may be substantially equivalent to their non-GM parent plants.

  9. Primary purification of two antifungal proteins from leaves of the fig ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-01-17

    Jan 17, 2011 ... Primary purification of two antifungal proteins from leaves of the fig (Ficus carica L.) Wei Yan3, Ming Zhao2, Yan Ma2, Ying-hong Pan1* and Wen-xia Yuan2. 1Institute of Crop Sciences, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, People's Republic of China. 2College of Pu-erh Tea, Yunnan ...

  10. Physical and Chemical Composition of Storage-Ripened Papaya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The determinations were repeated for early, middle and late-season papaya fruits. The fruits were always harvested at the mature green stage and allowed to ripen during room temperature storage. The results showed that papaya fruits had high moisture content (>85.5%), low acidity (<0.18% c.a.), low crude fat (0.10 g/100 ...

  11. Gamma radiation in papaya harvested at three stages of maturation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimentel, Rodrigo Meirelles de Azevedo; Walder, Julio Marcos Melges [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Irradiacao de Alimentos]. E-mail: jmwalder@cena.usp.br

    2004-04-01

    Papaya is a fragile, perishable fruit, highly accepted worldwide. To keep the quality of papaya from harvest to the consumers, conservation techniques are often used; among them is the application of gamma irradiation. The objective of this work was to evaluate gamma irradiation in papayas harvested at three degrees of maturation, in order to increase shelf life. Papayas were harvested in perfect quality conditions and selected by skin coloration into three distinct degrees of maturation: maturation 0, or beginning of yellow coloration; maturation 1, yellow stripes more developed, and maturation 2, one third yellow. Half of them were irradiated with 0.75 kGy, while the other half became control treatment. They were analyzed in four periods of conservation, which were 1 DAI (days after irradiation refrigerated at 11 {+-} 1 deg C), 14 DAI, 14 DAI + 3 DRT (room temperature at 24 deg C {+-} 2 deg C) and 14 DAI + 6 DRT. The papaya maturation degree at harvest did not influence the radiation effect. Irradiation maintained firmness of papaya and, therefore, delayed ripening; modified the green color of papaya to a lighter, more intense tone, which determined more homogeneity in the development of the skin's yellow color (greater values of L{sup *} and chroma). There was no effect of irradiation in papaya weight loss, occurrence of diseases, chroma of flesh color, p H and total soluble solids contents. (author)

  12. Recent advances in the development of transgenic papaya technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tecson Mendoza, Evelyn Mae; C Laurena, Antonio; Botella, José Ramón

    2008-01-01

    Papaya with resistance to papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) is the first genetically modified tree and fruit crop and also the first transgenic crop developed by a public institution that has been commercialized. This chapter reviews the different transformation systems used for papaya and recent advances in the use of transgenic technology to introduce important quality and horticultural traits in papaya. These include the development of the following traits in papaya: resistance to PRSV, mites and Phytophthora, delayed ripening trait or long shelf life by inhibiting ethylene production or reducing loss of firmness, and tolerance or resistance to herbicide and aluminum toxicity. The use of papaya to produce vaccine against tuberculosis and cysticercosis, an infectious animal disease, has also been explored. Because of the economic importance of papaya, there are several collaborative and independent efforts to develop PRSV transgenic papaya technology in 14 countries. This chapter further reviews the strategies and constraints in the adoption of the technology and biosafety to the environment and food safety. Constraints to adoption include public perception, strict and expensive regulatory procedures and intellectual property issues.

  13. Production of Saccharomyces cerevisiae biomass in papaya extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extracts of papaya fruit were used as substrate for single cell protein (SCP) production using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A 500 g of papaya fruit was extracted with different volumes of sterile distilled water. Extraction with 200 mL of sterile distilled water sustained highest cell growth. Biochemical analysis of dry biomass ...

  14. Gamma radiation in papaya harvested at three stages of maturation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pimentel, Rodrigo Meirelles de Azevedo; Walder, Julio Marcos Melges

    2004-01-01

    Papaya is a fragile, perishable fruit, highly accepted worldwide. To keep the quality of papaya from harvest to the consumers, conservation techniques are often used; among them is the application of gamma irradiation. The objective of this work was to evaluate gamma irradiation in papayas harvested at three degrees of maturation, in order to increase shelf life. Papayas were harvested in perfect quality conditions and selected by skin coloration into three distinct degrees of maturation: maturation 0, or beginning of yellow coloration; maturation 1, yellow stripes more developed, and maturation 2, one third yellow. Half of them were irradiated with 0.75 kGy, while the other half became control treatment. They were analyzed in four periods of conservation, which were 1 DAI (days after irradiation refrigerated at 11 ± 1 deg C), 14 DAI, 14 DAI + 3 DRT (room temperature at 24 deg C ± 2 deg C) and 14 DAI + 6 DRT. The papaya maturation degree at harvest did not influence the radiation effect. Irradiation maintained firmness of papaya and, therefore, delayed ripening; modified the green color of papaya to a lighter, more intense tone, which determined more homogeneity in the development of the skin's yellow color (greater values of L * and chroma). There was no effect of irradiation in papaya weight loss, occurrence of diseases, chroma of flesh color, p H and total soluble solids contents. (author)

  15. [Analysis on volatile components of Ficus carica fruit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jun-Long; Lu, Jin-Qing; Li, Qiang; Guo, Sheng-Nan; Dai, Yi

    2014-07-01

    To Analyze the volatile chemical components of Ficus carica fruits. The volatile components of Ficus carica fruits were extracted by the three extraction methods such as SPME, SD and SE, and then analyzed by GC-MS. A total of 91 peaks were identified by GC-MS. 61 compounds came from the extraction methods of SPME, 7 compounds from SD, and 30 compounds from SE. The volatile components extracted by the three methods are not quite similar. Among of them, the volatile components extracted by SPME method are the most and have the highest resolution.

