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Sample records for caribbean spiny lobster

  1. 50 CFR 622.50 - Caribbean spiny lobster import prohibitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ATLANTIC Management Measures § 622.50 Caribbean spiny lobster import prohibitions. (a) Minimum size limits... States other than Puerto Rico or the U.S. Virgin Islands, and a more restrictive minimum size limit that applies to Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. (1) No person may import a Caribbean spiny lobster...

  2. Potential production of the Caribbean spiny lobster (Decapoda, Palinura) fisheries

    OpenAIRE

    Chávez Ortiz, Ernesto Aarón

    2009-01-01

    Spiny lobster Panulirus argus (Latreille, 1804) constitutes the most important fishery of the Caribbean; it accounts for nearly 42,000 tonnes. Evidence suggests that high fishing mortality (F) may have been overexploiting most stocks. An assessment was carried out providing the basis for a sustainable exploitation of the nine most important producing countries. Values were assessed and each fishery was simulated; age structure was reconstructed linking biological, economic, and social variabl...

  3. Behavioral Immunity Suppresses an Epizootic in Caribbean Spiny Lobsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Mark J; Behringer, Donald C; Dolan, Thomas W; Moss, Jessica; Shields, Jeffrey D

    2015-01-01

    Sociality has evolved in a wide range of animal taxa but infectious diseases spread rapidly in populations of aggregated individuals, potentially negating the advantages of their social interactions. To disengage from the coevolutionary struggle with pathogens, some hosts have evolved various forms of "behavioral immunity"; yet, the effectiveness of such behaviors in controlling epizootics in the wild is untested. Here we show how one form of behavioral immunity (i.e., the aversion of diseased conspecifics) practiced by Caribbean spiny lobsters (Panulirus argus) when subject to the socially transmitted PaV1 virus, appears to have prevented an epizootic over a large seascape. We capitalized on a "natural experiment" in which a die-off of sponges in the Florida Keys (USA) resulted in a loss of shelters for juvenile lobsters over a ~2500km2 region. Lobsters were thus concentrated in the few remaining shelters, presumably increasing their exposure to the contagious virus. Despite this spatial reorganization of the population, viral prevalence in lobsters remained unchanged after the sponge die-off and for years thereafter. A field experiment in which we introduced either a healthy or PaV1-infected lobster into lobster aggregations in natural dens confirmed that spiny lobsters practice behavioral immunity. Healthy lobsters vacated dens occupied by PaV1-infected lobsters despite the scarcity of alternative shelters and the higher risk of predation they faced when searching for a new den. Simulations from a spatially-explicit, individual-based model confirmed our empirical results, demonstrating the efficacy of behavioral immunity in preventing epizootics in this system.

  4. Behavioral Immunity Suppresses an Epizootic in Caribbean Spiny Lobsters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark J Butler

    Full Text Available Sociality has evolved in a wide range of animal taxa but infectious diseases spread rapidly in populations of aggregated individuals, potentially negating the advantages of their social interactions. To disengage from the coevolutionary struggle with pathogens, some hosts have evolved various forms of "behavioral immunity"; yet, the effectiveness of such behaviors in controlling epizootics in the wild is untested. Here we show how one form of behavioral immunity (i.e., the aversion of diseased conspecifics practiced by Caribbean spiny lobsters (Panulirus argus when subject to the socially transmitted PaV1 virus, appears to have prevented an epizootic over a large seascape. We capitalized on a "natural experiment" in which a die-off of sponges in the Florida Keys (USA resulted in a loss of shelters for juvenile lobsters over a ~2500km2 region. Lobsters were thus concentrated in the few remaining shelters, presumably increasing their exposure to the contagious virus. Despite this spatial reorganization of the population, viral prevalence in lobsters remained unchanged after the sponge die-off and for years thereafter. A field experiment in which we introduced either a healthy or PaV1-infected lobster into lobster aggregations in natural dens confirmed that spiny lobsters practice behavioral immunity. Healthy lobsters vacated dens occupied by PaV1-infected lobsters despite the scarcity of alternative shelters and the higher risk of predation they faced when searching for a new den. Simulations from a spatially-explicit, individual-based model confirmed our empirical results, demonstrating the efficacy of behavioral immunity in preventing epizootics in this system.

  5. Detection of Panulirus argus Virus 1 in Caribbean spiny lobsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery-Fullerton, Megan M; Cooper, Roland A; Kauffman, Kathryn M; Shields, Jeffrey D; Ratzlaff, Robert E

    2007-06-07

    Panulirus argus Virus 1 (PaV1) is a pathogenic virus that infects Caribbean spiny lobsters P. argus in the Florida Keys. We have developed a PCR detection assay for PaV1 for the purpose of studying the natural history of the virus and for monitoring the prevalence of infection. The detection of the virus in hemolymph and other tissues is based on the PCR amplification of a 499 bp product using specific primers designed from a cloned fragment of the PaV1 genome. The sensitivity limit for the assay was 1.2 fg of purified viral DNA. The PaV1 primers did not react with lobster DNA, oyster DNA, Ostreid Herpesvirus 1, or murine cytomegalovirus. Using this assay, we successfully followed the course of infection in lobsters inoculated with PaV1 and we detected infections in wild-caught lobsters from the Florida Keys. We have also established guidelines for interpreting infection results from the PCR assay for PaV1.

  6. 77 FR 25116 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Spiny Lobster Fishery of the Gulf...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ...-BB44 Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Spiny Lobster Fishery of the Gulf... (Councils) have submitted Amendment 11 to the Fishery Management Plan for the Spiny Lobster Fishery of the... proposes to limit spiny lobster fishing using trap gear in certain areas in the exclusive economic zone off...

  7. 76 FR 54727 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Spiny Lobster Fishery of the Gulf...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-02

    ... RIN 0648-AY72 Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Spiny Lobster Fishery of...) have submitted Amendment 10 to the Fishery Management Plan for the Spiny Lobster Fishery of the Gulf of... actions to revise the lobster species contained within the fishery management unit; revise definitions of...

  8. 77 FR 76458 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Spiny Lobster Fishery of Puerto...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-28

    ... the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Spiny Lobster Fishery of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands; Exempted Fishing Permit AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... in the U.S. Virgin Islands. Currently, data on U.S. Caribbean spiny lobster life history are limited...

  9. Source and specificity of chemical cues mediating shelter preference of Caribbean spiny lobsters (Panulirus argus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Amy J; Nickles, Scott P; Weissburg, Marc J; Derby, Charles D

    2006-10-01

    Caribbean spiny lobsters display a diversity of social behaviors, one of the most prevalent of which is gregarious diurnal sheltering. Previous research has demonstrated that shelter selection is chemically mediated, but the source of release and the identity of the aggregation signal are unknown. In this study, we investigated the source and specificity of the aggregation signal in Caribbean spiny lobsters, Panulirus argus. We developed a relatively rapid test of shelter choice in a 5000-l laboratory flume that simulated flow conditions in the spiny lobster's natural environment, and used it to examine the shelter preference of the animals in response to a variety of odorants. We found that both males and females associated preferentially with shelters emanating conspecific urine of either sex, but not with shelters emanating seawater, food odors, or the scent of a predatory octopus. These results demonstrate specificity in the cues mediating sheltering behavior and show that urine is at least one source of the aggregation signal.

  10. Size-dependent avoidance of a strong magnetic anomaly in Caribbean spiny lobsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, David A; Lohmann, Kenneth J

    2018-03-01

    On a global scale, the geomagnetic field varies predictably across the Earth's surface, providing animals that migrate long distances with a reliable source of directional and positional information that can be used to guide their movements. In some locations, however, magnetic minerals in the Earth's crust generate an additional field that enhances or diminishes the overall field, resulting in unusually steep gradients of field intensity within a limited area. How animals respond to such magnetic anomalies is unclear. The Caribbean spiny lobster, Panulirus argus , is a benthic marine invertebrate that possesses a magnetic sense and is likely to encounter magnetic anomalies during migratory movements and homing. As a first step toward investigating whether such anomalies affect the behavior of lobsters, a two-choice preference experiment was conducted in which lobsters were allowed to select one of two artificial dens, one beneath a neodymium magnet and the other beneath a non-magnetic weight of similar size and mass (control). Significantly more lobsters selected the control den, demonstrating avoidance of the magnetic anomaly. In addition, lobster size was found to be a significant predictor of den choice: lobsters that selected the anomaly den were significantly smaller as a group than those that chose the control den. Taken together, these findings provide additional evidence for magnetoreception in spiny lobsters, raise the possibility of an ontogenetic shift in how lobsters respond to magnetic fields, and suggest that magnetic anomalies might influence lobster movement in the natural environment. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  11. Effect of magnetic pulses on Caribbean spiny lobsters: implications for magnetoreception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, David A; Lohmann, Kenneth J

    2016-06-15

    The Caribbean spiny lobster, Panulirus argus, is a migratory crustacean that uses Earth's magnetic field as a navigational cue, but how these lobsters detect magnetic fields is not known. Magnetic material thought to be magnetite has previously been detected in spiny lobsters, but its role in magnetoreception, if any, remains unclear. As a first step toward investigating whether lobsters might have magnetite-based magnetoreceptors, we subjected lobsters to strong, pulsed magnetic fields capable of reversing the magnetic dipole moment of biogenic magnetite crystals. Lobsters were subjected to a single pulse directed from posterior to anterior and either: (1) parallel to the horizontal component of the geomagnetic field (i.e. toward magnetic north); or (2) antiparallel to the horizontal field (i.e. toward magnetic south). An additional control group was handled but not subjected to a magnetic pulse. After treatment, each lobster was tethered in a water-filled arena located within 200 m of the capture location and allowed to walk in any direction. Control lobsters walked in seemingly random directions and were not significantly oriented as a group. In contrast, the two groups exposed to pulsed fields were significantly oriented in approximately opposite directions. Lobsters subjected to a magnetic pulse applied parallel to the geomagnetic horizontal component walked westward; those subjected to a pulse directed antiparallel to the geomagnetic horizontal component oriented approximately northeast. The finding that a magnetic pulse alters subsequent orientation behavior is consistent with the hypothesis that magnetoreception in spiny lobsters is based at least partly on magnetite-based magnetoreceptors. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  12. Influence of local habitat features on disease avoidance by Caribbean spiny lobsters in a casita-enhanced bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briones-Fourzán, Patricia; Candia-Zulbarán, Rebeca I; Negrete-Soto, Fernando; Barradas-Ortiz, Cecilia; Huchin-Mian, Juan P; Lozano-Álvarez, Enrique

    2012-08-27

    In Bahía de la Ascensión, Mexico, 'casitas' (large artificial shelters) are extensively used to harvest Caribbean spiny lobsters Panulirus argus. After the discovery of a pathogenic virus, Panulirus argus virus 1 (PaV1), in these lobsters, laboratory experiments revealed that PaV1 could be transmitted by contact and through water, and that lobsters avoided shelters harboring diseased conspecifics. To examine these issues in the context of casitas, which typically harbor multiple lobsters of all sizes, we examined the distribution and aggregation patterns of lobsters in the absence/presence of diseased conspecifics (i.e. visibly infected with PaV1) in 531 casitas distributed over 3 bay zones, 1 poorly vegetated ('Vigía Chico', average depth: 1.5 m) and 2 more extensively vegetated ('Punta Allen': 2.5 m; 'Los Cayos': 2.4 m). All zones had relatively high indices of predation risk. Using several statistical approaches, we found that distribution parameters of lobsters were generally not affected by the presence of diseased conspecifics in casitas. Interestingly, however, in the shallower and less vegetated zone (Vigía Chico), individual casitas harbored more lobsters and lobsters were actually more crowded in casitas containing diseased conspecifics, yet disease prevalence was the lowest in lobsters of all sizes. These results suggest that (1) investment in disease avoidance by lobsters is partially modulated by local habitat features, (2) contact transmission rates of PaV1 may be lower in nature than in the laboratory, and (3) water-borne transmission rates may be lower in shallow, poorly vegetated habitats more exposed to solar ultraviolet radiation, which can damage viral particles.

  13. 76 FR 59102 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Spiny Lobster Fishery of the Gulf...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-23

    ... Atlantic; Spiny Lobster Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic; Amendment 10 AGENCY: National... Fishery Management Plan for the Spiny Lobster Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic (FMP), as... implemented, this rule would revise the lobster species contained within the fishery management unit...

  14. 76 FR 75488 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Spiny Lobster Fishery of the Gulf...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-02

    ... Atlantic; Spiny Lobster Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic; Amendment 10 AGENCY: National... Plan for the Spiny Lobster Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic (FMP), as prepared and... the lobster species contained within the fishery management unit; establishes an annual catch limit...

  15. Resistance to starvation of first-stage juveniles of the Caribbean spiny lobster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alí Espinosa-Magaña

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The non-feeding postlarva (puerulus of spiny lobsters actively swims from the open ocean to the coastal habitats where it settles and molts to the first-stage juvenile (JI. Because pueruli use much of their energy reserves swimming and preparing for the post-settlement molt, the survival of JIs presumably depends on resuming feeding as soon as possible. To test this hypothesis, the resistance to starvation of JIs of the Caribbean spiny lobster, Panulirus argus, was evaluated by measuring their point-of-no-return (PNR, minimum time of initial starvation preventing recovery after later feeding and point-of-reserve-saturation (PRS, minimum time of initial feeding allowing for food-independent development through the rest of the molting cycle in a warm and a cold season. Each experiment consisted of eight groups: a continuously fed control (FC group, a continuously starved control (SC group, and six groups subjected to differential periods of either initial starvation and subsequent feeding (PNR experiments or initial feeding and subsequent starvation (PSR experiments. No JIs molted under continuous absence of food (SC. In both PNR experiments (temperature in warm season: 29.79 ± 0.07°C, mean ± 95% CI; in cold season: 25.63 ± 0.12°C mortality increased sharply after 9 d of initial starvation and intermolt periods increased with period of initial starvation, but were longer in the cold season. The PNR50 was longer in the warm season (12.1 ± 1.2 d, mean ± 95% CI than in the cold season (9.5 ± 2.1 d. In PRS experiments (temperature in warm season: 29.54 ± 0.07 °C; in cold season: 26.20 ± 0.12 °C, JIs that molted did so near the end of the feeding period; all JIs initially fed for up to 6 d succumbed, and no JIs molted after 13 d of starvation despite having fed previously. The PRS50 did not differ between the cold (13.1 ± 0.7 d and warm seasons (12.1 ± 1.1 d. JIs of P. argus exhibit a remarkable resistance to

  16. Decadal variability in growth of the Caribbean spiny lobster Panulirus argus (Decapoda: Paniluridae in Cuban waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Estela de León

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Annual von Bertalanffy growth parameters of the Caribbean spiny lobster (Panulirus argus in Cuban waters were estimated from a long term study (40 years by length-based methods ELEFAN and the new version of SLCA. Data of around 800 000 lobsters (with carapace length ranging 14 to 199mm were randomly sampled in artificial shelters (a non selective fishing gear very common in the lobster fishery, through the field monitory program established for this species since 1963 in 14 localities of southwestern Cuban shelf. The software ELEFAN showed problems to converge in an optimal combination of the instantaneous growth coefficient (K and the asymptotic length (L8 of the von Bertalanffy equation, whereas the new SLCA software produced value estimates of K between 0.20 and 0.27 year-1 and values of L8 between 177 and 190 mm carapace length, all within the range reported in the literature. The standardized anomalies of both parameters showed the presence of cycles along the analyzed time series. Decadal variability in growth parameters was revealed through the spectral analysis indicating cycles of 16 and 20 years for K and of 16 years for L8. The incidence of some factors such as biomass and temperature that modulate growth in this crustacean was explored, using a nonlinear multiple regression model. These combined factors explained 33% and 69% of the variability of K and L8 respectively. The growth coefficient appeared to be maximum with annual mean sea surface temperature of 28.1º C and the largest L 8is reached at a annual men biomass level of 23 000 t. These results should be the basis to understand the Cuban lobster population dynamics. Rev. Biol. Trop. 53(3-4: 475-486. Epub 2005 Oct 3.Los parámetros de crecimiento anuales para la langosta espinosa del Caribe (Panulirus argus en aguas cubanas se estimaron para una serie de 40 años de datos de composición por longitud, a través de los métodos indirectos basados en la talla ELEFAN y el nuevo

  17. Detection of Panulirus argus Virus 1 (PaV1) in exported frozen tails of subadult-adult Caribbean spiny lobsters Panulirus argus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huchin-Mian, Juan Pablo; Briones-Fourzán, Patricia; Simá-Alvarez, Raúl; Cruz-Quintana, Yanis; Pérez-Vega, Juan Antonio; Lozano-Alvarez, Enrique; Pascual-Jiménez, Cristina; Rodríguez-Canul, Rossanna

    2009-09-23

    The Caribbean spiny lobster Panulirus argus is a valuable fishing resource and the trade in frozen lobster tails is an important industry. However, the presence of the pathogenic virus Panulirus argus Virus 1 (PaV1), which causes systemic infection in P. argus and is particularly lethal to juvenile individuals, has not been previously examined in imported/exported lobster products. We used PCR assays to determine the presence of PaV1 in abdominal muscle tissue of 22 frozen P. argus tails exported from Belize to Mexico. Based on their size, the tails belonged to subadult-adult lobsters. Using specific primers targeted for PaV1 resulted in 11 tails showing a specific 499 bp band. The sequence of positive amplified fragments showed a high similarity to PaV1 (95% identity with GenBank accession no. EF206313.1). Although the pathogenicity of PaV1 was not evaluated in the present study, our results provide the first evidence of PaV1 in frozen lobster tails exported in the seafood industry as well as the first molecular evidence of PaV1 in adult lobsters.

  18. Prevalence of Panulirus argus Virus 1 (PaV1) and habitation patterns of healthy and diseased Caribbean spiny lobsters in shelter-limited habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano-Alvarez, Enrique; Briones-Fourzán, Patricia; Ramírez-Estévez, Aurora; Placencia-Sánchez, David; Huchin-Mian, Juan Pablo; Rodríguez-Canul, Rossana

    2008-07-07

    Caribbean spiny lobsters Panulirus argus are socially gregarious, preferring shelters harboring conspecifics over empty shelters. In laboratory trials, however, healthy lobsters strongly avoided shelters harboring lobsters infected with the highly pathogenic Panulirus argus Virus 1 (PaV1). Because PaV1 is transmitted by contact, this behavior may thwart its spread in wild lobsters. In a field experiment conducted from 1998 to 2002 in a shelter-poor reef lagoon (Puerto Morelos, Mexico), densities of juvenile P. argus increased significantly on sites enhanced with artificial shelters (casitas) but not on control sites. Because PaV1 emerged in this location during 2000, we reexamined these data to assess whether casitas could potentially increase transmission of PaV1. In 2001, PaV1 prevalence was 2.5% and the cohabitation level (percentage of healthy lobsters cohabiting with diseased lobsters) was similar between natural shelters (3.5%) and casitas (2.4 %). The relative lobster densities in casita sites and control sites did not change significantly before (1998-1999) or after (2001-2002) the disease emergence. In late 2006, data from casita sites showed a significant increase in prevalence (10.9%) and cohabitation level (29.4%), but no significant changes in lobster density. In May 2006, casitas were deployed on shelter-poor sites within Chinchorro Bank, 260 km south of Puerto Morelos. In late 2006, prevalence and cohabitation level were 7.4 and 21.7%, respectively. Our results are inconclusive as to whether or not casitas increase PaV1 transmission, but suggest that across shelter-poor habitats, lobsters make a trade-off between avoiding diseased conspecifics and avoiding predation risk.

  19. A new species of Carcinonemertes, Carcinonemertes conanobrieni sp. nov. (Nemertea: Carcinonemertidae, an egg predator of the Caribbean spiny lobster, Panulirus argus.

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    Lunden Alice Simpson

    Full Text Available A new species of nemertean worm belonging to the genus Carcinonemertes is described from egg masses of the Caribbean spiny lobster Panulirus argus from the Florida Keys, Florida, USA. This is the first species of Carcinonemertes reported to infect P. argus or any other lobster species in the greater Caribbean and western Atlantic Ocean. Carcinonemertes conanobrieni sp. nov. varies in body color from a translucent white to a pale orange, with males ranging in total body length from 2.35 to 12.71 mm and females ranging from 0.292 to 16.73 mm. Among the traits that separate this new species from previously described species in the genus Carcinonemertes are a relatively wide stylet basis, minimal sexual size dimorphism, and a unique mucus sheath decorated with external hooks. Also, juvenile worms were found to encyst themselves next to lobster embryos and female worms lay both long strings of eggs wound throughout the lobster's setae as well as spherical cases that are attached to lobster embryos. The stylet length and stylet basis remain unchanged throughout ontogeny for both male and female worms. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference phylogenetic analyses separated this newly described species from all other species of Carcinonemertes with available COI sequences. Carcinonemertes spp. are voracious egg predators and have been tied to the collapse of various crustacean fisheries. The formal description of this new species represents the first step to understand putative impacts of this worm on the population health of one of the most lucrative yet already depressed crustacean fisheries.

  20. Distribution and function of splash, an achaete-scute homolog in the adult olfactory organ of the Caribbean spiny lobster Panulirus argus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadesse, Tizeta; Schmidt, Manfred; Walthall, William W.; Tai, Phang C.; Derby, Charles D.

    2011-01-01

    achaete-scute complex (ASC) genes, which encode basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors, regulate embryonic and adult neurogenesis in many animals. In adult arthropods, including crustaceans, ASC homologs have been identified but rarely functionally characterized. We took advantage of the recently identified crustacean homolog, splash (spiny lobster achaete scute homolog), in the olfactory organ of the Caribbean spiny lobster Panulirus argus to examine its role in adult neurogenesis. We tested the hypothesis that splash is associated with but not restricted to sensory neuron formation in the olfactory organ, the antennular lateral flagellum (LF), of adult spiny lobsters. We demonstrated splash labeling in epithelial cells across LF developmental zones (i.e., proliferation and mature zones), in auxiliary cells surrounding dendrites of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs), and in immature and mature ORNs, but not in granulocytes or chromatophores. Since ORN proliferation varies with molt stage, we examined splash expression across molt stages and found that molt stage affected splash expression in the ORN mature zone but not in the proliferation zone. In vivo incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) showed no correlation in the cellular pattern of splash expression and BrdU labeling. The intensity of splash labeling was dramatically enhanced in the proliferation zones following LF damage, suggesting enhanced splash expression during repair and/or regeneration. We conclude that splash is not closely associated with the formation of sensory neurons under normal physiological conditions, and we propose that splash is involved in repair and regeneration. We also propose that splash has additional roles other than neurogenesis in adult crustaceans. PMID:21394934

  1. Diseases of spiny lobsters: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, J D

    2011-01-01

    Spiny lobsters have few reported pathogens, parasites and symbionts. However, they do have a diverse fauna comprised of a pathogenic virus, several bacteria, protozoans, helminths and even symbiotic crustaceans. A few idiopathic syndromes have also been reported, but these appear correlated with lobsters held in poor conditions. Fungal and bacterial pathogens present significant threats for rearing spiny lobsters in aquaculture settings, but only one pathogen, Panulirus argus virus 1, is thought to have damaged a fishery for a spiny lobster. No doubt others will emerge as lobsters are brought into aquaculture setting and as fishing pressure intensifies with stocks become more susceptible to anthropogenic stressors. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Enhancement of juvenile Caribbean spiny lobsters: an evaluation of changes in multiple response variables with the addition of large artificial shelters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briones-Fourzán, Patricia; Lozano-Alvarez, Enrique; Negrete-Soto, Fernando; Barradas-Ortiz, Cecilia

    2007-03-01

    Shortage of natural crevice shelters may produce population bottlenecks in juvenile Caribbean spiny lobsters (Panulirus argus), a socially gregarious species. We conducted a field experiment to test enhancement of a local population of juvenile P. argus with the addition of artificial shelters ("casitas") that mimic large crevices (1.1 m(2) in surface area and 3.8 cm in height). Changes in density and biomass of juvenile lobsters 15-50 mm carapace length (CL) were assessed with a multiple before-after control-impact (MBACI) analysis. Separate analyses were also conducted on small (15-35 mm CL) and large (35.1-50 mm CL) juveniles to assess size-related effects. First, we carried out 13 lobster surveys on nine fixed 1-ha sites over a shallow reef lagoon ("before" period). Then, we deployed ten casitas in each of five sites and left four sites as controls, and conducted 22 further surveys ("after" period). Deployment of casitas resulted in a sixfold increase in juvenile density (76% contributed by small and 24% by large juveniles) and a sevenfold increase in biomass (40 and 60%, respectively). Capture-recapture results revealed that enhancement was achieved not by promoting individual growth but by increasing survival, persistence, and foraging ranges of small and large juveniles. Casitas both mitigated shortage of natural shelter and increased sociality, allowing for cohabitation of smaller, more vulnerable juveniles with larger conspecifics that have greater defensive abilities. Casitas may help enhance local populations of juvenile P. argus in Caribbean seagrass habitats, typically poor in natural crevice shelters. The use of MBACI and the simultaneous assessment of multiple interrelated response variables may be a powerful analytical approach to test shelter limitation in other species and to examine the function of structural habitat in other systems.

  3. Spatiotemporal bioeconomic performance of artificial shelters in a small-scale, rights-based managed Caribbean spiny lobster (Panulirus argus fishery

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    Maren Headley

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a bioeconomic analysis of artificial shelter performance in a fishery targeting a spiny lobster meta-population, with spatially allocated, individual exclusive benthic property rights for shelter introduction and harvest of species. Insights into fishers’ short-run decisions and fishing strategies are also provided. Spatiotemporal bioeconomic performance of shelters located in ten fishing areas during four seasons was compared using two-way ANOVAs and Pearson correlations. Results show that there was spatiotemporal heterogeneity in bioeconomic variables among fishing areas, with mean catch per unit effort (CPUE, kg shelter–1 ranging from 0.42 kg to 1.3 kg per trip, mean quasi-profits of variable costs per shelter harvested ranging from USD6.00 to USD19.57 per trip, and mean quasi-profits of variable costs ranging from USD338 to USD1069 per trip. Positive moderate correlations between shelter density and CPUE (kg shelter–1 km–2 were found. Bioeconomic performance of the shelters was influenced by spatiotemporal resource abundance and distribution, fishing area location in relation to the port, shelter density, heterogeneous fishing strategies and the management system. The results provide empirical information on the spatiotemporal performance of shelters and fishing strategies and can contribute to management at the local-scale of a meta-population distributed throughout the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico.

  4. Modeling the dispersal of spiny lobster (

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Whomersley, P.; van der Molen, J.; Holt, D.; Trundle, C.; Clark, S.; Fletcher, D.

    2018-01-01

    Knowledge of larval dispersal, population dynamics and connectivity in relation to the management and conservation of commercially important species is vital if existing fisheries are to remain sustainable into the future. Larval dispersal of the commercially exploited spiny lobster, Palinurus

  5. Which Fishers Are Satisfied in the Caribbean? A Comparative Analysis of Job Satisfaction among Caribbean Lobster Fishers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnereau, Iris; Pollnac, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Lobster fishing (targeting the spiny lobster "Panulirus argus") is an important economic activity throughout the Wider Caribbean Region both as a source of income and employment for the local population as well as foreign exchange for national governments. Due to the high unit prices of the product, international lobster trade provides a…

  6. Variability in prevalence of Cymatocarpus solearis (Trematoda, Brachycoeliidae) in Caribbean spiny lobsters Panulirus argus (Decapoda: Palinuridae) from Bahía de la Ascensión (Mexico).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briones-Fourzán, Patricia; Muñoz de Cote-Hernández, Rubén; Lozano-Álvarez, Enrique

    2016-06-01

    Cymatocarpus solearis, a brachycoeliid trematode that parasitizes sea turtles, uses spiny lobsters Panulirus argus as second intermediate hosts. We examined variability in infection by C. solearis in Bahía de la Ascensión, Mexico, a tropical bay with a highly productive fishery for P. argus that is based on the extensive use of casitas (large artificial shelters), which can harbor multiple juveniles and adults of this gregarious lobster species. We sampled 3956 lobsters from 466 casitas distributed over three bay zones within two closed seasons and one fishing season. In these lobsters (9.5-115.2mm carapace length, CL), the average infection prevalence was 11.7% but the probability of infection increased significantly with size. Prevalence varied with season but was consistently higher in one zone than in the other two zones. Infection with C. solearis was negatively related with clinical infection with Panulirus argus Virus 1 (PaV1). We also sampled 405 lobsters from the commercial catch obtained throughout the bay at the onset of the fishing season. In these relatively larger lobsters (70.3-168.0mm CL), average prevalence of C. solearis was higher (23.5%) but was not affected by lobster size or sex. Encysted metacercariae occurred in both abdominal and cephalothoracic muscles. The effects of C. solearis on phenotypic traits of P. argus that may potentially impact the host population dynamics and fisheries remain to be investigated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Variability in clinical prevalence of PaV1 in Caribbean spiny lobsters occupying commercial casitas over a large bay in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candia-Zulbarán, Rebeca I; Briones-Fourzán, Patricia; Negrete-Soto, Fernando; Barradas-Ortiz, Cecilia; Lozano-Álvarez, Enrique

    2012-08-27

    In Bahía de la Ascensión, Mexico, the fishery for spiny lobsters Panulirus argus is based on the extensive use of casitas, large artificial shelters that can harbor the full size range of these highly gregarious lobsters. The discovery of a pathogenic virus in these lobsters (Panulirus argus virus 1, or PaV1) has raised concern about its potential effects on casita-based fisheries. Because in Bahía de la Ascensión visibly infected lobsters represent an immediate loss of revenue, we examined variability in clinical prevalence of PaV1 (percentage of lobsters visibly infected) in thousands of lobsters sampled from the commercial catch at the onset of 3 consecutive fishing years, and from 530 casitas distributed over 3 zones within the bay during 2 fishing and 2 closed seasons. In the commercial catch (lobsters 67 to 147 mm carapace length [CL]), clinical prevalence of PaV1 was low and was not affected by year or sex. In lobsters (9.2 to 115.0 mm CL) that occupied casitas, clinical prevalence of PaV1 varied with sampling season and was always higher in juveniles than in subadults or adults, but was consistently lower in one zone relative to the other 2 zones. The average clinical prevalence of PaV1 in this bay was statistically similar to the average clinical prevalence reported in Cuba, where casitas are also used, and in Florida Bay, USA, where casitas are not used. To date, PaV1 has had no discernible impact on the lobster fishery in Bahía de la Ascensión, suggesting that clinical prevalence is not influenced by the use of casitas per se.

  8. POSSIBILITIES OF CULTURING BIG SEA CRABS (LOBSTERS, SPINY LOBSTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivančica Strunjak-Perović

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available By the end of the 19 th century an experimental work on culturing big sea crabs began in Europe and North America. Great demand for their flesh as well as their high price urged many institutions to explore the possibilities of a commercial production in varios parts of the world. Lobsters (Homarus sp. were mainly used for experimenting, so that the most data available refer to them. Because of the complicated larva stage spiny lobster culturing is mainly being carried out in experimental circumstances. Despite the promissing results this aquacultural activity faces many problems (long time until they achieve a commercial size, loss of eggs due to stress sensitivity during the process of moulting, canibalism. In order to minimize these problems various researches are being carried out, like temperature influence, influence of light, way of feeding, hormonal regulation of moulting frequency. Although both lobster and spiny lobsters live in the Adriatic Sea, there are no data on their culturing in our contry. Concernig conditions in our sea there are realistic possibilities for crabs production development. In this way this delicacy would be more affordable to broader population and could be a highly rated export product.

  9. 50 CFR 640.27 - Spiny lobster import prohibitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ATLANTIC Management Measures § 640.27 Spiny lobster import prohibitions. (a) Minimum size limits for... than Puerto Rico or the U.S. Virgin Islands, and a more restrictive minimum size limit that applies to Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. (1) No person may import a spiny lobster with less than a 5...

  10. 76 FR 59377 - Amendments to the Reef Fish, Spiny Lobster, Queen Conch and Coral and Reef Associated Plants and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-26

    ... lobster, and aquarium trade species identified by the Secretary as not undergoing overfishing; allocate... effect of the 2011 Caribbean ACL Amendment is prevent overfishing of reef fish, spiny lobster and... be subject to overfishing, ACLs must be established at a level that prevents overfishing and helps to...

  11. Ultrastructure and functional organization of mouthpart sensory setae of the spiny lobster Panulirus argus: new features of putative mechanoreceptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garm, Anders Lydik; Høeg, Jens T

    2006-01-01

    In comparison with other decapods, the Caribbean spiny lobster Panulirus argus has little diversity in the external morphology of the setae on the mouth apparatus. In mouthpart areas that frequently touch food items only two types of setae can be distinguished: simple setae and cuspidate setae...

  12. Spiny lobster Panulirus versicolor filogenetic and genetic in Lombok waters, West Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranata B.

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the phylogenetic spiny lobster Panulirus versicolor in Lombok waters, Indonesia and its association with P. versicolor spiny lobster from several regions of the Indian Ocean based on the cytochrome oxidase I (COI gene. The researchers collected tissue samples from 13 P. versicolor spiny lobster in Lombok waters. 9 haplotypes were identified with haplotype diversity values (Hd and nucleotides (Pi respectively Hd = 0.859 and Pi = 0.00509. Research results exhibit P. versicolor spiny lobster population from the waters of Lombok is closely related to the spiny lobster population in some regions of the Indian Ocean. In general, P. versicolor spiny lobster population formed a monophyletic clone with spiny lobsters from several regions of the Indian Ocean with genetic distance values (P-distance from 0.001 to 0.004. The reconstruction of the haplotype network exhibited no genetic structure, which means that each population is not genetically isolated from others.

  13. Reproductive biology of spiny lobster Panulirus regius from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reproductive biology of spiny lobster Panulirus regius from the northwestern Cape Verde Islands. R Freitas, A Medina, S Correira, M Castro. Abstract. No Abstract. African Journal of Marine Science Vol.29(2) 2007: pp. 201-208. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL ...

  14. True navigation and magnetic maps in spiny lobsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boles, Larry C; Lohmann, Kenneth J

    2003-01-02

    Animals are capable of true navigation if, after displacement to a location where they have never been, they can determine their position relative to a goal without relying on familiar surroundings, cues that emanate from the destination, or information collected during the outward journey. So far, only a few animals, all vertebrates, have been shown to possess true navigation. Those few invertebrates that have been carefully studied return to target areas using path integration, landmark recognition, compass orientation and other mechanisms that cannot compensate for displacements into unfamiliar territory. Here we report, however, that the spiny lobster Panulirus argus oriented reliably towards a capture site when displaced 12-37 km to unfamiliar locations, even when deprived of all known orientation cues en route. Little is known about how lobsters and other animals determine position during true navigation. To test the hypothesis that lobsters derive positional information from the Earth's magnetic field, lobsters were exposed to fields replicating those that exist at specific locations in their environment. Lobsters tested in a field north of the capture site oriented themselves southwards, whereas those tested in a field south of the capture site oriented themselves northwards. These results imply that true navigation in spiny lobsters, and perhaps in other animals, is based on a magnetic map sense.

  15. Physiological and immunological characterization of Caribbean spiny lobsters Panulirus argus naturally infected with Panulirus argus Virus 1 (PaV1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual Jiménez, Cristina; Huchin-Mian, Juan Pablo; Simões, Nuno; Briones-Fourzán, Patricia; Lozano-Álvarez, Enrique; Sánchez Arteaga, Ariadna; Pérez-Vega, Juan Antonio; Simá-Álvarez, Raúl; Rosas Vazquez, Carlos; Rodríguez-Canul, Rossanna

    2012-08-27

    The present study compares 13 physiological and immunological variables between a group of healthy Panulirus argus lobsters and a group of lobsters naturally infected with Panulirus argus Virus 1 (PaV1). Viral infection was determined through histopathology and PCR. Ten of the 13 variables differed significantly between the 2 groups. Using these variables, a principal component analysis yielded 2 separate clusters: one corresponding to the healthy group and the other corresponding to the infected group. In particular, infected lobsters exhibited significantly lower levels of osmotic pressure, total hemocyte counts, plasmatic proteins, and total phenoloxidase (PO) activity in plasma, as well as significantly higher levels of cholesterol and acylglycerides. These features are consistent with metabolic wasting, hyperlipidemia, and presumed immune suppression. Infection with PaV1 appears to increase the susceptibility of lobsters to some other opportunistic pathogens, as 61.1% of infected lobsters presented infestations of ciliate epibionts (Epystilis and Zoothamniun) in the gill chamber compared with 11.5% lobsters in the healthy group. Infected lobsters also showed significantly higher levels of total PO activity in degranulated hemocytes and trypsin inhibitor activity, potentially indicating activation of immune response by the PO system during the systemic infection with PaV1.

  16. Spiny lobsters detect conspecific blood-borne alarm cues exclusively through olfactory sensilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabani, Shkelzen; Kamio, Michiya; Derby, Charles D

    2008-08-01

    When attacked by predators, diverse animals actively or passively release molecules that evoke alarm and related anti-predatory behavior by nearby conspecifics. The actively released molecules are alarm pheromones, whereas the passively released molecules are alarm cues. For example, many insects have alarm-signaling systems that involve active release of alarm pheromones from specialized glands and detection of these signals using specific sensors. Many crustaceans passively release alarm cues, but the nature of the cues, sensors and responses is poorly characterized. Here we show in laboratory and field experiments that injured Caribbean spiny lobsters, Panulirus argus, passively release alarm cues via blood (hemolymph) that induce alarm responses in the form of avoidance and suppression of feeding. These cues are detected exclusively through specific olfactory chemosensors, the aesthetasc sensilla. The alarm cues for Caribbean spiny lobsters are not unique to the species but do show some phylogenetic specificity: P. argus responds primarily with alarm behavior to conspecific blood, but with mixed alarm and appetitive behaviors to blood from the congener Panulirus interruptus, or with appetitive behaviors to blood from the blue crab Callinectes sapidus. This study lays the foundation for future neuroethological studies of alarm cue systems in this and other decapod crustaceans.

  17. Stock assessment of the red spiny lobster (Panulirus argus caught in the tropical southwestern Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humber A Andrade

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The stocks of the red spiny lobster (Panulirus argus (Latreille, 1804 in the Caribbean and in the Brazilian coast are of considerable economic importance. There are important genetic differences between the Brazilian and Caribbean populations, which support separated stock assessment. The present study provides an assessment of the Brazilian stock of P. argus using a biomass dynamic model based on a Bayesian approach. Assuming that the catch per unit effort is a valid index of relative abundance, the results of the analysis indicate that stocks have been heavily overexploited since the 1980s. The present-day scenario is pessimistic, and there is evidence that the stock may be close to collapse.

  18. 77 FR 50642 - Spiny Lobster Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic; Amendment 11; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-22

    .... 110908576-2240-02] RIN 0648-BB44 Spiny Lobster Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic; Amendment... the final rule to implement Amendment 11 to the Fishery Management Plan for the Spiny Lobster Fishery..., 2012), incorrect latitudinal coordinates for Lobster Trap Gear Closed Areas 16 and 17, and longitudinal...

  19. Deep-sea spiny lobster, Puerulus sewelli Ramadan: Its commercial potentialities

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, P.V.; George, M.J.

    Recent exploratory cruises carried out along and outside the continental shelf off the west coast of India have brought to light the existence of spiny lobster in considerable numbers The trawling operations conducted in areas of depths between 200...

  20. Chemosensory neurons in the mouthparts of the spiny lobsters Panulirus argus and Panulirus interruptus (Crustacea : Decapoda)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garm, Anders Lydik; Shabani, Shkelzen; Høeg, Jens Thorvald

    2005-01-01

    We studied electrophysiological properties of single chemosensory neurons in the mouthparts of the spiny lobsters Panulirus argus and Panulirus interruptus to complement our growing understanding of the behavioral roles of mouthparts of decapod crustaceans. Food mixtures and 13 single compounds...

  1. Spiny lobsters use urine-borne olfactory signaling and physical aggressive behaviors to influence social status of conspecifics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabani, Shkelzen; Kamio, Michiya; Derby, Charles D

    2009-08-01

    Decapod crustaceans, like many other animals, engage in agonistic behaviors that enhance their ability to compete for resources with conspecifics. These agonistic behaviors include the release of chemical signals as well as physical aggressive and submissive behaviors. In this study, we report that Caribbean spiny lobsters, Panulirus argus, use both urine-borne chemical signaling and physical aggressive behaviors during interactions with conspecifics, and that these agonistic behaviors can influence the behavior and eventual social status of the interactants. Spiny lobsters that engaged primarily in physical aggressive behaviors became dominant, whereas spiny lobsters that received these physical aggressive behaviors responded with avoidance behaviors and became subordinates. Dominant animals frequently released urine during social interactions, more than when they were not in contact with subordinates and more than when they were not paired with another animal. Subordinates released urine significantly less often than dominants, and no more than when not paired. Preventing release of urine by catheterizing the animals resulted in an increase in the number and duration of physical interactions, and this increase was primarily driven by dominants initiating interactions through physical aggressive behaviors. Introducing urine from one of the catheterized animals into an aquarium reduced physical aggressive behavior by dominant animals to normal levels. Urine-borne signals alone were capable of inducing avoidance behaviors from solitary spiny lobsters in both laboratory and field conditions. We conclude that urine serves as a chemical signal that communicates social status to the interactants. Ablation experiments showed that that these urine signals are detected primarily by aesthetasc sensilla of the olfactory pathway.

  2. Disposition of phenanthrene and octachlorostyrene in spiny lobsters, Panulirus argus, after intragastric administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solbakken, J.E.; Knap, A.H.

    1986-01-01

    Spiny lobster (Panulirus argus) is a commercial crustacean in Bermuda. It was therefore of interest to study the fate of xenobiotics in the species as very little attention has been paid to toxicological studies with spiny lobsters. Earlier it was found that the temperate crustacean, Nephrops norveqicus (Norway lobster) had the ability to accumulate and eliminate phenanthrene. The aim of this investigation was to gain a better understanding of the fate of xenobiotics in crustaceans under different environmental conditions, and to compare the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, phenenthrene, with the more environmentally persistent chlorinated compound octachlorostyrene, a by-product of magnesium metal production

  3. Potential virulence factors of bacteria associated with tail fan necrosis in the spiny lobster, Jasus edwardsii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, H; Jeffs, A; Dong, Y; Lewis, G

    2018-05-01

    Tail fan necrosis (TFN) is a common condition found in commercially exploited spiny lobsters that greatly diminishes their commercial value. Bacteria possessing proteolytic, chitinolytic and lipolytic capabilities were associated with TFN in spiny lobsters, Jasus edwardsii. In this study, 69 bacterial isolates exhibiting all the three enzymatic capabilities from the haemolymph and tail fans of J. edwardsii with and without TFN were further characterized and compared, including morphology, biofilm formation, antimicrobial activity, antimicrobial resistance, and production of siderophores, melanin and ammonia. The genomic patterns of the most common Vibrio crassostreae isolates were also compared between TFN-affected and unaffected lobsters. Biofilm formation was stronger in bacterial isolates from both haemolymph and tail fans of TFN-affected lobsters compared to those from the unaffected lobsters, while melanin production and siderophore production were stronger in the isolates from tail fans of lobsters with TFN. By contrast, the other characteristics of isolates were similar in lobsters with and without TFN. The Vib. crassostreae isolates from the affected lobsters had similar genomic patterns. Overall, the results indicate that in addition to proteolytic, chitinolytic and lipolytic activities, the bacteria associated with TFN commonly have enhanced activity of important virulence factors, including biofilm formation, melanin production and siderophore production. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Carbohydrates digestion and metabolism in the spiny lobster (Panulirus argus): biochemical indication for limited carbohydrate utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Viera, Leandro; Perera, Erick; Montero-Alejo, Vivian; Perdomo-Morales, Rolando; García-Galano, Tsai; Martínez-Rodríguez, Gonzalo; Mancera, Juan M

    2017-01-01

    As other spiny lobsters, Panulirus argus is supposed to use preferentially proteins and lipids in energy metabolism, while carbohydrates are well digested but poorly utilized. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary carbohydrate level on digestion and metabolism in the spiny lobster P. argus . We used complementary methodologies such as post-feeding flux of nutrients and metabolites, as well as measurements of α-amylase expression and activity in the digestive tract. Lobsters readily digested and absorbed carbohydrates with a time-course that is dependent on their content in diet. Lobster showed higher levels of free glucose and stored glycogen in different tissues as the inclusion of wheat flour increased. Modifications in intermediary metabolism revealed a decrease in amino acids catabolism coupled with a higher use of free glucose as carbohydrates rise up to 20%. However, this effect seems to be limited by the metabolic capacity of lobsters to use more than 20% of carbohydrates in diets. Lobsters were not able to tightly regulate α-amylase expression according to dietary carbohydrate level but exhibited a marked difference in secretion of this enzyme into the gut. Results are discussed to highlight the limitations to increasing carbohydrate utilization by lobsters. Further growout trials are needed to link the presented metabolic profiles with phenotypic outcomes.

  5. Carbohydrates digestion and metabolism in the spiny lobster (Panulirus argus: biochemical indication for limited carbohydrate utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Rodríguez-Viera

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available As other spiny lobsters, Panulirus argus is supposed to use preferentially proteins and lipids in energy metabolism, while carbohydrates are well digested but poorly utilized. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary carbohydrate level on digestion and metabolism in the spiny lobster P. argus. We used complementary methodologies such as post-feeding flux of nutrients and metabolites, as well as measurements of α-amylase expression and activity in the digestive tract. Lobsters readily digested and absorbed carbohydrates with a time-course that is dependent on their content in diet. Lobster showed higher levels of free glucose and stored glycogen in different tissues as the inclusion of wheat flour increased. Modifications in intermediary metabolism revealed a decrease in amino acids catabolism coupled with a higher use of free glucose as carbohydrates rise up to 20%. However, this effect seems to be limited by the metabolic capacity of lobsters to use more than 20% of carbohydrates in diets. Lobsters were not able to tightly regulate α-amylase expression according to dietary carbohydrate level but exhibited a marked difference in secretion of this enzyme into the gut. Results are discussed to highlight the limitations to increasing carbohydrate utilization by lobsters. Further growout trials are needed to link the presented metabolic profiles with phenotypic outcomes.

  6. The deep-water spiny lobster Palinurus gilchristi is one of five ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    The deep-water spiny lobster Palinurus gilchristi is one of five ... conditions because all features that can be used to determine the ... growth as a function of CL were calculated for each ..... (>85 mm CL) may bear eggs more than once per year.

  7. Genetic Diversity Approach to Fishery Management Spiny Lobster Southern Waters of Java Based on SWOT Analysis and AHP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florensius Eko Haryono

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia as an archipelagic and tropical country, and known as the centre of megabiodiversity. Tropical spiny lobster consists of several species and able to survive without water for a certain period and this excess used to be distributed life conditions.  Spiny lobster fisheries is become an important issue in Indonesia now, due to the catch condition decrease for some decade, and need a policy to manage. Spiny lobster management strategy based on biodiversity genetic of lobster in Southern of Central Java (SCJ and Special  Region of Jogjakarta (SRJ waters done by collecting the lobster randomly, and collecting the questioner to fisherman, lobster collector, government and NGO from February-August 2015.  Data analyzed by SWOT and AHP methods.   The management priorities based on highest score. The first priority management based on genetic of lobster is not carried out on an isolated by each districts. Second priority management based on genetic lobster was avoid of each district management. Third priority was  optimizing new fishingground.  Fourth priority optimized of habitat utilization, optimized  fishing time, and increased number of fishing trips . Key word : Spiny lobster, diversity genetic, SWOT, AHP.

  8. Genetic isolation between the Western and Eastern Pacific populations of pronghorn spiny lobster Panulirus penicillatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seinen Chow

    Full Text Available The pronghorn spiny lobster, Panulirus penicillatus, is a circumtropical species which has the widest global distribution among all the species of spiny lobster, ranging throughout the entire Indo-Pacific region. Partial nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial DNA COI (1,142-1,207 bp and 16S rDNA (535-546 bp regions were determined for adult and phyllosoma larval samples collected from the Eastern Pacific (EP(Galápagos Islands and its adjacent water, Central Pacific (CP(Hawaii and Tuamotu and the Western Pacific (WP(Japan, Indonesia, Fiji, New Caledonia and Australia. Phylogenetic analyses revealed two distinct large clades corresponding to the geographic origin of samples (EP and CP+WP. No haplotype was shared between the two regional samples, and average nucleotide sequence divergence (Kimura's two parameter distance between EP and CP+WP samples was 3.8±0.5% for COI and 1.0±0.4% for 16S rDNA, both of which were much larger than those within samples. The present results indicate that the Pacific population of the pronghorn spiny lobster is subdivided into two distinct populations (Eastern Pacific and Central to Western Pacific, with no gene flow between them. Although the pronghorn spiny lobster have long-lived teleplanic larvae, the vast expanse of Pacific Ocean with no islands and no shallow substrate which is known as the East Pacific Barrier appears to have isolated these two populations for a long time (c.a. 1MY.

  9. Characterising the fate of nitrogenous waste from the sea-cage aquaculture of spiny lobsters using numerical modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soxi; Hartstein, Neil D; Jeffs, Andrew

    2015-06-01

    Although the aquaculture of spiny lobsters has been expanding since the 1970s, very little is known about the potential environmental impacts on water quality of this activity. This study quantified the production of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) from Australasian red spiny lobsters, Jasus edwardsii, in the laboratory, and these data were then used in a numerical model to predict the dispersal pattern of DIN from a hypothetical commercial spiny lobster farm for a coastal site where such a farm would typically be located. Modelling scenarios were set up with combinations of two different stocking densities (3 and 5 kg m(-3)), two different diets (mussels and moist artificial diet) and three different feed conversion ratios (FCR = 3, 5 and 28). DIN excretion rate from unfed lobsters in the laboratory on average was 1.10 ± 0.12 μg N g(-1) h(-1) while feeding lobsters on mussels and artificial diet increased DIN excretion significantly by around eightfold and twofold, respectively. Ammonia was consistently the dominant contributor to measured DIN output from lobsters. Modelling results indicated that the mean elevated DIN from a hypothetical farm where the lobsters were fed with mussels ranged from 7 up to 20 μg N L(-1) with increasing stocking density and FCR and was 30-150 % higher than the mean elevated DIN resulting from lobsters fed with artificial diet. Overall, the results indicated that DIN output from the hypothetical spiny lobster sea-cage farming is unlikely to be problematic using the FCR, stocking density, and the number of cages modelled at the coastal site in this study. Furthermore, feeding lobsters with artificial diet can help maintain a lower DIN output than seafood, such as mussels or trash fish.

  10. Mechanosensory Neurons With Bend- and Osmo-sensitivity in Mouthpart Setae From the Spiny Lobster Panulirus argus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garm, Anders; Derby, Charles D; Høeg, Jens T

    2004-01-01

    The mouthparts of the spiny lobster Panulirus argus hold primarily two types of setae--simple setae and cuspidate setae. Mechanosensory neurons from these setae were examined by electrophysiological recordings. The population of simple setae contained two types of mechanosensory neurons: displace......The mouthparts of the spiny lobster Panulirus argus hold primarily two types of setae--simple setae and cuspidate setae. Mechanosensory neurons from these setae were examined by electrophysiological recordings. The population of simple setae contained two types of mechanosensory neurons...

  11. Assessment of predation risk through conspecific alarm odors by spiny lobsters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Strong “alarm odors” emanating from lethally injured conspecifics may indicate an imminent risk of predation to spiny lobsters. In laboratory trials,1 strong conspecific alarm odors elicited avoidance in Panulirus argus, a highly gregarious species that displays collective defense behavior, but not in Panulirus guttatus, a species that tends to aggregate when reproductive activity is high (spring) but not when it is low (late summer) and does not display collective defensive behavior. To reduce predation risk, however, lobsters may autotomize limbs, thus sustaining nonlethal injuries. I tested the response of these lobsters to scents emanating from intact, lethally-injured and non-lethally injured conspecifics. In P. argus, these scents elicited, respectively, attraction, avoidance and a random response, suggesting that, in P. argus, avoidance of conspecific alarm odors depends on their strength. In contrast, P. guttatus lobsters responded at random to scents of lethally injured conspecifics and showed a similar response to scents of intact and non-lethally injured conspecifics in the spring (attraction) and in the summer (random), reflecting the more cryptic defensive behavior of this species. Therefore, both species use conspecific alarm odors for risk-assessment, but each responds to these cues in the most effective way to reduce its risk of predation. PMID:19721871

  12. Assessment of predation risk through conspecific alarm odors by spiny lobsters: How much is too much?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briones-Fourzán, Patricia

    2009-07-01

    Strong "alarm odors" emanating from lethally injured conspecifics may indicate an imminent risk of predation to spiny lobsters. In laboratory trials,1 strong conspecific alarm odors elicited avoidance in Panulirus argus, a highly gregarious species that displays collective defense behavior, but not in Panulirus guttatus, a species that tends to aggregate when reproductive activity is high (spring) but not when it is low (late summer) and does not display collective defensive behavior. To reduce predation risk, however, lobsters may autotomize limbs, thus sustaining nonlethal injuries. I tested the response of these lobsters to scents emanating from intact, lethally-injured and non-lethally injured conspecifics. In P. argus, these scents elicited, respectively, attraction, avoidance and a random response, suggesting that, in P. argus, avoidance of conspecific alarm odors depends on their strength. In contrast, P. guttatus lobsters responded at random to scents of lethally injured conspecifics and showed a similar response to scents of intact and non-lethally injured conspecifics in the spring (attraction) and in the summer (random), reflecting the more cryptic defensive behavior of this species. Therefore, both species use conspecific alarm odors for risk-assessment, but each responds to these cues in the most effective way to reduce its risk of predation.

  13. Effects of mannan oligosaccharide dietary supplementation on performances of the tropical spiny lobsters juvenile (Panulirus ornatus, Fabricius 1798).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Huynh Minh; Fotedar, Ravi

    2010-03-01

    The effects of dietary mannan oligosaccharide (MOS) (Bio-Mos, Alltech, USA) on the growth, survival, physiology, bacteria and morphology of the gut and immune response to bacterial infection of tropical rock lobsters (Panulirus ornatus) juvenile were investigated. Dietary inclusion level of MOS at 0.4% was tested against the control diet (trash fish) without MOS inclusion. At the end of 56 days of rearing period, a challenged test was also conducted to evaluate the bacterial infection resistant ability of the lobsters fed the two diets. Lobster juvenile fed MOS diet attained 2.86 +/- 0.07 g of total weigh and 66.67 +/- 4.76% survival rate which were higher (P lobsters fed control diet (2.35 +/- 0.14 g total weight and 54.76 +/- 2.38% survival rate, respectively) thus providing the higher (P lobsters fed MOS diet. Physiological condition indicators such as wet tail muscle index (Tw/B), wet hepatosomatic index (Hiw) and dry tail muscle index (Td/B) of the lobsters fed MOS supplemented diet were higher (P lobsters fed the control diet. Bacteria in the gut (both total aerobic and Vibrio spp.) and gut's absorption surface indicated by the internal perimeter/external perimeter ratio were also higher (P lobsters were fed MOS diet. Lobsters fed MOS diet were in better immune condition showed by higher THC and GC, and lower bacteraemia. Survival, THC, GC were not different among the lobsters fed either MOS or control diet after 3 days of bacterial infection while bacteraemia was lower in the lobsters fed MOS diet. After 7 days of bacterial infection the lobsters fed MOS diet showed higher survival, THC, GC and lower bacteraemia than the lobsters fed the control diet. The experimental trial demonstrated the ability of MOS to improve the growth performance, survival, physiological condition, gut health and immune responses of tropical spiny lobsters juveniles. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Sex Diversity Approach of Spiny Lobster (Panulirus spp) to Marine Oil Spill Pollution in Southern Waters of Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haryono, F. E. D.; Ambariyanto; Sulistyo, I.

    2018-02-01

    Coastal of southern Java waters is known as inhabit area of spiny lobster. Accumulation of hydrocarbon frequently occurs at the coastal waters as impact of oil pollution caused by oil leak from supplying ship of crude oil to Cilacap refinery. As shipping channel of oil, presence of oil spills is often detected at coastal areas of Cilacap. It can be indicated by range of sediment in the area which has risk levels in range of low to medium-low. It was, therefore, found that some locations suffered a greater impact on the ecological which giving high risk for marine organism life. Spiny lobster is one of many organism living at sea bed which threatened its life due to the presence of oil. Population of Spiny Lobster has to be protected because it has commercially valuable commodity for producing high nutrition. Considering the matters, it is therefore important to find a method for alleviating the problem. Investigation should be focused on biological aspect of spiny lobster in encountering extreme pollution at the coastal. For that purpose, a field research was conducted from January until July 2015. Using gillnet with 1 inch mesh size, the lobsters were randomly collected from southern Java districts waters. There were 1137 lobsters collected from six districts waters. Furthermore, the sample was morphologically identified and it was found that there were six species in the areas. In all area, P. homarus was found as dominant species, except in Gunung kidul district which was dominated by P. penicillatus. In term of sex diversity, there is statistically difference in number of female and male, each species no significant. Even though environment quality was very worse, there was found existence of ovigerous female in the research area as about 12% of the population. Those facts strongly indicated that the lobsters has a unique adaptation to survive in extremely low quality of environment due to marine oil spill.

  15. Redefining metamorphosis in spiny lobsters: molecular analysis of the phyllosoma to puerulus transition in Sagmariasus verreauxi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Tomer; Fitzgibbon, Quinn P; Battaglene, Stephen C; Elizur, Abigail

    2015-08-27

    The molecular understanding of crustacean metamorphosis is hindered by small sized individuals and inability to accurately define molt stages. We used the spiny lobster Sagmariasus verreauxi where the large, transparent larvae enable accurate tracing of the transition from a leaf-shaped phyllosoma to an intermediate larval-juvenile phase (puerulus). Transcriptomic analysis of larvae at well-defined stages prior to, during, and following this transition show that the phyllosoma-puerulus metamorphic transition is accompanied by vast transcriptomic changes exceeding 25% of the transcriptome. Notably, genes previously identified as regulating metamorphosis in other crustaceans do not fluctuate during this transition but in the later, morphologically-subtle puerulus-juvenile transition, indicating that the dramatic phyllosoma-puerulus morphological shift relies on a different, yet to be identified metamorphic mechanism. We examined the change in expression of domains and gene families, with focus on several key genes. Our research implies that the separation in molecular triggering systems between the phyllosoma-puerulus and puerulus-juvenile transitions might have enabled the extension of the oceanic phase in spiny lobsters. Study of similar transitions, where metamorphosis is uncoupled from the transition into the benthic juvenile form, in other commercially important crustacean groups might show common features to point on the evolutionary advantage of this two staged regulation.

  16. Redefining metamorphosis in spiny lobsters: molecular analysis of the phyllosoma to puerulus transition in Sagmariasus verreauxi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Tomer; Fitzgibbon, Quinn P.; Battaglene, Stephen C.; Elizur, Abigail

    2015-01-01

    The molecular understanding of crustacean metamorphosis is hindered by small sized individuals and inability to accurately define molt stages. We used the spiny lobster Sagmariasus verreauxi where the large, transparent larvae enable accurate tracing of the transition from a leaf-shaped phyllosoma to an intermediate larval-juvenile phase (puerulus). Transcriptomic analysis of larvae at well-defined stages prior to, during, and following this transition show that the phyllosoma-puerulus metamorphic transition is accompanied by vast transcriptomic changes exceeding 25% of the transcriptome. Notably, genes previously identified as regulating metamorphosis in other crustaceans do not fluctuate during this transition but in the later, morphologically-subtle puerulus-juvenile transition, indicating that the dramatic phyllosoma-puerulus morphological shift relies on a different, yet to be identified metamorphic mechanism. We examined the change in expression of domains and gene families, with focus on several key genes. Our research implies that the separation in molecular triggering systems between the phyllosoma-puerulus and puerulus-juvenile transitions might have enabled the extension of the oceanic phase in spiny lobsters. Study of similar transitions, where metamorphosis is uncoupled from the transition into the benthic juvenile form, in other commercially important crustacean groups might show common features to point on the evolutionary advantage of this two staged regulation. PMID:26311524

  17. Comparative electron microscopy and image analysis of oxy- and deoxy-hemocyanin from the spiny lobster Panulirus interruptus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haas, Felix de; Breemen, Jan F.L. van; Boekema, Egbert J.; Keegstra, Wilko; Bruggen, Ernst F.J. van

    1993-01-01

    Structural differences between oxy-hemocyanin and deoxy-hemocyanin from the spiny lobster P. interruptus were studied by electron microscopy and image analysis of negatively stained preparations. Projections of the hexameric P. interruptus hemocyanin from electron microscopy were compared with

  18. Artisanal fishing of spiny lobsters with gillnets — A significant anthropic impact on tropical reef ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Welter Giraldes

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Artisanal fishing activity with gillnets to capture the spiny lobster is a common practice along the coastal reefs of Brazil. This research aims to understand the impact that this artisanal fishing practice is having on the coastal reef systems analysing its associated fauna (bycatch and the stock of the target species Panulirus echinatus. The study compared an area which was subjected to intense gillnet fishing against one were the practice was absent. The analysis of target species using nocturnal visual census demonstrated a significantly higher number of P. echinatus at the site where gillnet use was virtually absent within three sampled habitats, fringe, cave and soft bottom. The analysis of bycatch species from artisanal fishermen’s gillnet landings recorded 4 lobster species and 10 crab species. These decapod species play an important ecological role as detritivores, herbivorous and first consumers within the reef ecosystem as well as being natural prey items for several reef fishes. The study concludes that this non-discriminatory fishing technique impacts directly on populations of P. echinatus, P. argus and P. laevicauda as well as other lobster and crab species which in-turn indirectly affects the ecological role of the tropical coastal reefs of Brazil.

  19. Movement patterns of the spiny lobster Palinurus elephas (Fabricius, 1787 from a central western Mediterranean protected area

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    Maria Cristina Follesa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Movement patterns of the spiny lobster Palinurus elephas were determined from 389 individuals (total tagged 5666 tag-recaptured inside a no-take area of the central western Mediterranean and its surrounding zone. High site association and limited movements in tagged lobsters was observed; 60.4% of lobsters moved less than 2 km from the centre of the area (site of release. No clear relationship between lobster movement pattern and sex or size was observed; however, it seemed that the largest males and females tended to be more resident, thus contributing to the rebuilding of the biomass of local lobsters. Most lobsters undertook migrations in the southwest direction. The increased availability of shelters and food towards the southwest could have contributed to the lobsters’ movement. The results of our research indicate that the small size of the protected area and the scale of the movement exhibited by tagged lobsters allows a proportion of the lobster population to move out of the protected area and become susceptible to capture in the adjacent fishery.

  20. Milky hemolymph syndrome (MHS) in spiny lobsters, penaeid shrimp and crabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunan, Linda M; Poulos, Bonnie T; Navarro, Solangel; Redman, Rita M; Lightner, Donald V

    2010-09-02

    Black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon, European shore crab Carcinus maenas and spiny lobster Panulirus spp. can be affected by milky hemolymph syndrome (MHS). Four rickettsia-like bacteria (RLB) isolates of MHS originating from 5 geographical areas have been identified to date. The histopathology of the disease was characterized and a multiplex PCR assay was developed for detection of the 4 bacterial isolates. The 16S rRNA gene and 16-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region (ISR) were used to examine the phylogeny of the MHS isolates. Although the pathology of this disease appears similar in the various different hosts, sequencing and examination of the phylogenetic relationships reveal 4 distinct RLB involved in the infection process.

  1. Isolation and characterization of eight polymorphic microsatellites for the spotted spiny lobster, Panulirus guttatus

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    Nathan Truelove

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Microsatellite sequences were isolated from enriched genomic libraries of the spotted spiny lobster, Panulirus guttatus using 454 pyrosequencing. Twenty-nine previously developed polymerase chain reaction primer pairs of Panulirus argus microsatellite loci were also tested for cross-species amplification in Panulirus guttatus. In total, eight consistently amplifying, and polymorphic loci were characterized for 57 individuals collected in the Florida Keys and Bermuda. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 8 to 20 and observed heterozygosities ranged from 0.409 to 0.958. Significant deviations from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium were found in one locus from Florida and three loci from Bermuda. Quality control testing indicated that all loci were easy to score, highly polymorphic and showed no evidence of linkage disequilibrium. Null alleles were detected in three loci with moderate frequencies ranging from (20% to 22%. These eight microsatellites provide novel molecular markers for future conservation genetics research of P. guttatus.

  2. Near-Infrared Spectroscopy as a Novel Non-Invasive Tool to Assess Spiny Lobster Nutritional Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodemann, Thomas; Carter, Chris G.

    2016-01-01

    Rapid non-invasive monitoring of spiny lobster nutritional condition has considerable application in the established fishery, live market and prospective aquaculture. The aim of this research was to test the feasibility of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) as a novel non-invasive tool to assess the nutritional condition of three lobster species. Lobster (n = 92) abdominal muscle dry matter (AMDM) and carbon content (AMC) correlated significantly with indices of nutritional condition including hepatopancreas dry matter (HPDM; rho = 0.83, 0.78), total lipid content (HPTL; rho = 0.85, 0.87) and haemolymph total protein (TP; rho = 0.89, 0.87 respectively). Abdominal muscle nitrogen content (AMN) was a poor correlate of nutritional condition. Models based on FT-NIR scanning of whole lobster tails successfully predicted AMDM, AMN and AMC (RMSECV = 1.41%, 0.35% and 0.91%; R2 = 0.75, 0.65, 0.77, respectively), and to a lower accuracy HPDM, HPTL and TP (RMSECV = 6.22%, 8.37%, 18.4 g l-1; R2 = 0.51, 0.70, 0.83, respectively). NIRS was applied successfully to assess the condition of spiny lobsters non-invasively. This pilot study paves the way for the development of crustacean condition models using portable non-invasive devices in the laboratory or in the field. PMID:27442242

  3. Grow-out of spiny lobster Panulirus sp. with high stocking density in controlled tanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rio Yusufi Subhan

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe aim of this research was to determine optimum stocking density for growing-out of spiny lobster Panulirus sp. in controlled tanks that conducted for 30 days. The experimental spiny lobsters have the initial average weight of 130.39 ± 0.32 g and initial average total length of 140.70 ± 0.06 mm. This study used completely randomized design with three different stocking densities (KT10: 10 ind/m3; KT18: 18 ind/m3; and KT26: 26 ind/m3 and two replications. The parameters observed in this study included water quality (temperature, pH, salinity, dissolved oxygen, and total ammonia nitrogen, physiological responses (total haemocyte count, haemolymph glucose, and frequency of molt, and production performances, such as growth, specific growth rate, feed conversion ratio, and survival rate. The results showed that the spiny lobster could be reared in high stocking density in controlled tanks. Water quality during the study in each treatment was; temperature 26.56–28.65oC, salinity 29.7–33.6 g/L, pH 7.5–8.5, dissolved oxygen 6.15–6.58 mg/L, and total ammonia nitrogen 0.11–0.34 mg/L. The best stocking densities for spiny lobster was 18 ind/m3 (KT18 with 2.5‒3.5×106cells/mL total haemocyte counts, 24.6‒28.3 mg/dL haemolymph glucose, and 38.37 ± 3.20% frequency of molt. The final average body weight and length were 145.06 ± 0.42 g and 142.77 ± 0.19 mm, respectively. The survival rate reached 86.11 ± 3.92% with a specific growth rate 0.35 ± 0.01%/day, and feed conversion ratio 7.87 ± 0.31.Keywords: high stocking density, Panulirus sp., physiological responses, productivity.  ABSTRAKTujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menentukan kepadatan terbaik dalam pembesaran lobster laut Panulirus sp. yang dipelihara dalam bak terkontrol selama 30 hari. Lobster laut yang digunakan pada awal penelitian memiliki bobot 130,39 ± 0,32 g dan panjang total 140,70 ± 0,06 mm. Penelitian dilakukan menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap dengan

  4. Molecular evidence for the Southern Hemisphere origin and deep-sea diversification of spiny lobsters (Crustacea: Decapoda: Palinuridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, L M; Chan, T-Y; Cheung, M K; Chu, K H

    2009-05-01

    Spiny lobsters (family Palinuridae) are economically important marine animals that have been the subject of a considerable amount of research. However, the phylogeny of this group remains disputed. Morphological analyses have not been able to resolve the relationships of the various members of the group, and no agreement has yet been reached on its phylogeny as indicated by the different gene trees reported to date. In the present study, we attempt to reconstruct the phylogeny of Palinuridae and its allies using sequences from three nuclear protein-coding genes (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, sodium-potassium ATPase alpha-subunit and histone 3). The inferred topology receives strong nodal support for most of the branches. The family Palinuridae is found to be paraphyletic with the polyphyletic Synaxidae nested within it. Stridentes forms a monophyletic assemblage, indicating that the stridulating sound producing organ evolved only once in the spiny lobsters. By contrast, Silentes is paraphyletic, as Palinurellus is more closely related to Stridentes than to other Silentes genera. The three genera restricted to the southern high latitudes (Jasus, Projasus and Sagmariasus) constitute the basal lineages in the spiny lobsters, suggesting a Southern Hemisphere origin for the group. Subsequent diversification appears to have been driven by the closure of the Tethys Sea and the formation of the Antarctic circumpolar current, which isolated the northern and southern taxa. Contrary to an earlier hypothesis that postulated evolution from a deep-sea ancestral stock, the shallow-water genus Panulirus is the basal taxon in Stridentes, while the deep-sea genera Puerulus and Linuparus are found to be derived. This indicates that the spiny lobsters invaded deep-sea habitats from the shallower water rocky reefs and then radiated. Our results suggest that Synaxidae is not a valid family, and should be considered to be synonymous with Palinuridae. We also found that the

  5. Differences in life-history and ecological traits between co-occurring Panulirus spiny lobsters (Decapoda, Palinuridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briones-Fourzán, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Coexistence of closely related species may be promoted by niche differentiation or result from interspecific trade-offs in life history and ecological traits that influence relative fitness differences and contribute to competitive inequalities. Although insufficient to prove coexistence, trait comparisons provide a first step to identify functional differences between co-occurring congeneric species in relation to mechanisms of coexistence. Here, a comparative review on life history and ecological traits is presented for two pairs of co-occurring species of spiny lobsters in the genus Panulirus: Panulirusgracilis and Panulirusinflatus from the Eastern Central Pacific region, and Panulirusargus and Panulirusguttatus from the Caribbean region. Panulirusgracilis and Panulirusinflatus have similar larval, postlarval, and adult sizes and a similar diet, but differ in degree of habitat specialization, fecundity, and growth rate. However, little is known on behavioral traits of these two species that may influence their competitive abilities and susceptibility to predators. The more abundant information on Panulirusargus and Panulirusguttatus shows that these two species differ more broadly in degree of habitat specialization, larval, postlarval and adult sizes, diet, fecundity, growth rate, degree of sociality, defense mechanisms, susceptibility to predators, and chemical ecology, suggesting a greater degree of niche differentiation between Panulirusargus and Panulirusguttatus than between Panulirusgracilis and Panulirusinflatus. Whether the substantial niche differentiation and apparent interspecific trade-offs between Panulirusargus and Panulirusguttatus relative to Panulirusgracilis and Panulirusinflatus reflect an earlier divergence of the former pair of species in the evolution of the genus constitutes an intriguing hypothesis. However, whether or not post-divergence evolution of each species pair occurred in sympatry remains uncertain.

  6. Settlement and juvenile habitat of the European spiny lobster Palinurus elephas (Crustacea: Decapoda: Palinuridae in the western Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Díaz

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Settlement characteristics, like timing, depth, microhabitat and density of European spiny lobster Palinurus elephas are described for the very first time. Regular SCUBA-diving surveys were conducted from July 1998 to January 2000 on rocky bottoms of three different geologic origins to assess substratum-dependent differences in recruitment density. Settlement of pueruli took place in June-July, a few weeks after sea surface temperature started to rise. The highest density of juveniles was found at 10-15 m depth. Most spiny lobsters settled in limestone rocks, into empty holes of the date mussel Lithophaga lithophaga, which provided daytime refuge. As they grew, individuals were increasingly found in larger holes and crevices of the rock surface. Sizes were estimated from photographs taken at night when the animals were actively foraging. The smallest observed individuals measured 7.5-8 mm carapace length (CL, but they reached 15-18 mm CL at the end of October. The consequences of our results for the management of the spiny lobster populations in the northwestern Mediterranean are summarily discussed.

  7. 78 FR 57534 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    ... requirements, South Atlantic, Virgin Islands. Dated: September 12, 2013. Samuel D. Rauch III, Deputy Assistant... Mexico, and South Atlantic AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and... Mexico, and South Atlantic: Caribbean coral, Caribbean reef fish, Caribbean spiny lobster, Caribbean...

  8. Characterization of chitinolytic bacteria and histological aspects of Shell Disease Syndrome in European spiny lobsters (Palinurus elephas) (Fabricius 1787).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, M; Costanzo, M T; Maricchiolo, G; Gristina, M; Zaccone, R; Cuccu, D; Genovese, L

    2010-07-01

    The present research reports the first description of Shell Disease Syndrome in European spiny lobsters Palinurus elephas (Fabricius 1787), which occurred in an experimental aquaculture facility in Sicily (Italy). Both bacterial characterization and histopathological examination of the exoskeleton at site of lesions was carried out. Infected specimens showed tail fan erosions, and in one case uropod ulceration and complete loss of periods. Identified species included: Listonella anguillarum 50.5%, Vibrio parahaemolyticus 27.5% and Vibrio alginolyticus 22%. Microscopic evaluation of lesions indicate the presence of inflammatory responses, which include melanization and pseudomembrane formation, similar to those described for other crustaceans affected by SDS. (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. MOLECULAR DETECTION AND CLONING FOR RICKETTSIA-LIKE BACTERIA OF MILKY HAEMOLYMPH DISEASE OF SPINY LOBSTER Panulirus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isti Koesharyani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Spiny lobster (Panulirus homarus and Panulirus ornatus are important commodities for Indonesia. The aquaculture of lobster is susceptible for several diseases like parasite, fungi, bacteria, and virus. Among those diseases, milky haemolymph disease (MHD is often seen as a symptom to mass mortality occurred at lobster farms in Gerupuk Bay of Lombok. The purpose of this study was to determine the lobster diseases on cage culture in Gerupuk Bay of Lombok, West Nusa Tenggara. The study was undertaken from January to March 2015. Diseases status was determined by application of molecular plat-form, polymerase chain reaction (PCR with designation of specific primer for MHD (254F/R, 254F: 5’-CGA-GGA-CCA-GAG-ATG-GAC-CTT-3’ and 254R: 5’-GCT-CAT-TGT-CAC-CGC-CAT-TGT-3’ with PCR size product of 254 bp. and for cloned the pathogen was used TA-cloning Invitrogen for the DNA plasmid as positive control for other analysis. Several tissue samples i.e hepatopancreas, haemolymph, part of muscle hepatopancreas P. homarus and P. ornatus were taken from cage culture farms at Gerupuk Bay then preserved on 90% ethanol for further analysis by PCR and then the amplificated DNA were cloned into pCR®2.1 plasmid and transformed into competent E. coli. The result showed that almost all lobster samples from Gerupuk Bay were positive infected by MHD, as the results of PCR amplification whereas the band appeared at 254bp. Also MHD plasmid has been successfully cloned and will be used for further examination. Histopathologically in hepatopancreas infection have seen necrosis that contain numerous of rickettsia-like bacteria.

  10. COMPARATIVE ELECTRON-MICROSCOPY AND IMAGE-ANALYSIS OF OXY-HEMOCYANIN AND DEOXY-HEMOCYANIN FROM THE SPINY LOBSTER PANULIRUS-INTERRUPTUS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEHAAS, F; VANBREEMEN, JFL; BOEKEMA, EJ; KEEGSTRA, W; VANBRUGGEN, EFJ

    Structural differences between oxy-hemocyanin and deoxy-hemocyanin from the spiny lobster P. interruptus were studied by electron microscopy and image analysis of negatively stained preparations. Projections of the hexameric P. interruptus hemocyanin from electron microscopy were compared with

  11. Influence of conspecific and heterospecific aggregation cues and alarm odors on shelter choice by syntopic spiny lobsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briones-Fourzán, Patricia; Ramírez-Zaldívar, Eunice; Lozano-Alvarez, Enrique

    2008-10-01

    In spiny lobsters, conspecific scents ("aggregation cues") may mediate gregarious diurnal sheltering, but scents from injured conspecifics ("alarm odors") may elicit avoidance behavior. In laboratory experiments, individuals of two coexisting species, Panulirus guttatus (a reef-obligate) and P. argus (a temporary reef-dweller), significantly chose shelters emanating conspecific aggregation cues and responded randomly to shelters emanating heterospecific aggregation cues. However, despite evidence that the two species perceived each other's alarm odors to a similar extent, P. guttatus responded randomly to shelters emanating either conspecific or heterospecific alarm odors, whereas P. argus significantly avoided both. This differential influence of alarm odors likely reflects interspecific differences in life history, sociality, and behavior. The less social, reef-obligate P. guttatus lobsters forage close to their reef dens, into which they retract deeply upon perception of risk. This cryptic behavior may offset the need to avoid conspecific (and heterospecific) alarm odors. In contrast, avoidance of conspecific alarm odors by P. argus is consistent with its ontogenetic habitat shifts and greater sociality. Furthermore, because reef-dwelling P. argus lobsters forage across open areas away from the reef, an ability to avoid alarm odors from P. guttatus upon returning to their reef dens may increase their fitness.

  12. Effect of copper on the characterization of proteins in the Spiny lobster, Panulirus homarus homarus (Linnaeus,1758

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    Maharajan Athisuyambulingam

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Copper is most toxic metal in marine organisms. Characterization of protein occurring in the metabolically active tissues of muscle (MU, hepatopancreas (HP and gills (GL of the spiny lobster, Panulirus homarus homarus on exposure to two sub-lethal doses (9.55 and 19.1 µg/l of copper were studied for 28 days of exposure (DoE. The electrophoretic pattern of muscle, hepatopancreas and gill proteins revealed 12, 8 and 8 slow moving bands (control. The number of bands decreased to 8 and 7, 6 and 5, 6 and 4 after 7 days of exposure to 9.55 µg/l and 19.1 µg/l concentrations of copper, respectively. After 28 days, the protein bands decreased to 7 and 6, 5 and 4, 4 and 4 at 9.55 µg/l and 19.1 µg/l concentrations of copper, respectively. Present study to indicate that to avoid the Cupro-Nickel coil in lobster holding centers in chiller plants used for cooling of water was found to be responsible for the mortality of lobsters during live transportation.

  13. 3-Methylcholanthrene does not induce in vitro xenobiotic metabolism in spiny lobster hepatopancreas, or affect in vivo disposition of benzo(a)pyrene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, M O; Little, P J

    1984-01-01

    Administration of 3-methylcholanthrene (10 mg/kg) i.m. to spiny lobsters, Panulirus argus, did not cause induction of the cytochrome P-450 content of hepatopancreas microsomes. The rate of oxidation of benzo(a)pyrene or 7-ethoxyresorufin in reductase-fortified preparations of hepatopancreas microsomes was the same for corn oil-treated or 3-methylcholanthrene-treated lobsters. Administration of 3-methylcholanthrene (10 mg/kg) i.m. to spiny lobsters one week prior to an i.v. dose of (/sup 14/C)benzo(a)pyrene (1 mg/kg) did not influence the disposition of the radiolabelled benzo(a)pyrene in lobsters. At one week after the dose of (/sup 14/C)benzo(a)pyrene, approximately 40% of the dose of (/sup 14/C)benzo(a)pyrene remained in the lobsters, regardless of treatment. The digestive tract (hepatopancreas, intestinal contents, stomach and intestine) contained most (86%) of the /sup 14/C remaining in the lobsters.

  14. Defense through sensory inactivation: sea hare ink reduces sensory and motor responses of spiny lobsters to food odors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love-Chezem, Tiffany; Aggio, Juan F; Derby, Charles D

    2013-04-15

    Antipredator defenses are ubiquitous and diverse. Ink secretion of sea hares (Aplysia) is an antipredator defense acting through the chemical senses of predators by different mechanisms. The most common mechanism is ink acting as an unpalatable repellent. Less common is ink secretion acting as a decoy (phagomimic) that misdirects predators' attacks. In this study, we tested another possible mechanism--sensory inactivation--in which ink inactivates the predator's reception of food odors associated with would-be prey. We tested this hypothesis using spiny lobsters, Panulirus argus, as model predators. Ink secretion is composed of two glandular products, one being opaline, a viscous substance containing concentrations of hundreds of millimolar of total free amino acids. Opaline sticks to antennules, mouthparts and other chemosensory appendages of lobsters, physically blocking access of food odors to the predator's chemosensors, or over-stimulating (short term) and adapting (long term) the chemosensors. We tested the sensory inactivation hypotheses by treating the antennules with opaline and mimics of its physical and/or chemical properties. We compared the effects of these treatments on responses to a food odor for chemoreceptor neurons in isolated antennules, as a measure of effect on chemosensory input, and for antennular motor responses of intact lobsters, as a measure of effect on chemically driven motor behavior. Our results indicate that opaline reduces the output of chemosensors by physically blocking reception of and response to food odors, and this has an impact on motor responses of lobsters. This is the first experimental demonstration of inactivation of peripheral sensors as an antipredatory defense.

  15. Modeling the Dispersal of Spiny Lobster (Palinurus elephas Larvae: Implications for Future Fisheries Management and Conservation Measures

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    Paul Whomersley

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of larval dispersal, population dynamics and connectivity in relation to the management and conservation of commercially important species is vital if existing fisheries are to remain sustainable into the future. Larval dispersal of the commercially exploited spiny lobster, Palinurus elephas, was modeled from Marine Protected Areas located in the southwest of England for a 16-month period using a General Individuals Transport Model (GITM. The model included physical particle advection based on current fields from a 3D hydrodynamics model and a larval behavior module. Our results demonstrate the overall dispersal patterns of P. elephas larvae and highlight populations capable of self-seeding and those which are seemingly reliant on larvae from more distant populations. The results indicate where further research may be required to fully understand how populations of P. elephas are maintained at regional, national and international scales while providing us with the opportunity to discuss the effectiveness of current approaches to conservation and fisheries management.

  16. Genetic Isolation among the Northwestern, Southwestern and Central-Eastern Indian Ocean Populations of the Pronghorn Spiny Lobster Panulirus penicillatus

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    Muhamad Fadry Abdullah

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The pronghorn spiny lobster Panulirus penicillatus is a highly valuable species which is widely distributed in Indo-West Pacific and Eastern Pacific regions. Mitochondrial DNA control region sequences (566–571 bp were determined to investigate the population genetic structure of this species in the Indian Ocean. In total, 236 adult individuals of Panulirus penicillatus were collected from five locations in the Indian Ocean region. Almost all individuals had a unique haplotype. Intrapopulation haplotype (h and nucleotide (π diversities were high for each locality, ranging from h = 0.9986–1.0000 and π = 0.031593–0.043441. We observed distinct genetic isolation of population located at the northwestern and southwestern edge of the species range. Gene flow was found within localities in the central and eastern region of the Indian Ocean, probably resulting from an extended planktonic larval stage and prevailing ocean currents.

  17. 77 FR 44168 - Spiny Lobster Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic; Amendment 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-27

    ... Trap Gear Closed Area 37. Point North Lat. West Long. A 25[deg]07'51.156'' 80[deg]17'27.910'' B 25[deg...'40.998'' A 25[deg]07'51.156'' 80[deg]17'27.910'' (xxxviii) Lobster Trap Gear Closed Area 38. Point...) Lobster Trap Gear Closed Area 51. Point North Lat. West Long. A 25[deg]16'33.006'' 80[deg]13'30.001'' B 25...

  18. 77 FR 28560 - Spiny Lobster Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic; Amendment 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-15

    ...'' (xxxvii) Lobster Trap Gear Closed Area 37. Point North lat. West long. A 25[deg]07'51.156''. 80[deg]17'27... Trap Gear Closed Area 51. Point North lat. West long. A 25[deg]16'33.006''. 80[deg]13'30.001'' B 25[deg...) Lobster Trap Gear Closed Area 55. Point North lat. West long. A 25[deg]21'45.004''. 80[deg]09'51.998'' B...

  19. Morphology of the male gonads of the spiny lobster Panulirus laevicauda (Latreille, 1817

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Valêsca Pinto de Lima

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study represented a contribution to the knowledge of the cytological and histological aspects of decapods' reproductive system, describing male germ cells of the spiny lobster Panulirus laevicauda. Seventy-one specimens of different sizes were caught off Fortaleza (Ceará, Brazil. Their testes were removed and fixed in Bouin solution, then, after 24 hours, dehydrated, cleared and embedded in the paraffin. Sections (4 µm thick were stained with hematoxylin-eosin. The testes appeared macroscopically as a pair of long and highly convoluted tubes joined by a transversal commissure giving the organ an H-like shape. Microscopically, supporting cells and germ cells (spermatogonia I and II, spermatocytes, spermatids and spermatozoa were seen in the testicular acini. Some of the acini showed signs of the spermotocytes and the spermatogonia degeneration. The spermatozoa were small cells with the peripheral nuclei and a lightly basophilic cytoplasm. They were nonmotile gametes and are characterized by the absence of a flagellum, but they had spikes radiating from the body. Three stages of follicular development in the mature individuals were observed: (a predominance of spermatogonia I and II; (b increasing numbers of spermatocytes I and II; and (c spermatocytes I and II were prevalent. All the three stages of the spermatozoa were observed in the follicular lumen. These observations agreed with the published descriptions of other palinurid and homarid lobsters. A histochemical analysis of the testes showed that the main component of the tunic was collagenous fibers, that the seminal fluid contained plenty of glycoproteins and carboxyl-glycoconjugates and that the spherical bodies and spermatozoa contained glycoproteins and mucoproteins.O presente trabalho tem como objetivo ampliar os conhecimentos na área de histologia e citologia do sistema reprodutivo dos Decapoda, descrevendo as células germinativas do macho da lagosta Panulirus

  20. Lobster Logbook Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NWHI lobster trap fishery, which commenced in the mid-1970s, is a multispecies fishery and primarily targets the Hawaiian spiny lobster (Panuliris marginatus)...

  1. A revision of the Indo-West Pacific spiny Lobsters of the Panulirus Japonicus group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    George, R.W.; Holthuis, L.B.

    1965-01-01

    INTRODUCTION As a result of separate investigations on Panulirus japonicus (sens, lat.), the present authors independently came to the conclusion that more than one species was included under that name. The first author (George), when in 1958 studying specimens of the Western Australian spiny

  2. Mechanisms underlying odorant-induced and spontaneous calcium signals in olfactory receptor neurons of spiny lobsters, Panulirus argus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadesse, Tizeta; Derby, Charles D; Schmidt, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    We determined if a newly developed antennule slice preparation allows studying chemosensory properties of spiny lobster olfactory receptor neurons under in situ conditions with Ca(2+) imaging. We show that chemical stimuli reach the dendrites of olfactory receptor neurons but not their somata, and that odorant-induced Ca(2+) signals in the somata are sufficiently stable over time to allow stimulation with a substantial number of odorants. Pharmacological manipulations served to elucidate the source of odorant-induced Ca(2+) transients and spontaneous Ca(2+) oscillations in the somata of olfactory receptor neurons. Both Ca(2+) signals are primarily mediated by an influx of extracellular Ca(2+) through voltage-activated Ca(2+) channels that can be blocked by CoCl2 and the L-type Ca(2+) channel blocker verapamil. Intracellular Ca(2+) stores contribute little to odorant-induced Ca(2+) transients and spontaneous Ca(2+) oscillations. The odorant-induced Ca(2+) transients as well as the spontaneous Ca(2+) oscillations depend on action potentials mediated by Na(+) channels that are largely TTX-insensitive but blocked by the local anesthetics tetracaine and lidocaine. Collectively, these results corroborate the conclusion that odorant-induced Ca(2+) transients and spontaneous Ca(2+) oscillations in the somata of olfactory receptor neurons closely reflect action potential activity associated with odorant-induced phasic-tonic responses and spontaneous bursting, respectively. Therefore, both types of Ca(2+) signals represent experimentally accessible proxies of spiking.

  3. Acidity enhances the effectiveness of active chemical defensive secretions of sea hares, Aplysia californica, against spiny lobsters, Panulirus interruptus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabani, Shkelzen; Yaldiz, Seymanur; Vu, Luan; Derby, Charles D

    2007-12-01

    Sea hares such as Aplysia californica, gastropod molluscs lacking a protective shell, can release a purple cloud of chemicals when vigorously attacked by predators. This active chemical defense is composed of two glandular secretions, ink and opaline, both of which contain an array of compounds. This secretion defends sea hares against predators such as California spiny lobsters Panulirus interruptus via multiple mechanisms, one of which is phagomimicry, in which secretions containing feeding chemicals attract and distract predators toward the secretion and away from the sea hare. We show here that ink and opaline are highly acidic, both having a pH of approximately 5. We examined if the acidity of ink and opaline affects their phagomimetic properties. We tested behavioral and electrophysiological responses of chemoreceptor neurons in the olfactory and gustatory organs of P. interruptus, to ink and opaline of A. californica within their natural range of pH values, from approximately 5 to 8. Both behavioral and electrophysiological responses to ink and opaline were enhanced at low pH, and low pH alone accounted for most of this effect. Our data suggest that acidity enhances the phagomimetic chemical defense of sea hares.

  4. Towards a Supertree of Arthropoda: A Species-Level Supertree of the Spiny, Slipper and Coral Lobsters (Decapoda: Achelata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Katie E; Hesketh, Thomas W; Delmer, Cyrille; Wills, Matthew A

    2015-01-01

    While supertrees have been built for many vertebrate groups (notably birds, mammals and dinosaurs), invertebrates have attracted relatively little attention. The paucity of supertrees of arthropods is particularly surprising given their economic and ecological importance, as well as their overwhelming contribution to biodiversity. The absence of comprehensive archives of machine-readable source trees, coupled with the need for software implementing repeatable protocols for managing them, has undoubtedly impeded progress. Here we present a supertree of Achelata (spiny, slipper and coral lobsters) as a proof of concept, constructed using new supertree specific software (the Supertree Toolkit; STK) and following a published protocol. We also introduce a new resource for archiving and managing published source trees. Our supertree of Achelata is synthesised from morphological and molecular source trees, and represents the most complete species-level tree of the group to date. Our findings are consistent with recent taxonomic treatments, confirming the validity of just two families: Palinuridae and Scyllaridae; Synaxidae were resolved within Palinuridae. Monophyletic Silentes and Stridentes lineages are recovered within Palinuridae, and all sub-families within Scyllaridae are found to be monophyletic with the exception of Ibacinae. We demonstrate the feasibility of building larger supertrees of arthropods, with the ultimate objective of building a complete species-level phylogeny for the entire phylum using a divide and conquer strategy.

  5. Mechanisms of peripheral phylogeographic divergence in the indo-Pacific: lessons from the spiny lobster Panulirus homarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhadi, Ahmad; Jeffs, Andrew G; Farahmand, Hamid; Rejiniemon, Thankappan Sarasam; Smith, Greg; Lavery, Shane D

    2017-08-18

    There is increasing recognition of the concordance between marine biogeographic and phylogeographic boundaries. However, it is still unclear how population-level divergence translates into species-level divergence, and what are the principal factors that first initiate that divergence, and then maintain reproductive isolation. This study examines the likely forces driving population and lineage divergences in the broadly-distributed Indo-Pacific spiny lobster Panulirus homarus, which has peripheral divergent lineages in the west and east. The study focuses particularly on the West Indian Ocean, which is emerging as a region of unexpected diversity. Mitochondrial control region (mtCR) and COI sequences as well as genotypes of 9 microsatellite loci were examined in 410 individuals from 17 locations grouped into 7 regions from South Africa in the west, and eastward across to Taiwan and the Marquesas Islands. Phylogenetic and population-level analyses were used to test the significance and timing of divergences and describe the genetic relationships among populations. Analyses of the mtCR revealed high levels of divergence among the seven regions (Ф ST  = 0.594, P Indo-Pacific that helps drive some of the regions' recognized biogeographic boundaries.

  6. Towards a Supertree of Arthropoda: A Species-Level Supertree of the Spiny, Slipper and Coral Lobsters (Decapoda: Achelata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie E Davis

    Full Text Available While supertrees have been built for many vertebrate groups (notably birds, mammals and dinosaurs, invertebrates have attracted relatively little attention. The paucity of supertrees of arthropods is particularly surprising given their economic and ecological importance, as well as their overwhelming contribution to biodiversity. The absence of comprehensive archives of machine-readable source trees, coupled with the need for software implementing repeatable protocols for managing them, has undoubtedly impeded progress. Here we present a supertree of Achelata (spiny, slipper and coral lobsters as a proof of concept, constructed using new supertree specific software (the Supertree Toolkit; STK and following a published protocol. We also introduce a new resource for archiving and managing published source trees. Our supertree of Achelata is synthesised from morphological and molecular source trees, and represents the most complete species-level tree of the group to date. Our findings are consistent with recent taxonomic treatments, confirming the validity of just two families: Palinuridae and Scyllaridae; Synaxidae were resolved within Palinuridae. Monophyletic Silentes and Stridentes lineages are recovered within Palinuridae, and all sub-families within Scyllaridae are found to be monophyletic with the exception of Ibacinae. We demonstrate the feasibility of building larger supertrees of arthropods, with the ultimate objective of building a complete species-level phylogeny for the entire phylum using a divide and conquer strategy.

  7. Ecology: avoidance of disease by social lobsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behringer, Donald C; Butler, Mark J; Shields, Jeffrey D

    2006-05-25

    Transmissible pathogens are the bane of social animals, so they have evolved behaviours to decrease the probability of infection. There is no record, however, of social animals avoiding diseased individuals of their own species in the wild. Here we show how healthy, normally gregarious Caribbean spiny lobsters (Panulirus argus) avoid conspecifics that are infected with a lethal virus. Early detection and avoidance of infected, though not yet infectious, individuals by healthy lobsters confers a selective advantage and highlights the importance of host behaviour in disease transmission among natural populations.

  8. Comparing the catch composition, profitability and discard survival from different trammel net designs targeting common spiny lobster (Palinurus elephas) in a Mediterranean fishery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catanese, Gaetano; Hinz, Hilmar; Gil, Maria Del Mar; Palmer, Miquel; Breen, Michael; Mira, Antoni; Pastor, Elena; Grau, Amalia; Campos-Candela, Andrea; Koleva, Elka; Grau, Antoni Maria; Morales-Nin, Beatriz

    2018-01-01

    In the Balearic Islands, different trammel net designs have been adopted to promote fisheries sustainability and reduce discards. Here, we compare the catch performance of three trammel net designs targeting the spiny lobster Palinurus elephas in terms of biomass, species composition and revenue from commercial catches and discards. Designs differ in the netting fiber type (standard polyfilament, PMF, or a new polyethylene multi-monofilament, MMF) and the use of a guarding net or greca , a mesh piece intended to reduce discards. Catches were surveyed by an on-board observer from 1,550 netting walls corresponding to 70 nets. The number of marketable species captured indicated that the lobster trammel net fishery has multiple targets, which contribute significantly to the total revenue. The discarded species ranged from habitat-forming species to elasmobranches, but the magnitude of gear-habitat interactions on the long term dynamics of benthos remains unclear. No relevant differences in revenue and weight of discards were detected after Bayesian analyses. However, the species composition of discards was different when using greca . Interestingly, high immediate survival was found for discarded undersized lobsters, while a seven day survival assessment, using captive observation, gave an asymptotic estimate of survival probability as 0.64 (95% CI [0.54-0.76]). Therefore, it is recommended that it would be beneficial for this stock if an exemption from the EU landing obligation regulation was sought for undersized lobsters in the Balearic trammel net fishery.

  9. Comparing the catch composition, profitability and discard survival from different trammel net designs targeting common spiny lobster (Palinurus elephas in a Mediterranean fishery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano Catanese

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In the Balearic Islands, different trammel net designs have been adopted to promote fisheries sustainability and reduce discards. Here, we compare the catch performance of three trammel net designs targeting the spiny lobster Palinurus elephas in terms of biomass, species composition and revenue from commercial catches and discards. Designs differ in the netting fiber type (standard polyfilament, PMF, or a new polyethylene multi-monofilament, MMF and the use of a guarding net or greca, a mesh piece intended to reduce discards. Catches were surveyed by an on-board observer from 1,550 netting walls corresponding to 70 nets. The number of marketable species captured indicated that the lobster trammel net fishery has multiple targets, which contribute significantly to the total revenue. The discarded species ranged from habitat-forming species to elasmobranches, but the magnitude of gear-habitat interactions on the long term dynamics of benthos remains unclear. No relevant differences in revenue and weight of discards were detected after Bayesian analyses. However, the species composition of discards was different when using greca. Interestingly, high immediate survival was found for discarded undersized lobsters, while a seven day survival assessment, using captive observation, gave an asymptotic estimate of survival probability as 0.64 (95% CI [0.54–0.76]. Therefore, it is recommended that it would be beneficial for this stock if an exemption from the EU landing obligation regulation was sought for undersized lobsters in the Balearic trammel net fishery.

  10. Morphometric relationships and size at sexual maturity of the deep-sea Caribbean lobster Metanephrops binghami (Decapoda: Nephropidae in the Colombian Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the morphometric relationships and size at sexual maturity of deep-sea Caribbean lobster. Data were obtained in the Colombian Caribbean in four trawling surveys in November and December 2009 between 200 and 550 m depth. 709 individuals with sizes between 53.65 and 191.00 mm (TL (mean 121.17 ± 27.13 mm were measured. M. binghami had a positive allometric growth. Lobsters of the family Nephropidae have a worldwide distribution and economic importance. High levels of biomass of Metanephrops binghami have been reported in the Colombian Caribbean and this species could become a potential new resource for the Western Atlantic fishery. However, prior to the development of a new fishery, more biological research is needed to understand the life cycle of this species. Aspects such as growth, spawning, recruitment, mortality, nursery areas and associated biodiversity should be carefully studied.

  11. Advances in tecnological development and present status of the spiny lobster (Panulirus argus from egg to commecial size / Avanços no desenvolvimento tecnológico e status atual do cultivo de lagostas (Panulirus argus do ovo ao tamanho comercial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Igarashi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this review is to sumarize the studies on culture of Caribbean spiny lobster (Panulirus argus. Spiny lobster became a highly valued marine organism, since then, have had a manifold increase over the years in Brazil. However, most fisheries are fully exploited, and one of the few ways to increase production is through aquaculture. Keeping the larval spiny lobster alive in the laboratory through these delicate stages is very difficult. The first complete culture of Caribbean spiny lobster from hatch to puerulus stage occurred in 2006 at Mie Prefectural Fisheries Station in Japan. This result reflects the increasing availability of information on optimal culturing conditions, such as optimal environmental parameters, feeding, and tank design. Still, there are significant problems to overcome in the establishment of large-scale culture of phyllosoma. These further challenges include the control of bacterial diseases and excessive aggregation of larvae, the use of prepared diets such as artificial foods, and the reduction of high operating costs. In addition possibilities for the present are exploitation of juveniles from densely populated areas and utilization of natural food resources as feed for the lobster. In conclusion it is possible farming juvenile spiny lobsters in growout system.A proposta desta revisão é resumir as informações sobre os estudos do cultivo de lagosta vermelha (Panulirus argus. As lagostas espinhosas tornaram-se, desde o início de sua exploração, um produto marinho de relevante importância econômica para o Brasil. No entanto, é notória a ocorrência da sobrepesca e, para efeito de minimizar essa situação uma das soluções é o seu cultivo. A larvicultura de lagostas em condições laboratoriais é sobremodo difícil, devido ao alto grau de sensibilidade da larva. O primeiro cultivo completo da lagosta vermelha desde a eclosão até o estágio de puerulus ocorreu em 2006 na Estação de Pesca na

  12. Experimental Rearing of Spiny Lobster, Panulirus homarus (Palinuridae in Land-Based Tanks at Mirbat Station (Sultanate of Oman in 2009-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Balkhair

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments on the rearing of the spiny lobster Panulirus homarus were conducted in land-based tanks at Mirbat Aquaculture Unit from June to December 2009 and January-December 2010. In the first experiment 14 lobsters with an average size of 64.9±7.4 mm CL and weight of 297.8±98.0 g were reared to an average of 71.7±7.2 mm CL and weight of 384.0±114.8 g over 187 days. In the second experiment 45 lobsters were reared from an initial length of 45.4±4.6 mm CL and weight of 118.9 g to a length 66.0±7.1 mm CL and a weight of 304.1 g over 335 days. Total length increment was 45.8% and weight increment 155.1%. The daily food ration was 3.0-8.8%. The survival rate in the first experiment was 92.9%, in the second experiment it was also high (86.7% during the first six months. In both experiments males grew faster than females. While the water temperature, pH, salinity and dissolved oxygen reflected the ambient condition of the Arabian Sea, these were not optimal levels for lobsters culture. The salinity was higher (37.5 ppt, while the water temperature was low (<20oC during the summer monsoon. The study demonstrated the possibility of cultivating sub-adult lobsters in Oman from 40–45 mm CL and 100 g to maturity stage, obtaining the legal size of 70 mm CL and a weight of about 350 g over a year. It is recommended that the next experiment be conducted in floating sea cages from October to June.

  13. Factors affecting growth of the spiny lobsters Panulirus gracilis and Panulirus inflatus (Decapoda: Palinuridae in Guerrero, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Briones-Fourzán

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of sex, injuries, season and site on the growth of the spiny lobsters Panulirus gracilis, and P. inflatus, were studied through mark-recapture techniques in two sites with different ecological characteristics on the coast of Guerrero, México. Panulirus gracilis occurred in both sites, whereas P. inflatus occurred only in one site. All recaptured individuals were adults. Both species had similar intermolt periods, but P. gracilis had significantly higher growth rates (mm carapace length week -1 than P. inflatus as a result of a larger molt increment. Growth rates of males were higher than those of females in both species owing to larger molt increments and shorter intermolt periods in males. Injuries had no effect on growth rates in either species. Individuals of P. gracilis grew faster in site 1 than in site 2. Therefore, the effect of season on growth of P. gracilis was analyzed separately in each site. In site 2, growth rates of P. gracilis were similar in summer and in winter, whereas insite 1 both species had higher growth rates in winter than in summer. This could be due to spatial differences in processes related to changes in population density and food resources, which were documented in previous works. The overall results show that P. gracilis grows faster than P. inflatus, and that growth rates of both species are highly variable and are affected by environmental factors such as site and season, which should be taken into account when attempting to produce population growth curves for each species.Se analizaron, por medio de marcado-recaptura, los efectos del sexo, heridas, estación del año y localidad sobre el crecimiento de las langostas espinosas Panulirus gracilis Streets, 1871, y Panulirus inflatus (Bouvier, 1895 en dos localidades con diferentes características ecológicas en la costa de Guerrero, México. Panulirus gracilis se presentó en ambas localidades, mientras que P. inflatus sólo se encontró en una de

  14. Application of remote sensing to the study of the pelagic spiny lobster larval transport in the Tropical Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Aguirre Góes Rudorff

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The connectivity of marine populations via larval dispersal is crucial for the maintenance of fisheries production and biodiversity. Because larval dispersion takes place on different spatial scales, global operational satellite data can be successfully used to investigate the connectivity of marine populations on different spatial and temporal scales. In fact, satellite data have long been used for the study of the large and mesoscale biological processes associated with ocean dynamics. This paper presents simulations of spiny lobster larvae transport in the Tropical Atlantic using the geostrophic currents, generated by altimetry that feeds an advection/diffusion model. Simulations were conducted over the Tropical Atlantic (20ºN to 15ºS, considering four larvae release areas: the Cape Verde Archipelago, the Ivory Coast, Ascension Island and Fernando de Noronha Archipelago. We used mean geostrophic current (MGC calculated from 2001 to 2005 to represent the mean circulation of the Tropical Atlantic. We also ran the model for the El Niño geostrophic current regime (ENGC using part of the MGC data, representing the El Niño 2002/2003 event. Results suggest that the intensification of the mesoscale ocean processes associated with El Niño events promotes the connectivity between populations, increasing the chances of a genetic flux among different stocks. We concluded that the altimetry geostrophic current data together with a relatively simple advection/diffusion model can provide useful information about the physical dynamics necessary to conduct studies on larval dispersion.A conectividade de populações marinhas através da dispersão larval é crucial para a manutenção da produção pesqueira e da biodiversidade. A dispersão de larvas ocorre em diferentes escalas espaciais e temporais, de forma que o recobrimento global e escala sinóptica fazem dos dados de satélite ferramentas importantes para esses estudos. O objetivo deste artigo

  15. TOTAL HEMOCYTE COUNT AND HEMOLYMPH GLUCOSE CONCENRATION RESPONSE OF SPINY LOBSTER Panulirus homarus ON RATIO OF SHELTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhaiba Djai

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to assess the physiological response of the lobster Panulirus homarus for the ratio of the shelters. The method used completely randomized design with two replicates of each treatments with shelter ratio (A 1 : 5, (B 3 : 5, (C 4 : 5, (D 5 : 5. Weight average for 184 lobsters with the stocking density of 23 lobsters for each treatment was 32.64 ± 0.58 g. The experiment was conducted for 60 days. The lobster was fed with trash fish and acclimatized for 7 days before the experiment. Observations on the physiologycal of every 10 days. The physiological responses that observed were total hemocyte count (THC and hemolymph glucose concentration. The results showed that 4:5 was the best lobster shelter ratio because it could reduce stress levels. This is indicated by the stable values of THC and hemolymph glucose level during the experiment and supported by the growth of 57.28 ± 0.15 g and survival rate of 91.31 ± 2.60%. Keywords: lobster, Panulirus homarus, ratio, shelter, THC, glucose

  16. Natural diet of the spiny lobster, Panulirus echinatus Smith, 1869 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Palinuridae, from São Pedro and São Paulo Archipelago, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CA. Góes

    Full Text Available The natural diet of the spiny lobster (Panulirus echinatus from the São Pedro and São Paulo Archipelago was determined by stomach contents analysis of sixty-eight adult lobsters collected during October 2002, March, July and August 2003. Food items were grouped by gross taxa representing 11 food categories. Analysis included a qualitative (Frequency of Occurrence of item i - FOi and a quantitative method (Volume of item i - Vi. A Feed Index (FI = FOi x Vi / 100 proposed by Lauzanne (1975 was also used to indicate the importance of each food category (>50: dominant, 25-50: essential, 10-25: unimportant, <10: secondary. The most important food category determined by % FOi and % Vi, was fish, followed by crustaceans, green algae, calcareous algae, and rocks. The remaining food categories contributed to less than 30% of FOi and 10% of Vi. Although the Feed Index revealed no dominant food category in the diet of P. echinatus, fish was considered essential, crustaceans unimportant, and the remaining food categories were classified as secondary. According to the analysis, P. echinatus can be properly classified as an omnivorous and a generalist species, because it consumes a great diversity of organisms in several trophic levels. This species presents an opportunistic behaviour, feeding on the prey available at substratum. Future studies should address variations in natural diet related to sex, reproductive cycle, and seasonality.

  17. Molecular, Biochemical, and Dietary Regulation Features of α-Amylase in a Carnivorous Crustacean, the Spiny Lobster Panulirus argus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martos-Sitcha, Juan Antonio; Perdomo-Morales, Rolando; Casuso, Antonio; Montero-Alejo, Vivian; García-Galano, Tsai; Martínez-Rodríguez, Gonzalo; Mancera, Juan Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Alpha-amylases are ubiquitously distributed throughout microbials, plants and animals. It is widely accepted that omnivorous crustaceans have higher α-amylase activity and number of isoforms than carnivorous, but contradictory results have been obtained in some species, and carnivorous crustaceans have been less studied. In addition, the physiological meaning of α-amylase polymorphism in crustaceans is not well understood. In this work we studied α-amylase in a carnivorous lobster at the gene, transcript, and protein levels. It was showed that α-amylase isoenzyme composition (i.e., phenotype) in lobster determines carbohydrate digestion efficiency. Most frequent α-amylase phenotype has the lowest digestion efficiency, suggesting this is a favoured trait. We revealed that gene and intron loss have occurred in lobster α-amylase, thus lobsters express a single 1830 bp cDNA encoding a highly conserved protein with 513 amino acids. This protein gives rise to two isoenzymes in some individuals by glycosylation but not by limited proteolysis. Only the glycosylated isoenzyme could be purified by chromatography, with biochemical features similar to other animal amylases. High carbohydrate content in diet down-regulates α-amylase gene expression in lobster. However, high α-amylase activity occurs in lobster gastric juice irrespective of diet and was proposed to function as an early sensor of the carbohydrate content of diet to regulate further gene expression. We concluded that gene/isoenzyme simplicity, post-translational modifications and low Km, coupled with a tight regulation of gene expression, have arose during evolution of α-amylase in the carnivorous lobster to control excessive carbohydrate digestion in the presence of an active α-amylase. PMID:27391425

  18. Molecular, Biochemical, and Dietary Regulation Features of α-Amylase in a Carnivorous Crustacean, the Spiny Lobster Panulirus argus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Rodríguez-Viera

    Full Text Available Alpha-amylases are ubiquitously distributed throughout microbials, plants and animals. It is widely accepted that omnivorous crustaceans have higher α-amylase activity and number of isoforms than carnivorous, but contradictory results have been obtained in some species, and carnivorous crustaceans have been less studied. In addition, the physiological meaning of α-amylase polymorphism in crustaceans is not well understood. In this work we studied α-amylase in a carnivorous lobster at the gene, transcript, and protein levels. It was showed that α-amylase isoenzyme composition (i.e., phenotype in lobster determines carbohydrate digestion efficiency. Most frequent α-amylase phenotype has the lowest digestion efficiency, suggesting this is a favoured trait. We revealed that gene and intron loss have occurred in lobster α-amylase, thus lobsters express a single 1830 bp cDNA encoding a highly conserved protein with 513 amino acids. This protein gives rise to two isoenzymes in some individuals by glycosylation but not by limited proteolysis. Only the glycosylated isoenzyme could be purified by chromatography, with biochemical features similar to other animal amylases. High carbohydrate content in diet down-regulates α-amylase gene expression in lobster. However, high α-amylase activity occurs in lobster gastric juice irrespective of diet and was proposed to function as an early sensor of the carbohydrate content of diet to regulate further gene expression. We concluded that gene/isoenzyme simplicity, post-translational modifications and low Km, coupled with a tight regulation of gene expression, have arose during evolution of α-amylase in the carnivorous lobster to control excessive carbohydrate digestion in the presence of an active α-amylase.

  19. Molecular, Biochemical, and Dietary Regulation Features of α-Amylase in a Carnivorous Crustacean, the Spiny Lobster Panulirus argus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Viera, Leandro; Perera, Erick; Martos-Sitcha, Juan Antonio; Perdomo-Morales, Rolando; Casuso, Antonio; Montero-Alejo, Vivian; García-Galano, Tsai; Martínez-Rodríguez, Gonzalo; Mancera, Juan Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Alpha-amylases are ubiquitously distributed throughout microbials, plants and animals. It is widely accepted that omnivorous crustaceans have higher α-amylase activity and number of isoforms than carnivorous, but contradictory results have been obtained in some species, and carnivorous crustaceans have been less studied. In addition, the physiological meaning of α-amylase polymorphism in crustaceans is not well understood. In this work we studied α-amylase in a carnivorous lobster at the gene, transcript, and protein levels. It was showed that α-amylase isoenzyme composition (i.e., phenotype) in lobster determines carbohydrate digestion efficiency. Most frequent α-amylase phenotype has the lowest digestion efficiency, suggesting this is a favoured trait. We revealed that gene and intron loss have occurred in lobster α-amylase, thus lobsters express a single 1830 bp cDNA encoding a highly conserved protein with 513 amino acids. This protein gives rise to two isoenzymes in some individuals by glycosylation but not by limited proteolysis. Only the glycosylated isoenzyme could be purified by chromatography, with biochemical features similar to other animal amylases. High carbohydrate content in diet down-regulates α-amylase gene expression in lobster. However, high α-amylase activity occurs in lobster gastric juice irrespective of diet and was proposed to function as an early sensor of the carbohydrate content of diet to regulate further gene expression. We concluded that gene/isoenzyme simplicity, post-translational modifications and low Km, coupled with a tight regulation of gene expression, have arose during evolution of α-amylase in the carnivorous lobster to control excessive carbohydrate digestion in the presence of an active α-amylase.

  20. Eleven novel polymorphic microsatellite loci in the ornate spiny ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Southeast Asia, Australia and the West Pacific. Because of their high market value, lobsters are under severe fishing pressure and this ... help to evaluate ornate spiny lobster resources condi- tion and develop its artificial propagation techniques in future. A microsatellite-enriched genomic library of ornate spiny lobster was ...

  1. Cytoarchitecture and ultrastructure of neural stem cell niches and neurogenic complexes maintaining adult neurogenesis in the olfactory midbrain of spiny lobsters, Panulirus argus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Manfred; Derby, Charles D

    2011-08-15

    New interneurons are continuously generated in small proliferation zones within neuronal somata clusters in the olfactory deutocerebrum of adult decapod crustaceans. Each proliferation zone is connected to a clump of cells containing one neural stem cell (i.e., adult neuroblast), thus forming a "neurogenic complex." Here we provide a detailed analysis of the cytoarchitecture of neurogenic complexes in adult spiny lobsters, Panulirus argus, based on transmission electron microscopy and labeling with cell-type-selective markers. The clump of cells is composed of unique bipolar clump-forming cells that collectively completely envelop the adult neuroblast and are themselves ensheathed by a layer of processes of multipolar cell body glia. An arteriole is attached to the clump of cells, but dye perfusion experiments show that hemolymph has no access to the interior of the clump of cells. Thus, the clump of cells fulfills morphological criteria of a protective stem cell niche, with clump-forming cells constituting the adult neuroblast's microenvironment together with the cell body glia processes separating it from other tissue components. Bromodeoxyuridine pulse-chase experiments with short survival times suggest that adult neuroblasts are not quiescent but rather cycle actively during daytime. We propose a cell lineage model in which an asymmetrically dividing adult neuroblast repopulates the pool of neuronal progenitor cells in the associated proliferation zone. In conclusion, as in mammalian brains, adult neurogenesis in crustacean brains is fueled by neural stem cells that are maintained by stem cell niches that preserve elements of the embryonic microenvironment and contain glial and vascular elements. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Lobster trap detection at the Saba Bank

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, van I.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    According to previous studies and anecdotal evidence there are a lot of lost lobster traps at the Saba Bank. One study estimated the loss to be between 210 and 795 lobster traps per year. The Saba Bank is an approximately 2,200 km2 submerged area and spiny lobster (Panulirus argus) is one of the

  3. Oceanographic Currents and Local Ecological Knowledge Indicate, and Genetics Does Not Refute, a Contemporary Pattern of Larval Dispersal for The Ornate Spiny Lobster, Panulirus ornatus in the South-East Asian Archipelago.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoc Tan Dao

    Full Text Available Here we utilize a combination of genetic data, oceanographic data, and local ecological knowledge to assess connectivity patterns of the ornate spiny lobster Panulirus ornatus (Fabricius, 1798 in the South-East Asian archipelago from Vietnam to Australia. Partial mitochondrial DNA control region and 10 polymorphic microsatellites did not detect genetic structure of 216 wild P. ornatus samples from Australia, Indonesia and Vietnam. Analyses show no evidence for genetic differentiation among populations (mtDNA control region sequences ΦST = -0.008; microsatellite loci FST = 0.003. A lack of evidence for regional or localized mtDNA haplotype clusters, or geographic clusters of microsatellite genotypes, reveals a pattern of high gene flow in P. ornatus throughout the South-East Asian Archipelago. This lack of genetic structure may be due to the oceanography-driven connectivity of the pelagic lobster larvae between spawning grounds in Papua New Guinea, the Philippines and, possibly, Indonesia. The connectivity cycle necessitates three generations. The lack of genetic structure of P. ornatus population in the South-East Asian archipelago has important implications for the sustainable management of this lobster in that the species within the region needs to be managed as one genetic stock.

  4. Rapid radiation in spiny lobsters (Palinurus spp) as revealed by classic and ABC methods using mtDNA and microsatellite data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palero, Ferran; Lopes, Joao; Abelló, Pere; Macpherson, Enrique; Pascual, Marta; Beaumont, Mark A

    2009-11-09

    Molecular tools may help to uncover closely related and still diverging species from a wide variety of taxa and provide insight into the mechanisms, pace and geography of marine speciation. There is a certain controversy on the phylogeography and speciation modes of species-groups with an Eastern Atlantic-Western Indian Ocean distribution, with previous studies suggesting that older events (Miocene) and/or more recent (Pleistocene) oceanographic processes could have influenced the phylogeny of marine taxa. The spiny lobster genus Palinurus allows for testing among speciation hypotheses, since it has a particular distribution with two groups of three species each in the Northeastern Atlantic (P. elephas, P. mauritanicus and P. charlestoni) and Southeastern Atlantic and Southwestern Indian Oceans (P. gilchristi, P. delagoae and P. barbarae). In the present study, we obtain a more complete understanding of the phylogenetic relationships among these species through a combined dataset with both nuclear and mitochondrial markers, by testing alternative hypotheses on both the mutation rate and tree topology under the recently developed approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) methods. Our analyses support a North-to-South speciation pattern in Palinurus with all the South-African species forming a monophyletic clade nested within the Northern Hemisphere species. Coalescent-based ABC methods allowed us to reject the previously proposed hypothesis of a Middle Miocene speciation event related with the closure of the Tethyan Seaway. Instead, divergence times obtained for Palinurus species using the combined mtDNA-microsatellite dataset and standard mutation rates for mtDNA agree with known glaciation-related processes occurring during the last 2 my. The Palinurus speciation pattern is a typical example of a series of rapid speciation events occurring within a group, with very short branches separating different species. Our results support the hypothesis that recent climate

  5. How biophysical interactions associated with sub- and mesoscale structures and migration behavior affect planktonic larvae of the spiny lobster in the Juan Fernández Ridge: A modeling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medel, Carolina; Parada, Carolina; Morales, Carmen E.; Pizarro, Oscar; Ernst, Billy; Conejero, Carlos

    2018-03-01

    The Juan Fernández Ridge (JFR) is a chain of topographical elevations in the eastern South Pacific (∼33-35°S, 76-81.5°W). Rich in endemic marine species, this ridge is frequently affected by the arrival of mesoscale eddies originating in the coastal upwelling zone off central-southern Chile. The impacts of these interactions on the structure and dynamics of the JFR pelagic system have, however, not been addressed yet. The present model-based study is focused on the coupled influence of mesoscale-submesoscale processes and biological behavior (i.e., diel vertical migration) on the horizontal distribution of planktonic larvae of the spiny lobster (Jasus frontalis) around the JFR waters. Two case studies were selected from a hydrodynamic Regional Ocean Modeling System to characterize mesoscale and submesoscale structures and an Individual-based model (IBM) to simulate diel vertical migration (DVM) and its impact on the horizontal distribution and the patchiness level. DVM behavior of these larvae has not been clearly characterized, therefore, three types of vertical mechanisms were assessed on the IBM: (1) no migration (LG), (2) a short migration (0-50 m depth, DVM1), and (3) a long migration (10-200 m depth, DVM2). The influence of physical properties (eddy kinetic energy, stretching deformation and divergence) on larval aggregation within meso and submesoscale features was quantified. The patchiness index assessed for mesoscale and submesoscale structures showed higher values in the mesoscale than in the submesoscale. However, submesoscale structures revealed a higher accumulation of particles by unit of area. Both vertical migration mechanisms produced larger patchiness indices compared to the no migration experiment. DVM2 was the one that showed by far the largest aggregation of almost all the aggregation zones. Larval concentrations were highest in the submesoscale structures; these zones were characterized by low eddy kinetic energy, negative stretching

  6. [Influence of lunar cycle on catches of spiny lobster Panulirus argus (Decapoda: Palinuridae) in the Gulf of Batabanó, Cuba].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopeztegui, Alexander; Baisre, Julio A; Capetillo, Norberto

    2011-03-01

    Many biological processes such as reproductive and migratory behaviours have been associated with moon cycles. In this study, the nocturnal light levels associated with lunar cycle (INT) were correlated with daily catch rate of lobster P. argus, during seven lunar months of 2002 fishing period, to determine a possible relationship between these variables. The lobster catches were obtained from three fishing companies that develop their activities in the Gulf of Batabanó: EPICOL that fishes in Coloma area; PESCAHABANA in Batabanó area and PESCAISLA in Isla area. Daily catch per boat (CDB) was used as a measurement of daily catch variations (catch rate). The correlation was analyzed showing it in chronological graphs based on average of CDB per lunar phases, comparing lobster catch rate per lunar phases -with the Kruskal-Wallis test-. Spearman rank correlation coefficient and cross correlation techniques were also applied. Similarities between lobster catch rate and the lunar cycle were not found. Spearman rank correlation coefficient was modularly smaller than 0.1 in all cases and demonstrated quantitatively that correlation between CDB and INT does not exist. Kruskal-Wallis test detected differences only in Batabanó area but not when making the analyses for the whole Gulf of Batabanó. Finally, the cross correlations do not detected significance in any zone, as well. It is concluded that, in opposition to what other authors have reported, the catch rates of P. argus and the lunar cycle did not show significant correlation in the Gulf of Batabanó. This trend was independent of the fishing art, which varied according to the time of the year that was analyzed.

  7. 50 CFR 665.249 - Lobster size and condition restrictions in Permit Area 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lobster size and condition restrictions in... WESTERN PACIFIC Hawaii Fisheries § 665.249 Lobster size and condition restrictions in Permit Area 2. (a) Only spiny lobsters with a carapace length of 8.26 cm or greater may be retained (see Figure 1 to this...

  8. 78 FR 34044 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Comprehensive Fishery Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ....m.--at the Holiday Inn (Windward Passage Hotel) Charlotte Amalie, St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands... in the U.S. Virgin Islands. For specific locations, see SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION, under the heading... species-based FMPs: the Spiny Lobster FMP of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands (Spiny Lobster FMP...

  9. Trophic interactions among grouper (Epinephelus marginatus), octopus (Octopus vulgaris) and red lobster (Palinurus elephas) in the Western Mediterranean

    OpenAIRE

    Quetglas, A. (Antoni); Reñones, O. (Olga); Goñi, R. (Raquel)

    2001-01-01

    In the present paper a first evaluation of the trophic interactions between grouper, octopus and spiny red lobster in the western Mediterranean is presented. The efficiency of octopus preying on lobsters is also estimated from trap catches. Grouper and octopus base their diet on the same major taxonomic groups and this is reflected in the values of diet overlap. Trophic diversity of grouper and octopus is also very similar. The estimation of the octopus efficiency preying on lobsters shows th...

  10. HUBUNGAN PANJANG-BERAT DAN FAKTOR KONDISI LOBSTER BATU (Panulirus penicillatus DI PERAIRAN SELATAN GUNUNG KIDUL DAN PACITAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh Fauzi Fauzi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Perairan di sebelah selatan Gunung Kidul dan Pacitan merupakan daerah penangkapan lobster yang cukup potensial. Analisis hubungan panjang berat, faktor kondisi dan sebaran kisaran panjang lobster batu (Panulirus penicillatus di perairan tersebut dilakukan pada bulan Maret 2010 hingga Maret 2012. Pengukuran panjang-berat terhadap 1.803 individu lobster batu menunjukkan pola pertumbuhan yang bersifat allometrik negatif. Faktor kondisi lobster memiliki kesamaan antara jenis kelamin jantan dan betina dan terdapat kecenderungan menurunnya faktor kondisi dengan bertambahnya panjang (umur. Panjang karapas dominan berada pada kisaran antara 45-50mm. Lobster betina yang membawa telur ditemukan pertama kali pada kelas panjang karapas antara 35-40mm. The waters in the south of Gunung Kidul and Pacitan were indicated as a potentially fishing ground of spiny lobster. Analysis of Length-weight relationship, condition factor and distribution of the pronghorn spiny lobster (Panulirus penicillatus in those waters were conducted in March 2010 through March 2012. Length-weight measurements on 1.803 individual lobsters showed allometric negative growth patterns. Lobster have in common condition factor between male and female, and there is a tendency condition factor decreased with increasing length (age. Dominant carapace length is in the range between 45-50mm. Female lobsters carrying eggs were first discovered in the class of carapace length between 35-40mm.

  11. Catch composition of the spiny lobster Panulirus gracilis (Decapoda: Palinuridae off the western coast of Mexico Composición de la captura de la langosta espinosa Panulirus gracilis (Decapoda: Palinuridae en la costa oeste de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Pérez-González

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The lobster fishery in the Gulf of California and the south-central region of the western coast of Mexico consists of small-scale artisanal activity supported by Panulirus gracilis and P. inflatus, with an annual average catch of 132 ton. The present study analyzes the landing composition of this fishery and the population structure of P. gracilis. Carapace lengths (CL for this species ranged from 35 to 125 mm, and the most frequent sizes were between 60 and 85 mm. The size distribution was approximately normal. This implies that the fishery is composed of several size classes, with annual recruitment to the fishing areas. For the 1989-1990 and 1990-1991 fishing seasons, the mean monthly sizes of males were between 70.18 ± 11.74 and 81.11 ± 6.76 mm CL, whereas females averaged from 73.60 ± 8.95 to 80.28 ± 7.53 mm CL. Power-law relationships between carapace length (CL in mm and total weight (TW in g were determined, resulting in the following equations: PT = 0.0021 CL27689 for males and PT = 0.0009 CL³ 0038 for females. During certain periods of the year, males dominated the catch; however, the overall annual male:female ratio was near 1:1.La pesquería de langosta en el golfo de California y en el centro-sur de la costa occidental de México es una actividad artesanal a pequeña escala y es sostenida por Panulirus gracilis y P. inflatus, con una captura promedio anual de 132 ton. En este estudio se analiza la composición de los desembarques de esta pesquería y la estructura de la población de P. gracilis. El intervalo de talla de esta especie fue de 35 a 125 mm de longitud del cefalotórax (LC y el más frecuente se encontró entre 60 y 85 mm. La distribución de tallas fue aproximadamente normal. Esto implica que la pesquería está compuesta por varias clases de tallas, con un reclutamiento anual a las áreas de pesca. La talla media mensual de machos fue entre 70,18 ± 11,74 y 81,11 ± 6,76 mm LC y en hembras de 73,60 ± 8,95 a 80

  12. Inter-cohort growth for three tropical resources: tilapia, octopus and lobster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez-Abunader, Iván; Gómez-Muñoz, Victor Manuel; Salas, Silvia; Ruiz-Velazco, Javier M J

    2015-09-01

    Growth parameters are an important component for the stock assessment of exploited aquatic species. However, it is often difficult to apply direct methods to estimate growth and to analyse the differences between males and females, particularly in tropical areas. The objective of this study was to analyse the inter-cohort growth of three tropical resources and discuss the possible fisheries management implications. A simple method was used to compare individual growth curves obtained from length frequency distribution analysis, illustrated by case studies of three tropical species from different aquatic environments: tilapia (Oreochromis aureus), red octopus (Octopus maya) and the Caribbean spiny lobster (Panulirus argus). The analysis undertaken compared the size distribution of males and females of a given cohort through modal progression analysis. The technique used proved to be useful for highlighting the differences in growth between females and males of a specific cohort. The potential effect of extrinsic and intrinsic factors on the organism's development as reflected in the size distribution of the cohorts is discussed.

  13. Inter-cohort growth for three tropical resources: tilapia, octopus and lobster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Velázquez-Abunader

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Growth parameters are an important component for the stock assessment of exploited aquatic species. However, it is often difficult to apply direct methods to estimate growth and to analyse the differences between males and females, particularly in tropical areas. The objective of this study was to analyse the inter-cohort growth of three tropical resources and discuss the possible fisheries management implications. A simple method was used to compare individual growth curves obtained from length frequency distribution analysis, illustrated by case studies of three tropical species from different aquatic environments: tilapia (Oreochromis aureus,red octopus (Octopus mayaand the Caribbean spiny lobster (Panulirus argus.The analysis undertaken compared the size distribution of males and females of a given cohort through modal progression analysis. The technique used proved to be useful for highlighting the differences in growth between females and males of a specific cohort. The potential effect of extrinsic and intrinsic factors on the organism's development as reflected in the size distribution of the cohorts is discussed.