  16. Whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) and the predator Delphastus pusillus (Le Conte) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) on papaya tree (Carica papaya L.) grown under screened conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira, Marineide R.; Correa, Luiz S.

    2001-01-01

    Em fevereiro e outubro de 1998, na área experimental da Fazenda de Ensino e Pesquisa da UNESP no município de Selvíria-MS (latitude 20° 22' S, longitude 51° 22' W, altitude 335 m), foi constatada a presença de mosca branca em mamoeiro cultivar Baixinho de Santa Amália, plantado no interior de um telado com malha de 2 x 2 mm. Essa área fazia parte de um experimento visando determinar o efeito do cultivo em ambiente protegido sobre o desenvolvimento das plantas, a produção de frutos e a...

  17. Use of Plant Preservative Mixture™ for establishing in vitro cultures from field plants: Experience with papaya reveals several PPM™ tolerant endophytic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Pious; Agrawal, Mukta; Bharathkumar, C B

    2017-11-01

    Prevalence of diverse PPM™-tolerant endophytic bacteria in papaya, the broad-spectrum microbicide specified for use in plant tissue cultures, capable of surviving covertly in MS-based medium, with implications in contamination management. Plant Preservative Mixture™ was employed for establishing papaya (Carica papaya) tissue cultures from field explants. Comparing three recommended practices for controlling endogenous microbial contaminants, axillary shoot tips (1.0-1.5 cm) from cv. Arka Prabhath were treated with PPM™ 5% for 4 h (T1), 50% for 10 min (T2) or 100% for 10 min (T3) and cultured in MS-based papaya establishment medium (PEM). By 4-6 weeks, all treatments proved non-rewarding with cultures succumbing either to microbial contamination (80% in T1) or phytotoxicity effect/contamination (90% in T2 and 95% in T3). Another trial adopting a multi-step surface sterilization treatment (carbendazim-cetrimide-HgCl 2 ) followed by culturing in 0.05% PPM-supplemented PEM showed 35% obvious bacterial contamination compared with 40% in control. Single colonies from pooled bacterial growths were tested on 0.1% PPM-incorporated nutrient agar (NA) registering 60% isolates as PPM sensitive. Twenty PPM-surviving isolates were selected and identified. This showed 85% Gram-positive bacteria including 80% under phylum Firmicutes (55% spore-forming Bacillaceae and 25% Staphylococcaceae) and 5% Actinobacteria, and 15% Gram-negative Proteobacteria. About 50% isolates remained wholly non-obvious upon culturing on PEM while the rest showed slow growth with many displaying growth enhancement upon host tissue extract supplementation. Culturing the isolates on PPM-supplemented NA indicated 90-95% as tolerating 0.05-0.1% PPM and 65% overriding 0.2% PPM. The isolates, however, did not display obvious growth in PPM-supplemented PEM where the spore formers survived. The results indicate the prevalence of diverse PPM™-tolerant endophytic bacteria in papaya most of which

  18. Leveillula taurica ON Ficus carica ABSTRACT RÉSUMÉ

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    with the mycological herbarium in the. Department of Plant Pathology, Faculty of. Agriculture, University of Zabol. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION. Diseased plants exhibited dense, compact, white mycelia, typically 1–3 cm in length, forming irregular white patches, sometimes effused to cover the whole leaf surface of F. carica ...

  19. Ethnopharmacological studies on antispasmodic and antiplatelet activities of Ficus carica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilani, Anwarul Hassan; Mehmood, Malik Hassan; Janbaz, Khalid Hussain; Khan, Arif-Ullah; Saeed, Sheikh Arshad

    2008-09-02

    The ripe dried fruit of Ficus carica Linn. (Moraceae) commonly known as "Fig" has medicinal value in traditional system of medicine for its use in gastrointestinal and inflammatory disorders. To rationalize the medicinal use of Fig (Ficus carica) in gastrointestinal and inflammatory disorders. The aqueous-ethanolic extract of Ficus carica (Fc.Cr) was studied for antispasmodic effect on the isolated rabbit jejunum preparations and for antiplatelet effect using ex vivo model of human platelets. Fc.Cr tested positive for alkaloids, flavonoids, coumarins, saponins, sterols and terpenes. When tested in isolated rabbit jejunum, Fc.Cr (0.1-3.0mg/mL) produced relaxation of spontaneous and low K(+) (25 mM)-induced contractions with negligible effect on high K(+) (80 mM) similar to that caused by cromakalim. Pretreatment of the tissue with glibenclamide caused rightward shift in the curves of low K(+)-induced contractions. Similarly, cromakalim inhibited the contractions induced by low K(+), but not of high K(+), while verapamil equally inhibited the contractions of K(+) at both concentrations. Fc.Cr (0.6 and 0.12 mg/mL) inhibited the adenosine 5'-diphosphate and adrenaline-induced human platelet aggregation. This study showed the presence of spasmolytic activity in the ripe dried fruit of Ficus carica possibly mediated through the activation of K(+)(ATP) channels along with antiplatelet activity which provides sound pharmacological basis for its medicinal use in the gut motility and inflammatory disorders.

  20. Nutritional evaluation of ficus carica indigenous to Pakistan | Khan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The nutritional composition of Ficus carica commonly known as fig is of great interest as it is considered a good source of energy and minerals. Seven samples of fig, cultivated in Pakistan were studied for their physico-chemical properties. All samples had little moisture, less amounts of ash and high volatile matters.