  14. The Lobster Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthelmy, Scott

    2011-01-01

    I will give an overview of the Goddard Lobster mission: the science goals, the two instruments, the overall instruments designs, with particular attention to the wide-field x-ray instrument (WFI) using the lobster-eye-like micro-channel optics.

  15. 76 FR 66041 - Caribbean Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    ... public, and will be conducted in English. ADDRESSES: The meeting will be held at the Embassy Suites Hotel... following agenda: November 15, 2011--9 a.m. --Call to order --Discuss the legal responsibility of the SSC... not overfished (NOAA Legal Counsel) --Revisit spiny lobster (Panulirus argus) recommendations for OFL...

  16. DISTRIBUSI UKURAN DAN PARAMETER POPULASI LOBSTER PASIR (Panulirus homarus DI PERAIRAN ACEH BARAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duranta D Kembaren

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian tentang distribusi ukuran dan parameter populasi lobster pasir di perairan Aceh Barat dilakukan pada bulanApril sampai November 2013. Penelitian ini bertujuan untukmengkaji status lobster di perairan Aceh Barat dilihat dari aspek distribusi ukuran dan parameter populasinya. Pengamatan dan pengukuran lobster dilakukan di tempat pengumpul lobster dengan sistem sampling acak. Sebaran frekuensi panjang karapas selanjutnya ditabulasikan dan dianalisa dengan metode kurva logistik. Struktur ukuran lobster yang tertangkap menunjukkan bahwa lobster jantan dominan tertangkap dibawah ukuran nilai tengah 72,5 mm dan sebaliknya diatas ukuran nilai tengah 72,5 mm yang didominasi jenis kelamin betina. Lobster terlebih dahulu tertangkap sebelum mencapai ukuran matang gonad (Lc = 65,8mm< Lm= 76,8 mm. Puncak musim pemijahan terjadi pada bulan Mei dan Agustus. Panjang asimtosis (CL∞  sebesar 119,5 mm dengan laju pertumbuhan (K 0,39/tahun serta laju kematian total (Z 1,44/tahun, laju kematian alamiah (M 0,67/tahun dan laju keamatian akibat penangkapan (F 0,77/tahun. Laju eksploitasi sudah mengarah kepada penangkapan yang berlebih (E=0,54, oleh karena itu perlu dilakukan tindakan pengelolaan perikanan lobster yang berkelanjutan. Salah satu upaya yang dapat di tempuh adalah dengan menerapkan sistem penutupan musim penangkapan lobster pada saat terjadinya puncak musim pemijahan. Research on the length distribution and population parameters of scalloped spiny lobster conducted in the Aceh Barat waters during April to November 2013. The aim of this study was to assess lobster fishery status in this waters from the point of view their length size and population parameters. Sampel collected randomly in the lobster landing site. Distribution of carapace length frequency was tabulated and analysed using logistic curve method. Length composition of male lobster was dominated under 72,5 mm midlenght, while female lobster was dominated above 72

  17. A holistic view of dietary carbohydrate utilization in lobster: digestion, postprandial nutrient flux, and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Viera, Leandro; Perera, Erick; Casuso, Antonio; Perdomo-Morales, Rolando; Gutierrez, Odilia; Scull, Idania; Carrillo, Olimpia; Martos-Sitcha, Juan A; García-Galano, Tsai; Mancera, Juan Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Crustaceans exhibit a remarkable variation in their feeding habits and food type, but most knowledge on carbohydrate digestion and utilization in this group has come from research on few species. The aim of this study was to make an integrative analysis of dietary carbohydrate utilization in the spiny lobster Panulirus argus. We used complementary methodologies such as different assessments of digestibility, activity measurements of digestive and metabolic enzymes, and post-feeding flux of nutrients and metabolites. Several carbohydrates were well digested by the lobster, but maize starch was less digestible than all other starches studied, and its inclusion in diet affected protein digestibility. Most intense hydrolysis of carbohydrates in the gastric chamber of lobster occurred between 2-6 h after ingestion and afterwards free glucose increased in hemolymph. The inclusion of wheat in diet produced a slow clearance of glucose from the gastric fluid and a gradual increase in hemolymph glucose. More intense hydrolysis of protein in the gastric chamber occurred 6-12 h after ingestion and then amino acids tended to increase in hemolymph. Triglyceride concentration in hemolymph rose earlier in wheat-fed lobsters than in lobsters fed other carbohydrates, but it decreased the most 24 h later. Analyses of metabolite levels and activities of different metabolic enzymes revealed that intermolt lobsters had a low capacity to store and use glycogen, although it was slightly higher in wheat-fed lobsters. Lobsters fed maize and rice diets increased amino acid catabolism, while wheat-fed lobsters exhibited higher utilization of fatty acids. Multivariate analysis confirmed that the type of carbohydrate ingested had a profound effect on overall metabolism. Although we found no evidence of a protein-sparing effect of dietary carbohydrate, differences in the kinetics of their digestion and absorption impacted lobster metabolism determining the fate of other nutrients.

  18. A holistic view of dietary carbohydrate utilization in lobster: digestion, postprandial nutrient flux, and metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Rodríguez-Viera

    Full Text Available Crustaceans exhibit a remarkable variation in their feeding habits and food type, but most knowledge on carbohydrate digestion and utilization in this group has come from research on few species. The aim of this study was to make an integrative analysis of dietary carbohydrate utilization in the spiny lobster Panulirus argus. We used complementary methodologies such as different assessments of digestibility, activity measurements of digestive and metabolic enzymes, and post-feeding flux of nutrients and metabolites. Several carbohydrates were well digested by the lobster, but maize starch was less digestible than all other starches studied, and its inclusion in diet affected protein digestibility. Most intense hydrolysis of carbohydrates in the gastric chamber of lobster occurred between 2-6 h after ingestion and afterwards free glucose increased in hemolymph. The inclusion of wheat in diet produced a slow clearance of glucose from the gastric fluid and a gradual increase in hemolymph glucose. More intense hydrolysis of protein in the gastric chamber occurred 6-12 h after ingestion and then amino acids tended to increase in hemolymph. Triglyceride concentration in hemolymph rose earlier in wheat-fed lobsters than in lobsters fed other carbohydrates, but it decreased the most 24 h later. Analyses of metabolite levels and activities of different metabolic enzymes revealed that intermolt lobsters had a low capacity to store and use glycogen, although it was slightly higher in wheat-fed lobsters. Lobsters fed maize and rice diets increased amino acid catabolism, while wheat-fed lobsters exhibited higher utilization of fatty acids. Multivariate analysis confirmed that the type of carbohydrate ingested had a profound effect on overall metabolism. Although we found no evidence of a protein-sparing effect of dietary carbohydrate, differences in the kinetics of their digestion and absorption impacted lobster metabolism determining the fate of other

  19. Trophic Cascades Induced by Lobster Fishing Are Not Ubiquitous in Southern California Kelp Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenther, Carla M.; Lenihan, Hunter S.; Grant, Laura E.; Lopez-Carr, David; Reed, Daniel C.

    2012-01-01

    Fishing can trigger trophic cascades that alter community structure and dynamics and thus modify ecosystem attributes. We combined ecological data of sea urchin and macroalgal abundance with fishery data of spiny lobster (Panulirus interruptus) landings to evaluate whether: (1) patterns in the abundance and biomass among lobster (predator), sea urchins (grazer), and macroalgae (primary producer) in giant kelp forest communities indicated the presence of top-down control on urchins and macroalgae, and (2) lobster fishing triggers a trophic cascade leading to increased sea urchin densities and decreased macroalgal biomass. Eight years of data from eight rocky subtidal reefs known to support giant kelp forests near Santa Barbara, CA, USA, were analyzed in three-tiered least-squares regression models to evaluate the relationships between: (1) lobster abundance and sea urchin density, and (2) sea urchin density and macroalgal biomass. The models included reef physical structure and water depth. Results revealed a trend towards decreasing urchin density with increasing lobster abundance but little evidence that urchins control the biomass of macroalgae. Urchin density was highly correlated with habitat structure, although not water depth. To evaluate whether fishing triggered a trophic cascade we pooled data across all treatments to examine the extent to which sea urchin density and macroalgal biomass were related to the intensity of lobster fishing (as indicated by the density of traps pulled). We found that, with one exception, sea urchins remained more abundant at heavily fished sites, supporting the idea that fishing for lobsters releases top-down control on urchin grazers. Macroalgal biomass, however, was positively correlated with lobster fishing intensity, which contradicts the trophic cascade model. Collectively, our results suggest that factors other than urchin grazing play a major role in controlling macroalgal biomass in southern California kelp forests, and

  20. Electric paralyzation and reduction of weight loss in the processing of round-cooked spiny lobsters Paralisação elétrica da lagosta e redução da perda de peso no processamento de lagosta inteira-cozida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayoshi Ogawa

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes alternatives to the current methods of processing round-cooked lobster. The paralyzation of lobsters with direct electric shock consumes 10.526 x 10-3 kWh, which is significantly less than the 11 kWh required by the traditional thermal-shock method (based on 60 kg of lobsters. A better weight gain was obtained by immersion of paralyzed lobsters in brine before cooking. Systematic trials combining 3, 6, or 9% brine concentrations with immersion periods of 15, 30, or 45 minutes were performed in order to determine the best combinations. A mathematical model was designed to predict the weight gain of lobsters of different sizes in any combination of treatments. For small lobsters, a 45 minutes immersion in 6% brine gave the best response in terms of weight gain (4.7% and cooking produced a weight loss of only 1.34% in relation to fresh lobster weight. For medium-sized lobsters, a 45 minutes immersion in 9% brine produced a weight gain of 2.64%, and cooking a weight gain of 1.08%. For large lobsters, a 45 minutes immersion in 6% brine produced a weight gain of 3.87%, and cooking a weight gain of 1.62%.O presente estudo propõe alternativas aos métodos convencionais de processamento da lagosta inteira-cozida. Para a paralisação de 60 kg de lagosta com aplicação de choque elétrico, foram consumidos 10,526 x 10-3 kWh, valor significativamente inferior aos 11 kWh requeridos pelo método tradicional de choque térmico. Um maior ganho de peso foi obtido pela imersão de lagostas paralisadas em salmoura antes do cozimento. Experimentos combinando as concentrações de salmoura a 3, 6 e 9% com os tempos de imersão de 15, 30 ou 45 minutos foram realizados. Um modelo matemático foi ajustado para predizer o rendimento de peso de lagostas de diferentes tamanhos para as combinações de tratamentos testadas. Para lagostas pequenas, um tempo de imersão de 45 minutos em salmoura a 6% apresentou a melhor resposta em termos de ganho de

  1. Observations of the sound producing organs in achelate lobster larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Fornshell

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Achelata, lobsters lacking claws and having a phyllosoma larva, are divided into two families, the Palinuridae or spiny lobsters and the Scyllaridae or slipper lobsters. Within the Palinuridae adults of two groups were identified by Parker (1884, the Stridentesthat are capable of producing sounds, and the Silentesthat are not known to produce sounds. The Stridentes employ a file-like structure on the dorsal surface of the cephalon and a plectrum consisting of a series of ridges on the proximal segment of the second antenna to produce their sounds. All species of Achelata hatch as an unpigmented thin phyllosoma larva. The phyllosoma larva of the Stridentes have a presumptive file-like structure on the dorsal cephalon. A similar file-like structure is found on the cephalon of one species of Silentes, Palinurellus wienckki, and some but not all of the phyllosoma larvae of the Scyllaridae. No presumptive plectrum is found on the second antenna of any of the phyllosoma larvae. Presence of a presumptive file-like structure on phyllosoma larvae of Silentes and Scyllaridae suggests that the ability to produce sounds may have been lost secondarily in the Silentes and Scyllaridae.

  2. 77 FR 30506 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, South Atlantic; Comprehensive Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    ... Golden Crab Fishery of the Atlantic (Golden Crab FMP); the Shrimp Fishery of the South Atlantic Region... ``search.'' Comments received through means not specified in this rule will not be considered. FOR FURTHER..., dolphin and wahoo, golden crab, shrimp and spiny lobster fisheries in the exclusive economic zone are...

  3. 78 FR 22949 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-17

    ... applicable to Subpart T, Spiny Lobster Fishery of Puerto Rico and U.S. Virgin Islands. Additionally, this..., Fishing, Incorporation by reference, Puerto Rico, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Virgin Islands... closures of the Gulf group king mackerel gillnet fishery. 622.379 Purse seine incidental catch allowance...

  4. Diversity of developmental patterns in achelate lobsters-today and in the Mesozoic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, Joachim T; Audo, Denis; Charbonnier, Sylvain; Haug, Carolin

    2013-11-01

    Modern achelate lobsters, slipper and spiny lobsters, have a specific post-embryonic developmental pattern with the following phases: phyllosoma, nisto (slipper lobsters) or puerulus (spiny lobsters), juvenile and adult. The phyllosoma is a peculiar larva, which transforms through a metamorphic moult into another larval form, the nisto or puerulus which largely resembles the juvenile. Unlike the nisto and puerulus, the phyllosoma is characterised by numerous morphological differences to the adult, e.g. a thin head shield, elongate appendages, exopods on these appendages and a special claw. Our reinvestigation of the 85 million years old fossil "Eryoneicus sahelalmae" demonstrates that it represents an unusual type of achelatan lobster larva, characterised by a mixture of phyllosoma and post-phyllosoma characters. We ascribe it to its own genus: Polzicaris nov. gen. We study its significance by comparisons with other cases of Mesozoic fossil larvae also characterised by a mixture of characters. Accordingly, all these larvae are interpreted as ontogenetic intermediates between phyllosoma and post-phyllosoma morphology. Remarkably, most of the larvae show a unique mixture of retained larval and already developed post-larval features. Considering the different-and incompatible-mixture of characters of each of these larvae and their wide geographical and temporal distribution, we interpret all these larvae as belonging to distinct species. The particular character combinations in the different larvae make it currently difficult to reconstruct an evolutionary scenario with a stepwise character acquisition. Yet, it can be concluded that a larger diversity of larval forms and developmental patterns occurred in Mesozoic than in modern faunas.

  5. From fishing to fish processing: Separation of fish from crustaceans in the Norway lobster-directed multispecies trawl fishery improves seafood quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Junita Diana; Krag, Ludvig Ahm; Albertsen, Christoffer Moesgaard

    2015-01-01

    Fishing gears have negative impacts on seafood quality, especially on fish in the mixed trawl fishery targeting Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus). In this fishery, which is worth about €80 millions in Denmark alone, the quality of fish can be significantly improved by simple gear changes....... A trawl codend divided into an upper and lower codend was designed to separate fish from Norway lobster during the fishing process by encourage fish to swim into the upper codend by using a frame at the entrance of the lower codend. Separate codends for fish and Norway lobster in the same gear provide...... with hard or spiny surfaces due to successful separation of fish and Norway lobster into the upper and lower codends, respectively, and by lower catch weight in the upper codend of the test codend compared with the standard codend. The decrease in damages may also improve quality indirectly by inflicting...

  6. 76 FR 4868 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Comprehensive Annual Catch Limit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-27

    ..., 2011, Holiday Inn (Windward Passage Hotel), Charlotte Amalie, St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands... amendment to the Fishery Management Plan (FMP) for the Reef Fish Fishery of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin... Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands (Amendment 3), an amendment to the FMP for the Spiny Lobster...

  7. 78 FR 56217 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Shrimp Fisheries of the Gulf of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-12

    ... Atlantic States AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... specified in 50 CFR part 622, Subparts A through R for reef fish, red drum, coastal migratory pelagics, and spiny lobster in the Gulf of Mexico, and snapper-grouper, coastal migratory pelagics, dolphin and wahoo...

  8. Analog electronic model of the lobster pyloric central pattern generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkovskii, A [Institute for Nonlinear Science, University of California San Diego, CA (United States); Brugioni, S [Institute for Nonlinear Science, University of California San Diego, CA (United States); Istituto Nazionale di Ottica Applicata Largo E. Fermi 6 50125 Florence (Italy); Levi, R [Institute for Nonlinear Science, University of California San Diego, CA (United States); Rabinovich, M [Institute for Nonlinear Science, University of California San Diego, CA (United States); Selverston, A [Institute for Nonlinear Science, University of California San Diego, CA (United States); Abarbane, H D I [Institute for Nonlinear Science, University of California San Diego, CA (United States)

    2005-01-01

    An electronic circuit intended to simulate the nonlinear dynamics of a simplified 3-cell model of the pyloric central pattern generator in California spiny lobster stomato gastric ganglion is presented. The model employs the synaptic phase locked loop (SPLL) concept where the frequency of oscillations of a postsynaptic cell is mainly controlled by the synaptic current which depends on the phase shift between the oscillations. The theoretical study showed that the system has a stable steady state with correct phase shifts between the oscillations and that this regime is stable when the frequency of the pacemaker cell is varied over a wide range. The main bifurcations in the system were studied analytically, in computer simulations, and in experiments with the electronic circuit. The experimental measurements are in good agreement with the expectations of the theoretical model.

  9. Reef Sound as an Orientation Cue for Shoreward Migration by Pueruli of the Rock Lobster, Jasus edwardsii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinojosa, Ivan A; Green, Bridget S; Gardner, Caleb; Hesse, Jan; Stanley, Jenni A; Jeffs, Andrew G

    2016-01-01

    The post-larval or puerulus stage of spiny, or rock, lobsters (Palinuridae) swim many kilometres from open oceans into coastal waters where they subsequently settle. The orientation cues used by the puerulus for this migration are unclear, but are presumed to be critical to finding a place to settle. Understanding this process may help explain the biological processes of dispersal and settlement, and be useful for developing realistic dispersal models. In this study, we examined the use of reef sound as an orientation cue by the puerulus stage of the southern rock lobster, Jasus edwardsii. Experiments were conducted using in situ binary choice chambers together with replayed recording of underwater reef sound. The experiment was conducted in a sandy lagoon under varying wind conditions. A significant proportion of puerulus (69%) swam towards the reef sound in calm wind conditions. However, in windy conditions (>25 m s-1) the orientation behaviour appeared to be less consistent with the inclusion of these results, reducing the overall proportion of pueruli that swam towards the reef sound (59.3%). These results resolve previous speculation that underwater reef sound is used as an orientation cue in the shoreward migration of the puerulus of spiny lobsters, and suggest that sea surface winds may moderate the ability of migrating pueruli to use this cue to locate coastal reef habitat to settle. Underwater sound may increase the chance of successful settlement and survival of this valuable species.

  10. Optical sensor for measuring American Lobster vitality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomassetti, Brian R. A.; Vetelino, John F.

    2011-01-01

    The vitality of the American Lobster (Homarus americanus) is correlated to the total hemolymph protein (THP) in lobster hemolymph (blood). The standard technique for determining lobster vitality is to draw blood from a lobster and measure THP with a refractometer. This technique is invasive and endangers the lobster's health since blood must be drawn from the lobster. In the present work an optical sensor is developed to measure a lobster's vitality in vivo. It is comprised of a broadband light source, a monochromator, a fiber optic reflection probe, a spectrometer and a computer. This sensor measures protein concentrations by exciting a lobster with 280 nm and 334 nm wavelength light sources and measuring the corresponding absorbance peaks for THP and the fluorescence peak for hemocyanin (Hc), the majority protein in hemolymph. In this work several lobsters are tested. For each lobster, absorbance and fluorescence peaks are measured using the sensor and compared to protein concentrations measured using a refractometer. It is found that the shell thickness and muscle density, which correspond directly to protein concentration and the molting stage of the lobster have a significant effect on the absorbance and fluorescence measurements. It is also found that within specific molting stages, such as pre-molt and post-molt, protein concentration measured with a refractometer correlates linearly to absorbance and fluorescence measurements with the optical sensor.

  11. Optical Sensor for Measuring American Lobster Vitality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomassetti, Brian R. A.; Vetelino, John F.

    2011-06-01

    The vitality of the American Lobster (Homarus americanus) is correlated to the total hemolymph protein (THP) in lobster hemolymph (blood). The standard technique for determining lobster vitality is to draw blood from a lobster and measure THP with a refractometer. This technique is invasive and endangers the lobster's health since blood must be drawn from the lobster. In the present work an optical sensor is developed to measure a lobster's vitality in vivo. It is comprised of a broadband light source, a monochromator, a fiber optic reflection probe, a spectrometer and a computer. This sensor measures protein concentrations by exciting a lobster with 280 nm and 334 nm wavelength light sources and measuring the corresponding absorbance peaks for THP and the fluorescence peak for hemocyanin (Hc), the majority protein in hemolymph. In this work several lobsters are tested. For each lobster, absorbance and fluorescence peaks are measured using the sensor and compared to protein concentrations measured using a refractometer. It is found that the shell thickness and muscle density, which correspond directly to protein concentration and the molting stage of the lobster have a significant effect on the absorbance and fluorescence measurements. It is also found that within specific molting stages, such as pre-molt and post-molt, protein concentration measured with a refractometer correlates linearly to absorbance and fluorescence measurements with the optical sensor.

  12. EVALUATION OF FISHING LOBSTERS PALINURUS ELEPHAS (FABRICIUS, 1787 BY LOBSTER TRAPS IN THE MIDDLE ADRIATIC SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perica Cetinić

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available The work contains the results of fishing lobsters Palinurus elephas by lobsters traps from Komiža, island Vis with one eye side size of 60 mm as well as the evaluation of its effect to their population. The correct size of her eye was evaluated by the analysis of representation of immature lobsters in the catchs of the lobsters traps. 171 examples of lobsters were analyzed (116 males and 55 females with their lengths ranging from 22 to 45 cm. Total of 53 units (31% were less than 28 mm and at that length lobsters are barred from catch and transport. Such a length has been regulated by the valid Regulation on protection of fish and other sea organisms. Therefore, the lobster trap from Komiža, island Vis was evaluated as having the negative impact on the lobsters population.

  13. HOW MANY LOBSTERS ARE IN THE SEA?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Enns

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A lobster fishery must have a reasonable estimate of the number of lobsters within the fishery in order to regulate the annual harvest. Stereological sampling procedures are used to estimate the number of lobsters in a defined region of the sea. From a given point in the fishery, a selective sample in a random direction to the boundary of the fishery is taken. This is repeated to generate a systematic sample from which the total population is estimated.

  14. The emergence of lobsters: phylogenetic relationships, morphological evolution and divergence time comparisons of an ancient group (decapoda: achelata, astacidea, glypheidea, polychelida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken-Grissom, Heather D; Ahyong, Shane T; Wilkinson, Richard D; Feldmann, Rodney M; Schweitzer, Carrie E; Breinholt, Jesse W; Bendall, Matthew; Palero, Ferran; Chan, Tin-Yam; Felder, Darryl L; Robles, Rafael; Chu, Ka-Hou; Tsang, Ling-Ming; Kim, Dohyup; Martin, Joel W; Crandall, Keith A

    2014-07-01

    Lobsters are a ubiquitous and economically important group of decapod crustaceans that include the infraorders Polychelida, Glypheidea, Astacidea and Achelata. They include familiar forms such as the spiny, slipper, clawed lobsters and crayfish and unfamiliar forms such as the deep-sea and "living fossil" species. The high degree of morphological diversity among these infraorders has led to a dynamic classification and conflicting hypotheses of evolutionary relationships. In this study, we estimated phylogenetic relationships among the major groups of all lobster families and 94% of the genera using six genes (mitochondrial and nuclear) and 195 morphological characters across 173 species of lobsters for the most comprehensive sampling to date. Lobsters were recovered as a non-monophyletic assemblage in the combined (molecular + morphology) analysis. All families were monophyletic, with the exception of Cambaridae, and 7 of 79 genera were recovered as poly- or paraphyletic. A rich fossil history coupled with dense taxon coverage allowed us to estimate and compare divergence times and origins of major lineages using two drastically different approaches. Age priors were constructed and/or included based on fossil age information or fossil discovery, age, and extant species count data. Results from the two approaches were largely congruent across deep to shallow taxonomic divergences across major lineages. The origin of the first lobster-like decapod (Polychelida) was estimated in the Devonian (∼409-372 Ma) with all infraorders present in the Carboniferous (∼353-318 Ma). Fossil calibration subsampling studies examined the influence of sampling density (number of fossils) and placement (deep, middle, and shallow) on divergence time estimates. Results from our study suggest including at least 1 fossil per 10 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in divergence dating analyses. [Dating; decapods; divergence; lobsters; molecular; morphology; phylogenetics.]. © The

  15. 50 CFR 697.18 - Lobster management areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lobster management areas. 697.18 Section... Measures § 697.18 Lobster management areas. The following lobster management areas are established for... American lobster EEZ management areas is available upon request to the Office of the Regional Administrator...

  16. 50 CFR 300.132 - Lobster harvest limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lobster harvest limitations. 300.132... FISHERIES REGULATIONS Vessels of the United States Fishing in Colombian Treaty Waters § 300.132 Lobster harvest limitations. (a) Berried lobsters. A berried (egg-bearing) lobster in treaty waters may not be...

  17. Declining densities and reproductive activities of the queen conch Strombus gigas (Mesogastropoda: Strombidae in Banco Chinchorro, Eastern Caribbean, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto De Jesús Navarrete

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Queen conch is a gastropod inhabiting the Caribbean Sea, it represents the second largest fishery after the spiny lobster, but it has been extensively captured in the area. In order to know its population status in Chinchorro Bank, we determined conch density changes and its effects on reproductive activities, between July and November 2009. For this, data on conch density, morphology and reproductive activities were obtained from 15 sites within three fishing zones, and compared with previously collected data (1990, 1992, 1994, and 1997. Data showed that adult density decreased with time, from 10 700ind./ha in 1990, to 198ind./h in 2009. Neither egg masses nor spawns were found and mating was only observed once in July 2009. In July, adult (lip>4mm density in the Southern zone was 23ind./ha whereas in the Northern zone and Central zone densities were 15 and 9ind./ha respectively. In November, density was somewhat higher: Southern zone 96ind./ha; Central zone 39ind./ha and Northern zone had 38ind./ha. In July, mean shell length was 170.80±46.28mm, with a higher median abundance at 180-189mm. In November, higher frequency was 187.63±45.14mm, maximum at 210-219mm interval. For the last 10 years period, mean adult conch densities have diminished in each zone, which might be the main cause of decreased reproductive activities of the conch at Banco Chinchorro. It is therefore an immediate need to analyse the management plan for this species in this Reserve and perhaps to promote a re-population of queen conch and culture activities. Rev. Biol. Trop. 61 (4: 1671-1679. Epub 2013 December 01.

  18. SINOPSE DA SITUAÇÃO ATUAL, PERSPECTIVAS E CONDIÇÕES DE CULTIVO PARA LAGOSTAS PALINURIDAE REVIEW OF CURRENT SITUATION, PERSPECTIVE AND NEW TECNOLOGIES FOR GROWOUT OF PALINURID LOBSTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Igarashi

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available A lagosta é um produto de exportação de grande importância para o Nordeste brasileiro. Há uma preocupação visível e constante com o decréscimo da produção lagosteira, razão pela qual se propõe o cultivo da lagosta. Não há cultivo comercial de lagostas no Brasil e, no mundo, poucos juvenis de lagostas são cultivados em escala comercial. Desde 1995, os pesquisadores brasileiros têm feito esforços para criar a lagosta Panulirus argus e P. laevicauda, de pueruli ou juvenis recentes até adulto. Contudo, as investigações envolvem a captura dos exemplares em seu hábitat, para o posterior cultivo em confinamento. Existempossibilidades de o Estado do Ceará cultivar juvenis de P. argus e de P. laevicauda que são encontrados em profusão, porém mais pesquisas são necessárias antes de se iniciar um projeto em escala comercial. A par disso, estratégias para a criação da lagosta são relatadas detalhadamente neste artigo, objetivando contribuir para o êxito dessa atividade. Além disso, demonstra-se que os juvenis podem ser cultivados sob regime de confinamento, por se adaptarem bem às condições artificiais de alimentação. Dadas tais características, a lagosta é um crustáceo que se apresenta apropriado para o cultivo comercial. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Cultivo, lagosta, manejo. Spiny lobster are important product of exportation in Northeastern of Brasil. There is a visible preoccupation about the reported decline in the catch of lobster. One of the solution to this problem is through culture of spiny lobster. There is no commercial juveniles growout in Brazil and the world culture of juvenile spiny lobster is still conducted on only a small commercial scale. Since 1995 Brazilian researchers have made efforts to rear spiny lobster Panulirus argus and P. laevicauda from the pueruli or early juvenile to the adult stage. The investigations involve capturing pueruli or juveniles and growing them in confinement. This possibility has

  19. California spiny lobster habitat suitability model for Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary Biogeographic Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Marine Sanctuary Program (NMSP) updates and revises the management plans for each of its 13 sanctuaries. This process, which is open to the public,...

  20. MANAGEMENT OF LOBSTER FISHERY WITH EAFM APPROACH IN PALABUHANRATU BAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Hesty Rombe

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted in the Palabuhanratu Bay-Sukabumi in March 2016. The purpose of this study is to diagnose the Palabuhanratu Lobster Fishery using factors of Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries Management (EAFM. Water sampling was conducted at two lobster fishing ground. Measuring and weighing morphology lobster were conducted in collectors’s house. The results of this study showed that Palabuhanratu bay water quality was still within tolerable limits for live lobster. Panulirus homarus  is the most widely lobster caught below the size of a decent catch, reaching 2528.9 Kg. CPUE of lobster was declining which indicates a decline in the stock of lobster. The income of fishermen were still very far from the average wage and stakeholder participation was still lacking in the management of the lobster fishery. Keywords: EAFM factors, lobster, palabuhanratu

  1. Agonistic behaviour in juvenile southern rock lobster, Jasus edwardsii (Decapoda, Palinuridae: implications for developing aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Carter

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Southern rock lobster, Jasus edwardsii, is a temperate species of spiny lobster with established well managed fisheries in Australia and New Zealand. It has also been under consideration as a species with aquaculture potential. Agonistic behaviour has important consequences under aquaculture conditions that encompass direct effects, such as damage or death of protagonists, and indirect effects on growth that relate to resource access, principally food and refuge. This study aimed to identify and characterize behaviours and to make a preliminary investigation of their occurrence under tank culture. Juvenile Jasus edwardsii were examined in a flow-through seawater system using a remote video camera system. Twenty-nine behaviours were divided into three sub-groups: aggressive (11, avoidance (6 and others (12. Aggressive behaviours included attacks, pushing, lifting, clasping and carrying an opponent. Avoidance behaviours included moving away in a backwards-, forwards- or side-stepping motion as well as with more vigorous tail flips. These behaviours were components of twelve behavioural groups that described contact, attack and displacement between individuals. Activity was crepuscular with two clear peaks, one in the morning and the other in the evening. The occurrence of behavioural groups was not different between the morning and evening. The frequency of aggressive behaviours was not affected by changes made to stocking density or access to food. The implications of agonistic behaviours are discussed further in relation to developing aquaculture.

  2. Spiny hopsage fruit and seed morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy L. Shaw; Emerenciana G. Hurd; Marshall R. Haferkamp

    1996-01-01

    Rangeland seedings of spiny hopsage (Gruyia spinosa [Hook.] Moq.) may be made with either bracted utricles or seeds. Problems have resulted from inconsistent use of terminology describing these 2 structures and the fact their germination and seedling emergence is not the same with similar environmental conditions and seeding techniques. We examined...

  3. Pola Kemitraan Pemasaran Lobster di Kota Bengkulu

    OpenAIRE

    Romdhon, M. Mustopa; sukiyono, ketut

    2011-01-01

    Relationship among lobster marketing agents could determine partnership pattern, but how the relationship was build and run, its need depth explanation. The research was aims to synthesize partnership pattern, rights and obligations among agents under lobster marketing at Bengkulu Municipal. The Partnership pattern was explained descriptively through non-contractual, equipment and capital achieved. The research was employed at North Bengkulu Districts at three villages (Pasar Pedati, Pasar Ke...

  4. Lobster-eye infrared focusing optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubsky, Victor; Gertsenshteyn, Michael; Jannson, Tomasz

    2006-08-01

    We propose a new imaging device for the long infrared spectral range, inspired by the natural eye of a lobster. Such a lobster-eye lens is composed of reflecting channels with a square cross section capable of wide angle of view and practically omni-directional imaging. As in large-aperture lenses, aberrations can significantly degrade the image. We show two methods of reducing aberrations: by selecting proper material for the mirrors and by making channels with absorbing sections.

  5. Caribbean Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Kris

    1991-01-01

    The Caribbean is a rich breeding ground for African-derived music. A synopsis is given of the music of the following countries and styles: (1) Jamaica; (2) Trinidad and Tobago; (3) Calypso; (4) steel pan; (5) Haiti; (6) Dominican Republic; (7) Cuba; (8) Puerto Rico; and (9) other islands. (SLD)

  6. 77 FR 32572 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Coral and Coral Reefs Off the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA935 Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Coral and Coral Reefs Off the Southern Atlantic... conditions, various species of reef fish, crabs, and lobsters in Federal waters off South Carolina and North...

  7. 50 CFR 622.1 - Purpose and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... U.S. Virgin Islands CFMC Caribbean. FMP for the Dolphin and Wahoo Fishery off the Atlantic States..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE CARIBBEAN, GULF, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC General Provisions § 622.1... importation of Caribbean spiny lobster into Puerto Rico or the U.S. Virgin Islands. (b) This part governs...

  8. Rodents of the Caribbean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabre, Pierre-Henri; Mouatt, Julia Thidamarth Vilstrup; Raghavan, Maanasa

    2014-01-01

    that Capromyidae are nested within Echimyidae (spiny rats) and should be considered a subfamily thereof. We estimated that the split between hutias and Atlantic Forest spiny rats occurred 16.5 (14.8–18.2) million years ago (Ma), which is more recent than the GAARlandia land bridge hypothesis (34–35 Ma). This would...

  9. DIMENSI METRIK GRAPH LOBSTER Ln (q;r

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PANDE GDE DONY GUMILAR

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The metric dimension of connected graph G is the cardinality of minimum resolving set in graph G. In this research, we study how to find the metric dimension of lobster graph Ln (q;r. Lobster graph Ln (q;r is a regular lobster graph with vertices backbone on the main path, every backbone vertex is connected to q hand vertices and every hand vertex is connected to r finger vertices, with n, q, r element of N. We obtain the metric dimension of lobster graph L2 (1;1 is 1, the metric dimension of lobster graph L2 (1;1 for n > 2 is 2.

  10. LOBSTER - New Space X-Ray telescopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudec, R.; Pina, L.; Simon, V.; Sveda, L.; Inneman, A.; Semencova, V.; Skulinova, M.

    2007-01-01

    We discuss the technological and scientific aspects of fully innovative very wide-field X-ray telescopes with high sensitivity. The prototypes of Lobster telescopes designed, developed and tested are very promising, allowing the proposals for space projects with very wide-field Lobster Eye X-ray optics to be considered for the first time. The novel telescopes will monitor the sky with unprecedented sensitivity and angular resolution of order of 1 arcmin. They are expected to contribute essentially to study of various astrophysical objects such as AGN, SNe, Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), X-ray flashes (XRFs), galactic binary sources, stars, CVs, X-ray novae, various transient sources, etc. For example, the Lobster optics based X-ray All Sky Monitor is capable to detect around 20 GRBs and 8 XRFs yearly and this will surely significantly contribute to the related science

  11. 76 FR 71501 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; American Lobster Fishery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-18

    ... Lobster Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... American lobster regulations that would limit entry into the lobster trap fishery in Lobster Conservation... to fish in Area 1 with up to 800 lobster traps. The proposed limited entry program responds to the...

  12. LOBSTER: new space x-ray telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudec, R.; Sveda, L.; Pína, L.; Inneman, A.; Semencova, V.; Skulinova, M.

    2017-11-01

    The LOBSTER telescopes are based on the optical arrangement of the lobster eye. The main difference from classical X-ray space telescopes in wide use is the very large field of view while the use of optics results in higher efficiency if compared with detectors without optics. Recent innovative technologies have enabled to design, to develop and to test first prototypes. They will provide deep sensitive survey of the sky in X-rays for the first time which is essential for both long-term monitoring of celestial high-energy sources as well as in understanding transient phenomena. The technology is now ready for applications in space.

  13. Feedforward and feedback inhibition in neostriatal GABAergic spiny neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepper, James M; Wilson, Charles J; Koós, Tibor

    2008-08-01

    There are two distinct inhibitory GABAergic circuits in the neostriatum. The feedforward circuit consists of a relatively small population of GABAergic interneurons that receives excitatory input from the neocortex and exerts monosynaptic inhibition onto striatal spiny projection neurons. The feedback circuit comprises the numerous spiny projection neurons and their interconnections via local axon collaterals. This network has long been assumed to provide the majority of striatal GABAergic inhibition and to sharpen and shape striatal output through lateral inhibition, producing increased activity in the most strongly excited spiny cells at the expense of their less strongly excited neighbors. Recent results, mostly from recording experiments of synaptically connected pairs of neurons, have revealed that the two GABAergic circuits differ markedly in terms of the total number of synapses made by each, the strength of the postsynaptic response detected at the soma, the extent of presynaptic convergence and divergence and the net effect of the activation of each circuit on the postsynaptic activity of the spiny neuron. These data have revealed that the feedforward inhibition is powerful and widespread, with spiking in a single interneuron being capable of significantly delaying or even blocking the generation of spikes in a large number of postsynaptic spiny neurons. In contrast, the postsynaptic effects of spiking in a single presynaptic spiny neuron on postsynaptic spiny neurons are weak when measured at the soma, and unable to significantly affect spike timing or generation. Further, reciprocity of synaptic connections between spiny neurons is only rarely observed. These results suggest that the bulk of the fast inhibition that has the strongest effects on spiny neuron spike timing comes from the feedforward interneuronal system whereas the axon collateral feedback system acts principally at the dendrites to control local excitability as well as the overall level of

  14. The Case of Lobster Shell Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollen, Shawna; Toney, Jaime L.; Bisaccio, Daniel; Haberstroh, Karen Marie; Herbert, Timothy

    2011-01-01

    The authors combined content-driven and inquiry-based lessons into the framework of problem-based learning (PBL). They did this in eight third- through sixth-grade classrooms--two each from grades 3-5, one from sixth grade, and one mixed-grade special education. These older elementary students explored a local problem of lobsters infected by…

  15. Exploiting volatile opportunistic computing resources with Lobster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodard, Anna; Wolf, Matthias; Mueller, Charles; Tovar, Ben; Donnelly, Patrick; Hurtado Anampa, Kenyi; Brenner, Paul; Lannon, Kevin; Hildreth, Mike; Thain, Douglas

    2015-12-01

    Analysis of high energy physics experiments using the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) can be limited by availability of computing resources. As a joint effort involving computer scientists and CMS physicists at Notre Dame, we have developed an opportunistic workflow management tool, Lobster, to harvest available cycles from university campus computing pools. Lobster consists of a management server, file server, and worker processes which can be submitted to any available computing resource without requiring root access. Lobster makes use of the Work Queue system to perform task management, while the CMS specific software environment is provided via CVMFS and Parrot. Data is handled via Chirp and Hadoop for local data storage and XrootD for access to the CMS wide-area data federation. An extensive set of monitoring and diagnostic tools have been developed to facilitate system optimisation. We have tested Lobster using the 20 000-core cluster at Notre Dame, achieving approximately 8-10k tasks running simultaneously, sustaining approximately 9 Gbit/s of input data and 340 Mbit/s of output data.

  16. 75 FR 1597 - Western Pacific Crustacean Fisheries; 2010 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-12

    ... Pacific Crustacean Fisheries; 2010 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline AGENCY.... ACTION: Notification of lobster harvest guideline. SUMMARY: NMFS announces that the annual harvest guideline for the commercial lobster fishery in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) for calendar year...

  17. The spatial and temporal patterns of odors sampled by lobsters and crabs in a turbulent plume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidenbach, Matthew A; Koehl, M A R

    2011-09-15

    Odors are dispersed across aquatic habitats by turbulent water flow as filamentous, intermittent plumes. Many crustaceans sniff (take discrete samples of ambient water and the odors it carries) by flicking their olfactory antennules. We used planar laser-induced fluorescence to investigate how flicking antennules of different morphologies (long antennules of spiny lobsters, Panulirus argus; short antennules of blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus) sample fluctuating odor signals at different positions in a turbulent odor plume in a flume to determine whether the patterns of concentrations captured can provide information about an animal's position relative to the odor source. Lobster antennules intercept odors during a greater percentage of flicks and encounter higher peak concentrations than do crab antennules, but because crabs flick at higher frequency, the duration of odor-free gaps between encountered odor pulses is similar. For flicking antennules there were longer time gaps between odor encounters as the downstream distance to the odor source decreases, but shorter gaps along the plume centerline than near the edge. In contrast to the case for antennule flicking, almost all odor-free gaps were <500 ms at all positions in the plume if concentration was measured continuously at the same height as the antennules. Variance in concentration is lower and mean concentration is greater near the substratum, where leg chemosensors continuously sample the plume, than in the water where antennules sniff. Concentrations sampled by legs increase as an animal nears an odor source, but decrease for antennules. Both legs and antennules encounter higher concentrations near the centerline than at the edge of the plume.

  18. Predation on hatchery-reared lobsters released in the wild

    OpenAIRE

    van der Meeren, Gro

    2000-01-01

    Predation on hatchery-reared lobsters (Homarus gammarus) in the wild was studied in order to identify predators in southwestern Norway on rocky and sandy substrates in winter and summer. Lobsters of 12–15 mm carapace length were tagged with magnetic microtags. About 51 000 juvenile lobsters were released on 10 occasions at three locations. Predator samplings were by trammel nets, eel traps, and videorecordings during the 24 h immediately following the releases. In summer, loss to ...

  19. 50 CFR 622.6 - Vessel and gear identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE CARIBBEAN, GULF, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC General Provisions... pelagic sargassum in the South Atlantic EEZ, must display its official number— (A) On the port and... and Caribbean spiny lobster fishery are assigned by Puerto Rico or the U.S. Virgin Islands, whichever...

  20. BUDIDAYA LOBSTER (Panulirus sp. DI VIETNAM DAN APLIKASINYA DI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhmad Mustafa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Desa Xuan Tun di Kecamatan Van Ninh Kota Nha Trang Provinsi Khanh Hoa merupakan lokasi pertama kegiatan budidaya lobster di Vietnam yang dilakuan pada tahun 1992. Secara umum di Kota Nha Trang, ada tiga jenis lobster yang dibudidayakan yaitu lobster mutiara (Panulirus ornatus, lobster pasir (Panulirus homarus, dan lobster batik (Panulirus longipes, karena benih lobster tersebut mudah didapat pada awalnya, cepat tumbuh, berukuran besar, warna cerah, dan memiliki harga yang tinggi. Kegiatan budidaya lobster pada dasarnya terdiri atas: penangkapan benih lobster, produksi tokolan lobster, dan pembesaran lobster yang masing-masing merupakan segmen usaha tersendiri. Pakan yang digunakan dalam produksi tokolan dan pembesaran lobster adalah berupa udang, kerang, tiram, cumi-cumi, dan ikan rucah, di mana sebagian besar dari pakan tersebut digunakan ikan rucah terutama pada pembesaran lobster. Sebagai akibat penggunaan pakan tersebut dan peningkatan jumlah keramba jaring apung yang cukup signifikan berdampak pada penurunan kualitas perairan yang memicu berkembangya penyakit susu (milky haemolymph disease sehingga terjadi penurunan produksi. Terkait dengan hasil yang didapatkan tersebut, ke depan diperlukan berbagai kegiatan termasuk untuk dapat diaplikasikan di Indonesia. Kegiatan tersebut meliputi: produksi benih lobster secara buatan di hatcheri dan penggunaan pakan buatan berupa moist pellet. Upaya pencegahan penyakit susu dan perlakuan-perlakuan praktis untuk mencegah perkembangan serangan penyakit susu juga perlu mendapat perhatian. Perkembangan budidaya lobster yang begitu cepat memicu terjadinya penurunan daya dukung lahan. Oleh karena itu, kegiatan untuk menentukan daya dukung lahan dan kesesuaian lahan menjadi penting untuk dilakukan untuk menentukan lokasi dan jumlah keramba jaring apung yang dapat dioperasikan. Penentuan daya dukung lahan dan evaluasi kesesuaian lahan tidak hanya dilakukan pada daerah yang

  1. Innate Immunity in Lobsters: Partial Purification and Characterization of a Panulirus cygnus Anti-A Lectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flower, Robert L P

    2012-01-01

    A lectin detected in haemolymph from the Australian spiny lobster Panulirus cygnus agglutinated human ABO Group A cells to a higher titre than Group O or B. The lectin also agglutinated rat and sheep erythrocytes, with reactivity with rat erythrocytes strongly enhanced by treatment with the proteolytic enzyme papain, an observation consistent with reactivity via a glycolipid. The lectin, purified by affinity chromatography on fixed rat-erythrocyte stroma, was inhibited equally by N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylgalactosamine. Comparison of data from gel filtration of haemolymph (behaving as a 1,800,000 Da macromolecule), and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of purified lectin (a single 67,000 Da band), suggested that in haemolymph the lecin was a multimer. The purified anti-A lectin autoprecipitated unless the storage solution contained chaotropic inhibitors (125 mmol/L sucrose: 500 mmol/L urea). The properties of this anti-A lectin and other similar lectins are consistent with a role in innate immunity in these invertebrates.

  2. Factors affecting post-capture survivability of lobster Homarus americanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basti, David; Bricknell, Ian; Hoyt, Ken; Chang, Ernest S; Halteman, William; Bouchard, Deborah

    2010-06-11

    Technological advances in gear and fishing practices have driven the global expansion of the American lobster live seafood market. These changes have had a positive effect on the lobster industry by increasing capture efficiency. However, it is unknown what effect these improved methods will have on the post-capture fitness and survival of lobsters. This project utilized a repeated measures design to compare the physiological changes that occur in lobsters over time as the result of differences in depth, hauling rate, and storage methodology. The results indicate that lobsters destined for long distance transport or temporary storage in pounds undergo physiological disturbance as part of the capture process. These changes are significant over time for total hemocyte counts, crustacean hyperglycemic hormone, L-lactate, ammonia, and glucose. Repeated measures multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) for glucose indicates a significant interaction between depth and storage methodology over time for non-survivors. A Gram-negative bacterium, Photobacterium indicum, was identified in pure culture from hemolymph samples of 100% of weak lobsters. Histopathology revealed the presence of Gram-negative bacteria throughout the tissues with evidence of antemortem edema and necrosis suggestive of septicemia. On the basis of these findings, we recommend to the lobster industry that if a reduction in depth and hauling rate is not economically feasible, fishermen should take particular care in handling lobsters and provide them with a recovery period in recirculating seawater prior to land transport. The ecological role of P. indicum is not fully defined at this time. However, it may be an emerging opportunistic pathogen of stressed lobsters. Judicious preemptive antibiotic therapy may be necessary to reduce mortality in susceptible lobsters destined for high-density holding facilities.

  3. Red Tide Strands South African Rock Lobsters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Although some red tides form a healthy part of phytoplankton production, recurrent harmful or toxic blooms also occur, with results depending upon the type of plankton and on atmospheric and oceanic conditions. At Elands Bay in South Africa's Western Cape province, about 1000 tons of rock lobsters beached themselves during February 2002, when the decay of dense blooms of phytoplankton caused a rapid reduction in the oxygen concentration of nearshore waters. The lobsters (or crayfish, as they are known locally) moved toward the breaking surf in search of oxygen, but were stranded by the retreating tide. The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer's nadir camera acquired these red, green, blue composites on February 2 and 18, 2002, during Terra orbits 11315 and 11548. The colors have been accentuated to highlight the bloom, and land and water have been enhanced separately. The two views show the shoreward migration of the algal bloom. Each image represents an area of about 205 kilometers x 330 kilometers. Elands Bay is situated near the mouth of the Doring River, about 75 kilometers northeast of the jutting Cape Columbine. The term 'red tide' is used to refer to a number of different types of phytoplankton blooms of various hues. The wine color of certain parts of this bloom are consistent with the ciliate species Mesodinium rubrum, which has been associated with recurring harmful algal blooms along the Western Cape coast. Under these conditions, the lobsters are not poisoned. During the recent event, government and military staff transported as many of the living lobsters as possible to areas that were less affected by the red tide. At the same time, people came from across South Africa to gather the undersized creatures for food. The effects of the losses on the maritime economy are expected to be felt over the next few years. MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra

  4. 76 FR 82413 - Amendments to the Reef Fish, Spiny Lobster, Queen Conch and Coral and Reef Associated Plants and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-30

    ..., which is a region with populations characterized by large percents of racial/ethnic minorities, high... likelihood that expected annual variations in landings around the ACL (which is based upon average annual... take into account, and allow for, variations among fisheries, fishery resources, and catches. The...

  5. The early phyllosoma stages of spiny lobster Panulirus echinatus Smith, 1869 (Decapoda: Palinuridae reared in the laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FA. Abrunhosa

    Full Text Available The early stages of the Panulirus echinatus were hatched and reared in the laboratory. Ovigerous females were captured in their habitat and carefully transported to the laboratory. Larvae were transferred in a recirculation water tank at a density of 10 larvae.L-1. The larvae were fed on Artemia and gonads of mussel Brachydonts sp. Microalgae Dunaliella viridis was added at a concentration of 150 x 10(4 cell.mL-1. Larvae and exuviae of each zoeal stage were preserved in an alcohol 70% + glycerin (1:1 solution. The phyllosomas moulted eight times; the intermoulting period of each instar averaged about 7 to 10 days. The main morphological changes of each appendage were described in detail, illustrated and compared with previous reports.

  6. Diseases of American lobsters (Homarus americanus): a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawthorn, Richard J

    2011-01-01

    The American lobster fishery is a significant economic driver in coastal communities of North America. Increasingly, the impacts of infectious disease are recognized as important components and factors in the population ecology and subsequent management of the lobster fishery. Both environmental and anthropogenic factors impact marine diseases. The review herein highlights aspects of several important bacterial, fungal and protistan diseases, including gaffkemia, shell disease, vibriosis, disease caused by species of Lagenidium, Haliphthoros and Fusarium, paramoebiasis and Bumper Car disease. As the global environment continues to change, these diseases could more severely affect both wild caught and impounded lobsters. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Studies on the diet of various lobster species have shown ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    However, the proportion of the population feeding showed marked seasonal trends at both sites, tracking the commercial ..... The general diet of crustaceans, molluscs and echino- .... habits of polychelid lobsters in the Western Mediterranean.

  8. Caribbean landscapes and their biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. E. Lugo; E. H. Helmer; E. Santiago Valentín

    2012-01-01

    Both the biodiversity and the landscapes of the Caribbean have been greatly modified as a consequence of human activity. In this essay we provide an overview of the natural landscapes and biodiversity of the Caribbean and discuss how human activity has affected both. Our Caribbean geographic focus is on the insular Caribbean and the biodiversity focus is on the flora,...

  9. Host susceptibility hypothesis for shell disease in American lobsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tlusty, Michael F; Smolowitz, Roxanna M; Halvorson, Harlyn O; DeVito, Simone E

    2007-12-01

    Epizootic shell disease (ESD) in American lobsters Homarus americanus is the bacterial degradation of the carapace resulting in extensive irregular, deep erosions. The disease is having a major impact on the health and mortality of some American lobster populations, and its effects are being transferred to the economics of the fishery. While the onset and progression of ESD in American lobsters is undoubtedly multifactorial, there is little understanding of the direct causality of this disease. The host susceptibility hypothesis developed here states that although numerous environmental and pathological factors may vary around a lobster, it is eventually the lobster's internal state that is permissive to or shields it from the final onset of the diseased state. To support the host susceptibility hypothesis, we conceptualized a model of shell disease onset and severity to allow further research on shell disease to progress from a structured model. The model states that shell disease onset will occur when the net cuticle degradation (bacterial degradation, decrease of host immune response to bacteria, natural wear, and resorption) is greater than the net deposition (growth, maintenance, and inflammatory response) of the shell. Furthermore, lesion severity depends on the extent to which cuticle degradation exceeds deposition. This model is consistent with natural observations of shell disease in American lobster.

  10. Radioactive lobsters put squeeze on Sellafield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1996-11-01

    British Nuclear Fuels is facing a new controversy over its Sellafield Works in Cumbria. Levels of the radioactive isotope technetium-99 in lobsters close to the works have risen 40-fold since 1993 -and now far exceed EC standards for contamination of food after a nuclear accident. Radioactive doses to local seafood consumers have been rising steeply since BNFL commissioned a new enhanced actinide removal plant (EARP) in 1994. The Environment Agency has now asked BNFL to consider ways of reducing technetium-99 discharges from the plant - but the company is also under pressure to maintain throughput to meet the safety concerns of the Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (NII) and avoid disrupting the reprocessing of spent Magnox reactor fuel. (UK).

  11. Radioactive lobsters put squeeze on Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    British Nuclear Fuels is facing a new controversy over its Sellafield Works in Cumbria. Levels of the radioactive isotope technetium-99 in lobsters close to the works have risen 40-fold since 1993 -and now far exceed EC standards for contamination of food after a nuclear accident. Radioactive doses to local seafood consumers have been rising steeply since BNFL commissioned a new enhanced actinide removal plant (EARP) in 1994. The Environment Agency has now asked BNFL to consider ways of reducing technetium-99 discharges from the plant - but the company is also under pressure to maintain throughput to meet the safety concerns of the Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (NII) and avoid disrupting the reprocessing of spent Magnox reactor fuel. (UK)

  12. Mitogenomic phylogeny, diversification, and biogeography of South American spiny rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabre, Pierre-Henri; Upham, Nathan S.; Emmons, Louise H.

    2017-01-01

    Echimyidae is one of the most speciose and ecologically diverse rodent families in the world, occupying a wide range of habitats in the Neotropics. However, a resolved phylogeny at the genus-level is still lacking for these 22 genera of South American spiny rats, including the coypu (Myocastorina...... Atlantic and Amazonian Forests and (2) the Northern uplift of the Andes....

  13. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite markers in the spiny ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Michelli F. Santos

    Although commer- cially important fisheries exist for the species, the activity lacks management plan to ensure that lobster popula- ... and the Illumina Nextera XT bead-based normalization protocol. ... software (Raymond and Rousset 1995). The Bonferroni ..... N. J. 2009 Fast, cost effective development of species specific.

  14. Disease effects on lobster fisheries, ecology, and culture: overview of DAO Special 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behringer, Donald C; Butler, Mark J; Stentiford, Grant D

    2012-08-27

    Lobsters are prized by commercial and recreational fishermen worldwide, and their populations are therefore buffeted by fishery practices. But lobsters also remain integral members of their benthic communities where predator-prey relationships, competitive interactions, and host-pathogen dynamics push and pull at their population dynamics. Although lobsters have few reported pathogens and parasites relative to other decapod crustaceans, the rise of diseases with consequences for lobster fisheries and aquaculture has spotlighted the importance of disease for lobster biology, population dynamics and ecology. Researchers, managers, and fishers thus increasingly recognize the need to understand lobster pathogens and parasites so they can be managed proactively and their impacts minimized where possible. At the 2011 International Conference and Workshop on Lobster Biology and Management a special session on lobster diseases was convened and this special issue of Diseases of Aquatic Organisms highlights those proceedings with a suite of articles focused on diseases discussed during that session.

  15. Caribbean shallow water Corallimorpharia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, J.C.den

    1980-01-01

    The present paper comprises a review of the Caribbean shallow water Corallimorpharia. Six species, belonging to four genera and three families are treated, including Pseudocorynactis caribbeorum gen. nov. spec. nov., a species with tentacular acrospheres containing the largest spirocysts ever

  16. 76 FR 77214 - Hawaii Crustacean Fisheries; 2012 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-12

    ... Crustacean Fisheries; 2012 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline AGENCY: National Marine...: Notification of lobster harvest guideline. SUMMARY: NMFS establishes the annual harvest guideline for the commercial lobster fishery in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) for calendar year 2012 at zero...

  17. Animal behavior frozen in time: gregarious behavior of Early Jurassic lobsters within an ammonoid body chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klompmaker, Adiël A; Fraaije, René H B

    2012-01-01

    Direct animal behavior can be inferred from the fossil record only in exceptional circumstances. The exceptional mode of preservation of ammonoid shells in the Posidonia Shale (Lower Jurassic, lower Toarcian) of Dotternhausen in southern Germany, with only the organic periostracum preserved, provides an excellent opportunity to observe the contents of the ammonoid body chamber because this periostracum is translucent. Here, we report upon three delicate lobsters preserved within a compressed ammonoid specimen of Harpoceras falciferum. We attempt to explain this gregarious behavior. The three lobsters were studied using standard microscopy under low angle light. The lobsters belong to the extinct family of the Eryonidae; further identification was not possible. The organic material of the three small lobsters is preserved more than halfway into the ammonoid body chamber. The lobsters are closely spaced and are positioned with their tails oriented toward each other. The specimens are interpreted to represent corpses rather than molts. The lobsters probably sought shelter in preparation for molting or against predators such as fish that were present in Dotternhausen. Alternatively, the soft tissue of the ammonoid may have been a source of food that attracted the lobsters, or it may have served as a long-term residency for the lobsters (inquilinism). The lobsters represent the oldest known example of gregariousness amongst lobsters and decapods in the fossil record. Gregarious behavior in lobsters, also known for extant lobsters, thus developed earlier in earth's history than previously known. Moreover, this is one of the oldest known examples of decapod crustaceans preserved within cephalopod shells.

  18. 50 CFR 697.24 - Exempted waters for Maine State American lobster permits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... lobster permits. 697.24 Section 697.24 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT... lobster permits. A person or vessel holding a valid permit or license issued by the State of Maine that lawfully permits that person to engage in commercial fishing for American lobster may, with the approval of...

  19. Gas pipelines and the American lobster, Homarus americanus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, R.A. [Connecticut Univ., Groton, CT (United States); Clancy, M. [Boston Univ., MA (United States); Cobb, J.S. [Rhode Island Univ., Kingston, RI (United States)

    2003-07-01

    One of the main objectives of the megabenthic study of the New England continental shelf conducted during the 1970s and the 1980s was to define the migratory behavior and overall ecology of the offshore American lobster. The study involved more than 100 manned submersible divers on the outer continental shelf, upper continental slope, Georges Bank and submarine canyons. It also included an extensive lobster tagging program. The study provided valuable information on the ecology and behaviour of the lobster and several other megabenthic fauna that could be affected by the presence of a gas pipeline running parallel to the outer continental shelf, from eastern Georges Bank to northern New Jersey. The study showed that an exposed 2-4 diameter pipeline would impede the normal onshore and offshore migration of this deep water lobster species because its' migration is done by walking rather than swimming, and any overhanging structure would block its path. It was emphasized that it is extremely important to maintain spring to early summer onshore migration in the multi-million dollar lobster industry. This paper offered suggestions for modifying pipe encasements to solve the migration problem.

  20. From Fishing to Fish Processing: Separation of Fish from Crustaceans in the Norway Lobster-Directed Multispecies Trawl Fishery Improves Seafood Quality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junita D Karlsen

    Full Text Available Fishing gears have negative impacts on seafood quality, especially on fish in the mixed trawl fishery targeting Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus. In this fishery, which is worth about €80 millions in Denmark alone, the quality of fish can be significantly improved by simple gear changes. A trawl codend divided into an upper and lower codend was designed to separate fish from Norway lobster during the fishing process by encourage fish to swim into the upper codend by using a frame at the entrance of the lower codend. Separate codends for fish and Norway lobster in the same gear provide the opportunity to selectively reduce small low-value fish, which will reduce catch weight and sorting time onboard the vessel. For this horizontally divided test codend and a standard codend, in which the catch was mixed, quality assessments were performed on the same batches of fish during three steps of the value chain: i aboard the fishing vessel; ii at the Fishermen's Collection Central, and iii in the production plant. Four species of fish and fillets from fish caught in the upper codend of the test codend were of significantly better quality for several of the assessed parameters compared with those caught in the standard codend: i newly caught fish showed significantly less scale loss and discolourations and had significantly better texture; ii landed fish had significantly better skin appearance and texture and significantly fewer discolourations; and iii fillets showed significantly fewer blood spots and had significantly better texture. There were no differences in injuries for newly caught fish or gaping and bruises for fillets between the test and standard codends. The decrease in catch-related damages in the test codend is explained by little contact between fish and animals with hard or spiny surfaces due to successful separation of fish and Norway lobster into the upper and lower codends, respectively, and by lower catch weight in the upper

  1. Revisiting Maine’s lobster commons: rescaling political subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer F. Brewer

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Calls for cross-scalar theoretical and methodological approaches are not new to commons scholarship. Such efforts might be hastened by channelling poststructuralist and critical theory perspectives through the geographic subfield of political ecology, including attention to political scales and subjects. Toward this end, this paper reconsiders Maine’s lobster fishery. This case has provided rich material for watershed commons scholarship, demonstrating the ability of social groups to conserve resources independent of government or markets, and it continues to offer new findings. Recent fieldwork shows that as lobster boat captains advance collective interests through state-supported co-management governance arrangements, concerns of crew and non-fishing community members may be marginalized. Regulatory exclusion prevents broader distribution of resource benefits at a time when employment alternatives are scarce. More pluralistic approaches to commons theory and its policy application have utility well beyond the lobster case.

  2. Systematics and position of Nephrops among the lobsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tshudy, Dale

    2013-01-01

    This chapter presents and explains the position of Nephrops norvegicus in the classification of lobsters. Covered, in order, are systematic classification of Nephrops, taxonomic history of Nephrops, and analysis of Nephrops in nephropid phylogeny. The genus Nephrops was erected by Leach in 1814 and has a long and interesting taxonomic history. Prior to 1972, Nephrops was known by 14 Recent species. All but one of these, N. norvegicus, were removed to a new genus, Metanephrops, by Jenkins (1972). Today, N. norvegicus is still the only known living representative of the genus. Similarly, Nephrops is known by only one fossil species, the Miocene Nephrops kvistgaardae, although several other fossil species have been previously referred to this genus. Nephrops, along with the other familiar and commercially important marine clawed lobsters, is referred to Family Nephropidae, one of 17 marine clawed lobster families arrayed in 3 infraorders, 6 families each in the Astacidea and Glypheidea and 5 in the Polychelida. Infraorder Astacidea includes the Superfamily Nephropoidea, as well as the lesser known 'reef lobsters' of the Superfamily Enoplometopoidea, and the freshwater crayfish, Superfamily Astacoidea. In phylogenetic analyses, the freshwater crayfish form a sister group to the Nephropoidea. It is interpreted that freshwater crayfish evolved from nephropoid lobsters, but from which lobster group is uncertain. The taxonomic placement of N. norvegicus is stable at all levels, from species on up. Despite that, the phylogenetic relationships of Nephrops to other nephropid genera are unsettled due to conflicting results in morphological and molecular analyses. Currently, new morphological characters and new genes are being analysed in the hope of elucidating nephropid phylogeny. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Predation Risk within Fishing Gear and Implications for South Australian Rock Lobster Fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briceño, Felipe; Linnane, Adrian Joseph; Quiroz, Juan Carlos; Gardner, Caleb; Pecl, Gretta Tatyana

    2015-01-01

    Depredation of southern rock lobster (Jasus edwardsii) within fishing gear by the Maori octopus (Pinnoctopus cordiformis) has economic and ecological impacts on valuable fisheries in South Australia. In addition, depredation rates can be highly variable resulting in uncertainties for the fishery. We examined how in-pot lobster predation was influenced by factors such as lobster size and sex, season, fishing zone, and catch rate. Using mixed modelling techniques, we found that in-pot predation risk increased with lobster size and was higher for male lobsters. In addition, the effect of catch rate of lobsters on predation risk by octopus differed among fishing zones. There was both a seasonal and a spatial component to octopus predation, with an increased risk within discrete fishing grounds in South Australia at certain times of the year. Information about predation within lobster gear can assist fishery management decision-making, potentially leading to significant reduction in economic losses to the fishery. PMID:26489035

  4. Predation Risk within Fishing Gear and Implications for South Australian Rock Lobster Fisheries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Briceño

    Full Text Available Depredation of southern rock lobster (Jasus edwardsii within fishing gear by the Maori octopus (Pinnoctopus cordiformis has economic and ecological impacts on valuable fisheries in South Australia. In addition, depredation rates can be highly variable resulting in uncertainties for the fishery. We examined how in-pot lobster predation was influenced by factors such as lobster size and sex, season, fishing zone, and catch rate. Using mixed modelling techniques, we found that in-pot predation risk increased with lobster size and was higher for male lobsters. In addition, the effect of catch rate of lobsters on predation risk by octopus differed among fishing zones. There was both a seasonal and a spatial component to octopus predation, with an increased risk within discrete fishing grounds in South Australia at certain times of the year. Information about predation within lobster gear can assist fishery management decision-making, potentially leading to significant reduction in economic losses to the fishery.

  5. On the origin and variation of colors in lobster carapace

    OpenAIRE

    Begum, Shamima; Cianci, Michele; Durbeej, Bo; Falklöf, Olle; Haedener, Alfons; Helliwell, John R.; Helliwell, Madeleine; Regan, Andrew C.; Watt, Ian F.

    2015-01-01

    The chemical basis of the blue-black to pink-orange color change on cooking of lobster, due to thermal denaturation of an astaxanthin-protein complex, alpha-crustacyanin, in the lobster carapace, has so far been elusive. Here, we investigate the relaxation of the astaxanthin pigment from its bound enolate form to its neutral hydroxyketone form, as origin of the spectral shift, by analyzing the response of UV-vis spectra of a water-soluble 3-hydroxy-4-oxo-beta-ionone model of astaxanthin to in...

  6. 75 FR 16716 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Proposed 2010 Specifications for the Spiny Dogfish...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ... Assessment Committee (TRAC) conducted a benchmark stock assessment for spiny dogfish in early February 2010... 3, 1998, and added to the list of overfished stocks in the Report on the Status of the Fisheries of... measures to end overfishing and to rebuild the spiny dogfish stock. A joint FMP was developed by the MAFMC...

  7. Historical commercial West Coast rock lobster Jasus lalandii ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Historic data from 1891 to 2001 on the annual exports of rock lobster Jasus lalandii products (canned, frozen tails, raw whole frozen, cooked whole frozen and live) from the South African west coast are used to estimate the annual commercial landings by this fishery. Conversion factors were developed to convert canned, ...

  8. Distribution of slipper lobsters (Decapoda: Scyllaridae in Uruguayan waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Scarabino

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Scyllarid lobsters are commonly found in tropical waters with scarce records from temperate zones in the southwestern Atlantic. Here, we provide new information about the distribution of Scyllarides deceptor Holthuis, 1963 along the Uruguayan continental shelf and include a new austral record for Scyllarus depressus (Smith, 1881.

  9. From Lobster Shells to Plastic Objects: A Bioplastics Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Reuben; Glaisher, Samuel; Bishop, Alexandra; Katz, Jeffrey L.

    2015-01-01

    A multiple day activity for students to create large-scale plastic objects from the biopolymer chitin (major component of lobster, crab, and shrimp shells) is described. The plastic objects created are durable and made from benign materials, making them suitable for students to take home to play with. Since the student-created plastic objects are…

  10. The Lobster Tale: An Exercise in Critical Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanovich, Paul L.

    2009-01-01

    Professors in management and business are encouraged to incorporate critical thinking as an objective in their courses. "The Lobster Tale" provides an opportunity to engage students in various levels of critical thinking, ranging from a relatively superficial reading to an examination of the deeper, often hidden issues. Using the foundations of…

  11. Predation by West Coast rock lobsters (Jasus lalandit) on two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    opened black mussel to ensure that they were feeding. Each rock lobster was then starved for a further 24h to ensure equal starvation levels and complete clearance of the digestive tract. (Zoutendyk 1988). before each of the following experiments was performed. For all experiments described below, winkle measurements ...

  12. Aspects of Automation in a Lobster Farming Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steinar Grimsen

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the automation aspects of rearing juvenile lobsters for sea ranching. It gives an outline of rearing techniques and presents specifications for a feeding system. A description is given of the equipment that has been developed. Other automation and instrumentation tasks are briefly discussed.

  13. Parasites of crayfish ( P. clarki ) and lobsters ( Macrobrachium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on parasites of crayfish and lobsters as indicators of metal pollution in Great Kwa River, Nigeria was evaluated using appropriate instruments for determination of Physicochemical parameters and detection of metals. Formol ether centrifugation method was used for isolation of parasites. A total of 150 crayfish and ...

  14. Pengambilan Keputusan Waktu Panen Pada Usaha Pembesaran Lobster di Pulau Lombok Provinsi NTB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deden Kurniawan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Lobsters represent as a valuable commodity to be determined by their length and weight. In Indonesia, the minimum legal size of lobster is 7cm of carapace length and 200 grams of weight, and this is stipulated on regulation of Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries No.1/2015. Instead of behaving in accordance with the rule, farmers still harvest lobsters as soon as they are of marketable size to reduce the risk of mortality and to generate income instantly. This paper develops a structural equation model partially least square (SEM PLS to analyze decision making process to harvest lobster in Indonesia. The study established by structural equation modeling partially least square shows that the decision making to harvest lobster is driven by patron-client relationship, time constraint, and working complexity.Keywords: lobster growing activities, decision to harvest, Lombok, SEM PLSABSTRAKLobster sebagai komoditas yang berharga ditentukan oleh ukuran panjang dan berat. Di Indonesia, berdasarkan Peraturan Menteri Kelautan dan Perikanan No.1 / 2015, ukuran minimal lobster adalah memiliki panjang karapas 7cm dan berat 200 gram. Pelaku usaha pembesaran lobster justru tidak mentaati aturan yang ada, ukuran lobster yang dipanen justru ditentukan oleh permintaan pasar yang dilakukan untuk mengurangi risiko kematian lobster dan mempercepat waktu dalam memperoleh penghsilan. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk melakukan analisis keputusan waktu panen lobster di Indonesia. Metode yang digunakan adalah model persamaan struktural sebagian least square (SEM PLS. Hasil studi menunjukkan bahwa keputusan untuk memanen lobster ditentukan oleh hubungan patron dengan klien, keterbatasan waktu, dan kompleksitas pekerjaan.Kata kunci: kegiatan pembesaran lobster, keputusan waktu panen, Lombok, SEM PLS

  15. IDRC in the Caribbean

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Since the early 1970s, IDRC has supported the efforts of researchers in the English-speaking Caribbean to reduce poverty and inequality, restore degraded coastal ecosystems, and protect communities against disease and natural disasters. Research has helped to improve farming and fishing practices and tackle.

  16. Animal behavior frozen in time: gregarious behavior of Early Jurassic lobsters within an ammonoid body chamber.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adiël A Klompmaker

    Full Text Available Direct animal behavior can be inferred from the fossil record only in exceptional circumstances. The exceptional mode of preservation of ammonoid shells in the Posidonia Shale (Lower Jurassic, lower Toarcian of Dotternhausen in southern Germany, with only the organic periostracum preserved, provides an excellent opportunity to observe the contents of the ammonoid body chamber because this periostracum is translucent. Here, we report upon three delicate lobsters preserved within a compressed ammonoid specimen of Harpoceras falciferum. We attempt to explain this gregarious behavior. The three lobsters were studied using standard microscopy under low angle light. The lobsters belong to the extinct family of the Eryonidae; further identification was not possible. The organic material of the three small lobsters is preserved more than halfway into the ammonoid body chamber. The lobsters are closely spaced and are positioned with their tails oriented toward each other. The specimens are interpreted to represent corpses rather than molts. The lobsters probably sought shelter in preparation for molting or against predators such as fish that were present in Dotternhausen. Alternatively, the soft tissue of the ammonoid may have been a source of food that attracted the lobsters, or it may have served as a long-term residency for the lobsters (inquilinism. The lobsters represent the oldest known example of gregariousness amongst lobsters and decapods in the fossil record. Gregarious behavior in lobsters, also known for extant lobsters, thus developed earlier in earth's history than previously known. Moreover, this is one of the oldest known examples of decapod crustaceans preserved within cephalopod shells.

  17. Effect of natural and laboratory diet on O : N ratio in juvenile lobsters (Homarus americanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Anne Christine

    2006-05-01

    Oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion rates of juvenile lobsters spanning the size range from shelter-restricted to vagile (7-60 mm CL, carapace length) were measured. There are no significant size-dependent break points in the slope of oxygen consumption or nitrogen excretion rates versus weight in freshly caught wild or laboratory fed lobsters. This suggests that there are no inherent changes in energy metabolism in juvenile lobster in the 7-60 mm CL range (stage V to adolescent lobsters), despite major behavioral shifts related to foraging and shelter use. In addition, the O : N ratio of freshly caught wild lobsters (15.7+/-7.4, mean+/-S.D.) is not significantly different from that of lobsters fed brown algae (13.4+/-4.9) or a mixed carbohydrate/protein diet (13.7+/-6.8) in lab. The O : N ratio of wild lobsters is significantly higher than lobsters fed a high protein diet (7.5+/-2.5) in the lab. This suggests that carbohydrates, particularly algal-derived carbohydrates, make up a significant portion of the metabolic fuel of wild juvenile lobsters from settlement through adolescence.

  18. Bait and the susceptibility of American lobsters Homarus americanus to epizootic shell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethoney, N David; Stokesbury, Kevin D E; Stevens, Bradley G; Altabet, Mark A

    2011-05-24

    Shell disease (SD) has been observed in lobster populations for almost a hundred years, but recently, rates of an epizootic form of shell disease (ESD) have increased in the southern New England (USA) area. A large proportion of fish in the diet of American lobsters Homarus americanus has been linked to increased rates of SD. Therefore, the use of fish as lobster bait may be linked to increased ESD rates in lobsters. Lobsters from the western portion of Martha's Vineyard, MA (41 degrees N, 71 degrees W), were randomly divided into 3 groups of 16 and exposed to dietary treatments (100% herring; 48% crab, 48% blue mussel and 4% plant matter; or 50% herring, 24% crab, 24% mussel, 2% plant matter) to determine if lobster tissue delta15N levels reflected diet. The results of the feeding experiment confirmed that differences in diet are observed in the delta15N levels of lobster muscle tissue. The delta15N levels of tissue samples from 175 wild lobsters with varying degrees of ESD were unrelated to ESD severity but did indicate lobsters were eating large amounts of fish (bait). This result does not support the speculation that fish used as bait is contributing to ESD outbreaks in portions of the southern New England area.

  19. Keanekaragaman dan Potensi Lobster (Malacostraca: Palinuridae di Pantai Pameungpeuk, Garut Selatan, Jawa Barat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rianta Pratiwi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Coral shrimp (Panulirus spp. or known as lobster is a potential fishery commodity and economic value. The demand for domestic and export market continues to increase both as local consumption and export. Indonesia is the largest lobster fishery producer in almost all Indonesian waters, from the west coast of Sumatra to the east coast Jayapura, one of which is Pameungpeuk beach, South Garut, West Java. As a result of increasing demand, fishermen try to catch as many lobsters and the impact of lobster prices also in creases and whereas fishermen continuously take it from nature. This study was conducted to determine the diversity and potential of lobster species especially living in high wavy waters along the southern coast of Garut (Pamengpeuk, West Java.The results of observation are only three types of crayfish, namely: a. Panulirus homarus (green lobster sand; b. Panulirus longipes (lobster flower/ red lobster and Panulirus versicolor (green lobster/bamboo; is most commonly found in the area of south Garut, Pameungpeuk beach with high and strong waves. The percentage of female P longipes species (42.88% was higher compared to male P. homarus (40% and ovigerous female of P. versicolor (37.14%. While the sexual ratio between P. homarus (1:2.0:2.0; P. longipes (1:1.2:1.0 and P. versicolor: 1:1.2:1.2  which statistically showed significantly different p <0.05.

  20. Forecasting the Seasonal Timing of Maine's Lobster Fishery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine E. Mills

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The fishery for American lobster is currently the highest-valued commercial fishery in the United States, worth over US$620 million in dockside value in 2015. During a marine heat wave in 2012, the fishery was disrupted by the early warming of spring ocean temperatures and subsequent influx of lobster landings. This situation resulted in a price collapse, as the supply chain was not prepared for the early and abundant landings of lobsters. Motivated by this series of events, we have developed a forecast of when the Maine (USA lobster fishery will shift into its high volume summer landings period. The forecast uses a regression approach to relate spring ocean temperatures derived from four NERACOOS buoys along the coast of Maine to the start day of the high landings period of the fishery. Tested against conditions in past years, the forecast is able to predict the start day to within 1 week of the actual start, and the forecast can be issued 3–4 months prior to the onset of the high-landings period, providing valuable lead-time for the fishery and its associated supply chain to prepare for the upcoming season. Forecast results are conveyed in a probabilistic manner and are updated weekly over a 6-week forecasting period so that users can assess the certainty and consistency of the forecast and factor the uncertainty into their use of the information in a given year. By focusing on the timing of events, this type of seasonal forecast provides climate-relevant information to users at time scales that are meaningful for operational decisions. As climate change alters seasonal phenology and reduces the reliability of past experience as a guide for future expectations, this type of forecast can enable fishing industry participants to better adjust to and prepare for operating in the context of climate change.

  1. Changing Ocean, Changing Economics: Impact of Rising Temperatures on the American Lobster Landings and on the US-Canada Lobster Economics in the Emerging Chinese Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, C. H. J.

    2016-02-01

    Record high temperatures in 2012 pushed the start date of the Maine lobster fishing season three weeks earlier than normal. High landings during a compressed time period more than doubled the volume experienced in June and July. As supply outpaced demand, an average 40% decrease in ex-vessel price significantly reduced fishermen's profitability. This study examined how the timing and location of lobster landings is affected by ocean temperatures, number of trips, distance fished from shore, price, and seasonality. Weekly lobster landings and the number of fishing trips in eastern, central, and western Maine from 2008 to 2014 were combined with NERACOOS buoy temperatures to model the change in productivity. The model shows warming leads to significant increases in landings. We also used monthly landings, prices, and trade of live and processed lobster between the U.S. and Canada from 1990 to 2014 to specify a system of equations that captures how both markets are integrated and how they respond to changing market conditions. The model shows that an increase in landings in both areas leads to an increase in lobster trade and then to an increase in US imports of frozen lobster meat. Furthermore, lobster exports to the emerging Chinese market started to expand after 2012 and grew to account for 21% and 11% of the exports value from U.S. and Canada, respectively. From 2010 to 2014, a sub-system model is specified to address how increasing demand in the Chinese market for hard-shell lobster could create incentives to delay production and increase the supply of hard-shell live lobster. The full model was then used to explore ways in which this coastal social-ecological system can adapt to increasing ocean temperature and how the integrated global market might alter the economic implications of the next ocean heatwave.

  2. Determination of moulting events in rock lobsters from pleopod clipping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Caleb; Mills, David J

    2013-01-01

    Rock lobster growth is routinely measured for research to optimise management measures such as size limits and quotas. The process of estimating growth is complicated in crustaceans as growth only occurs when the animal moults. As data are typically collected by tag-recapture methods, the timing of moulting events can bias results. For example, if annual moulting events take place within a very short time-at-large after tagging, or if time-at-large is long and no moulting occurs. Classifying data into cases where moulting has / has not occurred during time-at-large can be required and can generally be determined by change in size between release and recapture. However, in old or slow growth individuals the moult increment can be too small to provide surety that moulting has occurred. A method that has been used since the 1970's to determine moulting in rock lobsters involves clipping the distal portion of a pleopod so that any regeneration observed at recapture can be used as evidence of a moult. We examined the use of this method in both tank and long-duration field trials within a marine protected area, which provided access to large animals with smaller growth increments. Our results emphasised that determination of moulting by change in size was unreliable with larger lobsters and that pleopod clipping can assist in identifying moulting events. However, regeneration was an unreliable measure of moulting if clipping occurred less than three months before the moult.

  3. Determination of moulting events in rock lobsters from pleopod clipping.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caleb Gardner

    Full Text Available Rock lobster growth is routinely measured for research to optimise management measures such as size limits and quotas. The process of estimating growth is complicated in crustaceans as growth only occurs when the animal moults. As data are typically collected by tag-recapture methods, the timing of moulting events can bias results. For example, if annual moulting events take place within a very short time-at-large after tagging, or if time-at-large is long and no moulting occurs. Classifying data into cases where moulting has / has not occurred during time-at-large can be required and can generally be determined by change in size between release and recapture. However, in old or slow growth individuals the moult increment can be too small to provide surety that moulting has occurred. A method that has been used since the 1970's to determine moulting in rock lobsters involves clipping the distal portion of a pleopod so that any regeneration observed at recapture can be used as evidence of a moult. We examined the use of this method in both tank and long-duration field trials within a marine protected area, which provided access to large animals with smaller growth increments. Our results emphasised that determination of moulting by change in size was unreliable with larger lobsters and that pleopod clipping can assist in identifying moulting events. However, regeneration was an unreliable measure of moulting if clipping occurred less than three months before the moult.

  4. Microbiological evaluation of South Australian rock lobster meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, A S

    1977-12-01

    Samples of frozen precooked rock lobster meat from five South Australian fish-processing plants situated in the West Coast and south-east regions were tested over a period of six months during the 1974/5 lobster fishing season. The most probable number (MPN) of E. coli and coliforms, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella, as well as total plate count (TPC) were determined in 480 samples. Monthly geometric mean TPC ranged from 1600/g to 25,000/g. The highest geometric mean of the MPN of coliforms and E. coli were 4.9/g and 1.8/g respectively. The highest geometric mean number of staphylococci was 18.6/g. Salmonella was not detected in the 480 units tested. Only 0.4% of the samples had TPC exceeding 100,000/g. Coliforms and E. coli were not present in 76.1% and 92.7% respectively of the samples tested. Staphylococcus aureus was not detected in 67.7% of the samples. The numbers of organisms in 82% of the samples fall within the microbiological standards proposed by the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia for frozen precooked foods. The results of this study demonstrate the microbial quality of precooked lobster meat attainable when good manufacturing practices are used.

  5. 50 CFR 697.19 - Trap limits and trap tag requirements for vessels fishing with lobster traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... vessels fishing with lobster traps. 697.19 Section 697.19 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND... requirements for vessels fishing with lobster traps. (a) Trap limits for vessels fishing or authorized to fish... management area designation certificate or valid limited access American lobster permit specifying one or...

  6. Manganese induced immune suppression of the lobster, Nephrops norvegicus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernroth, Bodil; Baden, Susanne P.; Holm, Kristina; Andre, Tove; Soederhaell, Irene

    2004-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is one of the most abundant elements on earth, particularly in the soft bottom sediments of the oceans. As a micronutrient Mn is essential in the metabolic processes of organisms. However, at high concentrations the metal becomes a neurotoxin with well-documented effects. As a consequence of euthrophication, manganese is released from bottom sediments of coastal areas and the Norway lobsters, Nephrops norvegicus, can experience high levels of bioavailable Mn 2+ . Here, we present the first report showing that Mn also affects several fundamental processes in the mobilisation and activation of immunoactive haemocytes. When N. norvegicus was exposed to a realistic [Mn 2+ ] of 20 mg l -1 for 10 days 24.1 μg ml -1 was recorded in the haemolymph. At this concentration the total haemocyte count was reduced by ca. 60%. By using BrdU as a tracer for cell division, it was shown that the proliferation rate in the haematopoietic tissue did not increase, despite the haemocytepenia. A gene coding for a Runt-domain protein, known to be involved in maturation of immune active haemocytes in a variety of organisms, was identified also in haemocytes of N. norvegicus. The expression of this gene was >40% lower in the Mn-exposed lobsters as judged by using a cDNA probe and the in situ hybridisation technique. In response to non-self molecules, like lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the granular haemocytes of arthropods are known to degranulate and thereby release and activate the prophenoloxidase system, necessary for their immune defence. A degranulation assay, tested on isolated granular haemocytes, showed about 75% lower activity in the Mn-exposed lobsters than that for the unexposed. Furthermore, using an enzymatic assay, the activation per se of prophenoloxidase by LPS was found blocked in the Mn-exposed lobsters. Taken together, these results show that Mn exposure suppressed fundamental immune mechanisms of Norway lobsters. This identifies a potential harm that also

  7. Manganese induced immune suppression of the lobster, Nephrops norvegicus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernroth, Bodil [Department of Marine Ecology, Goeteborg University, Kristineberg Marine Research Station, SE-450 34 Fiskebaeckskil (Sweden)]. E-mail: bodil.hernroth@kmf.gu.se; Baden, Susanne P. [Department of Marine Ecology, Goeteborg University, Kristineberg Marine Research Station, SE-450 34 Fiskebaeckskil (Sweden); Holm, Kristina [Department of Marine Ecology, Goeteborg University, Kristineberg Marine Research Station, SE-450 34 Fiskebaeckskil (Sweden); Andre, Tove [Department of Comparative Physiology, Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala University, Norbyvaegen 18A, SE-752 36 Uppsala (Sweden); Soederhaell, Irene [Department of Comparative Physiology, Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala University, Norbyvaegen 18A, SE-752 36 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2004-12-10

    Manganese (Mn) is one of the most abundant elements on earth, particularly in the soft bottom sediments of the oceans. As a micronutrient Mn is essential in the metabolic processes of organisms. However, at high concentrations the metal becomes a neurotoxin with well-documented effects. As a consequence of euthrophication, manganese is released from bottom sediments of coastal areas and the Norway lobsters, Nephrops norvegicus, can experience high levels of bioavailable Mn{sup 2+}. Here, we present the first report showing that Mn also affects several fundamental processes in the mobilisation and activation of immunoactive haemocytes. When N. norvegicus was exposed to a realistic [Mn{sup 2+}] of 20 mg l{sup -1} for 10 days 24.1 {mu}g ml{sup -1} was recorded in the haemolymph. At this concentration the total haemocyte count was reduced by ca. 60%. By using BrdU as a tracer for cell division, it was shown that the proliferation rate in the haematopoietic tissue did not increase, despite the haemocytepenia. A gene coding for a Runt-domain protein, known to be involved in maturation of immune active haemocytes in a variety of organisms, was identified also in haemocytes of N. norvegicus. The expression of this gene was >40% lower in the Mn-exposed lobsters as judged by using a cDNA probe and the in situ hybridisation technique. In response to non-self molecules, like lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the granular haemocytes of arthropods are known to degranulate and thereby release and activate the prophenoloxidase system, necessary for their immune defence. A degranulation assay, tested on isolated granular haemocytes, showed about 75% lower activity in the Mn-exposed lobsters than that for the unexposed. Furthermore, using an enzymatic assay, the activation per se of prophenoloxidase by LPS was found blocked in the Mn-exposed lobsters. Taken together, these results show that Mn exposure suppressed fundamental immune mechanisms of Norway lobsters. This identifies a potential

  8. Caribbean Sea Level Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hillebrandt-Andrade, C.; Crespo Jones, H.

    2012-12-01

    Over the past 500 years almost 100 tsunamis have been observed in the Caribbean and Western Atlantic, with at least 3510 people having lost their lives to this hazard since 1842. Furthermore, with the dramatic increase in population and infrastructure along the Caribbean coasts, today, millions of coastal residents, workers and visitors are vulnerable to tsunamis. The UNESCO IOC Intergovernmental Coordination Group for Tsunamis and other Coastal Hazards for the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions (CARIBE EWS) was established in 2005 to coordinate and advance the regional tsunami warning system. The CARIBE EWS focuses on four areas/working groups: (1) Monitoring and Warning, (2) Hazard and Risk Assessment, (3) Communication and (4) Education, Preparedness and Readiness. The sea level monitoring component is under Working Group 1. Although in the current system, it's the seismic data and information that generate the initial tsunami bulletins, it is the data from deep ocean buoys (DARTS) and the coastal sea level gauges that are critical for the actual detection and forecasting of tsunamis impact. Despite multiple efforts and investments in the installation of sea level stations in the region, in 2004 there were only a handful of sea level stations operational in the region (Puerto Rico, US Virgin Islands, Bermuda, Bahamas). Over the past 5 years there has been a steady increase in the number of stations operating in the Caribbean region. As of mid 2012 there were 7 DARTS and 37 coastal gauges with additional ones being installed or funded. In order to reach the goal of 100 operational coastal sea level stations in the Caribbean, the CARIBE EWS recognizes also the importance of maintaining the current stations. For this, a trained workforce in the region for the installation, operation and data analysis and quality control is considered to be critical. Since 2008, three training courses have been offered to the sea level station operators and data analysts. Other

  9. Bilirubin metabolism in the spiny dogfish, Squalus acanthias, and the small skate, Raja erinacea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, P. L.; Arias, I. M.

    1977-01-01

    1. The main bilirubin conjugate in bile of spiny dogfish (Squalus Acanthias) and small skate (Raja Erinacea) is bilirubin monoglucuronide. 2. Microsomal preparations from dogfish and small skate liver have similar bilirubin UDPglucuronyltransferase (UDPGT) activity and catalyze the conjugation of

  10. 77 FR 30224 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Final 2012 Spiny Dogfish Fishery Specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-22

    ... spawning stock biomass, declines in the average size of pups and mature females, skewed sex ratios, and... the status quo. The action is expected to maximize the short-term profitability for the spiny dogfish...

  11. AFSC/ABL: NPRB project 1106 Improved aging estimates for spiny dogfish

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The spiny dogfish (Squalus suckleyi, formerly Squalus acanthias, Ebert et al. 2010) is a small, long-lived and slow-growing shark, which is vulnerable to...

  12. Abundancia y distribución de larvas de Strombus gigas (Mesogastropoda: Strombidae durante el período reproductivo de la especie en el Caribe Mexicano Abundance and distribution of Strombus gigas (Mesogastropoda: Strombidae larvae during their reproductive period in the Mexican Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Francisco Chávez Villegas

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available El caracol rosa (Strombus gigas, Linnaeus, 1758 es una especie de importancia económica en el Mar Caribe, por lo cual, en la década de 1980 representó la segunda pesquería después de la langosta espinosa, razón por la que actualmente se encuentra en estado de sobrepesca. Con el objetivo de determinar la variación en la abundancia de larvas durante la época reproductiva, cuatro localidades del Caribe Mexicano “CM” (México: Puerto Morelos, Sian Ka’an, Mahahual; Belice: San Pedro fueron muestreadas. Mensualmente, de mayo a octubre del 2008, se realizaron arrastres de plancton en cada localidad empleando una red cónica (300μm. Temperatura (°C, salinidad (ppm y oxígeno disuelto (mg L-1 fueron registrados para cada sitio. Una densidad media larval de 0.34±0.87 larvas•10m-3 fue registrada entre localidades, con un pico de abundancia entre agosto y septiembre (0.82±1.00 y 0.76±1.68 larvas 10m-3, respectivamente. La densidad larval tuvo una correlación del 60% con la salinidad (r=0.6063, p0.05. El 100% de las larvas capturadas corresponden al estadio I definido por Davis et al (1993, mostrando actividad reproductiva local, de esta manera, se considera que los sitios muestreados en el CM son fuente de larvas para la especie S. gigas.Abundance and distribution of Strombus gigas (Mesogastropoda: Strombidae larvae during their reproductive period in the Mexican Caribbean. The Queen Conch (Strombus gigas Linnaeus, 1758 is a species of economic importance in the Caribbean Sea, which, in the 1980’s represented the second fishery after de spiny lobster, reason that is currently in a state of overfishing. In order to determine the larval abundance variation during the reproductive season, four locations of the Mexican Caribbean “MC” (Mexico: Puerto Morelos, Sian Ka’an, Mahahual; Belize: San Pedro were sampled. Monthly, from May to October 2008, planktonic net drags (300μm were carried out at each location. Temperature (

  13. Cuticles of European and American lobsters harbor diverse bacterial species and differ in disease susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitten, Miranda M A; Davies, Charlotte E; Kim, Anita; Tlusty, Michael; Wootton, Emma C; Chistoserdov, Andrei; Rowley, Andrew F

    2014-06-01

    Diseases of lobster shells have a significant impact on fishing industries but the risk of disease transmission between different lobster species has yet to be properly investigated. This study compared bacterial biofilm communities from American (Homarus americanus) and European lobsters (H. gammarus), to assess both healthy cuticle and diseased cuticle during lesion formation. Culture-independent molecular techniques revealed diversity in the bacterial communities of cuticle biofilms both within and between the two lobster species, and identified three bacterial genera associated with shell lesions plus two putative beneficial bacterial species (detected exclusively in healthy cuticle or healing damaged cuticle). In an experimental aquarium shared between American and European lobsters, heterospecific transmission of potentially pathogenic bacteria appeared to be very limited; however, the claws of European lobsters were more likely to develop lesions when reared in the presence of American lobsters. Aquarium biofilms were also examined but revealed no candidate pathogens for environmental transmission. Aquimarina sp. 'homaria' (a potential pathogen associated with a severe epizootic form of shell disease) was detected at a much higher prevalence among American than European lobsters, but its presence correlated more with exacerbation of existing lesions rather than with lesion initiation. © 2014 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. The Radioactivity α and β Evaluation in Fish, Lobster and Shrimps from Donan's River Cilacap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutjipto; Zainul Kamal

    2002-01-01

    The radioactivity α and β total evaluation in fish, lobster and shrimps from Donan's river Cilacap have been done The determination of α and β total using α and β spectrometry. The result of experimentation showed that radioactivity α and β in fish, lobster and shrimps. Could not use as shore quality because unprepared of the threshold value. (author)

  15. Habitat surrounding patch reefs influences the diet and nutrition of the western rock lobster

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study the influence of habitat on the diet and nutrition of a common reef-associated generalist consumer, the western rock lobster Panulirus cygnus, was tested. Stable isotopes (13C/12C and 15N/14N) and gut contents were used to assess the diet of lobsters collected from ...

  16. 50 CFR Figure 1 to Part 665 - Carapace Length of Lobsters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carapace Length of Lobsters 1 Figure 1 to Part 665 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... Part 665—Carapace Length of Lobsters ER14JA10.126 ...

  17. Bio-mechanical assessment toward throwing and lifting process of i-LOCA (Innovative Lobster Catcher)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudiarno, A.; Dewi, D. S.; Putri, M. A.

    2018-04-01

    Indonesia is the country rich in marine resource, one of which is lobster. East java, one of Indonesian province, especially in Region of Gresik and Lamogan, has very huge potential of lobster. Current condition shown that lobster catch by the fisherman mostly depend on lucky factor, which the lobster unintentionally trapped in fisherman’s fish net. By using this mechanism, the number of lobster catch cannot be optimum. Previous researches have produced two versions of i-LOCA, Innovative Lobster Catcher, a special tool for catching the lobster. Although produce more lobster catch, second version of i-LOCA still needs to be scrutinized, one of that is bio-mechanical assessment. The second version of i-LOCA still has no tool to ease throwing and lifting it into the sea. This condition cause Musculoskeletal Disorder (MSD) toward the fisherman. This research perform bio-mechanical assessment toward throwing and lifting process in order to suggest improvement for i-LOCA as the third version. Based on body moment calculation, we found that throwing and lifting process of third version of i-LOCA, each was 3 times and 2 times better than second version of i-LOCA. Meanwhile, Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA) score of throwing and lifting process for third version of i-LOCA can be reduced by 5 points compared to second version of i-LOCA.

  18. Macrophages are necessary for epimorphic regeneration in African spiny mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simkin, Jennifer; Gawriluk, Thomas R; Gensel, John C; Seifert, Ashley W

    2017-05-16

    How the immune system affects tissue regeneration is not well understood. In this study, we used an emerging mammalian model of epimorphic regeneration, the African spiny mouse, to examine cell-based inflammation and tested the hypothesis that macrophages are necessary for regeneration. By directly comparing inflammatory cell activation in a 4 mm ear injury during regeneration ( Acomys cahirinus ) and scarring ( Mus musculus ), we found that both species exhibited an acute inflammatory response, with scarring characterized by stronger myeloperoxidase activity. In contrast, ROS production was stronger and more persistent during regeneration. By depleting macrophages during injury, we demonstrate a functional requirement for these cells to stimulate regeneration. Importantly, the spatial distribution of activated macrophage subtypes was unique during regeneration with pro-inflammatory macrophages failing to infiltrate the regeneration blastema. Together, our results demonstrate an essential role for inflammatory cells to regulate a regenerative response.

  19. Global population structure of the spiny dogfish Squalus acanthias, a temperate shark with an antitropical distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veríssimo, A; McDowell, J R; Graves, J E

    2010-04-01

    The spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias) is a temperate, coastal squaloid shark with an antitropical distribution in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. The global population structure of this species is poorly understood, although individuals are known to undergo extensive migrations within coastal waters and across ocean basins. In this study, an analysis of the global population structure of the spiny dogfish was conducted using eight polymorphic nuclear microsatellite markers and a 566-bp fragment of the mitochondrial ND2 gene region. A low level of genetic divergence was found among collections from the Atlantic and South Pacific basins, whereas a high level of genetic divergence was found among Pacific Ocean collections. Two genetically distinct groups were recovered by both marker classes: one exclusive to North Pacific collections, and one including collections from the South Pacific and Atlantic locations. The strong genetic break across the equatorial Pacific coincides with major regional differences in the life-history characters of spiny dogfish, suggesting that spiny dogfish in areas on either side of the Pacific equator have been evolving independently for a considerable time. Phylogeographic analyses indicate that spiny dogfish populations had a Pacific origin, and that the North Atlantic was colonized as a result of a recent range expansion from the South American coast. Finally, the available data strongly argue for the taxonomic separation of the North Pacific spiny dogfish from S. acanthias and a re-evaluation of the specific status of S. acanthias is warranted.

  20. Technetium-99 in lobsters from the western Irish sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fegan, Mary

    1999-05-01

    Technetium-99, the most important radionuclide of technetium release to the environment, is a pure beta emitter with a half-life of 2.13 x 10(5) years. It behaves conservatively in seawater and is likely to remain available to biota for a long time. The dominant and most stable form of technetium in oxygenated seawater is the pertechnetate ion, Tco4. The principle source of radionuclide contamination of the Irish Sea has been the liquid waste discharges of low level radionuclide effluent from the spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at Sellafield on the Cumbria Coast. In 1994 the annual discharge authorization limit for 99Tc was increased from 10 TBq to 200 TBq. Lobster concentrates 99Tc to a high degree with concentration factors of 1x 10(3) reported in the literature. The mean 99Tc activity concentrations in lobsters caught close to Sellafield were reported to have risen by a factor of 20 in 2 years from 390 Bq/kg (wet weight) in 1993 to 8300 Bq/kg (wet weight) in 1995. This study was undertaken to determine the 99Tc activity concentration in lobsters from the western Irish Sea. Lobsters were collected from the east and north east coasts of Ireland over the period June 1997 to July 1998 and analysed using a radioanalytical method which was based on the anion-exchange seperation of technetium as pertechnetate. A gas-flow proportional counter was used to measure to 99Tc activity concentration in each sample. Technetium-99 activity concentrations were measured in the muscle from the tail, the right and the left claws and also in the green gland, the hepatopancreas and the cardiac fore-gut. The results of the measurements showed, as expected, that the 99Tc activity concentrations were not as high as those in the samples from the Cumbrian coast. The mean 99Tc activity concentrations, over the sampling period, in the tail, right and left claw muscles were 214, 124 and 136 BQ/kg (wet weight) respectively. The mean 99Tc activity concentrations in the green gland

  1. Lobster eye as a collector for water window microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pina, L.; Maršíková, V.; Inneman, A.; Nawaz, M. F.; Jančárek, A.; Havlíková, R.

    2017-08-01

    Imaging in EUV, SXR and XR spectral bands of radiation is of increasing interest. Material science, biology and hot plasma are examples of relevant fast developing areas. Applications include spectroscopy, astrophysics, Soft X-ray Ray metrology, Water Window microscopy, radiography and tomography. Especially Water Window imaging has still not fully recognized potential in biology and medicine microscopy applications. Theoretical study and design of Lobster Eye (LE) optics as a collector for water window (WW) microscopy and comparison with a similar size ellipsoidal mirror condensor are presented.

  2. Variable X-ray sky with Lobster Eye Telescopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudec, R.; Pina, L.; Inneman, A.; Sveda, L.

    2004-01-01

    The variable X-ray sky requires wide-field monitoring with high sensitivity. We refer on novel X-ray telescopes with high sensitivity as well as large field of view. The results are very promising, allowing the proposals for space projects with very wide-field Lobster-eye X-ray optics to be considered. The novel telescopes will monitor the sky with unprecedented sensitivity and angular resolution of order of 1 arcmin. They are expected to contribute essentially to study and to understand various astrophysical objects such as AGN, SNe, GRBs, X-ray flashes, galactic binary sources, stars, CVs, X-ray novae, various transient sources, etc

  3. Satellite Teleconferencing in the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar, Hollis C.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the need for, and the development, use, and future trends of, the University of the West Indies Distance Teaching Experiment, which utilizes telephone and communications satellite technology teleconferencing to extend educational opportunities to the peoples of the Caribbean. (MBR)

  4. Experimental Infection and Detection of Necrotizing Hepatopancreatitis Bacterium in the American Lobster Homarus americanus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz A. Avila-Villa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Necrotizing hepatopancreatitis bacterium (NHPB is an obligated intracellular bacteria causing severe hepatopancreatic damages and mass mortalities in penaeid shrimp. The worldwide distribution of penaeid shrimp as alien species threatens the life cycle of other crustacean species. The aim of the experiment was to evaluate the possibility of experimentally infecting the American lobster (Homarus americanus with NHPB extracted from shrimp hepatopancreas. Homogenates from infected shrimp were fed by force to lobsters. Other group of lobsters was fed with homogenates of NHPB-free hepatopancreas. After the 15th day from initial inoculation, the presence of NHPB was detected by polymerase chain reaction in feces and hepatopancreas from lobsters inoculated with infected homogenates. Necrotized spots were observed in the surface of lobster hepatopancreas. In contrast, lobsters fed on NHPB-free homogenates resulted negative for NHPB. Evidence suggests the plasticity of NHPB which can infect crustacean from different species and inhabiting diverse latitudes. Considering the results, the American lobster could be a good candidate to maintain available NHPB in vivo.

  5. Experimental Infection and Detection of Necrotizing Hepatopancreatitis Bacterium in the American Lobster Homarus americanus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila-Villa, Luz A.; Gollas-Galván, Teresa; Martínez-Porchas, Marcel; Mendoza-Cano, Fernando; Hernández-López, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Necrotizing hepatopancreatitis bacterium (NHPB) is an obligated intracellular bacteria causing severe hepatopancreatic damages and mass mortalities in penaeid shrimp. The worldwide distribution of penaeid shrimp as alien species threatens the life cycle of other crustacean species. The aim of the experiment was to evaluate the possibility of experimentally infecting the American lobster (Homarus americanus) with NHPB extracted from shrimp hepatopancreas. Homogenates from infected shrimp were fed by force to lobsters. Other group of lobsters was fed with homogenates of NHPB-free hepatopancreas. After the 15th day from initial inoculation, the presence of NHPB was detected by polymerase chain reaction in feces and hepatopancreas from lobsters inoculated with infected homogenates. Necrotized spots were observed in the surface of lobster hepatopancreas. In contrast, lobsters fed on NHPB-free homogenates resulted negative for NHPB. Evidence suggests the plasticity of NHPB which can infect crustacean from different species and inhabiting diverse latitudes. Considering the results, the American lobster could be a good candidate to maintain available NHPB in vivo. PMID:22645497

  6. Use of herring bait to farm lobsters in the Gulf of Maine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, Jonathan H; Clesceri, Erika J; Baukus, Adam J; Gaudette, Julien; Weber, Matthew; Yund, Philip O

    2010-04-15

    Ecologists, fisheries scientists, and coastal managers have all called for an ecosystem approach to fisheries management, yet many species such as the American lobster (Homarus americanus) are still largely managed individually. One hypothesis that has yet to be tested suggests that human augmentation of lobster diets via the use of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) as bait may contribute to recent increases in lobster landings. Currently 70% of Atlantic herring landings in the Gulf of Maine are used as bait to catch lobsters in traps throughout coastal New England. We examined the effects of this herring bait on the diet composition and growth rate of lobsters at heavily baited vs. seasonally closed (i.e., bait free) sites in coastal Maine. Our results suggest that human use of herring bait may be subsidizing juvenile lobster diets, thereby enhancing lobster growth and the overall economic value and yield of one of the most valuable fisheries in the U.S. Our study illustrates that shifting to an ecosystem approach to fisheries management should require consideration of cross-fishery interactions.

  7. Use of herring bait to farm lobsters in the Gulf of Maine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan H Grabowski

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Ecologists, fisheries scientists, and coastal managers have all called for an ecosystem approach to fisheries management, yet many species such as the American lobster (Homarus americanus are still largely managed individually. One hypothesis that has yet to be tested suggests that human augmentation of lobster diets via the use of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus as bait may contribute to recent increases in lobster landings. Currently 70% of Atlantic herring landings in the Gulf of Maine are used as bait to catch lobsters in traps throughout coastal New England.We examined the effects of this herring bait on the diet composition and growth rate of lobsters at heavily baited vs. seasonally closed (i.e., bait free sites in coastal Maine. Our results suggest that human use of herring bait may be subsidizing juvenile lobster diets, thereby enhancing lobster growth and the overall economic value and yield of one of the most valuable fisheries in the U.S.Our study illustrates that shifting to an ecosystem approach to fisheries management should require consideration of cross-fishery interactions.

  8. Subduction in the Southern Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levander, A.; Schmitz, M.; Bezada, M.; Masy, J.; Niu, F.; Pindell, J.

    2012-04-01

    The southern Caribbean is bounded at either end by subduction zones: In the east at the Lesser Antilles subduction zone the Atlantic part of the South American plate subducts beneath the Caribbean. In the north and west under the Southern Caribbean Deformed Belt accretionary prism, the Caribbean subducts under South America. In a manner of speaking, the two plates subduct beneath each other. Finite-frequency teleseismic P-wave tomography confirms this, imaging the Atlantic and the Caribbean subducting steeply in opposite directions to transition zone depths under northern South America (Bezada et al, 2010). The two subduction zones are connected by the El Pilar-San Sebastian strike-slip fault system, a San Andreas scale system. A variety of seismic probes identify where the two plates tear as they begin to subduct (Niu et al, 2007; Clark et al., 2008; Miller et al. 2009; Masy et al, 2009). The El Pilar system forms at the southeastern corner of the Antilles subduction zone by the Atlantic tearing from South America. The deforming plate edges control mountain building and basin formation at the eastern end of the strike-slip system. In northwestern South America the Caribbean plate tears, its southernmost element subducting at shallow angles under northernmost Colombia and then rapidly descending to transition zone depths under Lake Maracaibo (Bezada et al., 2010). We believe that the flat slab produces the Merida Andes, the Perija, and the Santa Marta ranges. The southern edge of the nonsubducting Caribbean plate underthrusts northern Venezuela to about the width of the coastal mountains (Miller et al., 2009). We infer that the underthrust Caribbean plate supports the coastal mountains, and controls continuing deformation.

  9. The research of the style of angel lobster eye x-ray optical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, HuaQi; Liu, YuJiao; Zhang, ShaoWei; Hou, LinBao; Li, XingLong

    2018-01-01

    This paper has developed the theory research of wide field Angel lobster eye X-ray optical system based on the principle of entirely incidence. Combine the configuration characteristic of lobster eye, recommend the conclusion of beam of light focus on the half of radius whether point or parallel light. Designed the microchannel through the principle of real ray trace and got the relationship among different parameters about it using numerical value emulation. Got pixels and illumination pictures validated the wide field focus characteristic of Angel lobster eye by simulating the optical system.

  10. MODE OF INHERITANCE OF POD SPININESS IN OKRA (Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adil Hassan Ahmed Abdelmageed

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The mode of inheritance of spininess in okra was investigated. Two okra cultivars, namely ‘Khartoumia spiny’ and the Indian cultivar ‘Pusa Sawani’ were used in this study. The two parents were self pollinated for three successive generations to fix the character under study. Crosses were made between ‘Khartoumia spiny’ and ‘Pusa Sawani’, and reciprocal F1’s, F2’s and all possible backcrosses were derived from the initial crosses. No reciprocal differences were found between F1 and F2 generation for pod spininess. Segregation in the crosses between the local cultivar ‘Khartoumia spiny’ and the Indian cultivar ‘Pusa Sawani’ indicated that the presence of spines on pods was controlled by single gene, with incomplete dominance.

  11. - Actividad bactericida en la hemolinfa de la langosta espinosa Panulirus argus (Antibacterial activity in haemolyph af the spiny lobster Panulirus Aarhus)

    OpenAIRE

    Raico E. Laria Lamela; Grettel Cuevillas Guerra; Juana Rosa Plasencia; Maylé Pozo

    2006-01-01

    Resumen. La actividad antibacteriana constituye un importante mecanismo de defensa tanto en crustáceos como en otras especies de invertebrados. En el presente trabajo se llevo a cabo un estudio de la actividad bactericida presente en la hemolinfa de la langosta espinosa Panulirus argus frente a cepas de Vibrio algynolíticus, Vibrio pónticus y Vibrio parahemolyticus sin previa estimulación. El estudio se realizó mediante el empleo la técnica turbidométrica. Como resultado se detectó actividad ...

  12. Electronic Government : Caribbean Pilot Project | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Electronic Government : Caribbean Pilot Project. Caribbean countries are increasingly adopting information and communication technologies (ICTs) in ... The Government of Jamaica is willing to donate the solution to other ... Related content ...

  13. Observations on spiny dogfish ( Squalus acanthias) captured in late spring in a North Carolina estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangley, Charles; Rulifson, Roger

    2014-01-01

    Five spiny dogfish were captured in early-mid May during gillnet and longline sampling targeting juvenile coastal sharks in inshore North Carolina waters.  Dogfish captures were made within Back Sound and Core Sound, North Carolina. All dogfish were females measuring 849-905 mm total length, well over the size at 50% maturity. Dogfish were caught at stations 1.8-2.7 m in depth, with temperatures 22.9-24.2 °C, 32.8-33.4 ppt salinity, and 6.9-8.0 mg/L dissolved oxygen. These observations are among the latest in the spring for spiny dogfish in the southeastern U.S. and occurred at higher temperatures than previously recorded for this species.  It is unclear whether late-occurring spiny dogfish in this area represent a cryptic late-migrating or resident segment of the Northwest Atlantic population.

  14. Survey report: Eastern Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yinger, N

    1991-01-01

    Over 1 million people live on 8 small islands in the Eastern Caribbean: St. Kitts-Nevis, Montserrat, Grenada, St. Vincent, Antigua, Barbados, St. Lucia, and Dominica. Starting in 1985 the International Planned Parenthood Federation, Western Hemisphere Region has carried out a series of contraceptive prevalence surveys in these countries. Current information is provided by these surveys in the areas of fertility levels and preferences, contraceptive knowledge and use. Also, socioeconomic, historical and demographic background and analysis such as fertility patterns, desire for additional children, and breastfeeding data; contraceptive awareness including family planning methods and sources; contraceptive use by method, source, and timing, satisfaction, and male attitudes are provided in the surveys, but not in the report abstracted here. The total fertility rate (TFR) and the contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR) for the 8 islands are as follows: St. Kitts-Nevis (1984) 2.9 TFR, 40.6 CPR; St. Vincent (1988) 2.9 TFR, 58.3 CPR; Antigua (1988) 1.8 TFR, 52.6 CPR; Barbados (1988) not given, 55.0 CPR; St. Lucia (1988) 3.2 TFR, 47.3 CPR; Dominica (1987) 3.2 TFR, 49.8 CPR. The islands have unusual demographic patterns related to extensive out-migration.

  15. THE PHYSIOLOGICAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL BASIS FOR OLFACTORY PERCEPTION OF STEROIDS DURING AGONISITC BEHAVIOR IN LOBSTER

    Science.gov (United States)

    During fighting, American lobsters urinate on each other with antennule flicking highest during this period. Blocking excretion of urine obliterates previously established dominance relationships, suggesting that individual recognition requires a urine signal (Breithaupt et al.,...

  16. Field Grow-out of Juvenile American Lobsters in Long Island Sound

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Early benthic stage American lobsters, Homarus americanus, were held in a pilot nursery system in Long Island Sound (LIS) to test field grow-out, as a step toward...

  17. 78 FR 9327 - Hawaii Crustacean Fisheries; 2013 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 665 RIN 0648-XC453 Hawaii Crustacean Fisheries; 2013 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce...

  18. 76 FR 4551 - Hawaii Crustacean Fisheries; 2011 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 665 RIN 0648-XA159 Hawaii Crustacean Fisheries; 2011 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce...

  19. Artists in and out of the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Sally Price; Sally Price

    1999-01-01

    [First paragraph] Caribbean Art. VEERLE POUPEYE. London: Thames and Hudson, 1998. 224 pp. (Paper US$ 14.95) Transforming the Crown: African, Asian and Caribbean Artists in Britain, 1966-1996. MORA J. BEAUCHAMP-BYRD & M. FRANKLIN SIRMANS (eds.). New York: Caribbean Cultural Center, 1998. 177 pp. (Paper US$ 39.95, £31.95) "Caribbean" (like "Black British") culture is (as a Dutch colleague once said of postmodernism) a bit of a slippery fish. One of the books under ...

  20. Effects of pipelines and gathering lines on snow crab and lobster : final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warner, J.L.; Covill, J.D. [Martec Ltd., Halifax, NS (Canada); Gilroy, L.; Wheaton, D.; Holtham, P.; Richards, T.; Lucas, C.; Schattschneider, G.; Religa, R.; Brannan, C. [Defence Research and Development Canada Atlantic, Dartmouth, NS (Canada); DeMont, E.; Schuegraf, M; King, K. [Saint Francis Xavier Univ., Antigonish, NS (Canada). Dept. of Biology

    2004-12-01

    A study investigating potential behavioural changes in lobster after the completion of the ExxonMobil natural gas pipeline in the vicinity of Goldboro, Nova Scotia was presented. The study was divided into 4 components: (1) field studies to measure underwater noise in the region associated with the operational gas pipeline; (2) a determination of the electromagnetic (EM) fields generated by the presence of a pipeline in the region through the creation of a numerical model; (3) a lobster catch-and-release field program to measure lobster catches, with concentrated sampling around the Goldboro pipeline landfall using 2 reference sites; and (4) a separate laboratory based study to determine the scaling and climbing ability of lobsters over 32 and 48 inch simulated gas pipelines with smooth and rough texture protective coatings. Offshore sections of the pipeline are partially or fully exposed above the sea-floor, and the laboratory experiments were conducted to asses the effects of unburied pipelines creating a barrier to lobster movement. Results of the acoustic surveys showed peaks of low frequency sound within the hearing range of lobster in the vicinity of the pipeline. The EM survey and resulting numerical model indicated that the pipeline created a narrow magnetic field affecting an area only 2 to 3 metres wide on either side of the pipeline which produced a field strength up to one third as strong as that of the earth's background magnetic field. The lobster catch and release program showed no statistically significant variation of catches between the pipeline locale and the 2 reference sites. In the laboratory testing, the rough surface coating was found to more scaleable for the lobsters than a smooth coating. 7 tabs., 7 figs.

  1. Epizootic shell disease in American lobsters Homarus americanus in southern New England: past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Kathleen M; Cobb, J Stanley; Gomez-Chiarri, Marta; Tlusty, Michael

    2012-08-27

    The emergence of epizootic shell disease in American lobsters Homarus americanus in the southern New England area, USA, has presented many new challenges to understanding the interface between disease and fisheries management. This paper examines past knowledge of shell disease, supplements this with the new knowledge generated through a special New England Lobster Shell Disease Initiative completed in 2011, and suggests how epidemiological tools can be used to elucidate the interactions between fisheries management and disease.

  2. Culture-independent analysis of bacterial communities in hemolymph of American lobsters with epizootic shell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Robert A; Smolowitz, Roxanna; Chistoserdov, Andrei Y

    2013-03-26

    Epizootic shell disease (ESD) of the American lobster Homarus americanus H. Milne Edwards, 1837 is a disease of the carapace that presents grossly as large, melanized, irregularly shaped lesions, making the lobsters virtually unmarketable because of their grotesque appearance. We analyzed the bacterial communities present in the hemolymph of lobsters with and without ESD using nested-PCR of the 16S rRNA genes followed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. All lobsters tested (n = 42) had bacterial communities in their hemolymph, and the community profiles were highly similar regardless of the sampling location or disease state. A number of bacteria were detected in a high proportion of samples and from numerous locations, including a Sediminibacterium sp. closely related to a symbiont of Tetraponera ants (38/42) and a Ralstonia sp. (27/42). Other bacteria commonly encountered included various Bacteroidetes, Pelomonas aquatica, and a Novosphingobium sp. One bacterium, a different Sediminibacterium sp., was detected in 20% of diseased animals (n = 29), but not in the lobsters without signs of ESD (n = 13). The bacteria in hemolymph were not the same as those known to be present in lesion communities except for the detection of a Thalassobius sp. in 1 individual. This work demonstrates that hemolymph bacteremia and the particular bacterial species present do not correlate with the incidence of ESD, providing further evidence that microbiologically, ESD is a strictly cuticular disease. Furthermore, the high incidence of the same species of bacteria in hemolymph of lobsters may indicate that they have a positive role in lobster fitness, rather than in disease, and further investigation of the role of bacteria in lobster hemolymph is required.

  3. Caribbean Crucible: History, Culture, and Globalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelvington, Kevin A.

    2000-01-01

    Reconsiders the Caribbean as an origin-point of the modern global system. Discusses the conquests and colonization of the Caribbean; the slavery system and racial distinctions; the post-emancipation society; and culture, Creolization, and the concept of movement as features of Caribbean society. Provides a bibliography. (CMK)

  4. Microbial Degradation of Lobster Shells to Extract Chitin Derivatives for Plant Disease Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayathri Ilangumaran

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradation of lobster shells by chitinolytic microorganisms are an environment safe approach to utilize lobster processing wastes for chitin derivation. In this study, we report degradation activities of two microbes, “S223” and “S224” isolated from soil samples that had the highest rate of deproteinization, demineralization and chitinolysis among ten microorganisms screened. Isolates S223 and S224 had 27.3 and 103.8 protease units mg-1 protein and 12.3 and 11.2 μg ml-1 of calcium in their samples, respectively, after 1 week of incubation with raw lobster shells. Further, S223 contained 23.8 μg ml-1 of N-Acetylglucosamine on day 3, while S224 had 27.3 μg ml-1 on day 7 of incubation with chitin. Morphological observations and 16S rDNA sequencing suggested both the isolates were Streptomyces. The culture conditions were optimized for efficient degradation of lobster shells and chitinase (∼30 kDa was purified from crude extract by affinity chromatography. The digested lobster shell extracts induced disease resistance in Arabidopsis by induction of defense related genes (PR1 > 500-fold, PDF1.2 > 40-fold upon Pseudomonas syringae and Botrytis cinerea infection. The study suggests that soil microbes aid in sustainable bioconversion of lobster shells and extraction of chitin derivatives that could be applied in plant protection.

  5. Temporal variation in the specific dynamic action of juvenile New Zealand rock lobsters, Jasus edwardsii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radford, Craig A; Marsden, Islay D; Davison, William

    2004-09-01

    To enhance the on-growing of Jasus edwardsii in culture, it is important to understand the feeding physiology of juveniles. In crustaceans, there is a loss of energy and an increase in oxygen consumption (specific dynamic action or SDA) associated with feeding. The present research measured the SDA of juvenile J. edwardsii fed either in the morning or at night held at 15 degrees C. Closed box respirometry was used to measure oxygen consumption (MO(2)) and ammonia excretion in juvenile lobsters. Juveniles exhibited a nocturnal rhythm in both MO(2) and ammonia excretion. The factorial rise in MO(2) (1.58+/-0.03 times) for lobsters fed in the morning was significantly less than lobsters fed at night (1.80+/-0.01 times). Lobsters fed in the morning had a significantly shorter SDA (30+/-1.2 h) response compared to lobsters fed at night (36+/-1 h). Energy loss as a result of digestion was less for lobsters fed in the morning. Therefore, if juvenile J. edwardsii are fed in the morning, they could optimise the energy content of the meal and this could result in increased growth.

  6. Relationship between dose of emamectin benzoate and molting response of ovigerous American lobsters (Homarus americanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddy, S L; Merritt, V A; Hamilton-Gibson, M N; Aiken, D E; Burridge, L E

    2007-05-01

    A widely-prescribed treatment to control sea lice on cultured salmon is the administration of feed medicated with SLICE (active ingredient emamectin benzoate (EMB)). High doses of EMB can disrupt the molt cycle of ovigerous American lobsters, causing them to enter proecdysis prematurely and lose their attached eggs when the shell is cast. To determine the dose response to EMB, lobsters were forced to ingest doses that ranged from 0.05 to 0.39 microg g(-1). A significant proportion of lobsters given doses of 0.39 and 0.22 microg g(-1) (37% and 23%, respectively) molted prematurely, almost a year earlier than the control group. All the lobsters in the 0.05 and 0.12 microg g(-1) groups molted at the normal time and the mean time of molt was similar to that of the control group. Thus, the no-observed-effect level (NOEL) and lowest-observed-effect level (LOEL) of EMB on the molt cycle were 0.12 and 0.22 microg EMB g(-1) lobster, respectively. To acquire the LOEL, a 500-g lobster would have to consume 22 g of salmon feed medicated with SLICE at a level of 5 microg EMB g(-1) feed.

  7. Detailed surface morphology of the 'lobster louse' copepod, Nicothoë astaci, a haematophagous gill parasite of the European lobster, Homarus gammarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Charlotte E; Thomas, Gethin R; Maffeis, Thierry G G; Wootton, Emma C; Penny, Mark W; Rowley, Andrew F

    2014-10-01

    The ectoparasitic copepod, Nicothoë astaci (the 'lobster louse'), infests the gills of the European lobster, Homarus gammarus. There have been limited studies on this haematophagous species; therefore knowledge of this parasite is rudimentary. The current study examines the surface morphology of this parasitic copepod, detached from the host, concentrating on adaptations of the suctorial mouthpart, the oral disc. Cryo-scanning electron microscopy revealed structural adaptations that facilitate attachment of these parasites to the gill filaments of their lobster host. The aperture of the feeding channel, through which host haemolymph is drawn, is only ca. 5μm in diameter. The edge of the oral disc is lined with numerous setae, whilst the surface of the disc is covered with large numbers of small (copepod host. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Estimating analytical variance in measurement of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and application to monitoring in American lobster (Homarus americanus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, T.L.; Uthe, J.F.; Misra, R.K. [Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Halifax, NS (Canada). Biological Sciences Branch; Musial, C.J. [C. Musial Consulting Chemist Ltd., Monticello, MS (United States)

    1997-05-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentration in American lobster was monitored. A method to estimate replicate PAH concentrations in the digestive gland tissue based on recoveries of added perdeutered surrogates from a single analysis was presented. Large variations in PAH concentrations were found among the different lobsters, even in specimens from the same place taken at the same time. PAH concentrations in lobsters were sensitive to animal size, sex and fishing site.

  9. Galatheoid squat lobsters (Crustacea: Decapoda: Anomura from Korean waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Nyun Kim

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ten species of Galatheoidea (squat lobsters, belonging to two families, were collected in the Korean exclusive economic zone: Galathea balssi Miyake and Baba, 1964, Galathea orientalis Stimpson, 1858, Galathea pubescens Stimpson, 1858, and Galathea rubromaculata Miyake and Baba, 1967 belonging to Galatheidae; Bathymunida brevirostris Yokoya, 1933, Cervimunida princeps Benedict, 1902, Munida caesura Macpherson and Baba, 1993, Munida japonica Stimpson, 1858, Munida pherusa Macpherson and Baba, 1993, and Paramunida scabra (Henderson, 1885 belonging to Munididae. The present study comprises the morphological description of these ten species, including drawings and color photographs, a brief review of their regional records, and a key for their identification. Although all species are common in Japanese waters, G. balssi, G. rubromaculata, B. brevirostris, C. princeps, M. caesura, and M. pherusa are new to Korean marine fauna.

  10. Pengaruh Kepadatan dan Durasi dalam Kondisi Transportasi Sistem Kering Terhadap Kelulusan Hidup Lobster Air Tawar (Cherax quadricarinatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresia Dwi Suryaningrum

    2008-12-01

    selama dalam kondisi transportasi. Kemasan dengan kepadatan 6 ekor/kotak plastik menghasilkan kelulusan hidup yang lebih baik dibandingkan dengan kemasan dengan kepadatan 8 ekor/kotak plastik. Semakin lama waktu dalam kondisi transportasi, semakin rendah kelulusan hidup dan bobot lobster. Durasi dalam kondisi transportasi sampai 7 hari dapat menurunkan bobot lobster sampai 10%. Transportasi lobster dengan kepadatan 6 ekor/kotak plastik selama 6 hari menghasilkan kelulusan hidup 97% dan tetap sehat setelah dibugarkan kembali. Oleh karena itu, lobster air tawar sebaiknya ditransportasikan dengan durasi tidak lebih dari 6 hari.

  11. Research Regarding Somatic Measurements at River Lobster Males (Astacus Fluviatilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Bura

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The body measurements was made on 20 males of river lobsters (Astacus fluviatilis or Astacus astacus. The lobsters on witch the study was made had an average total length of body of 12.72 cm ±0.19 cm (formed from: 6.07±0.10cm the length of cefalothorax, 4.73 ±0.10 cm the length of abdomen and 1.91 ±0.07 cm length of telson, and a body weight of 55.70±3.07 g. the males present a length of feelers of 8.53±0.34 cm, a antennas of 2.20±0.05 cm, and the stem of the eyes of 0.51±0.02 cm. The body of male present a average width of 3.35±0.07 cm at level of cefalothorax, and 2.40±0.05 cm at abdomen level. Average deepness of cefalothorax was 2.85±0.07cm, and abdomen deepness of 1.34±0.03cm. The 5 pairs of periopode had an average length of 10.91±0.42 cm, 6.06±0.22 cm, 7.21±0.21 cm, 6.57±0.16 cm and 5.85±0.15cm. The average length of pleopods was at first pear of 2.00±0.06 cm, at second pair of 2.11±0.05 cm, at third of 1.85±0.05 cm, at fourth of 1.73±0.04 cm and at fifth pair of 1.55±0.04 cm.

  12. Lobster processing by-products as valuable bioresource of marine functional ingredients, nutraceuticals, and pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Trung T; Barber, Andrew R; Corbin, Kendall; Zhang, Wei

    2017-01-01

    The worldwide annual production of lobster was 165,367 tons valued over $3.32 billion in 2004, but this figure rose up to 304,000 tons in 2012. Over half the volume of the worldwide lobster production has been processed to meet the rising global demand in diversified lobster products. Lobster processing generates a large amount of by-products (heads, shells, livers, and eggs) which account for 50-70% of the starting material. Continued production of these lobster processing by-products (LPBs) without corresponding process development for efficient utilization has led to disposal issues associated with costs and pollutions. This review presents the promising opportunities to maximize the utilization of LPBs by economic recovery of their valuable components to produce high value-added products. More than 50,000 tons of LPBs are globally generated, which costs lobster processing companies upward of about $7.5 million/year for disposal. This not only presents financial and environmental burdens to the lobster processors but also wastes a valuable bioresource. LPBs are rich in a range of high-value compounds such as proteins, chitin, lipids, minerals, and pigments. Extracts recovered from LPBs have been demonstrated to possess several functionalities and bioactivities, which are useful for numerous applications in water treatment, agriculture, food, nutraceutical, pharmaceutical products, and biomedicine. Although LPBs have been studied for recovery of valuable components, utilization of these materials for the large-scale production is still very limited. Extraction of lobster components using microwave, ultrasonic, and supercritical fluid extraction were found to be promising techniques that could be used for large-scale production. LPBs are rich in high-value compounds that are currently being underutilized. These compounds can be extracted for being used as functional ingredients, nutraceuticals, and pharmaceuticals in a wide range of commercial applications

  13. 77 FR 15991 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Proposed 2012 Spiny Dogfish Fishery Specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-19

    ... formats only. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Tobey Curtis, Fishery Policy Analyst, (978) 281-9273; fax... catch (ABC). This recommendation is then used as the basis for catch limits and other management... in SSB from 2014-2020. The SSC subsequently recommended an ABC for spiny dogfish for the 2012 fishing...

  14. Germination and seedling establishment of spiny hopsage in response to planting date and seedbed environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy L. Shaw; Marshall R. Haferkamp; Emerenciana G. Hurd

    1994-01-01

    Reestablishment of spiny hopsrge (Grayia spinosa [Hook.] Moq.) in the shrub steppe requires development of appropriate seeding technology. We examined the effect of planting date and seedbed environment on germination and seedling establishment of 2 seed sources at 2 southwestern Idaho sites. Seedbeds were prepared by rototilling. In 1987-88, seeds...

  15. 75 FR 36012 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; 2010 Specifications for the Spiny Dogfish Fishery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-24

    ... Transboundary Resource Assessment Committee (TRAC) conducted a benchmark stock assessment for spiny dogfish in... the Transboundary Resource Assessment Committee (TRAC), which indicated the stock is rebuilt. DATES... (F) that would rebuild the stock (F rebuild ) after accounting for other sources of fishing mortality...

  16. Non-dioxin like polychlorinated biphenyl indicator congeners in Northwest Atlantic spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias).

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Gelais, Adam T; Aeppli, Christoph; Burnell, Craig A; Costa-Pierce, Barry A

    2017-07-15

    In the Northwest Atlantic Ocean (NWAO), spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias) is a promising commercial species following of collapse of traditional groundfish stocks. There are little available data assessing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in NWAO spiny dogfish. Here, six non-dioxin like PCB indicator congeners used in European Union regulations (EU NDL-PCB) were quantified via gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in 50 mature male spiny dogfish landed in southern New England. The average total concentration of EU NDL-PCBs was 58±43ng/g (mean±1 standard deviation). PCB values (corrected for co-elution) were below the 200ng/g EU regulatory limit. Results provide first recent regional insight into the PCB content of spiny dogfish in the NWAO. However, our study offers only a snapshot of one particular dogfish population, and might not be representative for the whole NWAO. This study underscores the need for further testing in this species. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Diversity in Long-Term Synaptic Plasticity at Inhibitory Synapses of Striatal Spiny Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda-Orozco, Pavel E.; Mendoza, Ernesto; Hernandez, Ricardo; Aceves, Jose J.; Ibanez-Sandoval, Osvaldo; Galarraga, Elvira; Bargas, Jose

    2009-01-01

    Procedural memories and habits are posited to be stored in the basal ganglia, whose intrinsic circuitries possess important inhibitory connections arising from striatal spiny neurons. However, no information about long-term plasticity at these synapses is available. Therefore, this work describes a novel postsynaptically dependent long-term…

  18. Skin lesions in the tail of the spiny dogfish, Squalus acanthias L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodhead, A D

    1982-01-01

    There are numerous reports of diseases and lesions of the major organs of a wide spectrum of bony fishes. By contrast, very few cases have been reported from elasmobranchs. This lack of information may reflect the fact that commercial exploitation of elasmobranch populations has been limited, although for several decades there have been fisheries for the spiny dogfish, Squalus acanthias L., in European waters. In both cases, many thousands of spiny dogfish have been sampled for population analysis. Further, the spiny dogfish has been dissected in senior biology courses in the UK for about 30 years and probably 5000 students take these courses annually. It is remarkable, with these numbers dissected, that so few lesions have been recorded. During the summer of 1980, whilst working at the Mount Desert Island Biological Laboratory, Maine, researchers sampled a large spiny dogfish which had a prominently engorged tail with numerous skin lesions. The fish was a mature female 100 cm long, weighing 6.5 kg, which was carrying 16 embryos in their second year of development. The dogfish was also remarkable in that one of the embryos had a marked developmental abnormality, its spinal column being severely twisted. Developmental damage appears to be unusual in dogfish and the embryo was examined further to see whether the damage might be related to the lesion of the mother.

  19. Effects of cattle and rabbit grazing on clonal expansion of spiny shrubs in wood-pastures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Christian; Bakker, Elisabeth S.; Apol, M. Emile F.; Olff, Han

    2010-01-01

    Spiny shrubs protect non-defended plants against herbivores. Therefore, they play a role for the diversity in grazed ecosystems. While the importance of these keystone nurse shrubs is presently recognized, little is known about the factors controlling them. This knowledge is required to understand

  20. Network analysis in the Caribbean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.W. Veenstra (Albert); H.M. Mulder (Martyn); R.A. Sels

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThe Caribbean region is a cross road of international and regional container traffic. Most of the islands in the region have also adopted ambitious strategies to become prime locations for container transshipment. This paper introduces a tool that can be used to visualise and analyse the

  1. Caribbean land and development revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Dunkerley, James; Momsen, Janet

    2007-01-01

    The book is an interdisciplinary collection of fifteen essays, with an editorial introduction, on a range of territories in the Commonwealth, Francophone, and Hispanic Caribbean. The authors focus on land and development, providing fresh perspectives through a collection of international contributing authors.

  2. Spatial Variability in Condition of Southern Rock Lobsters (Jasus edwardsii) at the Start of the Tasmanian Fishing Season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendo, Tania; Simon, Cedric; Green, Bridget; Gardner, Caleb

    2016-01-01

    The southern rock lobster (Jasus edwardsii) industry in Australia favours red lobsters, which are usually caught in shallow waters, over paler (brindle) lobsters. This preference is driven partly by the Chinese market, where red is associated with luck and prosperity, and additionally, by the widely held perception within the industry that brindles have greater mortality rates during out of water transport than reds. Limited scientific evidence supports these industry observations; however, these studies did not evaluate the initial condition of lobsters. This study aimed first, to determine which variables better describe condition in J. edwardsii and second, to compare condition among lobsters in several sites around Tasmania at the typical time of high transport mortality. Male lobsters were collected from the South West, South East, East and North coast of Tasmania in late November/December 2014, which correspond to the start of the Tasmanian fishing season. A comprehensive condition assessment was applied by measuring tissue proximal composition, Brix index, Total Haemocyte Count, pH, haemocyanin and another 16 haemolymph parameters of interest. A useful framework to compare condition in J. edwardsii was established by first, using Brix index as a measure of nutritional condition, second, using pH, magnesium, and bicarbonate to evaluate differences in physiological condition and finally, using THC counts as a proxy for lobster health condition. Lobsters from different sites had different nutritional, physiological and health condition, consistent with industry observations, however our results indicate that some red shallow water lobsters exhibited poorer nutritional and health condition, while some deep water brindle lobsters were in good condition. Differences in condition could not be directly associated to catch depth of lobsters and was related to other spatially discrete factors which sometimes vary over distances <3 km.

  3. A noninvasive method for in situ determination of mating success in female American lobsters (Homarus americanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Jason S; Pugh, Tracy L; Dubofsky, Elizabeth A; Lavalli, Kari L; Clancy, Michael; Watson, Winsor H

    2014-02-07

    Despite being one of the most productive fisheries in the Northwest Atlantic, much remains unknown about the natural reproductive dynamics of American lobsters. Recent work in exploited crustacean populations (crabs and lobsters) suggests that there are circumstances where mature females are unable to achieve their full reproductive potential due to sperm limitation. To examine this possibility in different regions of the American lobster fishery, a reliable and noninvasive method was developed for sampling large numbers of female lobsters at sea. This method involves inserting a blunt-tipped needle into the female's seminal receptacle to determine the presence or absence of a sperm plug and to withdraw a sample that can be examined for the presence of sperm. A series of control studies were conducted at the dock and in the laboratory to test the reliability of this technique. These efforts entailed sampling 294 female lobsters to confirm that the presence of a sperm plug was a reliable indicator of sperm within the receptacle and thus, mating. This paper details the methodology and the results obtained from a subset of the total females sampled. Of the 230 female lobsters sampled from George's Bank and Cape Ann, MA (size range = 71-145 mm in carapace length), 90.3% were positive for sperm. Potential explanations for the absence of sperm in some females include: immaturity (lack of physiological maturity), breakdown of the sperm plug after being used to fertilize a clutch of eggs, and lack of mating activity. The surveys indicate that this technique for examining the mating success of female lobsters is a reliable proxy that can be used in the field to document reproductive activity in natural populations.

  4. Differences in technetium-99 accumulation and distribution between organs in male and female lobsters collected from Norwegian coastal waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolstad, Anne Kathrine; Gjelsvik, Runhild; Rudjord, Anne Liv

    2006-07-01

    In this report, {sup 99}Tc results for lobsters caught along the Norwegian coast between 2001 and 2005 are presented. The high accumulation of {sup 99}Tc in lobsters compared to other crustecea is confirmed in this report, as well as the clear differences between males and females. Concentration factors have been estimated for each gender and also for different organs. (author)

  5. Differences in technetium-99 accumulation and distribution between organs in male and female lobsters collected from Norwegian coastal waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolstad, Anne Kathrine; Gjelsvik, Runhild; Rudjord, Anne Liv

    2006-01-01

    In this report, 99 Tc results for lobsters caught along the Norwegian coast between 2001 and 2005 are presented. The high accumulation of 99 Tc in lobsters compared to other crustecea is confirmed in this report, as well as the clear differences between males and females. Concentration factors have been estimated for each gender and also for different organs. (author)

  6. Driving a Fishery along the Bumpy Ride of Today's Globalisation: The Case of the Australian Southern Rock Lobster Association

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dentoni, D.; Lu, J.; English, F.; McBride, R.

    2012-01-01

    The case of the Australian Southern Rock Lobster Association describes real issues faced by the Market Development Manager of a collective agri-food organization (SRL) representing all the southern rock lobster fishermen in Victoria, South Australia and Tasmania. The case deals with recent

  7. The accumulation of plutonium by the European lobster (Homarus gammarus L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swift, D.J.

    1992-01-01

    For 237 Pu accumulation from seawater, the whole body concentration factors (CFs) for juvenile lobsters at 18 o C did not exceed 250 over the 49 days of the study. Most 237 Pu was accumulated by the gills and exoskeleton. Since homarid lobsters eat their exuviae after ecdysis, the whole body 237 Pu content of recently moulted lobsters was also a function of the amount of 237 Pu ingested with the exuviae. Consequently, organ/tissue content and CF values for individual lobsters reflected both the time since their last moult and their exposure time to 237 Pu. These factors precluded the calculation of mean whole body CF values or the accurate estimate of a mean steady state (C ss ) CF value. Juvenile lobsters retained significantly more 237 Pu from labelled food at 7-10 o C than at 18 o C. At 7 o C, the biological half time for assimilated 237 Pu was about 28 days, at 10 o C about 15 days and at 18 o C about 8 days. Very little 237 Pu was transported from the gut to the internal tissues (about 1%); most was retained in the hepatopancreas. (author)

  8. Excretory calcinosis: a new fatal disease of wild American lobsters Homarus americanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dove, Alistair D M; LoBue, Carl; Bowser, Paul; Powell, Mark

    2004-03-10

    A significant number of moribund and dead lobsters Homarus americanus were reported to New York state authorities by lobster fishers in Long Island Sound (LIS) during the summer of 2002. Morbid lobsters were characterised by an orange discolouration of the abdomen, lethargy, an excess of epibionts and poor post-capture survival. On necropsy, severe extensive multifocal or diffuse mineralised granulomatous inflammation of the gills and antennal glands was the most striking pathology. In the gills, granulomas often occluded the lumen of filaments, resulting in congestion, ischemia and coagulative necrosis of gill tissues. In the antennal glands, granulomas were concentrated along the border between the coelomosac and labyrinth. No significant pathogens were recovered from diseased individuals. In prechronic individuals, however, it was evident that granulomas were focused around calcium carbonate (aragonite) crystals. This disease may result from anomalously high sea-bottom temperatures in LIS (approximately 23 degrees C) during the summer of 2002 and associated disruptions of the calcium chemistry of lobsters in favour of deposition of minerals in soft tissues. The ultimate cause of death of affected lobsters is probably respiratory failure due to reduced effective surface area of the gills, exacerbated by hypermetabolic temperatures and an abundance of epibionts.

  9. Lesion bacterial communities in American lobsters with diet-induced shell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Robert A; Metzler, Anita; Tlusty, Michael; Smolowitz, Roxanna M; Leberg, Paul; Chistoserdov, Andrei Y

    2012-04-26

    In southern New England, USA, shell disease affects the profitability of the American lobster Homarus americanus fishery. In laboratory trials using juvenile lobsters, exclusive feeding of herring Clupea harengus induces shell disease typified initially by small melanized spots that progress into distinct lesions. Amongst a cohabitated, but segregated, cohort of 11 juvenile lobsters fed exclusively herring, bacterial communities colonizing spots and lesions were investigated by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of 16S rDNA amplified using 1 group-specific and 2 universal primer sets. The Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria predominated in both spots and lesions and included members of the orders Flavobacteriales (Bacteriodetes), Rhodobacterales, Rhodospirillales and Rhizobiales (Alphaproteobacteria), Xanthomonadales (Gammaproteobacteria) and unclassified Gammaproteobacteria. Bacterial communities in spot lesions displayed more diversity than communities with larger (older) lesions, indicating that the lesion communities stabilize over time. At least 8 bacterial types persisted as lesions developed from spots. Aquimarina 'homaria', a species commonly cultured from lesions present on wild lobsters with epizootic shell disease, was found ubiquitously in spots and lesions, as was the 'Candidatus Kopriimonas aquarianus', implicating putative roles of these species in diet-induced shell disease of captive lobsters.

  10. The Evolution of the Maine Lobster V-Notch Practice: Cooperation in a Prisoner's Dilemma Game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Acheson

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The Maine lobster industry is experiencing record high catches because, in all probability, of an effective management program. One of the most important conservation measures is the V-notch program that allows fishermen to conserve proven breeding females by notching the tails of egg-bearing lobsters. Such marked lobsters may never be taken. Although thousands of lobster fishermen participate, it is a voluntary practice. The genesis of this practice is not easily explained, because V-notching poses a prisoner's dilemma problem that gives fishermen an incentive to avoid the practice. The most common explanations for ways to overcome prisoner's dilemma problems will not work in the case of the V-notch. An unusual combination of factors explains the V-notch program: (1 a strong belief among those in the industry that the V-notch is effective in conserving the lobster stock; (2 a low discount rate because the long-term gains from V-notching are higher than the one-time gain from defection; (3 a gain in reputation for those who V-notch. At the start of the 20th century, fishermen did not V-notch; by the end of the century, V-notching was common. We explain the change in strategies using a three-parameter evolutionary model that emphasizes the importance of culture change.

  11. Effects of an oil spill on American lobster (Homarus americanus) from Placentia Bay, Newfoundland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiliams, U P; Kiceniuk, J W; Ryder, J E; Botta, J R

    1988-10-01

    In March 1988 an accidental spill of ca 500 bbl of crude oil occurred during the unloading of a tanker at a Newfoundland oil refinery. Studies of selected parameters were undertaken to determine the possible short-and long-term effects on the local lobster fishery. Sensory analyses were carried out to ascertain the effects of the oil on the taste and odor of lobster. Lobster muscle and hepatopancreas were analyzed for PAH (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon) content and levels of gill browning were determined. Sediments were sampled at various locations in the bay where the spill occurred and levels of PAHs were determined in an attempt to delineate the extent of contamination. Results from the sensory analyses indicate that there was no tainting of lobster samples obtained from the area. There was also no evidence of gill browning or of elevated levels of PAHs in either tail muscle or hepatopancreas. Elevated levels of PAH were not detected in any of the sediments from the bay. The results indicate that lobsters were not contaminated as a result of the oil spill. Based on the results of analyses of sediments for PAHs, future contamination, as a result of the spill at the oil refinery wharf, is not anticipated. 18 refs., 6 tabs.

  12. The accumulation of plutonium by the European lobster (Homarus gammarus L. )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swift, D J [Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, Lowestoft (United Kingdom). Directorate of Fisheries Research

    1992-01-01

    For {sup 237}Pu accumulation from seawater, the whole body concentration factors (CFs) for juvenile lobsters at 18{sup o}C did not exceed 250 over the 49 days of the study. Most {sup 237}Pu was accumulated by the gills and exoskeleton. Since homarid lobsters eat their exuviae after ecdysis, the whole body {sup 237}Pu content of recently moulted lobsters was also a function of the amount of {sup 237}Pu ingested with the exuviae. Consequently, organ/tissue content and CF values for individual lobsters reflected both the time since their last moult and their exposure time to {sup 237}Pu. These factors precluded the calculation of mean whole body CF values or the accurate estimate of a mean steady state (C{sub ss}) CF value. Juvenile lobsters retained significantly more {sup 237}Pu from labelled food at 7-10{sup o}C than at 18{sup o}C. At 7{sup o}C, the biological half time for assimilated {sup 237}Pu was about 28 days, at 10{sup o}C about 15 days and at 18{sup o}C about 8 days. Very little {sup 237}Pu was transported from the gut to the internal tissues (about 1%); most was retained in the hepatopancreas. (author).

  13. Function of chemoreceptor organs in spatial orientation of the lobster, Homarus americanus: differences and overlap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devine, D.V.; Atema, J.

    1982-08-01

    Three of the lobster's main chemoreceptor organs, the lateral and medial antennules (representing smell) and the dactylus-propodus segments of the walking legs (representing taste), are physiologically quite similar. The authors examined their role in spatial orientation in a food-odor stimulus field. Control animals almost always oriented correctly and immediately to an odor plume. Lobsters with unilateral ablations of lateral antennules lost this ability, but did not show preferential turning toward the intact side. Unilateral medial antennule ablation did not affect orientation. Removal of all aesthetasc hairs from one lateral antennule caused loss of orientation ability less severe than unilateral ablation of the entire lateral antennule. Lobsters with unilaterally ablated lateral antennules and blocked walking leg receptors turned preferentially toward the side of the intact antennule. Thus, it appears that intact lobsters orient in odor space by tropotaxis principally using aesthetasc receptor input. Since loss of appendages is relatively common in lobsters, this partial overlap of organ function may serve the animal well in nature.

  14. Modeling the focusing efficiency of lobster-eye optics for image shifting depending on the soft x-ray wavelength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Luning; Li, Wei; Wu, Mingxuan; Su, Yun; Guo, Chongling; Ruan, Ningjuan; Yang, Bingxin; Yan, Feng

    2017-08-01

    Lobster-eye optics is widely applied to space x-ray detection missions and x-ray security checks for its wide field of view and low weight. This paper presents a theoretical model to obtain spatial distribution of focusing efficiency based on lobster-eye optics in a soft x-ray wavelength. The calculations reveal the competition mechanism of contributions to the focusing efficiency between the geometrical parameters of lobster-eye optics and the reflectivity of the iridium film. In addition, the focusing efficiency image depending on x-ray wavelengths further explains the influence of different geometrical parameters of lobster-eye optics and different soft x-ray wavelengths on focusing efficiency. These results could be beneficial to optimize parameters of lobster-eye optics in order to realize maximum focusing efficiency.

  15. Tourism trends in the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    González Sánchez, Cynthia; Muñoz Salinas, Francisco; Roset Calzada, Jaime

    2012-01-01

    The Caribbean is a great holiday destination, along with Europe, Asia and South America. But it is one of the regions that depend more economically on the touristic sector. That is why there is a need to innovate and reinvent the touristic offer constantly. Throughout the years, tendencies and tourism types has changed and developed, adapting to the market and clients expectations. Beach hotel, all inclusive hotel offers, mountain tourism, hiking, ecotourism, city tourism, are some of the ...

  16. Fishing for lobsters indirectly increases epidemics in sea urchins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2004-01-01

    Two ecological paradigms, the trophic cascade and the host-density threshold in disease, interact in the kelp-forest ecosystem to structure the community. To investigate what happens when a trophic cascade pushes a host population over a host-threshold density, I analyzed a 20-year data set of kelp forest communities at 16 sites in the region of the Channel Islands National Park, California, USA. Historically, lobsters, and perhaps other predators, kept urchin populations at low levels and kelp forests developed a community-level trophic cascade. In geographic areas where the main predators on urchins were fished, urchin populations increased to the extent that they overgrazed algae and starvation eventually limited urchin-population growth. Despite the limitation of urchin population size by food availability, urchin densities, at times, well exceeded the host-density threshold for epidemics. An urchin-specific bacterial disease entered the region after 1992 and acted as a density-dependent mortality source. Dense populations were more likely to experience epidemics and suffer higher mortality. Disease did not reduce the urchin population at a site to the density that predators previously did. Therefore, disease did not fully replace predators in the trophic cascade. These results indicate how fishing top predators can indirectly favor disease transmission in prey populations.

  17. Genotype Reconstruction of Paternity in European Lobsters (Homarus gammarus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Charlie D; Hodgson, David J; André, Carl; Sørdalen, Tonje K; Knutsen, Halvor; Griffiths, Amber G F

    2015-01-01

    Decapod crustaceans exhibit considerable variation in fertilisation strategies, ranging from pervasive single paternity to the near-ubiquitous presence of multiple paternity, and such knowledge of mating systems and behaviour are required for the informed management of commercially-exploited marine fisheries. We used genetic markers to assess the paternity of individual broods in the European lobster, Homarus gammarus, a species for which paternity structure is unknown. Using 13 multiplexed microsatellite loci, three of which are newly described in this study, we genotyped 10 eggs from each of 34 females collected from an Atlantic peninsula in the south-western United Kingdom. Single reconstructed paternal genotypes explained all observed progeny genotypes in each of the 34 egg clutches, and each clutch was fertilised by a different male. Simulations indicated that the probability of detecting multiple paternity was in excess of 95% if secondary sires account for at least a quarter of the brood, and in excess of 99% where additional sire success was approximately equal. Our results show that multiple paternal fertilisations are either absent, unusual, or highly skewed in favour of a single male among H. gammarus in this area. Potential mechanisms upholding single paternal fertilisation are discussed, along with the prospective utility of parentage assignments in evaluations of hatchery stocking and other fishery conservation approaches in light of this finding.

  18. Genotype Reconstruction of Paternity in European Lobsters (Homarus gammarus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlie D Ellis

    Full Text Available Decapod crustaceans exhibit considerable variation in fertilisation strategies, ranging from pervasive single paternity to the near-ubiquitous presence of multiple paternity, and such knowledge of mating systems and behaviour are required for the informed management of commercially-exploited marine fisheries. We used genetic markers to assess the paternity of individual broods in the European lobster, Homarus gammarus, a species for which paternity structure is unknown. Using 13 multiplexed microsatellite loci, three of which are newly described in this study, we genotyped 10 eggs from each of 34 females collected from an Atlantic peninsula in the south-western United Kingdom. Single reconstructed paternal genotypes explained all observed progeny genotypes in each of the 34 egg clutches, and each clutch was fertilised by a different male. Simulations indicated that the probability of detecting multiple paternity was in excess of 95% if secondary sires account for at least a quarter of the brood, and in excess of 99% where additional sire success was approximately equal. Our results show that multiple paternal fertilisations are either absent, unusual, or highly skewed in favour of a single male among H. gammarus in this area. Potential mechanisms upholding single paternal fertilisation are discussed, along with the prospective utility of parentage assignments in evaluations of hatchery stocking and other fishery conservation approaches in light of this finding.

  19. STUDI MEMBRAN KITOSAN DARI KULIT LOBSTER BAMBU SEBAGAI MEMBRAN FILTRASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Nyoman Putri Windari

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The study of the extraction and characterization of chitosan from skin waste of Bamboo Lobster (Panulirus versicolor has been done. Chitosan is extracted using conventional method, namely the initial process: cleaning and drying (pretreatment, demineralization, deproteination, and deacetylation. The chitosan obtained has been used to prepare chitosan membrane 2% with acetic acid 1% as solvent. The membrane prepared by phase inversion method withprecipitation through solvent evaporation. The prepared membranes were characterized by FTIR spectrophotometer, Nova 1200e by BJH method and filtration method. The results obtained that degree of deacetylation (DD of chitosan is 70.016%. The thickness of the membrane is 0.361 mm. The FTIR spectra show that functional groups obtained are -NH, -CH, C=O, C-O and -CN. From BJH method obtained that the pore radius is 1.69 nm and pore density is 8.95 x 105pores/m3. From the filtration method obtained that at each pressure, 80-85 kPa and 90-100 kPa, the PWF values are 381.232 and 454.545 L/m2.h, respectively.

  20. MC ray-tracing optimization of lobster-eye focusing devices with RESTRAX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saroun, Jan; Kulda, Jiri

    2006-01-01

    The enhanced functionalities of the latest version of the RESTRAX software, providing a high-speed Monte Carlo (MC) ray-tracing code to represent a virtual three-axis neutron spectrometer, include representation of parabolic and elliptic guide profiles and facilities for numerical optimization of parameter values, characterizing the instrument components. As examples, we present simulations of a doubly focusing monochromator in combination with cold neutron guides and lobster-eye supermirror devices, concentrating a monochromatic beam to small sample volumes. A Levenberg-Marquardt minimization algorithm is used to optimize simultaneously several parameters of the monochromator and lobster-eye guides. We compare the performance of optimized configurations in terms of monochromatic neutron flux and energy spread and demonstrate the effect of lobster-eye optics on beam transformations in real and momentum subspaces

  1. Are European lobsters (Homarus gammarus) susceptible to infection by a temperate Hematodinium sp.?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Charlotte E; Rowley, Andrew F

    2015-05-01

    Hematodinium spp. infect over 40 species of crustaceans worldwide, but have not been reported to infect the European lobster, Homarus gammarus. In this study, Hematodinium parasites (a mixture of uni- and multinucleate trophont-like stages) were taken from donor crabs (Cancer pagurus) and injected into juvenile H. gammarus. Juvenile C. pagurus were also injected with the same inoculum. Haemolymph was taken at regular intervals and examined for the presence of Hematodinium using light microscopy and PCR, in two separate experiments of duration 4 and 8months. All lobsters were negative for Hematodinium whilst the C. pagurus challenged became infected. It is concluded that European lobsters are not susceptible to infection with a clade of Hematodinium that infects C. pagurus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Lobster eye X-ray optics: Data processing from two 1D modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nentvich, O.; Urban, M.; Stehlikova, V.; Sieger, L.; Hudec, R.

    2017-07-01

    The X-ray imaging is usually done by Wolter I telescopes. They are suitable for imaging of a small part of the sky, not for all-sky monitoring. This monitoring could be done by a Lobster eye optics which can theoretically have a field of view up to 360 deg. All sky monitoring system enables a quick identification of source and its direction. This paper describes the possibility of using two independent one-dimensional Lobster Eye modules for this purpose instead of Wolter I and their post-processing into an 2D image. This arrangement allows scanning with less energy loss compared to Wolter I or two-dimensional Lobster Eye optics. It is most suitable especially for very weak sources.

  3. Improving the effectiveness of escape windows in directed Norway lobster Nephrops norvegicus trawl fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Niels; Holst, René; Frandsen, Rikke

    2012-01-01

    A substantial improvement in the bycatch selectivity of Norway lobster Nephrops norvegicus trawls is required, particularly with respect to cod Gadus morhua , whose stocks are at low levels in several areas. Conventional escape windows are not adequate to properly release cod and other bycatch...... species caught in the trawls. To address this issue, we developed a novel sorting box concept consisting of a four-panel section with a window on the top in order to improve the escape of cod and other bycatch species through an escape window while retaining the target catch of Norway lobster. The concept....... The reduction in bycatch decreased with decreasing mesh size and increasing height of the sorting box. Escape of Norway lobster through the escape window was limited. A modified version of the sorting box concept was implemented in the Kattegat fishery from 2009 onwards...

  4. Development and test of selective sorting grids used in the Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus) fishery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Niels; Holst, René; Frandsen, Rikke

    2017-01-01

    Due to generally high discard rates in Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus) fisheries, a discard ban coming up and to the cod recovery plan in several areas, selective sorting grids have been tested in many areas and are specified by legislation for use in the Kattegat and Skagerrak area bordering...... Norway, Denmark and Sweden. Grids are very selective, but they can lead to loss of landable Norway lobster and valuable fish species. To improve retention of these species, we developed three new grids using made by polyurethane to make them flexible: One grid had horizontal bars, one had vertical bars....... More flatfish passed the grid with horizontal bars compared to that with vertical bars, but the retention rate was still low. Use of the guiding funnel increased the contact with the grid considerably for both target and unwanted species. In all three grid designs, there were losses of Norway lobster...

  5. Ocean observing systems support operational forecasts for the timing of Maine's lobster fishery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, K.; Hernandez, C.; Pershing, A. J.

    2016-02-01

    American lobster supports one of the most valuable fisheries in the United States, with a landed value in 2013 exceeding $460M. Although US lobstermen are free to fish throughout the year, the New England climate, lobster biology and fleet dynamics lead to a strong annual cycle with catch rates rising rapidly in early summer and landings peaking in late summer. When this annual cycle is disrupted, it can impact the supply and ultimately the price of lobsters. During the record warm conditions in 2012, the rise in catch rates occurred three weeks ahead of normal. Combined with higher than normal landings from the spring Canadian fishery, the early and high volume landings in 2012 led to a collapse in price that severely stressed the U. S. fishery, especially in Maine where over 85% of the landings occur. Based on this experience, we have been developing seasonal forecasts of the phenology of Maine lobster landings. Using temperatures at 50m from four NERACOOS buoys in the Gulf of Maine, we can reliably forecast the date when the Maine lobster fishery will `turn on' for the year, with prediction accuracy peaking in April. The high-landings period normally starts in July, and the 2-3 month lead-time provides some advance warning to dealers and processors of when their capacity needs to be ready and to fishermen of potential supply chain and market impacts such as we observed in 2012. We are currently working towards finer-scale regional forecasts along the Maine coast that may include other features that will provide information to help the lobster industry adapt to the rapid changes that are underway in the Gulf of Maine.

  6. Creation of a gilded trap by the high economic value of the Maine lobster fishery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steneck, R S; Hughes, T P; Cinner, J E; Adger, W N; Arnold, S N; Berkes, F; Boudreau, S A; Brown, K; Folke, C; Gunderson, L; Olsson, P; Scheffer, M; Stephenson, E; Walker, B; Wilson, J; Worm, B

    2011-10-01

    Unsustainable fishing simplifies food chains and, as with aquaculture, can result in reliance on a few economically valuable species. This lack of diversity may increase risks of ecological and economic disruptions. Centuries of intense fishing have extirpated most apex predators in the Gulf of Maine (United States and Canada), effectively creating an American lobster (Homarus americanus) monoculture. Over the past 20 years, the economic diversity of marine resources harvested in Maine has declined by almost 70%. Today, over 80% of the value of Maine's fish and seafood landings is from highly abundant lobsters. Inflation-corrected income from lobsters in Maine has steadily increased by nearly 400% since 1985. Fisheries managers, policy makers, and fishers view this as a success. However, such lucrative monocultures increase the social and ecological consequences of future declines in lobsters. In southern New England, disease and stresses related to increases in ocean temperature resulted in more than a 70% decline in lobster abundance, prompting managers to propose closing that fishery. A similar collapse in Maine could fundamentally disrupt the social and economic foundation of its coast. We suggest the current success of Maine's lobster fishery is a gilded trap. Gilded traps are a type of social trap in which collective actions resulting from economically attractive opportunities outweigh concerns over associated social and ecological risks or consequences. Large financial gain creates a strong reinforcing feedback that deepens the trap. Avoiding or escaping gilded traps requires managing for increased biological and economic diversity. This is difficult to do prior to a crisis while financial incentives for maintaining the status quo are large. The long-term challenge is to shift fisheries management away from single species toward integrated social-ecological approaches that diversify local ecosystems, societies, and economies. ©2011 Society for Conservation

  7. Regional strategy tested in Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Barbados, St. Vincent, and St. Lucia have joined forces in the world's 1st regional Contraceptive Social Marketing (CSM) effort -- the Caribbean CSM. The Barbados Family Planning Association (BFPS) is overseeing the operation, which begins selling 2 contraceptive pills and a condom in early February. Costs and start-up times were shaved by adopting brand names and advertising materials from Jamaica's highly successful CSM project. Jamaica's popular "Panther" condom and "Perle" oral contraceptive (OC) are being used by the Caribbean CSM project. Perle's 9-year-old package has been redesigned and the Caribbean CSM project also is selling a 2nd, low-dose version called "Perle-LD." The products are manufactured in the US by Syntex as Noriday and Norminest, respectively. But the regional approach's financial gains also had a debit side, most notably a tripling of bureaucratic procedures. Part of project difficulties stem from differences among the 3 Caribbean countries. While sharing a common cultural heritage, St. Lucians speak a patois dialect in addition to the English prevalent on the other islands. The biggest hurdle was overcoming an economic disparity between Barbados and its less affluent neighbors, St. Vincent and St. Lucia. The CSM project decided to try a 2-tier product pricing strategy. In US currency, prices run $1.75 per cycle for both OCs on Barbados, but $1.26 on St. Vincent and St. Lucia. A Panther 3-pack costs 75 cents on Barbados and 42 cents on the othe 2 islands. The project is being promoted with generic family planning media advertisements. The project also has held physician orientation seminars on each island. The pilot program will be accompanied by retailer training seminars. In addition the project may introduce a spermicidal foaming tablet, once the US Food and Drug Administration approvs a new American-made product. The unique Caribbean CSM project may spread an idea as potent as the family planning message. Its success could transmit the

  8. Additional slipper lobsters of the subfamily Scyllarinae Latreille, 1825 (Crustacea, Achelata, Scyllaridae) from Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chien-Hui; Lin, Chia-Wei; Chan, Tin-Yam

    2014-08-15

    Five scyllarine lobsters are recorded from Taiwan for the first time. They are Bathyarctus rubens (Alcock & Anderson, 1894), Biarctus sordidus (Stimpson, 1860), Chelarctus aureus (Holthuis, 1963), Crenarctus bicuspidatus (De Man, 1905) and Petrarctus veliger Holthuis, 2002. The distributions of B. rubens, C. aureus and P. veliger are extended northwards to Taiwan. Distinguishing characters of these five species are illustrated and color photographs of all but B. sordidus are provided. Altogether, nine genera and 17 species of scyllarine lobsters are now known from Taiwan. 

  9. Development and testing of a separator frame in a Norway lobster Nephrops norvegicus fishery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Niels; Holst, René

    2017-01-01

    Norway lobster Nephrops norvegicus fisheries are often characterized by high bycatch and discard rates. However, fisheries species exhibit differences in vertical behaviour that can be used to develop selective devices. We developed a separator frame that can be inserted into the forward part...... the separator frame and ending up in the bottom cod-end, the top cod-end, or penetrating the window. The majority of Norway lobster and flatfish entered the bottom cod-end, and most gadoids entered the top cod-end. A relatively high proportion of gadoids and flatfish that entered the top cod-end penetrated...

  10. Chemosensitivity of walking legs of the lobster Homarus americanus: neurophysiological response spectrum and thresholds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derby, C D; Atema, J

    1982-01-01

    Responses of chemoreceptors in the walking legs of the lobster Homarus americanus to 35 individual compounds and 3 mixtures (prey odours and extracts) were studied using extracellular recording techniques. Compared against a standard mussel (Mytilus edulis) extract, these receptors were most sensitive to the amino acids L-glutamate, hydroxy-L-proline, L-aspartate, L-arginine, glycine, taurine, and L-alanine, as well as such other compounds as ammonium chloride, betaine, and the tripeptide glutathione. Most of these excitants are among those compounds most prevalent in the prey of lobsters.

  11. Populations of striatal medium spiny neurons encode vibrotactile frequency in rats: modulation by slow wave oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawking, Thomas G; Gerdjikov, Todor V

    2013-01-01

    Dorsolateral striatum (DLS) is implicated in tactile perception and receives strong projections from somatosensory cortex. However, the sensory representations encoded by striatal projection neurons are not well understood. Here we characterized the contribution of DLS to the encoding of vibrotactile information in rats by assessing striatal responses to precise frequency stimuli delivered to a single vibrissa. We applied stimuli in a frequency range (45-90 Hz) that evokes discriminable percepts and carries most of the power of vibrissa vibration elicited by a range of complex fine textures. Both medium spiny neurons and evoked potentials showed tactile responses that were modulated by slow wave oscillations. Furthermore, medium spiny neuron population responses represented stimulus frequency on par with previously reported behavioral benchmarks. Our results suggest that striatum encodes frequency information of vibrotactile stimuli which is dynamically modulated by ongoing brain state.

  12. Basic ecology of the Oaxacan Spiny-tailed Iguana Ctenosaura oaxacana (Squamata: Iguanidae), in Oaxaca, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Tamara Rioja; Arturo Carrillo-Reyes; Eduardo Espinoza-Medinilla; Sergio López-Mendoza

    2012-01-01

    The Oaxacan Spiny-tailed Iguana Ctenosaura oaxacana is a restricted species to the Isthmus of Tehuantepec in Southern Oaxaca, Mexico. This reptile is one of the less known iguanid species. We censustracked a population in the South of Niltepec, Oaxaca, Mexico from May 2010 to April 2011. Throughout one year, a total of 10 line transects were situated and recorded in the study area to determine relative abundance and density, and habitat type use (dry forest, Nanchal, grassland, riparian veget...

  13. Organ-related distribution of phospholemman in the spiny dogfish Squalus acanthias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuurmans Stekhoven, F M A H; Grell, E; Atsma, W; Flik, G; Wendelaar Bonga, S E

    2003-04-18

    The distribution of phospholemman among nine different organs of the spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias) has been determined on the basis of Western blotting of microsomal material. Only rectal gland (100%), brain (43%), heart (18%), and kidney (19%) (abundancies as percent of the concentration in rectal gland) contained the protein, but not gill and colon. The relative abundance in the brain makes this organ a preferential test system for phospholemman in fishes that lack a rectal gland like teleosts.

  14. Copper toxicity in the spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias): urea loss contributes to the osmoregulatory disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Boeck, G; Hattink, J; Franklin, N M; Bucking, C P; Wood, S; Walsh, P J; Wood, C M

    2007-08-30

    Previous research showed that the spiny dogfish, Squalus acanthias, is much more sensitive to silver exposure than typical marine teleosts. The aim of the present study was to investigate if spiny dogfish were equally sensitive to copper exposure and whether the toxic mechanisms were the same. We exposed cannulated and non-cannulated spiny dogfish to measured concentrations of Cu (nominally 0, 500, 1000 and 1500 microg L(-1) Cu) for 72-96 h. All Cu exposures induced acidosis and lactate accumulation of either a temporary (500 microg L(-1)) or more persistent nature (1000 and 1500 microg L(-1)). At the two highest Cu concentrations, gill Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activities were reduced by 45% (1000 microg L(-1)) and 62% (1500 microg L(-1)), and plasma Na(+) and Cl(-) concentrations increased by approximately 50 mM each. At the same time urea excretion doubled and plasma urea dropped by approximately 100 mM. Together with plasma urea, plasma TMAO levels dropped proportionally, indicating that the general impermeability of the gills was compromised. Overall plasma osmolarity did not change. Cu accumulation was limited with significant increases in plasma Cu and elevated gill and kidney Cu burdens at 1000 and 1500 microg L(-1). We conclude that Cu, like Ag, exerts toxic effect on Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activities in the shark similar to those of teleosts, but there is an additional toxic action on elasmobranch urea retention capacities. With a 96 h LC(50) in the 800-1000 microg L(-1) range, overall sensitivity of spiny dogfish for Cu is, in contrast with its sensitivity to Ag, only slightly lower than in typical marine teleosts.

  15. Conservation and variation in the feeding mechanism of the spiny dogfish squalus acanthias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilga; Motta

    1998-05-01

    Changes in the feeding mechanism with feeding behavior were investigated using high-speed video and electromyography to examine the kinematics and motor pattern of prey capture, manipulation and transport in the spiny dogfish Squalus acanthias (Squalidae: Squaliformes). In this study, Squalus acanthias used both suction and ram behaviors to capture and manipulate prey, while only suction was used to transport prey. The basic kinematic feeding sequence observed in other aquatic-feeding lower vertebrates is conserved in the spiny dogfish. Prey capture, bite manipulation and suction transport events are characterized by a common pattern of head movements and motor activity, but are distinguishable by differences in duration and relative timing. In general, capture events are longer in duration than manipulation and transport events, as found in other aquatic-feeding lower vertebrates. Numerous individual effects were found, indicating that individual sharks are capable of varying head movements and motor activity among successful feeding events. Upper jaw protrusion in the spiny dogfish is not restricted by its orbitostylic jaw suspension; rather, the upper jaw is protruded by 30 % of its head length, considerably more than in the lemon shark Negaprion brevirostris (Carcharhinidae: Carcharhiniformes) (18 %) with its hyostylic jaw suspension. One function of upper jaw protrusion is to assist in jaw closure by protruding the upper jaw as well as elevating the lower jaw to close the gape, thus decreasing the time to jaw closure. The mechanism of upper jaw protrusion was found to differ between squaliform and carcharhiniform sharks. Whereas the levator palatoquadrati muscle assists in retracting the upper jaw in the spiny dogfish, it assists in protruding the upper jaw in the lemon shark. This study represents the first comprehensive electromyographic and kinematic analysis of the feeding mechanism in a squaliform shark.

  16. Maternal-fetal communication of circadian phase in a precocious rodent, the spiny mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, D.R.; Reppert, S.M.

    1987-01-01

    The development of circadian rhythms was examined in a precocious rodent species, the spiny mouse. Spiny mouse pups born and reared in constant darkness expressed robust circadian rhythms in locomotor activity as early as day 5 of live. Free-running activity rhythms of pups born and reared in constant darkness were coordinated with the dam on the day of birth. Postnatal maternal influences on pup rhythmicity are minimal in this species, as pups fostered on the day of birth to dams whose circadian phases were opposite to the pups' original dams were coordinated with their original dams on the day of birth. Studies using 2-deoxy-D-[1- 14 C]-glucose authoradiography showed that there were synchronous (coordinated) rhythms in metabolic activity in the maternal and fetal suprachiasmatic nuclei, directly demonstrating prenatal coordination of maternal and fetal rhythmicity. Maternal-fetal coordination of circadian phase was not the result of direct entrainment of the fetuses to the environmental light-dark cycle. These results demonstrate that there is prenatal communication of circadian phase in this precocious species, without demonstrable postnatal maternal influences on pup circadian rhythmicity. Spiny mice therefore represent an important animal model in which circadian rhythms in the postnatal period can be used to precisely assess prenatal influences on circadian phase

  17. The European Union – Caribbean Relation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Morten

    2016-01-01

    EU diplomats consider the Caribbean countries to be allies and therefore expect these countries to support the EU in international affairs – but they find that this support has been waning in recent years. Caribbean diplomats and politicians do not share the European viewpoint. Rather, they take ...

  18. Teaching and Learning with Caribbean Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Clement B. G.

    Presently, the most frequent point of contact between the United States and many Caribbean island states is the immigrant population. Incentives for immigration are provided by a tradition of colonialism, economies dependent upon agriculture, and problems resulting from rapidly increasing populations. The continuing influx of Caribbeans to the…

  19. A lobster-eye on the x-ray sky

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peele, A. G.; Zhang, W.; Gendreau, K. C.; Petre, R.; White, N. E.

    1999-01-01

    We propose an x-ray all-sky monitor for the International Space Station (ISS) that will be ten times more sensitive than past monitors and that opens up a new band of the soft x-ray spectrum (0.1 -3.0 keV) for study. Taking advantage of the power telemetry and space available on the ISS we can use a telescope geometry and detectors that will provide better than 4 arc minute resolution of the entire sky in a 1.5 hr duty cycle. To achieve this sensitivity and resolution we use focusing optics based on the lobster-eye geometry. We propose two approaches to the construction of the optics. The first method, well within the reach of existing technology, is to approximate the lobster-eye geometry by building crossed arrays of planar reflectors, this gives great control over the reflecting surface but is limited in terms of resolution at the baseline 4 arc minute level. The second method is to use microchannel plates: this technology has the potential to greatly exceed the baseline resolution and sensitivity but is yet to be fully demonstrated. A simultaneous development of both approaches with selection of the superior candidate at the end of the development phase is suggested. The instrument is made of a number of modules based on a 2x2 cooled CCD detector array that covers an area of 6x6 cm 2 at the focal plane. Using optics with a radius of curvature of 0.75 m this gives each module a field of view of 9 deg. x 9 deg. The modular approach gives us enormous flexibility in terms of physical arrangement on the ISS so that we may take advantage of clear lines of sight and also in terms of built-in redundancy. We estimate that ∼50 such modules give us instantaneous coverage of 1/10 of the sky. The scientific case for this mission is almost too broad to state here. The instrument we describe will allow investigation of the long term light curves of thousands of AGN, it will detect thousands of transients, including GRBs and type II supernova, and the stellar coronae of

  20. Unraveling the structure and composition of Varadero Reef, an improbable and imperiled coral reef in the Colombian Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Pizarro

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Coral reefs are commonly associated with oligotrophic, well-illuminated waters. In 2013, a healthy coral reef was discovered in one of the least expected places within the Colombian Caribbean: at the entrance of Cartagena Bay, a highly-polluted system that receives industrial and sewage waste, as well as high sediment and freshwater loads from an outlet of the Magdalena River (the longest and most populated river basin in Colombia. Here we provide the first characterization of Varadero Reef’s geomorphology and biological diversity. We also compare these characteristics with those of a nearby reference reef, Barú Reef, located in an area much less influenced by the described polluted system. Below the murky waters, we found high coral cover of 45.1% (±3.9; up to 80% in some sectors, high species diversity, including 42 species of scleractinian coral, 38 of sponge, three of lobster, and eight of sea urchin; a fish community composed of 61 species belonging to 24 families, and the typical zonation of a Caribbean fringing reef. All attributes found correspond to a reef that, according to current standards should be considered in “good condition”. Current plans to dredge part of Varadero threaten the survival of this reef. There is, therefore, an urgent need to describe the location and characteristics of Varadero as a first step towards gaining acknowledgement of its existence and garnering inherent legal and environmental protections.

  1. Detection of phasic dopamine by D1 and D2 striatal medium spiny neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yapo, Cedric; Nair, Anu G; Clement, Lorna; Castro, Liliana R; Hellgren Kotaleski, Jeanette; Vincent, Pierre

    2017-12-15

    Brief dopamine events are critical actors of reward-mediated learning in the striatum; the intracellular cAMP-protein kinase A (PKA) response of striatal medium spiny neurons to such events was studied dynamically using a combination of biosensor imaging in mouse brain slices and in silico simulations. Both D1 and D2 medium spiny neurons can sense brief dopamine transients in the sub-micromolar range. While dopamine transients profoundly change cAMP levels in both types of medium spiny neurons, the PKA-dependent phosphorylation level remains unaffected in D2 neurons. At the level of PKA-dependent phosphorylation, D2 unresponsiveness depends on protein phosphatase-1 (PP1) inhibition by DARPP-32. Simulations suggest that D2 medium spiny neurons could detect transient dips in dopamine level. The phasic release of dopamine in the striatum determines various aspects of reward and action selection, but the dynamics of the dopamine effect on intracellular signalling remains poorly understood. We used genetically encoded FRET biosensors in striatal brain slices to quantify the effect of transient dopamine on cAMP or PKA-dependent phosphorylation levels, and computational modelling to further explore the dynamics of this signalling pathway. Medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs), which express either D 1 or D 2 dopamine receptors, responded to dopamine by an increase or a decrease in cAMP, respectively. Transient dopamine showed similar sub-micromolar efficacies on cAMP in both D1 and D2 MSNs, thus challenging the commonly accepted notion that dopamine efficacy is much higher on D 2 than on D 1 receptors. However, in D2 MSNs, the large decrease in cAMP level triggered by transient dopamine did not translate to a decrease in PKA-dependent phosphorylation level, owing to the efficient inhibition of protein phosphatase 1 by DARPP-32. Simulations further suggested that D2 MSNs can also operate in a 'tone-sensing' mode, allowing them to detect transient dips in basal dopamine

  2. West Coast rock lobster Jasus lalandii are dis- tributed from about ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    and a ban on the retention of lobster in a soft shell state or ... However, a diver operating from shore could also collect ... The permit system was discontinued during 1986 ... person's place of residence at any one time was re- ..... real situation.

  3. After an initial, localized decline in rock lobster Jasus lalandii growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    Pacific Ocean. In the southern Benguela, the most obvious signature of this ENSO was the reduced fre- quency and intensity of southerly, upwelling-inducing winds, with a concomitant increase in westerly winds. This study attempts to relate the reduction in lobster growth and productivity to environmental factors which.

  4. Accumulation of sup(95m)Tc from sea water by juvenile lobsters (Homarus gammarus L. )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swift, D.J. (Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, Lowestoft (UK). Directorate of Fisheries Research)

    1985-01-01

    The uptake and retention of technetium from sea water by juvenile lobsters, and the effects of moulting on these processes, has been studied using sup(95m)Tc as a tracer. Accumulation was rapid with whole body concentration factors of over 2000 being measured in some lobsters. Uptake was highest immediately before a moult; post-moult there was a fall in accumulation. No simple mathematical equation for technetium accumulation with time was found. The technetium concentration in the moulted exoskeleton increased with time of exposure of the lobsters but never exceeded 2% of the whole body value. The highest percentage of the whole body activity was found in the digestive gland; the green gland had the highest concentration factor. Technetium excretion, following 64 d of accumulation, could be expressed as an exponential rate of loss. The biological half-time was calculated as 53 d. Moulted exoskeletons from these lobsters contained approximately 0.6% of the day zero whole body activity.

  5. A novel image processing method to determine the nutritional condition of lobsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berillis, P; Simon, C; Mente, E; Sofos, F; Karapanagiotidis, I T

    2013-02-01

    The digestive gland of crustacean is involved in various metabolic activities, including the synthesis and secretion of digestive enzymes that begin the process of food digestion, intracellular digestion and absorption of nutrients, storage of reserves, and disposal of waste products. It consists of two glandular lobes which extensively subdivide to form a complex of blind-ending tubules, whose size, surface area, and digestive cells are associated with intracellular digestion and the nutritional status of the organism. The aim of this paper was to study the morphology of the digestive gland in various lobster species and calculate the surface area of tubules, lumen and digestive cells (R-, F-, and B-cells) and their ratios to total tubule surface area. The similarity in ratios obtained in this study between individual lobsters suggests that the method developed in this study can be successfully applied to a range of species. This study describes a novel image processing algorithm for the automatic measurement of the hepatopancreas structure using stained cross sections of digestive gland tubules. The proposed new methodology could be used for studying the physiology and nutrient metabolism of lobsters and other crustaceans. The computer-aided analysis described in this paper is accurate for the quantitative assessment of the lobster's digestive gland structure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Finestkind: The American Lobster. A Learning Experience for Marine Education. Northern New England Marine Education Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maine Univ., Orono. Coll. of Education.

    This interdisciplinary unit is intended for use in the fourth grade. Through discussion of the American Lobster, its economics, history, literature, and biology, the unit describes the effects of the marine environment on human history and culture. Sections deal with how marine organisms have evolved. Detailed descriptions are provided of lobster…

  7. THE MORPHOLOGICAL BASIS FOR OLFACTORY PERCEPTION OF STEROIDS DUING AGONISTIC BEHAVIOR IN LOBSTER: PRELIMINARY EXPERIMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The morphological basis for olfactory perception of steroids during agonistic behavior in lobsters: preliminary experiments. Borsay Horowitz, DJ1, Kass-Simon, G2, Coglianese, D2, Martin, L2, Boseman, M2, Cromarty, S3, Randall, K3, Fini, A.3 1US EPA, NHEERL, ORD, Atlantic Ecology...

  8. Diet of the west coast rock lobster Jasus Lalandii : Influence of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The diet of small lobsters (<75mm CL) consisted of a wide range of species, which included, in order of importance, coralline algae, barnacles Notomegabalanus algicola, sponges and ribbed mussels Aulacomya ater. However, prey items rich in inorganic material were not dominant in their diet, as had been predicted.

  9. Novel optics for conditioning neutron beams. II Focussing neutrons with a 'lobster-eye' optic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allman, B.E.; Cimmino, A.; Griffin, S.L.; Klein, A.G.; Nugent, K.A.

    1998-01-01

    Square-channel capillary, or 'Lobster-eye' arrays have been shown to be the optimum geometry for array optics. This configuration leads to a novel class of conditioning devices for X-ray and neutron beams. We present the first results of the focussing of neutrons with a Pb glass square-channel array. (authors)

  10. 33 CFR 100.109 - Winter Harbor Lobster Boat Race, Winter Harbor, ME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Winter Harbor Lobster Boat Race, Winter Harbor, ME. 100.109 Section 100.109 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.109 Winter Harbor...

  11. Microbiological aspects of phyllosoma rearing of the ornate rock lobster Panulirus ornatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourne, D.; Webster, N.; Payne, Matthew

    2007-01-01

    Rock lobsters of the Palinuridae are the most valuable wild fisheries sector in Australia and are currently target aquaculture species. Significant challenges exist however to produce commercial scale quantities of post-larvae due to an extended larval phase which acerbates a high rate of larval...

  12. Development of new concepts for escape windows to minimise cod catches in Norway lobster fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Niels; Frandsen, Rikke; Holst, René

    2010-01-01

    Gear selectivity with regard to cod (Gadus morhua) needs to be improved in the Kattegat and Skagerrak Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus) fishery. One way to achieve this goal is to improve the selectivity of an escape window (henceforth window) in the gear. Our gear development focused particul......Gear selectivity with regard to cod (Gadus morhua) needs to be improved in the Kattegat and Skagerrak Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus) fishery. One way to achieve this goal is to improve the selectivity of an escape window (henceforth window) in the gear. Our gear development focused...... particularly on moving the window further back, gaining more stability in the codend to avoid loss of Norway lobster through the window, making a relatively narrow section where the window is located, and testing larger mesh sizes in the window. We designed a four panel sorting section—the sorting box......, but no improvement was observed for cod that came into contact with the window after reducing the distance from the window to the codline. The sorting box also showed a high reduction of flatfish and other roundfish species. The retention of Norway lobster above minimum landing size in the sorting box was higher...

  13. Adaptive behaviour of fishers to external perturbations: simulation of the Tasmanian rock lobster fishery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamon, K.G.; Frusher, S.D.; Little, L.R.; Thebaud, O.; Punt, A.E.

    2014-01-01

    The rock lobster, Jasus edwardsii, lies on a global "hotspot" for climate change in the southeastern Australian state of Tasmania. The short-term effects of climate change are predicted to lead to an increasing exploitable biomass in the south and declining biomass in the north of the state. The

  14. Alternative supplementary biochemic food for growing up the fresh water lobster (Cherax quadricarinatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRABANG SETYONO

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Priyono E, Astirin OP, Setyono P. 2009. Alternative supplementary biochemic food for growing up the fresh water lobster (Cherax quadricarinatus. Nusantara Bioscience 1: 123-130. This research denotes to know the influence of biochemic composition to the rapid grow of fresh water lobster on the stadium of post larva (PL of 60 within three months. This research used the complete random planning dealing with 4 treatments and each treatment would get 3 times cycle. The treatments cover, group K tested animal was treted with 100% mill food containing 30% of protein. Group A is given with food and biochemic food containing 13,34% of protein. Group B is the treated with mill food which is mixed with biochemic food containing 10,7% of protein. While group C was tested by treating them with mill food and biochemic food containing 13,58%. After all the above mentioned would be set up within 3:1 comparation. The variable of this research were the length of the abdomen, cephalothorax, total length, and the wet weight. The data analysis is using ANOVA system on 95% power test completed by of SPSS version 13. The result of the research shows that mentioned treatments give us the same influence toward the growth of fresh water lobster. The composition of biochemic food with the containing protein around 10,7%,13.34% and 13,38% has given the same effect to the lobster growth on post larva 60 level. There is strong correlation between abdomen and cephalothorax and between the total length and the lobsters weight.Key words: Cherax quadricarinatus, suplementary food, water quality.Abstrak. Priyono E, Astirin OP, Setyono P. 2009. Alternatif penambahan suplemen hayati untuk meningkatkan pertumbuhan udang lobster air tawar (Cherax quadricarinatus. Nusantara Bioscience 1: 123-130. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh pemberian suplemen hayati sehingga dapat meningkatkan pertumbuhan lobster air tawar pada stadia post larva (PL 60 pada masa pertumbuhan 3

  15. Opportunistic Computing with Lobster: Lessons Learned from Scaling up to 25k Non-Dedicated Cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Matthias; Woodard, Anna; Li, Wenzhao; Hurtado Anampa, Kenyi; Yannakopoulos, Anna; Tovar, Benjamin; Donnelly, Patrick; Brenner, Paul; Lannon, Kevin; Hildreth, Mike; Thain, Douglas

    2017-10-01

    We previously described Lobster, a workflow management tool for exploiting volatile opportunistic computing resources for computation in HEP. We will discuss the various challenges that have been encountered while scaling up the simultaneous CPU core utilization and the software improvements required to overcome these challenges. Categories: Workflows can now be divided into categories based on their required system resources. This allows the batch queueing system to optimize assignment of tasks to nodes with the appropriate capabilities. Within each category, limits can be specified for the number of running jobs to regulate the utilization of communication bandwidth. System resource specifications for a task category can now be modified while a project is running, avoiding the need to restart the project if resource requirements differ from the initial estimates. Lobster now implements time limits on each task category to voluntarily terminate tasks. This allows partially completed work to be recovered. Workflow dependency specification: One workflow often requires data from other workflows as input. Rather than waiting for earlier workflows to be completed before beginning later ones, Lobster now allows dependent tasks to begin as soon as sufficient input data has accumulated. Resource monitoring: Lobster utilizes a new capability in Work Queue to monitor the system resources each task requires in order to identify bottlenecks and optimally assign tasks. The capability of the Lobster opportunistic workflow management system for HEP computation has been significantly increased. We have demonstrated efficient utilization of 25 000 non-dedicated cores and achieved a data input rate of 30 Gb/s and an output rate of 500GB/h. This has required new capabilities in task categorization, workflow dependency specification, and resource monitoring.

  16. Hollow spiny shell of porous Ni-Mn oxides: A facile synthesis route and their application as electrode in supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Houzhao; Lv, Lin; Peng, Lu; Ruan, Yunjun; Liu, Jia; Ji, Xiao; Miao, Ling; Jiang, Jianjun

    2015-07-01

    Hollow spiny shell Ni-Mn precursors composed of one-dimensional nanoneedles were synthesized via a simple hydrothermal method without any template. The hollow Spiny shell Ni-Mn oxides are obtained under thermal treatment at different temperatures. The BET surface areas of Ni-Mn oxides reach up to 112 and 133 m2 g-1 when calcination temperatures occur at 300 and 400 °C, respectively. The electrochemical performances of as-synthesized hollow spiny shell Ni-Mn oxides gradually die down with annealing temperatures increasing. The porous hollow spiny shell Ni-Mn oxide obtained at 300 °C delivers a maximum capacitance of 1140 F g-1 at a high current density of 1 A g-1 after 1000th cycles and the specific capacitance of Ni-Mn oxide will increase with cycling times increasing. So, porous hollow spiny shell Ni-Mn oxide obtained at low annealing temperature can form a competitive electrode material for supercapacitors.

  17. Artists in and out of the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally Price

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Caribbean Art. VEERLE POUPEYE. London: Thames and Hudson, 1998. 224 pp. (Paper US$ 14.95 Transforming the Crown: African, Asian and Caribbean Artists in Britain, 1966-1996. MORA J. BEAUCHAMP-BYRD & M. FRANKLIN SIRMANS (eds.. New York: Caribbean Cultural Center, 1998. 177 pp. (Paper US$ 39.95, £31.95 "Caribbean" (like "Black British" culture is (as a Dutch colleague once said of postmodernism a bit of a slippery fish. One of the books under review here presents the eclectic artistic productions of professional artists with Caribbean identities of varying sorts - some of them lifelong residents of the region (defined broadly to stretch from Belize and the Bahamas to Curacao and Cayenne, some born in the Caribbean but living elsewhere, and others from far-away parts of the world who have lingered or settled in the Caribbean. The other focuses on artists who trace their cultural heritage variously to Lebanon, France, Malaysia, Spain, China, England, Guyana, India, the Caribbean, the Netherlands, the Philippines, and the whole range of societies in West, East, and Central Africa, all of whom meet under a single ethnic label in galleries in New York and London. Clearly, the principles that vertebrate Caribbean Art and Transforming the Crown are built on the backs of ambiguities, misperceptions, ironies, and ethnocentric logics (not to mention their stronger variants, such as racism. Yet far from invalidating the enterprise, they offer an enlightening inroad to the social, cultural, economic, and political workings of artworlds that reflect globally orchestrated pasts of enormous complexity.

  18. Claw asymmetry in lobsters: case study in developmental neuroethology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govind, C K

    1992-12-01

    An enduring debate in the study of development is the relative contribution of genetic and epigenetic factors in the genesis of an organism, that is, the nature vs. nurture debate. The behavior of the paired claws in the lobster offers promising material for pursuing this debate because of the way they develop. The paired claws and their closer muscles are initially symmetrical; both are slender in appearance and have a mixture of fast and slow fibers in their closer muscles. During a critical period of development, they become determined into a major (crusher) and minor (cutter) claw and during subsequent development acquire their final form and behavior: The crusher becomes a stout, molar-toothed claw capable of closing only slowly because its closer muscle has 100% slow fibers while the cutter becomes a slender, incisor-toothed claw capable of closing rapidly because its closer muscle has 90% fast fibers. Our initial hypothesis was that the more active claw became the crusher and its less active counterpart the cutter. Presumably, nerve activity would influence muscle transformation, which in turn would influence the exoskeleton to which they attach and hence claw morphology. Curtailing nerve activity to the claw prevented crusher development, while reflex activation of a claw promoted its development; both results support the notion that nerve activity directly regulates claw form and function. This is not, however, the case, for when both claws were reflexly exercised neither formed a crusher, signifying rather that bilateral differences in predominantly mechanoreceptive input to the paired claws somehow lateralized the claw ganglion [central nervous system (CNS)] into a crusher and cutter side. The side experiencing the greater activity becomes the crusher side while the contralateral side becomes the cutter and is also inhibited from ever becoming a crusher. This initial lateralization in the CNS is expressed, via as yet unknown pathways, at the periphery in

  19. A model for the bioaccumulation of {sup 99}Tc in lobsters (Homarus gammarus) from the West Cumbrian coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, Y.S.; Vives i Batlle, J. E-mail: jordi.vives@westlakes.ac.uk

    2003-07-01

    A biokinetic model is presented that simulates the uptake and release of {sup 99}Tc by the European lobster (Homarus gammarus). This organism is of significant radioecological interest since lobsters, in contrast to most other organisms, have a high affinity for {sup 99}Tc. The model is designed to represent annually averaged {sup 99}Tc concentrations in lobsters from the Cumbrian coast, where significant levels of {sup 99}Tc have been released under authorisation by the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at BNFL Sellafield. This paper describes the construction of the model, how it was calibrated using data from published literature, and preliminary results indicating that model output agrees well with the available monitoring data. Given that this model successfully combines laboratory and field data, this research could potentially make a significant contribution to the field, as, to date, it has been difficult to predict and explain concentrations of {sup 99}Tc in lobsters.

  20. Diet and nutrition of western rock lobsters, Panulirus cygnus, in shallow coastal waters: the role of habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generalist consumers often have diets that vary considerably over time and space, which reflects changes in resource availability. Predicting diets of consumers can therefore be difficult. The western rock lobster, Panulirus cygnus, is an omnivorous generalist consumer that uses ...

  1. A model for the bioaccumulation of 99Tc in lobsters (Homarus gammarus) from the West Cumbrian coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, Y.S.; Vives i Batlle, J.

    2003-01-01

    A biokinetic model is presented that simulates the uptake and release of 99 Tc by the European lobster (Homarus gammarus). This organism is of significant radioecological interest since lobsters, in contrast to most other organisms, have a high affinity for 99 Tc. The model is designed to represent annually averaged 99 Tc concentrations in lobsters from the Cumbrian coast, where significant levels of 99 Tc have been released under authorisation by the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at BNFL Sellafield. This paper describes the construction of the model, how it was calibrated using data from published literature, and preliminary results indicating that model output agrees well with the available monitoring data. Given that this model successfully combines laboratory and field data, this research could potentially make a significant contribution to the field, as, to date, it has been difficult to predict and explain concentrations of 99 Tc in lobsters

  2. Characterization of the dominant bacterial communities during storage of Norway lobster and Norway lobster tails (Nephrops norvegicus) based on 16S rDNA analysis by PCR-DGGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekaert, Karen; Devriese, Lisa; Maes, Sara; Robbens, Johan

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the microbial quality of whole Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus) and Norway lobster tails to optimize handling conditions. This was done by assessing the total viable count (TVC) and characterizing the dominant microbiota. The cultivable microorganisms were quantified via classical microbiological plating methods. To characterize as many bacterial species present as possible, we performed advanced molecular identification techniques (PCR-DGGE). The initial TVC of fresh Norway lobster meat was high (3.0 log cfu/g) as compared to fish. No significant difference between whole Norway lobster and Norway lobster tails could be found during the storage period. From day 6 of storage, a significant difference between Plate Count Agar (PCA) and Marine Agar (MA) was observed. The microbiota of Norway lobster was dominated by members of the Gram-negative genera such as Psychrobacter spp., Pseudoalteromonas spp., Pseudomonas spp., Luteimonas spp., and Aliivibrio spp. From these bacteria, mainly Psychrobacter spp. and Pseudomonas spp. remained present until the end of the storage period. These are known spoilage organisms in fishery products. Other known spoilage organisms of crustaceans such as Photobacterium spp. could not be identified. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. 77 FR 70419 - Caribbean Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... Lobster and Traps Projects, among others Enforcement Reports --Puerto Rico--DNER --U.S. Virgin Islands.... Although non-emergency issues not contained in this agenda may come before this group for discussion, those...

  4. A Comparative Study of the Uptake, Clearance and Metabolism of Technetium in Lobster (Homarus Gammarus) and Edible Crab (Cancer Paguras)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knowles, J.F.; Smith, D.L.; Winpenny, K

    1998-07-01

    Lobsters and edible crabs have been exposed to {sup 95}Tc{sup m} in their sea water or in their food, and the uptake, retention and distribution of the isotope in their bodies examined. The steady-state concentration factor C{sub ss} for uptake of {sup 95}Tc{sup m} from sea water was significantly greater for female crabs (C{sub ss}=17.9) than for males (C{sub ss}=14.4). There was no such sex difference in lobsters and they took up {sup 95}Tc{sup m} to much higher levels with a C{sub ss} of 1160. Retention of the isotope was similar for crabs and lobsters and for animals of both sexes. However the route of uptake was important with more rapid clearance after uptake from sea water (t{sub b1/2} = 51 days) than after uptake from food (t{sub b1/2} = 108 days). Technetium was found predominantly in the hepatopancreas of all crabs and most male lobsters. In a few male lobsters and all females it was mainly in muscle. Lobster ovaries consistently contained more activity than testes but this difference was not seen in crabs. At the subcellular level {sup 95}Tc{sup m} in hepatopancreas cells of both lobster and crab occurred mainly in the cytosol. Results of initial studies into the relationships between technetium and cytosol proteins are given and the possible basis for the much greater accumulation of the element by lobsters than crabs discussed. (author)

  5. RESPON IMUNITAS BENIH LOBSTER, Panulirus homarus DENGAN PENGGUNAAN PROBIOTIK PADA PAKAN MOIST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haryanti Haryanti

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Pemeliharaan benih lobster P. homarus masih menghadapi beberapa permasalahan, di antaranya infeksi penyakit bakteri (red body disease dan mortalitas yang tinggi. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengkaji respons imunitas benih lobster P. homarus yang diberi pakan pelet basah (moist diets dengan penambahan probiotik. Pemeliharaan benih lobster dilakukan secara individu (1 ekor/keranjang. Lama pemeliharaan selama tiga bulan. Bobot awal puerulus P. homarus adalah 0,37 ± 0,05 g. Perlakuan meliputi pemberian pakan moist yang ditambahkan (A ragi Saccharomyces cerevisiae, (B kombinasi probiotik, Alteromonas sp. BY-9 dan Bacillus cereus BC, dan (C tanpa probiotik. Respons imunitas dianalisis dengan RT-qPCR melalui tujuh gen target terkait ekspresi imunitas, setelah diuji tantang dengan Vibrio harveyi (penyebab red body disease. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa sintasan benih lobster sebesar (A 32,22%; (B 29,63%; dan (C 33,33%. Pertumbuhan panjang dan bobot benih lobster tidak berbeda nyata (P>0,05. Respons imunitas benih lobster P. homarus pada perlakuan A dan B menunjukkan nilai ekspresi imun yang lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan perlakuan C (tanpa probiotik. Ekspresi gen penyandi anti lipopolisakarida (ALFHa-1 meningkat pada (A rata-rata sebesar 3,44 kali dan (B 3,25 kali dibandingkan dengan perlakuan C (2,43 kali. Kelipatan ekspresi profenoloksidase (proPO benih lobster meningkat pada perlakuan A (penambahan ragi rata-rata sebesar 5,27 kali, sedangkan pada perlakuan B (kombinasi probiotik sebesar 12,92 kali. Ekspresi Clotting sistem (transglutaminase, clotting protein dan antioxidant defense mechanism (glutathione peroxidase/GPO dan SAA juga mengalami peningkatan pada perlakuan A dan B. A number of contrains including disease infections and significant mortality have been occurring in lobster aquaculture. The aim of this research was to observe the immune response of juvenile lobster P. homarus culture fed by moist pellet supplemented with

  6. Induced resistance to infection of lobsters Homarus americanus by Aerococcus viridans (var.) homari, the bacterium causing gaffkemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, James E; Arie, B; Marks, L J

    2004-12-13

    A vaccine composed of steam sterilized (autoclaved) cells of a virulent strain of Aerococcus viridans (var.) homari was effective in protecting lobsters Homarus americanus against gaffkemia. At 15 degrees C the heat-killed vaccines (HKV) at concentrations between 1 and 5 x 10(7) particles kg(-1) lobster body wt induced maximal protection in induction periods ranging from 7 to 11 d. Protection was substantial over the course of a 30 d post-induction trial period. Spring-caught lobsters (i.e. those more fully rehabilitated following ecdysis) gained more protection (LD50 = 1.9 x 10(4)) from the vaccination than did those caught in the late fall-early winter period (lobsters that were not yet fully recovered from ecdysis) (LD50 = 3.2 x 10(3)). The protection offered by the HK vaccine was comparable to that induced by a vaccine produced by incubating the pathogen with low concentrations (2 pg ml(-1)) of the antibiotic vancomycin. The bacterins produced by both methods exhibited similar new properties: (1) agglutination at low titres by lobster hemolymph serum, suggesting an impaired capsule layer, and (2) increased permeability to the large Alcian Blue molecule. With both vaccines, the protection may be a direct result of increased exposure to intact bacterial cell structures by the lobster defences, an exposure which otherwise would be prevented by an intact capsule.

  7. Ranking harbours in the maritime provinces of Canada for potential to contaminate American lobster (Homarus americanus) with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prouse, N.J.

    1994-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) comprise a suite of contaminants that enter the marine environment through a variety of natural and anthropogenic sources. PAHs, including carcinogenic compounds, bioaccumulate in the tissues of exposed American lobsters (Homarus americanus). High PAH concentrations in lobster tissues necessitated the closure of the lobster fishery in the South Arm of Sydney Harbour, Nova Scotia, in 1982. A study was conducted to assess harbors in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Prince Edward Island to determine if there might be a reason for concern about PAH contamination of lobsters. Adjacent commercial and industrial activity, harbor uses, the surrounding population, and PAH point sources were evaluated for each harbor selected for study. Areas of lobster fishing and the number of permanent lobster holding facilities within each harbor were also determined. Harbors were then ranked according to their potential for PAH contamination. Point sources for PAHs within these harbors included petroleum and coal products plants, oil refineries, chemical plants, coal-fired generating stations, and fuel combustion in land vehicles and ships. After Sydney, the harbors with the highest potential for PAH contamination were determined to be Halifax, Saint John, Pictou, and Port Hawkesbury Ship Harbour. 60 refs., 15 figs., 7 tabs.

  8. Effects of drilling muds on behavior of the American lobster, Homarus americanus, in water column and substrate exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atema, J; Leavitt, D F; Barshaw, D E; Cuomo, M C

    1982-01-01

    Studies were conducted to explore the effects of drilling muds on various aspects of lobster behavior directly related to survival in the field. Toxicity of different drilling muds varied from immediately lethal to adult lobsters to apparently harmless to postlarval stages, with a variety of intermediate effects. Both the chemical toxicity in the water column and the physical effects of covering the substrate with drilling mud were studied, and both interfered with normal lobster behavior. The studies are mainly concerned with postlarval lobsters (stages IV and V), just after settling on the bottom. They were tested in 36-d chronic exposures (7 mg/L) and in seminatural aquaria with 1-mm layers of drilling mud covering the substrate. Toxicity in the water column manifested itself in feeding and molting delays, severe delays in shelter construction, increased walking and swimming, unprovoked tail flipping, and lethargy. A natural bay mud used as a control caused no such effects. Physical effects of substrate cover were apparent in experiments with 1-, 2-, and 4-mm layers of drilling mud and similar layers of a mixture of bentonite and barite covering a natural mud substrate. In depths of 4mm both kinds of substrate cover caused severe delays in shelter construction and in quality of burrows constructed. Thus, substrates with 4-mm to perhaps as little as 1-mm covering of drilling mud may cause increased exposure of lobsters to predators and currents, resulting in the substrate becoming unsuitable for lobster settling and survival.

  9. Fishers’ job satisfaction in the Caribbean La satisfaction au travail des pêcheurs dans les Caraïbes 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Monnereau

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available De nombreuses recherches ont été réalisées ces dernières années sur le contentement au travail. Les résultats ont montré que l’activité de pêche n’est pas simplement un moyen de gagner de l’argent mais qu’elle résulte bien plus d’un choix délibéré. L’article expose les résultats d’enquêtes menées auprès de pêcheurs de langouste en République dominicaine, au Nicaragua et en Jamaïque. Globalement la satisfaction que les pêcheurs ont de leur travail est bien plus importante pour les pêcheries artisanales que pour les pêcheries plus fortement dotées en capital.A variety of researchers have carried out job satisfaction studies in fisheries during the last decades. Results have shown the significant role of self-actualization in the determination of job satisfaction which backs the reasoning that fishing is more than just a livelihood. This paper is based in a job satisfaction study carried out in three lobster fisheries in the Caribbean. Lobster fishing (Panulirus argus is an important economic activity throughout the Caribbean Basin, both as a source of income and employment for the local population as well as foreign exchange for national governments. These countries differ significantly in structure of the fishery as well as governance arrangements. In this paper we wish to address the relation between these structural differences and fishers’ job satisfaction across the three countries. Results indicate fishers’ job satisfaction is significantly higher in small-scale fisheries.

  10. Spiny Neurons of Amygdala, Striatum and Cortex Use Dendritic Plateau Potentials to Detect Network UP States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina D Oikonomou

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Spiny neurons of amygdala, striatum, and cerebral cortex share four interesting features: [1] they are the most abundant cell type within their respective brain area, [2] covered by thousands of thorny protrusions (dendritic spines, [3] possess high levels of dendritic NMDA conductances, and [4] experience sustained somatic depolarizations in vivo and in vitro (UP states. In all spiny neurons of the forebrain, adequate glutamatergic inputs generate dendritic plateau potentials (dendritic UP states characterized by (i fast rise, (ii plateau phase lasting several hundred milliseconds and (iii abrupt decline at the end of the plateau phase. The dendritic plateau potential propagates towards the cell body decrementally to induce a long-lasting (longer than 100 ms, most often 200 – 800 ms steady depolarization (~20 mV amplitude, which resembles a neuronal UP state. Based on voltage-sensitive dye imaging, the plateau depolarization in the soma is precisely time-locked to the regenerative plateau potential taking place in the dendrite. The somatic plateau rises after the onset of the dendritic voltage transient and collapses with the breakdown of the dendritic plateau depolarization. We hypothesize that neuronal UP states in vivo reflect the occurrence of dendritic plateau potentials (dendritic UP states. We propose that the somatic voltage waveform during a neuronal UP state is determined by dendritic plateau potentials. A mammalian spiny neuron uses dendritic plateau potentials to detect and transform coherent network activity into a ubiquitous neuronal UP state. The biophysical properties of dendritic plateau potentials allow neurons to quickly attune to the ongoing network activity, as well as secure the stable amplitudes of successive UP states.

  11. Caribbean Knowledge Economy : Coordinating Network | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... Diasporic Tourism and Investment (105228) and Networks for Development : the ... The project will include training in the use of Outcome Mapping for impact ... (UWI) to establish a virtual institute for the Caribbean knowledge economy.

  12. Caribbean Marine Mammal Assessment Vessel Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data sets are a compilation of large vessel surveys for marine mammal stock assessments in Caribbean waters conducted during 2000-2001. These surveys were...

  13. Fostering Entrepreneurship in the Caribbean | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Most of them, however, face daunting development challenges, including pervasive ... And, what policies would allow Caribbean entrepreneurs to play this role? ... Call for new OWSD Fellowships for Early Career Women Scientists now open.

  14. Seasonality of Reproduction and Embryonic Growth of Spiny Dogfish (Squalus acanthias L., 1758) in the Eastern Black Sea

    OpenAIRE

    DEMİRHAN, Sefa Ayhan; SEYHAN, Kadir

    2006-01-01

    The seasonality of reproduction and embryonic development of spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias) sampled from the Eastern Black Sea were studied. The gestation period of spiny dogfish, starting in August, September and October, takes around 23-24 months. Fertilized females were caught at a depth of 30-45 m in July and August. Females with full-term pups and empty uteri were found at 50-60 m depth, where the temperature was 10 °C. Lengths of pups at birth were around 28-29 cm, whereas their weig...

  15. Maturity and Fecundity of Spiny Dogfish (Squalus acanthias L., 1758) in the Eastern Black Sea

    OpenAIRE

    DEMİRHAN, Sefa Ayhan; SEYHAN, Kadir

    2014-01-01

    The maturity and fecundity of Squalus acanthias spiny dogfish sampled from the south-eastern Black Sea were studied. Age and length at 50% maturity were 10.49 years and 87.57 cm for males, and 11.99 years and 102.97 cm for females, respectively. Mean biennial fecundity was 19.4 eggs and 12.9 pups. A linear relationship between fecundities and length was found: Fe = 0.09 x TLp + 2.12 (r = 0.5) for pups and Fo = 0.27 x TLp - 21.59 (r = 0.7) for eggs.

  16. Optical metrology for analysis of lobster-eye x-ray optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irving, Thomas H.K.; Peele, Andrew G.; Nugent, Keith A.

    2003-01-01

    A new method that uses optical microscopy to determine the physical structure of lobster-eye x-ray optics is described. This approach offers the ability to predict x-ray performance without having to take an x-ray measurement. An overlapping series of images of the entrance and exit faces of an optic are obtained and examined by purpose-built software. A 24-parameter description of each channel is obtained from which a quantitative analysis of all the major optic defects, except surface roughness, is performed. Results for a planar lobster-eye optic are used to illustrate this technique and discuss its abilities as well as directions for future enhancements

  17. Tests of lobster eye optics for small space X-ray telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tichy, Vladimir; Barbera, Marco; Collura, Alfonso; Hromcik, Martin; Hudec, Rene; Inneman, Adolf; Jakubek, Jan; Marsik, Jiri; Marsikova, Veronika; Pina, Ladislav; Varisco, Salvatore

    2011-01-01

    The Lobster eye design for a grazing incidence X-ray optics provides wide field of view of the order of many degrees, for this reason it can be a convenient approach for the construction of space all-sky X-ray monitors. We present preliminary results of tests of prototype lobster eye X-ray optics in quasi parallel beam full imaging mode conducted using the 35 m long X-ray beam-line of INAF-OAPA in Palermo (Italy). X-ray images at the focal plane have been taken with a microchannel plate (MCP) detector at several energy values from 0.3 to 8 keV. The gain, the field of view and the angular resolution have been measured and compared with theoretical values.

  18. Narrow-spectrum chemoreceptor cells in the walking legs of the lobster Homarus americanus: taste specialists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derby, C D; Atema, J

    1982-01-01

    The chemoreceptors in the legs of lobsters function in the localization and handling of food. By single-unit extracellular recording techniques, the specificity of single primary chemoreceptor cells is described here in detail. In contrast to what is known in vertebrates, narrow-spectrum chemoreceptors of several different types were found, each type responding with maximal sensitivity to only one of the following compounds: L-glutamate, L-glutamine, L-arginine, taurine, betaine, and ammonium chloride. Ammonium chloride sensitive cells were also highly specific. Other groups of narrow-spectrum cells - L-arginine, L-glutamine, taurine, and betaine sensitive chemoreceptors - showed equally strong specificity. These results indicate that the peripheral coding system in the legs of lobsters is based largely but perhaps not exclusively on narrow-spectrum chemoreceptor cells.

  19. Function of chemo- and mechanoreceptors in lobster (Homarus americanus) feeding behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derby, C D; Atema, J

    1982-01-01

    The behavior of lobsters preying on live mussels (Mytilus edulis) was observed before and after chemosensory-mechanosensory deafferentation of different sensory appendages. Deafferentation of the antennules, leg tips, or maxillipeds (but not the carapace or proximal leg segments) interfered with feeding performance by causing an increase in the time necessary to crush a mussel after search initiation. In addition, deafferentation of the leg tips or the maxillipeds caused a decline in number of mussels crushed but for different reasons. Deafferentation of leg chemoreceptors resulted in the same behavioural deficiencies as deafferentation of leg chemo- and mechanoreceptors, demonstrating that it is the leg chemoreceptors that are essential in releasing this grasping response. Chemoreceptors on different appendages of lobsters therefore fulfill different functional roles in their feeding behavior.

  20. Electrophysiological Investigation of Different Methods of Anesthesia in Lobster and Crayfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fregin, Torsten; Bickmeyer, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    Objectives In search for methods of anesthesia of crustaceans, an implanted electrode into lobster and crayfish CNS enabled us to monitor signal propagation in the nerve system of animals undergoing different protocols. Results Cooling (tap water 0°C, sea water -1,8°C) and anesthesia with MgCl2 (10%) were both discarded as anesthetic procedures because responses to external stimuli were still detectable under treatment. Contrarily, bubbling the aquarium water with CO2 can be considered a “partially successful” anesthesia, because signal propagation is inhibited but before that the animals show discomfort. The procedure of “electro-stunning” induces epileptic-form seizures in the crustacean CNS (lobster, crayfish), which overlay but do not mitigate the response to external stimuli. After several minutes the activity declines before the nervous system starts to recover. A feasible way to sacrifice lobsters is to slowly raise the water temperature (1°C min-1), as all electrical activities in the CNS cease at temperatures above ~30°C, whereas below this temperature the animals do not show signs of stress or escape behavior (e.g. tail flips) in the warming water. Conclusion CO2 is efficient to anaesthetize lobster and crayfish but due to low pH in water is stressful to the animals previous to anesthesia. Electrical stunning induces epileptiform seizures but paralyses the animals and leads to a reversible decline of nerve system activity after seizure. Electric stunning or slowly warming just before preparation may meet ethical expectations regarding anaesthesia and to sacrifice crustaceans. PMID:27642755

  1. Coupling Recruitment Forecasts with Economics in the Gulf of Maine's American Lobster Fishery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahle, R.; Oppenheim, N.; Brady, D. C.; Dayton, A.; Sun, C. H. J.

    2016-02-01

    Accurate predictions of fishery recruitment and landings represent an important goal of fisheries science and management, but linking environmental drivers of fish population dynamics to financial markets remains a challenge. A fundamental step in that process is understanding the environmental drivers of fishery recruitment. American lobster (Homarus americanus) populations of the northwest Atlantic have been undergoing a dramatic surge, mostly driven by increases the Gulf of Maine. Settler-recruit models that track cohorts after larvae settle to the sea bed are proving useful in predicting subsequent fishery recruitment some 5-7 years later. Here we describe new recruitment forecasting models for the lobster fishery at 11 management areas from Southern New England to Atlantic Canada. We use an annual survey of juvenile year-class strength and environmental indicators to parameterize growth and mortality terms in the model. As a consequence of a recent widespread multi-year downturn in larval settlement, our models suggest that the peak in lobster abundance in the Gulf of Maine will be passed in the near future. We also present initial steps in the coupling of forecast data with economic models for the fishery. We anticipate that these models will give stakeholders and policy makers time to consider their management choices for this most valuable of the region's fisheries. Our vision is to couple our forecast model outputs to an economic model that captures the dynamics of market forces in the New England and Canadian Maritime lobster fisheries. It will then be possible to estimate the financial status of the fishery several years in advance. This early warning system could mitigate the adverse effects of a fluctuating fishery on the coastal communities that are perilously dependent upon it.

  2. Pollution biomarkers in the spiny lizard (Sceloporus spp.) from two suburban populations of Monterrey, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Carlos; del Pliego, Pamela González; Alfaro, Roberto Mendoza; Lazcano, David; Cruz, Julio

    2012-11-01

    Environmental pollution may severely impact reptile species in urbanized areas. The magnitude of the impact is analyzed in the present study using lizard tail tips for the quantitative evaluation of enzymatic biomarkers of pollution. Spiny lizards (Sceloporus serrifer and S. torquatus) were collected from two suburban localities in the Monterrey metropolitan area, Mexico: Chipinque Ecological Park, a natural protected area, and El Carmen Industrial Park (IP), a highly polluted site. Different enzymes were used as biomarkers including: acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), carboxylesterase (CaE), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), acid phosphatase (ACP), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST). The levels of AChE, BChE and ACP activity were not significantly different between localities. AChE and BChE, commonly used as biomarkers of neurotoxic polluting agents (e.g. organophosphate pesticides) do not appear to be affecting the populations from the study locations. In contrast, the levels of CaE, GST, ALP and SOD were significantly different between the localities. These biomarkers are regularly associated with oxidative stress and processes of detoxification, and generally indicate pollution caused by heavy metals or hydrocarbons, which are common in industrial sites. The data resulting from the analysis of these biomarkers indicate that these polluting agents are affecting the populations of Sceloporus in IP. The present work validates the possibility of conducting additional ecotoxicological studies using biomarkers in combination with a nondestructive sampling technique in species of spiny lizards that are abundant in many North America areas.

  3. A missing piece: the spiny mouse and the puzzle of menstruating species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellofiore, Nadia; Cousins, Fiona; Temple-Smith, Peter; Dickinson, Hayley; Evans, Jemma

    2018-07-01

    We recently discovered the first known menstruating rodent. With the exception of four bats and the elephant shrew, the common spiny mouse ( Acomys cahirinus ) is the only species outside the primate order to exhibit menses. There are few widely accepted theories on why menstruation developed as the preferred reproductive strategy of these select mammals, all of which reference the evolution of spontaneous decidualisation prior to menstrual shedding. Though menstruating species share several reproductive traits, there has been no identifiable feature unique to menstruating species. Such a feature might suggest why spontaneous decidualisation, and thus menstruation, evolved in these species. We propose that a ≥3-fold increase in progesterone during the luteal phase of the reproductive cycle is a unique characteristic linking menstruating species. We discuss spontaneous decidualisation as a consequence of high progesterone, and the potential role of prolactin in screening for defective embryos in these species to aid in minimising implantation of abnormal embryos. We further explore the possible impact of nutrition in selecting species to undergo spontaneous decidualisation and subsequent menstruation. We summarise the current knowledge of menstruation, discuss current pre-clinical models of menstruation and how the spiny mouse may benefit advancing our understanding of this rare biological phenomenon. © 2018 Society for Endocrinology.

  4. Susceptibility of spiny rats (Proechimys semispinosus to Leishmania (Viannia panamensis and Leishmania (Leishmania chagasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BL Travi

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The role of Proechimys semispinosus as reservoir of Leishmania (Viannia panamensis on the Colombian Pacific coast was experimentally evaluated. The susceptibility to L. chagasi also was assessed to determine the utility of this rodent as a model for studying reservoir characteristics in the laboratory. Wild-caught animals were screened for natural trypanosomatid infections, and negative individuals were inoculated intradermally (ID in the snout or feet with 10(7 promastigotes of L. panamensis. L. chagasi was inoculated intracardially (10(7 promastigotes or ID in the ear (10(8 promastigotes. PCR-hybridization showed that 15% of 33 spiny rats were naturally infected with L. Viannia sp. Animals experimentally infected with L. panamensis developed non-ulcerated lesions that disappeared by the 7th week post-infection (p.i. and became more resistant upon reinfection. Infectivity to sand flies was low (1/20-1/48 infected/fed flies and transient, and both culture and PCR-hybridization showed that L. panamensis was cleared by the 13th week p.i. Animals inoculated with L. chagasi became subclinically infected and were non-infective to sand flies. Transient infectivity to vectors of spiny rats infected with L. panamensis, combined with population characteristics, e.g., abundance, exploitation of degraded habitats and high reproductive rates, could make them epidemiologically suitable reservoirs.

  5. The Influence of Mark-Recapture Sampling Effort on Estimates of Rock Lobster Survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziya Kordjazi

    Full Text Available Five annual capture-mark-recapture surveys on Jasus edwardsii were used to evaluate the effect of sample size and fishing effort on the precision of estimated survival probability. Datasets of different numbers of individual lobsters (ranging from 200 to 1,000 lobsters were created by random subsampling from each annual survey. This process of random subsampling was also used to create 12 datasets of different levels of effort based on three levels of the number of traps (15, 30 and 50 traps per day and four levels of the number of sampling-days (2, 4, 6 and 7 days. The most parsimonious Cormack-Jolly-Seber (CJS model for estimating survival probability shifted from a constant model towards sex-dependent models with increasing sample size and effort. A sample of 500 lobsters or 50 traps used on four consecutive sampling-days was required for obtaining precise survival estimations for males and females, separately. Reduced sampling effort of 30 traps over four sampling days was sufficient if a survival estimate for both sexes combined was sufficient for management of the fishery.

  6. The Influence of Mark-Recapture Sampling Effort on Estimates of Rock Lobster Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordjazi, Ziya; Frusher, Stewart; Buxton, Colin; Gardner, Caleb; Bird, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    Five annual capture-mark-recapture surveys on Jasus edwardsii were used to evaluate the effect of sample size and fishing effort on the precision of estimated survival probability. Datasets of different numbers of individual lobsters (ranging from 200 to 1,000 lobsters) were created by random subsampling from each annual survey. This process of random subsampling was also used to create 12 datasets of different levels of effort based on three levels of the number of traps (15, 30 and 50 traps per day) and four levels of the number of sampling-days (2, 4, 6 and 7 days). The most parsimonious Cormack-Jolly-Seber (CJS) model for estimating survival probability shifted from a constant model towards sex-dependent models with increasing sample size and effort. A sample of 500 lobsters or 50 traps used on four consecutive sampling-days was required for obtaining precise survival estimations for males and females, separately. Reduced sampling effort of 30 traps over four sampling days was sufficient if a survival estimate for both sexes combined was sufficient for management of the fishery. PMID:26990561

  7. Characterization of X-ray Lobster Optics with a Hybrid CMOS sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Tanmoy; Falcone, Abraham; Burrows, David N.; Bray, Evan; McQuaide, Maria; Kern, Matthew; Wages, Mitchell; Hull, Samuel; Inneman, Adolf; Hudec, Rene; Stehlikova, Veronika

    2018-01-01

    X-ray lobster optics provide a unique way to focus X-rays onto a small focal plane imager with wide field of view imaging. Such an instrument with angular resolution of a few arcminutes can be used to study GRB afterglows, as well as the variability and spectroscopic characteristics for various astrophysical objects. At Penn State University, we have characterized a lobster optic with an H1RG X-Ray hybrid CMOS detector (100 μm thick Silicon with 18 μm pixel size). The light-weight compact lobster optic with a 25 cm focal length provides two dimensional imaging with ~25 cm2 effective area at 2 keV. We utilize a 47 meter long X-ray beam line at Penn state University to do our experiments where we characterize the overall effective area of the instrument at 1.5 - 8 keV for both on-axis and off-axis angles. In this presentation, we will describe the characterization test stand and methods, as well as the detailed results. While this is simply a proof-of-concept experiment, such an instrument with significant collecting area can be explored for future rocket or CubeSat experiments.

  8. Changes in heart rate associated with contest outcome in agonistic encounters in lobsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernáindez-Falcón, Jesús; Basu, Alo C; Govindasamy, Siddhartan; Kravitz, Edward A

    2005-03-01

    Agonistic contests between lobsters housed together in a confined space progress through encounters of increasing intensity until a dominance relationship is established. Once this relationship is established, losing animals continually retreat from the advances of winners. These encounters are likely to consume much energy in both winning and losing animals. Therefore, one might expect involvement of many physiological systems before, during and after fights. Here, we report effects of agonistic encounters on cardiac frequency in winning and losing adult lobsters involved in dyadic interactions. The results show that: (i) small but significant increases in heart rate are observed upon chemical detection of a conspecific; (ii) during agonistic interactions, further increases in heart rate are seen; and (iii) ultimate winners exhibit greater increases in heart rate lasting longer periods of time compared to ultimate losers. Heart rate in winners remains elevated for at least 15 min after the contests have ended and animals have been returned to their home tanks. Reduced effects are seen in second and third pairings between familiar opponents. The sustained changes in heart rate that we observe in winning lobsters may result from hormonal modulation of cardiac function related to the change in social status brought about by contest outcome.

  9. American Lobsters (Homarus Americanus) not Surviving During Air Transport: Evaluation of Microbial Spoilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirloni, Erica; Stella, Simone; Gennari, Mario; Colombo, Fabio; Bernardi, Cristian

    2016-04-19

    Eighteen American lobsters ( Homarus americanus ), dead during air transport, were analysed in order to evaluate the microbial population of meat, gills and gut: no specific studies have ever been conducted so far on the microbiological quality of American lobsters' meats in terms of spoilage microbiota. The meat samples showed very limited total viable counts, in almost all the cases below the level of 6 Log CFU/g, while higher loads were found, as expected, in gut and gills, the most probable source of contamination. These data could justify the possibility to commercialise these not-surviving subjects, without quality concerns for the consumers. Most of the isolates resulted to be clustered with type strains of Pseudoalteromonas spp. (43.1%) and Photobacterium spp. (24.1%), and in particular to species related to the natural marine environment. The distribution of the genera showed a marked inhomogeneity among the samples. The majority of the isolates identified resulted to possess proteolytic (69.3%) and lipolytic ability (75.5%), suggesting their potential spoilage ability. The maintanance of good hygienical practices, especially during the production of ready-to-eat lobsters-based products, and a proper storage could limit the possible replication of these microorganisms.

  10. ASPEK REPRODUKSI LOBSTER (Panulirus sp. DI PERAIRAN TELUK EKAS PULAU LOMBOK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Junaidi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Purposes of this research are to know some reproduction aspects of lobster, including sex ratio, gonad maturity level, size of first gonad mature, fekundity, and relationship of length-weight some. This research was conducted in June until November 2009 in Ekas Bay. During research 5 lobsters species were obtained, they are Panulirus homarus, P. versicolor, P. ornatus P. penicillatus and P. longiceps, with their of is well-balanced (1:1. Size of first gonad mature of P. homarus at carapace length 77,44 mm that happened during June - November with fekundity 28.000 - 96.000 granule, P. versicolor at carapace length 82,20 mm that happened during June - September with fekundity 16.500 - 71.000 granule, P. ornatus at carapace length 76,74 mm that happened during September - November with fekundity 47.000 - 87.000 granule, P. penicillatus at carapace length 69,84 mm that happened during June - November with fekundity 31.000 - 150.000 granule and P. longiceps at carapace length 68,47 mm that happened in June - August with fekundity 47.000 - 140.000 granule. Relationship of carapace length and body weight of five species, also male and female was described using linier regression equation and have negative allometrict pattern, where accretion of carapace length was quicker than body weight accretion.Keyword : reproduction aspect, lobster, Ekas Bay

  11. Shelf life extension of whole Norway lobster Nephrops norvegicus using modified atmosphere packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gornik, Sebastian G; Albalat, Amaya; Theethakaew, Chonchanok; Neil, Douglas M

    2013-11-01

    Once a nuisance by-catch, today the Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus) is a valuable UK fisheries commodity. Unfortunately, the species is very susceptible to quality deterioration post harvest as it quickly develops black spots and also spoils rapidly due to bacterial growth. Treatment with chemicals can stop the blackening and carefully monitored cold storage can result in a sensory shelf life of up to 6.5 days. The high susceptibility to spoilage greatly restricts the extent to which N. norvegicus can be distributed to retailers and displayed for sale. The application of modified atmosphere (MA) could be extremely beneficial, allowing the chilled product to stay fresh for a long period of time, thus ensuring higher sales. In the present study, we identified a gas mix for the MA packaging (MAP) of whole N. norvegicus lobster into 200 g retail packs. Our results show that a shelf life extension to 13 days can be achieved when retail packs are stored in MAP at 1 °C. Effectiveness of the MAP was evaluated by using a newly developed QIM for MA-packaged whole N. norvegicus and also by analyzing bacterial plate counts. Changes in the microflora and effects of different storage temperatures on the quality of the MA packs are also presented. The main specific spoilage organism (SSO) of modified atmosphere packaged Norway lobster is Photobacterium phosphoreum. © 2013.

  12. SEAMAP Caribbean Reef Fish Survey (PC1202, ME70)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Objectives of the 2012 SEAMAP Caribbean Reef Fish Survey were to assess relative abundance of reef fish species around the US Caribbean Islands, estimate...

  13. 78 FR 64200 - Caribbean Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ... Caribbean Fishery Management Council's (Council) Scientific and Statistical Committee (SSC) will hold... Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... held at the Caribbean Fishery Management Council Headquarters, located at 270 Mu[ntilde]oz Rivera...

  14. SEAMAP Caribbean Reef Fish Survey (PC1202, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Objectives of the 2012 SEAMAP Caribbean Reef Fish Survey were to assess relative abundance of reef fish species around the US Caribbean Islands, estimate...

  15. Analytical Support to African and Caribbean Trade Negotiations ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Analytical Support to African and Caribbean Trade Negotiations - Phase III. International Lawyers and Economists against Poverty (ILEAP) is an initiative that aims to help African and Caribbean countries derive full benefit from integration into ...

  16. Medical tourism in the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez de Arellano, Annette B

    2011-01-01

    Although travel for medical reasons has a long history, it has more recently evolved from a cottage industry to a worldwide enterprise. A number of countries are positioning themselves to attract visitors who are willing to travel to obtain health services that are more accessible, less expensive, or more available than in their countries of origin. This has in turn given rise to medical packages that combine tourism with health. Several Caribbean nations - including Cuba, Barbados, Jamaica, and Puerto Rico - hope to expand their revenues in this new market. Each country has selected specific service niches and promotes its services accordingly. While Cuba has been promoting its services to other countries for several decades, medical tourism is just beginning in the other islands. Ultimately, these nations' economic success will hinge on their comparative advantage vis-à-vis other options, while their success in terms of improving their own health care depends on the extent to which the services for tourists are also available to the islands' populations.

  17. Hygienic-sanitary working practices and implementation of a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP plan in lobster processing industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Farias da Fonseca

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to verify the hygienic-sanitary working practices and to create and implement a Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP in two lobster processing industries in Pernambuco State, Brazil. The industries studied process frozen whole lobsters, frozen whole cooked lobsters, and frozen lobster tails for exportation. The application of the hygienic-sanitary checklist in the industries analyzed achieved conformity rates over 96% to the aspects evaluated. The use of the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP plan resulted in the detection of two critical control points (CCPs including the receiving and classification steps in the processing of frozen lobster and frozen lobster tails, and an additional critical control point (CCP was detected during the cooking step of processing of the whole frozen cooked lobster. The proper implementation of the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP plan in the lobster processing industries studied proved to be the safest and most cost-effective method to monitor each critical control point (CCP hazards.

  18. From the past to the globalized future for Caribbean birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph Wunderle Jr.

    2008-01-01

    Extinctions of Caribbean animals were well underway during the period of Amerindian occupation and have continued since the arrival of Columbus. Despite high extinction rates, the Caribbean still retains high levels of terrestrial biodiversity and, for some taxa, exceptionally high levels of endemism relative to other parts of the world. The fate of the Caribbean’s...

  19. Influence of natural inshore and offshore thermal regimes on egg development and time of hatch in American lobsters, Homarus americanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Jason S; Watson, Winsor H

    2015-02-01

    Some egg-bearing (ovigerous) American lobsters (Homarus americanus) make seasonal inshore-to-offshore movements, subjecting their eggs to different thermal regimes than those of eggs carried by lobsters that do not make these movements. Our goal was to determine if differences in thermal regimes influence the rate of egg development and the subsequent time of hatch. We subjected ovigerous lobsters to typical inshore or offshore water temperatures from September to August in the laboratory (n=8 inshore and 8 offshore, each year) and in the field (n=8 each, inshore and offshore), over 2 successive years. Although the rate of egg development did not differ significantly between treatments in the fall (P∼0.570), eggs exposed to inshore thermal regimes developed faster in the spring (Plobsters exposed to offshore thermal regimes accumulated more GDD in the winter than did eggs carried by inshore lobsters, while eggs exposed to inshore temperatures acquired them more rapidly in the spring. Results suggest that seasonal movements of ovigerous lobsters influence the time and location of hatching, and thus the transport and recruitment of larvae to coastal and offshore locations. © 2015 Marine Biological Laboratory.

  20. A novel lobster-eye imaging system based on Schmidt-type objective for X-ray-backscattering inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Jie; Wang, Xin; Zhan, Qi; Huang, Shengling; Chen, Yifan; Mu, Baozhong

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel lobster-eye imaging system for X-ray-backscattering inspection. The system was designed by modifying the Schmidt geometry into a treble-lens structure in order to reduce the resolution difference between the vertical and horizontal directions, as indicated by ray-tracing simulations. The lobster-eye X-ray imaging system is capable of operating over a wide range of photon energies up to 100 keV. In addition, the optics of the lobster-eye X-ray imaging system was tested to verify that they meet the requirements. X-ray-backscattering imaging experiments were performed in which T-shaped polymethyl-methacrylate objects were imaged by the lobster-eye X-ray imaging system based on both the double-lens and treble-lens Schmidt objectives. The results show similar resolution of the treble-lens Schmidt objective in both the vertical and horizontal directions. Moreover, imaging experiments were performed using a second treble-lens Schmidt objective with higher resolution. The results show that for a field of view of over 200 mm and with a 500 mm object distance, this lobster-eye X-ray imaging system based on a treble-lens Schmidt objective offers a spatial resolution of approximately 3 mm.

  1. 50 CFR 640.21 - Harvest limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... § 640.21 Harvest limitations. (a) Berried lobsters. A berried (egg-bearing) spiny lobster or slipper...) Undersized attractants. A live spiny lobster under the minimum size limit specified in paragraph (b)(1) of... future use as an attractant in a trap provided it is held in a live well aboard the vessel. No more than...

  2. Hydrodynamic function of dorsal fins in spiny dogfish and bamboo sharks during steady swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Anabela; Lauder, George V; Wilga, Cheryl D

    2017-11-01

    A key feature of fish functional design is the presence of multiple fins that allow thrust vectoring and redirection of fluid momentum to contribute to both steady swimming and maneuvering. A number of previous studies have analyzed the function of dorsal fins in teleost fishes in this context, but the hydrodynamic function of dorsal fins in freely swimming sharks has not been analyzed, despite the potential for differential functional roles between the anterior and posterior dorsal fins. Previous anatomical research has suggested a primarily stabilizing role for shark dorsal fins. We evaluated the generality of this hypothesis by using time-resolved particle image velocimetry to record water flow patterns in the wake of both the anterior and posterior dorsal fins in two species of freely swimming sharks: bamboo sharks ( Chiloscyllium plagiosum ) and spiny dogfish ( Squalus acanthias ). Cross-correlation analysis of consecutive images was used to calculate stroke-averaged mean longitudinal and lateral velocity components, and vorticity. In spiny dogfish, we observed a velocity deficit in the wake of the first dorsal fin and flow acceleration behind the second dorsal fin, indicating that the first dorsal fin experiences net drag while the second dorsal fin can aid in propulsion. In contrast, the wake of both dorsal fins in bamboo sharks displayed increased net flow velocity in the majority of trials, reflecting a thrust contribution to steady swimming. In bamboo sharks, fluid flow in the wake of the second dorsal fin had higher absolute average velocity than that for first dorsal fin, and this may result from a positive vortex interaction between the first and second dorsal fins. These data suggest that the first dorsal fin in spiny dogfish has primarily a stabilizing function, while the second dorsal fin has a propulsive function. In bamboo sharks, both dorsal fins can contribute thrust and should be considered as propulsive adjuncts to the body during steady

  3. Towards indigenous feminist theorizing in the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, P

    1998-01-01

    This theoretical study of feminism in the Caribbean opens by presenting the contemporary image of the Caribbean and then pointing to the continuing influence of the colonial past in the creation of contemporary community and the establishment of identity. The paper continues with a focus on three aspects of identity, or difference, that have influenced the daily articulation of feminism and academic debates. The first concerns the positions taken by women in the region's political struggles. The second is an exploration of the linguistic meanings of the gender discourse within the region. Finally, the essay examines the idea of linguistic difference in light of contemporary Western feminist views of "sexual difference" versus equality. The discussion of each of these issues is grounded in historical analysis and illustrated with specific examples. The study concludes that, in this region, feminism offers a new way to investigate the past while creating challenges and opportunities in the struggle to establish a Caribbean identity.

  4. Caribbean literary theory: modernist and postmodern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. James Arnold

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] The Repeating Mand: The Caribbean and the Postmodern Perspective. ANTONIO BENITEZ-ROJO. Durham NC: Duke University Press, 1992. xi + 303 pp. (Cloth US$ 49.95, Paper US$ 15.95 Myth and History in Caribbean Fiction: Alejo Carpentier, Wilson Harris, and Edouard Glissant. BARBARA J. WEBB. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1992. x + 185 pp. (Cloth US$ 25.00 Caribbean literature has been overtaken of late by the quarrels that have pitted postmodernists against modernists in Europe and North America for the past twenty years. The modernists, faced with the fragmentation of the region that hard-nosed pragmatists and empiricists could only see as hostile to the emergence of any common culture, had sought in myth and its literary derivatives the collective impulse to transcend the divisions wrought by colonial history. Fifteen years ago I wrote a book that combined in its lead title the terms Modernism and Negritude in an effort to account for the efforts by mid-century Caribbean writers to come to grips with this problem. A decade later I demonstrated that one of the principal Caribbean modernists, Aimé Césaire, late in his career adopted stylistic characteristics that we associate with the postmodern (Arnold 1990. The example of Césaire should not be taken to suggest that we are dealing with some sort of natural evolution of modernism toward the postmodern. In fact the two terms represent competing paradigms that organize concepts and data so differently as to offer quite divergent maps of the literary Caribbean.

  5. Modelling Deep Water Habitats to Develop a Spatially Explicit, Fine Scale Understanding of the Distribution of the Western Rock Lobster, Panulirus cygnus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovey, Renae K.; Van Niel, Kimberly P.; Bellchambers, Lynda M.; Pember, Matthew B.

    2012-01-01

    Background The western rock lobster, Panulirus cygnus, is endemic to Western Australia and supports substantial commercial and recreational fisheries. Due to and its wide distribution and the commercial and recreational importance of the species a key component of managing western rock lobster is understanding the ecological processes and interactions that may influence lobster abundance and distribution. Using terrain analyses and distribution models of substrate and benthic biota, we assess the physical drivers that influence the distribution of lobsters at a key fishery site. Methods and Findings Using data collected from hydroacoustic and towed video surveys, 20 variables (including geophysical, substrate and biota variables) were developed to predict the distributions of substrate type (three classes of reef, rhodoliths and sand) and dominant biota (kelp, sessile invertebrates and macroalgae) within a 40 km2 area about 30 km off the west Australian coast. Lobster presence/absence data were collected within this area using georeferenced pots. These datasets were used to develop a classification tree model for predicting the distribution of the western rock lobster. Interestingly, kelp and reef were not selected as predictors. Instead, the model selected geophysical and geomorphic scalar variables, which emphasise a mix of terrain within limited distances. The model of lobster presence had an adjusted D2 of 64 and an 80% correct classification. Conclusions Species distribution models indicate that juxtaposition in fine scale terrain is most important to the western rock lobster. While key features like kelp and reef may be important to lobster distribution at a broad scale, it is the fine scale features in terrain that are likely to define its ecological niche. Determining the most appropriate landscape configuration and scale will be essential to refining niche habitats and will aid in selecting appropriate sites for protecting critical lobster habitats. PMID

  6. Ulcerative enteritis in Homarus americanus: case report and molecular characterization of intestinal aerobic bacteria of apparently healthy lobsters in live storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battison, Andrea L; Després, Béatrice M; Greenwood, Spencer J

    2008-10-01

    An intermoult male American lobster, Homarus americanus, with severe intestinal lesions was encountered while collecting samples of aerobic intestinal bacteria from lobsters held in an artificial sea-water recirculation aquarium system. Grossly, the intestine was firm, thickened, and white. Histologic examination revealed a severe, diffuse, ulcerative enteritis which spared the chitin-lined colon, somewhat similar to hemocytic enteritis of shrimp. The bacterial isolates from this lobster were compared to 11 other lobsters lacking gross intestinal lesions. Two organisms, one identified as Vibrio sp. and another most similar to an uncultured proteobacterium (98.9%), clustering with Rhanella and Serratia species using 16S rDNA PCR, were isolated from the intestines of the 11, grossly normal, lobsters and the affected lobster. An additional two intestinal isolates were cultured only from the lobster with ulcerative enteritis. One, a Flavobacterium, similar to Lutibacter litoralis (99.3%), possibly represented a previously described commensal of the distal intestine. The second, a Vibrio sp., was unique to the affected animal. While the etiology of the ulcerative enteritis remains undetermined, this report represents the first description of gross and histologic findings in H. americanus of a condition which has morphologic similarities to hemocytic enteritis of shrimp. An additional observation was a decrease in the number of intestinal isolates recovered from the 11 apparently healthy lobsters compared to that previously reported for recently harvested lobster. More comprehensive studies of the relationship between the health of lobsters, gut microbial flora and the husbandry and environment maintained within holding units are warranted.

  7. Modelling deep water habitats to develop a spatially explicit, fine scale understanding of the distribution of the western rock lobster, Panulirus cygnus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renae K Hovey

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The western rock lobster, Panulirus cygnus, is endemic to Western Australia and supports substantial commercial and recreational fisheries. Due to and its wide distribution and the commercial and recreational importance of the species a key component of managing western rock lobster is understanding the ecological processes and interactions that may influence lobster abundance and distribution. Using terrain analyses and distribution models of substrate and benthic biota, we assess the physical drivers that influence the distribution of lobsters at a key fishery site. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Using data collected from hydroacoustic and towed video surveys, 20 variables (including geophysical, substrate and biota variables were developed to predict the distributions of substrate type (three classes of reef, rhodoliths and sand and dominant biota (kelp, sessile invertebrates and macroalgae within a 40 km(2 area about 30 km off the west Australian coast. Lobster presence/absence data were collected within this area using georeferenced pots. These datasets were used to develop a classification tree model for predicting the distribution of the western rock lobster. Interestingly, kelp and reef were not selected as predictors. Instead, the model selected geophysical and geomorphic scalar variables, which emphasise a mix of terrain within limited distances. The model of lobster presence had an adjusted D(2 of 64 and an 80% correct classification. CONCLUSIONS: Species distribution models indicate that juxtaposition in fine scale terrain is most important to the western rock lobster. While key features like kelp and reef may be important to lobster distribution at a broad scale, it is the fine scale features in terrain that are likely to define its ecological niche. Determining the most appropriate landscape configuration and scale will be essential to refining niche habitats and will aid in selecting appropriate sites for protecting critical

  8. Modelling deep water habitats to develop a spatially explicit, fine scale understanding of the distribution of the western rock lobster, Panulirus cygnus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovey, Renae K; Van Niel, Kimberly P; Bellchambers, Lynda M; Pember, Matthew B

    2012-01-01

    The western rock lobster, Panulirus cygnus, is endemic to Western Australia and supports substantial commercial and recreational fisheries. Due to and its wide distribution and the commercial and recreational importance of the species a key component of managing western rock lobster is understanding the ecological processes and interactions that may influence lobster abundance and distribution. Using terrain analyses and distribution models of substrate and benthic biota, we assess the physical drivers that influence the distribution of lobsters at a key fishery site. Using data collected from hydroacoustic and towed video surveys, 20 variables (including geophysical, substrate and biota variables) were developed to predict the distributions of substrate type (three classes of reef, rhodoliths and sand) and dominant biota (kelp, sessile invertebrates and macroalgae) within a 40 km(2) area about 30 km off the west Australian coast. Lobster presence/absence data were collected within this area using georeferenced pots. These datasets were used to develop a classification tree model for predicting the distribution of the western rock lobster. Interestingly, kelp and reef were not selected as predictors. Instead, the model selected geophysical and geomorphic scalar variables, which emphasise a mix of terrain within limited distances. The model of lobster presence had an adjusted D(2) of 64 and an 80% correct classification. Species distribution models indicate that juxtaposition in fine scale terrain is most important to the western rock lobster. While key features like kelp and reef may be important to lobster distribution at a broad scale, it is the fine scale features in terrain that are likely to define its ecological niche. Determining the most appropriate landscape configuration and scale will be essential to refining niche habitats and will aid in selecting appropriate sites for protecting critical lobster habitats.

  9. Mercury in fish and shellfish of the northeast Pacific. III. Spiny dogfish, Squalus acanthias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, A.S.; Teeny, F.M.; Gauglitz, E.J. Jr.

    1977-07-01

    Recently there has been a renewed interest in commercial exploitation of the spiny dogfish, Squalus acanthias Linnaeus, in Puget Sound, primarily because of the export demand and increased price for frozen dogfish fillets and bellyflaps in Europe. In 1975 only 0.43 million lb of dogfish were landed in the State of Washington for both food and reduction purposes, in contrast to 4.9 million lb landed during 1976 in Puget Sound ports and processed for export to Great Britain and West Germany. As a result of the current interest in the use of Puget Sound dogfish as food and the mercury levels in relation to import regulations of various countries, an investigation was undertaken to determine the mercury levels in dogfish from inland waters of the State of Washington. This report summarizes the findings.

  10. Cell and molecular biology of SAE, a cell line from the spiny dogfish shark, Squalus acanthias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parton, Angela; Forest, David; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Dowell, Lori; Bayne, Christopher; Barnes, David

    2007-02-01

    Cartilaginous fish, primarily sharks, rays and skates (elasmobranchs), appeared 450 million years ago. They are the most primitive vertebrates, exhibiting jaws and teeth, adaptive immunity, a pressurized circulatory system, thymus, spleen, and a liver comparable to that of humans. The most used elasmobranch in biomedical research is the spiny dogfish shark, Squalus acanthias. Comparative genomic analysis of the dogfish shark, the little skate (Leucoraja erincea), and other elasmobranchs have yielded insights into conserved functional domains of genes associated with human liver function, multidrug resistance, cystic fibrosis, and other biomedically relevant processes. While genomic information from these animals is informative in an evolutionary framework, experimental verification of functions of genomic sequences depends heavily on cell culture approaches. We have derived the first multipassage, continuously proliferating cell line of a cartilaginous fish. The line was initiated from embryos of the spiny dogfish shark. The cells were maintained in a medium modified for fish species and supplemented with cell type-specific hormones, other proteins and sera, and plated on a collagen substrate. SAE cells have been cultured continuously for three years. These cells can be transfected by plasmids and have been cryopreserved. Expressed Sequence Tags generated from a normalized SAE cDNA library included a number of markers for cartilage and muscle, as well as proteins influencing tissue differentiation and development, suggesting that SAE cells may be of mesenchymal stem cell origin. Examination of SAE EST sequences also revealed a cartilaginous fish-specific repetitive sequence that may be evidence of an ancient mobile genetic element that most likely was introduced into the cartilaginous fish lineage after divergence from the lineage leading to teleosts.

  11. Physiological effects of waterborne lead exposure in spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyckmans, Marleen; Lardon, Isabelle; Wood, Chris M; De Boeck, Gudrun

    2013-01-15

    To broaden our knowledge about the toxicity of metals in marine elasmobranchs, cannulated spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias) were exposed to 20 μM and 100 μM lead (Pb). Since we wanted to focus on sub lethal ion-osmoregulatory and respiratory disturbances, arterial blood samples were analysed for pH(a), PaO(2), haematocrit and total CO(2) values at several time points. Plasma was used to determine urea, TMAO, lactate and ion concentrations. After 96 h, Pb concentrations were determined in a number of tissues, such as gill, rectal gland, skin and liver. To further investigate ion and osmoregulation, Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activities in gill and rectal gland were analysed as well as rates of ammonia and urea excretion. Additionally, we studied the energy reserves in muscle and liver. Pb strongly accumulated in gills and especially in skin. Lower accumulation rates occurred in gut, kidney and rectal gland. A clear disturbance in acid-base status was observed after one day of exposure indicating a transient period of hyperventilation. The increase in pH(a) was temporary at 20 μM, but persisted at 100 μM. After 2 days, plasma Na and Cl concentrations were reduced compared to controls at 100 μM Pb and urea excretion rates were elevated. Pb caused impaired Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity in gills, but not in rectal gland. We conclude that spiny dogfish experienced relatively low ion-osmoregulatory and respiratory distress when exposed to lead, particularly when compared to effects of other metals such as silver. These elasmobranchs appear to be able to minimize the disturbance and maintain physiological homeostasis during an acute Pb exposure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Flow through the nasal cavity of the spiny dogfish, Squalus acanthias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timm-Davis, L. L.; Fish, F. E.

    2015-12-01

    The nasal cavity of spiny dogfish is a blind capsule with no internal connection to the oral cavity. Water is envisioned to flow through the cavity in a smooth, continuous flow pattern; however, this assumption is based on previous descriptions of the morphology of the olfactory cavity. No experimentation on the flow through the internal nasal cavity has been reported. Morphology of the head of the spiny dogfish ( Squalus acanthias) does not suggest a close external connection between the oral and nasal systems. However, dye visualization showed that there was flow through the nasal apparatus and from the excurrent nostril to the mouth when respiratory flows were simulated. The hydrodynamic flow through the nasal cavity was observed from flow tank experiments. The dorsum of the nasal cavity of shark heads from dead animals was exposed by dissection and a glass plate was glued over of the exposed cavity. When the head was placed in a flow, dye was observed to be drawn passively into the cavity showing a complex, three-dimensional hydrodynamic flow. Dye entered the incurrent nostril, flowed through the nasal lamellae, crossed over and under the nasal valve, and circulated around the nasal valve before exiting the excurrent nostril. When the nasal valve was removed, the dye became stagnant and back flowed out through the incurrent nostril. The single nasal valve has a hydrodynamic function that organizes a coherent flow of water through the cavity without disruption. The results suggest that the morphology of the nasal apparatus in concert with respiratory flow and ambient flows from active swimming can be used to draw water through the olfactory cavity of the shark.

  13. Predicting transport survival of brindle and red rock lobsters Jasus edwardsii using haemolymph biochemistry and behaviour traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Cedric J; Mendo, Tania C; Green, Bridget S; Gardner, Caleb

    2016-11-01

    Mortality events during live transport of Jasus edwardsii rock lobsters are common around the time of season openings in Tasmania, with lobsters from deeper fishing areas with pale shell colouration (brindle) being perceived as more susceptible than shallow-water, red-coloured (red) lobsters. The aims of this study were to assess and predict the vulnerability of brindle and red lobsters to extended emersion exposure using pre- and post-emersion data which included 28 haemolymph biochemical parameters and 5 behaviour traits. No effect of lobster shell colour on haemolymph biochemistry, behaviour traits and their vulnerability to emersion was found. A combined survival of 97% after 40h and 57% after 64h in a first experiment, and 37% after 64h in a second experiment, was observed. Behaviour traits (i.e., righting response, tail flips and three reflex behaviours) were poor indicator of survival. Haemolymph parameters were either unaffected by emersion (e.g., Brix index, protein and lipids), affected by emersion but not associated with mortality (e.g., total haemocyte counts, calcium, magnesium, bicarbonate, glucose and uric acid), or associated with mortality following a recovery period (e.g., pH, the sodium to potassium ratio, urea, and the activity of amylase). A build-up of anaerobic end-products and nitrogenous waste most likely resulted in the mortality. A model based on lobster size and the pre-emersion concentration of haemolymph bicarbonate and haemocyanin was found to be a useful indicator of future survival. This study provides promising leads towards the development of a blood based vulnerability test for live crustacean prior transport. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. ISS-Lobster: A Proposed Wide-Field X-Ray Telescope on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Jordan

    2012-01-01

    The Lobster wide-field imaging telescope combines simultaneous high FOV, high sensitivity and good position resolution. These characteristics can open the field of X-Ray time domain astronomy, which will study many interesting transient sources, including tidal disruptions of stars, supernova shock breakouts, and high redshift gamma-ray bursts. Also important will be its use for the X-ray follow-up of gravitational wave detections. I will describe our present effort to propose the Lobster concept for deployment on the International Space Station through a NASA Mission of Opportunity this fall.

  15. Low-coverage MiSeq next generation sequencing reveals the mitochondrial genome of the Eastern Rock Lobster, Sagmariasus verreauxi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Stephen R; Griffith, Ian S; Murphy, Nick P; Strugnell, Jan M

    2015-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the Eastern Rock lobster, Sagmariasus verreauxi, is reported for the first time. Using low-coverage, long read MiSeq next generation sequencing, we constructed and determined the mtDNA genome organization of the 15,470 bp sequence from two isolates from Eastern Tasmania, Australia and Northern New Zealand, and identified 46 polymorphic nucleotides between the two sequences. This genome sequence and its genetic polymorphisms will likely be useful in understanding the distribution and population connectivity of the Eastern Rock Lobster, and in the fisheries management of this commercially important species.

  16. Ascidians from Caribbean shallow water localities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goodbody, Ivan

    1984-01-01

    Between 1930 and 1973 PIETER WAGENAAR HUMMELINCK of the Zoölogisch Laboratorium of the State University of Utrecht made nine collecting trips to the Caribbean. While most collecting was undertaken in the territories of the Netherlands Antilles, visits were also made to several other West Indian

  17. Highlight: Canadian and Caribbean parliamentarians discuss open ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-14

    Apr 14, 2016 ... “This is what IDRC is all about: Not only do we invest in solutions, but we make sure ... Improving food security in Latin America and the Caribbean ... There is ample evidence that addressing gender inequalities and empoweri.

  18. Migration and rural development in the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momsen, J D

    1986-01-01

    The relationship between migration and agricultural development in the Caribbean is examined. The data, collected by survey, concern the islands of Nevis, Montserrat, and Saint Lucia. The results show that migration is not associated with agricultural innovation or the use of specific technical inputs and that it frequently has a negative impact on agricultural productivity and attitudes toward farming.

  19. Caribbean | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... we've supported the efforts of researchers in the English-speaking Caribbean. ... Languages ... Home · What we do · Regions and countries · Latin America and the ... We have funded research with a focus on trade and the economy, which ... IDRC-supported research broke new ground with one of the first analyses of ...

  20. Effects of starvation on moult cycle and hepatopancreas of Stage I lobster (Homarus americanus) larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anger, K.; Storch, V.; Anger, V.; Capuzzo, J. M.

    1985-06-01

    Effects of feeding and starvation on the moult cycle and on the ultrastructure of hepatopancreas cells were studied in Stage I lobster larvae ( Homarus americanus Milne-Edwards). The relative significance of yolk and first food was quite different in larvae originating from two females. This difference was evident also in the amounts of stored lipid in the R-cells of the larval hepatopancreas. Most larvae from one hatch were, in principle, able to develop exclusively with yolk reserves (without food) to the second instar. The larvae from the second hatch showed lecithotrophic development only to the transition between late intermoult and early premoult (Stages C/D0 of Drachs's moult cycle) of the first larval instar. When initial starvation in this group lasted for 3 days or more, the point of no return (PNR) was exceeded. After the PNR, consumption of food was still possible, but development ceased in the transition C/D0 or in late premoult (D3 4). It is suggested that these stages of the moult cycle are critical points were cessation of development and increased mortality are particularly likely in early larval lobsters under nutritional stress. Examination of hepatopancreas R-cells suggested that the PNR is caused by an irreversible loss of the ability to restore lipid reserves depleted during initial starvation. Initial periods of starvation ending before the PNR prolonged mainly Stage D0 of the same instar (I). During this delay, structural changes in the R-cells caused by the preceding period of starvation were reversed: reduced lipid inclusions, swollen mitochondria, an increased number of residual bodies indicating autolysis, and a reduction of the microvillous processes. Continually starved larvae which showed lecithotrophic development throughout the first instar and were then re-fed after moulting successfully, had later a prolonged intermoult (Stage C) period in the second instar. This shows that, despite occasional lecithotrophy, food is an important

  1. Effects of Prior Experience on Shelter-Seeking Behavior of Juvenile American Lobsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Skylar R; Bianchi, Katherine M; Atema, Jelle; Jacobs, Molly W

    2017-04-01

    Shelter-seeking behaviors are vital for survival for a range of juvenile benthic organisms. These behaviors may be innate or they may be affected by prior experience. After hatching, American lobsters Homarus americanus likely first come into contact with shelter during the late postlarval (decapodid) stage, known as stage IV. After the subsequent molt to the first juvenile stage (stage V), they are entirely benthic and are thought to be highly cryptic. We hypothesized that postlarval (stage IV) experience with shelter would carry over into the first juvenile stage (stage V) and reduce the time needed for juveniles to locate and enter shelters (sheltering). We found some evidence of a carryover effect, but not the one we predicted: stage V juveniles with postlarval shelter experience took significantly longer to initiate sheltering. We also hypothesized that stage V juveniles would demonstrate learning by relocating shelters more quickly with immediate prior experience. Our findings were mixed. In a maze, juveniles with immediate prior experience were faster to regain visual contact with shelter, suggesting that they had learned the location of the shelter. In contrast, there was no significant effect of immediate prior experience on time to initiate sheltering in an open arena, or in the maze after juveniles had regained visual contact. We conclude that very young (stage V) juvenile lobsters modify their shelter-seeking behavior based on prior experiences across several timescales. Ecologically relevant variation in habitat exposure among postlarval and early juvenile lobsters may influence successful recruitment in this culturally and commercially important fishery species.

  2. Lobster and Conch Fisheries of Belize: a History of Sequential Exploitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Huitric

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a historical review of the lobster and conch fisheries in Belize, Central America. In terms of yield and value, these are the main wild-caught targets of the national fisheries, a small-scale commercial fishery of around 3000 fishermen. Data were collected during interviews with key informants involved with the fisheries and through literature and archive research. The goal was to study how the fishing industry has responded to environmental signals from these resources and from their ecosystems and ecosystem dynamics. National yields for both lobster and conch have been relatively stable, however, individuals' yields have been declining despite increased effort since the 1980s. This study concludes that the use of fossil fuel-based technology and organizational change, with the establishment of fishermen's cooperatives, have masked environmental signals. This masking, together with economic incentives, has led to the "pathology of resource use." As a symptom of this pathology, four forms of sequential exploitation in these fisheries were identified. A major conclusion is that social resilience may not confer ecological resilience. The development of the cooperatives was needed in order to improve equity in the industry. Before their impacts could be assessed, this organizational change, together with new technology, led to very important and rapid changes in the industry. Together with existing regulations that allow de facto open access to lobster and conch, these changes resulted in a short-term boom that has resulted in the pathology of resource use, with over-capitalization and dependence on maintained yields, regardless of environmental feedback.

  3. X-ray astronomy 2000: Wide field X-ray monitoring with lobster-eye telescopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inneman, A.; Hudec, R.; Pina, L.; Gorenstein, P.

    2001-01-01

    The recently available first prototypes of innovative very wide field X-ray telescopes of Lobster-Eye type confirm the feasibility to develop such flight instruments in a near future. These devices are expected to allow very wide field (more than 1000 square degrees) monitoring of the sky in X-rays (up to 10 keV and perhaps even more) with faint limits. We will discuss the recent status of the development of very wide field X-ray telescopes as well as related scientific questions including expected major contributions such as monitoring and study of X-ray afterglows of Gamma Ray Bursts

  4. LOBSTER AIR TAWAR (Parastacidae: Cherax, ASPEK BIOLOGI, HABITAT, PENYEBARAN, DAN POTENSI PENGEMBANGANNYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titin Kurniasih

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Lobster air tawar (genus Cherax berasal dari Australia, Papua New Guinea, dan Irian Jaya, dengan spesies yang berbeda-beda. Salah satu spesiesnya yang bernilai ekonomis paling tinggi adalah Cherax quadricarinatus (red claw. Habitat Cherax adalah perairan tawar yang dangkal, dengan substrat berlumpur dan banyak terdapat celah serta rongga untuk menyembunyikan diri. Kelebihan terbaiknya adalah teknik budidayanya yang relatif mudah, toleransi terhadap lingkungan cukup tinggi dengan masalah penyakit yang relatif sedikit. Hanya disayangkan hingga saat ini perkembangan kegiatan budidaya Cherax masih sangat terbatas.

  5. Effects of drilling muds on lobster behavior. Progress report, 1 January-1 October 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atema, J; Ashkenas, L; Beale, E

    1979-01-01

    Drilling muds, used and discarded in great quantities during the drilling phase of exploration and production of oil wells, represent an unknown threat to the marine environment. The compositions of the muds vary greatly with drilling requirements. The toxicity of their components are largely unknown, but can range from apparently harmless to immediately lethal, as found recently in toxicity tests on a number of marine animals. This report contains eight sections, each describing an aspect of studies of lobster behavior, ecology, physiology and the effects of exposure to various levels of different drilling muds.

  6. Seed germination in relation to the invasiveness in spiny amaranth and edible amaranth in Xishuangbanna, SW China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Juan; Wen, Bin

    2017-01-01

    Both spiny and edible amaranths (Amaranthus spinosus and A. tricolor) are exotic annuals in China that produce numerous small seeds every year. Spiny amaranth has become a successful invader and a troublesome weed in Xishuangbanna, but edible amaranth has not, although it is widely grown as a vegetable there. As seed germination is one of the most important life-stages contributing to the ability of a plant to become invasive, we conducted experiments to compare the effects of high temperature and water stress on seed germination in two varieties each of spiny amaranth and edible amaranth. Overall, the seeds of both amaranth species exhibited adaptation to high temperature and water stress, including tolerance to ground temperatures of 70°C for air-dried seeds, which is consistent with their behavior in their native ranges in the tropics. As expected, the invasive spiny amaranth seeds exhibited higher tolerance to both continuous and daily periodic high-temperature treatment at 45°C, and to imbibition-desiccation treatment, compared to edible amaranth seeds. Unexpectedly, edible amaranth seeds exhibited higher germination at extreme temperatures (10°C, 15°C, and 40°C), and at lower water potential (below -0.6 MPa). It is likely that cultivation of edible amaranth has selected seed traits that include rapid germination and germination under stressful conditions, either of which, under natural conditions, may result in the death of most germinating edible amaranth seeds and prevent them from becoming invasive weeds in Xishuangbanna. This study suggests that rapid germination and high germination under stress conditions-excellent seed traits for crops and for many invasive species-might be a disadvantage under natural conditions if these traits are asynchronous with natural local conditions that support successful germination.

  7. Seed germination in relation to the invasiveness in spiny amaranth and edible amaranth in Xishuangbanna, SW China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ye

    Full Text Available Both spiny and edible amaranths (Amaranthus spinosus and A. tricolor are exotic annuals in China that produce numerous small seeds every year. Spiny amaranth has become a successful invader and a troublesome weed in Xishuangbanna, but edible amaranth has not, although it is widely grown as a vegetable there. As seed germination is one of the most important life-stages contributing to the ability of a plant to become invasive, we conducted experiments to compare the effects of high temperature and water stress on seed germination in two varieties each of spiny amaranth and edible amaranth. Overall, the seeds of both amaranth species exhibited adaptation to high temperature and water stress, including tolerance to ground temperatures of 70°C for air-dried seeds, which is consistent with their behavior in their native ranges in the tropics. As expected, the invasive spiny amaranth seeds exhibited higher tolerance to both continuous and daily periodic high-temperature treatment at 45°C, and to imbibition-desiccation treatment, compared to edible amaranth seeds. Unexpectedly, edible amaranth seeds exhibited higher germination at extreme temperatures (10°C, 15°C, and 40°C, and at lower water potential (below -0.6 MPa. It is likely that cultivation of edible amaranth has selected seed traits that include rapid germination and germination under stressful conditions, either of which, under natural conditions, may result in the death of most germinating edible amaranth seeds and prevent them from becoming invasive weeds in Xishuangbanna. This study suggests that rapid germination and high germination under stress conditions-excellent seed traits for crops and for many invasive species-might be a disadvantage under natural conditions if these traits are asynchronous with natural local conditions that support successful germination.

  8. Anatomy and muscle activity of the dorsal fins in bamboo sharks and spiny dogfish during turning maneuvers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Anabela; Wilga, Cheryl D

    2013-11-01

    Stability and procured instability characterize two opposing types of swimming, steady and maneuvering, respectively. Fins can be used to manipulate flow to adjust stability during swimming maneuvers either actively using muscle control or passively by structural control. The function of the dorsal fins during turning maneuvering in two shark species with different swimming modes is investigated here using musculoskeletal anatomy and muscle function. White-spotted bamboo sharks are a benthic species that inhabits complex reef habitats and thus have high requirements for maneuverability. Spiny dogfish occupy a variety of coastal and continental shelf habitats and spend relatively more time cruising in open water. These species differ in dorsal fin morphology and fin position along the body. Bamboo sharks have a larger second dorsal fin area and proportionally more muscle insertion into both dorsal fins. The basal and radial pterygiophores are plate-like structures in spiny dogfish and are nearly indistinguishable from one another. In contrast, bamboo sharks lack basal pterygiophores, while the radial pterygiophores form two rows of elongated rectangular elements that articulate with one another. The dorsal fin muscles are composed of a large muscle mass that extends over the ceratotrichia overlying the radials in spiny dogfish. However, in bamboo sharks, the muscle mass is divided into multiple distinct muscles that insert onto the ceratotrichia. During turning maneuvers, the dorsal fin muscles are active in both species with no differences in onset between fin sides. Spiny dogfish have longer burst durations on the outer fin side, which is consistent with opposing resistance to the medium. In bamboo sharks, bilateral activation of the dorsal in muscles could also be stiffening the fin throughout the turn. Thus, dogfish sharks passively stiffen the dorsal fin structurally and functionally, while bamboo sharks have more flexible dorsal fins, which result from a

  9. The accumulation, retention and distribution of 95mTc in crab (Cancer pagurus L.) and lobster (Homarus gammarus L.). A comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.L.; Knowles, J.F.; Winpenny, K.

    1988-01-01

    The accumulation, retention and distribution of 95m Tc has been compared in lobsters and edible crabs kept under identical experimental conditions. The steady-state concentration factor (C ss ) for the uptake of 95m Tc from seawater was significantly greater for female crabs (C ss =17·9) than for males (C ss =14·4), whereas in lobsters there was no such sex difference and the C ss of 1161 was much greater than in crabs. The uptake of technetium from food (as indicated by whole body counts) was only moderately greater in lobsters than crabs. Retention of 95m Tc was similar for crabs and lobsters of both sexes but the clearance rate was greater after the nuclide had been taken up from seawater (t b1/2 =51 days) than from food (t b1/2 =108 days). In all crabs and most male lobsters 95m Tc was predominantly in the hepatopancreas while in a few male and all female lobsters it was mainly in muscle. Lobster ovaries consistently contained more activity than testes but this difference was not seen in crabs. In hepatopancreas cells of both species 95m Tc occurred mainly in the cytosol and some initial steps were taken to determine the relationship between technetium and cytosol proteins. The results for crab and lobster are compared with those from previous studies on these and other crustacean species. The possible basis for the much higher concentrations of technetium in lobsters than crabs is discussed and further research suggested. (Copyright (c) 1988 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  10. The accumulation, retention and distribution of {sup 95m}Tc in crab (Cancer pagurus L.) and lobster (Homarus gammarus L.). A comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D L; Knowles, J F; Winpenny, K [The Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science, Lowestoft Laboratory, Pakefield Road, Lowestoft, Suffolk (United Kingdom)

    1988-08-01

    The accumulation, retention and distribution of {sup 95m}Tc has been compared in lobsters and edible crabs kept under identical experimental conditions. The steady-state concentration factor (C{sub ss}) for the uptake of {sup 95m}Tc from seawater was significantly greater for female crabs (C{sub ss}=17{center_dot}9) than for males (C{sub ss}=14{center_dot}4), whereas in lobsters there was no such sex difference and the C{sub ss} of 1161 was much greater than in crabs. The uptake of technetium from food (as indicated by whole body counts) was only moderately greater in lobsters than crabs. Retention of {sup 95m}Tc was similar for crabs and lobsters of both sexes but the clearance rate was greater after the nuclide had been taken up from seawater (t{sub b1/2}=51 days) than from food (t{sub b1/2}=108 days). In all crabs and most male lobsters {sup 95m}Tc was predominantly in the hepatopancreas while in a few male and all female lobsters it was mainly in muscle. Lobster ovaries consistently contained more activity than testes but this difference was not seen in crabs. In hepatopancreas cells of both species {sup 95m}Tc occurred mainly in the cytosol and some initial steps were taken to determine the relationship between technetium and cytosol proteins. The results for crab and lobster are compared with those from previous studies on these and other crustacean species. The possible basis for the much higher concentrations of technetium in lobsters than crabs is discussed and further research suggested. (Copyright (c) 1988 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  11. Levodopa-Induced Dyskinesia Is Related to Indirect Pathway Medium Spiny Neuron Excitotoxicity: A Hypothesis Based on an Unexpected Finding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana A. Ivanova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A serendipitous pharmacogenetic finding links the vulnerability to developing levodopa-induced dyskinesia to the age of onset of Huntington’s disease. Huntington’s disease is caused by a polyglutamate expansion of the protein huntingtin. Aberrant huntingtin is less capable of binding to a member of membrane-associated guanylate kinase family (MAGUKs: postsynaptic density- (PSD- 95. This leaves more PSD-95 available to stabilize NR2B subunit carrying NMDA receptors in the synaptic membrane. This results in increased excitotoxicity for which particularly striatal medium spiny neurons from the indirect extrapyramidal pathway are sensitive. In Parkinson’s disease the sensitivity for excitotoxicity is related to increased oxidative stress due to genetically determined abnormal metabolism of dopamine or related products. This probably also increases the sensitivity of medium spiny neurons for exogenous levodopa. Particularly the combination of increased oxidative stress due to aberrant dopamine metabolism, increased vulnerability to NMDA induced excitotoxicity, and the particular sensitivity of indirect pathway medium spiny neurons for this excitotoxicity may explain the observed increased prevalence of levodopa-induced dyskinesia.

  12. The accumulation of sup(95m)Tc from sea water by juvenile lobsters (Homarus gammarus L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swift, D.J.

    1985-01-01

    The uptake and retention of technetium from sea water by juvenile lobsters, and the effects of moulting on these processes, has been studied using sup(95m)Tc as a tracer. Accumulation was rapid with whole body concentration factors of over 2000 being measured in some lobsters. Uptake was highest immediately before a moult; post-moult there was a fall in accumulation. No simple mathematical equation for technetium accumulation with time was found. The technetium concentration in the moulted exoskeleton increased with time of exposure of the lobsters but never exceeded 2% of the whole body value. The highest percentage of the whole body activity was found in the digestive gland; the green gland had the highest concentration factor. Technetium excretion, following 64 d of accumulation, could be expressed as an exponential rate of loss. The biological half-time was calculated as 53 d. Moulted exoskeletons from these lobsters contained approximately 0.6% of the day zero whole body activity. (author)

  13. "Intermetamorphic" developmental stages in 150 million-year-old achelatan lobsters--The case of the species tenera Oppel, 1862.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, Joachim T; Haug, Carolin

    2016-03-01

    We re-investigated the fossil species tenera Oppel, 1862, an achelatan lobster (traditionally named Palinurina tenera) found in 150 million years old limestones of southern Germany. All known specimens attributed to this species show a mixture of characters, which in modern forms occur either in larvae or post-larval juveniles. Hence these specimens provide insight into a phase in ontogeny that is no longer present in the developmental sequence of any modern achelatan lobster, as the latter ones skip this phase and replace it by a drastic metamorphosis. Comparable cases have been described earlier, yet did only comprise single stages or two successive ones at most. In the here described case four developmental stages are preserved. The reconstructed ontogeny of tenera therefore represents the currently best known sequence of an early achelatan lobster that covers this specific intermediate phase. The largest known stage most likely still represents an immature of a yet undiscovered adult. These findings support the interpretation that early achelatan lobsters developed in a more gradual ontogenetic sequence than modern forms. It furthermore demonstrates that it was even more gradual than anticipated previously. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Scyllarides obtusus spec. nov., the scyllarid lobster of Saint Helena, Central South Atlantic (Crustacea: Decapoda Reptantia: Scyllaridae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holthuis, L.B.

    1993-01-01

    A new species of slipper lobster is described from Saint Helena, where the species seems to be endemic. Known under the vernacular name Stump, the species forms the subject of a local fishery, carried out since early times. Previously the species has been identified with various Scyllarides species

  15. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contamination of American lobster, Homarus americanus, in the proximity of a coal-coking plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uthe, J F; Musial, C J

    1986-11-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants resulting predominantly from anthropogenic pyrolytic and combustion processes. In addition to the usual methods of aerial and aqueous transport to the coastal marine environment substantial amounts of PAH are added through the use of products such as creosote, coal tar and coal tar pitch as preservative and antifouling agents in the marine environment. Many PAH compounds are known carcinogenic agents and are rapidly taken up by fish and shellfish from water. Therefore as human foodstuffs many of these shellfish species warrant monitoring for PAH. A study of PAH in lobster tissues has been carried out using lobsters captured in Sydney harbour, Nova Scotia, Canada. Two coal-coking ovens on the shore have discharged their liquid effluents into the harbour. Lobsters from this area were sampled in 1982 and 1984. This paper presents the materials and methods used in the sampling, the results and discussion of them. The results confirmed the ability of lobsters to accumulate extremely high amounts of PAH in their tissues. 14 references.

  16. Influence of twin and multi-rig trawl systems on CPUE in the Danish Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus) fishery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feekings, Jordan P.; Berg, Casper Willestofte; Krag, Ludvig Ahm

    2016-01-01

    analyse catchrates of four target species, Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus), cod (Gadus morhua), plaice (Pleuronectesplatessa) and haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus), to try and understand how the use of multi-rig trawlshave altered catch rates within the Danish demersal trawl fishery over the last 16...

  17. American lobsters (Homarus americanus not surviving during air transport: evaluation of microbial spoilage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Tirloni

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Eighteen American lobsters (Homarus americanus, dead during air transport, were analysed in order to evaluate the microbial population of meat, gills and gut: no specific studies have ever been conducted so far on the microbiological quality of American lobsters’ meats in terms of spoilage microbiota. The meat samples showed very limited total viable counts, in almost all the cases below the level of 6 Log CFU/g, while higher loads were found, as expected, in gut and gills, the most probable source of contamination. These data could justify the possibility to commercialise these notsurviving subjects, without quality concerns for the consumers. Most of the isolates resulted to be clustered with type strains of Pseudoalteromonas spp. (43.1% and Photobacterium spp. (24.1%, and in particular to species related to the natural marine environment. The distribution of the genera showed a marked inhomogeneity among the samples. The majority of the isolates identified resulted to possess proteolytic (69.3% and lipolytic ability (75.5%, suggesting their potential spoilage ability. The maintanance of good hygienical practices, especially during the production of ready-to-eat lobsters-based products, and a proper storage could limit the possible replication of these microorganisms.

  18. Phylogenetic relationships, character evolution, and taxonomic implications within the slipper lobsters (Crustacea: Decapoda: Scyllaridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chien-Hui; Bracken-Grissom, Heather; Kim, Dohyup; Crandall, Keith A; Chan, Tin-Yam

    2012-01-01

    The slipper lobsters belong to the family Scyllaridae which contains a total of 20 genera and 89 species distributed across four subfamilies (Arctidinae, Ibacinae, Scyllarinae, and Theninae). We have collected nucleotide sequence data from regions of five different genes (16S, 18S, COI, 28S, H3) to estimate phylogenetic relationships among 54 species from the Scyllaridae with a focus on the species rich subfamily Scyllarinae. We have included in our analyses at least one representative from all 20 genera in the Scyllaridae and 35 of the 52 species within the Scyllarinae. Our resulting phylogenetic estimate shows the subfamilies are monophyletic, except for Ibacinae, which has paraphyletic relationships among genera. Many of the genera within the Scyllarinae form non-monophyletic groups, while the genera from all other subfamilies form well supported clades. We discuss the implications of this history on the evolution of morphological characters and ecological transitions (nearshore vs. offshore) within the slipper lobsters. Finally, we identify, through ancestral state character reconstructions, key morphological features diagnostic of the major clades of diversity within the Scyllaridae and relate this character evolution to current taxonomy and classification. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Structural characterization of recombinant crustacyanin subunits from the lobster Homarus americanus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrari, Michele; Folli, Claudia; Pincolini, Elisa; McClintock, Timothy S.; Rössle, Manfred; Berni, Rodolfo; Cianci, Michele

    2012-01-01

    The two recombinant apo subunits H1 and H2 from H. americanus have been structurally characterized. Reconstitution studies with astaxanthin reproduced the bathochromic shift of 85–95 nm typical of the natural crustacyanin subunits. Crustacean crustacyanin proteins are linked to the production and modification of carapace colour, with direct implications for fitness and survival. Here, the structural and functional properties of the two recombinant crustacyanin subunits H 1 and H 2 from the American lobster Homarus americanus are reported. The two subunits are structurally highly similar to the corresponding natural apo crustacyanin CRTC and CRTA subunits from the European lobster H. gammarus. Reconstitution studies of the recombinant crustacyanin proteins H 1 and H 2 with astaxanthin reproduced the bathochromic shift of 85–95 nm typical of the natural crustacyanin subunits from H. gammarus in complex with astaxanthin. Moreover, correlations between the presence of crustacyanin genes in crustacean species and the resulting carapace colours with the spectral properties of the subunits in complex with astaxanthin confirmed this genotype–phenotype linkage

  20. Aspartic cathepsin D endopeptidase contributes to extracellular digestion in clawed lobsters Homarus americanus and Homarus gammarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo, Liliana; Muhlia-Almazan, Adriana; Saborowski, Reinhard; García-Carreño, Fernando

    2010-11-01

    Acid digestive proteinases were studied in the gastric fluids of two species of clawed lobster (Homarus americanus and Homarus gammarus). An active protein was identified in both species as aspartic proteinase by specific inhibition with pepstatin A. It was confirmed as cathepsin D by mass mapping, N-terminal, and full-length cDNA sequencing. Both lobster species transcribed two cathepsin D mRNAs: cathepsin D1 and cathepsin D2. Cathepsin D1 mRNA was detected only in the midgut gland, suggesting its function as a digestive enzyme. Cathepsin D2 mRNA was found in the midgut gland, gonads, and muscle. The deduced amino acid sequence of cathepsin D1 and cathepsin D2 possesses two catalytic DTG active-site motifs, the hallmark of aspartic proteinases. The putatively active cathepsin D1 has a molecular mass of 36.4 kDa and a calculated pI of 4.14 and possesses three potential glycosylation sites. The sequences showed highest similarities with cathepsin D from insects but also with another crustacean cathepsin D. Cathepsin D1 transcripts were quantified during a starvation period using real-time qPCR. In H. americanus, 15 days of starvation did not cause significant changes, but subsequent feeding caused a 2.5-fold increase. In H. gammarus, starvation caused a 40% reduction in cathepsin D1 mRNA, and no effect was observed with subsequent feeding.

  1. Basic ecology of the Oaxacan Spiny-tailed Iguana Ctenosaura oaxacana (Squamata: Iguanidae), in Oaxaca, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rioja, Tamara; Carrillo-Reyes, Arturo; Espinoza-Medinilla, Eduardo; López-Mendoza, Sergio

    2012-12-01

    The Oaxacan Spiny-tailed Iguana Ctenosaura oaxacana is a restricted species to the Isthmus of Tehuantepec in Southern Oaxaca, Mexico. This reptile is one of the less known iguanid species. We census-tracked a population in the South ofNiltepec, Oaxaca, Mexico from May 2010 to April 2011. Throughout one year, a total of 10 line transects were situated and recorded in the study area to determine relative abundance and density, and habitat type use (dry forest, Nanchal, grassland, riparian vegetation, and mangrove) by the species. This study reports a new C. oaxacana population on the Southeastern limit of species range. Although this species has a very restricted distribution and is in danger of extinction, C. oaxacana has a high population density when compared to other Ctenosaura species. A total of 108 individuals were recorded throughout the study. Dry forest (33.75ind/ha) and Nanchal (18.75ind/ha) were the habitats with higher densities. Comparisons between habitat types showed no significant differences between dry forest and Nanchal (W=15, p=0.0808). Results between seasons were similar. The Oaxacan Spiny tailed Iguana preferred first the dry forest, and then Nanchal, while avoided grassland, riparian vegetation, and mangroves. There was no difference in habitat use between males and females. Mean perch heights were 1.23 +/- 0.32 (n=30) in Nanchal, 2.11 +/- 0.30 (n=9) in grassland, 1.90 +/- 0.56 (n=54) in dry forest, 1.91 +/- 0.28 (n=9) in mangrove and 2.30 +/- 0.37 (n=6) in riparian vegetation. Species observed as refuge and perch were B. crassifolia (Nanchal); C. alata (grassland); Tabebuia sp., Genipa americana, G. sepium, Acacia sp., Ficus sp. and Haematoxylon sp. (dry forest); G. sepium, Acacia sp. and Guazuma ulmifolia (riparian vegetation); and C. erecta (mangrove). Live trees hollows and branches were used by species. Main threats to the species are excessive hunting and habitat loss. Furthermore, grassland fires are still common in the study area

  2. Basic ecology of the Oaxacan Spiny-tailed Iguana Ctenosaura oaxacana (Squamata: Iguanidae, in Oaxaca, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Rioja

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Oaxacan Spiny-tailed Iguana Ctenosaura oaxacana is a restricted species to the Isthmus of Tehuantepec in Southern Oaxaca, Mexico. This reptile is one of the less known iguanid species. We censustracked a population in the South of Niltepec, Oaxaca, Mexico from May 2010 to April 2011. Throughout one year, a total of 10 line transects were situated and recorded in the study area to determine relative abundance and density, and habitat type use (dry forest, Nanchal, grassland, riparian vegetation, and mangrove by the species. This study reports a new C. oaxacana population on the Southeastern limit of species range. Although this species has a very restricted distribution and is in danger of extinction, C. oaxacana has a high population density when compared to other Ctenosaura species. A total of 108 individuals were recorded throughout the study. Dry forest (33.75ind/ha and Nanchal (18.75ind/ha were the habitats with higher densities. Comparisons between habitat types showed no significant differences between dry forest and Nanchal (W=15, p=0.0808. Results between seasons were similar. The Oaxacan Spiny tailed Iguana preferred first the dry forest, and then Nanchal, while avoided grassland, riparian vegetation, and mangroves. There was no difference in habitat use between males and females. Mean perch heights were 1.23±0.32 (n=30 in Nanchal, 2.11±0.30 (n=9 in grassland, 1.90±0.56 (n=54 in dry forest, 1.91±0.28 (n=9 in mangrove and 2.30±0.37 (n=6 in riparian vegetation. Species observed as refuge and perch were B. crassifolia (Nanchal; C. alata (grassland; Tabebuia sp., Genipa americana, G. sepium, Acacia sp., Ficus sp. and Haematoxylon sp. (dry forest; G. sepium, Acacia sp. and Guazuma ulmifolia (riparian vegetation; and C. erecta (mangrove. Live trees hollows and branches were used by species. Main threats to the species are excessive hunting and habitat loss. Furthermore, grassland fires are still common in the study area during the

  3. Evolutionary morphology of the organ systems in squat lobsters and porcelain crabs (crustacea: Decapoda: Anomala): an insight into carcinization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiler, Jonas; Richter, Stefan; Wirkner, Christian S

    2015-01-01

    Porcelain crabs (Porcellanidae) are one of three taxa within anomuran crustaceans (Anomala) which possess a crab-like body form. Curiously, these three lineages evolved this shape independently from true crabs (Brachyura) in the course of the evolutionary process termed carcinization. The entire pleon in porcelain crabs is flexed under the cephalothorax and the carapace is approximately as broad as long. Despite their crab-like habitus, porcelain crabs are phylogenetically nested within squat lobsters (Munidopsidae, Munididae, Galatheidae). With a pleon which is only partly flexed under the cephalothorax and a cephalothorax which is longer than it is broad, squat lobsters represent morphologically intermediate forms between lobster-like and crab-like body shapes. Carcinization has so far mostly been studied with respect to outer morphology; however, it is evident that internal anatomical features are influenced through this change of body shape too. In this paper, the situation in Galatheoidea is elucidated by adding more taxa to existing descriptions of the hemolymph vascular systems and associated structures and organs. Micro-computer tomography and 3D reconstruction provide new insights. Autapomorphic states of various internal anatomical characters are present in nearly all the studied species, also reflecting some degree of anatomical disparity found within Galatheoidea. The ventral vessel system of porcelain crabs differs distinctly from that of squat lobsters. The differences in question are coherent (i.e. structural dependent) with morphological transformations in the integument, such as the shortening of the sternal plastron, which evolved in the course of carcinization. Shifts in the gonads and the pleonal neuromeres are coherent with the loss of the caridoid escape reaction, which in turn is a consequence of carcinization. The arterial transformations, however, are minor compared to other instances of carcinization in anomuran crustaceans since the last

  4. Applying Fishers' ecological knowledge to construct past and future lobster stocks in the Juan Fernandez Archipelago, Chile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler D Eddy

    Full Text Available Over-exploited fisheries are a common feature of the modern world and a range of solutions including area closures (marine reserves; MRs, effort reduction, gear changes, ecosystem-based management, incentives and co-management have been suggested as techniques to rebuild over-fished populations. Historic accounts of lobster (Jasus frontalis on the Chilean Juan Fernández Archipelago indicate a high abundance at all depths (intertidal to approximately 165 m, but presently lobsters are found almost exclusively in deeper regions of their natural distribution. Fishers' ecological knowledge (FEK tells a story of serial depletion in lobster abundance at fishing grounds located closest to the fishing port with an associated decline in catch per unit effort (CPUE throughout recent history. We have re-constructed baselines of lobster biomass throughout human history on the archipelago using historic data, the fishery catch record and FEK to permit examination of the potential effects of MRs, effort reduction and co-management (stewardship of catch to restore stocks. We employed a bioeconomic model using FEK, fishery catch and effort data, underwater survey information, predicted population growth and response to MR protection (no-take to explore different management strategies and their trade-offs to restore stocks and improve catches. Our findings indicate that increased stewardship of catch coupled with 30% area closure (MR provides the best option to reconstruct historic baselines. Based on model predictions, continued exploitation under the current management scheme is highly influenced by annual fluctuations and unsustainable. We propose a community-based co-management program to implement a MR in order to rebuild the lobster population while also providing conservation protection for marine species endemic to the Archipelago.

  5. Determining the diet of larvae of western rock lobster (Panulirus cygnus using high-throughput DNA sequencing techniques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard O'Rorke

    Full Text Available The Western Australian rock lobster fishery has been both a highly productive and sustainable fishery. However, a recent dramatic and unexplained decline in post-larval recruitment threatens this sustainability. Our lack of knowledge of key processes in lobster larval ecology, such as their position in the food web, limits our ability to determine what underpins this decline. The present study uses a high-throughput amplicon sequencing approach on DNA obtained from the hepatopancreas of larvae to discover significant prey items. Two short regions of the 18S rRNA gene were amplified under the presence of lobster specific PNA to prevent lobster amplification and to improve prey amplification. In the resulting sequences either little prey was recovered, indicating that the larval gut was empty, or there was a high number of reads originating from multiple zooplankton taxa. The most abundant reads included colonial Radiolaria, Thaliacea, Actinopterygii, Hydrozoa and Sagittoidea, which supports the hypothesis that the larvae feed on multiple groups of mostly transparent gelatinous zooplankton. This hypothesis has prevailed as it has been tentatively inferred from the physiology of larvae, captive feeding trials and co-occurrence in situ. However, these prey have not been observed in the larval gut as traditional microscopic techniques cannot discern between transparent and gelatinous prey items in the gut. High-throughput amplicon sequencing of gut DNA has enabled us to classify these otherwise undetectable prey. The dominance of the colonial radiolarians among the gut contents is intriguing in that this group has been historically difficult to quantify in the water column, which may explain why they have not been connected to larval diet previously. Our results indicate that a PCR based technique is a very successful approach to identify the most abundant taxa in the natural diet of lobster larvae.

  6. New strategic directions for Caribbean CSM project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    Recent changes in the strategy of the Caribbean Contraceptive Social Marketing Project emphasize the condom, under the brand name, Panther. Since 1984, CCSMP began marketing their Perle rand of oral contraceptive, since dropped, in Barbados, St. Vincent and St. Lucia. Now wider commercial connections are envisioned, with support by CCSMP to promote generic brands. The Panther condom campaign will include an array of mass media, point-of-purchase and sporting event advertising. Pharmacies report that Panther is selling as well as the leading commercial brand. CCSMP is looking to introduce an ultra-thin condom and a vaginal foaming tablet. Market research, involving physicians and users as well as retail audits, indicates that although population in numbers alone is not a serious problem in the Caribbean, early pregnancy is a concern in the area.

  7. Art Music by Caribbean Composers: Haiti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LeGrand, Cathleen

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Haïti has by far the longest history of independence of any of its Caribbean neighbors, having gained independence from France in 1804. Haïti's tradition of classical music takes root in its colonial heritage. Haïtian classical music, "mizik savant ayisyen," is derived from that "desire to retain European standards while including local features" of indigenous musical traditions (Grenier & Averill, 2007-2011.

  8. Art Music by Caribbean Composers: Haiti

    OpenAIRE

    LeGrand, Cathleen; Gangelhoff, Christine

    2011-01-01

    Haïti has by far the longest history of independence of any of its Caribbean neighbors, having gained independence from France in 1804. Haïti's tradition of classical music takes root in its colonial heritage. Haïtian classical music, "mizik savant ayisyen," is derived from that "desire to retain European standards while including local features" of indigenous musical traditions (Grenier & Averill, 2007-2011).

  9. Assistance Focus: Latin America/Caribbean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-03-29

    The Clean Energy Solutions Center, an initiative of the Clean Energy Ministerial, helps countries throughout the world create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. Through the Solutions Center's no-cost 'Ask an Expert' service, a team of international experts has delivered assistance to countries in all regions of the world. High-impact examples from the Latin American/Caribbean region are featured here.

  10. [Population dynamics and development in the Caribbean].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, B

    1995-12-01

    The impact is examined of socioeconomic factors on Caribbean population dynamics. This work begins by describing the socioeconomic context of the late 1980s and early 1990s, under the influence of the economic changes and crises of the 1980s. The small size, openness, dependency, and lack of diversification of the Caribbean economies have made them vulnerable to external pressures. The Bahamas and Belize had economic growth rates exceeding 5% annually during 1981-90, but most of the countries had low or negative growth. Unemployment, poverty, the structural adjustment measures adopted in the mid-1980s, and declines in social spending exacerbated general economic conditions. In broad terms, the population situation of the Caribbean is marked by diversity of sizes and growth rates. A few countries oriented toward services and tourism had demographic growth rates exceeding 3%, while at least 7 had almost no growth or negative growth. Population growth rates reflected different combinations of natural increase and migration. Crude death rates ranged from around 5/1000 to 11/1000, except in Haiti, and all countries of the region except Haiti had life expectancies of 70 years or higher. Despite fertility decline, the average crude birth rate was still relatively high at 26/1000, and the rate of natural increase was 1.8% annually for the region. Nearly half of the regional population was under 15 or over 65 years old. The body of this work provides greater detail on mortality patterns, variations by sex, infant mortality, causes of death, and implications for policy. The discussion of fertility includes general patterns and trends, age specific fertility rates, contraceptive prevalence, levels of adolescent fertility and age factors in adolescent sexual behavior, characteristics of adolescent unions, contraceptive usage, health and social consequences of adolescent childbearing, and the search for solutions. The final section describes the magnitude and causes of

  11. Tainting and depuration of taint by lobsters (Homarus americanus) exposed to water contaminated with a No.2 Fuel Oil: Relationship with aromatic hydrocarbon content in tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, U.P.; Kiceniuk, J.W.; Fancey, L.L.; Botta, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    Lobsters (Homarus americanus) were exposed to a pulse of diesel oil and held for 21 days to depurate. Taste panels revealed a highly significant difference between samples, as well as a preferences for, the untreated samples at days 10 and 11. The odor of the raw treated samples differed significantly from that of the control at each of the sampling times. Cooking appeared to remove the oily odor from the raw lobster. Significantly elevated concentrations of total aromatics were found in the hepatopancreas of both sexes at days 3-4 and 10-11 and in the tail muscle of male and female lobsters 10-11 days after initial exposure and decreased thereafter. Tainting of lobsters can occur within 10 days of exposure to diesel, and this effect can be reversed within 20 days after initial exposure

  12. Levels of mercury in muscle and liver of star-spotted dogfish (Mustelus manazo) from the northern region of Japan: a comparison with spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Tetsuya; Hisamichi, Yohsuke; Kimura, Osamu; Ogasawara, Hideki; Ohta, Chiho; Koga, Nobuyuki; Kato, Yoshihisa; Haraguchi, Koichi

    2013-04-01

    We analyzed mercury (Hg) concentrations in muscle and liver samples of star-spotted dogfish (Mustelus manazo) caught off the northern region of Japan and compared them with those of spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias) caught in the same region. The average body length of male star-spotted dogfish specimens was significantly smaller than that of female specimens, reflecting the slower growth rate of male fish. Hg concentrations in liver and muscle increased with increases in body length and estimated age of both male and female star-spotted dogfish specimens. However, the relationships between Hg concentration in liver or muscle and body length or estimated age of male specimens differed markedly from those of female specimens, reflecting differences in growth rate and cessation of growth on reaching maturity. Marked increases in Hg concentration in liver of male and female star-spotted dogfish specimens were observed slightly later than increases in Hg concentration in muscle of those specimens due to growth cessation. These marked increases in Hg in liver may reflect increases in Hg due to the formation of mercury selenide. Similar results were previously reported in spiny dogfish specimens, except spiny dogfish showed only trace levels of Hg in liver (Endo et al., Chemosphere 77:1333-1337, 2009). The greater lipid content in liver and the larger liver size in spiny dogfish may explain the much lower levels of Hg observed in liver of spiny dogfish compared with those in the star-spotted dogfish.

  13. Environmental Enrichment and Social Isolation Mediate Neuroplasticity of Medium Spiny Neurons through the GSK3 Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scala, Federico; Nenov, Miroslav N; Crofton, Elizabeth J; Singh, Aditya K; Folorunso, Oluwarotimi; Zhang, Yafang; Chesson, Brent C; Wildburger, Norelle C; James, Thomas F; Alshammari, Musaad A; Alshammari, Tahani K; Elfrink, Hannah; Grassi, Claudio; Kasper, James M; Smith, Ashley E; Hommel, Jonathan D; Lichti, Cheryl F; Rudra, Jai S; D'Ascenzo, Marcello; Green, Thomas A; Laezza, Fernanda

    2018-04-10

    Resilience and vulnerability to neuropsychiatric disorders are linked to molecular changes underlying excitability that are still poorly understood. Here, we identify glycogen-synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) and voltage-gated Na + channel Nav1.6 as regulators of neuroplasticity induced by environmentally enriched (EC) or isolated (IC) conditions-models for resilience and vulnerability. Transcriptomic studies in the nucleus accumbens from EC and IC rats predicted low levels of GSK3β and SCN8A mRNA as a protective phenotype associated with reduced excitability in medium spiny neurons (MSNs). In vivo genetic manipulations demonstrate that GSK3β and Nav1.6 are molecular determinants of MSN excitability and that silencing of GSK3β prevents maladaptive plasticity of IC MSNs. In vitro studies reveal direct interaction of GSK3β with Nav1.6 and phosphorylation at Nav1.6 T1936 by GSK3β. A GSK3β-Nav1.6 T1936 competing peptide reduces MSNs excitability in IC, but not EC rats. These results identify GSK3β regulation of Nav1.6 as a biosignature of MSNs maladaptive plasticity. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Characterization of the immunoglobulin repertoire of the spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lauren E; Crouch, Kathryn; Cao, Wei; Müller, Mischa R; Wu, Leeying; Steven, John; Lee, Michael; Liang, Musen; Flajnik, Martin F; Shih, Heather H; Barelle, Caroline J; Paulsen, Janet; Gill, Davinder S; Dooley, Helen

    2012-04-01

    The cartilaginous fish (chimeras, sharks, skates and rays) are the oldest group relative to mammals in which an adaptive immune system founded upon immunoglobulins has been found. In this manuscript we characterize the immunoglobulins of the spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias) at both the molecular and expressed protein levels. Despite the presence of hundreds of IgM clusters in this species the serum levels of this isotype are comparatively low. However, analysis of cDNA sequences and serum protein suggests microheterogeneity in the IgM heavy chains and supports the proposal that different clusters are preferentially used in the two forms (monomer or pentamer) of this isotype. We also found that the IgNAR isotype in this species exists in a previously unknown multimeric format in serum. Finally, we identified a new form of the IgW isotype (the shark IgD orthologue), in which the leader is spliced directly to the first constant domain, resulting in a molecule lacking an antigen-binding domain. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Reassessment of spiny dogfish Squalus acanthias age and growth using vertebrae and dorsal-fin spines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubley, W J; Kneebone, J; Sulikowski, J A; Tsang, P C W

    2012-04-01

    Male and female spiny dogfish Squalus acanthias were collected in the western North Atlantic Ocean in the Gulf of Maine between July 2006 and June 2009. Squalus acanthias ranged from 25 to 102 cm stretch total length and were caught during all months of the year except January. Age estimates derived from banding patterns visible in both the vertebrae and second dorsal-fin spines were compared. Vertebral growth increments were visualized using a modified histological staining technique, which was verified as appropriate for obtaining age estimates. Marginal increment analysis of vertebrae verified the increment periodicity, suggesting annual band deposition. Based on increased precision and accuracy of age estimates, as well as more biologically realistic parameters generated in growth models, the current study found that vertebrae provided a more reliable and accurate means of estimating age in S. acanthias than the second dorsal-fin spine. Age estimates obtained from vertebrae ranged from acanthias. The two-parameter von Bertalanffy growth model fit to vertebrae-derived age estimates produced parameters of L∞ = 94·23 cm and k = 0·11 for males and L∞ = 100·76 cm and k = 0·12 for females. While these growth parameters differed from those previously reported for S. acanthias in the western North Atlantic Ocean, the causes of such differences were beyond the scope of the current study and remain to be determined. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2011 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  16. Comparative analysis of methods for determining bite force in the spiny dogfish Squalus acanthias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Daniel Robert; Motta, Philip Jay

    2004-01-01

    Many studies have identified relationships between the forces generated by the cranial musculature during feeding and cranial design. Particularly important to understanding the diversity of cranial form amongst vertebrates is knowledge of the generated magnitudes of bite force because of its use as a measure of ecological performance. In order to determine an accurate morphological proxy for bite force in elasmobranchs, theoretical force generation by the quadratomandibularis muscle of the spiny dogfish Squalus acanthias was modeled using a variety of morphological techniques, and lever-ratio analyses were used to determine resultant bite forces. These measures were compared to in vivo bite force measurements obtained with a pressure transducer during tetanic stimulation experiments of the quadratomandibularis. Although no differences were found between the theoretical and in vivo bite forces measured, modeling analyses indicate that the quadratomandibularis muscle should be divided into its constituent divisions and digital images of the cross-sections of these divisions should be used to estimate cross-sectional area when calculating theoretical force production. From all analyses the maximum bite force measured was 19.57 N. This relatively low magnitude of bite force is discussed with respect to the ecomorphology of the feeding mechanism of S. acanthias to demonstrate the interdependence of morphology, ecology, and behavior in organismal design. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Nitric oxide (NO) in normal and hypoxic vascular regulation of the spiny dogfish, Squalus acanthias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, Kai E; Eveland, Randy L; Gladwin, Mark T; Swenson, Erik R

    2005-02-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a potent vasodilator in terrestrial vertebrates, but whether vascular endothelial-derived NO plays a role in vascular regulation in fish remains controversial. To explore this issue, a study was made of spiny dogfish sharks (Squalus acanthias) in normoxia and acute hypoxia (60 min exposure to seawater equilibrated with 3% oxygen) with various agents known to alter NO metabolism or availability. In normoxia, nitroprusside (a NO donor) reduced blood pressure by 20%, establishing that vascular smooth muscle responds to NO. L-arginine, the substrate for NO synthase, had no hemodynamic effect. Acetylcholine, which stimulates endothelial NO and prostaglandin production in mammals, reduced blood pressure, but also caused marked bradycardia. L-NAME, an inhibitor of all NO synthases, caused a small 10% rise in blood pressure, but cell-free hemoglobin (a potent NO scavenger and hypertensive agent in mammals) had no effect. Acute hypoxia caused a 15% fall in blood pressure, which was blocked by L-NAME and cell-free hemoglobin. Serum nitrite, a marker of NO production, rose with hypoxia, but not with L-NAME. Results suggest that NO is not an endothelial-derived vasodilator in the normoxic elasmobranch. The hypertensive effect of L-NAME may represent inhibition of NO production in the CNS and nerves regulating blood pressure. In acute hypoxia, there is a rapid up-regulation of vascular NO production that appears to be responsible for hypoxic vasodilation.

  18. Volume-activated trimethylamine oxide efflux in red blood cells of spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koomoa, D L; Musch, M W; MacLean, A V; Goldstein, L

    2001-09-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the pathway of swelling-activated trimethylamine oxide (TMAO) efflux and its regulation in spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias) red blood cells and compare the characteristics of this efflux pathway with the volume-activated osmolyte (taurine) channel present in erythrocytes of fishes. The characteristics of the TMAO efflux pathway were similar to those of the taurine efflux pathway. The swelling-activated effluxes of both TMAO and taurine were significantly inhibited by known anion transport inhibitors (DIDS and niflumic acid) and by the general channel inhibitor quinine. Volume expansion by hypotonicity, ethylene glycol, and diethyl urea activated both TMAO and taurine effluxes similarly. Volume expansion by hypotonicity, ethylene glycol, and diethyl urea also stimulated the activity of tyrosine kinases p72syk and p56lyn, although the stimulations by the latter two treatments were less than by hypotonicity. The volume activations of both TMAO and taurine effluxes were inhibited by tyrosine kinase inhibitors, suggesting that activation of tyrosine kinases may play a role in activating the osmolyte effluxes. These results indicate that the volume-activated TMAO efflux occurs via the organic osmolyte (taurine) channel and may be regulated by the volume activation of tyrosine kinases.

  19. Seasonal dynamics of the cestode fauna in spiny dogfish, Squalus acanthias (Squaliformes: Squalidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Maria; Caira, Janine N

    2014-06-01

    This study furthers understanding of cestode infections in a marine environment through time and space by following seasonal fluctuations in infection parameters of three cestode species (Gilquinia squali, Trilocularia gracilis and Phyllobothrium squali) parasitizing spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias) in the northwest Atlantic and comparing them to work previously published from the northeast Atlantic on T. gracilis. For each cestode species, host size, season and presence of the other cestode species were analysed using generalized linear models to determine if they were good predictors of prevalence and intensity. Infection parameters differed across season for the three cestode species. However, within T. gracilis seasonal trends were found to be remarkably similar on both sides of the Atlantic, differing only in a somewhat delayed decline in prevalence in the northwest Atlantic. The differences seen in infection measures across cestode species likely reflect the unique life history strategies of different parasite species. While general trends appear to be maintained across disparate localities, variation seen is likely due to differences in accessibility to intermediate hosts and host diet across sites. The knowledge gained from understanding cestode infections in the vast ocean environment allows us to speculate about the factors driving fluctuations in parasite infections in elasmobranchs.

  20. Reproductive and population parameters of spiny dogfish Squalus acanthias in the south-western Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colonello, J H; Cortés, F; Belleggia, M; Massa, A M

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate reproductive and population parameters of the spiny dogfish Squalus acanthias for the south-western Atlantic Ocean. In total, 2714 specimens (1616 males and 1098 females) were collected from surveys carried out using research vessels. Males ranged from 225 to 861 mm total length (LT ) and females from 235 to 925 mm LT . The size at maturity of females (651 mm) was significantly greater than that of males (565 mm). The maximum proportion of mature individuals (Pmax ) of the gestation ogive was 156 mm). The temporal and spatial co-occurrence of non-gravid adult females at different stages of ovarian development, as well as gravid females at all embryonic development stages would indicate that the female reproductive cycle in the south-western Atlantic Ocean is asynchronous. The results indicate that S. acanthias is susceptible to fishing pressure on account of its length at maturity, extended reproductive cycles and low fecundity. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  1. Golgi Study of Medium Spiny Neurons from Dorsolateral Striatum of the Turtle Trachemys scripta elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Carolina; Mendoza, Janeth; Avila-Costa, María Rosa; Arias, Juan M; Barral, Jaime

    2013-10-25

    Comparative anatomy has shown similarities between reptilian and mammalian basal ganglia. Here the morphological characteristics of the medium spiny neurons (MSN) in the dorsolateral striatum (DLS) of the turtle are described after staining them with the Golgi technique. The soma of MSN in DLS showed three main forms: spherical, ovoid, and fusiform. The number of primary dendritic branches (3-4 dendrites/cell) was less than observed in mammals. The MSN axon originates mainly from the soma, and randomly it emerges at the beginning of the primary dendrite. The main differences between turtle and mammalian MSN were detected on dendritic spines. Short, thin, bifurcated and fungiform types of dendritic spines were observed in the turtle's MSN, according to their shape. In most of the analyzed spines, it was found that its length considerably exceeded that reported in mammals, with dendritic spines up to 8μm in length. These differences could play an important role in the modulation of motor networks preserved along the vertebrate evolution. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  2. CARICOF - The Caribbean Regional Climate Outlook Forum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Meerbeeck, Cedric

    2013-04-01

    Regional Climate Outlook Forums (RCOFs) are viewed as a critical building block in the Global Framework for Climate Services (GFCS) of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). The GFCS seeks to extend RCOFs to all vulnerable regions of the world such as the Caribbean, of which the entire population is exposed to water- and heat-related natural hazards. An RCOF is initially intended to identify gaps in information and technical capability; facilitate research cooperation and data exchange within and between regions, and improve coordination within the climate forecasting community. A focus is given on variations in climate conditions on a seasonal timescale. In this view, the relevance of a Caribbean RCOF (CARICOF) is the following: while the seasonality of the climate in the Caribbean has been well documented, major gaps in knowledge exist in terms of the drivers in the shifts of amplitude and phase of seasons (as evidenced from the worst region-wide drought period in recent history during 2009-2010). To address those gaps, CARICOF has brought together National Weather Services (NWSs) from 18 territories under the coordination of the Caribbean Institute for Meteorology and Hydrology (CIMH), to produce region-wide, consensus, seasonal climate outlooks since March 2012. These outlooks include tercile rainfall forecasts, sea and air surface temperature forecasts as well as the likely evolution of the drivers of seasonal climate variability in the region, being amongst others the El Niño Southern Oscillation or tropical Atlantic and Caribbean Sea temperatures. Forecasts for both the national-scale forecasts made by the NWSs and CIMH's regional-scale forecast amalgamate output from several forecasting tools. These currently include: (1) statistical models such as Canonical Correlation Analysis run with the Climate Predictability Tool, providing tercile rainfall forecasts at weather station scale; (2) a global outlooks published by the WMO appointed Global Producing

  3. Limited prevalence of gaffkaemia (Aerococcus viridans var. homari) isolated from wild-caught European lobsters Homarus gammarus in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebbing, P D; Pond, M J; Peeler, E; Small, H J; Greenwood, S J; Verner-Jeffreys, D

    2012-08-27

    Gaffkaemia, caused by Aerococcus viridans var. homari, causes fatal infections in Homarus spp. (clawed lobsters). Despite its high economic significance to the lobster fisheries in the USA and northern Europe, data on its prevalence in captured and wild populations, particularly in Europe, is scarce. Following an outbreak of gaffkaemia in a European lobster holding facility in South Wales (UK), a base-line survey was conducted for gaffkaemia in wild populations of European lobster Homarus gammarus around the coast of England and Wales. In addition, isolates recovered from the original outbreak and the survey were typed using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and compared with previously characterised isolates from the USA, UK and Canada. Locally caught H. gammarus were sampled at 30 sites from around the coast of England and Wales between March 2006 and October 2008. Results confirmed that the prevalence of gaffkaemia in populations of H. gammarus was low, with only 9 positive isolates recovered from 952 samples examined. PFGE analysis showed that the isolates from the outbreak investigation shared the same pulsotype as A. viridans var. homari isolates from the USA, Norway and Canada, as well as an isolate (NCIMB 1119) reportedly recovered from an outbreak of European lobsters in England in the 1960s. This confirms earlier studies that suggest virulent strains of A. viridans var. homari show very limited geographical or temporal genetic variation and were introduced into the UK with American lobsters H. americanus.

  4. WATER QUALITY AND ITS EFFECT ON GROWTH AND SURVIVAL RATE OF LOBSTER REARED IN FLOATING NET CAGE IN EKAS BAY, WEST NUSA TENGGARA PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Junaidi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The development of lobster farming in floating net cage in Ekas Bay caused an environmental degradation such as decrease water quality due to some aquaculture wastes. The purposes of this study were to determine the status of water quality and their effect on growth and survival rate of lobster reared in floating net cages (FNC in the Ekas Bay, West Nusa Tenggara Province. Water sample collection and handling referred to the APHA (1992. Analyses of water quality data were conducted using Principal Component Analysis. Determination of the water quality status of Ekas Bay was performed with STORET system. Multivariate analyses were used to determine the relationship between water quality, growth, and survival rate of lobster reared in FNC. Results showed that Ekas Bay water quality status was categorized in class C (medium contaminated, which exceeded some quality standard parameters such as ammonia (0.3 mg/l, nitrate (0.008 mg/l, and phosphate (0.015 mg/l. During lobster farming activities feeding with trash fish for 270 days, we obtained daily growth rate of  0.74% (lower than normal growth rate of 0.86%, survival rate of 66% (lower than normal survival rate of 86.7%, and feed conversion ratio of 11.15. Ammonia was found as a dominant factor reducing growth  and survival rate of lobster reared in FNC. Keywords: water quality, lobsters, growth, survival, Ekas Bay

  5. The red gold rush: the impact of governance styles on value chains and the well-being of lobster fishers in the wider Caribbean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monnereau, I.

    2012-01-01

    Hoewel vis als internationaal handelsproduct voor ontwikkelingslanden steeds belangrijker wordt, levert het niet per definitie meer welzijn op voor de vissers. Iris Monnereau deed onderzoek naar de vishandel in drie landen (Belize, Jamaica en Nicaragua). Ze stelt dat de er verschillen in welzijn

  6. New sibling species and new occurrences of squat lobsters (Crustacea, Decapoda from the western Indian Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Macpherson

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Numerous specimens of squat lobsters belonging to the families Munididae, Munidopsidae and Eumunididae were collected during several cruises along the eastern coasts of Africa. The study of these specimens revealed the presence of 10 new species (one Eumunida Smith, 1883, eight Munida Leach, 1820 and one Munidopsis Whiteaves, 1874. We describe and illustrate these new species, providing some new data on occurrences and colour patterns for previously described taxa. We have also included molecular data from two mitochondrial markers (16S rRNA and COI to support the taxonomic status of different species. Some deep-sea species show a clear increase in their geographic range distribution. Finally, a key to known species of the genus Munida from the western and central Indian Ocean is also presented.

  7. Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) and Lobster Eye (LE) Optics for Astronomical and Laboratory Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudec, R.; Hudec, R.

    2010-01-01

    Most of grazing incidence (reflective) X-ray imaging systems used in astronomy and in other (laboratory) applications are based on the Wolter 1 (or modified) arrangement. But there were proposed also other designs and configurations, which are considered for future applications for both in laboratory and (finitely) in space. The Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) lenses as well as various types of Lobster-Eye (LE) optics and MCP/Micropore optics serve as an example. Analogously to Wolter lenses, the X-rays are mostly reflected twice in these systems to create focal images. The KB systems have already found wide usage in laboratory and synchrotron, both application are reviewed and discussed in detail in this paper. While this paper focuses on future possible applications of non-Wolter grazing incidence systems in space and astronomy, we also discuss in detail applications in other areas of science, where (in contrary to astronomy) some of these systems have demonstrated their advantages

  8. Analysis of marine sediment and lobster hepatopancreas reference materials by instrumental photon activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landsberger, S.; Davidson, W.F.

    1985-01-01

    By use of instrumental photon activation analysis, twelve trace (As, Ba, Cr, Co, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sr, U, Zn, and Zr) and eight minor (C, Na, Mg, Co, K, Ca, Tl, and Fe) elements were determined in a certified marine sediment standard reference material as well as eight trace (Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Sr, Cd, and Pb) and four minor (Na, Mg, Cl, and Ca) elements in a certified marine tissue (lobster hepatopancreas) standard reference material. The precision and accuracy of the present results when compared to the accepted values clearly demonstrate the reliability of this nondestructive technique and its applicability to marine environmental or marine geochemical studies. 24 references, 4 figures, 3 tables

  9. LOBSTER EYE: New approach to monitor GRBs in X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudec, R.; Hudcova, V.; Inneman, A.; Pina, L.

    2003-01-01

    The detection of X-ray afterglows for the large majority of GRBs allows a novel X-ray experiment to be considered to monitor and to detect GRBs based on their X-ray emission. Such an experiment could provide not only a superior localization accuracy if compared with gamma ray instruments, but probably also a higher rate based on the theoretical assumption that the beaming in gamma rays is narrower if compared with lower energies. We describe and discuss the LOBSTER EYE X-ray telescope project including results of the development and tests of the telescope prototype. Considerations for a space experiment on a small scientific satellite of a Nadezhda type are also presented and discussed. The scientific aspects of such experiment regarding the GRB study and statistics are addressed

  10. Descriptions of Five Species of Scyllarine Lobsters (Crustacea, Decapoda, Scyllaridae in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joo Il Kim

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Five scyllarine lobster species, belonging to the family Scyllaridae, are described from Korean waters: Chelarctus cultrifer (Ortmann, 1897, Crenarctus bicuspidatus (De Man, 1905, Galearctus kitanoviriosus (Harada, 1962, G. timidus (Holthuis, 1960, and Petrarctus brevicornis (Holthuis, 1946. Of these, three species, C. bicuspidatus, G. timidus, and P. brevicornis are new to Korean marine carcinological fauna. This report extends the known range of G. timidus to the southern coast of Korea from Taiwan in the East China Sea. Excluding C. bicuspidatus and G. kitanoviriosus, the other three species are relatively rare in Korean waters. They are described herein with color photographs, and a key to the Korean genera and species of Scyllarinae is also presented.

  11. The subcellular localization of natural 210Po in the hepatopancreas of the rock lobster (Jasus lalandii)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heyraud, M.; Dowdle, E.B.; Cherry, R.D.

    1987-01-01

    The subcellular localization of the naturally occurring nuclide 210 Po in the hepatopancreas of the South African rock lobster, Jasus lalandii, has been studied using centrifugation, ultrafiltration and chromatography. Just over half of the 210 Po was found to be associated with a component in the microsomal pellet. Most of the 210 Po was tightly bound to a component of high molecular mass. Dissociation of the 210 Po from this component required incubation with sulphydryl-reducing reagents, after which the 210 Po appeared to associate with a fraction having a molecular mass of 1500 daltons or less. A search for negatively-charged, hydrophobic, sulphur-containing membrane proteins which bind 210 Po is suggested. (author)

  12. Southern high latitude squat lobsters II: description of Uroptychus macquariae sp. nov. from Macquarie Ridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnabel, Kareen E; Burghardt, Ingo; Ahyong, Shane T

    2017-11-23

    Squat lobsters have only recently been recorded from the Macquarie Ridge, which extends south between New Zealand and Antarctica. Among these, Uroptychus insignis (Henderson, 1885) was recorded for the first time outside the western Indian Ocean, exhibiting only subtle morphological differences. Reexamination of the Macquarie Ridge and Indian Ocean specimens attributed to U. insignis using morphological and molecular data revealed the Macquarie Ridge form to represent a separate species. Subtle but consistent morphological differences are evident and partial CO1 sequence data indicates that the specimens collected on Macquarie Ridge differ from those collected in the Indian Ocean by more than 7%. The Macquarie Ridge species is described herein as Uroptychus macquariae n.sp. Subtle morphological differences between the new species and U. insignis are discussed.

  13. Perspectives of the lobster-eye telescope: The promising types of cosmic X-ray sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šimon, V.

    2017-07-01

    We show the astrophysical aspects of observing the X-ray sky with the planned lobster-eye telescope. This instrument is important because it is able to provide wide-field X-ray imaging. For the testing observations, we propose to include also X-ray binaries in which matter transfers onto the compact object (mostly the neutron star). We show the typical features of the long-term X-ray activity of such objects. Observing in the soft X-ray band is the most promising because their X-ray intensity is the highest in this band. Since these X-ray sources tend to concentrate toward the center of our Galaxy, several of them can be present in the field of view of the tested instrument.

  14. Soft-rigid interaction mechanism towards a lobster-inspired hybrid actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yaohui; Wan, Fang; Wu, Tong; Song, Chaoyang

    2018-01-01

    Soft pneumatic actuators (SPAs) are intrinsically light-weight, compliant and therefore ideal to directly interact with humans and be implemented into wearable robotic devices. However, they also pose new challenges in describing and sensing their continuous deformation. In this paper, we propose a hybrid actuator design with bio-inspirations from the lobsters, which can generate reconfigurable bending movements through the internal soft chamber interacting with the external rigid shells. This design with joint and link structures enables us to exactly track its bending configurations that previously posed a significant challenge to soft robots. Analytic models are developed to illustrate the soft-rigid interaction mechanism with experimental validation. A robotic glove using hybrid actuators to assist grasping is assembled to illustrate their potentials in safe human-robot interactions. Considering all the design merits, our work presents a practical approach to the design of next-generation robots capable of achieving both good accuracy and compliance.

  15. A new species of squat lobster of the genus Munida (Galatheoidea, Munididae) from the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Macpherson, E.

    2017-08-30

    During a deep-water expedition to the Red Sea in 2013, an unusual specimen of squat lobster belonging to the genus Munida was collected off Thuwal, Saudi Arabia, at a depth of 320 m. This specimen is unique in having the pterygostomial flap visible from the dorsal side, the feature linking it to two eastern Pacific species, M. bapensis Hendrickx, 2000 and M. macrobrachia Hendrickx, 2003. The new species (M. tuerkayi) is readily distinguished from the eastern Pacific species by having the gastric region with numerous instead of less numerous spines, by having sternite 7 with three distinct carinae on each side, and by having the antennular basal article with two distal spines subequal instead of different in size. Munida tuerkayi was found associated with live colonies of the scleractinian coral Eguchipsammia fistula (Alcock, 1902).

  16. Polarographic studies on the nature of cadmium in scallop, oyster, and lobster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, C L; Uthe, J F; Zook, E G

    1978-04-01

    Free and bound forms of cadmium were determined in raw shellfish by use of differential pulse polarography and atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Free cadmium is defined by its polarographic peak potential of -0.62 +- 0.02 V (saturated calomel electrode) in solvent washed ammonium sulfate extracts. Bound cadmium was determined by subtracting the free cadmium from the total cadmium present in the meat. Both scallop (various species) and American lobster (Homarus americanus) muscle tissues contain no free cadmium. Oyster (various species), on the other hand, had a considerable percentage (approximately 50%) of its total cadmium present as free cadmium, a phenomena as yet unexplained. The detection limit for free cadmium is approximately 0.05 ..mu..g/g raw tissue.

  17. Subcellular localization of natural /sup 210/Po in the hepatopancreas of the rock lobster (Jasus lalandii)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heyraud, M; Dowdle, E B; Cherry, R D

    1987-01-01

    The subcellular localization of the naturally occurring nuclide /sup 210/Po in the hepatopancreas of the South African rock lobster, Jasus lalandii, has been studied using centrifugation, ultrafiltration and chromatography. Just over half of the /sup 210/Po was found to be associated with a component in the microsomal pellet. Most of the /sup 210/Po was tightly bound to a component of high molecular mass. Dissociation of the /sup 210/Po from this component required incubation with sulphydryl-reducing reagents, after which the /sup 210/Po appeared to associate with a fraction having a molecular mass of 1500 daltons or less. A search for negatively-charged, hydrophobic, sulphur-containing membrane proteins which bind /sup 210/Po is suggested.

  18. Temperature increase can cause hyperecdysonism in American lobsters (Homarus americanus) injected with ecdysterone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aiken, D E; Waddy, S L

    1975-10-01

    In the lobster Homarus americanus the threshold dose for premolt acceleration by ecdysterone can be altered by changes in temperature. Two dose levels of ecdysterone (0.5 and 1.0 ..mu..g/g body weight) were compared at three different temperatures (10, 17, 21/sup 0/C); all three doses remained subthreshold at 10/sup 0/C but at 17/sup 0/C the 1.0-..mu..g dose caused hyperecdysonism--rapid but abnormal completion of premolt terminating in death at ecdysis. In contrast, the 0.5-..mu..g dose remained subthreshold even at 21/sup 0/C. These results demonstrate a dose-temperature relation for response to injected ecdysterone.

  19. Chilean jagged lobster, Projasus bahamondei, in the southeastern Pacific Ocean: current state of knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio M Arana

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Chilean jagged lobster (Projasus bahamondei is a deep-water crustacean (175-550 m occurring in certain areas of the southeastern Pacific Ocean, including the Nazca Ridge, Desventuradas Islands, the Juan Fernandez archipelago and ridge, and the continental slope off the central coast of Chile. This review describes the taxonomic status, geographical and bathymetric distribution, some biological aspects and habitat characteristics of this species. Additionally, both artisanal and industrial exploitation attempts made within the region are detailed, as well as fishing operation results, chemical composition, different elaboration procedures and the destination of the catch. The main objectives of this review are to contribute to the knowledge of P. bahamondei as a component of the deep-sea ecosystem and to highlight its importance as a potential fishery resource.

  20. Structure and financing of nature management costs in Caribbean Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, van I.J.M.; Debrot, A.O.; Rockmann, C.; Jak, R.G.

    2015-01-01

    The Nature Policy Plan Caribbean Netherlands identifies the need to “Evaluate the financial instruments available for nature conservation in the Caribbean Netherlands and make recommendations aimed at guaranteeing a sustainable financial future” as one of its strategic actions. Three preceding

  1. 77 FR 60380 - Caribbean Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-03

    ... Caribbean Fishery Management Council's Scientific and Statistical Committee (SSC) will hold meetings. DATES... Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... CONTACT: Caribbean Fishery Management Council, 268 Mu[ntilde]oz Rivera Avenue, Suite 1108, San Juan...

  2. Rise of China in the Caribbean: Impacts for Regional Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-13

    Prima facie , more demonstrative of a policy is to retain primacy in the region while engaging the interests and cooperation of Caribbean states. In...and diplomatic cooperation with Caribbean nations. The prima facie implications are therefore, without evidence to the contrary, that these

  3. 48 CFR 25.405 - Caribbean Basin Trade Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Initiative. 25.405 Section 25.405 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Trade Agreements 25.405 Caribbean Basin Trade Initiative. Under the Caribbean Basin Trade Initiative, the United States Trade Representative has determined that, for...

  4. Theorising African Caribbean Absences in Multicultural Art Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Paul

    2010-01-01

    This article looks at the learning of African Caribbean pupils in art and design classrooms in the United Kingdom. It proceeds from the proposition that African Caribbean pupils, as the descendants of enslaved peoples whose cultural lineage has been blurred by the skewed relationship with the white majority group, are uniquely disadvantaged in the…

  5. Effectiveness of lionfish removal efforts in the Southern Caribbean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de León, R.; Vane, K.; Bertuol, P.; Chamberland, V.C.; Simal, F.; Imms, E.; Vermeij, M.J.A.

    2013-01-01

    Lionfish Pterois volitans and P. miles have spread rapidly throughout the Caribbean Sea since 1985, where they negatively impact native fish communities and therefore are considered by some as the most damaging invasive species in the Caribbean to date. To combat further population growth and spread

  6. 78 FR 33959 - National Caribbean-American Heritage Month, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ... progress. Separated by sea but united by a yearning for independence, our countries won the right to chart... those enduring achievements. It is also a chance to recognize men and women who trace their roots to the Caribbean. Through every chapter of our Nation's history, Caribbean Americans have made our country stronger...

  7. Language-Planning in the Creole-Speaking Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devonish, Hubert

    1984-01-01

    As a result of anticolonial movements in the Caribbean, Creole languages are becoming major languages of communication. Language planning has begun to focus on them. These languages must be taught to non-native speakers who want to participate fully in Caribbean culture. This is clearly demonstrated in the area of cinema. (VM)

  8. Study of Phenotypic Correlations between Morphologic Characters and Body Parameters at River Male Lobsters (Astacus Fluviatilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Bura

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The body measurements was made on 20 males of river lobster (Astacus fluviatilis or Astacus astacus. The lobsters on witch the study was made had an average total length of body of 12.72 cm ±0.19 cm (formed from: 6.07±0.10cm the length of cefalothorax, 4.73 ±0.10 cm the length of abdomen and 1.91 ±0.07 cm length of telson, and a body weight of 55.70±3.07 g. the males present a length of antennas of 8.53±0.34 cm, a feelers of 2.20±0.05 cm, and the stems of the eyes of 0.51±0.02 cm. The body of males present a average width of 3.35±0.07 cm at level of cefalothorax, and 2.40±0.05 cm at abdomen level. Average deepness of cefalothorax was 2.85±0.07cm, and abdomen deepness of 1.34±0.03cm. The 5 pairs of periopodes had an average length of 10.91±0.42 cm, 6.06±0.22 cm, 7.21±0.21 cm, 6.57±0.16 cm and 5.85±0.15cm. The average length of pleopods was at first pears of 2.00±0.06 cm, at second pair of 2.11±0.05 cm, at third of 1.85±0.05 cm, at fourth of 1.73±0.04 cm and at fifth pair of 1.55±0.04 cm.

  9. Utilization of Shrimp Skin Waste (Sea Lobster) As Raw Material for the Membrane Filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rupiasih, Ni Nyoman; Windari, Putri; Sumadiyasa, Made; Suyanto, Hery

    2017-01-01

    In view of the increasing littering of the sea banks by shells of crustaceans, a study was carried out to investigate the extraction and characterization of chitosan from skin waste of sea lobster i.e. ‘Bamboo Lobster’ ( Panulirus versicolor ). Chitosan was extracted using conventional methods such as pretreatment, demineralization, deprotienization, and deacetylation. The result showed that the degree of deacetylation of chitosan obtained is 70.02%. The FTIR spectra of the chitosan gave a characteristic of –NH 2 band at 3447 cm –1 and carbonyl group band at 1655 cm −1 . This chitosan has been used to prepare membrane. The chitosan membrane 2% has been prepared using phase inversion method with precipitation by solvent evaporation. The membranes were characterized by FTIR spectrophotometer, Nova 1200e using BJH method, and filtration method. The results show that thickness of the membrane is about 134 μm. The FTIR spectra show that functional groups present in the membrane are -NH, -CH, C=O, and -OH. Using BJH method obtained that the pore diameter is 3.382 nm with pore density is 8.95 x 10 5 pores/m 3 . By filtration method obtained that pure water flux (PWF) of the membrane are 386.662 and 489.627 1/m 2 .h at pressure 80-85 kPa and 90-100 kPa, respectively. These results show that skin waste of sea lobster was discovered as a raw material to prepare chitosan membrane. The membrane obtained is belonged to mesoporous group which may use in microfiltration process. (paper)

  10. Effect of confinement and starvation on stress parameters in the American lobster (Homarus americanus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edo D'Agaro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The American lobster (Homarus americanus is one of the most important crustacean resources in North America. In Italy and Europe, this fishery product is available throughout the year and it has a high and increasing commercial demand. American lobsters are traditionally marketed live and stocked, without feed, in temperature controlled recirculating systems for several weeks before being sold in the market places. The current Italian legislation does not fix a maximum length of time for the crustacean confinement and specific welfare requirements. In the present research, a 4-week experiment was carried out using 42 adult H. americanus reared in 4 recirculating aquaculture tanks. After one month of confinement, mean glucose, protein and total haemocyte count levels in the hemolymph of H. americanus were stable and similar (P>0.05 to the values observed at the beginning of the experiment. Results of the proximate analysis of the abdominal muscles of H. americanus showed no significant differences in concentrations of crude protein, lipid and ash during the trial. At the end of the experiment, the sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blotting analysis revealed a marked degradation of the muscle myofibrillar proteins. A number of fragments, possibly from myosin, were evident in the range between 50 and 220 kDa between time t0 and t28. Results of this study show that the main hemolymphatic variables and degradation analysis of the muscle myofibrillar proteins can be used as sensitive indicators of the crustacean stress response to confinement and starvation.

  11. Distinct roles of presynaptic dopamine receptors in the differential modulation of the intrinsic synapses of medium-spiny neurons in the nucleus accumbens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmauss Claudia

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In both schizophrenia and addiction, pathological changes in dopamine release appear to induce alterations in the circuitry of the nucleus accumbens that affect coordinated thought and motivation. Dopamine acts principally on medium-spiny GABA neurons, which comprise 95% of accumbens neurons and give rise to the majority of inhibitory synapses in the nucleus. To examine dopamine action at single medium-spiny neuron synapses, we imaged Ca2+ levels in their presynaptic varicosities in the acute brain slice using two-photon microscopy. Results Presynaptic Ca2+ rises were differentially modulated by dopamine. The D1/D5 selective agonist SKF81297 was exclusively facilitatory. The D2/D3 selective agonist quinpirole was predominantly inhibitory, but in some instances it was facilitatory. Studies using D2 and D3 receptor knockout mice revealed that quinpirole inhibition was either D2 or D3 receptor-mediated, while facilitation was mainly D3 receptor-mediated. Subsets of varicosities responded to both D1 and D2 agonists, showing that there was significant co-expression of these receptor families in single medium-spiny neurons. Neighboring presynaptic varicosities showed strikingly heterogeneous responses to DA agonists, suggesting that DA receptors may be differentially trafficked to individual varicosities on the same medium-spiny neuron axon. Conclusion Dopamine receptors are present on the presynaptic varicosities of medium-spiny neurons, where they potently control GABAergic synaptic transmission. While there is significant coexpression of D1 and D2 family dopamine receptors in individual neurons, at the subcellular level, these receptors appear to be heterogeneously distributed, potentially explaining the considerable controversy regarding dopamine action in the striatum, and in particular the degree of dopamine receptor segregation on these neurons. Assuming that post-receptor signaling is restricted to the microdomains of

  12. The European Union and the Caribbean Region: Situating the Caribbean Overseas Countries and Territories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Sutton

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:This paper examines one important dimension of the European Union's (EU 'regional' engagement with the Caribbean: its relations with the Overseas Countries and Territories (OCT, with a particular focus on the possibility of furthering the policy goals of greater regional integration and cooperation. It does so in three parts. The first sets out the basis for current EU policy to the OCT which has been under discussion between the EU, the OCT and the four EU member states most involved (Denmark, France, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom since 2008. It reports EU proposals for change and the responses to them by the Caribbean OCTs. The second part examines EU policy toward promoting greater regional cooperation among the Caribbean OCTs and between them and some of the other Caribbean regional organizations. Three distinct frameworks for cooperation and integration are discussed: with independent states as established in the Caribbean Community, the Caribbean Forum and the Economic Partnership Agreement; with the French departments and collectivities; and with the Caribbean OCT. In each the position of the Caribbean OCT is situated. The final part briefly discusses the creation of a 'new' framework for regional cooperation specific for the Caribbean OCT which will most closely match their interests in the Caribbean.Resumen: La Unión Europea y la Región del Caribe: Situando a los Países y Territorios de Ultramar del CaribeEste ensayo analiza una dimensión importante de la Unión Europea (UE 'regional' y su compromiso con el Caribe: de igual manera sus relaciones con los Países y Territorios de Ultramar (PTU, con un enfoque particular sobre la posibilidad de promover los objetivos de la política con una mayor integración regional y cooperación. Este proceso se desglosa en tres partes. La primera establece la base para la actual política de la UE hacia los PTU, ya que esta ha sido objeto de debate entre los mismos y los cuatro

  13. African dust and the demise of Caribbean coral reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinn, E.A.; Smith, G.W.; Prospero, J.M.; Betzer, P.; Hayes, M.L.; Garrison, V.; Barber, R.T.

    2000-01-01

    The vitality of Caribbean coral reefs has undergone a continual state of decline since the late 1970s, a period of time coincidental with large increases in transatlantic dust transport. It is proposed that the hundreds of millions of tons/year of soil dust that have been crossing the Atlantic during the last 25 years could be a significant contributor to coral reef decline and may be affecting other ecosystems. Benchmark events, such as near synchronous Caribbean-wide mortalities of acroporid corals and the urchin Diadema in 1983, and coral bleaching beginning in 1987, correlate with the years of maximum dust flux into the Caribbean. Besides crustal elements, in particular Fe, Si, and aluminosilicate clays, the dust can serve as a substrate for numerous species of viable spores, especially the soil fungus Aspergillus. Aspergillus sydowii, the cause of an ongoing Caribbean-wide seafan disease, has been cultured from Caribbean air samples and used to inoculate sea fans.

  14. Isolation and characterization of a novel agarase-producing Pseudoalteromonas spp. bacterium from the guts of spiny turban shells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Young Hoon; Jung, Changkyou; Lee, Jinwon

    2011-08-01

    An agar-degrading bacterium was isolated from the guts of spiny turban shells. It was identified as a Pseudoalteromonas species and named Pseudoalteromonas sp. JYBCL 1. The viscosity of the inoculated agar medium decreased by more than 60% after 20 h cultivation. The agarase produced by the isolate had optimal activities at 35 degrees C and pH 7. The enzyme had extremely strong resistance to ionic stress compared with other known agarases. Its molecular mass was estimated at about 60 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The agarase could saccharify Gelidium amansii directly, with an efficiency about half that compared with agar saccharification.

  15. Subcellular Location of PKA Controls Striatal Plasticity: Stochastic Simulations in Spiny Dendrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Rodrigo F.; Kim, MyungSook; Blackwell, Kim T.

    2012-01-01

    Dopamine release in the striatum has been implicated in various forms of reward dependent learning. Dopamine leads to production of cAMP and activation of protein kinase A (PKA), which are involved in striatal synaptic plasticity and learning. PKA and its protein targets are not diffusely located throughout the neuron, but are confined to various subcellular compartments by anchoring molecules such as A-Kinase Anchoring Proteins (AKAPs). Experiments have shown that blocking the interaction of PKA with AKAPs disrupts its subcellular location and prevents LTP in the hippocampus and striatum; however, these experiments have not revealed whether the critical function of anchoring is to locate PKA near the cAMP that activates it or near its targets, such as AMPA receptors located in the post-synaptic density. We have developed a large scale stochastic reaction-diffusion model of signaling pathways in a medium spiny projection neuron dendrite with spines, based on published biochemical measurements, to investigate this question and to evaluate whether dopamine signaling exhibits spatial specificity post-synaptically. The model was stimulated with dopamine pulses mimicking those recorded in response to reward. Simulations show that PKA colocalization with adenylate cyclase, either in the spine head or in the dendrite, leads to greater phosphorylation of DARPP-32 Thr34 and AMPA receptor GluA1 Ser845 than when PKA is anchored away from adenylate cyclase. Simulations further demonstrate that though cAMP exhibits a strong spatial gradient, diffusible DARPP-32 facilitates the spread of PKA activity, suggesting that additional inactivation mechanisms are required to produce spatial specificity of PKA activity. PMID:22346744

  16. Homeostatic regulation of excitatory synapses on striatal medium spiny neurons expressing the D2 dopamine receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibault, Dominic; Giguère, Nicolas; Loustalot, Fabien; Bourque, Marie-Josée; Ducrot, Charles; El Mestikawy, Salah; Trudeau, Louis-Éric

    2016-05-01

    Striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs) are contacted by glutamatergic axon terminals originating from cortex, thalamus and other regions. The striatum is also innervated by dopaminergic (DAergic) terminals, some of which release glutamate as a co-transmitter. Despite evidence for functional DA release at birth in the striatum, the role of DA in the establishment of striatal circuitry is unclear. In light of recent work suggesting activity-dependent homeostatic regulation of glutamatergic terminals on MSNs expressing the D2 DA receptor (D2-MSNs), we used primary co-cultures to test the hypothesis that stimulation of DA and glutamate receptors regulates the homeostasis of glutamatergic synapses on MSNs. Co-culture of D2-MSNs with mesencephalic DA neurons or with cortical neurons produced an increase in spines and functional glutamate synapses expressing VGLUT2 or VGLUT1, respectively. The density of VGLUT2-positive terminals was reduced by the conditional knockout of this gene from DA neurons. In the presence of both mesencephalic and cortical neurons, the density of synapses reached the same total, compatible with the possibility of a homeostatic mechanism capping excitatory synaptic density. Blockade of D2 receptors increased the density of cortical and mesencephalic glutamatergic terminals, without changing MSN spine density or mEPSC frequency. Combined blockade of AMPA and NMDA glutamate receptors increased the density of cortical terminals and decreased that of mesencephalic VGLUT2-positive terminals, with no net change in total excitatory terminal density or in mEPSC frequency. These results suggest that DA and glutamate signaling regulate excitatory inputs to striatal D2-MSNs at both the pre- and postsynaptic level, under the influence of a homeostatic mechanism controlling functional output of the circuit.

  17. Ultraviolet light and heat source selection in captive spiny-tailed iguanas (Oplurus cuvieri)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickinson, H.C.; Fa, J.E.

    1997-01-01

    Three experimental manipulations were conducted to assess the influence of heat source selection and active thermoregulation on ultraviolet (UV) light exposure in captive spiny-tailed iguanas (Oplurus cuvieri) at the Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust. Four replicates per manipulation were conducted on six individual lizards. All animals were tested in a separate enclosure to which they were acclimated before observations. Data on choice of thermal sources were collected during the first 2 hr of light, when lizards were actively thermoregulating. Animals were allowed to choose between incandescent light, UV light and a non-light heat source (thermotube) in different combinations. Recorded temperatures close to the incandescent light (37°C) were always significantly higher than at the thermotube (33°C) and at the UV light (29°C). Manipulation 1 offered the animals a choice of an UV light and an incandescent light as thermal sources. Manipulation 2 presented animals with the thermal choices in Manipulation 1, but substrates under each source in Manipulation 1 were switched. In Manipulation 3, animals could choose between an incandescent light and the thermotube. All studied lizards were significantly more attracted to the incandescent light than to the UV light or thermotube. Incandescent light elicited a significantly higher proportion of basking behaviors in all individuals than the other sources. A high proportion of time basking was also spent in front of the thermotube but fewer individuals and less time were spent basking under the UV light. Heat source selection was generally found to be independent of substrate. Management applications of this preference are suggested for juvenile diurnal heliothermic iguanids. (author)

  18. Developmental alterations in motor coordination and medium spiny neuron markers in mice lacking pgc-1α.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth K Lucas

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence implicates the transcriptional coactivator peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α in the pathophysiology of Huntington Disease (HD. Adult PGC-1α (-/- mice exhibit striatal neurodegeneration, and reductions in the expression of PGC-1α have been observed in striatum and muscle of HD patients as well as in animal models of the disease. However, it is unknown whether decreased expression of PGC-1α alone is sufficient to lead to the motor phenotype and striatal pathology characteristic of HD. For the first time, we show that young PGC-1α (-/- mice exhibit severe rotarod deficits, decreased rearing behavior, and increased occurrence of tremor in addition to the previously described hindlimb clasping. Motor impairment and striatal vacuolation are apparent in PGC-1α (-/- mice by four weeks of age and do not improve or decline by twelve weeks of age. The behavioral and pathological phenotype of PGC-1α (-/- mice can be completely recapitulated by conditional nervous system deletion of PGC-1α, indicating that peripheral effects are not responsible for the observed abnormalities. Evaluation of the transcriptional profile of PGC-1α (-/- striatal neuron populations and comparison to striatal neuron profiles of R6/2 HD mice revealed that PGC-1α deficiency alone is not sufficient to cause the transcriptional changes observed in this HD mouse model. In contrast to R6/2 HD mice, PGC-1α (-/- mice show increases in the expression of medium spiny neuron (MSN markers with age, suggesting that the observed behavioral and structural abnormalities are not primarily due to MSN loss, the defining pathological feature of HD. These results indicate that PGC-1α is required for the proper development of motor circuitry and transcriptional homeostasis in MSNs and that developmental disruption of PGC-1α leads to long-term alterations in motor functioning.

  19. Input dependent cell assembly dynamics in a model of the striatal medium spiny neuron network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam ePonzi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The striatal medium spiny neuron (MSNs network is sparsely connected with fairly weak GABAergic collaterals receiving an excitatory glutamatergic cortical projection. Peri stimulus time histograms (PSTH of MSN population response investigated in various experimental studies display strong firing rate modulations distributed throughout behavioural task epochs. In previous work we have shown by numerical simulation that sparse random networks of inhibitory spiking neurons with characteristics appropriate for UP state MSNs form cell assemblies which fire together coherently in sequences on long behaviourally relevant timescales when the network receives a fixed pattern of constant input excitation. Here we first extend that model to the case where cortical excitation is composed of many independent noisy Poisson processes and demonstrate that cell assembly dynamics is still observed when the input is sufficiently weak. However if cortical excitation strength is increased more regularly firing and completely quiescent cells are found, which depend on the cortical stimulation. Subsequently we further extend previous work to consider what happens when the excitatory input varies as it would in when the animal is engaged in behavior. We investigate how sudden switches in excitation interact with network generated patterned activity. We show that sequences of cell assembly activations can be locked to the excitatory input sequence and delineate the range of parameters where this behaviour is shown. Model cell population PSTH display both stimulus and temporal specificity, with large population firing rate modulations locked to elapsed time from task events. Thus the random network can generate a large diversity of temporally evolving stimulus dependent responses even though the input is fixed between switches. We suggest the MSN network is well suited to the generation of such slow coherent task dependent response

  20. Input dependent cell assembly dynamics in a model of the striatal medium spiny neuron network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponzi, Adam; Wickens, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    The striatal medium spiny neuron (MSN) network is sparsely connected with fairly weak GABAergic collaterals receiving an excitatory glutamatergic cortical projection. Peri-stimulus time histograms (PSTH) of MSN population response investigated in various experimental studies display strong firing rate modulations distributed throughout behavioral task epochs. In previous work we have shown by numerical simulation that sparse random networks of inhibitory spiking neurons with characteristics appropriate for UP state MSNs form cell assemblies which fire together coherently in sequences on long behaviorally relevant timescales when the network receives a fixed pattern of constant input excitation. Here we first extend that model to the case where cortical excitation is composed of many independent noisy Poisson processes and demonstrate that cell assembly dynamics is still observed when the input is sufficiently weak. However if cortical excitation strength is increased more regularly firing and completely quiescent cells are found, which depend on the cortical stimulation. Subsequently we further extend previous work to consider what happens when the excitatory input varies as it would when the animal is engaged in behavior. We investigate how sudden switches in excitation interact with network generated patterned activity. We show that sequences of cell assembly activations can be locked to the excitatory input sequence and outline the range of parameters where this behavior is shown. Model cell population PSTH display both stimulus and temporal specificity, with large population firing rate modulations locked to elapsed time from task events. Thus the random network can generate a large diversity of temporally evolving stimulus dependent responses even though the input is fixed between switches. We suggest the MSN network is well suited to the generation of such slow coherent task dependent response which could be utilized by the animal in behavior.

  1. Examining urea flux across the intestine of the spiny dogfish, Squalus acanthias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary Anderson, W; McCabe, Chris; Brandt, Catherine; Wood, Chris M

    2015-03-01

    Recent examination of urea flux in the intestine of the spiny dogfish shark, Squalus acanthias, has shown that feeding significantly enhances urea uptake across the intestine, and this was significantly inhibited following mucosal addition of phloretin. The present study examined potential mechanisms of urea uptake across the dogfish intestine in starved and fed dogfish. Unidirectional flux chambers were used to examine the kinetics of urea uptake, and to determine the influence of sodium, ouabain, competitive urea analogues, and phloretin on urea uptake across the gut of fed dogfish. Intestinal epithelial preparations from starved and fed dogfish were mounted in Ussing chambers to examine the effect of phloretin on bidirectional solute transport across the intestine. In the unidirectional studies, the maximum uptake rate of urea was found to be 35.3±6.9 μmol.cm(-2).h(-1) and Km was found to be 291.8±9.6 mM in fed fish, and there was a mild inhibition of urea uptake following mucosal addition of competitive agonists. Addition of phloretin, Na-free Ringers and ouabain to the mucosal side of intestinal epithelia also led to a significant reduction in urea uptake in fed fish. In the Ussing chamber studies there was a net influx of urea in fed fish and a small insignificant efflux in starved fish. Addition of phloretin blocked urea uptake in fed fish when added to the mucosal side. Furthermore, phloretin had no effect on ion transport across the intestinal epithelia with the exception of the divalent cations, magnesium and calcium. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Branchial CO(2) receptors and cardiorespiratory adjustments during hypercarbia in Pacific spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKendry, J E; Milsom, W K; Perry, S F

    2001-04-01

    Adult Pacific spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias) were exposed to acute (approximately 20 min) hypercarbia while we monitored arterial blood pressure, systemic vascular resistance (R(S)), cardiac output (V(b)) and frequency (fh) as well as ventilatory amplitude (V(AMP)) and frequency (f(V)). Separate series of experiments were conducted on control, atropinized (100 nmol kg(-1)) and branchially denervated fish to investigate putative CO(2)-chemoreceptive sites on the gills and their link to the autonomic nervous system and cardiorespiratory reflexes.In untreated fish, moderate hypercarbia (water CO(2 )partial pressure; Pw(CO2)=6.4+/-0.1 mmHg) (1 mmHg=0.133 kPa) elicited significant increases in V(AMP) (of approximately 92 %) and f(V) (of approximately 18 %) as well as decreases in fh (of approximately 64 %), V.(b) (approximately 29 %) and arterial blood pressure (of approximately 11 %); R(S) did not change significantly. Denervation of the branchial branches of cranial nerves IX and X to the pseudobranch and each gill arch eliminated all cardiorespiratory responses to hypercarbia. Prior administration of the muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine also abolished the hypercarbia-induced ventilatory responses and virtually eliminated all CO(2)-elicited cardiovascular adjustments. Although the atropinized dogfish displayed a hypercarbic bradycardia, the magnitude of the response was significantly attenuated (36+/-6 % decrease in fh in controls versus 9+/-2 % decrease in atropinized fish; means +/- s.e.m.).Thus, the results of the present study reveal the presence of gill CO(2) chemoreceptors in dogfish that are linked to numerous cardiorespiratory reflexes. In addition, because all cardiorespiratory responses to hypercarbia were abolished or attenuated by atropine, the CO(2) chemoreception process and/or one or more downstream elements probably involve cholinergic (muscarinic) neurotransmission.

  3. Sensitivity of the spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias) to waterborne silver exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Boeck, G; Grosell, M; Wood, C

    2001-10-01

    The physiological effects of waterborne silver exposure (added as AgNO(3)) on spiny dogfish, Squalus acanthias, were evaluated at 30, 200 and 685 microg silver per l in 30 per thousand seawater. These concentrations cover the toxic range observed for freshwater teleosts, where silver is extremely toxic, to seawater teleosts which tolerate higher silver concentrations. However, these levels are considerably higher than those that occur in the normal environment. At 685 microg l(-1), dogfish died within 24 h. Causes of death were respiratory as well as osmoregulatory failure. Arterial P(a)O(2) rapidly declined below 20 Torr, and blood acidosis (both respiratory and metabolic) occurred. Urea excretion increased dramatically and plasma urea dropped from 340 to 225 mM. There were pronounced increases in plasma Na(+), Cl(-), and Mg(2+), indicative of ionoregulatory failure due to increased diffusive permeability as well as inhibited NaCl excretion. At 200 microg l(-1), fish died between 24 and 72 h of silver exposure. The same physiological events occurred with a small time delay. At 30 microg l(-1), effects were much less severe, although slight mortality (12.5%) still occurred. Respiratory alkalosis occurred, together with moderate elevations in plasma Na(+) and Cl(-) levels. Silver accumulated to the highest concentrations on gills, with only low levels in the intestine, in accord with the virtual absence of drinking. Na(+)/K(+)-ATP-ase activities of gill and rectal gland tissue were impaired at the highest silver concentration. Normal gill function was impaired due to swelling and fusion of lamellae, lamellar aneurism and lifting of the lamellar epithelium. Our results clearly indicate that this elasmobranch is much more sensitive (about 10-fold) to silver than marine teleosts, with silver's toxic action exerted on the gill rather than on the intestine, in contrast to the latter.

  4. Different corticostriatal integration in spiny projection neurons from direct and indirect pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edén Flores-Barrera

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The striatum is the principal input structure of the basal ganglia (BG. Major glutamatergic afferents to the striatum come from the cerebral cortex and make monosynaptic contacts with medium spiny projection neurons (MSNs and interneurons. Despite differences in axonal projections, dopamine receptors expression and differences in excitability between MSNs from “direct” and “indirect” BG pathways, these neuronal classes have been thought as electrophysiologically very similar. Based on work with BAC transgenic mice, here it is shown that corticostriatal responses in D1- and D2-receptor expressing MSNs (D1- and D2-MSNs are radically different so as to establish an electrophysiological footprint that readily differentiates between them. Experiments in BAC mice allowed us to predict, with high probability (P>0.9, in rats or non-BAC mice, whether a recorded neuron, from rat or mouse, was going to be substance P or enkephalin immunoreactive. Responses are more prolonged and evoke more action potentials in D1-MSNs, while they are briefer and exhibit intrinsic autoregenerative responses in D2-MSNs. A main cause for these differences was the interaction of intrinsic properties with the inhibitory contribution in each response Inhibition always depressed corticostriatal depolarization in D2-MSNs, while it helped in sustaining prolonged depolarizations in D1-MSNs, in spite of depressing early discharge. Corticostriatal responses changed dramatically after striatal DA-depletion in 6-hydroxy-dopamine (6-OHDA lesioned animals: a response reduction was seen in SP+ MSNs whereas an enhanced response was seen in ENK+ MSNs. The end result was that differences in the responses were greatly diminished after DA depletion.

  5. Distribution and compartmental organization of GABAergic medium-sized spiny neurons in the mouse Nucleus Accumbens

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    Giuseppe eGangarossa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The nucleus accumbens (NAc is a critical brain region involved in many reward-related behaviors. The NAc comprises major compartments the core and the shell, which encompass several subterritories. GABAergic medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs constitute the output neurons of the NAc core and shell. While the functional organization of the NAc core outputs resembles the one described for the dorsal striatum, a simple classification of the NAc shell neurons has been difficult to define due to the complexity of the compartmental segregation of cells. We used a variety of BAC transgenic mice expressing enhanced green fluorescence (EGFP or the Cre-recombinase (Cre under the control of the promoter of dopamine D1, D2, and D3 receptors and of adenosine A2a receptor to dissect the microanatomy of the NAc. Moreover, using various immunological markers we characterized in detail the distribution of MSNs in the mouse NAc. In addition, cell-type specific ERK phosphorylation in the NAc subterritories was analyzed following acute administration of SKF81297 (a D1R-like agonist, quinpirole (a D2R-like agonist, apomorphine (a non-selective DA receptor agonist, raclopride (a D2R-like antagonist, and psychostimulant drugs, including cocaine and d-amphetamine. Each drug generated a unique topography and cell-type specific activation of ERK in the NAc. Our results show the existence of marked differences in the receptor expression pattern and functional activation of MSNs within the shell subterritories. This study emphasizes the anatomical and functional heterogeneity of the NAc, which will have to be considered in its further study.

  6. A Quantitative Golgi Study of Dendritic Morphology in the Mice Striatal Medium Spiny Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Hladnik

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study we have provided a detailed quantitative morphological analysis of medium spiny neurons (MSNs in the mice dorsal striatum and determined the consistency of values among three groups of animals obtained in different set of experiments. Dendritic trees of 162 Golgi Cox (FD Rapid GolgiStain Kit impregnated MSNs from 15 adult C57BL/6 mice were 3-dimensionally reconstructed using Neurolucida software, and parameters of dendritic morphology have been compared among experimental groups. The parameters of length and branching pattern did not show statistically significant difference and were highly consistent among groups. The average neuronal soma surface was between 160 μm2 and 180 μm2, and the cells had 5–6 primary dendrites with close to 40 segments per neuron. Sholl analysis confirmed regular pattern of dendritic branching. The total length of dendrites was around 2100 μm with the average length of individual branching (intermediate segment around 22 μm and for the terminal segment around 100 μm. Even though each experimental group underwent the same strictly defined protocol in tissue preparation and Golgi staining, we found inconsistency in dendritic volume and soma surface. These changes could be methodologically influenced during the Golgi procedure, although without affecting the dendritic length and tree complexity. Since the neuronal activity affects the dendritic thickness, it could not be excluded that observed volume inconsistency was related with functional states of neurons prior to animal sacrifice. Comprehensive analyses of tree complexity and dendritic length provided here could serve as an additional tool for understanding morphological variability in the most numerous neuronal population of the striatum. As reference values they could provide basic ground for comparisons with the results obtained in studies that use various models of genetically modified mice in explaining different pathological conditions that

  7. Striatal cholinergic interneurons and D2 receptor-expressing GABAergic medium spiny neurons regulate tardive dyskinesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordia, Tanuja; Zhang, Danhui; Perez, Xiomara A; Quik, Maryka

    2016-12-01

    Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a drug-induced movement disorder that arises with antipsychotics. These drugs are the mainstay of treatment for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, and are also prescribed for major depression, autism, attention deficit hyperactivity, obsessive compulsive and post-traumatic stress disorder. There is thus a need for therapies to reduce TD. The present studies and our previous work show that nicotine administration decreases haloperidol-induced vacuous chewing movements (VCMs) in rodent TD models, suggesting a role for the nicotinic cholinergic system. Extensive studies also show that D2 dopamine receptors are critical to TD. However, the precise involvement of striatal cholinergic interneurons and D2 medium spiny neurons (MSNs) in TD is uncertain. To elucidate their role, we used optogenetics with a focus on the striatum because of its close links to TD. Optical stimulation of striatal cholinergic interneurons using cholineacetyltransferase (ChAT)-Cre mice expressing channelrhodopsin2-eYFP decreased haloperidol-induced VCMs (~50%), with no effect in control-eYFP mice. Activation of striatal D2 MSNs using Adora2a-Cre mice expressing channelrhodopsin2-eYFP also diminished antipsychotic-induced VCMs, with no change in control-eYFP mice. In both ChAT-Cre and Adora2a-Cre mice, stimulation or mecamylamine alone similarly decreased VCMs with no further decline with combined treatment, suggesting nAChRs are involved. Striatal D2 MSN activation in haloperidol-treated Adora2a-Cre mice increased c-Fos + D2 MSNs and decreased c-Fos + non-D2 MSNs, suggesting a role for c-Fos. These studies provide the first evidence that optogenetic stimulation of striatal cholinergic interneurons and GABAergic MSNs modulates VCMs, and thus possibly TD. Moreover, they suggest nicotinic receptor drugs may reduce antipsychotic-induced TD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. WELFARE REGIMES IN LATIN AMERICA AND CARIBBEAN

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    Melisa Campana-Alabarce

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a characterization of Latin American and Caribbean Welfare regimes in historiographical perspective. Firstly, it makes a review of the emergence conditions of Welfare States in Western Europe and its core features, with particular emphasis on its role as a method to regulate inequalities in industrial capitalism. Dialoguing with it, then stops in the specific configurations that welfare regimes have taken in Latin America during the course of the twentieth century. Finally, it provides a map of its contemporary features and the major challenges that the States of the region face in his capacity as right guarantors for the future.

  9. Epilepsy care in the southern Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Gregory; Sandy, Sherry; Corbin, David O C; Bird-Compton, Jacqueline; Jack, Frances; Nelson, Beverly; Jalonen, Tuula O; Ali, Amza; Fortuné, Taryn; Clarke, Dave; Okolie, Jacqueline; Cervenka, Mackenzie C

    2015-10-01

    Very little has been reported about the health resources available for patients with epilepsy in the five English-speaking southern Caribbean countries of Trinidad and Tobago, Barbados, Grenada, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, and Saint Lucia. There is no comprehensive resource describing their health systems, access to specialty care, antiepileptic drug (AED) use, and availability of brain imaging and EEG. The purpose of this study was to profile epilepsy care in these countries as an initial step toward improving the standard of care and identifying gaps in care to guide future policy changes. In each southern Caribbean country, we conducted study visits and interviewed health-care providers, government health ministers, pharmacy directors, hospital medical directors, pharmacists, clinic staff, radiologists, and radiology and EEG technicians. Health-care providers completed extensive epilepsy care surveys. The five countries all have integrated government health systems with clinics and hospitals that provide free or heavily subsidized care and AEDs for patients with epilepsy. Only Trinidad and Tobago and Barbados, however, have neurology specialists. The three smaller countries lack government imaging and EEG facilities. Trinidad had up to one-year waits for public MRI/EEG. Government formularies in Grenada, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, and Saint Lucia are limited to first-generation AEDs. One or more second-line agents are formulary in Trinidad and Barbados. Nonformulary drugs may be obtained for individual patients in Barbados. Grenada, Saint Lucia, and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines participate in an Organization of Eastern Caribbean States formulary purchasing system, which added levetiracetam following the survey. Newer generic AED formulations with the lowest risks for pregnancy malformation were not in use. In conclusion, patients with epilepsy in the southern Caribbean have excellent access to government clinics and hospitals, but AED choices

  10. Black Humour Spaces in Cinema and Literature: Yorgos Lanthimos' The Lobster and Tom McCarthy's Satin Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Maggitti

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Maggitti’s essay is focused on two different expressions of black humour in today’s film and literature. After commenting on a recent proposal, by the British writer Jonathan Coe, on the whereabouts of contemporary humour, the author examines a film  (The Lobster by YorgosLanthimos and a novel (Satin Island by T. McCarthy, both portraying the present world through humorous lenses, with a disrespectful attitude to an ecologically correct behaviour. In The Lobster hunting is claimed a universal role in man to animal relation whereas Tom McCarthy turns environmental disasters into acts of worthy ecologism. In his approach to humour, Maggitti draws on its anthropological turn as its most estranging function.

  11. Ranking harbours in the Maritime provinces of Canada for potential to contaminate American lobster (Homarus americanus) with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prouse, N.J. [Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Halifax, NS (Canada). Biological Sciences Branch

    1997-05-01

    The sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination within selected harbors in the Maritime provinces of Canada were evaluated by assessing point sources, population, industrial and commercial activity, international and domestic ship traffic, and the number of commercial fishing vessels. Results showed that Sydney ranked as the highest potential for PAH contamination. Ranking of the other Maritime harbors was also presented. The lobster contamination with PAHs was reviewed.

  12. Spinning in different directions: western rock lobster larval condition varies with eddy polarity, but does their diet?

    OpenAIRE

    O'Rorke, R.; Jeffs, A. G.; Wang, M.; Waite, A. M.; Beckley, L. E.; Lavery, S. D.

    2015-01-01

    Larvae of the western rock lobster (Panulirus cygnus) that occur in the south-east Indian Ocean offshore of Western Australia have been found to be in poorer nutritional condition in anticyclonic compared with cyclonic mesoscale eddies. The reason for this is unknown, but culture-based experiments have shown that diet composition and water temperature are key determinants of phyllosoma health and survival. Whether differences in prey composition are the cause of poor phyllosoma co...

  13. Aerococcus viridans var. homari: The presence of capsule and the relationship to virulence in American lobster (Homarus americanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, K Fraser; Wadowska, Dorota; Greenwood, Spencer J

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between virulence and encapsulation of Aerococcus viridans var. homari was evaluated by growing virulent (Rabin's) and avirulent (ATCC 10400) strains under varying culture conditions, and during challenge trials. Changes in capsule thickness were monitored using a modified lysine-ruthenium red (LRR) fixation method and transmission electron microscopy. The virulent Rabin's strain possessed a prominent capsule of 0.252 μm±0.061 μm that was diminished by in vitro growth conditions to 0.206 μm±0.076 μm. The ATCC 10400 strain capsule thickness decreased from 0.157 μm±0.043 μm to 0.117 μm±0.043 μm after 10 in vitro passages. The virulent Rabin's strain capsule was significantly thicker than the avirulent ATCC 10400 strain under all growth conditions. Rabin's strain, regardless of pre-challenge growth conditions or dose (high dose 10(7) or low dose 10(2)), was able to kill lobsters in 7 days at 15°C. ATCC 10400 strain, regardless of pre-challenge growth conditions, killed lobster only at high doses (10(7)) with varying median time to death of ∼15 days, while at low doses (10(2)) all lobsters survived and no bacteria were present after 42 days. This work demonstrates the importance of the thickness of the A. viridans capsule to virulence in the American lobster. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Cold-adapted digestive aspartic protease of the clawed lobsters Homarus americanus and Homarus gammarus: biochemical characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo, Liliana; García-Carreño, Fernando; de Los Angeles Navarrete del Toro, Maria

    2013-02-01

    Aspartic proteinases in the gastric fluid of clawed lobsters Homarus americanus and Homarus gammarus were isolated to homogeneity by single-step pepstatin-A affinity chromatography; such enzymes have been previously identified as cathepsin D-like enzymes based on their deduced amino acid sequence. Here, we describe their biochemical characteristics; the properties of the lobster enzymes were compared with those of its homolog, bovine cathepsin D, and found to be unique in a number of ways. The lobster enzymes demonstrated hydrolytic activity against synthetic and natural substrates at a wider range of pH; they were more temperature-sensitive, showed no changes in the K(M) value at 4°C, 10°C, and 25°C, and had 20-fold higher k(cat)/K(M) values than bovine enzyme. The bovine enzyme was temperature-dependent. We propose that both properties arose from an increase in molecular flexibility required to compensate for the reduction of reaction rates at low habitat temperatures. This is supported by the fast denaturation rates induced by temperature.

  15. Low-salinity stress in the American lobster, Homarus americanus, after chronic sublethal exposure to cadmium: Biochemical effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gould, E

    1980-01-01

    Lobsters (Homarus americanus) were exposed to cadmium (6 ..mu..g 1sup(-1), 30 days) in flowing seawater, then held for 7 days in aerated 'clean' seawater at either ambient (27 per mill) or low (17 per mill) salinity. Cadmium exposure alone (ambient salinity) induced a general elevation of enzyme activity (heart, antennal gland, and muscle MDH; heart LDH and GPI), despite the probability of some clearance of cadmium from body tissues during the 'clean' seawater holding period. Low-salinity alone (non-exposed lobsters) caused a decrease of enzyme activity (AAT, LDH, GPI, PK) in most tissues examined, except for tail muscle IDH, the activity of which was increased, and MDH, which was significantly elevated above ambient controls in all tissues except heart. Most low-salinity effects were observed in tail muscle, and most cadmium effects, in heart; low-salinity effects outnumbered cadmium stress by nine to four. In heart and tail muscle of cadmium-exposed lobsters held at low salinity, each of the two stresses apparently operated to nullify the other's effects. The most prominent single biochemical response to these sublethal stresses was the elevation of MDH activity. The ratio MDH:LDH gave the clearest indication of overall relative stress.

  16. Repeated sublethal exposures to the sea lice pesticide Salmosan® (azamethiphos) on adult male lobsters (Homarus americanus) causes neuromuscular dysfunction, hypoxia, metabolic disturbances and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dounia, Daoud; Andrea, Battison; Lefort, Natalie; Van Geest, Jordana Lynne

    2016-12-01

    In Atlantic Canada and other salmon-growing regions, treatment of sea lice infestations in salmon aquaculture is necessary to protect fish health. The product Salmosan®, which contains the organophosphate azamethiphos as the active ingredient, is a pesticide presently used for treatment against sea lice. It is applied as a bath treatment and then released into the surrounding seawater. The potential for lethality to non-target species following acute and chronic exposures to Salmosan® has been studied over the past decade, however, the potential for sublethal effects on lobsters remains a concern. Adult male lobsters were exposed to 0.06, 0.5, and 5µgL -1 azamethiphos for one hour, repeated five times, over 48h. Lobsters were assessed immediately after exposure and over six days of recovery. Inhibition of muscle cholinesterase activity was detected in lobsters exposed to 0.5 and 5µgL -1 azamethiphos. The 5µgL -1 dose was considered lethal (93% cumulative mortality). Significant changes in hemolymph plasma biochemistry were most apparent in the 5µgL -1 exposure group in the immediate post-exposure samples. Citrate synthase activity was significantly lower in muscles of the 0.5µgL -1 exposure group compared to control lobsters. Mean electron transport system and standard metabolic rates tended to be lower in muscle tissue of the 0.5µgL -1 exposure group than control group lobsters. These results suggest that sublethal effects on lobster energetics may occur under laboratory exposure conditions (i.e., concentrations and duration) considered environmentally relevant, which could result in impairment under natural conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Water Security and Services in the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Cashman

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The efficient management of water resources and services continues to be a concern in many of the small island states of the Caribbean. There are growing concerns over the ability of governments in the region to ensure the good management and provision of water without jeopardizing economic growth and the maintenance of social well-being. This paper provides an overview of the major factors influencing the water security facing the Caribbean Region and how the emerging concerns are being addressed. The key challenges and vulnerabilities may be summarized as lack of data and barriers to making available what information there is. Forward planning has been largely neglected and is symptomatic of a lack of appreciation of the need for having national water policies. In this respect Jamaica’s development of a national master water plan serves as a good example of what is needed. Water service providers have to be efficient, well managed and allowed to do their job. This means that they have to be on a sound financial footing. The challenge is to find the balance between appropriate political and regulatory oversight and the autonomy of water managers and service providers.

  18. Temporal variation in the prevalence of the crayfish plague pathogen, Aphanomyces astaci, in three Czech spiny-cheek crayfish populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matasová K.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available North American crayfish species are natural hosts of the crayfish plague pathogen Aphanomyces astaci. The spiny-cheek crayfish Orconectes limosus, widespread in Central Europe, is the main reservoir of A. astaci in Czech Republic. We tested if there are temporal changes in the prevalence of infected individuals (i.e., the proportion of individuals in which the pathogen is detected in spiny-cheek crayfish populations. Crayfish from three populations shown previously to be infected to different extents (high, intermediate and low, were repeatedly sampled in different years (2004–2010 and seasons. The presence of A. astaci in the soft abdominal crayfish cuticle was tested by specific amplification of the pathogen DNA. There was no substantial temporal variation in pathogen prevalence in the highly and very lowly infected populations. However, a significant long-term as well as seasonal decrease was found in the intermediately infected population. This decline could be related to a decrease in population density over the studied years, and to crayfish seasonal moulting, respectively. A reliable estimate of pathogen prevalence in American crayfish populations thus requires repeated monitoring over years, preferably during the same season before the main period of crayfish moulting.

  19. Prenatally administered HMB modifies the enamel surface roughness in spiny mice offspring: An atomic force microscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Świetlicka, Izabela; Muszyński, Siemowit; Tomaszewska, Ewa; Dobrowolski, Piotr; Kwaśniewska, Anita; Świetlicki, Michał; Skic, Anna; Gołacki, Krzysztof

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this research was to check the effect of the prenatally administered β-hydroxy β-methylbutyrate (HMB) on the development of enamel surface of the spiny mice offspring. The spiny mice dams were randomly assigned into three groups: control group (not supplemented with HMB) and two experimental groups in which powdered HMB was given at the daily dosage of 0.2g/kg of body weight (group I) and 0.02g/kg of body weight (group II) during the last period of gestation. Newborn pups were euthanized by CO 2 inhalation. The morphology of incisor teeth was analysed using atomic force microscopy (AFM) in semi-contact mode in the height, magnitude and phase domains. Height images became a basis for determination of surface roughness parameters. Conducted study indicated that maternal HMB administration markedly influences enamel development. Enamel of offspring's teeth in both experimental groups was characterized by significantly smaller values of indices describing surface roughness and profile. HMB supplementation influenced the calculated parameters regardless of the diet type and offspring sex, however higher dose of HMB caused stronger changes in enamel surface's physical properties and could be observed in higher intensity in the male group. HMB administration caused reduction in the irregularities of enamel surface, thereby possibly reducing the probability of bacteria adhesion and caries development. These observations may serve to improve nutrition and supplementation of animals and could be a lead for further research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Impact of Eastern Caribbean Circulation Seasonality on two Reef Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherubin, L. M.; Paris, C. B.; Baums, I. B.; Idrisi, N.

    2008-05-01

    The variability of the Caribbean current is under the influence of the fresh water input from the Orinoco and Amazon rivers. Sea Surface Salinity maps of the eastern Caribbean show the seasonal extension of the riverine fresh water across the Caribbean basin, from August to December (wet season). The plume is divided into two main cores: one flows into the Caribbean Sea mostly through the Grenada Passage where it merges with the Caribbean Current while the other core is formed further north by advection of the river plume by the North Brazil Current rings. Due to the presence of fresh water the Caribbean Sea mesoscale activity is strongly increased during the wet season. Therefore, both coral reef ecosystems and coastal flows are under the scope of the large scale flow seasonality. The impact of the flow mesoscale seasonality on reef organisms is studied through two reef organisms: (1) Reef-building coral: Genetic analyzes show that populations of the Caribbean reef-building coral, Acropora palmata, have experienced little or no recent genetic exchange between the western and eastern Caribbean. Western Puerto Rico is identified as an area of mixing between the two subregions. Using a bio- physical coupled model accounting for larvae life history traits, we verify the plausibility of a present day oceanographic barrier caused by the Caribbean Current seasonal variability in the vicinity of Mona Passage. (2) Grouper: Several grouper species form spawning aggregations at the shelf edge of the US Virgin Islands starting at the end of the wet season in December. Using ADCP current measurements and numerical simulations, unusual large 'dispersion' pulses are shown to be associated with the presence of sub-mesoscale coherent features more likely to be formed during the wet season. Spawning occurring during the dry season (January to April) is mostly tide driven, suggesting a limited dispersal.

  1. US Military interventions in the Caribbean from 1898 to 1998 Lessons for Caribbean Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    live in fear of the destructive power which can accompany the Atlantic hurricane season. With sizes ranging from 35 acres (Young Islands in the...Grenadines) to 42, 803 square miles (Cuba), any Caribbean island can be completely devastated by a single hurricane , necessitating outside aid. The...Since the completion of this work the Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez hosted a two-day, 33

  2. Exercise and recovery metabolism in the Pacific spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, J G; Heigenhauser, G J F; Wood, C M

    2003-08-01

    We examined the effects of exhaustive exercise and post-exercise recovery on white muscle substrate depletion and metabolite distribution between white muscle and blood plasma in the Pacific spiny dogfish, both in vivo and in an electrically stimulated perfused tail-trunk preparation. Measurements of arterial-venous lactate, total ammonia, beta-hydroxybutyrate, glucose, and L-alanine concentrations in the perfused tail-trunk assessed white muscle metabolite fluxes. Exhaustive exercise was fuelled primarily by creatine phosphate hydrolysis and glycolysis as indicated by 62, 71, and 85% decreases in ATP, creatine phosphate, and glycogen, respectively. White muscle lactate production during exercise caused a sustained increase (approximately 12 h post-exercise) in plasma lactate load and a short-lived increase (approximately 4 h post-exercise) in plasma metabolic acid load during recovery. Exhaustive exercise and recovery did not affect arterial PO2, PCO2, or PNH3 but the metabolic acidosis caused a decrease in arterial HCO3- immediately after exercise and during the first 8 h recovery. During recovery, lactate was retained in the white muscle at higher concentrations than in the plasma despite increased lactate efflux from the muscle. Pyruvate dehydrogenase activity was very low in dogfish white muscle at rest and during recovery (0.53 +/- 0.15 nmol g wet tissue(-1) min(-1); n=40) indicating that lactate oxidation is not the major fate of lactate during post-exercise recovery. The lack of change in white muscle free-carnitine and variable changes in short-chain fatty acyl-carnitine suggest that dogfish white muscle does not rely on lipid oxidation to fuel exhaustive exercise or recovery. These findings support the notion that extrahepatic tissues cannot utilize fatty acids as an oxidative fuel. Furthermore, our data strongly suggest that ketone body oxidation is important in fuelling recovery metabolism in dogfish white muscle and at least 20% of the ATP required for

  3. Studies on the gamma irradiation effects on the spiny bollworm, Earias Insulana boisd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, H.F.

    1995-01-01

    Adult moths, less than 24 hours old, of the spiny bollrorm earias insulana boisd. were gamma irradiated with the doses of 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 and 600 Gy. The effects on repoduction were studied. The reduction in both fecundity and egg viability increased by ibcreasing the dose applied to adult males or females. Inregard to egg viability it was evident that both sexes have the same sensitivity and respondency to gamma radiation. In another trial, adult parental males irradiated with low doses of 100, 150 or 200 Gy were crossed with unirradiated females. The resulting F 1 males were mated with normal females in order to obtain F 2 generation of which only the males were pooled out to continue the male line for the third generation. The effects on reproduction, development, sex ratio and adult longevity were the biological aspects studied among P 1 , F 1 , F 2 and F 3 generations . Also, the effects of sub - and sterilizing doses on mating competitiveness of irradiated males were investigated. The fecundity of females was not significantly affected at the dose level 100, 150 and 200 Gy throughout the three auccessive generations. The egg hatch of parental generation was obviously reduced at 100, 150 and 200 Gy treatments as compared to the untreated (control). The F 1 generation was evidently more sterile than irradiated parent. The successive lethals continued in the population through F 2 , however, F 3 males regained almost their fertility. irradiation of P 1 males did not greatly effect mating ability among P 1 , F 1 , F 2 and F 3 generations. The larvalpupal mortality of F 1 was high and dose - dependent, however, thet among F 2 was lower. Theaverage developmental time from egg hatch to adult emergence was not significantly affected among the progeny descendant of irradiated P 1 males. The sex ratio among the progeny of irradiated males was slightly changed in favour of males throughout F 1 and F 2 at dose level of 200 Gy. The longevity of irradiated male

  4. Myospora metanephrops (n. g., n. sp.) from marine lobsters and a proposal for erection of a new order and family (Crustaceacida; Myosporidae) in the Class Marinosporidia (Phylum Microsporidia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stentiford, G D; Bateman, K S; Small, H J; Moss, J; Shields, J D; Reece, K S; Tuck, I

    2010-10-01

    In this study we describe, the first microsporidian parasite from nephropid lobsters. Metanephrops challengeri were captured from an important marine fishery situated off the south coast of New Zealand. Infected lobsters displayed an unusual external appearance and were lethargic. Histology was used to demonstrate replacement of skeletal and other muscles by merogonic and sporogonic stages of the parasite, while transmission electron microscopy revealed the presence of diplokaryotic meronts, sporonts, sporoblasts and spore stages, all in direct contact with the host sarcoplasm. Analysis of the ssrDNA gene sequence from the lobster microsporidian suggested a close affinity with Thelohania butleri, a morphologically dissimilar microsporidian from marine shrimps. Whilst morphological features of the lobster parasite are consistent with members of the family Nosematidae, molecular data place the parasite closer to members of the family Thelohanidae. Due to the contradiction between morphological and molecular taxonomic data, we propose the erection of a new genus in which the lobster parasite is the type species (Myospora metanephrops). Furthermore, we recommend the erection of a new family (Myosporidae) and a new order (Crustaceacida) to contain this genus. The taxonomic framework presented could be further applied to the re-classification of existing members of the Phylum Microsporidia. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. B cell receptor accessory molecule CD79α: characterisation and expression analysis in a cartilaginous fish, the spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ronggai; Wang, Tiehui; Bird, Steve; Zou, Jun; Dooley, Helen; Secombes, Christopher J

    2013-06-01

    CD79α (also known as Igα) is a component of the B cell antigen receptor complex and plays an important role in B cell signalling. The CD79α protein is present on the surface of B cells throughout their life cycle, and is absent on all other healthy cells, making it a highly reliable marker for B cells in mammals. In this study the spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias) CD79α (SaCD79α) is described and its expression studied under constitutive and stimulated conditions. The spiny dogfish CD79α cDNA contains an open reading frame of 618 bp, encoding a protein of 205 amino acids. Comparison of the SaCD79α gene with that of other species shows that the gross structure (number of exons, exon/intron boundaries, etc.) is highly conserved across phylogeny. Additionally, analysis of the 5' flanking region shows SaCD79α lacks a TATA box and possesses binding sites for multiple transcription factors implicated in its B cell-specific gene transcription in other species. Spiny dogfish CD79α is most highly expressed in immune tissues, such as spleen, epigonal and Leydig organ, and its transcript level significantly correlates with those of spiny dogfish immunoglobulin heavy chains. Additionally, CD79α transcription is up-regulated, to a small but significant degree, in peripheral blood cells following stimulation with pokeweed mitogen. These results strongly indicate that, as in mammals, spiny dogfish CD79α is expressed by shark B cells where it associates with surface-bound immunoglobulin to form a fully functional BCR, and thus may serve as a pan-B cell marker in future shark immunological studies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Survey explores active tectonics in northeastern Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbó, A.; Córdoba, D.; Muñoz-Martín, A.; Granja, J.L.; Martín-Dávila, J.; Pazos, A.; Catalán, M.; Gómez, M.; ten Brink, Uri S.; von Hillebrandt, Christa; Payero, J.

    2005-01-01

    There is renewed interest in studying the active and complex northeastern Caribbean plate boundary to better understand subduction zone processes and for earthquake and tsunami hazard assessments [e.g., ten Brink and Lin, 2004; ten Brink et al., 2004; Grindlay et al., 2005]. To study the active tectonics of this plate boundary, the GEOPRICO-DO (Geological, Puerto Rico-Dominican) marine geophysical cruise, carried out between 28 March and 17 April 2005 (Figure 1), studied the active tectonics of this plate boundary.Initial findings from the cruise have revealed a large underwater landslide, and active faults on the seafloor (Figures 2a and 2c). These findings indicate that the islands within this region face a high risk from tsunami hazards, and that local governments should be alerted in order to develop and coordinate possible mitigation strategies.

  7. Basic ecology of the Oaxacan Spiny-tailed Iguana Ctenosaura oaxacana (Squamata: Iguanidae, in Oaxaca, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Rioja

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Oaxacan Spiny-tailed Iguana Ctenosaura oaxacana is a restricted species to the Isthmus of Tehuantepec in Southern Oaxaca, Mexico. This reptile is one of the less known iguanid species. We censustracked a population in the South of Niltepec, Oaxaca, Mexico from May 2010 to April 2011. Throughout one year, a total of 10 line transects were situated and recorded in the study area to determine relative abundance and density, and habitat type use (dry forest, Nanchal, grassland, riparian vegetation, and mangrove by the species. This study reports a new C. oaxacana population on the Southeastern limit of species range. Although this species has a very restricted distribution and is in danger of extinction, C. oaxacana has a high population density when compared to other Ctenosaura species. A total of 108 individuals were recorded throughout the study. Dry forest (33.75ind/ha and Nanchal (18.75ind/ha were the habitats with higher densities. Comparisons between habitat types showed no significant differences between dry forest and Nanchal (W=15, p=0.0808. Results between seasons were similar. The Oaxacan Spiny tailed Iguana preferred first the dry forest, and then Nanchal, while avoided grassland, riparian vegetation, and mangroves. There was no difference in habitat use between males and females. Mean perch heights were 1.23±0.32 (n=30 in Nanchal, 2.11±0.30 (n=9 in grassland, 1.90±0.56 (n=54 in dry forest, 1.91±0.28 (n=9 in mangrove and 2.30±0.37 (n=6 in riparian vegetation. Species observed as refuge and perch were B. crassifolia (Nanchal; C. alata (grassland; Tabebuia sp., Genipa americana, G. sepium, Acacia sp., Ficus sp. and Haematoxylon sp. (dry forest; G. sepium, Acacia sp. and Guazuma ulmifolia (riparian vegetation; and C. erecta (mangrove. Live trees hollows and branches were used by species. Main threats to the species are excessive hunting and habitat loss. Furthermore, grassland fires are still common in the study area during the

  8. Coastal Resource Management in the Wider Caribbean: Resilience ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Community Mobilisation and Education in Contaminated Coastal Ecosystems ...... The global environmental change and Caribbean food. .... The word oikoumene means the historical production of a distinctive synthesis, with outcomes that ...

  9. Canada-Latin America and the Caribbean Research Exchange ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Canada-Latin America and the Caribbean Research Exchange Grants Program ... and LAC researchers opportunities for joint research on development issues of ... academics (graduate students and professors) to support their professional ...

  10. Improving food security in Latin America and the Caribbean | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    21 avr. 2016 ... Farm to fork—improving eating habits and nutrition education in the Caribbean · Science ... Family fish farming improves quality of life in the Bolivian Amazon ... Agricultural technologies bring healthy diversity to school meals ...

  11. Improving food security in Latin America and the Caribbean | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-21

    Apr 21, 2016 ... Farm to fork—improving eating habits and nutrition education in the Caribbean · Science ... Family fish farming improves quality of life in the Bolivian Amazon ... Agricultural technologies bring healthy diversity to school meals ...

  12. Black Themes in the Literature of the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Ben

    1973-01-01

    Those Africans brought over to the Western Hemisphere left a strong impression on culture and language of Spanish colonizers. This effect has been exemplified in the religion, music, dance, and food of the republics of the Caribbean. (Author/RJ)

  13. Caribbean Seasonal and/or Area Closures GIS data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data represents the geographic area described in Title 50 CFR Part 622, Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic, Subpart S - Reef Fish...

  14. Canada-Latin America and Caribbean Zika Virus Research Program ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-05-10

    May 10, 2016 ... ... in the hardest hit countries in Latin America and the Caribbean. The Canadian Institutes for Health Research and the International Development ... understand the causes and effects of the the virus, and ultimately prevent its ...

  15. 75 FR 47274 - Caribbean Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-05

    ... Drive, St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Caribbean Fishery Management... contained in this agenda may come before this group for discussion, in accordance with the Magnuson- Stevens...

  16. The Caribbean conundrum of Holocene sea level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Luke; Mound, Jon

    2014-05-01

    In the tropics, pre-historic sea-level curve reconstruction is often problematic because it relies upon sea-level indicators whose vertical relationship to the sea surface is poorly constrained. In the Caribbean, fossil corals, mangrove peats and shell material dominate the pre-historic indicator record. The common approach to reconstruction involves the use of modern analogues to these indicators to establish a fixed vertical habitable range. The aim of these reconstructions is to find spatial variability in the Holocene sea level in an area gradually subsiding (different depths. We use the first catalogue to calibrate 14C ages to give a probabilistic age range for each indicator. We use the second catalogue to define a depth probability distribution function (pdf) for mangroves and each coral species. The Holocene indicators are grouped into 12 sub-regions around the Caribbean. For each sub-region we apply our sea-level reconstruction, which involves stepping a fixed-length time window through time and calculating the position (and rate) of sea-level (change) using a thousand realisations of the time/depth pdfs to define an envelope of probable solutions. We find that the sub-regional relative sea-level curves display spatio-temporal variability including a south-east to north-west 1500 year lag in the arrival of Holocene sea level to that of the present day. We demonstrate that these variations are primarily due to glacial-isostatic-adjustment induced sea-level change and that sub-regional variations (where sufficient data exists) are due to local uplift variability.

  17. Mini-review: Obesity in Caribbean Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traboulay, E A; Hoyte, O P-A

    2015-06-01

    Our focus was on the determination of the growing number of youths of every race and ethnicity, diagnosed with obesity and its co-morbidities in the Caribbean. We reviewed the causes and strategies to combat obesity, and the implications of the fast food industry in enabling the escalation of obesity. We consulted several databases such as PubMed, MEDLINE, the Obesity Gene Map Database, and the USEPA Toxicity Reference Database. Organizations such as the World Health Organization (WHO), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) were used as information sources. Transgenerational effects and triggers like obesogens, pathogens, environmental stress, antibiotics and gut microbiota are some of the causes of obesity, and some of these triggers are imprinted epigenetically early in embryonic development, leading to lifelong obesity. With an estimated population of 42 million in the Caribbean, the economic cost of obesity, including medical, absenteeism, presenteeism, insurance, disability, direct and indirect cost, was estimated cost of 68.5 billion USD with 88.2 million quality-adjusted life years lost. Genome-wide association studies have established that genetics play a role in the aetiology of this "non-communicable" disease. While the development of personalized interventions according to genotype is futuristic, we must focus on effective nutrition and physical education classes in schools and establishing monitoring programmes using simple tools such as scales and tape measures as suggested intervention. A Pigovian tax to control the fast food industry is mandatory. Nevertheless, lifestyle adjustment, including alterations in diet and increased physical activity, continues to be a sound recommendation.

  18. Caribbean women: changes in the works

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Isabel Quiñones-Arocho

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] The women of Azua: work and family in the rural Dominican Republic, by BARBARA FINLAY. New York: Praeger, 1989. xi + 190 pp. (Cloth US$ 35.00 The psychosocial development of Puerto Rican women, edited by CYNTHIA T. GARCIA COLL & MARIA DE LOURDES MATTEI. New York: Praeger, 1989. xiii + 272 pp. (Cloth US$ 45.00 Women and the sexual division oflabour in the Caribbean, edited by KEITH HART. Mona, Jamaica: Consortium Graduate School of Social Sciences, UWI, 1989. 141 pp. (Paper n.p. The three books under review work have a common theme: the impact of changing gender expectations on Caribbean women. The authors are mainly concerned with recent political and economie changes that might have contributed to either the improvement or deterioration of women's status in these societies. The questions raised by the contributors are strikingly similar: What has been the impact of dependent economie development on women's lives and has this resulted in increased labor participation (a problem explored for rural Dominican women as well as for Jamaican and Barbadian women or in the migration to metropolitan centers, with its psychosocial consequences (an issue raised for Puerto Rican women living in the United States? If patriarchal values (often referred to as traditional values prevail in these societies, then what impact might wage work, migration, or improved education have on those values? Could it be the disintegration of the nuclear family with an increased proportion of female-headed households (Hart, higher rates of mental illness as a result of dysfunctional aceulturation (Garcia Coll and Mattei, or even an improvement of women's status within their families and communities (Finlay?

  19. 50 CFR 640.3 - Relation to other laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SPINY LOBSTER FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO AND SOUTH ATLANTIC General... Atlantic EEZ. (c) Regulations pertaining to additional prohibitions on importation of spiny lobster into Puerto Rico or the U.S. Virgin Islands are set forth in part 622 of this chapter. [47 FR 29203, July 2...

  20. Common wood decay fungi found in the Caribbean Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Jean. Lodge

    2016-01-01

    There are hundreds of wood-decay fungi in the Caribbean Basin, but relatively few of these are likely to grow on manmade structures built of wood or wood-composites. The wood-decay fungi of greatest concern are those that cause brown-rot, and especially brown-rot fungi that are resistant to copper-based wood preservatives. Some fungi that grow in the Caribbean and...